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1

Immunological aspects of genital chlamydia infections.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis ascends from the cervix to the Fallopian tubes where it forms a persistent infection. The immune response to this infection results in tubal occlusion and infertility. In its persistent formC. trachomatis produces high levels of a 60-kDa heat shock protein (c-hsp60). There is a human hsp60 (h-hsp60) which shares a 50% amino acid sequence homology with the c-hsp60. Therefore, a chlamydial Fallopian tube infection can induce the development of autoantibodies to h-hsp60. H-hsp60 is one of the first proteins synthesized following fertilization. It is also expressed by epithelial cells in the decidua. Therefore, expression of h-hsp60 in early pregnancy can reactivate the c-hsp60-sensitized lymphocytes, leading to immune rejection of the embryo. The role of C. trachomatis in male infertility requires clarification. Because most C. trachomatis infections occur without defined symptoms, only the screening of sexually active women will reveal whether a woman is infected with this organism. Detection and treatment of a recently acquired infection can prevent development of h-hsp60 autoantibodies and tubal occlusion, preserve fertility, and prevent complications such as ectopic pregnancy. PMID:12473287

Witkin, Steven S

2002-12-01

2

Genital Chlamydia trachomatis (serotypes DK) infection in Jamaican commercial street sex workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections in commercial street sex workers (CSSW) in Jamaica. METHODS: The prevalence of C trachomatis infection was determined in 129 Jamaican CSSW using the direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) method and the isolation techniques which utilise fluorescent and iodine staining of endocervical cytobrush specimens cultured in McCoy cells. The seroprevalence of C

G Dowe; S D King; A R Brathwaite; Z Wynter; R Chout

1997-01-01

3

Cytological and histopathological abnormalities of the cervix in genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections  

PubMed Central

Since genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis may be associated with cervical abnormalities 160 patients with grandular ectopia attending a gynaecological outpatient clinic were examined for antibodies against C trachomatis, the presence of C trachomatis infection, and cytological and histopathological abnormalities of the cervix. A significantly higher incidence of histological dysplasia was found in women with glandular ectopia who had antichlamydial antibodies than in those without. PMID:7296254

Cevenini, R; Costa, S; Rumpianesi, F; Donati, M; Guerra, B; Diana, R; Antonini, M P

1981-01-01

4

Public health policies and management strategies for genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection  

PubMed Central

Genital Chlamydia trachomatis is a sexually transmissible bacterial infection that is asymptomatic in the majority of infected individuals and is associated with significant short-term and long-term morbidity. The population prevalence of the infection appears to be increasing. C. trachomatis is of public health significance because of the impacts of untreated disease on reproductive outcomes, transmission of other sexually acquired infections, and the costs to health systems. At the individual level, C. trachomatis infection is readily treatable with antibiotics, although antibiotic resistance appears to be increasing. At the population level, public health control of spread of infection is more problematic. Approaches to control include primary preventive activities, increased access to testing and treatment for people with or at risk of infection, partner notification and treatment, and screening either opportunistically or as part of an organized population screening program. A combination of all of the above approaches is likely to be required to have a significant effect on the burden of disease associated with genital chlamdyia infection and to reduce population prevalence. The development of a vaccine for genital chlamydia infection could significantly reduce the public health burden associated with infection; however a vaccine is not expected to be available in the near future. PMID:22312228

Shaw, Kelly; Coleman, David; O’Sullivan, Maree; Stephens, Nicola

2011-01-01

5

Specific-Pathogen-Free Pigs as an Animal Model for Studying Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Infection  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate pigs as a large-animal model for female genital infection with two Chlamydia trachomatis human serovar E strains. Sixteen-week-old specific-pathogen-free female pigs (gilts) were intravaginally infected with the trachoma type E reference strain Bour or the urogenital serovar E strain 468. Several conclusions can be drawn from our findings on the pathogenicity of a primary C.?trachomatis genital infection in gilts. First of all, we demonstrated that the serovar E strains Bour and 468 could ascend in the genital tract of gilts. The serovar E strains could replicate in the superficial columnar cervical epithelium and in the superficial epithelial layer of the uterus, which are known to be the specific target sites for a C.?trachomatis genital infection in women. Second, inflammation and pathology occurred at the replication sites. Third, the organisms could trigger a humoral immune response, as demonstrated by the presence of immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG, and IgA in both serum and genital secretion samples. Our findings imply that the pig model might be useful for studying the pathology, pathogenesis, and immune response to a C.?trachomatis infection of the genital system. PMID:16299329

Vanrompay, Daisy; Hoang, Thi Q. T.; De Vos, Liselotte; Verminnen, Kristel; Harkinezhad, Taher; Chiers, Koen; Morré, Servaas A.; Cox, Eric

2005-01-01

6

Protective Immunity to Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Infection: Evidence from Human Studies  

PubMed Central

Background Some screening and treatment programs implemented to control genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections and their complications have shown initial reductions in infection prevalence followed by rises to pre-program levels or higher. One hypothesis is that treatment shortens duration of infection, attenuates development of protective immunity and thereby increases risk of re-infection. Methods A literature review was undertaken to assess evidence supporting the concept of protective immunity, its characteristics and its laboratory correlates in human chlamydial infection. The discussion is organized around key questions formulated in preparation for the Chlamydia Immunology and Control Expert Advisory Meeting held by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in April, 2008. Results Definitive human studies are not available, but cross-sectional studies show chlamydia prevalence, organism load and concordance rates in couples decrease with age, and organism load is lower in those with repeat infections, supporting the concept of protective immunity. The protection appears partial and can be overcome upon re-exposure, similar to what is found in rodent models of genital infection. No data are available to define the duration of infection required to confer a degree of immunity or the time course of immunity following resolution of untreated infection. In longitudinal studies of African sex workers, a group presumed to have frequent and ongoing exposure to chlamydial infection, interferon gamma production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to chlamydial heat shock protein 60 was associated with low risk of incident infection. In cross-sectional studies, relevant Th1 type responses are found in infected persons, paralleling the studies in animal models. Conclusions The data support the concept that some degree of protective immunity against re-infection develops following human genital infection, although it appears at best partial. It is likely that factors besides population levels of immunity contribute to trends in prevalence observed in screening and treatment programs. Future studies of protective immunity in humans will require longitudinal follow-up of individuals and populations, frequent biological and behavioral sampling and special cohorts to help control for exposure. PMID:20524235

Batteiger, Byron E.; Xu, Fujie; Johnson, Robert E.; Rekart, Michael L.

2010-01-01

7

Vaccination against Chlamydia Genital Infection Utilizing the Murine C. muridarum Model? †  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection is a worldwide public health problem, and considerable effort has been expended on developing an efficacious vaccine. The murine model of C. muridarum genital infection has been extremely useful for identification of protective immune responses and in vaccine development. Although a number of immunogenic antigens have been assessed for their ability to induce protection, the majority of studies have utilized the whole organism, the major outer membrane protein (MOMP), or the chlamydial protease-like activity factor (CPAF). These antigens, alone and in combination with a variety of immunostimulatory adjuvants, have induced various levels of protection against infectious challenge, ranging from minimal to nearly sterilizing immunity. Understanding of the mechanisms of natural infection-based immunity and advances in adjuvant biology have resulted in studies that are increasingly successful, but a vaccine licensed for use in humans has not yet been brought to fruition. Here we review immunity to chlamydial genital infection and vaccine development using the C. muridarum model. PMID:21078844

Farris, Christina M.; Morrison, Richard P.

2011-01-01

8

Immunoglobulin-Specific Responses to Chlamydia Elementary Bodies in Individuals with and at Risk for Genital Chlamydial Infection  

PubMed Central

Renewed interest in chlamydia vaccination has revealed the need for a greater understanding of the seroprevalence of chlamydial infection in US populations. We used a Chlamydia trachomatis elementary body (EB)–based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to define the characteristics of the humoral immune response and to determine seroprevalence. Two groups were analyzed: one consisting of patients with current, laboratory confirmed, genital chlamydial infection (n = 98) and one group of individuals whose chlamydia infection history was unknown (n = 367). C. trachomatis seropositivity was detected in 90% of the infected group and in 31% of the chlamydia-unknown group. IgG1 and IgG3 comprised the predominant anti-Chlamydia serum antibody responses. Serum IgA1 responses were variably positive, and individuals were rarely positive for anti-chlamydia IgG2, IgG4 or IgA2. The magnitude of the IgG1 and IgG3 responses was greatest in female and African American individuals and was sustained for at least 6 months. Antibody responses were not serovar restricted or confounded by Chlamydia pneumoniae cross-reactivity. PMID:23045619

Geisler, William M.; Morrison, Sandra G.; Doemland, Martha L.; Iqbal, Shehzad M.; Su, Jin; Mancevski, Ausra; Hook, Edward W.; Morrison, Richard P.

2012-01-01

9

Genital Chlamydia trachomatis: an update.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of curable bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide. It manifests primarily as urethritis in males and endocervicitis in females. Untreated chlamydial infection in man can cause epididymitis and proctitis. Though most women with Chlamydia infection are asymptomatic or have minimal symptoms, some develop salpingitis, endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy and tubal factor infertility. It is associated with an increased risk for the transmission or acquisition of HIV and is also attributed to be a risk factor for the development of cervical carcinoma. Early diagnosis and treatment of infected individuals is required to prevent the spread of the disease and severe sequelae. Traditionally, tissue culture was considered the gold standard for the diagnosis. However, with the availability of newer diagnostic techniques particularly molecular methods which are not only highly sensitive and specific but are cost-effective also, the diagnosis has became fast and easy. The purpose of this review is to study the various aspects of genital C. trachomatis infection. Also the advances related to the clinical picture, various diagnostic modalities, prevention, treatment, drug resistance and control measures will be dealt with. PMID:24135174

Malhotra, Meenakshi; Sood, Seema; Mukherjee, Anjan; Muralidhar, Sumathi; Bala, Manju

2013-09-01

10

Chlamydia Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... will cure the infection. Correct usage of latex condoms greatly reduces, but does not eliminate, the risk of catching or spreading chlamydia. Experts recommend that sexually active women 25 and younger get a chlamydia test every year. NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

11

[A case of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection with acute post renal failure].  

PubMed

A 29-year-old woman presented with bilateral hydronephroses concomitant with acute renal failure. Retrograde pyelography demonstrated bilateral ureteral strictures located at the lower segment of ureters. Computed tomography revealed inflammation of the left ovary and severe colon adhesion. She received the operation, i.e. left ovariectomy and colon adhesiotomy, because of a possibility of gynecological disease including endometriosis and malignant tumors. Clinical and pathological findings showed non-specific inflammation in the pelvis and ovary. A pelvic inflammatory disease due to a genital Chlamydia trachomatis was highly suspected and she was treated with targeted antibiotics. There have been no signs of hydronephroses or renal failure during six years' follow-up after the treatment. We discus this rare case of bilateral hydronephroses due to genital Chlamydia trachomatis. PMID:18516926

Hirayama, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Kazumasa; Song, Shigehiro; Matsushita, Kazuhito; Satoh, Takefumi; Iwamura, Masatsugu; Baba, Shiro

2008-04-01

12

Management of Chlamydia trachomatis genital infections: reported practices of primary care physicians.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine the knowledge of primary care physicians about Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection and its management. DESIGN: Self-administered questionnaire comprising direct questions and hypothetical cases. PARTICIPANTS: All 108 general and family practitioners on the north shore of Vancouver were sent the questionnaire; 79 (73%) responded. RESULTS: There was a reasonable level of knowledge in many areas, particularly among the physicians who had graduated more recently than the others. Virtually all stated that they have access to chlamydial diagnostic testing, and most indicated that they test for chlamydial infection at least occasionally. However, many of the respondents failed to consider that youths in their practice may be sexually active, and only 28% knew that women 15 to 19 years of age have the highest reported rates of chlamydial infection. Many of the physicians were confused about syndromes that are or are not associated with C. trachomatis infection; this indicated the possibility of inappropriate testing and treatment decisions. If they had to test for C. trachomatis in a prepubescent girl 34% reported that they would obtain a specimen from the endocervix, a technique that is inappropriately invasive. When presented with a positive test result many of the respondents failed to consider the possibility of a false-positive result. Fortunately all of the physicians were well informed about correct treatment regimens for C. trachomatis infection, although many did not realize how effective they really are. In the case of a young man with suspected or proven gonorrhea or a young female outpatient with pelvic inflammatory disease, only 19% and 20% respectively stated that they would prescribe a regimen appropriate for both penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis. Many of the respondents had not heard of management guidelines, and fewer still reported that they consult them. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the availability of several sets of guidelines there appear to be important gaps in the knowledge and practice of many primary care physicians with respect to genital infections. Since the preparation of guidelines is time-consuming and expensive, further work should be done to evaluate their impact and to address their limitations. PMID:1562944

McDougall, L; Mathias, R G; O'Connor, B A; Bowie, W R

1992-01-01

13

Management of Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract infection: screening and treatment challenges  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia trachomatis is a prevalent sexually transmitted infection that can lead to serious reproductive morbidity. Management and control of C. trachomatis is a challenge, largely due to its asymptomatic nature and our incomplete understanding of its natural history. Although chlamydia screening programs have been implemented worldwide, several countries have observed increasing rates of reported chlamydia cases. We reviewed the literature relating to the long-term complications of C. trachomatis, as well as screening strategies, treatment, and prevention strategies for reducing chlamydia in the population. Articles from 1950–2010 were identified through a Medline search using the keyword “Chlamydia trachomatis” combined with “screening”, “pelvic inflammatory disease”, “endometritis”, “salpingitis”, “infertility”, “ectopic pregnancy”, “urethritis”, “epididymitis”, “proctitis”, “prostatitis”, “reinfection”, “cost-effectiveness”, “treatment”, “vaccines”, or “prevention”. Progression of C. trachomatis varies, and recurrent infections are common. Currently, there is limited evidence on the effectiveness of chlamydia screening. Higher quality studies are needed to determine the efficacy of more frequent screening, on a broader range of sequelae, including infertility and ectopic pregnancy, in addition to pelvic inflammatory disease. Studies should focus on delineating the natural history of recurrent infections, paying particular attention to treatment failures. Furthermore, alternatives to screening, such as vaccines, should continue to be explored. PMID:21694906

Taylor, Brandie D; Haggerty, Catherine L

2011-01-01

14

Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... Lungs > Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infections Health Issues Listen Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infections Article Body When you hear the word ... Chlamydia bacteria. Another species, called Chlamydia (or Chlamydophila ) pneumoniae, causes respiratory illnesses. These lung infections are spread ...

15

Acquired homotypic and heterotypic immunity against oculogenital Chlamydia trachomatis serovars following female genital tract infection in mice  

PubMed Central

Background Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial pathogen causing female genital tract infection throughout the world. Reinfection with the same serovar, as well as multiple infections with different serovars, occurs in humans. Using a murine model of female C. trachomatis genital tract infection, we determined if homotypic and/or heterotypic protection against reinfection was induced following infection with human oculogenital strains of C. trachomatis belonging to two serovars (D and H) that have been shown to vary significantly in the course of infection in the murine model. Methods Groups of outbred CF-1 mice were reinfected intravaginally with a strain of either serovar D or H, two months after initial infection with these strains. Cellular immune and serologic status, both quantitative and qualitative, was assessed following initial infection, and the course of infection was monitored by culturing vaginal samples collected every 2–7 days following reinfection. Results Serovar D was both more virulent (longer duration of infection) and immunogenic (higher level of circulating and vaginal IgG and higher incidence of IgA in vaginal secretions) in the mouse genital tract. Although both serovars induced cross-reacting antibodies during the course of primary infection, prior infection with serovar H resulted in only a slight reduction in the median duration of infection against homotypic reinfection (p ~ 0.10), while prior infection with serovar D resulted in significant reduction in the median duration of infection against both homotypic (p < 0.01) and heterotypic reinfection (p < 0.01) when compared to primary infection in age and conditions matched controls. Conclusion Serovar D infection resulted in significant homotypic and heterotypic protection against reinfection, while primary infection with serovar H resulted in only slight homotypic protection. In addition to being the first demonstration of acquired heterotypic immunity between human oculogenital serovars, the differences in the level and extent of this immunity could in part explain the stable difference in serovar prevalence among human isolates. PMID:16293190

Lyons, Joseph M; Morré, Servaas A; Airo-Brown, Lucy P; Peña, A Salvador; Ito, James I

2005-01-01

16

Spontaneous Resolution of Genital Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Women and Protection from Reinfection  

PubMed Central

The natural history of chlamydia is variable and may include persisting asymptomatic infection, complications, or spontaneous resolution before treatment. Reinfection is common. We evaluated whether spontaneous resolution was associated with decreased reinfection in women returning for treatment of a positive chlamydia screening test. At enrollment, participants were tested for chlamydia, treated with azithromycin, and scheduled for a 6-month follow-up visit for repeat testing. Two hundred participants returned 1 to 12 months after treatment. Spontaneous resolution at enrollment was demonstrated in 44 (22.0%). Reinfection at follow-up occurred in 33 (16.5%), being more frequent in those with persisting infection at enrollment versus spontaneous resolution (31 of 156 [19.9%] vs 2 of 44 [4.5%]; P = .016). Adjusting for age, the odds of reinfection was 4 times higher for participants with persisting infection at enrollment (odds ratio 4.0, 95% confidence interval, 1.1–25.6; P = .034). Chlamydia treatment may attenuate protective immunity in some patients. PMID:23470847

Geisler, William M.; Lensing, Shelly Y.; Press, Christen G.; Hook, Edward W.

2013-01-01

17

Does Chlamydia trachomatis MoPn enter a microbiologically-inapparent state during experimental infection of the mouse genital tract?  

PubMed

Microbiologically-inapparent chlamydial infection may contribute towards the immunopathogenesis of these diseases. Although morphologically and physiologically aberrant non-cultivable chlamydiae can be induced reversibly in cell culture, evidence for these forms in infections of animals and humans is indirect. A mouse model of salpingitis caused by the mouse pneumonitis biovar of Chlamydia trachomatis (MoPn) was used to determine the existence of non-cultivable organisms in vivo. Following intravaginal inoculation, mice yielded high chlamydial counts for 7-14 dyas, with a decline in culture-positivity by 21-28 days. A significant elevation of IFN gamma production in infected tissues was measured for 21 days and, from 28-70 days, all mice were culture-negative and developed characteristic hydrosalpinges. MoPn was detected by PCR in vaginal swabs of 80% and 69% respectively of culture-negative animals at 21 and 28 days. In a second study, 100%, 63% and 50% of culture-negative genital tissue homogenates were PCR-positive at 21, 28 and 42 days. Immunosuppression with either cyclophosphamide or hydrocortisone failed to regenerate cultivable chlamydiae. Tissues were disrupted by homogenization and inoculated intranasally to MF1 mice which are extremely susceptible to MoPn, but all culture-negative specimens were non-infectious. The significance of the PCR-positive culture-negative specimens requires further investigation, since these may represent a non-cultivable state in the deeper tissues of the mouse genital tract which may be beyond the reach of reactivating triggers. PMID:9049999

Beale, A S

1997-02-01

18

Transcutaneous Immunization with Combined Cholera Toxin and CpG Adjuvant Protects against Chlamydia muridarum Genital Tract Infection  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia trachomatis is a pathogen of the genital tract and ocular epithelium. Infection is established by the binding of the metabolically inert elementary body (EB) to epithelial cells. These are taken up by endocytosis into a membrane-bound vesicle termed an inclusion. The inclusion avoids fusion with host lysosomes, and the EBs differentiate into the metabolically active reticulate body (RB), which replicates by binary fission within the protected environment of the inclusion. During the extracellular EB stage of the C. trachomatis life cycle, antibody present in genital tract or ocular secretions can inhibit infection both in vivo and in tissue culture. The RB, residing within the intracellular inclusion, is not accessible to antibody, and resolution of infection at this stage requires a cell-mediated immune response mediated by gamma interferon-secreting Th1 cells. Thus, an ideal vaccine to protect against C. trachomatis genital tract infection should induce both antibody (immunoglobulin A [IgA] and IgG) responses in mucosal secretions to prevent infection by chlamydial EB and a strong Th1 response to limit ascending infection to the uterus and fallopian tubes. In the present study we show that transcutaneous immunization with major outer membrane protein (MOMP) in combination with both cholera toxin and CpG oligodeoxynucleotides elicits MOMP-specific IgG and IgA in vaginal and uterine lavage fluid, MOMP-specific IgG in serum, and gamma interferon-secreting T cells in reproductive tract-draining caudal and lumbar lymph nodes. This immunization protocol resulted in enhanced clearance of C. muridarum (C. trachomatis, mouse pneumonitis strain) following intravaginal challenge of BALB/c mice. PMID:14742549

Berry, Linda J.; Hickey, Danica K.; Skelding, Kathryn A.; Bao, Shisan; Rendina, Amanda M.; Hansbro, Philip M.; Gockel, Christine M.; Beagley, Kenneth W.

2004-01-01

19

Characterization of estrogen-responsive epithelial cell lines and their infectivity by genital Chlamydia trachomatis.  

PubMed

Chlamydial attachment and infectivity in vitro and ascending disease and sequelae in vivo have been reported to be enhanced/modulated by estrogen. Endometrial carcinoma cell lines Ishikawa and HEC-1B and the breast cancer lines MCF-7 and HCC-1806 were examined for Chlamydia trachomatis E infectivity. Estrogen receptor (ER) presence was confirmed by Western blot and qRT-PCR analyses. FACS analysis was used to determine the percent of plasma membrane-localized ERs (mERs), and their activity was tested by estrogen binding and competitive estrogen antagonists assays. Chlamydiae grew in all cell lines with HEC (90%) > MCF-7 (57%)>Ishikawa (51%) > HCC-1806 (20%). The cell line ER isoform composition was re-defined as: ERalpha + ERbeta + for MCF-7, HCC-1806 and Ishikawa; and ERbeta only for HEC-1B. HeLa cells were also tested and found to express ERbeta, but not ERalpha. A small percentage of both ERs were surface-exposed and functionally active. The endometrium-predominant ERbeta isoform was found in all cell lines, including those most representative of the common sites of C. trachomatis infection. Thus, the role of chlamydial attachment/infectivity will now be analyzed in ERbeta+and-isogenic HEC-1B cells. PMID:16046168

Guseva, Natalia V; Dessus-Babus, Sophie C; Whittimore, Judy D; Moore, Cheryl G; Wyrick, Priscilla B

2005-12-01

20

Semen quality in patients with Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection treated concurrently with prulifloxacin and a phytotherapeutic agent.  

PubMed

Chronic prostatitis (CP) due to Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) infection has a significant impact on young male fertility, and eradication of Ct infection after antibiotic therapy does not always result in recovery of semen quality. The study aim was to evaluate the effects on fertility parameters of L-arginine, L-carnitine, acetyl-L-carnitine, and ginseng extracts (FERTIMEV) associated with prulifloxacin in patients affected by CP and oligoasthenoteratozoospermia due to Ct infection. Two hundred and six patients with proven Ct genital infection and oligoasthenoteratozoospermia were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, and controlled study. Prulifloxacin (600 mg) was administered daily for 14 days, and patients were divided into 2 groups: group A: antibiotic therapy alone; and group B: antibiotic therapy and additional therapy with FERTIMEV (1 vial daily for 6 months). Microbiological and semen parameter analyses were performed both at enrollment and after 6 months. National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index and International Prostatic Symptom Score questionnaires were applied. Of the 206 patients, 109 were assigned to group A and 97 to group B. At the enrollment time, no differences were reported with regard to clinical, instrumental, and laboratory data. Six months after treatment, statistically significant differences were demonstrated between both groups in terms of sperm concentration (21.3 ± 13.2 millions/mL vs 11.5 ± 13.2 millions/mL) (Cohen's d = 0.61) (P < .001, df = 2, F = 62.10) and percentage of motile sperm (42.4% ± 5.2% vs 29.3% ± 11.0%) (Cohen's d = 1.52) (P < .001, df = 2, F = 91.48). In this study treatment with FERTIMEV together with prulifloxacin improved semen parameters in patients with Ct genital infection and oligoasthenoteratozoospermia compared to treatment with prulifloxacin therapy alone. PMID:21979301

Cai, Tommaso; Wagenlehner, Florian M E; Mazzoli, Sandra; Meacci, Francesca; Mondaini, Nicola; Nesi, Gabriella; Tiscione, Daniele; Malossini, Gianni; Bartoletti, Riccardo

2012-01-01

21

Chlamydia infections in women  

MedlinePLUS

... or pass the infection to your partner without knowing it. You are more likely to become infected with chlamydia if you have: Sex without using a condom Had multiple sexual partners Been infected with chlamydia before

22

Significant role of IL-1 signaling, but limited role of inflammasome activation in oviduct pathology during Chlamydia muridarum genital infection1  

PubMed Central

IL-1? has been implicated in the development of oviduct pathology during Chlamydia muridarum genital infection in the mouse model. The goal of this study was to characterize the role of IL-1 signaling and the inflammasome activation pathways during genital chlamydial infection. Compared to control mice, IL-1R-deficient mice displayed delayed clearance and increased chlamydial colonization. Consistent with the role for IL-1 signaling in infection clearance, mice deficient for IL-1R antagonist cleared infection at a faster rate. Despite increased infection, IL-1R deficient mice had significantly reduced oviduct pathology, which was associated with decreased numbers of neutrophils but more macrophages in the genital tract. IL-1? secretion is dependent on caspase-1 and ASC inflammasome during in vitro infection of primed macrophages with C. muridarum. To investigate the role of inflammasome components during in vivo genital infection, mice lacking NLRP3, NLRC4, and ASC were tested and found to display no reduction in oviduct pathology compared to control mice. Mice deficient for ASC displayed a prolonged course of infection, which was associated with reduced T cell recruitment and proliferation. Further, ASC-deficient mice displayed normal levels of IL-1? levels in genital secretions. However a significant decrease in caspase-1-dependent IL-18 was observed in both ASC and NLRP3 deficient mice. These data demonstrate a major role for IL-1 signaling but a limited role for inflammasome pathway in IL-1? secretion and development of oviduct pathology during genital chlamydial infection. The data also suggests an IL-1-independent role for ASC in adaptive immunity during genital chlamydial infection. PMID:22331066

Nagarajan, Uma M.; Sikes, James D.; Yeruva, Laxmi; Prantner, Daniel

2014-01-01

23

CD4+ T cell expression of MyD88 is essential for normal resolution of Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infection1  

PubMed Central

Resolution of Chlamydia genital tract infection is delayed in the absence of MyD88. In these studies, we first used bone marrow chimeras to demonstrate a requirement for MyD88 expression by hematopoietic cells in the presence of a wild-type epithelium. Using mixed bone marrow chimeras we then determined that MyD88 expression was specifically required in the adaptive immune compartment. Furthermore, adoptive transfer experiments revealed that CD4+ T cell expression of MyD88 was necessary for normal resolution of genital tract infection. This requirement was associated with a reduced ability of MyD88?/? CD4+ T cells to accumulate in the draining lymph nodes and genital tract when exposed to the same inflammatory milieu as wild-type CD4+ T cells. We also demonstrated that the impaired infection control we observed in the absence of MyD88 could not be recapitulated by deficiencies in TLR or IL-1R signaling. In vitro, we detected an increased frequency of apoptotic MyD88?/? CD4+ T cells upon activation in the absence of exogenous ligands for receptors upstream of MyD88. These data reveal an intrinsic requirement for MyD88 in CD4+ T cells during Chlamydia infection and indicate that the importance of MyD88 extends beyond innate immune responses by directly influencing adaptive immunity. PMID:24038087

Frazer, Lauren C.; Sullivan, Jeanne E.; Zurenski, Matthew A.; Mintus, Margaret; Tomasak, Tammy E.; Prantner, Daniel; Nagarajan, Uma M.; Darville, Toni

2013-01-01

24

Systematic screening with information and home sampling for genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections in young men and women in Norway: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background As most genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections are asymptomatic, many patients do not seek health care for testing. Infections remain undiagnosed and untreated. We studied whether screening with information and home sampling resulted in more young people getting tested, diagnosed and treated for chlamydia in the three months following the intervention compared to the current strategy of testing in the health care system. Method We conducted a population based randomized controlled trial among all persons aged 18–25 years in one Norwegian county (41 519 persons). 10 000 persons (intervention) received an invitation by mail with chlamydia information and a mail-back urine sampling kit. 31 519 persons received no intervention and continued with usual care (control). All samples from both groups were analysed in the same laboratory. Information on treatment was obtained from the Norwegian Prescription Database (NorPD). We estimated risk ratios and risk differences of being tested, diagnosed and treated in the intervention group compared to the control group. Results In the intervention group 16.5% got tested and in the control group 3.4%, risk ratio 4.9 (95% CI 4.5-5.2). The intervention led to 2.6 (95% CI 2.0-3.4) times as many individuals being diagnosed and 2.5 (95% CI 1.9-3.4) times as many individuals receiving treatment for chlamydia compared to no intervention in the three months following the intervention. Conclusion In Norway, systematic screening with information and home sampling results in more young people being tested, diagnosed and treated for chlamydia in the three months following the intervention than the current strategy of testing in the health care system. However, the study has not established that the intervention will reduce the chlamydia prevalence or the risk of complications from chlamydia. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov IDNCT00283127 PMID:23343391

2013-01-01

25

Antibiotic Use before Chlamydia and Gonorrhea Genital and Extragenital Screening in the Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinical Setting.  

PubMed

Background antibiotic use (i.e., administration of antibiotics not directly related to Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections) has been associated with a lower prevalence of genital C. trachomatis infection in a clinical setting. Associations with specific antibiotic types or with N. gonorrhoeae are lacking. Here, we assessed the prevalence of antibiotic use, the different classes and agents used, and their association with a subsequent sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae test result. At our STI clinic, we systematically registered whether antibiotics were used in the past month (in 29% of the cases, the specific antibiotic agent was named). Patients were screened for urogenital C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae; a third of them were also screened for anorectal and oropharyngeal C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae. The proportion of antibiotics used and their association with C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae prevalence were assessed for heterosexual men, men who have sex with men (MSM), and women. During 14,775 clinic consultations, antibiotic use was reported by 12.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 11.7% to 12.7%), i.e., 14.8% of women, 8.6% of heterosexual men, and 11.6% of MSM. The most reported antibiotics were penicillins, tetracyclines, and macrolides, respectively. The prevalence was 11.0% (95% CI, 10.3% to 11.3%) for C. trachomatis and 1.9% (95% CI, 1.7% to 2.1%) for N. gonorrhoeae. Only tetracycline use was associated with a lower C. trachomatis prevalence (3%). Overall antibiotic use was associated with lower anorectal C. trachomatis prevalence in MSM only (odds ratio, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2 to 0.8). STI clinic visitors commonly report recent antibiotic use. Even in a country with low antibiotic consumption, tetracycline use impacted C. trachomatis prevalence, while there was a notable absence of association with azithromycin. PMID:25313220

Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole H T M; van Liere, Genevieve A F S; Wolffs, Petra F G; Den Heijer, Casper; Werner, Marita I L S; Hoebe, Christian J P A

2015-01-01

26

Antigen-Specific CD8 T Cells Respond to Chlamydia trachomatis in the Genital Mucosa1  

E-print Network

at the site of infection (1, 2) and adoptive transfer of immune CD8 T cells can protect against Chlamydia of CD8 T cells to Chlamydia infection has been explored in a number of studies. It has been shown that CD8 T cells are present in the genital tracts of mice following C. trachomatis infection

Starnbach, Michael

27

A new murine model for testing vaccines against genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections in males  

PubMed Central

Two groups of 50 BALB/c male mice were immunized with live Chlamydia trachomatis mouse pneumonitis (MoPn) using the intranasal (i.n.) or the meatus urethra (intraurethral: i.u.) routes. As a control group, 100 male mice were sham-immunized in parallel. Both groups of animals vaccinated with live organisms developed strong Chlamydia-specific humoral and cell mediated immune responses. Based on the IgG2a/IgG1 ratio and the levels of IFN-? both groups mounted a Th1 immune response. At six weeks following the immunization, all mice were challenged in the meatus urethra. The urethra, urinary bladder, testes and epididymides were harvested at weekly intervals and tested for the presence of C. trachomatis. Based on the culture results from these four organs both groups of Chlamydia-immunized mice showed significant protection. In the group immunized i.u., 10% (5/50) had positive cultures, while in the group immunized i.n. 28% (14/50) had positive cultures during the 5 weeks of observation. In contrast, in the sham-immunized animals 47% (47/100) had positive cultures (P<0.005) during the study period. In addition, the number of positive organs, the length of time that the animal had positive cultures, and the total number of inclusion forming units (IFU) recovered were overall significantly lower in the i.u. or i.n. groups in comparison with the sham-immunized animals. However, in relation to the i.u. immunized group, the protection elicited in the i.n. group was delayed and not as robust. In conclusion, immunization of mice in the meatus urethra may provide the gold standard for testing Chlamydia vaccines in a male model. PMID:20920574

Pal, Sukumar; Sarcon, Annahita K.; de la Maza, Luis M.

2010-01-01

28

Penicillin Kills Chlamydia following the Fusion of Bacteria with Lysosomes and Prevents Genital Inflammatory Lesions in C. muridarum-Infected Mice  

PubMed Central

The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia exists as two distinct forms. Elementary bodies (EBs) are infectious and extra-cellular, whereas reticulate bodies (RBs) replicate within a specialized intracellular compartment termed an ‘inclusion’. Alternative persistent intra-cellular forms can be induced in culture by diverse stimuli such as IFN? or adenosine/EHNA. They do not grow or divide but revive upon withdrawal of the stimulus and are implicated in several widespread human diseases through ill-defined in vivo mechanisms. ?-lactam antibiotics have also been claimed to induce persistence in vitro. The present report shows that upon penicillin G (pG) treatment, inclusions grow as fast as those in infected control cells. After removal of pG, Chlamydia do not revert to RBs. These effects are independent of host cell type, serovar, biovar and species of Chlamydia. Time-course experiments demonstrated that only RBs were susceptible to pG. pG-treated bacteria lost their control over host cell apoptotic pathways and no longer expressed pre-16S rRNA, in contrast to persistent bacteria induced with adenosine/EHNA. Confocal and live-video microscopy showed that bacteria within the inclusion fused with lysosomal compartments in pG-treated cells. That leads to recruitment of cathepsin D as early as 3 h post pG treatment, an event preceding bacterial death by several hours. These data demonstrate that pG treatment of cultured cells infected with Chlamydia results in the degradation of the bacteria. In addition we show that pG is significantly more efficient than doxycycline at preventing genital inflammatory lesions in C. muridarum-C57Bl/6 infected mice. These in vivo results support the physiological relevance of our findings and their potential therapeutic applications. PMID:24376710

Dumoux, Maud; Le Gall, Sylvain M.; Habbeddine, Mohamed; Delarbre, Christiane; Hayward, Richard D.; Kanellopoulos-Langevin, Colette; Verbeke, Philippe

2013-01-01

29

The Duration of Chlamydia muridarum Genital Tract Infection and Associated Chronic Pathological Changes Are Reduced in IL-17 Knockout Mice but Protection Is Not Increased Further by Immunization  

PubMed Central

IL-17 is believed to be important for protection against extracellular pathogens, where clearance is dependent on neutrophil recruitment and local activation of epithelial cell defences. However, the role of IL-17 in protection against intracellular pathogens such as Chlamydia is less clear. We have compared (i) the course of natural genital tract C. muridarum infection, (ii) the development of oviduct pathology and (iii) the development of vaccine-induced immunity against infection in wild type (WT) BALB/c and IL-17 knockout mice (IL-17-/-) to determine if IL-17-mediated immunity is implicated in the development of infection-induced pathology and/or protection. Both the magnitude and duration of genital infection was significantly reduced in IL-17-/- mice compared to BALB/c. Similarly, hydrosalpinx was also greatly reduced in IL-17-/- mice and this correlated with reduced neutrophil and macrophage infiltration of oviduct tissues. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 and MMP2 were increased in WT oviducts compared to IL-17-/- animals at day 7 post-infection. In contrast, oviducts from IL-17-/- mice contained higher MMP9 and MMP2 at day 21. Infection also elicited higher levels of Chlamydia-neutralizing antibody in serum of IL-17-/- mice than WT mice. Following intranasal immunization with C. muridarum Major Outer Membrane Protein (MOMP) and cholera toxin plus CpG adjuvants, significantly higher levels of chlamydial MOMP-specific IgG and IgA were found in serum and vaginal washes of IL-17-/- mice. T cell proliferation and IFN? production by splenocytes was greater in WT animals following in vitro re-stimulation, however vaccination was only effective at reducing infection in WT, not IL-17-/- mice. Intranasal or transcutaneous immunization protected WT but not IL-17-/- mice against hydrosalpinx development. Our data show that in the absence of IL-17, the severity of C. muridarum genital infection and associated oviduct pathology are significantly attenuated, however neither infection or pathology can be reduced further by vaccination protocols that effectively protect WT mice. PMID:24073293

Andrew, Dean W.; Cochrane, Melanie; Schripsema, Justin H.; Ramsey, Kyle H.; Dando, Samantha J.; O’Meara, Connor P.; Timms, Peter; Beagley, Kenneth W.

2013-01-01

30

CD43-, but not CD43+, IL-10-producing CD1dhiCD5+ B cells suppress type 1 immune responses during Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infection.  

PubMed

Regulatory B (Breg) cells are known to modulate immune responses through predominantly interleukin-10 (IL-10)-dependent mechanisms and can be hypothetically divided into innate and adaptive subsets based on the nature of their activating signals. However, the specific role of different Breg subsets in modulating immune responses remains ambiguous. Here we have shown that Chlamydia induces IL-10-producing splenic B-cell populations consisting of CD43(+) and CD43(-) subsets of IgM(hi)IgD(lo) innate-like B (ILB) cells in vitro. While CD43(+)IL-10-producing B cells displayed innate type features and were readily induced by Chlamydia via Toll-like-receptor (TLR) signaling, CD43(-)IL-10-producing B cells required additional B-cell activating factor (BAFF)-mediated signals from dendritic cells (DCs) for their differentiation and activation, thereby classifying them as adaptive type Bregs. Importantly, CD43(-), but not CD43(+), IL-10-producing ILB cells displayed bona fide Breg activity by potently suppressing interferon-? (IFN-?) production in vitro in an IL-10-dependent manner. Furthermore, a novel CD43(-)CD1d(hi)CD5(+) IL-10-producing Breg population was predominantly induced by Chlamydia genital infection in vivo. Correspondingly, mixed bone marrow chimeric mice with B-cell-specific IL-10 deficiency exhibited significantly increased type 1 immune responses, decreased bacterial burden, and reduced oviduct pathology upon infection. Our data demonstrate for the first time a distinct role for CD43(-)CD1d(hi)CD5(+)-adaptive Bregs over CD43(+) innate counterparts in controlling mucosal responses against intracellular bacterial infection. PMID:24938746

Moore-Connors, J M; Kim, H S; Marshall, J S; Stadnyk, A W; Halperin, S A; Wang, J

2015-01-01

31

Intranasal Vaccination with a Secreted Chlamydial Protein Enhances Resolution of Genital Chlamydia muridarum Infection, Protects against Oviduct Pathology, and Is Highly Dependent upon Endogenous Gamma Interferon Production?  

PubMed Central

There is currently no licensed vaccine against Chlamydia trachomatis, the leading cause of sexually transmitted bacterial disease worldwide. Conventional vaccination attempts using surface-exposed chlamydial antigens have achieved only partial success. We have employed a novel vaccination strategy using a secreted protein, chlamydial protease-like activity factor (CPAF), which has been shown to degrade host major histocompatibility complex transcription factors and keratin-8 and therefore may allow immune evasion and establishment of a productive infection. Intranasal immunization using recombinant CPAF (rCPAF) plus interleukin-12 (IL-12) (rCPAF+IL-12 immunization) was used to assess the protective immunity against genital Chlamydia muridarum infection in BALB/c mice. rCPAF+IL-12 immunization induced robust gamma interferon (IFN-?) production and minimal IL-4 production by splenocytes upon in vitro recall with rCPAF. The total and immunoglobulin G2a (IgG2a) anti-rCPAF antibody levels in serum were significantly elevated after rCPAF+IL-12 vaccination, as were the total antibody, IgG2a, and IgA levels in bronchoalveolar lavage and vaginal fluids when the animals were compared to animals that received rCPAF alone. rCPAF+IL-12-vaccinated mice displayed significantly reduced bacterial shedding upon chlamydial challenge and accelerated resolution of infection compared to mock-immunized (phosphate-buffered saline) animals. Moreover, rCPAF+IL-12-immunized animals exhibited protection against pathological consequences of chlamydial infection, including the development of hydrosalpinx and oviduct dilatation. This vaccination regimen also reduced the development of fibrosis and the influx of neutrophils into the upper genital tract when the animals were compared to mock-immunized (phosphate-buffered saline) animals after bacterial challenge. rCPAF+IL-12-mediated resolution of the bacterial infection and protection against Chlamydia-induced inflammatory disease were highly dependent on endogenous IFN-? production. Together, these results demonstrate that secreted chlamydial antigens may be novel vaccine candidates to induce protective immunity. PMID:17118987

Murthy, Ashlesh K.; Chambers, James P.; Meier, Patricia A.; Zhong, Guangming; Arulanandam, Bernard P.

2007-01-01

32

Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a common sexually transmitted disease that at the present time is not effectively controlled or treated. Many infections are inapparent and transient. However, some HPV infections result in persistent lesions that in some cases undergo carcinogenic progression. A subset of genital HPVs, designated high-risk types, are preferentially associated with high-grade dysplasias and carcinomas. About

Douglas R. Lowy; Reinhard Kirnbauer; John T. Schiller

1994-01-01

33

Protection against Chlamydia Promoted by a Subunit Vaccine (CTH1) Compared with a Primary Intranasal Infection in a Mouse Genital Challenge Model  

PubMed Central

Background The chlamydial proteins CT443 (OmcB) and CT521 (rl16) have previously been identified as human B and/or T cell targets during a chlamydial infection in humans. Here we compare the protective effector mechanism promoted by a fusion protein composed of CT521 and CT443 (CTH1) with a primary intranasal Chlamydia muridarum infection known to provide high levels of protection against a genital chlamydial challenge. Methodology/Principal Findings The fusion protein CTH1, adjuvanted with a strong Th1 inducing cationic adjuvant (CAF01), significantly reduced the bacterial shedding compared to a control group in both a C. trachomatis Serovar D and C. muridarum challenge model. The CTH1/CAF01 vaccine was found to induce polyfunctional T cells consisting of TNF?/IL-2 and TNF?/IL-2/IFN-? positive cells and high titers of CTH1 specific IgG2a and IgG1. By depletion experiments the protection in the C. muridarum challenge model was demonstrated to be mediated solely by CD4+ T cells. In comparison, an intranasal infection with C. muridarum induced a T cell response that consisted predominantly of TNF?/IFN-? co-expressing effector CD4+ T cells and an antibody response consisting of C. muridarum specific IgG1, IgG2a but also IgA. This response was associated with a high level of protection against challenge—a protection that was only partially dependent on CD4+ T cells. Furthermore, whereas the antibody response induced by intranasal infection was strongly reactive against the native antigens displayed in the chlamydial elementary body, only low levels of antibodies against this preparation were found after CTH1/CAF01 immunization. Conclusions/Significance Our data demonstrate that CTH1 vaccination promotes a CD4+ T cell dependent protective response but compared with intranasal C. muridarum infection lacks a CD4 independent protective mechanism for complete protection. PMID:20505822

Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Theisen, Michael; Christensen, Dennis; Follmann, Frank; Andersen, Peter

2010-01-01

34

Genital HPV Infection  

MedlinePLUS

... STDs) Share Compartir Genital HPV Infection - Fact Sheet Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted ... other cancers including cancer of the vulva, vagina, penis, or anus. It can also cause cancer in ...

35

Chlamydia trachomatis and Genital Mycoplasmas: Pathogens with an Impact on Human Reproductive Health  

PubMed Central

The most prevalent, curable sexually important diseases are those caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) and genital mycoplasmas. An important characteristic of these infections is their ability to cause long-term sequels in upper genital tract, thus potentially affecting the reproductive health in both sexes. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), tubal factor infertility (TFI), and ectopic pregnancy (EP) are well documented complications of C. trachomatis infection in women. The role of genital mycoplasmas in development of PID, TFI, and EP requires further evaluation, but growing evidence supports a significant role for these in the pathogenesis of chorioamnionitis, premature membrane rupture, and preterm labor in pregnant woman. Both C. trachomatis and genital mycoplasmas can affect the quality of sperm and possibly influence the fertility of men. For the purpose of this paper, basic, epidemiologic, clinical, therapeutic, and public health issue of these infections were reviewed and discussed, focusing on their impact on human reproductive health.

Ljubin-Sternak, Sun?anica; Meštrovi?, Tomislav

2014-01-01

36

Immunology of Chlamydia infection: implications for a Chlamydia trachomatis vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexually transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis infections are a serious public-health problem. With more than 90 million new cases occurring annually, C. trachomatis is the most common cause of bacterial sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Recent progress in elucidating the immunobiology of Chlamydia muridarum infection of mice has helped to guide the interpretation of immunological findings in studies of human C. trachomatis infection

José Rey-Ladino; Robert C. Brunham

2005-01-01

37

Significant roles played by IL-10 in Chlamydia infections.  

PubMed

Chlamydia species are obligate intracellular parasites which cause usually asymptomatic genital tract infections and also are associated with several complications. Previous studies demonstrated that immune responses to Chlamydia species are different and the diseases will be limited to some cases. Additionally, Chlamydia species are able to modulate immune responses via regulating expression of some immune system molecules including cytokines. IL-10, as the main anti-inflammatory cytokine, plays important roles in the induction of immune-tolerance against self-antigen and also immune-homeostasis after microbe elimination. Furthermore, it has been documented that ectopic expression of IL-10 is associated with several chronic infectious diseases. Therefore, it can be hypothesized that changes in the regulation of this cytokine can be associated with infection with several species of Chlamydia and their associated complications. This review collected the recent information regarding the association and relationship of IL-10 with Chlamydia infections. Another aim of this review article is to address recent data regarding the association of genetic variations (polymorphisms) of IL-10 and Chlamydia infections. PMID:24398613

Hakimi, Hamid; Zare-Bidaki, Mohammad; Zainodini, Nahid; Assar, Shokrollah; Arababadi, Mohammad Kazemi

2014-06-01

38

Chlamydia  

MedlinePLUS

... PDF, 83 KB) Related information Gonorrhea fact sheet Pelvic inflammatory disease fact sheet Pregnancy Sexually transmitted infections fact sheet ... silent." For women, untreated chlamydia may lead to: Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). PID occurs when chlamydia bacteria infect the ...

39

Plasmid-Cured Chlamydia caviae Activates TLR2-Dependent Signaling and Retains Virulence in the Guinea Pig Model of Genital Tract Infection  

PubMed Central

Loss of the conserved “cryptic” plasmid from C. trachomatis and C. muridarum is pleiotropic, resulting in reduced innate inflammatory activation via TLR2, glycogen accumulation and infectivity. The more genetically distant C. caviae GPIC is a natural pathogen of guinea pigs and induces upper genital tract pathology when inoculated intravaginally, modeling human disease. To examine the contribution of pCpGP1 to C. caviae pathogenesis, a cured derivative of GPIC, strain CC13, was derived and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Transcriptional profiling of CC13 revealed only partial conservation of previously identified plasmid-responsive chromosomal loci (PRCL) in C. caviae. However, 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) treatment of GPIC and CC13 resulted in reduced transcription of all identified PRCL, including glgA, indicating the presence of a plasmid-independent glucose response in this species. In contrast to plasmid-cured C. muridarum and C. trachomatis, plasmid-cured C. caviae strain CC13 signaled via TLR2 in vitro and elicited cytokine production in vivo similar to wild-type C. caviae. Furthermore, inflammatory pathology induced by infection of guinea pigs with CC13 was similar to that induced by GPIC, although we observed more rapid resolution of CC13 infection in estrogen-treated guinea pigs. These data indicate that either the plasmid is not involved in expression or regulation of virulence in C. caviae or that redundant effectors prevent these phenotypic changes from being observed in C. caviae plasmid-cured strains. PMID:22292031

Frazer, Lauren C.; Darville, Toni; Chandra-Kuntal, Kumar; Andrews, Charles W.; Zurenski, Matthew; Mintus, Margaret; AbdelRahman, Yasser M.; Belland, Robert J.; Ingalls, Robin R.; O'Connell, Catherine M.

2012-01-01

40

A chlamydial type III-secreted effector protein (Tarp) is predominantly recognized by antibodies from humans infected with Chlamydia trachomatis and induces protective immunity against upper genital tract pathologies in mice  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia trachomatis genome is predicted to encode a type III secretion system consisting of more than forty open reading frames (ORFs). To test whether these ORFs are expressed and immunogenic during chlamydial infection in humans, we expressed 55 chlamydial ORFs covering all putative type III secretion components plus control molecules as fusion proteins and measured the reactivity of these fusion proteins with antibodies from patients infected with C. trachomatis in the urogenital tract (24 antisera) or in the ocular tissue (8 antisera). Forty-five of the 55 proteins were recognized by at least one of the 32 human antisera, suggesting that these proteins are both expressed and immunogenic during chlamydial infection in humans. Tarp, a putative type III secretion effector protein, was identified as a novel immunodominant antigen due to its reactivity with the human antisera at high frequency and titer. The expression and immunogenicity of Tarp were confirmed in cell culture and mouse systems. Tarp was mainly associated with the infectious form of chlamydial organisms and became undetectable between 13 and 24 hours during the infection cycle in cell culture. Mice intravaginally infected with C. muridarum developed Tarp-specific humoral and cellular immune responses. More importantly, immunization of mice with Tarp induced Th1-dominant immunity that significantly reduced the shedding of live organisms from the lower genital tract and attenuated inflammatory pathologies in the fallopian tube tissues. These observations have demonstrated that Tarp, an immunodominant antigen identified by human antisera, can induce protective immunity against chlamydial infection and pathology in mice. PMID:19428908

Wang, Jie; Chen, Lili; Chen, Fan; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Yingqian; Baseman, Joel; Perdue, Sondra; Yeh, I-Tien; Shain, Rochelle; Holland, Martin; Bailey, Robin; Mabey, David; Yu, Ping; Zhong, Guangming

2009-01-01

41

Impact of Patient Characteristics on Performance of Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests and DNA Probe for Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in Women with Genital Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of nucleic acid amplified tests (NAAT) for Chlamydia trachomatis at the cervix and in urine was examined in 3,551 women, and the impacts of clinical findings (age, endocervical and urethral inflam- mation, menses, and gonococcal coinfection) were assessed. Ligase chain reaction (LCR) and first-generation uniplex PCR were studied relative to an unamplified DNA probe (PACE2) and to an

Jeanne M. Marrazzo; Robert E. Johnson; Timothy A. Green; Walter E. Stamm; Julius Schachter; Gail Bolan; Edward W. Hook III; Robert B. Jones; David H. Martin; Carolyn M. Black

2005-01-01

42

Immunity and vaccines against sexually transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis infection  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review To review recent findings on immunity and vaccine development to Chlamydia trachomatis. Recent findings There is increasing knowledge on the interactions between Chlamydia trachomatis and infected host cells. During genital infection the organism avoids generating protective immunity but immune responses to a number of chlamydial proteins have been associated with reproductive tract pathology. Various vaccine and adjuvant preparations have been tried experimentally. Information generated by proteomics and complex studies of serological and T-lymphocyte immune responses points to novel vaccine candidates. Summary Chlamydia trachomatis, an obligate intracellular bacterium, is the commonest sexually transmitted infection worldwide and is associated with reproductive pathology. To develop rational vaccines it is necessary to understand the complex life-cycle of the organism, the host immune response to infection and how these relate to disease. Infection does not prevent reinfection and antibiotic treatment prevents antibody production at a population level. It remains unclear what type of immune response would be sufficient to prevent infection and/or reinfection. Although the prevalence and demographics of infection and the severity of disease associations suggest it would be desirable, there is no vaccine currently available. A number of studies have identified novel vaccine candidates. PMID:21124214

Howie, Sarah E. M.; Horner, Patrick J.; Horne, Andrew W.; Entrican, Gary

2011-01-01

43

Tracking down chlamydia infection in primary care.  

PubMed

Chlamydia is the most commonly diagnosed bacterial STI in this country. Sexually active people under 20 are the group most likely to have a positive result if tested. Infection is usually asymptomatic. Transmission occurs through vaginal, rectal or oral sex. Early detection and treatment can prevent transmission. Untreated chlamydia infection can result in complications such as PID, sexually acquired reactive arthritis and epididymo-orchitis. Sexually active individuals with symptoms or signs suggestive of chlamydia infection and people in certain risk groups or in circumstances where it is particularly important to make the diagnosis should be offered testing. These include: sexual partners of chlamydia patients; individuals diagnosed with chlamydia in the past 12 months; people with two or more partners in the past two months; all women undergoing termination of pregnancy; people under 25 who are sexually active and sexual health clinic attendees. All patients with chlamydia and their sexual partners should be advised to abstain from sexual contact until treatment has been completed. Sexual contacts should be notified and partner notification should be offered to all patients with chlamydia regardless of where they were diagnosed. All contacts should be offered a test for chlamydia and advised to take treatment (1g azithromycin) without waiting for results. Patients should be followed up two to four weeks after treatment. PMID:21133190

Nair, Vinuchandran Ramachandran; Baguley, Steve

2010-09-01

44

Identification and characterization of novel recombinant vaccine antigens for immunization against genital Chlamydia trachomatis  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection worldwide with over 91 million cases estimated annually. An effective subunit vaccine against Chlamydia may require a multivalent subunit cocktail of antigens in a single formulation for broad coverage of a heterogeneous MHC population. Herein we describe the identification by CD4+ and CD8+ T cell expression cloning, serological expression cloning, and an in silico analysis of the C. trachomatis genome, of novel C. trachomatis antigens. These antigens elicited human CD4+ T cell responses, and a subset proved to be immunogenic and protective when administered as immunoprophylactic vaccines against C. trachomatis challenge. Candidate vaccines consisting of the prioritized C. trachomatis antigens adjuvanted in GSK proprietary AS01B adjuvant were prioritized based on induction of solid protection against challenge in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice with C. trachomatis. Some of the vaccines prevented bacterial shedding and colonization of the upper genital tract to varying degrees by mechanisms that may include CD4+ T cells. PMID:19281568

Coler, Rhea N.; Bhatia, Ajay; Maisonneuve, Jean-Francois; Probst, Peter; Barth, Brenda; Ovendale, Pamela; Fang, Hang; Alderson, Mark; Lobet, Yves; Cohen, Joe; Mettens, Pascal; Reed, Steven G.

2009-01-01

45

Cytokine expression pattern in the genital tract of Chlamydia trachomatis positive infertile women – implication for T-cell responses  

PubMed Central

Human genital infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis is thought to be immunologically mediated, resulting in local recruitment of lymphocyte subsets and inducing the production of cytokines. Little information is available about the role of lymphocyte recruitment and the regulation of cytokine production in the genital tract of C. trachomatis positive infertile women. We have evaluated the recruitment of lymphocyte subsets in the genital tract and production of Th1/Th2 cytokines in cervical secretions and laparoscopic specimens from the fallopian tubes of C. trachomatis positive infertile women (n = 17) and compared them with controls, viz. C. trachomatis negative infertile women (n = 20) using ELISA and flow cytometry. None of these patients were found to be infected either with Candida sps., bacterial vaginosis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma hominis or Ureaplasma urealyticum in the cervix. Flow cytometric analysis of cervical secretions in Chlamydia positive women revealed recruitment of both CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes to the genital tract was up-regulated and a variation in the production rates of different cytokines in cervical secretions and fallopian tube was observed. We found that the immune responses in cervical secretions were of Th0 type, since all the analysed cytokines, viz. IFN-?, TNF-?, IL-10 and IL-12 were up-regulated. As, both CD4 and CD8 cells contribute to the production of IFN-? and IL-10, these results suggest that along with CD4 cells, CD8 lymphocytes also may be important for local regulation of Th1/Th2 responses in the genital tract during C. trachomatis infection. PMID:15320905

REDDY, B S; RASTOGI, S; DAS, B; SALHAN, S; VERMA, S; MITTAL, A

2004-01-01

46

Chlamydia  

MedlinePLUS

... mouth or anus if acquired from oral or anal sex. Chlamydia is spread through unprotected sex with ... Americans each year; infection is most common in teens and young adults (aged 15–24) with new ...

47

Postpartum Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections that are diagnosed during the postpartum period (defined as the 3 months after delivery). Study Design: This was a retrospective cohort study of women delivered of infants at ?28 weeks of gestation at an urban hospital from 1992 through 1998, including each woman's first delivery

Barbara E. Mahon; Marc B. Rosenman; Marilyn F. Graham; J. Dennis Fortenberry

2002-01-01

48

[Clinical manifestations of Chlamydia pneumoniae infections].  

