Sample records for genital chlamydia infection

  1. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections.

    PubMed

    Bébéar, C; de Barbeyrac, B

    2009-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infections affect young, sexually active persons. Risk factors include multiple partners and failure to use condoms. The incidence of infection has increased in the past 10 years. Untreated C. trachomatis infections are responsible for a large proportion of salpingitis, ectopic pregnancy, infertility and, to a lesser extent, epididymitis. Screening is a possible intervention to control the infection, which is often asymptomatic. The emergence of lymphogranuloma venereum proctitis in men who have sex with men, in Europe, and of a variant with a deletion in the cryptic plasmid, in Sweden, are new features of C. trachomatis infections in the last years. A diagnosis is best made by using nucleic acid amplification tests, because they perform well and do not require invasive procedures for specimen collection. Single-dose therapy has been a significant development for treatment of an uncomplicated infection of the patient and his or her sexual partner. PMID:19220334

  2. A mouse model for Chlamydia suis genital infection.

    PubMed

    Donati, Manuela; Di Paolo, Maria; Favaroni, Alison; Aldini, Rita; Di Francesco, Antonietta; Ostanello, Fabio; Biondi, Roberta; Cremonini, Eleonora; Ginocchietti, Laura; Cevenini, Roberto

    2015-02-01

    A mouse model for Chlamydia suis genital infection was developed. Ninety-nine mice were randomly divided into three groups and intravaginally inoculated with chlamydia: 45 mice (group 1) received C. suis purified elementary bodies (EBs), 27 (group 2) were inoculated with C. trachomatis genotype E EBs and 27 mice (group 3) with C. trachomatis genotype F EBs. Additionally, 10 mice were used as a negative control. At seven days post-infection (dpi) secretory anti-C. suis IgA were recovered from vaginal swabs of all C. suis inoculated mice. Chlamydia suis was isolated from 93, 84, 71 and 33% vaginal swabs at 3, 5, 7 and 12 dpi. Chlamydia trachomatis genotype E and F were isolated from 100% vaginal swabs up to 7 dpi and from 61 and 72%, respectively, at 12 dpi. Viable C. suis and C. trachomatis organisms were isolated from uterus and tubes up to 16 and 28 dpi, respectively. The results of the present study show the susceptibility of mice to intravaginal inoculation with C. suis. A more rapid course and resolution of C. suis infection, in comparison to C. trachomatis, was highlighted. The mouse model could be useful for comparative investigations involving C. suis and C. trachomatis species. PMID:25854004

  3. Incidence of Chlamydia trachomatis genital infections in Bucharest (1988-1996).

    PubMed

    Vizitiu, O; B?descu, D

    1996-01-01

    2230 patients from Bucharest with genital infections were investigated (1988-1996) to identify the chlamydial etiology. The rate of isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis was of 33.8%. The highest percentages were reported in patients clinically diagnosed with cervicitis (56.2%) and non-gonococcal urethritis (36%); as well as in patients aged 31-35 years, single, who had genital urinary infections in history. PMID:9558966

  4. Integrin ?4?1 is necessary for CD4+ T cell-mediated protection against genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    PubMed

    Davila, Sergio J; Olive, Andrew J; Starnbach, Michael N

    2014-05-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection in the United States and a significant health burden worldwide. Protection from Chlamydia infection in the genital mucosa is dependent on IFN-? derived from CD4(+) Th1 cells. These CD4(+) T cells must home successfully to the genital tract to exert their effector function and decrease C. trachomatis burden. Although adhesion receptors expressed by CD4(+) T cells in the genital tract have been characterized, the integrin receptor required for Chlamydia-specific CD4(+) T cell-mediated protection has not been explored. In this study, we demonstrate that C. trachomatis infection of the upper genital tract results in recruitment of Chlamydia-specific CD4(+) T cells robustly expressing the integrin ?4?1. Interfering with ?4?1, but not ?4?7, function resulted in defective CD4(+) T cell trafficking to the uterus and high bacterial load. We conclude that integrin ?4?1 is necessary for CD4(+) T cell-mediated protection against C. trachomatis infection in the genital mucosa. By identifying homing molecules required for successful CD4(+) T cell trafficking to C. trachomatis-infected tissues, we will be better equipped to design vaccines that elicit sterilizing, long-lasting immunity without inducing immune pathologies in the upper genital tract. PMID:24659687

  5. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis: An update

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Meenakshi; Sood, Seema; Mukherjee, Anjan; Muralidhar, Sumathi; Bala, Manju

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of curable bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide. It manifests primarily as urethritis in males and endocervicitis in females. Untreated chlamydial infection in man can cause epididymitis and proctitis. Though most women with Chlamydia infection are asymptomatic or have minimal symptoms, some develop salpingitis, endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy and tubal factor infertility. It is associated with an increased risk for the transmission or acquisition of HIV and is also attributed to be a risk factor for the development of cervical carcinoma. Early diagnosis and treatment of infected individuals is required to prevent the spread of the disease and severe sequelae. Traditionally, tissue culture was considered the gold standard for the diagnosis. However, with the availability of newer diagnostic techniques particularly molecular methods which are not only highly sensitive and specific but are cost-effective also, the diagnosis has became fast and easy. The purpose of this review is to study the various aspects of genital C. trachomatis infection. Also the advances related to the clinical picture, various diagnostic modalities, prevention, treatment, drug resistance and control measures will be dealt with. PMID:24135174

  6. Murine MicroRNA-214 regulates intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM1) gene expression in genital Chlamydia muridarum infection.

    PubMed

    Arkatkar, Tanvi; Gupta, Rishein; Li, Weidang; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Wali, Shradha; Neal Guentzel, M; Chambers, James P; Christenson, Lane K; Arulanandam, Bernard P

    2015-08-01

    The hallmark of chlamydial infection is the development of upper genital pathology in the form of hydrosalpinx and oviduct and/or tubal dilatation. Although molecular events leading to genital tissue presentation and cellular architectural remodelling are unclear, early-stage host immune responses are believed to contribute to these long-term sequelae. Recently, we reported the contribution of selected infection-associated microRNAs (miRs) in the generation of host immunity at early-stage infection (day 6 after intravaginal Chlamydia muridarum challenge in C57BL/6 mice). In this report, we describe the contribution of an infection-associated microRNA, i.e. miR-214, to host immunity. Chlamydia muridarum infection in the C57BL/6 mouse genital tract significantly down-regulated miR-214 while up-regulating intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1) gene expression. These in vivo observations were confirmed by establishing direct regulation of ICAM-1 by miR-214 in ex vivo genital cell cultures in the presence of miR-214 mimic and inhibitor. Because, ICAM-1 contributes to recruitment of neutrophils following infection, we also demonstrated that alteration of ICAM1 by miR-214 in interleukin-17A-deficient (IL-17A(-/-) ) mice correlated with reduction of neutrophils infiltrating genital tissue at day 6 after challenge. Additionally, these early-stage events resulted in significantly decreased genital pathology in IL-17A(-/-) mice compared with C57BL/6 mice. This report provides evidence for early-stage regulation of ICAM1 by microRNAs, resulting in reduction of genital pathology associated with chlamydial infection. PMID:25865776

  7. The Role of the Immune Response in Chlamydia trachomatis Infection of the Male Genital Tract: A Double-Edged Sword

    PubMed Central

    Redgrove, Kate A.; McLaughlin, Eileen A.

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infection in the world, with more than 100 million cases reported annually. While there have been extensive studies into the adverse effects that CT infection has on the female genital tract, and on the subsequent ability of these women to conceive, studies into the consequences on male fertility have been limited and controversial. This is in part due to the asymptomatic nature of the infection, where it is estimated that 50% of men with Chlamydia fail to show any symptoms. It is accepted, however, that acute and/or persistent CT infection is the causative agent for conditions such as urethritis, epididymitis, epididymo-orchitis, and potentially prostatitis. As with most infections, the immune system plays a fundamental role in the body’s attempts to eradicate the infection. The first and most important immune response to Chlamydia infection is a local one, whereby immune cells such as leukocytes are recruited to the site of infections, and subsequently secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines such as interferon gamma. Immune cells also work to initiate and potentiate chronic inflammation through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the release of molecules with degradative properties including defensins, elastase, collagenase, cathespins, and lysozyme. This long-term inflammation can lead to cell proliferation (a possible precursor to cancer), tissue remodeling, and scarring, as well as being linked to the onset of autoimmune responses in genetically disposed individuals. This review will focus on the ability of the immune system to recognize and clear acute and persistent chlamydial infections in the male genital tract, and on the paradoxical damage that chronic inflammation resulting from the infection can cause on the reproductive health of the individual. PMID:25386180

  8. Imiquimod Does not Affect Shedding of Viable Chlamydiae in a Murine Model of Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Shaba, Namir; Cohoon, Kevin P.; Ault, Kevin A.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: We postulated that either oral or vaginal administration of the immune response modifier imiquimod would decrease vaginal shedding of Chlamydia trachomatis, mouse pneumonitis strain (MoPn), in a murine model. Methods: Female BALB/c mice were infected intravaginally withC. trachomatis (MoPn) and were administered imiquimod either orally (30 mg/kg) or vaginally (10 ?l of 5%imiquimod cream) prior to infection and every second day after infection for a total of four doses. The course of infection was monitored by collecting cervical–vaginal swabs and isolation in HeLa 229 cell culture. To determine whether the drug affected T helper type 1 or T helper type 2 immune response polarization, immunoglobulinG(IgG) subclass antibody responses were assessed at day 56 after infection. Results: There was no significant difference in the course of infection when imiquimod-treated mice were compared with sham-treated controls, regardless of whether the drug was administered orally or vaginally. IgG subclass antibody responses, and by extension, T helper type 1 to T helper type 2 immune response polarization, were also unaffected. Conclusions: Imiquimod has no efficacy in controllingC. trachomatis (MoPn) infection in the murine model. PMID:14627213

  9. Penicillin Kills Chlamydia following the Fusion of Bacteria with Lysosomes and Prevents Genital Inflammatory Lesions in C. muridarum-Infected Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dumoux, Maud; Le Gall, Sylvain M.; Habbeddine, Mohamed; Delarbre, Christiane; Hayward, Richard D.; Kanellopoulos-Langevin, Colette; Verbeke, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia exists as two distinct forms. Elementary bodies (EBs) are infectious and extra-cellular, whereas reticulate bodies (RBs) replicate within a specialized intracellular compartment termed an ‘inclusion’. Alternative persistent intra-cellular forms can be induced in culture by diverse stimuli such as IFN? or adenosine/EHNA. They do not grow or divide but revive upon withdrawal of the stimulus and are implicated in several widespread human diseases through ill-defined in vivo mechanisms. ?-lactam antibiotics have also been claimed to induce persistence in vitro. The present report shows that upon penicillin G (pG) treatment, inclusions grow as fast as those in infected control cells. After removal of pG, Chlamydia do not revert to RBs. These effects are independent of host cell type, serovar, biovar and species of Chlamydia. Time-course experiments demonstrated that only RBs were susceptible to pG. pG-treated bacteria lost their control over host cell apoptotic pathways and no longer expressed pre-16S rRNA, in contrast to persistent bacteria induced with adenosine/EHNA. Confocal and live-video microscopy showed that bacteria within the inclusion fused with lysosomal compartments in pG-treated cells. That leads to recruitment of cathepsin D as early as 3 h post pG treatment, an event preceding bacterial death by several hours. These data demonstrate that pG treatment of cultured cells infected with Chlamydia results in the degradation of the bacteria. In addition we show that pG is significantly more efficient than doxycycline at preventing genital inflammatory lesions in C. muridarum-C57Bl/6 infected mice. These in vivo results support the physiological relevance of our findings and their potential therapeutic applications. PMID:24376710

  10. The Duration of Chlamydia muridarum Genital Tract Infection and Associated Chronic Pathological Changes Are Reduced in IL-17 Knockout Mice but Protection Is Not Increased Further by Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Andrew, Dean W.; Cochrane, Melanie; Schripsema, Justin H.; Ramsey, Kyle H.; Dando, Samantha J.; O’Meara, Connor P.; Timms, Peter; Beagley, Kenneth W.

    2013-01-01

    IL-17 is believed to be important for protection against extracellular pathogens, where clearance is dependent on neutrophil recruitment and local activation of epithelial cell defences. However, the role of IL-17 in protection against intracellular pathogens such as Chlamydia is less clear. We have compared (i) the course of natural genital tract C. muridarum infection, (ii) the development of oviduct pathology and (iii) the development of vaccine-induced immunity against infection in wild type (WT) BALB/c and IL-17 knockout mice (IL-17-/-) to determine if IL-17-mediated immunity is implicated in the development of infection-induced pathology and/or protection. Both the magnitude and duration of genital infection was significantly reduced in IL-17-/- mice compared to BALB/c. Similarly, hydrosalpinx was also greatly reduced in IL-17-/- mice and this correlated with reduced neutrophil and macrophage infiltration of oviduct tissues. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 and MMP2 were increased in WT oviducts compared to IL-17-/- animals at day 7 post-infection. In contrast, oviducts from IL-17-/- mice contained higher MMP9 and MMP2 at day 21. Infection also elicited higher levels of Chlamydia-neutralizing antibody in serum of IL-17-/- mice than WT mice. Following intranasal immunization with C. muridarum Major Outer Membrane Protein (MOMP) and cholera toxin plus CpG adjuvants, significantly higher levels of chlamydial MOMP-specific IgG and IgA were found in serum and vaginal washes of IL-17-/- mice. T cell proliferation and IFN? production by splenocytes was greater in WT animals following in vitro re-stimulation, however vaccination was only effective at reducing infection in WT, not IL-17-/- mice. Intranasal or transcutaneous immunization protected WT but not IL-17-/- mice against hydrosalpinx development. Our data show that in the absence of IL-17, the severity of C. muridarum genital infection and associated oviduct pathology are significantly attenuated, however neither infection or pathology can be reduced further by vaccination protocols that effectively protect WT mice. PMID:24073293

  11. Expression of Mucosal Homing Receptor a4b7 Is Associated with Enhanced Migration to the Chlamydia-Infected Murine Genital Mucosa In Vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RAYMOND A. HAWKINS; ROGER G. RANK; KATHLEEN A. KELLY

    2000-01-01

    The CD4 T helper cell type 1 (Th1) response is essential for the resolution of chlamydial genital infection in mice. However, not all Th1 clones are equally protective in eradicating the infection. Since oral immuni- zation regimens produce protective immunity, we evaluated the role of the mucosa-associated homing receptor, a4b7, in trafficking to the genital mucosa. Using a panel of

  12. Diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infection — culture versus serology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Schoenwald; B. L. Schmidt; G. Steinmetz; J. Hosmann; G. Pohla-Gubo; A. Luger; G. Gasser

    1988-01-01

    The diagnostic value of different laboratory methods in detecting Chlamydia trachomatis infections in high risk groups was analysed. The efficiency of a direct specimen test was compared with serology (IgG and IgM ELISA) and culture in L929 cells, stained either with fluorescein conjugated monoclonal antibodies or with iodine. Patients (no. = 1041) with localized genital infections attending a STD clinic,

  13. Genital Yeast Infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Oriel; Betty M. Partridge; Maire J. Denny; J. C. Coleman

    1972-01-01

    Genital yeast infection was studied in 533 women seen in a department of venereology. Yeasts were recovered in culture from 138 patients (26% of the total). Candida albicans accounted for 112 (81%) of the isolates and Torulopsis glabrata for 22 (16%); other yeasts were uncommon. There was no evidence that the presence of yeasts was related to age. 32% of

  14. Immunology of Chlamydia infection: implications for a Chlamydia trachomatis vaccine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Rey-Ladino; Robert C. Brunham

    2005-01-01

    Sexually transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis infections are a serious public-health problem. With more than 90 million new cases occurring annually, C. trachomatis is the most common cause of bacterial sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Recent progress in elucidating the immunobiology of Chlamydia muridarum infection of mice has helped to guide the interpretation of immunological findings in studies of human C. trachomatis infection

  15. Value of screening for oro-pharyngeal Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    PubMed Central

    Jebakumar, S P; Storey, C; Lusher, M; Nelson, J; Goorney, B; Haye, K R

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To determine whether oro-pharyngeal colonisation by Chlamydia trachomatis occurs in patients at risk of genital chlamydia infection; to determine whether screening pharyngeal specimens by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) increases detection of C trachomatis compared with isolation and the immune dot blot test; and to correlate the detection of C trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the pharynx with a history of oro-genital contact. METHODS--Thirteen homosexuals and 11 heterosexuals were included in the study. Urogenital and pharyngeal specimens were tested for C trachomatis and N gonorrhoeae using standard clinical diagnostic procedures. Two different PCR methodologies were also used to detect C trachomatis in the pharyngeal specimens. Results were correlated with the mode of sexual practice. RESULTS--Oro-genital sexual contact was practised by 64.9% (72/111) of heterosexuals in addition to penetrative penovaginal intercourse. Additionally, 62.1% (77/124) of all patients did not use any form of barrier protection. Of those who admitted to oro-genital sexual contact, 17.6% of patients with a genital chlamydial infection and 36.4% of those with genital gonorrhoea also had asymptomatic pharyngeal colonisation. C trachomatis was detected in three of 124 (2.4%) pharyngeal specimens by PCR which were reported as negative by chlamydial culture; one was positive by the immune dot blot test. CONCLUSION--The majority of patients practised unprotected oro-genital contact and significant pharyngeal colonisation by C trachomatis and N gonorrhoeae occurred if genital infection was present. Despite the use of PCR in a population at high risk of sexually transmitted disease, the prevalence of chlamydia in the pharynx was very low. This indicates that transmission of C trachomatis to the oro-pharynx does not pose a serious health risk and that screening of patients for oro-pharyngeal C trachomatis is not worthwhile. PMID:7560175

  16. Who is being tested for genital chlamydia in primary care?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O Kufeji; R Slack; J A Cassell; S Pugh; A Hayward

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To explore current patterns of testing for geni- tal chlamydial infection in primary care, and to identify practice characteristics influencing testing rates. Method: Aggregate numbers of chlamydia tests and results for each practice in Nottingham Health District were matched to practice characteristics. Age specific testing rates and diagnosed prevalence were calculated, and characteristics of the practice tested for association

  17. Pathogenesis of fallopian tube damage caused by Chlamydia trachomatis infections.

    PubMed

    Hafner, Louise M

    2015-08-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted disease worldwide resulting in 4-5 million new cases of Chlamydia annually and an estimated 100 million cases per annum. Infections of the lower female genital tract (FGT) frequently are asymptomatic; thus, they often remain undiagnosed or untreated. If infections are either not resolved or left untreated, chlamydia can ascend to the upper FGT and infect the fallopian tubes (FTs) causing salpingitis that may lead to functional damage of the FTs and tubal factor infertility (TFI). Clinical observations and experimental data have indicated a role for antibodies against C. trachomatis proteins such as the 60-kDa heat shock protein 60 (cHSP60) in the immunopathogenesis of TFI. When released from infected cells, cHSP60 can induce proinflammatory immune responses that may functionally impair the FTs leading to fibrosis and luminal occlusion. Chlamydial pathogenesis of irreversible and permanent tubal damage is a consequence of innate and adaptive host immune responses to ongoing or repeated infections. The extracellular matrix that is regulated by metalloproteinases may also be modified by chlamydial infections of the FGT. This review will highlight protective and pathogenic immune responses to ongoing and repeated chlamydial infections of the FGT. It will also present two recent hypotheses to explain mechanisms that may contribute to FT damage during a C. trachomatis infection. If Chlamydia immunopathology can be controlled, it might yield a method of inducing fibrosis and thus provide a means of nonsurgical permanent contraception for women. PMID:25592078

  18. Immune Response Characteristics in Women with Chlamydial Genital Tract Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dean S. Cunningham

    1995-01-01

    Immune responses in women with chlamydial genital tract infection who achieved a bacteriologic cure were prospectively compared to those women who had an incomplete clinical response. Local anti-chlamydia IgA antibody responses were significantly diminished in the outpatient treatment group who had an incomplete response, while circulating IgG responses did not differ significantly between groups. This is in contrast to both

  19. Host inflammatory response and development of complications of Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection in CCR5-deficient mice and subfertile women with the CCR5delta32 gene deletion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erika L. Barr; Sander Ouburg; Joseph U. Igietseme; Servaas A. Morré; Edith Okwandu; Francis O. Eko; Godwin Ifere; Tesfaye Belay; Qing He; Deborah Lyn; Gift Nwankwo; James Lillard; Carolyn M. Black; Godwin A. Ananaba

    T cell immunity protects against diseases caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. Incidentally, host inflammatory response that includes T cells appears to also contribute to the pathogenesis of chlamydial diseases such as trachoma and tubal factor infertility (TFI). Therefore, designing effective prevention strategies requires a delineation of immune processes responsible for pathology and those mediating immunity, and identification

  20. Genital infection with human papillomavirus in adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander K. C. Leung; James D. Kellner; H. Dele Davies

    2005-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections in adolescents. Such infection\\u000a is associated with substantial health risks and is unpredictable in its resolution. Genital warts are the most common clinical\\u000a manifestations of genital HPV infections. Most genital warts are caused by low-risk HPV types (notably HPV-6 and -11). The\\u000a majority of genital HPV infections

  1. The epidemiology of genital human papillomavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Trottier, Helen; Franco, Eduardo L

    2006-03-30

    Clinical and subclinical human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are the most common sexually transmitted infections in the world, and most sexually-active individuals are likely to be exposed to HPV infection during their lifetimes. More than 40 genotypes of HPV infect the epithelial lining of the anogenital tract and other mucosal areas of the body; of these, 13-18 types are considered to be high-oncogenic risk HPV types (HR-HPV). Persistent infection with HR-HPVs is now unequivocally established as a necessary cause of cervical cancer and is likely to be responsible for a substantial proportion of other anogenital neoplasms and upper aero-digestive tract cancers. Low oncogenic risk HPV types (LR-HPV) are also responsible for considerable morbidity as the cause of genital warts. Youth and certain sexual characteristics are key risk factors for HPV acquisition and persistence of HPV infection, but other mediating factors include smoking, oral contraceptive (OC) use, other STIs (e.g. chlamydia, herpes simplex virus), chronic inflammation, immunosuppressive conditions including HIV infection, parity, dietary factors, and polymorphisms in the human leukocyte antigen system. Not surprisingly, these factors are also established or candidate cofactors identified in epidemiologic studies of cervical cancer. HPV transmissibility and molecular events in HPV-induced carcinogenesis have been the focus of recent multidisciplinary epidemiologic studies. This shift in research focus coincides with a shift in cancer prevention techniques towards immunization with HPV vaccines and HPV testing of precancerous lesions. PMID:16406226

  2. Immunization with the Chlamydia trachomatis Mouse Pneumonitis Major Outer Membrane Protein Can Elicit a Protective Immune Response against a Genital Challenge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SUKUMAR PAL; IDA THEODOR; ELLENA M. PETERSON; LUIS M. DE LA MAZA

    2001-01-01

    Infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic abdominal pain are frequent complications of genital infections with Chlamydia trachomatis. In an attempt to produce a vaccine to protect against this pathogen we purified and refolded the C. trachomatis mouse pneumonitis (MoPn) major outer membrane protein (MOMP). This prepa- ration, mixed with Freund's adjuvant using vortexing or sonication, was used to immunize BALB\\/c mice

  3. Epidemiology of Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1997-01-01

    Although it is difficult to estimate the overall prevalence of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, current figures suggest that visible genital warts are present in approximately 1% of sexually active adults in the United States and that at least 15% have subclinical infection, as detected by HPV DNA assays. Genital HPV infection is thus extremely common. The highest rates of

  4. Repeated Chlamydia trachomatis Infection of Macaca nemestrina Fallopian Tubes Produces a Th1Like Cytokine Response Associated with Fibrosis and Scarring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WESLEY C. VAN VOORHIS; LYNN K. BARRETT; YVONNE T. COSGROVE SWEENEY; CHOU-CHO KUO; DOROTHY L. PATTON

    1997-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis-associated female infertility and ectopic pregnancy are caused by postinflammatory fibrosis and scarring of the upper genital tract. Scarring of the upper genital tract is associated with multiple infectious episodes with C. trachomatis. To study the immune response that occurs with multiple infections of C. trachomatis in the female upper genital tract, a Macaca nemestrina model was used. Subcutaneous

  5. [Chlamydia trachomatis infections in teenagers].

    PubMed

    Gille, G; Klapp, C

    2007-01-01

    Adolescents enter puberty early and many have sexual intercourse at a young age. That sexual intercourse can have side effects with life-long consequences is still a taboo field. In Germany, we do not have figures about the prevalence of the most frequently occurring sexually transmitted diseases in young people. Therefore the Medical Association for the Promotion of Women's Health (AGGF) initiated a prevalence study on infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) in girls younger than 18 years in Berlin (n=266). After informed consent, information was given in 92 school classes. Thereafter in 30 offices of gynecologists the girls were offered a PCR test for the detection of CT free of charge. The results--10% of the 17-year-old girls had an acute chlamydial infection after an average of 19 months of sexual activity--suggest that in Germany there is a hidden epidemic among adolescents. Adolescents are not adequately informed about the risks of CT infection; medical counseling is both desired and effective. PMID:17165068

  6. Diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infection--culture versus serology.

    PubMed

    Schoenwald, E; Schmidt, B L; Steinmetz, G; Hosmann, J; Pohla-Gubo, G; Luger, A; Gasser, G

    1988-03-01

    The diagnostic value of different laboratory methods in detecting Chlamydia trachomatis infections in high risk groups was analysed. The efficiency of a direct specimen test was compared with serology (IgG and IgM ELISA) and culture in L929 cells, stained either with fluorescein conjugated monoclonal antibodies or with iodine. Patients (no. = 1041) with localized genital infections attending a STD clinic, sexual contacts and patients with ascending infections from urological and gynecological clinics were examined. Chlamydia trachomatis was detected in 225 patients: 210 (93.3%) were reactive in the direct test (smears stained with monoclonal antibodies), whereas culture missed only 5 (sensitivity 97.8%) when stained by the same method. Cultures stained with iodine produced the lowest recovery rate (73.8%), but this rate increased to 80.9% when a second passage was performed. In addition the prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis was investigated. In patients with non-gonococcal urethritis (no. = 331) and cervicitis (no. = 353), Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated in 32.3% and 12.8% respectively. However, this pathogen could be isolated in only 3 (15.8%) out of 19 patients with epididymitis and 15 (14%) out of 107 patients with adnexitis, although 66.7% and 93.3% respectively had specific IgG antibodies. Specific IgM could by detected with a sandwich ELISA in patients with adnexitis (46.7%), epididymitis (33.3%), cervicitis (22.2%), non-gonococcal urethritis (14%) and in the sexual partners of patients with genital infections (35.7%). The direct specimen test with monoclonal antibodies is the method of choice for the diagnosis of a C. trachomatis infection in patients with urethritis and cervicitis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2451616

  7. Chlamydia

    MedlinePLUS

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  8. Molecular Diagnosis of Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JENS BOMAN; CHARLOTTE A. GAYDOS; THOMAS C. QUINN

    1999-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common and important intracel- lular bacterium implicated in upper and lower respiratory tract infections in humans. Also, C. pneumoniae has been associated with chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis and asthma. Since C. pneumoniae can cause severe clinical disease, correct diag- nosis and therapy are important issues. However, conventional assays for the detection of C. pneumoniae have

  9. Clearance of Chlamydia trachomatis from the Murine Genital Mucosa Does Not Require Perforin-Mediated Cytolysis or Fas-Mediated Apoptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LINDA L. PERRY; KAREN FEILZER; SCOTT HUGHES; HARLAN D. CALDWELL

    1999-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms of resistance to genital infection with the mouse pneumonitis (MoPn) strain of Chlamydia trachomatis are unknown. A role for major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted, interleu- kin-12-dependent CD41 T cells has been established, but the functional activity of these cells does not depend on secretion of gamma interferon. Here we examined the potential contribution of T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity and

  10. Epidemiology of genital herpes simplex virus infection.

    PubMed

    Guinan, M E; Wolinsky, S M; Reichman, R C

    1985-01-01

    This paper offers a comprehensive review of the literature on the epidemiology of genital herpes simplex virus infection. Topics covered include its microbiology, immunology, incidence, prevalence, pathogenesis and clinical course, diagnosis, treatment, transmission, prevention, and effect on pregnancy outcome. The prevalence of genital herpes is estimated at 20 million persons in the US, about 25% of whom are symptomatic. Determination of the actual incidence and prevalence of genital herpes requires the availability of methods able to distinguish precisely between type 1 and type 2 antibody. Indirect evidence suggests an increasing incidence of the disease over the past 15 years. Asymptomatic infected persons may shed virus in the absence of lesions and thus transmit genital herpes to their sexual partners. Of particular concern is vertical transmission of virus from the maternal genital tract to newborns. In the majority of documented cases of neonatal herpes, the mothers were asymptomatic at the time of delivery. Because of the severe morbidity and mortality associated with neonatal herpes infection, studies are urgently needed to identify risk factors for vertical transmission and to design and test appropriate preventive intervention strategies. At present, treatment of genital herpes is limited to palliative therapy. No known antiviral agent either prevents or eliminates viral latency, although vaccines are under development for primary prevention. The role of contraceptive practice in the prevention of genital herpes infection is unclear. Although theoretically plausible, the efficacy of barrier methods in decreasing the risk of acquiring or transmitting infection has not yet been demonstrated. Virus may be present in areas not covered by condoms. Use of a spermicidal cream or jelly with a diaphragm may reduce the risk of virus infection and transmissions, but, again, this method cannot protect from virus transmission to or from the external genitalia. PMID:2996917

  11. Caspase1 Contributes to Chlamydia trachomatis-Induced Upper Urogenital Tract Inflammatory Pathologies without Affecting the Course of Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wen Cheng; Pooja Shivshankar; Zhongyu Li; Lili Chen; I-Tien Yeh; Guangming Zhong

    2008-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection induces inflammatory pathologies in the upper genital tract, potentially leading to ectopic pregnancy and infertility in the affected women. Caspase-1 is required for processing and release of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-18, and possibly IL-33. In the present study, we evaluated the role of caspase-1 in chlamydial infection and pathogenesis. Although chlamydial infection induced caspase-1 activation

  12. Chlamydia infection in children with acquired subglottic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Soldatski, Iouri L; Vinogradova, Tatiana V; Semyonov, Alexei V; Onufrieva, Elena K; Konno, Veronika I

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to find out the frequency of occurrence and the role of Chlamydia infection in the pathogenesis of acquired subglottic stenosis in children. Forty-nine patients of the age from 1 year 10 months to 15 years with acquired cicatricial laryngotracheal stenosis were examined. The immunofluorescent method was used to detect serum antibodies to the antigens of Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae. Dilutions of 1:32 for C. trachomatis and 1:64 for C. pneumoniae were considered positive. The results of the study suggested both a high frequency (26.5%) of Chlamydia infection (C. pneumoniae) of the children with acquired subglottic stenosis, as well as 92% of infected children were either with tracheotomies or had been decannulated earlier. It reasonable to test children with a tracheostomy for the presence of Chlamydia infection to perform timely and specific antibiotic therapy. PMID:12623155

  13. Experimental rabbit models of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection.

    PubMed Central

    Moazed, T. C.; Kuo, C.; Patton, D. L.; Grayston, J. T.; Campbell, L. A.

    1996-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae (TWAR), a common cause of acute respiratory disease in humans, has recently been associated with coronary and aortic atherosclerosis. In this study, we evaluated rabbit models of chlamydial infection to investigate the pathogenesis of C. pneumoniae infection. New Zealand White rabbits were inoculated intranasally and intratracheally with C. pneumoniae, strain AR-39, and primary and repeated infection were assessed. After a single inoculation, lung pathology was characterized by a moderate self-resolving interstitial pneumonia with bronchiolitis of 21 days in duration. Chlamydial DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) intermittently in the upper respiratory tract and lung tissue through day 21 postinoculation, spleen tissue at day 14, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells at days 3 and 21. After repeated inoculations, chlamydial DNA was detected by PCR in the upper respiratory tract and lung tissue through day 42. Lung lesions consisted of multifocal interstitial mononuclear cell aggregates that persisted up to day 42. Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits were less susceptible to C. pneumoniae infection. After multiple inoculations of Watanabe rabbits, C. pneumoniae was detected by PCR and/or immunocytochemistry until day 21. In conclusion, C. pneumoniae induced a moderate respiratory infection in these rabbit models. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8579129

  14. Chlamydia muridarum-Specific CD4 T-Cell Clones Recognize Infected Reproductive Tract Epithelial Cells in an Interferon-Dependent Fashion?

    PubMed Central

    Jayarapu, Krupakar; Kerr, Micah S.; Katschke, Adrian; Johnson, Raymond M.

    2009-01-01

    During natural infections Chlamydia trachomatis urogenital serovars replicate predominantly in the epithelial cells lining the reproductive tract. This tissue tropism poses a unique challenge to host cellar immunity and future vaccine development. In the experimental mouse model, CD4 T cells are necessary and sufficient to clear Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infections. This implies that resolution of genital tract infection depends on CD4 T-cell interactions with infected epithelial cells. However, no laboratory has shown that Chlamydia-specific CD4 T cells can recognize Chlamydia antigens presented by major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-I) molecules on epithelial cells. In this report we show that MHC-II-restricted Chlamydia-specific CD4 T-cell clones recognize infected upper reproductive tract epithelial cells as early as 12 h postinfection. The timing of recognition and degree of T-cell activation are dependent on the interferon (IFN) milieu. Beta IFN (IFN-?) and IFN-? have different effects on T-cell activation, with IFN-? blunting IFN-?-induced upregulation of epithelial cell surface MHC-II and T-cell activation. Individual CD4 T-cell clones differed in their degrees of dependence on IFN-?-regulated MHC-II for controlling Chlamydia replication in epithelial cells in vitro. We discuss our data as they relate to published studies with IFN knockout mice, proposing a straightforward interpretation of the existing literature based on CD4 T-cell interactions with the infected reproductive tract epithelium. PMID:19667042

  15. Seroepidemiological and socioeconomic studies of genital chlamydial infection in Ethiopian women.

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, M E; Jamil, Y; Tibaux, G; Pelzer, A; Mehari, L; Darougar, S

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To measure the prevalence of chlamydial genital infection in Ethiopian women attending gynaecological, obstetric and family planning clinics; to identify the epidemiological, social and economic factors affecting the prevalence of infection in a country where routine laboratory culture and serological tests for chlamydial species are unavailable; to determine the risk factors for genital chlamydial infection in those with serological evidence of other sexually transmitted diseases. SUBJECTS--1846 Ethiopian women, outpatient attenders at two teaching hospitals and a mother and child health centre in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. SETTING--Gynaecological outpatient department, antenatal, postnatal and family planning clinics. METHODS--Sera were tested for type-specific anti-chlamydial antibodies using purified chlamydial antigens (C. trachomatis A-C (CTA-C), C. trachomatis D-K (CTD-K), Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV1-3), and C. pneumoniae (CPn)), in a micro-immunofluorescence test. The genital chlamydia seropositivity was analysed against patient's age, clinic attended, ethnic group, religion, origin of residence, age at first marriage and first coitus, income, number of sexual partners, duration of sexual activity, marital status/profession, obstetric and contraceptive history, and seropositivity for other sexually transmitted diseases. RESULTS--Overall exposure to chlamydia species was found in 84%, genital chlamydial infection in 62%, and titres suggestive of recent or present genital infection in 42% of those studied. Genital chlamydial infection was highest (64%) in family planning and lowest (54%) in antenatal clinic attenders. Exposure to genital chlamydia species was influenced by ethnic group and religion. Those married and sexually active under 13 years of age had greater exposure (69%) to genital chlamydial infection than those first sexually active aged over 18 (46%). Prevalence of infection was highest in those with more than five sexual partners (78%) and in bargirls (84%). The lowest income groups had a higher prevalence (65%) of genital chlamydial infection than the wealthiest (48%). Multivariate analysis showed the most important factors to be age at first coitus, religion, prostitution and present age of the woman in that order. Risk for genital chlamydial infection was increased in those with seropositivity for syphilis, gonorrhoea, HSV-2 but not HBV infection. CONCLUSION/APPLICATION--Chlamydial genital infections are highly prevalent in both symptomatic and asymptomatic Ethiopian women. The high prevalence of infection reported reflects a complexity of socioeconomic factors: very early age at first marriage and first coitus, instability of first marriage, subsequent divorce and remarriage or drift into prostitution, all of which are influenced by ethnic group, religion and poverty--together with transmission from an infected group of prostitutes by promiscuous males to their wives, lack of diagnostic facilities and inadequate treatment of both symptomatic and asymptomatic men and women. The problem of chlamydial disease in Ethiopia needs to be addressed urgently in the context of control of STD. PMID:1398656

  16. Inhibition of Matrix Metalloproteinases Protects Mice from Ascending Infection and Chronic Disease Manifestations Resulting from Urogenital Chlamydia muridarum Infection

    PubMed Central

    Imtiaz, Muhammad T.; Schripsema, Justin H.; Sigar, Ira M.; Kasimos, John N.; Ramsey, Kyle H.

    2006-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are a family of host-derived enzymes involved in the turnover of extracellular matrix molecules. We have previously reported enhanced expression of matrix metalloproteinases in Chlamydia muridarum urogenital tract infection of female mice. Kinetics and patterns of MMP expression as well as enhanced expression in susceptible strains of mice in the prior study implied a role for MMP in pathogenesis. To explore this further, we infected a susceptible strain of mice (C3H/HeN) with C. muridarum and treated two groups of mice with either one of two chemical inhibitors of MMP (MMPi; captopril and a chemically modified tetracycline) and reserved infected sham-treated mice as controls. Neither of the treatments affected shedding of viable chlamydiae from the lower urogenital tract, but the administration of either MMPi protected mice from the formation of hydrosalpinx—a surrogate marker of oviduct occlusion and infertility. Interestingly, the mechanism of protection for mice treated with chemically modified tetracycline 3, appeared to be related to prevention of ascending upper genital tract infection. These results imply that MMP are involved in pathogenesis of chlamydial infection in this model by mediating ascension of the infection into the upper genital tract. PMID:16988226

  17. Chlamydia testing and treatment in community pharmacies: findings and lessons learned from setting out to evaluate an unexpectedly short lived service in Lothian, Scotland 

    E-print Network

    Kapadia, Mufiza Zia

    2013-07-06

    Genital chlamydia is the most commonly diagnosed sexually transmitted infection. In August 2008, the Scottish government directed its health boards to involve community pharmacies in providing chlamydia testing and ...

  18. How often are gonorrhoea and genital yeast infection sexually transmitted?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R N Thin; P Rendell; J Wadsworth

    1979-01-01

    Although gonorrhoea is often regarded as the sexually transmitted disease against which others are measured, its infectivity is not clearly understood. Estimates of the infection rate have varied from 5--90%. In this study, 50 couples with gonorrhoea were matched with 50 couples with genital yeast infection. Gonorrhoea was diagnosed in both partners of 32 couples and genital yeast infection in

  19. Chlamydia caviae infection alters abundance but not composition of the guinea pig vaginal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Neuendorf, Elizabeth; Gajer, Pawel; Bowlin, Anne K; Marques, Patricia X; Ma, Bing; Yang, Hongqiu; Fu, Li; Humphrys, Michael S; Forney, Larry J; Myers, Garry S A; Bavoil, Patrik M; Rank, Roger G; Ravel, Jacques

    2015-06-01

    In humans, the vaginal microbiota is thought to be the first line of defense again pathogens including Chlamydia trachomatis. The guinea pig has been extensively used as a model to study chlamydial infection because it shares anatomical and physiological similarities with humans, such as a squamous vaginal epithelium as well as some of the long-term outcomes caused by chlamydial infection. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the guinea pig-C. caviae model of genital infection as a surrogate for studying the role of the vaginal microbiota in the early steps of C. trachomatis infection in humans. We used culture-independent molecular methods to characterize the relative and absolute abundance of bacterial phylotypes in the guinea pig vaginal microbiota in animals non-infected, mock-infected or infected by C. caviae. We showed that the guinea pig and human vaginal microbiotas are of different bacterial composition and abundance. Chlamydia caviae infection had a profound effect on the absolute abundance of bacterial phylotypes but not on the composition of the guinea pig vaginal microbiota. Our findings compromise the validity of the guinea pig-C. caviae model to study the role of the vaginal microbiota during the early steps of sexually transmitted infection. PMID:25761873

  20. Chlamydia caviae infection alters abundance but not composition of the guinea pig vaginal microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Neuendorf, Elizabeth; Gajer, Pawel; Bowlin, Anne K.; Marques, Patricia X.; Ma, Bing; Yang, Hongqiu; Fu, Li; Humphrys, Michael S.; Forney, Larry J.; Myers, Garry S.A.; Bavoil, Patrik M.; Rank, Roger G.; Ravel, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    In humans, the vaginal microbiota is thought to be the first line of defense again pathogens including Chlamydia trachomatis. The guinea pig has been extensively used as a model to study chlamydial infection because it shares anatomical and physiological similarities with humans, such as a squamous vaginal epithelium as well as some of the long-term outcomes caused by chlamydial infection. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the guinea pig-C. caviae model of genital infection as a surrogate for studying the role of the vaginal microbiota in the early steps of C. trachomatis infection in humans. We used culture-independent molecular methods to characterize the relative and absolute abundance of bacterial phylotypes in the guinea pig vaginal microbiota in animals non-infected, mock-infected or infected by C. caviae. We showed that the guinea pig and human vaginal microbiotas are of different bacterial composition and abundance. Chlamydia caviae infection had a profound effect on the absolute abundance of bacterial phylotypes but not on the composition of the guinea pig vaginal microbiota. Our findings compromise the validity of the guinea pig-C. caviae model to study the role of the vaginal microbiota during the early steps of sexually transmitted infection. PMID:25761873

  1. The Prevalence of Endocervical Chlamydia trachomatis Infection Among Young Females in Kashan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Afrasiabi, Shima; Moniri, Rezvan; Samimi, Mansoreh; Khorshidi, Ahmad; Mousavi, Seyyed Gholam Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the major bacterial agents of the sexually transmitted diseases worldwide, especially among young females. There is no data regarding the prevalence of genital Chlamydia infection among young females in Kashan, Iran. Objectives: The current study aimed to determine the prevalence of endocervical C. trachomatis infection among females aged 17 - 35 years in Kashan, Iran. Patients and Methods: In the current descriptive study, 255 endocervical swab samples were collected from the obstetrics and gynecology clinics of Kashan, Iran from December 2012 to July 2013. Cervical swabs were placed in transport media and sent to the laboratory. To identify C. trachomatis in the samples Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was performed to amplify a sequence in the cryptic plasmid, generating a fragment of about 512base pair. Demographic data was collected considering the relevant risk factors by a standard questionnaire. Results: A total of 255 females were tested. The prevalence of genital C. trachomatis was 2.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.54% - 4.26%); 3.2% of the females in the ? 25-year-old group were positive versus 1.8% in the 26 - 35-year-old group. The most general presented symptoms of genital C. trachomatis infection were vaginal discharge (66.6%) and lumbar pain (50%). No significant relationships were found between C. trachomatis infection and the risk factors. Conclusions: To the authors’ knowledge this is the first study to describe endocervical C. trachomatis infection in this area. The obtained results also emphasized the importance of routine diagnosis of C. trachomatis to control of the infection.

  2. Case-control study of vulvar vestibulitis risk associated with genital infections.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Elaine M; Ritchie, Justine M; Galask, Rudolph; Pugh, Erica E; Jia, Jian; Ricks-McGillan, Joan

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk of vulvar vestibulitis syndrome (VVS) associated with genital infections in a case-control study. METHODS: Diagnosed cases with VVS (n = 69) and age-frequency-matched healthy controls (n = 65) were enrolled from gynecology clinics in a university medical hospital during 1999. They were compared for potential risk factors and symptoms of disease. RESULTS: VVS cases had a significantly higher risk of physician-reported bacterial vaginosis (BV) (odds ratio, OR = 9.4), Candida albicans (OR = 5.7), pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) (OR = 11.2), trichomoniasis (OR = 20.6), and vulvar dysplasia (OR = l5.7) but no risk associated with human papillomavirus (HPV), ASCUS, cervical dysplasia, genital warts, chlamydia, genital herpes or gonorrhea. Genital symptoms reported significantly more often with VVS included vulvar burning (91 vs. 12%), dyspareunia (81 vs. 15%), vulvar itching (68 vs. 23%) and dysuria (54 vs. 19%) (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: A history of genital infections is associated with an increased risk of VVS. Long-term follow-up case-control studies are needed to elucidate etiologic mechanisms, methods for prevention and effective treatment. PMID:12648313

  3. Global Mapping of the Inc-Human Interactome Reveals that Retromer Restricts Chlamydia Infection.

    PubMed

    Mirrashidi, Kathleen M; Elwell, Cherilyn A; Verschueren, Erik; Johnson, Jeffrey R; Frando, Andrew; Von Dollen, John; Rosenberg, Oren; Gulbahce, Natali; Jang, Gwendolyn; Johnson, Tasha; Jäger, Stefanie; Gopalakrishnan, Anusha M; Sherry, Jessica; Dunn, Joe Dan; Olive, Andrew; Penn, Bennett; Shales, Michael; Cox, Jeffery S; Starnbach, Michael N; Derre, Isabelle; Valdivia, Raphael; Krogan, Nevan J; Engel, Joanne

    2015-07-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a leading cause of genital and ocular infections for which no vaccine exists. Upon entry into host cells, C. trachomatis resides within a membrane-bound compartment-the inclusion-and secretes inclusion membrane proteins (Incs) that are thought to modulate the host-bacterium interface. To expand our understanding of Inc function(s), we subjected putative C. trachomatis Incs to affinity purification-mass spectroscopy (AP-MS). We identified Inc-human interactions for 38/58 Incs with enrichment in host processes consistent with Chlamydia's intracellular life cycle. There is significant overlap between Inc targets and viral proteins, suggesting common pathogenic mechanisms among obligate intracellular microbes. IncE binds to sorting nexins (SNXs) 5/6, components of the retromer, which relocalizes SNX5/6 to the inclusion membrane and augments inclusion membrane tubulation. Depletion of retromer components enhances progeny production, revealing that retromer restricts Chlamydia infection. This study demonstrates the value of proteomics in unveiling host-pathogen interactions in genetically challenging microbes. PMID:26118995

  4. Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection Differentially Modulates Human Dendritic Cell Line (MUTZ) Differentiation and Activation.

    PubMed

    Armitage, C W; O'Meara, C P; Beagley, K W

    2015-07-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae are important human pathogens that infect the urogenital/anorectal and respiratory tracts, respectively. Whilst the ability of these bacteria to infect epithelia is well defined, there is also considerable evidence of infection of leucocytes, including dendritic cells (DCs). Using a human dendritic cell line (MUTZ), we demonstrate that the infection and replication of chlamydiae inside DCs is species and serovar specific and that live infection with C. pneumoniae is required to upregulate costimulatory markers CD80, CD83 and human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DR on MUTZ cells, as well as induce secretion of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12 (p70), interferon-gamma and tumour necrosis factor-alpha Conversely, C. trachomatis serovar D failed to upregulate DC costimulatory markers, but did induce secretion of high concentrations of IL-8. Interestingly, we also observed that infection of MUTZ cells with C. pneumoniae or C. trachomatis serovar L2, whilst not replicative, remained infectious and upregulated lymph node migratory marker CCR7 mRNA. Taken together, these data confirm the findings of other groups using primary DCs and demonstrate the utility of MUTZ cells for further studies of chlamydial infection. PMID:25833314

  5. Developing and validating a risk scoring tool for chlamydia infection among sexual health clinic attendees in Australia: a simple algorithm to identify those at high risk of chlamydia infection

    PubMed Central

    Guy, Rebecca; Donovan, Basil; McNulty, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Objective To develop and validate a risk scoring tool to identify those who are at increased risk of chlamydia infection. Methods We used demographic data, sexual behaviour information and chlamydia positivity results from more than 45?000 individuals who attended Sydney Sexual Health Centre between 1998 and 2009. Participants were randomly allocated to either the development or internal validation data set. Using logistic regression, we created a prediction model and weighted scoring system using the development data set and calculated the odds ratio of chlamydia positivity for participants in successively higher quintiles of score. The internal validation data set was used to evaluate the performance characteristics of the model for five quintiles of risk scores including population attributable risk, sensitivity and specificity. Results In the prediction model, inconsistent condom use, increased number of sexual partners in last 3?months, genital or anal symptoms and presenting to the clinic for sexually transmitted infections screening or being a contact of a sexually transmitted infection case were consistently associated with increased risk of chlamydia positivity in all groups. High scores (upper quintiles) were significantly associated with increased risk of chlamydia infection. A cut-point score of 20 or higher distinguished a increased risk group with a sensitivity of 95%, 67% and 79% among heterosexual men, women and men who have sex with men (MSM), respectively. Conclusion The scoring tool may be included as part of a health promotion and/or clinic website to prompt those who are at increased risk of chlamydia infection, which may potentially lead to increased uptake and frequency of testing. PMID:22021721

  6. Seminal levels of IL-10, IL-12, and IL-17 in men with asymptomatic chlamydia infection.

    PubMed

    Hakimi, Hamid; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Chamani, Leila; Arababadi, Mohammad Kazemi; Ahmadabadi, Behzad Nasiri; Hassanshahi, Gholamhossein; Fathollahi, Mahmoud Sheikh

    2014-02-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis, as an obligate intracellular parasite, usually causes asymptomatic genital tract infections in both men and women with several complications. The role of C. trachomatis infection in the secretion of a number of interleukins (ILs) from epithelial cells has been established by in vitro studies performed on various cell lines. The aim of this study was to detect the seminal levels of IL-10, IL-12, and IL-17 in men with asymptomatic chlamydia infection. Our case group study included 50 semen samples being PCR-positive for C. trachomatis from 585 semen samples and the ELISA method was applied for detection of IL-10, IL-12, and IL-17. Our results demonstrated that the semen levels of IL-10 and IL-17 were significantly increased, while IL-12 was decreased in C. trachomatis-infected patients. According to these results, it may be concluded that the increased and decreased semen levels of IL-10 and IL-12, respectively, lead to impaired immune responses against C. trachomatis. Increased semen levels of IL-17 may also be associated with the pathogenesis of C. trachomatis infection. PMID:23996104

  7. Risk profiles for genital infection in women.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, B A; Tasker, T; MacRae, K D

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine independent risks with predictive value for specific sexually transmitted diseases in women. DESIGN--A prospective study of reported sexual behaviour in patients who presented for screening and diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases. SETTING--A genitourinary medicine clinic at the West London Hospital. SUBJECTS--1025 consecutive newly attending patients who completed a sexual behaviour questionnaire between February and June 1982. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Sexual behaviour reported by standardised self-administered questionnaire and sexually transmitted diseases diagnosed by routine clinical and laboratory methods. RESULTS--Independent risks for gonorrhoea were teenage (RR 2.0), black race (RR 2.0), more than two partners in the past year (RR 2.2) and previous pregnancy (RR 2.1). Trichomoniasis (RR 2.5), chlamydial infection (RR 1.8) and pelvic inflammatory disease (RR 4.8) also had significant predictive value. Conversely, gonorrhoea proved a risk for chlamydial infection (RR 2.1) together with age under 25 years (RR 2.3) and more than five partners in the previous year (RR 2.2). Ano-genital herpes was predicted by a total of more than 10 sexual partners (RR 2.6) and by both anal (RR 2.2) and oral intercourse (RR 2.9). Age under 25 years was the only independent risk for ano-genital warts (RR 2.0). We found no evidence that either vaginal candidosis or bacterial vaginosis were sexually transmitted. The risk for any genital infection was increased by more than one sexual partner in the preceding year (RR 1.7) and black race (RR 2.0). CONCLUSIONS--Sexually transmitted diseases show both similarities and differences in the risk factors associated with their transmission. These risk profiles facilitate the targeting of health education measures for those sections of the community at greatest risk and form a baseline for the future assessment of the effects of condom protected sexual intercourse and other safer sexual practices. PMID:7721283

  8. [Urinary tract infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis in children].

    PubMed

    Galar, A; Choroszy-Król, I; Moraawska, Z

    In 1988-1989, 131 children aged between 1 and 18 years were examined for urinary infections with C. trachomatis at the Department of Pediatric Urology in Wroc?aw. Chlamydia trachomatis was diagnosed with the aid of McCoy's cellular cultures and immunoenzymatic test Chlamydiazyme in 25% of the examined children. A relationship between Chlamydia trachomatis and particular components of the clinical picture has been analysed. Effectiveness of the treatment with erythromycin (Davercin) and doxycycline (Vibramycin) has been also assessed. PMID:1492036

  9. Chlamydia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... can cause serious, permanent damage to a woman’s reproductive system, making it difficult or impossible for her to ... chlamydia causes no symptoms, it can damage your reproductive system. Women with symptoms may notice • An abnormal vaginal ...

  10. The inflammatory cytokine response to Chlamydia trachomatis infection is endotoxin mediated.

    PubMed Central

    Ingalls, R R; Rice, P A; Qureshi, N; Takayama, K; Lin, J S; Golenbock, D T

    1995-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a major etiologic agent of sexually transmitted diseases. Although C. trachomatis is a gram-negative pathogen, chlamydial infections are not generally thought of as endotoxin-mediated diseases. A molecular characterization of the acute immune response to chlamydia, especially with regard to the role of its lipopolysaccharide (LPS), remains to be undertaken. We extracted 15 mg of LPS from 5 x 10(12) C. trachomatis elementary bodies (EB) for analysis of structure and biological activity. When methylated lipid A was subjected to high-pressure liquid chromatography followed by mass spectrometry, the majority of the lipid A was found to be pentaacyl. The endotoxin activities of whole C. trachomatis EB and purified LPS were characterized in comparison with whole Salmonella minnesota R595 and with S. minnesota R595 LPS and lipooligosaccharide from Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Both C. trachomatis LPS and whole EB induced the release of tumor necrosis factor alpha from whole blood ex vivo, and C. trachomatis LPS was capable of inducing the translocation of nuclear factor kappa B in a Chinese hamster ovary fibroblast cell line transfected with the LPS receptor CD14. In both assays, however, C. trachomatis was approximately 100-fold less potent than S. minnesota and N. gonorrhoeae. The observation that C. trachomatis is a weak inducer of the inflammatory cytokine response correlates with the clinical observation that, unlike N. gonorrhoeae infection, genital tract infection with C. trachomatis is often asymptomatic. The ability of specific LPS antagonists to completely inhibit the tumor necrosis factor alpha-inducing activity of whole C. trachomatis EB suggests that the inflammatory cytokine response to chlamydia infection may be mediated primarily through LPS. This implies that the role of other surface protein antigens, at least in terms of eliciting the proinflammatory cytokine response, is likely to be minor. PMID:7542638

  11. HIV Infection of the Genital Mucosa in Women

    E-print Network

    Dever, Jennifer A.

    genital mucosa of women. Anatomic Sites for HIV Invasion in the Female Genital Tract Although vaginal of the vaginal, ectocervical, and endocervical mucosa to successful transmission remain unknown, but HIV penetration and infection have been demonstrated in all three sites. The vaginal mucosa and ecto- cervix

  12. Genital HPV infection and related lesions in men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriella M. Anic; Anna R. Giuliano

    2011-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is highly prevalent in men and there is an interest in further understanding the relationship between HPV infection and disease in men, including the development of genital warts, penile intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive penile carcinomas. Genital warts are caused by HPV 6\\/11 and are the most common clinical manifestation of HPV in men. Though they are benign

  13. How often is genital yeast infection sexually transmitted?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R N Thin; M Leighton; M J Dixon

    1977-01-01

    We analysed data from a computer-based bank of clinical records of patients seen in a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases over a three-year period to investigate the association between genital yeast infections and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). We classified STDs as primary and secondary syphilis; gonorrhoea; lymphogranuloma venereum; trichomoniasis; scabies; pediculosis; genital herpes; warts; and molluscum contagiosum. Of a total

  14. Lower genital tract infections and HIV in women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Madeline Y. Sutton

    2000-01-01

    Lower genital tract infections and HIV are major causes of morbidity and mortality among women; thier impact on the US economy\\u000a amounts to several billion dollars each year. Most lower genital tract infections—and their adverse sequelae, such as pelvic\\u000a inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic pain, and increased susceptibility to HIV—are caused by sexually transmitted\\u000a diseases (STDs). This article reviews

  15. Prevalence of genital mycoplasmas in asymptomatic male partners of women diagnosed as having chlamydial infections.

    PubMed

    Ito, Shin; Kikuchi, Mina; Seike, Kensaku; Tsuchiya, Tomohiro; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Yokoi, Shigeaki; Nakano, Masahiro; Deguchi, Takashi

    2014-02-01

    We examined 209 asymptomatic male partners of women diagnosed as having chlamydial infections for the prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and Ureaplasma parvum in their first-voided urine (FVU) by nucleic acid amplification tests. Quantification of leukocytes in FVU was performed by automated urine particle analyzers. Two (1.0%) men were positive for N. gonorrhoeae, and 92 (44.0%) were positive for C. trachomatis. In men negative for these pathogens, prevalences of M. genitalium, M. hominis, U. urealyticum, and U. parvum were 0.9%, 29.6%, 27.8%, and 20.1%, respectively, and 58.3% were positive for at least one species of the genital mycoplasmas. Leukocyte counts in FVU from 92 men positive for C. trachomatis were significantly greater than those from 115 men negative for C. trachomatis (p < 0.0001). However, there was no significant difference in leukocyte counts between 66 men positive for at least one species of M. hominis, U. urealyticum, and U. parvum and 48 men negative for all the species (p = 0.1657). The present population of asymptomatic male partners of women diagnosed as having chlamydial infections showed a low prevalence of M. genitalium infections but would be at high risk of being infected by the other genital mycoplasmas. However, it was still unclear whether these genital mycoplasmas would contribute to the development of inflammation of the male urethra. When these partners are negative for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae, the recommendation to presumptively treat them to disrupt transmission networks of the genital mycoplasmas would seem premature. PMID:24486047

  16. Estradiol-Treated Female Mice as Surrogate Hosts for Neisseria gonorrhoeae Genital Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Jerse, Ann E.; Wu, Hong; Packiam, Mathanraj; Vonck, Rachel A.; Begum, Afrin A.; Garvin, Lotisha E.

    2011-01-01

    Historically, animal modeling of gonorrhea has been hampered by the exclusive adaptation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to humans. Genital tract infection can be established in female mice that are treated with 17?-estradiol, however, and many features of experimental murine infection mimic human infection. Here we review the colonization kinetics and host response to experimental murine gonococcal infection, including mouse strain differences and evidence that IL-17 responses, toll-like receptor 4, and T regulatory cells play a role in infection. We also discuss the strengths and limitations of the mouse system and the potential of transgenic mice to circumvent host restrictions. Additionally, we review studies with genetically defined mutants that demonstrated a role for sialyltransferase and the MtrC–MtrD–MtrE active efflux pump in evading innate defenses in vivo, but not for factors hypothesized to protect against the phagocytic respiratory burst and H2O2-producing lactobacilli. Studies using estradiol-treated mice have also revealed the existence of non-host-restricted iron sources in the female genital tract and the influence of hormonal factors on colonization kinetics and selection for opacity (Opa) protein expression. Recent work by others with estradiol-treated mice that are transgenic for human carcinoembryonic adhesion molecules (CEACAMs) supports a role for Opa proteins in enhancing cellular attachment and thus reduced shedding of N. gonorrhoeae. Finally we discuss the use of the mouse model in product testing and a recently developed gonorrhea chlamydia coinfection model. PMID:21747807

  17. Is there a Relation between Chlamydia Infection and Primary Biliary Cirrhosis?

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Patrick S. C.; Park, Ogyi; Matsumura, Shuji; Ansari, Aftab A.; Coppel, Ross L.; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2003-01-01

    Over the past two decades, a number of studies have failed to provide direct evidence of specific microbial chronic infection in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). However, a recent report suggests that there is a specific association of Chlamydia pneumoniae in patients with PBC and that C. pneumoniae or similar antigens might play a role in the pathogenesis of disease. To determine if Chlamydia infection is associated with PBC, we applied a combination of immunological and molecular approaches to investigate (a) the serological reactivity against two common Chlamydia human pathogens, C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis, by immunoblotting, (b) the presence of Chlamydia in liver samples of patients with PBC and controls by PCR amplification of Chlamydia specific 16S rRNA and (c) the presence of Chlamydia proteins in liver samples of patients with PBC and controls by immunohistochemical staining. By immunoblotting, C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae specific serological antibodies were found in 52/57 (91.2%) AMA positive PBC, 7/33 (21/2%) of AMA negative PBC, 1/25 (4%) PSC, 0/15 (0%) Sjorgen's syndrome and 0/20 (0%) systemic lupus erythematosus patients and 0/20 (0%) healthy volunteers at 1:200 sera dilution. PBC sera reacted to Chlamydia and E. coli lysates in western blots up to a maximum of 10-4 dilution. However, PCR amplification of the Chlamydia specific 16S rRNA gene was negative in 25/25 PBC livers but positive in 1/4 PSC liver, 3/6 in other liver disease controls and 1/4 normal liver samples. While two commercially available specific monoclonal antibodies stained positive controls (Chlamydia infected HEp-2 cells) they failed to detect Chlamydia antigens in PBC livers. The detection of Chlamydia specific antibodies but not Chlamydia rRNA gene and Chlamydia antigens in PBC suggests that Chlamydia infection is not involved in PBC. PMID:14768955

  18. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePLUS

    What is genital herpes? Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) . Genital herpes is probably best known for the sores and ... you do not see a sore. How does genital herpes infection occur? The herpes virus can pass through ...

  19. Genital Cytomegalovirus Replication Predicts Syphilis Acquisition among HIV-1 Infected Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Gianella, Sara; Smith, Davey M.; Daar, Eric S.; Dube, Michael P.; Lisco, Andrea; Vanpouille, Christophe; Margolis, Leonid; Haubrich, Richard H.; Morris, Sheldon R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Sexually transmitted infections (STI) are common among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). While behavioral factors are important in STI acquisition, other biological factors such as immune modulation due to chronic viral infection may further predispose to STI acquisition. Design Post Hoc analysis including data collected over 12 months of follow-up from 131 HIV-infected MSM receiving antiretroviral therapy and screened for incident bacterial STI every 3 months. Methods Genital secretions collected at baseline were used to measure herpesvirus replication and inflammatory cytokines. Baseline predictors of STI were determined using survival analysis of time to incident STI. Results All participants were seropositive for cytomegalovirus (CMV), and 52% had detectable genital CMV at baseline. Thirty-five individuals acquired STI during follow-up, sometimes with multiple pathogen (17 syphilis, 21 gonorrhea, 14 chlamydia). Syphilis acquisition was associated with genital CMV replication at baseline (19.1% CMV-shedders versus 4.8% non-shedders, p=0.03) and younger age (p=0.02). Lower seminal MCP-1 was associated with higher seminal CMV levels and with syphilis acquisition (p<0.01). For syphilis acquisition, in multivariable Cox-Proportional Hazard model adjusted hazard rates were 3.56 (95%CI:1.00–12.73) for baseline CMV replication and 2.50 (0.92–6.77) for younger age. Conclusions This post hoc analysis suggest that CMV-associated decrease in seminal MCP-1 levels might predispose HIV-infected MSM to syphilis acquisition, but not other STI. Future studies should determine underlying mechanisms and if a causal association exists. PMID:26061824

  20. Chlamydia-infected cells continue to undergo mitosis and resist induction of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Greene, Whitney; Xiao, Yangming; Huang, Yanqing; McClarty, Grant; Zhong, Guangming

    2004-01-01

    Both anti- and proapoptotic activities have been reported to occur during chlamydial infection. To reconcile the apparent controversy, we compared host cell apoptotic responses to infection with 17 different chlamydial serovars and strains. None of the serovars caused any biologically significant apoptosis in the infected host cells. Host cells in chlamydia-infected cultures can continue to undergo DNA synthesis and mitosis. Chlamydia-infected cells are resistant to apoptosis induction, although the extent of the antiapoptotic ability varied between serovars. These observations have demonstrated that an anti- but not proapoptotic activity is the prevailing event in chlamydia-infected cultures. PMID:14688126

  1. [Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and factors with the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections in college students].

    PubMed

    Occhionero, Marcelo; Paniccia, Laura; Pedersen, Dina; Rossi, Gabriela; Mazzucchini, Héctor; Entrocassi, Andrea; Gallo Vaulet, Lucia; Gualtieri, Valeria; Rodríguez Fermepin, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection is nowadays considered one of the most frequent causes of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in the world, mainly affecting the group of young people under 25 years old. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis infection in newly admitted students to Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahía Blanca, Argentina, and to evaluate the risk factors to acquire STI. For that purpose, 204 young college students with a mean age of 19 were involved in this study. Each participant delivered a sample of first-void urine and completed a questionnaire which was then submitted anonymously. The research for C. trachomatis was done on 114 valid samples through a technique of DNA amplification, whose molecular target was the gene ompA. Four cases of infection by C. trachomatis were detected with a prevalence of 3.5%. The risks factors associated to the infection were a history of 7 or more partners since the start of sexual activity and contact with a new sexual partner in the last 4 months. The prevalence of such infection reflects a moderate circulation of this microorganism in the studied population. This fact, along with some aspects shown by the questionnaire results, would characterize a population having a low risk profile for acquiring STIs. However, some other information obtained from the questionnaires gave some opposite evidence, which would alert us on the need of keeping watch, raising awareness and implementing preventive actions in this population. PMID:25683522

  2. Use of a Guinea Pig-Specific Transcriptome Array for Evaluation of Protective Immunity against Genital Chlamydial Infection following Intranasal Vaccination in Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Veselenak, Ronald L.; Li, Yansong; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Murthy, Ashlesh K.; Cap, Andrew P.; Guentzel, M. Neal; Chambers, James P.; Zhong, Guangming; Rank, Roger G.; Pyles, Richard B.; Arulanandam, Bernard P.

