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Sample records for genital chlamydia infection

  1. Female Reproductive Hormones and Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Genital Chlamydia Infection in Tubal Factor Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Nsonwu-Anyanwu, Augusta Chinyere; Charles-Davies, Mabel Ayebantoyo; Taiwo, Victor Olusegun; Li, Bin; Oni, Anthony Alabar; Bello, Folashade Adenike

    2015-01-01

    Background Genital Chlamydia infection (GCI) and the associated pathologies have been implicated in tubal infertility. Though the actual pathologic mechanisms are still uncertain, oxidative stress and other factors have been implicated. The purpose of the study was to determine the possible contribution of female reproductive hormones and biomarkers of oxidative stress in genital Chlamydial infection to tubal occlusion. Methods This prospective case control study was carried out by recruiting 150 age matched women grouped into infertile Chlamydia positive women (n = 50), fertile Chlamydia positive women (n = 50) and fertile Chlamydia negative women as controls (n = 50). High vaginal swabs and endocervical swabs were collected for screening Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Treponema pallidum, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. Sera were collected for estimation of Chlamydia trachomatis antibody, female reproductive hormones [Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Oestradiol (E2), Progesterone (P4), Prolactin (PRL)] and biomarkers of oxidative stress [Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) and 8-hydroxyl-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)] by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Data were analyzed using chi square, analysis of variance and LSD Post hoc to determine mean differences at p = 0.05. Results Among women with GCI, higher levels of LH and 8-OHdG were observed in infertile Chlamydia positive women compared to fertile Chlamydia positive women (p < 0.05). Higher levels of LH and 8-OHdG and lower TAC levels were observed in infertile Chlamydia positive women compared to fertile Chlamydia negative controls (p < 0.05). Conclusion Mechanisms including oxidative DNA damage and reduced antioxidant capacity may be involved in the pathology of Chlamydia induced tubal damage. PMID:25927024

  2. Chlamydia Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... chlamydia can infect the urinary tract. In women, infection of the reproductive system can lead to pelvic ... Babies born to infected mothers can get eye infections and pneumonia from chlamydia. In men, chlamydia can ...

  3. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection among persons aged 14-39 years--United States, 2007-2012.

    PubMed

    Torrone, Elizabeth; Papp, John; Weinstock, Hillard

    2014-09-26

    Infection with the bacterium, Chlamydia trachomatis (often termed "chlamydia") is the most frequently reported sexually transmitted infection in the United States. The urethra is the most common site of infection in males, and the urethra and cervix are most commonly infected in females. Ascending infection in females can cause pelvic inflammatory disease, which can lead to infertility and ectopic pregnancy. Genital chlamydial infections are usually asymptomatic, and screening is necessary to identify most infections. Currently, chlamydia screening for sexually active women aged <25 years is recommended by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (grade B recommendation). Chlamydia is nationally notifiable; however, if females do not access care or clinicians do not screen, many infections go undiagnosed, unreported, and untreated. CDC monitors population prevalence of genital chlamydial infection through the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), which tests a sample of the U.S. population aged 14-39 years for genital C. trachomatis and found that the overall chlamydia burden in the United States decreased during 1999-2008. Using data from the most recent cycles of NHANES (2007-2012), CDC estimated chlamydia prevalence among persons aged 14-39 years overall and by demographic characteristics and sexual behaviors. The prevalence of chlamydia among persons aged 14-39 years was 1.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4%-2.0%). Chlamydia prevalence varied by age and race/ethnicity, with prevalence highest among non-Hispanic blacks (5.2%). Among sexually active females aged 14-24 years, the population targeted for routine screening, chlamydia prevalence was 4.7% overall and 13.5% among non-Hispanic black females. As chlamydia is common and infections are usually asymptomatic, health care providers should routinely screen sexually active young women aged <25 years for chlamydial infection, provide prompt treatment for infected persons, and ensure that infected patients' sex partners receive timely treatment to prevent reinfection. PMID:25254560

  4. Influence of the tryptophan-indole-IFN? axis on human genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection: role of vaginal co-infections

    PubMed Central

    Aiyar, Ashok; Quayle, Alison J.; Buckner, Lyndsey R.; Sherchand, Shardulendra P.; Chang, Theresa L.; Zea, Arnold H.; Martin, David H.; Belland, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The natural history of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections can vary widely; infections can spontaneously resolve but can also last from months to years, potentially progressing to cause significant pathology. The host and bacterial factors underlying this wide variation are not completely understood, but emphasize the bacterium's capacity to evade/adapt to the genital immune response, and/or exploit local environmental conditions to survive this immune response. IFN? is considered to be a primary host protective cytokine against endocervical C. trachomatis infections. IFN? acts by inducing the host enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxgenase, which catabolizes tryptophan, thereby depriving the bacterium of this essential amino acid. In vitro studies have revealed that tryptophan deprivation causes Chlamydia to enter a viable but non-infectious growth pattern that is termed a persistent growth form, characterized by a unique morphology and gene expression pattern. Provision of tryptophan can reactivate the bacterium to the normal developmental cycle. There is a significant difference in the capacity of ocular and genital C. trachomatis serovars to counter tryptophan deprivation. The latter uniquely encode a functional tryptophan synthase to synthesize tryptophan via indole salvage, should indole be available in the infection microenvironment. In vitro studies have confirmed the capacity of indole to mitigate the effects of IFN?; it has been suggested that a perturbed vaginal microbiome may provide a source of indole in vivo. Consistent with this hypothesis, the microbiome associated with bacterial vaginosis includes species that encode a tryptophanase to produce indole. In this review, we discuss the natural history of genital chlamydial infections, morphological and molecular changes imposed by IFN? on Chlamydia, and finally, the microenvironmental conditions associated with vaginal co-infections that can ameliorate the effects of IFN? on C. trachomatis. PMID:24918090

  5. Seroprevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women of reproductive age.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, N U; Hossain, M A; Nahar, K; Mahmud, C; Paul, S K; Ahmed, S; Haque, N; Kalam, A; Parveen, U S

    2011-04-01

    The genital chlamydial infection is the most common sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and major cause of infertility and ectopic pregnancy for millions of women in the world particularly in developing countries. This study was performed to find out the seroprevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) genital infection in women of reproductive age attending the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital (MMCH) during the period from January 2009 to December 2009 through a cross sectional study. A total of 108 serum samples from symptomatic and asymptomatic pregnant and non-pregnant women were tested for CT specific IgG antibody by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). A total of 31(28.7%) patients were found to have antibody of which 44% (26/59) were from pregnant group and 10.2% (5/49) from non-pregnant group. The seropositivity was 21.6% (16/74) in symptomatic cases and 44.1% (15/34) in asymptomatic cases. The study shows high prevalence of Chlamydial antibody which is common in pregnant and non-pregnant, symptomatic and asymptomatic adult women in Bangladesh. So, screening for chlamydial infection should be done routinely by suitable tests in sexually active symptomatic and asymptomatic women including pregnant women to prevent serious complications. PMID:21522085

  6. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis: An update

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Meenakshi; Sood, Seema; Mukherjee, Anjan; Muralidhar, Sumathi; Bala, Manju

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of curable bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide. It manifests primarily as urethritis in males and endocervicitis in females. Untreated chlamydial infection in man can cause epididymitis and proctitis. Though most women with Chlamydia infection are asymptomatic or have minimal symptoms, some develop salpingitis, endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy and tubal factor infertility. It is associated with an increased risk for the transmission or acquisition of HIV and is also attributed to be a risk factor for the development of cervical carcinoma. Early diagnosis and treatment of infected individuals is required to prevent the spread of the disease and severe sequelae. Traditionally, tissue culture was considered the gold standard for the diagnosis. However, with the availability of newer diagnostic techniques particularly molecular methods which are not only highly sensitive and specific but are cost-effective also, the diagnosis has became fast and easy. The purpose of this review is to study the various aspects of genital C. trachomatis infection. Also the advances related to the clinical picture, various diagnostic modalities, prevention, treatment, drug resistance and control measures will be dealt with. PMID:24135174

  7. Looking for an asymptomatic infection: usefulness of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis and genital herpes.

    PubMed

    Delmonte, S; Latino, M A

    2012-10-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) genital infections are among the more frequent sexually transmissible infections with different prevalence by age, populations and geographical areas. Both are widespread, have an asymptomatic latent stage detectable only by laboratory and can have serious consequences such as tubal infertility and neonatal herpes. The direct isolation of CT in cervical or urethral discharge through Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (NAATs) allows to detect and to treat the infection with effective antibiotic medication. The screening of all women younger than 25 year old showed to be effective in reducing tubal complications but not in decreasing the incidence of the infection in the general population. Only a proactive screening of younger women, repeated yearly and associated with an effective partner notification could achieve a decrease of the incidence rate in the general population. The detection of type specific herpetic antibodies allows to identify persons with herpetic infection regardless of symptoms. While a population-based screening of general population cannot be proposed at the moment, a selective screening (attenders of STI clinic, HIV-positive patients, pregnant women) is a debated issue between those who consider it an effective means to detect persons with unrecognized symptoms who are infectious and those who think that preventive measures and antiviral medication are not effective enough to be proposed. PMID:23007249

  8. A review of the human vs. porcine female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of using minipigs as a model of human genital Chlamydia infection.

    PubMed

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Jungersen, Gregers; Agerholm, Jřrgen S

    2015-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases constitute major health issues and their prevention and treatment continue to challenge the health care systems worldwide. Animal models are essential for a deeper understanding of the diseases and the development of safe and protective vaccines. Currently a good predictive non-rodent model is needed for the study of genital chlamydia in women. The pig has become an increasingly popular model for human diseases due to its close similarities to humans. The aim of this review is to compare the porcine and human female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of genital Chlamydia infection. The comparison of women and sows has shown that despite some gross anatomical differences, the structures and proportion of layers undergoing cyclic alterations are very similar. Reproductive hormonal cycles are closely related, only showing a slight difference in cycle length and source of luteolysing hormone. The epithelium and functional layers of the endometrium show similar cyclic changes. The immune system in pigs is very similar to that of humans, even though pigs have a higher percentage of CD4(+)/CD8(+) double positive T cells. The genital immune system is also very similar in terms of the cyclic fluctuations in the mucosal antibody levels, but differs slightly regarding immune cell infiltration in the genital mucosa - predominantly due to the influx of neutrophils in the porcine endometrium during estrus. The vaginal flora in Göttingen Minipigs is not dominated by lactobacilli as in humans. The vaginal pH is around 7 in Göttingen Minipigs, compared to the more acidic vaginal pH around 3.5-5 in women. This review reveals important similarities between the human and porcine female reproductive tracts and proposes the pig as an advantageous supplementary model of human genital Chlamydia infection. PMID:26411309

  9. Immunization against chlamydial genital infection in guinea pigs with UV-inactivated and viable chlamydiae administered by different routes

    SciTech Connect

    Rank, R.G.; Batteiger, B.E.; Soderberg, L.S. )

    1990-08-01

    Female guinea pigs were immunized with viable or UV light-inactivated chlamydiae, belonging to the species Chlamydia psittaci, by intravenous, subcutaneous, oral, or ocular routes. All animals were then inoculated vaginally with viable chlamydiae to determine the extent of protection against challenge infection induced by the various regimens. The course of genital infection was significantly reduced in intensity in all groups of animals except the unimmunized controls and those animals immunized orally with inactivated antigen. Guinea pigs immunized with viable antigen were more likely to develop resistance to challenge infection and, in general, had a significantly greater degree of protection than animals immunized with inactivated antigen. No one route seemed superior in producing a protective response. Animals in all groups demonstrating protection developed serum and secretion immunoglobulin G antibody responses to chlamydiae. Lymphocyte proliferative reactions to chlamydial antigen were variable among groups. Immunoblot analysis of serum and secretions indicated a wide range of antibody specificities, but most protected animals produced antibodies to the major outer membrane protein, lipopolysaccharide, and the 61-kilodalton protein. No definitive associations could be made between the increased ability of immunization with viable organisms to produce resistance to challenge infection and a particular immune parameter. These data indicate that viable chlamydiae given by various routes are able to induce a strong immune response which can provide resistance against reinfection in some cases or at least reduce the degree of infection to a greater degree than inactivated antigen. However, complete resistance to genital tract infection may be difficult to obtain and alternate immunizations strategies may have to be developed.

  10. Pooling Urine Samples for Ligase Chain Reaction Screening for Genital Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Asymptomatic Women

    PubMed Central

    Kacena, Katherine A.; Quinn, Sean B.; Howell, M. René; Madico, Guillermo E.; Quinn, Thomas C.; Gaydos, Charlotte A.

    1998-01-01

    The accuracy of pooling urine samples for the detection of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection by ligase chain reaction (LCR) was examined. A model was also developed to determine the number of samples to be pooled for optimal cost savings at various population prevalences. Estimated costs included technician time, laboratory consumables, and assay costs of testing pooled samples and retesting individual specimens from presumptive positive pools. Estimation of population prevalence based on the pooled LCR results was also applied. After individual urine specimens were processed, 568 specimens were pooled by 4 into 142 pools and another 520 specimens were pooled by 10 into 52 pools. For comparison, all 1,088 urine specimens were tested individually. The sample-to-cut-off ratio was lowered from 1.0 to 0.2 for pooled samples, after a pilot study which tested 148 samples pooled by 4 was conducted. The pooling algorithm was 100% (48 of 48) sensitive when samples were pooled by 4 and 98.4% (61 of 62) sensitive when samples were pooled by 10. Although 2.0% (2 of 99) of the negative pools of 4 and 7.1% (1 of 14) of the negative pools of 10 tested presumptive positive, all samples in these presumptive-positive pools were negative when retested individually, making the pooling algorithm 100% specific. In a population with 8% genital C. trachomatis prevalence, pooling by four would reduce costs by 39%. The model demonstrated that with a lower prevalence of 2%, pooling eight samples would reduce costs by 59%. Pooling urine samples for detection of C. trachomatis by LCR is sensitive, specific, and cost saving compared to testing individual samples. PMID:9466763

  11. The Role of the Immune Response in Chlamydia trachomatis Infection of the Male Genital Tract: A Double-Edged Sword

    PubMed Central

    Redgrove, Kate A.; McLaughlin, Eileen A.

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infection in the world, with more than 100 million cases reported annually. While there have been extensive studies into the adverse effects that CT infection has on the female genital tract, and on the subsequent ability of these women to conceive, studies into the consequences on male fertility have been limited and controversial. This is in part due to the asymptomatic nature of the infection, where it is estimated that 50% of men with Chlamydia fail to show any symptoms. It is accepted, however, that acute and/or persistent CT infection is the causative agent for conditions such as urethritis, epididymitis, epididymo-orchitis, and potentially prostatitis. As with most infections, the immune system plays a fundamental role in the body’s attempts to eradicate the infection. The first and most important immune response to Chlamydia infection is a local one, whereby immune cells such as leukocytes are recruited to the site of infections, and subsequently secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines such as interferon gamma. Immune cells also work to initiate and potentiate chronic inflammation through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the release of molecules with degradative properties including defensins, elastase, collagenase, cathespins, and lysozyme. This long-term inflammation can lead to cell proliferation (a possible precursor to cancer), tissue remodeling, and scarring, as well as being linked to the onset of autoimmune responses in genetically disposed individuals. This review will focus on the ability of the immune system to recognize and clear acute and persistent chlamydial infections in the male genital tract, and on the paradoxical damage that chronic inflammation resulting from the infection can cause on the reproductive health of the individual. PMID:25386180

  12. The Role of the Immune Response in Chlamydia trachomatis Infection of the Male Genital Tract: A Double-Edged Sword.

    PubMed

    Redgrove, Kate A; McLaughlin, Eileen A

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infection in the world, with more than 100 million cases reported annually. While there have been extensive studies into the adverse effects that CT infection has on the female genital tract, and on the subsequent ability of these women to conceive, studies into the consequences on male fertility have been limited and controversial. This is in part due to the asymptomatic nature of the infection, where it is estimated that 50% of men with Chlamydia fail to show any symptoms. It is accepted, however, that acute and/or persistent CT infection is the causative agent for conditions such as urethritis, epididymitis, epididymo-orchitis, and potentially prostatitis. As with most infections, the immune system plays a fundamental role in the body's attempts to eradicate the infection. The first and most important immune response to Chlamydia infection is a local one, whereby immune cells such as leukocytes are recruited to the site of infections, and subsequently secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines such as interferon gamma. Immune cells also work to initiate and potentiate chronic inflammation through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the release of molecules with degradative properties including defensins, elastase, collagenase, cathespins, and lysozyme. This long-term inflammation can lead to cell proliferation (a possible precursor to cancer), tissue remodeling, and scarring, as well as being linked to the onset of autoimmune responses in genetically disposed individuals. This review will focus on the ability of the immune system to recognize and clear acute and persistent chlamydial infections in the male genital tract, and on the paradoxical damage that chronic inflammation resulting from the infection can cause on the reproductive health of the individual. PMID:25386180

  13. Intramuscular Priming and Intranasal Boosting Induce Strong Genital Immunity Through Secretory IgA in Minipigs Infected with Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Břje, Sarah; Erneholm, Karin; Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Agerholm, Jřrgen Steen; Jungersen, Gregers; Andersen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    International efforts in developing a vaccine against Chlamydia trachomatis have highlighted the need for novel immunization strategies for the induction of genital immunity. In this study, we evaluated an intramuscular (IM) prime/intranasal boost vaccination strategy in a Göttingen Minipig model with a reproductive system very similar to humans. The vaccine was composed of C. trachomatis subunit antigens formulated in the Th1/Th17 promoting CAF01 adjuvant. IM priming immunizations with CAF01 induced a significant cell-mediated interferon gamma and interleukin 17A response and a significant systemic high-titered neutralizing IgG response. Following genital challenge, intranasally boosted groups mounted an accelerated, highly significant genital IgA response that correlated with enhanced bacterial clearance on day 3 post infection. By detecting antigen-specific secretory component (SC), we showed that the genital IgA was locally produced in the genital mucosa. The highly significant inverse correlation between the vaginal IgA SC response and the chlamydial load suggests that IgA in the minipig model is involved in protection against C. trachomatis. This is important both for our understanding of protective immunity and future vaccination strategies against C. trachomatis and genital pathogens in general.

  14. Incidence and persistence of carcinogenic genital human papillomavirus infections in young women with or without Chlamydia trachomatis co-infection.

    PubMed

    Vriend, Henrike J; Bogaards, Johannes A; van Bergen, Jan E A M; Brink, Antoinette A T P; van den Broek, Ingrid V F; Hoebe, Christian J P A; King, Audrey J; van der Sande, Marianne A B; Wolffs, Petra F G; de Melker, Hester E

    2015-10-01

    We assessed whether infection with chlamydia increases the incidence of carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and if HPV persistence is affected by chlamydia co-infection. For 1982 women (16-29 years-old) participating in two consecutive rounds of a chlamydia screening implementation trial, swabs were polymerase chain reaction tested to detect chlamydia and 14 carcinogenic HPV genotypes. HPV type-specific incidence and persistence rates were stratified for chlamydia positivity at follow-up. Associations were assessed by multilevel logistic regression analyses with correction for sexual risk factors. HPV type-specific incidence ranged from 1.4% to 8.9% and persistence from 22.7% to 59.4% after a median follow-up of 11 months (interquartile range: 11-12). Differences in 1-year HPV persistence rates between chlamydia -infected and noninfected women were less distinct than differences in HPV incidence rates (pooled adjusted odds ratios of 1.17 [95% CI: 0.69-1.96] and 1.84 [95% CI: 1.36-2.47], respectively). The effect of chlamydia co-infection on HPV-infection risk did not significantly differ by HPV genotype. In conclusion, infection with chlamydia increases the risk of infection by carcinogenic HPV types and may enhance persistence of some HPV types. Although these findings could reflect residual confounding through unobserved risk factors, our results do give reason to explore more fully the association between chlamydia and HPV type-specific acquisition and persistence. PMID:26194784

  15. Incidence and persistence of carcinogenic genital human papillomavirus infections in young women with or without Chlamydia trachomatis co-infection

    PubMed Central

    Vriend, Henrike J; Bogaards, Johannes A; van Bergen, Jan E A M; Brink, Antoinette A T P; van den Broek, Ingrid V F; Hoebe, Christian J P A; King, Audrey J; van der Sande, Marianne A B; Wolffs, Petra F G; de Melker, Hester E

    2015-01-01

    We assessed whether infection with chlamydia increases the incidence of carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and if HPV persistence is affected by chlamydia co-infection. For 1982 women (16–29 years-old) participating in two consecutive rounds of a chlamydia screening implementation trial, swabs were polymerase chain reaction tested to detect chlamydia and 14 carcinogenic HPV genotypes. HPV type-specific incidence and persistence rates were stratified for chlamydia positivity at follow-up. Associations were assessed by multilevel logistic regression analyses with correction for sexual risk factors. HPV type-specific incidence ranged from 1.4% to 8.9% and persistence from 22.7% to 59.4% after a median follow-up of 11 months (interquartile range: 11–12). Differences in 1-year HPV persistence rates between chlamydia -infected and noninfected women were less distinct than differences in HPV incidence rates (pooled adjusted odds ratios of 1.17 [95% CI: 0.69–1.96] and 1.84 [95% CI: 1.36–2.47], respectively). The effect of chlamydia co-infection on HPV-infection risk did not significantly differ by HPV genotype. In conclusion, infection with chlamydia increases the risk of infection by carcinogenic HPV types and may enhance persistence of some HPV types. Although these findings could reflect residual confounding through unobserved risk factors, our results do give reason to explore more fully the association between chlamydia and HPV type-specific acquisition and persistence. PMID:26194784

  16. Modeling the transcriptome of genital tract epithelial cells and macrophages in healthy mucosa versus mucosa inflamed by Chlamydia muridarum infection.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Raymond M; Kerr, Micah S

    2015-12-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis urogenital serovars are intracellular bacteria that parasitize human reproductive tract epithelium. As the principal cell type supporting bacterial replication, epithelial cells are central to Chlamydia immunobiology initially as sentries and innate defenders, and subsequently as collaborators in adaptive immunity-mediated bacterial clearance. In asymptomatic individuals who do not seek medical care a decisive struggle between C. trachomatis and host defenses occurs at the epithelial interface. For this study, we modeled the immunobiology of epithelial cells and macrophages lining healthy genital mucosa and inflamed/infected mucosa during the transition from innate to adaptive immunity. Upper reproductive tract epithelial cell line responses were compared to bone marrow-derived macrophages utilizing gene expression microarray technology. Those comparisons showed minor differences in the intrinsic innate defenses of macrophages and epithelial cells. Major lineage-specific differences in immunobiology relate to epithelial collaboration with adaptive immunity including an epithelial requirement for inflammatory cytokines to express MHC class II molecules, and a paucity and imbalance between costimulatory and coinhibitory ligands on epithelial cells that potentially limits sterilizing immunity (replication termination) to Chlamydia-specific T cells activated with limited or unconventional second signals. PMID:26519447

  17. Epidemiology of genital Chlamydia trachomatis in England and Wales.

    PubMed Central

    Simms, I; Catchpole, M; Brugha, R; Rogers, P; Mallinson, H; Nicoll, A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the recent epidemiology of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in England and Wales. DESIGN: Retrospective study of routinely available surveillance datasets and ad hoc prevalence studies. METHODS: Numbers of new cases of genital C trachomatis infection, obtained from the Department of Health and Welsh Office, were combined with the estimated mid-year resident population of England and Wales. Rates were analysed for trend over time using a log linear age period model in GLIM4. Ad hoc prevalence and case finding studies carried out over the past 20 years were critically assessed in terms of study design and testing methodologies. RESULTS: Attendance rates at genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics were higher for women than men over the period 1989 to 1994 as were the number of laboratory reports. The highest rate of attendance (GUM clinic data) was for women aged 16 to 19 years. There was an overall significant linear decrease in the attendance rates over time for both men (p = 0.0172) and women (p = 0.0000) between 1989 and 1994. There was considerable variation in the prevalence of genital C trachomatis infection detected within different clinical settings, together with a substantial level of asymptomatic infection. CONCLUSIONS: Genital C trachomatis infection is broadly distributed throughout the sexually active population, with a substantial reservoir of asymptomatic infection among those generally perceived to be at low risk of a sexually transmitted infection. Young people, particularly women aged 16 to 19 years, are at highest risk of genital C trachomatis infection. This is of concern since younger women are more susceptible than older women to developing complications of chlamydial infection, such as pelvic inflammatory disease. The broad distribution of infection across all sexually active health service attenders and the high level of asymptomatic infection suggest that a new, screening based, approach to the control of genital C trachomatis infection is required. Recommendations are made as to the epidemiological research required to guide such work. PMID:9215095

  18. Protection Against Chlamydia trachomatis Infection and Upper Genital Tract Pathological Changes by Vaccine-Promoted Neutralizing Antibodies Directed to the VD4 of the Major Outer Membrane Protein.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Anja W; Follmann, Frank; Erneholm, Karin; Rosenkrands, Ida; Andersen, Peter

    2015-09-15

    The VD4 region from the Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein contains important neutralizing B-cell epitopes of relevance for antibody-mediated protection against genital tract infection. We developed a multivalent vaccine construct based on VD4s and their surrounding constant segments from serovars D, E, and F. Adjuvanted with cationic liposomes, this construct promoted strong immune responses to serovar-specific epitopes, the conserved LNPTIAG epitope and neutralized serovars D, E, and F. Vaccinated mice were protected against challenge, with protection defined as reduced bacterial numbers in vagina and prevention of pathological changes in the upper genital tract. Adoptive transfer of serum and T-cell depletion experiments demonstrated a dominant role for antibodies and CD4(+) T cells in the protective immune response. Integrating a multivalent VD4 construct into the sequence of the major outer membrane protein resulted in a protective and broadly neutralizing vaccine. Our findings emphasize the important role of antibodies in protection against Chlamydia trachomatis. PMID:25748320

  19. Monitoring the T cell response to genital tract infection

    E-print Network

    Starnbach, Michael

    and proliferated in the lymph nodes draining the genital tract after primary intrauterine infection. Activated they migrate into infected tissues. It is also unknown when effector cytokines are produced by Chlamydia

  20. [Roles of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 in immune responses to Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract infection in mice].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenhui; Chang, Xiaotong; Hao, Min; Song, Guiqin; Zhu, Xiaobo; Zhang, Yingqian

    2015-10-01

    Objective To evaluate the roles of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 in immune responses to Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) genital tract infection in mice. Methods The wild type (WT, n=11), TLR2(-/-) (n=14) and TLR4(-/-) (n=11) mice were inoculated intravaginally with 1×10(4) inclusion forming units (IFUs) of live C.muridarum (strain MoPn/Nigg) to establish the models of Ct genital tract infection. The vaginal swabs were taken at the 3rd, 7th, 10th, 17th, 24th, 31st, 38th, 45th day after the infection. Immunofluorescence assay was used to quantify live organisms from each swab. The inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1? (IL-1?), IL-6 and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) were measured using ELISA. The 70th day post infection, the titers of mouse serum Ct-specific antibody isotypes were determined using an immunofluorescence technique; after the macrophages harvested from peritoneal cavity were infected with MoPn strain for 24 hours, the culture supernatants were examined for the contents of cytokines IL-1?, IL-6 and MIP-2 using ELISA. The harvested splenocytes were stimulated with UV-inactivated chlamydial antigens for 72 hours, and the culture supernatants were measured for the levels of cytokines interferon ? (IFN-?), IL-17, IL-4 and IL-5 using ELISA. Results No significant difference was observed in the number of IFUs from the vaginal swabs at any time points post infection among WT, TLR2(-/-) and TLR4(-/-) mice. All mice displayed similar time course of live organism shedding. Until the 38th day, all mice cleared live organism. Macrophages lacking TLR2 produced significantly decreased amounts of IL-1?, IL-6 and MIP-2 compared with those in WT mice; however, there was no significant difference between WT and TLR4(-/-) mice. The vaginal swab samples from TLR2(-/-) mice also had lower levels of inflammatory cytokines. Splenocytes from the three groups of mice all produced high levels of both IFN-? and IL-17, and low levels of both IL-4 and IL-5, and no significant difference was found among the three groups. The ratio of serum IgG2a/IgG1 in the three groups of mice was greater than 1, and no significant difference was found among the three groups. Conclusion TLR2, rather than TLR4 mediates early immune response following Ct genital tract infection in mice. However, neither TLR4 nor TLR2 is required for adaptive immune responses induced by Ct genital tract infection. PMID:26429534

  1. Chlamydia trachomatis and Genital Mycoplasmas: Pathogens with an Impact on Human Reproductive Health

    PubMed Central

    Ljubin-Sternak, Sun?anica; Meštrovi?, Tomislav

    2014-01-01

    The most prevalent, curable sexually important diseases are those caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) and genital mycoplasmas. An important characteristic of these infections is their ability to cause long-term sequels in upper genital tract, thus potentially affecting the reproductive health in both sexes. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), tubal factor infertility (TFI), and ectopic pregnancy (EP) are well documented complications of C. trachomatis infection in women. The role of genital mycoplasmas in development of PID, TFI, and EP requires further evaluation, but growing evidence supports a significant role for these in the pathogenesis of chorioamnionitis, premature membrane rupture, and preterm labor in pregnant woman. Both C. trachomatis and genital mycoplasmas can affect the quality of sperm and possibly influence the fertility of men. For the purpose of this paper, basic, epidemiologic, clinical, therapeutic, and public health issue of these infections were reviewed and discussed, focusing on their impact on human reproductive health. PMID:25614838

  2. Prevalence of chlamydiae in semen and genital tracts of bulls, rams and bucks.

    PubMed

    Teankum, K; Pospischil, A; Janett, F; Brugnera, E; Hoelzle, L E; Hoelzle, K; Weilenmann, R; Zimmermann, D R; Gerber, A; Polkinghorne, A; Borel, N

    2007-01-15

    Chlamydiae infect male genital organs of ruminants. However, little is known about their prevalence. Hence, we investigated fresh and cryopreserved semen (bulls: n=304; rams: n=78; bucks: n=44) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), as well as genital organs (bulls: n=13; rams: n=10; bucks: n=6) by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and PCR. Sera from bulls (n=104) and small ruminants (n=61) were tested by LPS and rMOMP (recombinant major outer membrane protein) ELISA and competitive ELISA (cELISA), respectively. Three PCR assays were compared in this study for detection of chlamydial DNA in semen: 16S rRNA, IGS-S (intergenic spacer 16S/23S-short), and IGS-L (intergenic spacer 16S/23S-long) PCRs. PCR sensitivity and inhibitory effects were determined by spiking semen with Chlamydophila (Cp.) abortus DNA. In bull semen, detection limits of the 16S, IGS-S and IGS-L PCRs were 10, 10, 100 templates, respectively. However, PCR sensitivity was reduced in ram and buck semen suggesting the presence of potential PCR inhibitors. Of 304 bull semen samples, the 16S PCR revealed DNA of chlamydiae in 20 samples (6.6%), including Cp. abortus (n=2), Cp. psittaci (n=1), Chlamydia suis (n=2), and Chlamydia-like organisms (n=15). In rams, one semen sample was positive for Chlamydia-like organism. All investigated male genital organs were negative for Chlamydia. Serology revealed 47.1% (49/104) positive bulls by LPS ELISA. Of these, 30 samples were positive by rMOMP ELISA, predominantly for Cp. pecorum. In small ruminants, cELISA displayed 34.8% (16/46) and 60% (9/15) positivity for Cp. abortus in rams and bucks, respectively. There was no correlation between serology and PCR of semen. The presence of chlamydiae in semen suggests the possibility of venereal transmission, although risk may be low in Switzerland. PMID:16935325

  3. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis: Understanding the Roles of Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Vaccine Research

    PubMed Central

    Vasilevsky, Sam; Greub, Gilbert; Nardelli-Haefliger, Denise

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted disease worldwide, and despite significant advances in chlamydial research, a prophylactic vaccine has yet to be developed. This Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium, which often causes asymptomatic infection, may cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancies, scarring of the fallopian tubes, miscarriage, and infertility when left untreated. In the genital tract, Chlamydia trachomatis infects primarily epithelial cells and requires Th1 immunity for optimal clearance. This review first focuses on the immune cells important in a chlamydial infection. Second, we summarize the research and challenges associated with developing a chlamydial vaccine that elicits a protective Th1-mediated immune response without inducing adverse immunopathologies. PMID:24696438

  4. Chlamydia infections in women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... past, testing required a pelvic exam by a health care provider. Today, very accurate tests can be done on urine samples or on ... take 1 - 2 days to come back. Your health care provider may also ... may need a chlamydia test if you: Are 25 years old or younger ...

  5. Significant roles played by IL-10 in Chlamydia infections.

    PubMed

    Hakimi, Hamid; Zare-Bidaki, Mohammad; Zainodini, Nahid; Assar, Shokrollah; Arababadi, Mohammad Kazemi

    2014-06-01

    Chlamydia species are obligate intracellular parasites which cause usually asymptomatic genital tract infections and also are associated with several complications. Previous studies demonstrated that immune responses to Chlamydia species are different and the diseases will be limited to some cases. Additionally, Chlamydia species are able to modulate immune responses via regulating expression of some immune system molecules including cytokines. IL-10, as the main anti-inflammatory cytokine, plays important roles in the induction of immune-tolerance against self-antigen and also immune-homeostasis after microbe elimination. Furthermore, it has been documented that ectopic expression of IL-10 is associated with several chronic infectious diseases. Therefore, it can be hypothesized that changes in the regulation of this cytokine can be associated with infection with several species of Chlamydia and their associated complications. This review collected the recent information regarding the association and relationship of IL-10 with Chlamydia infections. Another aim of this review article is to address recent data regarding the association of genetic variations (polymorphisms) of IL-10 and Chlamydia infections. PMID:24398613

  6. Pathogenesis of genital HPV infection.

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, A

    1993-01-01

    Clinical, subclinical, and latent human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are distinguished from HPV-associated neoplasia. Besides HPV additional cofactors are necessary to transform HPV infected tissue to intraepithelial or invasive neoplasia. Risk factors for the presence of HPV are high number of sexual partners, early cohabitarche, young age at first delivery, suppression and alteration of immune status, young age and hormonal influences. While the fact of a high number of sexual partners exclusively increases the risk of HPV infection, it is not known whether the other factors lead to either an increased risk for HPV infection and/or to HPV-associated neoplasia. Subclinical and latent genital HPV infections are highly prevalent. The prevalence rate depends on the sensitivity of the HPV detection system used, on age and sexual activity of the population screened, and on the number of subsequent examinations performed for each subject. Sexual transmission is the main pathway for genital HPV's, however, vertical, peripartal, and oral transmission are also possible. Seroreactivity against genital HPV may be due to an active infection or the result of contact with HPV earlier in life. Antibodies against the HPV 16 E7 protein indicate an increased risk for cervical cancer. Compared with humoral response cellular immune response is probably more important for regression of genital HPV infection: impaired cellular response is characterized by depletion of T helper/inducer cells and/or Langerhans cells and impaired function of natural killer cells and/or the infected keratinocyte. In condylomata replication and transcription of viral nucleic acids and antigen production coincide with cellular differentiation. However, the interaction between HPV and the keratinocyte on a molecular level in subclinical and latent disease is not well understood. Regression or persistence of subclinical and latent genital HPV infections as observed in longitudinal investigations show a constant come-and-go of HPV presence. Subclinical or latent cervical infections with high-risk HPV types (such as HPV 16 and 18) have an increased risk for the development of HPV-associated neoplasia. PMID:8392965

  7. Antigen-Specific CD8 T Cells Respond to Chlamydia trachomatis in the Genital Mucosa1

    E-print Network

    Starnbach, Michael

    T cells proliferated in lymph nodes draining the genital tract in response to genital infection with C. trachomatis. Furthermore, we found that these cells acquired the ability to produce IFN- and migrated

  8. Chlamydia trachomatis infection: implications for HPV status and cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jani; Cerqueira, Fátima; Medeiros, Rui

    2014-04-01

    Genital Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infections have been identified as a major health problem concern. CT is associated with adverse effect on women reproduction and also associated with cervical hypertrophy and induction of squamous metaplasia, providing a possible relationship with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Infection by high-risk HPV types is crucial to the pathogenesis of invasive cervical cancer (ICC), but other co-variants/cofactors must be present for the development of malignancy. CT biological effect may damage the mucosal barrier, improving HPV infection, or may interfere in immune response and viral clearance supporting the persistence of HPV infection. Moreover, CT-related chronic cervical inflammation, decrease of lower genital tract antigen-presenting cells, inhibition of cell-mediated immunity, and anti-apoptotic capacity may influence the natural history of HPV infection, namely persistence progression or resolution. Although several epidemiological studies have stated a positive association involving CT and HPV-related cervical neoplastic lesions and/or cervical cancer (CC), the specific role of this bacterium in the pathogenesis of cervical neoplasia has not been completely clarified. The present review summarizes several studies on CT role in cervical cancer and suggests future research directions on HPV and CT interaction. PMID:24346121

  9. Chlamydia trachomatis Infections in Female Soldiers, Israel

    PubMed Central

    Siegler, Efraim; Makler-Shiran, Einat; Patel, Mihir V.; Steinberg, Jordan M.; Gershtein, Rosa; Srugo, Isaac

    2003-01-01

    We examined the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Israeli female soldiers. The prevalence was 3.2% among soldiers seeking medical care; rural residence was identified as a significant risk factor. Nevertheless, given the study design, recommending broad-scale screening of Israeli female soldiers may be premature.2 PMID:14609479

  10. Contact-tracing in patients with genital chlamydial infection

    PubMed Central

    Thelin, I; Wennström, A-M; Mĺrdh, P-A

    1980-01-01

    Of 2021 men attending a venereal disease clinic during a 20-month period, 527 (26·1%) harboured Chlamydia trachomatis, 310 (15·3%) Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and 94 (4·7%) both organisms. C trachomatis and N gonorrhoeae were isolated in 163 (15·7%) and 141 (13·8%) respectively of 1039 women attending the same clinic over a one-year period; 44 (4·2%) women harboured both organisms. Contact-tracing was carried out for 112 male and 88 female patients infected with chlamydia, none of whom had gonorrhoea. Of the 144 female contacts, 103 (71·5%) attended for examination and 67 (65%) were found to harbour chlamydia. Of the 103 male contacts, 95 (92·2%) attended for examination and 50 (52·6%) were found to harbour chlamydia. Of the 67 female contacts, about 55% were symptomless as were 50% of the male contacts. Cultures for N gonorrhoeae from the sexual contacts of patients with genital chlamydial infections showed positive results in 37 (18·5%) of the 200 contacts examined. For comparison the results of contact-tracing in 201 male and 231 female patients with gonorrhoea were analysed. Of the male and female contacts, 64·5% and 66·1% respectively attended the clinic for examination. N gonorrhoeae was isolated from 77·7% of the female and from 85·6% of the male contacts; about 40% and 50% respectively were symptomless. The high percentage of symptomless carriers of C trachomatis among sexual contacts emphasises the need for tracing contacts of this infection. PMID:7427698

  11. Diagnosis of genital Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma infections.

    PubMed

    Friberg, J

    1985-03-01

    Genital Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma have been implicated in pelvic inflammatory disease, puerperal infections, septic abortions, low birth weight, nongonococcal urethritis and prostatitis as well as spontaneous abortion and infertility. An unequivocal diagnosis of infection with these organisms can be made only after properly obtained specimens have been evaluated with the use of selective cultures. PMID:4020782

  12. Interleukin-10 Modulates Antigen Presentation by Dendritic Cells through Regulation of NLRP3 Inflammasome Assembly during Chlamydia Infection.

    PubMed

    Omosun, Yusuf; McKeithen, Danielle; Ryans, Khamia; Kibakaya, Caroline; Blas-Machado, Uriel; Li, Duo; Singh, Rajesh; Inoue, Koichi; Xiong, Zhi-Gang; Eko, Francis; Black, Carolyn; Igietseme, Joseph; He, Qing

    2015-12-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) has been implicated in susceptibility to genital chlamydial infection and the development of tubal pathologies. IL-10 limitation also resulted in the rapid elicitation of immune responses against Chlamydia, and decreased levels of IL-10 correlated with protective anti-Chlamydia immunity. To investigate the molecular basis for these effects, we compared the reproductive pathologies and fertility rates in Chlamydia-infected wild-type (WT) and IL-10-knockout (IL-10(-/-)) mice; we also analyzed the expression of the Toll-like receptor (TLR)/interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) superfamily, IL-1? production, NLRP3 inflammasome assembly and activation, and the immunostimulatory capacity and apoptotic predilection of Chlamydia-exposed dendritic cells (DCs) from WT and IL-10(-/-) mice. Our results revealed that, in addition to the rapid clearance of infection, genitally infected IL-10(-/-) mice were protected from tubal pathologies and infertility, whereas WT (IL-10(+/+)) mice were not. Chlamydia-pulsed IL-10(-/-) DCs expressed larger numbers of TLR4/IL-1R molecules and had enhanced IL-1? production. In addition, NLRP3 inflammasome assembly was suppressed in IL-10(-/-) DCs through the inhibition of the P2X purinoceptor 7 (P2X7) receptor (P2X7R), an ATP-gated ion channel, and a decrease in intracellular Ca(2+) levels, which inhibited DC apoptosis. Thus, the potent immunostimulatory capacity of IL-10-deficient DCs is due, at least in part, to the suppression of the intracellular inflammasome assembly, which prevents DC apoptosis, allowing efficient antigen presentation. The results indicate that IL-10 deficiency enables efficient antigen presentation by DCs for rapid and enhanced immune activation against Chlamydia, which results in rapid microbial clearance, which prevents tubal pathologies during infection. Our finding has important implications for the induction of protective immunity against Chlamydia and other infectious and noninfectious diseases by vaccines. PMID:26371131

  13. Evaluation of enzyme immunoassay (Chlamydiazyme) for detecting Chlamydia trachomatis in genital tract specimens.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor-Robinson, D; Thomas, B J; Osborn, M F

    1987-01-01

    An enzyme immunoassay (Chlamydiazyme) for detecting Chlamydia trachomatis was evaluated on genital specimens from 96 men and 272 women attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases (STD clinic). Compared with a direct immunofluorescence test for chlamydial elementary bodies, the enzyme immunoassay had a sensitivity of 58% on specimens from men, a specificity of 90%, a positive predictive value of 93%, and a negative predictive value of 88%; the assay had a sensitivity of 67% on specimens from women, a specificity of 89%, a positive predictive value of 63% and a negative predictive value of 90%. Immunofluorescence provided the most stringent test for the performance of the enzyme immunoassay as values were improved a little when a cell culture procedure was used for comparison. Further evidence for the lack of sensitivity was the detection of elementary bodies, sometimes in large numbers, in the enzyme immunoassay buffer of 13 of 19 specimens that had given a negative enzyme immunoassay result and the finding in comparative titrations of four laboratory strains that the enzyme immunoassay was at least 100-fold less able to detect chlamydiae than either immunofluorescence or the cell culture procedure. Lack of specificity may be associated with the finding that the enzyme immunoassay antibody reacted with strains of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Escherichia coli, Gardnerella vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and group B streptococci. The enzyme immunoassay was not considered to be sufficiently sensitive, specific, or reproducible for routine use. PMID:3546397

  14. Chlamydia testing and treatment in community pharmacies: findings and lessons learned from setting out to evaluate an unexpectedly short lived service in Lothian, Scotland 

    E-print Network

    Kapadia, Mufiza Zia

    2013-07-06

    Genital chlamydia is the most commonly diagnosed sexually transmitted infection. In August 2008, the Scottish government directed its health boards to involve community pharmacies in providing chlamydia testing and ...

  15. Performance of Clinical and Laparoscopic Criteria for the Diagnosis of Upper Genital Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Boardman, Lori A.; Sung, C. James

    1997-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to validate the standard minimal clinical criteria and the laparoscopic triad of tubal edema, erythema, and purulent exudate used to diagnose acute upper genital tract infection. Methods: Subjects included women who either met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) minimal criteria for acute pelvic inflammatory disease or had other signs of upper genital tract infection (i.e., atypical pelvic pain, abnormal uterine bleeding, or cervicitis). The subjects were evaluated with a baseline interview comprehensive laboratory testing, and either an endometrial biopsy or laparoscopy with endometrial and fimbrial biopsies for definitive diagnosis of upper genital tract infection. Patients were considered positive for upper genital tract infection if they had any of the following findings: 1) histologic evidence of endometritis or salpingitis; 2) laparoscopic visualization of purulent exudate in the pelvis without another source; or 3) positive testing for Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis from the endometrium, fallopian tubes, or pelvis. Results: One hundred twenty-nine women with adequate endometrial samples were evaluated between August 1993 and September 1997, and 62 had complete laparoscopic evaluations. The sensitivities of the CDC's minimal clinical criteria for pelvic inflammatory disease and the laparoscopic triad of edema, erythema, and purulent exudate were 65% and 60%, respectively. Conclusions: Commonly used minimal clinical criteria for pelvic inflammatory disease and the laparoscopic triad of tubal edema, erythema, and purulent exudate have limited sensitivity with correspondingly high false negative rates. PMID:18476154

  16. Chlamydia caviae infection alters abundance but not composition of the guinea pig vaginal microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Neuendorf, Elizabeth; Gajer, Pawel; Bowlin, Anne K.; Marques, Patricia X.; Ma, Bing; Yang, Hongqiu; Fu, Li; Humphrys, Michael S.; Forney, Larry J.; Myers, Garry S.A.; Bavoil, Patrik M.; Rank, Roger G.; Ravel, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    In humans, the vaginal microbiota is thought to be the first line of defense again pathogens including Chlamydia trachomatis. The guinea pig has been extensively used as a model to study chlamydial infection because it shares anatomical and physiological similarities with humans, such as a squamous vaginal epithelium as well as some of the long-term outcomes caused by chlamydial infection. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the guinea pig-C. caviae model of genital infection as a surrogate for studying the role of the vaginal microbiota in the early steps of C. trachomatis infection in humans. We used culture-independent molecular methods to characterize the relative and absolute abundance of bacterial phylotypes in the guinea pig vaginal microbiota in animals non-infected, mock-infected or infected by C. caviae. We showed that the guinea pig and human vaginal microbiotas are of different bacterial composition and abundance. Chlamydia caviae infection had a profound effect on the absolute abundance of bacterial phylotypes but not on the composition of the guinea pig vaginal microbiota. Our findings compromise the validity of the guinea pig-C. caviae model to study the role of the vaginal microbiota during the early steps of sexually transmitted infection. PMID:25761873

  17. Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infections and Sudden Unexpected Deaths in Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannsen, Finn

    1993-01-01

    Blood samples from 38 runners on the Danish national orienteering team revealed no ongoing chlamydia pneumoniae, although 42% had an earlier infection, similar to the incidence in the general population. However, over 2% had an ongoing lyme borreliosis infection, and 18% had an earlier infection, which is a higher incidence than in the general…

  18. Infection of Human Retinal Pigment Epithelium with Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Boiko, Ernest; Maltsev, Dmitrii; Savicheva, Alevtina; Shalepo, Kira; Khusnutdinova, Tatyana; Pozniak, Alexei; Kvetnoi, Igor; Polyakova, Viktoria; Suetov, Alexei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Little is known about the susceptibility of posterior segment tissues, particularly the human retinal pigment epithelium (hRPE), to Chlamydia trachomatis. The purpose of the study was to investigate the possibility of infecting the hRPE with Chlamydia trachomatis, and to examine the infectivity of different Chlamydia trachomatis clinical isolates for hRPE cells and the hRPE cell response to the infection. Methods Cultured hRPE and McCoy cells were inoculated with eight Chlamydia trachomatis (serovar E) clinical isolates at multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 2.0 or 0.3. To detect Chlamydia trachomatis, samples were stained immunohistochemically with anti-major outer membrane protein antibodies at 24h, 48h, and 72h postinoculation (PI). The changes in the expression of signaling molecules and proteins of cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix in hRPE cells were examined immunohistochemically. Results All eight clinical isolates demonstrated ability to infect hRPE cells. At equal MOI of 0.3, the infectivity of Chlamydia trachomatis clinical isolates for RPE culture was found to be at least as high as that for McCoy cell culture. At 24h PI, the percentage of inclusion-containing cells varied from 1.5 ± 0.52 to 14.6 ± 3.3% in hRPE cell culture infected at MOI of 2.0 against 0.37 ± 0.34 to 8.9 ± 0.2% in McCoy cell culture infected at MOI of 0.3. Collagen type I, collagen type IV, basic fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor-beta and interleukin–8 expression at 48h PI were maximally increased, by 2.1-, 1.3-, 1.5-, 1.5- and 1.6-fold, respectively, in the Chlamydia trachomatis-infected compared with control hRPE cell culture specimens (P < 0.05). Conclusions This study, for the first time, proved the possibility of infecting hRPE cultured cells with Chlamydia trachomatis, which leads to proproliferative and proinflammatory changes in the expression of signaling molecules and extracellular matrix components. PMID:26536616

  19. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Genetic analysis of susceptibility to Chlamydia

    E-print Network

    Starnbach, Michael

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a bacterial pathogen that is a major cause of blindness and infertility in diverse, cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, and infertility. In developing countries, genital infection can also

  20. Current Concepts for Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection: Diagnostics and Pathogenesis of Genital Tract Shedding.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Christine; Corey, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARYHerpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a DNA virus that is efficiently transmitted through intimate genital tract contact and causes persistent infection that cannot be eliminated. HSV-2 may cause frequent, symptomatic self-limited genital ulcers, but in most persons infection is subclinical. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the virus is frequently shed from genital surfaces even in the absence of signs or symptoms of clinical disease and that the virus can be transmitted during these periods of shedding. Furthermore, HSV-2 shedding is detected throughout the genital tract and may be associated with genital tract inflammation, which likely contributes to increased risk of HIV acquisition. This review focuses on HSV diagnostics, as well as what we have learned about the importance of frequent genital HSV shedding for (i) HSV transmission and (ii) genital tract inflammation, as well as (iii) the impact of HSV-2 infection on HIV acquisition and transmission. We conclude with discussion of future areas of research to push the field forward. PMID:26561565

  1. Chlamydia trachomatis Infection Leads to Defined Alterations to the Lipid Droplet Proteome in Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Saka, Hector Alex; Thompson, J. Will; Chen, Yi-Shan; Dubois, Laura G.; Haas, Joel T.; Moseley, Arthur; Valdivia, Raphael H.