PubMed

Chlamydia pneumoniae is a newly described and ubiquitous bacterium. Most infections are asymptomatic as shown by a high worldwide seroprevalence (> 50% of cases). It is a common cause of acute respiratory infections, mainly pneumonia (> 50% of cases) and other acute respiratory tract infections (25% of acute bronchitis, < 5% of sinusitis, otitis and pharyngitis). About 10% of the community acquired pneumonia cases have been associated with Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. This incidence depends on a cyclic epidemiology with a high incidence for 2 to 3 years followed by a low prevalence for 3 to 4 years. Most chlamydial infections are mild but occasionally severe with death especially in old people. Mostly acute infections are recurrent infections. The seroprevalence is higher in asthmatic patients, its role in acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis is not definitely established. Extra-respiratory acute infections are less frequent, either fever alone, or cardiovascular diseases (acute myocarditis, pericarditis and endocarditis) or neurological (encephalitis, meningitis or Guillain-Barré syndrome). In addition, seroepidemiology studies have shown an association with coronary artery disease, Chlamydia pneumoniae was detected in coronary atheroma by immunochemistry, polymerase chain reaction and by electron microscopy. Chlamydia pneumoniae may be involved in the atherosclerotic process. To define the clinical spectrum of infection requires precise laboratory diagnosis, the most efficient tests (PCR, direct immunofluorescence and culture) are done in specialized laboratories, serological tests are less reliable. Macrolides, cyclines and fluoroquinolones are the most potent antibiotics but with differences in vitro within and between these families of antibiotics. Bacteriological failures are described despite the in vitro activity. A lot of questions on clinical aspects, epidemiology and treatment are unanswered, we need more studies. PMID:9008746

Gaillat, J

1996-01-01

49

Immunopathogenesis in Chlamydia trachomatis Infected Women  

PubMed Central

We examine the Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) immunopathogenesis on the basis of the complex interaction between host immune response and virulence microorganism factors. Ct infection can be asymptomatic or may produce an inflammation elicited and preserved by reinfections or persistent infections. We discuss the host polymorphisms that, with their anti- or proinflammatory effects, determine the course of the disease. We also took into account the inflammation process following the Chlamydia illness and the role of both CD4 cells producing IFN-? and CD8 cells with their cytokines production. The crucial role of Ct-hsp60 and the double activity (either damaging or preserving from some kinds of tumors) of anti-Ct-hsp60 antibodies are considered. PMID:22191045

Mascellino, Maria Teresa; Boccia, Priscilla; Oliva, Alessandra

2011-01-01

50

Current problems of perinatal Chlamydia trachomatis infections  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia trachomatis has been recognized as a pathogen of trachoma, nongonococcal urethritis, salpingitis, endocervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, inclusion conjunctivitis of neonates, follicular conjunctivitis of adults, infantile pneumonia and associated conditions. Chlamydial infections during pregnancy may also cause a variety of perinatal complications. Different antigenic strains of C. trachomatis from endocervical, nasopharyngeal and conjunctival origins have been associated with different clinical conditions. Control programs emphasizing early diagnosis, targeted screening, and effective treatment will lead to an eventual decline in the incidence of perinatal chlamydial infection. This review focuses on current problems of perinatal C. trachomatis infections in the aspects of microbiological and immunological pathogenesis. PMID:14962349

Numazaki, Kei

2004-01-01

51

Genital and extra-genital warts increase the risk of asymptomatic genital human papillomavirus infection in men  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo evaluate the relationship of warts in different parts of the body and the risk of asymptomatic genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men.MethodsWe examined the relationship of self-reported genital and extra-genital warts with the subsequent acquisition of asymptomatic genital HPV infection in a cohort of 331 adult men. Participants were followed at 2-month intervals for up to 4 years.

Brenda Y Hernandez; Yurii B Shvetsov; Marc T Goodman; Lynne R Wilkens; Pamela J Thompson; Xuemei Zhu; James Tom; Lily Ning

2011-01-01

52

Chlamydia trachomatis Infection: Screening and Management  

PubMed Central

Objective To review current criteria and rationale for Chlamydia trachomatis screening, testing methods, and treatment of infection. Methods Review of the literature. Results C. trachomatis urogenital infections are an important public health problem. Screening for C. trachomatis in women age 25 and younger and men and women of any age at increased risk allows for the early treatment of disease, avoiding morbidity such as pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain, and reducing health care costs. Conclusion Current screening recommendations are not being implemented satisfactorily. Home-based methods of screening are acceptable and may improve universal screening rates.

Keegan, Mary B.; Diedrich, Justin T.; Peipert, Jeffrey F.

2014-01-01

53

Should we screen heterosexuals for extra-genital chlamydial and gonococcal infections?  

PubMed

Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) are two of the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infections in the UK. Although the high burden of extra-genital infections with GC and CT in men who have sex with men has been well established, a significant number of extra-genital site infections with CT and GC could similarly be present in heterosexual women. For this reason we started to routinely offer extra-genital site testing for GC and CT in all patients attending our sexual health clinic who reported having had receptive anal sex and giving oral sex. This followed a review of current evidence by the clinical team and a change in local testing policy. This study not only confirmed a large reservoir of extra-genital infection amongst men who have sex with men, but also demonstrates that a comparable reservoir of extra-genital infection is present amongst heterosexual women. Our study adds to the mounting evidence that extra-genital site testing in heterosexual women should occur when oral or anal sexual activity is reported. PMID:25013220

Garner, Anna L; Schembri, Gabriel; Cullen, Thomas; Lee, Vincent

2014-07-10

54

Papillomaviral Infections of the Female Genital Tract  

PubMed Central

The human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common organism to infect the human genital tract, affecting as much as half, or more, of the sexually active population. This virus has become widely recognized through the well publicized relationship with genital tract neoplasia and through new diagnostic technologies, such as monoclonal antibody analysis, DNA hybridization, and the polymerase chain reaction. This paper describes the full spectrum of HPV infections, starting with pathogenesis and continuing to clinical manifestations, and discusses significance, diagnosis, and management. PMID:21221347

Munro, Malcolm G.

1992-01-01

55

Chlamydia trachomatis infection in early neonatal period  

PubMed Central

Background The clinical characteristics of Chlamydia trachomatis respiratory tract infections in Japanese neonates were investigated. Methods Clinical, laboratory and microbiological characteristics of five infants with pneumonia due to C. trachomatis in early neonatal period were analyzed. Results Only C. trachomatis was identified in 4 infants. Both C. trachomatis and cytomegalovirus was identified in one. Wheezing, tachypnea and cyanosis were common in infants. Mothers of five infants had negative chlamydial EIAs at 20 weeks of gestation. Conclusions We identified five cases of C. trachomatis respiratory tract infections in early neonatal period with the possibility of intrauterine infection. Targeted screening, early diagnosis, and effective treatment of perinatal and neonatal chlamydial infections seems to be necessary PMID:12697048

Numazaki, Kei; Asanuma, Hideomi; Niida, Yuichi

2003-01-01

56

Isolation of single Chlamydia-infected cells using laser microdissection.  

PubMed

Chlamydia are obligate intracellular parasites of humans and animals that cause a wide range of acute and chronic infections. To elucidate the genetic basis of chlamydial parasitism, several approaches for making genetic modifications to Chlamydia have recently been reported. However, the lack of the available methods for the fast and effective selection of genetically modified bacteria restricts the application of genetic tools. We suggest the use of laser microdissection to isolate of single live Chlamydia-infected cells for the re-cultivation and whole-genome sequencing of single inclusion-derived Chlamydia. To visualise individual infected cells, we made use of the vital labelling of inclusions with the fluorescent Golgi-specific dye BODIPY® FL C5-ceramide. We demonstrated that single Chlamydia-infected cells isolated by laser microdissection and placed onto a host cell monolayer resulted in new cycles of infection. We also demonstrated the successful use of whole-genome sequencing to study the genomic variability of Chlamydia derived from a single inclusion. Our work provides the first evidence of the successful use of laser microdissection for the isolation of single live Chlamydia-infected cells, thus demonstrating that this method can help overcome the barriers to the fast and effective selection of Chlamydia. PMID:25546842

Podgorny, Oleg V; Polina, Nadezhda F; Babenko, Vladislav V; Karpova, Irina Y; Kostryukova, Elena S; Govorun, Vadim M; Lazarev, Vassili N

2015-02-01

57

Small Molecule Inhibitor of Type Three Secretion Suppresses Acute and Chronic Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in a Novel Urogenital Chlamydia Model  

PubMed Central

Previously, we reported that a compound from a group of thiohydrazides of oxamic acids, CL-55, possessed antichlamydial activity in vitro that was accompanied by a decreased translocation of the type three secretion effector, IncA, into the host cell. In this study, the antichlamydial activity of CL-55 was tested in vivo in DBA/2 mice infected with C. trachomatis serovar D. We found that intravaginal inoculation of DBA/2 mice with the clinically relevant strain, C. trachomatis serovar D, results in a course of infection and pathology similar to that observed in humans. The early stage of infection in this model was characterized by a shedding of Chlamydia in vaginal secretions followed by an ascending infection and inflammation in the upper genital tract. We found that CL-55 possessed antibacterial activity in vivo and was able to control C. trachomatis vaginal shedding, ascending infection, and inflammation in the upper genital organs in DBA/2 mice. Our data provide a proof of concept for the protective effect of the thiadiazinon, CL-55, against chlamydial infection in vivo and support the feasibility of further studies of its potential therapeutic applications.

Koroleva, Ekaterina A.; Kobets, Natalia V.; Zayakin, Egor S.; Luyksaar, Sergei I.; Shabalina, Ludmila A.; Zigangirova, Naylia A.

2015-01-01

58

Upper Genital Tract Infections in Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female upper genital tract infections can occur in the endometrium (endometritis), uterine wall (myometritis), the uterine\\u000a serosa and broad ligaments (parametritis), the fallopian tubes (salpingitis), the ovary (oophoritis), and the pelvic peritoneum\\u000a (peritonitis). Because itmay not be possible to identify the site of infection precisely, the term pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is often used when one or more of these

Frances E. Likis

59

Genital tract infections and infertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious agents can impair various important human functions, including reproduction. Bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites are able to interfere with the reproductive function in both sexes. Infections of male genito-urinary tract account for about 15% of the case of male infertility. Infections can affect different sites of the male reproductive tract, such as the testis, epididymis and male accessory sex

Donatella Pellati; Ioannis Mylonakis; Giulio Bertoloni; Cristina Fiore; Alessandra Andrisani; Guido Ambrosini; Decio Armanini

2008-01-01

60

Pathogenesis of genital HPV infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical, subclinical, and latent human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are distinguished from HPV-associated neoplasia. Besides HPV additional cofactors are necessary to transform HPV infected tissue to intraepithelial or invasive neoplasia. Risk factors for the presence of HPV are high number of sexual partners, early cohabitarche, young age at first delivery, suppression and alteration of immune status, young age and hormonal influences.

A Schneider

1993-01-01

61

Inhibition of Matrix Metalloproteinases Protects Mice from Ascending Infection and Chronic Disease Manifestations Resulting from Urogenital Chlamydia muridarum Infection  

PubMed Central

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are a family of host-derived enzymes involved in the turnover of extracellular matrix molecules. We have previously reported enhanced expression of matrix metalloproteinases in Chlamydia muridarum urogenital tract infection of female mice. Kinetics and patterns of MMP expression as well as enhanced expression in susceptible strains of mice in the prior study implied a role for MMP in pathogenesis. To explore this further, we infected a susceptible strain of mice (C3H/HeN) with C. muridarum and treated two groups of mice with either one of two chemical inhibitors of MMP (MMPi; captopril and a chemically modified tetracycline) and reserved infected sham-treated mice as controls. Neither of the treatments affected shedding of viable chlamydiae from the lower urogenital tract, but the administration of either MMPi protected mice from the formation of hydrosalpinx—a surrogate marker of oviduct occlusion and infertility. Interestingly, the mechanism of protection for mice treated with chemically modified tetracycline 3, appeared to be related to prevention of ascending upper genital tract infection. These results imply that MMP are involved in pathogenesis of chlamydial infection in this model by mediating ascension of the infection into the upper genital tract. PMID:16988226

Imtiaz, Muhammad T.; Schripsema, Justin H.; Sigar, Ira M.; Kasimos, John N.; Ramsey, Kyle H.

2006-01-01

62

Genital human Papillomavirus infection in patients with autoimmune inflammatory diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment advances achieved over the last few years have radically changed the management of patients with autoimmune inflammatory diseases requiring conventional or biological immunosuppressive therapy. These diseases and the drugs used to treat them increase the rate of infections, including genital infections due to the human Papillomavirus (HPV). Genital HPV infections have been extensively studied in organ transplant recipients, HIV-infected

François Aubin; Mickaël Martin; Eve Puzenat; Nadine Magy-Bertrand; Michel Segondy; Didier Riethmuller; Daniel Wendling

2011-01-01

63

Role of matrix metalloproteinase-7 in the modulation of a Chlamydia trachomatis infection  

PubMed Central

To determine the role of matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) in the pathogenesis of chlamydial infection, C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and MMP-7 knockout (KO) mice were infected intravaginally with Chlamydia trachomatis mouse pneumonitis (MoPn). Over a period of 6 weeks postinfection, various organs were cultured for C. trachomatis. Other infected animals were mated to assess their fertility status. No significant differences were observed between WT and KO mice in the number of animals with positive vaginal cultures, length of time of C. trachomatis shedding, or the number of C. trachomatis inclusion-forming units (IFU) recovered from their genital tracts. Likewise, the number of animals with hydrosalpinx, and the fertility rates and the number of embryos per mouse, were similar in WT and KO mice. Cultures from the spleen, lungs, kidneys and large intestine yielded similar numbers of IFU from WT and KO mice. However, the number of C. trachomatis IFU recovered from the small intestine of KO mice was significantly higher than that recovered from the small intestine of WT mice at 2 weeks postinfection. Because MMP-7 KO mice are deficient in active intestinal ?-defensins, the results suggest that these components play a role in regulating colonization of the gastrointestinal tract by Chlamydia. By contrast, MMP-7 is dispensable in the progression and resolution of the genital tract infection. PMID:16423057

Pal, Sukumar; Schmidt, Amy P; Peterson, Ellena M; Wilson, Carole L; la Maza Luis M, de

2006-01-01

64

Infection of human monocytes by Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia trachomatis: an in vitro comparative study  

PubMed Central

Background An increasing number of studies suggest that chlamydiae can infect immune cells. The altered immune cell function could contribute to the progression of several chronic inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) interactions with in vitro infected human blood monocytes. Results Fresh isolated monocytes were infected with viable CP and CT elementary bodies and infectivity was evaluated by recultivating disrupted monocytes in permissive epithelial cells. The production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species was studied in the presence of specific fluorescent probes. Moreover, TNF-?, INF-?, INF-? and INF-? gene expression was determined. CT clearance from monocytes was complete at any time points after infection, while CP was able to survive up to 48 hours after infection. When NADPH oxydase or nitric oxide synthase inhibitors were used, CT infectivity in monocytes was restored, even if at low level, and CT recovery’s rate was comparable to CP one. CT-infected monocytes produced significantly higher levels of reactive species compared with CP-infected monocytes, at very early time points after infection. In the same meanwhile, TNF-? and INF-? gene expression was significantly increased in CT-infected monocytes. Conclusions Our data confirm that CP, but not CT, is able to survive in infected monocytes up to 48 hours post-infection. The delay in reactive species and cytokines production by CP-infected monocytes seems to be crucial for CP survival. PMID:24721461

2014-01-01

65

Case-control study of vulvar vestibulitis risk associated with genital infections.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk of vulvar vestibulitis syndrome (VVS) associated with genital infections in a case-control study. METHODS: Diagnosed cases with VVS (n = 69) and age-frequency-matched healthy controls (n = 65) were enrolled from gynecology clinics in a university medical hospital during 1999. They were compared for potential risk factors and symptoms of disease. RESULTS: VVS cases had a significantly higher risk of physician-reported bacterial vaginosis (BV) (odds ratio, OR = 9.4), Candida albicans (OR = 5.7), pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) (OR = 11.2), trichomoniasis (OR = 20.6), and vulvar dysplasia (OR = l5.7) but no risk associated with human papillomavirus (HPV), ASCUS, cervical dysplasia, genital warts, chlamydia, genital herpes or gonorrhea. Genital symptoms reported significantly more often with VVS included vulvar burning (91 vs. 12%), dyspareunia (81 vs. 15%), vulvar itching (68 vs. 23%) and dysuria (54 vs. 19%) (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: A history of genital infections is associated with an increased risk of VVS. Long-term follow-up case-control studies are needed to elucidate etiologic mechanisms, methods for prevention and effective treatment. PMID:12648313

Smith, Elaine M; Ritchie, Justine M; Galask, Rudolph; Pugh, Erica E; Jia, Jian; Ricks-McGillan, Joan

2002-01-01

66

Monitoring the T cell response to genital tract infection  

E-print Network

are mediated by T cells. In humans, T cells respond to C. trachomatis at the site of infection and appearMonitoring the T cell response to genital tract infection Nadia R. Roan, Todd M. Gierahn, Darren E-specific T cell responses during primary infection of the genital tract. The low frequency of pathogen

Starnbach, Michael

67

Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infections and Sudden Unexpected Deaths in Denmark.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Blood samples from 38 runners on the Danish national orienteering team revealed no ongoing chlamydia pneumoniae, although 42% had an earlier infection, similar to the incidence in the general population. However, over 2% had an ongoing lyme borreliosis infection, and 18% had an earlier infection, which is a higher incidence than in the general…

Johannsen, Finn

1993-01-01

68

Treatment of rectal chlamydia infection may be more complicated than we originally thought.  

PubMed

Rectal chlamydia diagnoses have been increasing among MSM and may also rise among women as anal sex rates increase among heterosexuals. However, there is growing concern about treatment for rectal chlamydia with treatment failures of up to 22% being reported. This article addresses factors that may be contributing to treatment failure for rectal chlamydia, including the pharmacokinetic properties of azithromycin and doxycycline in rectal tissue, the ability of chlamydia to transform into a persistent state that is less responsive to antimicrobial therapy, the impact of the rectal microbiome on chlamydia, heterotypic resistance, failure to detect cases of lymphogranuloma venereum and the performance of screening tests. If we are to reduce the burden of genital chlamydia, treatment for rectal chlamydia must be efficacious. This highlights the need for randomized controlled trial evidence comparing azithromycin with doxycycline for the treatment of rectal chlamydia. PMID:25480490

Hocking, Jane S; Kong, Fabian Y S; Timms, Peter; Huston, Wilhelmina M; Tabrizi, Sepehr N

2014-12-01

69

Pathogenesis of Chlamydia induced pelvic inflammatory disease  

PubMed Central

Further research is necessary to elucidate the pathogenesis of chlamydial PID. It is hoped that these endeavours will eventually lead to a vaccine to prevent not only chlamydia infection, but also chlamydia associated infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. In the meantime we need to develop strategies to prevent primary and secondary chlamydia infection and its sequelae. Recently, Scholes et. al demonstrated that a population based approach to identify and test women at high risk for cervical C trachomatis infection effectively reduced risk of PID. Hopefully, through the use of public health measures, we can see similar decreases of chlamydia associated genital tract disease worldwide. ??? PMID:10448337

Cohen, C. R.; Brunham, R. C.

1999-01-01

70

Syphilis, gonorrhoea and genital chlamydial infection in a Somali village.  

PubMed Central

A total of 767 sera were collected from 187 men, 200 women and 380 children in a Somali village, Jambaluul. All sera were tested for syphilis serological markers by Venereal Diseases Research Laboratory (VDRL) and Treponema pallidum Haemagglutination Assay (TPHA). Sera positive for both or either of these tests were further analysed for the presence of specific IgM antibodies by Solid Phase Haemadsorption Assay (SPHA). A high and almost equal prevalence of TPHA positivity was found in men and women; 24% and 22.5%, respectively, and IgM antibodies were found in 3% and 4%, respectively. TPHA positivity significantly increased with age. Thus more than half of the villagers at the age of 45 years or more were TPHA positive. One percent of the children were TPHA positive. From all adults aged 15 years and above urogenital specimens were also taken for Chlamydia trachomatis antigen detection with an enzyme-amplified immunoassay (IDEIA) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae culture. Chlamydial genital infection was found in 6% of the men and 18% of the women. All gonococcal cultures were negative. PMID:2187793

Ismail, S O; Ahmed, H J; Jama, M A; Omer, K; Omer, F M; Brundin, M; Olofsson, M B; Grillner, L; Bygdeman, S

1990-01-01

71

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Genetic analysis of susceptibility to Chlamydia  

E-print Network

Chlamydia trachomatis is a bacterial pathogen that is a major cause of blindness and infertility in diverse, cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, and infertility. In developing countries, genital infection can also

Starnbach, Michael

72

Identifying a Role for Toll-Like Receptor 3 in the Innate Immune Response to Chlamydia muridarum Infection in Murine Oviduct Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Because epithelial cells are the major cell type productively infected with Chlamydia during genital tract infections, the overall goal of our research was to understand the contribution of infected epithelial cells to the host defense. We previously showed that Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) is the critical pattern recognition receptor in oviduct epithelial (OE) cells that is stimulated during Chlamydia infection, resulting in the synthesis of beta interferon (IFN-?). Here, we present data that implicates TLR3 in the expression of a multitude of other innate-inflammatory immune modulators including interleukin-6 (IL-6), CXCL10, CXCL16, and CCL5. We demonstrate that Chlamydia-induced expression of these cytokines is severely disrupted in TLR3-deficient OE cells, whereas Chlamydia replication in the TLR3-deficient cells is more efficient than in wild-type OE cells. Pretreatment of the TLR3-deficient OE cells with 50 U of IFN-?/ml prior to infection diminished Chlamydia replication and restored the ability of Chlamydia infection to induce IL-6, CXCL10, and CCL5 expression in TLR3-deficient OE cells; however, CXCL16 induction was not restored by IFN-? preincubation. Our findings were corroborated in pathway-focused PCR arrays, which demonstrated a multitude of different inflammatory genes that were defectively regulated during Chlamydia infection of the TLR3-deficient OE cells, and we found that some of these genes were induced only when IFN-? was added prior to infection. Our OE cell data implicate TLR3 as an essential inducer of IFN-? and other inflammatory mediators by epithelial cells during Chlamydia infection and highlight the contribution of TLR3 to the inflammatory cytokine response. PMID:22006569

Shobe, LaTasha R.; Kamran, Jasmine C.; Toomey, Katherine S.; Ofner, Susan

2012-01-01

73

Seminal levels of IL-10, IL-12, and IL-17 in men with asymptomatic chlamydia infection.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis, as an obligate intracellular parasite, usually causes asymptomatic genital tract infections in both men and women with several complications. The role of C. trachomatis infection in the secretion of a number of interleukins (ILs) from epithelial cells has been established by in vitro studies performed on various cell lines. The aim of this study was to detect the seminal levels of IL-10, IL-12, and IL-17 in men with asymptomatic chlamydia infection. Our case group study included 50 semen samples being PCR-positive for C. trachomatis from 585 semen samples and the ELISA method was applied for detection of IL-10, IL-12, and IL-17. Our results demonstrated that the semen levels of IL-10 and IL-17 were significantly increased, while IL-12 was decreased in C. trachomatis-infected patients. According to these results, it may be concluded that the increased and decreased semen levels of IL-10 and IL-12, respectively, lead to impaired immune responses against C. trachomatis. Increased semen levels of IL-17 may also be associated with the pathogenesis of C. trachomatis infection. PMID:23996104

Hakimi, Hamid; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Chamani, Leila; Arababadi, Mohammad Kazemi; Ahmadabadi, Behzad Nasiri; Hassanshahi, Gholamhossein; Fathollahi, Mahmoud Sheikh

2014-02-01

74

Genital Infection as a First Sign of Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Fournier's gangrene is a life-threatening disorder caused by aerobic and anaerobic bacterial infection. We report a case of genital infection as the initial warning sign of acute myeloid leukemia. We were able to prevent progression to Fournier's gangrene in our patient by immediate intensive therapy with incision, blood transfusions and intravenous administration of antibiotics. This case suggests that hematologists and dermatologists should keep in mind that genital infection can be a first sign of hematologic malignancy. PMID:21173921

Oiso, Naoki; Rai, Shinya; Kawara, Shigeru; Tatsumi, Yoichi; Kawada, Akira

2010-01-01

75

Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in urine samples by nucleic acid tests: comparison with culture and enzyme immunoassay of genital swab specimens.  

PubMed Central

Two commercially available nucleic acid-based tests, ligase chain reaction (LCR; Abbott Laboratories) and PCR (Roche Diagnostics), for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in male and female urine samples were compared with culture and enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (Microtrak; Syva) for C. trachomatis detection in genital samples. The samples were collected from 1,005 patients who attended a sexually transmitted disease clinic. In this study population, the prevalence of the infection was 4%. Specimens which were reactive in any of the tests were retested with a different PCR test using primers directed against the major outer membrane protein gene. With a "gold standard" of a positive culture, or any other positive test result if it was confirmed by an independent test, the Roche PCR (95% sensitive, 99.9% specific) was more sensitive than the LCR (75% sensitive, 100% specific) (chi2, P < 0.0001) while both tests were more sensitive than culture (58% sensitive, 100% specific) or EIA (45% sensitive, 100% specific) (chi2, P < 0.001). The Roche PCR and Abbott LCR tests of urine identified 65% and 30% more positive patients, respectively, than did testing by culture of urethral or cervical specimens. Nucleic acid testing of urine specimens for C. trachomatis is a more sensitive and convenient method for the detection of genital infection. PMID:9399559

Schepetiuk, S; Kok, T; Martin, L; Waddell, R; Higgins, G

1997-01-01

76

Innate immune responses to Chlamydia pneumoniae infection: Role of TLRs, NLRs, and the Inflammasome  

PubMed Central

Chlamydiae are important human pathogens that are responsible for a wide rage of diseases with a significant impact on public health. In this review article we highlight how recent studies have increased our knowledge of Chlamydia pneumoniae pathogenesis and mechanisms of innate immunity directed host defense against Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. PMID:22985781

Shimada, Kenichi; Crother, Timothy R.; Arditi, Moshe

2012-01-01

77

Recent advances in understanding and managing Chlamydia trachomatis infections  

PubMed Central

Worldwide, Chlamydia trachomatis infections rank among the most common sexually transmitted infections (STI), and cause notable reproductive morbidity in women. Although advances in highly accurate and non-invasive diagnostic testing have allowed for better estimation of the burden of disease—especially the asymptomatic state—we still lack a true point-of-care test, and many infections go undetected and untreated. Moreover, limited resources and effort for managing sexual partners of those in whom infection is actually identified comprise a major challenge to control. Here, we review the current state of understanding of this common infection, and efforts to control it. PMID:25580274

Suchland, Robert

2014-01-01

78

Selective infection of astrocytes by Chlamydia trachomatis in primary mixed neuron-glial cell cultures.  

PubMed Central

Both human biovars of Chlamydia trachomatis were able to productively infect primary cultures of fetal rat brain cells. Infected brain cells released bacteria that reinfected McCoy cells well as other cultured brain cells. The chlamydiae infected cultured astrocytes but were never observed to grow inside neurons, suggesting a selective susceptibility of specific brain cells to chlamydial infections. Images PMID:3536751

Levitt, D; Danen, R; Levitt, P

1986-01-01

79

High-risk sexual behaviours and genital chlamydial infections in high school students in Southern Taiwan.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of high-risk sexual behaviours and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and associated risk factors in Taiwanese high school students. Students in grades 10 and 11 (mean age: 15.9 +/- 0.9; range: 13-20 years) at two schools were recruited. An anonymous online real-time computer-assisted self-interviewing questionnaire was designed to assess demographic factors and sexual behaviours. Urine specimens were tested for genital chlamydial and gonococcal infections. The same survey and screening was conducted one year later on the same group of students. Overall, 670 individual students (993 visits) were enrolled with 323 students in both surveys. Twenty-seven percent had had sexual intercourse, and more than three quarters (79%) of them had engaged in high-risk sexual behaviours. Having friends using drugs increased the odds of practicing high-risk sexual behaviours (odds ratio [OR] 1.99, 95% CI: 1.13 to 3.50). Among 182 sexually active students, 8.8% had chlamydial (female: 12.5%; male: 5.3%) and 1.1% had gonococcal infections. Having sex with someone met on the Internet was the most significant risk factor for acquiring chlamydia (OR 8.14, 95% CI: 2.82 to 23.51). In conclusion, this adolescent population reported high prevalence of high-risk sexual behaviours and had a high prevalence of chlamydia supportive of a potential epidemic of STIs and HIV. PMID:20378896

Hsieh, Y-H; Shih, T-Y; Lin, H-W; Hsieh, T-C; Kuo, M-J; Lin, C-W; Gaydos, C A

2010-04-01

80

Genital Herpes  

MedlinePLUS

What is genital herpes? Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) . Genital herpes is probably best known for the sores and blisters ... do not see a sore. How does genital herpes infection occur? The herpes virus can pass through ...

81

A prediction rule for selective screening of Chlamydia trachomatis infection  

PubMed Central

Background: Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infections is aimed at the reduction of these infections and subsequent complications. Selective screening may increase the cost effectiveness of a screening programme. Few population based systematic screening programmes have been carried out and attempts to validate selective screening criteria have shown poor performance. This study describes the development of a prediction rule for estimating the risk of chlamydial infection as a basis for selective screening. Methods: A population based chlamydia screening study was performed in the Netherlands by inviting 21 000 15–29 year old women and men in urban and rural areas for home based urine testing. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for chlamydial infection among 6303 sexually active participants, and the discriminative ability was measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Internal validity was assessed with bootstrap resampling techniques. Results: The prevalence of C trachomatis (CT) infection was 2.6% (95% CI 2.2 to 3.2) in women and 2.0% (95% CI 1.4 to 2.7) in men. Chlamydial infection was associated with high level of urbanisation, young age, Surinam/Antillian ethnicity, low/intermediate education, multiple lifetime partners, a new contact in the previous two months, no condom use at last sexual contact, and complaints of (post)coital bleeding in women and frequent urination in men. A prediction model with these risk factors showed adequate discriminative ability at internal validation (AUC 0.78). Conclusion: The prediction rule has the potential to guide individuals in their choice of participation when offered chlamydia screening and is a promising tool for selective CT screening at population level. PMID:15681717

Gotz, H; van Bergen, J E A M; Veldhuijzen, I; Broer, J; Hoebe, C; Richardus, J

2005-01-01

82

Comparative Assessment of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Iranian Women with Cervicitis: A Cross-Sectional Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydia trachomatis infections are the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STI) recognized through- out the world. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis among a randomized statis- tical group of women suffering from cervicitis in Tehran- Iran. During a 12- month- period, Jan 2003 to Jan 2004, 142 en- docervical samples were taken

J Zaeimi Yazdi; N Badami; B Kazemi; F Aminharati; Z Eftekhar; A Berahme; M Mahmoudi

2006-01-01

83

Inhibition of chlamydial infection in the genital tract of female mice by topical application of a peptide deformylase inhibitor.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium responsible for a number of health problems, including sexually transmitted infection in humans. We recently discovered that C. trachomatis infection in cell culture is highly susceptible to inhibitors of peptide deformylase, an enzyme that removes the N-formyl group from newly synthesized polypeptides. In this study, one of the deformylase inhibitors, GM6001, was tested for potential antichlamydial activity using a murine genital C. muridarum infection model. Topical application of GM6001 significantly reduced C. muridarum loading in BALB/c mice that were vaginally infected with the pathogen. In striking contrast, growth of the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum is strongly resistant to the PDF inhibitor. GM6001 demonstrated no detectable toxicity against host cells. On the basis of these data and our previous observations, we conclude that further evaluation of PDF inhibitors for prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted chlamydial infection is warranted. PMID:17936604

Balakrishnan, Amit; Wang, Lingling; Li, Xiaojin; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Malatesta, Paul; Fan, Huizhou

2009-01-01

84

Developmental Stage Oxidoreductive States of Chlamydia and Infected Host Cells  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT A defining characteristic of Chlamydia spp. is their developmental cycle characterized by outer membrane transformations of cysteine bonds among cysteine-rich outer membrane proteins. The reduction-oxidation states of host cell compartments were monitored during the developmental cycle using live fluorescence microscopy. Organelle redox states were studied using redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein (roGFP1) expressed in CF15 epithelial cells and targeted to the cytosol, mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The redox properties of chlamydiae and the inclusion were monitored using roGFP expressed by Chlamydia trachomatis following transformation. Despite the large morphological changes associated with chlamydial infection, redox potentials of the cytosol (?cyto [average, ?320 mV]), mitochondria (?mito [average, ?345 mV]), and the ER (?ER [average, ?258 mV]) and their characteristic redox regulatory abilities remained unchanged until the cells died, at which point ?cyto and ?mito became more oxidized and ?ER became more reduced. The redox status of the chamydial cytoplasm was measured following transformation and expression of the roGFP biosensor in C. trachomatis throughout the developmental cycle. The periplasmic and outer membrane redox states were assessed by the level of cysteine cross-linking of cysteine-rich envelope proteins. In both cases, the chlamydiae were highly reduced early in the developmental cycle and became oxidized late in the developmental cycle. The production of a late-developmental-stage oxidoreductase/isomerase, DsbJ, may play a key role in the regulation of the oxidoreductive developmental-stage-specific process. PMID:25352618

Wang, Xiaogang; Schwarzer, Christian; Hybiske, Kevin; Machen, Terry E.

2014-01-01

85

Chlamydia Test  

MedlinePLUS

... vaginal discharge. For men, symptoms include pus or milky discharge from the penis and inflammation of the ... How can chlamydia be prevented? The most reliable ways to avoid infection with chlamydia or any sexually ...

86

Altered protein secretion of Chlamydia trachomatis in persistently infected human endocervical epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial infection of the human reproductive tract globally; however, the mechanisms underlying the adaptation of the organism to its natural target cells, human endocervical epithelial cells, are not clearly understood. To secure its intracellular niche, C. trachomatis must modulate the host cellular machinery by secreting virulence factors into the host cytosol to facilitate bacterial growth and survival. Here we used primary human endocervical epithelial cells and HeLa cells infected with C. trachomatis to examine the secretion of bacterial proteins during productive growth and persistent growth induced by ampicillin. Specifically, we observed a decrease in secretable chlamydial protease-like activity factor (CPAF) in the cytosol of host epithelial cells exposed to ampicillin with no evident reduction of CPAF product by C. trachomatis. In contrast, the expression of CopN and Tarp was downregulated, suggesting that C. trachomatis responds to ampicillin exposure by selectively altering the expression of secretable proteins. In addition, we observed a greater accumulation of outer-membrane vesicles from C. trachomatis in persistently infected cells. Taken together, these results suggest that the regulation of both gene expression and the secretion of chlamydial virulence proteins is involved in the adaptation of the bacteria to a persistent infection state in human genital epithelial cells. PMID:21737500

Wang, Jin; Frohlich, Kyla M.; Buckner, Lyndsey; Quayle, Alison J.; Luo, Miao; Feng, Xiaogeng; Beatty, Wandy; Hua, Ziyu; Rao, Xiancai; Lewis, Maria E.; Sorrells, Kelly; Santiago, Kerri; Zhong, Guangming

2011-01-01

87

Use of a Guinea Pig-Specific Transcriptome Array for Evaluation of Protective Immunity against Genital Chlamydial Infection following Intranasal Vaccination in Guinea Pigs  

PubMed Central

Guinea pigs have been used as a second animal model to validate putative anti-chlamydial vaccine candidates tested in mice. However, the lack of guinea pig-specific reagents has limited the utility of this animal model in Chlamydia sp. vaccine studies. Using a novel guinea pig-specific transcriptome array, we determined correlates of protection in guinea pigs vaccinated with Chlamydia caviae (C. caviae) via the intranasal route, previously reported by us and others to provide robust antigen specific immunity against subsequent intravaginal challenge. C. caviae vaccinated guinea pigs resolved genital infection by day 3 post challenge. In contrast, mock vaccinated animals continued to shed viable Chlamydia up to day 18 post challenge. Importantly, at day 80 post challenge, vaccinated guinea pigs experienced significantly reduced genital pathology - a sequelae of genital chlamydial infections, in comparison to mock vaccinated guinea pigs. Sera from vaccinated guinea pigs displayed antigen specific IgG responses and increased IgG1 and IgG2 titers capable of neutralizing GPIC in vitro. Th1-cellular/inflammatory immune genes and Th2-humoral associated genes were also found to be elevated in vaccinated guinea pigs at day 3 post-challenge and correlated with early clearance of the bacterium. Overall, this study provides the first evidence of guinea pig-specific genes involved in anti-chlamydial vaccination and illustrates the enhancement of the utility of this animal model in chlamydial pathogenesis. PMID:25502875

Veselenak, Ronald L.; Li, Yansong; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Murthy, Ashlesh K.; Cap, Andrew P.; Guentzel, M. Neal; Chambers, James P.; Zhong, Guangming; Rank, Roger G.; Pyles, Richard B.; Arulanandam, Bernard P.

2014-01-01

88

Infections in the male genital tract and reactive oxygen species  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the male genital tract, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated by spermatozoa and leukocytes including neutrophils and macrophages. ROS are involved in the regulation of sperm functions such as capacitation and the acrosome reaction. Infections lead to an excessive ROS production, resulting in an 'oxidative burst' from neutrophils\\/macrophages as a first-line defence mechanism. This is modulated by several cytokines

F. R. Ochsendorf

1999-01-01

89

Psychosocial implications of recurrent genital herpes simplex virus infection.  

PubMed Central

Fifty seven patients experiencing first attacks of genital herpes simplex virus infection (HSVI) were compared with 50 patients who were concerned about frequently recurring attacks despite routine counselling and reassurance. Using the general health questionnaire this latter group was found to be more psychologically distressed and more socially naive than the first attack group, as measured by socioeconomic class and the lie score of the Eysenck personality questionnaire; otherwise the two groups were similar. Patients presenting to clinics with frequently recurring genital HSVI may therefore be especially psychologically distressed, socially naive, and disadvantaged. Managing these patients needs to include understanding these problems as well as giving advice and using antiviral agents. PMID:3203933

Goldmeier, D; Johnson, A; Byrne, M; Barton, S

1988-01-01

90

Prenatal Chlamydia trachomatis infection increases the risk of preeclampsia  

PubMed Central

The relationship between Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and preeclampsia was examined longitudinally among 205 cases and 423 normotensive controls nested within the Collaborative Perinatal Project. Antibodies were analyzed at a first prenatal visit (mean 14.2 weeks) and at delivery. Prenatal infections were identified as IgG/IgM seroconversion or a four-fold rise in IgG antibody titers. Although serological evidence of incident prenatal CT infection was uncommon (n=9, 1.4%) in this general pregnant population, infected women were more likely to develop preeclampsia, after adjustment for maternal age, body mass index, smoking status, race and time between blood draws (ORadj 7.2, 95% CI 1.3 – 39.7). PMID:24058897

Haggerty, Catherine L.; Klebanoff, Mark A.; Panum, Inge; Uldum, Soren A.; Bass, Debra C.; Olsen, Jorn; Roberts, James M.; Ness, Roberta B.

2013-01-01

91

Cytokine release by ovine macrophages following infection with Chlamydia psittaci  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia psittaci is an obligate intracellular pathogen that causes abortion in both sheep and humans. The disease in sheep (but not humans) is characterized by a long-term persistent phase that appears to be under the control of interferon-gamma. However, nothing is known about cytokine induction that precedes the persistent phase in sheep. Primary alveolar lavage cells recovered from normal adult sheep were used to study cytokine production in the first 72 h of infection with C. psittaci. These cells were phenotypically characteristic of macrophages, being adherent, phagocytic, CD14+ and staining positive for non-specific esterase. In vitro infection of the macrophages with C. psittaci resulted in the release of IL-1?, IL-8 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) as measured by ovine-specific ELISAs. Heat-treated chlamydiae (1 h at 65°C) did not induce the release of IL-1?, but the release of IL-8 was similar to that induced by untreated organisms. The cells from different sheep varied most notably in their patterns of GM-CSF release in response to heat-treated and untreated organisms. PMID:10444263

Entrican, G; Wilkie, R; Mcwaters, P; Scheerlinck, J-P; Wood, P R; Brown, J

1999-01-01

92

Chlamydia trachomatis-infected patients display variable antibody profiles against the nine-member polymorphic membrane protein family.  

PubMed

Genomic analysis of the Chlamydiaceae has revealed a multigene family encoding large, putatively autotransported polymorphic membrane proteins (Pmps) with nine members in the sexually transmitted pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis. While various pathogenesis-related functions are emerging for the Pmps, observed genotypic and phenotypic variation among several chlamydial Pmps in various Chlamydia species has led us to hypothesize that the pmp gene repertoire is the basis of a previously undetected mechanism of antigenic variation. To test this hypothesis, we chose to examine the serologic response of C. trachomatis-infected patients to each Pmp subtype. Immune serum samples were collected from four populations of patients with confirmed C. trachomatis genital infection: 40 women with pelvic inflammatory disease from Pittsburgh, PA; 27 and 34 adolescent/young females from Oakland, CA, and Little Rock, AR, respectively; and 58 adult male patients from Baltimore, MD. The Pmp-specific antibody response was obtained using immunoblot analysis against each of the nine recombinantly expressed Pmps and quantified by densitometry. Our results show that nearly all C. trachomatis-infected patients mount a strong serologic response against individual or multiple Pmp subtypes and that the antibody specificity profile varies between patients. Moreover, our analysis reveals differences in the strengths and specificities of the Pmp subtype-specific antibody reactivity relating to gender and clinical outcome. Overall, our results indicate that the Pmps elicit various serologic responses in C. trachomatis-infected patients and are consistent with the pmp gene family being the basis of a mechanism of antigenic variation. PMID:19487469

Tan, Chun; Hsia, Ru-ching; Shou, Huizhong; Haggerty, Catherine L; Ness, Roberta B; Gaydos, Charlotte A; Dean, Deborah; Scurlock, Amy M; Wilson, David P; Bavoil, Patrik M

2009-08-01

93

Seroprevalence of Antibodies against Pkn1, a Novel Potential Immunogen, in Chlamydia trachomatis-Infected Macaca nemestrina and Human Patients  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is an important cause of sexually transmitted genital tract infections (STIs) and trachoma. Despite major research into chlamydial pathogenesis and host immune responses, immunoprotection has been hampered by the incomplete understanding of protective immunity in the genital tract. Characterized vaccine candidates have shown variable efficacy ranging from no protection to partial protection in vivo. It is therefore a research priority to identify novel chlamydial antigens that may elicit protective immune responses against CT infection. In the present study we assessed the seroprevalence of antibodies against protein kinase1 (Pkn1), DNA ligaseA (LigA), and major outer membrane protein A (OmpA) following natural CT infection in humans and in experimentally induced CT infection in Macaca nemestrina. Antigenic stretches of Pkn1, LigA, and OmpA were identified using bioinformatic tools. Pkn1, LigA, and OmpA genes were cloned in bacterial expression vector and purified by affinity chromatography. Our results demonstrate significantly high seroprevalence of antibodies against purified Pkn1 and OmpA in sera obtained from the macaque animal model and human patients infected with CT. In contrast no significant seroreactivity was observed for LigA. The seroprevalence of antibodies against Pkn1 suggest that nonsurface chlamydial proteins could also be important for developing vaccines for C. trachomatis. PMID:25032212

Patel, Achchhe L.; Mishra, Prashant K.; Sachdev, Divya; Chaudhary, Uma; Patton, Dorothy L.; Saluja, Daman

2014-01-01

94

Genital HPV infection and related lesions in men  

PubMed Central

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is highly prevalent in men and there is an interest in further understanding the relationship between HPV infection and disease in men, including the development of genital warts, penile intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive penile carcinomas. Genital warts are caused by HPV 6/11 and are the most common clinical manifestation of HPV in men. Though they are benign and not associated with mortality, they are a source of psychosocial distress and physical discomfort. HPV infection can also develop into invasive penile carcinoma which is associated with morbidity and mortality. Approximately 40% of invasive penile carcinomas are attributable to HPV with HPV 16, 18, and 6/11 being the genotypes most commonly detected in penile tumors. Penile carcinomas of the basaloid and warty histologic subtypes are most likely to test positive for HPV. In addition to HPV infection, the risk factors most strongly associated with penile cancer are lack of neonatal circumcision, phimosis (the inability of uncircumcised men to fully retract the foreskin), and anogenital warts. Male vaccination with the quadrivalent HPV vaccine that protects against HPV 6/11/16/18 has been shown to significantly reduce HPV-associated anogenital infection and disease in men. If the quadrivalent vaccine is successfully disseminated to large segments of the young male population, there is the potential for substantial reduction in genital HPV infection and related lesions in men. PMID:21962470

Anic, Gabriella M.; Giuliano, Anna R.

2012-01-01

95

Cytotoxic cells induced after Chlamydia psittaci infection in mice.  

PubMed Central

The ability of spleen cells from Chlamydia psittaci-infected mice to lyse C. psittaci-infected and uninfected target cell monolayers was studied. The cytotoxicity assay used was a terminal label method in which the number of adherent target cells surviving the interaction with effector cells was determined by measuring the uptake of [3H]uridine by such cells. It was observed that in the first few days postinfection (3 to 5), spleens contained cells that lysed infected and uninfected targets with equal efficiency. Subsequently, infected targets were killed primarily. The activity of effector spleen cells for infected targets continued, although at a reduced level, beyond 21 days postinfection. Intact effector cells were required since a disruption by sonication resulted in a loss of cytotoxicity. The enhanced killing observed with infected targets was also observed when target cells were sensitized with heat- or UV-inactivated C. psittaci. This study suggests that the induction of cytotoxic cells after C. psittaci infection may contribute to the ability of the host to control multiplication of the microorganism. PMID:7068208

Lammert, J K

1982-01-01

96

Spectinomycin hydrochloride in the treatment of gonorrhoea: Its effect on associated Chlamydia trachomatis infections.  

PubMed

Sixty-three heterosexual men were successfully treated with a single injection of spectinomycin hydrochloride 2 g for urethral infections with Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Chlamydia trachomatis was recovered from the urethra of 11 of these men both before and after treatment. In six men, the organism was isolated after but not before treatment. No isolates were obtained from the remaining men either before or after treatment. All 17 of the men who yielded C. trachomatis developed post-gonococcal urethritis. Eight of 46 men from whom no isolate was obtained in their cultures developed post-gonococcal urethritis. Seventeen of 50 women successfully treated with spectinomycin for cervical infections with N. gonorrhoeae yielded isolates of C. trachomatis both before and after treatment. The organism was isolated from five women before but not after treatment, and from four women after but not before treatment. In 24 women culture for C. trachomatis was negative both before and after treatment. Spectinomycin hydrochloride in the dosage used rarely eliminated C. trachomatis from the genital tract of either men or women; in this respect it resembled two other drugs commonly used for the treatment of gonorrhoea-pencillin and ampicillin. PMID:144543

Oriel, J D; Ridgway, G L; Tchamouroff, S; Owen, J

1977-08-01

97

Induction of Cross-Serovar Protection against Genital Chlamydial Infection by a Targeted Multisubunit Vaccination Approach?  

PubMed Central

An important consideration for antichlamydial vaccine development is the induction of cross-serovar protection, since multiple serovars (D to L) of Chlamydia trachomatis cause genital infections. We have shown previously that vaccination with C. trachomatis-derived recombinant chlamydial protease-like activity factor (rCPAF) induced significant earlier resolution of Chlamydia muridarum infection and reduced oviduct pathology. However, the vaccinated mice continued to shed chlamydiae for up to 2 weeks after challenge. In this study, C. trachomatis serovar D recombinant proteins, such as recombinant major outer membrane protein (rMOMP), recombinant inclusion membrane protein A (rIncA), and rCPAF were administered intranasally, individually or in combinations, with murine interleukin-12 (IL-12) as an adjuvant, and cross-species immunity against intravaginal C. muridarum infection was examined. Immunization with rCPAF plus IL-12 (rCPAF+IL-12), compared to immunization with rIncA+IL-12 or rMOMP+IL-12, induced the greatest antigen-specific gamma interferon production from purified CD4+ T cells and concurrently enhanced serum antibody production. All (100%) the animals vaccinated with rCPAF+IL-12 alone or in any combination completely resolved the infection by day 18 after challenge compared to animals vaccinated with rIncA+IL-12 (50%), rMOMP+IL-12 (33%), or phosphate-buffered saline (mock vaccinated; 0%). Moreover, oviduct pathology in mice vaccinated by any regimen that included rCPAF, but not rMOMP+IL-12 or rIncA+IL-12 alone, was markedly reduced compared to mock-immunized animals. The addition of rMOMP and/or rIncA did not significantly enhance the rCPAF+IL-12-induced effect on bacterial clearance or oviduct pathology. These results suggest a greater conservation of protective linear antigenic epitopes within CPAF than MOMP or IncA across the examined serovars and the need to identify other highly conserved antigens for use with rCPAF in a multisubunit recombinant vaccine. PMID:17942608

Li, Weidang; Guentzel, M. Neal; Seshu, J.; Zhong, Guangming; Murthy, Ashlesh K.; Arulanandam, Bernard P.

2007-01-01

98

Current methods of laboratory diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infections.  

PubMed Central

Infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis are probably the most common sexually transmitted diseases in the United States. Commonly unrecognized and often inadequately treated, chlamydial infections can ascend the reproductive tract and cause pelvic inflammatory disease, which often results in the devastating consequences of infertility, ectopic pregnancy, or chronic pelvic pain. C. trachomatis infections are also known to increase the risk for human immunodeficiency virus infection. The obligate intracellular life cycle of C. trachomatis has traditionally required laboratory diagnostic tests that are technically demanding, labor-intensive, expensive, and difficult to access. In spite of these historical challenges, however, laboratory diagnosis of C. trachomatis has been a rapidly advancing area in which there is presently a wide array of commercial diagnostic technologies, costs, manufacturers. This review describes and compares the diagnostic methods for C. trachomatis infection that are currently approved for use in the United States, including the newest DNA amplification technologies which are yet to be licensed for commercial use. Issues to consider in selecting a test for purposes of screening versus diagnosis based on prevalence, performance, legal, social, and cost issues are also discussed. PMID:8993862

Black, C M

1997-01-01

99

Chlamydia psittaci infection in canaries heavily infested by Dermanyssus gallinae.  

PubMed

Dermanyssus gallinae is a haematophagous ectoparasite responsible for anemia, weight loss, dermatitis and a decrease in egg production. Dermanyssus gallinae may play a role in the modulation of the host immune system, maybe predisposing the host to some bacterial infections such as chlamydiosis. This is an important zoonosis. Humans are exposed to Chlamydia psittaci through inhalation of the agent dispersed from the infected birds. In this study, a syndrome observed in an aviary of canaries was investigated. A heavy infestation by D. gallinae was reported. Simultaneously, a C. psittaci infection was molecularly confirmed in the canaries. Combined therapy was applied successfully. The association of C. psittaci with the examined mites has been confirmed. Therefore, we think that D. gallinae have played a role in the spreading of C. psittaci infection among the canaries. Moreover, D. gallinae could have played an important role predisposing the canaries to the development of chlamydiosis, by inducing anemia and debilitation. The control of mites in the aviaries may represent a crucial step for the prevention of important infection such as chlamydiosis in birds and humans. PMID:21761223

Circella, Elena; Pugliese, N; Todisco, G; Cafiero, M A; Sparagano, O A E; Camarda, A

2011-12-01

100

Genital Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection in Women  

MedlinePLUS

... gone. Using condoms during sexual intercourse and dental dams during oral sex may also help to reduce the spread of infection. However, condoms or dams may not always completely prevent the spread of ...

101

The Pathobiology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Lower Female Genital Tract Infection  

PubMed Central

Infection and disease associated with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the gonococcus, continue to be a global health problem. Asymptomatic and subclinical gonococcal infections occur at a high frequency in females; thus, the true incidence of N. gonorrhoeae infections are presumed to be severely underestimated. Inherent to this asymptomatic/subclinical diseased state is the continued prevalence of this organism within the general population, as well as the medical, economic, and social burden equated with the observed chronic, disease sequelae. As infections of the lower female genital tract (i.e., the uterine cervix) commonly result in subclinical disease, it follows that the pathobiology of cervical gonorrhea would differ from that observed for other sites of infection. In this regard, the potential responses to infection that are generated by the female reproductive tract mucosa are unique in that they are governed, in part, by cyclic fluctuations in steroid hormone levels. The lower female genital tract has the further distinction of being able to functionally discriminate between resident commensal microbiota and transient pathogens. The expression of functionally active complement receptor 3 by the lower, but not the upper, female genital tract mucosa; together with data indicating that gonococcal adherence to and invasion of primary cervical epithelial cells and tissue are predominately aided by this surface-expressed host molecule; provide one explanation for asymptomatic/subclinical gonococcal cervicitis. However, co-evolution of the gonococcus with its sole human host has endowed this organism with variable survival strategies that not only aid these bacteria in successfully evasion of immune detection and function but also enhance cervical colonization and cellular invasion. To this end, we herein summarize current knowledge pertaining to the pathobiology of gonococcal infection of the human cervix. PMID:21747805

Edwards, Jennifer L.; Butler, Emily K.

2011-01-01

102

Sphingolipid trafficking and purification in Chlamydia trachomatis-infected cells  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular human pathogen, which lacks a system that allows genetic manipulation. Therefore, chlamydial researchers must manipulate the host cell to better understand chlamydial biology. Host-derived lipid acquisition is critical for chlamydial survival within the host. Hence, the ability to track and purify sphingolipids in/from chlamydial infected cells has become an integral part of pivotal studies in chlamydial biology. This Unit outlines protocols that provide details about labeling eukaryotic cells with exogenous lipids to examine Golgi-derived lipid trafficking to the chlamydial inclusion and then performing imaging studies or lipid extractions for quantification. Details are provided to allow these protocols to be applied to subconfluent, polarized or siRNA knockdown cells. In addition, one will find important experimental design considerations and techniques. These methods are powerful tools to aid in the understanding of mechanisms which allow C. trachomatis to manipulate and usurp host cell trafficking pathways. PMID:23184593

2012-01-01

103

Trichomonas vaginalis Genital Infections: Progress and Challenges  

PubMed Central

Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) infection is the most prevalent curable sexually transmitted infection in the United States and worldwide. Most TV infections are asymptomatic, and the accurate diagnosis of this infection has been limited by lack of sufficiently sensitive and specific diagnostic tests, particularly for men. To provide updates for the 2010 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, a PubMed search was conducted of all TV literature published from 9 January 2004 through 24 September 2008. Approximately 175 pertinent abstracts and articles were reviewed and discussed with national experts. This article describes advances in TV diagnostics which have led to an improved understanding of the epidemiology of this pathogen, as well as potential biologic and epidemiological interactions between TV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). New data on treatment outcomes, metronidazole-resistant TV, management of nitroimidazole-allergic patients, frequency of recurrent TV infection following treatment, and screening considerations for TV in certain populations are also presented. PMID:22080269

Hobbs, Marcia M.; Seña, Arlene C.; Sobel, Jack D.; Schwebke, Jane R.; Krieger, John N.; McClelland, R. Scott; Workowski, Kimberly A.

2011-01-01

104

Chlamydia trachomatis infection among HIV-infected women attending an AIDS clinic in the city of Manaus, Brazil.  

PubMed

This was a cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of and to identify risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women attending the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) clinic in the city of Manaus, Brazil, in 2009-2010. Participants answered a questionnaire containing demographic, epidemiological, and clinical data. A genital specimen was collected during examination to detect CT-DNA by hybrid capture, and blood samples were taken to determine CD4(+)T and HIV viral load. There were 329 women included in the study. Median age was 32 years (IQR=27-38) and median schooling was nine years (IQR=4-11). The prevalence of CT was 4.3% (95%CI: 2.1-6.5). Logistic regression analysis showed that age between 18-29 years [OR=4.1(95%CI: 1.2-13.4)] and complaint of pelvic pain [OR=3.7 (95%CI: 1.2-12.8)] were independently associated with CT. The use of condom was inversely associated with CT [OR=0.39 (95%CI: 0.1-0.9)]. The results showed that younger women who did not use condoms are at a higher risk for CT. Screening for sexually transmitted infections must be done routinely and safe sexual practices should be promoted among this population. PMID:22846120

Silva, Leila Cristina Ferreira; Miranda, Angélica Espinosa; Batalha, Rosieny Santos; Sabino, Carolina Cristina Dantas; Dib, Elizabeth; Costa, Carolina Marinho da; Ramasawmy, Rajendranath; Talhari, Sinésio

2012-01-01

105

A Survey on the Prevalence of Chlamydia Trachomatis and Mycoplasma Genitalium Infections in Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Men Referring to Urology Clinic of Labbafinejad Hospital, Tehran, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium infections are the most prevalent sexually transmitted bacterial infections in the world that cause urogenital infections in both men and women. It appears that infertility is a complication of these infections. Objective This study was designed to estimate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium in symptomatic and asymptomatic men and to assess risk factors associated with infection. Patients and Methods Urine specimens were collected from 200 men; 100 of them were symptomatic and 100 asymptomatic. Samples were examined by PCR to detect the infections. Results C. trachomatis was detected in 20% of symptomatic and in 4% of asymptomatic men (P < 0.001). The prevalence of M. genitalium was revealed to be 12% and 2% in symptomatic and asymptomatic men, respectively (P < 0.01). Four of 100 men in the symptomatic group were infected with both organisms. C. trachomatis infection was associated with dysuria, urethral discharge, testicular swelling, and genital ulcer (P < 0.05). M. genitalium infection was related with dysuria, testis inflammation, pelvic pain and low educational level (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the prevalence of infections at ages 30-39 years was more than other ages. Conclusions Considering the role of these bacteria in urogenital infections, a screening test is recommended. Since the PCR assay is a highly sensitive and specific assay for the detection of these bacteria in male urine specimens, it provides a noninvasive technique for routine screening. PMID:24083010

Yeganeh, Omid; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Yaghmaie, Farhad; Kamali, Kourosh; Heidari-Vala, Hamed; Zeraati, Hojjat; Shakhssalim, Nasser; Zarei, Saeed; Chamani-Tabriz, Leili

2013-01-01

106

Role of cervical dendritic cell subsets, co-stimulatory molecules, cytokine secretion profile and beta-estradiol in development of sequalae to Chlamydia trachomatis infection  

PubMed Central

Background Chlamydia trachomatis infection of the female genital tract can lead to serious sequelae resulting in fertility related disorders. Little is known about the mechanism leading to Chlamydia induced pathology and factors responsible for it. As only some of the women develops reproductive disorders while majority of the women clears infection without any severe sequalae, mucosal immune response in women with or without fertility disorders was studied to identify factors which may lead to final clinical outcome of chlamydial infection. Methods Myeloid DCs (mDCs) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) populations in cervical mucosa and peripheral blood were analyzed in controls and Chlamydia positive women with or without fertility disorders with multicoloured flow cytometric analysis. Cervical cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma), C-reactive protein levels and sex hormone levels in serum were quantified by ELISA. Results In cervix of Chlamydia positive women with fertility disorders, significantly high (P < 0.05) numbers of pDCs were present with increased CD80 expression. pDCs correlated significantly with C-reactive protein levels, IL-6 and IFN-gamma levels in women with fertility disorders. In contrast, mDCs showed significant upregulation of CD1a during chlamydial infection and correlated significantly with IL-12 levels in Chlamydia positive fertile women. ?-estradiol levels were significantly higher in women having fertility disorders as compared to fertile women and have significant correlations (r = 0.65; P < 0.05) with pDCs numbers, CD80 expression, IL-6 levels and IFN-gamma levels in these women. Conclusion These results suggest that development of sequalae in some women can be a result of interplay of many factors including type of dendritic cell, co stimulatory molecule expression, cytokine secretion pattern and hormone levels. PMID:18828896

Agrawal, Tanvi; Vats, Vikas; Wallace, Paul K; Salhan, Sudha; Mittal, Aruna

2008-01-01

107

Plasmid CDS5 Influences Infectivity and Virulence in a Mouse Model of Chlamydia trachomatis Urogenital Infection  

PubMed Central

The native plasmid of both Chlamydia muridarum and Chlamydia trachomatis has been shown to control virulence and infectivity in mice and in lower primates. We recently described the development of a plasmid-based genetic transformation protocol for Chlamydia trachomatis that for the first time provides a platform for the molecular dissection of the function of the chlamydial plasmid and its individual genes or coding sequences (CDS). In the present study, we transformed a plasmid-free lymphogranuloma venereum isolate of C. trachomatis, serovar L2, with either the original shuttle vector (pGFP::SW2) or a derivative of pGFP::SW2 carrying a deletion of the plasmid CDS5 gene (pCDS5KO). Female mice were inoculated with these strains either intravaginally or transcervically. We found that transformation of the plasmid-free isolate with the intact pGFP::SW2 vector significantly enhanced infectivity and induction of host inflammatory responses compared to the plasmid-free parental isolate. Transformation with pCDS5KO resulted in infection courses and inflammatory responses not significantly different from those observed in mice infected with the plasmid-free isolate. These results indicate a critical role of plasmid CDS5 in in vivo fitness and in induction of inflammatory responses. To our knowledge, these are the first in vivo observations ascribing infectivity and virulence to a specific plasmid gene. PMID:24866804

Schripsema, J. H.; Smith, B. J.; Wang, Y.; Jham, B. C.; O'Hagan, K. P.; Thomson, N. R.; Murthy, A. K.; Skilton, R. J.; Chu, P.; Clarke, I. N.