    2014-01-01

    Guinea pigs have been used as a second animal model to validate putative anti-chlamydial vaccine candidates tested in mice. However, the lack of guinea pig-specific reagents has limited the utility of this animal model in Chlamydia sp. vaccine studies. Using a novel guinea pig-specific transcriptome array, we determined correlates of protection in guinea pigs vaccinated with Chlamydia caviae (C. caviae) via the intranasal route, previously reported by us and others to provide robust antigen specific immunity against subsequent intravaginal challenge. C. caviae vaccinated guinea pigs resolved genital infection by day 3 post challenge. In contrast, mock vaccinated animals continued to shed viable Chlamydia up to day 18 post challenge. Importantly, at day 80 post challenge, vaccinated guinea pigs experienced significantly reduced genital pathology - a sequelae of genital chlamydial infections, in comparison to mock vaccinated guinea pigs. Sera from vaccinated guinea pigs displayed antigen specific IgG responses and increased IgG1 and IgG2 titers capable of neutralizing GPIC in vitro. Th1-cellular/inflammatory immune genes and Th2-humoral associated genes were also found to be elevated in vaccinated guinea pigs at day 3 post-challenge and correlated with early clearance of the bacterium. Overall, this study provides the first evidence of guinea pig-specific genes involved in anti-chlamydial vaccination and illustrates the enhancement of the utility of this animal model in chlamydial pathogenesis. PMID:25502875

  3. Treponema infection associated with genital ulceration in wild baboons.

    PubMed

    Knauf, S; Batamuzi, E K; Mlengeya, T; Kilewo, M; Lejora, I A V; Nordhoff, M; Ehlers, B; Harper, K N; Fyumagwa, R; Hoare, R; Failing, K; Wehrend, A; Kaup, F J; Leendertz, F H; Mätz-Rensing, K

    2012-03-01

    The authors describe genital alterations and detailed histologic findings in baboons naturally infected with Treponema pallidum. The disease causes moderate to severe genital ulcerations in a population of olive baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis) at Lake Manyara National Park in Tanzania. In a field survey in 2007, 63 individuals of all age classes, both sexes, and different grades of infection were chemically immobilized and sampled. Histology and molecular biological tests were used to detect and identify the organism responsible: a strain similar to T pallidum ssp pertenue, the cause of yaws in humans. Although treponemal infections are not a new phenomenon in nonhuman primates, the infection described here appears to be strictly associated with the anogenital region and results in tissue alterations matching those found in human syphilis infections (caused by T pallidum ssp pallidum), despite the causative pathogen's greater genetic similarity to human yaws-causing strains. PMID:21411621

  4. Epidemiology of Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in Developed Countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Standardized; Jean-Elie Malkin

    SUMMARY Comparisons of the seroepidemiology of genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection within and between countries are hampered by variations in tests, methods and populations sampled. Differences in seroprevalence may partly reflect variability in diagnostic efforts and healthcare awareness, expectations and utilization. To allow comparison between surveys and to improve their performance, seroepidemiological studies should use validated HSV type-specific tests,

  5. Seroprevalence of Antibodies against Pkn1, a Novel Potential Immunogen, in Chlamydia trachomatis-Infected Macaca nemestrina and Human Patients

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Achchhe L.; Mishra, Prashant K.; Sachdev, Divya; Chaudhary, Uma; Patton, Dorothy L.; Saluja, Daman

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is an important cause of sexually transmitted genital tract infections (STIs) and trachoma. Despite major research into chlamydial pathogenesis and host immune responses, immunoprotection has been hampered by the incomplete understanding of protective immunity in the genital tract. Characterized vaccine candidates have shown variable efficacy ranging from no protection to partial protection in vivo. It is therefore a research priority to identify novel chlamydial antigens that may elicit protective immune responses against CT infection. In the present study we assessed the seroprevalence of antibodies against protein kinase1 (Pkn1), DNA ligaseA (LigA), and major outer membrane protein A (OmpA) following natural CT infection in humans and in experimentally induced CT infection in Macaca nemestrina. Antigenic stretches of Pkn1, LigA, and OmpA were identified using bioinformatic tools. Pkn1, LigA, and OmpA genes were cloned in bacterial expression vector and purified by affinity chromatography. Our results demonstrate significantly high seroprevalence of antibodies against purified Pkn1 and OmpA in sera obtained from the macaque animal model and human patients infected with CT. In contrast no significant seroreactivity was observed for LigA. The seroprevalence of antibodies against Pkn1 suggest that nonsurface chlamydial proteins could also be important for developing vaccines for C. trachomatis. PMID:25032212

  6. The epidemiology of genital human papillomavirus infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen Trottier; Eduardo L. Franco

    2006-01-01

    Clinical and subclinical human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are the most common sexually transmitted infections in the world, and most sexually-active individuals are likely to be exposed to HPV infection during their lifetimes. More than 40 genotypes of HPV infect the epithelial lining of the anogenital tract and other mucosal areas of the body; of these, 13–18 types are considered to

  7. The sexually transmitted infection, genital herpes (herpes simplex virus 2, or HSV-2), is a

    E-print Network

    Lee, Daeyeol

    The sexually transmitted infection, genital herpes (herpes simplex virus 2, or HSV-2 genital herpes begin with the infection's primary location. Memory T cells circulate in the body to fight, and the entryway for HSV-2 ­ the genital tract. Several years ago Akiko Iwasaki, PhD, Professor of Immunobiology

  8. HPV Infection in Women: Psychosexual Impact of Genital Warts and Intraepithelial Lesions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessandra Graziottin; Audrey Serafini

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Genital Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most commonly occurring sexually transmitted viral infection in humans. HPV is a wide family of DNA viruses, which may cause benign skin and mucosal tumors (genital, anal or oral warts), intraepithelial neoplasias and\\/or malignant cancers in different organs. Women are more susceptible to the oncogenic effect of HPVs, mostly at the genital

  9. Current methods of laboratory diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infections.

    PubMed Central

    Black, C M

    1997-01-01

    Infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis are probably the most common sexually transmitted diseases in the United States. Commonly unrecognized and often inadequately treated, chlamydial infections can ascend the reproductive tract and cause pelvic inflammatory disease, which often results in the devastating consequences of infertility, ectopic pregnancy, or chronic pelvic pain. C. trachomatis infections are also known to increase the risk for human immunodeficiency virus infection. The obligate intracellular life cycle of C. trachomatis has traditionally required laboratory diagnostic tests that are technically demanding, labor-intensive, expensive, and difficult to access. In spite of these historical challenges, however, laboratory diagnosis of C. trachomatis has been a rapidly advancing area in which there is presently a wide array of commercial diagnostic technologies, costs, manufacturers. This review describes and compares the diagnostic methods for C. trachomatis infection that are currently approved for use in the United States, including the newest DNA amplification technologies which are yet to be licensed for commercial use. Issues to consider in selecting a test for purposes of screening versus diagnosis based on prevalence, performance, legal, social, and cost issues are also discussed. PMID:8993862

  10. The prevalence and clinical significance of Chlamydia infection in island and mainland populations of Victorian koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    PubMed

    Patterson, Jade L S; Lynch, Michael; Anderson, Garry A; Noormohammadi, Amir H; Legione, Alistair; Gilkerson, James R; Devlin, Joanne M

    2015-04-01

    Chlamydia infection is known to impact the health of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, but the clinical significance of Chlamydia infections in Victorian koalas is not well described. We examined the prevalence of Chlamydia infection and assessed associated health parameters in two Victorian koala populations known to be Chlamydia positive. The same testing regimen was applied to a third Victorian population in which Chlamydia had not been detected. We examined 288 koalas and collected samples from the urogenital sinus and conjunctival sacs. Detection and differentiation of Chlamydia species utilized real-time PCR and high-resolution melting curve analysis. Chlamydia pecorum was detected in two populations (prevalences: 25% and 41%, respectively) but only from urogenital sinus swabs. Chlamydia was not detected in the third population. Chlamydia pneumoniae was not detected. Chlamydia pecorum infection was positively associated with wet bottom (indicating chronic urinary tract disease) in one Chlamydia-positive population and with abnormal urogenital ultrasound findings in the other Chlamydia-positive population. The prevalence of wet bottom was similar in all populations (including the Chlamydia-free population), suggesting there is another significant cause (or causes) of wet bottom in Victorian koalas. Ocular disease was not observed. This is the largest study of Chlamydia infection in Victorian koalas, and the results suggest the potential for epidemiologic differences related to Chlamydia infections between Victorian koalas and koalas in Queensland and NSW and also between geographically distinct Victorian populations. Further studies to investigate the genotypes of C. pecorum present in Victorian koalas and to identify additional causes of wet bottom in koalas are indicated. PMID:25588005

  11. Sphingolipid trafficking and purification in Chlamydia trachomatis-infected cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular human pathogen, which lacks a system that allows genetic manipulation. Therefore, chlamydial researchers must manipulate the host cell to better understand chlamydial biology. Host-derived lipid acquisition is critical for chlamydial survival within the host. Hence, the ability to track and purify sphingolipids in/from chlamydial infected cells has become an integral part of pivotal studies in chlamydial biology. This Unit outlines protocols that provide details about labeling eukaryotic cells with exogenous lipids to examine Golgi-derived lipid trafficking to the chlamydial inclusion and then performing imaging studies or lipid extractions for quantification. Details are provided to allow these protocols to be applied to subconfluent, polarized or siRNA knockdown cells. In addition, one will find important experimental design considerations and techniques. These methods are powerful tools to aid in the understanding of mechanisms which allow C. trachomatis to manipulate and usurp host cell trafficking pathways. PMID:23184593

  12. Genital Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection in Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gone. Using condoms during sexual intercourse and dental dams during oral sex may also help to reduce the spread of infection. However, condoms or dams may not always completely prevent the spread of ...

  13. Plasmid CDS5 Influences Infectivity and Virulence in a Mouse Model of Chlamydia trachomatis Urogenital Infection

    PubMed Central

    Schripsema, J. H.; Smith, B. J.; Wang, Y.; Jham, B. C.; O'Hagan, K. P.; Thomson, N. R.; Murthy, A. K.; Skilton, R. J.; Chu, P.; Clarke, I. N.

    2014-01-01

    The native plasmid of both Chlamydia muridarum and Chlamydia trachomatis has been shown to control virulence and infectivity in mice and in lower primates. We recently described the development of a plasmid-based genetic transformation protocol for Chlamydia trachomatis that for the first time provides a platform for the molecular dissection of the function of the chlamydial plasmid and its individual genes or coding sequences (CDS). In the present study, we transformed a plasmid-free lymphogranuloma venereum isolate of C. trachomatis, serovar L2, with either the original shuttle vector (pGFP::SW2) or a derivative of pGFP::SW2 carrying a deletion of the plasmid CDS5 gene (pCDS5KO). Female mice were inoculated with these strains either intravaginally or transcervically. We found that transformation of the plasmid-free isolate with the intact pGFP::SW2 vector significantly enhanced infectivity and induction of host inflammatory responses compared to the plasmid-free parental isolate. Transformation with pCDS5KO resulted in infection courses and inflammatory responses not significantly different from those observed in mice infected with the plasmid-free isolate. These results indicate a critical role of plasmid CDS5 in in vivo fitness and in induction of inflammatory responses. To our knowledge, these are the first in vivo observations ascribing infectivity and virulence to a specific plasmid gene. PMID:24866804

  14. The Pathobiology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Lower Female Genital Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Jennifer L.; Butler, Emily K.

    2011-01-01

    Infection and disease associated with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the gonococcus, continue to be a global health problem. Asymptomatic and subclinical gonococcal infections occur at a high frequency in females; thus, the true incidence of N. gonorrhoeae infections are presumed to be severely underestimated. Inherent to this asymptomatic/subclinical diseased state is the continued prevalence of this organism within the general population, as well as the medical, economic, and social burden equated with the observed chronic, disease sequelae. As infections of the lower female genital tract (i.e., the uterine cervix) commonly result in subclinical disease, it follows that the pathobiology of cervical gonorrhea would differ from that observed for other sites of infection. In this regard, the potential responses to infection that are generated by the female reproductive tract mucosa are unique in that they are governed, in part, by cyclic fluctuations in steroid hormone levels. The lower female genital tract has the further distinction of being able to functionally discriminate between resident commensal microbiota and transient pathogens. The expression of functionally active complement receptor 3 by the lower, but not the upper, female genital tract mucosa; together with data indicating that gonococcal adherence to and invasion of primary cervical epithelial cells and tissue are predominately aided by this surface-expressed host molecule; provide one explanation for asymptomatic/subclinical gonococcal cervicitis. However, co-evolution of the gonococcus with its sole human host has endowed this organism with variable survival strategies that not only aid these bacteria in successfully evasion of immune detection and function but also enhance cervical colonization and cellular invasion. To this end, we herein summarize current knowledge pertaining to the pathobiology of gonococcal infection of the human cervix. PMID:21747805

  15. Trichomonas vaginalis Genital Infections: Progress and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, Marcia M.; Seña, Arlene C.; Sobel, Jack D.; Schwebke, Jane R.; Krieger, John N.; McClelland, R. Scott; Workowski, Kimberly A.

    2011-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) infection is the most prevalent curable sexually transmitted infection in the United States and worldwide. Most TV infections are asymptomatic, and the accurate diagnosis of this infection has been limited by lack of sufficiently sensitive and specific diagnostic tests, particularly for men. To provide updates for the 2010 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, a PubMed search was conducted of all TV literature published from 9 January 2004 through 24 September 2008. Approximately 175 pertinent abstracts and articles were reviewed and discussed with national experts. This article describes advances in TV diagnostics which have led to an improved understanding of the epidemiology of this pathogen, as well as potential biologic and epidemiological interactions between TV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). New data on treatment outcomes, metronidazole-resistant TV, management of nitroimidazole-allergic patients, frequency of recurrent TV infection following treatment, and screening considerations for TV in certain populations are also presented. PMID:22080269

  16. HIV, Sexually Transmitted Infections and Sexual Risk among Women who Use Methamphetamine

    E-print Network

    Lorvick, Jennifer J.

    2011-01-01

    vaginal swabs or urine to screen for Chlamydia trachomatis genital infections.vaginal sex, 28,138 multiple partners, 136,140 and STI infection.vaginal sex. ” The variable “sexually transmitted infection

  17. The association between Chlamydia cervicitis, chorioamnionitis and neonatal complications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. G. G. Donders; P. Moerman; G. H. De Wet; P. Hooft; P. Goubau

    1991-01-01

    Summary  In a prospective study on genital infections, the influence of Chlamydial cervicitis on pregnancy outcome was evaluated. In\\u000a eleven women with Chlamydial cervicitis perinatal outcome was recorded, the placenta was examined and the newborns were screened\\u000a for Chlamydial conjunctivitis. They were compared with 13 women who were negative for Chlamydia and were delivered immediately\\u000a after a Chlamydia positive woman. Compared

  18. Lower genital tract infections in diabetic women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gilbert G. G. Donders

    2002-01-01

    The influence of glucose metabolism is seen in many infectious diseases, making diabetic patients more vulnerable to sepsis\\u000a and other serious sequelae of bacterial invasion. Vaginal candidiasis is a common problem if the glycemia is poorly controlled.\\u000a The level of glucose concentration in the blood after ingestion of sugar seems to explain an increased likelihood of recurrent\\u000a infection. Specific immune

  19. Analysis of Inflammasome Gene Regulation Following Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection of THPl Monocytes: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan M. Anzmann

    2012-01-01

    Neuroinflammation has been found to be characteristic of neurological diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. Research focusing on the cause of Alzheimer's disease has produced evidence that chronic infection(s) may be at the root of the problem. Our lab has shown that the bacterium Chlamydia pneumoniae can infect many different types of cells in the brain and survive intracellularly for long periods

  20. Mutational Analysis of the Chlamydia muridarum Plasticity Zone.

    PubMed

    Rajaram, Krithika; Giebel, Amanda M; Toh, Evelyn; Hu, Shuai; Newman, Jasmine H; Morrison, Sandra G; Kari, Laszlo; Morrison, Richard P; Nelson, David E

    2015-07-01

    Pathogenically diverse Chlamydia spp. can have surprisingly similar genomes. Chlamydia trachomatis isolates that cause trachoma, sexually transmitted genital tract infections (chlamydia), and invasive lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) and the murine strain Chlamydia muridarum share 99% of their gene content. A region of high genomic diversity between Chlamydia spp. termed the plasticity zone (PZ) may encode niche-specific virulence determinants that dictate pathogenic diversity. We hypothesized that PZ genes might mediate the greater virulence and gamma interferon (IFN-?) resistance of C. muridarum compared to C. trachomatis in the murine genital tract. To test this hypothesis, we isolated and characterized a series of C. muridarum PZ nonsense mutants. Strains with nonsense mutations in chlamydial cytotoxins, guaBA-add, and a phospholipase D homolog developed normally in cell culture. Two of the cytotoxin mutants were less cytotoxic than the wild type, suggesting that the cytotoxins may be functional. However, none of the PZ nonsense mutants exhibited increased IFN-? sensitivity in cell culture or were profoundly attenuated in a murine genital tract infection model. Our results suggest that C. muridarum PZ genes are transcribed-and some may produce functional proteins-but are dispensable for infection of the murine genital tract. PMID:25939505

  1. Complement Factor C5 but Not C3 Contributes Significantly to Hydrosalpinx Development in Mice Infected with Chlamydia muridarum

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhangsheng; Conrad, Turner; Zhou, Zhou; Chen, Jianlin; Dutow, Pavel; Klos, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Hydrosalpinx is a pathological hallmark of tubal infertility associated with chlamydial infection. However, the mechanisms of hydrosalpinx remain unknown. Here, we report that complement factor 5 (C5) contributes significantly to chlamydial induction of hydrosalpinx. Mice lacking C5 (C5?/?) failed to develop any hydrosalpinx, while ?42% of the corresponding wild-type mice (C5+/+) did so following intravaginal infection with Chlamydia muridarum. Surprisingly, deficiency in C3 (C3?/?), an upstream component of the complement system, did not affect mouse susceptibility to chlamydial induction of hydrosalpinx. Interestingly, C5 activation was induced by chlamydial infection in oviducts of C3?/? mice, explaining why the C3?/? mice remained susceptible to chlamydial induction of hydrosalpinx. Similar levels of live chlamydial organisms were recovered from oviduct tissues of both C5?/? and C5+/+ mice, suggesting that C5 deficiency did not affect C. muridarum ascending infection. Furthermore, C5?/? mice were still more resistant to hydrosalpinx induction than C5+/+ mice, even when live C. muridarum organisms were directly delivered into the upper genital tract, both confirming the role of C5 in promoting hydrosalpinx and indicating that the C5-facilitated hydrosalpinx was not due to enhancement of ascending infection. The C5?/? mice displayed significantly reduced lumenal inflammatory infiltration and cytokine production in oviduct tissue, suggesting that C5 may contribute to chlamydial induction of hydrosalpinx by enhancing inflammatory responses. PMID:24842924

  2. Prevalence of Chlamydia infection among women visiting a gynaecology outpatient department: evaluation of an in-house PCR assay for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Achchhe L Patel; Divya Sachdev; Poonam Nagpal; Uma Chaudhry; Subash C Sonkar; Suman L Mendiratta; Daman Saluja

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Screening women for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in developing countries is highly desirable because of asymptomatic infection. The existing diagnostic methods in developing countries are not effective and their sensitivity fall below 45.0% which leads to further spread of infection. There is an urgent need for improved and cost effective diagnostic tests that will reduce the burden of sexually transmitted

  3. Prevalence and determinants of Chlamydia trachomatis infections in women from Bogota, Colombia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Molano; E Weiderpass; H Posso; S. A. Morre; M Ronderos; S Franceschi; A Arslan; C. J. L. M. Meijer; N. Munoz; Brule van den AJ

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Chlamydia trachomatis infection in the cervix and uterus has been hypothesised to be a co-factor for cervical cancer. We performed a cross sectional study in Bogota, Colombia, where cervical cancer rates are high, to determine the prevalence and determinants of C trachomatis infection, and in particular its association with human papillomavirus (HPV). METHODS: 1829 low income sexually active women

  4. In Vitro Activities of Azithromycin and Ofloxacin against Chlamydia pneumoniae in a Continuous-Infection Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANDREI KUTLIN; PATRICIA M. ROBLIN; MARGARET R. HAMMERSCHLAG

    1999-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is a well-established cause of community-acquired pneumonia and bronchitis in adults and children. Chronic infections with C. pneumoniae have been implicated in the development of athero- sclerosis and other diseases in humans. Methods currently used for the culture and propagation of C. pneu- moniae are not analogous to the infection as it occurs in vivo. We have established

  5. Infection of Human Endothelial Cells with Chlamydia pneumoniae Stimulates Transendothelial Migration of Neutrophils and Monocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROBERT E. MOLESTINA; RICHARD D. MILLER; JULIO A. RAMIREZ; JAMES T. SUMMERSGILL

    We have previously shown that different isolates of Chlamydia pneumoniae display heterogeneity in the in vitro stimulation of chemokines and adhesion molecules from infected human endothelial cells. In the present study, we examined the ability of different isolates of C. pneumoniae to promote transendothelial migration of neutrophils and monocytes. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were infected with low (<15)-

  6. Neither Interleukin-6 nor Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Is Required for Clearance of Chlamydia trachomatis from the Murine Genital Tract Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Linda L.; Feilzer, Karen; Caldwell, Harlan D.

    1998-01-01

    Female mice bearing targeted mutations in the interleukin-6 or inducible nitric oxide synthase locus mounted effective immune responses following vaginal infection with Chlamydia trachomatis. Chlamydial clearance rates, local Th1 cytokine production, and host antibody responses were similar to those of immunocompetent control mice. Therefore, neither gene product appears to be critical for the resolution of chlamydial infections of the urogenital epithelium. PMID:9488425

  7. Chlamydia Screening: A Routine Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... C hlamydia is a common sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis . Any sexually ... OF CHLAMYDIA The best way to prevent an STI like chlamydia is to abstain from sexual activity ...

  8. Human papillomavirus and other genital infections in indigenous women from Paraguay: a cross-sectional analytical study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of cervical cancer in Paraguay is among the highest in the world, with the human papillomavirus (HPV) being a necessary factor for cervical cancer. Knowledge about HPV infection among indigenous women is limited. This cross-sectional study analyzed the frequency of HPV and other genital infections in indigenous Paraguayan women of the Department of Presidente Hayes. Methods This study included 181 sexually active women without cervical lesions. They belonged to the following ethnicities: Maká (n?=?40); Nivaclé (n?=?23); Sanapaná (n?=?33); Enxet Sur (n?=?51) and Toba-Qom (n?=?34). The detection of HPV and other gynecological infectious microorganisms was performed by either molecular methods (for Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Chlamydia trachomatis), gram staining and/or culture (for Gardnerella vaginalis, Candida sp, Trichomonas vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae), serological methods (for Treponema pallidum, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]) or cytology (cervical inflammation). Results A high prevalence (41.4%) of women positive for at least one sexually transmitted infection (STI) was found (23.2% any-type HPV, 11.6% T pallidum, 10.5% T vaginalis, 9.9% C trachomatis and 0.6% HIV) with 12.2% having more than one STI. HPV infection was the most frequent, with 16.1% of women positive for high-risk HPV types. There was a statistically significant association observed between any-type HPV and C trachomatis (p?=?0.004), which indicates that the detection of one of these agents should suggest the presence of the other. There was no association between any-type HPV and other genital infections or cervical inflammation, suggesting that other mechanism could exist to favor infection with the virus. Conclusion This multidisciplinary work suggests that STIs are frequent, making it necessary to implement control measures and improve diagnosis in order to increase the number of cases detected, especially in populations with poor access to health centers. PMID:24206645

  9. Chlamydia trachomatis infection prevents front-rear polarity of migrating HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Heymann, Julia; Rejman Lipinski, Anette; Bauer, Bianca; Meyer, Thomas F; Heuer, Dagmar

    2013-07-01

    Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens that cause trachoma, sexually transmitted diseases and respiratory infections in humans. Fragmentation of the host cell Golgi apparatus (GA) is essential for chlamydial development, whereas the consequences for host cell functions, including cell migration are not well understood. We could show that Chlamydia trachomatis-infected cells display decelerated migration and fail to repopulate monolayer scratch wounds. Furthermore, infected cells lost the ability to reorient the fragmented GA or the microtubule organization centre (MTOC) after a migratory stimulus. Silencing of golgin-84 phenocopied this defect in the absence of the infection. Interestingly, GA stabilization via knockdown of Rab6A and Rab11A improved its reorientation in infected cells and it was fully rescued after inhibition of Golgi fragmentation with WEHD-fmk. These results show that C.?trachomatis infection perturbs host cell migration on multiple levels, including the alignment of GA and MTOC. PMID:23351274

  10. Host-pathogen interactions in specific pathogen-free chickens following aerogenous infection with Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia abortus.

    PubMed

    Kalmar, Isabelle; Berndt, Angela; Yin, Lizi; Chiers, Koen; Sachse, Konrad; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2015-03-15

    Although Chlamydia (C.) psittaci infections are recognized as an important factor causing economic losses and impairing animal welfare in poultry production, the specific mechanisms leading to severe clinical outcomes are poorly understood. In the present study, we comparatively investigated pathology and host immune response, as well as systemic dissemination and expression of essential chlamydial genes in the course of experimental aerogeneous infection with C. psittaci and the closely related C. abortus, respectively, in specific pathogen-free chicks. Clinical signs appeared sooner and were more severe in the C. psittaci-infected group. Compared to C. abortus infection, more intense systemic dissemination of C. psittaci correlated with higher and faster infiltration of immune cells, as well as more macroscopic lesions and epithelial pathology, such as hyperplasia and erosion. In thoracic air sac tissue, mRNA expression of immunologically relevant factors, such as IFN-?, IL-1?, IL-6, IL-17, IL-22, LITAF and iNOS was significantly stronger up-regulated in C. psittaci- than in C. abortus-infected birds between 3 and 14 days post-infection. Likewise, transcription rates of the chlamydial genes groEL, cpaf and ftsW were consistently higher in C. psittaci during the acute phase. These findings illustrate that the stronger replication of C. psittaci in its natural host also evoked a more intense immune response than in the case of C. abortus infection. PMID:25638671

  11. Comparison of Sperm Parameters in Patients with Infertility Induced by Genital Infection versus Varicocele

    PubMed Central

    Pajovic, Bogdan; Dimitrovski, Antonio; Radojevic, Nemanja; Vukovic, Marko

    2015-01-01

    Background: Male infertility is a common and complex problem and, despite much research in this field, the major cause of infertility unfortunately remains unknown. Genital infection and varicocele are important causes of infertility. Aims: To compare the influence of genital infection and varicocele individually on male infertility based on semen analysis. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: The study included 120 infertile patients divided into two groups according to the presence of genital infection or varicocele. The first group included 60 examinees with proven genital infection, but without varicocele formation. The second included 60 patients with varicocele, regardless of the varicocele grade, but without genital infection. The fertile parameters were compared and an assessment was performed on the impact on quality of spermatogenesis due to infection and varicocele. Results: There is a statistically significant difference regarding abnormal forms of spermatozoids (45.94±9.79 vs. 25.27±6.54) and progressive motility (8.15±1.24 vs. 24.95±7.2), between two groups of patients. However, acidity of ejaculates, minimum sperm concentration, total spermatozoid motility and ejaculate volume showed no statistically significant difference. Conclusion: The study showed a stronger negative influence of genital infection on fertile parameters over varicocele. The significance of our study is the lack of contemporary researches comparing varicocele and genital infection influence on male infertility individually. PMID:26185712

  12. Are plant extracts a potential therapeutic approach for genital infections?

    PubMed

    Palmeira-de-Oliveira, A; Silva, B M; Palmeira-de-Oliveira, R; Martinez-de-Oliveira, J; Salgueiro, L

    2013-01-01

    More than 40% of the new drugs registered from 1981 to 2006 were obtained, derived or inspired from natural compounds. The influence of natural products in the anti-infective area is quite marked, being a great percentage of drugs derived or extracted from natural products. Vaginal infections are one of the most common reasons a women visits a gynecologist. Given the high popularity of natural therapies among women who suffer from chronic infections, it is urgent for women's healthcare providers to be knowledgeable about such therapies. Additionally, many phytotherapeutic products have been suggested as natural sources of antimicrobial compounds. The increased resistance to conventional antibiotics is one of the main factors justifying the search and development of new antimicrobial agents, especially those of natural origin. Currently, phytochemicals are considered by the scientific community as very attractive targets for potential drug discovery and therapy. In this review, we will focus on the most relevant reports published during the last twenty years about the antimicrobial activity of plant extracts upon microorganisms most frequently involved in genital infections, such as Candida spp., Gardnerella vaginalis, Trichomonas vaginalis and Human papillomavirus. The relationship between their composition and the antimicrobial effects will be highlighted and vaginal therapeutic delivery systems that vehicle plant extracts both commercialized and under investigation will be included. PMID:23651308

  13. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Chlamydia infection in dogs in Southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yi-Ming; Cao, Jing-Feng; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zou, Feng-Cai; Miao, Qiang; Liu, Zi-Li; Li, Bi-Feng; Lv, Rui-Qing; Du, Xiao-Peng; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2013-10-18

    Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria distributed globally, known to cause various forms of diseases in animals and humans. To date, there is limited information about the seroprevalence of Chlamydia and the risk factors associated with Chlamydia infection in dogs in the world. In the present study, a serological survey was undertaken to examine the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with dog chlamydiosis in Yunnan Province, southwestern China. A total of 591 dogs were sampled, antibodies to Chlamydia were determined by indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 17.6%. The risk factors associated with seroprevalence were determined by a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Gender and age of dogs were not significant in the logistic regression analysis (P>0.05) and left out of the final model. Type and geographical origin of dogs were considered as main risk factors associated with Chlamydia infection, stray dogs (31.37%) were more than 16 times (OR=16.167, 95% CI=6.283-41.599, P<0.01) at risk of acquiring the infection compared to the police dogs (7.62%), while pet dogs (14.41%) had a 3 times (OR=2.968, 95% CI=1.349-6.529, P=0.007) higher risk. Positive dogs were found in 5 districts of Yunnan Province with prevalence ranging from 2.56% to 31.67% except Diqing (0/56). Dogs in Kunming (20.21%) had a 9 times higher risk of being seropositive compared to dogs in Lijiang (2.56%) (OR=9.057, 95% CI=1.211-67.714, P=0.032), although no regional differences were found in other 4 administrative divisions compared to Lijiang (P>0.05). Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of Chlamydia infection in dogs in Yunnan Province, southwestern China, with higher exposure risk in stray dogs and distinct geographical distribution. These findings suggest the potential importance of dogs in the transmission of zoonotic Chlamydia infection, and thus Chlamydia should be taken into consideration in diagnosing dog diseases. PMID:24141059

  14. Prevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae antibodies in patients with acute respiratory infections in Israel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Ben-Yaakov; Z Lazarovich; S Beer; A Levin; I Shoham; I Boldur

    1994-01-01

    AIMS--To evaluate the prevalence of antibodies to Chlamydia pneumoniae (TWAR) in relation to other aetiological agents of acute respiratory infections in Israeli patients. METHOD--Serum samples from 604 patients (183 children and 421 adults) were collected over three years. Antibodies to C pneumoniae, C trachomatis, and Legionella sp were evaluated using the microimmunofluorescence (MIF) assay. Antibodies to Mycoplasma pneumoniae were detected

  15. Discovery of CD8 T cell epitopes in Chlamydia trachomatis infection through use of caged

    E-print Network

    Starnbach, Michael

    Discovery of CD8 T cell epitopes in Chlamydia trachomatis infection through use of caged class I identification of CD8 T cell populations, but their production remains laborious. A peptide exchange strategy and straightforward method to obtain diverse arrays of class I MHC tetramers and facilitates CD8 T cell epitope

  16. Mailed, home-obtained urine specimens: a reliable screening approach for detecting asymptomatic chlamydia trachomatis infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SERVAAS A. MORRE ´; Valkengoed van I. G. M; AFKE DE JONG; A. JOAN P. BOEKE; Eijk van J. T. M; C. J. L. M. Meijer; Brule van den A. J. C

    1999-01-01

    The use of mailed, home-obtained urine specimens could facilitate screening programs for the detection of asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infections. Since transport time could have an adverse effect on the sensitivity of C. trachomatis detection by PCR, the influence of DNA degradation on amplification was moni- tored over the course of 1 week. Therefore, urine specimens were aliquoted on the day

  17. Stable marital relationship protects men from oral and genital HPV infections.

    PubMed

    Kero, K M; Rautava, J; Syrjänen, K; Kortekangas-Savolainen, O; Grenman, S; Syrjänen, S

    2014-07-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are associated with sexual behavior. Changes in the sexual habits of couples and their impact on male genital and oral HPV infections were determined during 7 years of follow-up (FU). At baseline and 7 years FU, urethral, semen/penile, and oral samples were collected from 46 men and cervical and oral samples of their spouses for HPV DNA detection. Demographic data and risk factors of spouses were recorded by questionnaire at both time points and analyzed for concordance. HPV genotyping was done with the Multimetrix® kit. At baseline, 29.5 % of the male genital and 11 % of their oral samples tested positive. Incident genital HPV infection was found in 23 % and oral infection in 10.9 % of men. Genotype-specific persistence was detected in one man (HPV53) in genital samples. Moderate to almost perfect concordance of changes in sexual habits during FU among spouses were found. Changing partners [p?=?0.028; odds ratio (OR)?=?15; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.355-166.054] and marital status (p?=?0.001; 95 % CI 0.000-0.002) increased the risk of incident genital HPV infections. The overall outcome of genital HPV disease in men was linked to the frequency of sexual intercourse (p?=?0.023; 95 % CI 0.019-0.026) and changes in marital status (p?=?0.022; 95 % CI 0.019-0.026), while oral HPV infections were associated with the number of sexual partners (p?=?0.047; 95 % CI 0.041-0.052). Taken together, asymptomatic genital HPV infections among the men were common. The risk of incident genital HPV infections increased among men reporting a change of sexual partner during FU, implicating that a stable marital relationship protects against oral and genital HPV infection. PMID:24504632

  18. Should screening of genital infections be part of antenatal care in areas of high HIV prevalence? A prospective cohort study from Kigali, Rwanda, 1992-1993. The Pregnancy and HIV (EGE) Group.

    PubMed Central

    Leroy, V; De Clercq, A; Ladner, J; Bogaerts, J; Van de Perre, P; Dabis, F

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To study the prevalence and incidence of genital infections and their association with HIV-1 infection among pregnant women in Kigali, Rwanda. SUBJECTS AND METHODS--HIV+ and HIV- pregnant women were followed prospectively during the last three months of pregnancy. At enrolment, syphilis test (RPR) on blood sample, Chlamydiae trachomatis ELISA test on cervical smear, laboratory gonococcal culture, trichomonas and candida direct examination, CD4 lymphocyte count were performed. At each monthly follow-up clinic visit until delivery, genital infections were screened in the presence of clinical signs and symptoms. RESULTS--The HIV seroprevalence rate was 34.4% (N = 1233), 384 HIV+ women and 381 HIV- women of same parity and age were enrolled. Prevalence of genital infections at enrolment was generally higher in HIV+ women than in HIV- women: syphilis, 6.3% versus 3.7% (p = 0.13); Neisseria gonorrhoea, 7.0% versus 2.4% (p = 0.005); Trichomonas vaginalis, 20.2% versus 10.9% (p = 0.0007); Chlamydia trachomatis, 3.4% versus 5.5% (p = 0.21); Candida vaginalis, 22.3% versus 20.1% (p = 0.49). Until delivery, the relative risk of acquiring genital infections was also higher in HIV+ women than in HIV- women: 1.0 for syphilis (95% CI: 0.5-2.2), 3.7 for Neisseria gonorrhoea (1.0-13.3), 2.6 for Trichomonas vaginalis (1.5-4.6) and 1.6 for Candida vaginalis (1.1-2.4). CONCLUSION--In the context of high HIV-1 seroprevalence among pregnant women, prenatal care should include at least once screening for genital infections by clinical examination with speculum and a syphilis testing in Africa. PMID:7590709

  19. [Group B streptococcal infections in adults, excluding genital infections].

    PubMed

    Peirotti, M G; Gonzalez, S E; Littvik, A M; Vacaflor, L; Kassar, M A; Moreno, S; Bottiglieri, M T

    2002-01-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS) or Streptococcus agalactiae is recognized as a mayor cause of neonatal meningitis, sepsis and infections during pregnancy. However, in recent years there have been several reports concerning GBS infections in non pregnant adult population, specially in immunocompromised hosts and in patients with severe underlying diseases such as diabetes mellitus and cancer. We report a series of 45 cases which occurred in nonpregnant adult population during a period of two years. The average age was 50.8 years and most patients (38/44) had one or more risk factors: diabetes mellitus was the most significant underlying disease. The most frequent infection localization was skin and soft tissues followed by urinary tract infection. Several isolated cases of pneumonia, bacteremia, endocarditis, endometritis and peritonitis were observed. GBS infections should no longer be exclusively considered as perinatal and peripartum events. New clinical presentations are arising in non pregnant adult population with special incidence in immunocompromised hosts. We are obliged to keep this in mind and remember that SGB may be a possible etiologic agent for infections, particularly in skin and soft tissues of diabetic patients. PMID:12600008

  20. Genital Chlamydia Prevalence in Europe and Non-European High Income Countries: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Redmond, Shelagh M.; Alexander-Kisslig, Karin; Woodhall, Sarah C.; van den Broek, Ingrid V. F.; van Bergen, Jan; Ward, Helen; Uusküla, Anneli; Herrmann, Björn; Andersen, Berit; Götz, Hannelore M.; Sfetcu, Otilia; Low, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Background Accurate information about the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis is needed to assess national prevention and control measures. Methods We systematically reviewed population-based cross-sectional studies that estimated chlamydia prevalence in European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) Member States and non-European high income countries from January 1990 to August 2012. We examined results in forest plots, explored heterogeneity using the I2 statistic, and conducted random effects meta-analysis if appropriate. Meta-regression was used to examine the relationship between study characteristics and chlamydia prevalence estimates. Results We included 25 population-based studies from 11 EU/EEA countries and 14 studies from five other high income countries. Four EU/EEA Member States reported on nationally representative surveys of sexually experienced adults aged 18–26 years (response rates 52–71%). In women, chlamydia point prevalence estimates ranged from 3.0–5.3%; the pooled average of these estimates was 3.6% (95% CI 2.4, 4.8, I2 0%). In men, estimates ranged from 2.4–7.3% (pooled average 3.5%; 95% CI 1.9, 5.2, I2 27%). Estimates in EU/EEA Member States were statistically consistent with those in other high income countries (I2 0% for women, 6% for men). There was statistical evidence of an association between survey response rate and estimated chlamydia prevalence; estimates were higher in surveys with lower response rates, (p = 0.003 in women, 0.018 in men). Conclusions Population-based surveys that estimate chlamydia prevalence are at risk of participation bias owing to low response rates. Estimates obtained in nationally representative samples of the general population of EU/EEA Member States are similar to estimates from other high income countries. PMID:25615574

  1. STING-Dependent Recognition of Cyclic di-AMP Mediates Type I Interferon Responses during Chlamydia trachomatis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Jeffrey R.; Koestler, Benjamin J.; Carpenter, Victoria K.; Burdette, Dara L.; Waters, Christopher M.; Vance, Russell E.; Valdivia, Raphael H.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT STING (stimulator of interferon [IFN] genes) initiates type I IFN responses in mammalian cells through the detection of microbial nucleic acids. The membrane-bound obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis induces a STING-dependent type I IFN response in infected cells, yet the IFN-inducing ligand remains unknown. In this report, we provide evidence that Chlamydia synthesizes cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP), a nucleic acid metabolite not previously identified in Gram-negative bacteria, and that this metabolite is a prominent ligand for STING-mediated activation of IFN responses during infection. We used primary mouse lung fibroblasts and HEK293T cells to compare IFN-? responses to Chlamydia infection, c-di-AMP, and other type I IFN-inducing stimuli. Chlamydia infection and c-di-AMP treatment induced type I IFN responses in cells expressing STING but not in cells expressing STING variants that cannot sense cyclic dinucleotides but still respond to cytoplasmic DNA. The failure to induce a type I IFN response to Chlamydia and c-di-AMP correlated with the inability of STING to relocalize from the endoplasmic reticulum to cytoplasmic punctate signaling complexes required for IFN activation. We conclude that Chlamydia induces STING-mediated IFN responses through the detection of c-di-AMP in the host cell cytosol and propose that c-di-AMP is the ligand predominantly responsible for inducing such a response in Chlamydia-infected cells. PMID:23631912

  2. Sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Tunisia: high prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abir Znazen; Olfa Frikha-Gargouri; Lamia Berrajah; Sihem Bellalouna; Hela Hakim; Nabiha Gueddana; Adnene Hammami

    2010-01-01

    ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) in female sex workers (FSW) in Tunisia.Methods188 prostitutes from three Tunisian towns were enrolled at their weekly medical visit. Demographic and sexual behaviour data were collected. C trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) and human papillomavirus (HPV) were

  3. Analysis of Herpes Simplex Virus-Specific T Cells in the Murine Female Genital Tract Following Genital Infection with Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregg N. Milligan; David I. Bernstein

    1995-01-01

    A murine model of genital infection with a thymidine kinase-deficient (tk-) strain of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was utilized to examine the development of the local T cell response in the genital mucosa and draining genital lymph nodes (gLN). HSV-specific cytokine-secreting T cells were detected in the gLN 4 days postintravaginal inoculation but not in the urogenital tract

  4. Genital human papillomavirus infections: current and prospective therapies.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Margaret A

    2012-04-01

    Infection with human papillomaviruses (HPVs) is very common and associated with benign and malignant epithelial proliferations of skin and internal squamous mucosae. A subset of the mucosal HPVs are oncogenic and associated with 5 % of all cancers in men and women. There are two licensed prophylactic vaccines, both target HPV 16 and 18, the two most pathogenic, oncogenic types and one, additionally, targets HPV 6 and 11 the cause of genital warts. The approach of deliberate immunization with oncogenic HPV E6 and/or E7 proteins and the generation of antigen-specific cytotoxic T-cells as an immunotherapy for HPV-associated cancer and their high-grade pre-cancers has been tested with a wide array of potential vaccine delivery systems in Phase I/II trials with varying success. Understanding local viral and tumour immune evasion strategies is a prerequisite for the rational design of therapeutic vaccines for HPV-associated infection and disease, progress in this is discussed. There are no antiviral drugs for the treatment of HPV infection and disease. Current therapies are not targeted antiviral therapies, but either attempt physical removal of the lesion or induce inflammation and a bystander immune response. There has been recent progress in the identification and characterization of molecular targets for small molecule antagonists of the HPV proteins E1, E2 and E6 or their interactions with their cellular targets. Lead compounds that could disrupt E1-E2 protein-protein interactions have been discovered as have inhibitors of E6-E6-AP-binding interactions. Some of these compounds showed nanomolar affinities and high specificities and demonstrate the feasibility of this approach for HPV infections. These studies are, however, at an early phase and it is unlikely that any specific anti-HPV chemotherapeutic will be in the clinic within the next 10-20 years. PMID:22323530

  5. Progesterone Increases Susceptibility and Decreases Immune Responses to Genital Herpes Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charu Kaushic; Ali A. Ashkar; Lesley A. Reid; Kenneth L. Rosenthal

    2003-01-01

    Depo-provera, a long-acting progestational formulation, is widely used to facilitate infection of sexually transmitted diseases in animal models. We have previously reported that hormone treatments change suscep- tibility and immune responses to genital tract infections. In this study we compared the changes in suscepti- bility of mice to genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) after Depo-provera or a saline

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis-infected macrophages induce apoptosis of activated T cells by secretion of tumor necrosis factor-a in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael C. Jendro; Frederik Fingerle; Tobias Deutsch; Andrea Liese; Lars Köhler; Jens G. Kuipers; Elke Raum; Michael Martin; Henning Zeidler

    2004-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis-infected macrophages induce T cell apoptosis. This ability might promote intracellular survival of Chlamydia and perpetuate chronic chlamydial infection. The purpose of this study was to examine the molecular mechanisms by which C. trachomatis-infected macrophages induce T cell apoptosis. Monocytes and T cells were isolated from the peripheral blood of healthy donors. Macrophages were infected with C. trachomatis, and

  7. Applications and Therapeutic Actions of Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Women with Genital Infection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chenfang; Zhang, Yuehui; Yu, Yang; Han, Fengjuan

    2014-01-01

    Genital infection is a common worldwide disease among females with clinical features such as bilateral lower abdominal tenderness, abnormal vaginal or cervical discharge, fever, abnormal vaginal bleeding, dyspareunia, vaginal itching, and adnexal tenderness, which can significantly impair women's health and quality of life. Genital infection is commonly treated with antibiotics, leading to an imbalance in gut flora due to prolonged use of antibiotics. Therefore, it is necessary to discover safe and efficacious alternative treatment strategies for patients with genital infection. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is becoming increasingly prevalent among women with genital infection. CAM has interested the western mainstream medical community because of its less invasive, safe, effective, economical, and convenient therapies. CAM focuses on the prevention and treatment of disease and has become an important force in treating chronic disease. During the last few decades, the popularity of CAM has gradually increased. To further understand the efficacy of CAM in treating genital infection, our paper will review the current progress of treating genital infection including vulvitis, vaginitis, cervicitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) with CAM therapies. Several CAM strategies including traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), acupuncture, Psychology interference, and physical therapy are introduced in this review. PMID:24648850

  8. Targeted interventions required against genital ulcers in African countries worst affected by HIV infection.

    PubMed Central

    O'Farrell, N.

    2001-01-01

    It remains unclear why there is such marked variation in the severity of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic between African countries. The prevalence of HIV infection has reached high levels in many parts of southern Africa but in most countries of West Africa the levels are much lower. Although there is good evidence that sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and genital ulcers in particular facilitate heterosexual transmission of HIV, there is little comparative STI data from the African countries worst affected by HIV infection. A MEDLINE search covering the period 1966 to August 2000 using the keywords "sexually transmitted diseases", "genital ulcers" and "Africa" was performed to identify factors that might be relevant to the spread of HIV infection in countries with the highest prevalences of the virus. In the countries worst affected by HIV infection, the proportions of men and women with STI who had genital ulcers lay in the ranges 45-68% and 13-68%, respectively. The proportions were much lower in countries of West Africa than in those of southern Africa. The African countries worst affected by HIV infection should adopt a more specialized approach to STI control than hitherto and specifically target the high incidence of genital ulceration. Locally, technical STI committees should draw up country-specific guidelines taking into account the prevalence of the various causes of genital ulceration. In these countries, national AIDS control programmes and donor agencies should develop a specific focus for decreasing the incidence of genital ulcer disease. PMID:11436480

  9. Peptidomic analysis of human peripheral monocytes persistently infected by Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Krausse-Opatz, Birgit; Busmann, Annette; Tammen, Harald; Menzel, Christoph; Möhring, Thomas; Le Yondre, Nicolas; Schmidt, Cornelia; Schulz-Knappe, Peter; Zeidler, Henning; Selle, Hartmut; Köhler, Lars

    2007-06-01

    Peptidomic analysis using Differential Peptide Display (DPD) of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) mock-infected or persistently infected by Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) revealed 10 peptides, expressed upon CT infection. Analysis of these 10 candidates by tandem mass spectrometry enabled the determination of seven candidates as fragments from the precursors (I) ferritin heavy chain subunit, (II) HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, (III) vimentin, (IV) indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, (V and VI) pre-B cell enhancing factor (PBEF), and (VII) Interleukin-8 (CXCL8). The identified candidates proved the presence of anti-bacterial and immunologically active monocytic proteins after CT infection. PMID:17206452

  10. Characterisation of Chlamydia pneumoniae and other novel chlamydial infections in captive snakes.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Brown, Alyce; Rüegg, Simon; Polkinghorne, Adam; Borel, Nicole

    2015-07-01

    Chlamydiosis has been described in both free-ranging and captive reptiles. The infection usually manifests as granulomatous inflammation in inner organs such as spleen, heart, lung and liver but might also occur in asymptomatic reptiles. The aim of this study was to investigate and characterise Chlamydia pneumoniae and potential other novel chlamydial infections in the choana and cloaca samples of 137 clinically healthy captive snakes from six private collections. Forty eight samples from 29 animals were found to be positive by a Chlamydiaceae family-specific qPCR. By Chlamydia species-specific ArrayTube Microarray, 43 samples were positive, with 36 of these being identified as C. pneumoniae. The prevalence of Chlamydia ranged from 5 to 33%. PCR and sequencing of the Chlamydiales 16S rRNA signature sequence of 21 Chlamydia positive samples revealed the presence of seven novel 16S rRNA genotypes. BLAST-n and phylogenetic analysis of the near-full length 16S rRNA gene sequence of each of these novel 16S rRNA sequences revealed that five genotypes share closest sequence identity to 16S rRNA sequences from C. pneumoniae (98.6-99.2%), suggesting that these sequences are novel C. pneumoniae strains. One genotype is 96.9% similar to C. pneumoniae strains suggesting it may originate from a yet undescribed chlamydial species within the genus Chlamydia. This study further highlights the broad host range for C. pneumoniae and suggests that reptiles may still contain a significant and largely uncharacterised level of chlamydial genetic diversity that requires further investigation. PMID:25944652

  11. Laboratory diagnosis and epidemiology of herpes simplex 1 and 2 genital infections.

    PubMed

    Glinšek Biškup, Urška; Urši?, Tina; Petrovec, Miroslav

    2015-06-01

    Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 are the main cause of genital ulcers worldwide. Although herpes simplex virus type 2 is the major cause of genital lesions, herpes simplex virus type 1 accounts for half of new cases in developed countries. Herpes simplex virus type 2 seroprevalence rises with sexual activity from adolescence through adulthood. Slovenian data in a high-risk population shows 16% seroprevalence of HSV-2. HSV-1 and HSV-2 DNA in genital swabs was detected in 19% and 20.7%, respectively. In most cases, genital herpes is asymptomatic. Primary genital infection with herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 can be manifested by a severe clinical picture, involving the vesicular skin and mucosal changes and ulcerative lesions of the vulva, vagina, and cervix in women and in the genital region in men. Direct methods of viral genome detection are recommended in the acute stage of primary and recurrent infections when manifest ulcers or lesions are evident. Serological testing is recommended as an aid in diagnosing genital herpes in patients with reinfection in atypical or already healed lesions. When herpes lesions are present, all sexual activities should be avoided to prevent transmission of infection. Antiviral drugs can reduce viral shedding and thus reduce the risk of sexual transmission of the virus. PMID:26086165

  12. Effect of the Purinergic Receptor P2X7 on Chlamydia Infection in Cervical Epithelial Cells and Vaginally Infected Mice1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toni Darville; Lynn Welter-Stahl; Cristiane Cruz; Ali Abdul Sater; Charles W. Andrews; David M. Ojcius

    2007-01-01

    Ligation of the purinergic receptor, P2X7R, with its agonist ATP has been previously shown to inhibit intracellular infection by chlamydiae and mycobacteria in macrophages. The effect of P2X7R on chlamydial infection had never been investigated in the preferred target cells of chlamydiae, cervical epithelial cells, nor in vaginally infected mice. In this study, we show that treatment of epithelial cells

  13. Early MicroRNA Expression Profile as a Prognostic Biomarker for the Development of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease in a Mouse Model of Chlamydial Genital Infection

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Garry S. A.; Spencer, Nicole; Creasy, Heather Huot; Adams, Nancy E.; Maurelli, Anthony T.; McChesney, Grant R.; Cleves, Mario A.; Ravel, Jacques; Bowlin, Anne; Rank, Roger G.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT It is not currently possible to predict the probability of whether a woman with a chlamydial genital infection will develop pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). To determine if specific biomarkers may be associated with distinct chlamydial pathotypes, we utilized two Chlamydia muridarum variants (C. muridarum Var001 [CmVar001] and CmVar004) that differ in their abilities to elicit upper genital tract pathology in a mouse model. CmVar004 has a lower growth rate in vitro and induces pathology in only 20% of C57BL/6 mouse oviducts versus 83.3% of oviducts in CmVar001-infected mice. To determine if chemokine and cytokine production within 24 h of infection is associated with the outcome of pathology, levels of 15 chemokines and cytokines were measured. CmVar004 infection induced significantly lower levels of CXCL1, CXCL2, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), and CCL2 in comparison to CmVar001 infection with similar rRNA (rs16) levels for Chlamydiae. A combination of microRNA (miRNA) sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis of 134 inflammation-related miRNAs was performed 24 h postinfection to determine if the chemokine/cytokine responses would also be reflected in miRNA expression profiles. Interestingly, 12 miRNAs (miR-135a-5p, miR298-5p, miR142-3p, miR223-3p, miR299a-3p, miR147-3p, miR105, miR325-3p, miR132-3p, miR142-5p, miR155-5p, and miR-410-3p) were overexpressed during CmVar004 infection compared to CmVar001 infection, inversely correlating with the respective chemokine/cytokine responses. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that early biomarkers elicited in the host can differentiate between two pathological variants of chlamydiae and be predictive of upper tract disease. PMID:24961692

  14. Chlamydia infection depends on a functional MDM2-p53 axis

    PubMed Central

    González, Erik; Rother, Marion; Kerr, Markus C.; Al-Zeer, Munir A.; Abu-Lubad, Mohammad; Kessler, Mirjana; Brinkmann, Volker; Loewer, Alexander; Meyer, Thomas F.

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia, a major human bacterial pathogen, assumes effective strategies to protect infected cells against death-inducing stimuli, thereby ensuring completion of its developmental cycle. Paired with its capacity to cause extensive host DNA damage, this poses a potential risk of malignant transformation, consistent with circumstantial epidemiological evidence. Here we reveal a dramatic depletion of p53, a tumor suppressor deregulated in many cancers, during Chlamydia infection. Using biochemical approaches and live imaging of individual cells, we demonstrate that p53 diminution requires phosphorylation of Murine Double Minute 2 (MDM2; a ubiquitin ligase) and subsequent interaction of phospho-MDM2 with p53 before induced proteasomal degradation. Strikingly, inhibition of the p53–MDM2 interaction is sufficient to disrupt intracellular development of Chlamydia and interferes with the pathogen’s anti-apoptotic effect on host cells. This highlights the dependency of the pathogen on a functional MDM2-p53 axis and lends support to a potentially pro-carcinogenic effect of chlamydial infection. PMID:25392082

  15. Asymptomatic Endemic Chlamydia pecorum Infections Reduce Growth Rates in Calves by up to 48 Percent

    PubMed Central

    Poudel, Anil; Elsasser, Theodore H.; Rahman, Kh. Shamsur; Chowdhury, Erfan U.; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Intracellular Chlamydia (C.) bacteria cause in cattle some acute but rare diseases such as abortion, sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis, kerato-conjunctivitis, pneumonia, enteritis and polyarthritis. More frequent, essentially ubiquitous worldwide, are low-level, asymptomatic chlamydial infections in cattle. We investigated the impact of these naturally acquired infections in a cohort of 51 female Holstein and Jersey calves from birth to 15 weeks of age. In biweekly sampling, we measured blood/plasma markers of health and infection and analyzed their association with clinical appearance and growth in dependence of chlamydial infection intensity as determined by mucosal chlamydial burden or contemporaneous anti-chlamydial plasma IgM. Chlamydia 23S rRNA gene PCR and ompA genotyping identified only C. pecorum (strains 1710S, Maeda, and novel strain Smith3v8) in conjunctival and vaginal swabs. All calves acquired the infection but remained clinically asymptomatic. High chlamydial infection associated with reduction of body weight gains by up to 48% and increased conjunctival reddening (P<10?4). Simultaneously decreased plasma albumin and increased globulin (P<10?4) suggested liver injury by inflammatory mediators as mechanisms for the growth inhibition. This was confirmed by the reduction of plasma insulin like growth factor-1 at high chlamydial infection intensity (P<10?4). High anti-C. pecorum IgM associated eight weeks later with 66% increased growth (P?=?0.027), indicating a potential for immune protection from C. pecorum-mediated growth depression. The worldwide prevalence of chlamydiae in livestock and their high susceptibility to common feed-additive antibiotics suggests the possibility that suppression of chlamydial infections may be a major contributor to the growth promoting effect of feed-additive antibiotics. PMID:23024776

  16. Immunologic, virologic, and pharmacologic characterization of the female upper genital tract in HIV-infected women.

    PubMed

    Rahangdale, Lisa; De Paris, Kristina; Kashuba, Angela D M; Nelson, Julie A E; Cottrell, Mackenzie; Sykes, Craig; Emerson, Cindi; Young, Steven L; Stevens, Trenton; Patterson, Kristine B; Cohen, Myron S

    2015-04-01

    : A comparative analysis of cellular and soluble markers of immune activation in HIV-infected women on combination antiretroviral therapy showed that the upper genital tract (UGT) compared to the lower female genital tract was characterized by higher frequencies of potential HIV target cells and increased inflammatory molecules. Despite the activated UGT milieu, HIV RNA could not be detected in paired samples of plasma, cervicovaginal or endometrial lavage. As antiretroviral concentrations were ?3-fold higher in the endometrium than in the lower genital tract, high antiretroviral penetration and/or metabolism may limit viral replication in the UGT. PMID:25501615

  17. Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis serovars in men and women with a symptomatic or asymptomatic infection: an association with clinical manifestations ?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Morre; L. Rozendaal; Valkengoed van I. G. M; A. J. P. Boeke; Voorst Vader van P. C; J. Schirm; Blok de S; Hoek van den J. A. R; Doornum van G. J. J; C. J. L. M. Meijer; Brule van den A. J. C

    2000-01-01

    To determine whether certain Chlamydia trachomatis serovars are preferentially associated with a symptom- atic or an asymptomatic course of infection, C. trachomatis serovar distributions were analyzed in symptom- atically and asymptomatically infected persons. Furthermore, a possible association between C. trachomatis serovars and specific clinical symptoms was investigated. C. trachomatis-positive urine specimens from 219 asymptomatically infected men and women were obtained

  18. Effect of methylamine and monodansylcadaverine on the susceptibility of McCoy cells to Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    PubMed Central

    Söderlund, G; Kihlström, E

    1983-01-01

    We used inhibitors of receptor-mediated endocytosis to study the mechanisms of infectivity, especially the uptake mechanism, of Chlamydia trachomatis for cultured cells. The effect of methylamine and monodansylcadaverine on the different stages of the chlamydial growth cycle in McCoy cells was examined. There was a dose-related decrease in the number of chlamydial inclusions in the presence of these agents. Monodansylcadaverine also decreased the chlamydia-dependent uptake of radioactive amino acids. The agents did not affect the attachment of chlamydiae to the cells, but they increased the protease-removable fraction of cell-bound chlamydiae. The amines reduced the number of inclusions when added at different times during the first 24 h of infection. However, this effect was influenced by host cell density, so that the effect of the amines at the early infectious phase was nullified in confluent monolayers, whereas, during later phases, the effect was comparatively independent of host cell density. This indicates that the amines have different modes of action at different infectious stages. The effect of the amines was reversible, and they had no effect on the infectivity of pretreated chlamydial elementary bodies. These experiments suggest that methylamine and monodansylcadaverine inhibit both the internalization of chlamydiae into McCoy cells and their intracellular development. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that chlamydiae utilize a constitutive cellular process, such as receptor-mediated endocytosis, to enter cells. PMID:6840850

  19. Lipopolysaccharide-binding alkylpolyamine DS-96 inhibits Chlamydia trachomatis infection by blocking attachment and entry.

    PubMed

    Osaka, Ichie; Hefty, P Scott

    2014-06-01

    Vaginally delivered microbicides are being developed to offer women self-initiated protection against transmission of sexually transmitted infections such as Chlamydia trachomatis. A small molecule, DS-96, rationally designed for high affinity to Escherichia coli lipid A, was previously demonstrated to bind and neutralize lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from a wide variety of Gram-negative bacteria (D. Sil et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51: 2811-2819, 2007, doi:10.1128/AAC.00200-07). Aside from the lack of the repeating O antigen, chlamydial lipooligosaccharide (LOS) shares general molecular architecture features with E. coli LPS. Importantly, the portion of lipid A where the interaction with DS-96 is expected to take place is well conserved between the two organisms, leading to the hypothesis that DS-96 inhibits Chlamydia infection by binding to LOS and compromising the function. In this study, antichlamydial activity of DS-96 was examined in cell culture. DS-96 inhibited the intercellular growth of Chlamydia in a dose-dependent manner and offered a high level of inhibition at a relatively low concentration (8 ?M). The data also revealed that infectious elementary bodies (EBs) were predominantly blocked at the attachment step, as indicated by the reduced number of EBs associated with the host cell surface following pretreatment. Of those EBs that were capable of attachment, the vast majority was unable to gain entry into the host cell. Inhibition of EB attachment and entry by DS-96 suggests that Chlamydia LOS is critical to these processes during the developmental cycle. Importantly, given the low association of host toxicity previously reported by Sil et al., DS-96 is expected to perform well in animal studies as an active antichlamydial compound in a vaginal microbicide. PMID:24663021

  20. Proceedings From the First Asia-Oceania Research Organisation on Genital Infections and Neoplasia (AOGIN) Meeting

    PubMed Central

    Faro, Edited by Sebastian

    2006-01-01

    The First Asia-Oceania Research Organisation on Genital Infections and Neoplasia (AOGIN) Meeting was held in Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia, in July 2005. The conference covered regional issues relating to infection with the human papillomavirus—epidemiology, virology, and immunology, testing, screening, and prevention strategies—as well as cervical cancer screening and its management.