    2015-01-01

    The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis is a major human pathogen and a main cause of genital and ocular diseases. During its intracellular cycle, C. trachomatis replicates inside a membrane-bound vacuole termed an “inclusion”. Acquisition of lipids (and other nutrients) from the host cell is a critical step in chlamydial replication. Lipid droplets (LD) are ubiquitous, ER-derived neutral lipid-rich storage organelles surrounded by a phospholipids monolayer and associated proteins. Previous studies have shown that LDs accumulate at the periphery of, and eventually translocate into, the chlamydial inclusion. These observations point out to Chlamydia-mediated manipulation of LDs in infected cells, which may impact the function and thereby the protein composition of these organelles. By means of a label-free quantitative mass spectrometry approach we found that the LD proteome is modified in the context of C. trachomatis infection. We determined that LDs isolated from C. trachomatis-infected cells were enriched in proteins related to lipid metabolism, biosynthesis and LD-specific functions. Interestingly, consistent with the observation that LDs intimately associate with the inclusion, a subset of inclusion membrane proteins co-purified with LD protein extracts. Finally, genetic ablation of LDs negatively affected generation of C. trachomatis infectious progeny, consistent with a role for LD biogenesis in optimal chlamydial growth. PMID:25909443

  2. Genital Cytomegalovirus Replication Predicts Syphilis Acquisition among HIV-1 Infected Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Gianella, Sara; Smith, Davey M.; Daar, Eric S.; Dube, Michael P.; Lisco, Andrea; Vanpouille, Christophe; Margolis, Leonid; Haubrich, Richard H.; Morris, Sheldon R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Sexually transmitted infections (STI) are common among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). While behavioral factors are important in STI acquisition, other biological factors such as immune modulation due to chronic viral infection may further predispose to STI acquisition. Design Post Hoc analysis including data collected over 12 months of follow-up from 131 HIV-infected MSM receiving antiretroviral therapy and screened for incident bacterial STI every 3 months. Methods Genital secretions collected at baseline were used to measure herpesvirus replication and inflammatory cytokines. Baseline predictors of STI were determined using survival analysis of time to incident STI. Results All participants were seropositive for cytomegalovirus (CMV), and 52% had detectable genital CMV at baseline. Thirty-five individuals acquired STI during follow-up, sometimes with multiple pathogen (17 syphilis, 21 gonorrhea, 14 chlamydia). Syphilis acquisition was associated with genital CMV replication at baseline (19.1% CMV-shedders versus 4.8% non-shedders, p=0.03) and younger age (p=0.02). Lower seminal MCP-1 was associated with higher seminal CMV levels and with syphilis acquisition (p<0.01). For syphilis acquisition, in multivariable Cox-Proportional Hazard model adjusted hazard rates were 3.56 (95%CI:1.00–12.73) for baseline CMV replication and 2.50 (0.92–6.77) for younger age. Conclusions This post hoc analysis suggest that CMV-associated decrease in seminal MCP-1 levels might predispose HIV-infected MSM to syphilis acquisition, but not other STI. Future studies should determine underlying mechanisms and if a causal association exists. PMID:26061824

  3. IN VITRO SUSCEPTIBILITY OF CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS TO LPS-BINDING POLYAMINES AND CELLULOSE ETHER POLYMERS: TOWARDS THE DEVELOPMENT OF A MICROBICIDE AGAINST CHLAMYDIA INFECTION

    E-print Network

    Osaka, Ichie

    2013-12-31

    microbicide as an alternative strategy for prevention of Chlamydia. The paucity of a well-established method suitable for large-scale analysis of in vitro Chlamydia infection is a major limitation in the development of novel anti-Chlamydia compounds. In my...

  4. Protective Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Are Induced During Murine Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis'

    E-print Network

    Starnbach, Michael

    in lysis of infected cells and the release of cytokines including IFN-y. Members of the genus ChlamydiaProtective Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Are Induced During Murine Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and bound by MHCclass I. In this study, we characterizeda CTL line derived from mice infected with C

  5. Optimization of candidate proteins for serological screening of Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    PubMed

    Gao, X B; Xiao, M; Wang, J; Liu, Y J; Liu, Q Z; Qi, M L

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize candidate antigen proteins for serological screening of Chlamydia trachomatis infection. C. trachomatis positive serum and swabs of genital secretions were collected from 50 patients in the Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, as well as from 30 patients negative for C. trachomatis. Samples were assessed by colloidal gold assay in a sexually transmitted disease clinic as follows: serum antibodies for eight kinds of C. trachomatis immunodominant proteins (Pgp3, CPAF, CT143, CT101, CT694, CT875, CT813, and IncA) were detected, and two traditional gold standards, immunofluorescence and C. trachomatis cell culture of genital secretions, were used for comparison in order to determine the antigen protein combinations with the highest sensitivity and specificity. Of the 50 samples that tested positive for C. trachomatis infection by colloidal gold assay, 44 tested positive by micro-immunofluorescence, whereas 6 tested negative. In contrast, 14 samples tested positive by cell culture, whereas 36 tested negative. Serological results of the immunodominant protein combination of Pgp3, CT694, and CT875 shared positive coincidence rates of 97.73 and 92.86% with C. trachomatis micro-immunofluorescence and cell culture, respectively. No antibodies of the three proteins were detected in the 30 C. trachomatis samples that tested negative by colloidal gold assay; these samples also tested negative in C. trachomatis genital secretion culture. Overall, the combination of the three immunodominant proteins Pgp3, CT694, and CT875 had good sensitivity and specificity for serological screening of C. trachomatis infection, and the process was simple and easy to apply. PMID:26505372

  6. Is the prevention of genital chlamydial infections by community involvement possible?

    PubMed

    Mĺrdh, Per-Anders

    2002-12-01

    This chapter presents different means by which community initiatives have been undertaken to reduce the prevalence and incidence of genital and allied infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. As most of these infections in the majority of infected individuals do not produce symptoms that are likely to urge them to attend any health care unit, screening programmes are mandatory to be able to influence the epidemic of infections with this agent. In many societies there has been a skewed gender distribution in the number of chlamydia-positive persons; this probably indicates that diagnostic service activities have been directed more against one gender than the other. The important role of partner notification, as in the case of other sexually transmitted infections, has been documented. Different means of community initiative have included counselling of school children and groups of persons more likely to be infected. Counselling by the pharmacy has an important role in many societies. Selected cohorts have been offered - via the mass media, Internet, radio and television programmes - sampling kits which can be mailed to a laboratory for testing. The establishment of youth clinics has been found effective for detecting teenagers harbouring C. trachomatis, similarly to screening at antenatal clinics. The offer of free consultations, aetiological tests and therapy has been a part of community initiatives, mimicking the services offered for some of the classic sexually transmitted infections. This chapter considers the usefulness of different test methods and stresses the need to retest those found to be positive. Barriers to the successful introduction of screening activities and diagnostic services are also considered. PMID:12473285

  7. Resolution of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection Is Associated with a Distinct T Cell Response Profile.

    PubMed

    Picard, Michele D; Bodmer, Jean-Luc; Gierahn, Todd M; Lee, Alexander; Price, Jessica; Cohane, Kenya; Clemens, Veronica; DeVault, Victoria L; Gurok, Galina; Kohberger, Robert; Higgins, Darren E; Siber, George R; Flechtner, Jessica Baker; Geisler, William M

    2015-11-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the causative agent of the most frequently reported bacterial sexually transmitted infection, the total burden of which is underestimated due to the asymptomatic nature of the infection. Untreated C. trachomatis infections can cause significant morbidities, including pelvic inflammatory disease and tubal factor infertility (TFI). The human immune response against C. trachomatis, an obligate intracellular bacterium, is poorly characterized but is thought to rely on cell-mediated immunity, with CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells implicated in protection. In this report, we present immune profiling data of subjects enrolled in a multicenter study of C. trachomatis genital infection. CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells from subjects grouped into disease-specific cohorts were screened using a C. trachomatis proteomic library to identify the antigen specificities of recall T cell responses after natural exposure by measuring interferon gamma (IFN-?) levels. We identified specific T cell responses associated with the resolution of infection, including unique antigens identified in subjects who spontaneously cleared infection and different antigens associated with C. trachomatis-related sequelae, such as TFI. These data suggest that novel and unique C. trachomatis T cell antigens identified in individuals with effective immune responses can be considered as targets for vaccine development, and by excluding antigens associated with deleterious sequelae, immune-mediated pathologies may be circumvented. PMID:26446421

  8. [Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and factors with the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections in college students].

    PubMed

    Occhionero, Marcelo; Paniccia, Laura; Pedersen, Dina; Rossi, Gabriela; Mazzucchini, Héctor; Entrocassi, Andrea; Gallo Vaulet, Lucia; Gualtieri, Valeria; Rodríguez Fermepin, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection is nowadays considered one of the most frequent causes of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in the world, mainly affecting the group of young people under 25 years old. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis infection in newly admitted students to Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahía Blanca, Argentina, and to evaluate the risk factors to acquire STI. For that purpose, 204 young college students with a mean age of 19 were involved in this study. Each participant delivered a sample of first-void urine and completed a questionnaire which was then submitted anonymously. The research for C. trachomatis was done on 114 valid samples through a technique of DNA amplification, whose molecular target was the gene ompA. Four cases of infection by C. trachomatis were detected with a prevalence of 3.5%. The risks factors associated to the infection were a history of 7 or more partners since the start of sexual activity and contact with a new sexual partner in the last 4 months. The prevalence of such infection reflects a moderate circulation of this microorganism in the studied population. This fact, along with some aspects shown by the questionnaire results, would characterize a population having a low risk profile for acquiring STIs. However, some other information obtained from the questionnaires gave some opposite evidence, which would alert us on the need of keeping watch, raising awareness and implementing preventive actions in this population. PMID:25683522

  9. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia Infection in Domestic Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in China.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xiaoting; Qin, Siyuan; Lou, Zhilong; Ning, Hongrui; Sun, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria distributed all over the world, known to cause various forms of diseases in animals and humans. In the present study, a serological survey was conducted to detect the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with rabbit chlamydiosis in northeast China, including Liaoning province, Jilin province, Heilongjiang province, and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Antibodies to Chlamydia were determined by indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 17.88% in total of 800 blood samples. The Chlamydia seroprevalence varied in domestic rabbits from different factors, and genders of domestic rabbits were considered as major risk factors associated with Chlamydia infection. Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in northeast China, with higher exposure risk in female domestic rabbits. These findings suggested the potential importance of domestic rabbits in the transmission of zoonotic Chlamydia infection, and thus Chlamydia should be taken into consideration in diagnosing rabbit diseases. To our knowledge, there is no report of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in China and the results extend the host range for Chlamydia, which has important implications for public health and the local economy. PMID:25945336

  10. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia Infection in Domestic Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in China

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Xiaoting; Qin, Siyuan; Lou, Zhilong; Ning, Hongrui; Sun, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria distributed all over the world, known to cause various forms of diseases in animals and humans. In the present study, a serological survey was conducted to detect the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with rabbit chlamydiosis in northeast China, including Liaoning province, Jilin province, Heilongjiang province, and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Antibodies to Chlamydia were determined by indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 17.88% in total of 800 blood samples. The Chlamydia seroprevalence varied in domestic rabbits from different factors, and genders of domestic rabbits were considered as major risk factors associated with Chlamydia infection. Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in northeast China, with higher exposure risk in female domestic rabbits. These findings suggested the potential importance of domestic rabbits in the transmission of zoonotic Chlamydia infection, and thus Chlamydia should be taken into consideration in diagnosing rabbit diseases. To our knowledge, there is no report of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in China and the results extend the host range for Chlamydia, which has important implications for public health and the local economy. PMID:25945336

  11. Waddlia chondrophila induces systemic infection, organ pathology, and elicits Th1-associated humoral immunity in a murine model of genital infection

    PubMed Central

    Vasilevsky, Sam; Gyger, Joel; Piersigilli, Alessandra; Pilloux, Ludovic; Greub, Gilbert; Stojanov, Milos; Baud, David

    2015-01-01

    Waddlia chondrophila is a known bovine abortigenic Chlamydia-related bacterium that has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes in human. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding how W. chondrophila infection spreads, its ability to elicit an immune response and induce pathology. A murine model of genital infection was developed to investigate the pathogenicity and immune response associated with a W. chondrophila infection. Genital inoculation of the bacterial agent resulted in a dose-dependent infection that spread to lumbar lymph nodes and successively to spleen and liver. Bacterial-induced pathology peaked on day 14, characterized by leukocyte infiltration (uterine horn, liver, and spleen), necrosis (liver) and extramedullary hematopoiesis (spleen). Immunohistochemistry demonstrated the presence of a large number of W. chondrophila in the spleen on day 14. Robust IgG titers were detected by day 14 and remained high until day 52. IgG isotypes consisted of high IgG2a, moderate IgG3 and no detectable IgG1, indicating a Th1-associated immune response. This study provides the first evidence that W. chondrophila genital infection is capable of inducing a systemic infection that spreads to major organs, induces uterus, spleen, and liver pathology and elicits a Th1-skewed humoral response. This new animal model will help our understanding of the mechanisms related to intracellular bacteria-induced miscarriages, the most frequent complication of pregnancy that affects one in four women. PMID:26583077

  12. Genital HPV infection and related lesions in men

    PubMed Central

    Anic, Gabriella M.; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2012-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is highly prevalent in men and there is an interest in further understanding the relationship between HPV infection and disease in men, including the development of genital warts, penile intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive penile carcinomas. Genital warts are caused by HPV 6/11 and are the most common clinical manifestation of HPV in men. Though they are benign and not associated with mortality, they are a source of psychosocial distress and physical discomfort. HPV infection can also develop into invasive penile carcinoma which is associated with morbidity and mortality. Approximately 40% of invasive penile carcinomas are attributable to HPV with HPV 16, 18, and 6/11 being the genotypes most commonly detected in penile tumors. Penile carcinomas of the basaloid and warty histologic subtypes are most likely to test positive for HPV. In addition to HPV infection, the risk factors most strongly associated with penile cancer are lack of neonatal circumcision, phimosis (the inability of uncircumcised men to fully retract the foreskin), and anogenital warts. Male vaccination with the quadrivalent HPV vaccine that protects against HPV 6/11/16/18 has been shown to significantly reduce HPV-associated anogenital infection and disease in men. If the quadrivalent vaccine is successfully disseminated to large segments of the young male population, there is the potential for substantial reduction in genital HPV infection and related lesions in men. PMID:21962470

  13. Lipooligosaccharide is required for the generation of infectious elementary bodies in Chlamydia trachomatis

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Pei

    and a common cause of sexually transmitted infections. If left untreated, ocular and genital chlamydial infec with other sexually transmitted patho- gens, including HIV (2). Chlamydiae have a distinct biphasic Chlamydia trachomatis is a widely disseminated human pathogen responsible for con- juctival diseases

  14. Two different homing pathways involving integrin ?7 and E-selectin significantly influence trafficking of CD4 cells to the genital tract following C. muridarum infection

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Kathleen A.; Chan, Ann M.; Butch, Anthony; Darville, Toni

    2009-01-01

    Problem Chlamydia trachomatis causes STI and reproductive dysfunction worldwide which is not preventable with antibiotics. Identifying a population of endocervical T cells to target in vaccine development would enhance efficacy. Method of Study Trafficking of murine CD4+ lymphocytes to Chlamydia muridarum infected genital tract (GT) tissue in vivo was measured using adoptive transfer studies of fluorescent CD4+ T cells from integrin ?7?/? mice or mice which lack E-selectin on endothelial cells. Results Murine in vivo migration studies showed that lack of ?4?7 or E-selectin significantly reduced trafficking of CD4 T cells to the GT of mice infected with C. muridarum. Conclusions CD4+ T cells use at least two different adhesive mechanisms involving an integrin of the mucosal homing pathway and selectin pathway to accumulate in the GT during C. muridarum infection. PMID:19392981

  15. Discovery of CD8 T cell epitopes in Chlamydia trachomatis infection through use of caged

    E-print Network

    Starnbach, Michael

    Discovery of CD8 T cell epitopes in Chlamydia trachomatis infection through use of caged class I, MA 02115; and §Laboratory of Immunology, Department of Medical Oncology, Dana­Farber Cancer Institute possible H-2Kb octameric and H-2Db nonameric epitopes that span the genome of Chlamydia trachomatis

  16. Cytotoxic cells induced after Chlamydia psittaci infection in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Lammert, J K

    1982-01-01

    The ability of spleen cells from Chlamydia psittaci-infected mice to lyse C. psittaci-infected and uninfected target cell monolayers was studied. The cytotoxicity assay used was a terminal label method in which the number of adherent target cells surviving the interaction with effector cells was determined by measuring the uptake of [3H]uridine by such cells. It was observed that in the first few days postinfection (3 to 5), spleens contained cells that lysed infected and uninfected targets with equal efficiency. Subsequently, infected targets were killed primarily. The activity of effector spleen cells for infected targets continued, although at a reduced level, beyond 21 days postinfection. Intact effector cells were required since a disruption by sonication resulted in a loss of cytotoxicity. The enhanced killing observed with infected targets was also observed when target cells were sensitized with heat- or UV-inactivated C. psittaci. This study suggests that the induction of cytotoxic cells after C. psittaci infection may contribute to the ability of the host to control multiplication of the microorganism. PMID:7068208

  17. Genital Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection in Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gone. Using condoms during sexual intercourse and dental dams during oral sex may also help to reduce the spread of infection. However, condoms or dams may not always completely prevent the spread of ...

  18. The prevalence and clinical significance of Chlamydia infection in island and mainland populations of Victorian koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    PubMed

    Patterson, Jade L S; Lynch, Michael; Anderson, Garry A; Noormohammadi, Amir H; Legione, Alistair; Gilkerson, James R; Devlin, Joanne M

    2015-04-01

    Chlamydia infection is known to impact the health of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, but the clinical significance of Chlamydia infections in Victorian koalas is not well described. We examined the prevalence of Chlamydia infection and assessed associated health parameters in two Victorian koala populations known to be Chlamydia positive. The same testing regimen was applied to a third Victorian population in which Chlamydia had not been detected. We examined 288 koalas and collected samples from the urogenital sinus and conjunctival sacs. Detection and differentiation of Chlamydia species utilized real-time PCR and high-resolution melting curve analysis. Chlamydia pecorum was detected in two populations (prevalences: 25% and 41%, respectively) but only from urogenital sinus swabs. Chlamydia was not detected in the third population. Chlamydia pneumoniae was not detected. Chlamydia pecorum infection was positively associated with wet bottom (indicating chronic urinary tract disease) in one Chlamydia-positive population and with abnormal urogenital ultrasound findings in the other Chlamydia-positive population. The prevalence of wet bottom was similar in all populations (including the Chlamydia-free population), suggesting there is another significant cause (or causes) of wet bottom in Victorian koalas. Ocular disease was not observed. This is the largest study of Chlamydia infection in Victorian koalas, and the results suggest the potential for epidemiologic differences related to Chlamydia infections between Victorian koalas and koalas in Queensland and NSW and also between geographically distinct Victorian populations. Further studies to investigate the genotypes of C. pecorum present in Victorian koalas and to identify additional causes of wet bottom in koalas are indicated. PMID:25588005

  19. Plasmid CDS5 influences infectivity and virulence in a mouse model of Chlamydia trachomatis urogenital infection.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, K H; Schripsema, J H; Smith, B J; Wang, Y; Jham, B C; O'Hagan, K P; Thomson, N R; Murthy, A K; Skilton, R J; Chu, P; Clarke, I N

    2014-08-01

    The native plasmid of both Chlamydia muridarum and Chlamydia trachomatis has been shown to control virulence and infectivity in mice and in lower primates. We recently described the development of a plasmid-based genetic transformation protocol for Chlamydia trachomatis that for the first time provides a platform for the molecular dissection of the function of the chlamydial plasmid and its individual genes or coding sequences (CDS). In the present study, we transformed a plasmid-free lymphogranuloma venereum isolate of C. trachomatis, serovar L2, with either the original shuttle vector (pGFP::SW2) or a derivative of pGFP::SW2 carrying a deletion of the plasmid CDS5 gene (pCDS5KO). Female mice were inoculated with these strains either intravaginally or transcervically. We found that transformation of the plasmid-free isolate with the intact pGFP::SW2 vector significantly enhanced infectivity and induction of host inflammatory responses compared to the plasmid-free parental isolate. Transformation with pCDS5KO resulted in infection courses and inflammatory responses not significantly different from those observed in mice infected with the plasmid-free isolate. These results indicate a critical role of plasmid CDS5 in in vivo fitness and in induction of inflammatory responses. To our knowledge, these are the first in vivo observations ascribing infectivity and virulence to a specific plasmid gene. PMID:24866804

  20. Chlamydia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of the cervix. It can also lead to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) , which is an infection of the uterus, ovaries, and/or fallopian tubes. PID can cause infertility and ectopic (tubal) pregnancies later ...

  1. Examining the relationship between maternal stressful life events and urogenital infection in preterm birth using a biobehavioral model 

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Joy Lavonne

    2009-05-15

    or drug use, and close friend/relative died) and urogenital infection (genital warts, herpes, chlamydia, gonorrhea, pelvic inflammatory disease, syphilis, Group B streptococcus, bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, yeast infection, urinary tract infection...

  2. Genital Warts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... anal, or oral). Genital contact (people's genitals touch). Childbirth (from infected mother to baby). Warts may not appear until weeks or months after sex with an infected person. All content solely developed by the American Academy of Dermatology. ...

  3. Mutational Analysis of the Chlamydia muridarum Plasticity Zone

    PubMed Central

    Rajaram, Krithika; Giebel, Amanda M.; Toh, Evelyn; Hu, Shuai; Newman, Jasmine H.; Morrison, Sandra G.; Kari, Laszlo; Morrison, Richard P.

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenically diverse Chlamydia spp. can have surprisingly similar genomes. Chlamydia trachomatis isolates that cause trachoma, sexually transmitted genital tract infections (chlamydia), and invasive lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) and the murine strain Chlamydia muridarum share 99% of their gene content. A region of high genomic diversity between Chlamydia spp. termed the plasticity zone (PZ) may encode niche-specific virulence determinants that dictate pathogenic diversity. We hypothesized that PZ genes might mediate the greater virulence and gamma interferon (IFN-?) resistance of C. muridarum compared to C. trachomatis in the murine genital tract. To test this hypothesis, we isolated and characterized a series of C. muridarum PZ nonsense mutants. Strains with nonsense mutations in chlamydial cytotoxins, guaBA-add, and a phospholipase D homolog developed normally in cell culture. Two of the cytotoxin mutants were less cytotoxic than the wild type, suggesting that the cytotoxins may be functional. However, none of the PZ nonsense mutants exhibited increased IFN-? sensitivity in cell culture or were profoundly attenuated in a murine genital tract infection model. Our results suggest that C. muridarum PZ genes are transcribed—and some may produce functional proteins—but are dispensable for infection of the murine genital tract. PMID:25939505

  4. The relationship of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and male infertility.

    PubMed Central

    Greendale, G A; Haas, S T; Holbrook, K; Walsh, B; Schachter, J; Phillips, R S

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Infertility affects at least 2 million couples in the United States. One third of infertility is attributed to male causes, but the etiology of most male infertility remains obscure. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between Chlamydia trachomatis and unexplained infertility in men. METHODS. Questionnaires and serum were collected prospectively from 52 case subjects (men from couples with explicitly defined idiopathic infertility) and 79 control subjects (first-time expectant fathers). RESULTS. Case subjects were significantly more likely than control subjects to be seropositive for antibody to C trachomatis at a titer of 1:64 or higher. By test of trend, higher titers were associated with higher odds ratios. Adjustment for age of either partner at initiation of pregnancy attempt, race, income, previous genitourinary symptoms or diagnoses, number of previous sexual partners, and barrier contraceptive use had no significant effect on the estimate of the odds ratio. One half of the men who were antibody positive had no history of genitourinary symptoms. CONCLUSIONS. Our results suggest an association between infection with C trachomatis in men and unexplained infertility and imply that infection is frequently asymptomatic. PMID:8328623

  5. Comparison of Sperm Parameters in Patients with Infertility Induced by Genital Infection versus Varicocele

    PubMed Central

    Pajovic, Bogdan; Dimitrovski, Antonio; Radojevic, Nemanja; Vukovic, Marko

    2015-01-01

    Background: Male infertility is a common and complex problem and, despite much research in this field, the major cause of infertility unfortunately remains unknown. Genital infection and varicocele are important causes of infertility. Aims: To compare the influence of genital infection and varicocele individually on male infertility based on semen analysis. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: The study included 120 infertile patients divided into two groups according to the presence of genital infection or varicocele. The first group included 60 examinees with proven genital infection, but without varicocele formation. The second included 60 patients with varicocele, regardless of the varicocele grade, but without genital infection. The fertile parameters were compared and an assessment was performed on the impact on quality of spermatogenesis due to infection and varicocele. Results: There is a statistically significant difference regarding abnormal forms of spermatozoids (45.94±9.79 vs. 25.27±6.54) and progressive motility (8.15±1.24 vs. 24.95±7.2), between two groups of patients. However, acidity of ejaculates, minimum sperm concentration, total spermatozoid motility and ejaculate volume showed no statistically significant difference. Conclusion: The study showed a stronger negative influence of genital infection on fertile parameters over varicocele. The significance of our study is the lack of contemporary researches comparing varicocele and genital infection influence on male infertility individually. PMID:26185712

  6. An integrated approach to the understanding of Chlamydia infections: Introduction to the 2009 update.

    PubMed

    Morréé, S A; Peńa, A S

    2009-11-01

    An integrated, multidisciplinary effort is needed to achieve a greater understanding of the immunopathogenesis of urogenital and ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infections to combat this infection successfully, to prevent long-term complications and to develop a vaccine. The contribution of molecular epidemiology and host-pathogen genomics to the understanding of diseases caused by C. trachomatis was explored in depth by the ICTI Consortium, which was first introduced in the Netherlands in December 2004 at the First Annual Amsterdam Chlamydia Meeting (AACM) and was the subject of a special Drugs of Today supplement published in 2006, entitled "An integrated approach to the understanding of Chlamydia infections". The ICTI Consortium formed the basis for a larger, European Union-funded international effort involving 20 centers, the EpiGenChlamydia Consortium. Major themes, including epidemiology, genetics and immunogenetics, biology and immunology, involving the chlamydiae species infecting humans, such as C. trachomatis, C. psittaci and C. pneumoniae, predominantly presented at the 4th and 5th AACM, are summarized in this second Drugs of Today supplement, as well as timely mini-reviews of the advances made in the field. PMID:20011688

  7. The DNA sensor, cyclic GMP-AMP synthase, is essential for induction of IFN-? during Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yugen; Yeruva, Laxmi; Marinov, Anthony; Prantner, Daniel; Wyrick, Priscilla B; Lupashin, Vladimir; Nagarajan, Uma M

    2014-09-01

    IFN-? has been implicated as an effector of oviduct pathology resulting from genital chlamydial infection in the mouse model. In this study, we investigated the role of cytosolic DNA and engagement of DNA sensors in IFN-? expression during chlamydial infection. We determined that three-prime repair exonuclease-1, a host 3' to 5' exonuclease, reduced IFN-? expression significantly during chlamydial infection using small interfering RNA and gene knockout fibroblasts, implicating cytosolic DNA as a ligand for this response. The DNA sensor cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) has been shown to bind cytosolic DNA to generate cyclic GMP-AMP, which binds to the signaling adaptor stimulator of IFN genes (STING) to induce IFN-? expression. We determined that cGAS is required for IFN-? expression during chlamydial infection in multiple cell types. Interestingly, although infected cells deficient for STING or cGAS alone failed to induce IFN-?, coculture of cells depleted for either STING or cGAS rescued IFN-? expression. These data demonstrate that cyclic GMP-AMP produced in infected cGAS(+)STING(-) cells can migrate into adjacent cells via gap junctions to function in trans in cGAS(-)STING(+) cells. Furthermore, we observed cGAS localized in punctate regions on the cytosolic side of the chlamydial inclusion membrane in association with STING, indicating that chlamydial DNA is most likely recognized outside the inclusion as infection progresses. These novel findings provide evidence that cGAS-mediated DNA sensing directs IFN-? expression during Chlamydia trachomatis infection and suggest that effectors from infected cells can directly upregulate IFN-? expression in adjacent uninfected cells during in vivo infection, contributing to pathogenesis. PMID:25070851

  8. Genital infections and syndromic diagnosis among HIV-infected women in HIV care programmes in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Djomand, Gaston; Gao, Hongjiang; Singa, Benson; Hornston, Sureyya; Bennett, Eddas; Odek, James; McClelland, R Scott; John-Stewart, Grace; Bock, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    Control of genital infections remains challenging in most regions. Despite advocacy by the World Health Organization for syndromic case management, there are limited data on the syndromic approach, especially in HIV care settings. This study compared the syndromic approach with laboratory diagnosis among women in HIV care in Kenya. A mobile team visited 39 large HIV care programmes in Kenya and enrolled participants using population-proportionate sampling. Participants provided behavioural and clinical data with genital and blood specimens for lab testing. Among 1063 women, 68.4% had been on antiretroviral therapy >1 year; 58.9% were using cotrimoxazole prophylaxis; 51 % had CD4+T-lymphocytes?genital symptom. Clinical signs were found in 63% of women; and 30.8% had an aetiological diagnosis. Bacterial vaginosis (17.4%), vaginal candidiasis (10.6%) and trichomoniasis (10.5%) were the most common diagnoses. Using laboratory diagnoses as gold standard, sensitivity and positive predictive value of the syndromic diagnosis for vaginal discharge were 47.6% and 52.7%, respectively, indicating a substantial amount of overtreatment. A systematic physical examination increased by 9.3% the positive predictive value for genital ulcer disease. Women attending HIV care programmes in Kenya have high rates of vaginal infections. Syndromic diagnosis was a poor predictor of those infections. PMID:25614522

  9. Orchitis and Epididymitis in Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) Infected With Chlamydia pecorum.

    PubMed

    Johnston, S D; Deif, H H; McKinnon, A; Theilemann, P; Griffith, J E; Higgins, D P

    2015-11-01

    Although Chlamydia causes disease of the urethra and prostate of male koalas, its impact on the testis and epididymis has not been examined. This study describes chronic-active and granulomatous orchitis and epididymitis with interstitial fibrosis associated with infection by Chlamydia pecorum in 2 of 18 adult male koalas being euthanized at a koala hospital, 8 of which also had chlamydial prostatitis. By immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy, chlamydial inclusions were demonstrated within Sertoli cells directly associated with mild inflammation surrounding intact seminiferous and epididymal tubules, marked pyogranulomatous inflammation around disrupted tubules, replacement of tubules by interstitial fibrosis, and aspermia. The presence of C. pecorum but not Chlamydia pneumoniae was detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction of formalin-fixed tissues of the left and right testes and right epididymis in 1 animal. This is the first report of orchitis and epididymitis in a koala infected with C. pecorum. PMID:25637084

  10. Cervical Infection with Herpes simplex Virus, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae among Symptomatic Women, Dubai, UAE: A Molecular Approach

    PubMed Central

    Behzadi, Mohammad Amin; Azizi, Saeed; Payombarnia, Hamid; Vahdani, Ali; Namayandeh, Mandana; Ziyaeyan, Mazyar

    2014-01-01

    Tragically, genital tract infections are still a major public health problem in many regions. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of cervical infection with Herpes simplex virus (HSV), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) among married women referring to Iranian Hospital, Dubai, UAE. In a retrospective cross-sectional survey, 201 female patients aged 16–80 years who referred to the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Iranian Hospital, Dubai, UAE, in 2010 were enrolled. The patients were categorized into three age groups: 15–30 (group I), 31–40 (group II), and ?41 years old (group III). A cervical swab sample was collected from each woman and the prevalence of cervical infection with HSV, CT, and NG was determined by PCR method. HSV, CT, and NG were detected in 6.5%, 10.4%, and 5.5% of swab samples, respectively. Regarding age, a significant difference was noticed for prevalence of NG and HSV between groups I and III. Because of public health importance of sexual transmitted diseases (STDs), their long-lasting impact on quality of life, and their economic burden, preventing measures and education of women seem necessary. PMID:24982675

  11. Autoprocessing and self-activation of the secreted protease CPAF in Chlamydia-infected cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ding; Lei, Lei; Flores, Rhonda; Huang, Zhiwei; Wu, Zhongming; Chai, Jijie; Zhong, Guangming

    2010-01-01

    The Chlamydia-secreted protease/proteasome-like activity factor (CPAF) is synthesized as a proenzyme (proCPAF) and requires processing for proteolytic activity. Recent structural studies have further demonstrated that CPAF is a serine protease that can undergo autoprocessing and self-activation in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro. However, it is not known how CPAF is processed and activated during chlamydial infection. In the current study, we used a mutant CPAF designated as CPAF(E558A) that is deficient in processing by itself as a substrate to search for putative CPAF activation factor(s) in Chlamydia-infected cells. CPAF(E558A) was processed by the lysates made from Chlamydia-infected cells and the processing activity correlated with the presence of endogenous active CPAF in the fractionated lysate samples. CPAF produced in the Chlamydia-infected cells is required for processing the mutant CPAF(E558A) since the processing activity was removed by depletion with anti-CPAF but not control antibodies. Furthermore, a purified and activated wild type CPAF alone was sufficient for processing CPAF(E558A) and no other chlamydial proteases are required. Finally, fusion tag-induced oligomerization can lead to autoprocessing and self-activation of the wild type CPAF in mammalian cells. These observations together have demonstrated that CPAF undergoes autoprocessing and self-activation during chlamydial infection. PMID:20510344

  12. Host-pathogen interactions in specific pathogen-free chickens following aerogenous infection with Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia abortus.

    PubMed

    Kalmar, Isabelle; Berndt, Angela; Yin, Lizi; Chiers, Koen; Sachse, Konrad; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2015-03-15

    Although Chlamydia (C.) psittaci infections are recognized as an important factor causing economic losses and impairing animal welfare in poultry production, the specific mechanisms leading to severe clinical outcomes are poorly understood. In the present study, we comparatively investigated pathology and host immune response, as well as systemic dissemination and expression of essential chlamydial genes in the course of experimental aerogeneous infection with C. psittaci and the closely related C. abortus, respectively, in specific pathogen-free chicks. Clinical signs appeared sooner and were more severe in the C. psittaci-infected group. Compared to C. abortus infection, more intense systemic dissemination of C. psittaci correlated with higher and faster infiltration of immune cells, as well as more macroscopic lesions and epithelial pathology, such as hyperplasia and erosion. In thoracic air sac tissue, mRNA expression of immunologically relevant factors, such as IFN-?, IL-1?, IL-6, IL-17, IL-22, LITAF and iNOS was significantly stronger up-regulated in C. psittaci- than in C. abortus-infected birds between 3 and 14 days post-infection. Likewise, transcription rates of the chlamydial genes groEL, cpaf and ftsW were consistently higher in C. psittaci during the acute phase. These findings illustrate that the stronger replication of C. psittaci in its natural host also evoked a more intense immune response than in the case of C. abortus infection. PMID:25638671

  13. Risk Factors for "Chlamydia Trachomatis" Infection in a California Collegiate Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipkin, Diane L.; Gillam, Alix; Grady, Laurie Bisset

    2003-01-01

    "Chlamydia trachomatis" infection in college students has not undergone a detailed large-scale evaluation. The authors undertook a cross-sectional study of 4,086 students enrolled on the campuses of California State University, Sacramento, and 3 local community colleges from fall 2000 through spring 2002. They used an outreach screening model to…

  14. Genital Chlamydia Prevalence in Europe and Non-European High Income Countries: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Redmond, Shelagh M.; Alexander-Kisslig, Karin; Woodhall, Sarah C.; van den Broek, Ingrid V. F.; van Bergen, Jan; Ward, Helen; Uusküla, Anneli; Herrmann, Björn; Andersen, Berit; Götz, Hannelore M.; Sfetcu, Otilia; Low, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Background Accurate information about the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis is needed to assess national prevention and control measures. Methods We systematically reviewed population-based cross-sectional studies that estimated chlamydia prevalence in European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) Member States and non-European high income countries from January 1990 to August 2012. We examined results in forest plots, explored heterogeneity using the I2 statistic, and conducted random effects meta-analysis if appropriate. Meta-regression was used to examine the relationship between study characteristics and chlamydia prevalence estimates. Results We included 25 population-based studies from 11 EU/EEA countries and 14 studies from five other high income countries. Four EU/EEA Member States reported on nationally representative surveys of sexually experienced adults aged 18–26 years (response rates 52–71%). In women, chlamydia point prevalence estimates ranged from 3.0–5.3%; the pooled average of these estimates was 3.6% (95% CI 2.4, 4.8, I2 0%). In men, estimates ranged from 2.4–7.3% (pooled average 3.5%; 95% CI 1.9, 5.2, I2 27%). Estimates in EU/EEA Member States were statistically consistent with those in other high income countries (I2 0% for women, 6% for men). There was statistical evidence of an association between survey response rate and estimated chlamydia prevalence; estimates were higher in surveys with lower response rates, (p = 0.003 in women, 0.018 in men). Conclusions Population-based surveys that estimate chlamydia prevalence are at risk of participation bias owing to low response rates. Estimates obtained in nationally representative samples of the general population of EU/EEA Member States are similar to estimates from other high income countries. PMID:25615574

  15. Applications and Therapeutic Actions of Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Women with Genital Infection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chenfang; Zhang, Yuehui; Yu, Yang; Han, Fengjuan

    2014-01-01

    Genital infection is a common worldwide disease among females with clinical features such as bilateral lower abdominal tenderness, abnormal vaginal or cervical discharge, fever, abnormal vaginal bleeding, dyspareunia, vaginal itching, and adnexal tenderness, which can significantly impair women's health and quality of life. Genital infection is commonly treated with antibiotics, leading to an imbalance in gut flora due to prolonged use of antibiotics. Therefore, it is necessary to discover safe and efficacious alternative treatment strategies for patients with genital infection. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is becoming increasingly prevalent among women with genital infection. CAM has interested the western mainstream medical community because of its less invasive, safe, effective, economical, and convenient therapies. CAM focuses on the prevention and treatment of disease and has become an important force in treating chronic disease. During the last few decades, the popularity of CAM has gradually increased. To further understand the efficacy of CAM in treating genital infection, our paper will review the current progress of treating genital infection including vulvitis, vaginitis, cervicitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) with CAM therapies. Several CAM strategies including traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), acupuncture, Psychology interference, and physical therapy are introduced in this review. PMID:24648850

  16. Genital secretory immune response to chronic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection: a comparison between intravenously and genitally inoculated rhesus macaques.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, C J; Kang, D W; Marthas, M; Moldoveanu, Z; Kiyono, H; Marx, P; Eldridge, J H; Mestecky, J; McGhee, J R

    1992-01-01

    The humoral and genital secretory immune response to chronic SIV infection was compared between female Rhesus macaques inoculated by i.v. or intravaginal routes. Total IgG levels in serum were 10-fold higher in SIV-infected animals when compared with uninfected controls. Vaginal washes from normal macaques contained predominantly IgA and IgG, while those from SIV-infected animals contained high levels of IgG. The SIV-infected animals had high titres of SIV-specific IgG in serum, with lower but detectable IgA and IgM responses. The genital secretory immune response to SIV was similar in intravenously and intravaginally inoculated animals. The anti-SIV response in the vaginal washes consisted mainly of IgG. Within the lamina propria of the reproductive tract of animals chronically infected with SIV there were essentially no IgA or IgG plasma cells and only a small number of IgM plasma cells, while two normal animals had large numbers of IgA plasma cells. These results suggest that the mucosal immune system of the female reproductive tract is impaired in chronic SIV infection. Images Fig. 1 PMID:1606737

  17. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among women in a Middle Eastern community

    PubMed Central

    Ghazal-Aswad, Saad; Badrinath, Padmanabhan; Osman, Nawal; Abdul-Khaliq, Samar; Mc Ilvenny, Shirley; Sidky, Islam

    2004-01-01

    Background Common vaginal infections that manifest in women are usually easily diagnosed. However, Chlamydia infection is often asymptomatic, leading to infertility before it is detected. If it occurs in pregnancy, it could lead to significant neonatal morbidity. It may also play a role with other viral infections for e.g. Human Papilloma Virus in the development of cervical cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia infection in women undergoing screening for cervical abnormalities as a part of a research project in primary and secondary care institutions in the United Arab Emirates. Methods In this cross sectional study married women attending primary and secondary care participating in a large nationwide cervical abnormalities screening survey were offered Chlamydia testing using a commercially available test kit. This kit uses a rapid immunoassay for the direct detection of Chlamydia trachomatis antigen in endocervical swab specimens. As this study was performed in a traditional Islamic country, unmarried women were excluded from testing, as the management of any positive cases would create legal and social problems. All married women consenting to take part in the study were included irrespective of age. Results Of 1039 women approached over a period of eight months 919 (88.5%) agreed to participate. The number of women in the 16 to 19 years was small (0.01%) and 30% were aged over 40 years. The prevalence of Chlamydia infection in this study was 2.6% (95% confidence interval 1.2–3.3%), which was marginally higher in women screened in secondary care (p = 0.05). Conclusion This is one of the few reports on the prevalence of Chlamydia infection in women from the Middle East. Due to cultural and social constraints this study excluded a large proportion of women aged less than 19 years of age. Hence no direct comparisons on prevalence could be made with studies from the West, which all included younger women at high risk of Chlamydia. However this study emphasizes the importance of cultural factors while interpreting results of studies from different cultures and communities. PMID:15163348

  18. Serological and nested PCR survey to determine the occurrence of Chlamydia infections in the Polish cattle population.

    PubMed

    Szyma?ska-Czerwi?ska, Monika; Niemczuk, Krzysztof; Gali?ska, El?bieta Monika

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia spp. is an obligate intracellular agent that causes chlamydiosis in animals and humans. The aim of the presented study was to investigate the prevalence of Chlamydia infection in the Polish cattle population, both asymptomatic and having reproductive disorders. The study was performed on 4,475 serum samples collected from 16 Polish provinces at the turn of 2009-2011. The samples (3,419 from asymptomatic cattle and 1,056 from cattle with reproductive disorders) were tested by complement fixation test (CFT). Moreover, 160 and 201 samples of biological materials from both groups of cattle, respectively, were tested by nested PCR. The results obtained for two tested groups were compared by ?2 (ch-squared) test, both individually for each region (province), and generally for the whole country. The CFT results showed that the seroprevalence of Chlamydia spp. infections in the asymptomatic cattle population was 4.15%, while in the cattle with reproductive disorders--7.20%. There was a significant statistical difference between compared groups for whole country, but there were no significant differences for individual provinces. The results of PCR showed that Chlamydia spp. was present in both asymptomatic cattle and cattle having reproductive disorders. The nested PCR study confirmed the presence of Chlamydia abortus and Chlamydia suis in the tested samples. The presented study indicates that infections with Chlamydia spp. are present among Polish cattle, but the percentage of infected animals is not high. PMID:24364434

  19. The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Australia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chlamydia trachomatis is a common sexually transmitted infection in Australia. This report aims to measure the burden of chlamydia infection by systematically reviewing reports on prevalence in Australian populations. Methods Electronic databases and conference websites were searched from 1997–2011 using the terms ‘Chlamydia trachomatis’ OR ‘chlamydia’ AND ‘prevalence’ OR ‘epidemiology’ AND ‘Australia’. Reference lists were checked and researchers contacted for additional literature. Studies were categorised by setting and participants, and meta-analysis conducted to determine pooled prevalence estimates for each category. Results Seventy-six studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. There was a high level of heterogeneity between studies; however, there was a trend towards higher chlamydia prevalence in younger populations, Indigenous Australians, and those attending sexual health centres. In community or general practice settings, pooled prevalence for women <25?years in studies conducted post-2005 was 5.0% (95% CI: 3.1, 6.9; five studies), and for men <30?years over the entire review period was 3.9% (95% CI: 2.7, 5.1; six studies). For young Australians aged <25?years attending sexual health, family planning or youth clinics, estimated prevalence was 6.2% (95% CI: 5.1, 7.4; 10 studies) for women and 10.2% (95% CI: 9.5, 10.9; five studies) for men. Other key findings include pooled prevalence estimates of 22.1% (95% CI: 19.0, 25.3; three studies) for Indigenous women <25?years, 14.6% (95% CI: 11.5, 17.8; three studies) for Indigenous men <25?years, and 5.6% (95% CI: 4.8, 6.3; 11 studies) for rectal infection in men who have sex with men. Several studies failed to report basic demographic details such as sex and age, and were therefore excluded from the analysis. Conclusions Chlamydia trachomatis infections are a significant health burden in Australia; however, accurate estimation of chlamydia prevalence in Australian sub-populations is limited by heterogeneity within surveyed populations, and variations in sampling methodologies and data reporting. There is a need for more large, population-based studies and prospective cohort studies to compliment mandatory notification data. PMID:22583480

  20. Proceedings From the First Asia-Oceania Research Organisation on Genital Infections and Neoplasia (AOGIN) Meeting

    PubMed Central

    Faro, Edited by Sebastian

    2006-01-01

    The First Asia-Oceania Research Organisation on Genital Infections and Neoplasia (AOGIN) Meeting was held in Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia, in July 2005. The conference covered regional issues relating to infection with the human papillomavirus—epidemiology, virology, and immunology, testing, screening, and prevention strategies—as well as cervical cancer screening and its management.

  1. Identification of Chlamydiae and Mycoplasma species in ruminants with ocular infections.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S; Chahota, R; Bhardwaj, B; Malik, P; Verma, S; Sharma, M

    2015-02-01

    Infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) is a highly contagious ocular inflammatory condition, which is often reported in domestic small and large ruminants. Multiple infectious aetiologies are reported to be involved, but information about the role of certain fastidious bacterial pathogens such as chlamydiae and mycoplasmas is limited in India. Hence, this study was performed to determine the role of these pathogens and their identification by molecular approach. A total of 53 samples from 31 ovine, 14 caprine and eight bovine having clinical symptoms were collected and tested using species-specific PCR tests for chlamydiae and mycoplasmas followed by nucleotide sequence analysis. The results showed 77.41, 14.29 and 25% samples were chlamydiae positive in ovine, caprine and bovine, respectively, whereas 41.93, 14.29 and 37.5% prevalence of mycoplasma infection was detected in ovine, caprine and bovines, respectively. Chlamydophila abortus, Chlamydophila psittaci, Mycoplasma arginini and Mycoplasma hyorhinis were detected from tested samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time these species are identified in IKC cases from India. Coinfection of both chlamydial and mycoplasmal species was detected in eight IKC cases of ovine which suggest synergistic roles played by both chlamydiae and mycoplasma in IKC samples. PMID:25421836

  2. Chlamydia infection depends on a functional MDM2-p53 axis

    PubMed Central

    González, Erik; Rother, Marion; Kerr, Markus C.; Al-Zeer, Munir A.; Abu-Lubad, Mohammad; Kessler, Mirjana; Brinkmann, Volker; Loewer, Alexander; Meyer, Thomas F.