2014-01-01

108

Chlamydia trachomatis Incidence and Re-Infection among Young Women – Behavioural and Microbiological Characteristics  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to estimate rates of chlamydia incidence and re-infection and to investigate the dynamics of chlamydia organism load in prevalent, incident and re-infections among young Australian women. Methods 1,116 women aged 16 to 25 years were recruited from primary care clinics in Australia. Vaginal swabs were collected at 3 to 6 month intervals for chlamydia testing. Chlamydia organism load was measured by quantitative PCR. Results There were 47 incident cases of chlamydia diagnosed and 1,056.34 person years of follow up with a rate of 4.4 per 100 person years (95% CI: 3.3, 5.9). Incident infection was associated with being aged 16 to 20 years [RR?=?3.7 (95%CI: 1.9, 7.1)], being employed [RR?=?2.4 (95%CI: 1.1, 4.9)] and having two or more new sex partners [RR?=?5.5 (95%CI: 2.6, 11.7)]. Recent antibiotic use was associated with a reduced incidence [RR:0.1 (95%CI: 0.0, 0.5)]. There were 14 re-infections with a rate of 22.3 per 100 person years (95%CI: 13.2, 37.6). The median time to re-infection was 4.6 months. Organism load was higher for prevalent than incident infections (p<0.01) and for prevalent than re-infections (p<0.01). Conclusions Chlamydia is common among young women and a high proportion of women are re-infected within a short period of time, highlighting the need for effective partner treatment and repeat testing. The difference in organism load between prevalent and incident infections suggests prevalent infection may be more important for ongoing transmission of chlamydia. PMID:22662220

Walker, Jennifer; Tabrizi, Sepehr N.; Fairley, Christopher K.; Chen, Marcus Y.; Bradshaw, Catriona S.; Twin, Jimmy; Taylor, Nicole; Donovan, Basil; Kaldor, John M.; McNamee, Kathleen; Urban, Eve; Walker, Sandra; Currie, Marian; Birden, Hudson; Bowden, Francis; Gunn, Jane; Pirotta, Marie; Gurrin, Lyle; Harindra, Veerakathy; Garland, Suzanne M.; Hocking, Jane S.

2012-01-01

109

Chlamydia  

MedlinePLUS

... of the cervix. It can also lead to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) , which is an infection of the uterus, ovaries, and/or fallopian tubes. PID can cause infertility and ectopic (tubal) pregnancies later ...

110

Risk factors associated with Chlamydia psittaci infection in psittacine birds.  

PubMed

Chlamydia psittaci is the aetiological agent of chlamydiosis in birds, especially Psittaciformes. The objective of the present study was to detect C. psittaci by means of semi-nested PCR among psittacine birds sold at pet markets and kept as pet birds in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Questionnaires were used to identify risk factors involved in the epidemiology of the disease. In addition, the management of birds and cages was observed at each location studied. The frequency of C. psittaci infection was 10.6% (33/311) in the psittacine birds studied. Birds kept in households were less frequently positive (3.4%; 5/148) than those at pet markets (17.2%; 28/163). Among the several factors analysed in the epidemiology of the disease, only population density (P = 0.001) and cage hygiene (P = 0.041) in birds at pet markets were significantly associated with C. psittaci infection. These results demonstrate the presence of C. psittaci infection in Psittaciformes kept as pets and held at pet markets in Salvador, Bahia, showing that this micro-organism is a public health concern. Control measures should be encouraged to prevent the spread of the agent among birds, as well as among employees and customers. PMID:24430249

Santos, F; Leal, D C; Raso, T F; Souza, B M P S; Cunha, R M; Martinez, V H R; Barrouin-Melo, S M; Franke, C R

2014-03-01

111

Chlamydia trachomatis Vaccine Research through the Years  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia trachomatis is a Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium. It is the leading cause of bacterial sexual transmitted infections (STIs). World Health Organization figures estimated that over 90 million new cases of genital C. trachomatis infections occur worldwide each year. A vaccination program is considered to be the best approach to reduce the prevalence of C. trachomatis infections, as it would be much cheaper and have a greater impact on controlling C. trachomatis infections worldwide rather than a screening program or treating infections with antibiotics. Currently, there are no vaccines available which effectively protect against a C. trachomatis genital infection despite the many efforts that have been made throughout the years. In this paper, the many attempts to develop a protective vaccine against a genital C. trachomatis infection will be reviewed. PMID:21747646

Schautteet, Katelijn; De Clercq, Evelien; Vanrompay, Daisy

2011-01-01

112

Chlamydia Induces Anchorage Independence in 3T3 Cells and Detrimental Cytological Defects in an Infection Model  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia are Gram negative, obligate intracellular bacterial organisms with different species causing a multitude of infections in both humans and animals. Chlamydia trachomatis is the causative agent of the sexually transmitted infection (STI) Chlamydia, the most commonly acquired bacterial STI in the United States. Chlamydial infections have also been epidemiologically linked to cervical cancer in women co-infected with the human papillomavirus (HPV). We have previously shown chlamydial infection results in centrosome amplification and multipolar spindle formation leading to chromosomal instability. Many studies indicate that centrosome abnormalities, spindle defects, and chromosome segregation errors can lead to cell transformation. We hypothesize that the presence of these defects within infected dividing cells identifies a possible mechanism for Chlamydia as a cofactor in cervical cancer formation. Here we demonstrate that infection with Chlamydia trachomatis is able to transform 3T3 cells in soft agar resulting in anchorage independence and increased colony formation. Additionally, we show for the first time Chlamydia infects actively replicating cells in vivo. Infection of mice with Chlamydia results in significantly increased cell proliferation within the cervix, and in evidence of cervical dysplasia. Confocal examination of these infected tissues also revealed elements of chlamydial induced chromosome instability. These results contribute to a growing body of data implicating a role for Chlamydia in cervical cancer development and suggest a possible molecular mechanism for this effect. PMID:23308295

Knowlton, Andrea E.; Fowler, Larry J.; Patel, Rahul K.; Wallet, Shannon M.; Grieshaber, Scott S.

2013-01-01

113

Chlamydia induces anchorage independence in 3T3 cells and detrimental cytological defects in an infection model.  

PubMed

Chlamydia are gram negative, obligate intracellular bacterial organisms with different species causing a multitude of infections in both humans and animals. Chlamydia trachomatis is the causative agent of the sexually transmitted infection (STI) Chlamydia, the most commonly acquired bacterial STI in the United States. Chlamydial infections have also been epidemiologically linked to cervical cancer in women co-infected with the human papillomavirus (HPV). We have previously shown chlamydial infection results in centrosome amplification and multipolar spindle formation leading to chromosomal instability. Many studies indicate that centrosome abnormalities, spindle defects, and chromosome segregation errors can lead to cell transformation. We hypothesize that the presence of these defects within infected dividing cells identifies a possible mechanism for Chlamydia as a cofactor in cervical cancer formation. Here we demonstrate that infection with Chlamydia trachomatis is able to transform 3T3 cells in soft agar resulting in anchorage independence and increased colony formation. Additionally, we show for the first time Chlamydia infects actively replicating cells in vivo. Infection of mice with Chlamydia results in significantly increased cell proliferation within the cervix, and in evidence of cervical dysplasia. Confocal examination of these infected tissues also revealed elements of chlamydial induced chromosome instability. These results contribute to a growing body of data implicating a role for Chlamydia in cervical cancer development and suggest a possible molecular mechanism for this effect. PMID:23308295

Knowlton, Andrea E; Fowler, Larry J; Patel, Rahul K; Wallet, Shannon M; Grieshaber, Scott S

2013-01-01

114

The DNA sensor, cyclic GMP-AMP synthase, is essential for induction of IFN-? during Chlamydia trachomatis infection.  

PubMed

IFN-? has been implicated as an effector of oviduct pathology resulting from genital chlamydial infection in the mouse model. In this study, we investigated the role of cytosolic DNA and engagement of DNA sensors in IFN-? expression during chlamydial infection. We determined that three-prime repair exonuclease-1, a host 3' to 5' exonuclease, reduced IFN-? expression significantly during chlamydial infection using small interfering RNA and gene knockout fibroblasts, implicating cytosolic DNA as a ligand for this response. The DNA sensor cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) has been shown to bind cytosolic DNA to generate cyclic GMP-AMP, which binds to the signaling adaptor stimulator of IFN genes (STING) to induce IFN-? expression. We determined that cGAS is required for IFN-? expression during chlamydial infection in multiple cell types. Interestingly, although infected cells deficient for STING or cGAS alone failed to induce IFN-?, coculture of cells depleted for either STING or cGAS rescued IFN-? expression. These data demonstrate that cyclic GMP-AMP produced in infected cGAS(+)STING(-) cells can migrate into adjacent cells via gap junctions to function in trans in cGAS(-)STING(+) cells. Furthermore, we observed cGAS localized in punctate regions on the cytosolic side of the chlamydial inclusion membrane in association with STING, indicating that chlamydial DNA is most likely recognized outside the inclusion as infection progresses. These novel findings provide evidence that cGAS-mediated DNA sensing directs IFN-? expression during Chlamydia trachomatis infection and suggest that effectors from infected cells can directly upregulate IFN-? expression in adjacent uninfected cells during in vivo infection, contributing to pathogenesis. PMID:25070851

Zhang, Yugen; Yeruva, Laxmi; Marinov, Anthony; Prantner, Daniel; Wyrick, Priscilla B; Lupashin, Vladimir; Nagarajan, Uma M

2014-09-01

115

Chlamydia trachomatis infection results in a modest pro-inflammatory cytokine response and a decrease in T cell chemokine secretion in human polarized endocervical epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

The endocervical epithelium is a major reservoir for Chlamydia trachomatis in women, and genital infections are extended in their duration. Epithelial cells act as mucosal sentinels by secreting cytokines and chemokines in response to pathogen challenge and infection. We therefore determined the signature cytokine and chemokine response of primary-like endocervix-derived epithelial cells in response to a common genital serovar (D) of C. trachomatis. For these studies, we used a recently-established polarized, immortalized, endocervical epithelial cell model (polA2EN) that maintains, in vitro, the architectural and functional characteristics of endocervical epithelial cells in vivo including the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. PolA2EN cells were susceptible to C. trachomatis infection, and chlamydiae in these cells underwent a normal developmental cycle as determined by a one-step growth curve. IL1? protein levels were increased in both apical and basolateral secretions of C. trachomatis infected polA2EN cells, but this response did not occur until 72 hours after infection. Furthermore, protein levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines IL6, TNF? and CXCL8 were not significantly different between C. trachomatis infected polA2EN cells and mock infected cells at any time during the chlamydial developmental cycle up to 120 hours post-infection. Intriguingly, C. trachomatis infection resulted in a significant decrease in the constitutive secretion of T cell chemokines IP10 and RANTES, and this required a productive C. trachomatis infection. Examination of anti-inflammatory cytokines revealed a high constitutive apical secretion of IL1ra from polA2EN cells that was not significantly modulated by C. trachomatis infection. IL-11 was induced by C. trachomatis, although only from the basolateral membrane. These results suggest that C. trachomatis can use evasion strategies to circumvent a robust pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine response. These evasion strategies, together with the inherent immune repertoire of endocervical epithelial cells, may aid chlamydiae in establishing, and possibly sustaining, an intracellular niche in microenvironments of the endocervix in vivo. PMID:23673287

Buckner, Lyndsey R.; Lewis, Maria E.; Greene, Sheila J.; Foster, Timothy P.; Quayle, Alison J.

2013-01-01

116

Outcome of urogenital infection with Chlamydia muridarum in CD-14 gene knockout mice  

PubMed Central

Background CD14 has been postulated to play a role in chlamydial immunity and immunopathology. There is evidence to support this role in human infections but its function in a mouse model has not been investigated. Methods Female CD14 gene knockout and C57BL/6J wild type mice were infected intravaginally with Chlamydia muridarum. The infection course was monitored by detection of viable chlamydiae from serially collected cervical-vaginal swabs. The sequela of tubal factor infertility was assessed using hydrosalpinx formation as a surrogate marker. Results A significantly abbreviated infection course was observed in the CD14 gene knockout mice but hydrosalpinx formation occurred at similar rates between the two groups. Conclusion Involvement of CD14 during chlamydial infection impedes infection resolution but this does not affect the sequela of infertility as assessed by hydrosalpinx formation. PMID:16995947

Imtiaz, Muhammad T; Schripsema, Justin H; Sigar, Ira M; Ramsey, Kyle H

2006-01-01

117

Prevalence of Chlamydia infection among women visiting a gynaecology outpatient department: evaluation of an in-house PCR assay for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis  

PubMed Central

Background Screening women for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in developing countries is highly desirable because of asymptomatic infection. The existing diagnostic methods in developing countries are not effective and their sensitivity fall below 45.0% which leads to further spread of infection. There is an urgent need for improved and cost effective diagnostic tests that will reduce the burden of sexually transmitted infections in the developing world. Methods Prevalence of C. trachomatis infection among women visiting gynaecology department of Hindu Rao hospital in Delhi, India was determined using Roche Amplicor Multi Well Plate kit (MWP) as well as using in-house PCR assay. We used 593 endocervical swabs for clinical evaluation of the in-house developed assay against Direct Fluorescence Assay (DFA; Group I n = 274) and Roche Amplicor MWP kit (Group II, n = 319 samples) and determined the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) of the in-house developed assay. Results We detected 23.0% positive cases and there was a higher representation of women aged 18-33 in this group. An in-house PCR assay was developed and evaluated by targeting unique sequence within the gyrA gene of C. trachomatis. Specificity of the reaction was confirmed by using genomic DNA of human and other STI related microorganisms as template. Assay is highly sensitive and can detect as low as 10 fg of C. trachomatis DNA. The resolved sensitivity of in-house PCR was 94.5% compared with 88.0% of DFA assay. The high specificity (98.4%) and sensitivity (97.1%) of the in-house assay against Roche kit and availability of test results within 3 hours allowed for immediate treatment and reduced the risk of potential onward transmission. Conclusions The in-house PCR method is cost effective (~ 20.0% of Roche assay) and hence could be a better alternative for routine diagnosis of genital infection by C. trachomatis to facilitate improved screening and treatment management. PMID:20822551

2010-01-01

118

Discovery of CD8 T cell epitopes in Chlamydia trachomatis infection through use of caged  

E-print Network

Discovery of CD8 T cell epitopes in Chlamydia trachomatis infection through use of caged class I and straightforward method to obtain diverse arrays of class I MHC tetramers and facilitates CD8 T cell epitope discovery. Here, we describe the development of photocleavable analogs of the FAPGNYPAL (SV9) epitope

Starnbach, Michael

119

Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection Induces Inflammatory Changes in the Aortas of Rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydia pneumoniae, a common human respiratory pathogen, has been associated with atherosclerosis in several seroepidemiological studies. Moreover, its presence in lesions of vessel walls has been demonstrated by culture, immunohistochemistry, PCR, and electron microscopy. In this study, we infected intranasally with C. pneumoniae New Zealand White rabbits which had been fed a normal diet. Reinfection was given 3 weeks later.

KIRSI LAITINEN; AINO LAURILA; LIISA PYHALA; MAIJA LEINONEN; PEKKA SAIKKU

1997-01-01

120

Risk Factors for "Chlamydia Trachomatis" Infection in a California Collegiate Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Chlamydia trachomatis" infection in college students has not undergone a detailed large-scale evaluation. The authors undertook a cross-sectional study of 4,086 students enrolled on the campuses of California State University, Sacramento, and 3 local community colleges from fall 2000 through spring 2002. They used an outreach screening model to…

Sipkin, Diane L.; Gillam, Alix; Grady, Laurie Bisset

2003-01-01

121

Indicators of infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae are associated with expansion of abdominal aortic aneurysms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose:Chlamydia Pneumoniae has been shown to be associated with atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). The possible association between AAA expansion and C pneumoniae infection was therefore assessed. Methods: Blood samples were taken from patients with an AAA that was considered for surgical repair after having been diagnosed by means of the Chichester aneurysm screening program (UK) as

Jes S. Lindholt; Hilary A. Ashton; R. Alan P. Scott

2001-01-01

122

Induction of the Chlamydia muridarum Stress/Persistence Response Increases Azithromycin Treatment Failure in a Murine Model of Infection  

PubMed Central

Viable but noninfectious (stressed/persistent) chlamydiae are more resistant to azithromycin (AZM) in culture than are organisms in the normal developmental cycle. Chlamydia muridarum-infected mice were exposed to amoxicillin to induce the organisms to enter the persistent/stressed state and subsequently treated with AZM. AZM treatment failure was observed in 22% of persistently infected mice, with an average of 321,667 inclusion-forming units (IFU) shed after AZM treatment. Productively infected mice had a 9% rate of AZM treatment failure and shed an average of 12,083 IFU. These data suggest that stressed chlamydiae are more resistant to frontline antichlamydial drugs in vivo. PMID:24342653

Phillips-Campbell, R.; Kintner, J.

2014-01-01

123

Genital Chlamydia Prevalence in Europe and Non-European High Income Countries: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Accurate information about the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis is needed to assess national prevention and control measures. Methods We systematically reviewed population-based cross-sectional studies that estimated chlamydia prevalence in European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) Member States and non-European high income countries from January 1990 to August 2012. We examined results in forest plots, explored heterogeneity using the I2 statistic, and conducted random effects meta-analysis if appropriate. Meta-regression was used to examine the relationship between study characteristics and chlamydia prevalence estimates. Results We included 25 population-based studies from 11 EU/EEA countries and 14 studies from five other high income countries. Four EU/EEA Member States reported on nationally representative surveys of sexually experienced adults aged 18–26 years (response rates 52–71%). In women, chlamydia point prevalence estimates ranged from 3.0–5.3%; the pooled average of these estimates was 3.6% (95% CI 2.4, 4.8, I2 0%). In men, estimates ranged from 2.4–7.3% (pooled average 3.5%; 95% CI 1.9, 5.2, I2 27%). Estimates in EU/EEA Member States were statistically consistent with those in other high income countries (I2 0% for women, 6% for men). There was statistical evidence of an association between survey response rate and estimated chlamydia prevalence; estimates were higher in surveys with lower response rates, (p = 0.003 in women, 0.018 in men). Conclusions Population-based surveys that estimate chlamydia prevalence are at risk of participation bias owing to low response rates. Estimates obtained in nationally representative samples of the general population of EU/EEA Member States are similar to estimates from other high income countries. PMID:25615574

Redmond, Shelagh M.; Alexander-Kisslig, Karin; Woodhall, Sarah C.; van den Broek, Ingrid V. F.; van Bergen, Jan; Ward, Helen; Uusküla, Anneli; Herrmann, Björn; Andersen, Berit; Götz, Hannelore M.; Sfetcu, Otilia; Low, Nicola

2015-01-01

124

Progesterone Increases Susceptibility and Decreases Immune Responses to Genital Herpes Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depo-provera, a long-acting progestational formulation, is widely used to facilitate infection of sexually transmitted diseases in animal models. We have previously reported that hormone treatments change suscep- tibility and immune responses to genital tract infections. In this study we compared the changes in suscepti- bility of mice to genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) after Depo-provera or a saline

Charu Kaushic; Ali A. Ashkar; Lesley A. Reid; Kenneth L. Rosenthal

2003-01-01

125

Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in a breeding colony of African clawed frogs (Xenopus tropicalis).  

PubMed Central

More than 90% of a breeding colony of clawed frogs (Xenopus tropicalis) imported to the United States from western Africa died in an epizootic of chlamydiosis. Chlamydial inclusions were observed by light and electron microscopy in the liver of an infected frog. Chlamydia pneumoniae was isolated in cell cultures from four frogs. A cutaneous infection by a chytridiomycete fungus observed in two frogs could have been a cofactor in the die-off.ous Diseases PMID:10756157

Reed, K. D.; Ruth, G. R.; Meyer, J. A.; Shukla, S. K.

2000-01-01

126

Acute thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura following doxycycline treatment of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in a patient with dermatomyositis.  

PubMed

A 48-year-old white female who was suffering from dermatomyositis and Chlamydia pneumoniae infection, developed acute rapidly fatal thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) following treatment with steroids and doxycycline. As a relationship between TTP and the inflammatory myopathies is now probably well established, it is very likely that our patient's TTP became manifest in association with dermatomyositis. Nevertheless, C. pneumoniae infection and doxycycline therapy cannot be excluded entirely as cofactors responsible for triggering her thrombotic microangiopathy. PMID:15053810

Knox-Macaulay, H H M; Adil, S N; Ahmed, E M E

2004-04-01

127

Applications and Therapeutic Actions of Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Women with Genital Infection  

PubMed Central

Genital infection is a common worldwide disease among females with clinical features such as bilateral lower abdominal tenderness, abnormal vaginal or cervical discharge, fever, abnormal vaginal bleeding, dyspareunia, vaginal itching, and adnexal tenderness, which can significantly impair women's health and quality of life. Genital infection is commonly treated with antibiotics, leading to an imbalance in gut flora due to prolonged use of antibiotics. Therefore, it is necessary to discover safe and efficacious alternative treatment strategies for patients with genital infection. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is becoming increasingly prevalent among women with genital infection. CAM has interested the western mainstream medical community because of its less invasive, safe, effective, economical, and convenient therapies. CAM focuses on the prevention and treatment of disease and has become an important force in treating chronic disease. During the last few decades, the popularity of CAM has gradually increased. To further understand the efficacy of CAM in treating genital infection, our paper will review the current progress of treating genital infection including vulvitis, vaginitis, cervicitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) with CAM therapies. Several CAM strategies including traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), acupuncture, Psychology interference, and physical therapy are introduced in this review. PMID:24648850

Liu, Chenfang; Zhang, Yuehui; Yu, Yang; Han, Fengjuan

2014-01-01

128

Inhibition of Matrix Metalloproteinases Protects Mice from Ascending Infection and Chronic Disease Manifestations Resulting from Urogenital Chlamydia muridarum Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are a family of host-derived enzymes involved in the turnover of extra- cellular matrix molecules. We have previously reported enhanced expression of matrix metalloproteinases in Chlamydia muridarum urogenital tract infection of female mice. Kinetics and patterns of MMP expression as well as enhanced expression in susceptible strains of mice in the prior study implied a role for

Muhammad T. Imtiaz; Justin H. Schripsema; Ira M. Sigar; John N. Kasimos; Kyle H. Ramsey

2006-01-01

129

Prevalence and Determinants of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Infection in Male Genital Warts  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the prevalence and type distribution of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in genital warts of Korean men, and for the first time, to describe the risk factors associated with high-risk HPV infection in male genital warts. Materials and Methods In a single private clinic, 150 consecutive male patients with histopathologic-confirmed genital warts who underwent HPV genotyping by use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were included in this study. We detected HPV DNA in male genital warts and evaluated HPV type distribution, especially high-risk HPV types, by use of PCR. The associations between HPV prevalence and various characteristics, such as age, circumcision status, type of genital warts diagnosis (new vs. recurrent), number of lesions, site of lesions, and gross morphology, were assessed by use of unconditional multiple logistic regression. Results High-risk HPV types were detected in 31 cases (23.5%), and of these, 27 cases (20.5%) contained both high-risk and low-risk HPV types. The most frequently detected high-risk HPV types were HPV16 (6.8%), HPV33 (4.5%), HPV18 (2.3%), and HPV68 (2.3%). In particular, the prevalence of infection with HPV16 and/or HPV18 was 8.3% (11 of 132). In the multivariate analysis, lesions located at sites including the base of the penis or the pubic area, papular or mixed genital warts, and lack of circumcision significantly increased the association with high-risk HPV infection in male genital warts. Conclusions The prevalence of high-risk HPV infection was substantial in male genital warts. The site and morphology of lesions and circumcision status were significantly associated with the prevalence of high-risk HPV infection. PMID:24648877

Park, Sung Jin; Seo, Juhyung; Ha, Seong-Heon

2014-01-01

130

Glucose Metabolism of L Cells Before and After Infection with Chlamydia psittaci  

PubMed Central

Glucose was not utilized at significantly different rates in suspensions of multiplying and nonmultiplying adult mouse fibroblasts (L cells). Infection of L cells with Chlamydia psittaci (strain meningopneumonitis) increased the rates of glucose utilization and lactate accumulation during the first 24 hr after infection without changing the rates of glucose utilization by the pentose or tricarboxylic acid cycles. It was concluded that the increased aerobic glycolysis represented a host response to infection and not a parasite activity. The 6BC strain of C. psittaci and the mouse pneumonitis strain of C. trachomatis produced similar changes in the glucose metabolism of L-cells. These results are discussed in relation to the hypothesis that chlamydiae generate to metabolic energy of their own and live by exploiting the energy-rich compounds produced by their hosts. Images PMID:16559092

Moulder, James W.

1970-01-01

131

Induction and inhibition of CPAF activity during analysis of Chlamydia-infected cells.  

PubMed

Studies of the chlamydial protease CPAF have been complicated by difficulties in distinguishing bona fide intracellular proteolysis from in vitro proteolysis. This confounding issue has been attributed to CPAF activity in lysates from Chlamydia-infected cells. We compared three methods that have been used to inhibit in vitro CPAF-mediated proteolysis: (1) pre-treatment of infected cells with the inhibitor clasto-lactacystin, (2) direct cell lysis in 8 M urea and (3) direct lysis in hot 1% SDS buffer. We identified a number of experimental conditions that reduce the effectiveness of each method in preventing CPAF activity during lysate preparation. The amount of in vitro proteolysis in a lysate was variable and depended on factors such as the specific substrate and the time in the intracellular infection. Additionally, we demonstrated for the first time that artifactual CPAF activity is induced before cell lysis by standard cell detachment methods, including trypsinization. Protein analysis of Chlamydia-infected cells therefore requires precautions to inhibit CPAF activity during both cell detachment and lysate preparation, followed by verification that the cell lysates do not contain residual CPAF activity. These concerns about artifactual proteolysis extend beyond studies of CPAF function because they have the potential to affect the analyses of host and chlamydial proteins from Chlamydia-infected cells. PMID:25663342

Johnson, Kirsten A; Lee, Jennifer K; Chen, Allan L; Tan, Ming; Sütterlin, Christine

2015-01-01

132

Early MicroRNA Expression Profile as a Prognostic Biomarker for the Development of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease in a Mouse Model of Chlamydial Genital Infection  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT It is not currently possible to predict the probability of whether a woman with a chlamydial genital infection will develop pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). To determine if specific biomarkers may be associated with distinct chlamydial pathotypes, we utilized two Chlamydia muridarum variants (C. muridarum Var001 [CmVar001] and CmVar004) that differ in their abilities to elicit upper genital tract pathology in a mouse model. CmVar004 has a lower growth rate in vitro and induces pathology in only 20% of C57BL/6 mouse oviducts versus 83.3% of oviducts in CmVar001-infected mice. To determine if chemokine and cytokine production within 24 h of infection is associated with the outcome of pathology, levels of 15 chemokines and cytokines were measured. CmVar004 infection induced significantly lower levels of CXCL1, CXCL2, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), and CCL2 in comparison to CmVar001 infection with similar rRNA (rs16) levels for Chlamydiae. A combination of microRNA (miRNA) sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis of 134 inflammation-related miRNAs was performed 24 h postinfection to determine if the chemokine/cytokine responses would also be reflected in miRNA expression profiles. Interestingly, 12 miRNAs (miR-135a-5p, miR298-5p, miR142-3p, miR223-3p, miR299a-3p, miR147-3p, miR105, miR325-3p, miR132-3p, miR142-5p, miR155-5p, and miR-410-3p) were overexpressed during CmVar004 infection compared to CmVar001 infection, inversely correlating with the respective chemokine/cytokine responses. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that early biomarkers elicited in the host can differentiate between two pathological variants of chlamydiae and be predictive of upper tract disease. PMID:24961692

Myers, Garry S. A.; Spencer, Nicole; Creasy, Heather Huot; Adams, Nancy E.; Maurelli, Anthony T.; McChesney, Grant R.; Cleves, Mario A.; Ravel, Jacques; Bowlin, Anne; Rank, Roger G.

2014-01-01

133

Chlamydial genital infection in Ibadan, Nigeria. A seroepidemiological survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sera from patients attending a sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic, a family planning clinic, and an antenatal clinic in Ibadan, Nigeria, as well as from male blood donors from the same area were tested for the presence of type specific antichlamydial antibodies using a modified micro-immunofluorescence test. Among men and women attending the STD clinic the exposure rates to Chlamydia

S Darougar; T Forsey; A O Osoba; R J Dines; B Adelusi; G O Coker

1982-01-01

134

Molecular Detection of HPV and Chlamydia trachomatis Infections in Brazilian Women with Abnormal Cervical Cytology  

PubMed Central

The question of whether Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) is a cofactor for human Papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical carcinogenesis is still controversial. We conducted a molecular detection study of both infections in 622 Brazilian women, including 252 women with different grades of abnormal cervical cytology and cervical cancer (CC; cases) and 370 women with normal cytology (controls). Although Ct infection did not seem related to CC carcinogenicity, women with abnormal cytology had a significant high rate of Ct infection. Therefore, it is important to adopt protocols for diagnosis and treatment of this bacterium in conjunction with screening for CC in this population. PMID:23128289

de Abreu, André L. P.; Nogara, Paula R. B.; Souza, Raquel P.; da Silva, Mariana C.; Uchimura, Nelson S.; Zanko, Rodrigo L.; Ferreira, Érika C.; Tognim, Maria C. B.; Teixeira, Jorge J. V.; Gimenes, Fabrícia; Consolaro, Marcia E. L.

2012-01-01

135

Proceedings From the First Asia-Oceania Research Organisation on Genital Infections and Neoplasia (AOGIN) Meeting  

PubMed Central

The First Asia-Oceania Research Organisation on Genital Infections and Neoplasia (AOGIN) Meeting was held in Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia, in July 2005. The conference covered regional issues relating to infection with the human papillomavirus—epidemiology, virology, and immunology, testing, screening, and prevention strategies—as well as cervical cancer screening and its management.

Faro, Edited by Sebastian

2006-01-01

136

HIV Infection of the Genital Mucosa in Women  

E-print Network

which it more easily penetrates the mucosa. At any rate, the picture is emerging that in many cases the female genital tract. Stud- ies using human explant tissues and in vivo animal studies have improved our the inability to directly observe these activities in the virus's natural human host, our knowl- edge

Dever, Jennifer A.

137

Effects of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection on Fertility; A Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Background Nowadays, Chlamydia trachomatis is known as a causative agent of infertility. Because of, asymptomatic nature of infection, many may suffer from its lasting complications such as infertility. This study was performed in Tehran during April 2007 to April 2008 to compare the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in fertile and infertile women using ELISA and PCR methods. Methods Overall, 234 infertile and 223 pregnant women, as the fertile group, participated in this hospital-based case-control study. After completing an informed consent form and the questionnaire, first catch urine and blood sample were obtained for PCR and ELISA (IgG, IgM) tests, respectively. Logistic regression analysis was used to control possible confounding factors, and determine adjusted odds ratio of infertility due to the infection. Results PCR results revealed that 29 (12.4%) of the infertile and 19 (8.5%) of the fertile women were positive for C. trachomatis infection (p = 0.440). IgG was positive in 21 (9.0%) of the infertile and 11 (5.0%) in the fertile group (p = 0.093). IgM assays identified that 2 (0.9%) of the infertile and 4 (1.8%) of the fertile women were positive for the micro-organism (p = 0.375). Conclusion We found no significant differences among fertile and infertile women for Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Nevertheless, molecular techniques which are more sensitive, more specific and non-invasive can be used to detect C. trachomatis infection. PMID:23926567

Rashidi, Batool Hossein; Chamani-Tabriz, Leili; Haghollahi, Fadieh; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Naghizadeh, Mohammad Mehdi; Shariat, Mamak; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Bagheri, Rezvan; Asgari, Soheila; Wylie, Kevan

2013-01-01

138

Lipopolysaccharide-Binding Alkylpolyamine DS-96 Inhibits Chlamydia trachomatis Infection by Blocking Attachment and Entry  

PubMed Central

Vaginally delivered microbicides are being developed to offer women self-initiated protection against transmission of sexually transmitted infections such as Chlamydia trachomatis. A small molecule, DS-96, rationally designed for high affinity to Escherichia coli lipid A, was previously demonstrated to bind and neutralize lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from a wide variety of Gram-negative bacteria (D. Sil et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51:2811–2819, 2007, doi:10.1128/AAC.00200-07). Aside from the lack of the repeating O antigen, chlamydial lipooligosaccharide (LOS) shares general molecular architecture features with E. coli LPS. Importantly, the portion of lipid A where the interaction with DS-96 is expected to take place is well conserved between the two organisms, leading to the hypothesis that DS-96 inhibits Chlamydia infection by binding to LOS and compromising the function. In this study, antichlamydial activity of DS-96 was examined in cell culture. DS-96 inhibited the intercellular growth of Chlamydia in a dose-dependent manner and offered a high level of inhibition at a relatively low concentration (8 ?M). The data also revealed that infectious elementary bodies (EBs) were predominantly blocked at the attachment step, as indicated by the reduced number of EBs associated with the host cell surface following pretreatment. Of those EBs that were capable of attachment, the vast majority was unable to gain entry into the host cell. Inhibition of EB attachment and entry by DS-96 suggests that Chlamydia LOS is critical to these processes during the developmental cycle. Importantly, given the low association of host toxicity previously reported by Sil et al., DS-96 is expected to perform well in animal studies as an active antichlamydial compound in a vaginal microbicide. PMID:24663021

Osaka, Ichie

2014-01-01

139

Human papillomavirus infection and filaggrin expression in paraffin-embedded biopsy specimens of extragenital Bowen's disease and genital bowenoid papulosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Cutaneous Bowen's disease (BD) and genital bowenoid papulosis (BP) are considered as precancerous or cancerous lesions that are sometimes infected with human papillomavirus (HPV). We studied retrospectively paraffin-embedded sections of 11 samples of cutaneous BD and 6 samples of genital BP from the general population for HPV infection and filaggrin expression. Using in situ hybridization with biotinylated probes of

I. Guerin-Reverchon; Y. Chardonnet; J. Viac; B. Chouvet; M. C. Chignol; J. Thivolet

1990-01-01

140

Reassessing the role of the secreted protease CPAF in Chlamydia trachomatis infection through genetic approaches.  

PubMed

The secreted Chlamydia protease CPAF cleaves a defined set of mammalian and Chlamydia proteins in vitro. As a result, this protease has been proposed to modulate a range of bacterial and host cellular functions. However, it has recently come into question the extent to which many of its identified substrates constitute bona fide targets of proteolysis in infected host cell rather than artifacts of postlysis degradation. Here, we clarify the role played by CPAF in cellular models of infection by analyzing Chlamydia trachomatis mutants deficient for CPAF activity. Using reverse genetic approaches, we identified two C. trachomatis strains possessing nonsense, loss-of-function mutations in cpa (CT858) and a third strain containing a mutation in type II secretion (T2S) machinery that inhibited CPAF activity by blocking zymogen secretion and subsequent proteolytic maturation into the active hydrolase. HeLa cells infected with T2S(-) or CPAF(-) C. trachomatis mutants lacked detectable in vitro CPAF proteolytic activity and were not defective for cellular traits that have been previously attributed to CPAF activity, including resistance to staurosporine-induced apoptosis, Golgi fragmentation, altered NF?B-dependent gene expression, and resistance to reinfection. However, CPAF-deficient mutants did display impaired generation of infectious elementary bodies (EBs), indicating an important role for this protease in the full replicative potential of C. trachomatis. In addition, we provide compelling evidence in live cells that CPAF-mediated protein processing of at least two host protein targets, vimentin filaments and the nuclear envelope protein lamin-associated protein-1 (LAP1), occurs rapidly after the loss of the inclusion membrane integrity, but before loss of plasma membrane permeability and cell lysis. CPAF-dependent processing of host proteins correlates with a loss of inclusion membrane integrity, and so we propose that CPAF plays a role late in infection, possibly during the stages leading to the dismantling of the infected cell prior to the release of EBs during cell lysis. PMID:24838663

Snavely, Emily A; Kokes, Marcela; Dunn, Joe Dan; Saka, Hector A; Nguyen, Bidong D; Bastidas, Robert J; McCafferty, Dewey G; Valdivia, Raphael H

2014-08-01

141

Human enteroendocrine cell responses to infection with Chlamydia trachomatis: a microarray study  

PubMed Central

Background Enteroendocrine cells (EEC) are highly specialized cells producing signalling molecules vital to the normal functions of the gut. Recently, we showed altered protein distribution in Chlamydia infected EEC in vitro. The aim of this study was to perform a microarray analysis of the response pattern of EEC from both large and small bowel to infection in vitro, using Chlamydia trachomatis infection as a model. Methods Two human EEC lines: LCC-18, derived from a neuroendocrine colonic tumour, and CNDT-2, derived from a small intestinal carcinoid, were infected using cultured C. trachomatis serovar LGV II strain 434 (ATCC VR-902B). Penicillin G was used to induce persistent infection. We used microarray analysis (Affymetrix GeneChip®) for studying changes in gene expression at different stages of infection. Results Twenty-four hours after active and persistent infection, 66 and 411 genes in LCC-18 and 68 and 170 genes in CNDT-2 cells, respectively showed mean expression ratios >2-fold compared to non-infected cells. These genes encoded factors regulating apoptosis, cell differentiation, transcription regulation, cytokine activity, amine biosynthesis and vesicular transport. We found significant differences in gene transcription levels between persistently infected and non-infected cells in 10 genes coding for different solute carrier transporters (SLC) and in 5 genes related to endocrine function (GABARAPL1, GRIP1, DRD2, SYT5 and SYT7). Conclusions Infected EEC cells exhibit cell-type specific patterns related to vesicular transport, secretion and neurotransmitters. EEC play a pivotal role in regulation of gut motility and an impairment of enteroendocrine function can contribute to motility disorders. PMID:24959205

2014-01-01

142

Chlamydia trachomatis infection among female inmates at Briman prison in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the western countries; its prevalence in the conservative Muslim population of Saudi Arabia is not known, but it is generally believed to be low. This study is the first to investigate the prevalence of and risk factors for C. trachomatis infection in the high-risk group of female inmates at Briman Prison in Jeddah. Methods The inmates were interviewed using a pre-designed questionnaire, and their urine samples were tested for C. trachomatis infection by real-time PCR assay. Results The overall prevalence of C. trachomatis infection was 8.7% in the study population. The ?25 age group was predominantly affected, with an average prevalence of 16.6%. Two out of five (2/5, 40%) Yamani, (4/33 12.1%) Indonesian, (3/33, 9.1%) Somalian and (2/26, 7.7%) Ethiopian inmates were positive for infection. None of the Saudi inmates (0/14) were positive for infection. Among the studied variables, only age was significantly associated with the infection rate. The other variables (marital status, nationality, religion, employment status, education level, nature of the offense committed, knowledge about protection from STIs, and knowledge about condom use and the purpose of condom use) did not show a significant correlation with Chlamydia infection. Conclusions The overall prevalence of C. trachomatis infection was within the range published by other reports in similar prison settings in developed countries. The results indicate the need for a countrywide screening and treatment program for all inmates at the time of entry into prison. PMID:24649964

2014-01-01

143

Metabolic Features of Protochlamydia amoebophila Elementary Bodies – A Link between Activity and Infectivity in Chlamydiae  

PubMed Central

The Chlamydiae are a highly successful group of obligate intracellular bacteria, whose members are remarkably diverse, ranging from major pathogens of humans and animals to symbionts of ubiquitous protozoa. While their infective developmental stage, the elementary body (EB), has long been accepted to be completely metabolically inert, it has recently been shown to sustain some activities, including uptake of amino acids and protein biosynthesis. In the current study, we performed an in-depth characterization of the metabolic capabilities of EBs of the amoeba symbiont Protochlamydia amoebophila. A combined metabolomics approach, including fluorescence microscopy-based assays, isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), ion cyclotron resonance Fourier transform mass spectrometry (ICR/FT-MS), and ultra-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) was conducted, with a particular focus on the central carbon metabolism. In addition, the effect of nutrient deprivation on chlamydial infectivity was analyzed. Our investigations revealed that host-free P. amoebophila EBs maintain respiratory activity and metabolize D-glucose, including substrate uptake as well as host-free synthesis of labeled metabolites and release of labeled CO2 from 13C-labeled D-glucose. The pentose phosphate pathway was identified as major route of D-glucose catabolism and host-independent activity of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was observed. Our data strongly suggest anabolic reactions in P. amoebophila EBs and demonstrate that under the applied conditions D-glucose availability is essential to sustain metabolic activity. Replacement of this substrate by L-glucose, a non-metabolizable sugar, led to a rapid decline in the number of infectious particles. Likewise, infectivity of Chlamydia trachomatis, a major human pathogen, also declined more rapidly in the absence of nutrients. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that D-glucose is utilized by P. amoebophila EBs and provide evidence that metabolic activity in the extracellular stage of chlamydiae is of major biological relevance as it is a critical factor affecting maintenance of infectivity. PMID:23950718

Watzka, Margarete; Wultsch, Anna; Tziotis, Dimitrios; Montanaro, Jacqueline; Richter, Andreas; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Horn, Matthias

2013-01-01

144

Differential infection outcome of Chlamydia trachomatis in human blood monocytes and monocyte-derived dendritic cells  

PubMed Central

Background Chlamydia trachomatis is an intracellular bacteria which consist of three biovariants; trachoma (serovars A-C), urogenital (serovars D-K) and lymphogranuloma venereum (L1-L3), causing a wide spectrum of disease in humans. Monocytes are considered to disseminate this pathogen throughout the body while dendritic cells (DCs) play an important role in mediating immune response against bacterial infection. To determine the fate of C. trachomatis within human peripheral blood monocytes and monocyte-derived DCs, these two sets of immune cells were infected with serovars Ba, D and L2, representative of the three biovariants of C. trachomatis. Results Our study revealed that the different serovars primarily infect monocytes and DCs in a comparable fashion, however undergo differential infection outcome, serovar L2 being the only candidate to inflict active infection. Moreover, the C. trachomatis serovars Ba and D become persistent in monocytes while the serovars predominantly suffer degradation within DCs. Effects of persistence gene Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) was not clearly evident in the differential infection outcome. The heightened levels of inflammatory cytokines secreted by the chlamydial infection in DCs compared to monocytes seemed to be instrumental for this consequence. The immune genes induced in monocytes and DCs against chlamydial infection involves a different set of Toll-like receptors, indicating that distinct intracellular signalling pathways are adopted for immune response. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that the host pathogen interaction in chlamydia infection is not only serovar specific but manifests cell specific features, inducing separate immune response cascade in monocytes and DCs. PMID:25123797

2014-01-01

145

Chapter 17: Genital Human Papillomavirus Infections—Current and Prospective Therapies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many therapies are available for the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated disease, particularly exter- nal genital warts. However, at present, these therapies aim to remove the lesion rather than specifically target HPV infec- tion. When disease and infection are local, as in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), excisional therapies remov- ing lesion and transformation-susceptible cells are highly ef- fective. However, when

Margaret Stanley

146

Molecular cartography in acute Chlamydia pneumoniae infections--a non-targeted metabolomics approach.  

PubMed

Infections with Chlamydia pneumoniae cause several respiratory diseases, such as community-acquired pneumonia, bronchitis or sinusitis. Here, we present an integrated non-targeted metabolomics analysis applying ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry and ultra-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry to determine metabolite alterations in C. pneumoniae-infected HEp-2 cells. Most important permutations are elaborated using uni- and multivariate statistical analysis, logD retention time regression and mass defect-based network analysis. Classes of metabolites showing high variations upon infection are lipids, carbohydrates and amino acids. Moreover, we observed several non-annotated compounds as predominantly abundant after infection, which are promising biomarker candidates for drug-target and diagnostic research. PMID:23354577

Müller, Constanze; Dietz, Inga; Tziotis, Dimitrios; Moritz, Franco; Rupp, Jan; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

2013-06-01

147

The molecular basis for disease phenotype in chronic Chlamydia-induced arthritis  

PubMed Central

Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections can elicit an inflammatory arthritis in some individuals, and recent surprising studies have demonstrated that only ocular (trachoma) strains, not genital strains, of the organism are present in the synovial tissues of patients with the disease. This observation suggests an explanation for the small proportion of genitally-infected patients who develop Chlamydia-induced arthritis. Other recent studies have begun to identify the specific chlamydial gene products that elicit the synovial inflammatory response during both active and quiescent disease, although much more study will be required to complete the understanding of that complex process of host–pathogen interaction. Several newly developed experimental methods and approaches for study of the process will enable identification of new therapeutic targets, and possibly strategies for prevention of the disease altogether. PMID:23440251

Carter, John D; Gerard, Herve C; Whittum-Hudson, Judith A; Hudson, Alan P

2013-01-01

148

Microreview Immune-mediated control of Chlamydia infection  

E-print Network

pregnancy, infertility and blindness. Exposure of the host to C. trachomatis stimulates multiple innate to chronic pain, infertility and ectopic pregnancy. Serovars L1­L3 also establish infection in the urogenital

Starnbach, Michael

149

Chlamydia muridarum Infection-Induced Destruction of Male Germ Cells and Sertoli Cells Is Partially Prevented by Chlamydia Major Outer Membrane Protein-Specific Immune CD4 cells.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis infections are increasingly prevalent worldwide. Male chlamydial infections are associated with urethritis, epididymitis and orchitis; however the role of Chlamydia in prostatitis and male factor infertility remains controversial. Using a model of C. muridarum infection in male C57BL/6 mice, we investigated the effects of chlamydial infection on spermatogenesis and determined the potential of immune T cells to prevent infection-induced outcomes. Antigen-specific CD4 T cells significantly reduced the infectious burden in the penile urethra, epididymis and vas deferens. Infection disrupted seminiferous tubules causing loss of germ cells at 4 and 8 weeks post infection, with the most severely affected tubules containing only Sertoli cells. Increased mitotic proliferation, DNA repair, and apoptosis in spermatogonial cells and damaged germ cells was evident in atrophic tubules. Activated caspase 3 (casp3) staining revealed increased (6-fold) numbers of Sertoli cells with abnormal morphology that were casp3 positive in tubules of infected mice indicating increased levels of apoptosis. Sperm count and motility were both decreased in infected mice and there was a significant decrease in morphologically normal spermatozoa. Assessment of the spermatogonial stem cell population revealed a decrease in promyelocytic leukaemia zinc finger (PLZF) positive cells in the seminiferous tubules. Interestingly, adoptive transfer of immune CD4 cells, particularly Th2-like cells, prior to infection prevented these effects on spermatogenesis and Sertoli cells. These data suggest that chlamydial infection adversely affects spermatogenesis and male fertility and that vaccination can potentially prevent the spread of infection and these adverse outcomes. PMID:25472923

Sobinoff, Alexander P; Dando, Samantha J; Redgrove, Kate A; Sutherland, Jessie M; Stanger, Simone J; Armitage, Charles W; Timms, Peter; McLaughlin, Eileen A; Beagley, Kenneth W

2014-12-01

150

Virologic and Immunologic Evidence of Multifocal Genital Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Infection  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) reactivation is thought to be anatomically and temporally localized, coincident with limited ganglionic infection. Short, subclinical shedding episodes are the most common form of HSV-2 reactivation, with host clearance mechanisms leading to rapid containment. The anatomic distribution of shedding episodes has not been characterized. To precisely define patterns of anatomic reactivation, we divided the genital tract into a 22-region grid and obtained daily swabs for 20 days from each region in 28 immunocompetent, HSV-2-seropositive persons. HSV was detected via PCR, and sites of asymptomatic HSV shedding were subjected to a biopsy procedure within 24 h. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were quantified by immunofluorescence, and HSV-specific CD4+ T cells were identified by intracellular cytokine cytometry. HSV was detected in 868 (7%) of 11,603 genital swabs at a median of 12 sites per person (range, 0 to 22). Bilateral HSV detection occurred on 83 (67%) days with shedding, and the median quantity of virus detected/day was associated with the number of sites positive (P < 0.001). In biopsy specimens of asymptomatic shedding sites, we found increased numbers of CD8+ T cells compared to control tissue (27 versus 13 cells/mm2, P = 0.03) and identified HSV-specific CD4+ T cells. HSV reactivations emanate from widely separated anatomic regions of the genital tract and are associated with a localized cellular infiltrate that was demonstrated to be HSV specific in 3 cases. These data provide evidence that asymptomatic HSV-2 shedding contributes to chronic inflammation throughout the genital tract. IMPORTANCE This detailed report of the anatomic patterns of genital HSV-2 shedding demonstrates that HSV-2 reactivation can be detected at multiple bilateral sites in the genital tract, suggesting that HSV establishes latency throughout the sacral ganglia. In addition, genital biopsy specimens from sites of asymptomatic HSV shedding have increased numbers of CD8+ T cells compared to control tissue, and HSV-specific CD4+ T cells are found at sites of asymptomatic shedding. These findings suggest that widespread asymptomatic genital HSV-2 shedding is associated with a targeted host immune response and contributes to chronic inflammation throughout the genital tract. PMID:24554666

Zhu, Jia; Jing, Lichen; Laing, Kerry J.; McClurkan, Christopher M.; Klock, Alexis; Diem, Kurt; Jin, Lei; Stanaway, Jeffrey; Tronstein, Elizabeth; Kwok, William W.; Huang, Meei-li; Selke, Stacy; Fong, Youyi; Magaret, Amalia; Koelle, David M.; Wald, Anna; Corey, Lawrence

2014-01-01

151

Chlamydia pneumoniae infection induces vascular smooth muscle cell migration via Rac1 activation.  

PubMed

Chlamydia pneumoniae infection has been shown to be associated with the development of atherosclerosis by promoting the migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). However, how C. pneumoniae infection induces VSMC migration is not fully understood. A primary role of Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) is to generate a protrusive force at the leading edge that contributes to cell migration. Whether Rac1 activation plays a role in C. pneumoniae infection-induced VSMC migration is not well defined. In the present study, we therefore examined Rac1 activation in C. pneumoniae-infected rat primary VSMCs and the role of Rac1 activation in C. pneumoniae infection-induced VSMC migration. Glutathione S-transferase pull-down assay results showed that Rac1 was activated in C. pneumoniae-infected rat primary VSMCs. A Rac1 inhibitor, NSC23766 (50 µM,) suppressed Rac1 activation stimulated by C. pneumoniae infection, and thereby inhibited C. pneumoniae infection-induced VSMC migration. In addition, C. pneumoniae infection-induced Rac1 activation in the VSMCs was blocked by LY294002 (25 µM), an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). Taken together, these data suggest that C. pneumoniae infection promotes VSMC migration, possibly through activating Rac1 via PI3K. PMID:24248991

Zhang, Junxia; Wang, Haiwei; Zhang, Lijun; Zhang, Tengteng; Wang, Beibei; Li, Xiankui; Wei, Junyan; Zhang, Lijun

2014-02-01

152

Inhibition of apoptosis in neuronal cells infected with Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae  

PubMed Central

Background Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae is an intracellular bacterium that has been identified within cells in areas of neuropathology found in Alzheimer disease (AD), including endothelia, glia, and neurons. Depending on the cell type of the host, infection by C. pneumoniae has been shown to influence apoptotic pathways in both pro- and anti-apoptotic fashions. We have hypothesized that persistent chlamydial infection of neurons may be an important mediator of the characteristic neuropathology observed in AD brains. Chronic and/or persistent infection of neuronal cells with C. pneumoniae in the AD brain may affect apoptosis in cells containing chlamydial inclusions. Results SK-N-MC neuroblastoma cells were infected with the respiratory strain of C. pneumoniae, AR39 at an MOI of 1. Following infection, the cells were either untreated or treated with staurosporine and then examined for apoptosis by labeling for nuclear fragmentation, caspase activity, and membrane inversion as indicated by annexin V staining. C. pneumoniae infection was maintained through 10 days post-infection. At 3 and 10 days post-infection, the infected cell cultures appeared to inhibit or were resistant to the apoptotic process when induced by staurosporine. This inhibition was demonstrated quantitatively by nuclear profile counts and caspase 3/7 activity measurements. Conclusion These data suggest that C. pneumoniae can sustain a chronic infection in neuronal cells by interfering with apoptosis, which may contribute to chronic inflammation in the AD brain. PMID:18218130

Appelt, Denah M; Roupas, Maria R; Way, Deana S; Bell, Marcus G; Albert, Elizabeth V; Hammond, Christine J; Balin, Brian J

2008-01-01

153

Chlamydia psittaci in Swedish wetland birds: a risk to zoonotic infection?  

PubMed

Chlamydia psittaci in birds may be transmitted to humans and cause respiratory infections, sometimes as severe disease. Our study investigated the C. psittaci prevalence in migratory birds in Sweden by real-time PCR. Fecal specimens or cloacal swabs were collected from 497 birds from 22 different species, mainly mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), at two bird observatories in Sweden. DNA from C psittaci was found in six (1.2%) birds from three different species. Five of the positive specimens were infected with four novel strains of C. psittaci, based on sequencing of partial 16S rRNA gene and ompA gene, and the sixth was indentified as a recently described Chlamydiaceae-like bacterium. Considering exposure to humans it is concluded that the risk of zoonotic infection is low. PMID:23397847

Blomqvist, Maria; Christerson, Linus; Waldenström, Jonas; Herrmann, Björn; Olsen, Björn

2012-12-01

154

Prevalence and determinants of Chlamydia trachomatis infections in women from Bogota, Colombia  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Chlamydia trachomatis infection in the cervix and uterus has been hypothesised to be a co-factor for cervical cancer. We performed a cross sectional study in Bogota, Colombia, where cervical cancer rates are high, to determine the prevalence and determinants of C trachomatis infection, and in particular its association with human papillomavirus (HPV). Methods: 1829 low income sexually active women were interviewed and tested for C trachomatis, using an endogenous plasmid PCR-EIA, and for 37 HPV types, using a general primer GP5+/6+ mediated PCR-EIA. Results: The overall prevalence of C trachomatis was 5.0%, and it did not differ substantially between women with normal (5.0%) and those with abnormal (5.2%) cervical cytology. Women infected with any HPV type (15.1%) had a slightly increased risk of being simultaneously infected with C trachomatis (adjusted OR 1.3, 95% CI: 0.8 to 2.4). This association was stronger when multiple HPV infections (adjusted OR 2.5, 95% CI: 1.1 to 5.9) were present. No other lifestyle or reproductive characteristics were clearly associated with risk of C trachomatis infection. Conclusions: HPV infected women, particularly women with multiple HPV infections, are at increased risk of being infected with C trachomatis. PMID:14663124

Molano, M; Weiderpass, E; Posso, H; Morre, S; Ronderos, M; Franceschi, S; Arslan, A; Meijer, C; Munoz, N; van den Brule, A J C

2003-01-01

155

Immunization against Genital Herpes with a Vaccine Virus That has Defects in Productive and Latent Infection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An effective vaccine for genital herpes has been difficult to achieve because of the limited efficacy of subunit vaccines and the safety concerns about live viruses. As an alternative approach, mutant herpes simplex virus strains that are replication-defective can induce protective immunity. To increase the level of safety and to prove that replication was not needed for immunization, we constructed a mutant herpes simplex virus 2 strain containing two deletion mutations, each of which eliminated viral replication. The double-mutant virus induces protective immunity that can reduce acute viral shedding and latent infection in a mouse genital model, but importantly, the double-mutant virus shows a phenotypic defect in latent infection. This herpes vaccine strain, which is immunogenic but has defects in both productive and latent infection, provides a paradigm for the design of vaccines and vaccine vectors for other sexually transmitted diseases, such as AIDS.

da Costa, Xavier J.; Jones, Cheryl A.; Knipe, David M.

1999-06-01

156

Local Immune Responses to Chlamydia pneumoniae in the Lungs of BALB\\/c Mice during Primary Infection and Reinfection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses play a major role in protection as well as pathogenesis of many intracellular bacterial infections. In this study, we evaluated the infection kinetics and assessed histologically the lymphoid reactions and local, in vitro-restimulated CMI responses in lungs of BALB\\/c mice, during both primary infection and reinfection with Chlamydia pneumoniae. The primary challenge resulted in a self-

JENNI M. PENTTILA; MARJUKKA ANTTILA; MIRJA PUOLAKKAINEN; AINO LAURILA; KARI VARKILA; MATTI SARVAS; P. HELENA MAKELA; NINA RAUTONEN; Orion Pharma

1998-01-01

157

[Genitourethral infections caused by D-K serotypes of Chlamydia trachomatis].  