  1. Tampon Sampling for Diagnosis of Bacterial Vaginosis: a Potentially Useful Way To Detect Genital Infections?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID WILKINSON; NOMFANELO NDOVELA; AYESHA KHARSANY; CATHERINE CONNOLLY; A. WILLEM STURM

    1997-01-01

    Genital tract infections are important causes of ill health in developing countries, but diagnosis is difficult. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) was correctly diagnosed by using a vaginal specimen obtained by tampon sampling in 22 of 24 women (91.6%) for whom BV was diagnosed by Gram staining. The yield for other vaginal infections was higher (28% for Trichomonas vaginalis and 32.7% for

  2. Distinct Roles of CD28- and CD40 Ligand-Mediated Costimulation in the Development of Protective Immunity and Pathology during Chlamydia muridarum Urogenital Infection in Mice?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lili; Cheng, Wen; Shivshankar, Pooja; Lei, Lei; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Wu, Yimou; Yeh, I-Tien; Zhong, Guangming

    2009-01-01

    Infection with Chlamydia muridarum in the mouse urogenital tract can induce both protective immunity and inflammatory pathologies, which has been used as a model for understanding the immune and pathogenic mechanisms of C. trachomatis infection. We compared the roles of CD28- and CD40 ligand (CD40L)-mediated costimulation in C. muridarum infection. Mice with CD28 or CD80/CD86 gene knockout (KO) displayed an infection course similar to that of wild-type mice during both primary and secondary infection, suggesting that CD28-mediated costimulation is not required for protection against C. muridarum infection. However, mice deficient in CD40L or CD40 displayed a prolonged infection course after primary or secondary infection, suggesting that CD40-CD40L costimulation plays an essential role in the development of anti-C. muridarum immunity. Interestingly, the CD28- or CD80/CD86-deficient mice displayed significantly lower levels of inflammatory pathologies in the upper genital tracts after primary infection, although the attenuation in inflammation was no longer significant during secondary infection. However, the CD40L or CD40 KO mice developed inflammatory pathologies as severe as those in wild-type mice following either primary or secondary infection despite the obvious deficits in adaptive immunity in these KO mice. The resistance of CD28 or CD80/CD86 KO mice to chlamydial infection correlated with production of gamma interferon, while the development of inflammatory pathologies in CD40L or CD40 KO mice correlated with the production of other proinflammatory cytokines in mouse urogenital tracts during the early stages of the infection. These observations together suggest that C. muridarum-induced protective immunity and inflammatory pathologies can be mediated by distinct costimulatory signals. PMID:19398542

  3. Chlamydia trachomatis infection among 15-35 year-olds in Baltimore, MD, USA

    PubMed Central

    Eggleston, Elizabeth; Rogers, Susan M; Turner, Charles F; Miller, William C.; Roman, Anthony M; Hobbs, Marcia M.; Erbelding, Emily; Tan, Sylvia; Villarroel, Maria A.; Ganapathi, Laxminarayana

    2011-01-01

    Background Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) is the most frequently reported infectious disease in the U.S. This article reports population and subpopulation prevalence estimates of Ct and correlates of infection among 15-35 year-olds in Baltimore, MD, USA. Methods The Monitoring STIs Survey Program (MSSP) monitored STI prevalence among probability samples of residents of Baltimore, a city with high STI rates. MSSP respondents completed telephone audio computer-assisted self-interviews and provided biospecimens for STI testing. Results Among 2120 Baltimore residents aged 15 to 35 years, the estimated prevalence of chlamydia was 3.9% (95% Cl: 2.8, 5.0). Prevalence was 5.8% (95% Cl: 4.1, 7.6) among black MSSP respondents versus 0.7% (95% Cl: 0.0, 1.4) among nonblack respondents; all but four infections detected were among black respondents. Sexual behaviors and other factors associated with infection were far more prevalent among black than nonblack Baltimore residents. Racial disparities persisted after adjustment for sociodemographic, behavioral and health factors. Conclusion The MSSP highlights a higher Ct prevalence among young people in Baltimore than in the U.S. overall, with notable racial disparities in infection and associated risk behaviors. Public health efforts are needed to improve the diagnosis and treatment of asymptomatic infections in this population. PMID:21844726

  4. Metabolic Features of Protochlamydia amoebophila Elementary Bodies – A Link between Activity and Infectivity in Chlamydiae

    PubMed Central

    Watzka, Margarete; Wultsch, Anna; Tziotis, Dimitrios; Montanaro, Jacqueline; Richter, Andreas; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Horn, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The Chlamydiae are a highly successful group of obligate intracellular bacteria, whose members are remarkably diverse, ranging from major pathogens of humans and animals to symbionts of ubiquitous protozoa. While their infective developmental stage, the elementary body (EB), has long been accepted to be completely metabolically inert, it has recently been shown to sustain some activities, including uptake of amino acids and protein biosynthesis. In the current study, we performed an in-depth characterization of the metabolic capabilities of EBs of the amoeba symbiont Protochlamydia amoebophila. A combined metabolomics approach, including fluorescence microscopy-based assays, isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), ion cyclotron resonance Fourier transform mass spectrometry (ICR/FT-MS), and ultra-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) was conducted, with a particular focus on the central carbon metabolism. In addition, the effect of nutrient deprivation on chlamydial infectivity was analyzed. Our investigations revealed that host-free P. amoebophila EBs maintain respiratory activity and metabolize D-glucose, including substrate uptake as well as host-free synthesis of labeled metabolites and release of labeled CO2 from 13C-labeled D-glucose. The pentose phosphate pathway was identified as major route of D-glucose catabolism and host-independent activity of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was observed. Our data strongly suggest anabolic reactions in P. amoebophila EBs and demonstrate that under the applied conditions D-glucose availability is essential to sustain metabolic activity. Replacement of this substrate by L-glucose, a non-metabolizable sugar, led to a rapid decline in the number of infectious particles. Likewise, infectivity of Chlamydia trachomatis, a major human pathogen, also declined more rapidly in the absence of nutrients. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that D-glucose is utilized by P. amoebophila EBs and provide evidence that metabolic activity in the extracellular stage of chlamydiae is of major biological relevance as it is a critical factor affecting maintenance of infectivity. PMID:23950718

  5. Chlamydia pneumoniae and mycoplasma pneumoniae in children with acute respiratory infection in general practices in the Netherlands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. T. Tjhie; J. W. Dorigo-Zetsma; R. Roosendaal; T. M. Bestebroer; A. I. M. Bartelds; C. M. J. E. Vandenbroucke-Grauls

    2000-01-01

    In this retrospective study Chlamydia pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in samples (n=457) from children presenting with acute respiratory infection to general practitioners during 1992-97. Samples were collected in autumn and winter, and from 1994 onwards in spring and summer also. Overall, C. pneumoniae and M. pneumoniae were detected in throat or nasal

  6. Decreased Expression of Liver X Receptor-? in Macrophages Infected with Chlamydia pneumoniae in Human Atherosclerotic Arteries in situ

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuri V. Bobryshev; Alexander N. Orekhov; Murray C. Killingsworth; Jinhua Lu

    2011-01-01

    In in vitro experiments, Chlamydia pneumoniae has been shown to infect macrophages and to accelerate foam cell formation. It has been hypothesized that the C. pneumoniae infection affects foam cell formation by suppressing the expression of liver X receptors (LXR), but whether such an event occurs in human atherosclerosis is not known. In this study we examined carotid artery segments,

  7. Genital and urinary tract infections in diabetes: impact of pharmacologically-induced glucosuria.

    PubMed

    Geerlings, Suzanne; Fonseca, Vivian; Castro-Diaz, David; List, James; Parikh, Shamik

    2014-03-01

    Predisposition to genital infections and urinary tract infections (UTIs) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) results from several factors such as glucosuria, adherence of bacteria to the uroepithelium and immune dysfunction. The tendency to develop these infections could be even higher in patients with T2DM treated with the emerging class of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. Studies have shown that pharmacologically-induced glucosuria with SGLT2 inhibitors raises the risk of developing genital infections and, to a relatively lesser extent, UTIs. However, a definitive dose relationship of the incidence of these infections with the SGLT2 doses is not evident in the existing data. Therefore, the precise role of glucosuria as a causative factor for these infections is yet to be fully elucidated. PMID:24529566

  8. HIV infection in the female genital tract: discrete influence of the local mucosal microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Kaushic, Charu; Ferreira, Vitor H; Kafka, Jessica K; Nazli, Aisha

    2010-06-01

    Women acquire HIV infections predominantly at the genital mucosa through heterosexual transmission. Therefore, the immune milieu at female genital surfaces is a critical determinant of HIV susceptibility. In this review, we recapitulate the evidence suggesting that several distinctive innate immune mechanisms in the female genital tract (FGT) serve to significantly deter or facilitate HIV-1 infection. Epithelial cells lining the FGT play a key role in forming a primary barrier to HIV entry. These cells express Toll-like receptors and other receptors that recognize and respond directly to pathogens, including HIV-1. In addition, innate biological factors produced by epithelial and other cells in the FGT have anti-HIV activity. Female sex hormones, co-infection with other pathogens and components in semen may also exacerbate or down-modulate HIV transmission. A combination of innate and adaptive immune factors and their interactions with the local microenvironment determine the outcome of HIV transmission. Improving our understanding of the female genital microenvironment will be useful in developing treatments that augment and sustain protective immune responses in the genital mucosa, such as microbicides and vaccines, and will provide greater insight into viral pathogenesis in the FGT. PMID:20384619

  9. Chapter 17: Genital Human Papillomavirus Infections—Current and Prospective Therapies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret Stanley

    Many therapies are available for the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated disease, particularly exter- nal genital warts. However, at present, these therapies aim to remove the lesion rather than specifically target HPV infec- tion. When disease and infection are local, as in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), excisional therapies remov- ing lesion and transformation-susceptible cells are highly ef- fective. However, when

  10. Analysis of Inflammasome Gene Regulation Following Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection of THP1 Monocytes: Implications for Alzheimer’s Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan M. Anzman; Christine J. Hammond; Brian J. Balin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Neuroinflammation has been found to be characteristic of neurological diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease. Research focusing on the cause of Alzheimer’s disease has produced evidence that chronic infection(s) may be at the root of the problem. Our lab has shown that the bacterium Chlamydia pneumoniae can infect many different types of cells in the brain and manipulate them so as

  11. Virologic and Immunologic Evidence of Multifocal Genital Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jia; Jing, Lichen; Laing, Kerry J.; McClurkan, Christopher M.; Klock, Alexis; Diem, Kurt; Jin, Lei; Stanaway, Jeffrey; Tronstein, Elizabeth; Kwok, William W.; Huang, Meei-li; Selke, Stacy; Fong, Youyi; Magaret, Amalia; Koelle, David M.; Wald, Anna; Corey, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) reactivation is thought to be anatomically and temporally localized, coincident with limited ganglionic infection. Short, subclinical shedding episodes are the most common form of HSV-2 reactivation, with host clearance mechanisms leading to rapid containment. The anatomic distribution of shedding episodes has not been characterized. To precisely define patterns of anatomic reactivation, we divided the genital tract into a 22-region grid and obtained daily swabs for 20 days from each region in 28 immunocompetent, HSV-2-seropositive persons. HSV was detected via PCR, and sites of asymptomatic HSV shedding were subjected to a biopsy procedure within 24 h. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were quantified by immunofluorescence, and HSV-specific CD4+ T cells were identified by intracellular cytokine cytometry. HSV was detected in 868 (7%) of 11,603 genital swabs at a median of 12 sites per person (range, 0 to 22). Bilateral HSV detection occurred on 83 (67%) days with shedding, and the median quantity of virus detected/day was associated with the number of sites positive (P < 0.001). In biopsy specimens of asymptomatic shedding sites, we found increased numbers of CD8+ T cells compared to control tissue (27 versus 13 cells/mm2, P = 0.03) and identified HSV-specific CD4+ T cells. HSV reactivations emanate from widely separated anatomic regions of the genital tract and are associated with a localized cellular infiltrate that was demonstrated to be HSV specific in 3 cases. These data provide evidence that asymptomatic HSV-2 shedding contributes to chronic inflammation throughout the genital tract. IMPORTANCE This detailed report of the anatomic patterns of genital HSV-2 shedding demonstrates that HSV-2 reactivation can be detected at multiple bilateral sites in the genital tract, suggesting that HSV establishes latency throughout the sacral ganglia. In addition, genital biopsy specimens from sites of asymptomatic HSV shedding have increased numbers of CD8+ T cells compared to control tissue, and HSV-specific CD4+ T cells are found at sites of asymptomatic shedding. These findings suggest that widespread asymptomatic genital HSV-2 shedding is associated with a targeted host immune response and contributes to chronic inflammation throughout the genital tract. PMID:24554666

  12. Prospective Studies of the Association of Genital Herpes Simplex Infection and Cervical Anaplasia1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Nahmias; Zuher M. Naib; William E. Josey; Ernest Franklin; Ronald Jenkins

    SUMMARY The various problems associated with prospective epi demiológica!studies, aimed at evaluating the risk of cer vical anaplasia in women detected earlier with genital her- petic or herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection are identified. Preliminary results are included of ongoing fol low-up studies in 871 women (herpes group) detected sero- logically, cytologically, or virologically with such infections and

  13. The effectiveness of an education intervention to prevent chlamydia infection among Greenlandic youth.

    PubMed

    Rink, Elizabeth; Montgomery-Andersen, Ruth; Anastario, Mike

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to implement a sexual health behavioural intervention in Greenland in order to reduce sexually transmitted infection rates among a population of Greenland youth. This behavioural intervention was called Inuulluataarneq (Having the Good Life). Inuulluataarneq's objects included: (1) increase Greenlandic youth's overall knowledge about sexually transmitted infections and sexual health; (2) increase parent/guardian-youth communication about topics related to sexually transmitted infections and sex; and (3) increase consistent condom use among Greenlandic youth. We hypothesised that increased awareness of sexually transmitted infections and sexual health as well as increased communication between parents/guardians and their adolescent children would influence sexual risk behaviour and reduce sexually transmitted infections among our sample population, with a focus on urine samples of chlamydia infection. Results indicate that the influence of having a parent/guardian to speak with about topics related to sex, including the consequences of pregnancy, are key protective factors in reducing sexually transmitted infections among Greenlandic youth. Inuulluataarneq demonstrates that intensive short-term education and skill-building delivered by a trained community member is an effective sexually transmitted infection prevention intervention method among young Inuit populations who live in small isolated Arctic communities. PMID:24713230

  14. The epidemiology of herpes simplex types 1 and 2 infection of the genital tract in Edinburgh 1978-1991

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J D Ross; I W Smith; R A Elton

    1993-01-01

    INTRODUCTION--The changing epidemiology of genital herpes in Edinburgh is described in relation to herpes simplex virus (HSV) Type 1 and herpes simplex virus Type 2 infection over a period of 14 years. METHODS--2018 episodes of genital herpes in 1794 patients over a 14 year period were assessed. Data on age, sex, sexual orientation, geographical origin and herpes antibodies were also

  15. Engineered phage-based therapeutic materials inhibit Chlamydia trachomatis intracellular infection

    PubMed Central

    Bhattarai, Shanta Raj; Yoo, So Young; Lee, Seung-Wuk; Dean, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Developing materials that are effective against sexually transmitted pathogens such as Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) and HIV-1 is challenging both in terms of material selection and improving bio-membrane and cellular permeability at desired mucosal sites. Here, we engineered the prokaryotic bacterial virus (M13 phage) carrying two functional peptides, integrin binding peptide (RGD) and a segment of the polymorphic membrane protein D (PmpD) from Ct, as a phage-based material that can ameliorate Ct infection. Ct is a globally prevalent human pathogen for which there are no effective vaccines or microbicides. We show that engineered phage stably express both RGD motifs and Ct peptides and traffic intracellularly and into the lumen of the inclusion in which the organism resides within the host cell. Engineered phage were able to significantly reduce Ct infection in both HeLa and primary endocervical cells compared with Ct infection alone. Polyclonal antibodies raised against PmpD and co-incubated with constructs prior to infection did not alter the course of infection, indicating that PmpD is responsible for the observed decrease in Ct infection. Our results suggest that phage-based design approaches to vector delivery that overcome mucosal cellular barriers may be effective in preventing Ct and other sexually transmitted pathogens. PMID:22494890

  16. The prevalences of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infections among female sex workers in China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have become a major public health problem among female sex workers (FSWs) in China. There have been many studies on prevalences of HIV and syphilis but the data about Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infections are limited in this population in China. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed among FSWs recruited from different types of venues in 8 cities in China. An interview with questionnaire was conducted, followed by collection of a blood and cervical swab specimens for tests of HIV, syphilis, NG and CT infections. Results A total of 3,099 FSWs were included in the study. The overall prevalence rates of HIV, syphilis, NG and CT were 0.26%, 6.45%, 5.91% and 17.30%, respectively. Being a FSW from low-tier venue (adjusted odds ratios [AOR]=1.39) had higher risk and being age of ? 21 years (AOR=0.60 for 21–25 years; AOR=0.29 for 26–30 years; AOR=0.35 for 31 years or above) had lower risk for CT infection; and having CT infection was significantly associated with NG infection. Conclusions The high STI prevalence rates found among FSWs, especially among FSWs in low-tier sex work venues, suggest that the comprehensive prevention and control programs including not only behavioral interventions but also screening and medical care are needed to meet the needs of this population. PMID:23390952

  17. Barriers to opportunistic chlamydia testing in primary care

    PubMed Central

    McNulty, Cliodna A M; Freeman, Elaine; Bowen, Jo; Shefras, Julia; Fenton, Kevin A

    2004-01-01

    Background: Opportunistic testing and screening for genital chlamydia infection in sexually active women under the age of 25 years can lead to a reduction in chlamydia infection and its related morbidity. Aims: To explore the barriers to testing for genital chlamydial infection in primary care. Design of study: Qualitative study with focus groups. Setting: Rural and urban general practice in Southwest England. Methods: Focus groups were held with randomly selected high- and low-testing general practices in Herefordshire, Gloucestershire and Avon. The high- and low-testing practices did not differ in their age/sex make-up, or by deprivation indices. Open questions were asked about the management of genitourinary symptoms and opportunistic testing for chlamydia. Data were collected and analysed concurrently until saturation occurred. Results: Although staff from high test rate practices were much more aware of the evidence for opportunistic chlamydia testing and screening, none of the practices were happy to discuss chlamydia in a consultation unrelated to sexual health. The greatest barriers to opportunistic chlamydia testing and screening were lack of knowledge of the benefits of testing, when and how to take specimens, lack of time, worries about discussing sexual health, and lack of guidance. Healthcare staff stated that any increased testing should be accompanied by clear, concise primary care trust guidance on when and how to test, including how to obtain informed consent and perform contact tracing. Staff felt that testing could be undertaken at family planning clinics or with cervical smears if patients received information before the consultation. Alternatively, in larger practices specific chlamydia clinics could be held. Conclusion: The Department of Health needs to be aware of the extreme pressures that primary care staff are under, and the potential barriers to any screening implementation. Efforts to increase chlamydia screening in this setting should be accompanied by clear guidance and education. Any chlamydia clinics or increased testing must have appropriate financial and staff resources. Genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics, or level three practices with GUM expertise, will need to be increased in parallel with testing in primary care to provide appropriate contact tracing and follow-up. PMID:15239912

  18. Intrauterine Infection with Plasmid-Free Chlamydia muridarum Reveals a Critical Role of the Plasmid in Chlamydial Ascension and Establishes a Model for Evaluating Plasmid-Independent Pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianlin; Yang, Zhangsheng; Sun, Xin; Tang, Lingli; Ding, Yiling; Xue, Min; Zhou, Zhiguang; Baseman, Joel; Zhong, Guangming

    2015-06-01

    Intravaginal infection with plasmid-competent but not plasmid-free Chlamydia muridarum induces hydrosalpinx in mouse upper genital tract, indicating a critical role of the plasmid in chlamydial pathogenicity. To evaluate the contribution of the plasmid to chlamydial ascension and activation of tubal inflammation, we delivered plasmid-free C. muridarum directly into the endometrium by intrauterine inoculation. We found that three of the six mouse strains tested, including CBA/J, C3H/HeJ, and C57BL/6J, developed significant hydrosalpinges when 1 × 10(7) inclusion-forming units (IFU) of plasmid-free C. muridarum were intrauterinally inoculated. Even when the inoculum was reduced to 1 × 10(4) IFU, the CBA/J mice still developed robust hydrosalpinx. The hydrosalpinx development in CBA/J mice correlated with increased organism ascension to the oviduct following the intrauterine inoculation. The CBA/J mice intravaginally infected with the same plasmid-free C. muridarum strain displayed reduced ascending infection and failed to develop hydrosalpinx. These observations have demonstrated a critical role of the plasmid in chlamydial ascending infection. The intrauterine inoculation of the CBA/J mice with plasmid-free C. muridarum not only resulted in more infection in the oviduct but also stimulated more inflammatory infiltration and cytokine production in the oviduct than the intravaginal inoculation, suggesting that the oviduct inflammation can be induced by plasmid-independent factors, which makes the hydrosalpinx induction in CBA/J mice by intrauterine infection with plasmid-free C. muridarum a suitable model for investigating plasmid-independent pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:25870225

  19. Twelve-Month Antiretroviral Therapy Suppresses Plasma and Genital Viral Loads but Fails to Alter Genital Levels of Cytokines, in a Cohort of HIV-Infected Rwandan Women

    PubMed Central

    Ondoa, Pascale; Gautam, Raju; Rusine, John; Lutter, Rene; Jurriaans, Suzanne; Kootstra, Neeltje; Karita, Etienne; van de Wijgert, Janneke

    2015-01-01

    Background Genital viral load (GVL) is the main determinant of sexual transmission of human immune-deficiency virus (HIV). The effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on local cervico-vaginal immunological factors associated with GVL is poorly described. We aimed to identify the risk factors of detectable GVL, and the impact of ART on HIV genital shedding and its correlates in a cohort of HIV-infected women, attending HIV care in Kigali, Rwanda. Materials and Methods All participants were evaluated for GVL, plasma viral load (PVL), CD4 count, various sexually-transmitted infections (STIs) at baseline and at month 12. Genital concentration of 19 cytokines and mRNA expression of APOBEC3G and BST2, two host HIV restriction factors, were evaluated at baseline in all participants. Cytokine levels were re-assessed at month 12 only in participants eligible for ART at baseline. Risk factors of GVL ?40copies/mL at baseline and month 12 were assessed using logistic regression. Effect of 12-month ART on various local and systemic immunological parameters was examined using a paired t-test and McNemar as appropriate. Results 96 of the 247 women enrolled in the study were eligible for ART. After 12 months of ART, PVL and GVL decreased to undetectable level in respectively 74 and 88% of treated participants. ART did not affect cytokine levels. HIV genital shedding occurred only when PVL was detectable. At baseline, GVL was independently associated with IL-1? after controlling for PVL, age and N. gonorrhea infection (95% CI 1.32-2.15) and at month 12 with MIP-1? (95% CI 0.96-21.32) after controlling for baseline GVL, PVL and month 12 IL-8. Conclusion Suppressive ART does not necessarily reduce genital level of immune activation. Minimizing all conditions favoring genital inflammation, including active detection and treatment of STIs, might reduce the risk of HIV transmission as supplement to the provision of potent ART. PMID:26010956

  20. A novel co-infection model with Toxoplasma and Chlamydia trachomatis highlights the importance of host cell manipulation for nutrient scavenging

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Julia D.; de Beaumont, Catherine; Carrasco, Jose A.; Ehrenman, Karen; Bavoil, Patrik M.; Coppens, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Summary Toxoplasmaand Chlamydia trachomatis are obligate intracellular pathogens that have evolved analogous strategies to replicate within mammalian cells. Both pathogens are known to extensively remodel the cytoskeleton, and to recruit endocytic and exocytic organelles to their respective vacuoles. However, how important these activities are for infectivity by either pathogen remains elusive. Here, we have developed a novel co-infection system to gain insights into the developmental cycles of Toxoplasma and C. trachomatis by infecting human cells with both pathogens, and examining their respective ability to replicate and scavenge nutrients. We hypothesize that the common strategies used by Toxoplasma and Chlamydia to achieve development results in direct competition of the two pathogens for the same pool of nutrients. We show that a single human cell can harbor Chlamydia and Toxoplasma. In co-infected cells, Toxoplasma is able to divert the content of host organelles, such as cholesterol. Consequently, the infectious cycle of Toxoplasma progresses unimpeded. In contrast, Chlamydia’s ability to scavenge selected nutrients is diminished, and the bacterium shifts to a stress-induced persistent growth. Parasite killing engenders an ordered return to normal chlamydial development. We demonstrate that C. trachomatis enters a stress-induced persistence phenotype as a direct result from being barred from its normal nutrient supplies as addition of excess nutrients, e.g., amino acids, leads to substantial recovery of Chlamydia growth and infectivity. Co-infection of C. trachomatis with slow growing strains of Toxoplasma or a mutant impaired in nutrient acquisition does not restrict chlamydial development. Conversely, Toxoplasma growth is halted in cells infected with the highly virulent Chlamydia psittaci. This study illustrates the key role that cellular remodeling plays in the exploitation of host intracellular resources by Toxoplasma and Chlamydia. It further highlights the delicate balance between success and failure of infection by intracellular pathogens in a co-infection system at the cellular level. PMID:23107293

  1. Intranasal Infection with Chlamydia abortus Induces Dose-Dependent Latency and Abortion in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Longbottom, David; Livingstone, Morag; Maley, Stephen; van der Zon, Arjan; Rocchi, Mara; Wilson, Kim; Wheelhouse, Nicholas; Dagleish, Mark; Aitchison, Kevin; Wattegedera, Sean; Nath, Mintu; Entrican, Gary; Buxton, David

    2013-01-01

    Background Latency is a key feature of the animal pathogen Chlamydia abortus, where infection remains inapparent in the non-pregnant animal and only becomes evident during a subsequent pregnancy. Often the first sign that an animal is infected is abortion occurring late in gestation. Despite this, little is understood of the underlying mechanisms that control latency or the recrudescence of infection that occurs during subsequent pregnancy. The aim of this study was to develop an experimental model of latency by mimicking the natural route of infection through the intranasal inoculation of non-pregnant sheep with C. abortus. Methodology/Principal Findings Three groups of sheep (groups 1, 2 and 3) were experimentally infected with different doses of C. abortus (5×103, 5×105 and 5×107 inclusion forming units (IFU), respectively) prior to mating and monitored over 2 breeding cycles for clinical, microbiological, pathological, immunological and serological outcomes. Two further groups received either negative control inoculum (group 4a,b) or were inoculated subcutaneously on day 70 of gestation with 2×106 IFU C. abortus (group 5). Animals in groups 1, 2 and 5 experienced an abortion rate of 50–67%, while only one animal aborted in group 3 and none in group 4a,b. Pathological, microbiological, immunological and serological analyses support the view that the maternal protective immune response is influenced by initial exposure to the bacterium. Conclusions/Significance The results show that intranasal administration of non-pregnant sheep with a low/medium dose of C. abortus results in a latent infection that leads in a subsequent pregnancy to infection of the placenta and abortion. In contrast a high dose stimulates protective immunity, resulting in a much lower abortion rate. This model will be useful in understanding the mechanisms of infection underlying latency and onset of disease, as well as in the development of novel therapeutics and vaccines for controlling infection. PMID:23469113

  2. Genital warts and genital papillomavirus disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles JN Lacey

    2005-01-01

    Genital infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common STI. Reliable estimates indicate a lifetime risk of infection of more than 50% for the population. Genital HPV infection can be divided into infection with genotypes less likely to be associated with neoplasia (low oncogenic risk) and genotypes with a stronger association with neoplasia (high oncogenic risk). A family of high-risk

  3. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia abortus Infection in Tibetan Sheep in Gansu Province, Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Si-Yuan; Yin, Ming-Yang; Cong, Wei; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Zhao, Quan; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Zhou, Ji-Zhang; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia abortus, an important pathogen in a variety of animals, is associated with abortion in sheep. In the present study, 1732 blood samples, collected from Tibetan sheep between June 2013 and April 2014, were examined by the indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test, aiming to evaluate the seroprevalence and risk factors of C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. 323 of 1732 (18.65%) samples were seropositive for C. abortus antibodies at the cut-off of 1?:?16. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk factors associated with seroprevalence, which could provide foundation to prevent and control C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. Gender of Tibetan sheep was left out of the final model because it is not significant in the logistic regression analysis (P > 0.05). Region, season, and age were considered as major risk factors associated with C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep in Gansu province, northwest China, with higher exposure risk in different seasons and ages and distinct geographical distribution. PMID:25401129

  4. Chlamydia muridarum Infection of Macrophages Elicits Bactericidal Nitric Oxide Production via Reactive Oxygen Species and Cathepsin B.

    PubMed

    Rajaram, Krithika; Nelson, David E

    2015-08-01

    The ability of certain species of Chlamydia to inhibit the biogenesis of phagolysosomes permits their survival and replication within macrophages. The survival of macrophage-adapted chlamydiae correlates with the multiplicity of infection (MOI), and optimal chlamydial growth occurs in macrophages infected at an MOI of ?1. In this study, we examined the replicative capacity of Chlamydia muridarum in the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line at different MOIs. C. muridarum productively infected these macrophages at low MOIs but yielded few viable elementary bodies (EBs) when macrophages were infected at a moderate (10) or high (100) MOI. While high MOIs caused cytotoxicity and irreversible host cell death, macrophages infected at a moderate MOI did not show signs of cytotoxicity until late in the infectious cycle. Inhibition of host protein synthesis rescued C. muridarum in macrophages infected at a moderate MOI, implying that chlamydial growth was blocked by activated defense mechanisms. Conditioned medium from these macrophages was antichlamydial and contained elevated levels of interleukin 1? (IL-1?), IL-6, IL-10, and beta interferon (IFN-?). Macrophage activation depended on Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) signaling, and cytokine production required live, transcriptionally active chlamydiae. A hydroxyl radical scavenger and inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cathepsin B also reversed chlamydial killing. High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) led to an increase in cathepsin B activity, and pharmacological inhibition of ROS and cathepsin B reduced iNOS expression. Our data demonstrate that MOI-dependent TLR2 activation of macrophages results in iNOS induction via a novel ROS- and cathepsin-dependent mechanism to facilitate C. muridarum clearance. PMID:26015483

  5. Genital herpes.

    PubMed

    Garland, Suzanne M; Steben, Marc

    2014-10-01

    Genital herpes is a relatively common infection caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) type one or two (HSV-1, HSV-2) respectively. It is acquired most commonly via sexual activity. More recently there has been an increase in infections due to HSV-1. Most new cases of genital HSV are not diagnosed due to HSV infections having short-lived signs and symptoms, or in many instances are asymptomatic. Hence many people infected with HSV are unaware that they have it. The risk of transmission to a partner is highest during outbreak periods, when there are visible lesions, although genital HSV can also be transmitted during asymptomatic periods. Use of condoms and antiviral medications assist in preventing transmission. Antiviral agents are effective in controlling clinical episodes, but do not eradicate infection, which remains latent for the life of a patient. Despite the surge in vaccine research, there is unfortunately no readily available preventative or therapeutic vaccine for HSV to date. PMID:25153069

  6. Is urine leukocyte esterase test a useful screening method to predict Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women?

    PubMed Central

    Chow, J M; Moncada, J; Brooks, D; Bolan, G; Shaw, H; Schachter, J

    1996-01-01

    We evaluated the use of the leukocyte esterase test (LET) on first-catch urine specimens from women as a screening test to predict infection with Chlamydia trachomatis. For diagnosis, we used Abbott's ligase chain reaction (LCR) on urine specimens and isolation by tissue culture (TC) on cervical brushes. Of 4,053 women attending sexually transmitted disease and family planning clinics, 4.3% (n = 174) were positive by TC and 5.9% (n = 239) were positive by LCR. When LET was compared to TC, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 54.0, 67.0, 6.8, and 97.0%, respectively. The corresponding performance of LET versus LCR was 53.1, 67.3, 10.1, and 95.8%. Almost half of the laboratory-confirmed chlamydial infections were negative by LET. The low specificity probably reflects multiple causes of pyuria in women and results in a low positive predictive value. LET is neither sensitive nor specific as a predictor of chlamydial infection and cannot be recommended for use as a screening test for C. trachomatis with first-catch urine samples from females from low- or moderate-prevalence populations. PMID:8904409

  7. Transformation of Sexually Transmitted Infection-Causing Serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis Using Blasticidin for Selection

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Honglei; Gong, Siqi; Tian, Yingxin; Yang, Zhangsheng; Brunham, Robert; Zhong, Guangming

    2013-01-01

    Plasmid-free Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 organisms have been transformed with chlamydial plasmid-based shuttle vectors pGFP::SW2 and pBRCT using ?-lactamase as a selectable marker. However, the recommendation of amoxicillin, a ?-lactam antibiotics, as one of the choices for treating pregnant women with cervicitis due to C. trachomatis infection has made the existing shuttle vectors unsuitable for transforming sexually transmitted infection (STI)-causing serovars of C. trachomatis. Thus, in the current study, we modified the pGFP::SW2 plasmid by fusing a blasticidin S deaminase gene to the GFP gene to establish blasticidin resistance as a selectable marker and replacing the ?-lactamase gene with the Sh ble gene to eliminate the penicillin resistance. The new vector termed pGFPBSD/Z::SW2 was used for transforming plasmid-free C. trachomatis serovar D organisms. Using blasticidin for selection, stable transformants were obtained. The GFP-BSD fusion protein was detected in cultures infected with the pGFPBSD/Z::SW2-trasnformed serovar D organisms. The transformation restored the plasmid property to the plasmid-free serovar D organisms. Thus, we have successfully modified the pGFP::SW2 transformation system for studying the biology and pathogenesis of other STI-causing serovars of C. trachomatis. PMID:24303023

  8. Chlamydia infection promotes host DNA damage and proliferation but impairs the DNA damage response.

    PubMed

    Chumduri, Cindrilla; Gurumurthy, Rajendra Kumar; Zadora, Piotr K; Mi, Yang; Meyer, Thomas F

    2013-06-12

    The obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis (Ctr) has been associated with cervical and ovarian cancer development. However, establishment of causality and the underlying mechanisms remain outstanding. Our analysis of Ctr-induced alterations to global host histone modifications revealed distinct patterns of histone marks during acute and persistent infections. In particular, pH2AX (Ser139) and H3K9me3, hallmarks of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and senescence-associated heterochromatin foci (SAHF), respectively, showed sustained upregulation during Ctr infection. Ctr-induced reactive oxygen species were found to contribute to persistent DSBs, which in turn elicited SAHF formation in an ERK-dependent manner. Furthermore, Ctr interfered with DNA damage responses (DDR) by inhibiting recruitment of the DDR proteins pATM and 53BP1 to damaged sites. Despite impaired DDR, Ctr-infected cells continued to proliferate, supported by enhanced oncogenic signals involving ERK, CyclinE, and SAHF. Thus, by perturbing host chromatin, DSB repair, and cell-cycle regulation, Ctr generates an environment favorable for malignant transformation. PMID:23768498

  9. Population attributable risk for chlamydia infection in a cohort of young international travellers (backpackers) and residents in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Guy, Rebecca; Donovan, Basil; McNulty, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Aim To estimate the population attributable risk (PAR) for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in young men and women in Sydney, Australia. Method Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association between demographic, sexual behaviour and other potential risk factors and chlamydia positivity in young (?30?years) heterosexual international travellers (backpackers) and Australian residents attending a sexual health clinic. Point and interval estimates of PAR were calculated to quantify the proportion of chlamydia infections that can theoretically be prevented if a combination of risk factors is eliminated from a target population. Results In males, the PAR associated with inconsistent condom use in the past 3?months was 65% (95% CI 56% to 71%) in backpackers compared to 50% (95% CI 41% to 56%) in non-backpackers and the PAR associated with reporting three or more female sexual partners in the past 3?months was similar between male backpackers and non-backpackers (33% (95% CI 28% to 40%) and 36% (95% CI 32% to 41%), respectively). In females, the PAR associated with inconsistent condom use in the past 3?months was 51% (95% CI 42% to 59%) in backpackers compared to 41% (95% CI 31% to 51%) in non-backpackers, and the PAR associated with reporting three or more male sexual partners in the past 3?months was 14% (95% CI 11% to 18%) in backpackers compared to 30% (95% CI 25% to 37%) in non-backpackers. Conclusion These findings suggest that the largest number of chlamydia infections could be avoided by increasing condom use, particularly in backpackers. Reporting multiple partners was also associated with a large proportion of infections and the risk associated with this behaviour should be considered in health promotion strategies. PMID:22021720

  10. Serological markers of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in men and women and subsequent coronary events. The Scottish Heart Health Study Cohort

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Tavendale; D. Parratt; S. D. Pringle; R. A'Brook; H. Tunstall-Pedoe

    2002-01-01

    Aims To investigate the relationship between serum markers of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and subsequent coronary events. Methods and Results In a nested case-control study, based on the Scottish Heart Health Study cohort, we estimated IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies to C. pneumoniae, and circulating immune complexes containing C. pneumo- niae antigen in baseline serum samples from 217 cases experiencing a

  11. Chlamydia pneumoniae CopD Translocator Protein Plays a Critical Role in Type III Secretion (T3S) and Infection

    PubMed Central

    Bulir, David C.; Waltho, Daniel A.; Stone, Christopher B.; Mwawasi, Kenneth A.; Nelson, Jordan C.; Mahony, James B.

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria use type III secretion (T3S) to inject effector proteins into the host cell to create appropriate conditions for infection and intracellular replication. Chlamydia spp. are believed to use T3S to infect their host cell, and the translocator proteins are an essential component of this system. Chlamydia pneumoniae contains genes encoding two sets of translocator proteins; CopB and CopD, and CopB2 and CopD2. In this study, we identified novel interactions between CopD and three type III secretion proteins; namely, CopN, CdsN, and CdsF. We identified a CopD putative chaperone binding motif, PxLxxP, within the N-terminal region (CopD amino acids 120–125), which was necessary for interaction with its putative chaperone LcrH_1. Using size exclusion chromatography, we showed that CopD and LcrH_1 formed higher order structures in solution with CopD and LcrH_1 binding in a ratio of 1?1, which is unique for T3SS translocator proteins. Lastly, we showed that antibodies to CopD reduced C. pneumoniae infectivity by >95%. Collectively, this data suggests that CopD plays a critical role in pathogenesis and likely functions as a hydrophobic translocator of the type III secretion system in Chlamydia pneumoniae. PMID:24959658

  12. Criteria for selective screening of cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infections in women attending private gynecology practices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Warszawski; L. Meyer; P. Weber

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To develop a screening strategy for Chlamydia trachomatis in private gynecology practices. Study design: Forty-six gynecologists in the greater Paris area systematically screened all consecutive female attenders during one week. Endocervical swabs were tested by enzyme immunoassay, and, if positive, was further confirmed by direct fluorescent antibody test. Results: Overall (out of 1893 women tested), the chlamydia prevalence was

  13. A Protective Role of Locally Administered Immunostimulatory CpG Oligodeoxynucleotide in a Mouse Model of Genital Herpes Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali M. Harandi; Kristina Eriksson; Jan Holmgren

    2003-01-01

    Unmethylated CpG dinucleotides in bacterial DNA or synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) are known as potent activators of the immune system and inducers of several Th1-associated immunomodulatory cytokines. We therefore investigated whether such a CpG-containing ODN (CpG ODN) given mucosally in the female genital tract could enhance innate immunity and protect against genital herpes infection. Groups of C57BL\\/6 mice were treated intravaginally

  14. Characterization of Chlamydia trachomatis omp1 Genotypes among Sexually Transmitted Disease Patients in Sweden

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARGARETHA JURSTRAND; LARS FALK; HANS FREDLUND; MARGRET LINDBERG; PER OLCEN; SOREN ANDERSSON; KENNETH PERSSON; JAN ALBERT; ANDERS BACKMAN

    2001-01-01

    A method for detection and genotyping of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections based on omp1 gene amplification and sequencing was developed. DNA was extracted from urogenital or urine samples using a Chelex-based method, and an approximately 1,100-bp-long fragment from the omp1 gene was directly amplified and sequenced. Genotyping was performed by BLAST similarity search, and phylogenetic tree analysis was used to

  15. IN VITRO SUSCEPTIBILITY OF CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS TO LPS-BINDING POLYAMINES AND CELLULOSE ETHER POLYMERS: TOWARDS THE DEVELOPMENT OF A MICROBICIDE AGAINST CHLAMYDIA INFECTION

    E-print Network

    Osaka, Ichie

    2013-12-31

    with Chlamydia. This is because Chlamydia constitutes a distinct evolutionary lineage and grows within relative isolation, and their isolated niche limits the opportunity for acquisition of antibiotic resistance genes from other organisms [29]. Although repeated..., because they are effective, have low toxicity, and are cost effective, as opposed to more costly azithromycin [32, 33]. To date, the only reported case of antibiotic resistance acquired through horizontal gene transfer in Chlamydia species...

  16. TLR2, but not TLR4, is required for effective host defence against Chlamydia respiratory tract infection in early life.

    PubMed

    Beckett, Emma L; Phipps, Simon; Starkey, Malcolm R; Horvat, Jay C; Beagley, Kenneth W; Foster, Paul S; Hansbro, Philip M

    2012-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae commonly causes respiratory tract infections in children, and epidemiological investigations strongly link infection to the pathogenesis of asthma. The immune system in early life is immature and may not respond appropriately to pathogens. Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and 4 are regarded as the primary pattern recognition receptors that sense bacteria, however their contribution to innate and adaptive immunity in early life remains poorly defined. We investigated the role of TLR2 and 4 in the induction of immune responses to Chlamydia muridarum respiratory infection, in neonatal wild-type (Wt) or TLR2-deficient ((-/-)), 4(-/-) or 2/4(-/-) BALB/c mice. Wt mice had moderate disease and infection. TLR2(-/-) mice had more severe disease and more intense and prolonged infection compared to other groups. TLR4(-/-) mice were asymptomatic. TLR2/4(-/-) mice had severe early disease and persistent infection, which resolved thereafter consistent with the absence of symptoms in TLR4(-/-) mice. Wt mice mounted robust innate and adaptive responses with an influx of natural killer (NK) cells, neutrophils, myeloid (mDCs) and plasmacytoid (pDCs) dendritic cells, and activated CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells into the lungs. Wt mice also had effective production of interferon (IFN)? in the lymph nodes and lung, and proliferation of lymph node T-cells. TLR2(-/-) mice had more intense and persistent innate (particularly neutrophil) and adaptive cell responses and IL-17 expression in the lung, however IFN? responses and T-cell proliferation were reduced. TLR2/4(-/-) mice had reduced innate and adaptive responses. Most importantly, neutrophil phagocytosis was impaired in the absence of TLR2. Thus, TLR2 expression, particularly on neutrophils, is required for effective control of Chlamydia respiratory infection in early life. Loss of control of infection leads to enhanced but ineffective TLR4-mediated inflammatory responses that prolong disease symptoms. This indicates that TLR2 agonists may be beneficial in the treatment of early life Chlamydia infections and associated diseases. PMID:22724018

  17. The resurgence of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Steben, Marc

    2004-06-01

    The objective of the review is to alert reproductive-care providers to the unexpected resurgence of Chlamydia infections and to new findings related to complications associated with Chlamydia infection. Data sources consisted of national and local guidelines and literature searches of MEDLINE with the heading Chlamydia infections 2002 and 2003. The complications of Chlamydia infections are considered to be longterm, and may include debilitating pain, infertility, tubal pregnancy, cancer, and HIV infection. Only a strong disease-management response from reproductive-care providers, using new diagnostic techniques and simpler treatment regimens, as well as a strong public health reaction, will be effective to limit the scourges of Chlamydia infection in the female population. PMID:15193199

  18. Rapid screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infection by detecting ?-mannosidase activity in urogenital tract specimens

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chlamydia trachomatis may cause multiple different urogenital tract disorders, but current non-culture assays for rapid screening of C. trachomatis typically use immunochromatography-based methods. We established another new rapid non-culture method for detection of C. trachomatis based on the measurement of ?-mannosidase enzymatic activity in urogenital tract specimens. Method To evaluate the performance of this method, ?-mannosidase activities of C. trachomatis serotype D strain ? and 29 standard strains related to clinical urogenital pathogens were investigated. Furthermore, 553 urogenital tract specimens were used for clinical assays via cell culture method and ligase chain reaction method (LCR), adopting an expanded gold standard. Results Only C. trachomatis was positive for ?-mannosidase activity among different types of microbes tested in the research. When prostate fluid specimens, which have some interfering activity, were excluded, the sensitivity and specificity of the enzymatic method were 91.8% (78/85) and 98.3% (409/416), respectively. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05). Conclusions These results showed that ?-mannosidase activity could be utilised as a screening marker of C. trachomatis infection. PMID:23347393

  19. Direct Amplification, Sequencing and Profiling of Chlamydia trachomatis Strains in Single and Mixed Infection Clinical Samples

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Sandeep J.; Li, Ben; Ghonasgi, Tanvi; Haase, Chad P.; Qin, Zhaohui S.; Dean, Deborah; Read, Timothy D.

    2014-01-01

    Sequencing bacterial genomes from DNA isolated directly from clinical samples offers the promise of rapid and precise acquisition of informative genetic information. In the case of Chlamydia trachomatis, direct sequencing is particularly desirable because it obviates the requirement for culture in mammalian cells, saving time, cost and the possibility of missing low abundance strains. In this proof of concept study, we developed methodology that would allow genome-scale direct sequencing, using a multiplexed microdroplet PCR enrichment technology to amplify a 100 kb region of the C. trachomatis genome with 500 1.1–1.3 kb overlapping amplicons (5-fold amplicon redundancy). We integrated comparative genomic data into a pipeline to preferentially select conserved sites for amplicon design. The 100 kb target region could be amplified from clinical samples, including remnants from diagnostics tests, originating from the cervix, urethra and urine, For rapid analysis of these data, we developed a framework for whole-genome based genotyping called binstrain. We used binstrain to estimate the proportion of SNPs originating from 14 C. trachomatis reference serotype genomes in each sample. Direct DNA sequencing methods such as the one described here may have an important role in understanding the biology of C. trachomatis mixed infections and the natural genetic variation of the species within clinically relevant ecological niches. PMID:24971628

  20. Asymptomatic natural Chlamydia pecorum infection reduces growth rates in calves by up to 48 percent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intracellular Chlamydia (C.) bacteria cause in cattle some acute but rare diseases such as abortion, sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis, kerato-conjunctivitis, pneumonia, enteritis and polyarthritis. Much more frequent, essentially ubiquitous worldwide, are low-level, asymptomatic chlamydial infecti...

  1. Genital infection and transmission of pseudorabies virus in feral swine in Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Romero, C H; Meade, P; Santagata, J; Gillis, K; Lollis, G; Hahn, E C; Gibbs, E P

    1997-04-01

    Seventeen feral swine (FS) naturally infected with pseudorabies virus (PRV) and treated with dexamethasone (4 mg/kg body wt) on five consecutive days shed virus primarily from the genital tract and less frequently from the upper respiratory tract. The FS isolates were identified as PRV by virus neutralization with specific polyclonal antiserum and by direct immunofluorescence. Restriction endonuclease analysis with BamHI showed that representative samples from a total of 62 isolates were identical to each other, but differed in at least 5 DNA bands from the PRV Shope reference strain profile. DNA purified from FS isolates propagated in Vero cells or DNA extracted directly from genital swabs were amplified in the polymerase chain reaction using primers specific for the gpII (gB) gene of PRV. This amplification yielded a product of the expected size (200 bp), which specifically hybridized to a digoxigenin-labelled 30-mer probe complementary to an area within the region defined by the primers. In a transmission experiment, PRV was recovered from the vagina at 1 and 6 weeks after uninfected feral gilts were mixed with infected feral boars. PRV was not isolated from the upper respiratory tract of either gilts or boars. At eight weeks, 4 of the 5 gilts had developed low titer neutralizing antibodies to PRV. Our results indicate that PRV in FS is transmitted through sexual contact. PMID:9220605

  2. Two coiled-coil domains of Chlamydia trachomatis IncA affect membrane fusion events during infection.

    PubMed

    Ronzone, Erik; Paumet, Fabienne

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis replicates in a parasitophorous membrane-bound compartment called an inclusion. The inclusions corrupt host vesicle trafficking networks to avoid the degradative endolysosomal pathway but promote fusion with each other in order to sustain higher bacterial loads in a process known as homotypic fusion. The Chlamydia protein IncA (Inclusion protein A) appears to play central roles in both these processes as it participates to homotypic fusion and inhibits endocytic SNARE-mediated membrane fusion. How IncA selectively inhibits or activates membrane fusion remains poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed the spatial and molecular determinants of IncA's fusogenic and inhibitory functions. Using a cell-free membrane fusion assay, we found that inhibition of SNARE-mediated fusion requires IncA to be on the same membrane as the endocytic SNARE proteins. IncA displays two coiled-coil domains showing high homology with SNARE proteins. Domain swap and deletion experiments revealed that although both these domains are capable of independently inhibiting SNARE-mediated fusion, these two coiled-coil domains cooperate in mediating IncA multimerization and homotypic membrane interaction. Our results support the hypothesis that Chlamydia employs SNARE-like virulence factors that positively and negatively affect membrane fusion and promote infection. PMID:23936096

  3. Quantitative Detection of Chlamydia psittaci and C. pecorum by High-Sensitivity Real-Time PCR Reveals High Prevalence of Vaginal Infection in Cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fred J. DeGraves; Dongya Gao; Hans-Robert Hehnen; Tobias Schlapp; Bernhard Kaltenboeck

    2003-01-01

    Over the last 40 years, evidence has accumulated to suggest the ubiquitous presence of infections with intracellular bacte- ria of the genus Chlamydia in cattle and other livestock species. Despite some improvement in diagnostic techniques, our un- derstanding about the prevalence and pathogenetic signifi- cance of these infections, succinctly reviewed by Shewen (11) in 1980, has not substantially changed since

  4. 'The difference in determinants of Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium in a sample of young Australian women.'

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Differences in the determinants of Chlamydia trachomatis ('chlamydia') and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) genital infection in women are not well understood. Methods A cohort study of 16 to 25 year old Australian women recruited from primary health care clinics, aimed to determine chlamydia and MG prevalence and incidence. Vaginal swabs collected at recruitment were used to measure chlamydia and MG prevalence, organism-load and chlamydia-serovar a cross-sectional analysis undertaken on the baseline results is presented here. Results Of 1116 participants, chlamydia prevalence was 4.9% (95% CI: 2.9, 7.0) (n = 55) and MG prevalence was 2.4% (95% CI: 1.5, 3.3) (n = 27). Differences in the determinants were found - chlamydia not MG, was associated with younger age [AOR:0.9 (95% CI: 0.8, 1.0)] and recent antibiotic use [AOR:0.4 (95% CI: 0.2, 1.0)], and MG not chlamydia was associated with symptoms [AOR:2.1 (95% CI: 1.1, 4.0)]. Having two or more partners in last 12 months was more strongly associated with chlamydia [AOR:6.4 (95% CI: 3.6, 11.3)] than MG [AOR:2.2 (95% CI: 1.0, 4.6)] but unprotected sex with three or more partners was less strongly associated with chlamydia [AOR:3.1 (95%CI: 1.0, 9.5)] than MG [AOR:16.6 (95%CI: 2.0, 138.0)]. Median organism load for MG was 100 times lower (5.7 × 104/swab) than chlamydia (5.6 × 106/swab) (p < 0.01) and not associated with age or symptoms for chlamydia or MG. Conclusions These results demonstrate significant chlamydia and MG prevalence in Australian women, and suggest that the differences in strengths of association between numbers of sexual partners and unprotected sex and chlamydia and MG might be due to differences in the transmission dynamics between these infections. PMID:21284887

  5. Simultaneous plasma and genital pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of atazanavir and efavirenz in HIV-infected women starting therapy.

    PubMed

    Neely, Michael; Louie, Stan; Xu, Jiaao; Anthony, Patricia; Thuvamontolrat, Kasalyn; Mordwinkin, Nicholas; Kovacs, Andrea

    2015-07-01

    Few studies have characterized longitudinal female plasma and genital antiretroviral pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Among 20 regimen-naive HIV-infected adult women initiating atazanavir-based therapy (n?=?9) or efavirenz-based therapy (n?=?11), we measured blood CD4+ T lymphocytes, and paired plasma and genital HIV RNA and atazanavir or efavirenz 2 days before starting therapy and 2, 4, 7, 10, 21, 28, 60, 120, and 180 days after. The mean (range) log10 baseline plasma viral load was 4.89 copies/mL (2.64-6.09?copies/mL), and genital was3.30 (1.60-5.00). In the atazanavir and efavirenz groups, mean (SD) days to a 50% decrease in plasma viral load was 8.2 (4.9) versus 9.3 (7.4), P?=?.7, and in the genital tract it was 7.3 (3.5) versus 9.3 (7.7), P?=?.5. The median (interquartile range) plasma:genital concentration ratio for atazanavir was 0.11 (0.001-0.46) versus 0.34 (0.05-1.30) for efavirenz, P?=?.5. Average plasma efavirenz or atazanavir concentrations over time did not affect virologic response. Blood CD4+ percentages increased by +2.3 (P?=?.06) and +3.0 (P?=?.003) for every 1?mg/L increase in average plasma and genital drug concentration, respectively. Plasma and genital viral pharmacodynamics were similar between the groups and independent of average concentrations, but blood CD4+ response was related in particular to genital extravascular drug concentrations. PMID:25683232

  6. Racial origin, sexual lifestyle, and genital infection among women attending a genitourinary medicine clinic in London (1992)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. A. Evans; P. D. Kell; R. A. Bond; K. D. MacRae

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare variables of sexual behaviour and incidence of genital infections among women of different racial origins and lifestyles. DESIGN: A prospective cross sectional study of sexual behaviour reported by a standardised self administered questionnaire in new patients who presented for screening and diagnosis. SETTING: A genitourinary medicine clinic in west London. SUBJECTS: 1084 consecutive women newly attending in

  7. Genital Warts

    PubMed Central

    Yanofsky, Valerie R.; Patel, Rita V.

    2012-01-01

    External genital warts, also known as condylomata acuminata, are extremely common, with between 500,000 to one million new cases diagnosed each year in the United States alone. To date, more than 120 distinct subtypes of human papillomavirus have been identified. Human papillomavirus types 6 and 11 rarely give rise to cervical cancers, but are responsible for 90 percent of the cases of genital warts. The current treatment options are largely centered upon removal of the warts rather than elimination of the underlying viral infection. A wide range of therapies are presently in use, which are highly variable and can differ dramatically with respect to cost, side-effect profiles, dosing schedules, duration of treatment, and overall effectiveness. As of yet, no definitive therapy has emerged as the ideal standard of care in the treatment of genital warts, and therapy selection generally occurs in a patient-specific manner. PMID:22768354

  8. The epidemiology of genital infection with herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in genitourinary medicine attendees in inner London

    PubMed Central

    Ramaswamy, M; McDonald, C; Sabin, C; Tenant-Flowers, M; Smith, M; Geretti, A

    2005-01-01

    Methods: Genital swabs (n = 186) were tested by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and serum samples (n = 70) by HSV-2 specific enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA). Results: Among 186 patients (median age 29 years), 104/186 (56%) were male and 176/186 (95%) heterosexual; ethnicity was predominantly black Caribbean (76/186, 41%), white (65/186, 35%), or black-African (41/186, 22%). The most common lesion sites were penis (85/104 men, 82%) and vulva (63/82 women, 77%); 114/186 (61%) patients were diagnosed clinically with first episode disease. Women were more likely to present <5 days of onset (p = 0.008). Black Caribbean patients were more likely to present ?5 days (p = 0.04) and decline HIV testing (p = 0.03). By PCR, 108/186 (58%) swabs tested positive for HSV-1 (7/108, 6.5%) or HSV-2 (101/108, 93.5%). Independent predictors of a positive PCR were heterosexual group, <5 days of onset, and visible genital ulceration on examination. HSV-2 was associated with black Caribbean and black African ethnicity; HSV-1 with white ethnicity (p = 0.006). By HSV-2 specific serology, 16/42 (38%) first episodes caused by HSV-2 were recurrent infections, and 7/19 (37%) patients with recurrent genital disease but negative PCR had genital herpes. Conclusions: Epidemiological trends in genital HSV-1 and HSV-2 infection appear to vary between ethnic groups in the United Kingdom. HSV-2 specific serology improves diagnostic accuracy in GUM populations where most genital infections are caused by HSV-2. PMID:16061536

  9. Chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, granuloma inguinale, genital herpes simplex infection, and molluscum contagiosum.

    PubMed

    Basta-Juzbaši?, Aleksandra; ?eovi?, Romana

    2014-01-01

    Chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, and granuloma inguinale may be considered as tropical venereal diseases. These diseases were a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in past centuries. Currently, patients with these bacterial infections that are endemic to the tropics occasionally consult with dermatologists in temperate climates. Due to the increasing frequency of travel to the tropics for tourism and work, as well as the increasing number of immigrants from these areas, it is important for dermatologists practicing in temperate climates to be familiar with the dermatologic manifestations of such infections, to be prepared to diagnose these diseases, and to treat these patients. All three "tropical" infections respond well to prompt and appropriate antimicrobial treatment, although herpes progenitalis still cannot be cured, and the number of people infected keeps growing; moreover, genital herpes can be transmitted by viral shedding before and after the visual signs or symptoms. Acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir can shorten outbreaks and make them less severe or even stop them from happening. There is currently no etiologic treatment for molluscum contagiosum, and the majority of treatment options are mechanical, causing a certain degree of discomfort. The molluscum contagiosum virus, unlike the other infectious agents mentioned, does not invade the skin. PMID:24559566

  10. Polymer Nanoparticles Encapsulating siRNA for Treatment of HSV-2 Genital Infection

    PubMed Central

    Steinbach, Jill M.; Weller, Caroline E.; Booth, Carmen J.; Saltzman, W. Mark

    2012-01-01

    Effective, low-cost, and safe treatments for sexually transmitted viral infections are urgently needed. Here, we show for the first time that intravaginal administration with nanoparticles of poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) encapsulating short interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules is effective for prevention of genital HSV-2 infections in mice. PLGA nanoparticles (NPs) were designed to interfere with HSV-2 infection by siRNA-mediated knockdown of nectin, a host cell protein. NPs were characterized in vitro to determine the optimal formulation based on siRNA loading, controlled release profile, and mRNA knockdown. Mice inoculated intravaginally with a lethal dose of HSV-2, and treated with PLGA NPs, showed increased survival from ~9 days (in untreated mice) to > 28 days (in PLGA NP treated mice) - the longest survival ever observed with siRNA treatment in this mouse model. This work provides proof-of-concept that topical administration of NPs containing siRNA against a pathologically relevant host cell target can knockdown the gene in tissue and improve survival after HSV-2 infection. Furthermore, this system provides a safe delivery platform that employs materials that are already approved by the FDA and can be modified to enhance delivery of other microbicides. PMID:22705461

  11. Genital streptococcal infection in non-pregnant women: a case-note review.

    PubMed

    Sonnex, C

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this case-note review was to examine the clinical features and management of women with either vulval or vaginal swabs culturing positive for streptococci. Group B haemolytic streptococcus was isolated in all cases. The majority of women with vulval streptococci presented with irritation or soreness. Candidal infection was found in 43% and a dermatosis in 27%. All women with positive vaginal culture had vaginal soreness and/or discharge. Candida was isolated in 27% and there were features of desquamative vaginitis in 20%. Women treated with erythromycin failed to improve symptomatically. The findings of this study suggest that streptococci mostly play a secondary role and colonize an already damaged genital epithelium. PMID:23970746

  12. HIV genital shedding and safety of Carraguard use by HIV-infected women: a crossover trial in Thailand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine A McLean; Wijgert van de J. H; Heidi E Jones; John M Karon; Janet M McNicoll; Sara J Whitehead; Sarah Braunstein; Jullapong Achalapong; Supaporn Chaikummao; Jordan W Tappero; Lauri E Markowitz; Peter H Kilmarx

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety, including impact on genital HIV RNA shedding, of Carraguard vaginal gel in HIV-infected women. Design: This is a randomized, controlled, crossover study of Carraguard in HIV-infected women in Thailand. Methods: Each woman (CD4(+) cell count 51-500 cells\\/mu l and not on antiretroviral therapy) used each treatment (Carraguard, methylcellulose placebo, and no-product) once daily for 7

  13. Genital hygiene practices of fishermen targeted for a topical microbicide intervention against sexually transmitted infections in Kisumu, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kwena, Z A; Bukusi, E A; Gorbach, P; Sharma, A; Sang, N M; Holmes, K K

    2010-06-01

    Research on hygiene has been relatively limited in the current era of rigorous observational studies and clinical trials. We set out to investigate the perception and practices of genital hygiene among fishermen working on the beaches along Lake Victoria, targeted for a topical male microbicide hygiene intervention. We conducted 12 focus group discussions involving fishermen (n = 130), recording the discussions in Dholuo (the local language) and transcribing them verbatim before translating into English. Transcripts were double-coded and analysed using constant comparative analysis. Despite easy access to lake water and recognition of a link that may exist between poor genital hygiene and the risk of penile infection and poor sexual relationships, few fishermen regularly washed their genitalia due to fear/embarrassment from cleaning their genitalia in public, traditional Luo beliefs such as that washing with soap would reduce the fish catch, lack of time because of their busy schedules, laziness and lack of responsibility, and excessive consumption of alcohol and illicit drugs. Hygiene practices of the fishermen were poor and could contribute to genital infections including sexually transmitted infections. Given the fishermen's poor genital hygiene practices, they may benefit from hygiene intervention, including that provided by penile microbicides, which can be applied in the privacy of their bedrooms. PMID:20606226

  14. Chlamydia pneumoniae infected macrophages exhibit enhanced plasma membrane fluidity and show increased adherence to endothelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony A. Azenabor; Godwin Job; Olanrewaju O. Adedokun

    2005-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae, an intracellular prokaryote, is known to have requirement for some lipids which it is incapable of synthesizing, and these lipids have important fluidizing roles in plasma membrane. We decided to examine if the trafficking of these lipids to C. pneumoniae alters the physicochemical properties of macrophage plasma membrane, affects the expression of genes and proteins of enzymes associated

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular typing of multiple Chlamydiaceae species isolated from genital infection of women in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Osman, Kamelia M; Ali, Hadia A; Eljakee, Jakeen A; Gaafar, Maha M; Galal, Hussein M

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the existence of vaginal Chlamydia infection and the prevalence of the disease in symptomatic gynecologically diseased women in Egypt. In addition, the antibiotics penicillin, tetracycline, and erythromycin were evaluated for their in vitro antichlamydial activity of the isolated strains. Vaginal swabs (n=160) were collected from females gynecologically diseased using cotton swabs. Samples were tested for Chlamydia by Vero cells tissue culture, chicken embryo, Gimenez staining, direct fluorescein-conjugated monoclonal antibody staining, and immunoperoxidase. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses conducted for the presence of chlamydial DNA was used to detect its specific DNA by the omp2 gene. PCR analyses conducted for the presence of chlamydial DNA revealed that 112/160 (70%) were positive for Chlamydiaceae. The specific DNA defined by the omp2 gene identified them as Chlamydia trachomatis (17/112, 15.2%), Chlamydophila psittaci (56/112, 50.0%), and Chlamydophila abortus (40/112, 35.7%). The antibiotics penicillin, tetracycline, and erythromycin at different concentrations were effective in inactivating the viability of Chlamydiaceae isolates. PMID:22455539

  16. HIV-1 Infection of Female Genital Tract Tissue for use in Prevention Studies

    PubMed Central

    DEZZUTTI, Charlene S.; URANKER, Kevin; BUNGE, Katherine E.; RICHARDSON-HARMAN, Nicola; MACIO, Ingrid; HILLIER, Sharon L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Ex vivo HIV-1 challenge has been proposed as a bio-indicator of microbicide product effectiveness. The objective of this study was to establish optimal parameters for use of female genital tract tissue in this model. Design Ex vivo challenge involves in vivo product use, followed by tissue biopsy, and exposure of the tissue to HIV-1 in the laboratory. Methods Paired ectocervical and vaginal biopsies were collected from 42 women and 28 had additional biopsies from each site collected after 5% lidocaine (n=14) or chlorhexidine (n=14) treatment. Tissues were transported immediately to the laboratory and exposed to HIV-1. HIV-1 infection was followed by p24 ELISA on culture supernatants and at study end after weighing and fixing the tissue for immunohistochemistry (IHC) to detect p24 expressing cells. Results While both tissue types were equally infected with HIV-1 based on IHC results, ectocervical tissues had significantly higher HIV-1 replication than vaginal tissues (P < .005). Lidocaine and chlorhexidine had minimal impact on HIV-1 infection and replication. Point estimates for p24 levels were defined for 95% probability of p24-positive tissues and were 3.43 log10 for ectocervical tissue and 2.50 log10 for vaginal tissue based on weight-adjusted cumulative p24 endpoints. Conclusions While similar proportions of ectocervical and vaginal tissues support HIV-1 infection, higher levels of HIV-1 replication were observed in ectocervical tissues. Defining point estimates for HIV-1 infection in fresh ectocervical and vaginal tissues provides valuable information for the evaluation of HIV-1 preventative treatments during early clinical studies. PMID:23514957

  17. Sites of persistence of lumpy skin disease virus in the genital tract of experimentally infected bulls.

    PubMed

    Annandale, C H; Irons, P C; Bagla, V P; Osuagwuh, U I; Venter, E H

    2010-04-01

    The objectives of this work were to determine the site of persistence of lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) in bulls shedding the virus in semen for a period longer than 28 days, to determine if the virus is present in all fractions of semen and to study lesions that developed in the genital tract. Six serologically negative postpubertal bulls were experimentally infected with a virulent field isolate of LSDV. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on sheath washes, vesicular fluid, supernatant and cell-rich fractions of semen from day 10 to day 26 postinfection (p.i.). Bulls that were positive by PCR on the whole semen sample collected on day 28 p.i. were slaughtered and tissue samples from their genital tracts submitted for histopathological evaluation, immunoperoxidase staining, virus isolation and PCR. Two of the bulls developed severe lumpy skin disease (LSD) and were found to be shedding viral DNA in their semen on day 28 p.i. Viral DNA was identified in all semen fractions from all bulls, but mostly from the cell-rich fraction and from the severely affected bulls. The PCR assay was positive on postmortem samples of testes and epididymides from the two severely affected bulls. Virus could be recovered from the testes of these two bulls and from the epididymis of one of them. Immunoperoxidase staining was positive for LSDV staining in sections of testes and epididymides exhibiting necrosis. This study suggests that the testis and epididymis are sites of persistence of LSDV in bulls shedding virus in semen for prolonged periods and revealed that viral DNA is present in all fractions of the ejaculate. PMID:19055553

  18. Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection Promotes Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Migration through a Toll-Like Receptor 2-Related Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Beibei; Zhang, Tengteng; Wang, Haiwei; Zhang, Junxia; Wei, Junyan; Shen, Bingling; Liu, Xin; Xu, Zhelong; Zhang, Lijun

    2013-01-01

    The migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from the media to the intima is proposed to be a key event in the development of atherosclerosis. Recently, we reported that Chlamydia pneumoniae infection is involved in VSMC migration. However, the exact mechanisms for C. pneumoniae infection-induced VSMC migration are not yet well elucidated. In this study, we examined the role of the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) activation-related signaling pathway in VSMC migration induced by C. pneumoniae infection. An Affymetrix-based gene expression array was conducted to identify the changes of gene expression in rat primary VSMCs (rVSMCs) infected with C. pneumoniae. Both the microarray analysis and quantitative real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR revealed that TLR2 mRNA expression was strongly upregulated 12 h after C. pneumoniae infection. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis further showed that the expression levels of TLR2 mRNA and protein significantly increased at the different time points after infection. Immunocytochemical analysis suggested a TLR2 recruitment to the vicinity of C. pneumoniae inclusions. Cell migration assays showed that the TLR2-neutralizing antibody could significantly inhibit C. pneumoniae infection-induced rVSMC migration. In addition, C. pneumoniae infection stimulated Akt phosphorylation at Ser 473, which was obviously suppressed by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002, thereby inhibiting rVSMC migration caused by C. pneumoniae infection. Furthermore, both the infection-induced Akt phosphorylation and rVSMC migration were suppressed by the TLR2-neutralizing antibody. Taken together, these data suggest that C. pneumoniae infection can promote VSMC migration possibly through the TLR2-related signaling pathway. PMID:24082081

  19. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection increases adherence of mouse macrophages to mouse endothelial cells in vitro and to aortas ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Takaoka, Naohisa; Campbell, Lee Ann; Lee, Amy; Rosenfeld, Michael E; Kuo, Cho-Chou

    2008-02-01

    Interactions between monocytes/macrophages and endothelial cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, and the adherence of monocytes to the arterial endothelium is one of the early events in atherogenesis. In the present study, peritoneal macrophages harvested from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice were used to analyze how Chlamydia pneumoniae infection affects the adherence of GFP-macrophages to mouse endothelial cells in vitro and to the aorta from normolipidemic and hyperlipidemic mice ex vivo. In vitro studies showed that C. pneumoniae-infected GFP-macrophages adhered better than uninfected macrophages to endothelial cells and GFP-macrophages adhered better to infected than uninfected endothelial cells. The ex vivo studies showed that C. pneumoniae-infected macrophages adhered better than uninfected macrophages to aortas from both normolipidemic and hyperlipidemic C57BL/6J mice and apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-deficient mice. In contrast, adherence of C. pneumoniae-infected macrophages to the aortas of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) knockout mice was not enhanced, suggesting that ICAM-1 is crucial for activation of the adherence of C. pneumoniae-infected macrophages to the endothelium. In conclusion, the present study defined a homing mechanism by which C. pneumoniae promotes the adherence of mononuclear phagocytes to the endothelium at the site of atherosclerotic lesion formation to promote the progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:18070891

  20. Infection, Disease, and Transmission Dynamics in Calves after Experimental and Natural Challenge with a Bovine Chlamydia psittaci Isolate

    PubMed Central

    Ostermann, Carola; Rüttger, Anke; Schubert, Evelyn; Schrödl, Wieland; Sachse, Konrad; Reinhold, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia (C.) psittaci is the causative agent of psittacosis, a zoonotic disease in birds and man. In addition, C. psittaci has been repeatedly found in domestic animals and is, at least in calves, also able to induce respiratory disease. Knowledge about transmission routes in cattle herds is still deficient, and nothing is known about differences in host response after either experimental or natural exposure to C. psittaci. Therefore, our recently developed respiratory infection model was exploited to evaluate (i) the presence of the pathogen in blood, excretions and air, (ii) the possibility of transmission and (iii) clinical symptoms, acute phase and immune response until 5 weeks after exposure. In this prospective study, intrabronchial inoculation of 108 inclusion-forming units of C. psittaci (n?=?21 calves) led to reproducible acute respiratory illness (of approximately one week), accompanied by a systemic inflammatory reaction with an innate immune response dominated by neutrophils. Excretion and/or exhalation of the pathogen was sufficient to transmit the infection to naïve sentinel calves (n?=?3) co-housed with the infected animals. Sentinel calves developed mild to subclinical infections only. Notably, excretion of the pathogen, predominantly via feces, occurred more frequently in animals naturally exposed to C. psittaci (i.e. sentinels) as compared to experimentally-inoculated calves. The humoral immune response was generally weak, and did not emerge regularly following experimental infection; however, it was largely absent after naturally acquired infection. PMID:23691148

  1. Genital Antibody Responses in Mice after Intranasal Infection with an Attenuated Candidate Vector Strain of Bordetella pertussis

    PubMed Central

    Mielcarek, Nathalie; Nordström, Inger; Menozzi, Franco D.; Locht, Camille; Holmgren, Jan

    2000-01-01

    Intranasal administration of live attenuated Bordetella pertussis, from which the pertussis toxin gene has been deleted, has previously been shown to give rise to high levels of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against both the protective antigen filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) and heterologous antigens genetically fused to FHA. Here, we extend these results by demonstrating that anti-FHA IgA and IgG antibodies are also produced in the genital tract of mice, both in the vagina and in the uterus, after a single intranasal administration of B. pertussis. By comparing the immune responses induced after infection with wild-type virulent B. pertussis with that induced by infection with an attenuated pertussis toxin-deficient strain, we conclude that pertussis toxin produced by the virulent bacteria does not modify antibody production to FHA in the genital tract of B. pertussis-infected mice. The intranasal infection with either the attenuated or the virulent B. pertussis strain also led to the development of immunologic memory that could be efficiently boosted with purified FHA administered either intranasally or intravaginally to give rise to a significant increase in the levels of specific IgA and IgG produced locally in the genital tract, as well as of specific antibodies in the serum. These observations suggest that attenuated B. pertussis could be a promising vector for intranasal administration to induce antibody responses against antigens from sexually transmitted pathogens fused to FHA. PMID:10639408

  2. Protection of Mice From a Chlamydia trachomatis Vaginal Infection Using a Salicylidene Acylhydrazide, a Potential Microbicide

    PubMed Central

    Slepenkin, Anatoly; Chu, Hencelyn; Elofsson, Mikael; Keyser, Pia

    2011-01-01

    The salicylidene acylhydrazide INP0341 inhibits growth of Chlamydia in HeLa cells, has negligible cell toxicity, and does not inhibit the growth of lactobacilli. The antichlamydial activity of INP0341 was retained when tested in vaginal and semen simulants. Vaginal tissue from INP0341-treated mice appeared similar to control sham-treated mice. To determine whether INP0341 can protect mice from a vaginal challenge, C3H/HeJ mice were either sham or INP0341 treated intravaginally pre- and postinoculation with 5 × 102 inclusion-forming units (IFUs) of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar D. Vaginal cultures taken over a month-long period showed a significant difference in the number of control mice that were culture positive versus the number in the INP0341-treated group, 100% (25/25) and 31% (8/26), respectively (P < .05). The quantity of IFUs shed and antibody titers to Chlamydia were significantly higher for the control group (P < .05). In summary, INP0341 is a promising compound to be considered for formulation as a vaginal microbicide. PMID:21933873

  3. Prevalence of genital chlamydial infection among a community sample of young international backpackers in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Davies, S C; Karagiannis, T; Headon, V; Wiig, R; Duffy, J

    2011-03-01

    We conducted a chlamydia prevalence study from January to June 2009 among a community sample of young international backpackers by recruiting at hostels in Sydney, Australia. Participants completed a questionnaire; men provided a urine sample and women provided a self-collected vaginal swab, which were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis DNA by strand displacement amplification. We recruited 225 men (median age 24 years) and 207 women (median age 23 years). Most (87%) of the travellers came from Europe. A new sexual partner during travel was reported by 67%, and 51% had more than one new sexual partner. Of those reporting a new sexual partner, 40% always used condoms. Prevalence of chlamydia was 3.5% (3.1% in men, 3.9% in women). Previous testing for chlamydia was reported by 40%. Drinking alcohol at hazardous levels was reported by 58% of men and 29% of women. Despite the reporting of new sexual partners and inconsistent condom use, the prevalence of chlamydia in these backpackers was not higher than that found in more general populations, and may relate to good health-care seeking behaviour. Young travellers need education about sexual risks and promotion of condom use prior to travel, and access to public sexual health services. PMID:21464454

  4. The role of endoplasmic reticulum-related BiP/GRP78 in interferon gamma-induced persistent Chlamydia pneumoniae infection.