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia, a major human bacterial pathogen, assumes effective strategies to protect infected cells against death-inducing stimuli, thereby ensuring completion of its developmental cycle. Paired with its capacity to cause extensive host DNA damage, this poses a potential risk of malignant transformation, consistent with circumstantial epidemiological evidence. Here we reveal a dramatic depletion of p53, a tumor suppressor deregulated in many cancers, during Chlamydia infection. Using biochemical approaches and live imaging of individual cells, we demonstrate that p53 diminution requires phosphorylation of Murine Double Minute 2 (MDM2; a ubiquitin ligase) and subsequent interaction of phospho-MDM2 with p53 before induced proteasomal degradation. Strikingly, inhibition of the p53–MDM2 interaction is sufficient to disrupt intracellular development of Chlamydia and interferes with the pathogen’s anti-apoptotic effect on host cells. This highlights the dependency of the pathogen on a functional MDM2-p53 axis and lends support to a potentially pro-carcinogenic effect of chlamydial infection. PMID:25392082

  3. Genital and urinary tract infections in diabetes: impact of pharmacologically-induced glucosuria.

    PubMed

    Geerlings, Suzanne; Fonseca, Vivian; Castro-Diaz, David; List, James; Parikh, Shamik

    2014-03-01

    Predisposition to genital infections and urinary tract infections (UTIs) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) results from several factors such as glucosuria, adherence of bacteria to the uroepithelium and immune dysfunction. The tendency to develop these infections could be even higher in patients with T2DM treated with the emerging class of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. Studies have shown that pharmacologically-induced glucosuria with SGLT2 inhibitors raises the risk of developing genital infections and, to a relatively lesser extent, UTIs. However, a definitive dose relationship of the incidence of these infections with the SGLT2 doses is not evident in the existing data. Therefore, the precise role of glucosuria as a causative factor for these infections is yet to be fully elucidated. PMID:24529566

  4. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia spp. Infection in Community-Acquired Pneumonia, Germany, 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Dumke, Roger; Schnee, Christiane; Pletz, Mathias W.; Rupp, Jan; Jacobs, Enno; Sachse, Konrad; Group, CAPNETZ Study

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia spp., which are associated with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), are difficult to propagate, and can cause clinically indistinguishable disease patterns. During 2011–2012, we used molecular methods to test adult patients in Germany with confirmed CAP for infection with these 2 pathogens. Overall, 12.3% (96/783) of samples were positive for M. pneumoniae and 3.9% (31/794) were positive for Chlamydia spp.; C. psittaci (2.1%) was detected more frequently than C. pneumoniae (1.4%). M. pneumoniae P1 type 1 predominated, and levels of macrolide resistance were low (3.1%). Quarterly rates of M. pneumoniae–positive samples ranged from 1.5% to 27.3%, showing a strong epidemic peak for these infections, but of Chlamydia spp. detection was consistent throughout the year. M. pneumoniae–positive patients were younger and more frequently female, had fewer co-occurring conditions, and experienced milder disease than did patients who tested negative. Clinicians should be aware of the epidemiology of these pathogens in CAP. PMID:25693633

  5. Intratracheal infection as an efficient route for testing vaccines against Chlamydia abortus in sheep.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, D; Salinas, J; Buendía, A J; Ortega, N; del Río, L; Sánchez, J; Navarro, J A; Gallego, M C; Murcia-Belmonte, A; Cuello, F; Caro, M R

    2015-09-01

    Pregnant ewes have been widely used to test vaccines against Chlamydia abortus. However, this model entails many disadvantages such as high economic costs and long periods of pregnancy. The murine model is very useful for specific studies but cannot replace the natural host for the later stages of vaccine evaluation. Therefore, a non-pregnant model of the natural host might be useful for a vaccine trial to select the best vaccine candidates prior to use of the pregnant model. With this aim, two routes of infection were assessed in young non-pregnant sheep, namely, intranasal (IN) and intratracheal (IT). In addition, groups of non-vaccinated sheep and sheep immunised with an inactivated vaccine were established to investigate the suitability of the model for testing vaccines. After the experimental infection, isolation of the microorganism in several organs, with pathological and immunohistochemical analyses, antibody production assessment and investigation by PCR of the presence of chlamydia in the vagina or rectum were carried out. Experimental IT inoculation of C. abortus induced pneumonia in sheep during the first few days post-infection, confirming the suitability of the IT route for testing vaccines in the natural host. The course of infection and the resulting pathological signs were less severe in vaccinated sheep compared with non-vaccinated animals, demonstrating the success of vaccination. IN infection did not produce evident lesions or demonstrate the presence of chlamydial antigen in the lungs and cannot be considered an appropriate model for testing vaccines. PMID:26095034

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis infection among female inmates at Briman prison in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the western countries; its prevalence in the conservative Muslim population of Saudi Arabia is not known, but it is generally believed to be low. This study is the first to investigate the prevalence of and risk factors for C. trachomatis infection in the high-risk group of female inmates at Briman Prison in Jeddah. Methods The inmates were interviewed using a pre-designed questionnaire, and their urine samples were tested for C. trachomatis infection by real-time PCR assay. Results The overall prevalence of C. trachomatis infection was 8.7% in the study population. The ?25 age group was predominantly affected, with an average prevalence of 16.6%. Two out of five (2/5, 40%) Yamani, (4/33 12.1%) Indonesian, (3/33, 9.1%) Somalian and (2/26, 7.7%) Ethiopian inmates were positive for infection. None of the Saudi inmates (0/14) were positive for infection. Among the studied variables, only age was significantly associated with the infection rate. The other variables (marital status, nationality, religion, employment status, education level, nature of the offense committed, knowledge about protection from STIs, and knowledge about condom use and the purpose of condom use) did not show a significant correlation with Chlamydia infection. Conclusions The overall prevalence of C. trachomatis infection was within the range published by other reports in similar prison settings in developed countries. The results indicate the need for a countrywide screening and treatment program for all inmates at the time of entry into prison. PMID:24649964

  7. Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infection and Cardiac Risk Factors in Patients with Myocardial Infection

    PubMed Central

    Azarkar, Zohreh; Jafarnejad, Majid; Zaedast, Mahmood; Saadatjou, Alireza

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Evidences support the possible involvement of microorganisms such as Chlamydia pneumonia in the pathogenesis of ischemic heart diseases through a chronic inflammatory process. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between Chlamydia pneumoniae seropositivity with acute myocardial infarction and its related risk factors. METHODS In this case-control study, 88 patients admitted in CCU with a diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome, without a history of chronic diseases including cancers were selected as cases and 49 surgical patients without an evidence of cardiovascular disease according to clinical examinations and ECG were selected as controls. Demographic characteristics and background risk factors were obtained using a questionnaire by expert nurses. Venous blood sample was obtained from participants for measuring the anti Chlamydia IgG and IgM antibodies using ELISA method. The prevalence of antibodies was compared in both groups and its relation with coronary syndrome was evaluated. RESULTS 88 and 49 patients were enrolled in case and control groups, respectively. Mean age of patients and the controls was 14±59.7 and 13±56.9 years, respectively (P=0.26). Anti Chlamydia IgG seropositivity rate was 63(71.9%) and 23(46.9%) in case and controlcontrol groups, respectively (P<0.01; OR: 2.85; CI 95%: 1.38-5.9). Anti Chlamydia IgM was positive in 1 patient and 1 control. Anti Chlamydia IgG seropositivity rate was higher in patients older than 50 years old than those younger than 50 years old (OR: 2.83; CI 95%: 1.31 -1.14). There was a significant relation between BMI, smoking and Anti Chlamydia IgG seropositivity. CONCLUSION Considering the relation between anti Chlamydia antibody IgG seropositivity with BMI and myocardial infarction, it seems that appropriate diagnosis and treatment of these prone patients can be benefical. PMID:22577429

  8. A vaccine formulated with the major outer membrane protein can protect C3H/HeN, a highly susceptible strain of mice, from a Chlamydia muridarum genital challenge.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sukumar; Tatarenkova, Olga V; de la Maza, Luis M

    2015-11-01

    C3H/HeN female mice were vaccinated with native Chlamydia muridarum major outer membrane protein (MOMP), using Montanide+CpG or Alum+CpG as adjuvants. Negative control groups were immunized with ovalbumin (OVA) and the same adjuvants. As positive control, mice were inoculated intranasally with live Chlamydia. Mice were challenged in the ovarian bursa with 10(5) C. muridarum inclusion forming units. Six weeks after the genital challenge the animals were caged with male mice and monitored for pregnancy. Mice vaccinated with MOMP+Montanide+CpG developed high levels of C. muridarum-specific antibodies, with a high IgG2a/IgG1 ratio and neutralizing titres. Animals immunized using Alum+CpG had low antibody levels. Cellular immune responses were significantly higher in mice vaccinated with MOMP and Montanide+CpG, but not with Alum+CpG, when compared with negative controls. Following the genital challenge, only 20% (4/20) of mice vaccinated with MOMP+CpG+Montanide had positive vaginal cultures whereas 100% (9/9) of mice immunized with MOMP+CpG+Alum had positive cultures. Of the positive control animals inoculated with live Chlamydia only 15% (3/20) had positive vaginal cultures. In contrast, 100% (20/20) of mice immunized with OVA+CpG+Montanide, or minimal essential medium, had positive cultures. Following mating, 80% (16/20) of mice vaccinated with MOMP+CpG+Montanide, and 85% (17/20) of animals inoculated intranasally with live C. muridarum carried embryos in both uterine horns. No protection against infertility was observed in mice immunized with MOMP and CpG+Alum or OVA. In conclusion, this is the first time that a subunit vaccine has been shown to elicit a protective immune response in the highly susceptible C3H/HeN strain of mice against an upper genital challenge. PMID:26423798

  9. Pulmonary Chlamydia muridarum challenge activates lung interstitial macrophages which correlate with IFN-? production and infection control in mice.

    PubMed

    Gracey, Eric; Baglaenko, Yuriy; Prayitno, Nadia; Van Rooijen, Nico; Akram, Ali; Lin, Aifeng; Chiu, Basil; Inman, Robert D

    2015-12-01

    Protective immunity to the pathogen Chlamydia is dependent on a robust IFN-? response generated by innate and adaptive lymphocytes. Here we assess the role of the macrophage in orchestrating a protective response in vivo to the murine pathogen, Chlamydia muridarum. During acute pulmonary and peritoneal infection, resident macrophages in both sites are infected with C. muridarum and adopt an inflammatory phenotype. In the lung, this activation is restricted to interstitial macrophages, which harbor higher levels of C. muridarum 16sRNA than alveolar macrophages. We examined innate and adaptive lymphocyte activation in the peritoneal cavity with macrophage depletion and with adoptive transfer of infected macrophages. These experiments demonstrate macrophage activation correlates with a protective IFN-? response and effective control of C. muridarum. These studies suggest that a quantitative or qualitative alteration in macrophages may play a key role in the development of Chlamydia-associated diseases. PMID:26344246

  10. Acceptance of Home-Based Chlamydia Genital and Anorectal Testing Using Short Message Service (SMS) in Previously Tested Young People and Their Social and Sexual Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wolffs, Petra T.; Kok, Gerjo; Hoebe, Christian J. P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Control strategies for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) are most effective when targeting people at highest risk. We assessed test acceptance of home-collection test kits offered by short messaging services (SMS) texts, in high-risk young people, i.e. those who had previously tested CT positive (positive indices), or negative reporting more than 3 sex partners (negative indices), and their sexual and social networks. Methods Young (16 to 25 years old) heterosexuals who previously tested positive (n=536) or negative (n=536) in our STI clinic received, 3 to 20 months after their initial screening, an SMS inviting them to re-test. They were offered a free home-collection test kit including a genital (men and women) and anorectal (women only) test, and a test kit to pass on to a friend or sex partner (peer). SMS reminders were sent in case of non-response. We assessed proportions of tests requested and returned, peers tested, and positivity. Associations with the individual’s initial screening result and other factors were explored using logistic regression. Results Of 1072 people invited to retest, 34.4% (n=369) requested a test. Of these, 55.8% (n=206) retested. Overall, retest participation was higher in positive (22%) than in negative indices (16%) (p<0.001); it was also higher in women and in those aged >22 years. Positivity was 13% and 7% in positive and negative indices, respectively. One in 3 retesters also had a peer tested. Of tested peers (n=87), 84% were friends, 31% were first-time testers, and 7% tested positive. Conclusion Acceptance of a relatively low-cost strategy for genital and anorectal testing, i.e. using SMS and home-collection test kits, was highest in individuals who previously tested CT positive suggesting that implementation for this group may be considered. By further including a peer-led testing component, undetected CT positives can be identified in the social networks surrounding a high-risk individual. PMID:26230085

  11. Developing and testing accelerated partner therapy for partner notification for people with genital Chlamydia trachomatis diagnosed in primary care: a pilot randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Estcourt, Claudia S; Sutcliffe, Lorna J; Copas, Andrew; Mercer, Catherine H; Roberts, Tracy E; Jackson, Louise J; Symonds, Merle; Tickle, Laura; Muniina, Pamela; Rait, Greta; Johnson, Anne M; Aderogba, Kazeem; Creighton, Sarah; Cassell, Jackie A

    2015-01-01

    Background Accelerated partner therapy (APT) is a promising partner notification (PN) intervention in specialist sexual health clinic attenders. To address its applicability in primary care, we undertook a pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) of two APT models in community settings. Methods Three-arm pilot RCT of two adjunct APT interventions: APTHotline (telephone assessment of partner(s) plus standard PN) and APTPharmacy (community pharmacist assessment of partner(s) plus routine PN), versus standard PN alone (patient referral). Index patients were women diagnosed with genital chlamydia in 12 general practices and three community contraception and sexual health (CASH) services in London and south coast of England, randomised between 1 September 2011 and 31 July 2013. Results 199 women described 339 male partners, of whom 313 were reported by the index as contactable. The proportions of contactable partners considered treated within 6?weeks of index diagnosis were APTHotline 39/111 (35%), APTPharmacy 46/100 (46%), standard patient referral 46/102 (45%). Among treated partners, 8/39 (21%) in APTHotline arm were treated via hotline and 14/46 (30%) in APTPharmacy arm were treated via pharmacy. Conclusions The two novel primary care APT models were acceptable, feasible, compliant with regulations and capable of achieving acceptable outcomes within a pilot RCT but intervention uptake was low. Although addition of these interventions to standard PN did not result in a difference between arms, overall PN uptake was higher than previously reported in similar settings, probably as a result of introducing a formal evaluation. Recruitment to an individually randomised trial proved challenging and full evaluation will likely require service-level randomisation. Trial registration number Registered UK Clinical Research Network Study Portfolio id number 10123. PMID:26019232

  12. Guanylate Binding Proteins Enable Rapid Activation of Canonical and Noncanonical Inflammasomes in Chlamydia-Infected Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Finethy, Ryan; Jorgensen, Ine; Haldar, Arun K; de Zoete, Marcel R; Strowig, Till; Flavell, Richard A; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Nagarajan, Uma M; Miao, Edward A; Coers, Jörn

    2015-12-01

    Interferon (IFN)-inducible guanylate binding proteins (GBPs) mediate cell-autonomous host resistance to bacterial pathogens and promote inflammasome activation. The prevailing model postulates that these two GBP-controlled activities are directly linked through GBP-dependent vacuolar lysis. It was proposed that the rupture of pathogen-containing vacuoles (PVs) by GBPs destroyed the microbial refuge and simultaneously contaminated the host cell cytosol with microbial activators of inflammasomes. Here, we demonstrate that GBP-mediated host resistance and GBP-mediated inflammatory responses can be uncoupled. We show that PVs formed by the rodent pathogen Chlamydia muridarum, so-called inclusions, remain free of GBPs and that C. muridarum is impervious to GBP-mediated restrictions on bacterial growth. Although GBPs neither bind to C. muridarum inclusions nor restrict C. muridarum growth, we find that GBPs promote inflammasome activation in C. muridarum-infected macrophages. We demonstrate that C. muridarum infections induce GBP-dependent pyroptosis through both caspase-11-dependent noncanonical and caspase-1-dependent canonical inflammasomes. Among canonical inflammasomes, we find that C. muridarum and the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis activate not only NLRP3 but also AIM2. Our data show that GBPs support fast-kinetics processing and secretion of interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and IL-18 by the NLRP3 inflammasome but are dispensable for the secretion of the same cytokines at later times postinfection. Because IFN-? fails to induce IL-1? transcription, GBP-dependent fast-kinetics inflammasome activation can drive the preferential processing of constitutively expressed IL-18 in IFN-?-primed macrophages in the absence of prior Toll-like receptor stimulation. Together, our results reveal that GBPs control the kinetics of inflammasome activation and thereby shape macrophage responses to Chlamydia infections. PMID:26416908

  13. Immunization against Genital Herpes with a Vaccine Virus That has Defects in Productive and Latent Infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, Xavier J.; Jones, Cheryl A.; Knipe, David M.

    1999-06-01

    An effective vaccine for genital herpes has been difficult to achieve because of the limited efficacy of subunit vaccines and the safety concerns about live viruses. As an alternative approach, mutant herpes simplex virus strains that are replication-defective can induce protective immunity. To increase the level of safety and to prove that replication was not needed for immunization, we constructed a mutant herpes simplex virus 2 strain containing two deletion mutations, each of which eliminated viral replication. The double-mutant virus induces protective immunity that can reduce acute viral shedding and latent infection in a mouse genital model, but importantly, the double-mutant virus shows a phenotypic defect in latent infection. This herpes vaccine strain, which is immunogenic but has defects in both productive and latent infection, provides a paradigm for the design of vaccines and vaccine vectors for other sexually transmitted diseases, such as AIDS.

  14. Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the United States, as well as the

    E-print Network

    Starnbach, Michael

    87 Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of bacterial sexually transmitted disease the epithelial cells of the genital tract and conjunctivae. It can cause diseases that range from salpingitis and conjunctivitis to pelvic inflammatory disease, the blinding disease trachoma and the systemic infection

  15. Conjunctival infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in sexual partners of patients with adult inclusion conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Mohamed-Noriega, Karim; Mohamed-Noriega, Jibran; Valdés-Navarro, Manuel A; Cuervo-Lozano, Edgar Eliezar; Fernández-Espinosa, Martín Cesar; Mohamed-Hamsho, Jesús

    2015-04-01

    To compare the incidence of conjunctival infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in sexual partners of patients with newly diagnosed adult inclusion conjunctivitis (AIC) and a control group with healthy eyes. We also compare the observed signs and symptoms of conjunctival infection in patients with newly diagnosed AIC and their sexual partners. We performed a prospective comparative case-control study between patients with newly diagnosed AIC confirmed with direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) (n = 11), their sexual partners (n = 11), and a control group of healthy subjects (n = 11). Clinical history, physical examination, and a DFA test for C. trachomatis of a conjunctival scrapping from the tarsal conjunctiva were performed in all patients. A significantly higher frequency of positive DFA tests for C. trachomatis was observed in the sexual partner group (n = 8, 73 %) compared with the healthy control group (n = 2, 18.2 %) (P = 0.03). Ocular symptoms and signs were observed significantly more often in patients from the confirmed clinically active AIC group (n = 11, 100 %) than in their sexual partners (n = 2, 12.5 %). Sexual partners of patients with AIC are at greater risk of having an asymptomatic conjunctival infection with C. trachomatis than healthy subjects. Sexual partners might be considered a bacterial reservoir and a possible source for chlamydia reinfection. Not treating sexual partners might increase the probability of reinfection. More extended studies with a greater sample size should be done. PMID:24643518

  16. Inhibition of apoptosis in neuronal cells infected with Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Appelt, Denah M; Roupas, Maria R; Way, Deana S; Bell, Marcus G; Albert, Elizabeth V; Hammond, Christine J; Balin, Brian J

    2008-01-01

    Background Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae is an intracellular bacterium that has been identified within cells in areas of neuropathology found in Alzheimer disease (AD), including endothelia, glia, and neurons. Depending on the cell type of the host, infection by C. pneumoniae has been shown to influence apoptotic pathways in both pro- and anti-apoptotic fashions. We have hypothesized that persistent chlamydial infection of neurons may be an important mediator of the characteristic neuropathology observed in AD brains. Chronic and/or persistent infection of neuronal cells with C. pneumoniae in the AD brain may affect apoptosis in cells containing chlamydial inclusions. Results SK-N-MC neuroblastoma cells were infected with the respiratory strain of C. pneumoniae, AR39 at an MOI of 1. Following infection, the cells were either untreated or treated with staurosporine and then examined for apoptosis by labeling for nuclear fragmentation, caspase activity, and membrane inversion as indicated by annexin V staining. C. pneumoniae infection was maintained through 10 days post-infection. At 3 and 10 days post-infection, the infected cell cultures appeared to inhibit or were resistant to the apoptotic process when induced by staurosporine. This inhibition was demonstrated quantitatively by nuclear profile counts and caspase 3/7 activity measurements. Conclusion These data suggest that C. pneumoniae can sustain a chronic infection in neuronal cells by interfering with apoptosis, which may contribute to chronic inflammation in the AD brain. PMID:18218130

  17. Genital Warts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... can get genital warts during oral, vaginal, or anal sex with an infected partner. Correct usage of latex condoms greatly reduces, but does not completely eliminate, the risk of ... back. NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

  18. Male circumcision and prevalence of genital human papillomavirus infection in men: a multinational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Accumulated evidence from epidemiological studies and more recently from randomized controlled trials suggests that male circumcision (MC) may substantially protect against genital HPV infection in men. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between MC and genital HPV infection in men in a large multinational study. Methods A total of 4072 healthy men ages 18–70?years were enrolled in a study conducted in Brazil, Mexico, and the United States. Enrollment samples combining exfoliated cells from the coronal sulcus, glans penis, shaft, and scrotum were analyzed for the presence and genotyping of HPV DNA by PCR and linear array methods. Prevalence ratios (PR) were used to estimate associations between MC and HPV detection adjusting for potential confounders. Results MC was not associated with overall prevalence of any HPV, oncogenic HPV types or unclassified HPV types. However, MC was negatively associated with non-oncogenic HPV infections (PR 0.85, 95% confident interval: 0.76-0.95), in particular for HPV types 11, 40, 61, 71, and 81. HPV 16, 51, 62, and 84 were the most frequently identified genotypes regardless of MC status. Conclusions This study shows no overall association between MC and genital HPV infections in men, except for certain non-oncogenic HPV types for which a weak association was found. However, the lack of association with MC might be due to the lack of anatomic site specific HPV data, for example the glans penis, the area expected to be most likely protected by MC. PMID:23327450

  19. Lack of efficacy of AMP against recrudescent genital herpes infections in guinea pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Fraser-Smith, E B; Smee, D F; Matthews, T R

    1983-01-01

    AMP was evaluated for its efficacy against herpes simplex virus type 2 genital infections in guinea pigs. Vaginally infected animals were treated twice a day with AMP at 50 mg/kg per dose for 2 weeks. Subcutaneous doses were started 10 weeks postinfection. AMP treatment did not reduce the number of animals with recrudescent episodes when compared with saline-treated controls. In addition, AMP treatment did not reduce either the number of lesions or the duration of the recrudescent episodes which did develop. These results suggest that AMP has no effect on recrudescent herpes simplex virus type 2 vaginal infections. PMID:6685993

  20. Conjunctival fibrosis and the innate barriers to Chlamydia trachomatis intracellular infection: a genome wide association study

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Chrissy h.; Franklin, Christopher S.; Makalo, Pateh; Joof, Hassan; Sarr, Isatou; Mahdi, Olaimatu S.; Sillah, Ansumana; Bah, Momodou; Payne, Felicity; Jeffreys, Anna E.; Bottomley, William; Natividad, Angels; Molina-Gonzalez, Sandra; Burr, Sarah E.; Preston, Mark; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Rockett, Kirk A.; Clark, Taane G.; Burton, Matthew J.; Mabey, David C. W.; Bailey, Robin; Barroso, Inęs; Holland, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis causes both trachoma and sexually transmitted infections. These diseases have similar pathology and potentially similar genetic predisposing factors. We aimed to identify polymorphisms and pathways associated with pathological sequelae of ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infections in The Gambia. We report a discovery phase genome-wide association study (GWAS) of scarring trachoma (1090 cases, 1531 controls) that identified 27 SNPs with strong, but not genome-wide significant, association with disease (5?×?10?6?>?P?>?5?×?10?8). The most strongly associated SNP (rs111513399, P?=?5.38?×?10?7) fell within a gene (PREX2) with homology to factors known to facilitate chlamydial entry to the host cell. Pathway analysis of GWAS data was significantly enriched for mitotic cell cycle processes (P?=?0.001), the immune response (P?=?0.00001) and for multiple cell surface receptor signalling pathways. New analyses of published transcriptome data sets from Gambia, Tanzania and Ethiopia also revealed that the same cell cycle and immune response pathways were enriched at the transcriptional level in various disease states. Although unconfirmed, the data suggest that genetic associations with chlamydial scarring disease may be focussed on processes relating to the immune response, the host cell cycle and cell surface receptor signalling. PMID:26616738

  1. Conjunctival fibrosis and the innate barriers to Chlamydia trachomatis intracellular infection: a genome wide association study.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Chrissy H; Franklin, Christopher S; Makalo, Pateh; Joof, Hassan; Sarr, Isatou; Mahdi, Olaimatu S; Sillah, Ansumana; Bah, Momodou; Payne, Felicity; Jeffreys, Anna E; Bottomley, William; Natividad, Angels; Molina-Gonzalez, Sandra; Burr, Sarah E; Preston, Mark; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Rockett, Kirk A; Clark, Taane G; Burton, Matthew J; Mabey, David C W; Bailey, Robin; Barroso, Inęs; Holland, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis causes both trachoma and sexually transmitted infections. These diseases have similar pathology and potentially similar genetic predisposing factors. We aimed to identify polymorphisms and pathways associated with pathological sequelae of ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infections in The Gambia. We report a discovery phase genome-wide association study (GWAS) of scarring trachoma (1090 cases, 1531 controls) that identified 27 SNPs with strong, but not genome-wide significant, association with disease (5?×?10(-6)?>?P?>?5?×?10(-8)). The most strongly associated SNP (rs111513399, P?=?5.38?×?10(-7)) fell within a gene (PREX2) with homology to factors known to facilitate chlamydial entry to the host cell. Pathway analysis of GWAS data was significantly enriched for mitotic cell cycle processes (P?=?0.001), the immune response (P?=?0.00001) and for multiple cell surface receptor signalling pathways. New analyses of published transcriptome data sets from Gambia, Tanzania and Ethiopia also revealed that the same cell cycle and immune response pathways were enriched at the transcriptional level in various disease states. Although unconfirmed, the data suggest that genetic associations with chlamydial scarring disease may be focussed on processes relating to the immune response, the host cell cycle and cell surface receptor signalling. PMID:26616738

  2. High prevalence of hpv multiple genotypes in women with persistent chlamydia trachomatis infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chlamydia trachomatis interaction with HR-HPV types has highlighted a central role in cervical cancer development. The aim of this study was to investigate HPV prevalence and genotypes distribution in women at risk for C. trachomatis infection and negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy. Methods 1071 cervical swabs were tested for C. trachomatis by Real Time PCR and genotyping by ompA gene sequencing. Additionally, a quantitative Real time-PCR was performed to assess the expression of the C. trachomatis Hsp60–encoding gene (Ct604 portion), linked to a persistent status of infection. HPV infection and genotypes was investigated in C. trachomatis positive women using Luminex technology. Results C. trachomatis infection was detected in 53 out of 1071 (4.5%) samples, of which the 53% resulted positive for Hsp60 gene expression. The overall prevalence of HPV infection in C. trachomatis positive samples was of 60.4% (32/53): in 37.5% of samples was present a single genotype, while multiple genotypes infections were found in the 62.5% of them. Among women with a C. trachomatis chronic infection, 68% were HPV co-infected and the 79% showed multiple genotypes. Should be noted that levels of C. trachomatis Hsp60 expression in HPV co-infected women were significantly lower compared to women infected only with C. trachomatis. The C. trachomatis serotype F was found in the majority of samples, independently of HPV infection. Conclusions A high prevalence of HPV multiple infections have been found in young women affected with a C. trachomatis chronic infection. These observations suggested that the expression of CHSP60-1, interfering with both apoptotic and cellular senescence pathways, may promote a favourable local microenvironment for HPV infection. PMID:25621003

  3. Diagnosis of genital herpes simplex virus infection in the clinical laboratory

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Since the type of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection affects prognosis and subsequent counseling, type-specific testing to distinguish HSV-1 from HSV-2 is always recommended. Although PCR has been the diagnostic standard method for HSV infections of the central nervous system, until now viral culture has been the test of choice for HSV genital infection. However, HSV PCR, with its consistently and substantially higher rate of HSV detection, could replace viral culture as the gold standard for the diagnosis of genital herpes in people with active mucocutaneous lesions, regardless of anatomic location or viral type. Alternatively, antigen detection—an immunofluorescence test or enzyme immunoassay from samples from symptomatic patients--could be employed, but HSV type determination is of importance. Type-specific serology based on glycoprotein G should be used for detecting asymptomatic individuals but widespread screening for HSV antibodies is not recommended. In conclusion, rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis of HSV is now become a necessity, given the difficulty in making the clinical diagnosis of HSV, the growing worldwide prevalence of genital herpes and the availability of effective antiviral therapy. PMID:24885431

  4. Distinct intensity of host-pathogen interactions in Chlamydia psittaci- and Chlamydia abortus-infected chicken embryos.

    PubMed

    Braukmann, Maria; Sachse, Konrad; Jacobsen, Ilse D; Westermann, Martin; Menge, Christian; Saluz, Hans-Peter; Berndt, Angela

    2012-09-01

    Factors and mechanisms determining the differences in virulence and host specificity between the zoonotic agents Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia abortus are still largely unknown. In the present study, two strains were compared for their invasiveness, virulence, and capability of eliciting an immune response in chicken embryos. On breeding day 10, embryonated chicken eggs were inoculated with 5 × 10(4) inclusion-forming units. As shown by immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR, C. psittaci displayed a significantly better capability of disseminating in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and internal organs than C. abortus. The higher infectious potential of C. psittaci in birds was underlined by significantly higher mRNA expression rates of essential chlamydial genes, such as incA, groEL (in CAM, liver, and spleen), cpaf, and ftsW (in CAM). Although the immune responses to both pathogens were similar, C. psittaci elicited higher macrophage numbers and a stronger expression of a subset of immune-related proteins. The data imply that invasiveness of Chlamydia spp. and propagation in the host are not solely dependent on the level of host immune response but, even to a greater extent, on the expression of bacterial factors related to virulence. The fact that C. psittaci has coped far better than C. abortus with the avian embryo's response by upregulating essential genes may be a key to understanding the mechanisms underlying host adaptation and etiopathology. PMID:22689815

  5. IFN-? expression in placenta is associated to resistance to Chlamydia abortus after intragastric infection.

    PubMed

    del Rio, L; Barberá-Cremades, M; Navarro, J A; Buendía, A J; Cuello, F; Ortega, N; Gallego, M C; Salinas, J; Caro, M R

    2013-03-01

    Intragastric infection mimics the natural route of infection of Chlamydia abortus (etiological agent of ovine enzootic abortion). In the mouse model, intragastric experimental infection induces very mild signs of infection followed by late term abortions, as it is shown by the natural ovine host. In order to evaluate the immune mechanisms associated to the dissemination of the pathogen from the gastrointestinal tract, we have administered an intragastric dose of C. abortus to pregnant mice. Systemic and local expression of cytokines, tissue colonization and excretion of bacteria after parturition were monitored during pregnancy. Susceptible CBA/J mice showed a higher bacterial colonization of the placenta and excretion of live bacteria after parturition that were related to a higher local IL-10 expression. By contrast, resistant C57BL/6 mouse strain had higher local IFN-? mRNA expression in the placenta just before parturition and a transient bacterial colonization of the reproductive tract, with no excretion of C. abortus after parturition. In summary, intragastric infection not only mimics the natural route of infection of C. abortus, but can also be useful in order to understand the immunopathogenesis of chlamydial abortion in the mouse. PMID:23287018

  6. Urethral polyp-like lesions on prostatic urethra caused by Chlamydia trachomatis infection: a case report.

    PubMed

    Muranaka, Takashi; Takahashi, Satoshi; Hirose, Takaoki; Hattori, Atsuo

    2014-11-01

    Urethral polyp is one of differential diagnoses for the male patients complain of gross-hematuria and/or hematospermia. However, there have been limited numbers of case reports including infectious etiology. Here we reported clinical course and pathological findings of one rare case who was diagnosed and treated as urethral polyp-like lesions on the prostatic urethra caused by Chlamydia trachomatis infection. A 25 year-old man who had a past history of frequent sexual intercourse with unspecified female sexual partner visited the clinic. His chief complaint was gross-hematuria and hematospermia. Endoscopic findings showed that non-specific hemorrhagic polyp-like lesions. To determine the pathological findings including malignant diseases and diagnosis, transurethral resection was performed. Because the pathological findings were similar to those of chlamydial proctitis, additional examination was done. As the results, nucleic acid amplification test of C. trachomatis in urine specimen was positive and immunohistochemical staining of specific chlamydia antigen in resected specimen was also positive. Treatment by orally minocyline 100 mg twice daily for 4 weeks was introduced. After the treatment, symptom was disappeared and nucleic acid amplification test of C. trachomatis in urine specimen turned to be negative. No recurrence was reported 2 years posttreatment. PMID:25129857

  7. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and human papillomavirus in women with cervical neoplasia in Pernambuco-Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Mayara Costa Mansur; de Macędo, Jamilly Lopes; de Lima Júnior, Sérgio Ferreira; de Andrade Heráclio, Sandra; Amorim, Melânia Maria Ramos; de Mascena Diniz Maia, Maria; de Souza, Paulo Roberto Eleutério

    2014-02-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the most common bacterial cause of sexually transmitted disease. High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is considered the main etiological agent for cervical neoplasia. Evidences showed that the presence of co-infection of CT and HR-HPV plays a central role in the etiology of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and cervical cancer. The goals of this study were: evaluate the human papillomavirus (HPV) and CT prevalence among Brazilian women with abnormal cytology and provide the effect of this association on the severity of cervical neoplasia. The population of this study was composed by 142 women with incident histological incidence of CIN grades I, II, III or cervical cancer from Recife, Northeast of Brazil. The polymerase chain reaction method on a cervical brush specimen was used to detect both agents and the automatic sequencing method was used for HPV genotyping assay. The prevalence of HPV and CT was 100 and 24.65 %, respectively. Thirteen types of HPV were detected; HPV 16, 18, 31 and 33 were the most common. The most prevalent HPV types were HPV 16 and 18. A significant association between CT positive and HPV 16 infection was found (p < 0.0106; OR = 5.31; 95 % IC 1.59-17.67). In the study population, there was diversity of HPV infections, with high-risk types being the most common. Also, the data collected suggest that CT infection may play an important role in the natural history of HPV infection. PMID:24395291

  8. Epidemiological study of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in pregnant women in Hungary

    PubMed Central

    Nyari, T.; Deak, J.; Nagy, E.; Vereb, I.; Kovacs, L.; Meszaros, G.; Orvos, H.; Berbik, I.

    1998-01-01

    A multicentre survey was carried out in order to determine the prevalence and risk factors of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in the pregnant population in Hungary. The nucleic acid hybridisation method (PACE 2 Gen-Probe) was applied for the examination of C trachomatis. The overall average prevalence of C trachomatis cases during an 18 month survey on 6161 pregnant women was 5.87%. There were significant differences in the proportions of chlamydial infection in the different survey centres, and also in the different age groups and the different family status groups. The perinatal mortality rate exhibited a significantly higher prevalence (8.52%) among C trachomatis positive than among negative patients (2.03%). In the anamnestic histories of C trachomatis infected patients, the frequency of premature uterine activity was 8.13%, in contrast with 5.18% in the non-infected group (p < 0.05). We suggest that all pregnant women be tested for C trachomatis infection. ????? PMID:9849559

  9. Intranasal Infection with Chlamydia abortus Induces Dose-Dependent Latency and Abortion in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Longbottom, David; Livingstone, Morag; Maley, Stephen; van der Zon, Arjan; Rocchi, Mara; Wilson, Kim; Wheelhouse, Nicholas; Dagleish, Mark; Aitchison, Kevin; Wattegedera, Sean; Nath, Mintu; Entrican, Gary; Buxton, David

    2013-01-01

    Background Latency is a key feature of the animal pathogen Chlamydia abortus, where infection remains inapparent in the non-pregnant animal and only becomes evident during a subsequent pregnancy. Often the first sign that an animal is infected is abortion occurring late in gestation. Despite this, little is understood of the underlying mechanisms that control latency or the recrudescence of infection that occurs during subsequent pregnancy. The aim of this study was to develop an experimental model of latency by mimicking the natural route of infection through the intranasal inoculation of non-pregnant sheep with C. abortus. Methodology/Principal Findings Three groups of sheep (groups 1, 2 and 3) were experimentally infected with different doses of C. abortus (5×103, 5×105 and 5×107 inclusion forming units (IFU), respectively) prior to mating and monitored over 2 breeding cycles for clinical, microbiological, pathological, immunological and serological outcomes. Two further groups received either negative control inoculum (group 4a,b) or were inoculated subcutaneously on day 70 of gestation with 2×106 IFU C. abortus (group 5). Animals in groups 1, 2 and 5 experienced an abortion rate of 50–67%, while only one animal aborted in group 3 and none in group 4a,b. Pathological, microbiological, immunological and serological analyses support the view that the maternal protective immune response is influenced by initial exposure to the bacterium. Conclusions/Significance The results show that intranasal administration of non-pregnant sheep with a low/medium dose of C. abortus results in a latent infection that leads in a subsequent pregnancy to infection of the placenta and abortion. In contrast a high dose stimulates protective immunity, resulting in a much lower abortion rate. This model will be useful in understanding the mechanisms of infection underlying latency and onset of disease, as well as in the development of novel therapeutics and vaccines for controlling infection. PMID:23469113

  10. Genital self-mutilation in a suicide attempt: a rare sequela of a hypochondriacal delusion of infection with HIV.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Kshirod K; Reddy, Srikanth; Khairkar, Praveen

    2014-03-01

    Genital self-mutilation is mostly seen among psychotic, affective and gender identity disorder(s). We present here a rare case report of such genital self-mutilation in a person with a hypochondriacal delusion of infection with HIV precipitated by erroneous and anxiety-provoking miscommunication during HIV testing. Such cases remind us of the need for systematic and appropriate pre-test and post-test HIV counseling, to help prevent such outcomes. PMID:24021211

  11. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia abortus Infection in Tibetan Sheep in Gansu Province, Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Si-Yuan; Yin, Ming-Yang; Cong, Wei; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Zhao, Quan; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Zhou, Ji-Zhang; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia abortus, an important pathogen in a variety of animals, is associated with abortion in sheep. In the present study, 1732 blood samples, collected from Tibetan sheep between June 2013 and April 2014, were examined by the indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test, aiming to evaluate the seroprevalence and risk factors of C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. 323 of 1732 (18.65%) samples were seropositive for C. abortus antibodies at the cut-off of 1?:?16. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk factors associated with seroprevalence, which could provide foundation to prevent and control C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. Gender of Tibetan sheep was left out of the final model because it is not significant in the logistic regression analysis (P > 0.05). Region, season, and age were considered as major risk factors associated with C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep in Gansu province, northwest China, with higher exposure risk in different seasons and ages and distinct geographical distribution. PMID:25401129

  12. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Chlamydia abortus infection in Tibetan sheep in Gansu province, northwest China.

    PubMed

    Qin, Si-Yuan; Yin, Ming-Yang; Cong, Wei; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Zhao, Quan; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Zhou, Ji-Zhang; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia abortus, an important pathogen in a variety of animals, is associated with abortion in sheep. In the present study, 1732 blood samples, collected from Tibetan sheep between June 2013 and April 2014, were examined by the indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test, aiming to evaluate the seroprevalence and risk factors of C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. 323 of 1732 (18.65%) samples were seropositive for C. abortus antibodies at the cut-off of 1:16. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk factors associated with seroprevalence, which could provide foundation to prevent and control C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. Gender of Tibetan sheep was left out of the final model because it is not significant in the logistic regression analysis (P > 0.05). Region, season, and age were considered as major risk factors associated with C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep in Gansu province, northwest China, with higher exposure risk in different seasons and ages and distinct geographical distribution. PMID:25401129

  13. Chlamydia muridarum infection of macrophages elicits bactericidal nitric oxide production via reactive oxygen species and cathepsin B.

    PubMed

    Rajaram, Krithika; Nelson, David E

    2015-08-01

    The ability of certain species of Chlamydia to inhibit the biogenesis of phagolysosomes permits their survival and replication within macrophages. The survival of macrophage-adapted chlamydiae correlates with the multiplicity of infection (MOI), and optimal chlamydial growth occurs in macrophages infected at an MOI of ?1. In this study, we examined the replicative capacity of Chlamydia muridarum in the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line at different MOIs. C. muridarum productively infected these macrophages at low MOIs but yielded few viable elementary bodies (EBs) when macrophages were infected at a moderate (10) or high (100) MOI. While high MOIs caused cytotoxicity and irreversible host cell death, macrophages infected at a moderate MOI did not show signs of cytotoxicity until late in the infectious cycle. Inhibition of host protein synthesis rescued C. muridarum in macrophages infected at a moderate MOI, implying that chlamydial growth was blocked by activated defense mechanisms. Conditioned medium from these macrophages was antichlamydial and contained elevated levels of interleukin 1? (IL-1?), IL-6, IL-10, and beta interferon (IFN-?). Macrophage activation depended on Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) signaling, and cytokine production required live, transcriptionally active chlamydiae. A hydroxyl radical scavenger and inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cathepsin B also reversed chlamydial killing. High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) led to an increase in cathepsin B activity, and pharmacological inhibition of ROS and cathepsin B reduced iNOS expression. Our data demonstrate that MOI-dependent TLR2 activation of macrophages results in iNOS induction via a novel ROS- and cathepsin-dependent mechanism to facilitate C. muridarum clearance. PMID:26015483

  14. Improving the molecular diagnosis of Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia abortus infection with a species-specific duplex real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Opota, Onya; Jaton, Katia; Branley, James; Vanrompay, Daisy; Erard, Veronique; Borel, Nicole; Longbottom, David; Greub, Gilbert

    2015-10-01

    Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia abortus are closely related intracellular bacteria exhibiting different tissue tropism that may cause severe but distinct infection in humans. C. psittaci causes psittacosis, a respiratory zoonotic infection transmitted by birds. C. abortus is an abortigenic agent in small ruminants, which can also colonize the human placenta and lead to foetal death and miscarriage. Infections caused by C. psittaci and C. abortus are underestimated mainly due to diagnosis difficulties resulting from their strict intracellular growth. We developed a duplex real-time PCR to detect and distinguish these two bacteria in clinical samples. The first PCR (PCR1) targeted a sequence of the 16S-23S rRNA operon allowing the detection of both C. psittaci and C. abortus. The second PCR (PCR2) targeted the coding DNA sequence CPSIT_0607 unique to C. psittaci. The two PCRs showed 100?% detection for ??10 DNA copies per reaction (1000 copies ml-?1). Using a set of 120 samples, including bacterial reference strains, clinical specimens and infected cell culture material, we monitored 100?% sensitivity and 100?% specificity for the detection of C. psittaci and C. abortus for PCR1. When PCR1 was positive, PCR2 could discriminate C. psittaci from C. abortus with a positive predictive value of 100?% and a negative predictive value of 88?%. In conclusion, this new duplex PCR represents a low-cost and time-saving method with high-throughput potential, expected to improve the routine diagnosis of psittacosis and pregnancy complication in large-scale screening programs and also during outbreaks. PMID:26297212

  15. Higher Risk Perception of HIV than of Chlamydia and HPV among Secondary School Students in Two German Cities

    PubMed Central

    Samkange-Zeeb, Florence; Pöttgen, Saskia; Zeeb, Hajo

    2013-01-01

    Background Chlamydia and genital human papillomavirus (HPV) are the two most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among teens and young adults in industrialised countries. The majority of adolescents, however, have limited or no knowledge of these infections. Within the context of a cross-sectional survey on awareness and knowledge of sexually transmitted infections, secondary school students attending the 8th grade and above in Bremen and Bremerhaven, two cities in northern Germany, were asked to rate the risk of peers to get infected with HIV, HPV or chlamydia. Methods Between October and December 2011, students aged 12–20 years completed an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire at their school. In addition to answering questions on awareness and knowledge of sexually transmitted infections, all students were also asked to rate the risk of peers to get infected with HIV, HPV or chlamydia. Furthermore, those reporting ever having sexual intercourse were asked to rate their own risk of getting infected with each of the three infections. Results 1,148 students, 55% female, completed the questionnaire. 27% of the students reported having had sexual intercourse. 68% of all students rated the risk of same-aged students to get infected with HIV/AIDS as high/medium. The corresponding proportions for HPV and chlamydia were 19 and 25% respectively. Those reporting ever having sexual intercourse generally perceived their own risk of getting infected with HIV, chlamydia or HPV as lower than that of their peers. Conclusion Generally, the risk of getting infected with HIV was perceived as being higher than that of getting infected with HPV or chlamydia, most likely due to the fact that the students were more aware of HIV than of the other two infections. Efforts should be made to improve awareness and knowledge of HPV and chlamydia among school going adolescents, and to make them realize that these are common infections that are preventable. PMID:23637872

  16. The Gonococcal Transcriptome during Infection of the Lower Genital Tract in Women

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Ryan; Nudel, Kathleen; Massari, Paola; Tjaden, Brian; Su, Xiaohong; Rice, Peter A.; Genco, Caroline A.

    2015-01-01

    Gonorrhea is a highly prevalent disease resulting in significant morbidity worldwide, with an estimated 106 cases reported annually. Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of gonorrhea, colonizes and infects the human genital tract and often evades host immune mechanisms until successful antibiotic treatment is used. The alarming increase in antibiotic-resistant strains of N. gonorrhoeae, the often asymptomatic nature of this disease in women and the lack of a vaccine directed at crucial virulence determinants have prompted us to perform transcriptome analysis to understand gonococcal gene expression patterns during natural infection. We sequenced RNA extracted from cervico-vaginal lavage samples collected from women recently exposed to infected male partners and determined the complete N. gonorrhoeae transcriptome during infection of the lower genital tract in women. On average, 3.19% of total RNA isolated from female samples aligned to the N. gonorrhoeae NCCP11945 genome and 1750 gonococcal ORFs (65% of all protein-coding genes) were transcribed. High expression in vivo was observed in genes encoding antimicrobial efflux pumps, iron response, phage production, pilin structure, outer membrane structures and hypothetical proteins. A parallel analysis was performed using the same strains grown in vitro in a chemically defined media (CDM). A total of 140 genes were increased in expression during natural infection compared to growth in CDM, and 165 genes were decreased in expression. Large differences were found in gene expression profiles under each condition, particularly with genes involved in DNA and RNA processing, iron, transposase, pilin and lipoproteins. We specifically interrogated genes encoding DNA binding regulators and iron-scavenging proteins, and identified increased expression of several iron-regulated genes, including tbpAB and fbpAB, during infection in women as compared to growth in vitro, suggesting that during infection of the genital tract in women, the gonococcus is exposed to an iron deplete environment. Collectively, we demonstrate that a large portion of the gonococcal genome is expressed and regulated during mucosal infection including genes involved in regulatory functions and iron scavenging. PMID:26244506

  17. [Infective endocarditis caused by Chlamydia pneumoniae after liver transplantation. Case report].