PubMed

Sexually transmitted infections of the urogenital tract are most commonly caused by the intracellular bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis worldwide, resulting the clinical picture of acute urethritis in men as well as urethritis and endocervicitis in women. As women often present with few symptoms only or a completely symptom-free disease course, one of the most important long-term complications is chronic pelvic inflammatory disease often followed by the development of infertility caused by chronic scar formation. Well-organized screening programs are considered to have a leading role in the prevention of disease spreading and long lasting unwanted complications. Antibiotic treatment options are often influenced by special circumstances, such as pregnancy and several complicated clinical forms. The aims of the authors are to give a concise review on the current knowledge regarding Chlamydia trachomatis infections and summarize typical clinical signs, modern diagnostic techniques as well as accepted treatment protocols and basic aspects of screening. Orv. Hetil., 2015, 156(1), 19-23. PMID:25544050

Holló, Péter; Jókai, Hajnalka; Herszényi, Krisztina; Kárpáti, Sarolta

2015-01-01

158

High prevalence of hpv multiple genotypes in women with persistent chlamydia trachomatis infection  

PubMed Central

Background Chlamydia trachomatis interaction with HR-HPV types has highlighted a central role in cervical cancer development. The aim of this study was to investigate HPV prevalence and genotypes distribution in women at risk for C. trachomatis infection and negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy. Methods 1071 cervical swabs were tested for C. trachomatis by Real Time PCR and genotyping by ompA gene sequencing. Additionally, a quantitative Real time-PCR was performed to assess the expression of the C. trachomatis Hsp60–encoding gene (Ct604 portion), linked to a persistent status of infection. HPV infection and genotypes was investigated in C. trachomatis positive women using Luminex technology. Results C. trachomatis infection was detected in 53 out of 1071 (4.5%) samples, of which the 53% resulted positive for Hsp60 gene expression. The overall prevalence of HPV infection in C. trachomatis positive samples was of 60.4% (32/53): in 37.5% of samples was present a single genotype, while multiple genotypes infections were found in the 62.5% of them. Among women with a C. trachomatis chronic infection, 68% were HPV co-infected and the 79% showed multiple genotypes. Should be noted that levels of C. trachomatis Hsp60 expression in HPV co-infected women were significantly lower compared to women infected only with C. trachomatis. The C. trachomatis serotype F was found in the majority of samples, independently of HPV infection. Conclusions A high prevalence of HPV multiple infections have been found in young women affected with a C. trachomatis chronic infection. These observations suggested that the expression of CHSP60-1, interfering with both apoptotic and cellular senescence pathways, may promote a favourable local microenvironment for HPV infection.

2014-01-01

159

The effectiveness of an education intervention to prevent chlamydia infection among Greenlandic youth.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to implement a sexual health behavioural intervention in Greenland in order to reduce sexually transmitted infection rates among a population of Greenland youth. This behavioural intervention was called Inuulluataarneq (Having the Good Life). Inuulluataarneq's objects included: (1) increase Greenlandic youth's overall knowledge about sexually transmitted infections and sexual health; (2) increase parent/guardian-youth communication about topics related to sexually transmitted infections and sex; and (3) increase consistent condom use among Greenlandic youth. We hypothesised that increased awareness of sexually transmitted infections and sexual health as well as increased communication between parents/guardians and their adolescent children would influence sexual risk behaviour and reduce sexually transmitted infections among our sample population, with a focus on urine samples of chlamydia infection. Results indicate that the influence of having a parent/guardian to speak with about topics related to sex, including the consequences of pregnancy, are key protective factors in reducing sexually transmitted infections among Greenlandic youth. Inuulluataarneq demonstrates that intensive short-term education and skill-building delivered by a trained community member is an effective sexually transmitted infection prevention intervention method among young Inuit populations who live in small isolated Arctic communities. PMID:24713230

Rink, Elizabeth; Montgomery-Andersen, Ruth; Anastario, Mike

2015-02-01

160

Genital Herpes  

MedlinePLUS

Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by a herpes simplex virus (HSV). It can cause sores on ... also infect their babies during childbirth. Symptoms of herpes are called outbreaks. You usually get sores near ...

161

A distinct cellular profile is seen in the human endocervix during Chlamydia trachomatis infection  

PubMed Central

Problem The endocervix is a major target of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection, but little is known about the immune repertoire in this tissue, or its response to these common bacteria. Method of Study Using a cytobrush, we isolated cells from the endocervix of 20 women during CT infection, and post-antibiotic treatment. Endocervical swabs and blood were taken in parallel. Endocervical cells were enumerated, and endocervical and blood T cells immunophenotyped. CT was genotyped by sequence analysis of the OmpA gene, and quantified by culture. Results CT genotypes were D, E, F and Ia, and infectious burden varied considerably. Endocervical T cell and neutrophil numbers were highly elevated during infection, with both CD4 and CD8 T cell subsets accumulating. Regardless of the presence or absence of infection, the endocervical cell infiltrate was dominated by effector memory T cells, and the numbers of CCR5 and CD103 expressing T cells was significantly higher than in the blood. HLA-DR expression by endocervical T cells was significantly increased during infection. Conclusions The human endocervix exhibits a distinct cellular response to C.trachomatis infection that can be longitudinally evaluated by cytobrush sampling. Infecting organisms can be sampled and analyzed in parallel. PMID:18798835

Ficarra, Mercedes; Ibana, Joyce S. A.; Poretta, Constance; Ma, Liang; Myers, Leann; Taylor, Stephanie N.; Greene, Sheila; Smith, Barbara; Hagensee, Michael; Martin, David H.; Quayle, Alison J.

2008-01-01

162

Prevalence of reproductive tract infections, genital prolapse, and obesity in a rural community in Lebanon.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of reproduction-related illnesses in a rural community in Lebanon. METHODS: Data were collected through interviews with women in their homes, physical examinations and history taking by physicians in a clinic in the community, and laboratory tests. A total of 557 ever-married women aged 15-60 years were selected randomly. FINDINGS: Just over half of the sample (268, 50.6%) had five or more children, and (320, 78.9%) of women aged < 45 years were using contraception. The prevalence of reproductive tract infections was very low: six (1.2%) women had sexually transmitted diseases and 47 (9.3%) had endogenous reproductive tract infections. None had chlamydial infection or a positive serological finding of syphilis. None had invasive cervical cancer, and only one had cervical dysplasia. In contrast, genital prolapse and gynaecological morbidity were elevated. Half of the women studied (251, 49.6%) had genital prolapse, and 153 (30.2%) were obese. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of reproductive tract infections in this conservative rural community in east Lebanon was low. Possible explanations include the conservative nature of the community, the high rate of utilization of health care services, and the liberal use of antibiotics without a prescription. More importantly, the study showed an unexpectedly high prevalence of genital prolapse and obesity--a finding that has clear implications for primary health care priorities in such rural communities. PMID:14710505

Deeb, Mary E.; Awwad, Johnny; Yeretzian, Joumana S.; Kaspar, Hanna G.

2003-01-01

163

Role of mercury (Hg) in resistant infections & effective treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis and Herpes family viral infections (and potential treatment for cancer) by removing localized Hg deposits with Chinese parsley and delivering effective antibiotics using various drug uptake enhancement methods.  

PubMed

The authors found that antibiotics used to treat various infections often were ineffective in the presence of abnormal localized deposits of heavy metals like Hg and Pb, which were often observed to co-exist with Chlamydia trachomatis, Herpes Simplex Types I & II, Cytomegalovirus(CMV), and other micro-organisms. Our earlier research revealed that despite rigorous treatment with antibiotics together with various drug uptake enhancement techniques, subjects who had been treated for Chlamydia trachomatis infections, seemingly successfully with disappearance of their symptoms, were often experiencing recurrences within several months after completion of their treatment despite taking precautions against reinfection. Careful examination of the entire body of these symptom-free patients with the Bi-Digital O-Ring Test revealed that the Chlamydia trachomatis had retreated to 3 approximately 5 hiding places with localized increase in uric acid levels: 1) sublingual caruncle, 2) a small round area in the right and/or left axillae, 3) the genitals (Corona Glandis area of the Glans Penis at the Fossa Navicularis of the urethra in the male, and near the orifice of the urethra in the female), 4) Insulin-like Growth Factor positive horizontal lines, particularly above and below the knees, 5) the maxillary, ethmoid and frontal sinuses and the horizontal lines at the base of the nostrils (particularly small areas where Insulin-like Growth Factors exist). We found that all these areas contain Insulin-like Growth Factors I & II which are reduced in the presence of infection. Even when drug uptake of antibiotics was selectively increased in these 3 approximately 5 areas by various drug uptake enhancement methods developed by the 1st author, still the infection persisted. In the spring of 1995, use of Chinese parsley for successful elimination of Hg deposits existing in various organs of the first author as the result of the decay of radioactive Thallium 201 injected for cardiac SPECT, was accidentally discovered after eating Vietnamese soup, which happened to contain Chinese parsley, also called cilantro. We also found Chinese parsley accelerates the excretion of Hg, Pb, and A1 from the body though the urine. Our subjects were given a course of antibiotics (Doxycycline for Chlamydia trachomatis infection) or anti-viral agents (EPA with DHA for Herpes Family Viruses) together with Chinese parsley. Since these vegetable/herbs were eaten, the amount of effective substance absorbed varied and some people did not like the taste of these relatively large amounts of either cooked or raw parsley or its juice, but together with effective antibiotics delivered by drug uptake enhancement methods to the infected areas, the substances worked synergistically, rapidly reducing the generalized symptoms and infection. The micro-organisms retreated to the 3 approximately 5 areas listed above where, with continued treatment, they were significantly reduced, but not completely eliminated. Because of these problems, a pharmaceutical company was asked to produce a Chinese parsley table containing a controlled amount in a highly absorbable form. When 11 subjects were treated with Doxycycline for Chlamydia trachomatis infection, or anti-viral agents (EPA with DHA) for Herpes Family Viruses, drug uptake enhancement methods to selectively increase delivery of the drugs to the affected areas, and Chinese parsley tablets to remove the heavy metal deposits, the last traces of the infections and clinical symptoms disappeared completely. Therefore we hypothesized that the infectious micro-organisms mentioned above, somehow utilize the Hg or Pb to protect themselves from what would otherwise be effective antibiotics, and/or that heavy metal deposits in some way make antibiotics ineffective. Since the micro-organisms retreat to areas in which Insulin-like Growth Factors I & II normally exist, they may be utilizing them for their own growth and multiplication. These phenomena ma PMID:8686573

Omura, Y; Beckman, S L

1995-01-01

164

Mucosal and peripheral immune responses to chlamydial heat shock proteins in women infected with Chlamydia trachomatis  

PubMed Central

Most of the studies on 60-kDa and 10-kDa chlamydial heat shock proteins (HSPs) to date have been carried out with blood lymphocytes or serum antibody responses, which do not provide a clear picture of the actual pathogenesis as they do not differentiate primary infection from recurrent infection. Thus, in the present study induction of the immune response was evaluated by studying lymphoproliferation of both cervical and peripheral lymphocytes to synthetic peptides of cHSP60, cHSP10 and major outer membrane protein (MOMP) antigen. In addition, cervical antibody prevalence to MOMP antigen, cHSP60 and cHSP10 and cytokine levels in cervical washes was also determined. Positive proliferative responses of cervical lymphocytes to cHSP10 peptide were significantly higher (P < 0·05) in women with recurrent infections and that to MOMP antigen were significantly higher in primary infection. On proliferation of PBMCs with the above antigens, no significant difference was observed between primary and recurrent infection. Prevalence of cervical IgG and IgA antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis was significantly higher (P < 0·05) during primary infection than recurrent infections. In contrast, prevalence of IgG and IgA antibodies to cHSP10 and IgG antibodies to cHSP60 was higher during recurrent infections than primary infections. Interferon (IFN)-? levels were significantly higher in cervical washes of women with recurrent infection and correlated strongly with cHSP60 antibody titres. Our data thus suggest that mucosal responses are more appropriate in understanding the pathogenesis of chlamydial infection and IFN-? could be involved in the modulation of immune responses towards chlamydial infection directly, by causing acute inflammation, or indirectly through modulation of HSP expression. PMID:17493018

Agrawal, T; Vats, V; Salhan, S; Mittal, A

2007-01-01

165

Distinct Intensity of Host-Pathogen Interactions in Chlamydia psittaci- and Chlamydia abortus-Infected Chicken Embryos  

PubMed Central

Factors and mechanisms determining the differences in virulence and host specificity between the zoonotic agents Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia abortus are still largely unknown. In the present study, two strains were compared for their invasiveness, virulence, and capability of eliciting an immune response in chicken embryos. On breeding day 10, embryonated chicken eggs were inoculated with 5 × 104 inclusion-forming units. As shown by immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR, C. psittaci displayed a significantly better capability of disseminating in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and internal organs than C. abortus. The higher infectious potential of C. psittaci in birds was underlined by significantly higher mRNA expression rates of essential chlamydial genes, such as incA, groEL (in CAM, liver, and spleen), cpaf, and ftsW (in CAM). Although the immune responses to both pathogens were similar, C. psittaci elicited higher macrophage numbers and a stronger expression of a subset of immune-related proteins. The data imply that invasiveness of Chlamydia spp. and propagation in the host are not solely dependent on the level of host immune response but, even to a greater extent, on the expression of bacterial factors related to virulence. The fact that C. psittaci has coped far better than C. abortus with the avian embryo's response by upregulating essential genes may be a key to understanding the mechanisms underlying host adaptation and etiopathology. PMID:22689815

Braukmann, Maria; Jacobsen, Ilse D.; Westermann, Martin; Menge, Christian; Saluz, Hans-Peter; Berndt, Angela

2012-01-01

166

Distinct intensity of host-pathogen interactions in Chlamydia psittaci- and Chlamydia abortus-infected chicken embryos.  

PubMed

Factors and mechanisms determining the differences in virulence and host specificity between the zoonotic agents Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia abortus are still largely unknown. In the present study, two strains were compared for their invasiveness, virulence, and capability of eliciting an immune response in chicken embryos. On breeding day 10, embryonated chicken eggs were inoculated with 5 × 10(4) inclusion-forming units. As shown by immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR, C. psittaci displayed a significantly better capability of disseminating in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and internal organs than C. abortus. The higher infectious potential of C. psittaci in birds was underlined by significantly higher mRNA expression rates of essential chlamydial genes, such as incA, groEL (in CAM, liver, and spleen), cpaf, and ftsW (in CAM). Although the immune responses to both pathogens were similar, C. psittaci elicited higher macrophage numbers and a stronger expression of a subset of immune-related proteins. The data imply that invasiveness of Chlamydia spp. and propagation in the host are not solely dependent on the level of host immune response but, even to a greater extent, on the expression of bacterial factors related to virulence. The fact that C. psittaci has coped far better than C. abortus with the avian embryo's response by upregulating essential genes may be a key to understanding the mechanisms underlying host adaptation and etiopathology. PMID:22689815

Braukmann, Maria; Sachse, Konrad; Jacobsen, Ilse D; Westermann, Martin; Menge, Christian; Saluz, Hans-Peter; Berndt, Angela

2012-09-01

167

Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in HIV-Infected Women: Need for Screening by a Sensitive and Specific Test  

PubMed Central

Reproductive tract infection (RTIs)/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are recognized as a major public health problem, particularly due to their relationship with HIV infection. Early detection and treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis infection (CTI) among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women may impact heterosexual HIV transmission. A total of 120 participants were enrolled: 30 HIV seropositive women with symptoms of RTIs, 30 HIV seropositive women without symptoms of RTIs, 30 HIV seronegative women with symptoms of RTIs, and 30 HIV seronegative women without symptoms of RTIs. One endocervical swab was collected from all participants and CTI was detected by real-time PCR (COBAS TaqMan CT Test, v2.0). CTI was detected in 4 (6.67%) HIV-infected women and in 1 (1.67%) HIV-uninfected woman (OR 4.214; 95% CI 0.457–38.865). Vaginal discharge was present in almost half of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women; lower abdominal pain was present in 11 (18.3%) of HIV-infected and in 9 (15%) of HIV-uninfected women. This study showed that CTI is more prevalent among HIV-infected females as compared to HIV-uninfected females. As the use of real-time PCR is not feasible in most hospitals, efforts should be made to develop a simple, sensitive, and specific test to identify women with CTI for prevention of sequelae and HIV transmission. PMID:24382941

Bhattar, Sonali; Chadha, Sanjim; Tripathi, Reva; Kaur, Ravinder; Sardana, Kabir

2013-01-01

168

Engineered phage-based therapeutic materials inhibit Chlamydia trachomatis intracellular infection  

PubMed Central

Developing materials that are effective against sexually transmitted pathogens such as Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) and HIV-1 is challenging both in terms of material selection and improving bio-membrane and cellular permeability at desired mucosal sites. Here, we engineered the prokaryotic bacterial virus (M13 phage) carrying two functional peptides, integrin binding peptide (RGD) and a segment of the polymorphic membrane protein D (PmpD) from Ct, as a phage-based material that can ameliorate Ct infection. Ct is a globally prevalent human pathogen for which there are no effective vaccines or microbicides. We show that engineered phage stably express both RGD motifs and Ct peptides and traffic intracellularly and into the lumen of the inclusion in which the organism resides within the host cell. Engineered phage were able to significantly reduce Ct infection in both HeLa and primary endocervical cells compared with Ct infection alone. Polyclonal antibodies raised against PmpD and co-incubated with constructs prior to infection did not alter the course of infection, indicating that PmpD is responsible for the observed decrease in Ct infection. Our results suggest that phage-based design approaches to vector delivery that overcome mucosal cellular barriers may be effective in preventing Ct and other sexually transmitted pathogens. PMID:22494890

Bhattarai, Shanta Raj; Yoo, So Young; Lee, Seung-Wuk; Dean, Deborah

2012-01-01

169

Investigation of association between female genital tract diseases and Schistosomiasis japonica infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the support of WHO\\/TDR, a case-control study was undertaken to explore the association between female genital tract manifestation and Schistosomiasis japonica. Two thousand one hundred and six women aged 18–50 in a township with schistosomiasis japonica infection rate of >15% were surveyed using modified Kato-Katz method qualitatively and quantitatively. Two hundred and forty four women with schistosomiasis japonica were

Liu Qunhua; Zhang Jiawen; Liu Bozhao; Peng Zhilan; Zhang Huijie; Wang Shaoying; Mei Delun; Lee-Nah Hsu

2000-01-01

170

Expression of matrix metalloproteinases subsequent to urogenital Chlamydia muridarum infection of mice.  

PubMed

The central hypothesis of this study was that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) would be enhanced following murine chlamydial infection and that their expression would vary in mouse strains that differ in their susceptibility to chronic chlamydia-induced disease. To address this hypothesis, female C3H/HeN and C57BL/6 mice were infected intravaginally with Chlamydia muridarum. Uterine and oviduct tissues were assessed for transcription of MMP genes and their tissue inhibitors. An increased activity of MMP genes relative to preinfection tissues was observed in the C3H/HeN mice when compared to C57BL/6 mice. Using gelatin zymography, we detected constitutive MMP-2 activity in both strains of mice but an increase in MMP-9. Casein zymography indicated the presence of two elastase-like activities consistent with MMP-12 and possibly MMP-7. Western blotting and antigen capture enzyme-linked immunoassay also confirmed an increase in MMP-9 but constitutive MMP-2 expression subsequent to the infection in both strains of mice. In C57BL/6 mice, MMP-9 was present in monomer and dimer form throughout the 56-day monitoring period. C3H/HeN mice produced dimeric MMP-9, but increases in the monomer form were also observed through day 14. Post-translational modification of MMP-9 between the two strains also differed. Immunohistochemistry revealed neutrophils as a prominent source for MMP-9 in both strains of mice. We conclude that differences in the relative expression and activity of MMPs, particularly MMP-9, occur in mice differing in their susceptibility to the development of chronic chlamydial disease. These differences may account for disparate outcomes with regard to chronic sequelae of the disease. PMID:16177376

Ramsey, K H; Sigar, I M; Schripsema, J H; Shaba, N; Cohoon, K P

2005-10-01

171

Limited role of polymorphonuclear neutrophils in a pregnant mouse model of secondary infection by Chlamydophila abortus ( Chlamydia psittaci serotype 1)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to study the role of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) in the clearance of infection, and in the development of specific immunity against Chlamydophila abortus (Chlamydia psittaci serotype 1) secondary infection. A pregnant mouse model depleted of neutrophils by the RB6-8C5 monoclonal antibody was used. No clinical signs were observed in depleted or non-depleted mice after

Roberto Montes de Oca; Antonio J Buend??a; Joaqu??n Sánchez; Laura Del R??o; Juan Seva; Jose A Navarro; Jesús Salinas

2000-01-01

172

A novel co-infection model with Toxoplasma and Chlamydia trachomatis highlights the importance of host cell manipulation for nutrient scavenging  

PubMed Central

Summary Toxoplasmaand Chlamydia trachomatis are obligate intracellular pathogens that have evolved analogous strategies to replicate within mammalian cells. Both pathogens are known to extensively remodel the cytoskeleton, and to recruit endocytic and exocytic organelles to their respective vacuoles. However, how important these activities are for infectivity by either pathogen remains elusive. Here, we have developed a novel co-infection system to gain insights into the developmental cycles of Toxoplasma and C. trachomatis by infecting human cells with both pathogens, and examining their respective ability to replicate and scavenge nutrients. We hypothesize that the common strategies used by Toxoplasma and Chlamydia to achieve development results in direct competition of the two pathogens for the same pool of nutrients. We show that a single human cell can harbor Chlamydia and Toxoplasma. In co-infected cells, Toxoplasma is able to divert the content of host organelles, such as cholesterol. Consequently, the infectious cycle of Toxoplasma progresses unimpeded. In contrast, Chlamydia’s ability to scavenge selected nutrients is diminished, and the bacterium shifts to a stress-induced persistent growth. Parasite killing engenders an ordered return to normal chlamydial development. We demonstrate that C. trachomatis enters a stress-induced persistence phenotype as a direct result from being barred from its normal nutrient supplies as addition of excess nutrients, e.g., amino acids, leads to substantial recovery of Chlamydia growth and infectivity. Co-infection of C. trachomatis with slow growing strains of Toxoplasma or a mutant impaired in nutrient acquisition does not restrict chlamydial development. Conversely, Toxoplasma growth is halted in cells infected with the highly virulent Chlamydia psittaci. This study illustrates the key role that cellular remodeling plays in the exploitation of host intracellular resources by Toxoplasma and Chlamydia. It further highlights the delicate balance between success and failure of infection by intracellular pathogens in a co-infection system at the cellular level. PMID:23107293

Romano, Julia D.; de Beaumont, Catherine; Carrasco, Jose A.; Ehrenman, Karen; Bavoil, Patrik M.; Coppens, Isabelle

2012-01-01

173

Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae Infections Among Men and Women Entering California Prisons  

PubMed Central

Objective. We estimated the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection among newly arriving inmates at 6 California prisons. Methods. In this cross-sectional study in 1999, urine specimens collected from 698 men aged 18 to 25 years and 572 women aged 18 years or older were tested at intake for C trachomatis and N gonorrhoeae using ligase chain reaction. An analysis of demographic and arrest-related correlates of C trachomatis and N gonorrhoeae infection was performed. Results. The overall C trachomatis prevalence was 9.9% (95% CI=7.8%, 12.3%) among men aged 18 to 25 years, 8.9% (95% CI = 2.9%, 22.1%) among women aged 18 to 25 years, and 3.3% (95% CI=2.0%, 5.1%) among women overall. Three N gonorrhoeae cases were detected with an overall prevalence of 0.24% (95% CI=0.05%, 0.69%). Conclusions. The prevalence of C trachomatis infection at entry to California prisons, especially among young female and male inmates, was high, which supports routine screening at entry into prison. In addition, screening in a jail setting where most detainees are incarcerated before entry into the prison setting may provide an excellent earlier opportunity to identify these infections and treat disease to prevent complications and burden of infection in this high-risk population. PMID:17008584

Bernstein, Kyle T.; Chow, Joan M.; Ruiz, Juan; Schachter, Julius; Horowitz, Evalyn; Bunnell, Rebecca; Bolan, Gail

2006-01-01

174

An Automated Image-Based Method for Rapid Analysis of Chlamydia Infection as a Tool for Screening Antichlamydial Agents  

PubMed Central

A major limitation in the identification of novel antichlamydial compounds is the paucity of effective methods for large-scale compound screening. The immunofluorescence assay is the preferred approach for accurate quantification of the intracellular growth of Chlamydia. In this study, an immunofluorescence image-based method (termed image-based automated chlamydial identification and enumeration [iBAChIE]) was customized for fully automated quantification of Chlamydia infection using the freely available open-source image analysis software program CellProfiler and the complementary data exploration software program CellProfiler Analyst. The method yielded enumeration of different species and strains of Chlamydia highly comparably to the conventional manual methods while drastically reducing the analysis time. The inhibitory capability of established antichlamydial activity was also evaluated. Overall, these data support that iBAChIE is a highly effective tool for automated quantification of Chlamydia infection and assessment of antichlamydial activities of molecules. Furthermore, iBAChIE is expected to be amenable to high-throughput screening studies for inhibitory compounds and fluorescently labeled molecules to study host-pathogen interactions. PMID:22615279

Osaka, Ichie; Hills, Jeffrey M.; Kieweg, Sarah L.; Shinogle, Heather E.; Moore, David S.

2012-01-01

175

Identifying individuals engaging in risky sexual behaviour for chlamydia infection in the UK: a latent class approach.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomitis is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the UK and the number of cases diagnosed each year continues to rise. Although much is known about the risk factors for chlamydia from previous observational studies, less is known about how individuals put themselves at risk. Do they engage in just one risky type of behaviour or are certain individuals 'risky', engaging in multiple risky behaviours? This paper uses latent class analysis, applied to the National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles II (2000-2001), to determine whether a subgroup of high-risk individuals can be identified and explores which features of their behaviour distinguish them from other groups of lower risk individuals. A 3-class solution was obtained, splitting the sample on the basis of the number of sexual partners in the past year. Those with no sexual partners in the past year (8%) and one sexual partner in the past year (71%) were much less likely to have engaged in any of the other behaviours known to increase chlamydia risk. However, the group who had two or more sexual partners in the past year (21%) were much more likely to have also engaged in other risky behaviours. The number of partners in the past year is therefore a useful marker for identifying those at increased risk of chlamydia infection. Individuals under 25 years old, males and those who were single or previously married were more likely to be allocated to the risky group. However, in spite of observed higher incidence of chlamydia infection, individuals in the black ethnic minority groups did not show an increased prevalence of risky behaviour, after controlling for age, sex and marital status. PMID:19793405

Stuart, Beth; Hinde, Andrew

2010-01-01

176

Human Conjunctival Transcriptome Analysis Reveals the Prominence of Innate Defense in Chlamydia trachomatis Infection? †  

PubMed Central

Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness and is endemic in 52 countries. There is a critical need to further our understanding of the host response during disease and infection, as millions of individuals are still at risk of developing blinding sequelae. Infection of the conjunctival epithelial cells by the causative bacterium, Chlamydia trachomatis, stimulates an acute host response. The main clinical feature is a follicular conjunctivitis that is incompletely defined at the tissue-specific gene expression and molecular levels. To explore the features of disease and the response to infection, we measured host gene expression in conjunctival samples from Gambian children with active trachoma and healthy controls. Genome-wide expression and transcription network analysis identified signatures characteristic of the expected infiltrating immune cell populations, such as neutrophils and T/B lymphocytes. The expression signatures were also significantly enriched for genes in pathways which regulate NK cell activation and cytotoxicity, antigen processing and presentation, chemokines, cytokines, and cytokine receptors. The data suggest that in addition to polymorph and adaptive cellular responses, NK cells may contribute to a significant component of the conjunctival inflammatory response to chlamydial infection. PMID:20823212

Natividad, Angels; Freeman, Tom C.; Jeffries, David; Burton, Matthew J.; Mabey, David C. W.; Bailey, Robin L.; Holland, Martin J.

2010-01-01

177

Emerging Chlamydia psittaci infections in chickens and examination of transmission to humans.  

PubMed

Chlamydia psittaci and atypical Chlamydiaceae infections are (re)-emerging in chickens. We therefore examined the prevalence of C. psittaci, atypical Chlamydiaceae and their zoonotic transmission on 19 Belgian chicken farms. Atypical Chlamydiaceae were not detected in chickens but 18 out of 19 farms were positive for C. psittaci by culture and PCR. C. psittaci ompA genotypes A and D were discovered. None of the examined humans (n = 31) was infected with atypical Chlamydiaceae, but 29 (93.5%) of them were positive for C. psittaci by culture and PCR. Genotypes A, D and a mixed infection with genotypes C and D were found. Humans (n = 2) working at the C. psittaci-negative farm never had respiratory complaints, while 25 out of 29 positive farmers (86.2%) reported yearly medical complaints potentially related to psittacosis. Four of them currently experienced respiratory disease and one of them was being treated with antibiotics. Four farmers (12.5%) mentioned that they had pneumonia after starting to keep chickens. Occupational physicians should be aware of emerging Chlamydiaceae infections in chickens. PMID:24324029

Lagae, Stefanie; Kalmar, Isabelle; Laroucau, Karine; Vorimore, Fabien; Vanrompay, Daisy

2014-03-01

178

Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia abortus Infection in Tibetan Sheep in Gansu Province, Northwest China  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia abortus, an important pathogen in a variety of animals, is associated with abortion in sheep. In the present study, 1732 blood samples, collected from Tibetan sheep between June 2013 and April 2014, were examined by the indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test, aiming to evaluate the seroprevalence and risk factors of C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. 323 of 1732 (18.65%) samples were seropositive for C. abortus antibodies at the cut-off of 1?:?16. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk factors associated with seroprevalence, which could provide foundation to prevent and control C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. Gender of Tibetan sheep was left out of the final model because it is not significant in the logistic regression analysis (P > 0.05). Region, season, and age were considered as major risk factors associated with C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep in Gansu province, northwest China, with higher exposure risk in different seasons and ages and distinct geographical distribution. PMID:25401129

Qin, Si-Yuan; Yin, Ming-Yang; Cong, Wei; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Zhao, Quan; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Zhou, Ji-Zhang; Qian, Ai-Dong

2014-01-01

179

Genital Warts  

MedlinePLUS

... Diseases and treatments E - H Genital warts Genital warts Also called condylomata acuminata Genital warts: The warts ... visit to the dermatologist. Learn more about genital warts: Genital warts: Signs and symptoms Genital warts: Who ...

180

Testing-adjusted chlamydia notification trends in New South Wales, Australia, 2000 to 2010  

PubMed Central

Introduction Between 2005 and 2010, Australian notification rates for chlamydia infection increased by 64% from 203 to 333 per 100 000 population. Interpreting this trend is difficult without examining rates and local patterns of testing. We examined the effect of adjusting for local testing rates on chlamydia notification trends in New South Wales (NSW), Australia from 2000 to 2010. Methods We used testing data for NSW residents for Medicare Benefits Schedule items for chlamydia from 1 July 1999 to 30 June 2005 and 1 July 2007 to 30 June 2010. This data set excluded testing by public sector laboratories. We also obtained laboratory-confirmed genital chlamydia notifications in NSW residents for 1 July 1999 to 30 June 2010 and excluded notifications from public laboratories. We used negative binomial regression to assess trends in chlamydia notification rates by age and sex after adjusting for local government area (LGA)-level Medicare-funded testing rates, socioeconomic disadvantage, remoteness and Medicare provider density. Results Testing-adjusted rates of chlamydia notifications declined by 5.2% per annum (rate ratio [RR] = 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.93–0.96) for women overall, and 2.3% (RR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.96–1.00) and 5.0% per annum (RR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.93–0.98) for men in LGAs with moderate and high densities of Medicare providers, respectively. Notification rates remained stable for men in low Medicare provider density LGAs (RR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.96–1.07). Discussion It is likely that increased testing for chlamydia has driven increases in chlamydia notification in NSW over the last decade. Notification data provide no evidence for a general increase in the prevalence of chlamydia in the NSW community for this period. Notification-based chlamydia surveillance should be routinely adjusted for local testing rates.

Mayne, Darren; Reynolds, Roderick; Spokes, Paula; Madeddu, Daniel

2014-01-01

181

Genital warts and other HPV infections: established and novel therapies.  

PubMed

Wart therapies involve methods of targeted lesion destruction, as well as selective immunologic modification. While there are several therapeutic options, no treatment has been proven to be superior in terms of clinical clearance or recurrence. Controlled trials comparing treatments are currently lacking. Many factors are used in the selection of treatment. Variables that should be taken into account include but are not limited to the morphology of the lesions such as thickness and size, quantity, anatomic location, human papilloma virus (HPV) classification, immunocompromized or immune competent status, as well as the preferences of the patient and the provider, cost and availability. No current treatment completely eradicates the human papillomavirus virus. The availability of vaccinations against HPV infection is contributing to the decreasing incidence of this disease. This contribution highlights conventional therapies, off-label treatment strategies including combination therapies, and prophylaxis for condylomata acuminata. PMID:24559567

Fathi, Ramin; Tsoukas, Maria M

2014-01-01

182

Transformation of Sexually Transmitted Infection-Causing Serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis Using Blasticidin for Selection  

PubMed Central

Plasmid-free Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 organisms have been transformed with chlamydial plasmid-based shuttle vectors pGFP::SW2 and pBRCT using ?-lactamase as a selectable marker. However, the recommendation of amoxicillin, a ?-lactam antibiotics, as one of the choices for treating pregnant women with cervicitis due to C. trachomatis infection has made the existing shuttle vectors unsuitable for transforming sexually transmitted infection (STI)-causing serovars of C. trachomatis. Thus, in the current study, we modified the pGFP::SW2 plasmid by fusing a blasticidin S deaminase gene to the GFP gene to establish blasticidin resistance as a selectable marker and replacing the ?-lactamase gene with the Sh ble gene to eliminate the penicillin resistance. The new vector termed pGFPBSD/Z::SW2 was used for transforming plasmid-free C. trachomatis serovar D organisms. Using blasticidin for selection, stable transformants were obtained. The GFP-BSD fusion protein was detected in cultures infected with the pGFPBSD/Z::SW2-trasnformed serovar D organisms. The transformation restored the plasmid property to the plasmid-free serovar D organisms. Thus, we have successfully modified the pGFP::SW2 transformation system for studying the biology and pathogenesis of other STI-causing serovars of C. trachomatis. PMID:24303023

Ding, Honglei; Gong, Siqi; Tian, Yingxin; Yang, Zhangsheng; Brunham, Robert; Zhong, Guangming

2013-01-01

183

Association of Chlamydia trachomatis infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) & cervical intraepithelial neoplasia - A pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the necessary cause of cervical cancer and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is considered a potential cofactor in the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The objective of this pilot study was to determine the association of CT infection with HPV, other risk factors for cervical cancer, and CIN in symptomatic women. Methods: A total of 600 consecutively selected women aged 30-74 yr with persistent vaginal discharge, intermenstrual/postcoital bleeding or unhealthy cervix underwent conventional Pap smear, Hybrid Capture 2® (HC2) testing for HPV and CT DNA and colposcopy, with directed biopsy of all lesions. Results: HPV DNA was positive in 108 (18.0%) women, CT DNA in 29 (4.8%) women. HPV/CT co-infection was observed in only four (0.7%) women. Of the 127 (21.2%) women with Pap >ASCUS, 60 (47.2%) were HPV positive and four (3.1%) were CT positive. Of the 41 women with CIN1 lesions, 11 (26.8%) were HPV positive, while two were CT positive. Of the 46 women with CIN2+ on histopathology, 41 (89.1%) were HPV positive, two (4.3%) were CT positive and one was positive for both. The risk of CIN2+ disease was significantly increased (P<0.05) by the following factors: age <18 yr at first coitus, HPV infection and a positive Pap smear. Older age (>35 yr), higher parity, use of oral contraceptives or smoking did not show any significant association with HPV or abnormal histopathology. Parity >5 was the only risk factor positivity associated with CT infection (P<0.05). Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings showed that CT infection was not significantly associated with CIN, and most of its risk factors, including HPV infection, in symptomatic women. Longitudinal studies with carefully selected study sample would be able to answer these questions. PMID:23640561

Bhatla, Neerja; Puri, Kriti; Joseph, Elizabeth; Kriplani, Alka; Iyer, Venkateswaran K.; Sreenivas, V.

2013-01-01

184

Prevention of Chlamydia-induced infertility by inhibition of local caspase activity.  

PubMed

Tubal factor infertility (TFI) represents 36% of female infertility and genital infection by Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) is a major cause. Although TFI is associated with host inflammatory responses to bacterial components, the molecular pathogenesis of Chlamydia-induced infertility remains poorly understood. We investigated the hypothesis that activation of specific cysteine proteases, the caspases, during C. trachomatis genital infection causes the disruption of key fertility-promoting molecules required for embryo development and implantation. We analyzed the effect of caspase inhibition on infertility and the integrity of Dicer, a caspase-sensitive, fertility-promoting ribonuclease III enzyme, and key micro-RNAs in the reproductive system. Genital infection with the inflammation- and caspase-inducing, wild-type C. trachomatis serovar L2 led to infertility, but the noninflammation-inducing, plasmid-free strain did not. We confirmed that caspase-mediated apoptotic tissue destruction may contribute to chlamydial pathogenesis. Caspase-1 or -3 deficiency, or local administration of the pan caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK into normal mice protected against Chlamydia-induced infertility. Finally, the oviducts of infected infertile mice showed evidence of caspase-mediated cleavage inactivation of Dicer and alteration in critical miRNAs that regulate growth, differentiation, and development, including mir-21. These results provide new insight into the molecular pathogenesis of TFI with significant implications for new strategies for treatment and prevention of chlamydial complications. PMID:23303804

Igietseme, Joseph U; Omosun, Yusuf; Partin, James; Goldstein, Jason; He, Qing; Joseph, Kahaliah; Ellerson, Debra; Ansari, Uzma; Eko, Francis O; Bandea, Claudiu; Zhong, Guangming; Black, Carolyn M

2013-04-01

185

Chlamydia pneumoniae CopD Translocator Protein Plays a Critical Role in Type III Secretion (T3S) and Infection  

PubMed Central

Pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria use type III secretion (T3S) to inject effector proteins into the host cell to create appropriate conditions for infection and intracellular replication. Chlamydia spp. are believed to use T3S to infect their host cell, and the translocator proteins are an essential component of this system. Chlamydia pneumoniae contains genes encoding two sets of translocator proteins; CopB and CopD, and CopB2 and CopD2. In this study, we identified novel interactions between CopD and three type III secretion proteins; namely, CopN, CdsN, and CdsF. We identified a CopD putative chaperone binding motif, PxLxxP, within the N-terminal region (CopD amino acids 120–125), which was necessary for interaction with its putative chaperone LcrH_1. Using size exclusion chromatography, we showed that CopD and LcrH_1 formed higher order structures in solution with CopD and LcrH_1 binding in a ratio of 1?1, which is unique for T3SS translocator proteins. Lastly, we showed that antibodies to CopD reduced C. pneumoniae infectivity by >95%. Collectively, this data suggests that CopD plays a critical role in pathogenesis and likely functions as a hydrophobic translocator of the type III secretion system in Chlamydia pneumoniae. PMID:24959658

Bulir, David C.; Waltho, Daniel A.; Stone, Christopher B.; Mwawasi, Kenneth A.; Nelson, Jordan C.; Mahony, James B.

2014-01-01

186

Chlamydia trachomatis cytotoxicity associated with complete and partial cytotoxin genes  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular human bacterial pathogen that infects epithelial cells of the eye and genital tract. Infection can result in trachoma, the leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide, and sexually transmitted diseases. A common feature of infection is a chronic damaging inflammatory response for which the molecular pathogenesis is not understood. It has been proposed that chlamydiae have a cytotoxic activity that contributes to this pathology, but a toxin has not been identified. The C. trachomatis genome contains genes that encode proteins with significant homology to large clostridial cytotoxins. Here we show that C. trachomatis makes a replication-independent cytotoxic activity that produces morphological and cytoskeletal changes in epithelial cells that are indistinguishable from those mediated by clostridial toxin B. A mouse chlamydial strain that encodes a full-length cytotoxin caused pronounced cytotoxicity, as did a human strain that has a shorter ORF with homology to only the enzymatically active site of clostridial toxin B. Cytotoxin gene transcripts were detected in chlamydiae-infected cells, and a protein with the expected molecular mass was present in lysates of infected epithelial cells. The protein was present transiently in infected cells during the period of cytotoxicity. Together, these data provide compelling evidence for a chlamydial cytotoxin for epithelial cells and imply that the cytotoxin is present in the elementary body and delivered to host cells very early during infection. We hypothesize that the cytotoxin is a virulence factor that contributes to the pathogenesis of C. trachomatis diseases. PMID:11707582

Belland, Robert J.; Scidmore, Marci A.; Crane, Deborah D.; Hogan, Daniel M.; Whitmire, William; McClarty, Grant; Caldwell, Harlan D.

2001-01-01

187

College health providers' knowledge, attitudes, and management practices of genital HPV infection.  

PubMed

This comparative survey of college health providers explored nurse practitioners' (N = 73) and physicians' (N = 70) knowledge, attitudes, and management practices related to genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in females. Both groups had adequate knowledge of basic issues of HPV epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Divergent attitudes and management practices were reported among the providers, with generally low agreement with national STD treatment guidelines published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Generally, providers tended to practice a more aggressive management approach on several aspects of HPV infection than recommended by the CDC guidelines. The one major exception reported by the majority of providers was the conservative use of colposcopy for identifying subclinical HPV infection in patients with external genital warts, a finding consistent with CDC guidelines. The availability of colposcopy within a provider's health center was found to be associated with the reported use of colposcopy. Recommendation for future research and implications for college health and advanced nursing practice are addressed. PMID:8734630

Linnehan, M J; Andrews, S; Groce, N E

1996-05-01

188

Genital infection with herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in women from natal, Brazil.  

PubMed

Objective. To evaluate the prevalence of HSV-1 and HSV-2 in pregnant and nonpregnant women, testing the correlation between DNA of the viruses with colposcopic and/or cytological changes, and evaluate association with sociodemographic characteristics and sexual activity. Methods. Included in this study were 106 pregnant and 130 nonpregnant women treated at primary health care units of Natal, Brazil, in the period 2010-2011. The patients were examined by colposcopy, and two cervical specimens were collected: one for cytology examination and another for analysis by PCR for detection of HSV-1 and HSV-2. Results. HSV-1 alone was detected in 16.0% of pregnant and 30.0% of nonpregnant women. For HSV-2, these rates were 12.3% and 15.5%, respectively. HSV-2 had a higher correlation with cytology and/or colposcopy changes than HSV-1 did. Genital HSV-1 infection was not associated with any of the variables tested, whereas HSV-2 infection was associated with ethnicity, marital status, and number of sexual partners. Conclusions. The prevalence of HSV-1 was higher than that observed for HSV-2 in both pregnant and nonpregnant women. The genital infection by HSV-2 was higher in women with changed colposcopy and/or cytology, and it was associated with ethnicity, marital status, and number of sexual partners. PMID:25006480

Miranda, Cleine Aglacy Nunes; Lima, Erika Galvão; de Lima, Diego Breno Soares; Cobucci, Ricardo Ney Oliveira; Cornetta, Maria da Conceição de Mesquita; Fernandes, Thales Allyrio Araújo de Medeiros; de Azevedo, Paulo Roberto Medeiros; de Azevedo, Jenner Chrystian Veríssimo; de Araújo, Josélio Maria Galvão; Fernandes, José Veríssimo

2014-01-01

189

Genital Infection with Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 in Women from Natal, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Objective. To evaluate the prevalence of HSV-1 and HSV-2 in pregnant and nonpregnant women, testing the correlation between DNA of the viruses with colposcopic and/or cytological changes, and evaluate association with sociodemographic characteristics and sexual activity. Methods. Included in this study were 106 pregnant and 130 nonpregnant women treated at primary health care units of Natal, Brazil, in the period 2010-2011. The patients were examined by colposcopy, and two cervical specimens were collected: one for cytology examination and another for analysis by PCR for detection of HSV-1 and HSV-2. Results. HSV-1 alone was detected in 16.0% of pregnant and 30.0% of nonpregnant women. For HSV-2, these rates were 12.3% and 15.5%, respectively. HSV-2 had a higher correlation with cytology and/or colposcopy changes than HSV-1 did. Genital HSV-1 infection was not associated with any of the variables tested, whereas HSV-2 infection was associated with ethnicity, marital status, and number of sexual partners. Conclusions. The prevalence of HSV-1 was higher than that observed for HSV-2 in both pregnant and nonpregnant women. The genital infection by HSV-2 was higher in women with changed colposcopy and/or cytology, and it was associated with ethnicity, marital status, and number of sexual partners. PMID:25006480

Miranda, Cleine Aglacy Nunes; Lima, Érika Galvão; de Lima, Diego Breno Soares; Cobucci, Ricardo Ney Oliveira; Cornetta, Maria da Conceição de Mesquita; Fernandes, Thales Allyrio Araújo de Medeiros; de Azevedo, Paulo Roberto Medeiros; de Azevedo, Jenner Chrystian Veríssimo; de Araújo, Josélio Maria Galvão; Fernandes, José Veríssimo

2014-01-01

190

Impact of a Labour Disruption Affecting Local Public Health on the Incidence of Chlamydia Infections in Toronto  

PubMed Central

Introduction Labour disruptions that interrupt services can be a natural experiment to examine the effect of halting a program. A five-week municipal labour disruption in Toronto during the summer of 2009 provided an opportunity to investigate the impact of reduced sexual health services. Methods We examined the incidence of reported chlamydia in Toronto during the five years (2004–2008) preceding the labour disruption and during the periods just before, during, and after the labour disruption. Comparisons of actual reports for 2009 were made to immediately adjacent periods around the labour disruption, to historical trends and to forecasted rates. Interrupted time series analysis was used to test for significant differences in the trend of reported chlamydia incidence. Results There was no significant difference in the trend of reported chlamydia incidence around the time of the strike. However, there was a small but significant increase in the incidence of reported chlamydia, particularly among females under 25 years old immediately following the labour disruption. The reported incidence for this group was higher than would be expected based on annual increases and projected seasonal trends. Conclusions There was a small increase in incidence of reported cases of chlamydia for certain groups that went beyond what is expected during the time immediately following the labour disruption. While causation cannot be implied from our ecological study, public health services may play a role in the control of sexually transmitted infections, even in the short-term. This underscores the need for future work to understand whether the changes observed can be attributed to the absence of these services. PMID:24312180

Pinto, Andrew D.; Gournis, Effie; Al-Bargash, Dana; Shahin, Rita

2013-01-01

191

Helicobacter pylori infection transmitted sexually via oral-genital contact: a hypothetical model  

PubMed Central

Note added at proof stage An updated search of the literature was made in August 2000. Objectives: To postulate that Helicobacter pylori infection may be transmitted sexually, using the human female vagina as a reservoir for transmission. Methods: A literature search was performed using Medline, Embase, Biological Abstracts, and Currents Contents (January 1983 to August 2000). Relevant keywords were used and additional manual searches were made using the reference lists from the selected articles to retrieve other papers relevant to the topic. Conclusions: Helicobacter pylori infection could be transmitted sexually with the vagina acting as a potential temporary/permanent reservoir given the right environmental conditions. Key Words: sexually transmitted infections; Helicobacter pylori; vagina; oral-genital contact PMID:11221134

Eslick, G.

2000-01-01

192

Differences in Cell Activation by Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Human Endothelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Seroepidemiological studies and demonstration of viable bacteria in atherosclerotic plaques have linked Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection to the development of chronic vascular lesions and coronary heart disease. In this study, we characterized C. pneumoniae-mediated effects on human endothelial cells and demonstrated enhanced phosphorylation and activation of the endothelial mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family members extracellular receptor kinase (ERK1/2), p38-MAPK, and c-Jun-NH2 kinase (JNK). Subsequent interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression was dependent on p38-MAPK and ERK1/2 activation as demonstrated by preincubation of endothelial cells with specific inhibitors for the p38-MAPK (SB202190) or ERK (U0126) pathway. Inhibition of either MAPK had almost no effect on intercellular cell adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) expression. While Chlamydia trachomatis was also able to infect endothelial cells, it did not induce the expression of endothelial IL-8 or ICAM-1. These effects were specific for a direct stimulation with viable C. pneumoniae and independent of paracrine release of endothelial cell-derived mediators like platelet-activating factor, NO, prostaglandins, or leukotrienes. Thus, C. pneumoniae triggers an early signal transduction cascade in target cells that could lead to endothelial cell activation, inflammation, and thrombosis, which in turn may result in or promote atherosclerosis. PMID:15501794

Krüll, M.; Kramp, J.; Petrov, T.; Klucken, A. C.; Hocke, A. C.; Walter, C.; Schmeck, B.; Seybold, J.; Maass, M.; Ludwig, S.; Kuipers, Jens G.; Suttorp, N.; Hippenstiel, S.

2004-01-01

193

Low Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Non-Urban Pregnant Women in Vellore, S. India  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the prevalence and risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection in pregnant women and the rate of transmission of CT to infants. Methods Pregnant women (?28 weeks gestation) in Vellore, South India were approached for enrollment from April 2009 to January 2010. After informed consent was obtained, women completed a socio-demographic, prenatal, and sexual history questionnaire. Endocervical samples collected at delivery were examined for CT by a rapid enzyme test and nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT). Neonatal nasopharyngeal and conjunctival swabs were collected for NAAT testing. Results Overall, 1198 women were enrolled and 799 (67%) endocervical samples were collected at birth. Analyses were completed on 784 participants with available rapid and NAAT results. The mean age of women was 25.8 years (range 18–39 yrs) and 22% (95% CI: 19.7–24.4%) were primigravida. All women enrolled were married; one reported >one sexual partner; and six reported prior STI. We found 71 positive rapid CT tests and 1/784 (0.1%; 95% CI: 0–0.38%) true positive CT infection using NAAT. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the largest study on CT prevalence amongst healthy pregnant mothers in southern India, and it documents a very low prevalence with NAAT. Many false positive results were noted using the rapid test. These data suggest that universal CT screening is not indicated in this population. PMID:22567090

Vidwan, Navjyot K.; Regi, Annie; Steinhoff, Mark; Huppert, Jill S.; Staat, Mary Allen; Dodd, Caitlin; Nongrum, Rida; Anandan, Shalini; Verghese, Valsan

2012-01-01

194

Corn mint (Mentha arvensis) extract diminishes acute Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Corn mint ( Mentha arvensis ) provides a good source of natural phenols such as flavone glycosides and caffeic acid derivatives, which may have prophylactic properties against inflammations. This study investigated whether corn mint extract would be beneficial against a universal respiratory tract pathogen, Chlamydia pneumoniae , infection. The extract inhibited the growth of C. pneumoniae CWL-029 in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition was confirmed against a clinical isolate K7. The phenolic composition of the extract was analyzed by UPLC-ESI/Q-TOF/MS, the main components being linarin and rosmarinic acid. These compounds were active in vitro against C. pneumoniae. Linarin completely inhibited the growth at 100 ?M. Inbred C57BL/6J mice were inoculated with C. pneumoniae K7. M. arvensis extract was given intraperitoneally once daily for 3 days prior to inoculation and continued for 10 days postinfection. The extract was able to diminish the inflammatory parameters related to C. pneumoniae infection and significantly (p = 0.019) lowered the number of C. pneumoniae genome equivalents detected by PCR at biologically relevant amounts. PMID:22073967

Salin, Olli; Törmäkangas, Liisa; Leinonen, Maija; Saario, Elise; Hagström, Marja; Ketola, Raimo A; Saikku, Pekka; Vuorela, Heikki; Vuorela, Pia M

2011-12-28

195

Incidence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women in England: two methods of estimation.  

PubMed

Information on the incidence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is essential for models of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of screening programmes. We developed two independent estimates of CT incidence in women in England: one based on an incidence study, with estimates 'recalibrated' to the general population using data on setting-specific relative risks, and allowing for clearance and re-infection during follow-up; the second based on UK prevalence data, and information on the duration of CT infection. The consistency of independent sources of data on incidence, prevalence and duration, validates estimates of these parameters. Pooled estimates of the annual incidence rate in women aged 16-24 and 16-44 years for 2001-2005 using all these data were 0·05 [95% credible interval (CrI) 0·035-0·071] and 0·021 (95% CrI 0·015-0·028), respectively. Although, the estimates apply to England, similar methods could be used in other countries. The methods could be extended to dynamic models to synthesize, and assess the consistency of data on contact and transmission rates. PMID:23759367

Price, M J; Ades, A E; de Angelis, D; Welton, N J; Macleod, J; Turner, K; Horner, P J

2014-03-01

196

Emerging Chlamydia psittaci infections in the chicken industry and pathology of Chlamydia psittaci genotype B and D strains in specific pathogen free chickens.  

PubMed

Sera of 30 Belgian and 10 Northern French chicken farms were tested by a Chlamydia (C.) psittaci major outer membrane protein (MOMP) based ELISA. Ninety-six percent, 93% and 90% of the Belgian broilers, broiler breeders and layers were seropositive. Ninety-one percent of the French broilers were seropositive. In addition, tissues of 5 Belgian and 5 French broiler farms were examined at slaughter. All French farms were culture positive while C. psittaci was cultured from the lungs of 80% of examined Belgian farms. C. psittaci infections are apparently emerging in chickens raised in Belgium and Northern France. We could proof Hill-Evans postulates for chicken-derived C. psittaci genotype B and D strains. Chicken-processing plant employees should be considered a risk group for human psittacosis. There is a need for higher awareness and for efficient risk assessment and management of C. psittaci infections in chickens as chlamydiosis in broilers seems to be underdiagnosed and infections with highly virulent strains do occur. PMID:23098816

Yin, Lizi; Kalmar, Isabelle D; Lagae, Stefanie; Vandendriessche, Stien; Vanderhaeghen, Wannes; Butaye, Patrick; Cox, Eric; Vanrompay, Daisy

2013-03-23

197

Chlamydia trachomatis Infection and Anti-Hsp60 Immunity: The Two Sides of the Coin  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection is one of the most common causes of reproductive tract diseases and infertility. CT-Hsp60 is synthesized during infection and is released in the bloodstream. As a consequence, immune cells will produce anti-CT-Hsp60 antibodies. Hsp60, a ubiquitous and evolutionarily conserved chaperonin, is normally sequestered inside the cell, particularly into mitochondria. However, upon cell stress, as well as during carcinogenesis, the chaperonin becomes exposed on the cell surface (sf-Hsp60) and/or is secreted from cells into the extracellular space and circulation. Reports in the literature on circulating Hsp and anti-Hsp antibodies are in many cases short on details about Hsp60 concentrations, and about the specificity spectra of the antibodies, their titers, and their true, direct, pathogenetic effects. Thus, more studies are still needed to obtain a definitive picture on these matters. Nevertheless, the information already available indicates that the concurrence of persistent CT infection and appearance of sf-Hsp60 can promote an autoimmune aggression towards stressed cells and the development of diseases such as autoimmune arthritis, multiple sclerosis, atherosclerosis, vasculitis, diabetes, and thyroiditis, among others. At the same time, immunocomplexes composed of anti-CT-Hsp60 antibodies and circulating Hsp60 (both CT and human) may form deposits in several anatomical locations, e.g., at the glomerular basal membrane. The opposite side of the coin is that pre-tumor and tumor cells with sf-Hsp60 can be destroyed with participation of the anti-Hsp60 antibody, thus stopping cancer progression before it is even noticed by the patient or physician. PMID:19714222

Cappello, Francesco; Conway de Macario, Everly; Di Felice, Valentina; Zummo, Giovanni; Macario, Alberto J. L.

2009-01-01

198

Genital infection caused by Entamoeba histolytica confirmed by polymerase chain reaction analyses.  

PubMed

Entamoeba histolytica is estimated to infect approximately 1% of the global population. In Japan, the prevalence of amebic dysentery has been increasing, with more than 800 patients newly diagnosed annually. However, genital infection with E.?histolytica is uncommon even in endemic areas. We present a case of vaginitis caused by E.?histolytica. A 50-year-old Japanese woman without history of overseas travel presented to a nearby clinic with increased vaginal discharge. She had hemorrhagic erosion at the uterine cervix with yellowish vaginal discharge, and was referred to our hospital for exclusion of malignancy. Cervical cytology revealed periodic acid-Schiff-positive protozoa not aggregating around squamous cells, and thus amebic vaginitis was suspected. We performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses and identified E.?histolytica. The vaginitis was treated with metronidazole, and the disappearance of amebic protozoa was confirmed by cytology and PCR. Therefore, it may be important to obtain early diagnosis by cervical cytology and PCR. PMID:24750396

Asano, Hiroshi; Kaneuchi, Masanori; Furuta, Itsuko; Yamaya, Yukie; Hatanaka, Kanako C; Takeda, Mahito; Matsuno, Yoshihiro; Sakuragi, Noriaki

2014-05-01

199

Direct Amplification, Sequencing and Profiling of Chlamydia trachomatis Strains in Single and Mixed Infection Clinical Samples  

PubMed Central

Sequencing bacterial genomes from DNA isolated directly from clinical samples offers the promise of rapid and precise acquisition of informative genetic information. In the case of Chlamydia trachomatis, direct sequencing is particularly desirable because it obviates the requirement for culture in mammalian cells, saving time, cost and the possibility of missing low abundance strains. In this proof of concept study, we developed methodology that would allow genome-scale direct sequencing, using a multiplexed microdroplet PCR enrichment technology to amplify a 100 kb region of the C. trachomatis genome with 500 1.1–1.3 kb overlapping amplicons (5-fold amplicon redundancy). We integrated comparative genomic data into a pipeline to preferentially select conserved sites for amplicon design. The 100 kb target region could be amplified from clinical samples, including remnants from diagnostics tests, originating from the cervix, urethra and urine, For rapid analysis of these data, we developed a framework for whole-genome based genotyping called binstrain. We used binstrain to estimate the proportion of SNPs originating from 14 C. trachomatis reference serotype genomes in each sample. Direct DNA sequencing methods such as the one described here may have an important role in understanding the biology of C. trachomatis mixed infections and the natural genetic variation of the species within clinically relevant ecological niches. PMID:24971628

Joseph, Sandeep J.; Li, Ben; Ghonasgi, Tanvi; Haase, Chad P.; Qin, Zhaohui S.; Dean, Deborah; Read, Timothy D.