    PubMed

    Shima, Kensuke; Klinger, Matthias; Schütze, Stefan; Kaufhold, Inga; Solbach, Werner; Reiling, Norbert; Rupp, Jan

    2015-07-01

    Direct interaction of Chlamydiae with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is essential in intracellular productive infection. However, little is known about the interplay between Chlamydiae and the ER under cellular stress conditions that are observed in interferon gamma (IFN-?) induced chlamydial persistent infection. ER stress responses are centrally regulated by the unfolded protein response (UPR) under the control of the ER chaperone BiP/GRP78 to maintain cellular homeostasis. In this study, we could show that the ER directly contacted with productive and IFN-?-induced persistent inclusions of Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn). BiP/GRP78 induction was observed in the early phase but not in the late phase of IFN-?-induced persistent infection. Enhanced BiP/GRP78 expression in the early phase of IFN-?-induced persistent Cpn infection was accompanied by phosphorylation of the eukaryotic initiation factor-2? (eIF2?) and down-regulation of the vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein B. Loss of BiP/GRP78 function resulted in enhanced phosphorylation of eIF2? and increased host cell apoptosis. In contrast, enhanced BiP/GRP78 expression in IFN-?-induced persistent Cpn infection attenuated phosphorylation of eIF2? upon an exogenous ER stress inducer. In conclusion, ER-related BiP/GRP78 plays a key role to restore cells from stress conditions that are observed in the early phase of IFN-?-induced persistent infection. PMID:25588955

  5. Herpes simplex virus and cytomegalovirus co-infection presenting as exuberant genital ulcer in a woman infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, A I; Borges-Costa, J; Soares-Almeida, L; Sacramento-Marques, M; Kutzner, H

    2014-12-01

    In patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), genital herpes can result in severe and atypical clinical presentations, and can become resistant to aciclovir treatment. Rarely, these manifestations may represent concurrent herpes simplex virus (HSV) with other agents. We report a 41-year-old black woman with HIV who presented with extensive and painful ulceration of the genitalia. Histological examination of a biopsy sample was suggestive of herpetic infection, and intravenous aciclovir was started, but produced only partial improvement. PCR was performed on the biopsy sample, and both HSV and cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA was detected. Oral valganciclovir was started with therapeutic success. CMV infection is common in patients infected with HIV, but its presence in mucocutaneous lesions is rarely reported. This case exemplifies the difficulties of diagnosis of genital ulcers in patients infected with HIV. The presence of exuberant and persistent HSV genital ulcers in patients with HIV should also raise suspicions of the presence of co-infection with other organisms such as CMV. PMID:25250849

  6. Mouse Strain-Dependent Variation in the Course and Outcome of Chlamydial Genital Tract Infection Is Associated with Differences in Host Response

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TONI DARVILLE; C. W. ANDREWS; KIM K. LAFFOON; W. SHYMASANI; L. R. KISHEN; R. G. RANK

    1997-01-01

    Whether there is a pathogenic or protective outcome to chlamydial infection may be defined by the host response. We infected C57BL\\/6 (C57) and C3H\\/HeN (C3H) mice with the human biovar of Chlamydia tracho- matis, serovar E, and, in select experiments, with the mouse pneumonitis agent of C. trachomatis (MoPn). We compared the courses of infection, histopathology, and host responses that

  7. Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Mediate the Regulation of Inflammatory Type T Cell Response for Optimal Immunity against Respiratory Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infection

    PubMed Central

    Joyee, Antony George; Yang, Xi

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn) infection is a leading cause for a variety of respiratory diseases and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases. The regulatory mechanisms in host defense against Cpn infection are less understood. In this study, we investigated the role of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) in immune regulation in Cpn respiratory tract infection. We found that in vivo depletion of pDCs increased the severity of infection and lung pathology. Mice depleted of pDC had greater body weight loss, higher lung bacterial burden and excessive tissue inflammation compared to the control mice. Analysis of specific T cell cytokine production pattern in the lung following Cpn infection revealed that pDC depleted mice produced significantly higher amounts of inflammatory cytokines, especially TNF-?, but lower IL-10 compared to the controls. In particular, pDC depleted mice showed pathogenic T cell responses characterized by inflammatory type-1 (CD8 and CD4) and inflammatory Th2 cell responses. Moreover, pDC depletion dramatically reduced CD4 regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the lungs and draining lymph nodes. Furthermore, pDC-T cell co-culture experiments showed that pDCs isolated from Cpn infected mice were potent in inducing IL-10 producing CD4 Tregs. Together, these findings provide in vivo evidence for a critical role of pDCs in homeostatic regulation of immunity during Cpn infection. Our findings highlight the importance of a ‘balanced’ immune response for host protective immunity and preventing detrimental immunopathology during microbial infections. PMID:24386207

  8. High Level of Soluble HLA-G in the Female Genital Tract of Beninese Commercial Sex Workers Is Associated with HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Thibodeau, Valérie; Lajoie, Julie; Labbé, Annie-Claude; Zannou, Marcel D.; Fowke, Keith R.; Alary, Michel; Poudrier, Johanne; Roger, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Background Most HIV infections are transmitted across mucosal epithelium. Understanding the role of innate and specific mucosal immunity in susceptibility or protection against HIV infection, as well as the effect of HIV infection on mucosal immunity, are of fundamental importance. HLA-G is a powerful modulator of the immune response. The aim of this study was to investigate whether soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) expression in the female genital tract is associated with HIV-1 infection. Methods and Findings Genital levels of sHLA-G were determined in 52 HIV-1-uninfected and 44 antiretroviral naïve HIV-1-infected female commercial sex workers (CSWs), as well as 71 HIV-1-uninfected non-CSW women at low risk of exposure, recruited in Cotonou, Benin. HIV-1-infected CSWs had higher genital levels of sHLA-G compared with those in both the HIV-1-uninfected CSW (P?=?0.009) and non-CSW groups (P?=?0.0006). The presence of bacterial vaginosis (P?=?0.008), and HLA-G*01:01:02 genotype (P?=?0.002) were associated with higher genital levels of sHLA-G in the HIV-1-infected CSWs, whereas the HLA-G*01:04:04 genotype was also associated with higher genital level of sHLA-G in the overall population (P?=?0.038). When adjustment was made for all significant variables, the increased expression of sHLA-G in the genital mucosa remained significantly associated with both HIV-1 infection (P?=?0.02) and bacterial vaginosis (P?=?0.03). Conclusion This study demonstrates that high level of sHLA-G in the genital mucosa is independently associated with both HIV-1 infection and bacterial vaginosis. PMID:21966450

  9. Efficacy of RG1-VLP vaccination against infections with genital and cutaneous human papillomaviruses.

    PubMed

    Schellenbacher, Christina; Kwak, Kihyuck; Fink, Dieter; Shafti-Keramat, Saeed; Huber, Bettina; Jindra, Christoph; Faust, Helena; Dillner, Joakim; Roden, Richard B S; Kirnbauer, Reinhard

    2013-12-01

    Licensed human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines, based on virus-like particles (VLPs) self-assembled from major capsid protein L1, afford type-restricted protection against HPV types 16/18/6/11 (or 16/18 for the bivalent vaccine), which cause 70% of cervical cancers (CxCas) and 90% of genital warts. However, they do not protect against less prevalent high-risk (HR) types causing 30% of CxCa, or cutaneous HPV. In contrast, vaccination with the minor capsid protein L2 induces low-level immunity to type-common epitopes. Chimeric RG1-VLP presenting HPV16 L2 amino acids 17-36 (RG1 epitope) within the DE-surface loop of HPV16 L1 induced cross-neutralizing antisera. We hypothesized that RG1-VLP vaccination protects against a large spectrum of mucosal and cutaneous HPV infections in vivo. Immunization with RG1-VLP adjuvanted with human-applicable alum-MPL (aluminum hydroxide plus 3-O-desacyl-4'-monophosphoryl lipid A) induced robust L2 antibodies (ELISA titers 2,500-12,500), which (cross-)neutralized mucosal HR HPV16/18/45/37/33/52/58/35/39/51/59/68/73/26/69/34/70, low-risk HPV6/11/32/40, and cutaneous HPV2/27/3/76 (titers 25-1,000) using native virion- or pseudovirion (PsV)-based assays, and a vigorous cytotoxic T lymphocyte response by enzyme-linked immunospot. In vivo, mice were efficiently protected against experimental vaginal challenge with mucosal HR PsV types HPV16/18/45/31/33/52/58/35/39/51/59/68/56/73/26/53/66/34 and low-risk HPV6/43/44. Enduring protection was demonstrated 1 year after vaccination. RG1-VLP is a promising next-generation vaccine with broad efficacy against all relevant mucosal and also cutaneous HPV types. PMID:23752042

  10. Caspase1 Dependent IL1beta Secretion Is Critical for Host Defense in a Mouse Model of Chlamydia pneumoniae Lung Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenichi Shimada; Timothy R. Crother; Justin Karlin; Shuang Chen; Norika Chiba; V. Krishnan Ramanujan; Laurent Vergnes; David M. Ojcius; Moshe Arditi; Georg Häcker

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP) is an important human pathogen that causes atypical pneumonia and is associated with various chronic inflammatory disorders. Caspase-1 is a key component of the ‘inflammasome’, and is required to cleave pro-IL-1? to bioactive IL-1?. Here we demonstrate for the first time a critical requirement for IL-1? in response to CP infection. Caspase-1?\\/? mice exhibit delayed cytokine production,

  11. The CD14 functional gene polymorphism -260 C>T is not involved in either the susceptibility to Chlamydia trachomatis infection or the development of tubal pathology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sander Ouburg; Joke Spaargaren; Janneke E den Hartog; Jolande A Land; Johan SA Fennema; Jolein Pleijster; A Salvador Peña; Servaas A Morré

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The functional polymorphism -260 C>T in the LPS sensing TLR4 co-receptor CD14 gene enhances the transcriptional activity and results in a higher CD14 receptor density. Individuals carrying the T\\/T genotype also have significantly higher serum levels of soluble CD14. The T allele of this polymorphism has recently been linked to Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. We investigated the role of the

  12. Differences in immunoregulatory cytokine expression patterns in the systemic and genital tract compartments of HIV1-infected commercial sex workers in Benin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Lajoie; J Poudrier; M Massinga-Loembe; F Guédou; C Agossa-Gbenafa; A-C Labbé; M Alary; M Roger

    2008-01-01

    Initial exposure to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) during heterosexual transmission occurs in the genital tract. Although much of the literature on the immune response to HIV-1 infection is based on studies performed at the systemic level, our understanding of tissue-specific immunity is lacking. Levels of both genital mucosal and blood interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor

  13. Cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP): an 'inactive' pharmaceutical excipient with antiviral activity in the mouse model of genital herpesvirus infection.

    PubMed

    Gyotoku, T; Aurelian, L; Neurath, A R

    1999-11-01

    The spread of sexually transmitted infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) has continued unabated. At least 20% of the United States population has been infected with HSV-2 and there is a high probability of further virus transmission by asymptomatic carriers. Given the absence of effective vaccines, this indicates the need to develop prophylactic measures such as topical microbicides that have antiviral activity. Recent studies indicate that cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP), an inactive pharmaceutical excipient commonly used in the production of enteric tablets and capsules, is a broad specificity microbicide against diverse sexually transmitted pathogens. When appropriately formulated in micronized form, it inactivates various viruses, including HSV-2, in vitro. Here we show that CAP inhibits HSV-2 infection in the mouse model of genital HSV-2 infection. Pretreatment with micronized CAP formulated in a glycerol-based cream with colloidal silicone dioxide significantly reduced the proportion of HSV-2-infected mice (10% virus shedding, 0-5% lesion development and 0% fatality for CAP as compared to 84% shedding, 63% lesion development and 63% fatality in saline-treated mice). These differences were significant (P < or = 0.0002 by the test of equality of two proportions). Virus titres in the minority of mice that developed infection were similar to those in untreated mice. HSV-2 infection was not inhibited by treatment with CAP formulated with other inactive ingredients (for example povidone plus crosprovidone) instead of silicone dioxide, presumably reflecting CAP complexation/inactivation. These data suggest that properly formulated, CAP may be an efficacious agent for preventing vaginal transmission of genital herpesvirus infections. PMID:10628808

  14. Induction of alpha/beta interferon and dependent nitric oxide synthesis during Chlamydia trachomatis infection of McCoy cells in the absence of exogenous cytokine.

    PubMed Central

    Devitt, A; Lund, P A; Morris, A G; Pearce, J H

    1996-01-01

    The propensity of two Chlamydia trachomatis strains (L2/434/Bu [biovar LGV] and E/DK20/ON [biovar trachoma]) to induce putative host defense responses upon infection of McCoy (mouse) cell cultures was examined. Both strains induced production of alpha/beta interferon and nitric oxide (NO) by McCoy cells. NO synthesis was mediated by the inducible isoform of NO synthase as indicated by the ability of cycloheximide or the arginine analog NG-monomethyl-L-arginine to abolish NO production; the extent of the response was dependent upon the dose of chlamydiae applied. Incubation of McCoy cells with chloramphenicol prior to infection reduced NO production by strain 434 but not by DK20, suggesting that initial chlamydial metabolism was essential to induction by the LGV strain. Antibody inhibition studies indicated that NO synthesis was dependent upon production of alpha/beta interferon and induction via lipopolysaccharide. Overall, our findings show that chlamydiae are capable of the induction of interferon and NO in murine fibroblasts in the absence of exogenous cytokines. However, the role of NO as an antichlamydial effector could not be clearly demonstrated since treatment with an arginine analog, while suppressing NO production, gave no consistent enhancement of infected cell numbers. PMID:8926054

  15. Evaluating whether pregnancy has an influence on the course of Chlamydia muridarum infection in murine models

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Larry

    2012-01-01

    of vaginal swabs and analysis of infection intensity usingvaginal vaults to collect cytokine secretion. Samples were obtained prior to and after infection.Infection was quantified by calculating the ratio of non-infected versus infected HeLa cells. Vaginal

  16. Effects of sustained antibiotic bactericidal treatment on Chlamydia trachomatis-infected epithelial-like cells (HeLa) and monocyte-like cells (THP-1 and U-937).

    PubMed

    Mpiga, Philomene; Ravaoarinoro, Madeleine

    2006-04-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a human pathogen that causes multiple diseases worldwide. Despite appropriate therapy with existing antichlamydial antibiotics, chronic exacerbated diseases often occur and lead to serious sequelae. Since C. trachomatis has been found to enter a persistent state after exposure to deleterious conditions, the role of persistence in the failure of chlamydial antibiotherapy is questioned. HeLa, THP-1 and U-937 cells were infected with 10(4)C. trachomatis serovar L2 infectious particles. Three days later the infected cells were treated with minimal bactericidal concentrations of doxycycline (DOX), erythromycin (ERY) or tetracycline (TET) for 24 days or 30 days. Antibiotic efficacy was assessed by measuring chlamydial inclusions and infectious particles, by investigating the resumption of chlamydial growth after antibiotic removal and by testing Chlamydia viability using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction targeting unprocessed 16S rRNA, processed 16S rRNA and Omp-1 mRNA. Treatment of infected HeLa cells with the usual antichlamydial antibiotics suppressed chlamydial active growth. The infection remained unapparent. However, 24 days post treatment the bacterium was found to be viable, as proved by continued expression of unprocessed and processed 16S rRNA and Omp-1 mRNA. This inactive unapparent chlamydial state is not infectious, suggesting Chlamydia persistence. Chlamydia trachomatis also developed persistence both in permissive THP-1 and non-permissive U-937 cells. Unlike in HeLa cells, persistent chlamydial infection in THP-1 and U-937 cells was resolved after 30 days of DOX treatment. Of interest, we noticed that only THP-1 and U-937 cells that were persistently infected following their interaction with infected HeLa cells remained capable of transmitting active infection to HeLa cells. These findings suggest that DOX, TET and ERY, usually administered to combat chlamydial diseases, fail to resolve persistent infection occurring during treatment in non-immune HeLa cells. However, in immune THP-1 and U-937 cells, the persistent infection is resolved by therapy with DOX. Epithelial cells could be the reservoir of persistent chlamydial particles. PMID:16527461

  17. Cutaneous human papillomavirus types detected on the surface of male external genital lesions: A case series within the HPV Infection in Men Study

    PubMed Central

    Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Messina, Jane L.; Stoler, Mark H.; Jukic, Drazen M.; Tommasino, Massimo; Gheit, Tarik; Rollison, Dana E.; Sichero, Laura; Sirak, Bradley A.; Ingles, Donna J.; Abrahamsen, Martha; Lu, Beibei; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPVs) may be associated with cutaneous epithelial lesions and non-melanoma skin cancers. No study has systematically evaluated the presence of genus beta [?]-HPV in male genital skin or external genital lesions (EGLs). Objectives To examine cutaneous ?-HPV types detected on the surface of EGLs in men and describe their presence prior to EGL development. Study design A retrospective case series was conducted among 69 men with pathologically confirmed EGLs (n=72) who participated in the HPV Infection in Men Study. Archived exfoliated cells collected from the surface of each EGL and normal genital skin specimens 6–12 months preceding EGL development were tested for ?-HPV DNA using a type-specific multiplex genotyping assay. Results ?-HPV DNA was detected on 61.1% of all EGLs, with types 38 (16.7%), 5 (15.3%), and 12 (12.5%) most commonly identified. HPV prevalence differed across pathological diagnoses, with the largest number of ?-HPV types detected on condylomas. Most ?-HPV types were detected on normal genital skin prior to EGL development, though the prevalence was lower on EGLs compared to preceding normal genital skin. Conclusions EGLs and the normal genital skin of men harbor a large number of ?-HPV types; however, it appears that ?-HPVs are unrelated to EGL development in men. Despite evidence to support a causal role in skin carcinogenesis at UVR-exposed sites, cutaneous HPV appears unlikely to cause disease at the UVR-unexposed genitals. PMID:24210970

  18. Quotidian Changes of Genital Tract Cytokines in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1-Infected Women During the Menstrual Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Cortez, Valerie; Odem-Davis, Katherine; Lehman, Dara A.; Mabuka, Jennifer; Overbaugh, Julie

    2014-01-01

    The role of hormonal changes throughout the menstrual cycle on genital tract inflammation during chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is not well defined, but it has implications for HIV prevention. We assessed daily levels of 26 vaginal cytokines and chemokines from 15 women infected with HIV-1. Taking into account coexisting sexually transmitted infections, behavioral factors, and menstruation, this study illustrates cyclic patterns of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interferon-?2, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1?, MIP-1?, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?. Progesterone was associated with levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, IL-1?, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. Interferon-?2, IL-6, MIP-1?, MIP-1?, and TNF-? levels predicted HIV shedding, but these associations were heavily influenced by the menstrual cycle. PMID:25734076

  19. Clinical conditions associated with positive complement fixation serology for Chlamydiae.

    PubMed Central

    Puolakkainen, M.; Kousa, M.; Saikku, P.

    1987-01-01

    The hospital records of 242 patients with diagnostic chlamydial complement fixation (CF) titres (seroconversion and/or titre greater than or equal to 64) found among 60,000 patients screened for suspected viral illnesses were reviewed to study the clinical conditions associated with positive CF serology for Chlamydiae. After excluding typical genital C. trachomatis infections, the majority of the remainder were considered to represent C. psittaci infections. Respiratory symptoms were the most common clinical manifestations of chlamydial infections detectable by CF, but the majority (58%) of the patients did not have pneumonia. Abdominal, neurological as well as urinary tract symptoms were common. Cutaneous, joint, cardiac, genital and ocular manifestations were also noted. Fever (greater than or equal to 38.5 degrees C) was present in 62% of the patients. The ESR was raised (greater than or equal to 20 mm/h) in the majority of the patients (83%), but the leucocyte count was usually (86%) within normal limits. Because the clinical spectrum of C. psittaci infections is apparently broad, serological tests for detecting antibodies to C. psittaci (e.g. CF) should be used widely in various clinical conditions and not for patients with pneumonia alone. PMID:3556433

  20. Molecular epidemiology of selected sexually transmitted infections

    PubMed Central

    Jalal, Hamid; Delaney, Andrew; Bentley, Neil; Sonnex, Christopher; Carne, Christopher A

    2013-01-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) are established pathogens for human genital tract. However, the role of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) and Ureaplasma parvum (UP) in genital pathology is poorly unerstood. A prospective study to investigate the prevalence of above infections was performed on a cohort of 1,718 consecutive patients attending a Genitourinary Medicine (GUM) clinic. A previously published in-house real-time PCR assay, for the detection of CT DNA in genital swabs, was modified for this study. Two amplification reactions detected the DNAs of TV, NG, MG, CT, UU and UP in genital swabs from 4 (0.2%), 11 (0.6%), 17 (1%), 129 (8%), 282 (16%) and 636 (37%) patients, respectively. 594 (70%) of 848 women and 333 (38%) of 870 men were infected with at least one type of microorganism. Among 594 infected females, 485 (82%) had a single infection, 97 (16%) had a double infection, and 12 (2%) had a triple infection. Of the 333 infected men, 304 (91%) had a single infection, 27 (8%) had a double infection, and 2 (1%) had a triple infection. The prevalence of infection in both genders decreased with increasing age. The prevalence proportion of UP was significantly higher in women (54%) compared with men (18%). The high prevalence of UU and UP suggests that these bacteria are commensals of genital tract. PMID:24046809

  1. The use of molecular techniques for the diagnosis and epidemiologic study of sexually transmitted infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolyn M. Black; Stephen A. Morse

    2000-01-01

    Molecular diagnostic tests are more sensitive and, in many cases, more specific than conventional laboratory methods for the\\u000a detection of sexually transmitted infections. Here, we review recently developed molecular methods for the diagnosis and subtyping\\u000a of the most common sexually transmitted infections: infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, human papillomavirus, Trichomonas vaginalis, and the agents of genital ulcer disease

  2. Opportunistic testing for urogenital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in south-western Switzerland, 2012: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Bally, F; Quach, A; Greub, G; Jaton, K; Petignat, C; Ambord, C; Fellay, J; Masserey, E; Spencer, B

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of opportunistic screening of urogenital infections with Chlamydia trachomatis was assessed in a cross-sectional study in 2012, in two cantons of south-western Switzerland: Vaud and Valais. Sexually active persons younger than 30 years, not tested for C. trachomatis in the last three months, were invited for free C. trachomatis testing by PCR in urine or self-applied vaginal swabs. Of 2,461 consenting participants, 1,899 (77%) were women and all but six (0.3%) submitted a sample. Forty-seven per cent of female and 25% of male participants were younger than 20 years. Overall, 134 (5.5%) of 2,455 tested participants had a positive result and were followed up. Seven per cent of all candidates for screening were not invited, 10% of invited candidates were not eligible, 15% of the eligible candidates declined participation, 5% of tested participants testing positive were not treated, 29% of those treated were not retested after six months and 9% of those retested were positive for C. trachomatis. Opportunistic C. trachomatis testing proved technically feasible and acceptable, at least if free of charge. Men and peripheral rural regions were more difficult to reach. Efforts to increase testing and decrease dropout at all stages of the screening procedure are necessary. PMID:25764187

  3. Herpes simplex virus-2 genital tract shedding is not predictable over months or years in infected persons.

    PubMed

    Dhankani, Varsha; Kutz, J Nathan; Schiffer, Joshua T

    2014-11-01

    Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) is a chronic reactivating infection that leads to recurrent shedding episodes in the genital tract. A minority of episodes are prolonged, and associated with development of painful ulcers. However, currently, available tools poorly predict viral trajectories and timing of reactivations in infected individuals. We employed principal components analysis (PCA) and singular value decomposition (SVD) to interpret HSV-2 genital tract shedding time series data, as well as simulation output from a stochastic spatial mathematical model. Empirical and model-derived, time-series data gathered over >30 days consists of multiple complex episodes that could not be reduced to a manageable number of descriptive features with PCA and SVD. However, single HSV-2 shedding episodes, even those with prolonged duration and complex morphologies consisting of multiple erratic peaks, were consistently described using a maximum of four dominant features. Modeled and clinical episodes had equivalent distributions of dominant features, implying similar dynamics in real and simulated episodes. We applied linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to simulation output and identified that local immune cell density at the viral reactivation site had a predictive effect on episode duration, though longer term shedding suggested chaotic dynamics and could not be predicted based on spatial patterns of immune cell density. These findings suggest that HSV-2 shedding patterns within an individual are impossible to predict over weeks or months, and that even highly complex single HSV-2 episodes can only be partially predicted based on spatial distribution of immune cell density. PMID:25375183

  4. Herpes Simplex Virus-2 Genital Tract Shedding Is Not Predictable over Months or Years in Infected Persons

    PubMed Central

    Dhankani, Varsha; Kutz, J. Nathan; Schiffer, Joshua T.

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) is a chronic reactivating infection that leads to recurrent shedding episodes in the genital tract. A minority of episodes are prolonged, and associated with development of painful ulcers. However, currently, available tools poorly predict viral trajectories and timing of reactivations in infected individuals. We employed principal components analysis (PCA) and singular value decomposition (SVD) to interpret HSV-2 genital tract shedding time series data, as well as simulation output from a stochastic spatial mathematical model. Empirical and model-derived, time-series data gathered over >30 days consists of multiple complex episodes that could not be reduced to a manageable number of descriptive features with PCA and SVD. However, single HSV-2 shedding episodes, even those with prolonged duration and complex morphologies consisting of multiple erratic peaks, were consistently described using a maximum of four dominant features. Modeled and clinical episodes had equivalent distributions of dominant features, implying similar dynamics in real and simulated episodes. We applied linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to simulation output and identified that local immune cell density at the viral reactivation site had a predictive effect on episode duration, though longer term shedding suggested chaotic dynamics and could not be predicted based on spatial patterns of immune cell density. These findings suggest that HSV-2 shedding patterns within an individual are impossible to predict over weeks or months, and that even highly complex single HSV-2 episodes can only be partially predicted based on spatial distribution of immune cell density. PMID:25375183

  5. [Chlamydia infections in children with acquired cicatricial laryngeal and tracheal stenosis].

    PubMed

    Soldatski?, Iu L; Vinogradova, T V; Onufrieva, E K; Konno, V I; Semenov, A V

    2002-01-01

    The examination for Chlamydial infection was carried out in 49 children aged from 1 year 10 months to 15 years (mean age 9 years 6 months +/- 3 years 8 months) with laryngotracheal cicatricial stenosis (CS) provoked by long nasotracheal intubation. Antibodies to C. pneumoniae in diagnostically significant titers were detected in 13 of 49 children (26.5%), to C. trachomatis--in 1 patient who had both infections. All the infected patients except the latter carried tracheal canules or were decanulated. Age of the patients with Chlamydial infection at the time of examination and development of CS was significantly older than of non-infected children. No significant difference was found between these patients by duration of the intubation and of the disease. Consideration of the fact that 12 of 13 children with C. pneumoniae infection carried tracheocanules suggests that the infection may be secondary. PMID:12501774

  6. Isolation and identification of Taylorella asinigenitalis from the genital tract of a stallion, first case of a natural infection.

    PubMed

    Båverud, V; Nyström, C; Johansson, K-E

    2006-09-10

    Contagious equine metritis (CEM), caused by Taylorella equigenitalis, is a widely known highly contagious genital equine disease that is transmitted venereally. A new bacterium, Taylorella asinigenitalis resembling T. equigenitalis was recently isolated from three American donkey jacks, at routine testing for CEM. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize a strain of Taylorella sp. from the genital tract of a stallion. Swab samples for culture of T. equigenitalis were taken from urethral fossa, urethra and penile sheath of a 3-year-old stallion of the Ardennes breed when it was routinely tested for CEM. A small Gram-negative rod was isolated, but the colony appearance, the slow growth rate and the results in the API ZYM test differed slightly from those of T. equigenitalis. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was therefore performed and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the sequence of the strain Bd 3751/05 represents T. asinigenitalis and that the strain is identical with the Californian asinine strain UCD-1T (ATCC 700933T). The T. asinigenitalis strain had a low MIC of gentamicin (MIC16 microg/ml). Taylorella asinigenitalis has thus for the first time been isolated from the genital tract of a stallion with a natural infection. To determine the pathogenicity of T. asinigenitalis it will be important to conduct further experimental studies. Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes was shown to be a reliable tool for differentiation of T. asinigenitalis from T. equigenitalis as well as for identification of these species. PMID:16793226

  7. Diagnosis by AMPLICOR PCR of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in urine samples from women and men attending sexually transmitted disease clinics.

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, T C; Welsh, L; Lentz, A; Crotchfelt, K; Zenilman, J; Newhall, J; Gaydos, C

    1996-01-01

    Screening of urine specimens from men for Chlamydia trachomatis infection by a commercial PCR assay (AMPLICOR C. trachomatis Test; Roche Diagnostic Systems, Inc., Branchburg, N.J.) is a sensitive and specific noninvasive diagnostic assay. Since screening of women for C. trachomatis infection with the AMPLICOR C. trachomatis Test has been limited to use with endocervical swab specimens, we conducted an evaluation of the AMPLICOR C. trachomatis Test for the detection of C. trachomatis using female urine samples and compared the results of those obtained by in vitro culture and PCR of endocervical swab specimens. For 713 men we compared the performance of AMPLICOR C. trachomatis Test with urine specimens with that of culture of urethral specimens. For specimens that were PCR positive and culture negative, two additional tests were used to resolve the discrepancies: direct fluorescent-antibody assay (DFA) of sediment from a spun endocervical specimen culture vial and major outer membrane protein-based PCR of the sediment from the endocervical specimen culture vial. Of 525 urine specimens from females, 67 (12.8%) were PCR positive, and 41 (7.8%) endocervical specimens from the 525 women were culture positive. After resolution of the discrepancies, the resolved sensitivity of the urine PCR was 93.3%, whereas the sensitivity of endocervical swab specimen culture was 67.3%. Of 468 female endocervical swab specimens, 47 (10.0%) had a positive PCR result and 33 (7.0%) were culture positive. The resolved sensitivity of the endocervical swab specimen PCR was 86%. Of 415 matched female urine and endocervical swab specimens, there were 49 confirmed infections; 30 (61.2%) specimens were positive by culture of the endocervical swab specimen, 40 (81.6%) were positive by confirmed endocervical swab specimen PCR, 43 (87.8%) were positive by confirmed urine PCR, and all 49 (100%) were positive by either endocervical swab specimen PCR or urine PCR. For men, the resolved sensitivity of the urine PCR was 88%, and the sensitivity of culture was only 50.7%. These results indicate that urine PCR is highly sensitive for the detection of C. trachomatis in both women and men and provides a noninvasive technique for routine screening for chlamydial infection. PMID:8735088

  8. Biological and hormonal markers of chlamydia, human papillomavirus, and bacterial vaginosis among adolescents attending genitourinary medicine clinics

    PubMed Central

    Brabin, L; Fairbrother, E; Mandal, D; Roberts, S; Higgins, S; Chandiok, S; Wood, P; Barnard, G; Kitchener, H

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess maturity indices, menstrual patterns, hormonal factors, and risk of adolescent genital tract infections. Methods: Cross sectional study in three genitourinary medicine clinics. Females 17 years or less, within 5 years of menarche, or reporting oligo-amenorrhoea were screened for genital tract infections and menstrual cycle characteristics determined. The outcome measures were risk factors associated with chlamydia, human papillomavirus (HPV DNA) and bacterial vaginosis (BV), separately and pooled. Correlations between estrone-3-glucuronide (E3G) and pregnanediol-3?-glucuronide (P3G) hormone concentrations and chlamydia, HPV, and BV. Results: Among 127 adolescents, HPV was present in 64.4% (95% CI: 54.5 to 74.3), BV in 33.9% (19.1 to 34.5), and chlamydia in 26.8% (19.1 to 34.5). Breast maturity, oligomenorrhoea, and older gynaecological age were associated with lower risk of all infections. After adjustment for calendar age, race, and behavioural factors, gynaecological age remained significant (OR = 0.7, 0.6–0.9; p = 0.008). Behavioural risk factors differed by infection. Smoking was protective for HPV (OR = 0.1, 0.0 to 0.9; p = 0.007), and a recent new partner for chlamydia (OR = 0.3, 0.1 to 0.9; p = 0.024). Sex during menses was associated with increased BV risk (OR = 3.3, 1.5 to 7.2; p = 0.003). Chlamydia was higher among adolescents who used emergency contraception (2.5; 1.1 to 5.9, p = 0.029) and lower among those using condoms at last sex (OR = 0.3, 0.1 to 0.9; p = 0.015). Among 25 adolescents not using hormonal contraceptives, 15 had disturbed or anovulatory cycles. Chlamydia risk was inversely associated with P3G concentrations (Mann-Whitney; p = 0.05). Conclusions: Adolescents engaging in high risk behaviour at a young gynaecological age are susceptible to multiple infections. Adolescent clinical assessment should include gynaecological age. PMID:15800089

  9. Analyses of polymorphisms in the inflammasome-associated NLRP3 and miRNA146a genes in the susceptibility to and tubal pathology of Chlamydia trachomatis infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Wang; F. R. Stassen; H.-M. Surcel; M. Öhman; A. Tiitinen; J. Paavonen; Vries de H. J. C; R. Heijmans; J. Pleijster; S. A. Morré; S. Ouburg

    2009-01-01

    Susceptibility to Chlamydia trachomatis infections is 40% host based. microRNA-146a is a negative regulator of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling and possesses functional polymorphisms which decrease the production of pre-miR-146a and mature miR-146a. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NLRP3 are associated with decreased NLRP3 expression and hypoproduction of interleukin (IL)-1 beta. We investigated whether the SNPs miR-146a G>C (rs2910164), NLRP3 C>T

  10. Evaluation of pulmonary dysfunctions and acid–base imbalances induced by Chlamydia psittaci in a bovine model of respiratory infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chlamydia psittaci (Cp) is a respiratory pathogen capable of inducing acute pulmonary zoonotic disease (psittacosis) or persistent infection. To elucidate the pathogenesis of this infection, a translational large animal model was recently introduced by our group. This study aims at quantifying and differentiating pulmonary dysfunction and acid–base imbalances induced by Cp. Methods Forty-two calves were grouped in (i) animals inoculated with Cp (n?=?21) and (ii) controls sham-inoculated with uninfected cell culture (n?=?21). For pulmonary function testing, impulse oscillometry, capnography, and FRC (functional residual capacity) measurement were applied to spontaneously breathing animals. Variables of acid–base status were assessed in venous blood using both (i) traditional Henderson-Hasselbalch and (ii) strong ion approach. Results Both obstructive and restrictive pulmonary disorders were induced in calves experimentally inoculated with Cp. Although disorders in respiratory mechanics lasted for 8–11 days, the pattern of spontaneous breathing was mainly altered in the period of acute illness (until 4 days post inoculation, dpi). Expiration was more impaired than inspiration, resulting in elevated FRC. Ventilation was characterised by a reduction in tidal volume (?25%) combined with an increased percentage of dead space volume and a significant reduction of alveolar volume by 10%. Minute ventilation increased significantly (+50%) due to a compensatory doubling of respiratory rate. Hyperventilatory hypocapnia at 2–3 dpi resulted in slightly increased blood pH at 2 dpi. However, the acid–base equilibrium was additionally influenced by metabolic components, i.e. the systemic inflammatory response, all of which were detected with help of the strong ion theory. Decreased concentrations of albumin (2–10 dpi), a negative acute-phase marker, resulted in a decrease in the sum of non-volatile weak acids (Atot), revealing an alkalotic effect. This was counterbalanced by acidic effects of decreased strong ion difference (SID), mediated by the interplay between hypochloraemia (alkalotic effect) and hyponatraemia (acidic effect). Conclusions This bovine model was found to be suitable for studying pathophysiology of respiratory Cp infection and may help elucidating functional host-pathogen interactions in the mammalian lung. PMID:24517577

  11. Acyclovir vs isoprinosine (immunovir) for suppression of recurrent genital herpes simplex infection.

    PubMed Central

    Kinghorn, G R; Woolley, P D; Thin, R N; De Maubeuge, J; Foidart, J M; Engst, R

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare the efficacy and safety of oral acyclovir (400 mg twice daily) with oral isoprinosine (500 mg twice daily) in the suppression of recurrent genital herpes. DESIGN--Double-blind, double-dummy, randomised, controlled, parallel group trial. SETTING--13 centres in UK, Belgium and Germany. SUBJECTS--127 immunocompetent patients with frequently recurring genital herpes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Proportions of patients reporting recurrences, recurrence frequency, and mean duration of lesions during breakthrough recurrences in each treatment group during a 6 month treatment period; time to first recurrence during treatment and follow-up after treatment cessation. RESULTS--During treatment, acyclovir recipients showed significant differences (p < 0.05) when compared with isoprinosine recipients in terms of a lower proportion reporting recurrences (31% vs 96%), a reduced mean number of reported recurrences per patient (0.6 vs 3.6), a shorter mean duration of breakthrough lesions (6.4 days vs 8.2 days), and a longer mean time (standard error) to first recurrence (143.7 (9.1) days vs 40.5 (5.4) days. The mean time to first recurrence after treatment cessation did not differ between the two groups. As compared with placebo recipients, isoprinosine treated patients had an increased recurrence frequency (3.6 vs 2.5) during treatment, and a shorter time to first recurrence after treatment cessation. All treatments were well tolerated without serious adverse events or toxicity. CONCLUSIONS--Acyclovir is very effective in suppressing recurrent genital herpes and is clearly superior to isoprinosine which is not clinically useful in the dosage studied. PMID:1385295

  12. A Bovine Model of Respiratory Chlamydia psittaci Infection: Challenge Dose Titration

    PubMed Central

    Reinhold, Petra; Ostermann, Carola; Liebler-Tenorio, Elisabeth; Berndt, Angela; Vogel, Anette; Lambertz, Jacqueline; Rothe, Michael; Rüttger, Anke; Schubert, Evelyn; Sachse, Konrad

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to establish and evaluate a bovine respiratory model of experimentally induced acute C. psittaci infection. Calves are natural hosts and pathogenesis may resemble the situation in humans. Intrabronchial inoculation of C. psittaci strain DC15 was performed in calves aged 2–3 months via bronchoscope at four different challenge doses from 106 to 109 inclusion-forming units (ifu) per animal. Control groups received either UV-inactivated C. psittaci or cell culture medium. While 106 ifu/calf resulted in a mild respiratory infection only, the doses of 107 and 108 induced fever, tachypnea, dry cough, and tachycardia that became apparent 2–3 days post inoculation (dpi) and lasted for about one week. In calves exposed to 109 ifu C. psittaci, the respiratory disease was accompanied by severe systemic illness (apathy, tremor, markedly reduced appetite). At the time point of most pronounced clinical signs (3 dpi) the extent of lung lesions was below 10% of pulmonary tissue in calves inoculated with 106 and 107 ifu, about 15% in calves inoculated with 108 and more than 30% in calves inoculated with 109 ifu C. psittaci. Beside clinical signs and pathologic lesions, the bacterial load of lung tissue and markers of pulmonary inflammation (i.e., cell counts, concentration of proteins and eicosanoids in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid) were positively associated with ifu of viable C. psittaci. While any effect of endotoxin has been ruled out, all effects could be attributed to infection by the replicating bacteria. In conclusion, the calf represents a suitable model of respiratory chlamydial infection. Dose titration revealed that both clinically latent and clinically manifest infection can be reproduced experimentally by either 106 or 108 ifu/calf of C. psittaci DC15 while doses above 108 ifu C. psittaci cannot be recommended for further studies for ethical reasons. This defined model of different clinical expressions of chlamydial infection allows studying host-pathogen interactions. PMID:22299031

  13. Detection of viral, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections in exacerbations of asthma in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    François Freymuth; Astrid Vabret; Jacques Brouard; Fabienne Toutain; Renaud Verdon; Joelle Petitjean; Stéphanie Gouarin; Jean-François Duhamel; Bernard Guillois

    1999-01-01

    Background: A high frequency of virus infections has been recently pointed out in the exacerbations of asthma in children. Objectives: To confirm this, using conventional and molecular detection methods, and expanding the study to younger children.Study design: One hundred and thirty-two nasal aspirates from 75 children hospitalized for a severe attack of asthma were studied (32 infants, mean age 9.1

  14. Valaciclovir for the suppression of recurrent genital HSV infection: a placebo controlled study of once daily therapy. International Valaciclovir HSV Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Patel, R; Bodsworth, N J; Woolley, P; Peters, B; Vejlsgaard, G; Saari, S; Gibb, A; Robinson, J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy and safety of once daily valaciclovir for the suppression of recurrent genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in immunocompetent patients. METHODS: 382 otherwise healthy patients with a history of frequently recurring genital HSV infection (eight recurrences per year) were randomly allocated to receive either oral valaciclovir (500 mg once daily) or placebo (3:1 ratio) for 16 weeks or until the first genital HSV recurrence, whichever occurred first. Patients were clinically assessed at regular intervals and also if they experienced a recurrence. Safety was evaluated through adverse experience reporting and monitoring of haematology and biochemistry variables. On completion of the double blind phase, patients were eligible for follow up to a maximum of 48 weeks' treatment with open label valaciclovir (500 mg once daily) for further safety monitoring. The results from the double blind phase of the study are reported here. RESULTS: A significant difference was detected between valaciclovir and placebo in the time to first recurrence of genital HSV infection. The hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] for valaciclovir v placebo was 0.155 [0.112, 0.214], p < 0.0001. Valaciclovir prevented or delayed 85% of the recurrences that would have occurred with placebo. After 16 weeks (day 112) with treatment, 69% of patients receiving valaciclovir were recurrence free compared with only 9.5% of patients assigned to placebo. The safety profiles of valaciclovir and placebo were comparable, with adverse experiences being infrequent and generally mild. CONCLUSION: This study has demonstrated that once daily valaciclovir (500 mg), is highly effective and well tolerated for the suppression of recurrent genital HSV infection. Once daily dosing with valaciclovir provides a more convenient dosing regimen than the more frequent aciclovir regimens. PMID:9215091

  15. Better than nothing? Patient-delivered partner therapy and partner notification for chlamydia: the views of Australian general practitioners

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Genital chlamydia is the most commonly notified sexually transmissible infection (STI) in Australia and worldwide and can have serious reproductive health outcomes. Partner notification, testing and treatment are important facets of chlamydia control. Traditional methods of partner notification are not reaching enough partners to effectively control transmission of chlamydia. Patient-delivered partner therapy (PDPT) has been shown to improve the treatment of sexual partners. In Australia, General Practitioners (GPs) are responsible for the bulk of chlamydia testing, diagnosis, treatment and follow up. This study aimed to determine the views and practices of Australian general practitioners (GPs) in relation to partner notification and PDPT for chlamydia and explored GPs' perceptions of their patients' barriers to notifying partners of a chlamydia diagnosis. Methods In-depth, semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 40 general practitioners (GPs) from rural, regional and urban Australia from November 2006 to March 2007. Topics covered: GPs' current practice and views about partner notification, perceived barriers and useful supports, previous use of and views regarding PDPT. Transcripts were imported into NVivo7 and subjected to thematic analysis. Data saturation was reached after 32 interviews had been completed. Results Perceived barriers to patients telling partners (patient referral) included: stigma; age and cultural background; casual or long-term relationship, ongoing relationship or not. Barriers to GPs undertaking partner notification (provider referral) included: lack of time and staff; lack of contact details; uncertainty about the legality of contacting partners and whether this constitutes breach of patient confidentiality; and feeling both personally uncomfortable and inadequately trained to contact someone who is not their patient. GPs were divided on the use of PDPT - many felt concerned that it is not best clinical practice but many also felt that it is better than nothing. GPs identified the following factors which they considered would facilitate partner notification: clear clinical guidelines; a legal framework around partner notification; a formal chlamydia screening program; financial incentives; education and practical support for health professionals, and raising awareness of chlamydia in the community, in particular amongst young people. Conclusions GPs reported some partners do not seek medical treatment even after they are notified of being a sexual contact of a patient with chlamydia. More routine use of PDPT may help address this issue however GPs in this study had negative attitudes to the use of PDPT. Appropriate guidelines and legislation may make the use of PDPT more acceptable to Australian GPs. PMID:20849663

  16. Differential effects of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection on cytokine levels in human T lymphocyte- and monocyte-derived cell cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yukimitsu Mamata; Amal Hakki; Catherine Newton; Nicholas Burdash; Thomas W. Klein; Herman Friedman

    2007-01-01

    Continuous cultures of human lymphocyte- and monocyte-derived cell lines were examined for levels of immunoregulatory cytokines important in resistance to the intracellular opportunistic bacterium Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cp), a ubiquitous pathogen widely disseminated in the population and hypothesized to be involved in chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis and neurological diseases like multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. The results of this

  17. Survival of Chlamydia pneumoniae-Infected Mono Mac 6 Cells Is Dependent on NF-kappa B Binding Activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHRISTIAN WAHL; FRANZ OSWALD; ULRIKE SIMNACHER; SONJA WEISS; REINHARD MARRE; ANDREAS ESSIG

    2001-01-01

    The respiratory tract pathogen Chlamydia pneumoniae has been associated with atherosclerosis. Monocytes are supposed to serve as a vehicle for systemic dissemination of intracellular C. pneumoniae from the lung to the artery vessel wall. We were therefore interested in pathogen-induced cellular events associated with NF-B, a crucial transcription factor for both inflammatory cytokines and antiapoptotic molecules. In this study we

  18. Sexually Transmitted Infections and Risk Factors for Gonorrhea and Chlamydia in Female Sex Workers in Soc Trang, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    NGUYEN, THUONG VU; VAN KHUU, NGHIA; LE, TRUC THANH THI; NGUYEN, ANH PHUONG; CAO, VAN; THAM, DUNG CHI; DETELS, ROGER

    2010-01-01

    Goal To determine the prevalence of selected STIs and correlates of chlamydia (CT) and gonorrhea (GC) infection among (FSWs) in Soc Trang province, Vietnam. Study Design Four hundred and six FSWs in Soc Trang province participated in a cross-sectional study between May and August, 2003. The study subjects were interviewed to obtain information about socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics and gynecologic and STI history, using a standardized interview. They underwent a physical examination during which cervical swabs were collected for GC and CT testing by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Vaginal wet mount microscopy was performed to detect candidiasis and trichomoniasis (TV), and blood was drawn for testing for syphilis using rapid plasma reagin (RPR)+ Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA). Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the associations of GC, CT, and GC/CT with selected variables. Results Prevalences were 14.9% for GC, 48.4% for CT, 54.9% for GC/CT, 3.8% for syphilis, 8.9% for trichomoniasis, and 12.2% for candidiasis. Increased risk for CT was associated with sex work for more than 6 months (aOR = 2.40, 95% CI: 0.99–5.82), receiving $4 US or less per sexual transaction (aOR = 1.91, 95% CI 1.13–3.23), and ever having terminated a pregnancy (aOR = 1.68, 95% CI 1.00–2.82). Reduced likelihood of CT was associated with older age (aOR = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.93–1.00) and ever having douched in the past month (aOR = 0.60, 95% CI 0.36–1.00). Only ever douching in the past month was associated with decreased risk for GC (aOR = 0.47, 95% CI 0.25–0.87). Higher likelihood of GC/CT was associated with having more than 4 clients per month (OR = 2.35, 95% CI 1.02–5.41) and receiving $4 US or less per sexual transaction (aOR = 1.74, 95% CI 1.04–2.93). Conclusions The prevalence of GC/CT is high amongst FSWs in Soc Trang. Therefore, periodic presumptive treatment (PPT) for cervicitis, together with World Health Organization-recommended periodic syndromic sexually transmitted disease management, for FSWs and further interventions should be considered, and a 100% condom use program should be promptly implemented. The existing STI health education program for FSWs should be strengthened, with special consideration of the correlates observed in this study. PMID:18685547

  19. Female Genital Tract Secretions Inhibit Herpes Simplex Virus Infection: Correlation with Soluble Mucosal Immune Mediators and Impact of Hormonal Contraception

    PubMed Central

    Shust, Gail F.; Cho, Sylvia; Kim, Mimi; Madan, Rebecca P.; Guzman, Esmeralda M.; Pollack, Margaret; Epstein, Julia; Cohen, Hillel W.; Keller, Marla J.; Herold, Betsy C.

    2015-01-01

    Problem Female genital tract secretions inhibit HSV infection, however, the intra- and inter-subject variability, contribution of specific mediators, and impact of reproductive hormones have not been defined. Method of Study Cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) (n=89) obtained from nine cyclers and seven women on hormonal contraception, who completed between three and eight weekly visits, were examined for anti-HSV activity and concentrations of mediators. Results CVL inhibited HSV infection by a mean of ~ 57% during the follicular or luteal phase, but only by 36% in hormonal contraceptive users. Human neutrophil peptides1-3 (HNP1-3) (p=0.03), IL-8 (p=0.003), lactoferrin (p=0.005), lysozyme (p=0.003), IgA (p=0.002), and IgG (p=0.02) correlated with antiviral activity. Intra-subject and inter-subject variability was observed, suggesting that factors other than hormones contribute to innate defense. Conclusions Endogenous antimicrobial activity may provide a biomarker of healthy mucosal immunity and may be reduced in the setting of hormonal contraception. However, larger prospective studies are needed. PMID:20015330

  20. Soap and water prophylaxis for limiting genital ulcer disease and HIV-1 infection in men in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    O'Farrell, N

    1993-08-01

    In general, East, Central and Southern Africa appear to be worse affected by HIV-1 infection than West Africa. So far there is little evidence to suggest that differences in either sexual behaviour or numbers of sexual partners could account for this disparity. Two risk factors in men for acquiring HIV-1, that tend to vary along this geographical divide, are lack of circumcision and genital ulcer disease (GUD) which are much less common in West Africa. Although uncircumcised men with GUD are an important high frequency HIV-1 transmitter core group, few interventions have targeted such individuals. Given the recent expansion in AIDS-related technologies, is it possible that methods effective in limiting GUD in the preantibiotic era have been overlooked? During the first and second world wars, chancroid, the commonest cause of GUD in Africa today, was controlled successfully with various prophylactics including soap and water. Many parts of Africa are undergoing social upheaval against a background of violence, and in this environment soap and water prophylaxis would now seem to merit re-evaluation as an intervention for preventing both GUD and HIV-1 in uncircumcised men. By facilitating healing of traumatic, inflammatory and infected penile lesions, pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis with soap and water could be a cheap and effective method for decreasing the risks of acquiring GUD and HIV in this vulnerable group of uncircumcised men. PMID:7721293

  1. Immunization with a MOMP-Based Vaccine Protects Mice against a Pulmonary Chlamydia Challenge and Identifies a Disconnection between Infection and Pathology

    PubMed Central

    O’Meara, Connor P.; Armitage, Charles W.; Harvie, Marina C. G.; Timms, Peter; Lycke, Nils Y.; Beagley, Kenneth W.

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is responsible for up to 20% of community acquired pneumonia and can exacerbate chronic inflammatory diseases. As the majority of infections are either mild or asymptomatic, a vaccine is recognized to have the greatest potential to reduce infection and disease prevalence. Using the C. muridarum mouse model of infection, we immunized animals via the intranasal (IN), sublingual (SL) or transcutaneous (TC) routes, with recombinant chlamydial major outer membrane protein (MOMP) combined with adjuvants CTA1-DD or a combination of cholera toxin/CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide (CT/CpG). Vaccinated animals were challenged IN with C. muridarum and protection against infection and pathology was assessed. SL and TC immunization with MOMP and CT/CpG was the most protective, significantly reducing chlamydial burden in the lungs and preventing weight loss, which was similar to the protection induced by a previous live infection. Unlike a previous infection however, these vaccinations also provided almost complete protection against fibrotic scarring in the lungs. Protection against infection was associated with antigen-specific production of IFN?, TNF? and IL-17 by splenocytes, however, protection against both infection and pathology required the induction of a similar pro-inflammatory response in the respiratory tract draining lymph nodes. Interestingly, we also identified two contrasting vaccinations capable of preventing infection or pathology individually. Animals IN immunized with MOMP and either adjuvant were protected from infection, but not the pathology. Conversely, animals TC immunized with MOMP and CTA1-DD were protected from pathology, even though the chlamydial burden in this group was equivalent to the unimmunized controls. This suggests that the development of pathology following an IN infection of vaccinated animals was independent of bacterial load and may have been driven instead by the adaptive immune response generated following immunization. This identifies a disconnection between the control of infection and the development of pathology, which may influence the design of future vaccines. PMID:23613984

  2. Experimental Gonococcal Genital Tract Infection and Opacity Protein Expression in Estradiol-Treated Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANN E. JERSE

    1999-01-01

    following inoculation with 106 CFU of either strain. Inflammation occurred in over 80% of infected mice, and diplococci were associated with epithelial cells and neutrophils in stained vaginal smears. Ascended infection occurred in 17 to 20% of mice inoculated with strain FA1090. An outbred mouse strain (SLC:ddY) previously reported to be naturally susceptible to N. gonorrhoeae was also tested; however,

  3. Injectable PAMAM dendrimer-PEG hydrogels for the treatment of genital infections: formulation and in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Navath, Raghavendra S; Menjoge, Anupa R; Dai, Hui; Romero, Roberto; Kannan, Sujatha; Kannan, Rangaramanujam M

    2011-08-01

    Local intravaginal drug therapy is preferred for treatment of ascending genital infections during pregnancy. In the present study, an in situ forming biodegradable hydrogel for sustained release of amoxicillin in the cervicovaginal region is described. A generation 4 poly(amidoamine) [G4-(NH(2))(64)] dendrimer with peripheral thiopyridyl terminations is cross-linked with 8-arm polyethylene glycol (PEG) bearing thiol terminations. The hydrogels were formulated and tested in vivo in a pregnant guinea pig model for volume, retention times, biodegradation, tolerability and transport across fetal membrane. The physicochemical characterization of the hydrogels was carried out using differential calorimetry, SEM, and confocal imaging. The hydrogels offer antibacterial activity arising from sustained release of amoxicillin from gels. The in vivo studies in guinea pig showed that 100-200 ?L of gel sufficiently covered the cervicovaginal region with a residence time of at least 72 h and gel was primarily retained in the maternal tissues without crossing the fetal membranes into the fetus. The dendrimer gels were stable up to 72 h, and the in vivo biodegradation of gel occurred after 72 h; this correlated well with the in vitro degradation pattern. The pH of the vagina was not altered upon application of the gel, and none of the animals aborted up to 72 h after application of gel. The histological evaluation of the cervical tissues showed absence of edema in the epithelial cell layer, no sloughing of the epithelial or superficial mucous layer, and absence of necrosis and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the submucosal layers, confirming that tissues were tolerant to the gel. The immunohistofluorescence images showed the localization of the gel components on the superficial mucified epithelial layer. The cross-linking density and swelling of hydrogels was impacted by the polymer content, and the 10% hydrogels exhibited the highest cross-link density. The in vitro drug release studies carried out using Franz diffusion cells showed that amoxicillin release from 6 and 10% gels was sustained for 240 h as compared to 3% gels. As the polymer concentration increased to 10%, the release pattern from gels approached diffusion controlled mechanism with diffusional exponent n = 0.49. In conclusion, the biodegradable in situ forming hydrogels of the present study offer a therapeutic option to provide sustained localized delivery of amoxicillin intracervically to the pregnant woman for the treatment of ascending genital infections. PMID:21615144

  4. HIV-specific T-cell responses detected in the genital tract of chronically HIV-infected women are largely monofunctional.

    PubMed

    Bere, Alfred; Denny, Lynette; Naicker, Prinola; Burgers, Wendy A; Passmore, Jo-Ann S

    2013-07-01

    HIV-specific T cells that produce interferon-? (IFN-?) are present in the genital tract of HIV-infected women although these do not provide protection against genital HIV shedding. Because polyfunctional HIV-specific T cells have been implicated in better HIV control than those with a single function, this study aimed to investigate whether polyfunctional T cells were present at the female genital mucosa. Cervical cytobrush-derived T cells were obtained from chronically HIV-infected women and compared with blood. CD3(+) T cells from both compartments were expanded with Dynal anti-CD3/CD28 expander beads for 14 days and flow cytometry was used to evaluate four T-cell functions (CD107a, IFN-?, tumour necrosis factor-? and macrophage inflammatory protein-1?) from 16 women. The majority of Gag-specific T-cell responses in the female genital tract were monofunctional, although low frequencies of HIV Gag-specific polyfunctional CD8(+) T cells were detected at the cervix in 81·3% (13/16) of women. The ability of CD8(+) T cells at both the cervix and in blood to express CD107a and to exhibit polyfunctional responses (two or more functions) following Gag stimulation was inversely associated with plasma viral load and positively associated with blood CD4 counts, suggesting that clinical status impacted on the functionality of HIV-specific T cells at the mucosa, in a similar way to blood. HIV Gag-specific cervical T cells were largely monofunctional. Polyfunctional T cells were detected at the cervix in women with high blood CD4 count and low plasma viral load but these did not protect from HIV genital shedding. PMID:23374084

  5. HIV-specific T-cell responses detected in the genital tract of chronically HIV-infected women are largely monofunctional

    PubMed Central

    Bere, Alfred; Denny, Lynette; Naicker, Prinola; Burgers, Wendy A; Passmore, Jo-Ann S

    2013-01-01

    HIV-specific T cells that produce interferon-? (IFN-?) are present in the genital tract of HIV-infected women although these do not provide protection against genital HIV shedding. Because polyfunctional HIV-specific T cells have been implicated in better HIV control than those with a single function, this study aimed to investigate whether polyfunctional T cells were present at the female genital mucosa. Cervical cytobrush-derived T cells were obtained from chronically HIV-infected women and compared with blood. CD3+ T cells from both compartments were expanded with Dynal anti-CD3/CD28 expander beads for 14 days and flow cytometry was used to evaluate four T-cell functions (CD107a, IFN-?, tumour necrosis factor-? and macrophage inflammatory protein-1?) from 16 women. The majority of Gag-specific T-cell responses in the female genital tract were monofunctional, although low frequencies of HIV Gag-specific polyfunctional CD8+ T cells were detected at the cervix in 81·3% (13/16) of women. The ability of CD8+ T cells at both the cervix and in blood to express CD107a and to exhibit polyfunctional responses (two or more functions) following Gag stimulation was inversely associated with plasma viral load and positively associated with blood CD4 counts, suggesting that clinical status impacted on the functionality of HIV-specific T cells at the mucosa, in a similar way to blood. HIV Gag-specific cervical T cells were largely monofunctional. Polyfunctional T cells were detected at the cervix in women with high blood CD4 count and low plasma viral load but these did not protect from HIV genital shedding. PMID:23374084

  6. No evidence of the Chlamydia trachomatis variant in the UK

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Sillis; S Skidmore; H Mallinson; T Todd; L Coupland; P Oliver; I Robinson; D Saunders; L Hesketh

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: The discovery of a variant strain of Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) in Sweden has raised awareness of its possible undetected spread in the UK. The assays that fail to detect this variant are widely used in this country. This study aimed to determine if this variant is circulating in the UK.Method: 1680 genital specimens tested negative by the Roche assays

  7. 9 CFR 113.71 - Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...show clinical signs of feline pneumonitis infection other than fever, the test is inconclusive and may be repeated. (ii) If a significant difference in clinical signs other than fever or chlamydia shedding cannot be demonstrated between...

  8. 9 CFR 113.71 - Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...show clinical signs of feline pneumonitis infection other than fever, the test is inconclusive and may be repeated. (ii) If a significant difference in clinical signs other than fever or chlamydia shedding cannot be demonstrated between...

  9. 9 CFR 113.71 - Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...show clinical signs of feline pneumonitis infection other than fever, the test is inconclusive and may be repeated. (ii) If a significant difference in clinical signs other than fever or chlamydia shedding cannot be demonstrated between...

  10. Opportunistic screening for genital chlamydial infection. I: Acceptability of urine testing in primary and secondary healthcare settings

    PubMed Central

    Pimenta, J; Catchpole, M; Rogers, P; Perkins, E; Jackson, N; Carlisle, C; Randall, S; Hopwood, J; Hewitt, G; Underhill, G; Mallinson, H; McLean, L; Gleave, T; Tobin, J; Harindra, V; Ghosh, A

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the acceptability of opportunistic screening for Chlamydia trachomatis in young people in a range of healthcare settings. Design: An opportunistic screening programme (1 September 1999 to 31 August 2000) using urine samples tested by ligase chain reaction (LCR). Data on uptake and testing were collected and in-depth interviews were used for programme evaluation. Setting: General practice, family planning, genitourinary medicine clinics, adolescent sexual health clinics, termination of pregnancy clinics, and women's services in hospitals (antenatal, colposcopy, gynaecology and infertility clinics) in two health authorities (Wirral and Portsmouth and South East Hampshire). Main participants: Sexually active women aged between 16 and 24 years attending healthcare settings for any reason. Main outcome measures: Uptake data: proportion of women accepting a test by area, healthcare setting, and age; overall population coverage achieved in 1 year. Evaluation data: participants' attitudes and views towards opportunistic screening and urine testing. Results: Acceptance of testing by women (16–24 years) was 76% in Portsmouth and 84% in Wirral. Acceptance was lower in younger women (Portsmouth only) and varied by healthcare setting within each site. 50% of the target female population were screened in Portsmouth and 39% in Wirral. Both the opportunistic offer of screening and the method of screening were universally acceptable. Major factors influencing a decision to accept screening were the non-invasive nature of testing and treatment, desire to protect future fertility, and the experimental nature of the screening programme. Conclusions: An opportunistic model of urine screening for chlamydial infection is a practical, universally acceptable method of screening. PMID:12576607

  11. Susceptibility of Mice to Vaginal Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis Mouse Pneumonitis Is Dependent on the Age of the Animal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SUKUMAR PAL; ELLENA M. PETERSON; LUIS M. DE LA MAZA

    2001-01-01

    Mice from three strains, BALB\\/c (H-2 d ), C3H (H-2 k ), and C57BL\\/6 (H-2 b ), ranging from 5 to 14 weeks of age, were inoculated intravaginally with different doses of the Chlamydia trachomatis mouse pneumonitis serovar. Vaginal swabs taken at weekly intervals showed that the percentage of animals with positive cultures and the number of inclusion-forming units recovered

  12. Vulvovaginal candida in a young sexually active population: prevalence and association with oro-genital sex and frequent pain at intercourse

    PubMed Central

    Rylander, E; Berglund, A; Krassny, C; Petrini, B

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the prevalence of vulvovaginal candida among sexually active adolescents. To determine past and present symptoms, including pain at intercourse and potential behavioural risk factors associated with vulvovaginal candidiasis. Methods: At an adolescent centre, 219 sexually active women who underwent genital examination, also completed a questionnaire on a history of genital symptoms and infections, sexual and hygiene habits, and the use of contraceptives. Symptoms and clinical signs were registered. Vaginal samples were analysed for candida species and urine for Chlamydia trachomatis. Results: Candida culture was positive in 42% of the women and only 15% were asymptomatic. A history of recurrent candidiasis was given by 22%. Frequent pain at intercourse was reported by 24% and frequent oro-genital sex by 42% of the women. Frequent pain at intercourse was significantly associated with both the growth of candida and a history of recurrent candidiasis. Oro-genital sex was an independent risk factor for the growth of candida. Conclusion: In sexually active adolescents, who underwent genital examination, candida cultures were positive in 42%. The habit of frequent oro-genital sex was associated with the growth of candida. Pain at intercourse was associated with the growth of candida and recurrent candidiasis. PMID:14755037

  13. Isolation and identification of Taylorella asinigenitalis from the genital tract of a stallion, first case of a natural infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Båverud; C. Nyström; K.-E. Johansson

    2006-01-01

    Contagious equine metritis (CEM), caused by Taylorella equigenitalis, is a widely known highly contagious genital equine disease that is transmitted venereally. A new bacterium, Taylorella asinigenitalis resembling T. equigenitalis was recently isolated from three American donkey jacks, at routine testing for CEM.The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize a strain of Taylorella sp. from the genital tract

  14. Impact of suppressive antiviral therapy on the health related quality of life of patients with recurrent genital herpes infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Patel; S. Tyring; A. Strand; M. J. Price; D. M. Grant

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether suppressive antiviral therapy improves health related quality of life in patients with recurrent genital herpes. METHODS: Health related quality of life was measured using the disease specific recurrent genital herpes quality of life questionnaire (RGHQoL) as part of a randomized, double blind, 52 week, placebo controlled, dose ranging study of once and twice daily valaciclovir or

  15. Identification of a dendrimeric heparan sulfate-binding peptide that inhibits infectivity of genital types of human papillomaviruses.

    PubMed

    Donalisio, Manuela; Rusnati, Marco; Civra, Andrea; Bugatti, Antonella; Allemand, Donatella; Pirri, Giovanna; Giuliani, Andrea; Landolfo, Santo; Lembo, David

    2010-10-01

    Peptide dendrimers consist of a peptidyl branching core and/or covalently attached surface functional units. They show a variety of biological properties, including antiviral activity. In this study, a minilibrary of linear, dimeric, and dendrimeric peptides containing clusters of basic amino acids was evaluated for in vitro activity against human papillomaviruses (HPVs). The peptide dendrimer SB105-A10 was found to be a potent inhibitor of genital HPV types (i.e., types 16, 18, and 6) in pseudovirus-based neutralization assays. The 50% inhibitory concentration was between 2.8 and 4.2 ?g/ml (0.59 and 0.88 ?M), and no evidence of cytotoxicity was observed. SB105-A10 interacts with immobilized heparin and with heparan sulfates exposed on the cell surface, most likely preventing virus attachment. The findings from this study indicate SB105-A10 to be a leading candidate compound for further development as an active ingredient of a topical microbicide against HPV and other sexually transmitted viral infections. PMID:20643894

  16. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... surefire way to prevent genital herpes is abstinence . Teens who do have sex must properly use a latex condom every time they have any form of sexual intercourse (vaginal, oral, or anal sex). Girls receiving oral sex should have their ...

  17. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the chance that your partner will get the virus. You should also use a condom every time you have sexual contact. This includes genital, oral, and anal sex. Barrier protection is not perfect, so it is important that ...

  18. Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection: Incidence and Risk Factors in a Cohort of Female University Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachel L. Winer; Shu-Kuang Lee; James P. Hughes; Diane E. Adam; Nancy B. Kiviat; Laura A. Koutsky

    Incidence data on human papillomavirus (HPV) infection are limited, and risk factors for transmission are largely unknown. The authors followed 603 female university students in Washington State at 4-month intervals between 1990 and 2000. At each visit, a sexual and health questionnaire was completed and cervical and vulvovaginal samples were collected to detect HPV DNA. At 24 months, the cumulative

  19. Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... washing. Last Updated 5/5/2015 Source Immunizations ? Infectious Diseases: An Informed Parent's Guide (Copyright © 2006 American Academy of Pediatrics) The information contained on this Web site should ...