    PubMed

    P Szabó, Réka; Kertész, Attila; Szerafin, Tamás; Fehérvári, Imre; Zsom, Lajos; Balla, József; Nemes, Balázs

    2015-05-31

    The incidence of infective endocarditis is underestimated in solid organ transplant recipients. The spectrum of pathogens is different from the general population. The authors report the successful treatment of a 58-year-old woman with infective endocarditis caused by atypical microorganism and presented with atypical manifestations. Past history of the patient included alcoholic liver cirrhosis and cadaver liver transplantation in February 2000. One year after liver transplantation hepatitis B virus infection was diagnosed and treated with antiviral agents. In July 2007 hemodialysis was started due to progressive chronic kidney disease caused by calcineurin toxicity. In November 2013 the patient presented with transient aphasia. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed vegetation in the aortic valve and brain embolization was identified on magnetic resonance images. Initial treatment consisted of a 4-week regimen with ceftriaxone (2 g daily) and gentamycin (60 mg after hemodialysis). Blood cultures were all negative while serology revealed high titre of antibodies against Chlamydia pneumoniae. Moxifloxacin was added as an anti-chlamydial agent, but neurologic symptoms returned. After coronarography, valvular surgery and coronary artery bypass surgery were performed which resulted in full clinical recovery of the patient. PMID:26004549

  18. Prevention of Chlamydia-induced infertility by inhibition of local caspase activity.

    PubMed

    Igietseme, Joseph U; Omosun, Yusuf; Partin, James; Goldstein, Jason; He, Qing; Joseph, Kahaliah; Ellerson, Debra; Ansari, Uzma; Eko, Francis O; Bandea, Claudiu; Zhong, Guangming; Black, Carolyn M

    2013-04-01

    Tubal factor infertility (TFI) represents 36% of female infertility and genital infection by Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) is a major cause. Although TFI is associated with host inflammatory responses to bacterial components, the molecular pathogenesis of Chlamydia-induced infertility remains poorly understood. We investigated the hypothesis that activation of specific cysteine proteases, the caspases, during C. trachomatis genital infection causes the disruption of key fertility-promoting molecules required for embryo development and implantation. We analyzed the effect of caspase inhibition on infertility and the integrity of Dicer, a caspase-sensitive, fertility-promoting ribonuclease III enzyme, and key micro-RNAs in the reproductive system. Genital infection with the inflammation- and caspase-inducing, wild-type C. trachomatis serovar L2 led to infertility, but the noninflammation-inducing, plasmid-free strain did not. We confirmed that caspase-mediated apoptotic tissue destruction may contribute to chlamydial pathogenesis. Caspase-1 or -3 deficiency, or local administration of the pan caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK into normal mice protected against Chlamydia-induced infertility. Finally, the oviducts of infected infertile mice showed evidence of caspase-mediated cleavage inactivation of Dicer and alteration in critical miRNAs that regulate growth, differentiation, and development, including mir-21. These results provide new insight into the molecular pathogenesis of TFI with significant implications for new strategies for treatment and prevention of chlamydial complications. PMID:23303804

  19. Incidence and clearance of genital human papillomavirus infection in men (HIM): a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Giuliano, Anna R; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Fulp, William; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano, Eduardo; Papenfuss, Mary R; Abrahamsen, Martha; Salmeron, Jorge; Anic, Gabriella M; Rollison, Dana E; Smith, Danelle

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) cause genital warts and cancers in men. The natural history of HPV infection in men is largely unknown, and that information is needed to inform prevention strategies. The goal in this study was to estimate incidence and clearance of type-specific genital HPV infection in men, and to assess the associated factors. Methods Men (aged 18–70 years), residing in Brazil, Mexico, and the USA, who were HIV negative and reported no history of cancer were recruited from the general population, universities, and organised health-care systems. They were assessed every 6 months for a median follow-up of 27·5 months (18·0–31·2). Specimens from the coronal sulcus, glans penis, shaft, and scrotum were obtained for the assessment of the status of HPV genotypes. Findings In 1159 men, the incidence of a new genital HPV infection was 38·4 per 1000 person months (95% CI 34·3–43·0). Oncogenic HPV infection was significantly associated with having a high number of lifetime female sexual partners (hazard ratio 2·40, 1·38–4·18, for at least 50 partners vs not more than one partner), and number of male anal-sexual partners (2·57, 1·46–4·49, for at least three male partners vs no recent partners). Median duration of HPV infection was 7·52 months (6·80–8·61) for any HPV and 12·19 months (7·16–18·17) for HPV 16. Clearance of oncogenic HPV infection decreased in men with a high number of lifetime female partners (0·49, 0·31–0·76, for at least 50 female partners vs not more than one partner), and in men in Brazil (0·71, 0·56–0·91) and Mexico (0·73, 0·57–0·94) compared with the USA. Clearance of oncogenic HPV was more rapid with increasing age (1·02, 1·01–1·03). Interpretation The data from this study are useful for the development of realistic cost-effectiveness models for male HPV vaccination internationally. Funding National Cancer Institute. PMID:21367446

  20. Effect of immunoglobulin G isotype on the infectivity of Chlamydia trachomatis in a mouse model of intravaginal infection.

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, E M; Cheng, X; Motin, V L; de la Maza, L M

    1997-01-01

    It has been previously shown with an in vitro neutralization system that monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of Chlamydia trachomatis, depending on the isotype of the MAb and the host cell used, can either neutralize or enhance the infectivity of this organism. MAbs to variable domain 4 (VD 4) of MOMP have been described that neutralize the infectivity of C. trachomatis when tested in a system in which either the host cell does not have detectable Fc gammaRIII receptors or complement is added to block the interaction of the MAb with the receptor. However, if Fc gammaRIII receptors are available, immunoglobulin G2b (IgG2b) MAbs to the VD 4 are able to enhance the infectivity of this pathogen. Two MAbs that recognize the sequence TLNPTIA in VD 4 of the MOMP but differ in isotype, E4 (IgG2b) and E21 (IgG1), were used to test whether in vivo the isotype of the MAb modulates the outcome of a vaginal infection in a murine model. A third MAb, CP33 (IgG2b), that recognizes the chlamydial lipopolysaccharide but does not neutralize infectivity of C. trachomatis, was also tested. Elementary bodies (EBs) of C. trachomatis, serovar E (BOUR), were pretreated with the three MAbs and were used to inoculate the vaginas of C3H/HeJ mice which had been pretreated with progesterone. Subsequently mice were monitored over a 5-week period with vaginal cultures. In the groups that were inoculated with EBs pretreated with MAbs directed to VD 4 of MOMP, there was a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the number of mice infected. Only 30% of the mice were infected in the MAb E4-treated group, and 10% were infected in the MAb E21 group. This was in contrast to the groups inoculated with EBs pretreated with MAb CP33 and control untreated EBs, which resulted in 100 and 79% of the mice infected, respectively. Therefore, in this setting in which EBs were introduced in vivo coated with MAb, there was no enhancement of infection by IgG2b MAbs; rather, the results paralled the in vitro neutralization results, in which cells lacking Fc gammaRIII receptors were employed. Mice were also given the MAbs, as well as purified IgG as a control, by intraperitoneal injection before and after intravaginal inoculation with C. trachomatis. Despite relatively high levels of MAbs in serum and detectable levels of MAbs in the vagina at the time of infection, there was only modest protection in animals receiving MAb E21, with 60% of the mice infected in contrast to 90% of the mice receiving MAb E4, MAb CP33, and IgG. However, by the second week of infection compared to controls, there was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the amount of chlamydiae recovered from the vaginas of mice that had received the two IgG2b MAbs, E4 and CP33. In summary, the presence of IgG2b MAbs directed to surface components of C. trachomatis at certain times during the course of infection may play a role in enhancing the infectivity of this pathogen. PMID:9199438

  1. Chlamydia pneumoniae CopD Translocator Protein Plays a Critical Role in Type III Secretion (T3S) and Infection

    PubMed Central

    Bulir, David C.; Waltho, Daniel A.; Stone, Christopher B.; Mwawasi, Kenneth A.; Nelson, Jordan C.; Mahony, James B.

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria use type III secretion (T3S) to inject effector proteins into the host cell to create appropriate conditions for infection and intracellular replication. Chlamydia spp. are believed to use T3S to infect their host cell, and the translocator proteins are an essential component of this system. Chlamydia pneumoniae contains genes encoding two sets of translocator proteins; CopB and CopD, and CopB2 and CopD2. In this study, we identified novel interactions between CopD and three type III secretion proteins; namely, CopN, CdsN, and CdsF. We identified a CopD putative chaperone binding motif, PxLxxP, within the N-terminal region (CopD amino acids 120–125), which was necessary for interaction with its putative chaperone LcrH_1. Using size exclusion chromatography, we showed that CopD and LcrH_1 formed higher order structures in solution with CopD and LcrH_1 binding in a ratio of 1?1, which is unique for T3SS translocator proteins. Lastly, we showed that antibodies to CopD reduced C. pneumoniae infectivity by >95%. Collectively, this data suggests that CopD plays a critical role in pathogenesis and likely functions as a hydrophobic translocator of the type III secretion system in Chlamydia pneumoniae. PMID:24959658

  2. Low Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Non-Urban Pregnant Women in Vellore, S. India

    PubMed Central

    Vidwan, Navjyot K.; Regi, Annie; Steinhoff, Mark; Huppert, Jill S.; Staat, Mary Allen; Dodd, Caitlin; Nongrum, Rida; Anandan, Shalini; Verghese, Valsan

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence and risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection in pregnant women and the rate of transmission of CT to infants. Methods Pregnant women (?28 weeks gestation) in Vellore, South India were approached for enrollment from April 2009 to January 2010. After informed consent was obtained, women completed a socio-demographic, prenatal, and sexual history questionnaire. Endocervical samples collected at delivery were examined for CT by a rapid enzyme test and nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT). Neonatal nasopharyngeal and conjunctival swabs were collected for NAAT testing. Results Overall, 1198 women were enrolled and 799 (67%) endocervical samples were collected at birth. Analyses were completed on 784 participants with available rapid and NAAT results. The mean age of women was 25.8 years (range 18–39 yrs) and 22% (95% CI: 19.7–24.4%) were primigravida. All women enrolled were married; one reported >one sexual partner; and six reported prior STI. We found 71 positive rapid CT tests and 1/784 (0.1%; 95% CI: 0–0.38%) true positive CT infection using NAAT. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the largest study on CT prevalence amongst healthy pregnant mothers in southern India, and it documents a very low prevalence with NAAT. Many false positive results were noted using the rapid test. These data suggest that universal CT screening is not indicated in this population. PMID:22567090

  3. Genital infection caused by Entamoeba histolytica confirmed by polymerase chain reaction analyses.

    PubMed

    Asano, Hiroshi; Kaneuchi, Masanori; Furuta, Itsuko; Yamaya, Yukie; Hatanaka, Kanako C; Takeda, Mahito; Matsuno, Yoshihiro; Sakuragi, Noriaki

    2014-05-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is estimated to infect approximately 1% of the global population. In Japan, the prevalence of amebic dysentery has been increasing, with more than 800 patients newly diagnosed annually. However, genital infection with E.?histolytica is uncommon even in endemic areas. We present a case of vaginitis caused by E.?histolytica. A 50-year-old Japanese woman without history of overseas travel presented to a nearby clinic with increased vaginal discharge. She had hemorrhagic erosion at the uterine cervix with yellowish vaginal discharge, and was referred to our hospital for exclusion of malignancy. Cervical cytology revealed periodic acid-Schiff-positive protozoa not aggregating around squamous cells, and thus amebic vaginitis was suspected. We performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses and identified E.?histolytica. The vaginitis was treated with metronidazole, and the disappearance of amebic protozoa was confirmed by cytology and PCR. Therefore, it may be important to obtain early diagnosis by cervical cytology and PCR. PMID:24750396

  4. Correlates of Chlamydia and Gonorrhea Infection among Female Sex Workers: The Untold Story of Jiangsu, China

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ning; Hu, Hai-Yang; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Yin, Yue-Ping; Mahapatra, Sanchita; Wang, Xiao-Liang; Chen, Xiang-Sheng; Lin, Nan; Zhang, Xun; Huan, Xi-Ping; Yang, Hai-Tao; Fu, Geng-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s) To estimate the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers (FSWs) in the Jiangsu Province, China and measure the association of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infections with their potential correlates. Design A cross-sectional study on a representative sample of FSWs in Yangzhou and Changzhou cities of Jiangsu was conducted. Methods 185 sex-work venues in Yangzhou and 174 in Changzhou were selected by stratified random sampling. 2972 FSWs (1108 in Yangzhou and 1864 in Changzhou), aged 15 years or more, who agreed to participate and provided blood sample for HIV and syphilis testing were interviewed in these venues. Cervical specimens from 849 randomly chosen participants were then tested for CT and NG. Results Proportions of young, school-educated, currently married FSWs who were living alone, migrated from other provinces and engaged in unprotected vaginal intercourse in past 3 months (UVI) were relatively high. Prevalence of HIV, syphilis, CT and NG were 0.20%, 4.88%, 14.61% and 5.42% respectively. Younger age, living alone or with persons other than partners/family members, engaging in UVI and having other STIs seemed to be associated with higher risk of CT or NG infection. Being divorced/widowed and working in middle/low-level venues were identified as additional risk factors for NG. Conclusions Based on a representative sample, this initial effort to identify the correlates of CT/NG infections among FSWs of Jiangsu revealed that focused interventions targeting high-risk FSWs are urgently required for controlling STI epidemics in Yangzhou and Changzhou where substantial number of STI cases were identified. PMID:24454950

  5. Maternal Chlamydia trachomatis Infections and Preterm Births in a University Hospital in Vitoria, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Renylena; Muniz, Renan Rosetti; Cola, Elizandra; Stauffert, Dulce; Silveira, Mariangela Freitas; Miranda, Angelica E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Preterm birth (PTB) is a major determinant of neonatal morbimortality with adverse consequences for health. The causes are multifactorial, with intrauterine infection probably explaining most of these outcomes. It is believed that infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is also involved in PTB and premature rupture of membranes. Objetives To evaluate the prevalence of and associated factors for CT among cases of PTB attended at a University Hospital in Vitoria, Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study performed among parturient who had preterm birth from June 2012 to August 2013 in Vitoria, Brazil. Participants answered a questionnaire including demographic, behavioral, and clinical data. A sample of urine was collected and screened for CT using polymerase chain reaction. Chi-square tests were used for proportion differences and Student’s-t tests and variance analysis were used for testing differences between mean values. Odds ratio was used as a measure of association with a 95% confidence interval. Results The prevalence of PTB during the period of the study was 26% and the prevalence of CT among them was 13.9%. A total of 31.6% pregnant women were younger than 25 years old and women infected by CT were even younger than women not infected by CT (p = 0.022). Most of them (76.2%) were married or had a living partner, and CT infection was more frequent among the single ones (p = 0.018); 16.7% of women reported their first sexual intercourse under 14 years old. The causes of prematurity were maternal-fetal in 40.9%; rupture of the membranes in 29.7% and premature labor in 29.4%. In multivariate analysis, being married was a protective factor for infection [OR = 0.48 (95%CI:0.24–0.97)]. None of the other characteristics were associated with CT infection. Conclusions This study shows a high prevalence of CT infection among parturient who have preterm birth. This high prevalence highlight the need for defining screening strategies focused on young pregnant women in Brazil. PMID:26505892

  6. Genetic Transformation of a Clinical (Genital Tract), Plasmid-Free Isolate of Chlamydia trachomatis: Engineering the Plasmid as a Cloning Vector

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yibing; Kahane, Simona; Cutcliffe, Lesley T.; Skilton, Rachel J.; Lambden, Paul R.; Persson, Kenneth; Bjartling, Carina; Clarke, Ian N.

    2013-01-01

    Our study had three objectives: to extend the plasmid-based transformation protocol to a clinical isolate of C. trachomatis belonging to the trachoma biovar, to provide “proof of principle” that it is possible to “knock out” selected plasmid genes (retaining a replication competent plasmid) and to investigate the plasticity of the plasmid. A recently developed, plasmid-based transformation protocol for LGV isolates of C. trachomatis was modified and a plasmid-free, genital tract C. trachomatis isolate from Sweden (SWFP-) was genetically transformed. Transformation of this non-LGV C. trachomatis host required a centrifugation step, but the absence of the natural plasmid removed the need for plaque purification of transformants. Transformants expressed GFP, were penicillin resistant and iodine stain positive for accumulated glycogen. The transforming plasmid did not recombine with the host chromosome. A derivative of pGFP::SW2 carrying a deletion of the plasmid CDS5 gene was engineered. CDS5 encodes pgp3, a protein secreted from the inclusion into the cell cytoplasm. This plasmid (pCDS5KO) was used to transform C. trachomatis SWFP-, and established that pgp3 is dispensable for plasmid function. The work shows it is possible to selectively delete segments of the chlamydial plasmid, and this is the first step towards a detailed molecular dissection of the role of the plasmid. The 3.6 kb ?-galactosidase cassette was inserted into the deletion site of CDS5 to produce plasmid placZ-CDS5KO. Transformants were penicillin resistant, expressed GFP and stained for glycogen. In addition, they expressed ?-galactosidase showing that the lacZ cassette was functional in C. trachomatis. An assay was developed that allowed the visualisation of individual inclusions by X-gal staining. The ability to express active ?-galactosidase within chlamydial inclusions is an important advance as it allows simple, rapid assays to measure directly chlamydial infectivity without the need for plaquing, fluorescence or antibody staining. PMID:23527131

  7. Reversible Inhibition of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Epithelial Cells Due to Stimulation of P2X4 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Pettengill, Matthew A.; Marques-da-Silva, Camila; Avila, Maria Luisa; d'Arc dos Santos Oliveira, Suellen; Lam, Verissa W.; Ollawa, Ikechukwu; Abdul Sater, Ali A.; Coutinho-Silva, Robson; Häcker, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial infections of the mucosal epithelium are a major cause of human disease. The prolonged presence of microbial pathogens stimulates inflammation of the local tissues, which leads to changes in the molecular composition of the extracellular milieu. A well-characterized molecule that is released to the extracellular milieu by stressed or infected cells is extracellular ATP and its ecto-enzymatic degradation products, which function as signaling molecules through ligation of purinergic receptors. There has been little information, however, on the effects of the extracellular metabolites on bacterial growth in inflamed tissues. Millimolar concentrations of ATP have been previously shown to inhibit irreversibly bacterial infection through ligation of P2X7 receptors. We show here that the proinflammatory mediator, ATP, is released from Chlamydia trachomatis-infected epithelial cells. Moreover, further stimulation of the infected cells with micromolar extracellular ADP or ATP significantly impairs the growth of the bacteria, with a profile characteristic of the involvement of P2X4 receptors. A specific role for P2X4 was confirmed using cells overexpressing P2X4. The chlamydiae remain viable and return to normal growth kinetics after removal of the extracellular stimulus, similar to responses previously described for persistence of chlamydial infection. PMID:22988022

  8. Chlamydiae in oviducts and uteri of repeat breeder pigs.

    PubMed

    Kauffold, Johannes; Melzer, Falk; Berndt, Angela; Hoffmann, Grit; Hotzel, Helmut; Sachse, Konrad

    2006-11-01

    Chlamydial infections of the genital organs cause reproductive failure in female pigs, and the uterus is recognized a target tissue for an infection. In contrast, information on the effect of chlamydiae on the porcine oviduct is patchily and inconclusive, although the bacteria are known to cause severe tubal defects in humans and laboratory animals. The aim of this study was to examine the segments ampulla (A), isthmus (I) and utero-tubal junction of the left (n=20) or both (n=22) oviducts, and uteri (U) from 42 culled repeat breeder pigs for chlamydiae using ompA-PCR, partial ompA gene sequencing, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and microscopy of tissue specimens for histopathology. As revealed by PCR, among a total of 26 chlamydia-positive females, 19 were tested positive in one or more segments of one or both oviducts, 14 were found positive in the uterus, and concomitant infections of both organs were observed in 7 of them. Sequencing of 33 PCR products revealed the following chlamydial species: Chlamydophila (Cp.) psittaci (n=18), Cp. abortus (n=2), Chlamydia (C.) suis (n=10), and C. trachomatis (n=3). Immunopositive staining was observed within the surface epithelium (in A, I, U), stromal tissue (in I, U) and muscular layer (in A, I, U). A total of 24 females had inflamed oviductal segments (in A and/or I) and 36 inflamed uteri. However, there was no relationship between histopathology and results of PCR or IHC. In conclusion, chlamydiae were found to infect oviducts and uteri of pigs. Further studies are required to clarify whether chlamydial infection causes specific histopathology and alters tubal function. PMID:16837032

  9. Chlamydiaceae Genomics Reveals Interspecies Admixture and the Recent Evolution of Chlamydia abortus Infecting Lower Mammalian Species and Humans.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Sandeep J; Marti, Hanna; Didelot, Xavier; Castillo-Ramirez, Santiago; Read, Timothy D; Dean, Deborah

    2015-11-01

    Chlamydiaceae are obligate intracellular bacteria that cause a diversity of severe infections among humans and livestock on a global scale. Identification of new species since 1989 and emergence of zoonotic infections, including abortion in women, underscore the need for genome sequencing of multiple strains of each species to advance our knowledge of evolutionary dynamics across Chlamydiaceae. Here, we genome sequenced isolates from avian, lower mammalian and human hosts. Based on core gene phylogeny, five isolates previously classified as Chlamydia abortus were identified as members of Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia pecorum. Chlamydia abortus is the most recently emerged species and is a highly monomorphic group that lacks the conserved virulence-associated plasmid. Low-level recombination and evidence for adaptation to the placenta echo evolutionary processes seen in recently emerged, highly virulent niche-restricted pathogens, such as Bacillus anthracis. In contrast, gene flow occurred within C. psittaci and other Chlamydiaceae species. The C. psittaci strain RTH, isolated from a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), is an outlying strain with admixture of C. abortus, C. psittaci, and its own population markers. An average nucleotide identity of less than 94% compared with other Chlamydiaceae species suggests that RTH belongs to a new species intermediary between C. psittaci and C. abortus. Hawks, as scavengers and predators, have extensive opportunities to acquire multiple species in their intestinal tract. This could facilitate transformation and homologous recombination with the potential for new species emergence. Our findings indicate that incubator hosts such as birds-of-prey likely promote Chlamydiaceae evolution resulting in novel pathogenic lineages. PMID:26507799

  10. Adherence to human cells of a cryptic Haemophilus genospecies responsible for genital and neonatal infections.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenau, A; Sizaret, P Y; Musser, J M; Goudeau, A; Quentin, R

    1993-01-01

    Haemophilus strains usually identified as Haemophilus influenzae biotype IV belonging to a cryptic genospecies are responsible for genital and neonatal infections. As a first approach to identifying the bacterial factors involved in the pathogenesis of these unusual diseases, we studied the piliation, adherence, and invasion properties of 17 strains assigned to this cryptic genospecies. Twelve strains spontaneously displayed abundant peritrichous piliation, and two strains expressed peritrichous pili after enrichment procedures. For virtually all strains, piliation correlated with adhesion to cultured HeLa cells of genital origin and to a lesser extent with adhesion to HEp-2 cells of laryngeal origin. A variation in the adherence properties of the various strains was observed: all piliated strains except one adhered to 50 to 100% of HeLa cells, with a mean number of bacteria per cell varying from 4 to 50. Adherence was not dependent on the state of growth for most strains, was more pronounced with HeLa cells than with HEp-2 cells for 10 of the 12 highly adherent strains, was time and inoculum dependent, and was not followed by significant invasion of cells. Most of the strains belonging to this unusual Haemophilus clone possess adhesins that do not recognize erythrocyte receptors, since agglutination of human erythrocytes was observed with only 3 of the 14 piliated strains. Images PMID:8104893

  11. Modulation of the host immune response as a result of Chlamydia psittaci infection.

    PubMed Central

    Lammert, J K; Wyrick, P B

    1982-01-01

    After intraperitoneal injection of mice with infectious, inactivated, or envelope preparations of the elementary body of Chlamydia psittaci, lymphocyte transformation of spleen cells to the mitogens concanavalin A, phytohemagglutinin, and lipopolysaccharide was significantly reduced 1 and 2 weeks postinjection. Lymphocyte response returned to the control values by 4 weeks. Similarly, transformation of cells by chlamydial antigen was not detected until 4 weeks postinjection. Injection of the noninfectious intracellular reticulate body, in contrast, had little effect on transformation of cells to concanavalin A. When control spleen cells were incubated with infectious or inactivated elementary bodies in vitro, response to all three mitogens was also reduced. The sooner the organisms were added after the addition of mitogen, the greater the reduction in transformation. Incubation with elementary body envelopes and reticulate bodies had no effect on lymphocyte transformation of the spleen cells to concanavalin A. The relationship between the observed ability to reduce the response in the in vitro assay of lymphocyte transformation and the actual in vivo establishment of infection is discussed. PMID:7056575

  12. Chlamydia trachomatis-Infected Epithelial Cells and Fibroblasts Retain the Ability To Express Surface-Presented Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Kägebein, Danny; Gutjahr, Melanie; Große, Christina; Vogel, Annette B.; Rödel, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis is the causative agent of a variety of infectious diseases such as trachoma and sexually transmitted diseases. In infected target cells, C. trachomatis replicates within parasitophorous vacuoles and expresses the protease-like activity factor CPAF. Previous studies have suggested that CPAF degrades the host transcription factors RFX5 and NF-?B p65, which are involved in the regulation of constitutive and inducible expression of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I). It was speculated that Chlamydia suppresses the surface presentation of MHC I in order to evade an effective immune response. Nevertheless, a recent study suggested that RFX5 and NF-?B p65 may not serve as target substrates for CPAF-mediated degradation, raising concerns about the proposed MHC I subversion by Chlamydia. Hence, we investigated the direct influence of Chlamydia on MHC I expression and surface presentation in infected host cells. By using nine different human cells and cell lines infected with C. trachomatis (serovar D or LGV2), we demonstrate that chlamydial infection does not interfere with expression, maturation, transport, and surface presentation of MHC I, suggesting functional antigen processing in bacterium-infected cells. Our findings provide novel insights into the interaction of chlamydiae with their host cells and should be taken into consideration for the design of future therapies and vaccines. PMID:24343651

  13. Asymptomatic natural Chlamydia pecorum infection reduces growth rates in calves by up to 48 percent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intracellular Chlamydia (C.) bacteria cause in cattle some acute but rare diseases such as abortion, sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis, kerato-conjunctivitis, pneumonia, enteritis and polyarthritis. Much more frequent, essentially ubiquitous worldwide, are low-level, asymptomatic chlamydial infecti...

  14. Autophagy and female genital tract infections: new insights and research directions.

    PubMed

    Jayaram, A; Orfanelli, T; Doulaveris, G; Linhares, I M; Ledger, W J; Witkin, S S

    2014-06-01

    Autophagy is a highly conserved process by which defective organelles, non-functional proteins, and intracellular microorganisms become sequestered within structures called autophagosomes, which fuse with lysosomes and the engulfed components are degraded by lysosomal enzymes. In microbial autophagy degraded peptides are used to induce antigen-specific acquired immunity. Viruses, bacteria, fungi, and protozoa have developed strategies to subvert autophagy and/or to use this process to promote their replication and persistence. This review details the mechanisms by which microorganisms that infect the female genital tract and/or are detrimental to pregnancy interact with this host defence mechanism. Based on an understanding of autophagy-related pathological mechanisms, we propose new avenues for research to more effectively prevent and/or treat these infectious diseases. PMID:24506514

  15. Genital hygiene practices of fishermen targeted for a topical microbicide intervention against sexually transmitted infections in Kisumu, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kwena, Z A; Bukusi, E A; Gorbach, P; Sharma, A; Sang, N M; Holmes, K K

    2010-06-01

    Research on hygiene has been relatively limited in the current era of rigorous observational studies and clinical trials. We set out to investigate the perception and practices of genital hygiene among fishermen working on the beaches along Lake Victoria, targeted for a topical male microbicide hygiene intervention. We conducted 12 focus group discussions involving fishermen (n = 130), recording the discussions in Dholuo (the local language) and transcribing them verbatim before translating into English. Transcripts were double-coded and analysed using constant comparative analysis. Despite easy access to lake water and recognition of a link that may exist between poor genital hygiene and the risk of penile infection and poor sexual relationships, few fishermen regularly washed their genitalia due to fear/embarrassment from cleaning their genitalia in public, traditional Luo beliefs such as that washing with soap would reduce the fish catch, lack of time because of their busy schedules, laziness and lack of responsibility, and excessive consumption of alcohol and illicit drugs. Hygiene practices of the fishermen were poor and could contribute to genital infections including sexually transmitted infections. Given the fishermen's poor genital hygiene practices, they may benefit from hygiene intervention, including that provided by penile microbicides, which can be applied in the privacy of their bedrooms. PMID:20606226

  16. Mucosal Herpes Immunity and Immunopathology to Ocular and Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Chentoufi, Aziz Alami; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2012-01-01

    Herpes simplex viruses type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are amongst the most common human infectious viral pathogens capable of causing serious clinical diseases at every stage of life, from fatal disseminated disease in newborns to cold sores genital ulcerations and blinding eye disease. Primary mucocutaneous infection with HSV-1 & HSV-2 is followed by a lifelong viral latency in the sensory ganglia. In the majority of cases, herpes infections are clinically asymptomatic. However, in symptomatic individuals, the latent HSV can spontaneously and frequently reactivate, reinfecting the muco-cutaneous surfaces and causing painful recurrent diseases. The innate and adaptive mucosal immunities to herpes infections and disease remain to be fully characterized. The understanding of innate and adaptive immune mechanisms operating at muco-cutaneous surfaces is fundamental to the design of next-generation herpes vaccines. In this paper, the phenotypic and functional properties of innate and adaptive mucosal immune cells, their role in antiherpes immunity, and immunopathology are reviewed. The progress and limitations in developing a safe and efficient mucosal herpes vaccine are discussed. PMID:23320014

  17. Mucosal herpes immunity and immunopathology to ocular and genital herpes simplex virus infections.

    PubMed

    Chentoufi, Aziz Alami; Benmohamed, Lbachir

    2012-01-01

    Herpes simplex viruses type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are amongst the most common human infectious viral pathogens capable of causing serious clinical diseases at every stage of life, from fatal disseminated disease in newborns to cold sores genital ulcerations and blinding eye disease. Primary mucocutaneous infection with HSV-1 & HSV-2 is followed by a lifelong viral latency in the sensory ganglia. In the majority of cases, herpes infections are clinically asymptomatic. However, in symptomatic individuals, the latent HSV can spontaneously and frequently reactivate, reinfecting the muco-cutaneous surfaces and causing painful recurrent diseases. The innate and adaptive mucosal immunities to herpes infections and disease remain to be fully characterized. The understanding of innate and adaptive immune mechanisms operating at muco-cutaneous surfaces is fundamental to the design of next-generation herpes vaccines. In this paper, the phenotypic and functional properties of innate and adaptive mucosal immune cells, their role in antiherpes immunity, and immunopathology are reviewed. The progress and limitations in developing a safe and efficient mucosal herpes vaccine are discussed. PMID:23320014

  18. Concurrence of oral and genital human papillomavirus infection in healthy men: a population-based cross-sectional study in rural China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fangfang; Hang, Dong; Deng, Qiuju; Liu, Mengfei; Xi, Longfu; He, Zhonghu; Zhang, Chaoting; Sun, Min; Liu, Ying; Li, Jingjing; Pan, Yaqi; Ning, Tao; Guo, Chuanhai; Liang, Yongmei; Xu, Ruiping; Zhang, Lixin; Cai, Hong; Ke, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, a primary cause of genital cancer, is also related to the increasing incidence of oropharyngeal cancer among young men. Relatively little is known about the concurrence of oral and genital infection among healthy individuals. Oral and genital swab exfoliated cells were collected simultaneously from 2566 men in rural China. Using general primer-mediated (SPF1/GP6+) PCR and sequencing, HPV testing results were obtained from 2228 men with both valid oral and genital specimens (?-globin-positive). The prevalence of HPV infection was 6.7% in the oral cavity and 16.9% for the external genitalia. Among 43 men (1.9%, 43/2228) with oral-genital coinfection, 60.5% (26/43) harbored an identical HPV type at both sites. The risk of oral HPV infection was higher among men with genital infection than among uninfected men (11.4% vs. 5.7%, Adjusted OR?=?2.3, 95% CI: 1.6–3.4). In addition, having multiple lifetime sexual partners was a significant risk for oral-genital HPV coinfection (Adjusted OR?=?2.6, 95% CI: 1.0–7.0; 2 partners vs. 1 partner). These findings provide a basis for further understanding the natural history and transmission dynamics of oral HPV infection. PMID:26503510

  19. Concurrence of oral and genital human papillomavirus infection in healthy men: a population-based cross-sectional study in rural China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fangfang; Hang, Dong; Deng, Qiuju; Liu, Mengfei; Xi, Longfu; He, Zhonghu; Zhang, Chaoting; Sun, Min; Liu, Ying; Li, Jingjing; Pan, Yaqi; Ning, Tao; Guo, Chuanhai; Liang, Yongmei; Xu, Ruiping; Zhang, Lixin; Cai, Hong; Ke, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, a primary cause of genital cancer, is also related to the increasing incidence of oropharyngeal cancer among young men. Relatively little is known about the concurrence of oral and genital infection among healthy individuals. Oral and genital swab exfoliated cells were collected simultaneously from 2566 men in rural China. Using general primer-mediated (SPF1/GP6+) PCR and sequencing, HPV testing results were obtained from 2228 men with both valid oral and genital specimens (?-globin-positive). The prevalence of HPV infection was 6.7% in the oral cavity and 16.9% for the external genitalia. Among 43 men (1.9%, 43/2228) with oral-genital coinfection, 60.5% (26/43) harbored an identical HPV type at both sites. The risk of oral HPV infection was higher among men with genital infection than among uninfected men (11.4% vs. 5.7%, Adjusted OR?=?2.3, 95% CI: 1.6-3.4). In addition, having multiple lifetime sexual partners was a significant risk for oral-genital HPV coinfection (Adjusted OR?=?2.6, 95% CI: 1.0-7.0; 2 partners vs. 1 partner). These findings provide a basis for further understanding the natural history and transmission dynamics of oral HPV infection. PMID:26503510

  20. Sexually Transmitted Infections and Male Circumcision: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Van Howe, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    The claim that circumcision reduces the risk of sexually transmitted infections has been repeated so frequently that many believe it is true. A systematic review and meta-analyses were performed on studies of genital discharge syndrome versus genital ulcerative disease, genital discharge syndrome, nonspecific urethritis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, genital ulcerative disease, chancroid, syphilis, herpes simplex virus, human papillomavirus, and contracting a sexually transmitted infection of any type. Chlamydia, gonorrhea, genital herpes, and human papillomavirus are not significantly impacted by circumcision. Syphilis showed mixed results with studies of prevalence suggesting intact men were at great risk and studies of incidence suggesting the opposite. Intact men appear to be of greater risk for genital ulcerative disease while at lower risk for genital discharge syndrome, nonspecific urethritis, genital warts, and the overall risk of any sexually transmitted infection. In studies of general populations, there is no clear or consistent positive impact of circumcision on the risk of individual sexually transmitted infections. Consequently, the prevention of sexually transmitted infections cannot rationally be interpreted as a benefit of circumcision, and any policy of circumcision for the general population to prevent sexually transmitted infections is not supported by the evidence in the medical literature. PMID:23710368

  1. Epidemiology of Chlamydia psittaci Infection in Racing Pigeons and Pigeon Fanciers in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Ling, Y; Chen, H; Chen, X; Yang, X; Yang, J; Bavoil, P M; He, C

    2015-08-01

    Over 3 million racing pigeons (Columba livia) are registered in Beijing City Center for gambling purposes. During 2008-2010, we evaluated the occurrence and prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci in racing pigeons as well as the possible zoonotic transmission to pigeon fanciers in six districts of Beijing where pigeon races are particularly popular. C. psittaci-specific serum antibody titres were obtained from 370 pigeons and 79 fanciers using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, 206 and 67 throat swabs were, respectively, collected from pigeons and fanciers and tested for the presence of chlamydial antigen using immunofluorescence. C. psittaci-specific serum antibody was detected in 37 of 370 pigeons and 19 of 79 fanciers. Of 206 pigeon clinical specimens, 55 were positive for C. psittaci antigen, while 16 of 67 swabs from the pigeon fanciers were positive. Based on ompA sequence analysis, the genotype of several avian and human isolates was genotype B. Thus, both high-titre C. psittaci-specific antibody and C. psittaci-specific antigen were found with relatively high frequency in the pigeon flocks as well as in the pigeon fanciers. Our study suggests that C. psittaci infection is prevalent among the racing pigeon population in Beijing. Moreover, detection of serum antibodies and antigen in pigeon fanciers suggests that exposure and possible zoonotic transmission of C. psittaci from racing pigeons to humans does occur. In view of the life-threatening respiratory illness C. psittaci may cause in humans, regulatory public health measures, to prevent further spread of the pathogen in avian populations and possible transmission to exposed humans, are urgently needed. PMID:25244602

  2. Sites of persistence of lumpy skin disease virus in the genital tract of experimentally infected bulls.

    PubMed

    Annandale, C H; Irons, P C; Bagla, V P; Osuagwuh, U I; Venter, E H

    2010-04-01

    The objectives of this work were to determine the site of persistence of lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) in bulls shedding the virus in semen for a period longer than 28 days, to determine if the virus is present in all fractions of semen and to study lesions that developed in the genital tract. Six serologically negative postpubertal bulls were experimentally infected with a virulent field isolate of LSDV. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on sheath washes, vesicular fluid, supernatant and cell-rich fractions of semen from day 10 to day 26 postinfection (p.i.). Bulls that were positive by PCR on the whole semen sample collected on day 28 p.i. were slaughtered and tissue samples from their genital tracts submitted for histopathological evaluation, immunoperoxidase staining, virus isolation and PCR. Two of the bulls developed severe lumpy skin disease (LSD) and were found to be shedding viral DNA in their semen on day 28 p.i. Viral DNA was identified in all semen fractions from all bulls, but mostly from the cell-rich fraction and from the severely affected bulls. The PCR assay was positive on postmortem samples of testes and epididymides from the two severely affected bulls. Virus could be recovered from the testes of these two bulls and from the epididymis of one of them. Immunoperoxidase staining was positive for LSDV staining in sections of testes and epididymides exhibiting necrosis. This study suggests that the testis and epididymis are sites of persistence of LSDV in bulls shedding virus in semen for prolonged periods and revealed that viral DNA is present in all fractions of the ejaculate. PMID:19055553

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular typing of multiple Chlamydiaceae species isolated from genital infection of women in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Osman, Kamelia M; Ali, Hadia A; Eljakee, Jakeen A; Gaafar, Maha M; Galal, Hussein M

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the existence of vaginal Chlamydia infection and the prevalence of the disease in symptomatic gynecologically diseased women in Egypt. In addition, the antibiotics penicillin, tetracycline, and erythromycin were evaluated for their in vitro antichlamydial activity of the isolated strains. Vaginal swabs (n=160) were collected from females gynecologically diseased using cotton swabs. Samples were tested for Chlamydia by Vero cells tissue culture, chicken embryo, Gimenez staining, direct fluorescein-conjugated monoclonal antibody staining, and immunoperoxidase. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses conducted for the presence of chlamydial DNA was used to detect its specific DNA by the omp2 gene. PCR analyses conducted for the presence of chlamydial DNA revealed that 112/160 (70%) were positive for Chlamydiaceae. The specific DNA defined by the omp2 gene identified them as Chlamydia trachomatis (17/112, 15.2%), Chlamydophila psittaci (56/112, 50.0%), and Chlamydophila abortus (40/112, 35.7%). The antibiotics penicillin, tetracycline, and erythromycin at different concentrations were effective in inactivating the viability of Chlamydiaceae isolates. PMID:22455539

  4. Chlamydia trachomatis infections in Nicaragua: preliminary results from a competitive voucher scheme to prevent and treat sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS among sex workers.

    PubMed

    Gorter, A C; Segura, Z E; Savelkoul, P H M; Morré, S A

    2006-03-01

    A donor-supported competitive voucher scheme in Nicaragua provides prevention and treatment services for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV/AIDS to high-risk populations such as sex workers and their partners and clients. Beyond detecting and treating STIs, HIV and AIDS, these health services can also raise awareness of risks and promote safer behavior, leading to widespread benefits. This review describes the voucher scheme, summarizes published data on Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Nicaragua and provides preliminary prevalence data on C. trachomatis obtained in 2003 through the voucher scheme. PMID:16683044

  5. Genital Tract HIV RNA Levels and Their Associations with Human Papillomavirus Infection and Risk of Cervical Pre-Cancer

    PubMed Central

    GHARTEY, Jeny; KOVACS, Andrea; BURK, Robert D.; MASSAD, L. Stewart; MINKOFF, Howard; XIE, Xianhong; D’SOUZA, Gypsyamber; XUE, Xiaonan; WATTS, D. Heather; LEVINE, Alexandra M.; EINSTEIN, Mark H.; COLIE, Christine; ANASTOS, Kathryn; ELTOUM, Isam-Eldin; HEROLD, Betsy C.; PALEFSKY, Joel M.; STRICKLER, Howard D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Plasma HIV RNA levels have been associated with risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical neoplasia in HIV-seropositive women. However, little is known regarding local genital tract HIV RNA levels and their relation with cervical HPV and neoplasia. Design/Methods In an HIV-seropositive women’s cohort with semi-annual follow-up, we conducted a nested case-control study of genital tract HIV RNA levels and their relation with incident high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions sub-classified as severe (severe HSIL), as provided for under the Bethesda 2001 classification system. Specifically, 66 incident severe HSIL were matched to 130 controls by age, CD4+ count, HAART use, and other factors. We also studied HPV prevalence, incident detection, and persistence in a random sample of 250 subjects. Results Risk of severe HSIL was associated with genital tract HIV RNA levels (odds ratio comparing HIV RNA ? the median among women with detectable levels versus undetectable [ORVL] 2.96; 95% CI: 0.99–8.84; Ptrend=0.03). However, this association became non-significant (Ptrend=0.51) following adjustment for plasma HIV RNA levels. There was also no association between genital tract HIV RNA levels and the prevalence of any HPV or oncogenic HPV. However, the incident detection of any HPV (Ptrend=0.02) and persistence of oncogenic HPV (Ptrend=0.04) were associated with genital tract HIV RNA levels, after controlling plasma HIV RNA levels. Conclusion These prospective data suggest that genital tract HIV RNA levels are not a significant independent risk factor for cervical pre-cancer in HIV-seropositive women, but leave open the possibility that they may modestly influence HPV infection, an early stage of cervical tumoriogenesis. PMID:24694931

  6. Herpes simplex virus type 2 and other genital ulcerative infections as a risk factor for HIV-1 acquisition.

    PubMed Central

    Keet, I P; Lee, F K; van Griensven, G J; Lange, J M; Nahmias, A; Coutinho, R A

    1990-01-01

    We studied the role of genital ulcerative infections for acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in a cohort of 989 homosexual men in Amsterdam between October 1984 and December 1988. Among 53 HIV-1 seroconverters serological and anamnestic data were gathered regarding herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and syphilis in the 6 months before seroconversion. For statistical analysis a control who remained seronegative during the same interval was selected at random for each HIV-1 seroconverter. A significant difference between the prevalence of HSV-2 antibodies among HIV-1 seroconverters and controls was found (72% vs 38%). HSV-2 seroconversions among men initially seronegative for HSV-2 were found among three of 18 HIV-1 seroconverters and among three of 36 controls. (O.R. = 2.2, 95% C.I. 0.4-12.1). Self-reported cases of anogenital herpes were found more frequently among HIV-1 seroconverters (8) than among controls (4). One case of syphilis was diagnosed among HIV-1 seroconverters, and one among controls. Summing up these cases we assessed the total number of genital ulcerative infections: 12 among HIV-1 seroconverters and eight among controls (23 vs 15%, O.R. 1.7, C.I. 0.6-4.62). These data suggest little evidence for genital ulcerative infections being an important independent risk factor for HIV-1 acquisition among homosexual men in Amsterdam during the time period studied. PMID:2245979

  7. Roles of bovine Waddlia chondrophila and Chlamydia trachomatis in human preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Baud, D.; Goy, G.; Vasilevsky, S.; Osterheld, M.-C.; Roth-Kleiner, M.; Croxatto, A.; Greub, G.