2014-01-01

200

Persistent Chlamydia trachomatis Infection of HeLa Cells Mediates Apoptosis Resistance through a Chlamydia Protease-Like Activity Factor-Independent Mechanism and Induces High Mobility Group Box 1 Release  

PubMed Central

Intracellular persistence of Chlamydia trachomatis has been implicated in the development of chronic infection that can result in pelvic inflammatory disease and tubal sterility. By inhibition of host cell apoptosis, chlamydiae have evolved a strategy to maintain the intracellular environment for replication and persistence. Both antiapoptotic host cell-derived factors and the chlamydial protease-like activity factor (CPAF) are involved in Chlamydia-mediated apoptosis resistance. Here, we show that in HeLa cells infected with gamma interferon (IFN-?)-induced persistent C. trachomatis serovar D, the expression of CPAF is downregulated, and proapoptotic protease substrates are not cleaved. Persistent infection protected HeLa cells from apoptosis when they were exposed to staurosporine. Small-interfering RNA-mediated inhibition of myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1) protein upregulation sensitized persistently infected cells for apoptosis. The inhibitor of apoptosis protein 2 (IAP-2) seems not to be relevant in this context because IAP-2 protein was not induced in response to IFN-? treatment. Although apoptosis was inhibited, persistent infection caused cell membrane disintegration, as measured by the increased release of cytokeratin 18 from HeLa cells. Moreover, persistently infected cells released significantly increased amounts of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein which represents a proinflammatory damage-associated pattern molecule. The data of this study suggest that cells infected with persistent C. trachomatis are protected from apoptosis independently of CPAF but may promote chronic inflammation through HMGB1 release. PMID:22025513

Große, Christina; Yu, Hangxing; Wolf, Katharina; Otto, Gordon P.; Liebler-Tenorio, Elisabeth; Forsbach-Birk, Vera; Straube, Eberhard

2012-01-01

201

Alarming incidence of genital mycoplasmas among HIV-1-infected MSM in Jiangsu, China.  

PubMed

Males who have sex with men (MSM) are considered at high risk of blood-borne and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), mainly due to the practice of unsafe sex, often combined with drug use and needle-sharing. A cross-sectional study was designed for the detection of genital mycoplasmas during the period from March 2009 to May 2010 in Jiangsu province. This work was approved by the Research ethics Committee of Jiangsu Centers for Diseases Prevention and Control (CDC), and written consent was obtained from all participants. In total, 243 human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1)-infected MSM were screened in this study. Over half of them reported a history of sexual activity with females (65.0 %), and 26.3 % reported a history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) other than HIV. 44.0 % of patients were in the first 2 years of their HIV infection, and 72.4 % were still in HIV progression. Of the 243 analyzed samples, all were positive for at least one kind of mycoplasma. The infection rates of Mycoplasma genitalium, M. fermentans, M. penetrans, and M. pirum were 25.5, 9.9, 2.5, and 18.5 %, respectively. The M. genitalium infection was associated with a history of sexual activity with females, and those who had sex with females showed higher infection rates. Six ?M. penetrans-positive patients were still in HIV infection progression and did not receive highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Men who perform this particular behavior are at higher risk of Mycoplasma infections. Further molecular and epidemiological cohort studies with larger populations are needed in order to identify the role of Mycoplasma infections in HIV-1-infected MSM. PMID:23949791

Wu, J-R; Wang, B; Chen, L-S; Yang, T; Zhou, L-J; Xie, Y-X; Xu, J-S; Guo, H-X; Huan, X-P

2014-02-01

202

Asymptomatic natural Chlamydia pecorum infection reduces growth rates in calves by up to 48 percent  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Intracellular Chlamydia (C.) bacteria cause in cattle some acute but rare diseases such as abortion, sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis, kerato-conjunctivitis, pneumonia, enteritis and polyarthritis. Much more frequent, essentially ubiquitous worldwide, are low-level, asymptomatic chlamydial infecti...

203

The IL-6 response to Chlamydia from primary reproductive epithelial cells is highly variable and may be involved in differential susceptibility to the immunopathological consequences of chlamydial infection  

PubMed Central

Background Chlamydia trachomatis infection results in reproductive damage in some women. The process and factors involved in this immunopathology are not well understood. This study aimed to investigate the role of primary human cellular responses to chlamydial stress response proteases and chlamydial infection to further identify the immune processes involved in serious disease sequelae. Results Laboratory cell cultures and primary human reproductive epithelial cultures produced IL-6 in response to chlamydial stress response proteases (CtHtrA and CtTsp), UV inactivated Chlamydia, and live Chlamydia. The magnitude of the IL-6 response varied considerably (up to 1000 pg ml-1) across different primary human reproductive cultures. Thus different levels of IL-6 production by reproductive epithelia may be a determinant in disease outcome. Interestingly, co-culture models with either THP-1 cells or autologous primary human PBMC generally resulted in increased levels of IL-6, except in the case of live Chlamydia where the level of IL-6 was decreased compared to the epithelial cell culture only, suggesting this pathway may be able to be modulated by live Chlamydia. PBMC responses to the stress response proteases (CtTsp and CtHtrA) did not significantly vary for the different participant cohorts. Therefore, these proteases may possess conserved innate PAMPs. MAP kinases appeared to be involved in this IL-6 induction from human cells. Finally, we also demonstrated that IL-6 was induced by these proteins and Chlamydia from mouse primary reproductive cell cultures (BALB/C mice) and mouse laboratory cell models. Conclusions We have demonstrated that IL-6 may be a key factor for the chlamydial disease outcome in humans, given that primary human reproductive epithelial cell culture showed considerable variation in IL-6 response to Chlamydia or chlamydial proteins, and that the presence of live Chlamydia (but not UV killed) during co-culture resulted in a reduced IL-6 response suggesting this response may be moderated by the presence of the organism. PMID:24238294

2013-01-01

204

Two coiled-coil domains of Chlamydia trachomatis IncA affect membrane fusion events during infection.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis replicates in a parasitophorous membrane-bound compartment called an inclusion. The inclusions corrupt host vesicle trafficking networks to avoid the degradative endolysosomal pathway but promote fusion with each other in order to sustain higher bacterial loads in a process known as homotypic fusion. The Chlamydia protein IncA (Inclusion protein A) appears to play central roles in both these processes as it participates to homotypic fusion and inhibits endocytic SNARE-mediated membrane fusion. How IncA selectively inhibits or activates membrane fusion remains poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed the spatial and molecular determinants of IncA's fusogenic and inhibitory functions. Using a cell-free membrane fusion assay, we found that inhibition of SNARE-mediated fusion requires IncA to be on the same membrane as the endocytic SNARE proteins. IncA displays two coiled-coil domains showing high homology with SNARE proteins. Domain swap and deletion experiments revealed that although both these domains are capable of independently inhibiting SNARE-mediated fusion, these two coiled-coil domains cooperate in mediating IncA multimerization and homotypic membrane interaction. Our results support the hypothesis that Chlamydia employs SNARE-like virulence factors that positively and negatively affect membrane fusion and promote infection. PMID:23936096

Ronzone, Erik; Paumet, Fabienne

2013-01-01

205

Two Coiled-Coil Domains of Chlamydia trachomatis IncA Affect Membrane Fusion Events during Infection  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia trachomatis replicates in a parasitophorous membrane-bound compartment called an inclusion. The inclusions corrupt host vesicle trafficking networks to avoid the degradative endolysosomal pathway but promote fusion with each other in order to sustain higher bacterial loads in a process known as homotypic fusion. The Chlamydia protein IncA (Inclusion protein A) appears to play central roles in both these processes as it participates to homotypic fusion and inhibits endocytic SNARE-mediated membrane fusion. How IncA selectively inhibits or activates membrane fusion remains poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed the spatial and molecular determinants of IncA’s fusogenic and inhibitory functions. Using a cell-free membrane fusion assay, we found that inhibition of SNARE-mediated fusion requires IncA to be on the same membrane as the endocytic SNARE proteins. IncA displays two coiled-coil domains showing high homology with SNARE proteins. Domain swap and deletion experiments revealed that although both these domains are capable of independently inhibiting SNARE-mediated fusion, these two coiled-coil domains cooperate in mediating IncA multimerization and homotypic membrane interaction. Our results support the hypothesis that Chlamydia employs SNARE-like virulence factors that positively and negatively affect membrane fusion and promote infection. PMID:23936096

Ronzone, Erik; Paumet, Fabienne

2013-01-01

206

Higher incidence of persistent chronic infection of Chlamydia pneumoniae among coronary artery disease patients in India is a cause of concern  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that Chlamydia pneumoniae may be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, as several studies have demonstrated the presence of the organism in atherosclerotic lesions. C. pneumoniae infections, which are especially persistent infections, have been difficult to diagnose either by serological methods or isolation of the organism from the tissue. Nucleic Acid Amplification tests (NAATs) has

Hem C Jha; Harsh Vardhan; Rishein Gupta; Rakesh Varma; Jagdish Prasad; Aruna Mittal

2007-01-01

207

'The difference in determinants of Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium in a sample of young Australian women.'  

PubMed Central

Background Differences in the determinants of Chlamydia trachomatis ('chlamydia') and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) genital infection in women are not well understood. Methods A cohort study of 16 to 25 year old Australian women recruited from primary health care clinics, aimed to determine chlamydia and MG prevalence and incidence. Vaginal swabs collected at recruitment were used to measure chlamydia and MG prevalence, organism-load and chlamydia-serovar a cross-sectional analysis undertaken on the baseline results is presented here. Results Of 1116 participants, chlamydia prevalence was 4.9% (95% CI: 2.9, 7.0) (n = 55) and MG prevalence was 2.4% (95% CI: 1.5, 3.3) (n = 27). Differences in the determinants were found - chlamydia not MG, was associated with younger age [AOR:0.9 (95% CI: 0.8, 1.0)] and recent antibiotic use [AOR:0.4 (95% CI: 0.2, 1.0)], and MG not chlamydia was associated with symptoms [AOR:2.1 (95% CI: 1.1, 4.0)]. Having two or more partners in last 12 months was more strongly associated with chlamydia [AOR:6.4 (95% CI: 3.6, 11.3)] than MG [AOR:2.2 (95% CI: 1.0, 4.6)] but unprotected sex with three or more partners was less strongly associated with chlamydia [AOR:3.1 (95%CI: 1.0, 9.5)] than MG [AOR:16.6 (95%CI: 2.0, 138.0)]. Median organism load for MG was 100 times lower (5.7 × 104/swab) than chlamydia (5.6 × 106/swab) (p < 0.01) and not associated with age or symptoms for chlamydia or MG. Conclusions These results demonstrate significant chlamydia and MG prevalence in Australian women, and suggest that the differences in strengths of association between numbers of sexual partners and unprotected sex and chlamydia and MG might be due to differences in the transmission dynamics between these infections. PMID:21284887

2011-01-01

208

Live-attenuated influenza viruses as delivery vectors for Chlamydia vaccines  

PubMed Central

Effective delivery systems are needed to design efficacious vaccines against the obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen, Chlamydia trachomatis. Potentially effective delivery vehicles should promote the induction of adequate levels of mucosal T-cell and antibody responses that mediate long-term protective immunity. Antigen targeting to the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) is effective for inducing high levels of specific immune effectors in the genital mucosa, and therefore suitable for vaccine delivery against genital chlamydial infection. We tested the hypothesis that live attenuated influenza A viruses are effective viral vectors for intranasal delivery of subunit vaccines against genital chlamydial infection. Recombinant influenza A/PR8/34 (H1N1) viruses were generated by insertion of immunodominant T-cell epitopes from chlamydial major outer membrane protein into the stalk region of the neuraminidase gene. Intranasal immunization of mice with viral recombinants resulted in a strong T helper 1 (Th1) response against intact chlamydial elementary bodies. Also, immunized mice enjoyed a significant state of protective immunity (P > 0·002) by shedding less chlamydiae and rapidly clearing the infection. Furthermore, a high frequency of Chlamydia-specific Th1 was measured in the genital mucosal and systemic draining lymphoid tissues within 24 hr after challenge of vaccinated mice. Moreover, multiple epitope delivery provided a vaccine advantage over single recombinants. Besides, long-term protective immunity correlated with the preservation of a robustly high frequency of specific Th1 cells and elevated immunoglobulin G2a in genital secretions. Because live attenuated influenza virus vaccines are safe and acceptable for human use, they may provide a new and reliable approach to deliver efficacious vaccines against sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:17451464

He, Qing; Martinez-Sobrido, Luis; Eko, Francis O; Palese, Peter; Garcia-Sastre, Adolfo; Lyn, Deborah; Okenu, Daniel; Bandea, Claudiu; Ananaba, Godwin A; Black, Carolyn M; Igietseme, Joseph U

2007-01-01

209

Chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, granuloma inguinale, genital herpes simplex infection, and molluscum contagiosum.  

PubMed

Chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, and granuloma inguinale may be considered as tropical venereal diseases. These diseases were a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in past centuries. Currently, patients with these bacterial infections that are endemic to the tropics occasionally consult with dermatologists in temperate climates. Due to the increasing frequency of travel to the tropics for tourism and work, as well as the increasing number of immigrants from these areas, it is important for dermatologists practicing in temperate climates to be familiar with the dermatologic manifestations of such infections, to be prepared to diagnose these diseases, and to treat these patients. All three "tropical" infections respond well to prompt and appropriate antimicrobial treatment, although herpes progenitalis still cannot be cured, and the number of people infected keeps growing; moreover, genital herpes can be transmitted by viral shedding before and after the visual signs or symptoms. Acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir can shorten outbreaks and make them less severe or even stop them from happening. There is currently no etiologic treatment for molluscum contagiosum, and the majority of treatment options are mechanical, causing a certain degree of discomfort. The molluscum contagiosum virus, unlike the other infectious agents mentioned, does not invade the skin. PMID:24559566

Basta-Juzbaši?, Aleksandra; ?eovi?, Romana

2014-01-01

210

Sexually Transmitted Infections and Male Circumcision: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

The claim that circumcision reduces the risk of sexually transmitted infections has been repeated so frequently that many believe it is true. A systematic review and meta-analyses were performed on studies of genital discharge syndrome versus genital ulcerative disease, genital discharge syndrome, nonspecific urethritis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, genital ulcerative disease, chancroid, syphilis, herpes simplex virus, human papillomavirus, and contracting a sexually transmitted infection of any type. Chlamydia, gonorrhea, genital herpes, and human papillomavirus are not significantly impacted by circumcision. Syphilis showed mixed results with studies of prevalence suggesting intact men were at great risk and studies of incidence suggesting the opposite. Intact men appear to be of greater risk for genital ulcerative disease while at lower risk for genital discharge syndrome, nonspecific urethritis, genital warts, and the overall risk of any sexually transmitted infection. In studies of general populations, there is no clear or consistent positive impact of circumcision on the risk of individual sexually transmitted infections. Consequently, the prevention of sexually transmitted infections cannot rationally be interpreted as a benefit of circumcision, and any policy of circumcision for the general population to prevent sexually transmitted infections is not supported by the evidence in the medical literature. PMID:23710368

Van Howe, Robert S.

2013-01-01

211

Lower genital tract infections in infertile Nigerian women compared with controls.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To investigate the possibility that infertile Nigerian women have a higher rate of cervical colonisation with pathogenic and facultative organisms than fertile controls. DESIGN--The prevalence of common microorganisms in the vagina and endocervical canals of infertile women was compared with that of pregnant controls. SETTING--The Obafemi Awolowo University Hospital Maternity Centre. SUBJECTS--92 infertile women were compared with 86 pregnant controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--rates of isolation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Candida albicans, Trichomonas vaginalis and other facultative organisms in cases and controls. RESULTS--The rate of isolation of Neisseria gonorrheae was 17.4% among infertile women compared with 10.5% in the group of pregnant women (p > 0.05). There was no significant difference between the groups in the rate of isolation of Candida albicans, Trichomonas vaginalis and other facultative organisms. High rates of isolation of microorganisms were observed in both groups. However, women with secondary infertility had higher rate of carriage of Neisseria gonorrheae, Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus as compared with women with primary infertility. Nearly 15% of infertile women had previous episodes of pelvic inflammatory disease and 26% had had induced abortions. A positive history of vaginal discharge was a poor predictor of vagina and endocervical carriage of microorganisms. CONCLUSIONS--High rates of pathogenic organisms exist in the lower genital tract of infertile women and controls. Women with secondary infertility are more likely to have pathogenic organisms than women with primary infertility. A policy of routinely screening women for lower genital tract infections should be pursued in this population because of the high rate of infection. PMID:7635492

Okonofua, F E; Ako-Nai, K A; Dighitoghi, M D

1995-01-01

212

Serovar D and E of serogroup B induce highest serological responses in urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infections  

PubMed Central

Background Chlamydia trachomatis is the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide. A strong link between C. trachomatis serogroup/serovar and serological response has been suggested in a previous preliminary study. The aim of the current study was to confirm and strengthen those findings about serological IgG responses in relation to C. trachomatis serogroups and serovars. Methods The study population (n?=?718) consisted of two patient groups with similar characteristics of Dutch STI clinic visitors. We performed genotyping of serovars and used titre based and quantitative commercially available ELISA kits (medac Diagnostika) to determine specific serum IgG levels. Optical density (OD) values generated by both tests were used to calculate the IgG titres (cut-off 1:50). Analyses were conducted stratified by gender. Results We observed very significant differences when comparing the median IgG titres of three serogroups, B, C and I: in women for B vs. C: p?

2014-01-01

213

Epidemiology of Chlamydia psittaci Infection in Racing Pigeons and Pigeon Fanciers in Beijing, China.  

PubMed

Over 3 million racing pigeons (Columba livia) are registered in Beijing City Center for gambling purposes. During 2008-2010, we evaluated the occurrence and prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci in racing pigeons as well as the possible zoonotic transmission to pigeon fanciers in six districts of Beijing where pigeon races are particularly popular. C. psittaci-specific serum antibody titres were obtained from 370 pigeons and 79 fanciers using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, 206 and 67 throat swabs were, respectively, collected from pigeons and fanciers and tested for the presence of chlamydial antigen using immunofluorescence. C. psittaci-specific serum antibody was detected in 37 of 370 pigeons and 19 of 79 fanciers. Of 206 pigeon clinical specimens, 55 were positive for C. psittaci antigen, while 16 of 67 swabs from the pigeon fanciers were positive. Based on ompA sequence analysis, the genotype of several avian and human isolates was genotype B. Thus, both high-titre C. psittaci-specific antibody and C. psittaci-specific antigen were found with relatively high frequency in the pigeon flocks as well as in the pigeon fanciers. Our study suggests that C. psittaci infection is prevalent among the racing pigeon population in Beijing. Moreover, detection of serum antibodies and antigen in pigeon fanciers suggests that exposure and possible zoonotic transmission of C. psittaci from racing pigeons to humans does occur. In view of the life-threatening respiratory illness C. psittaci may cause in humans, regulatory public health measures, to prevent further spread of the pathogen in avian populations and possible transmission to exposed humans, are urgently needed. PMID:25244602

Ling, Y; Chen, H; Chen, X; Yang, X; Yang, J; Bavoil, P M; He, C

2014-09-22

214

PD-L1 limits the mucosal CD8+ T cell response to Chlamydia trachomatis  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the United States. Repeated infections with C. trachomatis lead to serious sequelae such as infertility. It is unclear why the adaptive immune system, specifically the CD8+ T cell response, is unable to protect against subsequent C. trachomatis infections. In this article we characterize the mucosal CD8+ T cell response to C. trachomatis in the murine genital tract. We demonstrate that the immunoinhibitory ligand, PD-L1, contributes to the defective CD8+ T cell response. Deletion or inhibition of PD-L1 restores the CD8+ T cell response and enhances C. trachomatis clearance. PMID:24353266

Fankhauser, Sarah C.; Starnbach, Michael N.

2014-01-01

215

Mucosal Herpes Immunity and Immunopathology to Ocular and Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infections  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex viruses type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are amongst the most common human infectious viral pathogens capable of causing serious clinical diseases at every stage of life, from fatal disseminated disease in newborns to cold sores genital ulcerations and blinding eye disease. Primary mucocutaneous infection with HSV-1 & HSV-2 is followed by a lifelong viral latency in the sensory ganglia. In the majority of cases, herpes infections are clinically asymptomatic. However, in symptomatic individuals, the latent HSV can spontaneously and frequently reactivate, reinfecting the muco-cutaneous surfaces and causing painful recurrent diseases. The innate and adaptive mucosal immunities to herpes infections and disease remain to be fully characterized. The understanding of innate and adaptive immune mechanisms operating at muco-cutaneous surfaces is fundamental to the design of next-generation herpes vaccines. In this paper, the phenotypic and functional properties of innate and adaptive mucosal immune cells, their role in antiherpes immunity, and immunopathology are reviewed. The progress and limitations in developing a safe and efficient mucosal herpes vaccine are discussed. PMID:23320014

Chentoufi, Aziz Alami; BenMohamed, Lbachir

2012-01-01

216

IL-22 Levels are Associated with Trichomonas Vaginalis infection in the Lower Genital Tract  

PubMed Central

Problem IL-22 has important functions at mucosal surfaces, including the induction of antimicrobial peptides and maintenance of epithelium. However IL-22 has not been investigated in the genital tract during TV infection. Methods of Study Women who visited an STD clinic and women from a cohort with frequent Trichomoniasis were studied. IL-22, IL-17 and antimicrobial peptides were measured in cervicovaginal lavage by ELISA. Results In women visiting the STD clinic, those without STDs (n=10) had a median IL-22 of 0 pg/ml while women with infections (n=30) had 27 pg/ml (p=0.04). In the cohort, women with Trichomoniasis (n=19) had significantly higher IL-22 than women with no infections (n=21, 74 versus 0 pg/ml, p=0.0001). IL-17 was also significantly increased in Trichomoniasis and there was a correlation between IL-22 and IL-17 (p=0.001). Conclusion IL-22 is increased in STDs generally and in Trichomoniasis specifically suggesting an antimicrobial response of the mucosa and an epithelial repair process induced by the STDs. PMID:23445169

Moradeke, Makinde Hadijat; Reza, Zariffard; Paria, Mirmonsef; Richard, Novak; Olamide, Jarrett; Alan L, Landay; GregoryT, Spear

2013-01-01

217

Sexual behaviour, sexually transmitted infections and attitudes to chlamydia testing among a unique national sample of young Australians: baseline data from a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Chlamydia infection is the most common notifiable sexually transmitted infection (STI) in Australia and mostly affects young people (15 – 25 years). This paper presents baseline data from a randomised controlled trial that aimed to increase chlamydia testing among sexually active young people. The objectives were to identify associations between sexual behaviour, substance use and STI history and explore attitudes to chlamydia testing. Methods This study was conducted in cyberspace. Study recruitment, allocation, delivery of interventions and baseline and follow up data collection all took place online. Participants were 16 – 25 years old and resided in Australia. Substance use correlates of sexual activity; predictors of history of STIs; barriers to and facilitators of chlamydia testing were analysed. Results Of 856 participants (79.1% female), 704 had experienced penetrative intercourse. Sexually active participants were more likely to smoke regularly or daily, to drink alcohol, or to have binge drunk or used marijuana or other illicit substances recently. Risk factors for having a history of any STI were 3 or more sexual partners ever, 6 or more partners in the past 12 months, condom non-use and being 20 years or older. Almost all sexually active participants said that they would have a chlamydia test if their doctor recommended it. Conclusions Sexually active young people are at risk of STIs and may engage in substance use risk behaviours. Where one health risk behaviour is identified, it is important to seek information about others. Chlamydia testing can be facilitated by doctors and nurses recommending it. Primary care providers have a useful role in chlamydia control. Trial Registration Australian and New Zealand Trials Registry ACTRN12607000582459 PMID:24400743

2014-01-01

218

Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection Induced Allergic Airway Sensitization Is Controlled by Regulatory T-Cells and Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP) is associated with induction and exacerbation of asthma. CP infection can induce allergic airway sensitization in mice in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Allergen exposure 5 days after a low dose (mild-moderate), but not a high dose (severe) CP infection induces antigen sensitization in mice. Innate immune signals play a critical role in controlling CP infection induced allergic airway sensitization, however these mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Wild-type, TLR2?/?, and TLR4?/? mice were infected intranasally (i.n.) with a low dose of CP, followed by i.n. exposure to human serum albumin (HSA) and challenged with HSA 2 weeks later. Airway inflammation, immunoglobulins, eosinophils, and goblet cells were measured. Low dose CP infection induced allergic sensitization in TLR2?/? mice, but not in TLR4?/? mice, due to differential Treg responses in these genotypes. TLR2?/? mice had reduced numbers of Tregs in the lung during CP infection while TLR4?/? mice had increased numbers. High dose CP infection resulted in an increase in Tregs and pDCs in lungs, which prevented antigen sensitization in WT mice. Depletion of Tregs or pDCs resulted in allergic airway sensitization. We conclude that Tregs and pDCs are critical determinants regulating CP infection-induced allergic sensitization. Furthermore, TLR2 and TLR4 signaling during CP infection may play a regulatory role through the modulation of Tregs. PMID:21695198

Crother, Timothy R.; Schröder, Nicolas W. J.; Karlin, Justin; Chen, Shuang; Shimada, Kenichi; Slepenkin, Anatoly; Alsabeh, Randa; Peterson, Ellena; Arditi, Moshe

2011-01-01

219

Antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular typing of multiple Chlamydiaceae species isolated from genital infection of women in Egypt.  

PubMed

This study investigated the existence of vaginal Chlamydia infection and the prevalence of the disease in symptomatic gynecologically diseased women in Egypt. In addition, the antibiotics penicillin, tetracycline, and erythromycin were evaluated for their in vitro antichlamydial activity of the isolated strains. Vaginal swabs (n=160) were collected from females gynecologically diseased using cotton swabs. Samples were tested for Chlamydia by Vero cells tissue culture, chicken embryo, Gimenez staining, direct fluorescein-conjugated monoclonal antibody staining, and immunoperoxidase. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses conducted for the presence of chlamydial DNA was used to detect its specific DNA by the omp2 gene. PCR analyses conducted for the presence of chlamydial DNA revealed that 112/160 (70%) were positive for Chlamydiaceae. The specific DNA defined by the omp2 gene identified them as Chlamydia trachomatis (17/112, 15.2%), Chlamydophila psittaci (56/112, 50.0%), and Chlamydophila abortus (40/112, 35.7%). The antibiotics penicillin, tetracycline, and erythromycin at different concentrations were effective in inactivating the viability of Chlamydiaceae isolates. PMID:22455539

Osman, Kamelia M; Ali, Hadia A; Eljakee, Jakeen A; Gaafar, Maha M; Galal, Hussein M

2012-08-01

220

Sites of persistence of lumpy skin disease virus in the genital tract of experimentally infected bulls.  

PubMed

The objectives of this work were to determine the site of persistence of lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) in bulls shedding the virus in semen for a period longer than 28 days, to determine if the virus is present in all fractions of semen and to study lesions that developed in the genital tract. Six serologically negative postpubertal bulls were experimentally infected with a virulent field isolate of LSDV. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on sheath washes, vesicular fluid, supernatant and cell-rich fractions of semen from day 10 to day 26 postinfection (p.i.). Bulls that were positive by PCR on the whole semen sample collected on day 28 p.i. were slaughtered and tissue samples from their genital tracts submitted for histopathological evaluation, immunoperoxidase staining, virus isolation and PCR. Two of the bulls developed severe lumpy skin disease (LSD) and were found to be shedding viral DNA in their semen on day 28 p.i. Viral DNA was identified in all semen fractions from all bulls, but mostly from the cell-rich fraction and from the severely affected bulls. The PCR assay was positive on postmortem samples of testes and epididymides from the two severely affected bulls. Virus could be recovered from the testes of these two bulls and from the epididymis of one of them. Immunoperoxidase staining was positive for LSDV staining in sections of testes and epididymides exhibiting necrosis. This study suggests that the testis and epididymis are sites of persistence of LSDV in bulls shedding virus in semen for prolonged periods and revealed that viral DNA is present in all fractions of the ejaculate. PMID:19055553

Annandale, C H; Irons, P C; Bagla, V P; Osuagwuh, U I; Venter, E H

2010-04-01

221

Correlation between CD4 T cell Counts and Virus Compartmentalization in Genital and Systemic Compartments of HIV-infected Females  

PubMed Central

The majority of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) across the world occurs by heterosexual transmission and is likely mediated by virus present in genital secretions. In spite of this, infection is followed by clinical markers of the virus present in blood, which may not be representative of the virus involved in transmission. In fact, several studies have demonstrated that the genital tract represents a unique compartment for the virus. We assessed the relationship between immune system integrity, represented by CD4+ T cell counts, and the maintenance of viral compartmentalization between plasma and vaginal fluid virus in treatment naïve women from the Dominican Republic infected by the heterosexual transmission route. We cloned and sequenced cell free virus from plasma and genital fluid samples from six women to assess viral evolution, phylogenetic relatedness, and calculated co-receptor use for the C2V3 region of the envelope. Our analyses demonstrated plasma and vaginal fluid virus compartments remained intact only in samples from women with CD4+ T cell counts over 350 cells/?1 majority of viral forms were predicted to use the CCR5 co-receptor, although several dual tropic forms were also identified. None of the clones were found to use the CXCR4 co-receptor even though many of the patients showed severe disease. Our findings lend further support to the role of an intact immune system in maintaining compartmentalization across blood and genital quasispecies and provide a compelling rationale to specifically consider genital tract viral forms in therapeutic and vaccine research. PMID:21745672

Chaudhary, Suman; Noel, Richard J.; Rodríguez, Nayra; Collado, Santiago; Munoz, Jhoanne; Kumar, Anil; Yamamura, Yashuhiro

2011-01-01

222

Cellular and molecular host-pathogen interactions during Chlamydia pneumoniae infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydia pneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that has evolved to survive completely within the intracellular environment of a host cell. The obligate intracellular lifestyle of this bacterium necessitates an efficient invasion strategy, exemplified by a broad host cell tropism with little propensity for any single cell type and the ability to replicate within both professional phagocytic cells and cells

Brian Kenneth Coombes

2002-01-01

223

CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR HOST-PATHOGEN INTERACTIONS DURING CHLAMYDIA PNEUMONIAE INFECTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydia pneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that has evolved to survive completely within the intracellular environment of a host cell. The obligate intracellular lifestyle of this bacterium necessitates an efficient invasion strategy, exemplified by a broad host cell tropism with little propensity for any single cell type and the ability to replicate within both professional phagocytic cells and cells

Brian K Coombes

2002-01-01

224

Plasmid Copy Number and Disease Severity in Naturally Occurring Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis Infection  

PubMed Central

The Chlamydia trachomatis plasmid is a virulence factor. Plasmid copy number, C. trachomatis load and disease severity were assessed in a treatment-naive population where trachoma is hyperendemic. By using droplet digital PCR, plasmid copy number was found to be stable (median, 5.34 [range, 1 to 18]) and there were no associations with C. trachomatis load or disease severity. PMID:24197878

Roberts, Chrissy h.; Cassama, Eunice; Nabicassa, Meno; Molina-Gonzalez, Sandra; Burr, Sarah E.; Mabey, David C. W.; Bailey, Robin L.; Holland, Martin J.

2014-01-01

225

Preliminary Characterisation of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and Interleukin-10 Responses to Chlamydia pecorum Infection in the Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus)  

PubMed Central

Debilitating infectious diseases caused by Chlamydia are major contributors to the decline of Australia's iconic native marsupial species, the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). An understanding of koala chlamydial disease pathogenesis and the development of effective strategies to control infections continue to be hindered by an almost complete lack of species-specific immunological reagents. The cell-mediated immune response has been shown to play an influential role in the response to chlamydial infection in other hosts. The objective of this study, hence, was to provide preliminary data on the role of two key cytokines, pro-inflammatory tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) and anti-inflammatory interleukin 10 (IL10), in the koala Chlamydia pecorum response. Utilising sequence homology between the cytokine sequences obtained from several recently sequenced marsupial genomes, this report describes the first mRNA sequences of any koala cytokine and the development of koala specific TNF? and IL10 real-time PCR assays to measure the expression of these genes from koala samples. In preliminary studies comparing wild koalas with overt chlamydial disease, previous evidence of C. pecorum infection or no signs of C. pecorum infection, we revealed strong but variable expression of TNF? and IL10 in wild koalas with current signs of chlamydiosis. The description of these assays and the preliminary data on the cell-mediated immune response of koalas to chlamydial infection paves the way for future studies characterising the koala immune response to a range of its pathogens while providing reagents to assist with measuring the efficacy of ongoing attempts to develop a koala chlamydial vaccine. PMID:23527290

Mathew, Marina; Beagley, Kenneth W.; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam

2013-01-01

226

Impact of Short-Term HAART Initiated during the Chronic Stage or Shortly Post-Exposure on SIV Infection of Male Genital Organs  

PubMed Central

Background The male genital tract is suspected to constitute a viral sanctuary as persistent HIV shedding is found in the semen of a subset of HIV-infected men receiving effective antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The origin of this persistent shedding is currently unknown. Phylogenetic studies indicated that HIV in semen from untreated men arises from local sources and/or passive diffusion from the blood. We previously demonstrated in human and macaque low levels and localized infection of several semen-producing organs by HIV/SIV. Using a macaque model, this study investigates the impact of short term HAART (2–4 weeks) initiated either during the asymptomatic chronic stage or 4 h post-intravenous inoculation of SIVmac251 on the infection of male genital organs. Methodology/Principal Findings Short term HAART during the chronic stage decreased blood viral load. No major impact of HAART was observed on SIV DNA levels in male genital organs using a sensitive nested PCR assay. Using in situ hybridization, SIV RNA+ cells were detected in all male genital tract organs from untreated and treated animals with undetectable blood viral load following HAART. Infected CD68+ myeloid cells and CD3+ T lymphocytes were detected pre- and post-HAART. In contrast, short term HAART initiated 4 h post-SIV exposure led to a drastic decrease of the male genital tissues infection, although it failed to prevent systemic infection. In both cases, HAART tended to decrease the number of CD3+ T cells in the male organs. Conclusions Our results indicate that the established infection of male genital organs is not greatly impacted by short term HAART, whereas the same treatment during pre-acute phase of the infection efficiently impairs viral dissemination to the male genital tract. Further investigations are now needed to determine whether infection of male genital organs is responsible for long term persistent HIV shedding in semen despite HAART. PMID:22615988

Moreau, Marina; Le Tortorec, Anna; Deleage, Claire; Brown, Charles; Denis, Hélène; Satie, Anne-Pascale; Bourry, Olivier; Deureuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Roques, Pierre; Le Grand, Roger; Dejucq-Rainsford, Nathalie

2012-01-01

227

Correlates of HIV-1 Genital Shedding in Tanzanian Women  

PubMed Central

Background Understanding the correlates of HIV shedding is important to inform strategies to reduce HIV infectiousness. We examined correlates of genital HIV-1 RNA in women who were seropositive for both herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 and HIV-1 and who were enrolled in a randomised controlled trial of HSV suppressive therapy (aciclovir 400 mg b.i.d vs. placebo) in Tanzania. Methodology Samples, including a cervico-vaginal lavage, were collected and tested for genital HIV-1 and HSV and reproductive tract infections (RTIs) at randomisation and 6, 12 and 24 months follow-up. Data from all women at randomisation and women in the placebo arm during follow-up were analysed using generalised estimating equations to determine the correlates of cervico-vaginal HIV-1 RNA detection and load. Principal Findings Cervico-vaginal HIV-1 RNA was detected at 52.0% of 971 visits among 482 women, and was independently associated with plasma viral load, presence of genital ulcers, pregnancy, bloody cervical or vaginal discharge, abnormal vaginal discharge, cervical ectopy, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, an intermediate bacterial vaginosis score and HSV DNA detection. Similar factors were associated with genital HIV-1 RNA load. Conclusions RTIs were associated with increased presence and quantity of genital HIV-1 RNA in this population. These results highlight the importance of integrating effective RTI treatment into HIV care services. PMID:21390251

Tanton, Clare; Weiss, Helen A.; Le Goff, Jerome; Changalucha, John; Rusizoka, Mary; Baisley, Kathy; Everett, Dean; Ross, David A.; Belec, Laurent; Hayes, Richard J.; Watson-Jones, Deborah

2011-01-01

228

Genital lesions and distribution of amastigotes in bitches naturally infected with Leishmania chagasi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent reports indicate that Leishmania chagasi has tropism to the male canine genital system, which is associated with shedding of the organism in the semen, supporting the hypothesis of venereal transmission. The aim of this study was to describe the lesions and assess parasite load in the genital system of bitches with canine visceral leishmaniasis (CanL). Symptomatic (n=5) and asymptomatic

Fabiana L. Silva; Antonio A. M. Rodrigues; Isabela O. P. Rego; Raquel L. H. Santos; Raquel G. Oliveira; Teane M. A. Silva; Mariana N. Xavier; Ernane F. Nascimento; Renato L. Santos

2008-01-01

229

Frequency and risk factors for incident and redetected Chlamydia trachomatis infection in sexually active, young, multi-ethnic women: a community based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the frequency and risk factors for incident and redetected Chlamydia trachomatis infection in sexually active, young, multi-ethnic women in the community. Design Cohort study. Setting 20 London universities and Further Education colleges. Participants 954 sexually experienced women, mean age 21.5?years (range 16–27), 26% from ethnic minorities, who were recruited to the Prevention of Pelvic Infection (POPI) chlamydia screening trial between 2004 and 2006, and returned repeat postal self-taken vaginal swabs 11–32 (median 16) months after recruitment. Results The estimated annual incidence of chlamydia infection among 907 women who tested negative at baseline was 3.4 per 100 person-years (95% CI 2.5 to 4.6 per 100 person-years), but 6.6 per 100 person-years (95% CI 4.5 to 9.3 per 100 person-years) in the 326 teenagers (<20?years). Predictors of incident chlamydia infection were age <20?years (relative risk (RR) 4.0, 95% CI 2.1 to 7.5), and (after adjusting for age) a new sexual partner during 12?months follow-up (RR 4.4, 95% CI 2.0 to 9.9), smoking (RR 2.2 95% CI 1.2 to 3.9), concurrent bacterial vaginosis (RR 2.0 95% CI 1.1 to 3.9) and high risk carcinogenic human papillomavirus (RR 2.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 4.3). Of 47 women positive for chlamydia at baseline, 12 (25.5%, 95% CI 13.9% to 40.3%) had redetected infection at a median of 16?months follow-up. Taking into account follow-up time (65 person-years), the annual redetection rate was 18.5 per 100 person-years (95% CI 9.9 to 30.0 per 100 person-years). Conclusions One in four women with chlamydia infection at baseline retested positive, supporting recent recommendations to routinely retest chlamydia positives. PMID:25100744

Aghaizu, Adamma; Reid, Fiona; Kerry, Sally; Hay, Phillip E; Mallinson, Harry; Jensen, Jorgen S; Kerry, Sarah; Kerry, Sheila; Oakeshott, Pippa

2014-01-01

230

Dose-dependent effects of Chlamydia psittaci infection on pulmonary gas exchange, innate immunity and acute-phase reaction in a bovine respiratory model.  

PubMed

The respiratory pathogen Chlamydia psittaci naturally occurs in bovine herds and was recently shown to impair calf health in a dose-dependent manner. The aim of this study was to determine whether the functional consequences and immunological reactions of infection were dose related by quantifying the consequences of acute respiratory chlamydial infection on respiratory signs, disturbances of pulmonary gas exchange, response of the innate immune system, and acute-phase reaction. Fourteen calves were challenged intrabronchially with different C. psittaci doses (from 10(6) to 10(9)inclusion-forming units (ifu) per animal). Ten controls received either UV-inactivated chlamydiae or cell culture medium. Compared to the controls, all animals challenged with live C. psittaci developed hypoxaemia linked to reduced haemoglobin oxygen saturation, increased alveolar-arterial oxygen partial pressure difference (A-aO2) and pulmonary shunt, with symptoms following a dose-dependent pattern. Increases in lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) and leukocytes were also dose-dependent and accompanied by a regenerative left shift in neutrophil granulocytes. With the exception of LBP, which reflected the load of chlamydial cell components in the host, pathophysiological reactions were only detected in calves challenged with viable chlamydiae. These results indicate that the pathophysiological consequences of respiratory C. psittaci infections are strongly dependent on the challenge dose of chlamydiae. For further studies, challenge doses between 10(6) and 10(8)ifu/calf are recommended. PMID:23265868

Ostermann, Carola; Schroedl, Wieland; Schubert, Evelyn; Sachse, Konrad; Reinhold, Petra

2013-06-01

231

Herpes simplex virus and cytomegalovirus co-infection presenting as exuberant genital ulcer in a woman infected with human immunodeficiency virus.  

PubMed

In patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), genital herpes can result in severe and atypical clinical presentations, and can become resistant to aciclovir treatment. Rarely, these manifestations may represent concurrent herpes simplex virus (HSV) with other agents. We report a 41-year-old black woman with HIV who presented with extensive and painful ulceration of the genitalia. Histological examination of a biopsy sample was suggestive of herpetic infection, and intravenous aciclovir was started, but produced only partial improvement. PCR was performed on the biopsy sample, and both HSV and cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA was detected. Oral valganciclovir was started with therapeutic success. CMV infection is common in patients infected with HIV, but its presence in mucocutaneous lesions is rarely reported. This case exemplifies the difficulties of diagnosis of genital ulcers in patients infected with HIV. The presence of exuberant and persistent HSV genital ulcers in patients with HIV should also raise suspicions of the presence of co-infection with other organisms such as CMV. PMID:25250849

Gouveia, A I; Borges-Costa, J; Soares-Almeida, L; Sacramento-Marques, M; Kutzner, H

2014-12-01

232

Infection, disease, and transmission dynamics in calves after experimental and natural challenge with a Bovine Chlamydia psittaci isolate.  

PubMed

Chlamydia (C.) psittaci is the causative agent of psittacosis, a zoonotic disease in birds and man. In addition, C. psittaci has been repeatedly found in domestic animals and is, at least in calves, also able to induce respiratory disease. Knowledge about transmission routes in cattle herds is still deficient, and nothing is known about differences in host response after either experimental or natural exposure to C. psittaci. Therefore, our recently developed respiratory infection model was exploited to evaluate (i) the presence of the pathogen in blood, excretions and air, (ii) the possibility of transmission and (iii) clinical symptoms, acute phase and immune response until 5 weeks after exposure. In this prospective study, intrabronchial inoculation of 10(8) inclusion-forming units of C. psittaci (n?=?21 calves) led to reproducible acute respiratory illness (of approximately one week), accompanied by a systemic inflammatory reaction with an innate immune response dominated by neutrophils. Excretion and/or exhalation of the pathogen was sufficient to transmit the infection to naïve sentinel calves (n?=?3) co-housed with the infected animals. Sentinel calves developed mild to subclinical infections only. Notably, excretion of the pathogen, predominantly via feces, occurred more frequently in animals naturally exposed to C. psittaci (i.e. sentinels) as compared to experimentally-inoculated calves. The humoral immune response was generally weak, and did not emerge regularly following experimental infection; however, it was largely absent after naturally acquired infection. PMID:23691148

Ostermann, Carola; Rüttger, Anke; Schubert, Evelyn; Schrödl, Wieland; Sachse, Konrad; Reinhold, Petra

2013-01-01

233

Herpes simplex virus and HIV: genital infection synergy and novel approaches to dual prevention.  

PubMed

Sexual transmission of HIV-1, in the absence of co-factors, is poorly efficient. Data support that herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) may increase a woman's susceptibility to HIV-1. Potential mechanisms by which HSV-2 serves as an HIV-1 enhancing co-factor include (1) initiation of a clinical or subclinical mucosal inflammatory response, (2) alteration of innate mucosal immunity and (3) weakening or breaching the protective genital epithelia. No clinical trial has examined prevention of primary HSV-2 infection to eliminate the major morbidities of this recurrent disease and as a strategy to reduce HIV-1 transmission. Topical administration of potent antivirals can achieve local concentrations that are orders of magnitude higher than those obtained with oral administration. This paper reviews major advances in oral and topical pre-exposure prophylaxis of HIV-1 and HSV-2 and, based on these data, hypothesizes that simultaneous prevention of sexual acquisition of HSV-2 and HIV-1 via topical antiretroviral agents will have a synergistic impact on both epidemics. PMID:23033511

Thurman, A R; Doncel, G F

2012-09-01

234

Recombinant outer membrane vesicles carrying Chlamydia muridarum HtrA induce antibodies that neutralize chlamydial infection in vitro  

PubMed Central

Background Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are spheroid particles released by all Gram-negative bacteria as a result of the budding out of the outer membrane. Since they carry many of the bacterial surface-associated proteins and feature a potent built-in adjuvanticity, OMVs are being utilized as vaccines, some of which commercially available. Recently, methods for manipulating the protein content of OMVs have been proposed, thus making OMVs a promising platform for recombinant, multivalent vaccines development. Methods Chlamydia muridarum DO serine protease HtrA, an antigen which stimulates strong humoral and cellular responses in mice and humans, was expressed in Escherichia coli fused to the OmpA leader sequence to deliver it to the OMV compartment. Purified OMVs carrying HtrA (CM rHtrA-OMV) were analyzed for their capacity to induce antibodies capable of neutralizing Chlamydia infection of LLC-MK2 cells in vitro. Results CM rHtrA-OMV immunization in mice induced antibodies that neutralize Chlamydial invasion as judged by an in vitro infectivity assay. This was remarkably different from what observed with an enzymatically functional recombinant HtrA expressed in, and purified from the E. coli cytoplasm (CM rHtrA). The difference in functionality between anti-CM rHtrA and anti-CM rHtrA-OMV antibodies was associated to a different pattern of protein epitopes recognition. The epitope recognition profile of anti-CM HtrA-OMV antibodies was similar to that induced in mice during Chlamydial infection. Conclusions When expressed in OMVs HtrA appears to assume a conformation similar to the native one and this results in the elicitation of functional immune responses. These data further support the potentiality of OMVs as vaccine platform. PMID:24009891

Bartolini, Erika; Ianni, Elvira; Frigimelica, Elisabetta; Petracca, Roberto; Galli, Giuliano; Berlanda Scorza, Francesco; Norais, Nathalie; Laera, Donatello; Giusti, Fabiola; Pierleoni, Andrea; Donati, Manuela; Cevenini, Roberto; Finco, Oretta; Grandi, Guido; Grifantini, Renata

2013-01-01

235

Chlamydia trachomatis and Human papillomavirus infections in cervical disease in Argentine women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Objectives. To examine,the prevalence of Human,papillomavirus and Chlamydia trachomatis DNA in cervical samples among,women with normal and abnormal cervical cytology from La Plata, Argentina. Methods. Two hundred and seventy-nine women,(200 with cervical neoplasia or ICC and 79 women,with normal,cytology) provided cervical samples for the detection of HPV and C. trachomatis DNA by PCR-based assays. Results. HPV DNA increased with

Carlos D. Golijow; Mart?n C. Abba; Silvana A. Mouron; Ruben M. Laguens; Fernando N. Dulout; Jennifer S. Smith; La Plata; Catedra De Patologõab; Facultad De Ciencias Medicas

236

Evaluation of sexual history-based screening of anatomic sites for chlamydia trachomatis and neisseria gonorrhoeae infection in men having sex with men in routine practice  

PubMed Central

Background Sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening programmes are implemented in many countries to decrease burden of STI and to improve sexual health. Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae has a prominent role in these protocols. Most of the screening programmes concerning men having sex with men (MSM) are based on opportunistic urethral testing. In The Netherlands, a history-based approach is used. The aim of this study is to evaluate the protocol of screening anatomic sites for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae infection based on sexual history in MSM in routine practice in The Netherlands. Methods All MSM visiting the clinic for STI in The Hague are routinely asked about their sexual practice during consulting. As per protocol, tests for urogenital, oropharyngeal and anorectal infection are obtained based on reported site(s) of sexual contact. All consultations are entered into a database as part of the national STI monitoring system. Data of an 18 months period were retrieved from this database and analysed. Results A total of 1455 consultations in MSM were registered during the study period. The prevalence of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae per anatomic site was: urethral infection 4.0% respectively and 2.8%, oropharynx 1.5% and 4.2%, and anorectum 8.2% and 6.0%. The majority of chlamydia cases (72%) involved a single anatomic site, which was especially manifest for anorectal infections (79%), while 42% of gonorrhoea cases were single site. Twenty-six percent of MSM with anorectal chlamydia and 17% with anorectal gonorrhoea reported symptoms of proctitis; none of the oropharyngeal infections were symptomatic. Most cases of anorectal infection (83%) and oropharyngeal infection (100%) would have remained undiagnosed with a symptom-based protocol. Conclusions The current strategy of sexual-history based screening of multiple anatomic sites for chlamydia and gonorrhoea in MSM is a useful and valid guideline which is to be preferred over a symptom-based screening protocol. PMID:21791061

2011-01-01

237

Identification of Concomitant Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis IncA-Negative Mutant and Wild-Type Strains by Genomic, Transcriptional, and Biological Characterizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical isolates of Chlamydia trachomatis that lack IncA on their inclusion membrane form nonfusogenic inclusions and have been associated with milder, subclinical infections in patients. The molecular events associated with the generation of IncA-negative strains and their roles in chlamydial sexually transmitted infections are not clear. We explored the biology of the IncA-negative strains by analyzing their genomic structure, transcription,

Robert J. Suchland; Brendan M. Jeffrey; Minsheng Xia; Ajay Bhatia; Hencelyn G. Chu; Daniel D. Rockey; Walter E. Stamm

2008-01-01

238

Risk of pelvic inflammatory disease following Chlamydia trachomatis infection: analysis of prospective studies with a multistate model.  

PubMed

Our objective in this study was to estimate the probability that a Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection will cause an episode of clinical pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and the reduction in such episodes among women with CT that could be achieved by annual screening. We reappraised evidence from randomized controlled trials of screening and controlled observational studies that followed untreated CT-infected and -uninfected women to measure the development of PID. Data from these studies were synthesized using a continuous-time Markov model which takes into account the competing risk of spontaneous clearance of CT. Using a 2-step piecewise homogenous Markov model that accounts for the distinction between prevalent and incident infections, we investigated the possibility that the rate of PID due to CT is greater during the period immediately following infection. The available data were compatible with both the homogenous and piecewise homogenous models. Given a homogenous model, the probability that a CT episode will cause clinical PID was 0.16 (95% credible interval (CrI): 0.06, 0.25), and annual screening would prevent 61% (95% CrI: 55, 67) of CT-related PID in women who became infected with CT. Assuming a piecewise homogenous model with a higher rate during the first 60 days, corresponding results were 0.16 (95% CrI: 0.07, 0.26) and 55% (95% CrI: 32, 72), respectively. PMID:23813703

Price, Malcolm J; Ades, A E; De Angelis, Daniela; Welton, Nicky J; Macleod, John; Soldan, Kate; Simms, Ian; Turner, Katy; Horner, Paddy J

2013-08-01

239

Transcriptional Profiling of Human Epithelial Cells Infected with Plasmid-Bearing and Plasmid-Deficient Chlamydia trachomatis.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular epitheliotropic bacterial pathogen of humans. Infection of the eye can result in trachoma, the leading cause of preventable blindness in the world. The pathophysiology of blinding trachoma is driven by multiple episodes of reinfection of conjunctival epithelial cells, producing an intense chronic inflammatory response resulting in submucosal tissue remodeling and scarring. Recent reports have shown that infection with trachoma organisms lacking the cryptic chlamydial plasmid is highly attenuated in macaque eyes, a relevant experimental model of human trachoma infection. To better understand the molecular basis of plasmid-mediated infection attenuation and the potential modulation of host immunity, we conducted transcriptional profiling of human epithelial cells infected with C. trachomatis plasmid-bearing (A2497) and plasmid-deficient (A2497P(-)) organisms. Infection of human epithelial cells with either strain increased the expression of host genes coding for proinflammatory (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF], macrophage colony-stimulating factor [MCSF], interleukin-6 [IL-6], IL-8, IL-1?, CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 [ICAM1]), chemoattraction (CCL20, CCL5, CXCL10), immune suppression (PD-L1, NFKB1B, TNFAIP3, CGB), apoptosis (CASP9, FAS, IL-24), and cell growth and fibrosis (EGR1 and IL-20) proteins. Statistically significant increases in the levels of expression of many of these genes were found in A2497-infected cells compared to the levels of expression in A2497P(-)-infected cells. Our findings suggest that the chlamydial plasmid plays a focal role in the host cell inflammatory response to infection and immune avoidance. These results provide new insights into the role of the chlamydial plasmid as a chlamydial virulence factor and its contributions to trachoma pathogenesis. PMID:25404022

Porcella, Stephen F; Carlson, John H; Sturdevant, Daniel E; Sturdevant, Gail L; Kanakabandi, Kishore; Virtaneva, Kimmo; Wilder, Hannah; Whitmire, William M; Song, Lihua; Caldwell, Harlan D

2015-02-01

240

Transcriptional Profiling of Human Epithelial Cells Infected with Plasmid-Bearing and Plasmid-Deficient Chlamydia trachomatis  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular epitheliotropic bacterial pathogen of humans. Infection of the eye can result in trachoma, the leading cause of preventable blindness in the world. The pathophysiology of blinding trachoma is driven by multiple episodes of reinfection of conjunctival epithelial cells, producing an intense chronic inflammatory response resulting in submucosal tissue remodeling and scarring. Recent reports have shown that infection with trachoma organisms lacking the cryptic chlamydial plasmid is highly attenuated in macaque eyes, a relevant experimental model of human trachoma infection. To better understand the molecular basis of plasmid-mediated infection attenuation and the potential modulation of host immunity, we conducted transcriptional profiling of human epithelial cells infected with C. trachomatis plasmid-bearing (A2497) and plasmid-deficient (A2497P?) organisms. Infection of human epithelial cells with either strain increased the expression of host genes coding for proinflammatory (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF], macrophage colony-stimulating factor [MCSF], interleukin-6 [IL-6], IL-8, IL-1?, CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 [ICAM1]), chemoattraction (CCL20, CCL5, CXCL10), immune suppression (PD-L1, NFKB1B, TNFAIP3, CGB), apoptosis (CASP9, FAS, IL-24), and cell growth and fibrosis (EGR1 and IL-20) proteins. Statistically significant increases in the levels of expression of many of these genes were found in A2497-infected cells compared to the levels of expression in A2497P?-infected cells. Our findings suggest that the chlamydial plasmid plays a focal role in the host cell inflammatory response to infection and immune avoidance. These results provide new insights into the role of the chlamydial plasmid as a chlamydial virulence factor and its contributions to trachoma pathogenesis. PMID:25404022

Carlson, John H.; Sturdevant, Daniel E.; Sturdevant, Gail L.; Kanakabandi, Kishore; Virtaneva, Kimmo; Wilder, Hannah; Whitmire, William M.; Caldwell, Harlan D.

2014-01-01

241

Genital Herpes  

MedlinePLUS

... Herpes Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Share Compartir Genital Herpes - CDC Fact Sheet Herpes is a common sexually transmitted disease (STD) that ... questions about sexually transmitted diseases. What is genital herpes? Genital herpes is an STD caused by two ...

242

Genital Herpes  

MedlinePLUS

... and TB Prevention Division of STD Prevention Genital Herpes – CDC Fact Sheet Herpes is a common sexually transmitted disease (STD) that ... still spread to sexual partners. What is genital herpes? Genital herpes is an STD caused by two ...

243

Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Mediate the Regulation of Inflammatory Type T Cell Response for Optimal Immunity against Respiratory Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infection  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn) infection is a leading cause for a variety of respiratory diseases and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory diseases. The regulatory mechanisms in host defense against Cpn infection are less understood. In this study, we investigated the role of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) in immune regulation in Cpn respiratory tract infection. We found that in vivo depletion of pDCs increased the severity of infection and lung pathology. Mice depleted of pDC had greater body weight loss, higher lung bacterial burden and excessive tissue inflammation compared to the control mice. Analysis of specific T cell cytokine production pattern in the lung following Cpn infection revealed that pDC depleted mice produced significantly higher amounts of inflammatory cytokines, especially TNF-?, but lower IL-10 compared to the controls. In particular, pDC depleted mice showed pathogenic T cell responses characterized by inflammatory type-1 (CD8 and CD4) and inflammatory Th2 cell responses. Moreover, pDC depletion dramatically reduced CD4 regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the lungs and draining lymph nodes. Furthermore, pDC-T cell co-culture experiments showed that pDCs isolated from Cpn infected mice were potent in inducing IL-10 producing CD4 Tregs. Together, these findings provide in vivo evidence for a critical role of pDCs in homeostatic regulation of immunity during Cpn infection. Our findings highlight the importance of a ‘balanced’ immune response for host protective immunity and preventing detrimental immunopathology during microbial infections. PMID:24386207

Joyee, Antony George; Yang, Xi

2013-01-01

244

Contribution of Interleukin-12 p35 (IL-12p35) and IL-12p40 to Protective Immunity and Pathology in Mice Infected with Chlamydia muridarum  

PubMed Central

The p35 molecule is unique to interleukin-12 (IL-12), while p40 is shared by both IL-12 and IL-23. IL-12 promotes Th1 T cell responses, while IL-23 promotes Th17 T cell responses. The roles of IL-12p35- and IL-12p40-mediated responses in chlamydial infection were compared in mice following an intravaginal infection with Chlamydia muridarum. Mice deficient in either IL-12p35 or p40 both developed similar but prolonged infection time courses, confirming the roles of IL-12-mediated immune responses in clearing primary infection. However, all mice, regardless of genotype, cleared reinfection within 2 weeks, suggesting that an IL-12- or IL-23-independent adaptive immunity is protective against chlamydial infection. All infected mice developed severe oviduct hydrosalpinx despite the increased Th2 responses in IL-12p35- or IL-12p40-deficient mice, suggesting that Th2-dominant responses can contribute to Chlamydia-induced inflammatory pathology. Compared to IL-12p35 knockout mice, the IL-12p40-deficient mice exhibited more extensive spreading of chlamydial organisms into kidney tissues, leading to significantly increased incidence of pyelonephritis, which both confirms the role of IL-12 or IL-23-independent host responses in Chlamydia-induced pathologies and suggests that in the absence of IL-12/IFN-?-mediated Th1 immunity, an IL-23-mediated response may play an important role in restricting chlamydial organisms from spreading into distal organs. These observations together provide important information for both understanding chlamydial pathogenesis and developing anti-Chlamydia vaccines. PMID:23753624

Chen, Lili; Lei, Lei; Zhou, Zhou; He, Jie; Xu, Sha; Lu, Chunxue; Chen, Jianlin; Yang, Zhangsheng; Wu, Gangqiu; Yeh, I-Tien

2013-01-01

245

Profiling of Human Antibody Responses to Chlamydia trachomatis Urogenital Tract Infection Using Microplates Arrayed with 156 Chlamydial Fusion Proteins  

PubMed Central

The available chlamydial genome sequences have made it possible to comprehensively analyze host responses to all chlamydial proteins, which is essential for further understanding of chlamydial pathogenesis and development of effective chlamydial vaccines. Microplates arrayed with 156 Chlamydia trachomatis fusion proteins were used to evaluate antibody responses in women urogenitally infected with C. trachomatis. Based on both the antibody recognition frequency and titer, seven chlamydial antigens encoded by open reading frames (ORFs) CT089, CT147, CT226, CT681, CT694, CT795, and CT858, respectively, were identified as relatively immunodominant; six of these are encoded by hypothetical ORFs. Antibody binding to these chlamydial fusion proteins was blocked by C. trachomatis-infected but not by normal HeLa cell lysates or irrelevant bacterial lysates. These results have revealed novel immune-reactive chlamydial antigens, not only indicating that the hypothetical ORF-encoded proteins are expressed during chlamydial infection in humans but also providing the proof of principle that the fusion protein-based approach can be used to profile human immune responses to chlamydial infection at the whole-genome scale. PMID:16495519

Sharma, Jyotika; Zhong, Youmin; Dong, Feng; Piper, Jeanna M.; Wang, Guqi; Zhong, Guangming

2006-01-01

246

Evaluation of antimicrobial treatment in a bovine model of acute Chlamydia psittaci infection: tetracycline versus tetracycline plus rifampicin.  