  20. Genital Mycoplasma infections and their resistance phenotypes in an African setting.

    PubMed

    Kouegnigan Rerambiah, L; Ndong, J-C; Medzegue, S; Elisee-Ndam, M; Djoba Siawaya, J F

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the antimicrobial susceptibilities of mycoplasmas in Gabonese men and women. A total of 1,332 men and women were included in the study. Sperm, urine, ureteral or vaginal swabs were collected from the subjects. Mycoplasmas identification and antimicrobial susceptibility to azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin, josamycin, pristinamycin, doxycycline, tetracycline, ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were tested using the Mycoplasma IST 2 kit. 794 subjects were positive for Mycoplasma. Respectively, 1.6 % and 82.24 % of subjects were singly infected with M. hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum and 15.87 % had a mixed infection. M. hominis isolates were resistant to erythromycin and had an intermediate (I) to resistant (R) profile to azithromycin and clarithromycin. 84.6 % of M. hominis strains were sensitive (S) to josamycin and pristinamycin. 30.8 % and 92.3 % of M. hominis strains were sensitive to tetracycline and doxycycline, respectively. 76.9 and 84.6 % of M. hominis isolates were sensitive to ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin, respectively. The sensitivity rates of U. urealyticum strains were 45.23 %, 47.7 %, 63.84 %, 90.8 % and 92 % for azithromycin, erythromycin, clarithromycin, pristinamycin and josamycin, respectively. U. urealyticum strains showed 62.2 % and 79.7 % sensitivity to tetracycline and doxycycline, respectively. The resistance rates to azithromycin, clarithromycin and erythromycin for samples with mixed infection were 72.8 %, 84.7 % and 85.6 %, respectively. Josamycin and pristinamycin were 81.5 % effective on samples with mixed infection. The sensitivity rates of samples with mixed infection to tetracycline, doxycycline, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin were 32 %, 69.6 %, 8.9 % and 18.5 %, respectively. Sub-Saharan Africa needs to use antibiotics rationally, as falling to do so would compromise the management of infectious diseases. PMID:25630539

  1. Pregnancy Complications: Chlamydia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in the community. Home > Pregnancy > Pregnancy Complications > Chlamydia Pregnancy complications Pregnancy complications may need special medical care. ... younger than 25. Can chlamydia cause problems during pregnancy? Yes. If you get it before or during ...

  2. Recurrence Rates in Genital Herpes after Symptomatic First-Episode Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacqueline Benedetti; Lawrence Corey; Rhoda Ashley

    1994-01-01

    0.36 recurrences per month (95% CI, 0.18 to 0.57)) and had a shorter time to first recurrence when compared with those who had shorter first episodes. • Conclusions: Almost all persons with initially symp­ tomatic HSV-2 infection have symptomatic recur­ rences. More than 35% of such patients have frequent recurrences. Recurrence rates are especially high in persons with an extended

  3. Identification of Rhesus Macaque Genital Microbiota by 16S Pyrosequencing Shows Similarities to Human Bacterial Vaginosis: Implications for Use as an Animal Model for HIV Vaginal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Douglas; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Doyle, Lara; Green, Linda; Gillevet, Patrick M.; Landay, Alan L.; Veazey, Ronald S.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The composition of the lower genital tract microbiota in women is believed to affect the risk of sexually acquiring HIV. Since macaque genital microbiota could similarly impact vaginal infection with SIV we identified microbiota in 11 rhesus macaques using multitag pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The microbiota was polymicrobial with a median of nine distinct bacterial taxa per macaque (range 3–16 taxa, each constituting 1% or more of the sequences). Taxa frequently found included Peptoniphilus, Sneathia, Porphyromonas, Mobiluncus, Atopobacter, Dialister, Thioreductor, Prevotella, and Streptococcus, many of which are also frequently found in women with bacterial vaginosis. Lactobacillus sequences (mostly L. johnsonii) were found in only four macaques but were not predominant in any (median of 0% of sequences, range 0–39%). All macaques were resampled 6 months after the first time point to determine the stability of the microbiota. The microbiota remained polymicrobial with a median of 10 taxa (range 6–18). Microbial patterns remained similar for six of the macaques, changed substantially in two, and had a mixed pattern in three. Significant sialidase enzyme activity, a marker of bacteria vaginosis in women, was detected in genital fluid from 9/11 and 8/11 macaques from the first and second time points, respectively. These results show that the macaque lower genital microbiota resembled a bacteria vaginosis-type microbiota in women and suggest that the microbiota of macaques in captivity promote rather than protect against vaginal infection with SIV. These results also suggest macaques could be used as an animal model to study some aspects of bacterial vaginosis. PMID:20156101

  4. Catch-and-release probes applied to semi-intact cells reveal ubiquitin-specific protease expression in Chlamydia trachomatis infection

    PubMed Central

    Yoder, Nicholas C.; Zhu, Angela Y.; Spooner, Eric; Ploegh, Hidde L.

    2013-01-01

    Protein ubiquitylation controls many cellular pathways, and timely removal of ubiquitin by de-ubiquitylating enzymes (DUBs) is essential to govern these different functions. To map endogenous expression of individual DUBs as well as that of any interacting proteins, we developed a catch-and-release ubiquitin (Ub) probe. Ub was equipped with an activity-based warhead and a cleavable linker attached to a biotin affinity-handle through tandem site-specific modification, in which we combined intein chemistry with sortase-mediated ligation. The resulting probe is cell-impermeable and was therefore delivered to the cytosol of Perfringolysin-O (PFO) permeabilized cells. This allowed us to retrieve and identify 34 DUBs and their interacting partners. Upon infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, we noted the expression of two additional host DUBs. Furthermore, we retrieved and identified Chlamydial DUB1 (ChlaDUB1) and DUB2 (ChlaDUB2), demonstrating by experiment that ChlaDUB2, the presence and activity of which had not been detected in infected cells, is in fact expressed in the course of infection. PMID:23335262

  5. Risk Factors for Active Trachoma and Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Treatment-Naïve Trachoma-Hyperendemic Communities of the Bijagós Archipelago, Guinea Bissau

    PubMed Central

    Last, Anna R.; Burr, Sarah E.; Weiss, Helen A.; Harding-Esch, Emma M.; Cassama, Eunice; Nabicassa, Meno; Mabey, David C.; Holland, Martin J.; Bailey, Robin L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Trachoma, caused by ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, is hyperendemic on the Bijagós Archipelago of Guinea Bissau. An understanding of the risk factors associated with active trachoma and infection on these remote and isolated islands, which are atypical of trachoma-endemic environments described elsewhere, is crucial to the implementation of trachoma elimination strategies. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional population-based trachoma prevalence survey was conducted on four islands. We conducted a questionnaire-based risk factor survey, examined participants for trachoma using the World Health Organization (WHO) simplified grading system and collected conjunctival swab samples for 1507 participants from 293 randomly selected households. DNA extracted from conjunctival swabs was tested using the Roche Amplicor CT/NG PCR assay. The prevalence of active (follicular and/or inflammatory) trachoma was 11% (167/1508) overall and 22% (136/618) in 1–9 year olds. The prevalence of C. trachomatis infection was 18% overall and 25% in 1–9 year olds. There were strong independent associations of active trachoma with ocular and nasal discharge, C. trachomatis infection, young age, male gender and type of household water source. C. trachomatis infection was independently associated with young age, ocular discharge, type of household water source and the presence of flies around a latrine. Conclusions/Significance In this remote island environment, household-level risk factors relating to fly populations, hygiene behaviours and water usage are likely to be important in the transmission of ocular C. trachomatis infection and the prevalence of active trachoma. This may be important in the implementation of environmental measures in trachoma control. PMID:24967629

  6. Serological markers of Chlamydia pneumoniae, cytomegalovirus and Helicobacter pylori infection in diabetic and non-diabetic patients with unstable angina pectoris.

    PubMed

    Altannavch, Ts; Roubalová, K; Broz, J; Hrubá, D; And?l, M

    2003-06-01

    The possible role of inflammation in coronary artery disease (CAD) is being recognised, while markers of inflammation (e.g., CRP) and infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) have been proposed as risk factors for CAD. However, these associations require further evaluation. It is a known fact that diabetic patients suffer from impaired immune response to some pathogens and a high incidence of atherosclerosis. In this case-control study we investigated serological markers of infection with C. pneumoniae, CMV, and H. pylori in a group of 140 patients with unstable angina pectoris (UA), 52 of them having type 2 diabetes mellitus, and in a matched control group. Anamnestic (IgG) and acute infection (IgA) antibodies against the above agents were tested using ELISA or indirect immunofluorescence tests. In patients with UA we found a significantly higher seroprevalence and titres of IgG antibodies against C. pneumoniae (p = 0.04) and increased titres of IgG antibodies against CMV (p = 0.007). No differences were found in IgA antibody response to these pathogens. Antibody response to H. pylori was similar in both groups tested. In diabetic patients with UA, the frequency of group-common IgG antibodies against C. pneumoniae was higher than in the non-diabetic UA patients. The other serological markers studied were comparable in the patients with or without diabetes mellitus. Our findings confirmed association of C. pneumoniae and CMV with cardiovascular heart disease. Moreover, diabetes mellitus may predispose the patients to C. pneumoniae infection. However, serological markers observed do not indicate that destabilisation of angina pectoris is associated with acute C. pneumoniae or CMV infection. No relationship was found between UA and H. pylori infection. PMID:12884557

  7. Transmission of chlamydiae by the housefly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T Forsey; S Darougar

    1981-01-01

    The ability of the housefly to carry viable Chlamydia trachomatis and to transmit a chlamydial ocular infection was studied under laboratory conditions. After feeding flies (Musca domestica) on suspensions of egg yolk sac infected with C. trachomatis serotypes A or B (responsible for hyperendemic trachoma) the agents were reisolated from flies' intestines for up to 6 hours and from their

  8. Male circumcision and the incidence and clearance of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men: the HPV Infection in men (HIM) cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Reported associations of male circumcision (MC) with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men have been inconsistent. Methods 4,033 healthy men were examined every six months for a median of 17.5 months. In each study visit, exfoliated cell specimens from the coronal sulcus/glans penis, penile shaft, and scrotum were collected and combined into one sample per person for HPV DNA detection. Samples were tested for 37 HPV types. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the association between MC and the incidence and clearance of HPV infections and specific genotypes. Results The overall incidence of new HPV infections did not differ by MC status (for any HPV, adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91-1.27). However, incidence was significantly lower among circumcised versus uncircumcised men for HPV types 58 (p?=?0.01), 68 (p?genital HPV detection, except for certain HPV types. The use of a single combined sample from the penis and scrotum for HPV DNA detection likely limited our ability to identify a true effect of MC at the distal penis. PMID:24517172

  9. Inflammation, Infection, and Future Cardiovascular Risk

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2005-06-23

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Myocardial Infarction; Venous Thromboembolism; Heart Diseases; Infection; Chlamydia Infections; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Helicobacter Infections; Herpesviridae Infections; Inflammation

  10. Building a web-based tool to support clinical decisions in the control of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) are the agents of two common, sexually transmitted diseases afflicting women in the United States (http://www.cdc.gov). We designed a novel web-based application that offers simple recommendations to help optimize medical outcomes with CT and GC prevention and control programs. This application takes population groups, prevalence rates, parameters for available screening assays and treatment regimens (costs, sensitivity, and specificity), as well as budget limits as inputs. Its output suggests optimal screening and treatment strategies for selected at-risk groups, commensurate with the clinic's budget allocation. Development of this tool illustrates how a clinical informatics application based on rigorous mathematics might have a significant impact on real-world clinical issues. PMID:24564848

  11. Clinical protection against caprine herpesvirus 1 genital infection by intranasal administration of a live attenuated glycoprotein E negative bovine herpesvirus 1 vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Thiry, Julien; Tempesta, Maria; Camero, Michele; Tarsitano, Elvira; Muylkens, Benoît; Meurens, François; Thiry, Etienne; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2007-01-01

    Background Caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) is responsible of systemic diseases in kids and genital diseases leading to abortions in goats. CpHV-1 is widespread and especially in Mediterranean countries as Greece, Italy and Spain. CpHV-1 is antigenically and genetically closely related to bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1). Taking into account the biological properties shared by these two viruses, we decided in the current study to assess the protection of a live attenuated glycoprotein E (gE) negative BoHV-1 vaccine against a genital CpHV-1 infection in goats. Results The vaccine was inoculated intranasally twice three weeks apart followed by a subsequent CpHV-1 intravaginal challenge which is the natural route of infection in three goats. To analyse the safety and the efficacy of this marker vaccine, two groups of three goats served as controls: one immunised with a virulent CpHV-1 and one uninoculated until the challenge. Goats were clinically monitored and all sampling procedures were carried out in a blind manner. The vaccine did not induce any undesirable local or systemic reaction and goats did not excrete gE-negative BoHV-1. After challenge, a significant reduction in disease severity was observed in immunised goats. Moreover, goats immunised with either gE-negative BoHV-1 or CpHV-1 exhibited a significant reduction in the length and the peak of viral excretion. Antibodies neutralising both BoHV-1 and CpHV-1 were raised in immunised goats. Conclusion Intranasal application of a live attenuated gE-negative BoHV-1 vaccine is able to afford a clinical protection and a reduction of virus excretion in goats challenged by a CpHV-1 genital infection. PMID:18053233

  12. Treatment of Genital Warts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cathryn B. Heath

    \\u000a Genital warts caused by Human Papilloma Virus are the most common viral sexually transmitted disease in the United States.\\u000a Over 24 million Americans are infected with Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), with the current prevalence among adolescents up\\u000a to 15% and college-aged women up to 26.8% [1]. An increased prevalence has been correlated with earlier onset of sexual activity,\\u000a multiple sex

  13. Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection Induced Allergic Airway Sensitization Is Controlled by Regulatory T-Cells and Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells

    E-print Network

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory Infection during Allergen Sensitization Drivesrespiratory tract infection with a bacterial pathogen induce allergic airway sensitization.sensitization to occur, and one increasingly important scenario involves respiratory

  14. When is chlamydia screening necessary in family planning?

    PubMed

    1989-04-01

    A major chlamydia study indicates that it may be cost-effective to screen for chlamydia trachomatis infections young women under age 24 or women with other risk factors for sexually transmitted diseases. The increased rates of chlamydia mean higher costs for family planning clinics, which often operate on limited budgets not designed to include regular chlamydia screening and treatment. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta published chlamydia guidelines in 1985, partly in response to the testing dilemma. The guidelines advocate empirical treatment of symptomatic clients, recommending that clients with any of the following symptoms be treated automatically with tetracycline, doxycycline, or erythromycin: nongonococcal urethritis; mucopurulent cervicitis; pelvic inflammatory disease; and epididymitis in men 35 years old or younger. Another resource may be available soon. A large-scale chlamydia field project in the Northwest is seeking to provide more extensive answers on the types of women who are at highest risk of chlamydial infection, and the project could provide data indicating that some women with specific risk factors should be screened routinely, regardless of symptoms. Susan DeLisle, chlamydia project manager for the Public Health Service (PHS) Region 10 Family Planning/STD Chlamydia Project, reports that clients who meet at least 1 of the following symptomatic criteria are screened automatically: clients who are having an IUD inserted; clients who have had visits for positive pregnancy detection in conjunction with a bimanual pelvic examination; clients who have been a rape victim within the last 60 days; clients who report their partner has signs or symptoms suggestive of urethritis; and clients who request testing. Patients with a presumptive diagnosis of chlamydia or a positive chlamydia test are given information on treatment and prevention at Public Health Health Service Region 10 Family Planning/STD. The information includes a brief overview of chlamydia and discussions of treatment, partner(s) management, feelings, and prevention. PMID:12342199

  15. Differences in Chlamydia trachomatis Serovar E Growth Rate in Polarized Endometrial and Endocervical Epithelial Cells Grown in Three-Dimensional Culture?

    PubMed Central

    Guseva, Natalia V.; Dessus-Babus, Sophie; Moore, Cheryl G.; Whittimore, Judy D.; Wyrick, Priscilla B.

    2007-01-01

    In vitro studies of obligate intracellular chlamydia biology and pathogenesis are highly dependent on the use of experimental models and growth conditions that mimic the mucosal architecture and environment these pathogens encounter during natural infections. In this study, the growth of Chlamydia trachomatis genital serovar E was monitored in mouse fibroblast McCoy cells and compared to more relevant host human epithelial endometrium-derived HEC-1B and cervix-derived HeLa cells, seeded and polarized on collagen-coated microcarrier beads, using a three-dimensional culture system. Microscopy analysis of these cell lines prior to infection revealed morphological differences reminiscent of their in vivo architecture. Upon infection, early chlamydial inclusion distribution was uniform in McCoy cells but patchy in both epithelial cell lines. Although no difference in chlamydial attachment to or entry into the two genital epithelial cell lines was noted, active bacterial genome replication and transcription, as well as initial transformation of elementary bodies to reticulate bodies, were detected earlier in HEC-1B than in HeLa cells, suggesting a faster growth, which led to higher progeny counts and titers in HEC-1B cells upon completion of the developmental cycle. Chlamydial development in the less relevant McCoy cells was very similar to that in HeLa cells, although higher progeny counts were obtained. In conclusion, this three-dimensional bead culture system represents an improved model for harvesting large quantities of infectious chlamydia progeny from their more natural polarized epithelial host cells. PMID:17088348

  16. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis endocervical infection in systemic lupus erythematosus patients and evaluation of the risk for HPV-induced lesions.

    PubMed

    CostaPinto, Licia; Olavarria, Viviana Gallazzi; Grassi, Maria Fernanda Rios; Lyrio, Leomar D' Cirqueira; Oliveira, Rone Peterson Cerqueira; Santana, Iuri Usêda; Cruz, Cristiane Bahiana; Santiago, Mittermayer Barreto

    2013-03-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the most common bacterial cause of sexually transmitted disease. It has been associated with arthritis and it is a risk factor for human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced lesions. There are few studies on the frequency of CT infection among systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of endocervical CT infection among SLE patients and evaluate whether or not CT infection is a risk factor for HPV-induced lesions. A cross-sectional study included a group of patients who fulfilled the American College Rheumatology criteria for a definite diagnosis of SLE and a control group of non-SLE female individuals from Bahia, Brazil. Polymerase chain reaction was used on endocervical swab specimens to test for CT; a gynecological examination including a cervical cytology and biopsy was done for the identification of HPV lesions. A total of 105 SLE patients were studied, and the control group was composed of 104 age-matched apparently normal women. The prevalence of CT endocervical infection was 3.0 % [confidence interval (CI) 95 % = 0.6-8.0 %] in the SLE group and 5.0 % (95 % CI = 2.0-11.0 %) in the control group; the prevalence ratio was 0.60 (95 % CI = 0.1-2.5). The prevalence of vulvar condyloma was higher among SLE patients (11.0 vs. 1.0 %, p < 0.001), as were the prevalences of low-grade lesion (12.0 vs. 1.0 %, p < 0.001) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1 (9.0 vs. 1.0 %, p = 0.02). There was no association between the presence of HPV lesions and CT infections. However, the small number of patients with CT prevents a definite conclusion from being drawn. The prevalence of endocervical CT infection in women with SLE is low and similar to that of the normal population. This suggests that this infection has no role in the pathogenesis of SLE or the development of HPV-induced lesions. PMID:22484838

  17. High Prevalence of Co-Infections by Invasive and Non-Invasive Chlamydia trachomatis Genotypes during the Lymphogranuloma Venereum Outbreak in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Dominguez, Mario; Gonzalez-Alba, Jose Maria; Puerta, Teresa; Menendez, Blanca; Sanchez-Diaz, Ana Maria; Canton, Rafael; del Romero, Jorge; Galan, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of Chlamydia trachomatis is mainly driven by recombination events. This fact can be fuelled by the coincidence in several European regions of the high prevalence of non-invasive urogenital genotypes and lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) outbreaks. This scenario could modify the local epidemiology and favor the selection of new C. trachomatis variants. Quantifying the prevalence of co-infection could help to predict the potential risk in the selection of new variants with unpredictable results in pathogenesis or transmissibility. In the 2009-2013 period, 287 clinical samples with demonstrated presence of C. trachomatis were selected. They were divided in two groups. The first group was constituted by 137 samples with C. trachomatis of the LGV genotypes, and the second by the remaining 150 samples in which the presence of LGV genotypes was previously excluded. They were analyzed to detect the simultaneous presence of non-LGV genotypes based on pmpH and ompA genes. In the first group, co-infections were detected in 10.9% of the cases whereas in the second group the prevalence was 14.6%, which is the highest percentage ever described among European countries. Moreover, bioinformatic analyses suggested the presence among men who have sex with men of a pmpH-recombinant variant, similar to strains described in Seattle in 2002. This variant was the result of genetic exchange between genotypes belonging to LGV and members of G-genotype. Sequencing of other genes, phylogenetically related to pathotype, confirmed that the putative recombinant found in Madrid could have a common origin with the strains described in Seattle. Countries with a high prevalence of co-infections and high migration flows should enhance surveillance programs in at least their vulnerable population. PMID:25965545

  18. Enrofloxacin and Macrolides Alone or in Combination with Rifampicin as Antimicrobial Treatment in a Bovine Model of Acute Chlamydia psittaci Infection

    PubMed Central

    Prohl, Annette; Lohr, Markus; Ostermann, Carola; Liebler-Tenorio, Elisabeth; Berndt, Angela; Schroedl, Wieland; Rothe, Michael; Schubert, Evelyn; Sachse, Konrad; Reinhold, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia psittaci is a zoonotic bacterium with a wide host range that can cause respiratory disease in humans and cattle. In the present study, effects of treatment with macrolides and quinolones applied alone or in combination with rifampicin were tested in a previously established bovine model of respiratory C. psittaci infection. Fifty animals were inoculated intrabronchially at the age of 6–8 weeks. Seven served as untreated controls, the others were assigned to seven treatment groups: (i) rifampicin, (ii) enrofloxacin, (iii) enrofloxacin + rifampicin, (iv) azithromycin, (v) azithromycin + rifampicin, (vi) erythromycin, and (vii) erythromycin + rifampicin. Treatment started 30 hours after inoculation and continued until 14 days after inoculation (dpi), when all animals were necropsied. The infection was successful in all animals and sufficient antibiotic levels were detected in blood plasma and tissue of the treated animals. Reisolation of the pathogen was achieved more often from untreated animals than from other groups. Nevertheless, pathogen detection by PCR was possible to the same extent in all animals and there were no significant differences between treated and untreated animals in terms of local (i.e. cell count and differentiation of BALF-cells) and systemic inflammation (i.e. white blood cells and concentration of acute phase protein LBP), clinical signs, and pathological findings at necropsy. Regardless of the reduced reisolation rate in treated animals, the treatment of experimentally induced respiratory C. psittaci infection with enrofloxacin, azithromycin or erythromycin alone or in combination with rifampicin was without obvious benefit for the host, since no significant differences in clinical and pathological findings or inflammatory parameters were detected and all animals recovered clinically within two weeks. PMID:25768665

  19. Genital warts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicolas Dupin

    2004-01-01

    Genital warts are an epidermal manifestation attributed to the epidermotropic human papillomavirus (HPV).1 Over 100 types of double-stranded HPV have been isolated and completely sequenced thus far. HPV are grouped into low-risk (non-oncogenic) types such as type 6 and type 11, which cause benign anogenital warts (condyloma accuminata), and high-risk (oncogenic) types, such as types 16, 18, 31, and 45,

  20. Prevalence and risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among cross-border truck drivers in Hong Kong

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P H M Leung; M V Boost; J T F Lau; A T Y Wong; M Pang; T K Ng; E T F Tong

    2009-01-01

    Objectives:To determine the prevalence and risk factors for chlamydial infection in cross-border truck drivers.Methods:225 Hong Kong-based cross-border truck drivers were screened for chlamydial infection. Associations between infection and potential risk factors were determined by questionnaire.Results:8.5% of drivers were positive for chlamydial infection. Of 62% of drivers reporting recent sex with commercial sex workers (CSW), 39% had not used condoms. 75%

  1. Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Regulates HIV-1 Uptake and Transcytosis but Not Replication in Primary Genital Epithelial Cells, Resulting in Enhanced T-Cell Infection.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Victor H; Dizzell, Sara; Nazli, Aisha; Kafka, Jessica K; Mueller, Kristen; Nguyen, Philip V; Tremblay, Michel J; Cochrane, Alan; Kaushic, Charu

    2015-06-01

    Although clinical and experimental evidence indicates that female sex hormones and hormonal contraceptives regulate susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Genital epithelial cells (GECs) are the first cells to encounter HIV during sexual transmission and their interaction with HIV may determine the outcome of exposure. This is the first report that HIV uptake by GECs increased significantly in the presence of the hormonal contraceptive medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and progesterone and that uptake occurred primarily via endocytosis. No productive infection was detected, but endocytosed virus was released into apical and basolateral compartments. Significantly higher viral transcytosis was observed in the presence of MPA. In GEC and T-cell cocultures, maximum viral replication in T cells was observed in the presence of MPA, which also broadly upregulated chemokine production by GECs. These results suggest that MPA may play a significant role in regulating susceptibility to HIV. PMID:25538276

  2. Regulation of Chlamydial Infection by Host Autophagy and Vacuolar ATPase-Bearing Organelles ?

    PubMed Central

    Yasir, Muhammad; Pachikara, Niseema D.; Bao, Xiaofeng; Pan, Zui; Fan, Huizhou

    2011-01-01

    As arguably the most successful parasite, Chlamydia is an obligate intracellular bacterium replicating inside a vacuole of eukaryotic host cells. The chlamydial vacuole does not fuse with the defense cell organelle lysosome. We previously showed that chlamydial infection increases markers of autophagy, an innate antimicrobial activity requiring lysosomal function. However, the work presented here demonstrates that p62, an autophagy protein that is degraded in lysosomes, either remained unchanged or increased in chlamydia-infected human epithelial, mouse fibroblast, and mouse macrophage cell lines. In addition, the activities of three lysosomal enzymes analyzed were diminished in chlamydia-infected macrophages. Bafilomycin A1 (BafA), a specific inhibitor of vacuolar ATPase (vATPase) required for lysosomal function, increased the growth of the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis (L2) in wild-type murine fibroblasts and macrophages but inhibited growth in the autophagy-deficient ATG5?/? fibroblasts. BafA exhibited only slight inhibition or no effect on L2 growth in multiple human genital epithelial cell lines. In contrast to L2, the mouse pathogen Chlamydia muridarum (MoPn) was consistently inhibited by BafA in all cell lines examined, regardless of species origin and autophagy status. Finally, L2 but not MoPn grew more efficiently in the ATG5?/? cells than in wild-type cells. These results suggest that there are two types of vATPase-bearing organelles that regulate chlamydial infection: one supports chlamydial infection, while the other plays a defensive role through autophagy when cells are artificially infected with certain chlamydiae that have not been adapted to the host species. PMID:21807906

  3. Oral azithromycin in extended dosage schedule for chronic, subclinical Chlamydia pneumoniae infection causing coronary artery disease: a probable cure in sight? Results of a controlled preliminary trial

    PubMed Central

    Dogra, Jaideep

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Two mega trials have raised the question as to whether the hypothesis that infection plays a role in atherosclerosis is still relevant. This controlled preliminary trial investigated an extended dose of azithromycin in the treatment of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection causing coronary artery disease (CAD). Patients and methods Forty patients with documentary evidence of CAD were screened for immunoglobulin G titers against C. pneumoniae and grouped into either the study group (patients with positive titer, n = 32) or control group (patients with negative titer, n = 8). Cases who met inclusion criteria could not have had coronary artery bypass graft surgery or percutaneous coronary intervention in the preceding 6 months. Informed consent was obtained from every patient. Baseline blood samples were analyzed for red blood cell indices, serum creatinine, and liver function tests, and repeated every 2 months. A primary event was defined as the first occurrence of death by any cause, recurrent myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization procedure, or hospitalization for angina. Patients in the study group received 500 mg of oral azithromycin once daily for 5 days, which was then repeated after a gap of 10 days (total of 24 courses in the 1-year trial period). The control group did not have azithromycin added to their standard CAD treatment. Results In the study group, 30 patients completed the trial. Two patients had to undergo percutaneous coronary intervention in the initial first quarter of the 1-year trial period. In the control group, one patient died during the trial, one had to undergo coronary artery bypass graft surgery, and one had percutaneous coronary intervention. Conclusion The patients tolerated the therapy well and there was a positive correlation between azithromycin and secondary prevention of CAD. PMID:22807637

  4. [Chlamydia: from population screening to individual repeated screening].

    PubMed

    Bally, F; Quach, A

    2014-10-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a frequent sexually transmitted infection especially in young adults and adolescents. Its complications can impair a woman's reproductive potential. chlamydia control has several challenges. These include asymptomatic infections; a long duration of untreated infections; re-infections and partner treatments. Any person with infection is at high risk of re-infection. Repeated screening would decrease, at an individual level, the risk of complications. General practitioners, gynaecologists and centres for sexual health could participate in Chlamydia screening for asymptomatic infections, in Switzerland, the cost of the laboratory test is fixed by national tariff regulations. The cost is high and prohibitive for many, especially adolescents and young adults and needs to be lowered. PMID:25417359

  5. [Chlamydia: from population screening to individual repeated screening].

    PubMed

    Bally, F; Quach, A

    2014-10-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a frequent sexually transmitted infection especially in young adults and adolescents. Its complications can impair a woman's reproductive potential. chlamydia control has several challenges. These include asymptomatic infections; a long duration of untreated infections; re-infections and partner treatments. Any person with infection is at high risk of re-infection. Repeated screening would decrease, at an individual level, the risk of complications. General practitioners, gynaecologists and centres for sexual health could participate in Chlamydia screening for asymptomatic infections, in Switzerland, the cost of the laboratory test is fixed by national tariff regulations. The cost is high and prohibitive for many, especially adolescents and young adults and needs to be lowered. PMID:25507087

  6. Interleukin12 (IL12) and IL18 Are Important in Innate Defense against Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Infection in Mice but Are Not Required for the Development of Acquired Gamma Interferon-Mediated Protective Immunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALI M. HARANDI; BO SVENNERHOLM; JAN HOLMGREN; KRISTINA ERIKSSON

    2001-01-01

    Using a combination of gene-targeted mice and neutralizing antibodies, we showed that interleukin-12 (IL-12) and IL-18 are important in the innate control of genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection but were not found to be critical, either singly or in combination, for the development of a protective gamma interferon- mediated immune response.

  7. Detection of immunoglobulin M antibodies to glycoprotein G-2 by western blot (immunoblot) for diagnosis of initial herpes simplex virus type 2 genital infections.

    PubMed Central

    Ho, D W; Field, P R; Irving, W L; Packham, D R; Cunningham, A L

    1993-01-01

    Western blots (immunoblots) for the detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies specific for herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 in patients' sera were developed. The locations of the type-specific glycoprotein G (gpG-2) of HSV-2 (92- and 140-kDa forms) and glycoprotein C of HSV-1 (gpC-1), which carries mostly type-specific antigenic epitopes, were checked with specific monoclonal antibodies. Western blot assays for IgM antibody to gpC-1 or gpG-2 were performed after depletion of IgG by precipitation with anti-human IgG. In patients with primary HSV-2 genital infections, seroconversion of IgM and IgG antibodies to both the 92- and 140-kDa forms of gpG-2 was observed, although both antibodies appeared in convalescent-phase serum after the first week. IgM and IgG antibodies to low-molecular-size polypeptides (40 to 65 kDa) were the first antibodies observed in patients with primary infection, but these antibodies were cross-reactive with HSV-1 and HSV-2. However, in patients with recurrent HSV-2 infections, IgG antibodies to both forms of gpG-2 and the low-molecular-size polypeptides were found no matter how early after onset the patient was bled, and IgM to gpG-2 did not appear. In patients with nonprimary initial genital HSV-2 infections, IgG antibody to HSV-1 was demonstrated in the first serum specimen, and HSV-2-specific IgM was found in 39% of the serum specimens. Hence, the Western blot assay can be used to test for IgM antibody to gpG-2, allowing for the retrospective diagnosis of inital HSV-2 infections and its use as a supplementary test to the gpG-2 IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays developed elsewhere. In contrast, IgM antibody to gpG-2 is not usually detected in patients with recurrent HSV-2 infections. Images PMID:7508453

  8. Azithromycin efficacy in the treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis among detained youth.

    PubMed

    Beyda, Rebecca M; Benjamins, Laura J; Symanski, Elaine; Swartz, Michael; Risser, William L; Eissa, Mona

    2014-10-01

    We assessed the efficacy of azithromycin among detained adolescents with Chlamydia trachomatis. Infected adolescents took azithromycin and submitted a test of cure. Of the 128 youth, 5 patients experienced treatment failure. We found that azithromycin was 96.1% (95% confidence interval, 91.1%-98.8%) effective in treating chlamydia infections, supporting its continued use. PMID:25211253

  9. Role of activins and inducible nitric oxide in the pathogenesis of ectopic pregnancy in patients with or without Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    PubMed

    Refaat, Bassem; Al-Azemi, Majedah; Geary, Ian; Eley, Adrian; Ledger, William

    2009-10-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy (EP), infertility, and chronic pelvic pain in women. Activins and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) are produced by the human fallopian tube, and we speculate that tubal activins and iNOS may be involved in the immune response to C. trachomatis in humans and their pathological alteration may result in tubal pathology and the development of EP. Blood and fallopian tubes were collected from 14 women with EP. Sera were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect antibodies against chlamydial heat shock protein 60 (chsp60) and the major outer membrane protein of C. trachomatis. Confirmation of C. trachomatis serology was made using the microimmunofluorescence test. The patients were classified into three groups according to their serological results, and immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR were performed to investigate the expression of candidate molecules by tubal epithelial cells among the three groups. This is the first study to show an increase in the expression of activin betaA subunit, type II receptors, follistatin, and iNOS within the human fallopian tube of EP patients who were serologically positive for C. trachomatis. A similar expression profile was observed in the fallopian tubes with detectable antibodies only against chsp60. These results were shown at the mRNA and protein levels. We suggest that tubal activin A, its type II receptors, follistatin, and NO could be involved in the microbial-mediated immune response within the fallopian tube, and their pathological expression may lead to tubal damage and the development of EP. PMID:19692623

  10. Ocular clinical pictures disclosed by PCR molecular diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infection performed following the appropriate sampling modality in ocular ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Gallenga, P E; Del Boccio, M; Lobefalo, L; Rapinese, M; Pennelli, A; Martinotti, S

    2012-01-01

    Four clinical cases regarding the correct diagnosis of early ocular Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) inflammation, performed by two different modalities on the ocular ecosystem, are discussed. The present study was carried out in parallel using a cotton flock ocular swab and the scraping of upper lid conjunctiva. The ocular samplings were carried out by a first ocular swab from inner canthus and fornix, while the second by a conjunctival scraping from upper the conjunctiva of four patients. In the first case, by ocular swab, all samples resulted negative to Ct-DNA research by PCR, while the cultural analyses showed a growth of saprophytic and opportunist germs in all patients. No growth micetes resulted. On the contrary, in the second case, by conjunctival scraping, three of four samples were positive to Ct-DNA research. No fungal growth was observed, while only the 3rd patient, negative to Ct-DNA research, showed microbial growth. Our study, carried out with two different modalities of sampling on different areas of the same ecosystem, showed different results, demonstrating the importance of sampling accuracy for chlamydial research by molecular analysis in PCR, during the slight phase of inflammation. These initial data indicate that laboratory diagnosis by PCR for precocious Ct infection, not revealed clinically, could represent the first step for a correct diagnostic procedure, eliminating one of the critical points, allowing an accurate, effective and precocious antibiotic therapy. We hypothesize that only by following these correct procedures of sampling during the early phase of chlamydial inflammation, in the future, will it be possible to reduce a pejorative evolution of this worsening disease in people genetically susceptible, building a more efficacious Public Health program of prevention against chronic conjunctivitis and to favour a major prevention of trachoma in endemic areas. PMID:23298500

  11. Using urinary leucocyte esterase tests as an indicator of infection with gonorrhoea or chlamydia in asymptomatic males in a primary health care setting.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Saifur; Beever, Warwick; Skov, Steven; Boffa, John

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate a leucocyte esterase test as a predictor of gonorrhoea or chlamydia in asymptomatic Aboriginal males at the Central Australian Aboriginal Congress Male Clinic (Ingkintja), first-void urine samples and clinical information were collected from consecutive asymptomatic males presenting to the Ingkintja in Alice Springs between March 2008 and December 2009. Urine was tested immediately with a leucocyte esterase test dipstick and then by polymerase chain reaction for gonorrhoea and chlamydia. Among the 292 specimens from asymptomatic males, 15.4% were positive for gonorrhoea or chlamydia. In this group, compared with polymerase chain reaction result for gonorrhoea or chlamydia, leucocyte esterase test alone and in combination with age ?35 years showed sensitivities of 66.7% and 60%, specificities of 90.7% and 94.7%, positive predictive values of 56.6% and 67.5%, negative predictive values of 93.7% and 92.8% and the area under receiver operating characteristics curve values of 0.79 and 0.85, respectively. Leucocyte esterase tests can reasonably be used as a basis for immediate empirical treatment for gonorrhoea or chlamydia in asymptomatic central Australian Aboriginal men under 35 years of age. PMID:23970638

  12. The acute phase reactant response to respiratory infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae: implications for the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Lee Ann; Yaraei, Kambiz; Lenten, Brian Van; Chait, Alan; Blessing, Erwin; Kuo, Cho-chou; Nosaka, Tadayoshi; Ricks, Jerry; Rosenfeld, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    The acute phase response to C. pneumoniae infection was analyzed over a 72 hr period post-infection in C57BL/6J mice. A single intranasal inoculation stimulated statistically significant increases in the plasma levels of IL-2, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, GM-CSF, IFN-?, and serum amyloid A but not TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-4 and serum amyloid P. There was also a decrease in the activity of the HDL protective enzyme paraoxonase as well as a reduced ability of HDL to prevent oxidation of palmitoyl-2-arachidonyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine by hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid at 48 and 72 hrs post-infection. To determine whether the C. pneumoniae induced acute phase response had any effect on atherosclerotic plaque stability, we measured the frequency of intra-plaque hemorrhage as a marker of plaque disruption in the innominate arteries of apolipoprotein E deficient mice at 29–30 weeks and 1.5–2.0 years of age. There was an increased frequency of intra-plaque hemorrhage only in the older mice infected with the live organism (8/14) as compared to mice treated with killed C. pneumoniae (2/11) or sham inoculated with PBS (2/12). These results suggest that acute phase reactant proteins produced in response to pulmonary infection with C. pneumoniae may contribute to the progression and destabilization of atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:20417302

  13. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in the oropharynx and urine among sexually active men: a comparative study of infection by papillomavirus and other organisms, including Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma spp., and Ureaplasma spp

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has shown a gradual increase in male predominance due to the increasing incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated OSCC. However, the mode of HPV transmission to the oral cavity is poorly understood, and little is known about the epidemiology of oral HPV infection in men. The prevalence rates of HPV, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma spp., and Ureaplasma spp. were compared in the oropharynx (oral cavity) and urine of male Japanese patients attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic. Methods The study population consisted of 213 men aged 16?–?70 years old (mean: 34.4 years old). Oropharyngeal gargles and urine were collected, and sedimented cells were preserved in liquid-based cytology solution. After DNA extraction, ?-globin and infectious organisms were analyzed by a PCR-based method. The HPV genotype was determined by HPV GenoArray test. Results ?-Globin was positive in 100% and 97.7% of oral and urine samples, respectively. HPV detection rates were 18.8% and 22.1% in oral and urine samples, respectively, suggesting that the prevalence of HPV infection in the oral cavity was similar to that in the urinary tract. N. gonorrhoeae was more prevalent in oral (15.6%) than urine samples (9.1%), whereas C. trachomatis was detected more frequently in urine (15.9%) than oral samples (4.2%). The detection rates of M. genitalium, M. hominis, and Ureaplasma spp. were 5.2%, 10.3%, and 16.0% in oral samples, and 7.7%, 6.3%, and 19.2% in urine, respectively. There were no significant differences in the detection rates of Mycoplasma spp. and Ureaplasma spp. between anatomical locations. The distribution of HPV types were similar in oral and urine samples, and HPV16 was the most common type. The majority of men with HPV infection in both the oral cavity and urine had concordant oral and urinary HPV infection. The presence of urinary HPV infection was an independent risk factor of oral HPV infection, with an odds ratio of 3.39 (95% CI: 1.49?–?7.71), whereas oral gonococcal infection was inversely correlated with oral HPV infection (odds ratio: 0.096; 95% CI: 0.01?–?0.77). Conclusions Oral HPV infection commonly occurs in sexually active men, and is significantly correlated with urinary HPV infection. PMID:24468054

  14. A comparison of referral patterns and characteristics of patients with first episode symptomatic genital HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections in Sheffield.

    PubMed Central

    Nageswaran, A; Shen, R N; Craig, J; Kyi, T T; Priestley, C J; Kinghorn, G R

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To ascertain factors associated with HSV-1 and HSV-2 isolates in patients attending a genitourinary medicine clinic with symptomatic first episode genital herpes (FEGH). DESIGN: Retrospective study. SUBJECTS: A total of 606 females and 333 males presenting with culture positive FEGH between 1990-94. SETTING: Department of Genitourinary Medicine, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, UK. METHODS: Group comparison of referral patterns, demographic data, prior and concurrent episodes of STD, recent partner change. RESULTS: HSV-1 infected patients of either sex were more likely to be general practitioner (GP) referred, to be white, and less likely to have had preceding STD episodes. Recent sexual partner change had occurred significantly more often in HSV-2 infected females but there was no similar difference between HSV-1 and HSV-2 infected males. CONCLUSION: The relative HSV-1:HSV-2 isolate ratio in FEGH is influenced by the referral patterns. HSV-1 isolates predominate in patients presenting to GPs who refer the patients to GUM clinics for accurate diagnosis, counselling, follow up and screening for other STDs. PMID:8707325

  15. Inactivated simian immunodeficiency virus vaccine failed to protect rhesus macaques from intravenous or genital mucosal infection but delayed disease in intravenously exposed animals

    SciTech Connect

    Sutjipto, S.; Pedersen, N.C.; Miller, C.J.; Gardner, M.B.; Hanson, C.V.; Gettie, A.; Jennings, M.; Higgins, J.; Marx, P.A. (Univ. of California, Davis (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Eight rhesus macaques were immunized four times over a period of 8 months with a psoralen-UV-light-inactivated whole simian immunodeficiency virus vaccine adjuvanted with threonyl muramyl dipeptide. Eight unvaccinated control animals received adjuvant alone. Only the vaccinated animals made antibodies before challenge exposure to the viral core and envelope as determined by Western blotting (immunoblotting) and virus-neutralizing antibodies. Ten days after the final immunization, one-half of the vaccinated and nonvaccinated monkeys were challenged exposed intravenously (i.v.) and one-half were challenge exposed via the genital mucosa with virulent simian immunodeficiency virus. All of the nonvaccinated control monkeys became persistently infected. In spite of preexisting neutralizing antibodies and an anamnestic antibody response, all of the immunized monkeys also became persistently infected. However, there was evidence that the clinical course in immunized i.v. infected animals was delayed. All four mock-vaccinated i.v. challenge-exposed animals died with disease from 3 to 9 months postchallenge. In contrast, only one of four vaccinated i.v. challenge-exposed monkeys had died by 11 months postchallenge.

  16. Genital warts

    MedlinePLUS

    Condylomata acuminata; Penile warts; Human papilloma virus (HPV); Venereal warts; Condyloma; HPV DNA test; Sexually transmitted disease (STD) - warts; Sexually transmitted infection (STI) - warts; LSIL- ...

  17. Detection of bacterial antigens and Alzheimer’s disease-like pathology in the central nervous system of BALB/c mice following intranasal infection with a laboratory isolate of Chlamydia pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Little, Christopher S.; Joyce, Timothy A.; Hammond, Christine J.; Matta, Hazem; Cahn, David; Appelt, Denah M.; Balin, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Pathology consistent with that observed in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has previously been documented following intranasal infection of normal wild-type mice with Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn) isolated from an AD brain (96-41). In the current study, BALB/c mice were intranasally infected with a laboratory strain of Cpn, AR-39, and brain and olfactory bulbs were obtained at 1–4 months post-infection (pi). Immunohistochemistry for amyloid beta or Cpn antigens was performed on sections from brains of infected or mock-infected mice. Chlamydia-specific immunolabeling was identified in olfactory bulb tissues and in cerebrum of AR-39 infected mice. The Cpn specific labeling was most prominent at 1 month pi and the greatest burden of amyloid deposition was noted at 2 months pi, whereas both decreased at 3 and 4 months. Viable Cpn was recovered from olfactory bulbs of 3 of 3 experimentally infected mice at 1 and 3 months pi, and in 2 of 3 mice at 4 months pi. In contrast, in cortical tissues of infected mice at 1 and 4 months pi no viable organism was obtained. At 3 months pi, only 1 of 3 mice had a measurable burden of viable Cpn from the cortical tissues. Mock-infected mice (0 of 3) had no detectable Cpn in either olfactory bulbs or cortical tissues. These data indicate that the AR-39 isolate of Cpn establishes a limited infection predominantly in the olfactory bulbs of BALB/c mice. Although infection with the laboratory strain of Cpn promotes deposition of amyloid beta, this appears to resolve following reduction of the Cpn antigen burden over time. Our data suggest that infection with the AR-39 laboratory isolate of Cpn results in a different course of amyloid beta deposition and ultimate resolution than that observed following infection with the human AD-brain Cpn isolate, 96-41. These data further support that there may be differences, possibly in virulence factors, between Cpn isolates in the generation of sustainable AD pathology. PMID:25538615

  18. Comparison of polyclonal expansion methods to improve the recovery of cervical cytobrush-derived T cells from the female genital tract of HIV-infected women

    PubMed Central

    Bere, Alfred; Denny, Lynette; Hanekom, Willem; Burgers, Wendy A.; Passmore, Jo-Ann S.

    2010-01-01

    Cervical cytobrushing is a useful and non-invasive method for obtaining mucosal mononuclear cells from the female genital tract, but yields few cells. The aim of this study was to compare in vitro expansion protocols (anti-CD3, anti-CD3/CD28 or Dynal anti-CD3/CD28 beads) and cytokine combinations (IL-2, IL-7 and IL-15) to improve cervical T cell yields and viability. Eighteen HIV-infected women were included in this study to compare methods for polyclonal expansion of T cells from the female genital tract and blood. Comparison of T cell yields, viability and maturational status (by differential staining with CD45RO, CCR7 and CD27) was determined following 7 days of in vitro expansion. Anti-CD3 and IL-2 resulted in a 4.5-fold (range 3.7–5.3) expansion of cervical CD3+ T cells in 7 days compared to day 0. Inclusion of anti-CD28 or addition of IL-7 and IL-15 to this combination did not improve expansion. Culturing cells with Dynal beads (1:1) and IL-2, IL-7 and IL-15 gave rise to the highest yields after 7 days in both blood (7.1-fold) and cervix (5.6-fold). While expansion with anti-CD3 led to the accumulation of effector memory T cells (CD45RO+CCR7?CD27?), expansion with Dynabeads selected for accumulation of central memory T cells (CD45RO+CCR7+CD27+). We conclude that in vitro expansion with Dynabeads (1:1) in the presence of IL-2, IL-7 and IL-15 resulted in the greatest increase in viable T cells from both blood and cytobrush. Irrespective of the expansion method used, the T cell memory profile was altered following expansion. PMID:20149794

  19. Vaccines for bacterial sexually transmitted infections: a realistic goal?

    PubMed Central

    Sparling, P F; Elkins, C; Wyrick, P B; Cohen, M S

    1994-01-01

    Bacterial infections of the genital tract (gonorrhea, chlamydia, chancroid, syphilis) are common and cause significant morbidity. Their importance is heightened by recent appreciation of their roles in facilitation of transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Each is capable of causing repeated infections, suggesting lack of permanent broadly effective immunity. An effective vaccine has yet to be developed for any of these diseases. Rapid progress in understanding the molecular basis for pathogenesis of infection, including mechanisms for escape from otherwise effective immune surveillance and mechanisms for causing injury to host cells, has stimulated renewed efforts to make vaccines for some of these infections. Progress has been greatest for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. Present emphasis is on the major or principal outer membrane proteins of N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis, based on evidence for neutralizing antibodies directed against surface-exposed variable domains of each of these proteins. Other surface-exposed proteins, including the iron-repressible transferrin receptor in gonococci and certain heat-shock proteins in chlamydia, also may be targets for vaccines. Although much remains to be learned, cautious optimism is warranted. PMID:8146139

  20. CXCL9 and CXCL10 expression are critical for control of genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection through mobilization of HSV-specific CTL and NK cells to the nervous system1

    PubMed Central

    Thapa, Manoj; Welner, Robert S.; Pelayo, Rosana; Carr, Daniel J.J.

    2007-01-01

    CXCL9 and CXCL10 mediate the recruitment of T lymphocytes and NK cells known to be important in viral surveillance. The relevance of CXCL10 in comparison to CXCL9 in response to genital HSV-2 infection was determined using mice deficient in CXCL9 (CXCL9?/?) and CXCL10 (CXCL10?/?) along with wild type (WT) C57BL/6 mice. An increased sensitivity to infection was found in CXCL10?/? mice in comparison to CXCL9?/? or WT mice as determined by detection of HSV-2 in the central nervous system (CNS) at day 3 post infection. However, by day 7 post infection both CXCL9?/? & CXCL10?/?mice possessed significantly higher viral titers in the CNS in comparison to WT mice consistent with mortality (18–35%) of these mice within the first 7 days after infection. Even though CXCL9?/? and CXCL10?/? mice expressed elevated levels of CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, and CXCL1 in the spinal cord in comparison to WT mice, there was a reduction in NK cell and virus-specific CD8+ T cell mobilization to this tissue suggesting CXCL9 and CXCL10 are critical for recruitment of these effector cells to the spinal cord following genital HSV-2 infection. Moreover, leukocytes from the spinal cord but not draining lymph nodes or spleens of infected CXCL9?/? or CXCL10?/? mice displayed reduced CTL activity in comparison to effector cells from WT mice. Thus, the absence of CXCL9 or CXCL10 expression significantly alters the ability of the host to control genital HSV-2 infection through the mobilization of effector cells to sites of infection. PMID:18178850

  1. VACCINES. A mucosal vaccine against Chlamydia trachomatis generates two waves of protective memory T cells.

    PubMed

    Stary, Georg; Olive, Andrew; Radovic-Moreno, Aleksandar F; Gondek, David; Alvarez, David; Basto, Pamela A; Perro, Mario; Vrbanac, Vladimir D; Tager, Andrew M; Shi, Jinjun; Yethon, Jeremy A; Farokhzad, Omid C; Langer, Robert; Starnbach, Michael N; von Andrian, Ulrich H

    2015-06-19

    Genital Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) infection induces protective immunity that depends on interferon-?-producing CD4 T cells. By contrast, we report that mucosal exposure to ultraviolet light (UV)-inactivated Ct (UV-Ct) generated regulatory T cells that exacerbated subsequent Ct infection. We show that mucosal immunization with UV-Ct complexed with charge-switching synthetic adjuvant particles (cSAPs) elicited long-lived protection in conventional and humanized mice. UV-Ct-cSAP targeted immunogenic uterine CD11b(+)CD103(-) dendritic cells (DCs), whereas UV-Ct accumulated in tolerogenic CD11b(-)CD103(+) DCs. Regardless of vaccination route, UV-Ct-cSAP induced systemic memory T cells, but only mucosal vaccination induced effector T cells that rapidly seeded uterine mucosa with resident memory T cells (T(RM) cells). Optimal Ct clearance required both T(RM) seeding and subsequent infection-induced recruitment of circulating memory T cells. Thus, UV-Ct-cSAP vaccination generated two synergistic memory T cell subsets with distinct migratory properties. PMID:26089520

  2. Genital Warts (Condyloma Acuminata)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... because they very rarely will cause genital or anal cancer. On the other hand, subtypes 16 and ... genital warts, they can lead to cervical or anal precancer and cancer. HPV is spread by skin- ...

  3. Indirect Estimation of Chlamydia Screening Coverage Using Public Health Surveillance Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William C. Levine; Linda W. Dicker; Owen Devine; Debra J. Mosure

    Although routine screening of all sexually active adolescent females for Chlamydia trachomatis infection is recommended at least annually in the United States, no national or state-specific population-based estimates of chlamydia screening coverage are known to exist. Conclusions regarding screening coverage have often been based on surveys of health care provider or facility screening practices, but such surveys do not consider

  4. Transfer of IgG in the female genital tract by MHC class I-related neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) confers protective immunity to vaginal infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    IgG is a major immunoglobulin subclass in mucosal secretions of human female genital tract, where it predominates over the IgA isotype. Despite the abundance of IgG, surprisingly little is known about whether and how IgG enters the lumen of the genital tract and the exact role of local IgG may play ...

  5. Lipschütz Genital Ulceration Associated with Mumps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johan Chanal; Agnès Carlotti; Hélène Laude; Nadège Wallet-Faber; Marie-Françoise Avril; Nicolas Dupin

    2010-01-01

    Lipschütz ulcers are characterised by a first flare of non-sexually related acute genital ulcers (AGU) occurring in adolescent girls. Epstein-Barr primary infection is the most frequently reported aetiology but other infectious agents are probably implicated. We report the first case of mumps associated with an AGU in a 21-year-old girl. She presented a bilateral parotitis with genital ulcers, and serology

  6. Human papillomavirus, genital warts, and vaccines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Po-Ren Hsueh

    Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related diseases, including cancers, low-grade neoplasia, genital warts, and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, have a substantial impact on public health. The increasing incidence of HPV infection and genital warts highlights the need for an effective strategy for the management of this disease. Immunization holds the promise of reducing the overall burden of clinical HPV-related diseases. A prophylactic quadrivalent HPV

  7. Cervicovaginal coinfections with human papillomavirus and chlamydia trachomatis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hala Tamim; Ramzi R. Finan; Huda E. Sharida; Mooza Rashid; Wassim Y. Almawi

    2002-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) are the two most common sexually transmitted pathogens, and infection with either reportedly was associated with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in women. In view of their similar mode of transmission, CT infection was examined as a possible HPV cofactor in the etiology of CIN disease. In total, 129 women were included in the

  8. Male Genital Lichen Sclerosus

    PubMed Central

    Bunker, Christopher Barry; Shim, Tang Ngee

    2015-01-01

    Male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease responsible for male sexual dyspareunia and urological morbidity. An afeared complication is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis. The precise etiopathogenesis of MGLSc remains controversial although genetic, autoimmune and infective (such as human papillomavirus (HPV) hepatitis C (HCV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Borrelia) factors have been implicated: Consideration of all the evidence suggests that chronic exposure of susceptible epithelium to urinary occlusion by the foreskin seems the most likely pathomechanism. The mainstay of treatment is topical ultrapotent corticosteroid therapy. Surgery is indicated for cases unresponsive to topical corticosteroid therapy, phimosis, meatal stenosis, urethral stricture, carcinoma in situ (CIS) and squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25814697

  9. Co-evolution of genomes and plasmids within Chlamydia trachomatis and the emergence in Sweden of a new variant strain

    PubMed Central

    Seth-Smith, Helena MB; Harris, Simon R; Persson, Kenneth; Marsh, Pete; Barron, Andrew; Bignell, Alexandra; Bjartling, Carina; Clark, Louise; Cutcliffe, Lesley T; Lambden, Paul R; Lennard, Nicola; Lockey, Sarah J; Quail, Michael A; Salim, Omar; Skilton, Rachel J; Wang, Yibing; Holland, Martin J; Parkhill, Julian; Thomson, Nicholas R; Clarke, Ian N

    2009-01-01

    Background Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of sexually transmitted infections globally and the leading cause of preventable blindness in the developing world. There are two biovariants of C. trachomatis: 'trachoma', causing ocular and genital tract infections, and the invasive 'lymphogranuloma venereum' strains. Recently, a new variant of the genital tract C. trachomatis emerged in Sweden. This variant escaped routine diagnostic tests because it carries a plasmid with a deletion. Failure to detect this strain has meant it has spread rapidly across the country provoking a worldwide alert. In addition to being a key diagnostic target, the plasmid has been linked to chlamydial virulence. Analysis of chlamydial plasmids and their cognate chromosomes was undertaken to provide insights into the evolutionary relationship between chromosome and plasmid. This is essential knowledge if the plasmid is to be continued to be relied on as a key diagnostic marker, and for an understanding of the evolution of Chlamydia trachomatis. Results The genomes of two new C. trachomatis strains were sequenced, together with plasmids from six C. trachomatis isolates, including the new variant strain from Sweden. The plasmid from the new Swedish variant has a 377 bp deletion in the first predicted coding sequence, abolishing the site used for PCR detection, resulting in negative diagnosis. In addition, the variant plasmid has a 44 bp duplication downstream of the deletion. The region containing the second predicted coding sequence is the most highly conserved region of the plasmids investigated. Phylogenetic analysis of the plasmids and chromosomes are fully congruent. Moreover this analysis also shows that ocular and genital strains diverged from a common C. trachomatis progenitor. Conclusion The evolutionary pathways of the chlamydial genome and plasmid imply that inheritance of the plasmid is tightly linked with its cognate chromosome. These data suggest that the plasmid is not a highly mobile genetic element and does not transfer readily between isolates. Comparative analysis of the plasmid sequences has revealed the most conserved regions that should be used to design future plasmid based nucleic acid amplification tests, to avoid diagnostic failures. PMID:19460133

  10. Antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent post-abortal upper genital tract infection in women with bacterial vaginosis: randomised controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tessa Crowley; Nicola Low; Andrew Turner; Ian Harvey; Ken Bidgood; Patrick Horner

    2001-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in women undergoing first trimester suction termination of pregnancy and to evaluate the efficacy of metronidazole in reducing the risk of post abortal pelvic infection in women with bacterial vaginosis.Design Randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial.Setting Two teaching hospitals and one district general hospital.Sample Two hundred and seventy-three women with bacterial vaginosis undergoing termination

  11. Mucinases and sialidases: their role in the pathogenesis of sexually transmitted infections in the female genital tract

    PubMed Central

    Wiggins, R; Hicks, S; Soothill, P; Millar, M; Corfield, A

    2001-01-01

    Background: Mucinases and sialidases contribute to the process of invasion and colonisation in many conditions and infections of the female reproductive tract by degrading the protective cervical mucus. The role of hydrolytic enzymes in the pathogenesis of sexually transmitted diseases and their effect on cervical mucus are discussed in this review. Methods: Articles were searched for using the keywords "sialidase," "mucinase," "protease," and "sexually transmitted infections." As well as review and other articles held by our group, searches were conducted using PubMed, Grateful Med, and the University of Bath search engine, BIDS. Results: Numerous publications were found describing the production of hydrolytic enzymes in sexually transmitted diseases. Because the number of publications exceeded the restrictions imposed on the size of the review, the authors selected and discussed those which they considered of the most relevance to sexually transmitted infections. Key Words: mucinase; sialidase; microbial protease Abbreviations: BSM (bovine submaxillary mucin), BV (bacterial vaginosis); Fuc (fucose); Gal (galactose); GalNAc (N-acetylgalactosamine); Glc (glucose); GlcNAc (N-acetylglucosamine); Man (mannose); PMN (polymorphonuclear neutrophils), human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1); sIgA (secretory immunoglobulin A). PMID:11714935

  12. Type III secretion à la Chlamydia.

    PubMed

    Peters, Jan; Wilson, David P; Myers, Garry; Timms, Peter; Bavoil, Patrik M

    2007-06-01

    Type III secretion (T3S) is a mechanism that is central to the biology of the Chlamydiaceae and many other pathogens whose virulence depends on the translocation of toxic effector proteins to cytosolic targets within infected eukaryotic cells. Biomathematical simulations, using a previously described model of contact-dependent, T3S-mediated chlamydial growth and late differentiation, suggest that chlamydiae contained in small non-fusogenic inclusions will persist. Here, we further discuss the model in the context of in vitro-persistent, stress-induced aberrantly enlarged forms and of recent studies using small molecule inhibitors of T3S. A general mechanism is emerging whereby both early- and mid-cycle T3S-mediated activities and late T3S inactivation upon detachment of chlamydiae from the inclusion membrane are crucial for chlamydial intracellular development. PMID:17482820

  13. High co-occurrence of anorectal chlamydia with urogenital chlamydia in women visiting an STI clinic revealed by routine universal testing in an observational study; a recommendation towards a better anorectal chlamydia control in women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Symptom- and sexual history-based testing i.e., testing on indication, for anorectal sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in women is common. Yet, it is unknown whether this strategy is effective. Moreover, little is known about alternative transmission routes i.e. by fingers/toys. This study assesses anorectal STI prevalence and infections missed by current testing practice, thereby informing the optimal control strategy for anorectal STIs in women. Methods Women (n?=?663) attending our STI-clinic between May 2012-July 2013 were offered routine testing for anorectal and urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Data were collected on demographics, sexual behaviour and symptoms. Women were assigned to one of the categories: indication (reported anal sex/symptoms), fingers/toys (only reported use of fingers/toys), or without indication. Results Of women, 92% (n?=?654) participated. There were 203 reports (31.0%) of anal sex and/or symptoms (indication), 48 reports (7.3%) of only using fingers/toys (fingers/toys), and 403 reports (61.6%) of no anal symptoms, no anal sex and no anal use of fingers/toys (without indication). The overall prevalence was 11.2% (73/654) for urogenital chlamydia and 8.4% (55/654) for anorectal chlamydia. Gonorrhoea infections were not observed. Prevalence of anorectal chlamydia was 7.9% (16/203) for women with indication and 8.6% (39/451) for all other women (P?=?0.74). Two-thirds (39/55) of anorectal infections were diagnosed in women without indication. Isolated anorectal chlamydia was rare (n?=?3): of all women with an anorectal infection, 94.5% (52/55) also had co-occurrence of urogenital chlamydia. Of all women with urogenital chlamydia, 71.2% (52/73) also had anorectal chlamydia. Conclusions Current selective testing on indication of symptoms and sexual history is not an appropriate control strategy for anorectal chlamydia in women visiting an STI clinic. Routine universal anorectal testing is feasible and may be a possible control strategy in women. Yet costs may be a problem. When more restricted control measures are preferred, possible alternatives include (1) anorectal testing only in women with urogenital chlamydia (problem: treatment delay or loss to follow up), and (2) direct treatment for urogenital chlamydia that is effective for anorectal chlamydia as well. PMID:24885306

  14. Knock-knock: a population-based survey of risk behavior, health care access, and Chlamydia trachomatis infection among low-income women in the San Francisco Bay area.

    PubMed

    Klausner, J D; McFarland, W; Bolan, G; Hernandez, M T; Molitor, F; Lemp, G F; Cahoon-Young, B; Morrow, S; Ruiz, J

    2001-04-01

    To estimate the prevalence of urogenital chlamydial infection among young, low-income women in northern California and to describe correlates of infection, a population-based door-to-door household cluster survey was conducted from 1996 through 1998. The participants included 1439 women 18-29 years of age, with a mean age of 24 years, most of whom were African American (43%) or Latina (23%) and had a median income of $500-$999 per month. Most (94%) had received health care in the past year, and approximately 50% was covered by state insurance programs. Although more than half (62%) had had a recent pelvic examination, only 42% had recently used a condom with a new partner. The prevalence of urogenital chlamydial infection was 3.2% (95% confidence interval, 2.2%-4.2%). Women with chlamydia were more likely to be younger (18-21 years of age) and nonwhite and to have lower socioeconomic status. These data demonstrated an approximately 2-3-fold greater burden of infection than routine surveillance data have suggested. PMID:11237834

  15. Emergency department screening for asymptomatic sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed Central

    Todd, C S; Haase, C; Stoner, B P

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the prevalence and correlates of asymptomatic genital tract infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis among emergency department patients. METHODS: Individuals seeking emergency department evaluation for nongenitourinary complaints provided urine samples for N gonorrhoeae and C trachomatis testing by ligase chain reaction and completed a sociodemographic and behavioral questionnaire. RESULTS: Asymptomatic N gonorrhoeae or C trachomatis was found in 9.7% of persons tested. Correlates of C trachomatis infection included younger age, residence in high-morbidity zip code areas, previous history of N gonorrhoeae or C trachomatis, and number of sex partners in the past year. CONCLUSIONS: Urine-based screening of asymptomatic emergency department patients detected significant numbers of N gonorrhoeae and C trachomatis infections. Targeted screening programs may contribute to community-level prevention and control of sexually transmitted infections. PMID:11236416

  16. Syndromic treatment of gonococcal and chlamydial infections in women seeking primary care for the genital discharge syndrome: decision-making.

    PubMed Central

    Behets, F. M.; Miller, W. C.; Cohen, M. S.

    2001-01-01

    The syndromic treatment of gonococcal and chlamydial infections in women seeking primary care in clinics where resources are scarce, as recommended by WHO and implemented in many developing countries, necessitates a balance to be struck between overtreatment and undertreatment. The present paper identifies factors that are relevant to the selection of specific strategies for syndromic treatment in the above circumstances. Among them are the general aspects of decision-making and caveats concerning the rational decision-making approach. The positive and negative implications are outlined of providing or withholding treatment following a specific algorithm with a given accuracy to detect infection, i.e. sensitivity, specificity and predictive values. Other decision-making considerations that are identified are related to implementation and include the stability of risk factors with regard to time, space and the implementer, acceptability by stakeholders, and environmental constraints. There is a need to consider empirically developed treatment algorithms as a basis for policy discourse, to be evaluated together with the evidence, alternatives and arguments by the stakeholders. PMID:11731816

  17. Influence of Vaginal Bacteria and d- and l-Lactic Acid Isomers on Vaginal Extracellular Matrix Metalloproteinase Inducer: Implications for Protection against Upper Genital Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Witkin, Steven S.; Mendes-Soares, Helena; Linhares, Iara M.; Jayaram, Aswathi; Ledger, William J.; Forney, Larry J.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT We evaluated levels of vaginal extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-8) in vaginal secretions in relation to the composition of vaginal bacterial communities and d- and l-lactic acid levels. The composition of vaginal bacterial communities in 46 women was determined by pyrosequencing the V1 to V3 region of 16S rRNA genes. Lactobacilli were dominant in 71.3% of the women, followed by Gardnerella (17.4%), Streptococcus (8.7%), and Enterococcus (2.2%). Of the lactobacillus-dominated communities, 51.5% were dominated by Lactobacillus crispatus, 36.4% by Lactobacillus iners, and 6.1% each by Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus jensenii. Concentrations of l-lactic acid were slightly higher in lactobacillus-dominated vaginal samples, but most differences were not statistically significant. d-Lactic acid levels were higher in samples containing L. crispatus than in those with L. iners (P < 0.0001) or Gardnerella (P = 0.0002). The relative proportion of d-lactic acid in vaginal communities dominated by species of lactobacilli was in concordance with the proportions found in axenic cultures of the various species grown in vitro. Levels of l-lactic acid (P < 0.0001) and the ratio of l-lactic acid to d-lactic acid (P = 0.0060), but not concentrations of d-lactic acid, were also correlated with EMMPRIN concentrations. Moreover, vaginal concentrations of EMMPRIN and MMP-8 levels were highly correlated (P < 0.0001). Taken together, the data suggest the relative proportion of l- to d-lactic acid isomers in the vagina may influence the extent of local EMMPRIN production and subsequent induction of MMP-8. The expression of these proteins may help determine the ability of bacteria to transverse the cervix and initiate upper genital tract infections. PMID:23919998

  18. Experimental genital infection of male guinea pigs with the agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis and transmission to females.