    2014-01-01

    Waddlia chondrophila and Chlamydia trachomatis are intracellular bacteria associated with human miscarriage. We investigated their role in human preterm birth. Whereas presence of Chlamydia trachomatis DNA in genital tract was associated with human preterm birth, Waddlia was not, despite being present in women's genital tracts. PMID:25755892

  8. Comparison of Lower Genital Tract Microbiota in HIV-Infected and Uninfected Women from Rwanda and the US

    PubMed Central

    Benning, Lorie; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Anastos, Kathryn; French, Audrey L.; Cohen, Mardge; Gilbert, Douglas; Gillevet, Patrick; Munyazesa, Elisaphane; Landay, Alan L.; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Spear, Gregory T.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have shown that alterations of the bacterial microbiota in the lower female genital tract influence susceptibility to HIV infection and shedding. We assessed geographic differences in types of genital microbiota between HIV-infected and uninfected women from Rwanda and the United States. Methods Genera of lower genital tract bacterial microbiota were identified by high-throughput pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene from 46 US women (36 HIV-infected, 10 HIV-uninfected) and 40 Rwandan women (18 HIV-infected, 22 HIV-uninfected) with similar proportions of low (0–3) Nugent scores. Species of Lactobacillus were identified by assembling sequences along with reference sequences into phylogenetic trees. Prevalence of genera and Lactobacillus species were compared using Fisher's exact tests. Results Overall the seven most prevalent genera were Lactobacillus (74%), Prevotella (56%), Gardnerella (55%), Atopobium (42%), Sneathia (37%), Megasphaera (30%), and Parvimonas (26%), observed at similar prevalences comparing Rwandan to US women, except for Megasphaera (20% vs. 39%, p?=?0.06). Additionally, Rwandan women had higher frequencies of Mycoplasma (23% vs. 7%, p?=?0.06) and Eggerthella (13% vs. 0%, p?=?0.02), and lower frequencies of Lachnobacterium (8% vs. 35%, p<0.01) and Allisonella (5% vs. 30%, p<0.01), compared with US women. The prevalence of Mycoplasma was highest (p<0.05) in HIV-infected Rwandan women (39%), compared to HIV-infected US women (6%), HIV-uninfected Rwandan (9%) and US (10%) women. The most prevalent lactobacillus species in both Rwandan and US women was L. iners (58% vs. 76%, p?=?0.11), followed by L. crispatus (28% vs. 30%, p?=?0.82), L. jensenii (20% vs. 24%, p?=?0.80), L. gasseri (20% vs. 11%, p?=?0.37) and L. vaginalis (20% vs. 7%, p?=?0.10). Discussion We found similar prevalence of most major bacterial genera and Lactobacillus species in Rwandan and US women. Further work will be needed to establish whether observed differences differentially impact lower genital tract health or susceptibility to genital infections. PMID:24817204

  9. Kinetics of Local and Systemic Leucocyte and Cytokine Reaction of Calves to Intrabronchial Infection with Chlamydia psittaci

    PubMed Central

    Prohl, Annette; Wolf, Katharina; Weber, Corinna; Müller, Kerstin E.; Menge, Christian; Sachse, Konrad; Rödel, Jürgen; Reinhold, Petra; Berndt, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Infection of cattle with chlamydiae is ubiquitous and, even in the absence of clinical sequeleae, has a quantifiable negative impact on livestock productivity. Despite recent progress, our knowledge about immune response mechanisms capable of counteracting the infection and preventing its detrimental effects is still limited. A well-established model of bovine acute respiratory Chlamydia (C.) psittaci infection was used here to characterize the kinetics of the local and systemic immune reactions in calves. In the course of two weeks following inoculation, leukocyte surface marker expression was monitored by flow cytometry in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Immune-related protein and receptor transcription were determined by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR in blood, BALF and lung tissue. An early increase of IL2RA, IL10 and HSPA1A mRNA expressions was followed by a rise of lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes exhibiting activated phenotypes in blood. Monocytes showed elevated expression rates of CD11b, CD14 and MHC class II. The rates of CD62L expression on CD8hi T cells in blood and on CD4+ T cells in BALF were also augmented and peaked between 2 and 4 dpi. Notably, CD25 antigen expression was significantly elevated, not only on CD8dim/CD62L+ and CD8-/CD62L+ cells in blood, but also on granulocytes in blood and BALF between 2–3 dpi. From 4 dpi onwards, changes declined and the calves recovered from the infection until 10 dpi. The findings highlight the effectiveness of rapid local and systemic immune reaction and indicate activated T cells, monocytes and granulocytes being essential for rapid eradication of the C. psittaci infection. PMID:26252769

  10. Chlamydia trachomatis infection rates among a cohort of mobile soldiers stationed at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, 2005–2010

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fort Bragg, a large Army installation with reported high Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) infection rates, is characterized by a highly mobile population and a surrounding Ct-endemic community. We assessed the rates of Ct incidence and recurrence among the installation’s active component Army personnel and determined the association of soldier transience, sociodemographic factors, and history of sexually transmitted infection (STI) with these rates. Methods A cohort of soldiers stationed at Fort Bragg during 2005 to mid-2010 was followed for incident and recurrent Ct infection using laboratory-confirmed reportable disease data. Linkage to demographic and administrative data permitted multivariate analysis to determine association of covariates with initial or recurrent infection. Results Among 67,425 soldiers, 2,198 (3.3%) contracted an incident Ct infection (crude incidence, 21.7 per 1,000 person-years). Among soldiers followed for incident infection, 223 (10.6%, crude incidence 110.8 per 1,000 person-years) contracted a recurrent Ct infection. Being female, of lower rank, under 26 years of age, of non-white race, single, or with a high school diploma or less was significantly associated with incident Ct infection. Having breaks in duty or having deployments during follow-up was associated with a lower infection rate. Among women, having prior deployments was associated with a lower rate of both incident and recurrent infection. Specifically associated with recurrent infection in women was age under 21 years or no education beyond high school. Conclusions This analysis reaffirms risk factors for Ct infection determined in other studies. In addition, infection risk was lower for more mobile soldiers and tied to the specific location of their regular duty assignment. The findings support the STI prevention efforts at Fort Bragg and the surrounding community, regardless of how often or for how long soldiers have deployed for military operations. PMID:24552420

  11. Caspase-1 dependent IL-1? secretion is critical for host defense in a mouse model of Chlamydia pneumoniae lung infection.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Kenichi; Crother, Timothy R; Karlin, Justin; Chen, Shuang; Chiba, Norika; Ramanujan, V Krishnan; Vergnes, Laurent; Ojcius, David M; Arditi, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP) is an important human pathogen that causes atypical pneumonia and is associated with various chronic inflammatory disorders. Caspase-1 is a key component of the 'inflammasome', and is required to cleave pro-IL-1? to bioactive IL-1?. Here we demonstrate for the first time a critical requirement for IL-1? in response to CP infection. Caspase-1?/? mice exhibit delayed cytokine production, defective clearance of pulmonary bacteria and higher mortality in response to CP infection. Alveolar macrophages harbored increased bacterial numbers due to reduced iNOS levels in Caspase-1?/? mice. Pharmacological blockade of the IL-1 receptor in CP infected wild-type mice phenocopies Caspase-1-deficient mice, and administration of recombinant IL-1? rescues CP infected Caspase-1?/? mice from mortality, indicating that IL-1? secretion is crucial for host immune defense against CP lung infection. In vitro investigation reveals that CP-induced IL-1? secretion by macrophages requires TLR2/MyD88 and NLRP3/ASC/Caspase-1 signaling. Entry into the cell by CP and new protein synthesis by CP are required for inflammasome activation. Neither ROS nor cathepsin was required for CP infection induced inflammasome activation. Interestingly, Caspase-1 activation during CP infection occurs with mitochondrial dysfunction indicating a possible mechanism involving the mitochondria for CP-induced inflammasome activation. PMID:21731762

  12. A cross-sectional study on the relationship of age, gestational age and HIV infection to bacterial vaginosis and genital mycoplasma infection

    PubMed Central

    Redelinghuys, Mathys J; Ehlers, Marthie M; Dreyer, Andries W; Lombaard, Hennie; Olorunju, Steve A S; Kock, Marleen M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Pregnant women are especially at risk of developing complications when infected with reproductive tract infections (RTIs). The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and genital mycoplasmas in pregnant women and investigate the associations between BV, genital mycoplasmas, HIV infection, age and gestational age. Design Cross-sectional study with descriptive and analytical components. Setting Antenatal clinic of a tertiary academic hospital in South Africa. Participants 220 pregnant women older than 18 were included in the study and provided self-collected vaginal swabs. Primary and secondary outcomes BV and genital mycoplasma colonisation and/or infection in women of differing age, gestational period and HIV status. Results The prevalence of BV was 17.7% (39/220) (95% CI 12.9 to 23.4), intermediate vaginal flora (IVF) 15% (33/220) (95% CI 10.56 to 20.42), and the overall prevalence of genital mycoplasmas was 84% (185/220) (95% CI 78.47 to 88.58). BV was significantly associated with HIV infection with an OR of 2.84 (95% CI 1.08 to 7.46 and p value=0.034). However, BV was inversely associated with gestational age with an OR of 0.08 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.42 and p value=0.003) for second trimester pregnancies and an OR of 0.03 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.17 and p value<0.001) for third trimester pregnancies using the first trimester as reference. IVF was significantly associated with HIV infection with an OR of 2.7 (95% CI 1.07 to 6.79 and p value=0.035) but not with age or gestational age. Genital mycoplasmas were not significantly associated with age, gestational age, HIV status, BV flora or IVF. Conclusions The high infection rate of genital mycoplasmas and the association of BV with HIV found in this study reiterate the importance of screening for these RTIs in high-risk groups such as pregnant women. PMID:26482771

  13. Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection Promotes Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Migration through a Toll-Like Receptor 2-Related Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Beibei; Zhang, Tengteng; Wang, Haiwei; Zhang, Junxia; Wei, Junyan; Shen, Bingling; Liu, Xin; Xu, Zhelong; Zhang, Lijun

    2013-01-01

    The migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from the media to the intima is proposed to be a key event in the development of atherosclerosis. Recently, we reported that Chlamydia pneumoniae infection is involved in VSMC migration. However, the exact mechanisms for C. pneumoniae infection-induced VSMC migration are not yet well elucidated. In this study, we examined the role of the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) activation-related signaling pathway in VSMC migration induced by C. pneumoniae infection. An Affymetrix-based gene expression array was conducted to identify the changes of gene expression in rat primary VSMCs (rVSMCs) infected with C. pneumoniae. Both the microarray analysis and quantitative real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR revealed that TLR2 mRNA expression was strongly upregulated 12 h after C. pneumoniae infection. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis further showed that the expression levels of TLR2 mRNA and protein significantly increased at the different time points after infection. Immunocytochemical analysis suggested a TLR2 recruitment to the vicinity of C. pneumoniae inclusions. Cell migration assays showed that the TLR2-neutralizing antibody could significantly inhibit C. pneumoniae infection-induced rVSMC migration. In addition, C. pneumoniae infection stimulated Akt phosphorylation at Ser 473, which was obviously suppressed by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002, thereby inhibiting rVSMC migration caused by C. pneumoniae infection. Furthermore, both the infection-induced Akt phosphorylation and rVSMC migration were suppressed by the TLR2-neutralizing antibody. Taken together, these data suggest that C. pneumoniae infection can promote VSMC migration possibly through the TLR2-related signaling pathway. PMID:24082081

  14. Infection, Disease, and Transmission Dynamics in Calves after Experimental and Natural Challenge with a Bovine Chlamydia psittaci Isolate

    PubMed Central

    Ostermann, Carola; Rüttger, Anke; Schubert, Evelyn; Schrödl, Wieland; Sachse, Konrad; Reinhold, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia (C.) psittaci is the causative agent of psittacosis, a zoonotic disease in birds and man. In addition, C. psittaci has been repeatedly found in domestic animals and is, at least in calves, also able to induce respiratory disease. Knowledge about transmission routes in cattle herds is still deficient, and nothing is known about differences in host response after either experimental or natural exposure to C. psittaci. Therefore, our recently developed respiratory infection model was exploited to evaluate (i) the presence of the pathogen in blood, excretions and air, (ii) the possibility of transmission and (iii) clinical symptoms, acute phase and immune response until 5 weeks after exposure. In this prospective study, intrabronchial inoculation of 108 inclusion-forming units of C. psittaci (n?=?21 calves) led to reproducible acute respiratory illness (of approximately one week), accompanied by a systemic inflammatory reaction with an innate immune response dominated by neutrophils. Excretion and/or exhalation of the pathogen was sufficient to transmit the infection to naďve sentinel calves (n?=?3) co-housed with the infected animals. Sentinel calves developed mild to subclinical infections only. Notably, excretion of the pathogen, predominantly via feces, occurred more frequently in animals naturally exposed to C. psittaci (i.e. sentinels) as compared to experimentally-inoculated calves. The humoral immune response was generally weak, and did not emerge regularly following experimental infection; however, it was largely absent after naturally acquired infection. PMID:23691148

  15. Application of ?-Lactamase Reporter Fusions as an Indicator of Effector Protein Secretion during Infections with the Obligate Intracellular Pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Konrad E.; Fields, Kenneth A.

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia spp. utilize multiple secretion systems, including the type III secretion system (T3SS), to deploy host-interactive effector proteins into infected host cells. Elucidation of secreted proteins has traditionally required ectopic expression in a surrogate T3SS followed by immunolocalization of endogenous candidate effectors to confirm secretion by chlamydiae. The ability to transform Chlamydia and achieve stable expression of recombinant gene products has enabled a more direct assessment of secretion. We adapted TEM-1 ?-lactamase as a reporter system for assessment of chlamydial protein secretion. We provide evidence that this system facilitates visualization of secretion in the context of infection. Specifically, our findings provide definitive evidence that C. trachomatis CT695 is secreted during infection. Follow-up indirect immunofluorescence studies confirmed CT695 secretion and indicate that this effector can be secreted at multiple points during the chlamydial developmental cycle. Our results indicate that the BlaM-fusion reporter assay will allow efficacious identification of novel secreted proteins. Moreover, this approach can easily be adapted to enable more sophisticated studies of the secretion process in Chlamydia. PMID:26258949

  16. Effects of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Glycoprotein Vaccines and CLDC Adjuvant on Genital Herpes Infection in the Guinea Pig

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, David I; Earwood, Julie D.; Bravo, Fernando J.; Cohen, Gary H; Eisenberg, Roselyn J; Clark, Jennifer R.; Fairman, Jeffrey; Cardin, Rhonda D.

    2011-01-01

    Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are common but results from vaccine trials with HSV-2 glycoprotein D (gD) have been disappointing. We therefore compared a similar HSV gD2 vaccine, to a further truncated gD2 vaccine, to a vaccine with gD2 plus gB2 and gH2/gL2 and to a vaccine with only gB2 and gH2/gL2 in a guinea pig model of genital herpes. All vaccines were administered with cationic liposome-DNA complexes (CLDC) as an adjuvant. All vaccines significantly decreased the severity of acute genital disease and vaginal virus replication compared to the placebo group. The majority of animals in all groups developed at least one episode of recurrent disease but the frequency of recurrent disease was significantly reduced by each vaccine compared to placebo. No vaccine was significantly more protective than gD2 alone for any of the parameters described above. No vaccine decreased recurrent virus shedding. When protection against acute infection of dorsal root ganglia and the spinal cord was evaluated all vaccines decreased the per cent of animal with detectable virus and the quantity of virus but again no vaccine was significantly more protective than another. Improvements in HSV-2 vaccines may require inclusion of more T cell targets, more potent adjuvants or live virus vaccines. PMID:21238569

  17. Effects of herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein vaccines and CLDC adjuvant on genital herpes infection in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, David I; Earwood, Julie D; Bravo, Fernando J; Cohen, Gary H; Eisenberg, Roselyn J; Clark, Jennifer R; Fairman, Jeffrey; Cardin, Rhonda D

    2011-03-01

    Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are common but results from vaccine trials with HSV-2 glycoprotein D (gD) have been disappointing. We therefore compared a similar HSV gD2 vaccine, to a further truncated gD2 vaccine, to a vaccine with gD2 plus gB2 and gH2/gL2 and to a vaccine with only gB2 and gH2/gL2 in a guinea pig model of genital herpes. All vaccines were administered with cationic liposome-DNA complexes (CLDC) as an adjuvant. All vaccines significantly decreased the severity of acute genital disease and vaginal virus replication compared to the placebo group. The majority of animals in all groups developed at least one episode of recurrent disease but the frequency of recurrent disease was significantly reduced by each vaccine compared to placebo. No vaccine was significantly more protective than gD2 alone for any of the parameters described above. No vaccine decreased recurrent virus shedding. When protection against acute infection of dorsal root ganglia and the spinal cord was evaluated all vaccines decreased the per cent of animal with detectable virus and the quantity of virus but again no vaccine was significantly more protective than another. Improvements in HSV-2 vaccines may require inclusion of more T cell targets, more potent adjuvants or live virus vaccines. PMID:21238569

  18. Diagnostic efficacy of a real time-PCR assay for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in infertile women in north India

    PubMed Central

    Dhawan, Benu; Rawre, Jyoti; Ghosh, Arnab; Malhotra, Neena; Ahmed, Mir Muneer; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Chaudhry, Rama

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Little is known about the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Indian women with infertility. To improve the diagnosis of C. trachomatis infection in developing countries, there is an urgent need to establish cost-effective molecular test with high sensitivity and specificity. This study was conducted to determine the diagnostic utility of a real time-PCR assay for detention of C. trachomatis infection in infertile women attending an infertility clinic in north India. The in house real time-PCR assay was also compared with a commercial real-time PCR based detection system. Method: Endocervical swabs, collected from 200 infertile women were tested for C. trachomatis by three different PCR assays viz. in-house real time-PCR targeting the cryptic plasmid using published primers, along with omp1 gene and cryptic plasmid based conventional PCR assays. Specimens were also subjected to direct fluorescence assay (DFA) and enzyme immunoassay (EIA) Performance of in-house real time-PCR was compared with that of COBAS Taqman C. trachomatis Test, version 2.0 on all in-house real time-PCR positive sample and 30 consecutive negative samples. Results: C. trachomatis infection was found in 13.5 per cent (27/200) infertile women by in-house real time-PCR, 11.5 per cent (23/200) by cryptic plasmid and/or omp1 gene based conventional PCR, 9 per cent (18/200) by DFA and 6.5 per cent (7/200) by EIA. The in-house real time-PCR exhibited a sensitivity and specificity of 100 per cent, considering COBAS Taqman CT Test as the gold standard. The negative and positive predictive values of the in-house real time-PCR were 100 per cent. The in-house real time-PCR could detect as low as 10 copies of C. trachomatis DNA per reaction. Interpretation & conclusions: In-house real time-PCR targeting the cryptic plasmid of C. trachomatis exhibited an excellent sensitivity and specificity similar to that of COBAS Taqman CT Test, v2.0 for detection of C. trachomatis infection in women attending an infertility clinic. In an effort to prevent Chlamydia infection associated infertility, we recommend screening of women with infertility due to C. trachomatis infection by in-house molecular method as a cost-effective solution in resource limited settings. PMID:25297359

  19. Transcriptional Profiling of Human Epithelial Cells Infected with Plasmid-Bearing and Plasmid-Deficient Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, John H.; Sturdevant, Daniel E.; Sturdevant, Gail L.; Kanakabandi, Kishore; Virtaneva, Kimmo; Wilder, Hannah; Whitmire, William M.; Caldwell, Harlan D.

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular epitheliotropic bacterial pathogen of humans. Infection of the eye can result in trachoma, the leading cause of preventable blindness in the world. The pathophysiology of blinding trachoma is driven by multiple episodes of reinfection of conjunctival epithelial cells, producing an intense chronic inflammatory response resulting in submucosal tissue remodeling and scarring. Recent reports have shown that infection with trachoma organisms lacking the cryptic chlamydial plasmid is highly attenuated in macaque eyes, a relevant experimental model of human trachoma infection. To better understand the molecular basis of plasmid-mediated infection attenuation and the potential modulation of host immunity, we conducted transcriptional profiling of human epithelial cells infected with C. trachomatis plasmid-bearing (A2497) and plasmid-deficient (A2497P?) organisms. Infection of human epithelial cells with either strain increased the expression of host genes coding for proinflammatory (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF], macrophage colony-stimulating factor [MCSF], interleukin-6 [IL-6], IL-8, IL-1?, CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 [ICAM1]), chemoattraction (CCL20, CCL5, CXCL10), immune suppression (PD-L1, NFKB1B, TNFAIP3, CGB), apoptosis (CASP9, FAS, IL-24), and cell growth and fibrosis (EGR1 and IL-20) proteins. Statistically significant increases in the levels of expression of many of these genes were found in A2497-infected cells compared to the levels of expression in A2497P?-infected cells. Our findings suggest that the chlamydial plasmid plays a focal role in the host cell inflammatory response to infection and immune avoidance. These results provide new insights into the role of the chlamydial plasmid as a chlamydial virulence factor and its contributions to trachoma pathogenesis. PMID:25404022

  20. Profiling antibody responses to infections by Chlamydia abortus enables identification of potential virulence factors and candidates for serodiagnosis.

    PubMed

    Forsbach-Birk, Vera; Foddis, Corinna; Simnacher, Ulrike; Wilkat, Max; Longbottom, David; Walder, Gernot; Benesch, Christiane; Ganter, Martin; Sachse, Konrad; Essig, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Enzootic abortion of ewes (EAE) due to infection with the obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia (C.) abortus is an important zoonosis leading to considerable economic loss to agriculture worldwide. The pathogen can be transmitted to humans and may lead to serious infection in pregnant women. Knowledge about epidemiology, clinical course and transmission to humans is hampered by the lack of reliable diagnostic tools. Immunoreactive proteins, which are expressed in infected animals and humans, may serve as novel candidates for diagnostic marker proteins and represent putative virulence factors. In order to broaden the spectrum of immunogenic C. abortus proteins we applied 2D immunoblot analysis and screening of an expression library using human and animal sera. We have identified 48 immunoreactive proteins representing potential diagnostic markers and also putative virulence factors, such as CAB080 (homologue of the "macrophage infectivity potentiator", MIP), CAB167 (homologue of the "translocated actin recruitment protein", TARP), CAB712 (homologue of the "chlamydial protease-like activity factor", CPAF), CAB776 (homologue of the "Polymorphic membrane protein D", PmpD), and the "hypothetical proteins" CAB063, CAB408 and CAB821, which are predicted to be type III secreted. We selected two putative virulence factors for further characterization, i.e. CAB080 (cMIP) and CAB063, and studied their expression profiles at transcript and protein levels. Analysis of the subcellular localization of both proteins throughout the developmental cycle revealed CAB063 being the first C. abortus protein shown to be translocated to the host cell nucleus. PMID:24260366

  1. Late production of CXCL8 in ruminant oro-nasal turbinate cells in response to Chlamydia abortus infection.

    PubMed

    Doull, L; Wattegedera, S R; Longbottom, D; Mwangi, D; Nath, M; Glass, E J; Entrican, G

    2015-11-15

    Chlamydia abortus is an obligate intracellular bacterium that is an important cause of ovine abortion worldwide. There are reports of abortions in cattle, but these are very rare compared to the reported incidence in sheep. The bacterium is transmitted oro-nasally and can establish a sub-clinical infection until pregnancy, when it can invade the placenta and induce an inflammatory cascade leading to placentitis and abortion. Early host-pathogen interactions could explain differential pathogenesis and subsequent disease outcome in ruminant species. In this study, we assessed the ability of sheep and cattle oro-nasal turbinate cells to sense and respond to C. abortus infection. The cells expressed toll like receptor (TLR) 2, TLR4, nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD) 1 and NOD-like receptor pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) mRNA. In response to C. abortus infection, both ovine and bovine turbinate cells produce CXCL8 mRNA and protein late in the bacterial developmental cycle, but do not produce IL-1? or TNF-?. The UV-inactivated bacteria did not elicit a CXCL8 response, suggesting that intracellular multiplication of the bacteria is important for activating the signalling pathways. The production of innate immune cytokines from cattle and sheep turbinate cells in response to C. abortus infection was found to be largely similar. PMID:26342452

  2. Cutaneous human papillomavirus types detected on the surface of male external genital lesions: A case series within the HPV Infection in Men Study

    PubMed Central

    Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Messina, Jane L.; Stoler, Mark H.; Jukic, Drazen M.; Tommasino, Massimo; Gheit, Tarik; Rollison, Dana E.; Sichero, Laura; Sirak, Bradley A.; Ingles, Donna J.; Abrahamsen, Martha; Lu, Beibei; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPVs) may be associated with cutaneous epithelial lesions and non-melanoma skin cancers. No study has systematically evaluated the presence of genus beta [?]-HPV in male genital skin or external genital lesions (EGLs). Objectives To examine cutaneous ?-HPV types detected on the surface of EGLs in men and describe their presence prior to EGL development. Study design A retrospective case series was conducted among 69 men with pathologically confirmed EGLs (n=72) who participated in the HPV Infection in Men Study. Archived exfoliated cells collected from the surface of each EGL and normal genital skin specimens 6–12 months preceding EGL development were tested for ?-HPV DNA using a type-specific multiplex genotyping assay. Results ?-HPV DNA was detected on 61.1% of all EGLs, with types 38 (16.7%), 5 (15.3%), and 12 (12.5%) most commonly identified. HPV prevalence differed across pathological diagnoses, with the largest number of ?-HPV types detected on condylomas. Most ?-HPV types were detected on normal genital skin prior to EGL development, though the prevalence was lower on EGLs compared to preceding normal genital skin. Conclusions EGLs and the normal genital skin of men harbor a large number of ?-HPV types; however, it appears that ?-HPVs are unrelated to EGL development in men. Despite evidence to support a causal role in skin carcinogenesis at UVR-exposed sites, cutaneous HPV appears unlikely to cause disease at the UVR-unexposed genitals. PMID:24210970

  3. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Chlamydia psittaci infection in domestic geese Anser domestica, in Hainan province of China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun-Ming; Rong, Guang; Zhou, Han-Lin; Hou, Guan-Yu

    2015-05-01

    Chlamydia psittaci, the agent of psittacosis in humans, infects a wide range of bird species. To assess the risk of psittacosis posed by domestic geese in China, the seroprevalence of C. psittaci infection in domestic geese in Hainan province, tropical China was examined using indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 25.6% (461/1800; 95% CI: 23.6-27.6). The C. psittaci seroprevalence ranged from 19% (95% CI: 14.6-23.4) to 34% (95% CI: 28.6-39.4) among different regions in Hainan province, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.01). The risk factors significantly associated with C. psittaci seroprevalence were the presence of hygiene conditions, age, gender, and environment of geese in the farms. The results of the present investigation indicated the high seroprevalence of C. psittaci infection in geese in Hainan province, tropical China. Close contact with these geese is associated with a risk of zoonotic transmission of C. psittaci. Public education should be implemented to reduce the risk of avian to human transmission of such a pathogenic agent. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report documenting the occurrence of C. psittaci seroprevalence in geese in China. PMID:25700712

  4. Aberrant chlamydial developmental forms in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs spontaneously and experimentally infected with Chlamydia suis.

    PubMed

    Pospischil, Andreas; Borel, Nicole; Chowdhury, Emdad H; Guscetti, Franco

    2009-03-16

    The phenomenon of persistence is well known from in vitro studies, where it is associated with the production of aberrant bodies, but its occurrence in vivo is less well documented. The objective of this study was to search for aberrant bodies in intestinal tissues from pigs, describe their ultrastructure, and investigate the suitability of immunohistochemical staining for chlamydial heat shock protein 60 (cHSP60) to detect such forms. Intestinal tissues derived from pigs naturally and experimentally infected with Chlamydia (C.) suis were examined by immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy and immunogold electron microscopy. The chlamydial species involved in the natural infection were determined using an Array Tube Microarray to C. suis and Chlamydophila abortus. Ultrastructurally, aberrant bodies were detected in the gut of both naturally and experimentally infected pigs. Immunogold electron microscopy showed that the aberrant bodies were labeled less strongly than the normal forms by antibodies against LPS and cHSP60 respectively. It was concluded that aberrant bodies occur in vivo in pigs and that the gnotobiotic pig model might be suitable for the study of chlamydial persistence in vivo. The antibody against cHSP60 does not appear to be suitable to specifically detect such forms. PMID:18950970

  5. Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, and Trichomonas vaginalis Infections in Men With Nongonococcal Urethritis: Predictors and Persistence After Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Seńa, Arlene C.; Lensing, Shelly; Rompalo, Anne; Taylor, Stephanie N.; Martin, David H.; Lopez, Laureen M.; Lee, Jeannette Y.; Schwebke, Jane R.

    2012-01-01

    Background.?Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) are sexually transmitted infections (STIs) associated with nongonococcal urethritis (NGU). We assessed their predictors and persistence after treatment. Methods.?We analyzed data from an NGU treatment trial among symptomatic heterosexual men aged 16–45 years from STI clinics. Nucleic acid amplification tests detected CT, MG, and TV at baseline and at 1 and 4 weeks after therapy. Associations between variables and STI detection were investigated. Results.?Among 293 participants, 44% had CT, 31% had MG, and 13% had TV at baseline. In multivariate analysis, CT infection was associated with young age and STI contact. Young age was also associated with MG, and having ?1 new partner was negatively associated with TV. We detected persistent CT in 12% and MG in 44% of participants at 4 weeks after therapy, which were associated with signs and symptoms of NGU. Persistent CT was detected in 23% of participants after azithromycin treatment vs 5% after doxycycline treatment (P = .011); persistent MG was detected in 68% of participants after doxycycline vs 33% after azithromycin (P = .001). All but 1 TV infection cleared after tinidazole. Conclusions.?Persistent CT and MG after treatment of NGU are common, and were associated with clinical findings and drug regimen. PMID:22615318

  6. Natural products for the treatment of trachoma and Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Potroz, Michael G; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2015-01-01

    The neglected tropical disease (NTD) trachoma is currently the leading cause of eye disease in the world, and the pathogenic bacteria causing this condition, Chlamydia trachomatis, is also the most common sexually transmitted pathogenic bacterium. Although the serovars of this bacterial species typically vary between ocular and genital infections there is a clear connection between genital C. trachomatis infections and the development of trachoma in infants, such that the solutions to these infections are closely related. It is the unique life cycle of the C. trachomatis bacteria which primarily leads to chronic infections and challenges in treatment using conventional antibiotics. This life cycle involves stages of infective elementary bodies (EBs) and reproductive reticulate bodies (RBs). Most antibiotics only target the reproductive RBs and this often leads to the need for prolonged therapy which facilitates the development of drug resistant pathogens. It is through combining several compounds to obtain multiple antimicrobial mechanisms that we are most likely to develop a reliable means to address all these issues. Traditional and ethnobotanical medicine provides valuable resources for the development of novel formulations and treatment regimes based on synergistic and multi-compound therapy. In this review we intend to summarize the existing literature on the application of natural compounds for controlling trachoma and inhibiting chlamydial bacteria and explore the potential for the development of new treatment modalities. PMID:25751782

  7. Selection for a CEACAM Receptor-Specific Binding Phenotype during Neisseria gonorrhoeae Infection of the Human Genital Tract

    PubMed Central

    Sintsova, Anna; Wong, Henry; MacDonald, Kelly S.; Kaul, Rupert; Virji, Mumtaz

    2015-01-01

    Infections by Neisseria gonorrhoeae are increasingly common, are often caused by antibiotic-resistant strains, and can result in serious and lasting sequelae, prompting the reemergence of gonococcal disease as a leading global health concern. N. gonorrhoeae is a human-restricted pathogen that primarily colonizes urogenital mucosal surfaces. Disease progression varies greatly between the sexes: men usually present with symptomatic infection characterized by a painful purulent urethral discharge, while in women, the infection is often asymptomatic, with the most severe pathology occurring when the bacteria ascend from the lower genital tract into the uterus and fallopian tubes. Classical clinical studies demonstrated that clinically infectious strains uniformly express Opa adhesins; however, their specificities were unknown at the time. While in vitro studies have since identified CEACAM proteins as the primary target of Opa proteins, the gonococcal specificity for this human family of receptors has not been addressed in the context of natural infection. In this study, we characterize a collection of low-passage-number clinical-specimen-derived N. gonorrhoeae isolates for Opa expression and assess their CEACAM-binding profiles. We report marked in vivo selection for expression of phase-variable Opa proteins that bind CEACAM1 and CEACAM5 but selection against expression of Opa variants that bind to the neutrophil-restricted decoy receptor CEACAM3. This is the first study showing phenotypic selection for distinct CEACAM-binding phenotypes in vivo, and it supports the opposing functions of CEACAMs that facilitate infection versus driving inflammation within the genital tract. PMID:25605771

  8. Herpes Simplex Virus-2 Genital Tract Shedding Is Not Predictable over Months or Years in Infected Persons

    PubMed Central

    Dhankani, Varsha; Kutz, J. Nathan; Schiffer, Joshua T.

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) is a chronic reactivating infection that leads to recurrent shedding episodes in the genital tract. A minority of episodes are prolonged, and associated with development of painful ulcers. However, currently, available tools poorly predict viral trajectories and timing of reactivations in infected individuals. We employed principal components analysis (PCA) and singular value decomposition (SVD) to interpret HSV-2 genital tract shedding time series data, as well as simulation output from a stochastic spatial mathematical model. Empirical and model-derived, time-series data gathered over >30 days consists of multiple complex episodes that could not be reduced to a manageable number of descriptive features with PCA and SVD. However, single HSV-2 shedding episodes, even those with prolonged duration and complex morphologies consisting of multiple erratic peaks, were consistently described using a maximum of four dominant features. Modeled and clinical episodes had equivalent distributions of dominant features, implying similar dynamics in real and simulated episodes. We applied linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to simulation output and identified that local immune cell density at the viral reactivation site had a predictive effect on episode duration, though longer term shedding suggested chaotic dynamics and could not be predicted based on spatial patterns of immune cell density. These findings suggest that HSV-2 shedding patterns within an individual are impossible to predict over weeks or months, and that even highly complex single HSV-2 episodes can only be partially predicted based on spatial distribution of immune cell density. PMID:25375183

  9. SINC, a type III secreted protein of Chlamydia psittaci, targets the inner nuclear membrane of infected cells and uninfected neighbors

    PubMed Central

    Mojica, Sergio A.; Hovis, Kelley M.; Frieman, Matthew B.; Tran, Bao; Hsia, Ru-ching; Ravel, Jacques; Jenkins-Houk, Clifton; Wilson, Katherine L.; Bavoil, Patrik M.

    2015-01-01

    SINC, a new type III secreted protein of the avian and human pathogen Chlamydia psittaci, uniquely targets the nuclear envelope of C. psittaci–infected cells and uninfected neighboring cells. Digitonin-permeabilization studies of SINC-GFP–transfected HeLa cells indicate that SINC targets the inner nuclear membrane. SINC localization at the nuclear envelope was blocked by importazole, confirming SINC import into the nucleus. Candidate partners were identified by proximity to biotin ligase-fused SINC in HEK293 cells and mass spectrometry (BioID). This strategy identified 22 candidates with high confidence, including the nucleoporin ELYS, lamin B1, and four proteins (emerin, MAN1, LAP1, and LBR) of the inner nuclear membrane, suggesting that SINC interacts with host proteins that control nuclear structure, signaling, chromatin organization, and gene silencing. GFP-SINC association with the native LEM-domain protein emerin, a conserved component of nuclear “lamina” structure, or with a complex containing emerin was confirmed by GFP pull down. Our findings identify SINC as a novel bacterial protein that targets the nuclear envelope with the capability of globally altering nuclear envelope functions in the infected host cell and neighboring uninfected cells. These properties may contribute to the aggressive virulence of C. psittaci. PMID:25788290

  10. Multilocus Sequence Analysis Provides Insights into Molecular Epidemiology of Chlamydia pecorum Infections in Australian Sheep, Cattle, and Koalas

    PubMed Central

    Jelocnik, Martina; Frentiu, Francesca D.; Timms, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia pecorum is a significant pathogen of domestic livestock and wildlife. We have developed a C. pecorum-specific multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) scheme to examine the genetic diversity of and relationships between Australian sheep, cattle, and koala isolates. An MLSA of seven concatenated housekeeping gene fragments was performed using 35 isolates, including 18 livestock isolates (11 Australian sheep, one Australian cow, and six U.S. livestock isolates) and 17 Australian koala isolates. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the koala isolates formed a distinct clade, with limited clustering with C. pecorum isolates from Australian sheep. We identified 11 MLSA sequence types (STs) among Australian C. pecorum isolates, 10 of them novel, with koala and sheep sharing at least one identical ST (designated ST2013Aa). ST23, previously identified in global C. pecorum livestock isolates, was observed here in a subset of Australian bovine and sheep isolates. Most notably, ST23 was found in association with multiple disease states and hosts, providing insights into the transmission of this pathogen between livestock hosts. The complexity of the epidemiology of this disease was further highlighted by the observation that at least two examples of sheep were infected with different C. pecorum STs in the eyes and gastrointestinal tract. We have demonstrated the feasibility of our MLSA scheme for understanding the host relationship that exists between Australian C. pecorum strains and provide the first molecular epidemiological data on infections in Australian livestock hosts. PMID:23740730

  11. Order of HPV/Chlamydia infections and cervical high-grade precancer risk: a case-cohort study.

    PubMed

    Luostarinen, Tapio; Namujju, Proscovia B; Merikukka, Marko; Dillner, Joakim; Hakulinen, Timo; Koskela, Pentti; Paavonen, Jorma; Surcel, Heljä-Marja; Lehtinen, Matti

    2013-10-01

    Interactions of carcinogenic human papillomaviruses (most notably HPV types 16/18/31/33/45), and HPV6 or Chlamydia trachomatis are not well understood. We have used seroconversions to study effects the order of these infections has on the risk of high-grade cervical precancer. In a cohort of 94,349 Finnish women with paired sera from consecutive pregnancies within an average of 2.4 years, 490 were diagnosed with cervical CIN3/AIS. Serum antibodies to HPV6/16/18/31/33/45 and C. trachomatis were measured in paired sera of the cases and a subcohort of 2,796 women with a minimum of two pregnancies. HPV16-adjusted rate ratios (RR) and confidence intervals were estimated by stratified Cox model. Compared to dual seropositivity already at the first serum sampling, RRs related to HPV6 seropositivity before and after HPV31 seroconversion were 0.4 (95% CI 0.0, 4.4) and 10 (95% CI 1.8, 57). Furthermore, RR related to seroconversions of both HPV18/45 and C.trachomatis between the consecutive pregnancies was 28 (95% CI 4.3, 190). Virtually concomitant HPV18/45 and C.trachomatis infections are associated with very high CIN3 risk. PMID:23526412

  12. Profiling Antibody Responses to Infections by Chlamydia abortus Enables Identification of Potential Virulence Factors and Candidates for Serodiagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Forsbach-Birk, Vera; Foddis, Corinna; Simnacher, Ulrike; Wilkat, Max; Longbottom, David; Walder, Gernot; Benesch, Christiane; Ganter, Martin; Sachse, Konrad; Essig, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Enzootic abortion of ewes (EAE) due to infection with the obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia (C.) abortus is an important zoonosis leading to considerable economic loss to agriculture worldwide. The pathogen can be transmitted to humans and may lead to serious infection in pregnant women. Knowledge about epidemiology, clinical course and transmission to humans is hampered by the lack of reliable diagnostic tools. Immunoreactive proteins, which are expressed in infected animals and humans, may serve as novel candidates for diagnostic marker proteins and represent putative virulence factors. In order to broaden the spectrum of immunogenic C. abortus proteins we applied 2D immunoblot analysis and screening of an expression library using human and animal sera. We have identified 48 immunoreactive proteins representing potential diagnostic markers and also putative virulence factors, such as CAB080 (homologue of the “macrophage infectivity potentiator”, MIP), CAB167 (homologue of the “translocated actin recruitment protein”, TARP), CAB712 (homologue of the “chlamydial protease-like activity factor”, CPAF), CAB776 (homologue of the “Polymorphic membrane protein D”, PmpD), and the “hypothetical proteins” CAB063, CAB408 and CAB821, which are predicted to be type III secreted. We selected two putative virulence factors for further characterization, i.e. CAB080 (cMIP) and CAB063, and studied their expression profiles at transcript and protein levels. Analysis of the subcellular localization of both proteins throughout the developmental cycle revealed CAB063 being the first C. abortus protein shown to be translocated to the host cell nucleus. PMID:24260366

  13. Mast cells play an important role in chlamydia pneumoniae lung infection by facilitating immune cell recruitment into the airway.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Norika; Shimada, Kenichi; Chen, Shuang; Jones, Heather D; Alsabeh, Randa; Slepenkin, Anatoly V; Peterson, Ellena; Crother, Timothy R; Arditi, Moshe

    2015-04-15

    Mast cells are known as central players in allergy and anaphylaxis, and they play a pivotal role in host defense against certain pathogens. Chlamydia pneumoniae is an important human pathogen, but it is unclear what role mast cells play during C. pneumoniae infection. We infected C57BL/6 (wild-type [WT]) and mast cell-deficient mice (Kit(W-sh/W-sh) [Wsh]) with C. pneumoniae. Wsh mice showed improved survival compared with WT mice, with fewer cells in Wsh bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), despite similar levels of cytokines and chemokines. We also found a more rapid clearance of bacteria from the lungs of Wsh mice compared with WT mice. Cromolyn, a mast cell stabilizer, reduced BALF cells and bacterial burden similar to the levels seen in Wsh mice; conversely, Compound 48/80, a mast cell degranulator, increased the number of BALF cells and bacterial burden. Histology showed that WT lungs had diffuse inflammation, whereas Wsh mice had patchy accumulations of neutrophils and perivascular accumulations of lymphocytes. Infected Wsh mice had reduced amounts of matrix metalloprotease-9 in BALF and were resistant to epithelial integral membrane protein degradation, suggesting that barrier integrity remains intact in Wsh mice. Mast cell reconstitution in Wsh mice led to enhanced bacterial growth and normal epithelial integral membrane protein degradation, highlighting the specific role of mast cells in this model. These data suggest that mast cells play a detrimental role during C. pneumoniae infection by facilitating immune cell infiltration into the airspace and providing a more favorable replicative environment for C. pneumoniae. PMID:25754739

  14. Chlamydia pecorum infections in sheep and cattle: A common and under-recognised infectious disease with significant impact on animal health.

    PubMed

    Walker, Evelyn; Lee, Effie J; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing recognition that infections of livestock by the obligate intracellular bacterium, Chlamydia pecorum, are more widespread than was previously thought. A range of diseases have been associated with this pathogen, with the most important manifestations including infectious arthritis, infertility, enteritis, reduced growth rates, mastitis, and pneumonia. C. pecorum infections have also been associated with sub-clinical disease, highlighting our lack of knowledge about its true economic impact on livestock producers. Diagnosis of C. pecorum infection is based on clinical findings, serology and histopathology, which are not necessarily implemented in subclinical or early stages of infection, thus potentially contributing to under-diagnosis and under-reporting of infections associated with this bacterium. Recent molecular epidemiology studies have revealed that C. pecorum is genetically diverse and that there may be an association between certain strains and disease in sheep and cattle. Antimicrobial treatment of affected animals has questionable efficacy, justifying development of chlamydia vaccines for livestock. This review summarises current knowledge of the prevalence and impact of C. pecorum infections in sheep and cattle and provides an update on attempts to improve detection, management and treatment of infections by this important obligate intracellular pathogen. PMID:26586214

  15. Effect of the levonorgestrel intrauterine device on genital HIV-1 RNA shedding among HIV-1–infected women not taking antiretroviral therapy in Nairobi, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Jenell S.; Mwachari, Christina; Balkus, Jennifer; Sanguli, Lucy; Muliro, Angela; Agnew, Kathy; Coombs, Robert W.; Cohen, Craig R; Hitti, Jane

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of the levonorgestrel intrauterine device (LNG-IUD) on genital HIV-1 RNA shedding and inflammation among 25 HIV-infected women. Blood, endocervical, and cervicovaginal lavage samples were collected from HIV-infected women not taking antiretrovirals before LNG-IUD insertion and 1-, 3-, and 6-months thereafter. HIV-1 RNA was quantitated by real-time RT-PCR. Inflammatory markers were measured by EIA. Genital HIV-1 RNA shedding and inflammatory markers did not differ between LNG-IUD placement and month 6, with the exception of interleukin-1B, which increased (0.42 log10; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.75). The LNG-IUD did not increase genital HIV-1 RNA shedding after 6-months of use. PMID:23446496

  16. TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 genotypes and haplotypes in the susceptibility to and clinical course of Chlamydia trachomatis infections in Dutch women.

    PubMed

    Verweij, Stephan P; Karimi, Ouafae; Pleijster, Jolein; Lyons, Joseph M; de Vries, Henry J C; Land, Jolande A; Morré, Servaas A; Ouburg, Sander

    2016-02-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infections demonstrate remarkable differences in clinical course that are approximately 40% based on host genetic variation. Here, we study the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and their haplotypes in TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 (TLR2 +2477G>A; TLR2 -16934T>A; TLR4+896A>G; TLR9 -1237T>C and TLR9 +2848G>A) in relation to the susceptibility to, and severity of C. trachomatis infections. We analysed the five SNPs in a cohort of 770 Dutch Caucasian women either attending a sexually transmitted diseases outpatient clinic (n = 731) or having complaints of subfertility (n = 39). Haplotype analyses showed a trend for TLR2 haplotype I (-16934T/+2477G) to protect against the development of symptoms and tubal pathology (Ptrend = 0.03) after Chlamydia infection. In the susceptibility cohort, TLR9 haplotype III (-1237C/+2848A) showed a significant decreasing trend in the development of symptoms after C. trachomatis infection (P = 0.02, OR: 0.55, 95%CI: 0.33-0.91). Logistic regression of the TLR2 haplotypes, TLR4+896A>G, and TLR9 haplotypes showed that the TLR2 haplotype combinations AG-TA and AG-TG confer risk (OR 3.4 (P = 0.01) and 1.6 (P = 0.03)), while the TLR9 haplotype combination TG-TA protects against C. trachomatis infections (OR: 0.4, P = 0.004). Our study shows that both TLR2 and TLR9 genes and SNP combinations do influence the clinical course of Chlamydia infections. PMID:26568059

  17. Human Chlamydia pneumoniae isolates demonstrate ability to recover infectivity following penicillin treatment whereas animal isolates do not.

    PubMed

    Chacko, Anu; Beagley, Kenneth W; Timms, Peter; Huston, Wilhelmina M

    2015-03-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae strains have recently been demonstrated to have substantially different capacities to enter and recover from IFN-?-induced persistence, depending on whether they are from human or animal host sources. Here, we examined the ability of two human and two animal strains to enter and be rescued from penicillin-induced persistence. The ability to form inclusions after the addition of penicillin was much reduced in the two animal isolates (koala LPCoLN, bandicoot B21) compared to the two human isolates (respiratory AR39 and heart A03). The penicillin treatment resulted in a dose-dependent loss of infectious progeny for all isolates, with the human strains failing to produce infectious progeny at lower doses of penicillin than the animal strains. The most remarkable finding however was the contrasting ability of the isolates to recover infectious progeny production after rescue by removal of the penicillin (at 72 h) and continued culture. The animal isolates both showed virtually no recovery from the penicillin treatment conditions. In contrast, the human isolates showed a significant ability to recovery infectivity, with the heart isolate (A03) showing the most marked recovery. Combined, these data further support the hypothesis that the ability to establish and recover from persistence appears to be enhanced in human C. pneumoniae strains compared to animal strains. PMID:25663156

  18. Culture-Independent Genome Sequencing of Clinical Samples Reveals an Unexpected Heterogeneity of Infections by Chlamydia pecorum

    PubMed Central

    Bachmann, Nathan L.; Sullivan, Mitchell J.; Jelocnik, Martina; Myers, Garry S. A.; Timms, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia pecorum is an important global pathogen of livestock, and it is also a significant threat to the long-term survival of Australia's koala populations. This study employed a culture-independent DNA capture approach to sequence C. pecorum genomes directly from clinical swab samples collected from koalas with chlamydial disease as well as from sheep with arthritis and conjunctivitis. Investigations into single-nucleotide polymorphisms within each of the swab samples revealed that a portion of the reads in each sample belonged to separate C. pecorum strains, suggesting that all of the clinical samples analyzed contained mixed populations of genetically distinct C. pecorum isolates. This observation was independent of the anatomical site sampled and the host species. Using the genomes of strains identified in each of these samples, whole-genome phylogenetic analysis revealed that a clade containing a bovine and a koala isolate is distinct from other clades comprised of livestock or koala C. pecorum strains. Providing additional evidence to support exposure of koalas to Australian livestock strains, two minor strains assembled from the koala swab samples clustered with livestock strains rather than koala strains. Culture-independent probe-based genome capture and sequencing of clinical samples provides the strongest evidence yet to suggest that naturally occurring chlamydial infections are comprised of multiple genetically distinct strains. PMID:25740768

  19. Culture-independent genome sequencing of clinical samples reveals an unexpected heterogeneity of infections by Chlamydia pecorum.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Nathan L; Sullivan, Mitchell J; Jelocnik, Martina; Myers, Garry S A; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2015-05-01

    Chlamydia pecorum is an important global pathogen of livestock, and it is also a significant threat to the long-term survival of Australia's koala populations. This study employed a culture-independent DNA capture approach to sequence C. pecorum genomes directly from clinical swab samples collected from koalas with chlamydial disease as well as from sheep with arthritis and conjunctivitis. Investigations into single-nucleotide polymorphisms within each of the swab samples revealed that a portion of the reads in each sample belonged to separate C. pecorum strains, suggesting that all of the clinical samples analyzed contained mixed populations of genetically distinct C. pecorum isolates. This observation was independent of the anatomical site sampled and the host species. Using the genomes of strains identified in each of these samples, whole-genome phylogenetic analysis revealed that a clade containing a bovine and a koala isolate is distinct from other clades comprised of livestock or koala C. pecorum strains. Providing additional evidence to support exposure of koalas to Australian livestock strains, two minor strains assembled from the koala swab samples clustered with livestock strains rather than koala strains. Culture-independent probe-based genome capture and sequencing of clinical samples provides the strongest evidence yet to suggest that naturally occurring chlamydial infections are comprised of multiple genetically distinct strains. PMID:25740768

  20. Role of Epithelial-Mesenchyme Transition in Chlamydia Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Igietseme, Joseph U.; Omosun, Yusuf; Stuchlik, Olga; Reed, Matthew S.; Partin, James; He, Qing; Joseph, Kahaliah; Ellerson, Debra; Bollweg, Brigid; George, Zenas; Eko, Francis O.; Bandea, Claudiu; Liu, Hsi; Yang, Genyan; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Pohl, Jan; Karem, Kevin; Black, Carolyn M.

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection in women causes serious adverse reproductive complications, and is a strong co-factor for human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated cervical epithelial carcinoma. We tested the hypothesis that Chlamydia induces epithelial-mesenchyme transition (EMT) involving T cell-derived TNF-alpha signaling, caspase activation, cleavage inactivation of dicer and dysregulation of micro-RNA (miRNA) in the reproductive epithelium; the pathologic process of EMT causes fibrosis and fertility-related epithelial dysfunction, and also provides the co-factor function for HPV-related cervical epithelial carcinoma. Using a combination of microarrays, immunohistochemistry and proteomics, we showed that chlamydia altered the expression of crucial miRNAs that control EMT, fibrosis and tumorigenesis; specifically, miR-15a, miR-29b, miR-382 and MiR-429 that maintain epithelial integrity were down-regulated, while miR-9, mi-R-19a, miR-22 and miR-205 that promote EMT, fibrosis and tumorigenesis were up-regulated. Chlamydia induced EMT in vitro and in vivo, marked by the suppression of normal epithelial cell markers especially E-cadherin but up-regulation of mesenchymal markers of pathological EMT, including T-cadherin, MMP9, and fibronectin. Also, Chlamydia upregulated pro-EMT regulators, including the zinc finger E-box binding homeobox protein, ZEB1, Snail1/2, and thrombospondin1 (Thbs1), but down-regulated anti-EMT and fertility promoting proteins (i.e., the major gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43), Mets1, Add1Scarb1 and MARCKSL1). T cell-derived TNF-alpha signaling was required for chlamydial-induced infertility and caspase inhibitors prevented both infertility and EMT. Thus, chlamydial-induced T cell-derived TNF-alpha activated caspases that inactivated dicer, causing alteration in the expression of reproductive epithelial miRNAs and induction of EMT. EMT causes epithelial malfunction, fibrosis, infertility, and the enhancement of tumorigenesis of HPV oncogene-transformed epithelial cells. These findings provide a novel understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of chlamydia-associated diseases, which may guide a rational prevention strategy. PMID:26681200

  1. Quantitative In Vivo Detection of Chlamydia muridarum Associated Inflammation in a Mouse Model Using Optical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Manishkumar; Boddicker, Melissa A.; DeMaula, Christopher; Connolly, Brett; Bednar, Bohumil; Heinrichs, Jon H.; Smith, Jeffrey G.

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a bacterial sexually transmitted disease with over 1.3 million cases reported to the CDC in 2010. While Chlamydia infection is easily treated with antibiotics, up to 70% of infections are asymptomatic and go untreated. The current mouse model relies on invasive upper genital tract gross pathology readouts at ~60–80 days postinfection. High throughput optical imaging through the use of biomarkers has been successfully used to quickly evaluate several disease processes. Here we evaluate Neutrophil Elastase 680 (Elastase680) for its ability to measure Chlamydia muridarum associated inflammation in live mice using fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) and In Vivo Imaging System (IVIS). Optical imaging was able to distinguish with statistical significance between vaccinated and nonvaccinated mice as well as mock-challenged and challenged mice 2 weeks after challenge which was 9 weeks sooner than typical gross pathological assessment. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of neutrophils and correlated well with both in vivo and ex vivo imaging. In this report we demonstrate that Elastase680 can be used as a molecular imaging biomarker for inflammation associated with chlamydial infection in a mouse model and that these biomarkers can significantly decrease the time for pathology evaluation and thus increase the rate of therapeutics discovery. PMID:26663988

  2. Comparison of two methods of screening for genital chlamydial infection in women attending in general practice: cross sectional survey.