PubMed

Antimicrobial treatment of chlamydial infections is known to be of limited efficacy. In this study, effects of doxycycline (D), usually the drug of choice, were compared with the combined therapy of doxycycline and rifampicin (R) in a bovine model of respiratory Chlamydia psittaci infection. After intrabronchial inoculation of the pathogen, 30 animals were assigned to five groups (n = 6 per group): untreated controls, monotherapy with D (5 mg kg(-1) day(-1) or 10 mg kg(-1) day(-1) ), and combination therapy of D and R (600 mg day(-1) ). Treatment continued until day 14 post inoculation (d.p.i.). Clinical signs, inflammatory markers, and pathological findings confirmed successful infection in all animals. Reisolation of the pathogen was possible in 4/6 untreated animals and in 4/12 animals treated with D alone until 4 d.p.i., but in none of the calves of the two D + R groups. Pathogen detection was possible in all animals without significant differences among groups. Severity of disease and time course of its resolution, assessed by clinical and pathological findings as well as inflammatory parameters, were not significantly different between untreated controls and calves receiving D alone or in combination with R. Regardless of the treatment regimen, all groups recovered clinically and cleared the infection within 2 weeks. PMID:25113145

Prohl, Annette; Lohr, Markus; Ostermann, Carola; Liebler-Tenorio, Elisabeth; Berndt, Angela; Schroedl, Wieland; Rothe, Michael; Schubert, Evelyn; Sachse, Konrad; Reinhold, Petra

2014-08-11

247

Efficacy of RG1-VLP Vaccination against Infections with Genital and Cutaneous Human Papillomaviruses  

PubMed Central

Licensed human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines, based on virus-like particles (VLPs) self-assembled from major capsid protein L1, afford type-restricted protection against HPV types 16/18/6/11 (or 16/18 for the bivalent vaccine), which cause 70% of cervical cancers (CxCas) and 90% of genital warts. However, they do not protect against less prevalent high-risk (HR) types causing 30% of CxCa, or cutaneous HPV. In contrast, vaccination with the minor capsid protein L2 induces low-level immunity to type-common epitopes. Chimeric RG1-VLP presenting HPV16 L2 amino acids 17–36 (RG1 epitope) within the DE-surface loop of HPV16 L1 induced cross-neutralizing antisera. We hypothesized that RG1-VLP vaccination protects against a large spectrum of mucosal and cutaneous HPV infections in vivo. Immunization with RG1-VLP adjuvanted with human-applicable alum-MPL (aluminum hydroxide plus 3-O-desacyl-4?-monophosphoryl lipid A) induced robust L2 antibodies (ELISA titers 2,500–12,500), which (cross-)neutralized mucosal HR HPV16/18/45/37/33/52/58/35/39/51/59/68/73/26/69/34/70, low-risk HPV6/11/32/40, and cutaneous HPV2/27/3/76 (titers 25–1,000) using native virion- or pseudovirion (PsV)-based assays, and a vigorous cytotoxic T lymphocyte response by enzyme-linked immunospot. In vivo, mice were efficiently protected against experimental vaginal challenge with mucosal HR PsV types HPV16/18/45/31/33/52/58/35/39/51/59/68/56/73/26/53/66/34 and low-risk HPV6/43/44. Enduring protection was demonstrated 1 year after vaccination. RG1-VLP is a promising next-generation vaccine with broad efficacy against all relevant mucosal and also cutaneous HPV types. PMID:23752042

Schellenbacher, Christina; Kwak, Kihyuck; Fink, Dieter; Shafti-Keramat, Saeed; Huber, Bettina; Jindra, Christoph; Faust, Helena; Dillner, Joakim; Roden, Richard B.S.; Kirnbauer, Reinhard

2013-01-01

248

Cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP): an 'inactive' pharmaceutical excipient with antiviral activity in the mouse model of genital herpesvirus infection.  

PubMed

The spread of sexually transmitted infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) has continued unabated. At least 20% of the United States population has been infected with HSV-2 and there is a high probability of further virus transmission by asymptomatic carriers. Given the absence of effective vaccines, this indicates the need to develop prophylactic measures such as topical microbicides that have antiviral activity. Recent studies indicate that cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP), an inactive pharmaceutical excipient commonly used in the production of enteric tablets and capsules, is a broad specificity microbicide against diverse sexually transmitted pathogens. When appropriately formulated in micronized form, it inactivates various viruses, including HSV-2, in vitro. Here we show that CAP inhibits HSV-2 infection in the mouse model of genital HSV-2 infection. Pretreatment with micronized CAP formulated in a glycerol-based cream with colloidal silicone dioxide significantly reduced the proportion of HSV-2-infected mice (10% virus shedding, 0-5% lesion development and 0% fatality for CAP as compared to 84% shedding, 63% lesion development and 63% fatality in saline-treated mice). These differences were significant (P < or = 0.0002 by the test of equality of two proportions). Virus titres in the minority of mice that developed infection were similar to those in untreated mice. HSV-2 infection was not inhibited by treatment with CAP formulated with other inactive ingredients (for example povidone plus crosprovidone) instead of silicone dioxide, presumably reflecting CAP complexation/inactivation. These data suggest that properly formulated, CAP may be an efficacious agent for preventing vaginal transmission of genital herpesvirus infections. PMID:10628808

Gyotoku, T; Aurelian, L; Neurath, A R

1999-11-01

249

Humoral immune response to plasmid protein pgp3 in patients with Chlamydia trachomatis infection.  

PubMed Central

We identified, by two-dimensional electrophoretic analysis and microsequencing, a protein of Chlamydia trachomatis elementary bodies which corresponds to the polypeptide (pgp3) encoded by open reading frame 3 (ORF3). Amino acid analysis showed that the first residue (Gly) found in the native protein is the one encoded by the second ORF3 codon, implying a typical bacterial removal of the first Met residue. Relatively large amounts of recombinant pgp3 (r-pgp3) in a stable, water-soluble form were obtained by overexpressing ORF3 in Escherichia coli and purifying the product from periplasmic extracts under nondenaturing conditions. These r-pgp3 preparations allowed specific detection of anti-pgp3 antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Analysis of a group of 170 sera from healthy blood donors and from patients who were seropositive or -negative for C. trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae showed that an immune response to pgp3 occurs in the majority (ca. 81%) of patients with sexually transmitted diseases who are seropositive for C. trachomatis and generally correlates with the response to cell surface antigens. No reaction between r-pgp3 and C. pneumoniae-positive sera was detected. Images PMID:7960130

Comanducci, M; Manetti, R; Bini, L; Santucci, A; Pallini, V; Cevenini, R; Sueur, J M; Orfila, J; Ratti, G

1994-01-01

250

Genital sores - female  

MedlinePLUS

... DC. Neoplastic diseases of the vulva. In: Lentz GM, Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, Katz VL, eds . Comprehensive ... Mosby Elsevier; 2012:chap 30. Eckert L, Lentz GM. Infections of the lower genital tract. In: Lentz ...

251

Seroprevalence of Chlamydia psittaci infection in market-sold adult chickens, ducks and pigeons in north-western China.  

PubMed

Chlamydia psittaci, the agent of psittacosis in humans, infects a wide range of avian species. To assess the risk of psittacosis posed by domestic birds in the urban environment, the prevalence of C. psittaci antibodies in 413 chickens (Gallus domesticus; 305 caged and 108 free-range), 334 ducks (Anas spp.; 111 caged and 223 free-range) and 312 pigeons (Columba livia) in Lanzhou, north-western China, was detected using the indirect haemagglutination assay. The specific antibodies were found in sera of 55 (13.32?%) chickens, 130 (38.92?%) ducks and 97 (31.09?%) pigeons. Statistical analysis showed that the seroprevalence of C. psittaci infection in chickens was significantly lower than that in ducks and pigeons (P<0.05). The C. psittaci seroprevalence in caged and free-range chickens was 7.54?% and 29.63?%, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The C. psittaci seroprevalence in caged and free-range ducks was 26.13?% and 45.29?%, respectively (P<0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first study indicating the presence of C. psittaci infection in market-sold chickens, ducks and pigeons in north-western China. Close contact with these birds is associated with a risk of zoonotic transmission of C. psittaci. Public education should be implemented to reduce the risk of avian to human transmission of such a pathogenic agent. PMID:23699067

Cong, W; Huang, S Y; Zhang, X Y; Zhou, D H; Xu, M J; Zhao, Q; Song, H Q; Zhu, X Q; Qian, A D

2013-08-01

252

Mixture-of-exponentials models to explain heterogeneity in studies of the duration of Chlamydia trachomatis infection.  

PubMed

Published studies of the duration of asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women have produced diverse estimates, and most reviewers have not attempted an evidence synthesis. We review the designs of duration studies, distinguishing between the incident cases presenting soon after infection in clinic-based studies and prevalent cases ascertained in population screening studies. We combine evidence from all studies under fixed-effect (single clearance rate), random-effect (study-specific clearance rate), and mixture-of-exponentials models, in which there are either two or three classes of infection that clear at different rates. We can identify classes as 'passive' infection and fast-clearing and slow-clearing infections. We estimate models by Bayesian MCMC and compared them using posterior mean residual deviance and the deviance information criterion. The single fixed-effect clearance rate model fitted very poorly. The random-effect model was adequate but inferior to the two-class and three-class mixture of exponentials. According to the two-class model, the proportion in the first class was 23% (95% CI: 16-31%), and the mean duration of C.?trachomatis infection is 1.36?years (95% CI: 1.13-1.63?years). With the three-rate model, duration was similar, but identification of the proportions in each class (19%, 31%, and 49%) was poor. Although the random-effect model was descriptively adequate, the extreme degree of between-study variation in the clearance rate it predicted lacked biological plausibility. Differences in study recruitment and sampling mechanisms, acting through a mixture-of-exponentials model, better explains the apparent heterogeneity in duration. PMID:22949217

Price, Malcolm J; Ades, A E; Angelis, Daniela De; Welton, Nicky J; Macleod, John; Soldan, Kate; Turner, Katy; Simms, Ian; Horner, Paddy J

2013-04-30

253

Cutaneous human papillomavirus types detected on the surface of male external genital lesions: A case series within the HPV Infection in Men Study  

PubMed Central

Background Cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPVs) may be associated with cutaneous epithelial lesions and non-melanoma skin cancers. No study has systematically evaluated the presence of genus beta [?]-HPV in male genital skin or external genital lesions (EGLs). Objectives To examine cutaneous ?-HPV types detected on the surface of EGLs in men and describe their presence prior to EGL development. Study design A retrospective case series was conducted among 69 men with pathologically confirmed EGLs (n=72) who participated in the HPV Infection in Men Study. Archived exfoliated cells collected from the surface of each EGL and normal genital skin specimens 6–12 months preceding EGL development were tested for ?-HPV DNA using a type-specific multiplex genotyping assay. Results ?-HPV DNA was detected on 61.1% of all EGLs, with types 38 (16.7%), 5 (15.3%), and 12 (12.5%) most commonly identified. HPV prevalence differed across pathological diagnoses, with the largest number of ?-HPV types detected on condylomas. Most ?-HPV types were detected on normal genital skin prior to EGL development, though the prevalence was lower on EGLs compared to preceding normal genital skin. Conclusions EGLs and the normal genital skin of men harbor a large number of ?-HPV types; however, it appears that ?-HPVs are unrelated to EGL development in men. Despite evidence to support a causal role in skin carcinogenesis at UVR-exposed sites, cutaneous HPV appears unlikely to cause disease at the UVR-unexposed genitals. PMID:24210970

Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Messina, Jane L.; Stoler, Mark H.; Jukic, Drazen M.; Tommasino, Massimo; Gheit, Tarik; Rollison, Dana E.; Sichero, Laura; Sirak, Bradley A.; Ingles, Donna J.; Abrahamsen, Martha; Lu, Beibei; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R.

2013-01-01

254

Co-Infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae and Helicobacter pylori Results in Vascular Endothelial Dysfunction and Enhanced VCAM-1 Expression in ApoE-Knockout Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Upregulation of proinflammatory endothelial cell adhesion molecules and decreased bioactivity of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) are important in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. We investigated the effects of co-infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae and Helicobacter pylori on these two events in apoE-KO mice. Methods: Thirty-two apoE-KO mice, 8 weeks old, were equally divided into 4 groups. The first 2 groups were

Petru Liuba; Erkki Pesonen; Ilari Paakkari; Satish Batra; Leif Andersen; Anders Forslid; Seppo Ylä-Herttuala; Kenneth Persson; Torkel Wadström; Xin Wang; Ricardo Laurini

2003-01-01

255

The prevalence and genetic characterization of Chlamydia psittaci from domestic and feral pigeons in Poland and the correlation between infection rate and incidence of pigeon circovirus.  

PubMed

Chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Chlamydia psittaci that occurs in a wide range of bird species. High infection rates with C. psittaci are found in pigeons, which can act as vectors transmitting this bacterium to poultry and humans. Chlamydia shedding by pigeons is intermittent and can be activated by stressors or immunosuppression. The most common immunosuppressive factor for pigeons is a pigeon circovirus (PiCV) infection. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of C. psittaci in Polish populations of domestic and feral pigeons (Columba livia) in the context of its correlation with PiCV infections. The second objective was to determine the genetic characteristics of Polish C. psittaci isolates. The study was conducted on 377 pigeon samples (276 domestic and 101 feral pigeons) collected from pigeons from different regions of Poland. The average prevalence of C. psittaci in the Polish pigeon population was determined at 6.8%, and it was higher in domestic than in feral pigeons. This is the first ever study to suggest a potential correlation between C. psittaci and PiCV infections, which could be attributed to the fact that there are 2 to 3 times more pigeons infected with C. psittaci and coinfected with PiCV than pigeons infected with C. psittaci alone. This trend was observed mainly in the population of sick pigeons. As many as 88.2% of isolates were recognized as belonging to genotype B, and the remaining isolates were identified as belonging to genotype E. The isolates analyzed in this study demonstrated low levels of genetic variation (96-100% homology among the isolates and in relation to reference strains). Chlamydia psittaci could be expected to spread across pigeon populations due to the high probability of mutual infections between birds and the increasing number of PiCV infections. PMID:25306457

Stenzel, Tomasz; Pestka, Daria; Choszcz, Dariusz

2014-12-01

256

Tumor Suppressor p53 Alters Host Cell Metabolism to Limit Chlamydia trachomatis Infection.  

PubMed

Obligate intracellular bacteria depend entirely on nutrients from the host cell for their reproduction. Here, we show that obligate intracellular Chlamydia downregulate the central tumor suppressor p53 in human cells. This reduction of p53 levels is mediated by the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, activation of HDM2, and subsequent proteasomal degradation of p53. The stabilization of p53 in human cells severely impaired chlamydial development and caused the loss of infectious particle formation. DNA-damage-induced p53 interfered with chlamydial development through downregulation of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). Increased expression of the PPP key enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase rescued the inhibition of chlamydial growth induced by DNA damage or stabilized p53. Thus, downregulation of p53 is a key event in the chlamydial life cycle that reprograms the host cell to create a metabolic environment supportive of chlamydial growth. PMID:25437549

Siegl, Christine; Prusty, Bhupesh K; Karunakaran, Karthika; Wischhusen, Jörg; Rudel, Thomas

2014-11-01

257

Chlamydia trachomatis-Infected Patients Display Variable Antibody Profiles against the Nine-Member Polymorphic Membrane Protein Family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genomic analysis of the Chlamydiaceae has revealed a multigene family encoding large, putatively auto- transported polymorphic membrane proteins (Pmps) with nine members in the sexually transmitted pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis. While various pathogenesis-related functions are emerging for the Pmps, observed genotypic and phenotypic variation among several chlamydial Pmps in various Chlamydia species has led us to hypothesize that the pmp gene

Chun Tan; Ru-ching Hsia; Huizhong Shou; Catherine L. Haggerty; Roberta B. Ness; Charlotte A. Gaydos; Deborah Dean; Amy M. Scurlock; David P. Wilson; Patrik M. Bavoil

2009-01-01

258

Molecular epidemiology of selected sexually transmitted infections  

PubMed Central

Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) are established pathogens for human genital tract. However, the role of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) and Ureaplasma parvum (UP) in genital pathology is poorly unerstood. A prospective study to investigate the prevalence of above infections was performed on a cohort of 1,718 consecutive patients attending a Genitourinary Medicine (GUM) clinic. A previously published in-house real-time PCR assay, for the detection of CT DNA in genital swabs, was modified for this study. Two amplification reactions detected the DNAs of TV, NG, MG, CT, UU and UP in genital swabs from 4 (0.2%), 11 (0.6%), 17 (1%), 129 (8%), 282 (16%) and 636 (37%) patients, respectively. 594 (70%) of 848 women and 333 (38%) of 870 men were infected with at least one type of microorganism. Among 594 infected females, 485 (82%) had a single infection, 97 (16%) had a double infection, and 12 (2%) had a triple infection. Of the 333 infected men, 304 (91%) had a single infection, 27 (8%) had a double infection, and 2 (1%) had a triple infection. The prevalence of infection in both genders decreased with increasing age. The prevalence proportion of UP was significantly higher in women (54%) compared with men (18%). The high prevalence of UU and UP suggests that these bacteria are commensals of genital tract. PMID:24046809

Jalal, Hamid; Delaney, Andrew; Bentley, Neil; Sonnex, Christopher; Carne, Christopher A

2013-01-01

259

Multilocus sequence analysis provides insights into molecular epidemiology of Chlamydia pecorum infections in Australian sheep, cattle, and koalas.  

PubMed

Chlamydia pecorum is a significant pathogen of domestic livestock and wildlife. We have developed a C. pecorum-specific multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) scheme to examine the genetic diversity of and relationships between Australian sheep, cattle, and koala isolates. An MLSA of seven concatenated housekeeping gene fragments was performed using 35 isolates, including 18 livestock isolates (11 Australian sheep, one Australian cow, and six U.S. livestock isolates) and 17 Australian koala isolates. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the koala isolates formed a distinct clade, with limited clustering with C. pecorum isolates from Australian sheep. We identified 11 MLSA sequence types (STs) among Australian C. pecorum isolates, 10 of them novel, with koala and sheep sharing at least one identical ST (designated ST2013Aa). ST23, previously identified in global C. pecorum livestock isolates, was observed here in a subset of Australian bovine and sheep isolates. Most notably, ST23 was found in association with multiple disease states and hosts, providing insights into the transmission of this pathogen between livestock hosts. The complexity of the epidemiology of this disease was further highlighted by the observation that at least two examples of sheep were infected with different C. pecorum STs in the eyes and gastrointestinal tract. We have demonstrated the feasibility of our MLSA scheme for understanding the host relationship that exists between Australian C. pecorum strains and provide the first molecular epidemiological data on infections in Australian livestock hosts. PMID:23740730

Jelocnik, Martina; Frentiu, Francesca D; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam

2013-08-01

260

Multilocus Sequence Analysis Provides Insights into Molecular Epidemiology of Chlamydia pecorum Infections in Australian Sheep, Cattle, and Koalas  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia pecorum is a significant pathogen of domestic livestock and wildlife. We have developed a C. pecorum-specific multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) scheme to examine the genetic diversity of and relationships between Australian sheep, cattle, and koala isolates. An MLSA of seven concatenated housekeeping gene fragments was performed using 35 isolates, including 18 livestock isolates (11 Australian sheep, one Australian cow, and six U.S. livestock isolates) and 17 Australian koala isolates. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the koala isolates formed a distinct clade, with limited clustering with C. pecorum isolates from Australian sheep. We identified 11 MLSA sequence types (STs) among Australian C. pecorum isolates, 10 of them novel, with koala and sheep sharing at least one identical ST (designated ST2013Aa). ST23, previously identified in global C. pecorum livestock isolates, was observed here in a subset of Australian bovine and sheep isolates. Most notably, ST23 was found in association with multiple disease states and hosts, providing insights into the transmission of this pathogen between livestock hosts. The complexity of the epidemiology of this disease was further highlighted by the observation that at least two examples of sheep were infected with different C. pecorum STs in the eyes and gastrointestinal tract. We have demonstrated the feasibility of our MLSA scheme for understanding the host relationship that exists between Australian C. pecorum strains and provide the first molecular epidemiological data on infections in Australian livestock hosts. PMID:23740730

Jelocnik, Martina; Frentiu, Francesca D.; Timms, Peter

2013-01-01

261

Chlamydia trachomatis serovar distribution and other concurrent sexually transmitted infections in heterosexual men with urethritis in Italy.  

PubMed

The distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis serovars among 157 heterosexual male patients with urethritis and the presence of coinfections with other sexually transmitted infections were studied. One hundred seventeen (74.5%) patients, with a mean age of 33.7 years, were Italians, whereas 40 (25.5%) were immigrants coming from eastern European countries, Africa, and South America. All the immigrants and 82 (70.0%) Italian patients reported sex with prostitutes. Out of 157 patients, 73 (46.5%) were found positive for C. trachomatis in urethral secretions and eight different C. trachomatis serovars were identified. The most common serovars were E (n = 18; 24.7%), D (n = 15; 20.5%), G (n = 14;19.2%), and F (n = 12; 16.4%). The sequencing data showed a high degree of conservation of the omp1 gene. Thirty-six (46.7%) out of the 73 C. trachomatis-positive patients were coinfected with another sexually transmitted infection. The most common coinfection was gonorrhoea detected in 22 (30.1%) patients, followed by condyloma in eight (8.2%) patients, syphilis in five (6.8%), and HIV in three (4.1%). PMID:18958506

Donati, M; Di Francesco, A; D'Antuono, A; Pignanelli, S; Shurdhi, A; Moroni, A; Baldelli, R; Cevenini, R

2009-05-01

262

Ultrastructural changes in avian Chlamydia psittaci serovar A-, B-, and D-infected Buffalo Green Monkey cells.  

PubMed

In order to find an explanation for the observed differences in levels of pathogenicity in turkeys of Chlamydia psittaci 84/55 (avian serovar A), 89/1326 (avian serovar B), 92/1293 (avian serovar D), and the Texas Turkey strain (avian serovar D) (P.B. Wyrick, J. Choong, S.T. Knight, D. Goyeau, E.S. Stuart, and A.B. MacDonald, Immunol. Infect. Dis. 4:131-141, 1994), the reproductive cycles of organisms of the four strains were studied in Buffalo Green Monkey cells by transmission electron microscopy, immunoelectron microscopy, and flow cytometry. Organisms of strains most pathogenic in turkeys, namely, the serovar A strain and the 92/1293 serovar D strain, (i) replicated faster, since at 50 h postinoculation significantly larger inclusions with more numerous infectious organisms were observed than with the less pathogenic strains; (ii) were often found devoid of inclusion membranes scattered throughout the cytoplasms; and (iii) induced severe degenerative changes in Buffalo Green Monkey cells. By immunoelectron microscopy and flow cytometry, chlamydial antigens could not be detected in the plasma membranes of infected host cells. However, the presence of chlamydial antigens in inclusion membranes was demonstrated by immunoelectron microscopy. PMID:8606089

Vanrompay, D; Charlier, G; Ducatelle, R; Haesebrouck, F

1996-04-01

263

Ultrastructural changes in avian Chlamydia psittaci serovar A-, B-, and D-infected Buffalo Green Monkey cells.  

PubMed Central

In order to find an explanation for the observed differences in levels of pathogenicity in turkeys of Chlamydia psittaci 84/55 (avian serovar A), 89/1326 (avian serovar B), 92/1293 (avian serovar D), and the Texas Turkey strain (avian serovar D) (P.B. Wyrick, J. Choong, S.T. Knight, D. Goyeau, E.S. Stuart, and A.B. MacDonald, Immunol. Infect. Dis. 4:131-141, 1994), the reproductive cycles of organisms of the four strains were studied in Buffalo Green Monkey cells by transmission electron microscopy, immunoelectron microscopy, and flow cytometry. Organisms of strains most pathogenic in turkeys, namely, the serovar A strain and the 92/1293 serovar D strain, (i) replicated faster, since at 50 h postinoculation significantly larger inclusions with more numerous infectious organisms were observed than with the less pathogenic strains; (ii) were often found devoid of inclusion membranes scattered throughout the cytoplasms; and (iii) induced severe degenerative changes in Buffalo Green Monkey cells. By immunoelectron microscopy and flow cytometry, chlamydial antigens could not be detected in the plasma membranes of infected host cells. However, the presence of chlamydial antigens in inclusion membranes was demonstrated by immunoelectron microscopy. PMID:8606089

Vanrompay, D; Charlier, G; Ducatelle, R; Haesebrouck, F

1996-01-01

264

Profiling Antibody Responses to Infections by Chlamydia abortus Enables Identification of Potential Virulence Factors and Candidates for Serodiagnosis  

PubMed Central

Enzootic abortion of ewes (EAE) due to infection with the obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia (C.) abortus is an important zoonosis leading to considerable economic loss to agriculture worldwide. The pathogen can be transmitted to humans and may lead to serious infection in pregnant women. Knowledge about epidemiology, clinical course and transmission to humans is hampered by the lack of reliable diagnostic tools. Immunoreactive proteins, which are expressed in infected animals and humans, may serve as novel candidates for diagnostic marker proteins and represent putative virulence factors. In order to broaden the spectrum of immunogenic C. abortus proteins we applied 2D immunoblot analysis and screening of an expression library using human and animal sera. We have identified 48 immunoreactive proteins representing potential diagnostic markers and also putative virulence factors, such as CAB080 (homologue of the “macrophage infectivity potentiator”, MIP), CAB167 (homologue of the “translocated actin recruitment protein”, TARP), CAB712 (homologue of the “chlamydial protease-like activity factor”, CPAF), CAB776 (homologue of the “Polymorphic membrane protein D”, PmpD), and the “hypothetical proteins” CAB063, CAB408 and CAB821, which are predicted to be type III secreted. We selected two putative virulence factors for further characterization, i.e. CAB080 (cMIP) and CAB063, and studied their expression profiles at transcript and protein levels. Analysis of the subcellular localization of both proteins throughout the developmental cycle revealed CAB063 being the first C. abortus protein shown to be translocated to the host cell nucleus. PMID:24260366

Forsbach-Birk, Vera; Foddis, Corinna; Simnacher, Ulrike; Wilkat, Max; Longbottom, David; Walder, Gernot; Benesch, Christiane; Ganter, Martin; Sachse, Konrad; Essig, Andreas

2013-01-01

265

Development and Evaluation of a Next-Generation Digital PCR Diagnostic Assay for Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis Infections  

PubMed Central

Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) is an emulsion PCR process that performs absolute quantitation of nucleic acids. We developed a ddPCR assay for Chlamydia trachomatis infections and found it to be accurate and precise. Using PCR mixtures containing plasmids engineered to include the PCR target sequences, we were able to quantify with a dynamic range between 0.07 and 3,160 targets/?l (r2 = 0.9927) with >95% confidence. Using 1,509 clinical conjunctival swab samples from a population in which trachoma is endemic in Guinea Bissau, we evaluated the specificity and sensitivity of the quantitative ddPCR assay in diagnosing ocular C. trachomatis infections by comparing the performances of ddPCR and the Roche Amplicor CT/NG test. We defined ddPCR tests as positive when we had ?95% confidence in a nonzero estimate of target load. The sensitivity of ddPCR against Amplicor was 73.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 67.9 to 78.7%), and specificity was 99.1% (95% CI, 98.6 to 99.6%). Negative and positive predictive values were 94.6% (95% CI, 93.4 to 95.8%) and 94.5% (95% CI, 91.3 to 97.7%), respectively. Based on Amplicor CT/NG testing, the estimated population prevalence of C. trachomatis ocular infection was ?17.5%. Receiver-operator curve analysis was used to select critical cutoff values for use in clinical settings in which a balance between higher sensitivity and specificity is required. We concluded that ddPCR is an effective diagnostic technology suitable for both research and clinical use in diagnosing ocular C. trachomatis infections. PMID:23637300

Last, Anna; Molina-Gonzalez, Sandra; Cassama, Eunice; Butcher, Robert; Nabicassa, Meno; McCarthy, Elizabeth; Burr, Sarah E.; Mabey, David C.; Bailey, Robin L.; Holland, Martin J.

2013-01-01

266

Herpes simplex virus-2 genital tract shedding is not predictable over months or years in infected persons.  

PubMed

Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) is a chronic reactivating infection that leads to recurrent shedding episodes in the genital tract. A minority of episodes are prolonged, and associated with development of painful ulcers. However, currently, available tools poorly predict viral trajectories and timing of reactivations in infected individuals. We employed principal components analysis (PCA) and singular value decomposition (SVD) to interpret HSV-2 genital tract shedding time series data, as well as simulation output from a stochastic spatial mathematical model. Empirical and model-derived, time-series data gathered over >30 days consists of multiple complex episodes that could not be reduced to a manageable number of descriptive features with PCA and SVD. However, single HSV-2 shedding episodes, even those with prolonged duration and complex morphologies consisting of multiple erratic peaks, were consistently described using a maximum of four dominant features. Modeled and clinical episodes had equivalent distributions of dominant features, implying similar dynamics in real and simulated episodes. We applied linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to simulation output and identified that local immune cell density at the viral reactivation site had a predictive effect on episode duration, though longer term shedding suggested chaotic dynamics and could not be predicted based on spatial patterns of immune cell density. These findings suggest that HSV-2 shedding patterns within an individual are impossible to predict over weeks or months, and that even highly complex single HSV-2 episodes can only be partially predicted based on spatial distribution of immune cell density. PMID:25375183

Dhankani, Varsha; Kutz, J Nathan; Schiffer, Joshua T

2014-11-01

267

Infection of Female Primary Lower Genital Tract Epithelial Cells after Natural Pseudotyping of HIV-1: Possible Implications for Sexual Transmission of HIV-1  

PubMed Central

The global AIDS pandemic continues to expand and in some regions of the world, such as southern Africa, the prevalence of HIV-1 infection exceeds 20%. The devastating spread of the virus in young women in these countries appears disproportional to overall risk of infection. Regions with high prevalence of HIV-1 are often also highly endemic for other pathogenic viruses including HSV, CMV and HTLV. We propose that acquisition by HIV-1 of the envelope glycoproteins of other viruses, in a process we call “natural pseudotyping,” expands the cellular tropism of HIV-1, enabling it to infect female genital epithelial cells directly and thereby dramatically increasing risk of infection during sexual intercourse. In this proof-of-concept study, we demonstrate that when HIV-1 co-infects T cells along with the gammaretrovirus xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV), progeny HIV-1 particles are produced capable of infecting primary vaginal, ectocervical and endocervical epithelial cells. These cell types are normally resistant to HIV-1 infection. Infection of primary genital cells was neutralized by antisera against the XMRV glycoprotein, confirming that infection was mediated by the XMRV glycoprotein acquired through pseudotyping of HIV. Inhibition by AZT showed that active replication of HIV-1 occurred in these cells and ruled out non-specific endocytic uptake of the virus. These results demonstrate that natural pseudotyping can expand the tropism of HIV-1 to include genital epithelial cells and have potential implications for sexual transmission of the virus. PMID:25010677

Tang, Yuyang; George, Alvin; Nouvet, Franklin; Sweet, Stephanie; Emeagwali, Nkiruka; Taylor, Harry E.; Simmons, Glenn; Hildreth, James E. K.

2014-01-01

268

Genital herpes simplex.  

PubMed Central

Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the herpes simplex virus. Following the initial infection the virus becomes latent in the sacral ganglia. Approximately 80% of patients are then subject to milder but unpredictable recurrences and may shed the virus even when they are asymptomatic. The disorder causes concern because genital herpes in the mother can result in rare but catastrophic neonatal infection and because of a possible association between genital herpes and cancer of the cervix. No effective treatment is as yet available. Weekly monitoring for virus by cervical culture from 32 weeks' gestation is recommended for women with a history of genital herpes and for those whose sexual partner has such a history. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 PMID:7020907

Tummon, I. S.; Dudley, D. K.; Walters, J. H.

1981-01-01

269

Genital Herpes  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Genital Herpes Information for adults A A A This image displays a grouping of blisters on the buttocks in a patient with herpes simplex. Overview Genital herpes is a recurrent, lifelong ...

270

Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis endocervical infection in asymptomatic and symptomatic women: comparison of deoxyribonucleic acid probe test with tissue culture.  

PubMed

A deoxyribonucleic acid probe assay (PACE 2, Gen-Probe, San Diego) was compared with a standard tissue culture method for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis endocervical infection in both asymptomatic and symptomatic women. The results of the probe test were expressed as a ratio of relative light units of the specimen per relative light units of the cutoff recommended by the manufacturer. Samples with sample/cutoff ratios near 1.0 were repeated until two or more consistent ratios were obtained. A total of 426 specimens were obtained, with an overall disease prevalence of 10.1%. Of the 426 specimens examined, seven (1.6%) were near the cutoff and were retested. The results of 426 samples with matching cultures indicated that the manufacturer's discrete cutoff was adequate for results determination. The deoxyribonucleic acid probe test was essentially equivalent to standard tissue culture in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values in a low-prevalence patient population. PMID:1957878

Yang, L I; Panke, E S; Leist, P A; Fry, R J; Lee, R F

1991-11-01

271

A MyD88-Dependent Early IL-17 Production Protects Mice against Airway Infection with the Obligate Intracellular Pathogen Chlamydia muridarum1  

PubMed Central

We found that IL-17, a signature cytokine of Th17, was produced early in the innate immunity phase after an intranasal infection with the obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia muridarum. The airway IL-17, which peaked at 48 h after infection, was dependent on live chlamydial organism replication and MyD88-mediated signaling pathways. Treatment with antibiotics or knockout of the MyD88 gene, but not Toll/IL receptor domain-containing adapter-inducing IFN-?, can block the early IL-17 production. Treatment of mice with an anti-IL-17-neutralizing mAb enhanced growth of chlamydial organisms in the lung, dissemination to other organs, and decreased mouse survival, whereas treatment with an isotype-matched control IgG had no effect. Although IL-17 did not directly affect chlamydial growth in cell culture, it enhanced the production of other inflammatory cytokines and chemokines by Chlamydia-infected cells and promoted neutrophil infiltration in mouse airways during chlamydial infection, which may contribute to the antichlamydial effect of IL-17. These observations suggest that an early IL-17 response as an innate immunity component plays an important role in initiating host defense against infection with intracellular bacterial pathogens in the airway. PMID:19542374

Zhang, Xiaoyun; Gao, Lifen; Lei, Lei; Zhong, Youmin; Dube, Peter; Berton, Michael T.; Arulanandam, Bernard; Zhang, Jinshun; Zhong, Guangming

2009-01-01

272

Use of ovotransferrin as an antimicrobial in turkeys naturally infected with Chlamydia psittaci, avian metapneumovirus and Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale.  

PubMed

Respiratory pathogens are difficult to control in large-scale turkey production. This report describes a clinical trial of antimicrobial ovoTF aerosol on a large Belgian turkey farm. ovoTF was administered to reduce Chlamydia psittaci (C. psittaci) infections and to study the impact of this action on the occurrence of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (O. rhinotracheale) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) infections. Two subsequent broods were included; (i) a control brood receiving no ovoTF and (ii) an ovoTF brood receiving ovoTF aerosol (5mg/animal) at the age of 2 weeks, continuing daily for 12 days. Twenty-four one-day-old toms of the control and ovoTF brood were tagged and monitored for 15 weeks. The control brood experienced two periods of respiratory disease, the first (2-3 weeks of age) due to C. psittaci and the second (8-17 weeks of age) in the presence of C. psittaci, O. rhinotracheale and maybe aMPV. Extensive antibiotic treatment was needed in 2, 8 and 9 week-old toms. In the ovoTF brood, toms stayed healthy until the age of 9 weeks, whereafter respiratory disease occurred in the presence of C. psittaci, O rhinotracheale and aMPV. OvoTF administration: (i) reduced the amount of C. psittaci in the air as demonstrated by bioaerosol monitoring, (ii) prevented respiratory disease during the first half of the brood period, (iii) was associated with 46% reduction of mortality, and (iv) reduced the antibiotic cost. Our results justify additional clinical trials to explore the use of this innovative antimicrobial strategy for poultry. PMID:21885218

Van Droogenbroeck, Caroline; Dossche, Liesbeth; Wauman, Toon; Van Lent, Sarah; Phan, Thao T T; Beeckman, Delphine S A; Vanrompay, Daisy

2011-12-15

273

A Predominant Role for Antibody in Acquired Immunity to Chlamydial Genital Tract Reinfection1  

PubMed Central

Acquired immunity to murine Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract reinfection has long been assumed to be solely dependent on cell-mediated immunity. However, in this study, we identify a previously unrecognized protective role for Ab. Immunity develops in Ab-deficient mice following the resolution of primary chlamydial genital infection. Subsequent depletion of CD4+ T cells, but not CD8+ T cells, in those immune Ab-deficient mice before secondary infectious challenge, resulted in an infection that did not resolve. Passive immunization with immune (convalescent) serum conferred a marked level of protective immunity to reinfection, which was characterized by a striking decrease in bacterial shedding, from >100,000 inclusion forming units to fewer than 10 inclusion forming units, and a shortened duration of infection. Furthermore, mAbs to the chlamydial major outer membrane protein and LPS conferred significant levels of immunity to reinfection and reduced chlamydial shedding by >100-fold. Anti-heat shock protein 60 mAb had no protective effect. In contrast to the marked protective efficacy of immune serum on reinfection, the course of primary infection was essentially unaltered by the passive transfer of immune serum. Our results convincingly demonstrate that Abs contribute importantly to immunity to chlamydial genital tract reinfection, and that Ab-mediated protection is highly dependent on CD4+ T cell-mediated adaptive changes that occur in the local genital tract tissues during primary infection. These results impact our understanding of immunity to chlamydial genital infection and may provide important insight into vaccine development. PMID:16301662

Morrison, Sandra G.; Morrison, Richard P.

2012-01-01

274

Localization of Simian immunodeficiency virus-infected cells in the genital tract of male and female Rhesus macaques.  

PubMed

The SIV/Rhesus macaque model of HIV transmission has led to an increased understanding of the interactions between virus and host during the sexual transmission of HIV. SIV can be transmitted across the intact mucosa (stratified squamous epithelium) of the foreskin and glans of the penis of Rhesus macaques. SIV-infected cells can be found at all levels of the male Rhesus macaque reproductive tract and SIV can infect cells in the mucosal epithelium of the foreskin of the penis. SIV can be transmitted to female Rhesus macaques by infusing a cell-free virus suspension into the vaginal canal through a soft plastic pediatric nasogastric feeding tube. There does not appear to be any correlation between inoculation at any particular point in the menstrual cycle and the susceptibility of an animal to infection. Furthermore, the surgical removal of the cervix and uterus did not affect the dose of cell-free virus required for the genital transmission of SIV. Thus, target cells for SIV are present in the vaginal mucosa. In chronically-infected female Rhesus macaques, SIV-infected cells are present in the uterus, cervix and vagina. SIV-infected CD1a+ and p55+ Langerhans cells are also found within the stratified squamous epithelium of the vagina. Taken together these results are consistent with the hypothesis that the virus initially infects antigen-presenting cells in the vagina (macrophages and Langerhans cells) and then subsequent rounds of replication occur in the draining lymph nodes prior to spreading to more proximal lymphoid nodes and finally to the bloodstream and distant lymphoid tissue. PMID:10213321

Miller, C J

1998-12-01

275

Host immune responses to chlamydial inclusion membrane proteins B and C in Chlamydia trachomatis infected women with or without fertility disorders  

PubMed Central

Background With an increase in the number of putative inclusion membrane proteins (incs) in chlamydial genomes, there is a need for understanding their contribution in host-pathogen interactions. Thus in this study we determined the host mucosal and peripheral immune responses to incs (IncB and IncC) of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT). Methods Female patients (n = 296) attending the gynaecology out patient department of Safdarjung hospital, New Delhi were enrolled for the study and were clinically characterized into two groups; CT-positive fertile women (n = 38) and CT-positive women with fertility disorders (n = 29). Uninfected healthy fertile women were enrolled as controls (n = 31). Gene specific PCRs were used for detection of incB and incC genes in endocervical samples of CT-positive patients. ELISA and Western blot assay were used for detection of IgA and IgG antibodies to IncB and IncC in cervical washes and sera. Effect of IncB and IncC stimulation of cervical cells and PBMCs on cellular proliferation and cytotoxity was determined using MTT assay and Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-cytotoxicity assay respectively. Modulation of cytokines (Interleukin (IL)-1 Beta, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, Interferon-gamma, IL-12, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha and Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)) in cervical cells and PBMCs upon stimulation with IncB and IncC was determined by real-time reverse-transcriptase (RT)-PCR and ELISA. Further, CD4 positive T cells were purified from cervical cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and secreted cytokines (Interferon-gamma and IL-4) were evaluated by ELISPOT and real-time RT-PCR. Results Using MTT assay, significantly high proliferative responses (P < 0.05) were observed in inc-stimulated cervical cells and PBMCs from CT-positive fertile women compared to CT-positive women with fertility disorders and controls. Interferon-gamma, IL-12 and GM-CSF were found to be elevated in inc-stimulated cervical cells and PBMCs of CT-positive fertile women compared to CT-positive women with fertility disorders and controls (P < 0.05). In contrast, IL-1 Beta, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 and IL-10 levels were found to be higher in CT-positive women with fertility disorders compared to CT-positive fertile women and controls (P < 0.05). Interferon-gamma secreting cells and mRNA expression in inc-stimulated cervical and peripheral CD4 positive T cells were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in CT positive fertile women compared to CT-positive women with fertility disorders. Conclusion Our data overall suggests that CT incs, IncB and IncC modulate host immune responses and may have a role in protection/pathogenesis of genital chlamydial infection in women. PMID:19397832

Gupta, Rishein; Srivastava, Pragya; Vardhan, Harsh; Salhan, Sudha; Mittal, Aruna

2009-01-01

276

A New Role of the Complement System: C3 Provides Protection in a Mouse Model of Lung Infection with Intracellular Chlamydia psittaci  

PubMed Central

The complement system modulates the intensity of innate and specific immunity. While it protects against infections by extracellular bacteria its role in infection with obligate intracellular bacteria, such as the avian and human pathogen Chlamydia (C.) psittaci, is still unknown. In the present study, knockout mice lacking C3 and thus all main complement effector functions were intranasally infected with C. psittaci strain DC15. Clinical parameters, lung histology, and cytokine levels were determined. A subset of infections was additionally performed with mice lacking C5 or C5a receptors. Complement activation occurred before symptoms of pneumonia appeared. Mice lacking C3 were ?100 times more susceptible to the intracellular bacteria compared to wild-type mice, with all C3?/? mice succumbing to infection after day 9. At a low infective dose, C3?/? mice became severely ill after an even longer delay, the kinetics suggesting a so far unknown link of complement to the adaptive, protective immune response against chlamydiae. The lethal phenotype of C3?/? mice is not based on differences in the anti-chlamydial IgG response (which is slightly delayed) as demonstrated by serum transfer experiments. In addition, during the first week of infection, the absence of C3 was associated with partial protection characterized by reduced weight loss, better clinical score and lower bacterial burden, which might be explained by a different mechanism. Lack of complement functions downstream of C5 had little effect. This study demonstrates for the first time a strong and complex influence of complement effector functions, downstream of C3 and upstream of C5, on the outcome of an infection with intracellular bacteria, such as C. psittaci. PMID:23189195

Bode, Jenny; Dutow, Pavel; Sommer, Kirsten; Janik, Katrin; Glage, Silke; Tümmler, Burkhard; Munder, Antje; Laudeley, Robert; Sachse, Konrad W.; Klos, Andreas

2012-01-01

277

A new role of the complement system: C3 provides protection in a mouse model of lung infection with intracellular Chlamydia psittaci.  

PubMed

The complement system modulates the intensity of innate and specific immunity. While it protects against infections by extracellular bacteria its role in infection with obligate intracellular bacteria, such as the avian and human pathogen Chlamydia (C.) psittaci, is still unknown. In the present study, knockout mice lacking C3 and thus all main complement effector functions were intranasally infected with C. psittaci strain DC15. Clinical parameters, lung histology, and cytokine levels were determined. A subset of infections was additionally performed with mice lacking C5 or C5a receptors. Complement activation occurred before symptoms of pneumonia appeared. Mice lacking C3 were ?100 times more susceptible to the intracellular bacteria compared to wild-type mice, with all C3(-/-) mice succumbing to infection after day 9. At a low infective dose, C3(-/-) mice became severely ill after an even longer delay, the kinetics suggesting a so far unknown link of complement to the adaptive, protective immune response against chlamydiae. The lethal phenotype of C3(-/-) mice is not based on differences in the anti-chlamydial IgG response (which is slightly delayed) as demonstrated by serum transfer experiments. In addition, during the first week of infection, the absence of C3 was associated with partial protection characterized by reduced weight loss, better clinical score and lower bacterial burden, which might be explained by a different mechanism. Lack of complement functions downstream of C5 had little effect. This study demonstrates for the first time a strong and complex influence of complement effector functions, downstream of C3 and upstream of C5, on the outcome of an infection with intracellular bacteria, such as C. psittaci. PMID:23189195

Bode, Jenny; Dutow, Pavel; Sommer, Kirsten; Janik, Katrin; Glage, Silke; Tümmler, Burkhard; Munder, Antje; Laudeley, Robert; Sachse, Konrad W; Klos, Andreas

2012-01-01

278

TRAIL-R1 Is a Negative Regulator of Pro-Inflammatory Responses and Modulates Long-Term Sequelae Resulting from Chlamydia trachomatis Infections in Humans  

PubMed Central

The immune system eliminates Chlamydia trachomatis infection through inflammation. However, uncontrolled inflammation can enhance pathology. In mice, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor (TRAIL-R), known for its effects on apoptosis, also regulates inflammation. In humans, the four homologues of TRAIL-R had never been investigated for effects on inflammation. Here, we examined whether TRAIL-R regulates inflammation during chlamydial infection. We examined TRAIL-R1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in an Ecuadorian cohort with and without C. trachomatis infections. There was a highly significant association for the TRAIL+626 homozygous mutant GG for infection vs no infection in this population. To confirm the results observed in the human population, primary lung fibroblasts and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) were isolated from wildtype (WT) and TRAIL-R-deficient mice, and TRAIL-R1 levels in human cervical epithelial cells were depleted by RNA interference. Infection of BMDMs and primary lung fibroblasts with C. trachomatis strain L2, or the murine pathogen C. muridarum, led to higher levels of MIP2 mRNA expression or IL-1? secretion from TRAIL-R-deficient cells than WT cells. Similarly, depletion of TRAIL-R1 expression in human epithelial cells resulted in a higher level of IL-8 mRNA expression and protein secretion during C. trachomatis infection. We conclude that human TRAIL-R1 SNPs and murine TRAIL-R modulate the innate immune response against chlamydial infection. This is the first evidence that human TRAIL-R1 is a negative regulator of inflammation and plays a role in modulating Chlamydia pathogenesis. PMID:24695582

Al-Kuhlani, Mufadhal; Rothchild, James; Pal, Sukumar; Ouburg, Sander

2014-01-01

279

Vaccination of Koalas with a Recombinant Chlamydia pecorum Major Outer Membrane Protein Induces Antibodies of Different Specificity Compared to Those Following a Natural Live Infection  

PubMed Central

Chlamydial infection in koalas is common across the east coast of Australia and causes significant morbidity, infertility and mortality. An effective vaccine to prevent the adverse consequences of chlamydial infections in koalas (particularly blindness and infertility in females) would provide an important management tool to prevent further population decline of this species. An important step towards developing a vaccine in koalas is to understand the host immune response to chlamydial infection. In this study, we used the Pepscan methodology to identify B cell epitopes across the Major Outer Membrane Protein (MOMP) of four C. pecorum strains/genotypes that are recognized, either following (a) natural live infection or (b) administration of a recombinant MOMP vaccine. Plasma antibodies from the koalas naturally infected with a C. pecorum G genotype strain recognised the epitopes located in the variable domain (VD) four of MOMP G and also VD4 of MOMP H. By comparison, plasma antibodies from an animal infected with a C. pecorum F genotype strain recognised epitopes in VD1, 2 and 4 of MOMP F, but not from other genotype MOMPs. When Chlamydia-free koalas were immunised with recombinant MOMP protein they produced antibodies not only against epitopes in the VDs but also in conserved domains of MOMP. Naturally infected koalas immunised with recombinant MOMP protein also produced antibodies against epitopes in the conserved domains. This work paves the way for further refinement of a MOMP-based Chlamydia vaccine that will offer wide cross-protection against the variety of chlamydial infections circulating in wild koala populations. PMID:24086379

Kollipara, Avinash; Polkinghorne, Adam; Beagley, Kenneth W.; Timms, Peter

2013-01-01

280

Electron tomography and cryo-SEM characterization reveals novel ultrastructural features of host-parasite interaction during Chlamydia abortus infection.  

PubMed

Chlamydia (C.) abortus is a widely spread pathogen among ruminants that can be transmitted to women during pregnancy leading to severe systemic infection with consecutive abortion. As a member of the Chlamydiaceae, C. abortus shares the characteristic feature of an obligate intracellular biphasic developmental cycle with two morphological forms including elementary bodies (EBs) and reticulate bodies (RBs). In contrast to other chlamydial species, C. abortus ultrastructure has not been investigated yet. To do so, samples were fixed by high-pressure freezing and processed by different electron microscopic methods. Freeze-substituted samples were analysed by transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopical tomography and immuno-electron microscopy, and freeze-fractured samples were analysed by cryo-scanning electron microscopy. Here, we present three ultrastructural features of C. abortus that have not been reported up to now. Firstly, the morphological evidence that C. abortus is equipped with the type three secretion system. Secondly, the accumulation and even coating of whole inclusion bodies by membrane complexes consisting of multiple closely adjacent membranes which seems to be a C. abortus specific feature. Thirdly, the formation of small vesicles in the periplasmic space of RBs in the second half of the developmental cycle. Concerning the time point of their formation and the fact that they harbour chlamydial components, these vesicles might be morphological correlates of an intermediate step during the process of redifferentiation of RBs into EBs. As this feature has also been shown for C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae, it might be a common characteristic of the family of Chlamydiaceae. PMID:24522393

Wilkat, M; Herdoiza, E; Forsbach-Birk, V; Walther, P; Essig, A

2014-08-01

281

A Bovine Model of Respiratory Chlamydia psittaci Infection: Challenge Dose Titration  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to establish and evaluate a bovine respiratory model of experimentally induced acute C. psittaci infection. Calves are natural hosts and pathogenesis may resemble the situation in humans. Intrabronchial inoculation of C. psittaci strain DC15 was performed in calves aged 2–3 months via bronchoscope at four different challenge doses from 106 to 109 inclusion-forming units (ifu) per animal. Control groups received either UV-inactivated C. psittaci or cell culture medium. While 106 ifu/calf resulted in a mild respiratory infection only, the doses of 107 and 108 induced fever, tachypnea, dry cough, and tachycardia that became apparent 2–3 days post inoculation (dpi) and lasted for about one week. In calves exposed to 109 ifu C. psittaci, the respiratory disease was accompanied by severe systemic illness (apathy, tremor, markedly reduced appetite). At the time point of most pronounced clinical signs (3 dpi) the extent of lung lesions was below 10% of pulmonary tissue in calves inoculated with 106 and 107 ifu, about 15% in calves inoculated with 108 and more than 30% in calves inoculated with 109 ifu C. psittaci. Beside clinical signs and pathologic lesions, the bacterial load of lung tissue and markers of pulmonary inflammation (i.e., cell counts, concentration of proteins and eicosanoids in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid) were positively associated with ifu of viable C. psittaci. While any effect of endotoxin has been ruled out, all effects could be attributed to infection by the replicating bacteria. In conclusion, the calf represents a suitable model of respiratory chlamydial infection. Dose titration revealed that both clinically latent and clinically manifest infection can be reproduced experimentally by either 106 or 108 ifu/calf of C. psittaci DC15 while doses above 108 ifu C. psittaci cannot be recommended for further studies for ethical reasons. This defined model of different clinical expressions of chlamydial infection allows studying host-pathogen interactions. PMID:22299031

Reinhold, Petra; Ostermann, Carola; Liebler-Tenorio, Elisabeth; Berndt, Angela; Vogel, Anette; Lambertz, Jacqueline; Rothe, Michael; Rüttger, Anke; Schubert, Evelyn; Sachse, Konrad

2012-01-01

282

Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance, 2012: Chlamydia  

MedlinePLUS

... Sex During 1995–2011, chlamydia rates among females increased each year ( Figure 1 ). In 2012, the overall rate of reported chlamydial infection among women in all 50 states and the District of Columbia (643.3 cases ...

283

A bovine model of respiratory Chlamydia psittaci infection: challenge dose titration.  

PubMed

This study aimed to establish and evaluate a bovine respiratory model of experimentally induced acute C. psittaci infection. Calves are natural hosts and pathogenesis may resemble the situation in humans. Intrabronchial inoculation of C. psittaci strain DC15 was performed in calves aged 2-3 months via bronchoscope at four different challenge doses from 10(6) to 10(9) inclusion-forming units (ifu) per animal. Control groups received either UV-inactivated C. psittaci or cell culture medium. While 10(6) ifu/calf resulted in a mild respiratory infection only, the doses of 10(7) and 10(8) induced fever, tachypnea, dry cough, and tachycardia that became apparent 2-3 days post inoculation (dpi) and lasted for about one week. In calves exposed to 10(9) ifu C. psittaci, the respiratory disease was accompanied by severe systemic illness (apathy, tremor, markedly reduced appetite). At the time point of most pronounced clinical signs (3 dpi) the extent of lung lesions was below 10% of pulmonary tissue in calves inoculated with 10(6) and 10(7) ifu, about 15% in calves inoculated with 10(8) and more than 30% in calves inoculated with 10(9) ifu C. psittaci. Beside clinical signs and pathologic lesions, the bacterial load of lung tissue and markers of pulmonary inflammation (i.e., cell counts, concentration of proteins and eicosanoids in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid) were positively associated with ifu of viable C. psittaci. While any effect of endotoxin has been ruled out, all effects could be attributed to infection by the replicating bacteria. In conclusion, the calf represents a suitable model of respiratory chlamydial infection. Dose titration revealed that both clinically latent and clinically manifest infection can be reproduced experimentally by either 10(6) or 10(8) ifu/calf of C. psittaci DC15 while doses above 10(8) ifu C. psittaci cannot be recommended for further studies for ethical reasons. This defined model of different clinical expressions of chlamydial infection allows studying host-pathogen interactions. PMID:22299031

Reinhold, Petra; Ostermann, Carola; Liebler-Tenorio, Elisabeth; Berndt, Angela; Vogel, Anette; Lambertz, Jacqueline; Rothe, Michael; Rüttger, Anke; Schubert, Evelyn; Sachse, Konrad

2012-01-01

284

Dermatoses of the Male Genital Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is an overview of dermatoses which are predominantly seen in the genital area. Five large groups of dermatoses can be distinguished: inflammatory dermatoses without any causative organism, infections and dermatoses originating from cutaneous appendages, precancerous lesions, pigmented lesions and genital pruritus. The etiology, causative factors, clinical features and newer treatment options are considered. Because of local environmental factors, genital

Alfred R. Eichmann

2005-01-01

285

Better than nothing? Patient-delivered partner therapy and partner notification for chlamydia: the views of Australian general practitioners  

PubMed Central

Background Genital chlamydia is the most commonly notified sexually transmissible infection (STI) in Australia and worldwide and can have serious reproductive health outcomes. Partner notification, testing and treatment are important facets of chlamydia control. Traditional methods of partner notification are not reaching enough partners to effectively control transmission of chlamydia. Patient-delivered partner therapy (PDPT) has been shown to improve the treatment of sexual partners. In Australia, General Practitioners (GPs) are responsible for the bulk of chlamydia testing, diagnosis, treatment and follow up. This study aimed to determine the views and practices of Australian general practitioners (GPs) in relation to partner notification and PDPT for chlamydia and explored GPs' perceptions of their patients' barriers to notifying partners of a chlamydia diagnosis. Methods In-depth, semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 40 general practitioners (GPs) from rural, regional and urban Australia from November 2006 to March 2007. Topics covered: GPs' current practice and views about partner notification, perceived barriers and useful supports, previous use of and views regarding PDPT. Transcripts were imported into NVivo7 and subjected to thematic analysis. Data saturation was reached after 32 interviews had been completed. Results Perceived barriers to patients telling partners (patient referral) included: stigma; age and cultural background; casual or long-term relationship, ongoing relationship or not. Barriers to GPs undertaking partner notification (provider referral) included: lack of time and staff; lack of contact details; uncertainty about the legality of contacting partners and whether this constitutes breach of patient confidentiality; and feeling both personally uncomfortable and inadequately trained to contact someone who is not their patient. GPs were divided on the use of PDPT - many felt concerned that it is not best clinical practice but many also felt that it is better than nothing. GPs identified the following factors which they considered would facilitate partner notification: clear clinical guidelines; a legal framework around partner notification; a formal chlamydia screening program; financial incentives; education and practical support for health professionals, and raising awareness of chlamydia in the community, in particular amongst young people. Conclusions GPs reported some partners do not seek medical treatment even after they are notified of being a sexual contact of a patient with chlamydia. More routine use of PDPT may help address this issue however GPs in this study had negative attitudes to the use of PDPT. Appropriate guidelines and legislation may make the use of PDPT more acceptable to Australian GPs. PMID:20849663

2010-01-01

286

The Cytosolic Pattern Recognition Receptor NOD1 Induces Inflammatory Interleukin8 during Chlamydia trachomatis Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inflammation is a hallmark of chlamydial infections, but how inflammatory cytokines are induced is not well understood. Pattern recognition receptors (PRR) of the host innate immune system recognize pathogen molecules and activate intracellular signaling pathways that modulate immune responses. The role of PRR such as Toll-like receptors (TLR) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) proteins in the endogenous interleukin-8 (IL-8) response

Kerry R. Buchholz; Richard S. Stephens

2008-01-01

287

Pregnancy Complications: Genital Herpes  

MedlinePLUS

... page It's been added to your dashboard . Genital herpes and pregnancy Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted ... the United States has genital herpes. Can genital herpes cause complications during pregnancy? Yes. Genital herpes can ...