    PubMed

    Mount, D T; Bigazzi, P E; Barron, A L

    1973-12-01

    Male guinea pigs were inoculated intraurethrally with the agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (Gp-ic). Cytoplasmic inclusions were found in superficial epithelial cells of the urethra in smears and stained sections. Gp-ic antigen(s) was detected by immunofluorescent staining of sections. There was no marked urethral exudate, but many animals developed bullous lesions on the glans and the body of the penis and a severe inflammatory lesion of the hind leg. All males demonstrated an antibody response and most of them showed a positive skin test reaction. Venereal transmission to females of Gp-ic infection was shown to occur as determined by detection of inclusions in vaginal smears, antibody response, and positive skin tests. PMID:4594119

  19. Schistosomal genital granulomas: a report of 10 cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V R Attili; S K Hira; M K Dube

    1983-01-01

    Genital lesions caused by Schistosoma spp are difficult to diagnose because of their similarity to those of common sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Over two years 10 cases of genital lesions were identified by skin or cervical biopsies as being caused by schistosomal infection. Definitive diagnosis is possible only when schistosomal ova are identified by histological examination of biopsy specimens. Routine

  20. An N-linked high-mannose type oligosaccharide, expressed at the major outer membrane protein of Chlamydia trachomatis, mediates attachment and infectivity of the microorganism to HeLa cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, C; Takahashi, N; Swanson, A F; Ozeki, Y; Hakomori, S

    1996-01-01

    The structure of the carbohydrate of the 40-kD major outer membrane component of Chlamydia trachomatis and its role in defining infectivity of the organism were investigated. The oligosaccharides were released from the glycoprotein by N-glycanase digestion, coupled to a 2-aminopyridyl residue, and subjected to two-dimensional sugar mapping technique. The major fractions consisted of "high-mannose type" oligosaccharides containing 8-9 mannose residues. Bi- and tri-antennary "complex type" oligosaccharides having terminal galactose were detected as minor components. These oligosaccharides were N-linked and contained no sialic acid. This structural profile is consistent with our previous characterization based on lectin-binding and glycosidase digestion. Functional specificity of identified chlamydial oligosaccharides was analyzed using glycopeptides fractionated from ovalbumin and structurally defined oligosaccharides from other sources. The glycopeptide fraction having high-mannose type oligosaccharide, as compared to those having complex or hybrid-type, showed a stronger inhibitory effect on attachment and infectivity of chlamydial organisms to HeLa cells. Among high-mannose type oligosaccharides, the strongest inhibition was observed with mannose 8 as compared with mannose 6, 7, or 9. These results indicate that a specific high-mannose type oligosaccharide linked to the major outer membrane protein of C. trachomatis mediates attachment and infectivity of the organism to HeLa cells. PMID:8981929

  1. The quality of life of patients with genital warts: a qualitative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gitte Lee Mortensen; Helle K Larsen

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genital warts, which are caused by infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), are one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in Europe. Although genital warts are commonly perceived as a non-serious condition, treatment is often long, of varying effectiveness and the recurrence rate is high. Very few studies have been performed on the personal consequences of genital warts. The

  2. Genital lesions in male red fronted gazelles (Gazella rufifrons) experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei and the effect of melarsamine hydrochloride (Cymelarsan®) and diminazene aceturate (Berenil®) in its treatment.

    PubMed

    Mbaya, A W; Nwosu, C O; Kumshe, H A

    2011-09-01

    Thirty red fronted gazelles (Gazella rufifrons) were used to assess the genital lesions associated with trypanosomosis and the efficacy of melarsamine hydrochloride (Cymelarsan®) and diminazene aceturate (Berenil®) in the treatment of the condition. The animals were divided into 6 equal groups (A-F). Animals in groups A-E were infected with Trypanosoma brucei, and later treated on day 8 post infection (p.i.) with either melarsamine hydrochloride (Cymelarsan®) at 0.3 mg/kg (Group A) and 0.6 mg/kg (Group B) or diminazene aceturate (Berenil®) at 3.5 mg/kg (Group C) and 7.0 mg/kg (Group D). Animals in group E remained untreated while group F served as healthy controls. Parasitaemia was established by day 8 p.i. in all infected groups and eliminated by day 16 following treatment on day 8 p.i. with melarsamine hydrochloride (Cymelarsan®) (Groups A and B) or diminazene aceturate (Berenil®) (Group D). On the other hand, diminazene aceturate treatment (Berenil®) on day 8 p.i. at 3.5 mg/kg (Group C) caused a temporary disappearance of parasites from the circulation by day 16 p.i. but there was a relapse parasitaemia on day 44 with a peak count of 500 ± 2.79 × 10(3) parasites/?L of blood by day 52 p.i. In the infected/untreated group (E), parasitaemia fluctuated but attained the same peak as Group C by day 52 p.i. Increase in body temperatures (40.5 ± 3.16 - 42.8 ± 3.25 °C) occurred during the first wave of parasitaemia but declined to pre-infection values from day 28 p.i. in Groups A, B and D. In Groups C and E, there was a second wave of parasitaemia (P < 0.05) with peak counts of 42.4 ± 0.81 × 10(3)/?L and 41.8 ± 0.80 × 10(3)/?L respectively by day 52 p.i. A significant (P < 0.05) decline in packed cell volume was also noted by day 52 p.i. The major clinical signs observed in Groups C and E were pyrexia, inappetance, emaciation, anaemia, dullness, starry hair coat, pallor of buccal and ocular mucous membranes. Similarly, in Groups C and E, the testicles appeared oedematous and painful to touch with degenerative changes, morphological sperm abnormalities and oligospermia with 2.0% and 0% sperm reserves respectively. Sperm reserve was 100% in Groups A, B and D. It is therefore, concluded that trypanosomosis can cause serious infertility in male red fronted gazelles and that early treatments with melarsamine hydrochloride (Cymelarsan®) at 0.3 and 0.6 mg/kg body weight or diminazene aceturate (Berenil®) at 7.0 mg/kg body weight may prevent such effects. PMID:21601916

  3. Chlamydia trachomatis Inclusions Induce Asymmetric Cleavage Furrow Formation and Ingression Failure in Host Cells?†

    PubMed Central

    Sun, He Song; Wilde, Andrew; Harrison, Rene E.

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection has been suggested to induce host genome duplication and is linked to increased risks of cervical cancer. We describe here the mechanism by which Chlamydia causes a cleavage furrow defect that consistently results in the formation of multinucleated host cells, a phenomenon linked to tumorigenesis. Host signaling proteins essential for cleavage furrow initiation, ingression, and stabilization are displaced from one of the prospective furrowing cortices after Chlamydia infection. This protein displacement leads to the formation of a unique asymmetrical, unilateral cleavage furrow in infected human cells. The asymmetrical distribution of signaling proteins is caused by the physical presence of the Chlamydia inclusion at the cell equator. By using ingested latex beads, we demonstrate that the presence of a large vacuole at the cell equator is sufficient to cause furrow ingression failure and can lead to multinucleation. Interestingly, internalized latex beads of similar size do not localize to the cell equator as efficiently as Chlamydia inclusions; moreover, inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis with antibiotic reduces the frequency at which Chlamydia localizes to the cell equator. Together, these results suggest that Chlamydia effectors are involved in strategic positioning of the inclusion during cell division. PMID:21969606

  4. Genital Tract Leukocytes and Shedding of Genital HIV Type 1 RNA

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Brenna L.; Wang, Chia-Ching; DeLong, Allison K.; Liu, Tao; Kojic, Erna Milu; Kurpewski, Jaclynn; Ingersoll, Jessica; Mayer, Kenneth; Caliendo, Angela M.; Cu-Uvin, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background The mechanism of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission via heterosexual intercourse is unknown. We sought to determine whether the presence of inflammatory cells in the vagina is associated with the presence of genital tract HIV type 1 (HIV-1) RNA. Methods Analysis of a longitudinal prospective cohort was performed. Women with HIV-1 infection were assessed with use of paired plasma and cervicovaginal lavage specimens. Viral load measurements were performed using nucleic acid sequence—based amplification. White blood cells found in the genital tract (GT WBCs) were quantified using a hemacytometer. Common lower genital tract infections assessed for association with viral shedding (i.e., genital tract viral load [GTVL]) included bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis, and trichomoniasis. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate the prevalence and odds of detectable GTVL by GT WBC. The association was examined both in the presence and in the absence of lower genital tract infections. Results A total of 97 women and 642 visits were included in the analysis. Median duration of follow-up was 30.4 months. Thirty women (31%) had detectable GTVL at any visit. The median CD4 cell count at baseline was 525 cells/?L. Most women were antiretroviral therapy naive at baseline. After adjustment for plasma viral load, the odds of detectable GTVL increased as GT WBC increased, with an odds ratio of 1.36 (95% confidence interval, 1.1–1.7) per 1000-cell increase in GT WBC among women without lower genital tract infections. After adjustment for plasma viral load and lower genital tract infections by incorporating them in a regression model, GT WBC remained significantly associated with GTVL, with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.22 (95% confidence interval, 1.08–1.37). Conclusions The presence of GT WBC is associated with an increased risk of detectable GTVL. PMID:18808359

  5. Paper-based molecular diagnostic for Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Linnes, Jacqueline C.; Fan, Andy; Rodriguez, Natalia M.; Lemieux, Bertrand; Kong, Huimin; Klapperich, Catherine M.

    2014-01-01

    Herein we show the development of a minimally instrumented paper-based molecular diagnostic for point of care detection of sexually transmitted infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. This new diagnostic platform incorporates cell lysis, isothermal nucleic acid amplification, and lateral flow visual detection using only a pressure source and heat block, eliminating the need for expensive laboratory equipment. This paper-based test can be performed in less than one hour and has a clinically relevant limit of detection that is 100x more sensitive than current rapid immunoassays used for chlamydia diagnosis. PMID:25309740

  6. Approximating optimal controls for networks when there are combinations of population-level and targeted measures available: chlamydia infection as a case-study.

    PubMed

    Clarke, James; White, K A Jane; Turner, Katy

    2013-10-01

    Using a modified one-dimensional model for the spread of an SIS disease on a network, we show that the behaviour of complex network simulations can be replicated with a simpler model. This model is then used to design optimal controls for use on the network, which would otherwise be unfeasible to obtain, resulting in information about how best to combine a population-level random intervention with one that is more targeted. This technique is used to minimise intervention costs over a short time interval with a target prevalence, and also to minimise prevalence with a specified budget. When applied to chlamydia, we find results consistent with previous work; that is maximising targeted control (contact tracing) is important to using resources effectively, while high-intensity bursts of population control (screening) are more effective than maintaining a high level of coverage. PMID:23812958

  7. The molecular mechanism of T-cell control of Chlamydia in mice: role of nitric oxide.

    PubMed Central

    Igietseme, J U

    1996-01-01

    T-cell mediated immunity (CMI) is crucial for protection against genital chlamydial infection in mice. To define the underlying molecular mechanism for this protection, several T-cell clones generated against the Chlamydia trachomatis agent of mouse pneumonitis (MoPn) were analysed in an in vitro model of the mucosal epithelium, the polarized epithelial-lymphocyte co-culture (PELC) system, for immunobiological functions that correlated with chlamydial inhibition. The six clones analysed were classified as protective or non-protective on the basis of their ability to cure genital chlamydial infection in syngeneic mice. The results revealed a direct relationship between the ability of a clone to protect in vivo and to inhibit the multiplication of MoPn in vitro. Also, the protective ability of a clone correlated with its capacity to elaborate relatively high levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and to induce nitric oxide (NO) production. Moreover, neutralizing anti-IFN-gamma antibodies used alone at 50 micrograms/ml or in combination with anti-tumour necrosis-factor (TNF-alpha), and the L-arginine analogue and NO synthase inhibitor, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine monoacetate (MLA), could significantly suppress the ability of protective clones to inhibit MoPn in epithelial cells. The results suggested that the IFN-gamma-inducible NO synthease pathway is important for chlamydial control in mice. Furthermore, IFN-gamma could stimulate infected murine epithelial cells (line TM3) to secrete NO, resulting in inhibition of MoPn growth. However, the degree of MoPn inhibition obtained with IFN-gamma alone was less than that observed when T cells were co-cultured with infected epithelial cells. T-cell-derived NO could partly explain the enhanced chlamydial inhibition when T cells were co-cultured with infected epithelial cells. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that, besides T-cell-derived IFN-gamma, other factors associated with lymphoepithelial interactions are likely to contribute an important role in chlamydial control by T cells in mice. PMID:8666420

  8. A national survey of nurse practitioner chlamydia knowledge and treatment practices of female patients.

    PubMed

    Alexander, L L; Treiman, K; Clarke, P

    1996-05-01

    Chlamydia is the most prevalent sexually transmitted disease in the United States, with over 4 million new infections presenting each year. The disease presents disproportionate problems for women who are generally asymptomatic; chlamydia is more difficult to diagnose in women than men. Untreated infections in women evolve into serious reproductive tract sequelae, including pelvic inflammatory disease, chronic pain, infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and neonatal complications. The bright side to this epidemic is that these sequelae are preventable. Chlamydia is both treatable and easily cured when it is detected. A national mailed survey of NPs was conducted to ascertain current chlamydia knowledge levels and clinical practices with female patients. Survey findings indicate that NPs are fairly knowledgeable about the infection and NP clinical practices are generally consistent with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendations for chlamydia diagnostics and treatment. However, the survey identified NP deficits in screening and treatment practices for pregnant women. These findings are disturbing given the serious risks associated with failure to promptly diagnose and treat prenatal infections. The survey highlights the need for continuing professional education about chlamydia and other sexually transmitted infections. PMID:8734625

  9. Genetics Home Reference: Hand-foot-genital syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... urethra opening on the underside of the penis (hypospadias). People with hand-foot-genital syndrome are usually ... Testing Registry: Hand foot uterus syndrome MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Hypospadias MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Urinary Tract Infection You might also ...

  10. Highly specific and efficient primers for in-house multiplex PCR detection of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although sophisticated methodologies are available, the use of endpoint polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect 16S rDNA genes remains a good approach for estimating the incidence and prevalence of specific infections and for monitoring infections. Considering the importance of the early diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), the development of a sensitive and affordable method for identifying pathogens in clinical samples is needed. Highly specific and efficient primers for a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (m-PCR) system were designed in silico to detect the 16S rDNA genes of four bacteria that cause genital infections, and the PCR method was developed. Methods The Genosensor Probe Designer (GPD) (version 1.0a) software was initially used to design highly specific and efficient primers for in-house m-PCR. Single-locus PCR reactions were performed and standardised, and then primers for each locus in turn were added individually in subsequent amplifications until m-PCR was achieved. Amplicons of the expected size were obtained from each of the four bacterial gene fragments. Finally, the analytical specificity and limits of detection were tested. Results Because they did not amplify any product from non-STI tested species, the primers were specific. The detection limits for the Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum primer sets were 5.12?×?105, 3.9?×?103, 61.19?×?106 and 6.37?×?105 copies of a DNA template, respectively. Conclusions The methodology designed and standardised here could be applied satisfactorily for the simultaneous or individual detection of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum. This method is at least as efficient as other previously described methods; however, this method is more affordable for low-income countries. PMID:24997675

  11. Intraurethral condylomata acuminata associated with genital piercings.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, S; Hirano, Y; Kawamura, T; Homma, Y

    2013-01-01

    A 33-year-old man was referred to our institution with papillary masses at the urethral meatus and difficulty urinating. Genital examination showed two piercings on the frenulum, which were penetrating the external urethra. Endoscopic examination revealed papillary tumours over the entire circumference of the penile urethra and the piercing site. The tumours were resected transurethrally. Microscopic examination revealed condylomata acuminata. Human papillomavirus types 6 and 66 were detected in the lesions. Retrograde urethral viral infection is rare because of the protection provided by the mucosal immune system. Genital piercing may have facilitated spread of the human papillomavirus into the urethra. PMID:23512508

  12. Detection of serum antibodies against Chlamydia pneumoniae by ELISA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kei Numazaki; Tadashi Ikebe; Shunzo Chiba

    1996-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae causes pneumonia and other respiratory infections in children, adolescents and adults. We tried to evaluate the diagnostic value of detection of serum antibodies by ELISA for C. pneumoniae infections in Japanese children. Serum IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies to C. pneumoniae were determined by the microimmunofluorescence (MIF) test. Serum IgG and IgA antibodies were also determined by ELISA

  13. Pregnancy Complications: Genital Herpes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... by genital herpes can cause the urethra to swell. The urethra is the tube that carries urine ... quick weight gain or your legs and face swell Have questions? Type your question here. Frequently Asked ...

  14. TaqMan-Based Detection of Trichomonas vaginalis DNA from Female Genital Specimens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JEANNE A. JORDAN; DONNA LOWERY; MASSIMO TRUCCO

    2001-01-01

    A double-labeled fluorescent probe was designed and evaluated for detecting Trichomonas vaginalis DNA in a5 nuclease (TaqMan) assay. The T. vaginalis-specific probe contains a 5-fluorescein (5-FAM) and a 3-rhodamine (TAMRA) derivative. Female genital secretions were collected on Amplicor (Roche Molecular, Indianapolis, Ind.) swabs and by a transport system used for Chlamydia trachomatis and\\/or Neisseria gonor- rhoeae DNA detection by PCR.

  15. Male genital modification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raven Rowanchilde

    1996-01-01

    By modifying the body in meaningful ways, human beings establish their identity and social status. Lip plugs, ear plugs, penis\\u000a sheaths, cosmetics, ornaments, scarification, body piercings, and genital modifications encode and transmit messages about\\u000a age, sex, social status, health, and attractiveness from one individual to another. Through sociocultural sexual selection,\\u000a male genital modification plays an important role as a sociosexual

  16. Persistence of Chlamydia trachomatis Is Induced by Ciprofloxacin and Ofloxacin In Vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    UTE DRESES-WERRINGLOER; INGRID PADUBRIN; BARBARA JURGENS-SAATHOFF; ALAN P. HUDSON; H. Zeidler; L. Kohler

    2000-01-01

    An in vitro cell culture model was used to investigate the long-term effect of ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin on infection with Chlamydia trachomatis. Standard in vitro susceptibility testing clearly indicated successful sup- pression of chlamydial growth. To mimic better in vivo infection conditions, extended treatment with the drugs was started after infection in vitro had been well established. Incubation of such

  17. Susceptibilities of genital mycoplasmas to the newer quinolones as determined by the agar dilution method.

    PubMed

    Kenny, G E; Hooton, T M; Roberts, M C; Cartwright, F D; Hoyt, J

    1989-01-01

    The increasing resistance of genital mycoplasmas to tetracycline poses a problem because tetracycline is one of the few antimicrobial agents active against Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, chlamydiae, gonococci, and other agents of genitourinary-tract disease. Since the quinolones are a promising group of antimicrobial agents, the susceptibilities of M. hominis and U. urealyticum to the newer 6-fluoroquinolones were determined by the agar dilution method. Ciprofloxacin, difloxacin, and ofloxacin had good activity against M. hominis, with the MIC for 50% of isolates tested (MIC50) being 1 microgram/ml. Fleroxacin, lomefloxacin, pefloxacin, and rosoxacin had MIC50s of 2 micrograms/ml. Enoxacin, norfloxacin, and amifloxacin had MIC50s of 8 to 16 micrograms/ml, and cinoxacin and nalidixic acid were inactive (MIC50, greater than or equal to 256 micrograms/ml). Overall, the activities of 6-fluoroquinolones for ureaplasmas were similar to those for M. hominis, with MICs being the same or twofold greater. The most active 6-fluoroquinolones against ureaplasmas were difloxacin, ofloxacin, and pefloxacin, with MIC50s of 1 to 2 micrograms/ml. Ciprofloxacin was unusual in that the MIC50 for M. hominis was 1 microgram/ml, whereas the MIC50 for ureaplasmas was 8 micrograms/ml. Since the MIC50s for the most active quinolones approximate achievable concentrations in blood and urine, quinolones have promise in treating mycoplasmal infections. PMID:2712541

  18. The Epidemiology of Herpes Simplex Virus Infections in Adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan L Rosenthal

    1999-01-01

    SUMMARY Herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and -2) infections are common among adolescents. HSV-1 can cause either oral or genital infections, whereas HSV-2 causes predominantly genital herpes. Therefore, HSV-2 seroprevalence can be used as a marker of genital herpes. As in adults, genital infections in adolescents are often unrecognized; consequently the magnitude of the problem of

  19. [Purulent keratoconjunctivitis due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis coinfection].

    PubMed

    Arvai, Mariann; Ostorházi, Eszter; Mihalik, Noémi; Kárpáti, Sarolta; Marschalkó, Márta

    2013-05-26

    Gonococcal conjunctivitis is a rare infection induced by Neisseria gonorrhoeae and it usually manifests as a hyperacute purulent conjunctivitis. Ocular access of the infectious secretion during sexual intercourse is the way of transmission among adults. Inclusion conjunctivitis caused by the serovars D-K of Chlamydia trachomatis also affects the sexually active population. Authors present a case of a 33-year-old homosexual man who was treated for late latent syphilis formerly. Clinical symptoms were yellow purulent discharge for 3 weeks without any urological or upper respiratory tract symptoms. Conjunctival Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infection was identified using cultures and polymerase chain reaction; pharyngeal swab culture and polymerase chain reaction showed positive results for both pathogens. The patient was probably under influence of party drugs at the time of sexual abuse when he became infected. After parenteral and oral cephalosporin and azithromycin therapy the patient had complete recovery within three weeks. PMID:23692878

  20. Distribution Study of Chlamydia trachomatis Serovars among High-Risk Women in China Performed Using PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Genotyping?

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xing; Chen, Xiang-Sheng; Yin, Yue-Ping; Zhong, Ming-Ying; Shi, Mei-Qin; Wei, Wan-Hui; Chen, Qiang; Peeling, Rosanna W.; Mabey, David

    2007-01-01

    This was one of the first epidemiological studies in China focused on genital Chlamydia trachomatis serotype distribution in high-risk female populations using omp1 gene-based restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. One thousand seven hundred seventy cervical swab samples from women attending sexually transmitted disease clinics and female sex workers in six cities in China (Shenzhen and Guangzhou in southern China, Nanjing and Shanghai in eastern China, and Nanning and Chengdu in southwestern China) were subjected to serovar genotyping. The proportion of omp1 genes successfully amplified in 240 C. trachomatis plasmid-positive samples was 94.2% (226/240). Serotypes E (n = 63; 27.9%), F (n = 53; 23.5%), G (n = 28; 12.4%), and D (n = 25; 11.1%) were most prevalent. Though there was no significant difference in the geographic distribution of C. trachomatis, serotype E was predominant in the South (32.1%) and East (27.1%), while serotype F was predominant in the Southwest (28.3%). Serotype F infection was associated with young age and single status. Serovar G was associated with lower abdominal pain; 47.5% of asymptomatic patients were infected with serovar E. These results provide information on distribution of genital C. trachomatis serotypes among high-risk women in China and indicate that high-risk women, including those who are asymptomatic, can be infected with multiple serovars of C. trachomatis, revealing exposure to multiple sources of infection. Although the scope for generalizations is limited by our small sample size, our results showing clinical correlations with genotypes are informative. PMID:17301282

  1. Prevalence and characteristics of rectal chlamydia and gonorrhea cases among men who have sex with men after the introduction of nucleic acid amplification test screening at 2 Canadian sexually transmitted infection clinics.

    PubMed

    Gratrix, Jennifer; Singh, Ameeta E; Bergman, Joshua; Egan, Cari; McGinnis, Justin; Drews, Steven J; Read, Ron

    2014-10-01

    We sought to determine the prevalence of rectal chlamydia and gonorrhea after the introduction of nucleic acid amplification tests for screening in men reporting receptive anal intercourse. The rectal chlamydia prevalence was 14.1% (95% confidence interval, 11.9-16.3), and the gonorrhea prevalence was 5.9% (95% confidence interval, 4.4-7.3). Most cases were positive only from the rectum. PMID:25211252

  2. HPV Vaccine Promotion: Does Referring to Both Cervical Cancer and Genital Warts Affect Intended and Actual Vaccination Behavior?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilona Juraskova; Royena Abdul Bari; Michaeley Therese O’Brien; Kirsten Jo McCaffery

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundYoung women have poor awareness that human papillomavirus (HPV) can cause both cervical cancer and genital warts, a sexually transmitted infection (STI). A newly developed HPV vaccine can provide protection against both cervical cancer and genital warts. This vaccine could be promoted by health authorities\\/professionals as preventing cervical cancer plus genital warts, or cervical cancer alone. Because stigma around STIs

  3. Genital herpes - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... likely worried after finding out that you have genital herpes . But know that you are not alone. Millions ... carry the virus. Although there is no cure, genital herpes can be treated. Follow your health care provider’s ...

  4. Seroprevalence and genotype of Chlamydia in pet parrots in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, N-Z; Zhang, X-X; Zhou, D-H; Huang, S-Y; Tian, W-P; Yang, Y-C; Zhao, Q; Zhu, X-Q

    2015-01-01

    Parrots are one of the most popular pet birds in China, and can harbour Chlamydia which has significance for human and animal health. We investigated, by indirect haemagglutination assay, the seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in four species of parrots, namely budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), lovebirds (Agapornis sp.), cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and Alexandrine parakeets (Psittacula eupatria) that were collected from Weifang and Beijing cities, North China and explored the association between potential risk factors and chlamydial seropositivity. We further determined the genotype of Chlamydia in 21 fresh faecal samples based on the ompA sequence by reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships. Of the 311 parrots examined, 35·37% (95% confidence interval 30·06-40·68) were seropositive, and species, gender, age, season and geographical location were identified as risk factors. Two PCR-positive samples represented Chlamydia psittaci genotype A. The occurrence of C. psittaci genotype A in the droppings of two pet parrots in China suggests potential environmental contamination with Chlamydiaceae and may raise a public health concern. PMID:24588856

  5. Evaluation of intra- and extra-epithelial secretory IgA in chlamydial infections.

    PubMed

    Armitage, Charles W; O'Meara, Connor P; Harvie, Marina C G; Timms, Peter; Wijburg, Odilia L; Beagley, Kenneth W

    2014-12-01

    Immunoglobulin A is an important mucosal antibody that can neutralize mucosal pathogens by either preventing attachment to epithelia (immune exclusion) or alternatively inhibit intra-epithelial replication following transcytosis by the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR). Chlamydia trachomatis is a major human pathogen that initially targets the endocervical or urethral epithelium in women and men, respectively. As both tissues contain abundant secretory IgA (SIgA) we assessed the protection afforded by IgA targeting different chlamydial antigens expressed during the extra- and intra-epithelial stages of infection. We developed an in vitro model using polarizing cells expressing the murine pIgR together with antigen-specific mouse IgA, and an in vivo model using pIgR(-/-) mice. Secretory IgA targeting the extra-epithelial chlamydial antigen, the major outer membrane protein, significantly reduced infection in vitro by 24% and in vivo by 44%. Conversely, pIgR-mediated delivery of IgA targeting the intra-epithelial inclusion membrane protein A bound to the inclusion but did not reduce infection in vitro or in vivo. Similarly, intra-epithelial IgA targeting the secreted protease Chlamydia protease-like activity factor also failed to reduce infection. Together, these data suggest the importance of pIgR-mediated delivery of IgA targeting extra-epithelial, but not intra-epithelial, chlamydial antigens for protection against a genital tract infection. PMID:24827556

  6. Experimental transmission of Chlamydia psittaci to turkeys from wild birds.

    PubMed

    Grimes, J E; Owens, K J; Singer, J R

    1979-01-01

    Wild birds were inoculated with Chlamydia psittaci to determine species that could be potential hosts and vectors in transmitting the agent to domestic turkeys. Infection occurred in turkeys exposed to starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), and Inca doves (Cardafella inca). Mourning doves (Zenaidura macroura) shed the agent sparingly, but turkeys exposed to them did not become infected, These findings and knowledge of the habits of these various species are discussed. It was concluded that the Inca dove should be considered a potential source of turkey chlamydiosis in Texas. The species studied and other species not studied should be included in serologic surveys and surveillance studies attempting isolation of chlamydiae. PMID:546413

  7. High rates of genital mycoplasma infection in the highlands of Papua New Guinea determined both by culture and by a commercial detection kit.

    PubMed Central

    Clegg, A; Passey, M; Yoannes, M; Michael, A

    1997-01-01

    Duplicate vaginal swabs were collected from 100 women, and comparisons were made between an in-house broth-agar culture system and a commercially available kit, the Mycoplasma IST kit (bioMérieux), for the detection of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum. There was good agreement between the two systems for detection of the genital mycoplasmas in terms of sensitivity, with values of > 92% being obtained. In terms of specificity, the mutual comparisons were less favorable, though specificity values of > 72% were obtained. Statistically there was no significant difference in the performance of the two tests (P < 0.1 for both M. hominis and U. urealyticum). While the broth-agar culture system was considerably less expensive than the kit, the Mycoplasma IST kit provided additional information on antibiotic susceptibilities and had the advantages of a shelf life of up to 12 months and not requiring the preparation of culture media. The prevalences of colonization obtained for M. hominis and U. urealyticum were extremely high in this randomly selected group of women from periurban and rural settlements in the Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea, being > or = 70% for M. hominis and > or = 78% for U. urealyticum. colonization with both genital mycoplasmas simultaneously was also very common, with > or = 60% of women being colonized by both M. hominis and U. urealyticum. PMID:8968907

  8. Chlamydia trachomatis screening in young people in Merseyside

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane Harvey; Anne Webb; Harry Mallinson

    2000-01-01

    ObjectivesTo evaluate the acceptability to young people of proactive Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) information and urine test. To discover the extent of CT infection and the practical implications for completing treatment and partner notification.DesignProspective screening with sexual health questionnaire.SettingThree family planning clinics for young people in Liverpool and South Sefton.ParticipantsNine hundred and five women and 53 men had urine tests and

  9. Screening for chlamydia trachomatis in military personnel by urine testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angelika Stary; Claudia Heller-Vitouch; Ingrid Müller; K. Steyrer; P. A. Mårdh

    1991-01-01

    Summary In order to determine the infection rate ofChlamydia trachomatis in young males in Austria an epidemiological study was performed on 335 male Austrian soldiers attending the military hospital for a health check-up procedure. Three hundred twenty-nine (98.2%) of the screened males were clinically asymptomatic. Chlamydial diagnosis was established by testing first catch urine (FCU). Urine sediment was tested by

  10. Identification and localization of Chlamydia pneumoniae in the Alzheimer's brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian J. Balin; Hervé C. Gérard; E. James Arking; Denah M. Appelt; Patrick J. Branigan; J. Todd Abrams; Judith A. Whittum-Hudson; Alan P. Hudson

    1998-01-01

    We assessed whether the intracellular bacterium Chlamydia pneumoniae was present in post-mortem brain samples from patients with and without late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD), since some indirect\\u000a evidence seems to suggest that infection with the organism might be associated with the disease. Nucleic acids prepared from\\u000a those samples were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for DNA sequences from the

  11. Mucosal Immunity in the Female Genital Tract, HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Reis Machado, Juliana; da Silva, Marcos Vinícius; Cavellani, Camila Lourencini; Antônia dos Reis, Marlene; Monteiro, Maria Luiza Gonçalves dos Reis; Teixeira, Vicente de Paula Antunes; Rosa Miranda Corrêa, Rosana

    2014-01-01

    Mucosal immunity consists of innate and adaptive immune responses which can be influenced by systemic immunity. Despite having been the subject of intensive studies, it is not fully elucidated what exactly occurs after HIV contact with the female genital tract mucosa. The sexual route is the main route of HIV transmission, with an increased risk of infection in women compared to men. Several characteristics of the female genital tract make it suitable for inoculation, establishment of infection, and systemic spread of the virus, which causes local changes that may favor the development of infections by other pathogens, often called sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The relationship of these STDs with HIV infection has been widely studied. Here we review the characteristics of mucosal immunity of the female genital tract, its alterations due to HIV/AIDS, and the characteristics of coinfections between HIV/AIDS and the most prevalent STDs. PMID:25313360

  12. Genital lesions following bestiality.

    PubMed

    Mittal, A; Shenoi, S D; Kumar, K B; Sharma, P V

    2000-01-01

    A 48-year-old man presented with painful genital lesions with history of bestiality and abnor-mal sexual behaviour. Examination revealed multiple irregular tender ulcers and erosions, with phimosis and left sided tender inguinal adenopathy. VDRL, TPHA, HIV-ELISA were negative. He was treated with ciprofloxacin 500mg b.d. along with saline compresses with complete resolution. PMID:20877040

  13. Improved plaque assay identifies a novel anti-Chlamydia ceramide derivative with altered intracellular localization.

    PubMed

    Banhart, Sebastian; Saied, Essa M; Martini, Andrea; Koch, Sophia; Aeberhard, Lukas; Madela, Kazimierz; Arenz, Christoph; Heuer, Dagmar

    2014-09-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a medically important human pathogen causing different diseases, including trachoma, the leading cause of preventable blindness in developing countries, and sexually transmitted infections that can lead to infertility and ectopic pregnancies. There is no vaccine against C. trachomatis at present. Broad-spectrum antibiotics are used as standard therapy to treat the infection but have unwanted side effects, such as inducing persistent or recurring infections and affecting the host microbiome, necessitating the development of novel anti-Chlamydia therapies. Here, we describe the establishment of a robust, fast, and simple plaque assay using liquid overlay medium (LOM) for the identification of anti-Chlamydia compounds. Using the LOM plaque assay, we identified nitrobenzoxadiazole (NBD)-labeled 1-O-methyl-ceramide-C16 as a compound that efficiently inhibits C. trachomatis replication without affecting the viability of the host cell. Further detailed analyses indicate that 1-O-methyl-NBD-ceramide-C16 acts outside the inclusion. Thereby, 1-O-methyl-NBD-ceramide-C16 represents a lead compound for the development of novel anti-Chlamydia drugs and furthermore constitutes an agent to illuminate sphingolipid trafficking pathways in Chlamydia infections. PMID:25001308

  14. Improved Plaque Assay Identifies a Novel Anti-Chlamydia Ceramide Derivative with Altered Intracellular Localization

    PubMed Central

    Banhart, Sebastian; Saied, Essa M.; Martini, Andrea; Koch, Sophia; Aeberhard, Lukas; Madela, Kazimierz; Arenz, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a medically important human pathogen causing different diseases, including trachoma, the leading cause of preventable blindness in developing countries, and sexually transmitted infections that can lead to infertility and ectopic pregnancies. There is no vaccine against C. trachomatis at present. Broad-spectrum antibiotics are used as standard therapy to treat the infection but have unwanted side effects, such as inducing persistent or recurring infections and affecting the host microbiome, necessitating the development of novel anti-Chlamydia therapies. Here, we describe the establishment of a robust, fast, and simple plaque assay using liquid overlay medium (LOM) for the identification of anti-Chlamydia compounds. Using the LOM plaque assay, we identified nitrobenzoxadiazole (NBD)-labeled 1-O-methyl-ceramide-C16 as a compound that efficiently inhibits C. trachomatis replication without affecting the viability of the host cell. Further detailed analyses indicate that 1-O-methyl-NBD-ceramide-C16 acts outside the inclusion. Thereby, 1-O-methyl-NBD-ceramide-C16 represents a lead compound for the development of novel anti-Chlamydia drugs and furthermore constitutes an agent to illuminate sphingolipid trafficking pathways in Chlamydia infections. PMID:25001308

  15. New approach to managing genital warts

    PubMed Central

    Lopaschuk, Catharine C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To summarize and determine the appropriate use for the new and old management tools for genital warts. Sources of information The following databases were searched: MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ACP Journal Club, and Trip. The bibliographies of retrieved papers were also reviewed. Clinical trials, qualitative review articles, consensus reports, and clinical practice guidelines were retrieved. Main message Symptomatic warts are prevalent in at least 1% of the population between the ages of 15 and 49, with estimates of up to 50% of the population being infected with human papillomavirus at some point in their lifetime. Imiquimod and podophyllotoxin are 2 new treatments for external genital warts that are less painful and can be applied by patients at home. In addition, the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine has been shown to be efficacious in preventing genital warts and cervical cancer. There is still a role for the older treatment methods in certain situations, such as intravaginal, urethral, anal, or recalcitrant warts; or for pregnant patients. Conclusion The new treatments of external genital warts can reduce the pain of treatment and the number of office visits. Other treatment methods are still useful in certain situations. PMID:23851535

  16. DETECTION OF GENITAL HPV TYPES IN FINGERTIP SAMPLES FROM NEWLY SEXUALLY ACTIVE FEMALE UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    PubMed Central

    Winer, Rachel L.; Hughes, James P.; Feng, Qinghua; Xi, Long Fu; Cherne, Stephen; O’Reilly, Sandra; Kiviat, Nancy B.; Koutsky, Laura A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Little is known about detection of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) types in women’s fingertips. The study objectives were to determine the presence of genital HPV types in fingertip samples and agreement between fingertip and genital samples for detecting HPV. Methods At tri-annual visits, genital and fingertip samples were collected from female university students and tested for 37 HPV genotypes by PCR-based assay. Type-specific concordance between paired fingertip and genital samples was evaluated using a kappa statistic for percent positive agreement (“kappa +”). Paired samples with type-specific concordant fingertip and genital results were selected for variant characterization. Results A total of 357 fingertip samples were collected from 128 women. HPV prevalence in fingertip samples was 14.3%. Although percent positive agreement between fingertips and genitals for detecting type-specific HPV was low (17.8%; kappa+=0.17, 95%CI:0.10–0.25), 60.4% of type-specific HPV detected in the fingertips was detected in a concurrent genital sample. All but one of 28 paired concordant samples were positive for the same type-specific variant in the fingertip and genital sample. Re-detection of HPV types at the subsequent visit was more common in genital samples (73.3%) than in fingertip samples (14.5%) (p<.001). Conclusions Detection of genital HPV types in the fingertips was not uncommon. While impossible to distinguish between deposition of DNA from the genitals to the fingertips and true fingertip infection, the rarity of repeat detection in the fingertips suggests that deposition is more common. Impact Finger-genital transmission is plausible, but unlikely to be a significant source of genital HPV infection. PMID:20570905

  17. Multi locus sequence typing of Chlamydiales: clonal groupings within the obligate intracellular bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yvonne Pannekoek; Giovanna Morelli; Barica Kusecek; Servaas A Morré; Jacobus M Ossewaarde; Ankie A Langerak; Arie van der Ende

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The obligate intracellular growing bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis causes diseases like trachoma, urogenital infection and lymphogranuloma venereum with severe morbidity. Several serovars and genotypes have been identified, but these could not be linked to clinical disease or outcome. The related Chlamydophila pneumoniae, of which no subtypes are recognized, causes respiratory infections worldwide. We developed a multi locus sequence typing (MLST)

  18. Perforin-2 Restricts Growth of Chlamydia trachomatis in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    McCormack, R.; de Armas, L. R.; Podack, E. R.

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium that preferentially infects epithelial cells. Professional phagocytes provide C. trachomatis only a limited ability to survive and are proficient killers of chlamydiae. We present evidence herein that identifies a novel host defense protein, perforin-2, that plays a significant role in the eradication of C. trachomatis during the infection of macrophages. Knockdown of perforin-2 in macrophages did not alter the invasion of host cells but did result in chlamydial growth that closely mirrored that detected in HeLa cells. C trachomatis L2, serovar B, and serovar D and C. muridarum were all equally susceptible to perforin-2-mediated killing. Interestingly, induction of perforin-2 expression in epithelial cells is blocked during productive chlamydial growth, thereby protecting chlamydiae from bactericidal attack. Ectopic expression of perforin-2 in HeLa cells, however, does result in killing. Overall, our data implicate a new innate resistance protein in the control of chlamydial infection and may help explain why the macrophage environment is hostile to chlamydial growth. PMID:23753625

  19. Perforin-2 restricts growth of Chlamydia trachomatis in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Fields, K A; McCormack, R; de Armas, L R; Podack, E R

    2013-08-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium that preferentially infects epithelial cells. Professional phagocytes provide C. trachomatis only a limited ability to survive and are proficient killers of chlamydiae. We present evidence herein that identifies a novel host defense protein, perforin-2, that plays a significant role in the eradication of C. trachomatis during the infection of macrophages. Knockdown of perforin-2 in macrophages did not alter the invasion of host cells but did result in chlamydial growth that closely mirrored that detected in HeLa cells. C trachomatis L2, serovar B, and serovar D and C. muridarum were all equally susceptible to perforin-2-mediated killing. Interestingly, induction of perforin-2 expression in epithelial cells is blocked during productive chlamydial growth, thereby protecting chlamydiae from bactericidal attack. Ectopic expression of perforin-2 in HeLa cells, however, does result in killing. Overall, our data implicate a new innate resistance protein in the control of chlamydial infection and may help explain why the macrophage environment is hostile to chlamydial growth. PMID:23753625

  20. Evaluation of Dry and Wet Transported Intravaginal Swabs in Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae Infections in Female Soldiers by PCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charlotte A. Gaydos; Kimberly A. Crotchfelt; Nina Shah; Marie Tennant; Thomas C. Quinn; Joel C. Gaydos; Kelly T. McKee; Anne M. Rompalo

    2002-01-01

    Screening women for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in nonclinic settings is highly desirable because many infections are asymptomatic. This is especially true for military women, for whom logistical, social, and other job-related obstacles present barriers to accessing medical care. We assessed the accuracy of intravaginal swabs transported by mail in a wet versus a dry state for PCR (Amplicor CT\\/NG

  1. Do the factors associated with successful contact tracing of patients with gonorrhoea and Chlamydia differ?

    PubMed Central

    Ross, J. D.; Sukthankar, A.; Radcliffe, K. W.; Andre, J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess and compare factors which may be associated with successful contact tracing in patients with gonorrhoea and chlamydia. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational study of patients attending a genitourinary medicine clinic with a diagnosis of gonorrhoea or chlamydia. Multivariate analysis model including demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioural variables. RESULTS: The attendance of at least one sexual contact was associated with naming more contacts for patients with gonorrhoea (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.04-2.01). A history of gonorrhoea was associated with successful contact tracing for patients with chlamydia (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.12-1.9). Successful contact tracing, as defined by at least one confirmed contact attendance after the index case, was not associated with age, sex, sexual orientation, history of chlamydia, use of condoms, marital status, ethnicity, or socioeconomic status for either gonorrhoea or chlamydia. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in the composition of the core groups infected with gonorrhoea and chlamydia are not explained by differences in contact tracing success. In the clinic setting studied, the outcome of contact tracing was not associated with a variety of demographic, socioeconomic, and behaviour factors. ??? PMID:10448364

  2. Preparation and evaluation of monoclonal antibodies against chlamydial protease-like activity factor to detect Chlamydia pneumoniae antigen in early pediatric pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Zheng, J; Ding, T; Chen, Z; Fang, H; Li, H; Lu, H; Wu, Y

    2015-07-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae causes diseases in humans, including community-acquired pneumonia, bronchitis, and sinusitis. It is also associated with atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, and hyperlipidemia. In this study, we investigated novel materials with which to develop a sensitive and specific method to identify early C. pneumoniae infection, to allow more effective clinical treatment and prevention. We prepared novel monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against a recombinant protein equivalent to the immunodominant region of chlamydial protease-like activity factor (CPAF) from C. pneumoniae. The mAbs specifically reacted with the endogenous CPAF antigen of the C. pneumoniae type strain in immunoblotting and indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) assays, but did not react with C. trachomatis type strains or genital secretions from patients with acute C. trachomatis infection. The mAb with the highest titer was used to develop a new IIF assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect the C. pneumoniae antigen in clinical specimens from child patients suspected of pneumonia. The sensitivity, specificity, and concordance rate of the mAb-based IIF and ELISA tests were compared with those of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Our results show that these mAbs have excellent specificity and may be used to develop new screening tools for the diagnosis of early pediatric pneumonia. PMID:25761740

  3. In Silico Scrutiny of Genes Revealing Phylogenetic Congruence with Clinical Prevalence or Tropism Properties of Chlamydia trachomatis Strains

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Rita; Antelo, Minia; Nunes, Alexandra; Borges, Vítor; Damião, Vera; Borrego, Maria José; Gomes, João Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Microbes possess a multiplicity of virulence factors that confer them the ability to specifically infect distinct biological niches. Contrary to what is known for other bacteria, for the obligate intracellular human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis, the knowledge of the molecular basis underlying serovars’ tissue specificity is scarce. We examined all ~900 genes to evaluate the association between individual phylogenies and cell-appetence or ecological success of C. trachomatis strains. Only ~1% of the genes presented a tree topology showing the segregation of all three disease groups (ocular, urogenital, and lymphatic) into three well-supported clades. Approximately 28% of the genes, which include the majority of the genes encoding putative type III secretion system effectors and Inc proteins, present a phylogenetic tree where only lymphogranuloma venereum strains form a clade. Similarly, an exclusive phylogenetic segregation of the most prevalent genital serovars was observed for 61 proteins. Curiously, these serovars are phylogenetically cosegregated with the lymphogranuloma venereum serovars for ~20% of the genes. Some clade-specific pseudogenes were identified (novel findings include the conserved hypothetical protein CT037 and the predicted ?-hemolysin CT473), suggesting their putative expendability for the infection of particular niches. Approximately 3.5% of the genes revealed a significant overrepresentation of nonsynonymous mutations, and the majority encode proteins that directly interact with the host. Overall, this in silico scrutiny of genes whose phylogeny is congruent with clinical prevalence or tissue specificity of C. trachomatis strains may constitute an important database of putative targets for future functional studies to evaluate their biological role in chlamydial infections. PMID:25378473

  4. Significance of dermatoscopy in genital dermatoses.

    PubMed

    Paštar, Zrinjka; Lipozen?i?, Jasna

    2014-01-01

    Dermatoscopy as a non-invasive technique has become an integrative part in the evaluation of pigmented and non-pigmented skin lesions, particularly for the early detections of melanoma. Although dermatoscopy improves diagnosis of pigmented and nonpigmented lesions of the skin, it is unknown if dermatoscopy improves the diagnostic accuracy of pigmented mucosal lesions. The "entodermatoscopy" is used for the dermatoscopy of skin infections and infestations and revised as entomodermatoscopy, as it connects the research fields of dermatology and entomology, with its roots being found in these two words. In genital dermatology along with the clinical examination, dermatoscopy is also used for the diagnosis and treatment follow-up of pediculosis pubis, genital warts, molluscum contagiosum, and scabies. PMID:24559569

  5. Proposal of Chlamydia pecorum sp. nov. for Chlamydia Strains Derived from Ruminants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HIDETO FUKUSHI; KATSUYA HIRAI

    Chlamydia pecorum sp. nov. is proposed as the fourth species of the genus ChZamydia on the basis of the results of a genetic analysis of Chlamydia strains that were isolated from cattle and sheep which had various diseases, including sporadic encephalitis, infectious polyarthritis, pneumonia, and diarrhea. The levels of DNA-DNA homology between C. pecorum and strains of C. psittaci, Chlamydia

  6. Isolated genital annular lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Badri, T; Kenani, N; Benmously, R; Debbiche, A; Mokhtar, I; Fenniche, S

    2011-01-01

    Annular lichen planus is a rarely reported variant of lichen planus (LP). Although genital lesions are frequent in patients with LP, isolated genital LP is rarely reported. We present a case of a 29-year- -old circumcised man with an asymptomatic annular lesion of the penis. Histopathological features were consistent with LP. Topical clobetasol was prescribed, with clinical improvement. It is important to consider annular LP among the possible diagnoses of individual annular genital lesions. PMID:21879203

  7. Bacteria-Targeting Nanoparticles for Managing Infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radovic-Moreno, Aleksandar Filip

    Bacterial infections continue to be a significant concern particularly in healthcare settings and in the developing world. Current challenges include the increasing spread of drug resistant (DR) organisms, the side effects of antibiotic therapy, the negative consequences of clearing the commensal bacterial flora, and difficulties in developing prophylactic vaccines. This thesis was an investigation of the potential of a class of polymeric nanoparticles (NP) to contribute to the management of bacterial infections. More specifically, steps were taken towards using these NPs (1) to achieve greater spatiotemporal control over drug therapy by more targeted antibiotic delivery to bacteria, and (2) to develop a prophylactic vaccine formulation against the common bacterial sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. In the first part, we synthesized polymeric NPs containing poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-block-poly(L-histidine)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PLH-PEG). We show that these NPs are able to bind to bacteria under model acidic infection conditions and are able to encapsulate and deliver vancomycin to inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria in vitro. Further work showed that the PLGA-PLH-PEG-based NPs demonstrated the potential for competition for binding bacteria at a site of infection from soluble protein and model phagocytic and tissue-resident cells in a NP composition dependent manner. The NPs demonstrated low toxicity in vitro, were well tolerated by mice in vivo, and circulated in the blood on timescales comparable to control PLGA-PEG NPs. In the second part, we used PLGA-PLH-PEG-based NPs to design a prophylactic vaccine against the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis, the most common cause of bacterial STD in the world. Currently, no vaccines against this pathogen are approved for use in humans. We first formulated NPs encapsulating the TLR7 agonist R848 conjugated to poly(lactic acid) (R848-PLA) in PLGA-PLH-PEG-based NPs, then incubated these R848-NPs with UV-inactivated C. trachomatis bacteria in acidity, forming a construct. Mice immunized with this vaccine via genital or intranasal routes demonstrated protection from genital infection post immunization in a primarily CD4+ T cell-dependent manner. These results may suggest avenues for future work in designing and developing more targeted drug therapies or vaccine formulations for managing bacterial infections using polymeric nanoparticles. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, libraries.mit.edu/docs - docs mit.edu)

  8. Nonoxynol-9 spermicide for prevention of vaginally acquired HIV and other sexually transmitted infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials including more than 5000 women.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, David; Tholandi, Maya; Ramjee, Gita; Rutherford, George W

    2002-10-01

    We aimed to determine the effectiveness of the vaginally administered spermicide nonoxynol-9 (N-9) among women for the prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We did a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Nine such trials including 5096 women, predominantly sex workers, comparing N-9 with placebo or no treatment, were included. Primary outcomes were new HIV infection, new episodes of various STIs, and genital lesions. Five trials included HIV and nine included STI outcomes, and all but one (2% of the data) contributed to the meta-analysis. Overall, relative risks of HIV infection (1.12, 95% confidence interval 0.88-1.42), gonorrhoea (0.91, 0.67-1.24), chlamydia (0.88, 0.77-1.01), cervical infection (1.01, 0.84-1.22), trichomoniasis (0.84, 0.69-1.02), bacterial vaginosis (0.88, 0.74-1.04) and candidiasis (0.97, 0.84-1.12) were not significantly different in the N-9 and placebo or no treatment groups. Genital lesions were more common in the N-9 group (1.18, 1.02-1.36). Our review has found no statistically significant reduction in risk of HIV and STIs, and the confidence intervals indicate that any protection that may exist is likely to be very small. There is some evidence of harm through genital lesions. N-9 cannot be recommended for HIV and STI prevention. PMID:12383611

  9. CD1d-restricted NKT cells modulate placental and uterine leukocyte populations during chlamydial infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Habbeddine, Mohamed; Verbeke, Philippe; Delarbre, Christiane; Moutier, René; Prieto, Stéphane; Ojcius, David M; Kanellopoulos-Langevin, Colette

    2013-11-01

    Invariant CD1d-restricted natural killer T cells play an important immunoregulatory role and can influence a broad spectrum of immunological responses including against bacterial infections. They are present at the fetal-maternal interface and although it has been reported that experimental systemic iNKT cell activation can induce mouse abortion, their role during pregnancy remain poorly understood. In the present work, using a physiological Chlamydia muridarum infection model, we have shown that, in vaginally infected pregnant mice, C. muridarum is cleared similarly in C57BL/6 wild type (WT) and CD1d(-/-) mice. We have also shown that infected- as well as uninfected-CD1d(-/-) mice have the same litter size as WT counterparts. Thus, CD1d-restricted cells are required neither for the resolution of chlamydial infection of the lower-genital tract, nor for the maintenance of reproductive capacity. However, unexpected differences in T cell populations were observed in uninfected pregnant females, as CD1d(-/-) placentas contained significantly higher percentages of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells than WT counterparts. However, infection triggered a significant decrease in the percentages of CD4(+) T cells in CD1d(-/-) mice. In infected WT pregnant mice, the numbers of uterine CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, monocytes and granulocytes were greatly increased, changes not observed in infected CD1d(-/-) mice. An increase in the percentage of CD8(+) T cells seems independent of CD1d-restricted cells as it occurred in both WT and CD1d(-/-) mice. Thus, in the steady state, the lack of CD1d-restricted NKT cells affects leukocyte populations only in the placenta. In Chlamydia-infected pregnant mice, the immune response against Chlamydia is dampened in the uterus. Our results suggest that CD1d-restricted NKT cells play a role in the recruitment or homeostasis of leukocyte populations at the maternal-fetal interface in the presence or absence of Chlamydia infection. PMID:23999314

  10. Human papillomavirus infection: epidemiology and pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Steben, Marc; Duarte-Franco, Eliane

    2007-11-01

    More than 120 different types of the human papillomavirus (HPV) have been isolated; >40 of these types infect the epithelial lining of the anogenital tract and other mucosal areas. In the majority of individuals, HPV infections are transient and asymptomatic with most new infections resolving within 2 years. Epidemiological data from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey determined that the prevalence of HPV infection in a representative sample of women was highest in those aged 20-24 years (44.8%). HPV infection has been firmly established as the primary cause of cervical cancer. It is not clearly understood why HPV infections resolve in certain individuals and result in cervical intraepithelial neoplasias in others, but several factors are thought to play a role; including individual susceptibility, immune status and nutrition, endogenous and exogenous hormones, tobacco smoking, parity, co-infection with other sexually transmitted agents such as HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2 and Chlamydia trachomatis as well as viral characteristics such as HPV type, concomitant infection with other types, viral load, HPV variant and viral integration. Worldwide, pooled data from case-control studies indicated that HPV DNA could be detected in 99.7% of women with histologically confirmed squamous cell cervical cancer compared with 13.4% of control women. Both HPV infection and cervical cancer are associated with a substantial economic burden. Pharmacoeconomic data from the United States indicate that HPV infection and HIV were associated with similar total direct medical costs, and HPV infection was more costly than genital herpes and hepatitis B combined in the 15-25 age group. Furthermore, false-negative pap smears from women with precancerous lesions are among the most frequent reasons for medical malpractice litigation in the United States. PMID:17938014

  11. Female genital warts.

    PubMed

    Ghaemmaghami, Fatemeh; Nazari, Zeinab; Mehrdad, Nili

    2007-01-01

    Genital warts are a clinical manifestation of HPV types 6 and 11, and are estimated to affect 1% of sexually active adults aged between 15 and 49. HPV leading to a broad spectrum of human diseases, ranging from benign warts to malignant neoplasms, depending on the location of the lesion, the immune status of the patient and the type of HPV. Current therapies for human papillomavirus-associated disease are based on the excision or ablation of involved tissue and are associated with a high frequency of recurrent disease, discomfort and costs. PMID:18159964

  12. Counseling Patients With Genital Warts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1997-01-01

    Counseling patients about any sexually transmitted disease (STD) is difficult, for both the physician and the patient, but a diagnosis of genital warts presents particular challenges. For many patients, being told that they have any STD comes as a shock. Although fear is a common reaction, the relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) and cancer has made the presence of genital

  13. Cost-effectiveness of Chlamydia Vaccination Programs for Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Chesson, Harrell W.; Gift, Thomas L.; Brunham, Robert C.; Bolan, Gail

    2015-01-01

    We explored potential cost-effectiveness of a chlamydia vaccine for young women in the United States by using a compartmental heterosexual transmission model. We tracked health outcomes (acute infections and sequelae measured in quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs]) and determined incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) over a 50-year analytic horizon. We assessed vaccination of 14-year-old girls and catch-up vaccination for 15–24-year-old women in the context of an existing chlamydia screening program and assumed 2 prevaccination prevalences of 3.2% by main analysis and 3.7% by additional analysis. Estimated ICERs of vaccinating 14-year-old girls were $35,300/QALY by main analysis and $16,200/QALY by additional analysis compared with only screening. Catch-up vaccination for 15–24-year-old women resulted in estimated ICERs of $53,200/QALY by main analysis and $26,300/QALY by additional analysis. The ICER was most sensitive to prevaccination prevalence for women, followed by cost of vaccination, duration of vaccine-conferred immunity, and vaccine efficacy. Our results suggest that a successful chlamydia vaccine could be cost-effective. PMID:25989525

  14. The Proteome of the Isolated Chlamydia trachomatis Containing Vacuole Reveals a Complex Trafficking Platform Enriched for Retromer Components.

    PubMed

    Aeberhard, Lukas; Banhart, Sebastian; Fischer, Martina; Jehmlich, Nico; Rose, Laura; Koch, Sophia; Laue, Michael; Renard, Bernhard Y; Schmidt, Frank; Heuer, Dagmar

    2015-06-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an important human pathogen that replicates inside the infected host cell in a unique vacuole, the inclusion. The formation of this intracellular bacterial niche is essential for productive Chlamydia infections. Despite its importance for Chlamydia biology, a holistic view on the protein composition of the inclusion, including its membrane, is currently missing. Here we describe the host cell-derived proteome of isolated C. trachomatis inclusions by quantitative proteomics. Computational analysis indicated that the inclusion is a complex intracellular trafficking platform that interacts with host cells' antero- and retrograde trafficking pathways. Furthermore, the inclusion is highly enriched for sorting nexins of the SNX-BAR retromer, a complex essential for retrograde trafficking. Functional studies showed that in particular, SNX5 controls the C. trachomatis infection and that retrograde trafficking is essential for infectious progeny formation. In summary, these findings suggest that C. trachomatis hijacks retrograde pathways for effective infection. PMID:26042774

  15. The Proteome of the Isolated Chlamydia trachomatis Containing Vacuole Reveals a Complex Trafficking Platform Enriched for Retromer Components

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Martina; Jehmlich, Nico; Rose, Laura; Koch, Sophia; Laue, Michael; Renard, Bernhard Y.; Schmidt, Frank; Heuer, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an important human pathogen that replicates inside the infected host cell in a unique vacuole, the inclusion. The formation of this intracellular bacterial niche is essential for productive Chlamydia infections. Despite its importance for Chlamydia biology, a holistic view on the protein composition of the inclusion, including its membrane, is currently missing. Here we describe the host cell-derived proteome of isolated C. trachomatis inclusions by quantitative proteomics. Computational analysis indicated that the inclusion is a complex intracellular trafficking platform that interacts with host cells’ antero- and retrograde trafficking pathways. Furthermore, the inclusion is highly enriched for sorting nexins of the SNX-BAR retromer, a complex essential for retrograde trafficking. Functional studies showed that in particular, SNX5 controls the C. trachomatis infection and that retrograde trafficking is essential for infectious progeny formation. In summary, these findings suggest that C. trachomatis hijacks retrograde pathways for effective infection. PMID:26042774

  16. Chlamydia muridarum Induction of Glandular Duct Dilation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xin; Yang, Zhangsheng; Zhang, Hongbo; Dai, Jin; Chen, Jianlin; Tang, Lingli; Rippentrop, Sheena; Xue, Min; Zhong, Guangming; Wu, Ganqiu

    2015-06-01

    Although Chlamydia-induced hydrosalpinx in women and mice has been used as a surrogate marker for tubal infertility, the medical relevance of nontubal pathologies, such as uterine horn dilation, developed in mice following chlamydial infection remains unclear. We now report that the uterine horn dilation correlates with glandular duct dilation detected microscopically following Chlamydia muridarum infection. The dilated glandular ducts pushed the uterine horn lumen to closure or dilation and even broke through the myometrium to develop extrusion outside the uterine horn. The severity scores of uterine horn dilation observed macroscopically correlated well with the number of cross sections of the dilated glandular ducts counted under microscopy. Chlamydial infection was detected in the glandular epithelial cells, potentially leading to inflammation and dilation of the glandular ducts. Direct delivery of C. muridarum into the mouse uterus increased both uterine horn/glandular duct dilation and hydrosalpinx. However, the chlamydial plasmid, which is essential for the induction of hydrosalpinx, was not required for the induction of uterine horn/glandular duct dilation. Screening 12 strains of mice for uterine horn dilation following C. muridarum infection revealed that B10.D2, C57BL/10J, and C57BL/6J mice were most susceptible, followed by BALB/cJ and A/J mice. Deficiency in host genes involved in immune responses failed to significantly alter the C. muridarum induction of uterine horn dilation. Nevertheless, the chlamydial induction of uterine horn/glandular duct dilation may be used to evaluate plasmid-independent pathogenicity of Chlamydia in susceptible mice. PMID:25824829

  17. Genital herpes and its treatment in relation to preterm delivery.

    PubMed

    Li, De-Kun; Raebel, Marsha A; Cheetham, T Craig; Hansen, Craig; Avalos, Lyndsay; Chen, Hong; Davis, Robert

    2014-12-01

    To examine the risks of genital herpes and antiherpes treatment during pregnancy in relation to preterm delivery (PTD), we conducted a multicenter, member-based cohort study within 4 Kaiser Permanente regions: northern and southern California, Colorado, and Georgia. The study included 662,913 mother-newborn pairs from 1997 to 2010. Pregnant women were classified into 3 groups based on genital herpes diagnosis and treatment: genital herpes without treatment, genital herpes with antiherpes treatment, and no herpes diagnosis or treatment (unexposed controls). After controlling for potential confounders, we found that compared with being unexposed, having untreated genital herpes during first or second trimester was associated with more than double the risk of PTD (odds ratio (OR) = 2.23, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.80, 2.76). The association was stronger for PTD due to premature rupture of membrane (OR = 3.57, 95% CI: 2.53, 5.06) and for early PTD (?35 weeks gestation) (OR = 2.87, 95% CI: 2.22, 3.71). In contrast, undergoing antiherpes treatment during pregnancy was associated with a lower risk of PTD compared with not being treated, and the PTD risk was similar to that observed in the unexposed controls (OR = 1.11, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.38). The present study revealed increased risk of PTD associated with genital herpes infection if left untreated and a potential benefit of antiherpes medications in mitigating the effect of genital herpes infection on the risk of PTD. PMID:25392064

  18. [Genital lichen sclerosus].

    PubMed

    Héla, Zakraoui; Samy, Fenniche; Rym, Benmously; Hajlaoui, Khaoula; Hayet, Marrak; Mohamed, Ben Ayed; Inçaf, Mokhtar

    2005-03-01

    Lichen sclerosus is a chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disease which origin remains unknown. Its prevalence ranges from one in 300 to one in 1000 of all patients referred to a dermatology clinic in the seventeenth. Through the analysis of a hospital survey, we outline the epidemio-clinical aspects of this dermatosis. Over a 19-year period (1984-2002), we have conducted a retrospective and monocentric study of all patients with genital lichen sclerosus were examined at the dermatology department of Habib Thameur hospital. Thirty-four patients suffered from lichen sclerosus. There were 33 female and only one male (sex-ratio: 0.03). All patients underwent topical corticosteroid therapy (level I, II or IV). The recovery rate of lichen sclerosus was about 20% (7/34). An epidermoid carcinoma occurred in three patients. The frequency of lichen sclerosus in our study is estimated at 1,8 new cases per year. This frequency is probably under-estimated because of some patients' reluctance to seek help. A relatively low recovery rate of genital lichen sclerosus was found in our study. This may be related to an inadequate follow up added to an insufficient treatment adherence. PMID:15929444

  19. Current crisis or artifact of surveillance: insights into rebound chlamydia rates from dynamic modelling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M Vickers; Nathaniel D Osgood

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: After initially falling in the face of intensified control efforts, reported rates of sexually transmitted chlamydia in many developed countries are rising. Recent hypotheses for this phenomenon have broadly focused on improved case finding or an increase in the prevalence. Because of many complex interactions behind the spread of infectious diseases, dynamic models of infection transmission are an effective

  20. Expanding the Molecular Toolkit for Chlamydia.

    PubMed

    Hybiske, Kevin

    2015-07-01

    Although historically a genetically intractable bacterium, Chlamydia is experiencing a renaissance for molecular genetic manipulation. Two new studies published in Cell Host & Microbe, Mirrashidi et al. (2015) and Kokes et al. (2015), have dramatically changed the landscape of what is possible for molecular dissection of Chlamydia-host interactions. PMID:26159716

  1. Genital herpes vaccines—cause for cautious optimism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MINNIS COMMUNICATIONS

    The high prevalence of herpes simplex virus infections in many communities, its numerous serious physical and psychological complications and its importance in enhancing the transmission of HIV make this virus an obvious target for prevention by vaccination. Randomised clinical trials of only one genital herpes vaccine has shown efficacy so far. Analysis of clinical results is complicated by the difference

  2. ORIGINAL PAPER Predictors of Genital Pain in Young Women

    E-print Network

    Meston, Cindy

    in the high ver- sus low pain groups was distinguished primarily by vaginal lubrication. Women in the high with vaginal pen- etration (Binik, 2005). The symptom of pain in dyspareunia may be caused by multiple disease states, including under- lying infection, allergies, muscle tension, hormone deregu- lation, genital

  3. Can You Get Genital Herpes from a Cold Sore?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs Drugs & Alcohol Staying Safe Recipes En Español Making ... Stretching A Guy's Guide to Body Image Can You Get Genital Herpes From a ...

  4. Economic and Humanistic Burden of External Genital Warts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam J. N. Raymakers; Mohsen Sadatsafavi; Fawziah Marra; Carlo A. Marra

    2012-01-01

    External genital warts (EGW) are a sexually transmitted infection caused by various strains of human papillomavirus (HPV). Several studies have described the direct and indirect costs of EGW, while others have reported on the burden of EGW in terms of the impact on the quality of life (QOL) of patients. The arrival of a quadrivalent HPV vaccine that protects against

  5. Microbicide excipients can greatly increase susceptibility to genital herpes transmission in the mouse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas R Moench; Russell J Mumper; Timothy E Hoen; Mianmian Sun; Richard A Cone

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several active ingredients proposed as vaginal microbicides have been shown paradoxically to increase susceptibility to infection in mouse genital herpes (HSV-2) vaginal susceptibility models and in clinical trials. In addition, \\

  6. The impact of HIV seroadaptive behaviours on sexually transmissible infections in HIV-negative homosexual men in Sydney, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Fengyi; Prestage, Garrett P; Templeton, David J; Poynten, I Mary; Donovan, Basil; Zablotska, Iryna; Kippax, Susan C; Mindel, Adrian; Grulich, Andrew E

    2011-01-01

    Background HIV seroadaptive behaviours such as serosorting and strategic positioning are being increasingly practised by homosexual men, however, their impact on sexually transmissible infections (STIs) is unclear. Methods Participants were 1,427 initially HIV-negative men enrolled from 2001 to 2004 and followed to June 2007. Participants were tested annually for anal and urethral gonorrhoea and chlamydia, herpes simplex virus, and syphilis. In addition, they reported diagnoses of these conditions, and of genital and anal warts between annual visits, and sexual risk behaviours. Results Compared with men who reported no unprotected anal intercourse (UAI), serosorting was associated with an increased risk of urethral (HR=1.97, 95% CI 1.43–2.72) and anal (HR=1.62, 95% CI 1.11–2.36) chlamydia. Compared with men who reported UAI with HIV non-concordant partners, men who practised serosorting had significantly lower risk of incident syphilis (HR=0.21, 95% CI 0.05–0.81) and urethral gonorrhoea (HR=0.61, 95% CI 0.39–0.96). Compared with men who reported no UAI, strategic positioning was associated with an increased risk of urethral gonorrhoea (HR=1.72, 95% CI 1.05–2.83) and chlamydia (HR=2.22, 95% CI 1.55–3.18). Compared with men who reported receptive UAI, the incidence of anal gonorrhoea (HR=0.38, 0.20–0.74) and chlamydia (HR= 0.44, 95% CI 0.27–0.69) was significantly lower in those who practised strategic positioning. Conclusion For men who reported seopadaptive behaviours, rates of some bacterial STIs were higher than in men who reported no UAI. However, rates were lower than for men who reported higher HIV risk behaviours. PMID:22337105

  7. Unsupervised screening for chlamydia and gonorrhoea in backpacker hostels in Manly, Sydney.

    PubMed

    Davies, Stephen C; Shepherd, Brooke; Wiig, Rebecca; Kaan, Iain

    2013-05-01

    Young international backpackers frequently have new sexual partners. We conducted a pilot project of unsupervised screening for chlamydia (Chlamydia trachomatis) and gonorrhoea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae) by self-collected specimens at two backpacker hostels in Manly, Sydney. The median age was 24 years for men and 23 years for women. A new sexual partner during travel was reported by 94%, of whom only 20% always using condoms. The prevalence of chlamydia was 11.9% (14.3% of 35 men and 10.2% of 49 women). No cases of gonorrhoea were detected. Half of the dispensed testing kits went missing or were tampered with, and there was spoilage of the receptacle bins, which persisted despite a redesign to a more secure and locked box. While populations such as young backpackers may be a priority group for sexually transmissible infection screening, we advise caution for projects contemplating an unsupervised model. PMID:23158843

  8. Septins arrange F-actin-containing fibers on the Chlamydia trachomatis inclusion and are required for normal release of the inclusion by extrusion.