    PubMed Central

    Grun, L.; Tassano-Smith, J.; Carder, C.; Johnson, A. M.; Robinson, A.; Murray, E.; Stephenson, J.; Haines, A.; Copas, A.; Ridgway, G.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in asymptomatic women attending general practice: to assess the potential of the ligase chain reaction as a screening tool; and to evaluate selective screening criteria. DESIGN: Cross sectional survey. SETTING: Four general practices in northeast London. SUBJECTS: 890 women aged 18-35 years attending general practice for a cervical smear or a "young well woman" check between October 1994 and January 1996. The women were tested for C trachomatis with confirmed enzyme immunoassay (endocervical specimens) and ligase chain reaction assay on urine specimens. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of C trachomatis infection in women aged 18-35 on the basis of each test; sensitivity and specificity of both tests in this population. RESULTS: Prevalence of confirmed infection was 2.6% (95% confidence interval 1.6% to 3.6%) in all women. Prevalence on the basis of enzyme immunoassay was 1.6% (0.8% to 2.7%), with a sensitivity of 60% and a specificity of 100%. Prevalence on the basis of ligase chain reaction was 2.5% (1.5% to 3.9%), with 90% sensitivity and 99.8% specificity. Screening all women aged < or = 25 and all women who had had two or more partners in the past year would have detected 87% (20/23) of infections. CONCLUSION: Ligase chain reaction on urine samples performs at least as well as enzyme immunoassay on cervical specimens in this low prevalence population. It offers potential as a non-invasive screening tool. A simple selective screening strategy might be appropriate and would be able to detect most cases of infection. However, a rigorous economic evaluation of possible screening strategies is needed first. PMID:9253271

  3. Electron tomography and cryo-SEM characterization reveals novel ultrastructural features of host-parasite interaction during Chlamydia abortus infection.

    PubMed

    Wilkat, M; Herdoiza, E; Forsbach-Birk, V; Walther, P; Essig, A

    2014-08-01

    Chlamydia (C.) abortus is a widely spread pathogen among ruminants that can be transmitted to women during pregnancy leading to severe systemic infection with consecutive abortion. As a member of the Chlamydiaceae, C. abortus shares the characteristic feature of an obligate intracellular biphasic developmental cycle with two morphological forms including elementary bodies (EBs) and reticulate bodies (RBs). In contrast to other chlamydial species, C. abortus ultrastructure has not been investigated yet. To do so, samples were fixed by high-pressure freezing and processed by different electron microscopic methods. Freeze-substituted samples were analysed by transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopical tomography and immuno-electron microscopy, and freeze-fractured samples were analysed by cryo-scanning electron microscopy. Here, we present three ultrastructural features of C. abortus that have not been reported up to now. Firstly, the morphological evidence that C. abortus is equipped with the type three secretion system. Secondly, the accumulation and even coating of whole inclusion bodies by membrane complexes consisting of multiple closely adjacent membranes which seems to be a C. abortus specific feature. Thirdly, the formation of small vesicles in the periplasmic space of RBs in the second half of the developmental cycle. Concerning the time point of their formation and the fact that they harbour chlamydial components, these vesicles might be morphological correlates of an intermediate step during the process of redifferentiation of RBs into EBs. As this feature has also been shown for C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae, it might be a common characteristic of the family of Chlamydiaceae. PMID:24522393

  4. Comparison between bacampicillin and amoxycillin in treating genital and extragenital infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae and pharyngeal infection with Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, L D; Gartner, T

    1984-01-01

    Sixty three patients presumed to have genital gonorrhoea who gave histories of extragenital sexual practices were randomly treated with amoxycillin 3 g or bacampicillin 4.8 g (equivalent to 3.5 g ampicillin) with probenecid 1 g to compare the efficacy of the drugs in treating gonorrhoea at all sites. Three patients were initially culture negative, and seven failed to return for follow up. Twenty seven of 28 patients receiving bacampicillin and all 25 receiving amoxycillin gave negative genital cultures for Neisseria gonorrhoeae five to nine days after treatment. Twenty two of 60 patients had extragenital gonorrhoea. One failed to return, but all eight who had received amoxycillin and 12 of 13 who had received bacampicillin gave negative pharyngeal and anorectal cultures after treatment. N meningitidis was isolated from the pharynx in 17 of 60 patients on initial attendance. Three of 14 were still colonised with the meningococcus after treatment. Two of 32 patients receiving amoxycillin and 12 of 31 receiving bacampicillin reported experiencing gastrointestinal side effects. PMID:6440658

  5. Genital Tract Infections, Bacterial Vaginosis, HIV, and Reproductive Health Issues among Lima-Based Clandestine Female Sex Workers

    PubMed Central

    Perla, M. E.; Ghee, Annette E.; Sánchez, Sixto; McClelland, R. Scott; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.; Suárez-Ognio, Luis; Lama, Javier R.; Sánchez, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics of 212 Peruvian female sex workers (FSWs) were analyzed. The association between genital tract infections (GTIs) and risk factors by multivariate analysis was evaluated. Eighty-eight percent of FSWs were diagnosed with at least one GTI (HSV-2 80.1%, BV 44.8%, candidiasis 9.9%, syphilis seropositivity 9.4%, Trichomonas vaginalis 2.4%, HIV seropositivity 2.4%). Reported condom use with clients was nearly universal (98.3%), but infrequent with husband/regular partners (7.3%). In multivariate analysis BV was negatively associated with more consistent condom use (PRR = 0.63, 95% CI, 0.42–0.96). Many had not visited a Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) clinic or been tested for HIV in the past year (40.6%, 47.1%, resp.). Nonclient contraceptive use was low (57%) and induced abortion was common (68%). High GTI burden and abortions suggest that a services-access gap persists among marginalized FSWs. Continued health outreach programs and integrating family planning and reproductive health services into existing STI clinic services are recommended. PMID:22811592

  6. Cleavage of the NF-?B Family Protein p65/RelA by the Chlamydial Protease-like Activity Factor (CPAF) Impairs Proinflammatory Signaling in Cells Infected with Chlamydiae*

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Jan; Vier, Juliane; Paschen, Stefan A.; Häcker, Georg

    2010-01-01

    Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria that frequently cause human disease. Chlamydiae replicate in a membranous vacuole in the cytoplasm termed inclusion but have the ability to transport proteins into the host cell cytosol. Chlamydial replication is associated with numerous changes of host cell functions, and these changes are often linked to proteolytic events. It has been shown earlier that the member of the NF-?B family of inflammation-associated transcription factors, p65/RelA, is cleaved during chlamydial infection, and a chlamydial protease has been implicated. We here provide evidence that the chlamydial protease chlamydial protease-like activity factor (CPAF) is responsible for degradation of p65/RelA during infection. This degradation was seen in human and in mouse cells infected with either Chlamydia trachomatis or Chlamydia pneumoniae where it correlated with the expression of CPAF and CPAF activity. Isolated expression of active C. trachomatis or C. pneumoniae CPAF in human or mouse cells yielded a p65 fragment of indistinguishable size from the one generated during infection. Expression of active CPAF in human cells caused a mild reduction in I?B? phosphorylation but a strong reduction in NF-?B reporter activity in response to interleukin-1?. Infection with C. trachomatis likewise reduced this responsiveness. IL-1?-dependent secretion of IL-8 was further reduced by CPAF expression. Secretion of CPAF is, thus, a mechanism that reduces host cell sensitivity to a proinflammatory stimulus, which may facilitate bacterial growth in vivo. PMID:21041296

  7. HIV-specific T-cell responses detected in the genital tract of chronically HIV-infected women are largely monofunctional

    PubMed Central

    Bere, Alfred; Denny, Lynette; Naicker, Prinola; Burgers, Wendy A; Passmore, Jo-Ann S

    2013-01-01

    HIV-specific T cells that produce interferon-? (IFN-?) are present in the genital tract of HIV-infected women although these do not provide protection against genital HIV shedding. Because polyfunctional HIV-specific T cells have been implicated in better HIV control than those with a single function, this study aimed to investigate whether polyfunctional T cells were present at the female genital mucosa. Cervical cytobrush-derived T cells were obtained from chronically HIV-infected women and compared with blood. CD3+ T cells from both compartments were expanded with Dynal anti-CD3/CD28 expander beads for 14 days and flow cytometry was used to evaluate four T-cell functions (CD107a, IFN-?, tumour necrosis factor-? and macrophage inflammatory protein-1?) from 16 women. The majority of Gag-specific T-cell responses in the female genital tract were monofunctional, although low frequencies of HIV Gag-specific polyfunctional CD8+ T cells were detected at the cervix in 81·3% (13/16) of women. The ability of CD8+ T cells at both the cervix and in blood to express CD107a and to exhibit polyfunctional responses (two or more functions) following Gag stimulation was inversely associated with plasma viral load and positively associated with blood CD4 counts, suggesting that clinical status impacted on the functionality of HIV-specific T cells at the mucosa, in a similar way to blood. HIV Gag-specific cervical T cells were largely monofunctional. Polyfunctional T cells were detected at the cervix in women with high blood CD4 count and low plasma viral load but these did not protect from HIV genital shedding. PMID:23374084

  8. Lack of significant effects of Chlamydia trachomatis infection on cervical cancer risk in a nested case-control study in North-East Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tungsrithong, Naowarat; Kasinpila, Chananya; Maneenin, Chanwit; Namujju, Proscovia B; Lehtinen, Matti; Anttila, Ahti; Promthet, Supannee

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer continues to be an important public health problem in Thailand. While the high risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types have been established as the principle causative agent of both malignancies and the precursor lesions, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), other factors may also be involved like other sexually transmitted diseases, as well as smoking. Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterium which has a tendency to cause chronic infection featuring inflammation and therefore might be expected to increase the risk of cervical cancer. In the present nested case-control study, 61 cases of cervical cancer and 288 matched controls with original serum samples were identified from the Khon Kaen Cohort, established in the North-East of Thailand, by linkage to the Khon Kaen population based cancer registry. C. trachomatis specific IgG antibodies at recruitment were measured by microimmunofluorescence and assessed for association with cervical cancer using STATA release10. No significant link was noted either with all cancers or after removal of adenocarcinomas. The results suggest no association between Chlamydia infection and cervical cancer development in North-East Thailand, but possible influencing factors must be considered in any future research on this topic. PMID:24606489

  9. Novel sequence types of Chlamydia pecorum infect free-ranging Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Jelocnik, Martina; Self, Rachel; Timms, Peter; Borel, Nicole; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2015-04-01

    Chlamydia pecorum, a recognized pathogen of domesticated ruminants and koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), has been recently reported in a broad range of other wildlife species including water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), ibex (Capra ibex), chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), red deer (Cervus elaphus), and birds. This identification raises questions as to whether cross-host transmission may be a factor in the epidemiology of infections in these species. To begin to address this question, we employed a C. pecorum species-specific multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) scheme to characterize a small collection of C. pecorum-positive samples from wild, free-range ibex, a chamois, and a red deer from Grison, Switzerland, a canton where domesticated and wild ruminants graze in close proximity during the summer. Screening by PCR confirmed low to moderate levels of Chlamydia pecorum DNA in the eyes of healthy ibex (n?=?4) and in the deer fecal sample (n?=?1). The MLST analysis revealed three novel sequence types (STs; 88, 90, and 89) in these samples. On phylogenetic analysis, the ibex and deer sequences clustered by host species in their own well-supported clades and away from C. pecorum STs found in other hosts. Even though the analyzed sample size was small, the identification of unique C. pecorum STs infecting free-ranging Alpine ibex and red deer provides useful information for further C. pecorum epidemiologic studies. PMID:25647593

  10. Vulvovaginal candida in a young sexually active population: prevalence and association with oro-genital sex and frequent pain at intercourse

    PubMed Central

    Rylander, E; Berglund, A; Krassny, C; Petrini, B

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the prevalence of vulvovaginal candida among sexually active adolescents. To determine past and present symptoms, including pain at intercourse and potential behavioural risk factors associated with vulvovaginal candidiasis. Methods: At an adolescent centre, 219 sexually active women who underwent genital examination, also completed a questionnaire on a history of genital symptoms and infections, sexual and hygiene habits, and the use of contraceptives. Symptoms and clinical signs were registered. Vaginal samples were analysed for candida species and urine for Chlamydia trachomatis. Results: Candida culture was positive in 42% of the women and only 15% were asymptomatic. A history of recurrent candidiasis was given by 22%. Frequent pain at intercourse was reported by 24% and frequent oro-genital sex by 42% of the women. Frequent pain at intercourse was significantly associated with both the growth of candida and a history of recurrent candidiasis. Oro-genital sex was an independent risk factor for the growth of candida. Conclusion: In sexually active adolescents, who underwent genital examination, candida cultures were positive in 42%. The habit of frequent oro-genital sex was associated with the growth of candida. Pain at intercourse was associated with the growth of candida and recurrent candidiasis. PMID:14755037

  11. The Contribution of Cervicovaginal Infections to the Immunomodulatory Effects of Hormonal Contraception

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pai-Lien; Morrison, Charles S.; Doncel, Gustavo F.; Mendonca, Kevin; Kwok, Cynthia; Chipato, Tsungai; Salata, Robert; Mauck, Christine

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Particular types of hormonal contraceptives (HCs) and genital tract infections have been independently associated with risk of HIV-1 acquisition. We examined whether immunity in women using injectable depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), combined oral contraceptives (COC), or no HCs differs by the presence of cervicovaginal infections. Immune mediators were quantified in cervical swabs from 832 HIV-uninfected reproductive-age Ugandans and Zimbabweans. Bacterial infections and HIV were diagnosed by PCR, genital herpes serostatus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), altered microflora by Nugent score, and Trichomonas vaginalis and Candida albicans infection by wet mount. Generalized linear models utilizing Box-Cox-Power transformation examined associations between levels of mediators, infection status, and HCs. In no-HC users, T. vaginalis was associated with broadest spectrum of aberrant immunity (higher interleukin 1? [IL-1?], IL-8, macrophage inflammatory protein 3? [MIP-3?], ?-defensin 2 [BD2], and IL-1 receptor antigen [IL-1RA]). In women with a normal Nugent score and no genital infection, compared to the no-HC group, COC users showed higher levels of IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-1RA, while DMPA users showed higher levels of RANTES and lower levels of BD2, both associated with HIV seroconversion. These effects of COC were blunted in the presence of gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, candidiasis, and an abnormal Nugent score; however, RANTES was increased among COC users with herpes, chlamydia, and abnormal Nugent scores. The effect of DMPA was exacerbated by lower levels of IL-1RA in gonorrhea, chlamydia, or herpes, SLPI in gonorrhea, and IL-1?, MIP-3?, and IL-1RA/IL1? ratio in trichomoniasis. Thus, the effects of HC on cervical immunity depend on the genital tract microenvironment, and a weakened mucosal barrier against HIV may be a combined resultant of genital tract infections and HC use. PMID:26330510

  12. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... surefire way to prevent genital herpes is abstinence . Teens who do have sex must properly use a latex condom every time they have any form of sexual intercourse (vaginal, oral, or anal sex). Girls receiving oral sex should have their ...

  13. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... tested and has negative STD test results; • Using latex condoms the right way every time you have ... female genital areas that are covered by a latex condom. However, outbreaks can also occur in areas ...

  14. Plasma and Mucosal HIV Viral Loads Are Associated with Genital Tract Inflammation In HIV-Infected Women

    PubMed Central

    Herold, Betsy C.; Keller, Marla J.; Shi, Qiuhu; Hoover, Donald R.; Carpenter, Colleen A.; Huber, Ashley; Parikh, Urvi M.; Agnew, Kathy J.; Minkoff, Howard; Colie, Christine; Nowicki, Marek J.; D’Souza, Gypsyamber; Watts, D. Heather; Anastos, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Background Systemic and mucosal inflammation may play a role in HIV control. A cross-sectional comparison was conducted among women in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) to explore the hypothesis that compared to HIV-uninfected participants, women with HIV and in particular, those with high plasma viral load (PVL) have increased levels of mucosal and systemic inflammatory mediators and impaired mucosal endogenous antimicrobial activity. Methods 19 HIV-uninfected, 40 HIV-infected on antiretroviral therapy (ART) with PVL ? 2600 copies/ml (low viral load) (HIV+-LVL), and 19 HIV-infected on or off ART with PVL >10,000 (high viral load) (HIV+-HVL) were evaluated. Immune mediators and viral RNA were quantified in plasma and cervicovaginal lavage (CVL). CVL antimicrobial activity was also determined. Results Compared to HIV-uninfected, HIV+-HVL women had higher levels of mucosal, but not systemic pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, higher Nugent scores, and lower E. coli bactericidal activity. In contrast, there were no significant differences between HIV+-LVL and HIV-uninfected controls. After adjusting for PVL, HIV genital tract shedding was significantly associated with higher CVL concentrations of IL-6, IL-1?, MIP-1?, and RANTES and higher plasma concentrations of MIP-1?. High PVL was associated with higher CVL levels of IL-1? and RANTES, as well as with higher Nugent scores, lower E. coli bactericidal activity, smoking and lower CD4 counts; smoking and CD4 count retained statistical significance in a multivariate model. Conclusion Further study is needed to determine if the relationship between mucosal inflammation and PVL is causal and to determine if reducing mucosal inflammation is beneficial. PMID:23591635

  15. Relationship Between Genital Drug Concentrations and Cervical Cellular Immune Activation and Reconstitution in HIV-1-Infected Women on a Raltegravir Versus a Boosted Atazanavir Regimen.

    PubMed

    Meditz, Amie L; Palmer, Claire; Predhomme, Julie; Searls, Kristina; Kerr, Becky; Seifert, Sharon; Caraway, Patricia; Gardner, Edward M; MaWhinney, Samantha; Anderson, Peter L

    2015-10-01

    Determinants of HIV-infected women's genital tract mucosal immune health are not well understood. Because raltegravir (RAL) achieves relatively higher genital tract concentrations than ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV), we examined whether an RAL-based regimen is associated with improved cervical immune reconstitution and less activation in HIV(+) women compared to an ATV-based regimen. Peripheral blood, cervical brushings, cervical-vaginal lavage (CVL), and cervical biopsies were collected from HIV(+) women on tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) and either RAL (n=14) or ATV (n=19) with CD4(+) T cells>300 cells/mm(3) and HIV RNA<48 copies/ml. HLA-DR(+)CD38(+) T cells were measured in blood and cervical cells using flow cytometry, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were quantified in cervical biopsies by immunofluorescent analysis, and HIV RNA (VL), ATV, and RAL concentrations were measured in CVL. In a linear regression model of log(CVL concentration) versus both log(plasma concentration) and treatment group, the RAL CVL level was 519% (95% CI: 133, 1,525%) higher than for ATV (p<0.001). Genital tract VL was undetectable in 90% of subjects and did not differ by regimen. There were no significant differences between groups in terms of cervical %HLA-DR(+)CD38(+)CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells, CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells/mm(2), or CD4:CD8 ratio. After adjusting for treatment time and group, the CVL:plasma drug ratio was not associated with the cervical CD4:CD8 ratio or immune activation (p>0.6). Despite significantly higher genital tract penetration of RAL compared to ATV, there were no significant differences in cervical immune activation or reconstitution between women on these regimens, suggesting both drug regimens achieve adequate genital tract levels to suppress virus replication. PMID:26059647

  16. Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection among Women in Bangladesh: Findings from a Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Nahar, Quamrun; Sultana, Farhana; Alam, Anadil; Islam, Jessica Yasmine; Rahman, Mustafizur; Khatun, Fatema; Alam, Nazmul; Dasgupta, Sushil Kanta; Marions, Lena; Ashrafunnessa; Kamal, Mohammed; Cravioto, Alejandro; Reichenbach, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Background There has been no population-based study on human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence or its genotypes in Bangladesh; a country eligible for GAVI funding for HPV vaccine. Methods We used baseline survey data of a prospective cohort study that was conducted in one urban and one rural area of Bangladesh. A total of 997 urban and 905 rural married women, aged 13 to 64 years, were enrolled in the baseline during July-December, 2011. Information was collected on socio-demographic characteristics and potential risk factors for HPV infection followed by gynecological examination and collection of endocervical samples using the cervical cytobrush (Digene cervical sampler). HPV DNA testing was done by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) using a consensus primer set. Results Prevalence of any HPV infection was 7.7% with no significant difference between urban and rural women. Most common high-risk genotypes were HPV16, HPV66, HPV18, HPV45, HPV31 and HPV53. Urban women working as housemaids or garment workers were at higher risk of any HPV infection (OR?=?2.15, 95% CI: 1.13–4.11) compared to housewives. Rural women whose husband lived overseas were almost two times more likely to have any HPV infection (OR?=?1.93; 95% CI 1.05–3.55) compared to women whose husbands lived with them. Conclusion The prevalence of HPV infection among Bangladeshi women is similar to other regions of Asia. However, type-specific patterns are different. The study findings will inform the formulation of HPV vaccination policies in Bangladesh, monitoring the impact of vaccination programmes, and the identification of target populations for screening. PMID:25271836

  17. Integrative approach to diagnosis of genital human papillomaviruses (HPV) infection of female.

    PubMed

    Dunjic, Momir; Stanisic, Slavisa; Krstic, Dejan; Stanisic, Miodrag; Ignjatic, Z Jovanovic; Dunjic, Marija

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a virus from the papillomavirus family that is capable of infecting humans. Some types of HPVs cause warts, while others can lead to cancers of the cervix, vulva, vagina, penis, oropharynx and anus. High-risk human papillomavirus (hr HPV) has been detected in almost all cervical squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas. All patients examined by colposcopy. Cervical swab is routinely done and patients are screened with both HPV DNA by Real Time Polimerase Chain Reaction (RT PCR) testing and Pap testing. Pictures obtained by colposcopy were examined by indirect Bi-Digital O-Ring Test (BDORT) by using reference control substance (RCS): HPV 16, HPV 18, and Integrin ?5 ?1. BDORT was developed by Prof. Omura Y. of New York and received U.S. patent in 1993. For detection of HPV DNA we used RT PCR and standard Qiagen method which detect 18 types (16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 68, 6, 11, 42, 43, 44) of HPV from smear. From 63 patients where is BDORT indicated presence of HPV, in 49 patients (77.8%) RT PCR confirmed presence of HPV. From 63 patients in 54 patients (85.7%), we detected, by colposcopic exam, some kind of lesions associated with HPV infection. Results obtained by RT PCR: one type (1/18) of DNA HPV in 25 patients (51.02%), 2 types (2/18) in 15 patients (30.61%) and 3 types (3/18) in 9 patients (18.37%). Although BDORT results usually have higher sensitivity and detection rate is much higher, it can be used together with RT PCR in detection of HPV and cervical lesions associated with HPV infection. PMID:25693306

  18. The Hypothetical Protein CT813 Is Localized in the Chlamydia trachomatis Inclusion Membrane and Is Immunogenic in Women Urogenitally Infected with C. trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chaoqun; Chen, Ding; Sharma, Jyotika; Cheng, Wen; Zhong, Youmin; Liu, Kaiyang; Jensen, Jani; Shain, Rochelle; Arulanandam, Bernard; Zhong, Guangming

    2006-01-01

    Using antibodies raised with chlamydial fusion proteins, we have localized a protein encoded by hypothetical open reading frame CT813 in the inclusion membrane of Chlamydia trachomatis. The detection of the C. trachomatis inclusion membrane by an anti-CT813 antibody was blocked by the CT813 protein but not unrelated fusion proteins. The CT813 protein was detected as early as 12 h after chlamydial infection and was present in the inclusion membrane during the entire growth cycle. All tested serovars from C. trachomatis but not other chlamydial species expressed the CT813 protein. Exogenously expressed CT813 protein in HeLa cells displayed a cytoskeleton-like structure similar to but not overlapping with host cell intermediate filaments, suggesting that the CT813 protein is able to either polymerize or associate with host cell cytoskeletal structures. Finally, women with C. trachomatis urogenital infection developed high titers of antibodies to the CT813 protein, demonstrating that the CT813 protein is not only expressed but also immunogenic during chlamydial infection in humans. In all, the CT813 protein is an inclusion membrane protein unique to C. trachomatis species and has the potential to interact with host cells and induce host immune responses during natural infection. Thus, the CT813 protein may represent an important candidate for understanding C. trachomatis pathogenesis and developing intervention and prevention strategies for controlling C. trachomatis infection. PMID:16861671

  19. Male circumcision and the incidence and clearance of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men: the HPV Infection in men (HIM) cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Reported associations of male circumcision (MC) with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men have been inconsistent. Methods 4,033 healthy men were examined every six months for a median of 17.5 months. In each study visit, exfoliated cell specimens from the coronal sulcus/glans penis, penile shaft, and scrotum were collected and combined into one sample per person for HPV DNA detection. Samples were tested for 37 HPV types. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the association between MC and the incidence and clearance of HPV infections and specific genotypes. Results The overall incidence of new HPV infections did not differ by MC status (for any HPV, adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91-1.27). However, incidence was significantly lower among circumcised versus uncircumcised men for HPV types 58 (p?=?0.01), 68 (p?genital HPV detection, except for certain HPV types. The use of a single combined sample from the penis and scrotum for HPV DNA detection likely limited our ability to identify a true effect of MC at the distal penis. PMID:24517172

  20. Genital herpes: a review.

    PubMed

    Beauman, John G

    2005-10-15

    Genital herpes simplex virus infection is a recurrent, lifelong disease with no cure. The strongest predictor for infection is a person's number of lifetime sex partners. The natural history includes first-episode mucocutaneous infection, establishment of latency in the dorsal root ganglion, and subsequent reactivation. Most infections are transmitted via asymptomatic viral shedding. Classic outbreaks consist of a skin prodrome and possible constitutional symptoms such as headache, fever, and inguinal lymphadenopathy. As the infection progresses, papules, vesicles on an erythematous base, and erosions appear over hours to days. These lesions usually crust, re-epithelialize, and heal without scarring. First-episode infections are more extensive: primary lesions last two to six weeks versus approximately one week for lesions in recurrent disease. Atypical manifestations are common. Infected persons experience a median of four recurrences per year after their first episode, but rates vary greatly. Genital herpes simplex virus type 2 recurs six times more frequently than type 1. Viral culture is preferred over polymerase chain reaction testing for diagnosis. Serologic testing can be useful in persons with a questionable history. Effective oral antiviral medications are available for initial, episodic, and suppressive therapy but are not a cure. There is some evidence that alternative therapies such as L-lysine, zinc, and some herbal preparations may offer some benefit. Counseling patients about the risk of transmission is crucial and helps prevent the spread of disease and neonatal complications. PMID:16273819

  1. Clueing in on Chlamydia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Wendy

    1991-01-01

    Chlamydia's role in female infertility is discussed. The relationship of this organism to other diseases such as leprosy and tuberculosis is explained. Conditions caused by Chlamydia such as Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) are described. (KR)

  2. Chlamydia trachomatis virulence factor CT135 is stable in vivo but highly polymorphic in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bonner, Christine; Caldwell, Harlan D; Carlson, John H; Graham, Morag R; Kari, Laszlo; Sturdevant, Gail L; Tyler, Shaun; Zetner, Adrian; McClarty, Grant

    2015-08-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an important human pathogen causing both ocular and sexually transmitted disease. Recently, we identified CT135 as an important virulence determinant in a mouse infection model. Results from CEL 1 digestion assays and sequencing analyses indicated that CT135 was much more polymorphic in high in vitro passage reference serovars than it was in clinical strains that had undergone limited passaging. Herein, we used targeted next-generation sequencing of the CT134-135 locus, from reference strains and clinical isolates, enabling accurate discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms and other population genetic variations. Our results indicate that CT134 is stable in all C. trachomatis serovars examined. In contrast, CT135 is highly polymorphic in high-passaged reference ocular and non-LGV genital serovars, with the majority of the mutations resulting in gene disruption. In low-passaged ocular clinical isolates, CT135 was frequently disrupted, whereas in genital clinical isolates CT135 was intact in almost all instances. When a serovar K isolate, with an intact CT134 and CT135, was subjected to serial passage in vitro CT134 remained invariable, while numerous gene interrupting mutations rapidly accumulated in CT135. Collectively, our data indicate that, for genital serovars, CT135 is under strong positive selection in vivo, and negative selection in vitro. PMID:26109550

  3. Inflammation, Infection, and Future Cardiovascular Risk

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2005-06-23

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Myocardial Infarction; Venous Thromboembolism; Heart Diseases; Infection; Chlamydia Infections; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Helicobacter Infections; Herpesviridae Infections; Inflammation

  4. Risk Factors for Active Trachoma and Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Treatment-Naďve Trachoma-Hyperendemic Communities of the Bijagós Archipelago, Guinea Bissau

    PubMed Central

    Last, Anna R.; Burr, Sarah E.; Weiss, Helen A.; Harding-Esch, Emma M.; Cassama, Eunice; Nabicassa, Meno; Mabey, David C.; Holland, Martin J.; Bailey, Robin L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Trachoma, caused by ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, is hyperendemic on the Bijagós Archipelago of Guinea Bissau. An understanding of the risk factors associated with active trachoma and infection on these remote and isolated islands, which are atypical of trachoma-endemic environments described elsewhere, is crucial to the implementation of trachoma elimination strategies. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional population-based trachoma prevalence survey was conducted on four islands. We conducted a questionnaire-based risk factor survey, examined participants for trachoma using the World Health Organization (WHO) simplified grading system and collected conjunctival swab samples for 1507 participants from 293 randomly selected households. DNA extracted from conjunctival swabs was tested using the Roche Amplicor CT/NG PCR assay. The prevalence of active (follicular and/or inflammatory) trachoma was 11% (167/1508) overall and 22% (136/618) in 1–9 year olds. The prevalence of C. trachomatis infection was 18% overall and 25% in 1–9 year olds. There were strong independent associations of active trachoma with ocular and nasal discharge, C. trachomatis infection, young age, male gender and type of household water source. C. trachomatis infection was independently associated with young age, ocular discharge, type of household water source and the presence of flies around a latrine. Conclusions/Significance In this remote island environment, household-level risk factors relating to fly populations, hygiene behaviours and water usage are likely to be important in the transmission of ocular C. trachomatis infection and the prevalence of active trachoma. This may be important in the implementation of environmental measures in trachoma control. PMID:24967629

  5. Exposure to cigarette smoke and Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in mice: Effect on infectious burden, systemic dissemination and cytokine responses: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Swati; Smith-Norowitz, Tamar A; Kohlhoff, Stephan; Apfalter, Petra; Roblin, Patricia; Kutlin, Andrei; Harkema, Jack; Ng, Sheung P; Doherty-Lyons, Shannon; Zelikoff, Judith T; Hammerschlag, Margaret R

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoke exposure has been considered a risk factor for infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae. C. pneumoniae infection is associated with respiratory tract infection and chronic respiratory disease, which is a serious public health concern. To determine whether prior exposure to cigarette smoke worsens C. pneumoniae infection (specifically, increases infectious burden and systemic dissemination) as well as alters cytokine responses in mice, adult female C57BL/6 mice were exposed to either filtered air (FA) or mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS) (15?mg/m(3), total suspended particulates) for 5 days/week for 2 weeks and then infected with C. pneumoniae (10(5) IFU) via intratracheal instillation. Mice were euthanized on Days 7, 14 or 26 post-infection (p.i.). Chlamydial burdens in the lungs and spleen were quantified by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and histologic analyses were performed; cytokine levels (TNF?, IL-4, IFN?) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results indicated that: (1) mice exposed to either FA or MCS had similar chlamydial burdens in the lungs and spleen on Days 14 and 26?p.i.; (2) proximal and distal airway inflammation was observed on Day 14?p.i. in both FA and MCS mice, but persisted in MCS mice until Day 26?p.i.; FA exposed mice demonstrated resolution of distal airway inflammation; and (3) MCS mice displayed higher serum levels of IFN? and IL-4 on Day 26?p.i. These findings indicate that exposure of mice to MCS (at a concentration equivalent to smoking?

  6. Extragenital Gonorrhea and Chlamydia Testing and Infection Among Men Who Have Sex With Men—STD Surveillance Network, United States, 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Patton, Monica E.; Kidd, Sarah; Llata, Eloisa; Stenger, Mark; Braxton, Jim; Asbel, Lenore; Bernstein, Kyle; Gratzer, Beau; Jespersen, Megan; Kerani, Roxanne; Mettenbrink, Christie; Mohamed, Mukhtar; Pathela, Preeti; Schumacher, Christina; Stirland, Ali; Stover, Jeff; Tabidze, Irina; Kirkcaldy, Robert D.; Weinstock, Hillard

    2015-01-01

    Background Gonorrhea (GC) and chlamydia (CT) are the most commonly reported notifiable diseases in the United States. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that men who have sex with men (MSM) be screened for urogenital GC/CT, rectal GC/CT, and pharyngeal GC. We describe extragenital GC/CT testing and infections among MSM attending sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics. Methods The STD Surveillance Network collects patient data from 42 STD clinics. We assessed the proportion of MSM attending these clinics during July 2011–June 2012 who were tested and positive for extragenital GC/CT at their most recent visit or in the preceding 12 months and the number of extragenital infections that would have remained undetected with urethral screening alone. Results Of 21 994 MSM, 83.9% were tested for urogenital GC, 65.9% for pharyngeal GC, 50.4% for rectal GC, 81.4% for urogenital CT, 31.7% for pharyngeal CT, and 45.9% for rectal CT. Of MSM tested, 11.1% tested positive for urogenital GC, 7.9% for pharyngeal GC, 10.2% for rectal GC, 8.4% for urogenital CT, 2.9% for pharyngeal CT, and 14.1% for rectal CT. More than 70% of extragenital GC infections and 85% of extragenital CT infections were associated with negative urethral tests at the same visit and would not have been detected with urethral screening alone. Conclusions Extragenital GC/CT was common among MSM attending STD clinics, but many MSM were not tested. Most extragenital infections would not have been identified, and likely would have remained untreated, with urethral screening alone. Efforts are needed to facilitate implementation of extragenital GC/CT screening recommendations for MSM. PMID:24647015

  7. Building a web-based tool to support clinical decisions in the control of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) are the agents of two common, sexually transmitted diseases afflicting women in the United States (http://www.cdc.gov). We designed a novel web-based application that offers simple recommendations to help optimize medical outcomes with CT and GC prevention and control programs. This application takes population groups, prevalence rates, parameters for available screening assays and treatment regimens (costs, sensitivity, and specificity), as well as budget limits as inputs. Its output suggests optimal screening and treatment strategies for selected at-risk groups, commensurate with the clinic's budget allocation. Development of this tool illustrates how a clinical informatics application based on rigorous mathematics might have a significant impact on real-world clinical issues. PMID:24564848

  8. Calcium, ARMS2 Genotype, and Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infection in Early Age-Related Macular Degeneration: a Multivariate Analysis from the Nagahama Study

    PubMed Central

    Nakata, Isao; Yamashiro, Kenji; Kawaguchi, Takahisa; Nakanishi, Hideo; Akagi-Kurashige, Yumiko; Miyake, Masahiro; Tsujikawa, Akitaka; Yamada, Ryo; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2015-01-01

    Although various risk factors have been identified for the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), risk factors of early AMD have been relatively under studied. We aimed to investigate AMD risk factors by evaluating multiple factors in association with large drusen, an important component of AMD, simultaneously. In a community-based cross-sectional survey in Japan, 971 large drusen cases and 3,209 controls were compared for 65 variables, including systemic, environmental, and genetic factors. The association and the effect size of each factor were evaluated with logistic regression analysis using a backward-elimination approach. Multivariate analyses identified a significant association in serum calcium level (odds ratio [OR] = 0.932, P = 1.05 × 10?3), ARMS2 A69S (rs10490924) genotype (OR = 1.046, P < 0.001), Chlamydia pneumoniae IgG (OR = 1.020, P = 0.0440), and age (OR = 1.013, P < 0.001) for large drusen. Hypocalcemia was observed in 7.2% of large drusen cases and in 5.5% of controls (P = 0.0490). C. pneumoniae infections was more frequent in large drusen cases (56.4%) than in conrols (51.7%, P = 0.00956). These results suggest that calcium, ARMS2 genotype, C. pneumonia infection, and age are significant factors in the development of the early stages of AMD. PMID:25792034

  9. Modelling the impact of chlamydia screening on the transmission of HIV among men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies have found high prevalences of asymptomatic rectal chlamydia among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). Chlamydia could increase the infectivity of HIV and the susceptibility to HIV infection. We investigate the role of chlamydia in the spread of HIV among MSM and the possible impact of routine chlamydia screening among HIV-infected MSM at HIV treatment centres on the incidence of chlamydia and HIV in the overall MSM population. Methods A mathematical model was developed to describe the transmission of HIV and chlamydia among MSM. Parameters relating to sexual behaviour were estimated from data from the Amsterdam Cohort Study among MSM. Uncertainty analysis was carried out for model parameters without confident estimates. The effects of different screening strategies for chlamydia were investigated. Results Among all new HIV infections in MSM, 15% can be attributed to chlamydia infection. Introduction of routine chlamydia screening every six months among HIV-infected MSM during regular HIV consultations can reduce the incidence of both infections among MSM: after 10 years, the relative percentage reduction in chlamydia incidence would be 15% and in HIV incidence 4%, compared to the current situation. Chlamydia screening is more effective in reducing HIV incidence with more frequent screening and with higher participation of the most risky MSM in the screening program. Conclusions Chlamydia infection could contribute to the transmission of HIV among MSM. Preventive measures reducing chlamydia prevalence, such as routine chlamydia screening of HIV-infected MSM, can result in a decline in the incidence of chlamydia and HIV. PMID:24047261

  10. Chlamydiae as agents of human and animal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Schachter, J.; Storz, J.; Tarizzo, M. L.; Bögel, K.

    1973-01-01

    A brief review is given of the properties, occurrence, and public health significance of chlamydiae in man and animals and of the diagnosis and control of chlamydial infections. Chlamydiae occur naturally in a large number of avian and mammalian species. Man is the primary host of chlamydiae causing trachoma, inclusion conjunctivitis, genito-urinary tract infection, and lymphogranuloma venereum. In animals chlamydial infections have been recognized as a cause of pneumonia, encephalitis, abortion, arthritis, diarrhoea, and conjunctivitis. Chlamydial infections have been recognized in a wide range of avian hosts. Sporadic psittacosis/ornithosis in man is associated with close exposure to birds and may occur as an occupational disease. Transmission studies suggest that mammalian chlamydial strains are not very host-specific and that diseases and even chains of infection may develop in secondary hosts. There are a few well-documented cases of human infection with chlamydiae of mammalian origin. Although various chlamydial isolates have specific antigenic components, no routine test for identifying different serotypes has been generally accepted. Further investigation of the host range of chlamydiae and of their antigenic properties is essential for a more accurate assessment of the potential danger of chlamydia-infected animals to human health. The frequent occurrence of inapparent or latent infections makes it imperative to establish adequate laboratory facilities for the effective surveillance and control of chlamydial infections. PMID:4547157

  11. STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL STUDIES OF AN ATYPICAL OMPR/PHOB TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATOR, CHXR, FROM CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS

    E-print Network

    Hickey, John Michael

    2011-04-18

    Chlamydia infections have an immense impact on public health and are associated with diverse disease manifestations including atherosclerosis, blindness, and sterility. The chlamydial developmental cycle is intrinsically ...

  12. Synovial Chlamydia trachomatis up regulates expression of a panel of genes similar to that transcribed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis during persistent infection

    PubMed Central

    Gérard, H C; Whittum?Hudson, J A; Schumacher, H R; Hudson, A P

    2006-01-01

    Background Synovial tissues in patients with Chlamydia associated arthritis are persistently infected by C trachomatis, an organism for which genetic manipulation is not possible. M tuberculosis also engages in persistent infection, and because this bacterium is genetically tractable many groups have been able to define transcriptional characteristics of mycobacterial growth and persistence. Objective To investigate whether the pattern of gene expression underlying chlamydial persistence is similar to that underlying mycobacterial persistence. Methods 194 genes in M tuberculosis that are transcriptionally up regulated to support in vivo growth and persistence of that organism have previously been identified. Each of those genes was compared with the C trachomatis genome to identify orthologues. Expression of selected chlamydial orthologues so identified was assessed by real time RT?PCR in an in vitro model of chlamydial persistence and synovial tissues from patients who were PCR positive for C trachomatis at that site. Results 67 C trachomatis genes were identified as being orthologous to mycobacterial persistence related genes, representing 35% of the genes tested. The chlamydial orthologues fell into similar metabolic and other categories as those in M tuberculosis. Expression of a majority of selected chlamydial orthologues was strongly up regulated in an in vitro model of chlamydial persistence and in synovial tissues of relevant patients, compared with their expression during active infection. Conclusions These observations provide new insight into the molecular genetic basis underlying chlamydial persistence, and indicate that this information can be obtained, in some instances, by extrapolating observations made in other biological systems and/or organisms. PMID:16192289

  13. Enrofloxacin and Macrolides Alone or in Combination with Rifampicin as Antimicrobial Treatment in a Bovine Model of Acute Chlamydia psittaci Infection

    PubMed Central

    Prohl, Annette; Lohr, Markus; Ostermann, Carola; Liebler-Tenorio, Elisabeth; Berndt, Angela; Schroedl, Wieland; Rothe, Michael; Schubert, Evelyn; Sachse, Konrad; Reinhold, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia psittaci is a zoonotic bacterium with a wide host range that can cause respiratory disease in humans and cattle. In the present study, effects of treatment with macrolides and quinolones applied alone or in combination with rifampicin were tested in a previously established bovine model of respiratory C. psittaci infection. Fifty animals were inoculated intrabronchially at the age of 6–8 weeks. Seven served as untreated controls, the others were assigned to seven treatment groups: (i) rifampicin, (ii) enrofloxacin, (iii) enrofloxacin + rifampicin, (iv) azithromycin, (v) azithromycin + rifampicin, (vi) erythromycin, and (vii) erythromycin + rifampicin. Treatment started 30 hours after inoculation and continued until 14 days after inoculation (dpi), when all animals were necropsied. The infection was successful in all animals and sufficient antibiotic levels were detected in blood plasma and tissue of the treated animals. Reisolation of the pathogen was achieved more often from untreated animals than from other groups. Nevertheless, pathogen detection by PCR was possible to the same extent in all animals and there were no significant differences between treated and untreated animals in terms of local (i.e. cell count and differentiation of BALF-cells) and systemic inflammation (i.e. white blood cells and concentration of acute phase protein LBP), clinical signs, and pathological findings at necropsy. Regardless of the reduced reisolation rate in treated animals, the treatment of experimentally induced respiratory C. psittaci infection with enrofloxacin, azithromycin or erythromycin alone or in combination with rifampicin was without obvious benefit for the host, since no significant differences in clinical and pathological findings or inflammatory parameters were detected and all animals recovered clinically within two weeks. PMID:25768665

  14. Immunization of Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn)-Infected Apobtm2SgyLdlrtm1Her/J Mice with a Combined Peptide of Cpn Significantly Reduces Atherosclerotic Lesion Development

    PubMed Central

    Faludi, Ildiko; Szabo, Andrea; Gonczol, Eva; Kakkar, Vijay; Lu, Xinjie

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antigenic effect of a peptide containing two epitopes of Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn) on atherosclerotic lesion formation in mice infected with Cpn. Materials and Methods Six-week-old Apobtm2SgyLdlrtm1Her/J mice were immunized using a repetitive immunization multiple-sites strategy with KLH-conjugated peptides derived from the major outer membrane protein and the putative outer membrane protein 5 of Cpn. Mice were fed a high-fat diet and infected with Cpn twice during the 10-week diet period. Lesions were evaluated histologically; local and systemic immune responses were analyzed by immunohistochemistry of aorta samples and cytokine measurements in plasma samples and splenocyte supernatants. Results Mice immunized with the combined Cpn peptide showed a greater reduction in lesion size compared to mice immunized with either epitope alone [54.7% vs 39.8% or 41.72%] and was also associated with a significant decrease in lesion area in descending aortas compared with those in controls (88.9% for combined Cpn peptide, 81.9% for MOMP peptide and 75.7% for Omp5, respectively). This effect was associated with a shift in the cellular composition of plaques towards decreased inflammatory cell and increased regulatory T-cell content. Additionally, the effect was also connected with decreased secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and increased production of anti-inflammatory cytokines demonstrated in plasma and in supernatant on stimulated spleen cells. Conclusions Atherosclerotic lesion formation may be promoted by Cpn infection in the presence of a high-fat diet, and reduced by immunization with the combined Cpn peptide. The combined peptide has more potential than either epitope alone in reducing atherosclerotic lesion development through Treg expansion. PMID:24349031

  15. High Prevalence of Co-Infections by Invasive and Non-Invasive Chlamydia trachomatis Genotypes during the Lymphogranuloma Venereum Outbreak in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Dominguez, Mario; Gonzalez-Alba, Jose Maria; Puerta, Teresa; Menendez, Blanca; Sanchez-Diaz, Ana Maria; Canton, Rafael; del Romero, Jorge; Galan, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of Chlamydia trachomatis is mainly driven by recombination events. This fact can be fuelled by the coincidence in several European regions of the high prevalence of non-invasive urogenital genotypes and lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) outbreaks. This scenario could modify the local epidemiology and favor the selection of new C. trachomatis variants. Quantifying the prevalence of co-infection could help to predict the potential risk in the selection of new variants with unpredictable results in pathogenesis or transmissibility. In the 2009-2013 period, 287 clinical samples with demonstrated presence of C. trachomatis were selected. They were divided in two groups. The first group was constituted by 137 samples with C. trachomatis of the LGV genotypes, and the second by the remaining 150 samples in which the presence of LGV genotypes was previously excluded. They were analyzed to detect the simultaneous presence of non-LGV genotypes based on pmpH and ompA genes. In the first group, co-infections were detected in 10.9% of the cases whereas in the second group the prevalence was 14.6%, which is the highest percentage ever described among European countries. Moreover, bioinformatic analyses suggested the presence among men who have sex with men of a pmpH-recombinant variant, similar to strains described in Seattle in 2002. This variant was the result of genetic exchange between genotypes belonging to LGV and members of G-genotype. Sequencing of other genes, phylogenetically related to pathotype, confirmed that the putative recombinant found in Madrid could have a common origin with the strains described in Seattle. Countries with a high prevalence of co-infections and high migration flows should enhance surveillance programs in at least their vulnerable population. PMID:25965545

  16. Chlamydia trachomatis Infection Among Women Reporting Sexual Activity With Women Screened in Family Planning Clinics in the Pacific Northwest, 1997 to 2005

    PubMed Central

    Fine, David N.; Marrazzo, Jeanne M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to define Chlamydia trachomatis positivity among women who report sexual activity with women, a population for which sparse data on this infection are available and for whom health disparities including challenged access to comprehensive sexual and reproductive health services, have been reported. Methods. We analyzed data from 9358 family planning clinic visits with C trachomatis tests among women aged 15 to 24 years who reported sexual activity within the past year exclusively with women (WSW) or with men and women (WSMW), in the Region X Infertility Prevention Project. Characteristics were compared with women who reported sexual activity exclusively with men (WSM). Results. C trachomatis positivity among both WSW and WSMW was 7.1%, compared with 5.3% among WSM. Behavioral risks were more commonly reported by WSW and WSMW, compared with reports by WSM. Risks for C trachomatis positivity were comparable across groups and included younger age, non-White race, behavioral risks, and clinical signs. Conclusions. Higher C trachomatis positivity among women reporting same-sex sexual behavior supports investigation into potential explanatory factors, including sexual behaviors, biological susceptibility, routine C trachomatis screening disparities, sexual identity disclosure, and sexual network assessment. PMID:20724697

  17. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Unfortunately, these medicines do not cure HSV infections. Treatment for primary and recurrent HSV infections are oral antiviral medications, such as acyclovir (Zovirax®), valacyclovir (Valtrex®), and famciclovir (Famvir®). Each of ...