288

Prevalence of infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis in acute mucopurulent cervicitis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of N. gonorrhoae (NG) and/or C. trachomatis (CT) in acute mucopurulent cervicitis (MPC). The study included 617 non-pregnant women with MPC, who had not been receiving any antimicrobial treatment. The average age of patients was 22.2 years. There were no statistically significant differences according to place of residence, education, and marital status. Samples for laboratory analysis were collected using a routine procedure; NG was identified using the cytochrome oxidase test and Gram staining. CT was isolated on McCoy cell culture and stained with Lugol solution. NG was isolated in three women (0.8%) and CT in 58 women (9.4%). Fifty-six of the CT-positive patients were nullipara and only two were unipara. All NG-positive patients were also nullipara. The mean number of sexual partners was 2.2 in all study subjects, 2.4 in CT-positive subjects, and 2.9 in NG-positive subjects. Vaginal discharge purity according to Schröder was significantly deteriorated in CT-positive patients (p=0.011). When asked about the use of contraceptives, as many as 32.7% patients answered that they did not use any protection, 39% women used the rhythm method and coitus interruptus, 20% were taking oral contraceptives, 6.1% used mechanical devices, and 1.9% used chemical protection. Previous acute and chronic pelvic inflammatory diseases correlated with MPC (p>0.01). Our statistical analysis suggests that chlamydial infection significantly reduces the purity of vaginal discharge, which is more pronounced in nulliparae. Pap smear was not specific enough to demonstrate chlamydial infection. In view of the MPC findings, the prevalence of CT and NG infection is low. PMID:19581214

Ujevi?, Boris; Habek, Jasna Cerkez; Habek, Dubravko

2009-06-01

289

Cost effectiveness analysis of a population based screening programme for asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infections in women by means of home obtained urine specimens  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To evaluate the cost effectiveness of a systematic screening programme for asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infections in a female inner city population. To determine the sensitivity of the cost effectiveness analysis to variation in the probability of developing sequelae. Methods: A decision tree was constructed to evaluate health effects of the programme, such as averted sequelae of chlamydial infection. Cost effectiveness from a societal perspective was estimated for screening by means of a ligase chain reaction on mailed, home obtained urine specimens, in a population with a C trachomatis test prevalence of 2.9%. An extensive sensitivity analysis was performed for the probability of sequelae, the percentage of preventable pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), and the discount rate. Results: The estimated net cost of curing one woman, aged 15–40 years, of a C trachomatis infection is US$1210. To prevent one major outcome (PID, tubal factor infertility, ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic pain, or neonatal pneumonia), 479 women would have to be screened. The net cost of preventing one major outcome is $15 800. Changing the probability of PID after chlamydial infection from 5% to 25% decreases the net cost per major outcome averted from $28 300 to $6380, a reduction of 78%. Results were less sensitive to variations in estimates for other sequelae. The breakeven prevalence of the programme ranges from 6.4% for the scenario with all probabilities for complications set at the maximum value to a prevalence of 100% for probabilities set at the minimum value. Conclusions: Systematic screening of all women aged 15–40 years for asymptomatic C trachomatis infections is not cost effective. Although the results of the analyses are sensitive to variation in the assumptions, the costs exceed the benefits, even in the most optimistic scenario. Key Words: cost effectiveness analysis; Chlamydia trachomatis; screening PMID:11463928

van Valkengoed, I. G M; Postma, M.; Morre, S.; van den Brule, A. J C; Meijer, C.; Bouter, L.; Boeke, A

2001-01-01

290

Assessment trials of the therapeutic efficacy of the drug "Zovirax" in some recurrent ocular and genital herpetic infections.  

PubMed

In this work are reported the results of the researches performed by the authors more than a decade ago, aimed at assessing the clinical benefit of the introduction of the drug "Zovirax" in the treatment of recurrent herpetic infections with genital or ocular location. The results of the treatment carried out on a restricted group of patients were positive both in cases of genital herpes and of herpetic keratitis. The clinical benefit consisted in the reduction of the mean duration of the disease, in the shortening of the period of the infective virus elimination from the lesion, as well as in the decrease of the intensity and duration of the clinical symptomatology as a whole. With respect to these clinical parameters, the observations of the authors performed on a low number of cases are consistent with the data obtained by other authors in the framework of more extensive studies. The renewed discussion of these clinical and laboratory observations carried out by the authors during the first years after the introduction in our country of this drug in the therapeutic arsenal of herpetic infections is aimed at establishing a landmark for the comparison with more recent results of similar studies, starting from the idea of the opportunity of assessing periodically the sensitivity of herpes simplex virus strains, circulating among the autochthonous population, to the inhibitory action of some antiviral drugs. In other words, the in vitro testing of the susceptibility of these strains to the chemotherapeutic agents in current use is predictive for the efficacy degree of these drugs in the treatment of some forms of herpetic infections. This evaluation represents at the same time, undoubtedly, a useful epidemiological surveillance means of the circulation of human herpes viruses among the population. We refer especially to the risk of appearance of pharmacoresistant mutants, a risk possible under the conditions of the increased access of patients to the antiviral chemotherapeutic medication, which implicitly augments the probability of a fortuitous administration of treatments insufficient as regards the dose or the duration. In this work there are also shown the results regarding some experimental aspects related to the immune control mechanisms of the herpetic infection, which may complement the chemotherapeutic action. Under the treatment with acycloguanosine the synthesis of herpetic antigens is kept at a level sufficient for the circulating antibody synthesis induction and the HSV infected cells treated with the drug are recognized and lysed by effectors of the cell-mediated immune response of the host. Hence, it may be asserted that, in some clinical cases of recurrent herpes with frequent episodes, it is useful to perform immunostimulating treatments, able to potentiate the cell-mediated immune mechanisms possibly involved in the limitation of the herpetic infection at the peripheral level and of its spreading in the central nervous system. PMID:10892424

Mu?iu, A; Sahnazarov, N; Cri?an, I

1998-01-01

291

Attachment and Entry of Chlamydia Have Distinct Requirements for Host Protein Disulfide Isomerase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydia is an obligate intracellular pathogen that causes a wide range of diseases in humans. Attachment and entry are key processes in infectivity and subsequent pathogenesis of Chlamydia, yet the mechanisms governing these interactions are unknown. It was recently shown that a cell line, CHO6, that is resistant to attachment, and thus infectivity, of multiple Chlamydia species has a defect

Stephanie Abromaitis; Richard S. Stephens

2009-01-01

292

Chlamydia psittaci exposure in pet birds.  

PubMed

Chlamydia psittaci is a zoonotic pathogen with a wide range of avian hosts and may be transmitted to humans and cause severe disease. To assess the risk of psittacosis posed by pet birds, the seroprevalence of Chlamydia psittaci antibodies in 360 Eurasian siskins (Carduelis spinus), 289 oriental skylarks (Alauda arvensis) and 36 black-tailed grosbeaks (Coccothraustes migratorius) in Gansu province, north-western China was detected by an indirect haemagglutination assay. Twenty-seven out of 289 (9.34?%) Alauda arvensis, 45 out of 360 (12.50?%) Carduelis spinus and 2 out of 36 (5.56?%) Coccothraustes migratorius were positive for Chlamydia psittaci infection at a cut-off dilution of 1?:?16. The prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci was higher in Carduelis spinus (12.5?%) than in Alauda arvensis (9.34?%) and Coccothraustes migratorius (5.56?%); however, the differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Statistical analysis indicated that Chlamydia psittaci seroprevalence in adult pet birds (12.4?%, 67/540) was significantly higher than that in juvenile pet birds (4.83?%, 7/145) (P<0.01). There was no statistical difference in Chlamydia psittaci seroprevalence between male (12.4?%) and female (8.27?%) birds. To our knowledge, this is the first report indicating the seroprevalence of Chlamydia psittaci exposure in pet birds in China. Our results indicate that close contact with pet birds poses the risk of zoonotic transmission of Chlamydia psittaci. PMID:24445511

Cong, W; Huang, S Y; Zhang, X X; Zhou, D H; Xu, M J; Zhao, Q; Qian, A D; Zhu, X Q

2014-04-01

293

Sexually Transmitted Infections and Risk Factors for Gonorrhea and Chlamydia in Female Sex Workers in Soc Trang, Vietnam  

PubMed Central

Goal To determine the prevalence of selected STIs and correlates of chlamydia (CT) and gonorrhea (GC) infection among (FSWs) in Soc Trang province, Vietnam. Study Design Four hundred and six FSWs in Soc Trang province participated in a cross-sectional study between May and August, 2003. The study subjects were interviewed to obtain information about socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics and gynecologic and STI history, using a standardized interview. They underwent a physical examination during which cervical swabs were collected for GC and CT testing by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Vaginal wet mount microscopy was performed to detect candidiasis and trichomoniasis (TV), and blood was drawn for testing for syphilis using rapid plasma reagin (RPR)+ Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA). Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the associations of GC, CT, and GC/CT with selected variables. Results Prevalences were 14.9% for GC, 48.4% for CT, 54.9% for GC/CT, 3.8% for syphilis, 8.9% for trichomoniasis, and 12.2% for candidiasis. Increased risk for CT was associated with sex work for more than 6 months (aOR = 2.40, 95% CI: 0.99–5.82), receiving $4 US or less per sexual transaction (aOR = 1.91, 95% CI 1.13–3.23), and ever having terminated a pregnancy (aOR = 1.68, 95% CI 1.00–2.82). Reduced likelihood of CT was associated with older age (aOR = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.93–1.00) and ever having douched in the past month (aOR = 0.60, 95% CI 0.36–1.00). Only ever douching in the past month was associated with decreased risk for GC (aOR = 0.47, 95% CI 0.25–0.87). Higher likelihood of GC/CT was associated with having more than 4 clients per month (OR = 2.35, 95% CI 1.02–5.41) and receiving $4 US or less per sexual transaction (aOR = 1.74, 95% CI 1.04–2.93). Conclusions The prevalence of GC/CT is high amongst FSWs in Soc Trang. Therefore, periodic presumptive treatment (PPT) for cervicitis, together with World Health Organization-recommended periodic syndromic sexually transmitted disease management, for FSWs and further interventions should be considered, and a 100% condom use program should be promptly implemented. The existing STI health education program for FSWs should be strengthened, with special consideration of the correlates observed in this study. PMID:18685547

NGUYEN, THUONG VU; VAN KHUU, NGHIA; LE, TRUC THANH THI; NGUYEN, ANH PHUONG; CAO, VAN; THAM, DUNG CHI; DETELS, ROGER

2010-01-01

294

Characterization of genital human papillomavirus infection in women who have or who are at risk of having HIV infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of human papillomavirus infection and the likelihood of human papillomavirus expression and Papanicolaou test abnormalities among women who have and who are at risk of having human immunodeficiency virus infection. Study Design: Cross-sectional analysis of 767 women who had human immunodeficiency virus infection and 390 women who were at

Denise J. Jamieson; Ann Duerr; Robert Burk; Robert S. Klein; Pangaja Paramsothy; Paula Schuman; Susan Cu-Uvin; Keerti Shah

2002-01-01

295

Host Organelle Hijackers: A similar modus operandi for Toxoplasma gondii and Chlamydia trachomatis - Co-infection model as a tool to investigate pathogenesis -  

PubMed Central

The bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis and the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii are the causative agents of chlamydiosis and toxoplasmosis in humans, respectively. Both micro-organisms are obligate intracellular pathogens and notorious for extensively modifying the cytoskeletal architecture and the endomembrane system of their host cells to establish productive infections. This review highlights the similar tactics developed by these two pathogens to manipulate their host cell despite their genetic unrelatedness. By using an in vitro cell culture model whereby single fibroblasts are infected by C. trachomatis and T. gondii simultaneously, thus setting up an intracellular competition, we demonstrate that the solutions to the problem of intracellular survival deployed by the parasite and the bacterium may represent an example of convergent evolution, driven by the necessity to acquire nutrients in a hostile environment. PMID:23821471

Romano, Julia D.; Coppens, Isabelle

2013-01-01

296

Chlamydia pneumoniae infection of lungs and macrophages indirectly stimulates the phenotypic conversion of smooth muscle cells and mesenchymal stem cells: potential roles in vascular calcification and fibrosis.  

PubMed

Two hallmarks of advanced atherosclerosis are calcification and fibrosis. We hypothesized that Chlamydia pneumoniae infection may contribute to atherosclerosis by inducing the conversion of vascular smooth muscle cells to calcifying cells or by converting mesenchymal stem cells to osteochondrocytic or fibroblastic phenotypes. In this study, direct infection of bovine aortic smooth muscle cells (BSMCs) did not induce the expression of alkaline phosphatase or the deposition of extracellular calcium phosphate. However, conditioned media from C. pneumoniae-infected macrophages accelerated conversion of BSMCs to a calcifying phenotype. Treatment of the conditioned media with an anti-TNF-alpha blocking antibody abrogated this stimulatory effect. Treatment of perivascular Sca-1+, CD31-, CD45- cells from apoE-/- mouse aortas with the conditioned media from infected macrophages induced the Sca-1+ cells to produce collagen II, an additional marker of an osteochondrocytic phenotype. Treatment of mouse coronary perivascular Sca-1+, CD31-, CD45- cells with the supernatant from homogenates of C. pneumoniae-infected mouse lungs as compared to noninfected lungs induced expression of the Collagen 1?1 gene and deposition of collagen. Therefore, an increase in plasma cytokines or other factors in response to respiratory infection with C. pneumoniae or infection of macrophages within the blood vessel could contribute to both calcification and fibrosis of advanced atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:24833344

Cabbage, Sarah; Ieronimakis, Nicholas; Preusch, Michael; Lee, Amy; Ricks, Jerry; Janebodin, Kajohnkiart; Hays, Aislinn; Wijelath, Errol S; Reyes, Morayma; Campbell, Lee Ann; Rosenfeld, Michael E

2014-10-01

297

Genital Herpes (Beyond the Basics)  

MedlinePLUS

... for sexually transmitted infections (The Basics) Patient information: Syphilis (The Basics) Patient information: Urethritis (The Basics) Prevention ... those that also produce genital ulcers, such as syphilis and chancroid. Several diagnostic tests may also be ...

298

Genital Herpes Has Played a More Important Role than Any Other Sexually Transmitted Infection in Driving HIV Prevalence in Africa  

PubMed Central

Background Extensive evidence from observational studies suggests a role for genital herpes in the HIV epidemic. A number of herpes vaccines are under development and several trials of the efficacy of HSV-2 treatment with acyclovir in reducing HIV acquisition, transmission, and disease progression have just reported their results or will report their results in the next year. The potential impact of these interventions requires a quantitative assessment of the magnitude of the synergy between HIV and HSV-2 at the population level. Methods and Findings A deterministic compartmental model of HIV and HSV-2 dynamics and interactions was constructed. The nature of the epidemiologic synergy was explored qualitatively and quantitatively and compared to other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The results suggest a more substantial role for HSV-2 in fueling HIV spread in sub-Saharan Africa than other STIs. We estimate that in settings of high HSV-2 prevalence, such as Kisumu, Kenya, more than a quarter of incident HIV infections may have been attributed directly to HSV-2. HSV-2 has also contributed considerably to the onward transmission of HIV by increasing the pool of HIV positive persons in the population and may explain one-third of the differential HIV prevalence among the cities of the Four City study. Conversely, we estimate that HIV had only a small net impact on HSV-2 prevalence. Conclusions HSV-2 role as a biological cofactor in HIV acquisition and transmission may have contributed substantially to HIV particularly by facilitating HIV spread among the low-risk population with stable long-term sexual partnerships. This finding suggests that prevention of HSV-2 infection through a prophylactic vaccine may be an effective intervention both in nascent epidemics with high HIV incidence in the high risk groups, and in established epidemics where a large portion of HIV transmission occurs in stable partnerships. PMID:18493617

Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Magaret, Amalia S.; Celum, Connie; Wald, Anna; Longini, Ira M.; Self, Steven G.; Corey, Lawrence

2008-01-01

299

The Effect of Multiple Rounds of Mass Drug Administration on the Association between Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis Infection and Follicular Trachoma in Preschool-Aged Children  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine the relationship between ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection and follicular trachoma (TF) in children prior to and following multiple rounds of annual mass drug administration (MDA) with azithromycin. Methodology/principal findings Thirty-two communities with endemic trachoma in Kongwa District, Tanzania, were offered annual MDA as part of a district-wide trachoma control program. Presence of ocular C. trachomatis infection and TF were assessed in 3,200 randomly sampled children aged five years and younger, who were examined prior to each MDA. Infection was detected using the Amplicor CT/NG assay and TF was identified by clinical examination using the World Health Organization (WHO) simplified grading system. The association between chlamydial infection and TF in children was evaluated at baseline prior to any treatment, and 12 months after each of three annual rounds of mass treatment. Factors associated with infection were examined using generalized estimating equation models. At baseline, the overall prevalence of chlamydial infection and TF was 22% and 31%, respectively. Among children with clinical signs of TF, the proportion of those with infection was 49% prior to treatment and declined to 30% after three MDAs. The odds of infection positivity among children with clinical signs of TF decreased by 26% (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.84, p?=?<0.01) with each MDA, after adjusting for age. For children aged under one year, who did not receive treatment, the relationship was unchanged. Conclusions/significance The association between ocular C. trachomatis infection and TF weakened in children with each MDA, as both infection and clinical disease prevalence declined. However, there was still a significant proportion of TF cases with infection after three rounds of MDA. New strategies are needed to assess this residual infection for optimal treatment distribution. PMID:24722392

Lee, Jennifer S.; Muñoz, Beatriz E.; Mkocha, Harran; Gaydos, Charlotte A.; Quinn, Thomas C.; West, Sheila K.

2014-01-01

300

Chlamydial Infection Increases Gonococcal Colonization in a Novel Murine Coinfection Model?  

PubMed Central

Genital tract infections caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis serovars D to K occur at high incidence in many areas of the world. Despite high rates of coinfection with these pathogens, investigations of host-parasite interactions have focused on each pathogen individually. We describe here a coinfection model in which female BALB/c mice were first infected with the mouse Chlamydia species C. muridarum and then inoculated with N. gonorrhoeae following treatment with water-soluble 17?-estradiol to promote long-term gonococcal infection. Viable gonococci and chlamydiae were recovered for an average of 8 to 10 days, and diplococci and chlamydial inclusions were observed in lower genital tract tissue by immunohistochemical staining. Estradiol treatment reduced proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels in chlamydia-infected mice; however, coinfected mice had a higher percentage of vaginal neutrophils compared to mice infected with either pathogen alone. We detected no difference in pathogen-specific antibody levels due to coinfection. Interestingly, significantly more gonococci were recovered from coinfected mice compared to mice infected with N. gonorrhoeae alone. We found no evidence that C. muridarum increases gonococcal adherence to, or invasion of, immortalized murine epithelial cells. However, increased vaginal concentrations of inflammatory mediators macrophage inflammatory protein 2 and tumor necrosis factor alpha were detected in C. muridarum-infected mice prior to inoculation with N. gonorrhoeae concurrently with the downregulation of cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide and secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor genes. We conclude that female mice can be successfully infected with both C. muridarum and N. gonorrhoeae and that chlamydia-induced alterations in host innate responses may enhance gonococcal infection. PMID:21245268

Vonck, Rachel A.; Darville, T.; O'Connell, C. M.; Jerse, Ann E.

2011-01-01

301

Female genital mutilation.  

PubMed

Female genital mutilation, also misleadingly known as female circumcision, is usually performed on girls ranging in from 1 week to puberty. Immediate physical complications include severe pain, shock, infection, bleeding, acute urinary infection, tetanus, and death. Longterm problems include chronic pain, difficulties with micturition and menstruation, pelvic infection leading to infertility, and prolonged and obstructed labor during childbirth. An estimated 80 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation. In Britain alone an estimated 10,000 girls are currently at risk. Religious, cultural, medical, and moral grounds rationalize the custom which is practiced primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab world, Malaysia, Indonesia, and among migrant populations in Western countries. According to WHO it is correlated with poverty, illiteracy, and the low status of women. Women who escape mutilation are not sought in marriage. WHO, the UN Population Fund, the UN Children's Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child have issued declarations on the eradication of female genital mutilation. In Britain, local authorities have intervened to prevent parents from mutilating their daughters. In 1984, the Inter-African Committee Against Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting Women and Children was established to work toward eliminating female genital mutilation and other damaging customs. National committees in 26 African countries coordinate projects run by local people using theater, dance, music, and storytelling for communication. In Australia, Canada, Europe, and the US women have organized to prevent the practice among vulnerable migrants and refugees. PMID:8400925

Ladjali, M; Rattray, T W; Walder, R J

1993-08-21

302

Lipid Metabolism in Chlamydia trachomatis-Infected Cells: Directed Trafficking of Golgi-Derived Sphingolipids to the Chlamydial Inclusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydia trachomatis undergoes its entire life cycle within an uncharacterized intracellular vesicle that does not fuse with lysosomes. We used a fluorescent Golgi-specific probe, {N-]7-(4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole)]}aminocaproylsphingosine (C_6-NBD-Cer), in conjunction with conventional fluorescence or confocal microscopy to identify interactions between the Golgi apparatus and the chlamydial inclusion. We observed not only a close physical association between the Golgi apparatus and the chlamydial

Ted Hackstadt; Marci A. Scidmore; Daniel D. Rockey

1995-01-01

303

Genital injury  

MedlinePLUS

... It is important to rule out sexual abuse, rape, and assault. The health care provider should ask the girl how the object was placed there. In young boys, common causes of genital injury include: Having the toilet seat ...

304

Genital herpes  

MedlinePLUS

... disease, even if you do not have symptoms. Condoms are the best way to protect against catching genital herpes during sexual activity: Using a condom correctly and consistently helps prevent spread of the ...

305

Genital Herpes  

MedlinePLUS

... surefire way to prevent genital herpes is abstinence . Teens who do have sex must properly use a latex condom every time they have any form of sexual intercourse (vaginal, oral, or anal sex). Girls receiving oral sex should have their ...

306

Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection: Incidence and Risk Factors in a Cohort of Female University Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incidence data on human papillomavirus (HPV) infection are limited, and risk factors for transmission are largely unknown. The authors followed 603 female university students in Washington State at 4-month intervals between 1990 and 2000. At each visit, a sexual and health questionnaire was completed and cervical and vulvovaginal samples were collected to detect HPV DNA. At 24 months, the cumulative

Rachel L. Winer; Shu-Kuang Lee; James P. Hughes; Diane E. Adam; Nancy B. Kiviat; Laura A. Koutsky

307

Seroprevalence and incidence of genital ulcer infections in a rural Ugandan population  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To determine age-sex specific seroprevalence and incidence rates of Treponema pallidum, Haemophilus ducreyi, and HSV-2; to assess the association between HIV-1 status and incidence of these STIs; and HSV-2 serostatus with number of lifetime sexual partners. METHODS: Antibodies against HIV-1, T pallidum, H ducreyi, and HSV-2 infections were tested using approximately 1000 paired (2 year interval) sera collected from

A. Kamali; A. J. Nunn; D. W. Mulder; E. Van Dyck; J. G. Dobbins; J. A. Whitworth

1999-01-01

308

Local Risk Factors in Genital Human Papilloma Virus Infection in Cervical Smears  

PubMed Central

Background: Infection with human papilloma virus (HPV) is the main cause of cervical cancer, but the local risk factors have not been sufficiently assessed. Aim: The study is aimed at determining the prevalence and to evaluate the local risk factors of HPV infection in cervical smears at the Imo State University Teaching Hospital, Orlu, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: The participants involved 445 randomly selected sexually active women attending the antenatal, postnatal, gynecology and family planning clinics in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the university between April 2004 and May 2012. A questionnaire assessing various socio-demographic characteristics of the participants was administered. The pap smears of the participants were examined microscopically for evidence of HPV infection. The SPSS version 17.0 (Chicago, Illinois, USA) was used to compute and analyze the results. The results were presented in tables as simple percentages. Tests of significance using the Chi-square and fisher exact tests were applied where appropriate. Results: The prevalence rate of HPV was 10.3%. The peak age-specific prevalence of 11.7% occurred in the 15-19 years age group. There were significant associations between the occurrence of HPV and multiple sexual partners, coital frequency, multiparity, contraceptive use, marital status, low socio-economic status, abnormal vaginal discharge, irregular menstruation, post-coital and post-menopausal bleeding, (P < 0.05). Conclusion: All sexually active women including teenagers should be screened for cervical HPV infection in an organized systematic program equipped with a good call and recall system. There is, therefore, a need to move emphasis from the current practice of opportunistic screening to a systematic screening of the whole population at risk despite cost implications. PMID:24380003

Ojiyi, EC; Dike, IE; Okeudo, C; Ejikem, C; Nzewuihe, AC; Agbata, A

2013-01-01

309

C3H Male Mice with Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Cannot Clear a Urethral Infection with a Human Serovar of Chlamydia trachomatis?  

PubMed Central

The pathogenesis of an infection of the male genitourinary tract of mice with a human serovar of Chlamydia trachomatis has not been characterized. To establish a new model, we inoculated C3H/HeN (H-2k) mice in the meatus urethra with C. trachomatis serovar D. To determine the 50% infectious dose (ID50), male mice were inoculated with doses ranging from 102 to 106 inclusion-forming units (IFU). The mice were euthanized 10 days post infection (p.i.), and the urethra, bladder, epididimydes, and testes were cultured for Chlamydia. Positive cultures were obtained from the urethra, urinary bladder, and epididimydes, and the ID50 was determined to be 5 × 104 IFU/mouse. Subsequently, to characterize the course of the infection, wild-type (WT) and C3H animals with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID animals) were inoculated with 106 IFU/mouse (20 times the ID50). In the WT mice, the infection peaked in the second week, and by 42 days p.i., it was cleared. In contrast, most of the SCID mice continued to have positive cultures at 60 days p.i. C. trachomatis-specific antibodies were first detected in WT animals' sera at 21 days p.i. and increased until 42 days p.i. The immunoglobulin G2a (IgG2a) titers were 32-fold higher than those of IgG1, indicative of a Th1-biased immune response. A lymphoproliferative assay using splenocytes showed a significant cell-mediated immune response in the WT mice. As expected, no humoral or cell-mediated immune responses were observed in the SCID animals. In conclusion, inoculation of WT male mice in the meatus urethra with a human serovar of C. trachomatis resulted in a limited infection mainly localized to the lower genitourinary tract. On the other hand, SCID animals could not clear the infection, suggesting that in male mice, the adaptive immune response is necessary to control an infection with a C. trachomatis human serovar. PMID:19805533

Pal, Sukumar; Sarcon, Annahita K.; de la Maza, Luis M.

2009-01-01

310

Detection of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 DNA in Consecutive Genital Samples Does Not Always Represent Persistent Infection as Determined by Molecular Variant Analysis  

PubMed Central

Persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection of the uterine cervix is a risk factor for progression to high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. Detection in consecutive genital samples of HPV-16 DNA, a frequently encountered HPV type, may represent persistent infection or reinfection. We undertook a study using PCR–single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and sequencing of PCR products (PCR-sequencing) to determine if consecutive HPV-16-positive samples contained the same HPV-16 variant. Fifty women (36 human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] seropositive, 14 HIV seronegative) had at least two consecutive genital specimens obtained at 6-month intervals that contained HPV-16 DNA as determined by a consensus L1 PCR assay. A total of 144 samples were amplified with two primer pairs for SSCP analysis of the entire long control region. Fifteen different SSCP patterns were identified in our population, while 22 variants were identified by PCR-sequencing. The most frequent SSCP pattern was found in 75 (53%) samples from 27 (54%) women. The SSCP patterns obtained from consecutive specimens were identical for 46 (92%) of 50 women, suggesting persistent infection. Four women exhibited in consecutive specimens different HPV-16 SSCP patterns that were all confirmed by PCR-sequencing. The additional information on the nature of persistent infection provided by molecular variant analysis was useful for 6% of women, since three of the four women who did not have identical consecutive specimens would have been misclassified as having persistent HPV-16 infection on the basis of HPV typing. PMID:10970388

Mayrand, Marie-Hélène; Coutlée, François; Hankins, Catherine; Lapointe, Normand; Forest, Pierre; de Ladurantaye, Manon; Roger, Michel

2000-01-01

311

Candidate microbicide PPCM blocks human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in cell and tissue cultures and prevents genital herpes in a murine model.  

PubMed

A structurally novel candidate microbicide, PPCM, which is formed from the reaction of D,L-mandelic acid with sulfuric acid, provides activity against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) and is not cytotoxic. The objectives of the current studies were to comprehensively evaluate the activity of PPCM in cell and explant cultures, explore the possibility of combining PPCM with HIV-specific reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and evaluate the efficacy of a formulated gel against genital herpes in a murine model. PPCM inhibited infection by laboratory and clinical R5 and X4 clade B and clade C HIV strains in cell culture. Ectocervical and endocervical tissue explants exposed to HIV-1(BaL) in the presence of PPCM were protected (50% inhibitory concentrations [IC(50)] of 3.9 microg/ml for ectocervix and 3.1 microg/ml for endocervix), and transfer of virus to target T cells via migratory cells was significantly impaired (IC(50) of 35.7 microg/ml for ectocervix and 54.6 microg/ml for endocervix). The drug also blocked infection by cell-associated virus. Combinations of PPCM with UC-781 or PMPA in vitro exhibited additive anti-HIV activity. PPCM was incorporated into stable, low-pH gel formulations at concentrations of 0.4% and 4%. Both gels prevented genital herpesvirus infection in mice, even when virus was introduced in human seminal plasma. The abilities of PPCM to inhibit primary HIV isolates, reduce infection by cell-associated virus, and transfer of HIV from migratory to T cells, combined with the complete protection provided by formulated gel against genital herpes, indicate that this drug is an excellent candidate for inclusion in a combination microbicide and would provide protection against both HIV and HSV. PMID:18434407

Mesquita, Pedro M M; Wilson, Sarah S; Manlow, Philippe; Fischetti, Lucia; Keller, Marla J; Herold, Betsy C; Shattock, Robin J

2008-07-01

312

Clueing in on Chlamydia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chlamydia's role in female infertility is discussed. The relationship of this organism to other diseases such as leprosy and tuberculosis is explained. Conditions caused by Chlamydia such as Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) are described. (KR)

Gibbons, Wendy

1991-01-01

313

Pregnancy Complications: Chlamydia  

MedlinePLUS

... is running out: Home > Pregnancy > Pregnancy Complications > Chlamydia Pregnancy complications Pregnancy complications may need special medical care. ... younger than 25. Can chlamydia cause problems during pregnancy? Yes. If you get it before or during ...

314

Male circumcision and the incidence and clearance of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men: the HPV Infection in men (HIM) cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Reported associations of male circumcision (MC) with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men have been inconsistent. Methods 4,033 healthy men were examined every six months for a median of 17.5 months. In each study visit, exfoliated cell specimens from the coronal sulcus/glans penis, penile shaft, and scrotum were collected and combined into one sample per person for HPV DNA detection. Samples were tested for 37 HPV types. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the association between MC and the incidence and clearance of HPV infections and specific genotypes. Results The overall incidence of new HPV infections did not differ by MC status (for any HPV, adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91-1.27). However, incidence was significantly lower among circumcised versus uncircumcised men for HPV types 58 (p?=?0.01), 68 (p?genital HPV detection, except for certain HPV types. The use of a single combined sample from the penis and scrotum for HPV DNA detection likely limited our ability to identify a true effect of MC at the distal penis. PMID:24517172

2014-01-01

315

Severity of Allergic Airway Disease Due to House Dust Mite Allergen Is Not Increased after Clinical Recovery of Lung Infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae in Mice  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia pneumoniae is associated with chronic inflammatory lung diseases like bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The existence of a causal link between allergic airway disease and C. pneumoniae is controversial. A mouse model was used to address the question of whether preceding C. pneumoniae lung infection and recovery modifies the outcome of experimental allergic asthma after subsequent sensitization with house dust mite (HDM) allergen. After intranasal infection, BALB/c mice suffered from pneumonia characterized by an increased clinical score, reduction of body weight, histopathology, and a bacterial load in the lungs. After 4 weeks, when infection had almost resolved clinically, HDM allergen sensitization was performed for another 4 weeks. Subsequently, mice were subjected to a methacholine hyperresponsiveness test and sacrificed for further analyses. As expected, after 8 weeks, C. pneumoniae-specific antibodies were detectable only in infected mice and the titer was significantly higher in the C. pneumoniae/HDM allergen-treated group than in the C. pneumoniae/NaCl group. Intriguingly, airway hyperresponsiveness and eosinophilia in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were significantly lower in the C. pneumoniae/HDM allergen-treated group than in the mock/HDM allergen-treated group. We did observe a relationship between experimental asthma and chlamydial infection. Our results demonstrate an influence of sensitization to HDM allergen on the development of a humoral antibacterial response. However, our model demonstrates no increase in the severity of experimental asthma to HDM allergen as a physiological allergen after clinically resolved severe chlamydial lung infection. Our results rather suggest that allergic airway disease and concomitant cellular changes in mice are decreased following C. pneumoniae lung infection in this setting. PMID:23817611

Dutow, Pavel; Lingner, Sandra; Laudeley, Robert; Glage, Silke; Hoymann, Heinz-Gerd; Dittrich, Anna-Maria; Fehlhaber, Beate; Müller, Meike; Braun, Armin

2013-01-01

316

Immunization with the attenuated plasmidless Chlamydia trachomatis L2(25667R) strain provides partial protection in a murine model of female genitourinary tract infection  

PubMed Central

Here we report on the safety, immunogenicity, and vaccine efficacy of the naturally occurring plasmid-free attenuated Chlamydia trachomatis L2-5667R strain in a murine infection model. Intravaginal Immunization induced both chlamydial specific serum antibody and systemic CD4+ Th1 biased immune responses but failed to induce local IgA antibodies. Immunization induced no pathological changes in the urogenital tract. Protective immunity was evaluated by vaginal challenge with a natural occurring non-attenuated plasmid positive C. trachomatis urogenital strain (serovar D). Vaccinated mice were not protected from colonization/infection but exhibited a reduction in infectious burden at early time periods (1-2 weeks) post-challenge. Partial protective immunity did not protect against inflammatory disease. Thus, intravaginal vaccination with the live-attenuated L2R stain is safe, induces a systemic antibody and CD4+Th1 biased immune response, but its protective efficacy is limited to reducing chlamydial burden at early time periods post-infection. PMID:20004265

Olivares-Zavaleta, Norma; Whitmire, William; Gardner, Donald; Caldwell, Harlan D.

2010-01-01

317

Peptide immunization of guinea pigs against Chlamydia psittaci (GPIC agent) infection induces good vaginal secretion antibody response, in vitro neutralization and partial protection against live challenge.  

PubMed

Immunization of female guinea pigs with a chimeric peptide consisting of variable domain IV (VDIV) and a region known as GP8 from the major outer membrane protein of Chlamydophila caviae, formerly Chlamydia psittaci guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis strain, was performed to assess whether humoral immune responses could be elicited in the reproductive tracts of immunized animals. The C. caviae strain is able to cause a sexually transmitted infection in the guinea pig that closely parallels C. trachomatis infections in humans. The best anti-VDIV antibody response in vaginal secretions was achieved by intraperitoneal priming with subsequent intravaginal boosting (P < 0.001). Dot-blot analyses of vaginal secretions confirmed that these anti-VDIV antibodies, produced against a linear peptide, were able to recognize and bind to whole conformational C. caviae elementary bodies. Following live intravaginal challenge with C. caviae, a significant reduction in the intensity (P = 0.01) and an apparent reduction in the duration of the infection was evident between the guinea pigs immunized with VDIV-GP8 and non-immunized controls. PMID:11380677

Volp, K; Mathews, S; Timms, P; Hafner, L

2001-06-01

318

Catch-and-release probes applied to semi-intact cells reveal ubiquitin-specific protease expression in Chlamydia trachomatis infection  

PubMed Central

Protein ubiquitylation controls many cellular pathways, and timely removal of ubiquitin by de-ubiquitylating enzymes (DUBs) is essential to govern these different functions. To map endogenous expression of individual DUBs as well as that of any interacting proteins, we developed a catch-and-release ubiquitin (Ub) probe. Ub was equipped with an activity-based warhead and a cleavable linker attached to a biotin affinity-handle through tandem site-specific modification, in which we combined intein chemistry with sortase-mediated ligation. The resulting probe is cell-impermeable and was therefore delivered to the cytosol of Perfringolysin-O (PFO) permeabilized cells. This allowed us to retrieve and identify 34 DUBs and their interacting partners. Upon infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, we noted the expression of two additional host DUBs. Furthermore, we retrieved and identified Chlamydial DUB1 (ChlaDUB1) and DUB2 (ChlaDUB2), demonstrating by experiment that ChlaDUB2, the presence and activity of which had not been detected in infected cells, is in fact expressed in the course of infection. PMID:23335262

Yoder, Nicholas C.; Zhu, Angela Y.; Spooner, Eric; Ploegh, Hidde L.

2013-01-01

319

Risk Factors for Active Trachoma and Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Treatment-Naïve Trachoma-Hyperendemic Communities of the Bijagós Archipelago, Guinea Bissau  

PubMed Central

Background Trachoma, caused by ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, is hyperendemic on the Bijagós Archipelago of Guinea Bissau. An understanding of the risk factors associated with active trachoma and infection on these remote and isolated islands, which are atypical of trachoma-endemic environments described elsewhere, is crucial to the implementation of trachoma elimination strategies. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional population-based trachoma prevalence survey was conducted on four islands. We conducted a questionnaire-based risk factor survey, examined participants for trachoma using the World Health Organization (WHO) simplified grading system and collected conjunctival swab samples for 1507 participants from 293 randomly selected households. DNA extracted from conjunctival swabs was tested using the Roche Amplicor CT/NG PCR assay. The prevalence of active (follicular and/or inflammatory) trachoma was 11% (167/1508) overall and 22% (136/618) in 1–9 year olds. The prevalence of C. trachomatis infection was 18% overall and 25% in 1–9 year olds. There were strong independent associations of active trachoma with ocular and nasal discharge, C. trachomatis infection, young age, male gender and type of household water source. C. trachomatis infection was independently associated with young age, ocular discharge, type of household water source and the presence of flies around a latrine. Conclusions/Significance In this remote island environment, household-level risk factors relating to fly populations, hygiene behaviours and water usage are likely to be important in the transmission of ocular C. trachomatis infection and the prevalence of active trachoma. This may be important in the implementation of environmental measures in trachoma control. PMID:24967629

Last, Anna R.; Burr, Sarah E.; Weiss, Helen A.; Harding-Esch, Emma M.; Cassama, Eunice; Nabicassa, Meno; Mabey, David C.; Holland, Martin J.; Bailey, Robin L.

2014-01-01

320

Risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in adolescents: results from a representative population-based survey in Germany, 2003-2006.  

PubMed

Infections with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) can lead to severe sequelae; however, they are not notifiable in Germany. We tested urine samples from participants of KiGGS (German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents) for CT infections and linked the results to demographic and behavioural data from 1,925 participants (girls aged 15-17 years and boys aged 16-17 years) to determine a representative prevalence of CT infection in adolescents in Germany and to assess associated risk factors. Prevalence of CT infection was 2.2% (95% CI: 1.4-3.5) in girls and 0.2% (95% CI: 0.1-0.7) in boys. CT infection in girls was associated with higher use of alcohol, marijuana and cigarettes, lower social status, oral contraceptive use, pregnancy, repeated lower abdominal pain and higher rates of doctors' consultations within the preceding three months and consultation of gynaecologists within the last 12 months. In multiple logistic regression, we identified two predictors for CT infection: marijuana consumption often or several times within the last 12 months (F(1,164)=7.56; p<0.05) and general health status less than 'very good' (F(1,164)=3.83; p=0.052). Given our findings, we recommend enhancing sex education before sexual debut and promoting safe sex practices regardless of the contraceptive method used. Well-informed consumption of alcohol should be promoted, the risky behaviour of people intoxicated through consumption of marijuana highlighted and doctors' awareness of CT screening enhanced. PMID:23987832

Haar, K; Bremer, V; Houareau, C; Meyer, T; Desai, S; Thamm, M; Hamouda, O

2013-01-01

321

Genital Warts  

MedlinePLUS

Genital warts are a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). The warts are soft, moist, pink, or flesh-colored bumps. ... or many of these bumps. In women, the warts usually occur in or around the vagina, on ...

322

New Lymphogranuloma Venereum Chlamydia trachomatis Variant, Amsterdam  

PubMed Central

We retrospectively conducted a study of men who have sex with men who visited the Amsterdam, the Netherlands, sexually transmitted diseases clinic from January 2002 to December 2003 and had rectal Chlamydia trachomatis infections. We found that symptomatic (73%) as well as asymptomatic (43%) patients were infected with a new C. trachomatis LGV variant. PMID:16022786

Fennema, Han S.A.; Morré, Servaas A.; de Vries, Henry J.C.; Coutinho, Roel A.

2005-01-01

323

Genetic variation in Chlamydia trachomatis and their hosts: impact on disease severity and tissue tropism  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia trachomatis infections are a global health problem. This obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen comprises lymphogranuloma venereum (L1–L3), ocular (A–C) and genital (D–K) serovars. Although genetically similar, each serovar group differs in disease severity and tissue tropism through mechanisms that are not well understood. It is clear that host genetic differences also play a role in chlamydial disease outcome and key host polymorphisms are beginning to emerge from both human and experimental animal studies. In this review, we will highlight pathogen and host genes that link genetic diversity, disease severity and tissue tropism. We will also use this information to provide new insights that may be helpful in developing improved management strategies for these important pathogens. PMID:24020741

Byrne, Gerald I

2014-01-01

324

Building a web-based tool to support clinical decisions in the control of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) are the agents of two common, sexually transmitted diseases afflicting women in the United States (http://www.cdc.gov). We designed a novel web-based application that offers simple recommendations to help optimize medical outcomes with CT and GC prevention and control programs. This application takes population groups, prevalence rates, parameters for available screening assays and treatment regimens (costs, sensitivity, and specificity), as well as budget limits as inputs. Its output suggests optimal screening and treatment strategies for selected at-risk groups, commensurate with the clinic's budget allocation. Development of this tool illustrates how a clinical informatics application based on rigorous mathematics might have a significant impact on real-world clinical issues. PMID:24564848

2013-01-01

325

Adenovirus types 2, 8, and 37 associated with genital infections in patients attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic.  

PubMed Central

Adenoviruses (Ads) are an important cause of respiratory illness, conjunctivitis, and gastroenteritis, but they are seldom recognized as a potential cause of sexually transmitted disease. We performed virus cultures on approximately 7,000 patients attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic or other health department clinics for the evaluation of genital ulcers, urethritis, or conjunctivitis. Ads were isolated from genital or conjunctival specimens obtained from 23 (0.33%) patients. Among the 20 Ad-positive men, 15 (75%) had urethritis, 12 (60%) had conjunctivitis, and 10 (50%) had both. All three Ad-positive women had vaginal discharge and genital ulcers or fissures. Ad isolates from 17 patients were available for serotyping. Ad type 37 was isolated from 14 patients, Ad type 8 was isolated from 2 patients, and Ad type 2 was isolated from 1 patient. In three of the Ad type 37 cases, Ad was recovered from both urethral and conjunctival specimens. One of the Ad type 8 cases had conjunctivitis, but the Ad type 2 case did not. Ads, particularly type 37, may be a sexually transmissible cause of genital ulcers, urethritis, and conjunctivitis. PMID:8567914

Swenson, P D; Lowens, M S; Celum, C L; Hierholzer, J C

1995-01-01

326

Modelling the impact of chlamydia screening on the transmission of HIV among men who have sex with men  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies have found high prevalences of asymptomatic rectal chlamydia among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). Chlamydia could increase the infectivity of HIV and the susceptibility to HIV infection. We investigate the role of chlamydia in the spread of HIV among MSM and the possible impact of routine chlamydia screening among HIV-infected MSM at HIV treatment centres on the incidence of chlamydia and HIV in the overall MSM population. Methods A mathematical model was developed to describe the transmission of HIV and chlamydia among MSM. Parameters relating to sexual behaviour were estimated from data from the Amsterdam Cohort Study among MSM. Uncertainty analysis was carried out for model parameters without confident estimates. The effects of different screening strategies for chlamydia were investigated. Results Among all new HIV infections in MSM, 15% can be attributed to chlamydia infection. Introduction of routine chlamydia screening every six months among HIV-infected MSM during regular HIV consultations can reduce the incidence of both infections among MSM: after 10 years, the relative percentage reduction in chlamydia incidence would be 15% and in HIV incidence 4%, compared to the current situation. Chlamydia screening is more effective in reducing HIV incidence with more frequent screening and with higher participation of the most risky MSM in the screening program. Conclusions Chlamydia infection could contribute to the transmission of HIV among MSM. Preventive measures reducing chlamydia prevalence, such as routine chlamydia screening of HIV-infected MSM, can result in a decline in the incidence of chlamydia and HIV. PMID:24047261

2013-01-01

327

Membrane vesicle production by Chlamydia trachomatis as an adaptive response  

PubMed Central

Bacteria have evolved specific adaptive responses to cope with changing environments. These adaptations include stress response phenotypes with dynamic modifications of the bacterial cell envelope and generation of membrane vesicles (MVs). The obligate intracellular bacterium, Chlamydia trachomatis, typically has a biphasic lifestyle, but can enter into an altered growth state typified by morphologically aberrant chlamydial forms, termed persistent growth forms, when induced by stress in vitro. How C. trachomatis can adapt to a persistent growth state in host epithelial cells in vivo is not well understood, but is an important question, since it extends the host-bacterial relationship in vitro and has thus been indicated as a survival mechanism in chronic chlamydial infections. Here, we review recent findings on the mechanistic aspects of bacterial adaptation to stress with a focus on how C. trachomatis remodels its envelope, produces MVs, and the potential important consequences of MV production with respect to host-pathogen interactions. Emerging data suggest that the generation of MVs may be an important mechanism for C. trachomatis intracellular survival of stress, and thus may aid in the establishment of a chronic infection in human genital epithelial cells. PMID:24959424

Frohlich, Kyla M.; Hua, Ziyu; Quayle, Alison J.; Wang, Jin; Lewis, Maria E.; Chou, Chau-wen; Luo, Miao; Buckner, Lyndsey R.; Shen, Li

2014-01-01

328

Evaluations of unformulated and formulated dendrimer-based microbicide candidates in mouse and guinea pig models of genital herpes.  

PubMed

Prevention of sexually transmitted infections is a priority in developed and developing countries. One approach to prevention is the use of topical microbicides, and one promising approach is the use of dendrimers, highly branched macromolecules synthesized from a polyfunctional core. Three new dendrimer products developed to provide stable and cost-efficient microbicides were initially evaluated in vitro for anti-herpes simplex virus activity and then in vivo by using a mouse model of genital herpes. From these experiments one product, SPL7013, was chosen for further evaluation to define the dose and duration of protection. Unformulated SPL7013 provided significant protection from genital herpes disease and infection at concentrations as low as 1 mg/ml and for at least 1 h following topical (intravaginal) administration of 10 mg/ml. This compound was then formulated into three vehicles and further evaluated in mouse and guinea pig models of genital herpes infection. In the murine evaluations each of the formulations provided significant protection at concentrations of 10 and 50 mg/ml. Formulated compounds provided protection for at least 1 h at a concentration of 10 mg/ml. From these experiments formulation 2V was chosen for dose ranging experiments using the guinea pig model of genital herpes. The guinea pig evaluations suggested that doses of 30 to 50 mg/ml were required for optimal protection. From these studies a lead compound and formulation (2V of SPL7013) was chosen for ongoing evaluations in primate models of simian immunodeficiency virus and Chlamydia trachomatis infection. PMID:14638483

Bernstein, D I; Stanberry, L R; Sacks, S; Ayisi, N K; Gong, Y H; Ireland, J; Mumper, R J; Holan, G; Matthews, B; McCarthy, T; Bourne, N

2003-12-01

329

Immunization of Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn)-Infected Apobtm2SgyLdlrtm1Her/J Mice with a Combined Peptide of Cpn Significantly Reduces Atherosclerotic Lesion Development  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the antigenic effect of a peptide containing two epitopes of Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn) on atherosclerotic lesion formation in mice infected with Cpn. Materials and Methods Six-week-old Apobtm2SgyLdlrtm1Her/J mice were immunized using a repetitive immunization multiple-sites strategy with KLH-conjugated peptides derived from the major outer membrane protein and the putative outer membrane protein 5 of Cpn. Mice were fed a high-fat diet and infected with Cpn twice during the 10-week diet period. Lesions were evaluated histologically; local and systemic immune responses were analyzed by immunohistochemistry of aorta samples and cytokine measurements in plasma samples and splenocyte supernatants. Results Mice immunized with the combined Cpn peptide showed a greater reduction in lesion size compared to mice immunized with either epitope alone [54.7% vs 39.8% or 41.72%] and was also associated with a significant decrease in lesion area in descending aortas compared with those in controls (88.9% for combined Cpn peptide, 81.9% for MOMP peptide and 75.7% for Omp5, respectively). This effect was associated with a shift in the cellular composition of plaques towards decreased inflammatory cell and increased regulatory T-cell content. Additionally, the effect was also connected with decreased secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and increased production of anti-inflammatory cytokines demonstrated in plasma and in supernatant on stimulated spleen cells. Conclusions Atherosclerotic lesion formation may be promoted by Cpn infection in the presence of a high-fat diet, and reduced by immunization with the combined Cpn peptide. The combined peptide has more potential than either epitope alone in reducing atherosclerotic lesion development through Treg expansion. PMID:24349031

Faludi, Ildiko; Szabo, Andrea; Gonczol, Eva; Kakkar, Vijay; Lu, Xinjie

2013-01-01

330

Transmission of Chlamydiae from grackles to turkeys.  

PubMed

Two female common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula) were inoculated intratracheally with 1.6 X 10(8) chick embryo lethal doses50 of a chlamydial organism isolated from turkeys. Eight female grackles were kept as uninoculated contacts. Six days later, two 12-week-old Broad-Breasted White turkeys (1 male and 1 female) were placed in the pen with the grackles. Chlamydiae were isolated in mice from cloacal swabs taken 14 days postinoculation from the infected grackles. Swabs from the contact grackles did not yield chlamydiae, nor did swabs taken 7 days later from all birds. Twenty-one days after being placed with the grackles, the turkeys developed signs of chlamydiosis. Cloacal swabs taken at 24 days yielded chlamydiae from only the female. Visceral organ tissues collected at 28 days from the male yielded chlamydiae. The only lesions in the turkeys at necropsy were enlarged spleens. The turkeys were serologically negative for chlamydial antibody both when placed and 15 days later, but were positive at days 24 and 28. These results indicate contact transmission of chlamydiae from infected grackles to turkeys. PMID:678235

Grimes, J E

1978-01-01

331

Endogenous Interleukin12 Is Not Required for Resolution of Chlamydophila abortus (Chlamydia psittaci Serotype 1) Infection in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

infection was investigated using IL-122\\/2 and wild-type (WT) C57BL\\/6 mice to determine the role of this Th1-promoting cytokine. IL-122\\/2 mice were able to eliminate the C. abortus infection in a primary infection. However, there was a delay in the clearance of bacteria when IL-122\\/2 mice were infected with a sublethal dose of C. abortus, the delay being associated with a

LAURA DEL RIO; ANTONIO J. BUENDIA; J. Sanchez; M. C. Gallego; M. R. Caro; N. Ortega; J. Seva; F. J. Pallares; F. Cuello; J. Salinas

2001-01-01

332

Evaluation of a broadly protective Chlamydia-cholera combination vaccine candidate  

PubMed Central

The need to simultaneously target infections with epidemiological overlap in the population with a single vaccine provides the basis for developing combination vaccines. Vibrio cholerae ghosts (rVCG) offer an attractive approach for developing vaccines against a number of human and animal pathogens. In this study, we constructed a multisubunit vaccine candidate co-expressing the serovar D-derived Porin B and polymorphic membrane protein-D proteins of Chlamydia trachomatis and evaluated its ability to simultaneously induce broad-based chlamydial immunity and elicit a vibriocidal antibody response to the Vibrio carrier envelope. Intramuscular (IM) immunization with the vaccine candidate elicited high levels of antigen-specific genital mucosal and systemic Th1 cell-mediated and humoral immune responses against heterologous serovars and strains, including serovars E, F, G, H and L. Also, in addition to the multisubunit vaccine, the single subunit constructs conferred significant cross protection against the heterologous mouse strain, C. muridarum. Furthermore, all mice immunized with rVCG vaccine constructs responded with a significant rise in vibriocidal antibody titer, the surrogate marker for protection in cholera.These findings demonstrate the ability of the multisubunit vaccine to inducecross protectivechlamydial as well asvibriocidal immunityand establish the possibility of developing a broadly efficacious Chlamydia-cholera combination vaccine. PMID:21421002

Eko, F. O.; Okenu, D. N.; Singh, U.; He, Q.; Black, C.; Igietseme, J. U.

2011-01-01

333

Gonorrhea and chlamydia in emergency departments: Screening, diagnosis, and treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Failure to screen sexually active adolescents and adults for gonorrhea and chlamydia at the time of acute care visits to urban\\u000a emergency departments (ED) results in missed treatment opportunities for 38% to 82% of infected persons. The prevalence of\\u000a gonorrhea and chlamydia infections among ED patients presenting with genitourinary or pregnancy-related complaints or providing\\u000a urine specimens as part of routine

Supriya D. Mehta

2007-01-01

334

Genome-Wide Identification of Chlamydia trachomatis Antigens Associated with Trachomatous Trichiasis  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading infectious cause of blindness. The goal of the current study was to search for biomarkers associated with C. trachomatis–induced ocular pathologies. Methods. We used a whole genome scale proteome array to systematically profile antigen specificities of antibody responses to C. trachomatis infection in individuals from trachoma-endemic communities with or without end-stage trachoma (trichiasis) in The Gambia. Results. When 61 trichiasis patients were compared with their control counterparts for overall antibody reactivity with organisms of different chlamydial species, no statistically significant difference was found. Both groups developed significantly higher titers of antibodies against C. trachomatis ocular serovars A and B than ocular serovar C, genital serovar D, or Chlamydia psittaci, whereas the titers of anti–Chlamydia pneumoniae antibodies were the highest. When antisera from 33 trichiasis and 26 control patients (with relatively high titers of antibodies to C. trachomatis ocular serovars) were reacted with 908 C. trachomatis proteins, 447 antigens were recognized by at least 1 of the 59 antisera, and 10 antigens by 50% or more antisera, the latter being designated as immunodominant antigens. More importantly, four antigens were preferentially recognized by the trichiasis group, with antigens CT414, CT667, and CT706 collectively reacting with 30% of trichiasis antisera but none from the normal group, and antigen CT695 reacting with 61% of trichiasis but only 31% of normal antisera. On the other hand, eight antigens were preferentially recognized by the control group, with antigens CT019, CT117, CT301, CT553, CT556, CT571, and CT709 together reacting with 46% of normal antisera and none from the trichiasis group, whereas antigen CT442 reacted with 35% of normal and 19% of trichiasis antisera respectively. Conclusions. The current study, by mapping immunodominant C. trachomatis antigens and identifying antigens associated with both ocular pathology and protection, has provided important information for further understanding chlamydial pathogenesis and the development of subunit vaccines. PMID:22427578

Lu, Chunxue; Holland, Martin J.; Gong, Siqi; Peng, Bo; Bailey, Robin L.; Mabey, David W.; Wu, Yimou; Zhong, Guangming

2012-01-01

335

Detection of immunoglobulin M antibodies to glycoprotein G-2 by western blot (immunoblot) for diagnosis of initial herpes simplex virus type 2 genital infections.  