    PubMed

    Volceanov, Larisa; Herbst, Katharina; Biniossek, Martin; Schilling, Oliver; Haller, Dirk; Nölke, Thilo; Subbarayal, Prema; Rudel, Thomas; Zieger, Barbara; Häcker, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular human pathogen that grows inside a membranous, cytosolic vacuole termed an inclusion. Septins are a group of 13 GTP-binding proteins that assemble into oligomeric complexes and that can form higher-order filaments. We report here that the septins SEPT2, -9, -11, and probably -7 form fibrillar structures around the chlamydial inclusion. Colocalization studies suggest that these septins combine with F actin into fibers that encase the inclusion. Targeting the expression of individual septins by RNA interference (RNAi) prevented the formation of septin fibers as well as the recruitment of actin to the inclusion. At the end of the developmental cycle of C. trachomatis, newly formed, infectious elementary bodies are released, and this release occurs at least in part through the organized extrusion of intact inclusions. RNAi against SEPT9 or against the combination of SEPT2/7/9 substantially reduced the number of extrusions from a culture of infected HeLa cells. The data suggest that a higher-order structure of four septins is involved in the recruitment or stabilization of the actin coat around the chlamydial inclusion and that this actin recruitment by septins is instrumental for the coordinated egress of C. trachomatis from human cells. The organization of F actin around parasite-containing vacuoles may be a broader response mechanism of mammalian cells to the infection by intracellular, vacuole-dwelling pathogens. Importance: Chlamydia trachomatis is a frequent bacterial pathogen throughout the world, causing mostly eye and genital infections. C. trachomatis can develop only inside host cells; it multiplies inside a membranous vacuole in the cytosol, termed an inclusion. The inclusion is covered by cytoskeletal "coats" or "cages," whose organization and function are poorly understood. We here report that a relatively little-characterized group of proteins, septins, is required to organize actin fibers on the inclusion and probably through actin the release of the inclusion. Septins are a group of GTP-binding proteins that can organize into heteromeric complexes and then into large filaments. Septins have previously been found to be involved in the interaction of the cell with bacteria in the cytosol. Our observation that they also organize a reaction to bacteria living in vacuoles suggests that they have a function in the recognition of foreign compartments by a parasitized human cell. PMID:25293760

  9. Chlamydia pneumoniae and the Risk of First Ischemic Stroke The Northern Manhattan Stroke Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitchell S. V. Elkind; I-Feng Lin; J. T. Grayston; Ralph L. Sacco

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose—Serological evidence of infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae has been associated with cardiovascular disease in multiple epidemiological studies. The data on its association with ischemic stroke are limited. We sought to determine whether chronic C pneumoniae infection is associated with ischemic stroke in a multi-ethnic population. Methods—The Northern Manhattan Stroke Study contains a population-based, case-control study component. Cases had

  10. Improved sensitivity of the Chlamydia trachomatis Cobas Amplicor assay using an optimized procedure for preparation of specimens.

    PubMed

    Niederhauser, C; Kaempf, L

    2003-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of an improved sample preparation procedure that enhances the sensitivity of the Chlamydia trachomatis Cobas Amplicor assay (Roche, Switzerland). This procedure was developed after it was observed that, in some cases, endocervical swabs positive for Chlamydia trachomatis in a direct immunofluorescence assay were negative in the Chlamydia trachomatis Cobas Amplicor. For this procedure, the initial sample volume was increased over that recommended by the manufacturer, the sample was concentrated by centrifugation, and the yield of the extraction was increased by an additional enzymatic lysis. Five hundred sixteen endocervical swabs from women visiting a family planning clinic were tested in parallel by the Chlamydia trachomatis Cobas Amplicor using the extraction procedure recommended by the manufacturer and the modified in-house sample preparation procedure. Eight samples were positive with both procedures. Seven additional samples were positive with the in-house method only. The results show that the in-house sample preparation procedure markedly improves the test sensitivity of the Chlamydia trachomatis Cobas Amplicor assay. Consequently, the use of this improved screening protocol will facilitate the detection of even low-level infections with Chlamydia trachomatis, which in turn will lead to the introduction of earlier therapeutic interventions. PMID:12627288

  11. The EU FP6 EpiGenChlamydia Consortium: contribution of molecular epidemiology and host-pathogen genomics to understanding Chlamydia trachomatis-related disease.

    PubMed

    Morré, S A; Ouburg, S; Peña, A S; Brand, A

    2009-11-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infections are responsible for the world's leading cause of blindness (trachoma) and its most prevalent sexually transmitted disease, which is strongly associated with pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy and tubal infertility. Twin study-based findings of members of EpiGenChlamydia Consortium estimate that there is a 40% genetic predisposition to C. trachomatis infections. It is likely that the advances in human genomics will help to unravel the genetic predisposition at the gene level and will help to define a genetic fingerprint that can be used as a marker for this predisposition. The information gathered to date suggests that this predisposition and the factors contributing to prognosis are multifactorial. The EpiGenChlamydia Consortium aims to structure transnational research to such a degree that comparative genomics and genetic epidemiology can be performed in large numbers of unrelated individuals. Biobanking and data-warehouse building are the most central deliverables of the Coordination Action of the Consortium in Functional Genomics Research. In addition, the collective synergy acquired in this Coordination Action will allow for the generation of scientific knowledge on the C. trachomatis-host interaction, knowledge on the genetic predisposition to C. trachomatis infection and the development of tools for early detection of a predisposition to C. trachomatis infection and its complications. This review summarizes the consortium aims and progress, and future perspectives and directions. PMID:20011689

  12. Role of Chlamydia trachomatis in Miscarriage

    PubMed Central

    Baud, David; Goy, Genevieve; Jaton, Katia; Osterheld, Maria-Chiara; Blumer, Serafin; Borel, Nicole; Vial, Yvan; Hohlfeld, Patrick; Pospischil, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    To determine the role of Chlamydia trachomatis in miscarriage, we prospectively collected serum, cervicovaginal swab specimens, and placental samples from 386 women with and without miscarriage. Prevalence of immunoglobulin G against C. trachomatis was higher in the miscarriage group than in the control group (15.2% vs. 7.3%; p = 0.018). Association between C. trachomatis–positive serologic results and miscarriage remained significant after adjustment for age, origin, education, and number of sex partners (odds ratio 2.3, 95% confidence interval 1.1–4.9). C. trachomatis DNA was more frequently amplified from products of conception or placenta from women who had a miscarriage (4%) than from controls (0.7%; p = 0.026). Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed C. trachomatis in placenta from 5 of 7 patients with positive PCR results, whereas results of immunohistochemical analysis were negative in placenta samples from all 8 negative controls tested. Associations between miscarriage and serologic/molecular evidence of C. trachomatis infection support its role in miscarriage. PMID:21888787

  13. Sexually transmitted infections among patients with herpes simplex virus at King Abdulaziz University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is one of the commonest viral sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of STIs among HSV positive patients at a tertiary hospital in Jeddah. Secondary objective of the study included the description of the demographic and clinical profile of patients with HSV and HIV co-infection. Methods A retrospective chart review of the medical records was performed for HSV positive women who presented to the emergency room and outpatient department of King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between January 1, 2003 and August 30, 2011. Data were collected from the medical records of all the patients and analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Results Three hundred forty-three HSV positive patients were included in this study. Co-infection with HIV was documented in 45 patients (13.1%). Other STIs included chlamydia (n?=?43, 12.5%), gonorrhea (n?=?44, 12.8%), hepatitis B infection (n?=?8, 2.3%), and cytomegalovirus infection (n?=?37, 10.8%). Nineteen patients (5.5%) had a total of 47 term pregnancies and five abortions post HSV diagnosis. Genital ulcer disease was diagnosed in 11 (57.9%) of the cases during labor. One newborn developed neonatal herpes infection and subsequently showed delayed psychomotor development during follow up. Genital herpes was diagnosed in one patient’s partner; however, there was no documentation of screening for STIs in the partners of the other patients. Conclusions Sexually transmitted infections are relatively common among HSV positive patients at King Abdulaziz University Hospital. Amongst these, HIV is the most common, with a prevalence of 13.1%. Further studies are warranted to evaluate STIs in Saudi Arabia. Health policy makers should adopt a protocol to screen for STIs in the partners of persons who are positive for any STI as early detection and appropriate treatment can improve the outcome. PMID:23898826

  14. Genital Appearance Dissatisfaction: Implications for Women’s Genital Image Self-Consciousness, Sexual Esteem, Sexual Satisfaction, and Sexual Risk

    PubMed Central

    Schick, Vanessa R.; Calabrese, Sarah K.; Rima, Brandi N.; Zucker, Alyssa N.

    2010-01-01

    Findings regarding the link between body image and sexuality have been equivocal, possibly because of the insensitivity of many of body image measures to potential variability across sensory aspects of the body (e.g., appearance versus odor), individual body parts (e.g., genitalia versus thighs), and social settings (e.g., public versus intimate). The current study refined existing methods of evaluating women’s body image in the context of sexuality by focusing upon two highly specified dimensions: satisfaction with the visual appearance of the genitalia and self-consciousness about the genitalia during a sexual encounter. Genital appearance dissatisfaction, genital image self-consciousness, and multiple facets of sexuality were examined with a sample of 217 undergraduate women using an online survey. Path analysis revealed that greater dissatisfaction with genital appearance was associated with higher genital image self-consciousness during physical intimacy, which, in turn, was associated with lower sexual esteem, sexual satisfaction, and motivation to avoid risky sexual behavior. These findings underscore the detrimental impact of negative genital perceptions on young women’s sexual wellbeing, which is of particular concern given their vulnerability at this stage of sexual development as well as the high rates of sexually transmitted infections within this age group. Interventions that enhance satisfaction with the natural appearance of their genitalia could facilitate the development of a healthy sexual self-concept and provide long-term benefits in terms of sexual safety and satisfaction. PMID:20824180

  15. Urine-based testing for Chlamydia trachomatis among young adults in a population-based survey in Croatia: Feasibility and prevalence

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We assessed the feasibility of collecting urine samples for testing on genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in a population-based survey, and prevalence of this infection among young people aged 18-25 in Croatia. In Croatia, as in the other countries of Eastern Europe, there is a lack of data on prevalence of C trachomatis in the general population, including young adults. Methods We sampled participants using a nationally representative, multi-stage stratified probability sample of young men and women. Detection of C trachomatis DNA in urine samples was performed by using a real-time PCR assay COBAS® TaqMan® CT Test, v2.0. Results Overall, 1005 young adults participated in the behavioural part of the survey, and 27.9% men and 37.5% women who were sexually experienced agreed to provide urine samples for testing on C trachomatis. Using multivariate analysis, women were significantly more likely to provide urine samples than men (aOR = 1.53, 95% CI 1.14-2.06) as were those who reported no condom use at last intercourse (aOR = 1.95, 95% CI 1.44-2.62). Prevalence of C trachomatis infection among those who were sexually experienced was 7.3% in men and 5.3% in women. Conclusions Population-based surveys that use probabilistic sampling are a feasible way to obtain population estimates of C trachomatis prevalence among young adults in Croatia, but it is challenging to obtain an adequate response rate. The prevalence of C trachomatis among young adults in Croatia found in this study was higher than that found in other European countries with similar survey response rates. PMID:21489313

  16. Inhibition of Chlamydia pneumoniae Replication in Human Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells by Gamma Interferon-Induced Indoleamine 2,3Dioxygenase Activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LAURA G. PANTOJA; RICHARD D. MILLER; JULIO A. RAMIREZ; ROBERT E. MOLESTINA; JAMES T. SUMMERSGILL

    2000-01-01

    Infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae, a human respiratory pathogen, has been implicated as a potential risk factor in atherosclerosis, possibly because the pathogen can exist in a persistent form similar to that described for Chlamydia trachomatis. The present study investigated whether gamma interferon (IFN-g) can induce indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activity in aortic smooth muscle cells, leading to a marked inhibition of

  17. Incidence and risk factors for urethral and anal gonorrhoea and chlamydia in a cohort of HIV?negative homosexual men: the Health in Men Study

    PubMed Central

    Jin, F; Prestage, G P; Mao, L; Kippax, S C; Pell, C M; Donovan, B; Cunningham, P H; Templeton, D J; Kaldor, J M; Grulich, A E

    2007-01-01

    Background Early detection and treatment of bacterial sexually transmitted infections has been advocated as an HIV prevention strategy. Aim To inform screening guidelines, the incidence and risk factors for urethral and anal gonorrhoea and chlamydia were studied in a prospective cohort of community?based HIV negative homosexual men in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Methods All participants were offered annual screening for gonorrhoea and chlamydia (study?visit diagnoses) on urine and anal swabs using nucleic acid amplification. Participants also reported diagnoses of gonorrhoea and chlamydia made elsewhere between interviews (interval diagnoses). All diagnoses were summed to create a combined incidence rate, and detailed data on specific sexual practices with casual and regular partners were collected. Results Among 1427 men enrolled, the combined incidence rates were 3.49 and 2.96 per 100?person?years for urethral and anal gonorrhoea, respectively; and 7.43 and 4.98 per 100?person?years for urethral and anal chlamydia, respectively. Urethral infections were associated with unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with HIV?positive partners (hazard ratio (HR)?=?2.58, 95% CI 1.10 to 6.05 for urethral gonorrhoea) and with frequent insertive oral sex (p for trend 0.007 for urethral chlamydia). Anal infections were associated with receptive UAI (p for trend 0.001 for both anal gonorrhoea and chlamydia) and other receptive anal sexual practices. Stratified analyses showed the independence of the associations of insertive oral sex with urethral infections and of non?intercourse receptive anal practices with anal infections. Conclusion Incident gonorrhoea and chlamydia were common. Risk behaviours for both urethral and anal infections were not restricted to UAI. Screening that includes tests for anal and urethral infections should be considered for all sexually active homosexual men, not just for those who report UAI. PMID:17005541

  18. Genital Problems in Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... doctor. No 7. Do you have pain with intercourse? No Go to Question 10.** Yes 8. Does ... you experiencing vaginal itching and irritation? Yes Painful intercourse may be a sign of INFECTION or HORMONE ...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3120 - Chlamydia serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...specimens or cultured isolates derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of disease caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Chlamydia and provides epidemiological information on these diseases. Chlamydia are the...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3120 - Chlamydia serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...specimens or cultured isolates derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of disease caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Chlamydia and provides epidemiological information on these diseases. Chlamydia are the...

  1. Management of external genital warts.

    PubMed

    Karnes, Jonathan B; Usatine, Richard P

    2014-09-01

    Genital warts affect 1% of the sexually active U.S. population and are commonly seen in primary care. Human papillomavirus types 6 and 11 are responsible for most genital warts. Warts vary from small, flat-topped papules to large, cauliflower-like lesions on the anogenital mucosa and surrounding skin. Diagnosis is clinical, but atypical lesions should be confirmed by histology. Treatments may be applied by patients, or by a clinician in the office. Patient-applied treatments include topical imiquimod, podofilox, and sinecatechins, whereas clinician-applied treatments include podophyllin, bichloroacetic acid, and trichloroacetic acid. Surgical treatments include excision, cryotherapy, and electrosurgery. The quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine is active against virus subtypes that cause genital warts in men and women. Additionally, male circumcision may be effective in decreasing the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, human papillomavirus, and herpes simplex virus. PMID:25251091

  2. Sentinel surveillance of sexually transmitted infections in South Africa: a review

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, L; Coetzee, D; Dorrington, R

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To review studies of sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence in South Africa between 1985 and 2003 in selected sentinel populations. To examine how STI prevalence varies between populations and to identify the limitations of the existing data. Methods: Studies of the prevalence of syphilis, chancroid, granuloma inguinale, lymphogranuloma venereum, gonorrhoea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis, and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) were considered. Results were included if they related to women attending antenatal clinics or family planning clinics, commercial sex workers, individuals in the general population (household surveys), patients with STIs, patients with genital ulcer disease (GUD), or men with urethritis. Results: High STI prevalence rates have been measured, particularly in the case of HSV-2, trichomoniasis, bacterial vaginosis and candidiasis. The aetiological profile of GUD appears to be changing, with more GUD caused by HSV-2 and less caused by chancroid. The prevalence of gonorrhoea and syphilis is highest in "high risk" groups such as sex workers and attenders of STI clinics, but chlamydia and trichomoniasis prevalence levels are not significantly higher in these groups than in women attending antenatal clinics. Conclusions: The prevalence of STIs in South Africa is high, although there is extensive variability between regions. There is a need for STI prevalence data that are more nationally representative and that can be used to monitor prevalence trends more reliably. PMID:16061532

  3. Uptake and processing of Chlamydia trachomatis by human dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Matyszak, Malgosia K; Young, Joyce L; Gaston, J S Hill

    2002-03-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) causes several sexually transmitted diseases. In 2-5% of cases, CT infection leads to the development of reactive arthritis. Dendritic cells (DC) are central in T cell priming and the induction of antigen specific immunity. Here we have studied the uptake and processing of CT serovar L2 by human DC, and their ability to present CT antigens to both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. We show that the entry of CT was mediated by the attachment of CT to heparan sulfates and could be inhibited by heparin. There was no inhibition of uptake by an agent which blocks micropinocytosis. Infecting DC with CT led to their activation and the production of IL-12 and TNF-alpha but not IL-10. Following invasion, CT was confined to distinct vacuoles which were visualized with anti-CT antibodies using confocal microscopy. Unlike with epithelial cells, these vacuoles did not develop into characteristic inclusion bodies. In the first 48 h, CT(+) vacuoles were negative for Lamp-1 and MHC class II. Despite no obvious co-localization between CT vacuoles and MHC loading compartments, infected DC efficiently presented CT antigens to CD4(+) T cells. Infected DC also expanded CT specific CD8(+) T cells, allowing us to generate a number of CT-reactive CD8(+) T cell clones. There is still controversy about the importance of chlamydia-specific CD8(+) T cell responses in patients with arthritis. This is largely due to the difficulties in studying CTL responses at the clonal level. The use of DC as antigen-presenting cells should enable more detailed characterization of these CTL responses. PMID:11870618

  4. Genital Warts (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... important to talk about it. Make sure your teen knows how STDs can be spread (during anal, oral, or vaginal sex) and that these infections often don't have symptoms, so a partner might have an STD without knowing ... other medical issue, teens need this information to stay safe and healthy. ...

  5. Genital Herpes (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... it's important to discuss it. Make sure your teen knows how STDs can be spread (during anal, oral, or vaginal sex) and that these infections often don't have symptoms, so a partner might have an STD without knowing ... other medical issue, teens need this information to stay safe and healthy. ...

  6. Clinical features of external genital warts.

    PubMed

    Lynde, Charles; Vender, Ronald; Bourcier, Marc; Bhatia, Neal

    2013-12-01

    External genital warts (EGWs) are a common sexually transmitted infection caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). Although over 100 HPV types have been identified, some of which are associated with cancer, EGWs are caused by noncancerous HPV subtypes 6 and 11. This cutaneous manifestation of HPV infection can be asymptomatic or produce warty lesions that may assume a cauliflower-like, flat, papular, or keratotic appearance. Physical symptoms may also accompany warts, such as pruritus, burning, pain, and obstruction. EGWs typically appear in anogenital areas, such as the vulva, penis, groin, perineum, perianal skin, or mucosal surfaces. EGWs are typically a transient type of infection that often spontaneously regresses without treatment, but long-term remission rates are currently unknown. Treatment is determined according to the size and number of lesions, which can cluster or develop at multiple sites. Because of the individual variability in disease, treatment should be determined on a case-by-case basis. Further investigation, such as a biopsy, may be advisable in cases of atypical lesions, lesions that are unresponsive to therapies, and immunocompromised individuals, who are essentially more susceptible to HPV infections and less responsive to treatment. Although HPV testing is available, it is not currently recommended for detection and HPV typing. Differential diagnoses may include normal skin variations, other infectious or inflammatory diseases, and cancerous growths. PMID:24388559

  7. Actin Recruitment to the Chlamydia Inclusion Is Spatiotemporally Regulated by a Mechanism That Requires Host and Bacterial Factors

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Elizabeth; Kirker, Kelly; Zuck, Meghan; James, Garth; Hybiske, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    The ability to exit host cells at the end of their developmental growth is a critical step for the intracellular bacterium Chlamydia. One exit strategy, extrusion, is mediated by host signaling pathways involved with actin polymerization. Here, we show that actin is recruited to the chlamydial inclusion as a late event, occurring after 20 hours post-infection (hpi) and only within a subpopulation of cells. This event increases significantly in prevalence and extent from 20 to 68 hpi, and actin coats strongly correlated with extrusions. In contrast to what has been reported for other intracellular pathogens, actin nucleation on Chlamydia inclusions did not ‘flash’, but rather exhibited moderate depolymerization dynamics. By using small molecule agents to selectively disrupt host signaling pathways involved with actin nucleation, modulate actin polymerization dynamics and also to disable the synthesis and secretion of chlamydial proteins, we further show that host and bacterial proteins are required for actin coat formation. Transient disruption of either host or bacterial signaling pathways resulted in rapid loss of coats in all infected cells and a reduction in extrusion formation. Inhibition of Chlamydia type III secretion also resulted in rapid loss of actin association on inclusions, thus implicating chlamydial effector proteins(s) as being central factors for engaging with host actin nucleating factors, such as formins. In conclusion, our data illuminate the host and bacterial driven process by which a dense actin matrix is dynamically nucleated and maintained on the Chlamydia inclusion. This late stage event is not ubiquitous for all infected cells in a population, and escalates in prevalence and extent throughout the developmental cycle of Chlamydia, culminating with their exit from the host cell by extrusion. The initiation of actin recruitment by Chlamydia appears to be novel, and may serve as an upstream determinant of the extrusion mechanism. PMID:23071671

  8. Prevalence and factors associated with asymptomatic gonococcal and chlamydial infection among US Navy and Marine Corps men infected with the HIV: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Robert J; Refugio, Oliver N; Adams, Nehkonti; O'Brien, Kevin P; Johnson, Mark D; Groff, Harold L; Maves, Ryan C; Bavaro, Mary F; Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) can facilitate transmission of HIV. Men who have sex with men (MSM) may harbour infections at genital and extragenital sites. Data regarding extragenital GC and CT infections in military populations are lacking. We examined the prevalence and factors associated with asymptomatic GC and CT infection among this category of HIV-infected military personnel. Design Cross-sectional cohort study (pilot). Setting Infectious diseases clinic at a single military treatment facility in San Diego, CA. Participants Ninety-nine HIV-positive men were evaluated—79% men who had sex with men, mean age 31?years, 36% black and 33% married. Inclusion criteria: male, HIV-infected, Department of Defense beneficiary. Exclusion criteria: any symptom related to the urethra, pharynx or rectum. Primary outcome measures GC and CT screening results. Results Twenty-four per cent were infected with either GC or CT. Rectal swabs were positive in 18% for CT and 3% for GC; pharynx swabs were positive in 8% for GC and 2% for CT. Only one infection was detected in the urine (GC). Anal sex (p=0.04), male partner (OR 7.02, p=0.04) and sex at least once weekly (OR 3.28, p=0.04) were associated with infection. Associated demographics included age <35?years (OR 6.27, p=0.02), non-Caucasian ethnicity (p=0.03), <3?years since HIV diagnosis (OR 2.75, p=0.04) and previous sexually transmitted infection (STI) (OR 5.10, p=0.001). Conclusions We found a high prevalence of extragenital GC/CT infection among HIV-infected military men. Only one infection was detected in the urine, signalling the need for aggressive three-site screening of MSM. Clinicians should be aware of the high prevalence in order to enhance health through comprehensive STI screening practices. PMID:23793671

  9. Guidance on Management of Asymptomatic Neonates Born to Women With Active Genital Herpes Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Kimberlin, David W.; Baley, Jill; Brady, Michael T.; Byington, Carrie L.; Davies, H. Dele; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Glode, Mary P.; Jackson, Mary Anne; Keyserling, Harry L.; Maldonado, Yvonne A.; Murray, Dennis L.; Orenstein, Walter A.; Schutze, Gordon E.; Willoughby, Rodney E.; Zaoutis, Theoklis E.; Papile, Lu-Ann; Bhutani, Vinod K.; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Cummings, James; Kumar, Praveen; Polin, Richard A.; Tan, Rosemarie C.; Wang, Kasper S.; Watterberg, Kristi L.

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection of the neonate is uncommon, but genital herpes infections in adults are very common. Thus, although treating an infant with neonatal herpes is a relatively rare occurrence, managing infants potentially exposed to HSV at the time of delivery occurs more frequently. The risk of transmitting HSV to an infant during delivery is determined in part by the mother’s previous immunity to HSV. Women with primary genital HSV infections who are shedding HSV at delivery are 10 to 30 times more likely to transmit the virus to their newborn infants than are women with recurrent HSV infection who are shedding virus at delivery. With the availability of commercial serological tests that reliably can distinguish type-specific HSV antibodies, it is now possible to determine the type of maternal infection and, thus, further refine management of infants delivered to women who have active genital HSV lesions. The management algorithm presented herein uses both serological and virological studies to determine the risk of HSV transmission to the neonate who is delivered to a mother with active herpetic genital lesions and tailors management accordingly. The algorithm does not address the approach to asymptomatic neonates delivered to women with a history of genital herpes but no active lesions at delivery. PMID:23359576

  10. Amalgamation of Chlamydia pneumoniae inclusions with lipid droplets in foam cells in human atherosclerotic plaque

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuri V. Bobryshev; Murray C. Killingsworth; Dihn Tran; Reginald Lord

    2008-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae (Chlamydophila pneumoniae) infect macrophages and accelerates foam cell formation in in vitro experiments, but whether this might occur in human atherosclerosis\\u000a is unknown. In the present study, we examined 17 carotid artery segments, obtained by endarterectomy, in which the presence\\u000a of C. pneumoniae was confirmed by both polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Electron microscopy demonstrated the presence of

  11. Viability of chlamydia trachomatis in fallopian tubes of patients with ectopic pregnancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hervé C Gérard; Patrick J Branigan; Gulnar R Balsara; Christine Heath; Shahab S Minassian; Alan P Hudson

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To use standard molecular methods to define the prevalence and metabolic characteristics of Chlamydia trachomatis during infection of fallopian tubes in women with ectopic pregnancies.Design: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)- and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR)-based assessment of presence of chlamydial DNA and various RNA species in fallopian tube biopsy samples.Setting: Hospital and molecular genetics laboratory.Patients: Ten women of varying ages, each

  12. Prevalence of Chlamydia in Young Adulthood and Association with Life Course Socioeconomic Position: Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Crichton, Joanna; Hickman, Matthew; Campbell, Rona; Heron, Jon; Horner, Paddy; Macleod, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Few estimates are available of chlamydia prevalence in the general population. Existing studies have limited scope to explore potential selection bias or associations with socioeconomic position. Methods We examined the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and associations with life-course socioeconomic position in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children in England. Chlamydia infection was measured through nucleic acid amplification test of urine specimens. Results 4864 (51%) of those invited attended the clinic (mean age 17.8; SD 0.37 years). (60%) provided a urine specimen. Prevalence was 1.0% (95% CI 0.6 to 1.6) among participants reporting sexual activity. Risk of infection was strongly associated with life course social disadvantage and with recent sexual behaviour. After adjustment for other measures of disadvantage and for sexual behaviour the strongest risk factors for infection were lower maternal educational attainment (OR 9.1 (1.1, 76.7)) and lower participant educational attainment at age 11 (OR 5.0 (1.5, 16.5)). Both clinic attendance and agreement to test were lower amongst the disadvantaged. Adjustment for selective participation based on detailed information on non-participants approximately doubled prevalence estimates. Prevalence was higher in sexually active women (1.4% (0.7 to 2.4) than men (0.5% (0.1 to 1.3)). Conclusions Chlamydia prevalence in this general population sample was low even after adjustment for selective participation in testing. These estimates of prevalence and patterns of association with socioeconomic position may both reflect recent screening efforts. Prevalence was higher amongst the disadvantaged who were also less likely to engage in testing. Our results reveal the importance of monitoring and addressing inequalities in screening programme participation and outcomes. PMID:25153124

  13. Detection of PCR inhibitors in cervical specimens by using the AMPLICOR Chlamydia trachomatis assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. A. J. Verkooyen; A. Luijendijk; W. M. Huisman; W. H. F. Goessens; J. A. J. W. Kluytmans; Rijsoort-Vos van J. H; H. A. Verbrugh

    1996-01-01

    To determine that susceptibility of AMPLICOR Chlamydia trachomatis PCR to\\u000a inhibitory factors possibly present in cervical specimens, we obtained\\u000a cervical specimens from 200 gynecology patients attending our outpatient\\u000a clinic. The prevalence of C. trachomatis infection was 4.1%, as determined\\u000a by cell culture. All AMPLICOR specimens were tested in one procedure as\\u000a described by the manufacturer, and after the specimen was

  14. First detection of Chlamydia trachomatis LGV biovar in the Czech Republic, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Vanousova, D; Zakoucka, H; Jilich, D; Rozsypal, H; Stankova, M; Zufanova, S; Vojackova, N; Hercogova, J; Marvan, J; Machala, L

    2012-01-01

    We present four cases of proctitis in HIV-infected men having sex with men (MSM) living in the Czech Republic. The causative agent in all cases was the lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) biovar of Chlamydia trachomatis. The spread of proctitis caused by C. trachomatis serovars L1–3 among MSM has been observed in several European countries, the United States and Canada since 2003. To our knowledge, no LGV cases in eastern Europe have been published to date. PMID:22264863

  15. New developments in the epidemiology, natural history and management of genital herpes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence Stanberry; Anthony Cunningham; Gregory Mertz; Adrian Mindel; Barry Peters; Michael Reitano; Stephen Sacks; Anna Wald; Sawko Wassilew; Paul Woolley

    1999-01-01

    The prevalence of genital herpes is increasing in several populations worldwide. Factors that may be contributing to this increase include greater numbers of sexual partners, the high frequency of asymptomatic infections, poor use of safe sexual practices, and possibly the decreased incidence of childhood oral herpes simplex virus infection. Transmission occurs via skin-to-skin or mucous membrane contact during periods of

  16. Chlamydiosis in British Garden Birds (2005-2011): retrospective diagnosis and Chlamydia psittaci genotype determination.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, K M; Borel, N; Pocknell, A M; Dagleish, M P; Sachse, K; John, S K; Pospischil, A; Cunningham, A A; Lawson, B

    2014-12-01

    The significance of chlamydiosis as a cause of mortality in wild passerines (Order Passeriformes), and the role of these birds as a potential source of zoonotic Chlamydia psittaci infection, is unknown. We reviewed wild bird mortality incidents (2005-2011). Where species composition or post-mortem findings were indicative of chlamydiosis, we examined archived tissues for C. psittaci infection using PCR and ArrayTube Microarray assays. Twenty-one of 40 birds tested positive: 8 dunnocks (Prunella modularis), 7 great tits (Parus major), 3 blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus), 2 collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto, Order Columbiformes), and 1 robin (Erithacus rubecula). Chlamydia psittaci genotype A was identified in all positive passerines and in a further three dunnocks and three robins diagnosed with chlamydiosis from a previous study. Two collared doves had genotype E. Ten of the 21 C. psittaci-positive birds identified in the current study had histological lesions consistent with chlamydiosis and co-localizing Chlamydia spp. antigens on immunohistochemistry. Our results indicate that chlamydiosis may be a more common disease of British passerines than was previously recognized. Wild passerines may be a source of C. psittaci zoonotic infection, and people should be advised to take appropriate hygiene precautions when handling bird feeders or wild birds. PMID:24947738

  17. Examining the relationship between maternal stressful life events and urogenital infection in preterm birth using a biobehavioral model 

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Joy Lavonne

    2009-05-15

    stress and a collective urogenital infection variable comprised of BV, Group B strep, urinary tract infection, and chlamydia. The nature of the relationship between maternal stress and the various urogenital infection variables was ambivalent ? 58...

  18. The quality of life of patients with genital warts: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Genital warts, which are caused by infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), are one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in Europe. Although genital warts are commonly perceived as a non-serious condition, treatment is often long, of varying effectiveness and the recurrence rate is high. Very few studies have been performed on the personal consequences of genital warts. The aim of this qualitative study, set in Denmark, was to examine the ways in which genital warts may affect patients' quality of life. Methods To obtain an in-depth understanding of patients' perceptions of genital warts, we used qualitative focus-group interviews with five men and five women aged between 18 and 30 years who had genital warts. The interview guide was based on a literature review that identified important issues and questions. The data were analysed using a medical anthropological approach. Results Patients' experiences were related to cultural conceptions of venereal diseases and the respective identities and sexuality of the sexes. The disease had negative psychological and social effects both for men and for women and it affected their sex and love lives, in particular. The psychological burden of the disease was increased by the uncertain timeline and the varying effectiveness of treatment. We identified a need for more patient information about the disease and its psycho-sexual aspects. Conclusions The men and women participating in this study considered their quality of life to be significantly lowered because of genital warts. The experiences described by the participants give insights that may be valuable in treatment and counselling. The quadrivalent HPV vaccine that has now been added to the childhood vaccination programme for girls in Denmark for the prevention of cervical cancer can also prevent 90% of cases of genital warts. Our results suggest that HPV vaccination could considerably reduce the largely unacknowledged psychological and social burden associated with genital warts, in men as well as women. PMID:20205944

  19. AP-1 Transcription Factor Serves as a Molecular Switch between Chlamydia pneumoniae Replication and Persistence.

    PubMed

    Krämer, S; Crauwels, P; Bohn, R; Radzimski, C; Szaszák, M; Klinger, M; Rupp, J; van Zandbergen, G

    2015-07-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes acute or chronic respiratory infections. As obligate intracellular pathogens, chlamydiae efficiently manipulate host cell processes to ensure their intracellular development. Here we focused on the interaction of chlamydiae with the host cell transcription factor activator protein 1 (AP-1) and its consequence on chlamydial development. During Chlamydia pneumoniae infection, the expression and activity of AP-1 family proteins c-Jun, c-Fos, and ATF-2 were regulated in a time- and dose-dependent manner. We observed that the c-Jun protein and its phosphorylation level significantly increased during C. pneumoniae development. Small interfering RNA knockdown of the c-Jun protein in HEp-2 cells reduced the chlamydial load, resulting in smaller inclusions and significantly lower chlamydial recovery. Furthermore, inhibition of the c-Jun-containing AP-1 complexes using tanshinone IIA changed the replicative infection phenotype into a persistent one. Tanshinone IIA-dependent persistence was characterized by smaller, aberrant inclusions, a strong decrease in the chlamydial load, and significantly reduced chlamydial recovery, as well as by the reversibility of the reduced recovery after the removal of tanshinone IIA. Interestingly, not only was tanshinone IIA treatment accompanied by a significant decrease of ATP levels, but fluorescence live cell imaging analysis by two-photon microscopy revealed that tanshinone IIA treatment also resulted in a decreased fluorescence lifetime of protein-bound NAD(P)H inside the chlamydial inclusion, indicating that chlamydial reticulate bodies have decreased metabolic activity. In all, these data demonstrate that the AP-1 transcription factor is involved in C. pneumoniae development, with tanshinone IIA treatment resulting in persistence. PMID:25895972

  20. Evaluation of Chlamydia pneumoniae 43- and 53-Kilodalton Recombinant Proteins for Serodiagnosis by Western Blot

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Lee Ann; Roberts, Shane; Inoue, Shiuichiro; Kong, Lilly; Kuo, Cho-chou

    2001-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common cause of respiratory infection. It has also been shown to be associated with coronary heart disease. Two proteins that have been reported to be recognized frequently during human infection are proteins having molecular masses of 43 and 53 kDa. In order to develop a useful alternative serological test to the microimmunofluorescence (micro-IF) assay, recombinant 43-kDa and 53-kDa chlamydia-specific proteins were evaluated in dot blot and/or for comparison to the standard micro-IF test. Primers for amplification were derived from genome sequence information for two C. pneumoniae genes (CPn0809 and CPn0980) encoding 53-kDa proteins and four C. pneumoniae genes (CPn0562, CPn0927, CPn0928, and Cpn0929) encoding 43-kDa proteins of unknown function, which were Chlamydia specific and not found in Chlamydia trachomatis. The 53-kDa protein product of CPn0809 or the N-terminal 18-kDa portion had better specificity than any of the 43-kDa recombinants but was much less sensitive than micro-IF. In contrast, the 53-kDa protein encoded by CPn0980 was recognized by 11 of 12 (92%) acute-phase sera, 35 of 46 (76%) chronic sera, 0 of 12 micro-IF-negative sera (C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis negative), and 1 of 12 (8%) C. pneumoniae negative, C. trachomatis positive sera. Thus, it appears that the 53-kDa protein encoded by CPn0980 has potential use for serodiagnosis of C. pneumoniae infection. PMID:11687468

  1. Isolated Itching of the Genitals

    PubMed Central

    Pomares, Christelle; Marty, Pierre; Delaunay, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    A 38-year-old man, returned from Ivory Coast 2 months ago and presented with a 3-month history of pruritus exclusively on the scrotum. Itching was continuous during the day and no pruritus was described in his wife and son. Clinical examination of the genitals revealed several nodules on the scrotum, a chancrous lesion was seen on the penis, and multiple excoriations were noted. Dermoscopy exam with a dermatoscope of the whole body was performed and no papules, nodules, or burrow were found. Microscopic examination of several superficial skin samples obtained by scraping in the peri-genital area revealed one adult of Sarcoptes scabiei. The patient and his relatives were successfully treated with Ivermectin 200 ?g/kg with a second dose 2 weeks later. Very rare cases are described on localized scabies (scalp, feet) and they mainly occurred in an immunocompromised patient unlike this patient who does not have any immunosuppression. PMID:24696404

  2. Rationale and design of REACT: a randomised controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of home-collection to increase chlamydia retesting and detect repeat positive tests

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Repeat infection with Chlamydia trachomatis is common and increases the risk of sequelae in women and HIV seroconversion in men who have sex with men (MSM). Despite guidelines recommending chlamydia retesting three months after treatment, retesting rates are low. We are conducting the first randomised controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of home collection combined with short message service (SMS) reminders on chlamydia retesting and reinfection rates in three risk groups. Methods/Design The REACT (retest after Chlamydia trachomatis) trial involves 600 patients diagnosed with chlamydia: 200 MSM, 200 women and 200 heterosexual men recruited from two Australian sexual health clinics where SMS reminders for retesting are routine practice. Participants will be randomised to the home group (3-month SMS reminder and home-collection) or the clinic group (3-month SMS reminder to return to the clinic). Participants in the home group will be given the choice of attending the clinic if they prefer. The mailed home-collection kit includes a self-collected vaginal swab (women), UriSWAB (Copan) for urine collection (heterosexual men), and UriSWAB plus rectal swab (MSM). The primary outcome is the retest rate at 1-4 months after a chlamydia diagnosis, and the secondary outcomes are: the repeat positive test rate; the reinfection rate; the acceptability of home testing with SMS reminders; and the cost effectiveness of home testing. Sexual behaviour data collected via an online survey at 4-5 months, and genotyping of repeat infections, will be used to discriminate reinfections from treatment failures. The trial will be conducted over two years. An intention to treat analysis will be conducted. Discussion This study will provide evidence about the effectiveness of home-collection combined with SMS reminders on chlamydia retesting, repeat infection and reinfection rates in three risk groups. The trial will determine client acceptability and cost effectiveness of this strategy. Trial registration Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12611000968976. PMID:24758169

  3. Clearance of Chlamydia trachomatis – induced polyserositis in SCID mice requires both CD4 + and CD8 + cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sybille Thoma-Uszynski; Ulrike Simnacher; Reinhard Marre; Andreas Essig

    1998-01-01

    To characterize the role of specific lymphocyte subsets in Chlamydia trachomatis infection, we established a murine model using the mouse pneumonitis agent (MoPn) of C. trachomatis and C.B-17 scid\\/scid (SCID) mice which lack functional B and T cells. After intraperitoneal inoculation with the bacteria, SCID mice developed\\u000a polyserositis with pleuritis, pericarditis, and perihepatitis. Within 8 weeks post infection, SCID mice

  4. Assessment of the role in protection and pathogenesis of the Chlamydia muridarum V-type ATP synthase subunit A (AtpA) (TC0582)

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Sukumar; Tifrea, Delia; Sun, Guifeng; Teng, Andy A.; Liang, Xiaowu; Felgner, Philip L.; de la Maza, Luis M.

    2014-01-01

    A novel Chlamydia muridarum antigen (TC0582) was used to vaccinate BALB/c mice. Mice were also immunized with other components of the ATP synthase complex (TC0580, TC0581, and TC0584), or with the major outer membrane protein (MOMP). TC0582 was also formulated in combination with TC0580, TC0581 or MOMP. TC0582 alone, or in combination with the other antigens, elicited strong Chlamydia-specific humoral and cellular immune responses. Vaccinated animals were challenged intranasally and the course of the infection was followed for 10 days. Based on percentage change in body weight, lung weight, and number of Chlamydia inclusion forming units recovered from the lungs, mice immunized with TC0582, TC0581 or MOMP, as single antigens, showed significant protection. Mice immunized with combinations of two antigens were also protected but the level of protection was not additive. TC0582 has sequence homology with the eukaryotic ATP synthase subunit A (AtpA). Therefore, to determine if immunization with TC0582, or with Chlamydia, elicited antibodies that cross-reacted with the mouse AtpA, the two proteins were printed on a microarray. Sera from mice immunized with TC0582 and/or live Chlamydia, strongly reacted with TC0582 but did not recognize the mouse AtpA. In conclusion, TC0582 may be considered as a Chlamydia vaccine candidate. PMID:24161793

  5. Antibody-mediated protection and the mucosal immune system of the genital tract: relevance to vaccine design.

    PubMed

    Mestecky, Jiri; Raska, Milan; Novak, Jan; Alexander, Rashada C; Moldoveanu, Zina

    2010-05-01

    Mucosal tissues of the genital tracts and the distal intestinal tract are portals of entry for infectious agents of sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV-1. Although the genital and intestinal tracts share a common embryologic origin and remain in anatomical proximity, these two sites display remarkably different immunologic features, including the levels, isotypes and molecular forms of immunoglobulins, and magnitudes and qualities of humoral and cellular immune responses. Thus, viral and bacterial infections of the genital tract or intravaginal immunizations induce, in the absence of mucosal adjuvants, minimal immune responses. Consequently, to induce relevant immune responses in the genital tract, alternative immunization routes have been explored, including systemic, intranasal, oral, or rectal immunization and their combinations. In limited studies performed in animals, systemic immunization with a subsequent mucosal (intranasal) immunization proved to be effective in the induction of humoral immune responses in genital tract secretions. The approaches have been explored to a limited extent in humans. PMID:20236708

  6. Male circumcision and risk of syphilis, chancroid, and genital herpes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H A Weiss; S L Thomas; S K Munabi; R J Hayes

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: Male circumcision is associated with reduced risk of HIV infection. This may be partly because of a protective effect of circumcision on other sexually transmitted infections (STI), especially those causing genital ulcers, but evidence for such protection is unclear. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analyses of the associations between male circumcision and infection with herpes

  7. The Psychosocial Impact of Testing Individuals with No History of Genital Herpes for Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomio Miyai; Katherine R. Turner; Charlotte K. Kent; Jeffrey Klausner

    2004-01-01

    Background: Although approximately 20% of the population has a genital herpes (HSV-2) infection, 80% of these infections are unrec- ognized or asymptomatic. Serologic identification of HSV-2 leads to recognition of infection, which could lead to behavioral changes that reduce transmission. However, there has been concern that HSV-2 testing among persons without symptoms will cause substantial psy- chosocial harm. Goal: The

  8. Chlamydia in Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pia V. Vécsei; Karl Kircher; Andreas Reitner; Gelas Khanakha; Gerold Stanek

    2002-01-01

    There is an increasing body of evidence linking the common respiratory human pathogen Chlamydia pneumoniae with atherosclerosis and other vascular disorders. Our research was designed to investigate the association of this organism with anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION), representing an acute ischemic disorder of the optic nerve head. Sera were examined of 14 consecutive patients with AION and of 14

  9. Genital and cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) types in relation to conjunctival squamous cell neoplasia: A case-control study in Uganda

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maurits NC de Koning; Keith Waddell; Joseph Magyezi; Karin Purdie; Charlotte Proby; Catherine Harwood; Sebastian Lucas; Robert Downing; Wim GV Quint; Robert Newton

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We investigated the role of infection with genital and cutaneous human papillomavirus types (HPV) in the aetiology of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (which includes both conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and carcinoma) using data and biological material collected as part of a case-control study in Uganda. RESULTS: Among 81 cases, the prevalence of genital and cutaneous HPV types in tumour

  10. Influence of Mucosal and Parenteral Immunization with a Replication-Defective Mutant of HSV-2 on Immune Responses and Protection from Genital Challenge

    E-print Network

    Knipe, David M.

    on Immune Responses and Protection from Genital Challenge Lynda A. Morrison,*,1 Xavier J. Da Costa; returned to author for revision December 15, 1997; accepted January 14, 1998 Herpes simplex virus (HSV as systemic immune responses on protection against genital challenge infection with virulent HSV-2 in mice

  11. [Diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis using PCR in gynecology patients in Slovakia].

    PubMed

    Simko, J; Hollý, I; Hudecová, M; Zaviacic, T; Holomán, K

    2002-11-01

    The authors examined using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) more than 2700 gynaecological patients for the presence of Ch. tracheomatis. The patients were mostly from Bratislava and surroundings. The material used were cervical smears or morning urine. The most frequent diagnoses associated with Chlamydia infection were adnexitis (38%), cervicitis (22%), pelvic pain (9%), sterility (9%), cystitis and ureteritis (3%) abortus imminenes (4%) partus prematurus imminenes (9%). There was a marked seasonal character of chlamydias with the peak during the summer period. The mean age of the patients was 29.2 years and thus the assumed higher incidence of younger age groups was not confirmed. PCR proved to be an accurate, reliable and perspective method for the detection of Ch. trachomatis in Slovak gynaecological patients. PMID:12661379

  12. Virulence determinants in the obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis revealed by forward genetic approaches

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Bidong D.; Valdivia, Raphael H.

    2012-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis, a pathogen responsible for diseases of significant clinical and public health importance, remains poorly characterized because of its intractability to routine molecular genetic manipulation. We have developed a combinatorial approach to rapidly generate a comprehensive library of genetically defined mutants. Chemical mutagenesis, coupled with whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and a system for DNA exchange within infected cells, was used to generate Chlamydia mutants with distinct phenotypes, map the underlying genetic lesions, and generate isogenic strains. As a result, we identified mutants with altered glycogen metabolism, including an attenuated strain defective for type II secretion. The coupling of chemically induced gene variation and WGS to establish genotype–phenotype associations should be broadly applicable to the large list of medically and environmentally important microorganisms currently intractable to genetic analysis. PMID:22232666

  13. Exploring short-term responses to changes in the control strategy for Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Clarke, James; White, K A Jane; Turner, Katy

    2012-01-01

    Chlamydia has a significant impact on public health provision in the developed world. Using pair approximation equations we investigate the efficacy of control programmes for chlamydia on short time scales that are relevant to policy makers. We use output from the model to estimate critical measures, namely, prevalence, incidence, and positivity in those screened and their partners. We combine these measures with a costing tool to estimate the economic impact of different public health strategies. Increasing screening coverage significantly increases the annual programme costs whereas an increase in tracing efficiency initially increases annual costs but over time reduces costs below baseline, with tracing accounting for around 10% of intervention costs. We found that partner positivity is insensitive to changes in prevalence due to screening, remaining at around 33%. Whether increases occur in screening or tracing levels, the cost per treated infection increases from the baseline because of reduced prevalence. PMID:22701143

  14. How robust are the natural history parameters used in chlamydia transmission dynamic models? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Davies, Bethan; Anderson, Sarah-Jane; Turner, Katy M E; Ward, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Transmission dynamic models linked to economic analyses often form part of the decision making process when introducing new chlamydia screening interventions. Outputs from these transmission dynamic models can vary depending on the values of the parameters used to describe the infection. Therefore these values can have an important influence on policy and resource allocation. The risk of progression from infection to pelvic inflammatory disease has been extensively studied but the parameters which govern the transmission dynamics are frequently neglected. We conducted a systematic review of transmission dynamic models linked to economic analyses of chlamydia screening interventions to critically assess the source and variability of the proportion of infections that are asymptomatic, the duration of infection and the transmission probability. We identified nine relevant studies in Pubmed, Embase and the Cochrane database. We found that there is a wide variation in their natural history parameters, including an absolute difference in the proportion of asymptomatic infections of 25% in women and 75% in men, a six-fold difference in the duration of asymptomatic infection and a four-fold difference in the per act transmission probability. We consider that much of this variation can be explained by a lack of consensus in the literature. We found that a significant proportion of parameter values were referenced back to the early chlamydia literature, before the introduction of nucleic acid modes of diagnosis and the widespread testing of asymptomatic individuals. In conclusion, authors should use high quality contemporary evidence to inform their parameter values, clearly document their assumptions and make appropriate use of sensitivity analysis. This will help to make models more transparent and increase their utility to policy makers. PMID:24476335

  15. Development and clinical application of an InvaderPlus(®) assay for the detection of genital mycoplasmas.

    PubMed

    Takanashi, Masaki; Ito, Shin; Kaneto, Hiroyuki; Tanahashi, Yoshikatsu; Kitanohara, Masataka; Yanagihara, Akira; Nakazima, Haruhiko; Yasuda, Mitsuru

    2015-07-01

    We developed a PCR-based assay involving Invader(®) technology for detection of the genital mycoplasmas of Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and Ureaplasma parvum. We compared its performance with that of a PCR-microtiter plate hybridization assay, which we developed previously, in detecting genital mycoplasmas in first-voided urine (FVU) specimens from men with non-gonococcal urethritis. The tests targeting each of the genital mycoplasmas were specific for the respective species and could detect as few as 10 copies of the plasmids containing the target genes of each of the genital mycoplasmas per reaction. The assay using the InvaderPlus(®) method (InvaderPlus(®) assay) showed very similar performance to that of the PCR-microtiter plate hybridization assay for detecting the genital mycoplasmas in the FVU specimens. In addition, the PCR and endonuclease reaction in the InvaderPlus(®) assay were carried out simultaneously in one procedure, thus simplifying the assay, leading to time- and labor-savings and a decrease in the risk of specimen contamination. The InvaderPlus(®) assay could be useful in diagnosing genitourinary tract infections caused by the genital mycoplasmas. PMID:25892209

  16. Prevention of infection after induced abortion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon L. Achilles; Matthew F. Reeves

    2011-01-01

    One known complication of induced abortion is upper genital tract infection, which is relatively uncommon in the current era of safe, legal abortion. Currently, rates of upper genital tract infection in the setting of legal induced abortion in the United States are generally less than 1%. Randomized controlled trials support the use of prophylactic antibiotics for surgical abortion in the

  17. 21 CFR 866.3120 - Chlamydia serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3120 Chlamydia serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  18. 21 CFR 866.3120 - Chlamydia serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3120 Chlamydia serological reagents. (a) Identification....

  19. In vivo-activated mononuclear phagocytes and protective immunity to chlamydiae in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Huebner, R E; Byrne, G I

    1988-01-01

    Peritoneal macrophages (M phi s) collected from Chlamydia psittaci 6BC-immune mice after intraperitoneal challenge with 10(6) 6BC (immune-boosted [IB] M phi s) were compared by various functional criteria with other in vivo- and in vitro-activated M phi populations. While casein-, protease peptone-, and thioglycolate (Thio)-elicited M phi s were equally susceptible to in vitro infection with 6BC, IB M phi s did not support chlamydial growth and M phi s from Mycobacterium tuberculosis BCG- or Listeria monocytogenes-sensitized mice exhibited intermediate susceptibility to infection. The resistance of IB M phi s was not due to the ingestion of fewer 6BC organisms, nor were these cells persistently infected, since chlamydiae could not be recovered from infected IB M phi s after in vitro infection, even after extended incubation times. In contrast, Thio M phi s stimulated in vitro with gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), with or without lipopolysaccharide, resulted in cells that exhibited chlamydiastatic activity which was lost shortly after IFN-gamma was removed from the culture medium. Conversely, the antichlamydial activity of IB M phi s was stable over time but not through the production of autostimulatory cytokines, as evidenced by the lack of stimulation of Thio M phi s to restrict 6BC replication in coculture experiments. IB M phi s exhibited enhanced oxidative activity, but anti-IFN-gamma antibody did not abrogate this response. IB M phi s were recovered only from immunized mice that survived an otherwise lethal 6BC intraperitoneal challenge. These cells appear to be important for development of protective immunity to chlamydiae, and evidence suggests that stimulation by cytokines other than IFN-gamma (with or without lipopolysaccharide) is required for the observed heightened in vivo activation. PMID:3131246

  20. Recommendations for the laboratory-based detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae--2014.

    PubMed

    2014-03-14

    This report updates CDC's 2002 recommendations regarding screening tests to detect Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections (CDC. Screening tests to detect Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections-2002. MMWR 2002;51[No. RR-15]) and provides new recommendations regarding optimal specimen types, the use of tests to detect rectal and oropharyngeal C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae infections, and circumstances when supplemental testing is indicated. The recommendations in this report are intended for use by clinical laboratory directors, laboratory staff, clinicians, and disease control personnel who must choose among the multiple available tests, establish standard operating procedures for collecting and processing specimens, interpret test results for laboratory reporting, and counsel and treat patients. The performance of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) with respect to overall sensitivity, specificity, and ease of specimen transport is better than that of any of the other tests available for the diagnosis of chlamydial and gonococcal infections. Laboratories should use NAATs to detect chlamydia and gonorrhea except in cases of child sexual assault involving boys and rectal and oropharyngeal infections in prepubescent girls and when evaluating a potential gonorrhea treatment failure, in which case culture and susceptibility testing might be required. NAATs that have been cleared by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the detection of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae infections are recommended as screening or diagnostic tests because they have been evaluated in patients with and without symptoms. Maintaining the capability to culture for both N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis in laboratories throughout the country is important because data are insufficient to recommend nonculture tests in cases of sexual assault in prepubescent boys and extragenital anatomic site exposure in prepubescent girls. N. gonorrhoeae culture is required to evaluate suspected cases of gonorrhea treatment failure and to monitor developing resistance to current treatment regimens. Chlamydia culture also should be maintained in some laboratories to monitor future changes in antibiotic susceptibility and to support surveillance and research activities such as detection of lymphogranuloma venereum or rare infections caused by variant or mutated C. trachomatis. PMID:24622331

  1. Experiential Interventions for Clients with Genital Herpes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Anne L.

    1999-01-01

    Explores potential benefits of incorporating concepts and interventions from experimental therapy to help clients with psychosocial difficulties in learning to live with genital herpes. Recommends experimental counseling of two-chair dialog, empty chair, and metaphor for helping clients with emotional sequelae of genital herpes. Presents case…

  2. Treatment of genital warts: Facts and controversies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronni Wolf; Batya Davidovici

    2010-01-01

    There are two opposing approaches in the treatment of genital warts: (1) the traditional approach advocates complete elimination of all lesions, and (2) a second approach regards condyloma as merely a cosmetic nuisance. After a long journey through many arguments and scientific papers, we have concluded that many unknowns, uncertainties, and controversies concerning the value of treatment of genital warts

  3. Predictors of Genital Pain in Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Melissa A.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of genital pain in healthy young adult women, limited research has addressed genital pain during intercourse using contemporary models of multidimensional sexual function. The objectives of this study were threefold: (1) to identify differences in sexual functioning in women who experience genital pain compared to pain free women; (2) to identify predictors of sexual functioning in women with and without genital pain; and (3) to identify predictors of sexual satisfaction in women with and without genital pain. Sexually active female undergraduates (n = 651) were administered the Female Sexual Function Index and the Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory. We evaluated the sexual factors that impact the sexual function of women with any pain (including high and low pain groups) versus women with no history of pain. Women with genital pain reported greater rates of sexual dysfunction as compared to pain-free women; however, sexual functioning in the high versus low pain groups was distinguished primarily by vaginal lubrication. Women in the high pain group showed negative correlations between domains of sexual satisfaction and genital pain frequency and intensity that were not found in the low pain group. For pain-free women, intercourse played a strong role in sexual satisfaction, whereas non-intercourse sexual behavior was central to sexual satisfaction in women who reported pain. The evaluation of levels of genital pain may provide insight into the mechanisms underlying the impairment of sexual function, sexual behavior, and sexual satisfaction. PMID:17674182

  4. Selenium and vitamin E effect on antibody production of sheep vaccinated against enzootic abortion (Chlamydia psittaci).

    PubMed

    Giadinis, N; Koptopoulos, G; Roubles, N; Siarkou, V; Papasteriades, A

    2000-03-01

    The effect of selenium (Se) and vitamin E (vit E) on antibody production of sheep vaccinated against Chlamydia psittaci (ovis) was investigated. Thirty-two sheep, one year old, seronegative to Chlamydia infection, vaccinated against enterotoxemia and dewormed were used. Injectable sodium selenite (0.1 mg/kg b.w.) was given twice to animals of the first group (gSe), with a three week interval. The sheep of the second group (gE) received 1 g vit E each orally, six times at weekly intervals. The animals of the third group (gSeE) were given Se and vit E in doses and routes of administration as in gSe and gE. The animals of the fourth group served as controls (gC) and injected normal saline. The first vaccination was made at the time that the second Se injection was given. Revaccination was made two weeks later. The experiment lasted 29 weeks. The results indicated that Se alone led to a significant increase of Chlamydia antibody response (P < 0.05), but not when it was given in combination with vit E. Animals that received vit E (gE) had much lower titres, just above of those of the controls. PMID:10670702

  5. Antiviral activity of trappin-2 and elafin in vitro and in vivo against genital herpes.

    PubMed

    Drannik, Anna G; Nag, Kakon; Sallenave, Jean-Michel; Rosenthal, Kenneth L

    2013-07-01

    Serine protease inhibitor elafin (E) and its precursor, trappin-2 (Tr), have been associated with mucosal resistance to HIV-1 infection. We recently showed that Tr/E are among principal anti-HIV-1 molecules in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) fluid, that E is ?130 times more potent than Tr against HIV-1, and that Tr/E inhibited HIV-1 attachment and transcytosis across human genital epithelial cells (ECs). Since herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a major sexually transmitted infection and risk factor for HIV-1 infection and transmission, we assessed Tr/E contribution to defense against HSV-2. Our in vitro studies demonstrated that pretreatment of endometrial (HEC-1A) and endocervical (End1/E6E7) ECs with human Tr-expressing adenovirus (Ad/Tr) or recombinant Tr/E proteins before or after HSV-2 infection resulted in significantly reduced virus titers compared to those of controls. Interestingly, E was ?7 times more potent against HSV-2 infection than Tr. Conversely, knockdown of endogenous Tr/E by small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly increased HSV-2 replication in genital ECs. Recombinant Tr and E reduced viral attachment to genital ECs by acting indirectly on cells. Further, lower viral replication was associated with reduced secretion of proinflammatory interleukin 8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and decreased NF-?B nuclear translocation. Additionally, protected Ad/Tr-treated ECs demonstrated enhanced interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) nuclear translocation and increased antiviral IFN-? in response to HSV-2. Lastly, in vivo studies of intravaginal HSV-2 infection in Tr-transgenic mice (Etg) showed that despite similar virus replication in the genital tract, Etg mice had reduced viral load and TNF-? in the central nervous system compared to controls. Collectively, this is the first experimental evidence highlighting anti-HSV-2 activity of Tr/E in female genital mucosa. PMID:23637403

  6. Major traumatic and septic genital injuries.

    PubMed

    McAninch, J W; Kahn, R I; Jeffrey, R B; Laing, F C; Krieger, M J

    1984-04-01

    Major injuries to the testicles, penis, and genital skin from trauma and infection were seen in 62 patients over a 6-year period (1977 to 1983). Urethral injuries were excluded. In the past blunt testicle injuries were infrequently diagnosed and surgically ignored because of large surrounding hematomas. With the use of real-time ultrasound, 17 of 18 cases of testicle rupture were correctly diagnosed preoperatively. Surgical repair resulted in testicle salvage in 16 patients. Penetrating testicle injuries resulted in a high orchiectomy rate secondary to the infrequently described but recognized entity of self-emasculation in transsexuals. Penile rupture from blunt injuries (8) was successfully repaired and complete function was recovered. Penetrating penile injuries (4) were extensive and involved the urethra in two cases; full function returned after reconstruction. Major skin loss of the penis and/or scrotum (19) occurred from necrotizing fasciitis, burns, avulsion and penetrating injuries. Early debridement, bowel and urinary diversion followed by penile skin grafting, thigh pouches to protect testicles, and scrotal reconstruction resulted in acceptable cosmetic and functional results in all cases of major skin loss. PMID:6368854

  7. Prostate-specific antigen, sexual behavior, and sexually transmitted infections in US men 40–59 years old, 2001–2004: a cross – sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Werny, David M; Saraiya, Mona; Chen, Xiao; Platz, Elizabeth A

    2007-01-01

    Background Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are hypothesized to play a role in the development of prostate cancer, perhaps due to inflammation-induced oncogenesis. We assessed in a nationally representative population of middle-aged men whether sexual behavior indicators for an increased risk of genital infection were associated with serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration, a marker of prostatic disease and inflammation. Results The percentage of men between the ages of 40 and 59 with a PSA ? 4.0 ng/ml was 2.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8% – 3.8%). The percentage of men between the ages of 40 and 59 self-reporting a past diagnosis of genital warts or genital herpes, or a recent diagnosis of gonorrhea or chlamydia is estimated to be 7.3% (95% CI, 6.2% – 8.6%). Men self-reporting that they had had sex without using a condom in the past month had a lower PSA concentration and higher %fPSA than those who did not. There were no associations between any of the other sexual activity or laboratory measures and PSA or %fPSA. Conclusion In this nationally representative sample of middle-aged American men, we did not find consistent evidence for an association between sexual behavior or a history of STIs and PSA levels. Therefore, sexual factors are unlikely to lead to falsely elevated PSA tests in this population. We cannot rule out the role of these factors in causing false positive PSA tests in subgroups of the population that have a higher prevalence of high-risk sexual behavior, and more protracted or recent exposures to these agents. PMID:17958890

  8. Molecular diagnostics and newborns at risk for genital herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Chua, Caroline; Arnolds, Marin; Niklas, Victoria

    2015-05-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in the newborn carries a high mortality rate and can result in lifelong neurologic impairment. The severity of HSV infection in the newborn has always dictated conservative management when prodromal symptoms or active genital lesions (or those suggestive of genital herpes) are present during labor and delivery. The risk of intrapartum infection, however, is related to the presence or absence of maternal immunity (neutralizing antibody) to HSV. The most significant risk of transmission is in first-episode primary infections with active lesions at delivery. Recent recommendations from the American Academy of Pediatrics Committees on Infectious Diseases and the Fetus and Newborn use rapid serologic and virologic screening in the management of asymptomatic infants born to mothers with active genital herpes. The revised guidelines highlight infants at greatest risk for HSV disease but do not apply to asymptomatic infants born to mothers with a history of HSV but no genital lesions at delivery. The current guidelines also stipulate that maternal serologic screening and molecular assays for HSV in newborn blood and cerebrospinal fluid must be available and reported in a timely fashion. [Pediatr Ann. 2015;44(5):e97-e102.]. PMID:25996200

  9. Developing an HPV vaccine to prevent cervical cancer and genital warts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janine T. Bryan

    2007-01-01

    The challenges of the journey from target identification through development of a prophylactic quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine have been met in Gardasil®. Cervical cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide. Approximately 70% of cervical cancer is caused by infection with HPV types 16 and 18 and ?90% of genital warts are caused by HPV

  10. Type III secretion system in Chlamydia species: identified members and candidates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Agathe Subtil; Ariel Blocker; Alice Dautry-Varsat

    2000-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae genomes contain genes coding for type III secretion apparatuses. Like other pathogens, Chlamydia probably uses this system to secrete proteins in the host cell. With the aim of identifying such proteins, we analyzed the organization of Chlamydia type III secretion genes.