  18. Costs of Testing for Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis Infection Compared to Mass Drug Administration for Trachoma in The Gambia: Application of Results from the PRET Study

    PubMed Central

    Harding-Esch, Emma; Jofre-Bonet, Mireia; Dhanjal, Jaskiran K.; Burr, Sarah; Edwards, Tansy; Holland, Martin; Sillah, Ansumana; West, Sheila; Lietman, Tom; Keenan, Jeremy; Mabey, David; Bailey, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Background Mass drug administration (MDA) treatment of active trachoma with antibiotic is recommended to be initiated in any district where the prevalence of trachoma inflammation, follicular (TF) is ?10% in children aged 1–9 years, and then to continue for at least three annual rounds before resurvey. In The Gambia the PRET study found that discontinuing MDA based on testing a sample of children for ocular Chlamydia trachomatis(Ct) infection after one MDA round had similar effects to continuing MDA for three rounds. Moreover, one round of MDA reduced disease below the 5% TF threshold. We compared the costs of examining a sample of children for TF, and of testing them for Ct, with those of MDA rounds. Methods The implementation unit in PRET The Gambia was a census enumeration area (EA) of 600–800 people. Personnel, fuel, equipment, consumables, data entry and supervision costs were collected for census and treatment of a sample of EAs and for the examination, sampling and testing for Ct infection of 100 individuals within them. Programme costs and resource savings from testing and treatment strategies were inferred for the 102 EAs in the study area, and compared. Results Census costs were $103.24 per EA plus initial costs of $108.79. MDA with donated azithromycin cost $227.23 per EA. The mean cost of examining and testing 100 children was $796.90 per EA, with Ct testing kits costing $4.80 per result. A strategy of testing each EA for infection is more expensive than two annual rounds of MDA unless the kit cost is less than $1.38 per result. However stopping or deciding not to initiate treatment in the study area based on testing a sample of EAs for Ct infection (or examining children in a sample of EAs) creates savings relative to further unnecessary treatments. Conclusion Resources may be saved by using tests for chlamydial infection or clinical examination to determine that initial or subsequent rounds of MDA for trachoma are unnecessary. PMID:25901349

  19. The Epidemic of HIV, Syphilis, Chlamydia and Gonorrhea and the Correlates of Sexual Transmitted Infections among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Jiangsu, China, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Geng-Feng; Jiang, Ning; Hu, Hai-Yang; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Yin, Yue-Ping; Mahapatra, Sanchita; Wang, Xiao-Liang; Chen, Xiang-Sheng; Babu, Giridhar R.; Xu, Xiao-Qin; Ding, Ping; Qiu, Tao; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Guo, Hongxiong; Huan, Xi-Ping; Tang, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Background In China, the HIV/AIDS epidemic is expanding among men who have sex with men (MSM). As independent risk factors of HIV infection, the epidemics of Chlamydia (CT) and Gonorrhea (NG) in MSM were not well studied, particular for the risk factors of these infectious. The objectives of current reported study were to understand the dynamics of HIV and other sexual transmitted infections (STIs) among MSM in Jiangsu, China, and to measure factors that correlated with STIs. Methods In order to gain more participants, a multisite cross-sectional study design was used in our study, by using convenience-sampling to recruit MSM in two Changzhou and Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China, between the July and October of 2009. Results In this comprehensive survey involving MSM in two cities of Jiangsu province of China, the prevalence of STIs of CT (6.54%), NG (3.63%), syphilis (20.34%) and HIV (11.62%) were measured. Overall, the STIs prevalence (CT, NG or syphilis) for the participants in our study was 26.39%, meanwhile, 3.4% (14 out of the 413) participants had at least two kinds of STIs. Meeting casual partners at parks, public restrooms or other public areas, having had anal sex with men in the past six months, having had STI symptoms in the past year were positively correlated with STIs positive, with adjusted ORs of 4.61(95%CI 1.03–20.75), 1.91(95%CI 1.14–3.21) and 2.36(95%CI 1.07,5.24). Conclusion Our study findings reiterate the fact that Chinese MSM are highly susceptible to acquiring syphilis, CT, NG and HIV, and there is an urgent need for intervention targeted towards this population. Behavioral measures should constitute an important part of the targeted intervention. Furthermore, the already implemented preventive and diagnostic services for HIV should be expanded to include syphilis CT and NG, too. PMID:25775451

  20. Chlamydiaceae and Chlamydia-like organisms in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus)--organ distribution and histopathological findings.

    PubMed

    Burach, Fabienne; Pospischil, Andreas; Hanger, Jon; Loader, Jo; Pillonel, Trestan; Greub, Gilbert; Borel, Nicole

    2014-08-01

    Chlamydial infections in koalas can cause life-threatening diseases leading to blindness and sterility. However, little is known about the systemic spread of chlamydiae in the inner organs of the koala, and data concerning related pathological organ lesions are limited. The aim of this study was to perform a thorough investigation of organs from 23 koalas and to correlate their histopathological lesions to molecular chlamydial detection. To reach this goal, 246 formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded organ samples from 23 koalas were investigated by histopathology, Chlamydiaceae real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, ArrayTube Microarray for Chlamydiaceae species identification as well as Chlamydiales real-time PCR and sequencing. By PCR, two koalas were positive for Chlamydia pecorum whereas immunohistochemical labelling for Chlamydiaceae was detected in 10 tissues out of nine koalas. The majority of these (n=6) had positive labelling in the urogenital tract related to histopathological lesions such as cystitis, endometritis, pyelonephritis and prostatitis. Somehow unexpected was the positive labelling in the gastrointestinal tract including the cloaca as well as in lung and spleen indicating systemic spread of infection. Uncultured Chlamydiales were detected in several organs of seven koalas by PCR, and four of these suffered from plasmacytic enteritis of unknown aetiology. Whether the finding of Chlamydia-like organisms in the gastrointestinal tract is linked to plasmacytic enteritis is unclear and remains speculative. However, as recently shown in a mouse model, the gastrointestinal tract might play a role being the site for persistent chlamydial infections and being a source for reinfection of the genital tract. PMID:24888862

  1. Genital warts

    MedlinePLUS

    Condylomata acuminata; Penile warts; Human papillomavirus (HPV); Venereal warts; Condyloma; HPV DNA test; Sexually transmitted disease (STD) - warts; Sexually transmitted infection (STI) - warts; LSIL-HPV; Low- ...

  2. Diagnosis and Management of Uncomplicated Chlamydia trachomatis Infections in Adolescents and Adults: Summary of Evidence Reviewed for the 2015 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Geisler, William M

    2015-12-15

    In preparation for the 2015 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) Treatment Guidelines, the CDC convened an advisory group in 2013 to examine recent abstracts and published literature addressing the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of STDs. This article summarizes the key questions, evidence, and recommendations for the diagnosis and management of uncomplicated Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection in adolescents and adults that were considered in development of the 2015 CDC STD Treatment Guidelines. The evidence reviewed primarily focused on CT infection risk factors in women, clinical significance of oropharyngeal CT detection, acceptability and performance of CT testing on self-collected specimens in men, performance of CT point-of-care tests, efficacy of recommended and investigational CT infection treatments, and timing of test of cure following CT infection treatment in pregnant women. PMID:26602617

  3. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 54 . Cherpes, T.L., Meyn, L.A., Krohn, M.A., Hillier, S.L. (2003). Risk factors for infection with ... 54 . Cherpes, T.L., Meyn, L.A., Krohn, M.A., Hillier, S.L. (2003). Risk factors for infection with ...

  4. Multi locus sequence typing of Chlamydia reveals an association between Chlamydia psittaci genotypes and host species.

    PubMed

    Pannekoek, Yvonne; Dickx, Veerle; Beeckman, Delphine S A; Jolley, Keith A; Keijzers, Wendy C; Vretou, Evangelia; Maiden, Martin C J; Vanrompay, Daisy; van der Ende, Arie

    2010-01-01

    Chlamydia comprises a group of obligate intracellular bacterial parasites responsible for a variety of diseases in humans and animals, including several zoonoses. Chlamydia trachomatis causes diseases such as trachoma, urogenital infection and lymphogranuloma venereum with severe morbidity. Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired respiratory tract infections. Chlamydia psittaci, causing zoonotic pneumonia in humans, is usually hosted by birds, while Chlamydia abortus, causing abortion and fetal death in mammals, including humans, is mainly hosted by goats and sheep. We used multi-locus sequence typing to asses the population structure of Chlamydia. In total, 132 Chlamydia isolates were analyzed, including 60 C. trachomatis, 18 C. pneumoniae, 16 C. abortus, 34 C. psittaci and one of each of C. pecorum, C. caviae, C. muridarum and C. felis. Cluster analyses utilizing the Neighbour-Joining algorithm with the maximum composite likelihood model of concatenated sequences of 7 housekeeping fragments showed that C. psittaci 84/2334 isolated from a parrot grouped together with the C. abortus isolates from goats and sheep. Cluster analyses of the individual alleles showed that in all instances C. psittaci 84/2334 formed one group with C. abortus. Moving 84/2334 from the C. psittaci group to the C. abortus group resulted in a significant increase in the number of fixed differences and elimination of the number of shared mutations between C. psittaci and C. abortus. C. psittaci M56 from a muskrat branched separately from the main group of C. psittaci isolates. C. psittaci genotypes appeared to be associated with host species. The phylogenetic tree of C. psittaci did not follow that of its host bird species, suggesting host species jumps. In conclusion, we report for the first time an association between C. psittaci genotypes with host species. PMID:21152037

  5. Genital herpes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... herpes cannot be cured. Antiviral medicines (such as acyclovir or valcyclovir) may be prescribed. These medicines help ... infecting the baby. Side effects are rare with acyclovir and valcyclovir. Follow your health care provider's advice ...

  6. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in the oropharynx and urine among sexually active men: a comparative study of infection by papillomavirus and other organisms, including Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma spp., and Ureaplasma spp

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has shown a gradual increase in male predominance due to the increasing incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated OSCC. However, the mode of HPV transmission to the oral cavity is poorly understood, and little is known about the epidemiology of oral HPV infection in men. The prevalence rates of HPV, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma spp., and Ureaplasma spp. were compared in the oropharynx (oral cavity) and urine of male Japanese patients attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic. Methods The study population consisted of 213 men aged 16?–?70 years old (mean: 34.4 years old). Oropharyngeal gargles and urine were collected, and sedimented cells were preserved in liquid-based cytology solution. After DNA extraction, ?-globin and infectious organisms were analyzed by a PCR-based method. The HPV genotype was determined by HPV GenoArray test. Results ?-Globin was positive in 100% and 97.7% of oral and urine samples, respectively. HPV detection rates were 18.8% and 22.1% in oral and urine samples, respectively, suggesting that the prevalence of HPV infection in the oral cavity was similar to that in the urinary tract. N. gonorrhoeae was more prevalent in oral (15.6%) than urine samples (9.1%), whereas C. trachomatis was detected more frequently in urine (15.9%) than oral samples (4.2%). The detection rates of M. genitalium, M. hominis, and Ureaplasma spp. were 5.2%, 10.3%, and 16.0% in oral samples, and 7.7%, 6.3%, and 19.2% in urine, respectively. There were no significant differences in the detection rates of Mycoplasma spp. and Ureaplasma spp. between anatomical locations. The distribution of HPV types were similar in oral and urine samples, and HPV16 was the most common type. The majority of men with HPV infection in both the oral cavity and urine had concordant oral and urinary HPV infection. The presence of urinary HPV infection was an independent risk factor of oral HPV infection, with an odds ratio of 3.39 (95% CI: 1.49?–?7.71), whereas oral gonococcal infection was inversely correlated with oral HPV infection (odds ratio: 0.096; 95% CI: 0.01?–?0.77). Conclusions Oral HPV infection commonly occurs in sexually active men, and is significantly correlated with urinary HPV infection. PMID:24468054

  7. Hand-genital transmission of genital warts? An analysis of prevalence data.

    PubMed Central

    Fairley, C. K.; Gay, N. J.; Forbes, A.; Abramson, M.; Garland, S. M.

    1995-01-01

    The role of hand-genital transmission in the aetiology of genital warts is unclear. However this route is suggested by a number of observations including the relatively high proportion of genital warts in children which contain HPV types 1-4 (15% for children and 2% for adults). We compared two transmission models; one which assumes that hand-genital transmission occurs and one that it does not, and determined the conditions in which each model can reflect the available prevalence data. Hand-genital transmission provides a simple explanation of the observed differences in the proportions of genital warts containing HPV types 1-4 and 6/11 in children and adults. If hand-genital transmission does not occur, the observed difference could only be explained by an eightfold greater probability of transmission to children of types 1-4 than types 6/11, or by an eightfold greater duration of infection with types 1-4. Our findings provide support for the view that genital warts may be transmitted by hand-genital contact. PMID:7641831

  8. Transfer of IgG in the female genital tract by MHC class I-related neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) confers protective immunity to vaginal infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    IgG is a major immunoglobulin subclass in mucosal secretions of human female genital tract, where it predominates over the IgA isotype. Despite the abundance of IgG, surprisingly little is known about whether and how IgG enters the lumen of the genital tract and the exact role of local IgG may play ...

  9. Population-level intervention to promote chlamydia screening. Moving toward implementation of chlamydia hedis 2000 measure

    PubMed

    Oh; Grimley; Heudebert

    2000-05-01

    Background: HEDIS 2000 measure includes chlamydia screening in women which is designed to assess the percentage of sexually active women 15 to 25 years who have received at least one screening test for chlamydia during the reporting year. This study is being undertaken to determine feasibility of implementing a population-level intervention within HMOs to promote chlamydia screening. This abstract presents preliminary findings from the Birmingham project of this multicenter study.Methods: In partnerships with two HMOs, series of outreach methods were used in a stepwise fashion to determine potential barriers and enabling factors for the implementation of chlamydia HEDIS measure in a conservative social environment. Mail outreach was sequentially combined with newspaper, TV, radio advertisements and poster displays. Both qualitative and quantitative impact of the outreach efforts were measured across the timeline. The measures included reporting for chlamydia screening (urine LCR) and infection rate, monitoring chlamydia hotline and staffed phoneline use, and assessment of untoward effects and cost-analysis of the chlamydia outreach campaign.Results: The key findings are: the benefit of chlamydia screening is not understood by general public, letters send by Health Plans to their members are not read by many subscribers, and there are wide gaps between adolescents and their parents, in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs in regard to obtaining information and accessing the screening services (teens prefer hotline, brochure in an envelop addressed to teens, incentives for reporting to the clinic for screening, vs. parents prefer staffed phone consults, "exposed" brochure addressed to parents, and no incentives). A month of sustained and repeat multi-media campaign resulted in 330 hotline calls, 83 phone calls and only 17 subjects being tested (3 were positive) though many more intended to come. Cumulative effects and cost of various outreach efforts are being monitored. Informational chlamydia brochures and free test cards mailed to the homes generated no negative response from the subscribers, contrary to the concerns of the HMOs. Conclusion: To be effective, investment in public education campaign and social marketing strategies must be integrated in population-level intervention for the implementation of the chlamydia HEDIS 2000 measure. PMID:10869987

  10. Male Genital Lichen Sclerosus

    PubMed Central

    Bunker, Christopher Barry; Shim, Tang Ngee

    2015-01-01

    Male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease responsible for male sexual dyspareunia and urological morbidity. An afeared complication is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis. The precise etiopathogenesis of MGLSc remains controversial although genetic, autoimmune and infective (such as human papillomavirus (HPV) hepatitis C (HCV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Borrelia) factors have been implicated: Consideration of all the evidence suggests that chronic exposure of susceptible epithelium to urinary occlusion by the foreskin seems the most likely pathomechanism. The mainstay of treatment is topical ultrapotent corticosteroid therapy. Surgery is indicated for cases unresponsive to topical corticosteroid therapy, phimosis, meatal stenosis, urethral stricture, carcinoma in situ (CIS) and squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25814697

  11. New insights into Chlamydia and arthritis. Promise of a cure?

    PubMed

    Zeidler, Henning; Hudson, Alan P

    2014-04-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae together comprise the most frequent causative pathogens that elicit reactive arthritis (ReA). Advances in our understanding of the molecular biology/molecular genetics of these organisms have improved significantly the ability to detect chlamydiae in the joint for diagnostic purposes, as well as extending our current understanding of the pathogenic processes they elicit in the joint and elsewhere. An important aspect of the latter is that synovial chlamydiae infect the joint in an unusual but metabolically active state. While some standard treatments can provide a palliative effect on the ReA disease phenotype, many reports have indicated that standard antibiotic treatment does not provide a cure. Of critical importance, however, two recent reports of controlled clinical trials demonstrated that Chlamydia-ReA can be treated successfully using combination antibiotic therapy. These observations offer the opportunity of a cure for this disease, thereby increasing the practical importance of awareness and diagnosis of the spondyloarthritis caused by Chlamydia. In this viewpoint, we provide an overview of recent key findings in the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of Chlamydia-induced arthritis. Our intention is for these insights to be translated rapidly into clinical practice to overcome misdiagnosis and underdiagnosis of the disease, and for them to stimulate the continued development of a cure. PMID:24297377

  12. Detection of human papillomavirus DNA on the fingers of patients with genital warts

    PubMed Central

    Sonnex, C.; Strauss, S.; Gray, J. J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether patients with genital warts carry human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA on their fingers. METHODS: 14 men and eight women with genital warts had cytobrush samples taken from genital lesions, finger tips, and tips of finger nails. Samples were examined for the presence of HPV DNA by the polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: HPV DNA was detected in all female genital samples and in 13/14 male genital samples. HPV DNA was detected in the finger brush samples of three women and nine men. The same HPV type was identified in genital and hand samples in one woman and five men. CONCLUSION: This study has identified hand carriage of genital HPV types in patients with genital warts. Although sexual intercourse is considered the usual mode of transmitting genital HPV infection, our findings raise the possibility of transmission by finger-genital contact. ??? PMID:10616355

  13. Increased Levels of Immune Activation in the Genital Tract of Healthy Young Women from sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    COHEN, Craig R; MOSCICKI, Anna-Barbara; SCOTT, Mark E; MA, Yifei; SHIBOSKI, Stephen; BUKUSI, Elizabeth; DAUD, Ibrahim; REBBAPRAGADA, Anu; BROWN, Joelle; KAUL, Rupert

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine if healthy, young women in sub-Saharan Africa have a more activated immune milieu in the genital tract (i.e. activated CD4+ T-cells) than a similar population in the US. Design Cross-sectional study nested in a phase 1 microbicide trial. Methods Cervical cytobrushes were collected from 18–24 year old women in San Francisco, CA (n=18) and Kisumu, Kenya (n=36) at enrollment into a phase 1 microbicide trial. All participants tested negative for HIV, HSV-2, gonorrhea, chlamydia and trichomonas, and had abstained from sex for at least seven days prior to enrollment. Cryopreserved T-cell populations were assayed by flow cytometry in a central laboratory. SLPI levels were assayed in cervicovaginal lavage samples. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare immune parameters between sites. Results The total number of endocervical CD4+ T-cells was slightly higher in San Francisco, but participants from Kisumu had a substantially higher number and proportion of CD4+ T-cells expressing the early activation marker CD69, with and without the HIV-coreceptor CCR5, and a greater proportion of activated CD8+ T-cells. Median [interquartile] genital levels of SLPI were lower in participants from Kisumu compared to those from San Francisco (190 pg/mL [96, 519] vs. 474 pg/mL [206, 817]; p<0.03). Conclusions Activated mucosal T-cells were increased in the genital tract of young, STI/HIV-free Kenyan women, independent of common genital co-infections, and SLPI levels were reduced. The cause of these mucosal immune differences is not known, but could partly explain the high HIV incidence in young women from sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:20588163

  14. Herpes Simplex (Cold Sores and Genital Herpes)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... defenses and make it easier to get HIV infection. A recent study found that people with HSV had three times ... significant reduction in HIV viral load. However, another study found that treating genital herpes did not prevent new HIV infections. People with both HIV and HSV also need ...

  15. Chlamydial conjunctivitis: prevalence and serovar distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis in adults.

    PubMed

    Petrovay, Fruzsina; Németh, István; Balázs, Andrea; Balla, Eszter

    2015-09-01

    The extragenital manifestation of Chlamydia trachomatis infection frequently results in non-specific conjunctivitis among sexually active adults. The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis, to describe the distribution of serovars among patients with conjunctivitis and to characterize the relationship between the prevalence and patient demographics such as age and gender. A total of 245 conjunctival specimens were screened for C. trachomatis DNA targeting the plasmid gene. Serovar determination of the C. trachomatis-positive specimens was carried out by an omp1 PCR-based RFLP analysis method. Statistical analysis was done using a generalized linear model. C. trachomatis was detected in 53 cases (21.6 %) of adult conjunctivitis. Molecular genotyping differentiated seven distinct urogenital serovars, the most prevalent being serovar E (16/53), followed by F (15/53), D (6/53), K (6/53), G (4/53), H (4/53) and J (2/53). Statistical analysis showed higher C. trachomatis prevalence in the younger age groups, and this peaked at younger age in women than in men. The high prevalence of this pathogen found in ocular samples should alert ophthalmologists to focus on the role of C. trachomatis in adult conjunctivitis. The serovar distribution indicated that ocular chlamydial infections usually have a genital source. Nevertheless, conjunctivitis might be the only sign of this sexually transmitted infection. Further comparative genotyping of C. trachomatis in ocular and genital specimens might give more detailed epidemiological information about the aetiology of the disease. PMID:26297635

  16. Chlamydia trachomatis and ectopic pregnancy: retrospective analysis of salpingectomy specimens, endometrial biopsies, and cervical smears.

    PubMed Central

    Lan, J; van den Brule, A J; Hemrika, D J; Risse, E K; Walboomers, J M; Schipper, M E; Meijer, C J

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To examine the role of Chlamydia trachomatis in ectopic pregnancy by detection of DNA in archival salpingectomy specimens, and in their preceding cervical specimens and endometrial biopsies, by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). METHODS--Archival paraffin embedded salpingectomy tissues (n = 48) from 37 women with ectopic pregnancy were examined for the presence of C trachomatis plasmid and omp1 DNA by PCR. In addition, preceding cervical specimens (n = 58) stored either as cervical cell suspensions or as archival cervical smears, and preceding endometrial biopsies (n = 18), taken 0-5.8 years before the ectopic pregnancy, were examined by PCR for the presence of C trachomatis. RESULTS--C trachomatis DNA was detected in only one of the 48 salpingectomy specimens from 37 women. However, in six of the 37 women, C trachomatis DNA was detected in the genital specimens (cervix and/or endometrial) taken before salpingectomy. C trachomatis infections were mostly found in endometrial or cervical specimens taken more than three years before ectopic pregnancy. No chlamydial DNA was found in endometrial or cervical specimens taken at the same time of the ectopic pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS--Although no C trachomatis DNA was found in salpingectomy specimens, several women with ectopic pregnancy had C trachomatis infections in endometrial and cervical specimens in the past. This suggests that at least in these cases the ectopic pregnancy is a late post-inflammatory complication of an ascending C trachomatis infection resulting in a scarred fallopian tube. PMID:7490313

  17. Chlamydia trachomatis infection increases the expression of inflammatory tumorigenic cytokines and chemokines as well as components of the Toll-like receptor and NF-?B pathways in human prostate epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sellami, Hanen; Said-Sadier, Najwane; Znazen, Abir; Gdoura, Radhouane; Ojcius, David M; Hammami, Adnene

    2014-08-01

    Inflammation has been reported to play a major role in prostate carcinogenesis. Several bacterial infections can lead to prostate inflammation; however, until now, the precise molecular and cellular mechanisms linking inflammation to carcinogenesis have remained unclear. We therefore investigated the initiation of inflammation induced by Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) infection in human prostate epithelial cells using an in vitro culture system in which human androgen-independent PC-3 prostate cancer epithelial cells were infected with C. trachomatis serovar L2. The expression levels of VEGF, ICAM-1, IL-6, IL-8, IL-1?, TNF?, CCL5, CCL2 and iNOS inflammation-related genes, as well as genes involved in the Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway (TLR2, TLR4, CD14 and MyD88), were evaluated at the mRNA level in infected PC-3 cells 24 h after infection with C. trachomatis serovar L2. The expression levels of components of the NF-?B pathway (p65 and I?B?) were evaluated at the mRNA level in infected PC-3 cells at different time points (1, 6, 12 and 24 h) after infection. The expression levels of inflammation-related genes, components of the Toll-like receptor pathway and genes involved in NF-?B activation were analyzed in infected and uninfected cells using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. We detected a significant increase (p < 0.001) in inflammation-related cytokines in infected PC-3 cells. During infection, PC-3 cells elicited a proinflammatory response, as shown by NF-?B activation, TLR2 and TLR4 upregulation and the increased expression of inflammation-related genes. Furthermore, we observed significant upregulation of the adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VEGF, which are two biomarkers correlated with tumor progression and immune system evasion. The present study suggests that human prostate cancer epithelial cells are susceptible to C. trachomatis infection and upregulate proinflammatory markers during infection. PMID:24613856

  18. HIV-1 Genital Shedding is Suppressed in the Setting of High Genital Antiretroviral Drug Concentrations Throughout the Menstrual Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Sheth, Anandi N.; Evans-Strickfaden, Tammy; Haaland, Richard; Martin, Amy; Gatcliffe, Chelsea; Adesoye, Adebola; Omondi, Michael W.; Lupo, L. Davis; Danavall, Damien; Easley, Kirk; Chen, Cheng-Yen; Pau, Chou-Pong; Hart, Clyde; Ofotokun, Igho

    2014-01-01

    Background.?It is not known if fluctuations in genital tract antiretroviral drug concentrations correlate with genital virus shedding in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected women on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods.?Among 20 HIV-infected women on ART (tenofovir [TFV], emtricitabine [FTC], and ritonavir-boosted atazanavir [ATV]) with suppressed plasma virus loads, blood and cervicovaginal samples collected twice weekly for 3 weeks were tested for antiretroviral concentrations, HIV-1 RNA, and proviral DNA. Results.?Cervicovaginal:plasma antiretroviral concentration ratios were highest for FTC (11.9, 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.66–16.3), then TFV (3.52, 95% CI, 2.27–5.48), and ATV (2.39, 95% CI, 1.69–3.38). Within- and between-person variations in plasma and genital antiretroviral concentrations were observed. Low amounts of genital HIV-1 RNA (<50 copies/mL) were detected in 45% of women at 16% of visits. Genital HIV-1 DNA was detected in 70% of women at 35% of visits. Genital virus detection was associated with higher concentrations of mucosal leukocytes but not with genital antiretroviral concentrations, menstrual cycle phase, bacterial vaginosis, genital bleeding, or plasma virus detection. Conclusions.?Standard doses of ART achieved higher genital than plasma concentrations across the menstrual cycle. Therapeutic ART suppresses genital virus shedding throughout the menstrual cycle, even in the presence of factors reported to increase virus shedding. PMID:24643223

  19. Impact of Cervical Cancer Screening Guidelines on Screening for Chlamydia.

    PubMed

    Ursu, Allison; Sen, Ananda; Ruffin, Mack

    2015-01-01

    The highest prevalence of chlamydia infection in the United States is among people aged 15 to 24 years. We assessed the impact of not doing routine cervical cancer screening on the rates of chlamydia screening in women aged 15 to 21 years. We classified visits to family medicine ambulatory clinics according to their timing relative to the 2009 guideline change that led to more restrictive cervical cancer screening. Women had higher odds of being screened for chlamydia before vs after the guideline change (odds ratio = 13.97; 95% CI, 9.17-21.29; P <.001). Chlamydia and cervical cancer screening need to be uncoupled and new screening opportunities should be identified. PMID:26195682

  20. CHLAMYDIAL INFECTION, PLASMA PEROXIDATION AND OBESITY IN TUBAL INFERTILITY

    PubMed Central

    Nsonwu-Anyanwu, A.C.; Charles-Davies, M.A.; Oni, A.A.; Taiwo, V.O.; Bello, F.A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Genital tract infections and obesity are both sources of oxidative stress. Alterations in immune and antioxidant parameters may arise from this or from an indeterminate autoimmune mechanism. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the association of Chlamydial infection, obesity and oxidative response with tubal infertility in Nigerian women. Methods: It was a case-control study of 40 women with tubal infertility and 32 fertile women, respectively, recruited from the Infertility and Family Planning Clinics respectively, of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Anthropometric indices were measured in each subject and endocervical swabs were taken to screen for current genital tract infection. Antioxidant, hormonal and immunologic analysis were performed on serum. Results: None of the subjects had current genital tract infections. Chlamydia trachomatis IgG positivity was significantly higher in infertile than in fertile subjects [OR 4.33; 95%CI (0.078-0.681)]. No significant variations were observed in the anthropometric indices, antioxidant parameters and hormones between infertile and the fertile women. Body mass index correlated positively with oxidative stress in infertile subjects. Waist and hip circumferences correlated negatively with oestradiol in women with tubal infertility. Conclusion: Chlamydial infection is associated with tubal factor infertility, however, obesity seems to increase oxidative stress and reduce fertility potential in women with tubal factor infertility. PMID:25161489

  1. Chlamydia abortus in Cows Oviducts, Occasional Event or Causal Connection?

    PubMed

    Appino, S; Vincenti, L; Rota, A; Pellegrini, S; Chieppa, M N; Cadoni, V; Pregel, P

    2015-06-01

    Fifty-seven genital tracts of regularly slaughtered culled Piedmontese cows, aged 7.4 ± 4.3 years (mean ± SD), range: 2.6-15.6 years, were grossly and microscopically examined. DNA extracted from oviducts was subjected to PCR to evaluate the presence of Chlamydia spp. The 15 PCR-positive oviducts were subjected to Sanger sequencing and showed the presence of Chamydia abortus, with an identity range between 99 and 100%. Nine of the PCR-positive samples belonged to the 24 animals with a normal macroscopic appearance of the whole genital tract (percentage of positive oviducts in normal genital tracts 9/24 = 37.5%), while six belonged to the 33 genital tracts with lesions in one or more organs (percentage of positive oviducts in pathological genital tracts 6/33 = 18.1%); of these, a single animal had salpingitis. The detection of C. abortus in bovine oviducts is of particular interest because it has never been previously investigated or reported. PMID:25704292

  2. Determinants of human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 infections in the lower female genital tract in an Italian population.

    PubMed

    Venuti, A; Badaracco, G; Sedati, A; Carbini, R; Marcante, M L

    1994-01-01

    The prevalences of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 infection were determined by a non isotopic molecular hybridization assay on cervical scrapes from 738 women affected by gynaecological lesions different from malignancies. The correlation with known epidemiological risk factors for cervical neoplasia, such as sexual habits, smoking and pill use, was investigated. The overall HPV prevalence rate was 29.8% (220/738). Viral DNA sequences were detected in 26.9% (122/452) of morphologically normal cervices, in 75 of 224 HPV lesions (32.5%), in 1 case of 3 HSV2 lesions and in 22 of 59 dysplastic lesions (37.3%), and the frequency was increasing with the severity of CIN from 22.7% of CIN I to 57.1% of CIN III. The most relevant factor as relative risk for the presence of HPV 16/18 was the multiple lifetime sexual partners, whereas the other investigated factors were mainly associated with the clinically manifested HPV infection. PMID:7957325

  3. Syndromic treatment of gonococcal and chlamydial infections in women seeking primary care for the genital discharge syndrome: decision-making.

    PubMed Central

    Behets, F. M.; Miller, W. C.; Cohen, M. S.

    2001-01-01

    The syndromic treatment of gonococcal and chlamydial infections in women seeking primary care in clinics where resources are scarce, as recommended by WHO and implemented in many developing countries, necessitates a balance to be struck between overtreatment and undertreatment. The present paper identifies factors that are relevant to the selection of specific strategies for syndromic treatment in the above circumstances. Among them are the general aspects of decision-making and caveats concerning the rational decision-making approach. The positive and negative implications are outlined of providing or withholding treatment following a specific algorithm with a given accuracy to detect infection, i.e. sensitivity, specificity and predictive values. Other decision-making considerations that are identified are related to implementation and include the stability of risk factors with regard to time, space and the implementer, acceptability by stakeholders, and environmental constraints. There is a need to consider empirically developed treatment algorithms as a basis for policy discourse, to be evaluated together with the evidence, alternatives and arguments by the stakeholders. PMID:11731816

  4. Variability of human immunodeficiency virus-1 in the female genital reservoir during genital reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 2.

    PubMed

    LeGoff, J; Roques, P; Jenabian, M-A; Charpentier, C; Brochier, C; Bouhlal, H; Gresenguet, G; Frost, E; Pepin, J; Mayaud, P; Belec, L

    2015-09-01

    Clinical and subclinical genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) reactivations have been associated with increases in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 genital shedding. Whether HSV-2 shedding contributes to the selection of specific genital HIV-1 variants remains unknown. We evaluated the genetic diversity of genital and blood HIV-1 RNA and DNA in 14 HIV-1/HSV-2-co-infected women, including seven with HSV-2 genital reactivation, and seven without as controls. HIV-1 DNA and HIV-1 RNA env V1-V3 sequences in paired blood and genital samples were compared. The HSV-2 selection pressure on HIV was estimated according to the number of synonymous substitutions (dS), the number of non-synonymous substitutions (dN) and the dS/dN ratio within HIV quasi-species. HIV-1 RNA levels in cervicovaginal secretions were higher in women with HSV-2 replication than in controls (p0.02). Plasma HIV-1 RNA and genital HIV-1 RNA and DNA were genetically compartmentalized. No differences in dS, dN and the dS/dN ratio were observed between the study groups for either genital HIV-1 RNA or plasma HIV-1 RNA. In contrast, dS and dN in genital HIV-1 DNA were significantly higher in patients with HSV-2 genital reactivation (p <0.01 and p <0.05, respectively). The mean of the dS/dN ratio in genital HIV-1 DNA was slightly higher in patients with HSV-2 genital replication, indicating a trend for purifying selection (p 0.056). HSV-2 increased the genetic diversity of genital HIV-1 DNA. These observations confirm molecular interactions between HSV-2 and HIV-1 at the genital tract level. PMID:26003280

  5. High co-occurrence of anorectal chlamydia with urogenital chlamydia in women visiting an STI clinic revealed by routine universal testing in an observational study; a recommendation towards a better anorectal chlamydia control in women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Symptom- and sexual history-based testing i.e., testing on indication, for anorectal sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in women is common. Yet, it is unknown whether this strategy is effective. Moreover, little is known about alternative transmission routes i.e. by fingers/toys. This study assesses anorectal STI prevalence and infections missed by current testing practice, thereby informing the optimal control strategy for anorectal STIs in women. Methods Women (n?=?663) attending our STI-clinic between May 2012-July 2013 were offered routine testing for anorectal and urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Data were collected on demographics, sexual behaviour and symptoms. Women were assigned to one of the categories: indication (reported anal sex/symptoms), fingers/toys (only reported use of fingers/toys), or without indication. Results Of women, 92% (n?=?654) participated. There were 203 reports (31.0%) of anal sex and/or symptoms (indication), 48 reports (7.3%) of only using fingers/toys (fingers/toys), and 403 reports (61.6%) of no anal symptoms, no anal sex and no anal use of fingers/toys (without indication). The overall prevalence was 11.2% (73/654) for urogenital chlamydia and 8.4% (55/654) for anorectal chlamydia. Gonorrhoea infections were not observed. Prevalence of anorectal chlamydia was 7.9% (16/203) for women with indication and 8.6% (39/451) for all other women (P?=?0.74). Two-thirds (39/55) of anorectal infections were diagnosed in women without indication. Isolated anorectal chlamydia was rare (n?=?3): of all women with an anorectal infection, 94.5% (52/55) also had co-occurrence of urogenital chlamydia. Of all women with urogenital chlamydia, 71.2% (52/73) also had anorectal chlamydia. Conclusions Current selective testing on indication of symptoms and sexual history is not an appropriate control strategy for anorectal chlamydia in women visiting an STI clinic. Routine universal anorectal testing is feasible and may be a possible control strategy in women. Yet costs may be a problem. When more restricted control measures are preferred, possible alternatives include (1) anorectal testing only in women with urogenital chlamydia (problem: treatment delay or loss to follow up), and (2) direct treatment for urogenital chlamydia that is effective for anorectal chlamydia as well. PMID:24885306

  6. 9 CFR 113.71 - Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline... VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.71 Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia. Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia, shall...

  7. 9 CFR 113.71 - Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline... VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.71 Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia. Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia, shall...

  8. 9 CFR 113.71 - Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline... VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.71 Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia. Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia, shall...

  9. 9 CFR 113.71 - Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline... VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.71 Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia. Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia, shall...

  10. 9 CFR 113.71 - Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline... VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.71 Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia. Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia, shall...

  11. Laboratory diagnosis of human chlamydial infections.

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, R C

    1989-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a human pathogen that causes ocular disease (trachoma and inclusion conjunctivitis), genital disease (cervicitis, urethritis, salpingitis, and lymphogranuloma venereum), and respiratory disease (infant pneumonitis). Respiratory chlamydioses also occur with infection by avian strains of C. psittaci or infection by the newly described TWAR agent. Diagnosis of most acute C. trachomatis infections relies on detection of the infecting agent by cell culture, fluorescent antibody, immunoassay, cytopathologic, or nucleic acid hybridization methods. Individual non-culture tests for C. trachomatis are less sensitive and specific than the best chlamydial cell culture system but offer the advantages of reduced technology and simple transport of clinical specimens. Currently available nonculture tests for C. trachomatis perform adequately as screening tests in populations in which the prevalence of infection is greater than 10%. A negative culture or nonculture test for C. trachomatis does not, however, exclude infection. The predictive value of a positive nonculture test may be unsatisfactory when populations of low infection prevalence are tested. Tests that detect antibody responses to chlamydial infection have limited utility in diagnosis of acute chlamydial infection because of the high prevalence of persistent antibody in healthy adults and the cross-reactivity due to infection by the highly prevalent C. trachomatis and TWAR agents. Assays for changes in antibody titer to the chlamydial genus antigen are used for the diagnosis of respiratory chlamydioses. A single serum sample that is negative for chlamydial antibody excludes the diagnosis of lymphogranuloma venereum. PMID:2650858

  12. Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium Plasma Antibodies in Relation to Epithelial Ovarian Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Idahl, Annika; Lundin, Eva; Jurstrand, Margaretha; Kumlin, Urban; Elgh, Fredrik; Ohlson, Nina; Ottander, Ulrika

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To assess associations of Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium antibodies with epithelial ovarian tumors. Methods. Plasma samples from 291 women, undergoing surgery due to suspected ovarian pathology, were analyzed with respect to C. trachomatis IgG and IgA, chlamydial Heat Shock Protein 60-1 (cHSP60-1) IgG and M. genitalium IgG antibodies. Women with borderline tumors (n = 12), ovarian carcinoma (n = 45), or other pelvic malignancies (n = 11) were matched to four healthy controls each. Results. Overall, there were no associations of antibodies with EOC. However, chlamydial HSP60-1 IgG antibodies were associated with type II ovarian cancer (P = .002) in women with plasma samples obtained >1 year prior to diagnosis (n = 7). M. genitalium IgG antibodies were associated with borderline ovarian tumors (P = .01). Conclusion. Chlamydial HSP60-1 IgG and M. genitalium IgG antibodies are in this study associated with epithelial ovarian tumors in some subsets, which support the hypothesis linking upper-genital tract infections and ovarian tumor development. PMID:21811380

  13. [A microbiological study of swabs taken laparoscopically in cases of salpingitis and tubal sterility. Research for Chlamydia trachomatis and for mycoplasmas (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Henry-Suchet, J; Catalan, F; Loffredo, V; Serfaty, D; Piboulet, A; Perol, Y; Sanson, M J; Debache, C; Pigeau, F; Coppin, R; de Brux, J; Paynard, T

    1980-01-01

    Research was made for chlamydia trachomatis and ureaplasma urealyticum in the peritoneum and the tubes of 99 women divided into 4 groups: 17 of them were being investigated because of acute salpingitis (Group A), 17 were being investigated for tubal sterility with chronic inflammation diagnosed laparoscopically (Group B), 29 were being investigated for tubal sterility without any laparoscopic evidence of inflammation (Group C) and 36 women had absolutely normal pelves and were being investigated for sterility. These were the control group (D). Swabs were also taken from the lower genital tracts as well as serological tests for chlamydia trachomatis and cytological samplings of the fluid from the Pouch of Douglas and the histology of the tubes. In the 17 women who had acute salpingitis the swabs 4 cases of C.T. and 4 of U.U. In the 46 women who had tubal sterility the laparoscopic swabs showed cases of C.T. and 7 of U.U. The swabs were most often positive in Group B. This group is characterised by a special appearence of the inflammation, with fluid present and viscous adhesions as well as peritoneal inflammatory cysts. These altogether help to make a presumptive diagnosis of C.T. infection on laparoscopy. In the control group of 36 cases there was no sign of C.T. in any case, although 2 swabs from the peritoneum showed U.U. So there is a statistically significant difference between the groups that were suspicious and the control group whether the results were obtained by cultures or by serological diagnosis. On the other hand there is no definitive difference as far as U.U. is concerned. These observations, which are similar to those published by other authors, lead us to think that micro-organisms and especially chlamydia trachomatis could be the bacteriological agent responsible for chronic inflammatory states found so frequently in women with tubal sterility. PMID:6450231

  14. Approximating optimal controls for networks when there are combinations of population-level and targeted measures available: chlamydia infection as a case-study.

    PubMed

    Clarke, James; White, K A Jane; Turner, Katy

    2013-10-01

    Using a modified one-dimensional model for the spread of an SIS disease on a network, we show that the behaviour of complex network simulations can be replicated with a simpler model. This model is then used to design optimal controls for use on the network, which would otherwise be unfeasible to obtain, resulting in information about how best to combine a population-level random intervention with one that is more targeted. This technique is used to minimise intervention costs over a short time interval with a target prevalence, and also to minimise prevalence with a specified budget. When applied to chlamydia, we find results consistent with previous work; that is maximising targeted control (contact tracing) is important to using resources effectively, while high-intensity bursts of population control (screening) are more effective than maintaining a high level of coverage. PMID:23812958

  15. Paper-based molecular diagnostic for Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Linnes, Jacqueline C.; Fan, Andy; Rodriguez, Natalia M.; Lemieux, Bertrand; Kong, Huimin; Klapperich, Catherine M.

    2014-01-01

    Herein we show the development of a minimally instrumented paper-based molecular diagnostic for point of care detection of sexually transmitted infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. This new diagnostic platform incorporates cell lysis, isothermal nucleic acid amplification, and lateral flow visual detection using only a pressure source and heat block, eliminating the need for expensive laboratory equipment. This paper-based test can be performed in less than one hour and has a clinically relevant limit of detection that is 100x more sensitive than current rapid immunoassays used for chlamydia diagnosis. PMID:25309740

  16. Highly specific and efficient primers for in-house multiplex PCR detection of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although sophisticated methodologies are available, the use of endpoint polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect 16S rDNA genes remains a good approach for estimating the incidence and prevalence of specific infections and for monitoring infections. Considering the importance of the early diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), the development of a sensitive and affordable method for identifying pathogens in clinical samples is needed. Highly specific and efficient primers for a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (m-PCR) system were designed in silico to detect the 16S rDNA genes of four bacteria that cause genital infections, and the PCR method was developed. Methods The Genosensor Probe Designer (GPD) (version 1.0a) software was initially used to design highly specific and efficient primers for in-house m-PCR. Single-locus PCR reactions were performed and standardised, and then primers for each locus in turn were added individually in subsequent amplifications until m-PCR was achieved. Amplicons of the expected size were obtained from each of the four bacterial gene fragments. Finally, the analytical specificity and limits of detection were tested. Results Because they did not amplify any product from non-STI tested species, the primers were specific. The detection limits for the Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum primer sets were 5.12?×?105, 3.9?×?103, 61.19?×?106 and 6.37?×?105 copies of a DNA template, respectively. Conclusions The methodology designed and standardised here could be applied satisfactorily for the simultaneous or individual detection of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum. This method is at least as efficient as other previously described methods; however, this method is more affordable for low-income countries. PMID:24997675

  17. Evidence for Chlamydia in wild mammals of the Serengeti.

    PubMed

    Pospischil, Andreas; Kaiser, Carmen; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Lutz, Hans; Hilbe, Monika; Vaughan, Lloyd; Borel, Nicole

    2012-10-01

    Only limited information is available on the presence of Chlamydiaceae in wildlife, a deficit that is particularly acute concerning mammalian wildlife in Africa. In a retrospective analysis of organ material from an earlier study on wild mammals from the Seregenti National Park, 521 samples from 54 animals of 14 mammalian species were investigated. The presence of Chlamydiaceae was analyzed using molecular methods and immunohistochemistry. Chlamydial DNA was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues from large ruminants (African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, n=4) and a large predator (spotted hyena, Crocuta crocuta, n=1). Microarray results revealed Chlamydia abortus in all cases, confirmed by sequencing of selected samples, and a mixed infection with Chlamydia abortus and Chlamydia pneumoniae in an African buffalo. This is the first report of Chlamydiaceae in African wildlife of the Serengeti area. PMID:23060512

  18. Detection of novel Chlamydiae and Legionellales from human nasal samples of healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Corsaro, Daniele; Venditti, Danielle

    2015-07-01

    Chlamydiae are intracellular bacterial parasites of eukaryotes, ranging from amoebae to humans. They comprise many novel members and are investigated as emerging pathogens. Environmental studies highlighted similarities between the ecologies of chlamydiae and legionellae, both groups being important agents of respiratory infections. Herein, we analyzed nasal samples from healthy persons, searching for the presence of amoebae, chlamydiae and legionellae. From a total of 25 samples, we recovered by PCR eight samples positive to chlamydiae and six samples positive to legionellae. Among these samples, four were positive to both organisms. The sequencing of 16S rDNAs allowed to identify (i) among Chlamydiae: Parachlamydia acanthamoebae, Chlamydophila psittaci, Chlamydophila felis, and members of Rhabdochlamydiaceae, Simkaniaceae and E6 lineage and (ii) among Legionellaceae: Legionella longbeachae, Legionella bozemanii and Legionella impletisoli. Unexpectedly, we also recovered Diplorickettsia sp. Amoebae collected from nasal mucosae, Acanthamoeba and Vermamoeba, were endosymbiont-free, and chlamydiae revealed refractory to amoeba coculture. This study shows common exposure to chlamydiae and legionellae and suggests open air activities like gardening as a probable additional source of infection. PMID:25697709

  19. Chlamydia Trachomatis and Neisseria Gonorrhoeae prevalence among women of reproductive age living in urogenital schistosomiasis endemic area in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many studies have shown an overlap in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and urogenital schistosomiasis among young women living in schistosomiasis endemic areas. Yet we found no study assessing the prevalence of STI infections in urogenital schistosomiasis endemic areas in Ghana. As part of an epidemiological study on urogenital schistosomiasis and HIV, we sought to assess the prevalence of both Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorhoeae (NG) infections among women living in schistosomiasis endemic communities and explore the relationship between the sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and demographic characteristics, sexual behaviour and self-reported symptoms. Methods This was a cross-sectional study in which endocervical samples were collected from 191 women aged 15–49 years from October 2005 to March 2006. Samples were examined for CT and NG using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). A structured questionnaire was also used to elicit information on study participant’s gynaecological and obstetric history and symptoms for genital infection. Chi-square test and binary logistic regression were used to assess association between CT and NG and other variables such as age, sexual behaviour and self-reported symptoms. Results The overall prevalence of CT and NG were 6.3% and 2.6% respectively.The highest prevalence rates of CT were in the 15 to 19 year group while only individuals between 15 and 39 years were positive for NG. There was no association between CT and age, contraceptive use and the other variables assessed. NG on the other hand was found to be associated with age, number of births and number of sexual partners only by chi-square test. Conclusions Our research revealed higher prevalence of CT and NG infections when compared to previous studies conducted among higher risk groups in non-urogenital schistosomiasis areas in Ghana. We therefore recommend further studies of these STIs in urogenital schistosomiasis endemic areas in the country. PMID:24917067

  20. Chlamydia trachomatis ompA genotypes in male patients with urethritis in Greece: conservation of the serovar distribution and evidence for mixed infections with Chlamydophila abortus.

    PubMed

    Psarrakos, Panagiotis; Papadogeorgakis, Eleni; Sachse, Konrad; Vretou, Evangelia

    2011-08-01

    PCR amplification and nucleotide sequencing of the ompA gene of Chlamydia trachomatis were used to determine the prevalence and distribution of genotypes in 51 urine and urethral specimens from Greek male patients with urethritis, that were positive by the COBAS Amplicor test. A single C. trachomatis serovar was identified in 43 of the 51 amplified samples. Serovars F and E were the most prevalent (both 12, 28%), followed by D (9, 21%), G (4, 9%), B and K (both 2, 5%) and H and J (both 1, 2%). Over one third of the samples bared a variant ompA genotype that had been previously identified in other areas worldwide. Two results in this study, both observed for the first time, were of particular interest. First, the emergence of the unique variant genotype D/Ep6 (X77364.2) identified in 3 urethral samples. Second, the ompA genotype OCLH196 of the animal pathogen Chlamydophila abortus as well as a 23S rRNA gene fragment of this species detected by the assay ArrayTube™ was found in 7 urethral samples. The implications resulting from this observation for the health of the general population are discussed. PMID:21530642

  1. High rates of genital mycoplasma infection in the highlands of Papua New Guinea determined both by culture and by a commercial detection kit.