PubMed Central

Western blots (immunoblots) for the detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies specific for herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 in patients' sera were developed. The locations of the type-specific glycoprotein G (gpG-2) of HSV-2 (92- and 140-kDa forms) and glycoprotein C of HSV-1 (gpC-1), which carries mostly type-specific antigenic epitopes, were checked with specific monoclonal antibodies. Western blot assays for IgM antibody to gpC-1 or gpG-2 were performed after depletion of IgG by precipitation with anti-human IgG. In patients with primary HSV-2 genital infections, seroconversion of IgM and IgG antibodies to both the 92- and 140-kDa forms of gpG-2 was observed, although both antibodies appeared in convalescent-phase serum after the first week. IgM and IgG antibodies to low-molecular-size polypeptides (40 to 65 kDa) were the first antibodies observed in patients with primary infection, but these antibodies were cross-reactive with HSV-1 and HSV-2. However, in patients with recurrent HSV-2 infections, IgG antibodies to both forms of gpG-2 and the low-molecular-size polypeptides were found no matter how early after onset the patient was bled, and IgM to gpG-2 did not appear. In patients with nonprimary initial genital HSV-2 infections, IgG antibody to HSV-1 was demonstrated in the first serum specimen, and HSV-2-specific IgM was found in 39% of the serum specimens. Hence, the Western blot assay can be used to test for IgM antibody to gpG-2, allowing for the retrospective diagnosis of inital HSV-2 infections and its use as a supplementary test to the gpG-2 IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays developed elsewhere. In contrast, IgM antibody to gpG-2 is not usually detected in patients with recurrent HSV-2 infections. Images PMID:7508453

Ho, D W; Field, P R; Irving, W L; Packham, D R; Cunningham, A L

1993-01-01

336

A collaborative approach to management of chlamydial infection among teenagers seeking contraceptive care in a community setting  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To develop and assess a coordinated model of care for effective management of genital chlamydial infection in young women, identified through a selective screening programme in a community based teenage health clinic. METHODS: Selective screening for genital Chlamydia trachomatis was undertaken among young women aged 13-19 years who were having a routine cervical smear test, being referred for termination of pregnancy, or who reported behavioural risk factors, for, and/or symptoms of, genital infection. Collaboration among family planning, genitourinary medicine (GUM), and public health staff was used to enhance management of infected individuals, with particular focus on partner notification. RESULTS: 94 young women had confirmed genital chlamydial infection, representing 11% of those tested. All index patients received appropriate antibiotic therapy and follow up; 93 (99%) of these were counselled by a health adviser, of whom 62 (66%) were able to provide sufficient details for partner notification, resulting in treatment of male partners associated with 51 (82%) of these young women. Younger age (< or = 16 years) was significantly associated with delay in attending for treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Effective management of genital chlamydial infection is achievable in settings outside GUM clinics using a collaborative approach which incorporates cross referencing between community based services and GUM clinics. ??? PMID:10448392

James, N. J.; Hughes, S.; Ahmed-Jushuf, I.; Slack, R. C.

1999-01-01

337

The role of Chlamydia trachomatis polymorphic membrane proteins in inflammation and sequelae among women with pelvic inflammatory disease.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis polymorphic membrane proteins (Pmps) may increase genital tract inflammation and play a role in virulence. Antibody levels for PmpA, PmpD, and PmpI, measured in densitometric units, were assessed among a pilot sample of 40 C. trachomatis-infected women with mild-to-moderate clinical PID. Women who expressed antibodies to PmpA were less likely to achieve pregnancy (40.0% versus 85.7%; P = 0.042) and less likely to have a live birth (0.0% versus 80.0%; P = 0.005) compared to women who did not express antibody to PmpA. Women who expressed antibodies to PmpI were more likely to have upper genital tract infection (61.5% versus 20.0%; P = 0.026). However, seropositivity to PmpI and PmpD did not modify the risk of reproductive sequelae or inflammation. Seropositivity to chlamydial PmpA may represent a biomarker of increased risk of sequelae secondary to infection with C. trachomatis. PMID:22028586

Taylor, Brandie D; Darville, Toni; Tan, Chun; Bavoil, Patrik M; Ness, Roberta B; Haggerty, Catherine L

2011-01-01

338

The Role of Chlamydia trachomatis Polymorphic Membrane Proteins in Inflammation and Sequelae among Women with Pelvic Inflammatory Disease  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia trachomatis polymorphic membrane proteins (Pmps) may increase genital tract inflammation and play a role in virulence. Antibody levels for PmpA, PmpD, and PmpI, measured in densitometric units, were assessed among a pilot sample of 40 C. trachomatis-infected women with mild-to-moderate clinical PID. Women who expressed antibodies to PmpA were less likely to achieve pregnancy (40.0% versus 85.7%; P = 0.042) and less likely to have a live birth (0.0% versus 80.0%; P = 0.005) compared to women who did not express antibody to PmpA. Women who expressed antibodies to PmpI were more likely to have upper genital tract infection (61.5% versus 20.0%; P = 0.026). However, seropositivity to PmpI and PmpD did not modify the risk of reproductive sequelae or inflammation. Seropositivity to chlamydial PmpA may represent a biomarker of increased risk of sequelae secondary to infection with C. trachomatis. PMID:22028586

Taylor, Brandie D.; Darville, Toni; Tan, Chun; Bavoil, Patrik M.; Ness, Roberta B.; Haggerty, Catherine L.

2011-01-01

339

Short communication: genital tumor growth factor-?1 levels in HIV-infected Indian women are associated with reduced levels of innate antimicrobial products and increased HIV shedding.  

PubMed

Tumor growth factor (TGF)-?1 is a cytokine with potent immunoinhibitory functions and is known to be secreted by vaginal epithelial cells. The present study was designed to determine the association of cervicovaginal levels of TGF- ?1 with various innate immune secretions such as cytokines and antimicrobial polypeptides [Trappin-2/Elafin and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI)] and cervical HIV shedding in HIV-infected Indian women. TGF- ?1, antimicrobial polypeptides, and cytokine levels were estimated in the cervicovaginal lavages (CVLs) of 36 age-matched HIV-infected and 31 HIV-uninfected asymptomatic Indian women using an ELISA and Bio-Plex Assay, respectively. The nonparametric Mann-Whitney test and Spearman's test were used to compare the levels from both the groups and to determine the association of the TGF-?1 levels with cervical viral shedding and antimicrobial peptides. The levels of Trappin-2/Elafin and SLPI were similar in the CVLs of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women, but were significantly associated with a low cervical viral load (r=-0.501, p=0.005 for Trappin-2/Elafin and r=-0.488, p=0.007 for SLPI). Eleven (30.5%) of the 36 HIV-infected women showed 5- to 30-fold higher levels of TGF-?1 as compared to the levels in uninfected women. The TGF-?1 levels were significantly associated with higher cervical viral load (r=0.425, p=0.03) and with lower levels of Trappin-2/Elafin (r=-0.407, p=0.03) and SLPI (r=-0.405, p=0.04). The findings indicate a possible interdependent mechanism driving the identified higher TGF-?1 and lower antimicrobial peptide (Trappin-2/Elafin and SLPI) levels at the genital mucosa surface in HIV-infected women. We postulate that a combination of increased TGF-?1 secretion and altered levels of Trappin-2/Elafin and SLPI contributes to increased HIV shedding. The observation warrants further studies to identify the underlying mechanisms linking increased mucosal TGF-?1 levels and genital HIV shedding. Considering the known association of HIV and cervical cancers, it will also be important to assess the predictive capacity of TGF-?1 levels in HIV-associated cervical malignancies. PMID:24547777

Thakar, Madhuri; Patil, Rahul; Shukre, Subodh; Bichare, Shubhangi; Kadam, Poonam; Khopkar, Priyanka; Ghate, Manisha; Paranjape, Ramesh

2014-07-01

340

Full genome sequences of all nine Chlamydia psittaci genotype reference strains.  

PubMed

Chlamydia psittaci primarily infects birds, but zoonotic transmission occurs in people in close contact with infected birds. The clinical outcome ranges from inapparent disease to pneumonia. Here we report the genome sequences of all 9 Chlamydia psittaci genotype reference strains. PMID:23209198

Van Lent, Sarah; Piet, Jurgen R; Beeckman, Delphine; van der Ende, Arie; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Bavoil, Patrik; Myers, Garry; Vanrompay, Daisy; Pannekoek, Yvonne

2012-12-01

341

Comparison of risk factors for prevalent sexually transmitted infections based on attendees at two genitourinary medicine clinics in Ireland.  

PubMed

Little has changed in sexually transmitted infection (STI) epidemiology in Ireland since 2000. Three STIs comprise approximately 90% of notifications; ano-genital warts, Chlamydia trachomatis and non-specific urethritis. Our objective was to compare the risk factors for prevalent STIs in attendees at two genitourinary medicine clinics and examine the incidence of coinfection. Diagnostic, demographic and behavioural information on attendees at two clinics in southwest Ireland were collected from January 1999 to July 2009. Risk factors associated with first episodes of ano-genital warts, genital herpes simplex viral infection, non-specific urethritis and C. trachomatis were investigated. In all, 22,705 STI patients (mean age 27 years) received 26,824 diagnoses; 1628 had more than one infection. Ano-genital warts was most likely to be diagnosed with a coinfection. Having multiple partners was positively associated with a diagnosis of bacterial infection but not viral infection. Our large cohort outlines those at risk in the region, showing age and gender influences the risk and type of infection. Smoking, alcohol and drug use is also common, all regarded as markers of risk-taking behaviour. The younger the age, the higher the risk of acquiring infection, regardless of infection type. Prevention strategies that target youth, bacterial STIs and high-risk behaviour, including sexual, alcohol and drugs, may be effective in reducing STI incidence in Ireland. PMID:23970627

Shiely, Frances; Hayes, Kevin; Horgan, Mary

2014-01-01

342

Interaction of chlamydiae and host cells in vitro.  

PubMed Central

The obligately intracellular bacteria of the genus Chlamydia, which is only remotely related to other eubacterial genera, cause many diseases of humans, nonhuman mammals, and birds. Interaction of chlamydiae with host cells in vitro has been studied as a model of infection in natural hosts and as an example of the adaptation of an organism to an unusual environment, the inside of another living cell. Among the novel adaptations made by chlamydiae have been the substitution of disulfide-bond-cross-linked polypeptides for peptidoglycans and the use of host-generated nucleotide triphosphates as sources of metabolic energy. The effect of contact between chlamydiae and host cells in culture varies from no effect at all to rapid destruction of either chlamydiae or host cells. When successful infection occurs, it is usually followed by production of large numbers of progeny and destruction of host cells. However, host cells containing chlamydiae sometimes continue to divide, with or without overt signs of infection, and chlamydiae may persist indefinitely in cell cultures. Some of the many factors that influence the outcome of chlamydia-host cell interaction are kind of chlamydiae, kind of host cells, mode of chlamydial entry, nutritional adequacy of the culture medium, presence of antimicrobial agents, and presence of immune cells and soluble immune factors. General characteristics of chlamydial multiplication in cells of their natural hosts are reproduced in established cell lines, but reproduction in vitro of the subtle differences in chlamydial behavior responsible for the individuality of the different chlamydial diseases will require better in vitro models. PMID:2030670

Moulder, J W

1991-01-01

343

Effect of Ureaplasma parvum co-incubation on Chlamydia trachomatis maturation in human epithelial HeLa cells treated with interferon-?.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium that causes a sexually transmitted disease. Ureaplasma parvum is commensal in the human genital tract, with a minimal contribution to urogenital infection. We have recently found that U. parvum has a significant effect on the presence of C. trachomatis in the genital tract of healthy women. We therefore assessed the effect of U. parvum co-incubation on C. trachomatis maturation from reticulate bodies (RBs) to elementary bodies (EBs) in HeLa cells in the absence or presence of interferon (IFN)-?, which is a critical host defense factor. IFN-? stimulation of viable U. parvum significantly prompted chlamydial growth with an increase in infectious particles, EBs, in HeLa cells. IFN-? treatment of killed U. parvum had a similar effect on C. trachomatis maturation in HeLa cells. There was no change in expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in cultures of viable or killed U. parvum. We concluded that U. parvum co-incubation by IFN-? helped C. trachomatis to mature from RBs to EBs in HeLa cells, independent of IDO expression. This suggests a novel survival strategy of C. trachomatis against IFN-? exposure, prompting secondary infection of the genital mucosa, with possible clinical implications. PMID:24855914

Yamazaki, Tomohiro; Matsuo, Junji; Nakamura, Shinji; Oguri, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki

2014-08-01

344

Inactivated simian immunodeficiency virus vaccine failed to protect rhesus macaques from intravenous or genital mucosal infection but delayed disease in intravenously exposed animals  

SciTech Connect

Eight rhesus macaques were immunized four times over a period of 8 months with a psoralen-UV-light-inactivated whole simian immunodeficiency virus vaccine adjuvanted with threonyl muramyl dipeptide. Eight unvaccinated control animals received adjuvant alone. Only the vaccinated animals made antibodies before challenge exposure to the viral core and envelope as determined by Western blotting (immunoblotting) and virus-neutralizing antibodies. Ten days after the final immunization, one-half of the vaccinated and nonvaccinated monkeys were challenged exposed intravenously (i.v.) and one-half were challenge exposed via the genital mucosa with virulent simian immunodeficiency virus. All of the nonvaccinated control monkeys became persistently infected. In spite of preexisting neutralizing antibodies and an anamnestic antibody response, all of the immunized monkeys also became persistently infected. However, there was evidence that the clinical course in immunized i.v. infected animals was delayed. All four mock-vaccinated i.v. challenge-exposed animals died with disease from 3 to 9 months postchallenge. In contrast, only one of four vaccinated i.v. challenge-exposed monkeys had died by 11 months postchallenge.

Sutjipto, S.; Pedersen, N.C.; Miller, C.J.; Gardner, M.B.; Hanson, C.V.; Gettie, A.; Jennings, M.; Higgins, J.; Marx, P.A. (Univ. of California, Davis (USA))

1990-05-01

345

The CD14 functional gene polymorphism -260 C>T is not involved in either the susceptibility to Chlamydia trachomatis infection or the development of tubal pathology  

PubMed Central

Background The functional polymorphism -260 C>T in the LPS sensing TLR4 co-receptor CD14 gene enhances the transcriptional activity and results in a higher CD14 receptor density. Individuals carrying the T/T genotype also have significantly higher serum levels of soluble CD14. The T allele of this polymorphism has recently been linked to Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. We investigated the role of the CD14 -260 C>T polymorphism in the susceptibility to and severity (defined as subfertility and/or tubal pathology) of C. trachomatis infection in Dutch Caucasian women. Methods The different CD14 -260 C>T genotypes were assessed by PCR-based RFLP analysis in three cohorts: 1) A cohort (n = 576) of women attending a STD clinic, 2) a cohort (n = 253) of women with subfertility, and 3) an ethnically matched control cohort (n = 170). The following variables were used in the analysis: In cohort 1 the CT-DNA status, CT IgG serology status, self-reported symptoms and in cohort 2, the CT IgG serology status and the tubal status at laparoscopy. Results In the control cohort the CC, CT and TT genotype distribution was: 28.2%, 48.2%, and 23.5% respectively. No differences were found in the overall prevalence of CD14 -260 genotypes (28.1%, 50.7%, and 21.2%) in cohort 1 when compared to the control cohort. Also no differences were observed in women with or without CT-DNA, with or without serological CT responses, with or without symptoms, or in combinations of these three variables. In subfertile women with tubal pathology (cohort 2, n = 50) the genotype distribution was 28.0%, 48.0%, and 24.0% and in subfertile women without tubal pathology (n = 203), 27.6%, 49.3% and 23.2%. The genotype distribution was unchanged when CT IgG status was introduced in the analyses. Conclusion The CD14 -260 C>T genotype distributions were identical in all three cohorts, showing that this polymorphism is not involved in the susceptibility to or severity of sequelae of C. trachomatis infection. PMID:16368002

Ouburg, Sander; Spaargaren, Joke; den Hartog, Janneke E; Land, Jolande A; Fennema, Johan SA; Pleijster, Jolein; Peña, A Salvador; Morré, Servaas A

2005-01-01

346

Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in the oropharynx and urine among sexually active men: a comparative study of infection by papillomavirus and other organisms, including Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma spp., and Ureaplasma spp  

PubMed Central

Background Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has shown a gradual increase in male predominance due to the increasing incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated OSCC. However, the mode of HPV transmission to the oral cavity is poorly understood, and little is known about the epidemiology of oral HPV infection in men. The prevalence rates of HPV, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma spp., and Ureaplasma spp. were compared in the oropharynx (oral cavity) and urine of male Japanese patients attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic. Methods The study population consisted of 213 men aged 16?–?70 years old (mean: 34.4 years old). Oropharyngeal gargles and urine were collected, and sedimented cells were preserved in liquid-based cytology solution. After DNA extraction, ?-globin and infectious organisms were analyzed by a PCR-based method. The HPV genotype was determined by HPV GenoArray test. Results ?-Globin was positive in 100% and 97.7% of oral and urine samples, respectively. HPV detection rates were 18.8% and 22.1% in oral and urine samples, respectively, suggesting that the prevalence of HPV infection in the oral cavity was similar to that in the urinary tract. N. gonorrhoeae was more prevalent in oral (15.6%) than urine samples (9.1%), whereas C. trachomatis was detected more frequently in urine (15.9%) than oral samples (4.2%). The detection rates of M. genitalium, M. hominis, and Ureaplasma spp. were 5.2%, 10.3%, and 16.0% in oral samples, and 7.7%, 6.3%, and 19.2% in urine, respectively. There were no significant differences in the detection rates of Mycoplasma spp. and Ureaplasma spp. between anatomical locations. The distribution of HPV types were similar in oral and urine samples, and HPV16 was the most common type. The majority of men with HPV infection in both the oral cavity and urine had concordant oral and urinary HPV infection. The presence of urinary HPV infection was an independent risk factor of oral HPV infection, with an odds ratio of 3.39 (95% CI: 1.49?–?7.71), whereas oral gonococcal infection was inversely correlated with oral HPV infection (odds ratio: 0.096; 95% CI: 0.01?–?0.77). Conclusions Oral HPV infection commonly occurs in sexually active men, and is significantly correlated with urinary HPV infection. PMID:24468054

2014-01-01

347

Pharmacokinetic Modelling of Efavirenz, Atazanavir, Lamivudine and Tenofovir in the Female Genital Tract of HIV-Infected Pre-Menopausal Women  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives A previously published study of antiretroviral pharmacokinetics in the female genital tract of HIV-infected women demonstrated differing degrees of female genital tract penetration among antiretrovirals. These blood plasma (BP) and cervicovaginal fluid (CVF) data were co-modelled for four antiretrovirals with varying CVF exposures. Methods Six paired BP and CVF samples were collected over 24 h, and antiretroviral concentrations determined using validated liquid chromatography (LC) with UV detection or LC-mass spectrometry analytical methods. For each antiretroviral, a BP model was fit using Bayesian estimation (ADAPT5), followed by addition of a CVF model. The final model was chosen based on graphical and statistical output, and then non-linear mixed-effects modelling using S-ADAPT was performed. Population mean parameters and their variability are reported. Model-predicated area under the concentration-time curve during the dosing interval (AUC?) and exposure ratios of CVF AUC?:BP AUC? were calculated for each drug. Results The base model uses first-order absorption with a lag time, a two-compartment model, and a series of transit compartments that transfer the drug from BP to CVF. Protein-unbound drug transfers into CVF for efavirenz and atazanavir; total drug transfers for lamivudine and tenofovir. CVF follows a one-compartment model for efavirenz and atazanavir, and a two-compartment model for lamivudine and tenofovir. As expected, inter-individual variability was high. Model-predicted CVF AUC?:BP AUC? ratios are consistent with published results. Conclusions This is the first pharmacokinetic modelling of antiretroviral disposition in BP and CVF. These models will be further refined with tissue data, and used in clinical trials simulations to inform future studies of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis in women. PMID:23044523

Dumond, Julie B.; Nicol, Melanie R.; Kendrick, Racheal N.; Garonzik, Samira M.; Patterson, Kristine B.; Cohen, Myron S.; Forrest, Alan; Kashuba, Angela D.M.

2012-01-01

348

Genital warts  

MedlinePLUS

Condylomata acuminata; Penile warts; Human papilloma virus (HPV); Venereal warts; Condyloma; HPV DNA test; Sexually transmitted disease (STD) - warts; Sexually transmitted infection (STI) - warts; LSIL- ...

349

Evaluation of a High Resolution Genotyping Method for Chlamydia trachomatis Using Routine Clinical Samples  

PubMed Central

Background Genital chlamydia infection is the most commonly diagnosed sexually transmitted infection in the UK. C. trachomatis genital infections are usually caused by strains which fall into two pathovars: lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) and the genitourinary genotypes D–K. Although these genotypes can be discriminated by outer membrane protein gene (ompA) sequencing or multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), neither protocol affords the high-resolution genotyping required for local epidemiology and accurate contact-tracing. Principal Findings We evaluated variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) and ompA sequencing (now called multi-locus VNTR analysis and ompA or “MLVA-ompA”) to study local epidemiology in Southampton over a period of six months. One hundred and fifty seven endocervical swabs that tested positive for C. trachomatis from both the Southampton genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinic and local GP surgeries were tested by COBAS Taqman 48 (Roche) PCR for the presence of C. trachomatis. Samples tested as positive by the commercial NAATs test were genotyped, where possible, by a MLVA-ompA sequencing technique. Attempts were made to isolate C. trachomatis from all 157 samples in cell culture, and 68 (43%) were successfully recovered by repeatable passage in culture. Of the 157 samples, 93 (i.e. 59%) were fully genotyped by MLVA-ompA. Only one mixed infection (E & D) in a single sample was confirmed. There were two distinct D genotypes for the ompA gene. Most frequent ompA genotypes were D, E and F, comprising 20%, 41% and 16% of the type-able samples respectively. Within all genotypes we detected numerous MLVA sub-types. Conclusions Amongst the common genotypes, there are a significant number of defined MLVA sub-types, which may reflect particular background demographics including age group, geography, high-risk sexual behavior, and sexual networks. PMID:21347295

Wang, Yibing; Skilton, Rachel J.; Cutcliffe, Lesley T.; Andrews, Emma; Clarke, Ian N.; Marsh, Pete

2011-01-01

350

Epitheliocystis infection in cultured white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus): antigenic and ultrastructural similarities of the causative agent to the chlamydiae.  

PubMed

A mild to moderate branchial epitheliocystis infection was diagnosed in subyearling (11 months old, 250-300 g) white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) from a private culture facility with a 4-8% mortality in the population. Infected branchial epithelial cells contained the coccoid to coccobacillary epitheliocystis organisms, which appeared as cytoplasmic inclusions composed of a fine, homogeneous, dense, basophilic, granular material. The infected cells were variably enlarged with spherical to oval profiles and were randomly distributed throughout the branchial epithelium. The cytoplasmic inclusions stained positive with Macchiavello stain but negative with Brown and Brenn, periodic acid-Schiff, and Gimenez stains. Expression of chlamydial antigen was demonstrated within the cytoplasmic inclusions using a standard peroxidase-antiperoxidase immunohistochemical technique. Three stages of coordinated intracellular development were recognized by electron microscopy. The reticulate bodies were oval to spherical and 0.4-0.8 x 0.5-1.4 microns but often exhibited a pleomorphic and convoluted appearance because of variable membrane invaginations and evaginations suggestive of uneven fission and budding. Separate host cells contained intermediate bodies that were spherical to oval and 0.2-0.4 x 0.3-0.6 microns although often observed in the process of apparent uneven division. The presence of a cap or plaque composed of hexagonally arrayed fibrillar surface projections was initially recognized in this stage. A homogeneous population of 0.3-0.4 microns oval elementary bodies were observed separately in individual host cells. This developmental stage had a single, dense, compact, eccentrically located cytoplasmic condensation that occurred opposite to the location of the cap of hexagonally arrayed fibrillar surface projections. Morphologic characteristics of the epitheliocystis organism in these white sturgeon were similar to those previously described in other teleosts and expands the species catalogue of epitheliocystis infection. Furthermore, the ultrastructural similarities to the chalmydiae and the immunohistochemical detection of chlamydial antigen provides further evidence that the epitheliocystis agent is related to members of the Chlamydiales. Although the infection was considered mild to moderate and could not be definitively attributed to the mortality in this population, the potential adverse impact of epitheliocystis infection on sturgeon culture should be considered especially in intensive fish culture operations. PMID:8744738

Groff, J M; LaPatra, S E; Munn, R J; Anderson, M L; Osburn, B I

1996-04-01

351

Ribosomal RNA Evidence of Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis Infection Following 3 Annual Mass Azithromycin Distributions in Communities With Highly Prevalent Trachoma  

PubMed Central

Twelve trachoma-hyperendemic communities were treated with 3 annual mass azithromycin distributions. Children aged 0–9 years were monitored 1 year following the third treatment. An RNA-based test detected ocular chlamydial infection in more children than did a DNA-based test (6.9% vs 4.2%), and in a larger number of communities (8 vs 7). PMID:22095569

Ayele, Berhan; Gebre, Teshome; Moncada, Jeanne; Stoller, Nicole E.; Zhou, Zhaoxia; Porco, Travis C.; McCulloch, Charles E.; Gaynor, Bruce D.; Emerson, Paul M.; Schachter, Julius; Lietman, Thomas M.

2012-01-01

352

Detection of bacterial antigens and Alzheimer’s disease-like pathology in the central nervous system of BALB/c mice following intranasal infection with a laboratory isolate of Chlamydia pneumoniae  

PubMed Central

Pathology consistent with that observed in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has previously been documented following intranasal infection of normal wild-type mice with Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn) isolated from an AD brain (96-41). In the current study, BALB/c mice were intranasally infected with a laboratory strain of Cpn, AR-39, and brain and olfactory bulbs were obtained at 1–4 months post-infection (pi). Immunohistochemistry for amyloid beta or Cpn antigens was performed on sections from brains of infected or mock-infected mice. Chlamydia-specific immunolabeling was identified in olfactory bulb tissues and in cerebrum of AR-39 infected mice. The Cpn specific labeling was most prominent at 1 month pi and the greatest burden of amyloid deposition was noted at 2 months pi, whereas both decreased at 3 and 4 months. Viable Cpn was recovered from olfactory bulbs of 3 of 3 experimentally infected mice at 1 and 3 months pi, and in 2 of 3 mice at 4 months pi. In contrast, in cortical tissues of infected mice at 1 and 4 months pi no viable organism was obtained. At 3 months pi, only 1 of 3 mice had a measurable burden of viable Cpn from the cortical tissues. Mock-infected mice (0 of 3) had no detectable Cpn in either olfactory bulbs or cortical tissues. These data indicate that the AR-39 isolate of Cpn establishes a limited infection predominantly in the olfactory bulbs of BALB/c mice. Although infection with the laboratory strain of Cpn promotes deposition of amyloid beta, this appears to resolve following reduction of the Cpn antigen burden over time. Our data suggest that infection with the AR-39 laboratory isolate of Cpn results in a different course of amyloid beta deposition and ultimate resolution than that observed following infection with the human AD-brain Cpn isolate, 96-41. These data further support that there may be differences, possibly in virulence factors, between Cpn isolates in the generation of sustainable AD pathology. PMID:25538615

Little, Christopher S.; Joyce, Timothy A.; Hammond, Christine J.; Matta, Hazem; Cahn, David; Appelt, Denah M.; Balin, Brian J.

2014-01-01

353

Antibiotic resistance in Chlamydiae  

PubMed Central

There are few documented reports of antibiotic resistance in Chlamydia and no examples of natural and stable antibiotic resistance in strains collected from humans. While there are several reports of clinical isolates exhibiting resistance to antibiotics, these strains either lost their resistance phenotype in vitro, or lost viability altogether. Differences in procedures for chlamydial culture in the laboratory, low recovery rates of clinical isolates and the unknown significance of heterotypic resistance observed in culture may interfere with the recognition and interpretation of antibiotic resistance. Although antibiotic resistance has not emerged in chlamydiae pathogenic to humans, several lines of evidence suggest they are capable of expressing significant resistant phenotypes. The adept ability of chlamydiae to evolve to antibiotic resistance in vitro is demonstrated by contemporary examples of mutagenesis, recombination and genetic transformation. The isolation of tetracycline-resistant Chlamydia suis strains from pigs also emphasizes their adaptive ability to acquire antibiotic resistance genes when exposed to significant selective pressure. PMID:20860486

Sandoz, Kelsi M; Rockey, Daniel D

2011-01-01

354

Chlamydia (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... with urination Untreated chlamydia also can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which can affect the vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. Sometimes, PID causes no symptoms; more often, it causes abdominal ...

355

Chlamydia in canine or feline coronary arteriosclerotic lesions  

PubMed Central

Background There are numerous reports linking Chlamydia infection to human coronary atherosclerosis. However, there is a lack of data regarding this correlation in dogs and cats, and there are no reports investigating coronary arteriosclerosis and Chlamydia in these species. The aim of the present study was to examine whether there is a correlation between canine and feline spontaneous atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis and the presence of Chlamydia. Archived histopathological samples of dogs (n = 16) and cats (n = 13) with findings of atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis in heart tissue were examined for the presence of Chlamydiaceae using real-time PCR, ArrayTube Microarray and immunohistochemistry. Additionally, arteriosclerotic lesions of all cases were histologically classified and graded. Results Both canine atherosclerotic cases, and all 14 canine arteriosclerotic cases were negative for Chlamydia. Only one of the 13 arteriosclerotic feline cases was positive for Chlamydia by real-time PCR, revealing C. abortus by ArrayTube Microarray. To our knowledge, this is the first description of C. abortus in a cat. Overall, the type and grade of canine and feline arteriosclerotic lesions revealed similarities, and were predominantly moderate and hyperplastic. Conclusions These findings suggest that there is no obvious correlation between canine and feline coronary arteriosclerosis and the presence of Chlamydia. In order to draw final conclusions about the correlation between Chlamydia and canine atherosclerosis, examination of more samples is required. PMID:21906306

2011-01-01

356

In infertile women, cells from Chlamydia trachomatis infected site release higher levels of interferon-gamma, interleukin-10 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha upon heat shock protein stimulation than fertile women  

PubMed Central

Background The magnitude of reproductive morbidity associated with sexually transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis infection is enormous. Association of antibodies to chlamydial heat shock proteins (cHSP) 60 and 10 with various disease sequelae such as infertility or ectopic pregnancy has been reported. Cell-mediated immunity is essential in resolution and in protection to Chlamydia as well as is involved in the immunopathogenesis of chlamydial diseases. To date only peripheral cell mediated immune responses have been evaluated for cHSP60. These studies suggest cHSPs as important factors involved in immunopathological condition associated with infection. Hence study of specific cytokine responses of mononuclear cells from the infectious site to cHSP60 and cHSP10 may elucidate their actual role in the cause of immunopathogenesis and the disease outcome. Methods Female patients (n = 368) attending the gynecology out patient department of Safdarjung hospital, New Delhi were enrolled for the study and were clinically characterized into two groups; chlamydia positive fertile women (n = 63) and chlamydia positive infertile women (n = 70). Uninfected healthy women with no infertility problem were enrolled as controls (n = 39). cHSP60 and cHSP10 specific cytokine responses (Interferon (IFN)-gamma, Interleukin (IL)-10, Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-alpha, IL-13 and IL-4) were assessed by ELISA in stimulated cervical mononuclear cell supernatants. Results cHSP60 and cHSP10 stimulation results in significant increase in IFN-gamma (P = 0.006 and P = 0.04 respectively) and IL-10 levels (P = 0.04) in infertile group as compared to fertile group. A significant cHSP60 specific increase in TNF-alpha levels (P = 0.0008) was observed in infertile group as compared to fertile group. cHSP60 and cHSP10 specific IFN-gamma and IL-10 levels were significantly correlated (P < 0.0001, r = 0.54 and P = 0.004, r = 0.33 respectively) in infertile group. Conclusion Our results suggest that exposure to chlamydial heat shock proteins (cHSP60 and cHSP10) could significantly affect mucosal immune function by increasing the release of IFN-gamma, IL-10 and TNF-alpha by cervical mononuclear cells. PMID:18489796

Srivastava, Pragya; Jha, Rajneesh; Bas, Sylvette; Salhan, Sudha; Mittal, Aruna

2008-01-01

357

Head-to-Head Multicenter Comparison of DNA Probe and Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests for Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Women Performed with an Improved Reference Standard  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few evaluations of tests for Chlamydia trachomatis have compared nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) with diagnostic tests other than those by culture. In a five-city study of 3,551 women, we compared the results of commercial ligase chain reaction (LCR) and PCR tests performed on cervical swabs and urine with the results of PACE 2 tests performed on cervical swabs, using

Carolyn M. Black; Jeanne Marrazzo; Robert E. Johnson; Edward W. Hook III; Robert B. Jones; Timothy A. Green; Julius Schachter; Walter E. Stamm; Gail Bolan; David H. Martin; Georgia Atlanta

2002-01-01

358

Transfer of IgG in the female genital tract by MHC class I-related neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) confers protective immunity to vaginal infection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

IgG is a major immunoglobulin subclass in mucosal secretions of human female genital tract, where it predominates over the IgA isotype. Despite the abundance of IgG, surprisingly little is known about whether and how IgG enters the lumen of the genital tract and the exact role of local IgG may play ...

359

Cost effectiveness of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis: a review of published studies  

PubMed Central

Objective: Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis in the lower genital tract may contribute to the prevention of pelvic inflammatory disease in women. The purpose of this review was to critically appraise, and summarise studies of the cost effectiveness of screening for C trachomatis. Methods: A literature search was conducted on Medline and in Health Star from 1990–2000. Keywords were C trachomatis, screening, cost effectiveness. Bibliographies of reviewed articles were also searched. The population studied was asymptomatic sexually active women under 30 years of age in a primary care setting. The intervention assessed was screening for lower genital tract infection with C trachomatis and the outcomes studied were cases of C trachomatis detected, cases of PID prevented, and associated costs. Studies were assessed using the Drummond criteria for economic evaluations. They were assessed qualitatively as they were too heterogeneous to allow quantitative analysis. Results: 10 studies were included. All were modelled scenarios and all found screening to be more cost effective than simply testing symptomatic women, although all were based on probabilities that were assumed. Six of the studies focused on DNA based testing, three of them using urine. The models showed screening to be cost effective at prevalences of 3.1–10.0%, and cost saving (overtesting symptomatic women) at a prevalence as low as 1.1%, if age was used as a selection factor and DNA based tests were used in urine samples. Conclusions: At the prevalence of infection expected in the target population, all studies suggest screening is cost effective. However, the assumptions used in the models have been difficult to confirm and there is a need for more data, particularly on the risk of complications in women with asymptomatic lower tract infection. PMID:12473799

Honey, E; Augood, C; Templeton, A; Russell, I; Paavonen, J; Mardh, P; Stary, A; Stray-Pedersen, B

2002-01-01

360

Analysis of the human serological response to proteins of Chlamydia trachomatis.  

PubMed Central

Sera from individuals with culture-proven genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis were analyzed for the presence of antibodies to chlamydial proteins by an immunoelectrophoretic transfer method. Protein antigens from representative strains of the 15 known serotypes were resolved by gel electrophoresis and transferred to a nitrocellulose solid support before being probed with serum. Sera from infected patients reacted with many different proteins. Most of these sera reacted with a 60,000- and a 62,000-molecular-weight protein which were present in each of the C. trachomatis serotypes and clinical isolates analyzed. In contrast, reactions with the major outer membrane protein were frequently observed but were usually weak. Sera from control groups of children, cloistered nuns, and college women, who were presumed not to have had prior chlamydial infections, did not usually have antibodies against the 60,000- or 62,000-molecular-weight protein, but did react with the major outer membrane protein and a 29,000-molecular-weight protein. These observations may have implications for the development of serodiagnostic tests as well as the identification of candidate antigens for vaccine development. Images PMID:6185424

Newhall, W J; Batteiger, B; Jones, R B

1982-01-01

361

White side test: A simple and rapid test for evaluation of nonspecific bacterial genital infections of repeat breeding cattle  

PubMed Central

The objective of the present study was to determine the grades of nonspecific bacterial infection of genitalia of repeat breeding cattle by a simple and rapid test under field condition. For this purpose, a total of 100 crossbred Jersey cows comprising of 80 repeat breeding animals presented for treatment and 20 normal cyclic (control group) animals presented for artificial insemination at their first service were selected. Estrual cervical mucus from all the animals was collected at 8 to 12 hr after the onset of behavioral estrus and subjected to white side test (WST) and bacteriological examination. The results of WST showed only 15% of control group had infection but the remaining 85% were free of it. In contrast, the majority of repeat breeding animals (57/80) showed infection (71.25%) and only 28.75% animals were free of infection. In bacterial culture, 60 (75.00%) from the 80 repeat breeding animals were found positive, and 20 (25.00%) were free of bacteria. All the three samples of control group that showed no color reaction in WST had also no growth in bacterial culture. The WST results showed a positive (p < 0.01) correlation of 0.48 with bacterial culture. It is thus concluded that under field condition WST can be used as a prime modality for ascertaining nonspecific bacterial infection of repeat breeding cattle before subjecting them to any antibiotic therapy thereby reducing the cost of diagnosis and treatment.

Bhat, Fayaz Ahmad; Bhattacharyya, Hiranya Kumar; Hussain, Syed Akram

2014-01-01

362

Plasmid-encoded Pgp3 is a major virulence factor for Chlamydia muridarum to induce hydrosalpinx in mice.  

PubMed

Hydrosalpinx induction in mice by Chlamydia muridarum infection, a model that has been used to study C. trachomatis pathogenesis in women, is known to depend on the cryptic plasmid that encodes eight genes designated pgp1 to pgp8. To identify the plasmid-encoded pathogenic determinants, we evaluated C. muridarum transformants deficient in the plasmid-borne gene pgp3, -4, or -7 for induction of hydrosalpinx. C. muridarum transformants with an in-frame deletion of either pgp3 or -4 but not -7 failed to induce hydrosalpinx. The deletion mutant phenotype was reproduced by using transformants with premature termination codon insertions in the corresponding pgp genes (to minimize polar effects inherent in the deletion mutants). Pgp4 is known to regulate pgp3 expression, while lack of Pgp3 does not significantly affect Pgp4 function. Thus, we conclude that Pgp3 is an effector virulence factor and that lack of Pgp3 may be responsible for the attenuation in C. muridarum pathogenicity described above. This attenuated pathogenicity was further correlated with a rapid decrease in chlamydial survival in the lower genital tract and reduced ascension to the upper genital tract in mice infected with C. muridarum deficient in Pgp3 but not Pgp7. The Pgp3-deficient C. muridarum organisms were also less invasive when delivered directly to the oviduct on day 7 after inoculation. These observations demonstrate that plasmid-encoded Pgp3 is required for C. muridarum survival in the mouse genital tract and represents a major virulence factor in C. muridarum pathogenesis in mice. PMID:25287930

Liu, Yuanjun; Huang, Yumeng; Yang, Zhangsheng; Sun, Yina; Gong, Siqi; Hou, Shuping; Chen, Chaoqun; Li, Zhongyu; Liu, Quanzhong; Wu, Yimou; Baseman, Joel; Zhong, Guangming

2014-12-01

363

Localization of Simian immunodeficiency virus-infected cells in the genital tract of male and female Rhesus macaques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SIV\\/Rhesus macaque model of HIV transmission has led to an increased understanding of the interactions between virus and host during the sexual transmission of HIV. SIV can be transmitted across the intact mucosa (stratified squamous epithelium) of the foreskin and glans of the penis of Rhesus macaques. SIV-infected cells can be found at all levels of the male Rhesus

Christopher J Miller

1998-01-01

364

The supermarket for women's reproductive health: the burden of genital infections in a family planning clinic in Nairobi, Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To study the burden of disease of reproductive tract infections (RTIs) and cervical dysplasia in women attending a family planning clinic in Nairobi, Kenya, and to assess the acceptability of integrating reproductive healthcare services into existing family planning facilities. METHODS: In a family planning clinic in Nairobi, Kenya, 520 women were enrolled in a study on RTI and cervical

M. Temmerman; N. Kidula; M. Tyndall; R. Rukaria-Kaumbutho; L. Muchiri; J. O. Ndinya-Achola

1998-01-01

365

Prevention of premature birth by screening and treatment for common genital tract infections: Results of a prospective controlled evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to analyze (1) the effects of prevalent lower reproductive tract infections and (2) the effect of systematic diagnosis and treatment to reduce risks of early pregnancy loss (< 22 weeks), preterm premature rupture of membranes, and overall preterm birth.STUDY DESIGN: A prospective, controlled treatment trial was conducted on 1260 women. During the first 7 months of

James A. McGregor; Janice I. French; Ruth Parker; Deborah Draper; Elisa Patterson; Ward Jones; Kyja Thorsgard; John McFee

1995-01-01

366

Chlamydia and Male Lower Urinary Tract Diseases  

PubMed Central

Of the chlamydia species that can cause infections in humans, C. trachomatis is responsible for lower urinary tract diseases in men and women. C. trachomatis infections are prevalent worldwide, but current research is focused on females, with the burden of disease and infertility sequelae considered to be a predominantly female problem. However, a role for this pathogen in the development of male urethritis, epididymitis, and orchitis is widely accepted. Also, it can cause complications such as chronic prostatitis and infertility. This review summarizes C. trachomatis infection in the male genitourinary tract, including urethritis, epididymitis, orchitis, and its complications, and addresses the microbiology, epidemiology, screening, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:23550267

Lee, Young-Suk

2013-01-01

367

Field evaluation of a new commercially available ELISA based on a recombinant antigen for diagnosing Chlamydophila abortus ( Chlamydia psittaci serotype 1) infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new commercially available ELISA (ELISAr-Chlamydia) for detecting antibodies against Chlamydophilaabortus has been evaluated using sheep field serum samples. The ELISA is based on a recombinant antigen which expresses part of a protein from the 80–90kDa family that is specific to C.abortus. Sera (105) from six flocks with confirmed ovine chlamydial abortion (OEA) outbreaks were used in this study, as

A. J Buend??a; F Cuello; L Del Rio; M. C Gallego; M. R Caro; J Salinas

2001-01-01

368

Human Antibody Responses to a Chlamydia-Secreted Protease Factor  

PubMed Central

We have previously identified a chlamydia-secreted protein (designated chlamydial proteasome/protease-like activity factor, or CPAF) in the cytosol of chlamydia-infected cells. Although CPAF is known to degrade host transcription factors required for major histocompatibility complex antigen expression in cultured cells, it is not clear whether CPAF is produced and maintains similar functions in humans infected with chlamydial organisms. We now report that CPAF does not preexist in chlamydial organisms and that CPAF synthesis requires live organism replication in cultured cells. Mice inoculated with live, but not mice inoculated with dead, chlamydial organisms produced a strong antibody response to CPAF, correlating CPAF-specific antibody production with CPAF synthesis in animals. Sera from women diagnosed with Chlamydia trachomatis cervicitis displayed higher levels of antibodies to CPAF than to either chlamydial major outer membrane protein or heat shock protein 60, suggesting that CPAF is both produced and immunogenic during human chlamydial infection. PMID:15557641

Sharma, Jyotika; Bosnic, Anthony M.; Piper, Jeanna M.; Zhong, Guangming

2004-01-01

369

Co-evolution of genomes and plasmids within Chlamydia trachomatis and the emergence in Sweden of a new variant strain  

PubMed Central

Background Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of sexually transmitted infections globally and the leading cause of preventable blindness in the developing world. There are two biovariants of C. trachomatis: 'trachoma', causing ocular and genital tract infections, and the invasive 'lymphogranuloma venereum' strains. Recently, a new variant of the genital tract C. trachomatis emerged in Sweden. This variant escaped routine diagnostic tests because it carries a plasmid with a deletion. Failure to detect this strain has meant it has spread rapidly across the country provoking a worldwide alert. In addition to being a key diagnostic target, the plasmid has been linked to chlamydial virulence. Analysis of chlamydial plasmids and their cognate chromosomes was undertaken to provide insights into the evolutionary relationship between chromosome and plasmid. This is essential knowledge if the plasmid is to be continued to be relied on as a key diagnostic marker, and for an understanding of the evolution of Chlamydia trachomatis. Results The genomes of two new C. trachomatis strains were sequenced, together with plasmids from six C. trachomatis isolates, including the new variant strain from Sweden. The plasmid from the new Swedish variant has a 377 bp deletion in the first predicted coding sequence, abolishing the site used for PCR detection, resulting in negative diagnosis. In addition, the variant plasmid has a 44 bp duplication downstream of the deletion. The region containing the second predicted coding sequence is the most highly conserved region of the plasmids investigated. Phylogenetic analysis of the plasmids and chromosomes are fully congruent. Moreover this analysis also shows that ocular and genital strains diverged from a common C. trachomatis progenitor. Conclusion The evolutionary pathways of the chlamydial genome and plasmid imply that inheritance of the plasmid is tightly linked with its cognate chromosome. These data suggest that the plasmid is not a highly mobile genetic element and does not transfer readily between isolates. Comparative analysis of the plasmid sequences has revealed the most conserved regions that should be used to design future plasmid based nucleic acid amplification tests, to avoid diagnostic failures. PMID:19460133

Seth-Smith, Helena MB; Harris, Simon R; Persson, Kenneth; Marsh, Pete; Barron, Andrew; Bignell, Alexandra; Bjartling, Carina; Clark, Louise; Cutcliffe, Lesley T; Lambden, Paul R; Lennard, Nicola; Lockey, Sarah J; Quail, Michael A; Salim, Omar; Skilton, Rachel J; Wang, Yibing; Holland, Martin J; Parkhill, Julian; Thomson, Nicholas R; Clarke, Ian N

2009-01-01

370

Frequency of Chlamydia trachomatis in Ureaplasma-positive healthy women attending their first prenatal visit in a community hospital in Sapporo, Japan  

PubMed Central

Background Although Chlamydia trachomatis is the most commonly reported pathogen that causes urogenital infection such as urethritis or cervicitis, Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum, which are commensals in the genital tract, have also now been recognized as contributors to urogenital infection. However, whether the presence of either U. parvum or U. urealyticum is related to that of C. trachomatis in the urogenital tract remains unknown. We therefore attempted to estimate by PCR the prevalence of C. trachomatis, U. parvum and U. urealyticum in endocervical samples obtained from healthy women attending their first prenatal visit in Sapporo, Japan. Methods The samples were taken from 303 apparently healthy women, and the extracted DNAs (n = 280) were used for PCR detection targeting C. trachomatis, U. parvum and U. urealyticum. Statistical analysis of the data was performed by Fisher's exact test. Results PCR detection revealed that the prevalence of C. trachomatis, U. parvum and U. urealyticum was 14.3% (40/280), 41.7% (117/280) and 8.9% (25/280), respectively. C. trachomatis ompA genotype D was most frequently identified. Surprisingly, either C. trachomatis or Ureaplasma spp. was detected in almost half of the healthy women. Mixed infection of C. trachomatis with either U. parvum or U. urealyticum was also observed in 9.2% (26/280) of the women. There was a significant association between C. trachomatis and either U. parvum (p = 0.023) or Ureaplasma total (p = 0.013), but not U. urealyticum (p = 0.275). Conclusion This study demonstrated that the presence of Ureaplasma had a significant effect on the presence of C. trachomatis in the genital tract of healthy women, suggesting that mixed infection is an important factor in bacterial pathogenesis in the genital tract. PMID:22471518

2012-01-01

371

What's in a word: the use, misuse, and abuse of the word “persistence” in Chlamydia biology  

PubMed Central

The word persistence was used by Chlamydia researchers almost as soon as Chlamydia research was born to reflect the propensity of chlamydiae to cause inapparent infection in their hosts, from birds to humans. More recently, the term persistence has been used, misused, and sometimes abused amidst in vitro and in vivo studies that aim to mimick the ability of chlamydiae to emerge from the presumed inapparent state into clinically detectable infection and disease. Here, I have attempted to provide a global perspective on the state of research on chlamydial persistence, revisiting old observations that may warrant a new look, critically evaluating more recent observations and their shortcomings, and including recent developments that may help redefine chlamydiae as pathogens—or not—of both animals and humans. PMID:24624366

Bavoil, Patrik M.

2014-01-01

372

Syndromic treatment of gonococcal and chlamydial infections in women seeking primary care for the genital discharge syndrome: decision-making.  

PubMed Central

The syndromic treatment of gonococcal and chlamydial infections in women seeking primary care in clinics where resources are scarce, as recommended by WHO and implemented in many developing countries, necessitates a balance to be struck between overtreatment and undertreatment. The present paper identifies factors that are relevant to the selection of specific strategies for syndromic treatment in the above circumstances. Among them are the general aspects of decision-making and caveats concerning the rational decision-making approach. The positive and negative implications are outlined of providing or withholding treatment following a specific algorithm with a given accuracy to detect infection, i.e. sensitivity, specificity and predictive values. Other decision-making considerations that are identified are related to implementation and include the stability of risk factors with regard to time, space and the implementer, acceptability by stakeholders, and environmental constraints. There is a need to consider empirically developed treatment algorithms as a basis for policy discourse, to be evaluated together with the evidence, alternatives and arguments by the stakeholders. PMID:11731816

Behets, F. M.; Miller, W. C.; Cohen, M. S.

2001-01-01

373

How suitable are available pharmaceuticals for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases? 1: Conditions presenting as genital discharges  

PubMed Central

The relative prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases and the agents available for the treatment of these diseases commonly presenting as genital discharges—namely, gonorrhoea, candidosis, trichomoniasis, and non-specific genital infection—are reviewed. The many agents that are active against gonorrhoea are listed, but none is ideal. Penicillin, in spite of its allergic side effects, has remained the drug of choice for 25 years because it is cheap, easily obtained, lacks toxicity even in pregnancy, and is effective. Its use is now threatened by the emergence of some strains that are able to produce penicillinase. At present the policy is to obtain the best results from penicillin while these are acceptable, but the clinician in some countries is badly served by the availability of procaine penicillin in aqueous suspension. There is a need for an effective penicillin or cephalosporin that is penicillinase resistant and cheap. Cefuroxime offers considerable hope but it is likely to be expensive in the immediate future. There are many preparations for the local treatment of candidosis. The confidence expressed by the manufacturers in recommending a three-day treatment is, it is hoped, based on a superior product. Nevertheless there is a need for a safe systemically absorbed fungicide which could be used orally, or some substance that could render the vagina an inhospitable environment for the organism. In the treatment of trichomoniasis the pharmaceutical industry in providing substances more than 90% effective in a single dose has done all that can be expected. Any further advances lie in the field of human behaviour rather than pharmaceutical research. In the treatment of non-specific genital infection the needs are more of research than of therapy. More knowledge is required of the cause of the condition and the relative role of contending pathogens, and of the results of treatment of patients and contacts in which Chlamydia or other suspect pathogens have been isolated. PMID:338125

Willcox, R. R.

1977-01-01

374

Genital herpes - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

Herpes - genital -self-care; Herpes simplex - genital - self-care; Herpesvirus 2 - self-care; HSV-2 - self-care ... worried after finding out that you have genital herpes . But know that you are not alone. Millions ...

375

Chlamydia prevalence in the general population: is there a sex difference? a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background The focus of Chlamydia trachomatis screening and testing lies more on women than on men. The study aim was to establish by systematic review the prevalence of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in men and women in the general population. Methods Electronic databases and reference lists were searched from 2000 to 2013 using the key words “Chlamydia trachomatis”, “population-based study” and “disease prevalence”. Reference lists were checked. Studies were included in the analysis if Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence was reported for both men and women in a population-based study. Prevalence rates for men and women were described as well as highest prevalence rate by age and sex. The difference in prevalence between the sexes in each study was calculated. Results Twenty-five studies met the inclusion criteria and quality assessment for the review. In nine of the twenty-five studies there was a statistically significant sex difference in the chlamydia prevalence. In all nine studies the prevalence of chlamydia was higher in women than in men. The prevalence for women varied from 1.1% to 10.6% and for men from 0.1% to 12.1%. The average chlamydia prevalence is highly variable between countries. The highest prevalence of chlamydia occurred predominantly in younger age groups (< 25 years). The absence of symptoms in population-based urogenital chlamydia infection is common in men and women (mean 88.5% versus 68.3%). Conclusions The urogenital chlamydia trachomatis prevalence in the general population is more similar than dissimilar for men and women. A modest sex difference is apparent. The prevalence rates can be used to inform chlamydia screening strategies in general practice. PMID:24215287

2013-01-01

376

Liposomal gD Ectodomain (gD1-306) Vaccine Protects Against HSV2 Genital or Rectal Infection of Female and Male Mice  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2) is the most common causative agent of genital herpes, with infection rates as high as 1 in 6 adults. The present studies were done to evaluate the efficacy of a liposomal HSV2 gD1-306 vaccine (L-gD1-306-HD) in an acute murine HSV2 infection model of intravaginal (female) or intrarectal (male or female) challenge. Two doses of L-gD1-306-HD containing 60?g gD1-306-HD and 15?g monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) per dose provided protection against HSV2 intravaginal challenge (86-100% survival, P?0.0003 vs control liposomes; P=0.06 vs L-gD1-306-HD without MPL). Both male and female mice (BALB/c and C57BL/6) immunized with L-gD1-306-HD/MPL were significantly protected against HSV2 intrarectal challenge, with higher survival rates compared to controls (71-100%, P?0.007). L-gD1-306-HD/MPL also provided increased survival when compared to a liposomal peptide vaccine, L-gD264-285-HD/MPL (male BALB/c, P?0.001; female BALB/c and male C57BL/6, P=0.06). Mice given L-gD1-306-HD/MPL also had minimal disease signs, reduced viral burden in their spinal cords and elevated neutralizing antibody titers in the females. The vaccine also stimulated gD1-306-HD specific splenocytes of both male and female mice with significantly elevated levels of IFN-? compared to IL-4 (P?0.01) indicating that there was an enhanced Th1 response. These results provide the first evidence that the L-gD1-306–HD vaccine can protect both male and female mice against intrarectal HSV2 challenge. PMID:19835825

Olson, K.; Macias, P.; Hutton, S.; Ernst, W. A.; Fujii, G.; Adler-Moore, J. P.

2009-01-01

377

Genital lesions in male red fronted gazelles (Gazella rufifrons) experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei and the effect of melarsamine hydrochloride (Cymelarsan®) and diminazene aceturate (Berenil®) in its treatment.  

PubMed

Thirty red fronted gazelles (Gazella rufifrons) were used to assess the genital lesions associated with trypanosomosis and the efficacy of melarsamine hydrochloride (Cymelarsan®) and diminazene aceturate (Berenil®) in the treatment of the condition. The animals were divided into 6 equal groups (A-F). Animals in groups A-E were infected with Trypanosoma brucei, and later treated on day 8 post infection (p.i.) with either melarsamine hydrochloride (Cymelarsan®) at 0.3 mg/kg (Group A) and 0.6 mg/kg (Group B) or diminazene aceturate (Berenil®) at 3.5 mg/kg (Group C) and 7.0 mg/kg (Group D). Animals in group E remained untreated while group F served as healthy controls. Parasitaemia was established by day 8 p.i. in all infected groups and eliminated by day 16 following treatment on day 8 p.i. with melarsamine hydrochloride (Cymelarsan®) (Groups A and B) or diminazene aceturate (Berenil®) (Group D). On the other hand, diminazene aceturate treatment (Berenil®) on day 8 p.i. at 3.5 mg/kg (Group C) caused a temporary disappearance of parasites from the circulation by day 16 p.i. but there was a relapse parasitaemia on day 44 with a peak count of 500 ± 2.79 × 10(3) parasites/?L of blood by day 52 p.i. In the infected/untreated group (E), parasitaemia fluctuated but attained the same peak as Group C by day 52 p.i. Increase in body temperatures (40.5 ± 3.16 - 42.8 ± 3.25 °C) occurred during the first wave of parasitaemia but declined to pre-infection values from day 28 p.i. in Groups A, B and D. In Groups C and E, there was a second wave of parasitaemia (P < 0.05) with peak counts of 42.4 ± 0.81 × 10(3)/?L and 41.8 ± 0.80 × 10(3)/?L respectively by day 52 p.i. A significant (P < 0.05) decline in packed cell volume was also noted by day 52 p.i. The major clinical signs observed in Groups C and E were pyrexia, inappetance, emaciation, anaemia, dullness, starry hair coat, pallor of buccal and ocular mucous membranes. Similarly, in Groups C and E, the testicles appeared oedematous and painful to touch with degenerative changes, morphological sperm abnormalities and oligospermia with 2.0% and 0% sperm reserves respectively. Sperm reserve was 100% in Groups A, B and D. It is therefore, concluded that trypanosomosis can cause serious infertility in male red fronted gazelles and that early treatments with melarsamine hydrochloride (Cymelarsan®) at 0.3 and 0.6 mg/kg body weight or diminazene aceturate (Berenil®) at 7.0 mg/kg body weight may prevent such effects. PMID:21601916

Mbaya, A W; Nwosu, C O; Kumshe, H A

2011-09-01

378

Isolation of Chlamydia using McCoy cells and Buffalo green monkey cells.  

PubMed Central

Unselected eye and genital specimens from 233 patients were cultured for Chlamydia. The isolation rates were compared using McCoy cells and Buffalo green monkey cells, both procedures being performed with and without the addition of cycloheximide and centrifugation. No significant difference was found in the isolation rates using the four methods. The characteristics of the two cell lines and the advantages of omitting cycloheximide treatment and centrifugation are discussed. PMID:6363454

Wills, P J; Johnson, L; Thompson, R G

1984-01-01

379

Genomic Approach for Analysis of Surface Proteins in Chlamydia pneumoniae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydia pneumoniae, a human pathogen causing respiratory infections and probably contributing to the development of atherosclerosis and heart disease, is an obligate intracellular parasite which for replication needs to productively interact with and enter human cells. Because of the intrinsic difficulty in working with C. pneumoniae and in the absence of reliable tools for its genetic manipulation, the molecular definition

Silvia Montigiani; Fabiana Falugi; Maria Scarselli; Oretta Finco; Roberto Petracca; Giuliano Galli; Massimo Mariani; Roberto Manetti; Mauro Agnusdei; Roberto Cevenini; Manuela Donati; Renzo Nogarotto; Nathalie Norais; Ignazio Garaguso; Sandra Nuti; Giulietta Saletti; Domenico Rosa; Giulio Ratti; Guido Grandi

2002-01-01

380

Chlamydia: the nurse's role in diagnosis, treatment and health promotion.  

PubMed

This article discusses the UK's most commonly diagnosed sexually transmitted infection, Chlamydia. It outlines the nurse's role in diagnosis, treatment and health promotion, including encouraging condom use, medications, partner notification and emphasising the importance of avoiding sexual intercourse until drug therapy is completed and any symptoms have gone. PMID:16827205

Flannigan, Jason