  11. Detection of Nucleotide Variability in rpoB in both Rifampin-Sensitive and Rifampin-Resistant Strains of Chlamydia trachomatis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ute Dreses-Werringloer; Ingrid Padubrin; Lars Kohler; Alan P. Hudson

    2003-01-01

    de novo synthesis of bacterial rRNA, recurrent infection occa- sionally occurred in two independent experiments. In those instances, typical chlamydial inclusions were identified and we were able to recover infectious Chlamydia from the cultures. We prepared five variants that were clearly resistant, as deter- mined by susceptibility testing. Three variants showed a MIC of 4 g\\/ml, and the remaining two

  12. Chlamydia pneumoniae Augments the Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein-Induced Death of Mouse Macrophages by a Caspase-Independent Pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kambiz Yaraei; Lee Ann Campbell; Xiaodong Zhu; W. Conrad Liles; Cho-chou Kuo; Michael E. Rosenfeld

    2005-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common respiratory pathogen that is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the mechanisms by which C. pneumoniae contributes to cardiovascular disease have not been determined yet. C. pneumoniae infection may accelerate the death of cells within atherosclerotic lesions and contribute to the formation of unstable lesions. To test this hypothesis, the impact of

  13. Variation outside variable segments of the major outer membrane protein distinguishes trachoma from urogenital isolates of the same serovar of Chlamydia trachomatis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E H Frost; S Deslandes; D Gendron; D Bourgaux-Ramoisy; P Bourgaux

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--Whereas serovars A, B, Ba and C of Chlamydia trachomatis are usually associated with trachoma, two of these serovars (Ba and C) are occasionally observed in urogenital infections. Variation in the gene encoding the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) was explored to distinguish urogenital from trachoma specimens of the same serovar. METHODS--A large portion of the MOMP gene was amplified

  14. J Infect Dis . Author manuscript Effect of HSV-2 serostatus on acquisition of HIV by young men: results of

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    herpes is a major public health problem worldwide . Genital herpes is most frequently caused ; HIV Infections ; epidemiology ; etiology ; prevention & control ; HIV-1 ; Herpes Genitalis ; Longitudinal Studies ; Male ; Risk Factors ; South Africa ; epidemiology ; Young Adult Introduction Genital

  15. Interleukin 8 and the male genital tract.

    PubMed

    Lotti, Francesco; Maggi, Mario

    2013-11-01

    Interleukin 8 (IL-8) is a pro-inflammatory CXC chemokine involved in inflammatory reactions. IL-8 exerts its function in concert with other cytokines and chemokines causing chemoattraction of leukocytes to the inflammatory sites, recruitment and activation of neutrophils to phagocytosis and bacterial clearance. Furthermore, IL-8 is characterized by chemoattractant activity on basophils and T cells, and by a potent pro-angiogenic action. IL-8 is crucially involved in several inflammatory diseases. In particular, it has been suggested that IL8 might play a key role in male genital tract (MGT) infection/inflammation. In fact, IL-8 seems crucially involved in benign prostatic hyperplasia-related inflammation. In addition, among different cytokines and chemokines, seminal plasma IL-8 (sIL-8) appears to be the most reliable and predictive surrogate marker of prostatitis. Furthermore, evidence is emerging on sIL-8 involvement in inflammation not only of the prostate, but also of other organs of the MGT, in particular seminal vesicles and epididymis, but not the testis, and in male accessory gland infection (MAGI). Accordingly, an association between sIL-8 levels and color-Doppler ultrasound characteristics of the MGT suggestive of inflammation has been recently reported. sIL-8 is strongly related to leukocytospermia, and although the relationship between sIL-8 levels and sperm parameters has not been completely clarified, a tight inverse correlation with ejaculate volume has been demonstrated, suggesting an association with distal MGT sub-obstruction, corroborated by the correlation with ejaculatory duct and seminal vesicle abnormalities. Finally, recent studies have focused on the role of IL-8 in cancer biology, in particular in prostate cancer, thus increasing the interest in this pro-inflammatory chemokine. PMID:23611586

  16. Diagnosis and antimicrobial treatment of Mycoplasma genitalium infection: sobering thoughts.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Robinson, David

    2014-06-01

    The discovery of Mycoplasma genitalium in 1980-1981 eventually led to it becoming recognized as an important cause of non-gonococcal urethritis in men and also some genital tract diseases in women. Subsequent to the original isolation, further attempts failed over the next decade and reliable detection only became possible with the use of nucleic acid amplification techniques. Although tetracyclines, particularly doxycycline, were the first choice for treatment of non-gonococcal urethritis prior to the finding of M. genitalium, they were unsatisfactory for the treatment of M. genitalium-associated disease; the organisms were often not eliminated leading, for example, to chronic urethritis. However, the introduction of azithromycin, used as single-dose therapy for chlamydial infections, resulted in clearance of the mycoplasmal organisms from the genital tract and clinical recovery without the development of chronic disease. Nevertheless, such success was short-lived as M. genitalium, through mutation, began to develop resistance to azithromycin and M. genitalium mutants also began to circulate in some populations. In an attempt to counteract this, clinicians should give extended therapy, and in the future, microbiologists, using real-time PCRs, might be able to determine the existence of resistant strains in the local population and so advise on the most appropriate antibiotic. Other than azithromycin, there are a few options, moxifloxacin being one, although the recently reported resistance to this antibiotic is disturbing. In the short to medium term, combination therapy and/or the advent of a new antibiotic might abate the spread of resistance, but in the long term, there is potential for increasing prevalence of untreatable M. genitalium disease. In the future, attempts to develop a vaccine and, of equal importance, one to Chlamydia trachomatis, would not be out of place. PMID:24834454

  17. A comparative ultrastructural and molecular biological study on Chlamydia psittaci infection in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency and non-alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency emphysema versus lung tissue of patients with hamartochondroma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dirk Theegarten; Olaf Anhenn; Helmut Hotzel; Mathias Wagner; Alessandro Marra; Georgios Stamatis; Grigori Mogilevski; Konrad Sachse

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chlamydiales are familiar causes of acute and chronic infections in humans and animals. Human pulmonary emphysema is a component of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and a condition in which chronic inflammation manifested as bronchiolitis and intra-alveolar accumulation of macrophages is common. It is generally presumed to be of infectious origin. Previous investigations based on serology and immunohistochemistry indicated

  18. Lichen sclerosus: role of occlusion of the genital skin in the pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Somesh; Malhotra, Amit Kumar; Ajith, C

    2010-01-01

    Lichen sclerosus (LS) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease, which most commonly involves the anogenital region. The etiology of LS is obscure, but genetic susceptibility, autoimmune mechanisms, infective agents like human papillomavirus and spirochaetes, and Koebner phenomenon has been postulated as causative factors. We report our observation in 6 patients (3 males and 3 females) with histologically proven lichen sclerosus that showed relative sparing of the uncovered areas of the genitals, thereby suggesting that the occlusion of the genital skin may be playing a greater role in the causation of LS than is currently thought, in both sexes. PMID:20061733

  19. [Serum IgG antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis in HLA-B-27 positive patients with rheumatic diseases].

    PubMed

    Breustedt, W; Giesel, A; Puhlmann, B

    1989-01-01

    Urogenital chlamydial infection should act as a trigger of peripheral and axial form of arthritis like sexually acquired reactive arthritis and Reiter's syndrome assumedly. HLA B-27 positive patients with rheumatic disorders, mainly M. Bechterew (55 out of 62 men and 18 out of 25 women) were investigated for serum-IgG-antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis (ELISA). Among HLA B-27 positive men and women urogenital disorders in their history were more common as compared with controls. There were found no differences concerning the rate of antichlamydial antibodies between patients and controls. It is supposed, that urogenital bacterial infections rather others than chlamydial infection may be connected with M. Bechterew. PMID:2792489

  20. Persistence of Chlamydia trachomatis Is Induced by Ciprofloxacin and Ofloxacin In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Dreses-Werringloer, Ute; Padubrin, Ingrid; Jürgens-Saathoff, Barbara; Hudson, Alan P.; Zeidler, H.; Köhler, L.

    2000-01-01

    An in vitro cell culture model was used to investigate the long-term effect of ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin on infection with Chlamydia trachomatis. Standard in vitro susceptibility testing clearly indicated successful suppression of chlamydial growth. To mimic better in vivo infection conditions, extended treatment with the drugs was started after infection in vitro had been well established. Incubation of such established chlamydial cultures with ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin not only failed to eradicate the organism from host cells, but rather induced a state of chlamydial persistence. This state was characterized by the presence of nonculturable, but fully viable, bacteria and the development of aberrant inclusions. In addition chlamydia exhibited altered steady-state levels of key chlamydial antigens, with significantly reduced major outer membrane protein and near constant hsp60 levels. Resumption of overt chlamydial growth occurred after withdrawal of ciprofloxacin, confirming the viability of persisting chlamydia. In vitro ciprofloxacin results are consistent with clinical data, thereby providing an explanation for treatment failures of ciprofloxacin. Parallel in vitro studies with ofloxacin suggest a better correlation between clinical and laboratory-defined efficacy, although the clinical studies on which this assessment is based did not include monitoring of chlamydial persistence. The data presented here clearly demonstrate that under at least some circumstances, standard determination of MICs and minimal bactericidal concentrations for C. trachomatis allows no more than a simple definition of whether an antibiotic has some anti chlamydial activity; however, such testing is not always sufficient to verify that the antibiotic will eliminate the organism in vivo. PMID:11083629

  1. In Contrast to Chlamydia trachomatis, Waddlia chondrophila Grows in Human Cells without Inhibiting Apoptosis, Fragmenting the Golgi Apparatus, or Diverting Post-Golgi Sphingomyelin Transport.

    PubMed

    Dille, Stephanie; Kleinschnitz, Eva-Maria; Kontchou, Collins Waguia; Nölke, Thilo; Häcker, Georg

    2015-08-01

    The Chlamydiales are an order of obligate intracellular bacteria sharing a developmental cycle inside a cytosolic vacuole, with very diverse natural hosts, from amoebae to mammals. The clinically most important species is Chlamydia trachomatis. Many uncertainties remain as to how Chlamydia organizes its intracellular development and replication. The discovery of new Chlamydiales species from other families permits the comparative analysis of cell-biological events and may indicate events that are common to all or peculiar to some species and more or less tightly linked to "chlamydial" development. We used this approach in the infection of human cells with Waddlia chondrophila, a species from the family Waddliaceae whose natural host is uncertain. Compared to C. trachomatis, W. chondrophila had slightly different growth characteristics, including faster cytotoxicity. The embedding in cytoskeletal structures was not as pronounced as for the C. trachomatis inclusion. C. trachomatis infection generates proteolytic activity by the protease Chlamydia protease-like activity factor (CPAF), which degrades host substrates upon extraction; these substrates were not cleaved in the case of W. chondrophila. Unlike Chlamydia, W. chondrophila did not protect against staurosporine-induced apoptosis. C. trachomatis infection causes Golgi apparatus fragmentation and redirects post-Golgi sphingomyelin transport to the inclusion; both were absent from W. chondrophila-infected cells. When host cells were infected with both species, growth of both species was reduced. This study highlights differences between bacterial species that both depend on obligate intracellular replication inside an inclusion. Some features seem principally dispensable for intracellular development of Chlamydiales in vitro but may be linked to host adaptation of Chlamydia and the higher virulence of C. trachomatis. PMID:26056386

  2. Epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections in rural Haitian men.

    PubMed

    Downey, Robert F; Hammar, Donna; Jobe, Kathleen A; Schmidt, Terri A; Van Slyke, Lori; Yassemi, Yassi; Zive, Dana

    2014-09-15

    The study attempts to determine the prevalence of organisms associated with urethritis in men in rural southwestern Haiti and to determine the association with demographic, clinical and laboratory variables. A standardised oral interview was conducted; genital examinations were done; urethral swabs were collected for nucleic acid amplification testing, and first void urine was obtained for urinalysis. The mean participant age was 54; 88.8% lived in a rural area. Swabs were positive for Trichomonas vaginalis in 13.7% (28/205), Mycoplasma genitalium in 6.3% (13/205), Chlamydia trachomatis in 4.4% (9/205) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in 0% (0/205). Subjects who never reported using condoms were nearly 3.5 times more likely to have any positive swab result (OR: 3.46, 95% CI 1.31-9.14). Subjects who reported their partners had other sexual partners or were unsure were more than three times likely to have any positive swab result (OR: 3.44, 95% CI 1.33-8.92). Infections with Trichomonas vaginalis and Mycoplasma genitalium were the most common. PMID:25228665

  3. Genital Warts - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... List of All Topics All Genital Warts - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amharic (amarunya) Oromo (Afaan Oromo) Spanish (español) Amharic (amarunya) ...

  4. Chlamydia trachomatis and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in married women in a Middle Eastern community.

    PubMed

    Valadan, M; Yarandi, F; Eftekhar, Z; Danvish, S; Fathollahi, M S; Mirsalehian, A

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the association between vaginal Chlamydia infection and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Data were collected in a case-control study for 60 patients with CIN in biopsy and 85 control subjects with normal colposcopy and biopsy. Serum antibodies to C trachomatis were associated with an increased risk for CIN [odds ratio (OR) = 7.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5-35.2)]. There was also a significant association between presence of inclusion bodies for C. trachomatis and CIN (OR = 5.5; 95% CI 2.4-12.4). These results indicate a strong association between CIN and chlamydial cervicitis. PMID:20795445

  5. Golgi Fragmentation and Sphingomyelin Transport to Chlamydia trachomatis during Penicillin-Induced Persistence Do Not Depend on the Cytosolic Presence of the Chlamydial Protease CPAF

    PubMed Central

    Dille, Stephanie; Herbst, Katharina; Volceanov, Larisa; Nölke, Thilo; Kretz, Oliver; Häcker, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia grows inside a cytosolic vacuole (the inclusion) that is supplied with nutrients by the host through vesicular and non-vesicular transport. It is unclear in many respects how Chlamydia organizes this transport. One model posits that the Chlamydia-induced fragmentation of the Golgi-apparatus is required for normal transport processes to the inclusion and for chlamydial development, and the chlamydial protease CPAF has been controversially implicated in Golgi-fragmentation. We here use a model of penicillin-induced persistence of infection with Chlamydia trachomatis to test this link. Under penicillin-treatment the inclusion grew in size for the first 24 h but after that growth was severely reduced. Penicillin did not reduce the number of infected cells with fragmented Golgi-apparatus, and normal Golgi-fragmentation was found in a CPAF-deficient mutant. Surprisingly, sphingomyelin transport into the inclusion and into the bacteria, as measured by fluorescence accumulation upon addition of labelled ceramide, was not reduced during penicillin-treatment. Thus, both Golgi-fragmentation and transport of sphingomyelin to C. trachomatis still occurred in this model of persistence. The portion of cells in which CPAF was detected in the cytosol, either by immunofluorescence or by immune-electron microscopy, was drastically reduced in cells cultured in the presence of penicillin. These data argue against an essential role of cytosolic CPAF for Golgi-fragmentation or for sphingomyelin transport in chlamydial infection. PMID:25068694

  6. Determinants of disclosure of genital herpes to partners

    PubMed Central

    Green, J; Ferrier, S; Kocsis, A; Shadrick, J; Ukoumunne, O; Murphy, S; Hetherton, J

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To identify factors which determine whether and when patients will disclose infection with genital herpes to sexual partners. Methods: The sample was 26 women and 24 men attending a herpes clinic in a sexually transmitted disease clinic. Semistructured interviews yielded quantitative data and also qualitative data which were subjected to content analysis. Results: Characteristics of partners were very important in determining whether disclosure occurred. Respondents were less likely to tell partners regarded as casual. Perception of the likely reaction of partners was important in deciding whether to tell. Many respondents assumed that they were not infectious if they were not currently having an attack or if they were taking antiviral medication. The decision whether to tell tended to be based on considerations of likely discovery and of honesty towards the partner rather than control of transmission. Of patient characteristics only self rated depressed mood was related to disclosure to the most recent partner. Conclusions: Perception of the partner and anticipated partner response is crucially important in determining whether and when disclosure of genital herpes infection occurs. PMID:12576613

  7. Analysis of laboratory testing results collected in an enhanced chlamydia surveillance system in Australia, 2008–2010

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chlamydial infection is the most common notifiable disease in Australia, Europe and the US. Australian notifications of chlamydia rose four-fold from 20,274 cases in 2002 to 80,846 cases in 2011; the majority of cases were among young people aged less than 29 years. Along with test positivity rates, an understanding of the number of tests performed and the demographics of individuals being tested are key epidemiological indicators. The ACCESS Laboratory Network was established in 2008 to address this issue. Methods The ACCESS Laboratory Network collected chlamydia testing data from 15 laboratories around Australia over a three-year period using data extraction software. All chlamydia testing data from participating laboratories were extracted from the laboratory information system; patient identifiers converted to a unique, non-reversible code and de-identified data sent to a single database. Analysis of data by anatomical site included all specimens, but in age and sex specific analysis, only one testing episode was counted. Results From 2008 to 2010 a total of 628,295 chlamydia tests were referred to the 15 laboratories. Of the 592,626 individual episodes presenting for testing, 70% were from female and 30% from male patients. In female patients, chlamydia positivity rate was 6.4% overall; the highest rate in 14 year olds (14.3%). In male patients, the chlamydia positivity rate was 9.4% overall; the highest in 19 year olds (16.5%). The most common sample type was urine (57%). In 3.2% of testing episodes, multiple anatomical sites were sampled. Urethral swabs gave the highest positivity rate for all anatomical sites in both female (7.7%) and male patients (14%), followed by urine (7.6% and 9.4%, respectively) and eye (6.3% and 7.9%, respectively). Conclusions The ACCESS Laboratory Network data are unique in both number and scope and are representative of chlamydia testing in both general practice and high-risk clinics. The findings from these data highlight much lower levels of testing in young people aged 20 years or less; in particular female patients aged less than 16 years, despite being the group with the highest positivity rate. Strategies are needed to increase the uptake of testing in this high-risk group. PMID:24920016

  8. Pathogen–host reorganization during Chlamydia invasion revealed by cryo-electron tomography

    PubMed Central

    Nans, Andrea; Saibil, Helen R; Hayward, Richard D

    2014-01-01

    Invasion of host cells is a key early event during bacterial infection, but the underlying pathogen–host interactions are yet to be fully visualized in three-dimensional detail. We have captured snapshots of the early stages of bacterial-mediated endocytosis in situ by exploiting the small size of chlamydial elementary bodies (EBs) for whole-cell cryo-electron tomography. Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria that infect eukaryotic cells and cause sexually transmitted infections and trachoma, the leading cause of preventable blindness. We demonstrate that Chlamydia trachomatis?LGV2 EBs are intrinsically polarized. One pole is characterized by a tubular inner membrane invagination, while the other exhibits asymmetric periplasmic expansion to accommodate an array of type III secretion systems (T3SSs). Strikingly, EBs orient with their T3SS-containing pole facing target cells, enabling the T3SSs to directly contact the cellular plasma membrane. This contact induces enveloping macropinosomes, actin-rich filopodia and phagocytic cups to zipper tightly around the internalizing bacteria. Once encapsulated into tight early vacuoles, EB polarity and the T3SSs are lost. Our findings reveal previously undescribed structural transitions in both pathogen and host during the initial steps of chlamydial invasion. PMID:24809274

  9. Candidate vaginal microbicides with activity against Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Hencelyn; Slepenkin, Anatoly; Elofsson, Mikael; Keyser, Pia; de la Maza, Luis M.; Peterson, Ellena M.

    2010-01-01

    Vaginal microbicides with activity towards organisms that cause sexually transmitted infections have been proposed as a strategy to reduce transmission. Small-molecule inhibitors of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar D belonging to the class of salicylidene acylhydrazides (INPs) have been shown to work through a mechanism that involves iron restriction. Expanding on this work, ten INPs were tested against a lymphogranuloma venereum strain of C. trachomatis serovar L2, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and hydrogen peroxide-producing Lactobacillus crispatus and Lactobacillus jensenii. Seven INPs had minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentrations of <50 µM towards C. trachomatis L2. Three INPs had an MIC <12.5 µM against N. gonorrhoeae. Inhibition by was reversed by iron, holo-transferrin and holo-lactoferrin but not by the iron-poor forms of these compounds. The compounds exhibited no bactericidal activity toward Lactobacillus. The INPs were not cytotoxic to HeLa 229 cells. When INP 0341 was tested in a mouse model of a Chlamydia vaginal infection there was a significant reduction in the number of mice shedding C. trachomatis up to 4 days after infection (P < 0.01). In summary, select INPs are promising vaginal microbicide candidates as they inhibit the growth of two common sexually transmitted organisms in vitro, are active in a mouse model against C. trachomatis, are not cytotoxic and do not inhibit organisms that compose the normal vaginal flora. PMID:20605703

  10. Genetic diversity of Chlamydia among captive birds from central Argentina.

    PubMed

    Frutos, María C; Monetti, Marina S; Vaulet, Lucia Gallo; Cadario, María E; Fermepin, Marcelo Rodríguez; Ré, Viviana E; Cuffini, Cecilia G

    2015-01-01

    To study the occurrence of Chlamydia spp. and their genetic diversity, we analysed 793 cloacal swabs from 12 avian orders, including 76 genera, obtained from 80 species of asymptomatic wild and captive birds that were examined with conventional nested polymerase chain reaction and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Chlamydia spp. were not detected in wild birds; however, four species (Chlamydia psittaci, Chlamydia pecorum, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia gallinacea) were identified among captive birds (Passeriformes, n = 20; Psittaciformes, n = 15; Rheiformes, n = 8; Falconiformes n = 2; Piciformes n = 2; Anseriformes n = 1; Galliformes n = 1; Strigiformes n = 1). Two pathogens (C. pneumoniae and C. pecorum) were identified simultaneously in samples obtained from captive birds. Based on nucleotide-sequence variations of the ompA gene, three C. psittaci-positive samples detected were grouped into a cluster with the genotype WC derived from mammalian hosts. A single positive sample was phylogenetically related to a new strain of C. gallinacea. This report contributes to our increasing understanding of the abundance of Chlamydia in the animal kingdom. PMID:25469538

  11. Enigmatic question of early reactive arthritis disclosed after researches of mycoplasmas, Chlamydia trachomatis and enteropathogens following the holistic vision of human being.

    PubMed

    Del Boccio, M; Pennelli, A; Toniato, E; Martinotti, S; Tenaglia, R; Croce, A; Pugliese, M; Del Boccio, G; Gallenga, P E; Neri, G

    2013-01-01

    An HLA-B27 genetic profile patient is fully investigated by molecular analyses after an anamnestic assessment of multi-site ecosystems, following the holistic vision of human being.VDRL and Widal-Wright (WWR) resulted positive, showing at Wright?s reaction a title of 1:40. Of all the enzymatic activities measured, only the ALP enzymatic pool activities showed a low increasing value of 297 U/L. Of all later acute phase proteins, Only C3 c protein value (127 mg/dL) and fibrinogen (376 mg/dL) were altered. Cultural and molecular oropharyngeal ecosystem investigation resulted significantly positive to Mycoplasmas(Mhand Uu) and Chlamydia trachomatis(Ct) together with a spread of saprophytic flora. From an accurate anamnesis, several and severe uro-genital clinical symptomatology emerged from birth until the beginning of rheumatologic symptomatologies that were confirmed by oldest Mh, Uu and Ctsilent chronic infections between these ecosystems. The molecular HPV research was negative, while the Thin prep pap-test was indicative of vaginosis and cellular reactive changes associated with inflammation. Parasitological research resulted positive for presence of 5-7 newly-formed G. lambliacysts for microscopic field, while digestibility test was positive for presence of several free fatty acid crystals. The remarkable presence of indigested meat fibre and several mucous dense filaments were observed. The pH value was 6.5, while blood faecal test was positive. The values observed were: ferritin 12 microg/L (10-120), total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) 310 &mgr;g/dL (300+-20), unsaturated iron-binding capacity (UIBC) 286 microg/dL (200-220) and iron seric level 24 microg/dL (60-130). Faecal research highlighted a very scarce presence of E. coli, resulting in 102 UFC/g of stool. Of all enteroinvasive pathogens, researched by molecular analyses, only Yersinia spp. was positive. After several specific cycles of antibiotic and antinflammatory therapies, the patient improved its general health condition considerably and showed almost complete regression of aching inguinal lymph node inflammation. In a picture of a worsening inflammatory process, produced by pathogens like Mycoplasmas, chronic silent or low grade inflammation atypical agents, in young HLA-B27 positive patient, VDRL test resulted positive. This value represents the first non-specific unique spy to reveal the precocious immunological signal in order to register the beginning of early innate immune system decay, keeping in mind that mycoplasmal and chlamydial infections are the triggering of cancer in patients genetically susceptible. PMID:24382185

  12. SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES/INFECTIONS (STD/STI) TESTS (Add venipuncture fee of $12.50 per blood draw)

    E-print Network

    Tullos, Desiree

    SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES/INFECTIONS (STD/STI) TESTS 2013-14 (Add venipuncture fee of $12) Serum $22.94 State IPP Chlamydia/GC Aptima Endocervical, Urethral, Vaginal or Urine $0.00 State Non-IPP Chlamydia/GC Aptima Endocervical, Urethral, Vaginal or Urine $40.55 Wet Mount Swab/Saline $28.15 #12;

  13. Female genital mutilation: a reproductive health concern.

    PubMed

    Kiragu, K

    1995-10-01

    The practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) is thought to be 2000 years old and continues today in many areas of Africa, the Mid-East, and Asia. An estimated 100-132 million women have undergone the procedure, and 2 million more are subjected to it each year during infancy, childhood, or adolescence. The World Health Organization has defined four categories of FGM. Type 1 entails removal of the prepuce and, sometimes, all or part of the clitoris. In type 2, the clitoris is removed along with all or part of the labia minora. Type 3 (infibulation) involves removal of the clitoris, some or all of the labia minora, and the sealing of the labia majora with only a small opening remaining for the flow of urine and blood. Type 4 is a general category that includes other operations on the external genitalia as well as procedures done to the vagina. The FGM procedure itself can lead to shock, death, and infection. Long-term physical effects of infibulation include difficulty in urinating, in having sexual intercourse, and in delivering a baby. The psychological and psychosexual consequences of FGM remain to be identified. FGM is still practiced because it affords status to women in certain cultures. Efforts to eradicate the practice have been made by international agencies, governments, and grassroots community advocates. Public education as well as legislative action are important tactics as are working to educate health care providers and providing alternatives to FGM as well as alternative employment opportunities to FGM practitioners. In Western countries, anti-FGM efforts are centered on women in immigrant and refugee communities. Research efforts are underway in order to provide an understanding of FGM that will allow the design of effective eradication strategies. Community input will be vital in designing and conducting such campaigns. PMID:8654884

  14. Chlamydia psittaci in Eurasian Collared Doves (Streptopelia decaocto) in Italy.

    PubMed

    Donati, Manuela; Laroucau, Karine; Delogu, Mauro; Vorimore, Fabien; Aaziz, Rachid; Cremonini, Eleonora; Biondi, Roberta; Cotti, Claudia; Baldelli, Raffaella; Di Francesco, Antonietta

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the Chlamydia spp. occurrence in Eurasian Collared Doves (Streptopelia decaocto) from urban and suburban areas in northern Italy. Among 76 doves screened, prevalence of Chlamydia spp. was 61%. Chlamydia psittaci genotype E was identified in 33 of the 46 positive samples. The multilocus sequence typing pattern of one highly positive sample showed a new allelic combination. The same molecular features were observed in a C. psittaci strain subsequently isolated from a live dove. Our results reveal a high C. psittaci prevalence in S. decaocto. The spread of this zoonotic pathogen from collared doves to other birds or humans seems to be a potential risk. PMID:25375950

  15. Risk factors for and prevention of human papillomaviruses (HPV), genital warts and cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Chelimo, Carol; Wouldes, Trecia A; Cameron, Linda D; Elwood, J Mark

    2013-03-01

    Genital HPV infection is associated with development of cervical cancer, cervical neoplasia, anogenital warts, and other anogenital cancers. A number of reviews have primarily addressed the role of HPV infection in cervical carcinogenesis, and differences in human papillomavirus (HPV) subtypes found in cervical cancer cases by histology and geographical region. This review provides an informative summary of the broad body of literature on the burden of HPV, the risk factors for HPV infection, genital warts and cervical cancer, and preventive measures against these conditions in females. Studies have identified the main risk factors for genital HPV infection in females as follows: acquisition of new male partners; an increasing number of lifetime sexual partners both in females and their male partners; and having non-monogamous male partners. Cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination are the primary measures currently recommended to prevent cervical cancer. There is also an ongoing debate and conflicting findings on whether male circumcision and condom use protect against HPV infection and subsequent development of HPV-related illnesses in females. PMID:23103285

  16. Structure of the Chlamydia trachomatis Immunodominant Antigen Pgp3*

    PubMed Central

    Galaleldeen, Ahmad; Taylor, Alexander B.; Chen, Ding; Schuermann, Jonathan P.; Holloway, Stephen P.; Hou, Shuping; Gong, Siqi; Zhong, Guangming; Hart, P. John

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial disease. Left untreated, it can lead to ectopic pregnancy, pelvic inflammatory disease, and infertility. Here we present the structure of the secreted C. trachomatis protein Pgp3, an immunodominant antigen and putative virulence factor. The ?84-kDa Pgp3 homotrimer, encoded on a cryptic plasmid, consists of globular N- and C-terminal assemblies connected by a triple-helical coiled-coil. The C-terminal domains possess folds similar to members of the TNF family of cytokines. The closest Pgp3 C-terminal domain structural homologs include a lectin from Burkholderia cenocepacia, the C1q component of complement, and a portion of the Bacillus anthracis spore surface protein BclA, all of which play roles in bioadhesion. The N-terminal domain consists of a concatenation of structural motifs typically found in trimeric viral proteins. The central parallel triple-helical coiled-coil contains an unusual alternating pattern of apolar and polar residue pairs that generate a rare right-handed superhelical twist. The unique architecture of Pgp3 provides the basis for understanding its role in chlamydial pathogenesis and serves as the platform for its optimization as a potential vaccine antigen candidate. PMID:23703617

  17. Structure of the Chlamydia trachomatis immunodominant antigen Pgp3.

    PubMed

    Galaleldeen, Ahmad; Taylor, Alexander B; Chen, Ding; Schuermann, Jonathan P; Holloway, Stephen P; Hou, Shuping; Gong, Siqi; Zhong, Guangming; Hart, P John

    2013-07-26

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial disease. Left untreated, it can lead to ectopic pregnancy, pelvic inflammatory disease, and infertility. Here we present the structure of the secreted C. trachomatis protein Pgp3, an immunodominant antigen and putative virulence factor. The ?84-kDa Pgp3 homotrimer, encoded on a cryptic plasmid, consists of globular N- and C-terminal assemblies connected by a triple-helical coiled-coil. The C-terminal domains possess folds similar to members of the TNF family of cytokines. The closest Pgp3 C-terminal domain structural homologs include a lectin from Burkholderia cenocepacia, the C1q component of complement, and a portion of the Bacillus anthracis spore surface protein BclA, all of which play roles in bioadhesion. The N-terminal domain consists of a concatenation of structural motifs typically found in trimeric viral proteins. The central parallel triple-helical coiled-coil contains an unusual alternating pattern of apolar and polar residue pairs that generate a rare right-handed superhelical twist. The unique architecture of Pgp3 provides the basis for understanding its role in chlamydial pathogenesis and serves as the platform for its optimization as a potential vaccine antigen candidate. PMID:23703617

  18. Chlamydia muridarum Enters a Viable but Non-infectious State in Amoxicillin-treated BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Phillips-Campbell, R.; Kintner, J.; Whittimore, J.; Schoborg, R.V.

    2013-01-01

    In culture, exposure to penicillin and other stressors induce chlamydiae to enter a non-infectious but viable state termed persistence. Chlamydiae may reenter their normal developmental cycle after stressor removal. Though aberrant RB similar to those present in culture models of persistence have been observed within infected tissues, the existence of persistent chlamydiae has not been definitively demonstrated in vivo. As a result, the role of persistent organisms in pathogenesis is undefined. In order to establish an experimentally tractable model of in vivo persistence, C. muridarum vaginally-infected mice were gavaged with either water or amoxicillin (amox). Vaginal swabs were collected for chlamydial titration and RNA isolated for quantification of pre-16s rRNA. Uterine tissue was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Although amox-treatment reduced vaginal shedding by >99%, C. muridarum pre-16s rRNA accumulation was unchanged by treatment. These data indicate that the amox-exposed organisms were viable but not infectious. Furthermore, TEM analyses demonstrated that inclusions in amox-treated animals contained primarily large, aberrant RB, but those observed in untreated control animals were normal. Collectively, these data suggest that amoxicillin treatment induces C. muridarum to enter the persistent state in vivo. This model also represents the first experimentally tractable animal model of chlamydial persistence. PMID:22943883

  19. Prevalence of chlamydia and gonorrhoea among a population of men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Cook, R; St, G; Silvestre, A; Riddler, S; Lassak, M; Rinaldo, C

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Few data are available on the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in men who have sex with men (MSM), making it difficult to develop STD screening guidelines for this population. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of urethral infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae within a large, community based population of MSM, and to assess the feasibility of rectal screening in this population. Methods: This was a cross sectional study of 566 MSM, who were predominantly middle aged, white, asymptomatic, and engaged in sex with multiple partners. All provided a urine sample to screen for chlamydial and gonorrhoea infections using a PCR assay; rectal screening was performed on 48 participants. Results: Urethral C trachomatis infections were detected in 1/566 participants (prevalence 0.2%, 95% CI 0.004% to 1.0%), and rectal C trachomatis infections were detected in 2/48 men (prevalence 4.2%, 95% CI 0.5% to 14.2%). No gonorrhoea infections were detected, and none of the 117 HIV positive men had either infection. Conclusions: Chlamydial and gonorrhoea infections were uncommon in this sample of MSM, even among those with multiple sexual partners or HIV infection. These data call into question recommendations to screen all MSM based on their individual sexual behaviours or HIV. Additional data are needed on the prevalence of these infections in MSM from different settings. PMID:12238651

  20. Chlamydiosis in birds in Great Britain. 1. Serological reactions to chlamydia in birds sampled between 1974 and 1983.

    PubMed Central

    Bracewell, C. D.; Bevan, B. J.

    1986-01-01

    A total of 6593 serum samples from birds, received for diagnostic testing or surveys between 1974 and 1983, were titrated by direct complement fixation (CF) test against Chlamydia psittaci antigen. The percentage of positive reactions found was variable for domestic poultry, ranging from 1.5 in chickens to 22.2 in geese, and was highest in pigeons Columba livia (47.3) and collared doves Streptopelia decaocto (51.4). A moderate incidence was found for game birds (29.0), wild ducks (23.3) and imported birds of the order Psittaciformes (15.9). The highest titres were found in pigeons, collared doves and psittacines, confirming that infection is both frequent and active in these birds in Britain. Results of isolation of chlamydia from similar sources will be reported subsequently. PMID:3734430

  1. Chlamydiosis in birds in Great Britain. 1. Serological reactions to chlamydia in birds sampled between 1974 and 1983.

    PubMed

    Bracewell, C D; Bevan, B J

    1986-06-01

    A total of 6593 serum samples from birds, received for diagnostic testing or surveys between 1974 and 1983, were titrated by direct complement fixation (CF) test against Chlamydia psittaci antigen. The percentage of positive reactions found was variable for domestic poultry, ranging from 1.5 in chickens to 22.2 in geese, and was highest in pigeons Columba livia (47.3) and collared doves Streptopelia decaocto (51.4). A moderate incidence was found for game birds (29.0), wild ducks (23.3) and imported birds of the order Psittaciformes (15.9). The highest titres were found in pigeons, collared doves and psittacines, confirming that infection is both frequent and active in these birds in Britain. Results of isolation of chlamydia from similar sources will be reported subsequently. PMID:3734430

  2. In Vitro Inhibitory Effects of Tea Polyphenols on the Proliferation of Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsutomu Yamazaki; Miyuki Inoue; Nozomu Sasaki; Toshikatsu Hagiwara; Toshio Kishimoto; Sadashi Shiga; Motohiko Ogawa; Yukihiko Hara; Takaaki Matsumoto

    SUMMARY: In vitro inhibitory effects of tea polyphenols on Chlamydia trachomatis and C. pneumoniae were investigated. A product of tea polyphenols, Polyphenon 70S was used. Chlamydial strains used were C. trachomatis D\\/UW-3\\/Cx and L2\\/434\\/Bu, and C. pneumoniae AR-39 and AC-43 strains. HeLa229 cells and HL cells were used for cultivation of C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae, respectively. In the post-inoculation

  3. Chronic endometritis in DMPA users and Chlamydia trachomatis endometritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Ries Thurman; Charles H. Livengood; David E. Soper

    2007-01-01

    ObjectiveThis study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) in the endometrium of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) users with and without breakthrough bleeding (BTB) (unscheduled bleeding) and\\/or chronic endometritis (CE).

  4. 21 CFR 866.3120 - Chlamydia serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...and provides epidemiological information on these diseases. Chlamydia are the causative agents of psittacosis (a form of pneumonia), lymphogranuloma venereum (a venereal disease), and trachoma (a chronic disease of the eye and eyelid). (b)...

  5. [Urogenital chlamydial infections: significance and diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Krech, T

    1988-04-15

    Chlamydia are common agents of sexually transmitted diseases and in this country more frequent than Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Approximately 10% of all infections with chlamydia trachomatis are followed by complications, which can lead to infertility and other sequelae. Therefore, early recognition of the infection and subsequent effective therapy are important. The dermatologist is often the first physician consulted and the outcome of the infection may depend on his diagnostic and therapeutic measures. The experienced microbiologist can provide an etiologic diagnosis. For this, isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis in optimally performed tissue culture still is the most sensitive and specific method. Currently available commercial IF- and ELISA-tests for direct detection of the agent in secretions are less sensitive and less specific. PMID:3291442

  6. Chlamydiae interaction with the endoplasmic reticulum: contact, function and consequences.

    PubMed

    Derré, Isabelle

    2015-07-01

    Chlamydiae and chlamydiae-related organisms are obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens. They reside in a membrane-bound compartment termed the inclusion and have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to interact with cellular organelles. This review focuses on the nature, the function(s) and the consequences of chlamydiae-inclusion interaction with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The inclusion membrane establishes very close contact with the ER at specific sites termed ER-inclusion membrane contact sites (MCSs). These MCSs are constituted of a specific set of factors, including the C.?trachomatis effector protein IncD and the host cell proteins CERT and VAPA/B. Because CERT and VAPA/B have a demonstrated role in the non-vesicular trafficking of lipids between the ER and the Golgi, it was proposed that Chlamydia establish MCSs with the ER to acquire host lipids. However, the recruitment of additional factors to ER-inclusion MCSs, such as the ER calcium sensor STIM1, may suggest additional functions unrelated to lipid acquisition. Finally, chlamydiae interaction with the ER appears to induce the ER stress response, but this response is quickly dampened by chlamydiae to promote host cell survival. PMID:25930206

  7. Chlamydia shedding by four species of wild birds.

    PubMed

    Roberts, J P; Grimes, J E

    1978-01-01

    Four wild bird species--great-tailed grackle (Cassidix mexicanus), common grackle (Quiscalus quiscula), brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater), and mourning dove (Zenaidura macroura)--were either inoculated intratracheally with Chlamydia psittaci or exposed indirectly as uninoculated cagemates. Shedding of chlamydiae was monitored by inoculating mice with suspensions of material eluted from cloacal swabs collected from all birds, usually at 3-day intervals. Sporadic shedding of chlamydiae was demonstrated in three species (great-tailed grackle, brown-headed cowbird, and mourning dove) that were inoculated, and also in uninoculated grackles of both species exposed to inoculated great-tailed grackles. All inoculated birds except one mourning dove developed antibody detectable by complement-fixation (CF). Of the exposed birds, only grackles had antibody. However, two great-tailed grackles which did shed chlamydiae did not develop CF antibody. The modified direct CF (MDCF) method was slightly more sensitive than the direct CF method. The agar-gel precipitin method was not entirely reliable for antibody detection, for it did not correlate with CF serology and shedding of chlamydiae. It is concluded that: 1) grackles are potential reservoir hosts that could be important in the transmission cycle of C. psittaci in nature; and 2) epidemiologic studies of chlamydiosis in wild birds should include both serologic testing (preferably by the MDCF method) and attempts to isolate chlamydiae from cloacal swabs. PMID:749892

  8. Reproductive tract infections in rural women from the highlands, jungle, and coastal regions of Peru.

    PubMed Central

    García, Patricia J.; Chavez, Susana; Feringa, Barbara; Chiappe, Marina; Li, Weili; Jansen, Kathrin U.; Cárcamo, César; Holmes, King K.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To define the prevalences and manifestations of reproductive tract infections (RTIs) in rural Peruvian women. METHODS: During 1997-98, we visited 18 rural districts in coastal, highlands, and jungle regions of Peru. We administered standardized questionnaires and pelvic examinations to members of women's community-based organizations; and collected vaginal fluid for pH, amine odour, Gram stain, microscopy, and culture for Trichomonas vaginalis; cervical specimens for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae; human papilloma virus (HPV) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, and blood for syphilis serology. FINDINGS: The 754 participants averaged 36.9 years of age and 1.7 sex partners ever; 77% reported symptoms indicative of RTIs; 51% and 26% reported their symptoms spontaneously or only with specific questioning, respectively. Symptoms reported spontaneously included abnormal vaginal discharge (29.3% and 22.9%, respectively). One or more RTIs, found in 70.4% of participants, included bacterial vaginosis (43.7%), trichomoniasis (16.5%), vulvovaginal candidiasis (4.5%), chlamydial infection (6.8%), gonorrhoea (1.2%), syphilis seropositivity (1.7%), cervical HPV infection (4.9%), and genital warts or ulcers (2.8%). Of 715 adequate Pap smears, 7 revealed cancer, 4 high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions (SIL) and 15 low-grade SIL. Clinical algorithms had very low sensitivity and predictive values for cervical infection, but over half the women with symptoms of malodorous vaginal discharge, signs of abnormal vaginal discharge, or both, had bacterial vaginosis or trichomoniasis. CONCLUSION: Overall, 77% of women had symptoms indicative of RTIs, and 70% had objective evidence of one or more RTIs. Women with selected symptoms and signs of vaginal infection could benefit from standard metronidazole therapy. PMID:15508193

  9. Immunobiology of genital tract trauma: Endocrine Regulation of HIV Acquisition in Women Following Sexual Assault or Genital Tract Mutilation

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Mimi; Rodriguez-Garcia, Marta; Wira, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    Studies on HIV acquisition and transmission in women exposed to sexual trauma throughout their life cycle are lacking but some findings suggest that rates of HIV acquisition through coercive sex are significantly higher than that seen in consensual sex. Sexual trauma can also occur as a result of female genital mutilation, which makes sex extremely painful and can cause increased abrasions, lacerations and inflammation, which enhances the risk of HIV acquisition. This review presents an overview of the immune system in the human female reproductive tract from adolescence, through puberty to pregnancy and menopause. What is clear is that the foundation of information on immune protection in the female reproductive tract throughout the life cycle of women is extremely limited and at some stages such as adolescence and menopause are grossly lacking. Against this back backdrop, forced or coercive sexual intercourse as well as genital mutilation further complicates our understanding of the biological risk factors that can result in transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. PMID:23034063

  10. Condylomatous genital lesions in cynomolgus macaques from Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Harari, Ariana; Wood, Charles E; Van Doorslaer, Koenraad; Chen, Zigui; Domaingue, Marie Claire; Elmore, David; Koenig, Patricia; Wagner, Janice D; Jennings, Ryan N; Burk, Robert D

    2013-08-01

    Genital condyloma-like lesions were observed on male and female cynomolgus macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) originating from the island of Mauritius. Cytobrush and/or biopsy samples were obtained from lesions of 57 affected macaques. Primary histologic features included eosinophilic, neutrophilic, and lymphoplasmacytic penile and vulvar inflammation, epidermal hyperplasia with acanthosis, and increased collagenous stroma. Polymerase chain reaction-based assays to amplify viral DNA revealed the presence of macaque lymphocryptovirus (LCV) DNA but not papillomavirus or poxvirus DNA. Subsequent DNA analyses of 3 genomic regions of LCV identified isolates associated with lesions in 19/25 (76%) biopsies and 19/57 (33%) cytology samples. Variable immunolabeling for proteins related to the human LCV Epstein Barr Virus was observed within intralesional plasma cells, stromal cells, and epithelial cells. Further work is needed to characterize the epidemiologic features of these lesions and their association with LCV infection in Mauritian-origin macaques. PMID:23262641

  11. Condylomatous Genital Lesions in Cynomolgus Macaques from Mauritius

    PubMed Central

    Harari, Ariana; Wood, Charles E.; Van Doorslaer, Koenraad; Chen, Zigui; Domaingue, Marie Claire; Elmore, David; Koenig, Patricia; Wagner, Janice D.; Jennings, Ryan N.; Burk, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    Genital condyloma-like lesions were observed on male and female cynomolgus macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) originating from the island of Mauritius. Cytobrush and/or biopsy samples were obtained from lesions of 57 affected macaques. Primary histologic features included eosinophilic, neutrophilic, and lymphoplasmacytic penile and vulvar inflammation, epidermal hyperplasia with acanthosis, and increased collagenous stroma. Polymerase chain reaction–based assays to amplify viral DNA revealed the presence of macaque lymphocryptovirus (LCV) DNA but not papillomavirus or poxvirus DNA. Subsequent DNA analyses of 3 genomic regions of LCV identified isolates associated with lesions in 19/25 (76%) biopsies and 19/57 (33%) cytology samples. Variable immunolabeling for proteins related to the human LCV Epstein Barr Virus was observed within intralesional plasma cells, stromal cells, and epithelial cells. Further work is needed to characterize the epidemiologic features of these lesions and their association with LCV infection in Mauritian-origin macaques. PMID:23262641

  12. Presence of human papilloma virus types 16 and 18 in genital warts and cervical neoplasias

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Camillo Battista; Jana Hillova; Miroslav Hill; Michel Reynès; Georges Mathé

    1988-01-01

    Certain types of human papilloma viruses (HPV) are associated with human genital proliferative diseases, and among them HPV16\\u000a and HPV18 seem to play an important role in the occurrence of cervical cancer. We used restriction enzyme analysis and molecular\\u000a hybridization, in order to investigate the type of viral infection and the physical state of viral DNA in gynecological benign,\\u000a pre-malignant

  13. Genital ulcer disease: accuracy of clinical diagnosis and strategies to improve control in Durban, South Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N OFarrell; A A Hoosen; K D Coetzee; J van den Ende

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the accuracy of clinical diagnosis in genital ulcer disease (GUD); to devise management strategies for improving the control of GUD and thereby limit the spread of HIV-1 infection. DESIGN--Clinical and microbiological assessment of GUD in men and women. The index of suspicion, diagnostic accuracy, diagnostic efficiency and positive and negative predictive values of a clinical diagnosis were investigated.

  14. Knowledge and Attitudes of University Health Service Clients about Genital Herpes: Implications for Patient Education and Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillard, James R.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Genital herpes virus infection can cause both psychological and medical consequences. A study surveyed knowledge and attitudes of college students to assess degree of familiarity with this disease. Findings suggest misconceptions that could be dealt with in health education programs. (Author/DF)

  15. To Test or Not to Test? Campus Health Officials Grapple with Questions about Screening Students for Genital Herpes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Elizabeth F.

    2005-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control, 17 percent of 20- to 29-year-olds are infected with genital herpes, one of the most common sexually-transmitted diseases in the United States. Because of lack or mildness of symptoms and the tendency to not test for herpes during routine medical exams, the disease can go undiagnosed and can easily be…

  16. Promoting chlamydia screening with posters and leaflets in general practice - a qualitative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elaine Freeman; Rebecca Howell-Jones; Isabel Oliver; Sarah Randall; William Ford-Young; Philippa Beckwith; Cliodna McNulty

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: General practice staff are reluctant to discuss sexual health opportunistically in all consultations. Health promotion materials may help alleviate this barrier. Chlamydia screening promotion posters and leaflets, produced by the English National Chlamydia Screening Programme (NCSP), have been available to general practices, through local chlamydia screening offices, since its launch. In this study we explored the attitudes of general

  17. Genital trauma in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Diane F

    2008-06-01

    Traumatic wounds of the female genitalia include accidental straddle injuries or impalement, chemical or thermal burns, insufflation injuries, blunt trauma, or crush injuries. Children and adolescents may be victims of rape, sexual abuse, and female genital mutilation. Information is provided on epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management. Treatment guidelines are offered using the best evidence available, and recommendations are provided when data are limited. PMID:18463455

  18. GENITAL HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS (HPV) Dartmouth COOP

    E-print Network

    no signs of genital HPV, except with the few subtypes that cause condyloma acuminata (venereal warts). 6. HPV is the only cause of cervical cancer. HPV may also be linked to cancer of the anus, vulva, vagina. Currently there is no cure for HPV. However, a vaccine has just been approved by the FDA for use in girls

  19. Coping and adjustment to genital herpes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon Manne; Irwin Sandler

    1984-01-01

    The current study examined how individuals deal with genital herpes, a recurrent, incurable disease with a great psychological impact. An assessment battery composed of cognitive and problem-focused coping, attribution, and social support mechanisms was employed. These coping mechanisms were correlated with measures of psychological adjustment: self-esteem, depression, sexual adjustment, and amount upset by herpes. Subjects were 152 people with herpes

  20. Arachidonic acid and male genital differentiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Goldman

    1987-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) prevents neural tube defects, cleft palate, and micrognathia in the rat models of diabetic embryopathy and neural tube defects in the mouse embryo culture model. In this study, the involvement of AA in the male genital differentiation was described. These observations raise the complementary possibility that the AA-prostaglandin biochemical pathway may be a major mechanism mediating many

  1. Genital Evolution: Why Are Females Still Understudied?

    PubMed Central

    Ah-King, Malin; Barron, Andrew B.; Herberstein, Marie E.

    2014-01-01

    The diversity, variability, and apparent rapid evolution of animal genitalia are a vivid focus of research in evolutionary biology, and studies exploring genitalia have dramatically increased over the past decade. These studies, however, exhibit a strong male bias, which has worsened since 2000, despite the fact that this bias has been explicitly pointed out in the past. Early critics argued that previous investigators too often considered only males and their genitalia, while overlooking female genitalia or physiology. Our analysis of the literature shows that overall this male bias has worsened with time. The degree of bias is not consistent between subdisciplines: studies of the lock-and-key hypothesis have been the most male focused, while studies of cryptic female choice usually consider both sexes. The degree of bias also differed across taxonomic groups, but did not associate with the ease of study of male and female genital characteristics. We argue that the persisting male bias in this field cannot solely be explained by anatomical sex differences influencing accessibility. Rather the bias reflects enduring assumptions about the dominant role of males in sex, and invariant female genitalia. New research highlights how rapidly female genital traits can evolve, and how complex coevolutionary dynamics between males and females can shape genital structures. We argue that understanding genital evolution is hampered by an outdated single-sex bias. PMID:24802812

  2. Psychosocial Treatment for Recurrent Genital Herpes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, David J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Assigned 21 individuals with recurrent genital herpes to psychosocial intervention, social support, or waiting-list control conditions. Those receiving psychosocial intervention (herpes simplex virus information, relaxation training, stress management instructions, and an imagery technique) reported significantly greater reductions in herpes…

  3. A New Mouse Model for Female Genital Schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Monica L.; Fu, Chi-Ling; Pennington, Luke F.; Honeycutt, Jared D.; Odegaard, Justin L.; Hsieh, Yi-Ju; Hammam, Olfat; Conti, Simon L.; Hsieh, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Over 112 million people worldwide are infected with Schistosoma haematobium, one of the most prevalent schistosome species affecting humans. Female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) occurs when S. haematobium eggs are deposited into the female reproductive tract by adult worms, which can lead to pelvic pain, vaginal bleeding, genital disfigurement and infertility. Recent evidence suggests co-infection with S. haematobium increases the risks of contracting sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV. The associated mechanisms remain unclear due to the lack of a tractable animal model. We sought to create a mouse model conducive to the study of immune modulation and genitourinary changes that occur with FGS. Methods To model FGS in mice, we injected S. haematobium eggs into the posterior vaginal walls of 30 female BALB/c mice. A control group of 20 female BALB/c mice were injected with uninfected LVG hamster tissue extract. Histology, flow cytometry and serum cytokine levels were assessed at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks post egg injection. Voiding studies were performed at 1 week post egg injection. Results Vaginal wall injection with S. haematobium eggs resulted in synchronous vaginal granuloma development within 2 weeks post-egg injection that persisted for at least 6 additional weeks. Flow cytometric analysis of vaginal granulomata revealed infiltration by CD4+ T cells with variable expression of the HIV co-receptors CXCR4 and CCR5. Granulomata also contained CD11b+F4/80+ cells (macrophages and eosinophils) as well as CXCR4+MerTK+ macrophages. Strikingly, vaginal wall-injected mice featured significant urinary frequency despite the posterior vagina being anatomically distant from the bladder. This may represent a previously unrecognized overactive bladder response to deposition of schistosome eggs in the vagina. Conclusion We have established a new mouse model that could potentially enable novel studies of genital schistosomiasis in females. Ongoing studies will further explore the mechanisms by which HIV target cells may be drawn into FGS-associated vaginal granulomata. PMID:24786606

  4. Human Papillomavirus and Genital Warts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda Goldman

    Unknown until the second half of the 20th century, human papillomavirus (HPV) is now recognized as being one of the most common\\u000a sexually transmitted infections (STI) in the United States, accounting for more than one-third of the new cases of STIs each\\u000a year (1). HPV is a group of more than 120 viruses, at least 30 types of which can

  5. Comparative evaluation of Roche Aurora FLOW, Becton and Dickinson Viper system, and Dynex DS2 for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis in various clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Vahidnia, Ali; Costa, Sandra; Veenings, Sanne; Tuin, Hellen; van Loon, Linda; Bliekendaal, Harry

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to introduce a high-throughput system, Aurora FLOW, for the simultaneous detection of 3 clinically relevant pathogens of sexually transmitted infections. Comparative evaluation with other systems revealed an overall concordance of 97.9% for Chlamydia trachomatis and comparable performance for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Trichomonas vaginalis. PMID:25172824

  6. Bacterial vaginosis and human immunodeficiency virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Gregory T; St John, Elizabeth; Zariffard, M Reza

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies indicate that bacterial vaginosis (BV), a common alteration of lower genital tract flora in women, is associated with increased susceptibility to HIV infection. Other recent studies show that HIV is detected more frequently and at higher levels in the lower genital tract of HIV-seropositive women with BV. In vitro studies show that genital tract secretions from women with BV or flora associated with BV induce HIV expression in infected cells. The increased HIV expression appears to be due at least in part to activation through Toll-like receptors (TLR), specifically TLR2. Further research is needed to elucidate how BV contributes to HIV acquisition and transmission. PMID:17953761

  7. Interventions for increasing chlamydia screening in primary care: a review

    PubMed Central

    Ginige, Samitha; Fairley, Christopher K; Hocking, Jane S; Bowden, Francis J; Chen, Marcus Y

    2007-01-01

    Background Despite guidelines recommending opportunistic chlamydia screening of younger women, screening rates in some countries remain low. Our aim was to review the evidence for specific interventions aimed at increasing chlamydia screening rates in primary care. Methods A Medline search was conducted for controlled trials that assessed the effectiveness of interventions aimed at improving chlamydia screening rates in primary health care settings. The Medline search was done for studies in English published prior to December 2005 using the following key words: chlamydia, screening, intervention, primary care and GPs. In addition, the references cited in the articles were reviewed. Studies in English published prior to December 2005 were reviewed. Results Four controlled studies met the inclusion criteria – 3 were randomized studies and one was not. Strategies to increase screening rates included the use of educational packages targeting primary care physicians and the correction of barriers to screening within clinic systems. In 3 studies, the intervention was associated with an increase in screening rates of between 100% and 276% (p < 0.04). In the fourth study, the intervention was associated with a significant attenuation in declining screening rates over time (4% versus 34% decline, p = 0.04). Conclusion There are only a limited number of randomized or controlled studies that demonstrate improved chlamydia screening of younger women in primary care. PMID:17547745

  8. An unusual, giant and benign condyloma acuminatum lesion on the genital area for more than a decade

    PubMed Central

    Aminimoghaddam, Soheila; Badakhsh, Mohammad Hossein; Taftachi, Farrokh; Nejadisalami, Forough; Mahmoudzadeh, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Condyloma acuminatum, is a rare sexually transmitted disease. The virus responsible for condyloma is human papillomavirus.HPV-6 and HPV-11 are the most commonly detected HPV genotypes, but at least 20 other HPV genotypes have occasionally been found in genital wart tissue specimens. In fact genital HPV infection is common among sexually active populations. This disease may occur at any age after puberty and always seen in the mucosal area. It is characterized by slow growth. We reported here a case of a 42-year-old female patient with a 12 year history of a condyloma acuminatum lesion in her genitalia area without any medical treatment. PMID:25405121

  9. A Live and Inactivated Chlamydia trachomatis Mouse Pneumonitis Strain Induces the Maturation of Dendritic Cells That Are Phenotypically and Immunologically Distinct

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose Rey-Ladino; Kasra M. Koochesfahani; Michelle L. Zaharik; Caixia Shen; Robert C. Brunham

    2005-01-01

    Received 5 August 2004\\/Returned for modification 2 September 2004\\/Accepted 23 October 2004 The intracellular bacterial pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis is a major cause of sexually transmitted disease worldwide. While protective immunity does appear to develop following natural chlamydial infection in humans, early vaccine trials using heat-killed C. trachomatis resulted in limited and transient protection with possible enhanced disease during follow-up. Thus,

  10. RNA Amplification by Nucleic Acid Sequence-Based Amplification with an Internal Standard Enables Reliable Detection ofChlamydia trachomatisin Cervical Scrapings and Urine Samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SERVAAS A. MORRE; PETER SILLEKENS; MARCEL V. JACOBS; PIERRE VANAARLE; SJOERD DEBLOK; BOB VANGEMEN; JAN M. M. WALBOOMERS; CHRIS J. L. M. MEIJER

    In the present study, the suitability of RNA amplification by nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis infection was investigated. When comparing different primer sets for their sensitivities in NASBA, use of both the plasmid and omp1targets resulted in a detection limit of 1 inclusion-forming unit (IFU), while the 16S rRNA appeared to be the most

  11. Actin ReOrganization Induced by Chlamydia trachomatis Serovar D - Evidence for a Critical Role of the Effector Protein CT166 Targeting Rac

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica Thalmann; Katrin Janik; Martin May; Kirsten Sommer; Jenny Ebeling; Fred Hofmann; Harald Genth; Andreas Klos

    2010-01-01

    The intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis causes infections of urogenital tract, eyes or lungs. Alignment reveals homology of CT166, a putative effector protein of urogenital C. trachomatis serovars, with the N-terminal glucosyltransferase domain of clostridial glucosylating toxins (CGTs). CGTs contain an essential DXD-motif and mono-glucosylate GTP-binding proteins of the Rho\\/Ras families, the master regulators of the actin cytoskeleton. CT166 is preformed

  12. Antiretroviral drug exposure in the female genital tract: implications for oral pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Dumond, Julie B.; Yeh, Rosa F.; Patterson, Kristine B.; Corbett, Amanda H.; Jung, Byung Hwa; Rezk, Naser L.; Bridges, Arlene S.; Stewart, Paul W.; Cohen, Myron S.; Kashuba, Angela D.M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To describe first dose and steady state antiretroviral drug exposure in the female genital tract. Design Non-blinded, single center, open-label pharmacokinetic study in HIV-infected women. Method Twenty-seven women initiating combination antiretroviral therapy underwent comprehensive blood plasma and cervicovaginal fluid sampling for drug concentrations during the first dose of antiretroviral therapy and at steady-state. Drug concentrations were measured by validated HPLC/UV or HPLC-MS/MS methods. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated for 11 drugs by non-compartmental analysis. Descriptive statistics and 95% confidence intervals were generated using Intercooled STATA Release 8.0 (Stata Corporation, College Station, Texas, USA). Results For all antiretroviral drugs, genital tract concentrations were detected rapidly after the first dose. Drugs were stratified according to the genital tract concentrations achieved relative to blood plasma. Median rank order of highest to lowest genital tract concentrations relative to blood plasma at steady state were: lamivudine (concentrations achieved were 411% greater than blood plasma), emtricitabine (395%), zidovudine (235%) tenofovir (75%), ritonavir (26%), didanosine (21%), atazanavir (18%), lopinavir (8%), abacavir (8%), stavudine (5%), and efavirenz (0.4%). Conclusions This is the first study to comprehensively evaluate antiretroviral drug exposure in the female genital tract. These findings support the use of lamivudine, zidovudine, tenofovir and emtricitabine as excellent pre-exposure/post-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP/PEP) candidates. Atazanavir and lopinavir might be useful agents for these applications due to favorable therapeutic indices, despite lower genital tract concentrations. Agents such as stavudine, abacavir, and efavirenz that achieve genital tract exposures less than 10% of blood plasma are less attractive PrEP/PEP candidates. PMID:17721097

  13. Female genital mutilation: an injury, physical and mental harm.

    PubMed

    Utz-Billing, I; Kentenich, H

    2008-12-01

    This article gives an overview over the huge topic of 'female genital mutilation' (FGM). FGM means non-therapeutic, partial or complete removal or injury of each of the external female genitals. It concerns about 130 million women around the world. FGM is performed in about 30 countries, most of which are located in Africa. Four types of FGM are distinguished: type I stands for the removal of the clitoral foreskin, type II means the removal of the clitoris with partial or total excision of the labia minora. Type III is the extreme type of FGM. Not only the clitoris but also the labia minora and majora were removed. The orificium vaginae is sewn up, leaving only a small opening for urine or menstruation blood. Other types like pricking, piercing of clitoris or vulva, scraping of the vagina, etc. were defined as type IV of FGM. The mentioned reasons for FGM are: encouragement of the patriarchal family system, method for birth control, guarantee of moral behaviour and faithfulness to the husband, protection of women from suspicions and disgrace, initiation ritual, symbol of feminity and beauty, hygienic, health and economic advantages. Acute physical consequences of FGM include bleeding, wound infections, sepsis, shock, micturition problems and fractures. Chronic physical problems like anemia, infections of the urinary tract, incontinence, infertility, pain, menstruation problems and dyspareunia are frequent. Women also have a higher risk for HIV infections. During pregnancy and delivery, examinations and vaginal application of medicine are more difficult. Women have a higher risk for a prolonged delivery, wound infections, a postpartum blood loss of more than 500 mL, perineal tears, a resuscitation of the infant and an inpatient perinatal death. Mental consequences after FGM include the feelings of incompleteness, fear, inferiority and suppression. Women report chronic irritability and nightmares. They have a higher risk for psychiatric and psychosomatic diseases. FGM carried out by doctors, nurses or midwives is also called medicalisation of FGM and is definitely unacceptable. Regarding human rights, FGM refuses women the right of freedom from bodily harm. Specific laws that ban FGM exist in many countries in Europe, Africa, USA, Canada, New Zealand and Australia. PMID:19065392

  14. Expression, Processing, and Localization of PmpD of Chlamydia trachomatis Serovar L2 during the Chlamydial Developmental Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Kiselev, Andrey O.; Stamm, Walter E.; Yates, John R.; Lampe, Mary F.

    2007-01-01

    Background While families of polymorphic membrane protein (pmp) genes have been identified in several Chlamydia species, their function remains mostly unknown. These proteins are of great interest, however, because of their location in the outer membrane and possible role in chlamydial virulence. Methodology/Principal Finding We analyzed the relative transcription of the pmpD gene, a member of the pmp gene family in C. trachomatis serovar L2, and its protein product translation and processing during the chlamydial developmental cycle. By real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, the pmpD gene was found to be upregulated at 16 to 24 four hours after infection. Using polyclonal antibodies generated against the predicted passenger domain of PmpD, we demonstrated that it is initially localized on the surface of reticulate bodies, followed by its secretion outside Chlamydia starting at 24 hours after infection. In elementary bodies, we found a ?157 kDa PmpD only inside the cell. Both events, the upregulation of pmpD gene transcription and PmpD protein processing and secretion, are coincidental with the period of replication and differentiation of RBs into EBs. We also demonstrated that, in the presence of penicillin, the cleavage and secretion of the putative passenger domain was suppressed. Conclusion/Significance Our results are in agreement with the general concept that PmpD is an autotransporter protein which is post-translationally processed and secreted in the form of the putative passenger domain outside Chlamydia at mid- to- late point after infection, coinciding with the development of RBs into EBs. PMID:17593967

  15. Chemical cross-linking of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed Central

    Birkelund, S; Lundemose, A G; Christiansen, G

    1988-01-01

    Purified elementary bodies (EBs) of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 were analyzed by chemical cross-linking with disuccinimidyl selenodipropionate. The effect of the cross-linking was analyzed by immunoblotting sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-separated components which were reacted with monoclonal antibodies against major outer membrane protein (MOMP) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). It was shown that in EBs, MOMP was cross-linked to the LPS component of the outer membrane. Migration analysis of the cross-linked components showed that with extensive cross-linking, most of the MOMP became cross-linked to LPS, changing the migration rate from 40 to 42.5 kilodaltons. A small fraction of MOMP associated with LPS was shown to be present in bands with migration rates of 100 and 110 kilodaltons. No association of MOMP or LPS to other proteins, or to dimer or multimer forms of MOMP without LPS, was observed. A totally different membrane structure must be present in reticulate bodies, since there, MOMP was so heavily cross-linked that it did not enter the polyacrylamide gel and thus became impossible to analyze. Furthermore, the monoclonal antibody, which reacted with LPS associated with MOMP in the cross-linked EBs, did not react with reticulate bodies. Images PMID:2449399

  16. Pyrimidine metabolism by intracellular Chlamydia psittaci.

    PubMed Central

    McClarty, G; Qin, B

    1993-01-01

    Pyrimidine metabolism was studied in the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia psittaci AA Mp in the wild type and a variety of mutant host cell lines with well-defined mutations affecting pyrimidine metabolism. C. psittaci AA Mp cannot synthesize pyrimidines de novo, as assessed by its inability to incorporate aspartic acid into nucleic acid pyrimidines. In addition, the parasite cannot take UTP, CTP, or dCTP from the host cell, nor can it salvage exogenously supplied uridine, cytidine, or deoxycytidine. The primary source of pyrimidine nucleotides is via the salvage of uracil by a uracil phosphoribosyltransferase. Uracil phosphoribosyltransferase activity was detected in crude extracts prepared from highly purified C. psittaci AA Mp reticulate bodies. The presence of CTP synthetase and ribonucleotide reductase is implicated from the incorporation of uracil into nucleic acid cytosine and deoxycytidine. Deoxyuridine was used by the parasite only after cleavage to uracil. C. psittaci AA Mp grew poorly in mutant host cell lines auxotrophic for thymidine. Furthermore, the parasite could not synthesize thymidine nucleotides de novo. C. psittaci AA Mp could take TTP directly from the host cell. In addition, the parasite could incorporate exogenous thymidine and thymine into DNA. Thymidine kinase activity and thymidine-cleaving activity were detected in C. psittaci AA Mp reticulate body extract. Thus, thymidine salvage was totally independent of other pyrimidine salvage. PMID:8335624

  17. Plasmid diversity within the genus Chlamydia.

    PubMed

    Lusher, M; Storey, C C; Richmond, S J

    1989-05-01

    Examination of 12 Chlamydia psittaci strains recovered from nine different host species (three avian and six mammalian) revealed the presence of a 7.5 kb plasmid in all isolates except two ovine abortion strains, the human strain IOL207 and the Cal 10 strain. Restriction mapping analysis distinguished four different plasmids that were associated with avian, feline, equine and guinea-pig C. psittaci isolates, respectively. The restriction maps of these four C. psittaci plasmid types all differed from that of the plasmid recovered from C. trachomatis L2/434. Despite this plasmid diversity, which is likely to be of taxonomic importance, all four plasmids identified within the species C. psittaci were found to share some sequence homology, which was mapped to two separate regions in the plasmid molecules. One region, which showed a high degree of homology between C. psittaci plasmids and also detectable homology with the C. trachomatis plasmid, may represent a common replication control region for plasmids of this genus. PMID:2621449

  18. Men's Perceptions and Knowledge of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection and Cervical Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPartland, Tara S.; Weaver, Bethany A.; Lee, Shu-Kuang; Koutsky, Laura A.

    2005-01-01

    The authors assessed young men's knowledge and perceptions of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection to identify factors that predict intention to make positive behavioral changes. Male university students aged 18 to 25 years completed a self-report instrument to assess knowledge and perceptions of genital HPV infection. If diagnosed with…

  19. Genital Anomalies in Klinefelter’s Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yung Seng Lee; Anna Wai Fun Cheng; Syed Faisal Ahmed; Nick J. Shaw; Ieuan A. Hughes

    2007-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: Klinefelter’s syndrome is characterized by progressive testicular failure causing aspermatogenesis and androgen deficiency. Klinefelter patients classically have complete male sex differentiation, and genital anomalies are generally not recognized as associated features of the syndrome. Methods: We reviewed the cases of Klinefelter’s syndrome with genitalia abnormalities from the Cambridge Disorders of Sex Development Database, and also reviewed previous case reports

  20. Genital necrosis secondary to warfarin therapy.

    PubMed

    Kandrotas, R J; Deterding, J

    1988-01-01

    Several adverse dermatologic effects have been reported with the use of warfarin. Among these is the rare complication of drug-induced necrosis. Approximately 150 cases had been reported by 1976, and a review of the literature since 1943 revealed only 4 reported cases of penile necrosis. We present the fifth case of genital necrosis reported with coumarin anticoagulants and the third such case associated with warfarin. PMID:3065746