    PubMed Central

    Clegg, A; Passey, M; Yoannes, M; Michael, A

    1997-01-01

    Duplicate vaginal swabs were collected from 100 women, and comparisons were made between an in-house broth-agar culture system and a commercially available kit, the Mycoplasma IST kit (bioMérieux), for the detection of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum. There was good agreement between the two systems for detection of the genital mycoplasmas in terms of sensitivity, with values of > 92% being obtained. In terms of specificity, the mutual comparisons were less favorable, though specificity values of > 72% were obtained. Statistically there was no significant difference in the performance of the two tests (P < 0.1 for both M. hominis and U. urealyticum). While the broth-agar culture system was considerably less expensive than the kit, the Mycoplasma IST kit provided additional information on antibiotic susceptibilities and had the advantages of a shelf life of up to 12 months and not requiring the preparation of culture media. The prevalences of colonization obtained for M. hominis and U. urealyticum were extremely high in this randomly selected group of women from periurban and rural settlements in the Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea, being > or = 70% for M. hominis and > or = 78% for U. urealyticum. colonization with both genital mycoplasmas simultaneously was also very common, with > or = 60% of women being colonized by both M. hominis and U. urealyticum. PMID:8968907

  2. CDC Grand Rounds: Chlamydia prevention: challenges and strategies for reducing disease burden and sequelae.

    PubMed

    2011-04-01

    hlamydia, a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis, is the most commonly reported nationally notifiable disease. A total of 1,244,180 cases were reported in 2009. However, many infections are not detected, and an estimated 2.8 million infections occur each year. The burden of infection is greatest among sexually active adolescents and young adults; chlamydia prevalence among sexually active persons aged 14--24 years is nearly three times the prevalence among those aged 25--39 years (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2008 [NHANES], unpublished data, 2011). Substantial racial/ethnic disparities in chlamydial infection exist, with prevalence among non-Hispanic blacks approximately five times the prevalence among non-Hispanic whites. Among sexually active females aged 14--19 years, chlamydia prevalence is 6.8% overall (4.4% among non-Hispanic whites and 16.2% among non-Hispanic blacks). PMID:21451447

  3. Mucosal Immunity in the Female Genital Tract, HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Reis Machado, Juliana; da Silva, Marcos Vinícius; Cavellani, Camila Lourencini; Antônia dos Reis, Marlene; Monteiro, Maria Luiza Gonçalves dos Reis; Teixeira, Vicente de Paula Antunes; Rosa Miranda Corręa, Rosana

    2014-01-01

    Mucosal immunity consists of innate and adaptive immune responses which can be influenced by systemic immunity. Despite having been the subject of intensive studies, it is not fully elucidated what exactly occurs after HIV contact with the female genital tract mucosa. The sexual route is the main route of HIV transmission, with an increased risk of infection in women compared to men. Several characteristics of the female genital tract make it suitable for inoculation, establishment of infection, and systemic spread of the virus, which causes local changes that may favor the development of infections by other pathogens, often called sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The relationship of these STDs with HIV infection has been widely studied. Here we review the characteristics of mucosal immunity of the female genital tract, its alterations due to HIV/AIDS, and the characteristics of coinfections between HIV/AIDS and the most prevalent STDs. PMID:25313360

  4. Microbial diseases of the genital system of rams or bucks.

    PubMed

    Gouletsou, P G; Fthenakis, G C

    2015-12-14

    Objective of the present paper is to review microbial diseases of the genital system of male small ruminants. The paper reviews the infections and the diseases by taking an organ approach within the genital system, whilst relevant health management actions are also discussed. Diseases of the genital organs of male small ruminants include orchitis, of bacterial or viral aetiology, epididymitis, primarily caused by Brucella ovis, by other bacteria as well (e.g., Actinobacillus seminis, Haemophilus somni), infections of the accessory glands, orf, other infections of the penis or prepuce and infections of the scrotum. The health management of rams/bucks include the appropriate diagnostic investigations, the relevant therapeutic approaches and, finally, the preventive measures. PMID:26209019

  5. Healing of Genital Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Carol D.

    2011-01-01

    Child sexual abuse as well as accidental trauma may cause acute injuries in the anogenital area. Most data on residual findings following genital trauma come from longitudinal studies of children who have been sexually assaulted, undergone surgical procedures, or experienced accidental trauma. Like injuries in other part parts of the body, such…

  6. Prevalence and characteristics of rectal chlamydia and gonorrhea cases among men who have sex with men after the introduction of nucleic acid amplification test screening at 2 Canadian sexually transmitted infection clinics.

    PubMed

    Gratrix, Jennifer; Singh, Ameeta E; Bergman, Joshua; Egan, Cari; McGinnis, Justin; Drews, Steven J; Read, Ron

    2014-10-01

    We sought to determine the prevalence of rectal chlamydia and gonorrhea after the introduction of nucleic acid amplification tests for screening in men reporting receptive anal intercourse. The rectal chlamydia prevalence was 14.1% (95% confidence interval, 11.9-16.3), and the gonorrhea prevalence was 5.9% (95% confidence interval, 4.4-7.3). Most cases were positive only from the rectum. PMID:25211252

  7. Characterization of Host Cell Death Induced by Chlamydia trachomatis? †

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Songmin; Fischer, Silke F.; Pettengill, Matthew; Conte, Debye; Paschen, Stefan A.; Ojcius, David M.; Häcker, Georg

    2006-01-01

    Chlamydia are obligate intracellular bacteria that modulate apoptosis of the host cell. Strikingly, chlamydial infection has been reported both to inhibit and to induce apoptosis. Although the ability to inhibit apoptosis has been corroborated by the identification of cellular targets, confirmation of cell death induction has been complicated by a mixture of apoptotic features and atypical cell death during infection, as well as by differences in the experimental techniques used to measure cell death. Here we use a panel of well-established approaches in the study of apoptosis to define the form of cell death induced by Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Infected cells displayed apoptotic features such as nuclear condensation and fragmentation, as well as positive TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling) staining. Fragmentation of genomic DNA occurred, but was atypical. Clear evidence against the activation of effector caspases was found. Nuclear changes were measured in fibroblasts lacking one or both of the effectors of mitochondrial apoptosis, Bax and Bak. A slight reduction in nuclear changes was observed in Bax-deficient cells and in Bax/Bak double-deficient cells. Most surprisingly, this reduction was almost complete in Bak-deficient cells. Finally, dying infected cells were efficiently taken up by professional phagocytes, suggesting that Chlamydia-induced host-cell death could play a role in the immune response. In conclusion, chlamydial infection can induce cell death. Although Chlamydia-induced cell death has certain morphological features of apoptosis, it does not result from activation of the apoptotic pathway. PMID:16940144

  8. Using Fluorescent Proteins to Visualize and Quantitate Chlamydia Vacuole Growth Dynamics in Living Cells.

    PubMed

    Zuck, Meghan; Feng, Caroline; Hybiske, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia elicits a great burden on global public health. C. trachomatis is the leading bacterial cause of sexually transmitted infection and also the primary cause of preventable blindness in the world. An essential determinant for successful infection of host cells by Chlamydia is the bacterium's ability to manipulate host cell signaling from within a novel, vacuolar compartment called the inclusion. From within the inclusion, Chlamydia acquire nutrients required for their 2-3 day developmental growth, and they additionally secrete a panel of effector proteins onto the cytosolic face of the vacuole membrane and into the host cytosol. Gaps in our understanding of Chlamydia biology, however, present significant challenges for visualizing and analyzing this intracellular compartment. Recently, a reverse-imaging strategy for visualizing the inclusion using GFP expressing host cells was described. This approach rationally exploits the intrinsic impermeability of the inclusion membrane to large molecules such as GFP. In this work, we describe how GFP- or mCherry-expressing host cells are generated for subsequent visualization of chlamydial inclusions. Furthermore, this method is shown to effectively substitute for costly antibody-based enumeration methods, can be used in tandem with other fluorescent labels, such as GFP-expressing Chlamydia, and can be exploited to derive key quantitative data about inclusion membrane growth from a range of Chlamydia species and strains. PMID:26484535

  9. Genital flora in pregnancy and its association with intrauterine growth retardation.

    PubMed Central

    Germain, M; Krohn, M A; Hillier, S L; Eschenbach, D A

    1994-01-01

    A study of risk factors for intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was conducted among a cohort of 13,914 pregnant women enrolled in the multicenter Vaginal Infections and Prematurity Study. From 23 through 26 weeks of gestational age, cultures of specimens from the vagina and cervix were done for group B streptococci, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida albicans, Gardnerella vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and anaerobic gram-negative rods belonging to the genera Bacteroides, Porphyromonas, and Prevotella. Newborns who were small for their gestational age were delivered by 1,251 women, and infants of the appropriate weight for their gestational age were delivered by 10,332 women. When controlling for ethnicity and smoking and excluding women treated with antibiotics, the Mantel-Haenszel adjusted relative risk of IUGR was 1.16 for Bacteroides, Prevotella, and Porphyromonas spp. (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.01 to 1.33), 1.16 for M. hominis (95% CI, 1.04 to 1.29), 1.20 for U. urealyticum (95% CI, 1.05 to 1.38), and 1.22 for T. vaginalis (95% CI, 1.05 to 1.42). There was also a strong and significant trend for an increasing risk of IUGR with the number of these four microbes recovered. Among women colonized with all four isolates, the adjusted odds ratio of IUGR was 1.79 (95% CI, 1.27 to 2.52) in comparison with women not colonized with any of these microorganisms. Group B streptococci, N. gonorrhoeae, C. trachomatis, and C. albicans were not significantly associated with IUGR. These results suggest that infection is associated with some cases of IUGR and that specific microorganisms, alone or in combination, are involved. Since genital isolates are highly correlated with each other, the relative contribution of each microbe is difficult to determine. PMID:7814541

  10. Identifying Relationships between High-Risk Sexual Behaviors and Screening Positive for Chlamydia and Gonorrhea in School-Wide Screening Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salerno, Jennifer; Darling-Fisher, Cindy; Hawkins, Nicole M.; Fraker, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Background: This article describes a school-wide sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening to identify adolescent high-risk sexual behaviors, STI history/incidence, and presence of chlamydia and gonorrhea, and examines relationships between high-risk behaviors and screening positive for chlamydia and gonorrhea in an alternative high school…

  11. IL-17A is proatherogenic in high-fat diet-induced and Chlamydia pneumoniae-infection accelerated atherosclerosis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shuang; Shimada, Kenichi; Zhang, Wenxuan; Huang, Ganghua; Crother, Timothy R.; Arditi, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    The role of IL-17 in atherogenesis remains controversial. We previously reported that the TLR/MyD88 signaling pathway plays an important role in high–fat diet, as well as Chlamydophila pneumoniae (Cpn) infection-mediated acceleration of atherosclerosis in ApoE deficient mice. Here we investigated the role of the IL-17A in high-fat diet and Cpn-induced acceleration of atherosclerosis. The aortic sinus plaque and aortic lesion size and lipid composition as well as macrophage accumulation in the lesions were significantly diminished in IL-17A?/? mice fed high-fat diet compared to wild-type C57Bl/6 control mice. As expected, Cpn infection led to a significant increase in size and lipid content of the atherosclerotic lesions in wild-type mice. However, IL-17A?/? mice developed significantly less acceleration of lesion size following Cpn infection compared to wild-type control despite similar levels of blood cholesterol levels. Furthermore, Cpn infection in wild-type but not in IL-17A?/? mice was associated with significant increases in serum concentrations of IL-12p40, CCL2, INF? and numbers of macrophages in their plaques. Additionally, in vitro studies suggest that IL-17A activates vascular endothelial cells, which secrete cytokines that in turn enhance foam cell formation in bone marrow macrophages. Taken together, our data suggest that IL-17A is pro-atherogenic and that it plays an important role in both diet-induced atherosclerotic lesion development, and Cpn infection-mediated acceleration of atherosclerotic lesions in the presence of high fat diet. PMID:20935201

  12. Comparative evaluation of the protective efficacy of two formulations of a recombinant Chlamydia abortus subunit candidate vaccine in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Pan, Qing; Pais, Roshan; Ohandjo, Adaugo; He, Cheng; He, Qing; Omosun, Yusuf; Igietseme, J U; Eko, F O

    2015-04-01

    Chlamydia abortus (C. abortus) is the causative agent of ovine enzootic abortion (OEA) and poses a zoonotic risk to pregnant women. Current live attenuated 1B vaccines are efficacious but cause disease in vaccinated animals and inactivated vaccines are only marginally protective. We tested the ability of a new C. abortus subunit vaccine candidate based on the conserved and immunogenic polymorphic membrane protein D (Pmp18D) formulated in CpG1826+FL (Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 Ligand; Flt3L) or Vibrio cholerae ghosts (VCG) to induce innate and cross protective immunity against genital C. abortus infection. We found that delivery of rPmp18D with VCG was more effective than with CpG+FL in up-regulating the expression of molecules critically involved in T cell activation and differentiation, including MHC II, CD40, CD80, and CD86, activation of TLRs and NLRP3 inflammasome engagement, and secretion of IL-1? and TNF-? but not IL-10 and IL-4. rVCG-Pmp18D-immunized mice elicited more robust antigen-specific IFN-?, IgA and IgG2c antibody responses compared to CpG+FL-delivered rPmp18D. Based on the number of mice with positive vaginal cultures, length of vaginal shedding, and number of inclusion forming units recovered following challenge with the heterologous C. abortus strain B577, vaccine delivery with VCG induced superior protective immunity than delivery with a combination of CpG1826 and FL, a nasal DC-targeting adjuvant. These results demonstrate that the ability of VCG to enhance protective immunity against genital C. abortus infection is superior to that of CpG+FL adjuvants. PMID:25698486

  13. Expression and Targeting of Secreted Proteins from Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Bauler, Laura D.

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular pathogen that replicates in a vacuole termed the inclusion. Many of the interactions of chlamydiae with the host cell are dependent upon bacterial protein synthesis and presumably exposure of these proteins to the cytosol. Because of the dearth of genetic tools for chlamydiae, previous studies examining secreted proteins required the use of heterologous bacterial systems. Recent advances in genetic manipulation of chlamydia now allow for transformation of the bacteria with plasmids. We describe here a shuttle vector system, pBOMB4, that permits expression of recombinant proteins under constitutive or conditional promoter control. We show that the inclusion membrane protein IncD is secreted in a type III-dependent manner from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and also secreted from C. trachomatis in infected cells where it localizes appropriately to the inclusion membrane. IncD truncated of the first 30 amino acids containing the secretion signal is no longer secreted and is retained by the bacteria. Cytosolic exposure of secreted proteins can be confirmed by using CyaA, GSK, or microinjection assays. A protein predicted to be retained within the bacteria, NrdB is indeed localized to the chlamydia. In addition, we have shown that the chlamydial effector protein, CPAF, which is secreted into the host cell cytosol by a Sec-dependent pathway, also accesses the cytosol when expressed from this system. These assays should prove useful to assess the secretion of other chlamydial proteins that are potentially exposed to the cytosol of the host cell. PMID:24443531

  14. Role of STAT1 in Chlamydia-Induced Type-1 Interferon Production in Oviduct Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Hosey, Kristen Lynette; Hu, Sishun; Derbigny, Wilbert Alfred

    2015-11-01

    We previously reported that Chlamydia muridarum-infected murine oviduct epithelial cells (OE cells) secrete interferon ? (IFN-?) in a mostly TLR3-dependent manner. However, C. muridarum-infected TLR3-deficient OE cells were still able to secrete detectable levels of IFN-? into the supernatants, suggesting that other signaling pathways contribute to Chlamydia-induced IFN-? synthesis in these cells. We investigated the role of STAT1 as a possible contributor in the Chlamydia-induced type-1 IFN production in wild-type (WT) and TLR3-deficient OE cells to ascertain its putative role at early- and late-times during Chlamydia infection. Our data show that C. muridarum infection significantly increased STAT1 gene expression and protein activation in WT OE cells; however, TLR3-deficient OE cells showed diminished STAT1 protein activation and gene expression. There was significantly less IFN-? detected in the supernatants of C. muridarum-infected OE cells derived from mice deficient in STAT1 when compared with WT OE cells, which suggest that STAT1 is required for the optimal synthesis of IFN-? during infection. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses of signaling components of the type-1 IFN signaling pathway demonstrated equal upregulation in the expression of STAT2 and IRF7 genes in the WT and TLR3-deficient OE cells, but no upregulation in these genes in the STAT1-deficient OE cells. Finally, experiments in which INFAR1 was blocked with neutralizing antibody revealed that IFNAR1-mediated signaling was critical to the Chlamydia-induced upregulation in IFN-? gene transcription, but had no role in the Chlamydia-induced upregulation in IFN-? gene transcription. PMID:26262558

  15. Bacteria-Targeting Nanoparticles for Managing Infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radovic-Moreno, Aleksandar Filip

    Bacterial infections continue to be a significant concern particularly in healthcare settings and in the developing world. Current challenges include the increasing spread of drug resistant (DR) organisms, the side effects of antibiotic therapy, the negative consequences of clearing the commensal bacterial flora, and difficulties in developing prophylactic vaccines. This thesis was an investigation of the potential of a class of polymeric nanoparticles (NP) to contribute to the management of bacterial infections. More specifically, steps were taken towards using these NPs (1) to achieve greater spatiotemporal control over drug therapy by more targeted antibiotic delivery to bacteria, and (2) to develop a prophylactic vaccine formulation against the common bacterial sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. In the first part, we synthesized polymeric NPs containing poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-block-poly(L-histidine)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PLH-PEG). We show that these NPs are able to bind to bacteria under model acidic infection conditions and are able to encapsulate and deliver vancomycin to inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria in vitro. Further work showed that the PLGA-PLH-PEG-based NPs demonstrated the potential for competition for binding bacteria at a site of infection from soluble protein and model phagocytic and tissue-resident cells in a NP composition dependent manner. The NPs demonstrated low toxicity in vitro, were well tolerated by mice in vivo, and circulated in the blood on timescales comparable to control PLGA-PEG NPs. In the second part, we used PLGA-PLH-PEG-based NPs to design a prophylactic vaccine against the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis, the most common cause of bacterial STD in the world. Currently, no vaccines against this pathogen are approved for use in humans. We first formulated NPs encapsulating the TLR7 agonist R848 conjugated to poly(lactic acid) (R848-PLA) in PLGA-PLH-PEG-based NPs, then incubated these R848-NPs with UV-inactivated C. trachomatis bacteria in acidity, forming a construct. Mice immunized with this vaccine via genital or intranasal routes demonstrated protection from genital infection post immunization in a primarily CD4+ T cell-dependent manner. These results may suggest avenues for future work in designing and developing more targeted drug therapies or vaccine formulations for managing bacterial infections using polymeric nanoparticles. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, libraries.mit.edu/docs - docs mit.edu)

  16. In Silico Scrutiny of Genes Revealing Phylogenetic Congruence with Clinical Prevalence or Tropism Properties of Chlamydia trachomatis Strains

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Rita; Antelo, Minia; Nunes, Alexandra; Borges, Vítor; Damiăo, Vera; Borrego, Maria José; Gomes, Joăo Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Microbes possess a multiplicity of virulence factors that confer them the ability to specifically infect distinct biological niches. Contrary to what is known for other bacteria, for the obligate intracellular human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis, the knowledge of the molecular basis underlying serovars’ tissue specificity is scarce. We examined all ~900 genes to evaluate the association between individual phylogenies and cell-appetence or ecological success of C. trachomatis strains. Only ~1% of the genes presented a tree topology showing the segregation of all three disease groups (ocular, urogenital, and lymphatic) into three well-supported clades. Approximately 28% of the genes, which include the majority of the genes encoding putative type III secretion system effectors and Inc proteins, present a phylogenetic tree where only lymphogranuloma venereum strains form a clade. Similarly, an exclusive phylogenetic segregation of the most prevalent genital serovars was observed for 61 proteins. Curiously, these serovars are phylogenetically cosegregated with the lymphogranuloma venereum serovars for ~20% of the genes. Some clade-specific pseudogenes were identified (novel findings include the conserved hypothetical protein CT037 and the predicted ?-hemolysin CT473), suggesting their putative expendability for the infection of particular niches. Approximately 3.5% of the genes revealed a significant overrepresentation of nonsynonymous mutations, and the majority encode proteins that directly interact with the host. Overall, this in silico scrutiny of genes whose phylogeny is congruent with clinical prevalence or tissue specificity of C. trachomatis strains may constitute an important database of putative targets for future functional studies to evaluate their biological role in chlamydial infections. PMID:25378473

  17. In silico scrutiny of genes revealing phylogenetic congruence with clinical prevalence or tropism properties of Chlamydia trachomatis strains.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Rita; Antelo, Minia; Nunes, Alexandra; Borges, Vítor; Damiăo, Vera; Borrego, Maria José; Gomes, Joăo Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Microbes possess a multiplicity of virulence factors that confer them the ability to specifically infect distinct biological niches. Contrary to what is known for other bacteria, for the obligate intracellular human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis, the knowledge of the molecular basis underlying serovars' tissue specificity is scarce. We examined all ~900 genes to evaluate the association between individual phylogenies and cell-appetence or ecological success of C. trachomatis strains. Only ~1% of the genes presented a tree topology showing the segregation of all three disease groups (ocular, urogenital, and lymphatic) into three well-supported clades. Approximately 28% of the genes, which include the majority of the genes encoding putative type III secretion system effectors and Inc proteins, present a phylogenetic tree where only lymphogranuloma venereum strains form a clade. Similarly, an exclusive phylogenetic segregation of the most prevalent genital serovars was observed for 61 proteins. Curiously, these serovars are phylogenetically cosegregated with the lymphogranuloma venereum serovars for ~20% of the genes. Some clade-specific pseudogenes were identified (novel findings include the conserved hypothetical protein CT037 and the predicted ?-hemolysin CT473), suggesting their putative expendability for the infection of particular niches. Approximately 3.5% of the genes revealed a significant overrepresentation of nonsynonymous mutations, and the majority encode proteins that directly interact with the host. Overall, this in silico scrutiny of genes whose phylogeny is congruent with clinical prevalence or tissue specificity of C. trachomatis strains may constitute an important database of putative targets for future functional studies to evaluate their biological role in chlamydial infections. PMID:25378473

  18. Chlamydial infections - male

    MedlinePLUS

    ... urine from the bladder and passes through the penis). This type of chlamydia infection is passed from ... a burning sensation during urination Discharge from the penis Redness, swelling, or itching of the opening of ...

  19. HPV and Chlamydia trachomatis co-detection in young asymptomatic women from high incidence area for cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Bellaminutti, Serena; Seraceni, Silva; De Seta, Francesco; Gheit, Tarik; Tommasino, Massimo; Comar, Manola

    2014-11-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis causing chronic inflammatory diseases has investigated as possible human papillomavirus (HPV) cofactor in cervical cancer. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and HPV co-infection in different cohorts of asymptomatic women from a Northern Italy area at high incidence for cervical cancer. Cervical samples from 441 females were collected from Cervical Cancer Screening Program, Sexually Transmitted Infectious and Assisted Reproductive Technology centres. HPV and Chlamydia trachomatis were detected simultaneously and genotyped using a highly sensitive bead based assay. The overall prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis was estimated 9.7%, in contrast with the reported national data of 2.3%, and co-infection with HPV was diagnosed in the 17% of the samples. In females ??25 years of age, the infection reached a peak of 22% and co-infection with HPV of 45.8% (P?Chlamydia trachomatis and HPV distribution was observed, while differently, HPV co-infection was found significantly associated to the presence of intraepithelial lesions when compared to older females (20% vs. 1%; P?Chlamydia trachomatis and HPV co-infection in asymptomatic females, leading to reduction of the potential to identify incorrectly the infection status. An active screening for timely treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis infection is suggested in young females to evaluate a possible decrease in incidence of pre-cancer intraepithelial lesions. PMID:25132162

  20. Prevalence and characterization of Chlamydia DNA in zoo animals in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kabeya, Hidenori; Sato, Shingo; Maruyama, Soichi

    2015-09-01

    Because many people visit zoos, prevention of zoonoses is important from the standpoint of public health. This study examined the prevalence of Chlamydia among zoo animals in Japan by PCR and characterized these bacteria by performing phylogenetic analyses of the sequences of the variable domain (VD) 2 and VD4 regions of the ompA gene, which encodes the Chlamydia major outer membrane protein. Fecal samples were collected from 1150 zoo animals in five zoos and examined for Chlamydia DNA. Chlamydia psittaci DNA was found in 3.9% of mammals, 7.2% of birds and 8.1% of reptiles. The prevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae DNA was significantly higher in reptiles (5.8%) than in mammals (0.3%) and birds (0.3%). Phylogenetic analysis of the ompA VD2 region from 18 samples showed that nine were in three different clusters containing C. psittaci strains, six were in a cluster containing C. pneumoniae strains and three each formed a distinct branch. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of the ompA VD4 region showed that C. pneumoniae DNAs from reptiles were close to those from human patients. The C. pneumoniae DNAs from the European glass lizard, Emerald tree boa, and Panther chameleon were classified in clusters that were distinct from other strains, suggesting that these reptiles had each been infected with a specific C. pneumoniae genotype. This study showed that diverse Chlamydia strains have been prevalent among a variety of zoo animals. PMID:26215334

  1. Chlamydia Screening in Juvenile Corrections: Even Females Considered to Be at Low Risk Are at High Risk.

    PubMed

    Torrone, Elizabeth; Beeston, Tara; Ochoa, Rosemari; Richardson, Marjorie; Gray, Tom; Peterman, Thomas; Katz, Kenneth A

    2016-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends chlamydia screening at intake for all females in juvenile detention facilities. Identifying factors predictive of chlamydia could enable targeted screening, reducing costs while still identifying most infections. This study used demographic, arrest, and health data to identify factors associated with chlamydia among females aged 12 to 18 years entering a juvenile detention facility in San Diego during January 2009 to June 2010. The study created different screening criteria based on combinations of factors associated with infection and calculated sensitivity and proportion screened for each criterion. Overall chlamydia prevalence was 10.3% and was 4.2% among females reporting no sexual risk factors. No acceptable targeted screening approach was identified. High prevalence, even among females without risk factors, supports universal screening at intake. PMID:26672116

  2. More than classical Chlamydia psittaci in urban pigeons.

    PubMed

    Sachse, Konrad; Kuehlewind, Simone; Ruettger, Anke; Schubert, Evelyn; Rohde, Gernot

    2012-06-15

    In the literature, studies of Chlamydia infection in birds have usually been confined to the search for Chlamydia (C., formerly Chlamydophila) psittaci, so that little is known about the presence of other chlamydial agents. In the present study, cloacal swabs and faeces samples of urban pigeons have been examined by real-time PCR, DNA microarray assays and partial ompA sequencing. Whilst C. psittaci was the predominant chlamydial agent in this pigeon population (75.8% of all Chlamydiaceae positives), the combined use of highly specific and sensitive molecular assays facilitated the detection of atypical serovars of C. psittaci, as well as other species of Chlamydia, such as C. abortus. Detection of C. pecorum and C. trachomatis from an avian host is reported here for the first time. Rather unexpectedly, 19.5% of all Chlamydiaceae-positive cases turned out to be infected with non-classified organisms. The considerable prevalence of these novel agents raises the question of their epidemiological importance and possible role as pathogens. Future surveys in domestic and wild birds will have to take the extended variety of chlamydial organisms into account. PMID:22296995

  3. CD1d-restricted NKT cells modulate placental and uterine leukocyte populations during chlamydial infection in mice

    PubMed Central

    Habbeddine, Mohamed; Verbeke, Philippe; Delarbre, Christiane; Moutier, René; Prieto, Stéphane; Ojcius, David M.; Kanellopoulos-Langevin, Colette

    2014-01-01

    Invariant CD1d-restricted natural killer T cells play an important immunoregulatory role and can influence a broad spectrum of immunological responses including against bacterial infections. They are present at the fetal–maternal interface and although it has been reported that experimental systemic iNKT cell activation can induce mouse abortion, their role during pregnancy remain poorly understood. In the present work, using a physiological Chlamydia muridarum infection model, we have shown that, in vaginally infected pregnant mice, C. muridarum is cleared similarly in C57BL/6 wild type (WT) and CD1d?/? mice. We have also shown that infected- as well as uninfected-CD1d?/? mice have the same litter size as WT counterparts. Thus, CD1d-restricted cells are required neither for the resolution of chlamydial infection of the lower-genital tract, nor for the maintenance of reproductive capacity. However, unexpected differences in T cell populations were observed in uninfected pregnant females, as CD1d?/? placentas contained significantly higher percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells than WT counterparts. However, infection triggered a significant decrease in the percentages of CD4+ T cells in CD1d?/? mice. In infected WT pregnant mice, the numbers of uterine CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, monocytes and granulocytes were greatly increased, changes not observed in infected CD1d?/? mice. An increase in the percentage of CD8+ T cells seems independent of CD1d-restricted cells as it occurred in both WT and CD1d?/? mice. Thus, in the steady state, the lack of CD1d-restricted NKT cells affects leukocyte populations only in the placenta. In Chlamydia-infected pregnant mice, the immune response against Chlamydia is dampened in the uterus. Our results suggest that CD1d-restricted NKT cells play a role in the recruitment or homeostasis of leukocyte populations at the maternal–fetal interface in the presence or absence of Chlamydia infection. PMID:23999314

  4. Female genital cutting: a persisting practice.

    PubMed

    Nour, Nawal M

    2008-01-01

    More than 130 million women worldwide have undergone female genital cutting (FGC). FGC occurs in parts of Africa and Asia, in societies with various cultures and religions. Reasons for the continuing practice of FGC include rite of passage, preserving chastity, ensuring marriageability, religion, hygiene, improving fertility, and enhancing sexual pleasure for men. The World Health Organization has classified FGC into 4 types depending on the extent of tissue removed. Immediate complications include hemorrhage, infection, sepsis, and death. Long-term complications include pain, scarring, urinary issues, and poor obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Efforts are being made nationally and internationally to eradicate this practice. PMID:19015765

  5. [MEDICAL AND SOCIAL STATE OF HEALTH IN FAMILIES WITH THE FOCUS OF RESPIRATORY CHLAMYDIA].

    PubMed

    Kapustina, T A; Markina, A N; Parilova, O V; Belova, E V; Kin, T I

    2015-01-01

    Medical and social state of health in family persons was assessed on the basis of a questionnaire. Developed by the author's questionnaire included two sections, reflecting the state of health, health risk factors and social characteristics of the family members of ENT patients. In the article there is presented an analysis of the medical and social state of 44 families of patients with diseases of the upper respiratory tract associated with chlamydial infection. The comparison was performed with 43 families of ENT patients with unconfirmed respiratory chlamydia. Diagnosis of Chlamydia infection complex was carried out with the use of laboratory methods (direct immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, polymerase chain reaction). The health and social status of families with hearth respiratory chlamydia were shown to be significantly worse compared with families with the lack of the latter PMID:26625610

  6. Acute genital ulcers.

    PubMed

    Delgado-García, Silvia; Palacios-Marqués, Ana; Martínez-Escoriza, Juan Carlos; Martín-Bayón, Tina-Aurora

    2014-01-01

    Acute genital ulcers, also known as acute vulvar ulcers, ulcus vulvae acutum or Lipschütz ulcers, refer to an ulceration of the vulva or lower vagina of non-venereal origin that usually presents in young women, predominantly virgins. Although its incidence is unknown, it seems a rare entity, with few cases reported in the literature. Their aetiology and pathogenesis are still unknown. The disease is characterised by an acute onset of flu-like symptoms with single or multiple painful ulcers on the vulva. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, after exclusion of other causes of vulvar ulcers. The treatment is mainly symptomatic, with spontaneous resolution in 2 weeks and without recurrences in most cases. We present a case report of a 13-year-old girl with two episodes of acute ulcers that fit the clinical criteria for Lipschütz ulcers. PMID:24473429

  7. Genital Problems in Men

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or greenish discharge from the tip of your penis? Yes Your may have a SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTION ... small red bumps, blisters or sores on your penis? Yes You may have a YEAST INFECTION, HERPES ...

  8. Peritonitis due to genital tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Svendsen, J H; Mikkelsen, A L; Siemssen, O J

    1985-01-01

    A case of genital tuberculosis is presented. The diagnosis was made by laparotomy and histological examination of biopsies from peritoneum and the Fallopian tube. The literature is reviewed and the diagnostic approach and treatment discussed. PMID:4083779

  9. The Proteome of the Isolated Chlamydia trachomatis Containing Vacuole Reveals a Complex Trafficking Platform Enriched for Retromer Components

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Martina; Jehmlich, Nico; Rose, Laura; Koch, Sophia; Laue, Michael; Renard, Bernhard Y.; Schmidt, Frank; Heuer, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an important human pathogen that replicates inside the infected host cell in a unique vacuole, the inclusion. The formation of this intracellular bacterial niche is essential for productive Chlamydia infections. Despite its importance for Chlamydia biology, a holistic view on the protein composition of the inclusion, including its membrane, is currently missing. Here we describe the host cell-derived proteome of isolated C. trachomatis inclusions by quantitative proteomics. Computational analysis indicated that the inclusion is a complex intracellular trafficking platform that interacts with host cells’ antero- and retrograde trafficking pathways. Furthermore, the inclusion is highly enriched for sorting nexins of the SNX-BAR retromer, a complex essential for retrograde trafficking. Functional studies showed that in particular, SNX5 controls the C. trachomatis infection and that retrograde trafficking is essential for infectious progeny formation. In summary, these findings suggest that C. trachomatis hijacks retrograde pathways for effective infection. PMID:26042774

  10. Genital Appearance Dissatisfaction: Implications for Women’s Genital Image Self-Consciousness, Sexual Esteem, Sexual Satisfaction, and Sexual Risk

    PubMed Central

    Schick, Vanessa R.; Calabrese, Sarah K.; Rima, Brandi N.; Zucker, Alyssa N.

    2010-01-01

    Findings regarding the link between body image and sexuality have been equivocal, possibly because of the insensitivity of many of body image measures to potential variability across sensory aspects of the body (e.g., appearance versus odor), individual body parts (e.g., genitalia versus thighs), and social settings (e.g., public versus intimate). The current study refined existing methods of evaluating women’s body image in the context of sexuality by focusing upon two highly specified dimensions: satisfaction with the visual appearance of the genitalia and self-consciousness about the genitalia during a sexual encounter. Genital appearance dissatisfaction, genital image self-consciousness, and multiple facets of sexuality were examined with a sample of 217 undergraduate women using an online survey. Path analysis revealed that greater dissatisfaction with genital appearance was associated with higher genital image self-consciousness during physical intimacy, which, in turn, was associated with lower sexual esteem, sexual satisfaction, and motivation to avoid risky sexual behavior. These findings underscore the detrimental impact of negative genital perceptions on young women’s sexual wellbeing, which is of particular concern given their vulnerability at this stage of sexual development as well as the high rates of sexually transmitted infections within this age group. Interventions that enhance satisfaction with the natural appearance of their genitalia could facilitate the development of a healthy sexual self-concept and provide long-term benefits in terms of sexual safety and satisfaction. PMID:20824180

  11. Male genital trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, G.H.; Gilbert, D.A.

    1988-07-01

    We have attempted to discuss genital trauma in relatively broad terms. In most cases, patients present with relatively minimal trauma. However, because of the complexity of the structures involved, minimal trauma can lead to significant disability later on. The process of erection requires correct functioning of the arterial, neurologic, and venous systems coupled with intact erectile bodies. The penis is composed of structures that are compliant and distensible to the limits of their compliance. These structures therefore tumesce in equal proportion to each other, allowing for straight erection. Relatively minimal trauma can upset this balance of elasticity, leading to disabling chordee. Likewise, relatively minimal injuries to the vascular erectile structures can lead to significantly disabling spongiofibrosis. The urethra is a conduit of paramount importance. Whereas the development of stricture is generally related to the nature of the trauma, the extent of stricture and of attendant complications is clearly a function of the immediate management. Overzealous debridement can greatly complicate subsequent reconstruction. A delicate balance between aggressive initial management and maximal preservation of viable structures must be achieved. 38 references.

  12. BLAST screening of chlamydial genomes to identify signature proteins that are unique for the Chlamydiales, Chlamydiaceae, Chlamydophila and Chlamydia groups of species

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Emma; Ventresca, Michael S; Gupta, Radhey S

    2006-01-01

    Background Chlamydiae species are of much importance from a clinical viewpoint. Their diversity both in terms of their numbers as well as clinical involvement are presently believed to be significantly underestimated. The obligate intracellular nature of chlamydiae has also limited their genetic and biochemical studies. Thus, it is of importance to develop additional means for their identification and characterization. Results We have carried out analyses of available chlamydiae genomes to identify sets of unique proteins that are either specific for all Chlamydiales genomes, or different Chlamydiaceae family members, or members of the Chlamydia and Chlamydophila genera, or those unique to Protochlamydia amoebophila, but which are not found in any other bacteria. In total, 59 Chlamydiales-specific proteins, 79 Chlamydiaceae-specific proteins, 20 proteins each that are specific for both Chlamydia and Chlamydophila and 445 ORFs that are Protochlamydia-specific were identified. Additionally, 33 cases of possible gene loss or lateral gene transfer were also detected. Conclusion The identified chlamydiae-lineage specific proteins, many of which are highly conserved, provide novel biomarkers that should prove of much value in the diagnosis of these bacteria and in exploration of their prevalence and diversity. These conserved protein sequences (CPSs) also provide novel therapeutic targets for drugs that are specific for these bacteria. Lastly, functional studies on these chlamydiae or chlamydiae subgroup-specific proteins should lead to important insights into lineage-specific adaptations with regards to development, infectivity and pathogenicity. PMID:16436211

  13. [Will a vaccine against Chlamydia trachomatis be available soon?].

    PubMed

    Baud, D; Stojanov, M

    2015-10-28

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most prevalent cause of sexually transmitted bacterial infections worldwide, with more than 100 million estimated cases annually. This obligate intracellular pathogen is known to cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and chronic infections resulting in tubal factor infertility and ectopic pregnancy. However, the majority of the infections remains asymptomatic and thus untreated. For this reason, the ultimate goal for the prevention C. trachomatis infections is an effective vaccine. Here we review the major challenges and the different strategies associated with the development of an anti-Chlamydial vaccine. Even if an effective vaccine is not available yet, recent advances in the understanding of C. trachomatis pathogenesis and mucosal immune system are promising for its future development. PMID:26672177

  14. A Chlamydia effector recruits CEP170 to reprogram host microtubule organization.

    PubMed

    Dumoux, Maud; Menny, Anais; Delacour, Delphine; Hayward, Richard D

    2015-09-15

    The obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis deploys virulence effectors to subvert host cell functions enabling its replication within a specialized membrane-bound compartment termed an inclusion. The control of the host cytoskeleton is crucial for Chlamydia uptake, inclusion biogenesis and cell exit. Here, we demonstrate how a Chlamydia effector rearranges the microtubule (MT) network by initiating organization of the MTs at the inclusion surface. We identified an inclusion-localized effector that is sufficient to interfere with MT assembly, which we named inclusion protein acting on MTs (IPAM). We established that IPAM recruits and stimulates the centrosomal protein 170?kDa (CEP170) to hijack the MT organizing functions of the host cell. We show that CEP170 is essential for chlamydial control of host MT assembly, and is required for inclusion morphogenesis and bacterial infectivity. Together, we demonstrate how a pathogen effector reprograms the host MT network to support its intracellular development. PMID:26220855

  15. A Chlamydia effector recruits CEP170 to reprogram host microtubule organization

    PubMed Central

    Dumoux, Maud; Menny, Anais; Delacour, Delphine; Hayward, Richard D.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis deploys virulence effectors to subvert host cell functions enabling its replication within a specialized membrane-bound compartment termed an inclusion. The control of the host cytoskeleton is crucial for Chlamydia uptake, inclusion biogenesis and cell exit. Here, we demonstrate how a Chlamydia effector rearranges the microtubule (MT) network by initiating organization of the MTs at the inclusion surface. We identified an inclusion-localized effector that is sufficient to interfere with MT assembly, which we named inclusion protein acting on MTs (IPAM). We established that IPAM recruits and stimulates the centrosomal protein 170?kDa (CEP170) to hijack the MT organizing functions of the host cell. We show that CEP170 is essential for chlamydial control of host MT assembly, and is required for inclusion morphogenesis and bacterial infectivity. Together, we demonstrate how a pathogen effector reprograms the host MT network to support its intracellular development. PMID:26220855

  16. Quantitative proteomics reveals metabolic and pathogenic properties of Chlamydia trachomatis developmental forms

    PubMed Central

    Saka, Hector A.; Thompson, J. Will; Chen, Yi-Shan; Kumar, Yadunanda; Dubois, Laura G.; Moseley, M. Arthur; Valdivia, Raphael H.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular pathogen responsible for ocular and genital infections of significant public health importance. C. trachomatis undergoes a biphasic developmental cycle alternating between two distinct forms: the infectious elementary body (EB), and the replicative but non-infectious reticulate body (RB). The molecular basis for these developmental transitions and the metabolic properties of the EB and RB forms are poorly understood as these bacteria have traditionally been difficult to manipulate through classical genetic approaches. Using two-dimensional liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry (LC/LC-MS/MS) we performed a large-scale, label-free quantitative proteomic analysis of C. trachomatis LGV-L2 EB and RB forms. Additionally, we carried out LC-MS/MS to analyze the membranes of the pathogen-containing vacuole (“inclusion”). We developed a label-free quantification approaches to measure protein abundance in a mixed-proteome background which we applied for EB and RB quantitative analysis. In this manner, we catalogued the relative distribution of >54% of the predicted proteins in the C. trachomatis LGV-L2 proteome. Proteins required for central metabolism and glucose catabolism were predominant in the EB, whereas proteins associated with protein synthesis, ATP generation and nutrient transport were more abundant in the RB. These findings suggest that the EB is primed for a burst in metabolic activity upon entry, whereas the RB form is geared towards nutrient utilization, a rapid increase in cellular mass, and securing the resources for an impending transition back to the EB form. The most revealing difference between the two forms was the relative deficiency of cytoplasmic factors required for efficient Type III secretion (T3S) in the RB stage at 18 hpi, suggesting a reduced T3S capacity or a low frequency of active T3S apparatus assembled on a “per organism” basis. Our results show that EB and RB proteomes are streamlined to fulfill their predicted biological functions: maximum infectivity for EBs and replicative capacity for RBs. PMID:22014092

  17. Evidence that human Chlamydia pneumoniae was zoonotically acquired.

    PubMed

    Myers, G S A; Mathews, S A; Eppinger, M; Mitchell, C; O'Brien, K K; White, O R; Benahmed, F; Brunham, R C; Read, T D; Ravel, J; Bavoil, P M; Timms, P

    2009-12-01

    Zoonotic infections are a growing threat to global health. Chlamydia pneumoniae is a major human pathogen that is widespread in human populations, causing acute respiratory disease, and has been associated with chronic disease. C. pneumoniae was first identified solely in human populations; however, its host range now includes other mammals, marsupials, amphibians, and reptiles. Australian koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) are widely infected with two species of Chlamydia, C. pecorum and C. pneumoniae. Transmission of C. pneumoniae between animals and humans has not been reported; however, two other chlamydial species, C. psittaci and C. abortus, are known zoonotic pathogens. We have sequenced the 1,241,024-bp chromosome and a 7.5-kb cryptic chlamydial plasmid of the koala strain of C. pneumoniae (LPCoLN) using the whole-genome shotgun method. Comparative genomic analysis, including pseudogene and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) distribution, and phylogenetic analysis of conserved genes and SNPs against the human isolates of C. pneumoniae show that the LPCoLN isolate is basal to human isolates. Thus, we propose based on compelling genomic and phylogenetic evidence that humans were originally infected zoonotically by an animal isolate(s) of C. pneumoniae which adapted to humans primarily through the processes of gene decay and plasmid loss, to the point where the animal reservoir is no longer required for transmission. PMID:19749045

  18. [Female genital mutilations, forced marriages, and early pregnancies].

    PubMed

    Henrion, Roger

    2003-01-01

    Female genital mutilations, as well as forcible childhood marriage and their correlate adolescent pregnancies are traditional practices which, not only violate the dignity, but also jeopardize the health, and even the life, of women and their children. The complications of genital mutilations are frequent for a number of reasons: the fact that the clitoris is highly vascularized, the nature of the mutilations, excision or infibulation, and the poor conditions of hygiene. The short term complications are pain, hemorrhage, shock, and urinary retention. Medium term complications include gangrene, septicemia, tetanus, pelvic inflammatory disease, HIV/AIDS, and hepatitis B or C infections. Serious sequelae may occur, including infertility and gynecologic disorders, and sexual life is invariably altered. The main obstetrical complications of genital mutilations are genital lacerations involving the labia minor and the perineum, which can lead to hemorrhage and sequelae such as urinary or anal incontinence, recto-vaginal and vesico-vaginal fistulas. The role of doctors, which is delicate because these customs are entrenched, is to detect genital mutilations, repair them and prevent them, by participating in health education programs. The consequences of forcible childhood marriage are serious, besides the fact that this is a disguised form of rape. The obstetrical risks favored by the underdevelopment of the uterus and the pelvis, include uterine rupture, preeclampsia and eclampsia, and obstetrical hemorrhage. The fetus/neonate are jeopardized by these complications, which can result in perinatal asphyxia and death, as well as the high rates of intrauterine growth retardation and preterm delivery. The impact of genital mutilations on delivery are compounded in childhood pregnancies for anatomical reasons, but also because these adolescents or children are extremely vulnerable and have poor access to perinatal care. In France, as well as in Africa, non-governmental and women's rights organizations are active in preventing these practices. We strongly recommend that these groups should receive aid and encouragement. PMID:14978867

  19. Genital Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Native Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... emotionally hard for a person to deal with; • Cervical cancer in women; • Other less common cancers in men ... of HPV will not develop genital warts or cervical cancer. ? Genital warts will not turn into cancer, even ...

  20. Non-healing genital herpes mimicking donovanosis in an immunocompetent man.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vishal; Khute, Prakash; Patel, Anjali; Gupta, Somesh

    2016-01-01

    Although atypical presentations of herpetic infection in immunocompetent individuals are common, they very rarely have the extensive, chronic and verrucous appearances seen in the immunocompromised host. We report a case of genital herpes manifesting as painless chronic non-healing genital ulcers with exuberant granulation tissue in an immunocompetent man. Owing to this morphology, the ulcers were initially mistaken for donovanosis. To the best of our knowledge, such a presentation of genital herpes in an immunocompetent individual has not been described previously. PMID:25614521

  1. Management of external genital warts.

    PubMed

    Karnes, Jonathan B; Usatine, Richard P

    2014-09-01

    Genital warts affect 1% of the sexually active U.S. population and are commonly seen in primary care. Human papillomavirus types 6 and 11 are responsible for most genital warts. Warts vary from small, flat-topped papules to large, cauliflower-like lesions on the anogenital mucosa and surrounding skin. Diagnosis is clinical, but atypical lesions should be confirmed by histology. Treatments may be applied by patients, or by a clinician in the office. Patient-applied treatments include topical imiquimod, podofilox, and sinecatechins, whereas clinician-applied treatments include podophyllin, bichloroacetic acid, and trichloroacetic acid. Surgical treatments include excision, cryotherapy, and electrosurgery. The quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine is active against virus subtypes that cause genital warts in men and women. Additionally, male circumcision may be effective in decreasing the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, human papillomavirus, and herpes simplex virus. PMID:25251091

  2. Potential subtypes of Chlamydia psittaci based on effects of cortisone with cytochalasin B or cycloheximide.

    PubMed Central

    Tessler, J

    1986-01-01

    Strains of Chlamydia psittaci were differentiated as to their biological characteristics using growth in Vero cells. These host cells were chlamydial infected without centrifugation, but treated with either cortisone and cytochalasin B or cortisone and cycloheximide. The criterion was the time of 100% cytopathic effect and specific sloughing, accompanied by the maximum infectivity of C. psittaci. Possible subtypic characteristics were determined for three avian strains. PMID:3742349

  3. CXCL10, CXCL11, HLA-A and IL-1? are induced in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from women with Chlamydia trachomatis related infertility.

    PubMed

    Menon, Shruti; Alexander, Kimberly; Timms, Peter; Allan, John A; Huston, Wilhelmina M

    2016-02-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infections can result in the development of serious sequelae such as pelvic inflammatory disease and tubal infertility. In this study, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from women who were undergoing or had recently undergone IVF treatment were cultured ex vivo with C. trachomatis to identify the immune responses associated with women who had serological evidence of a history of Chlamydia infection. Cytokines secreted into the supernatant from the cultures were measured using ELISA, and the level of IL-1? was found to be significantly higher in Chlamydia positive women than Chlamydia negative women. qRT-PCR analysis of the expression of 88 immune-related genes showed trends towards an upregulation of CXCL10, CXCL11 and HLA-A in Chlamydia positive women compared with Chlamydia negative women. These findings support that some women launch a more marked proinflammatory response upon infection with C. trachomatis and this may be associated with why C. trachomatis induces infertility in some infected women. PMID:26512034

  4. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to identify key beliefs underlying chlamydia testing intentions in a sample of young people living in deprived areas.

    PubMed

    Booth, Amy R; Norman, Paul; Harris, Peter R; Goyder, Elizabeth

    2015-09-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior was used to identify the key behavioural, normative and control beliefs underlying intentions to test regularly for chlamydia among young people living in socially and economically deprived areas - a high-risk group for infection. Participants (N = 278, 53% male; mean age 17 years) were recruited from a vocational college situated in an area in the most deprived national quintile (England). Participants completed measures of behavioural, normative and control beliefs, plus intention to test regularly for chlamydia. The behavioural, normative and control beliefs most strongly correlated with intentions to test regularly for chlamydia were beliefs about stopping the spread of infection, partners' behaviour and the availability of testing. These beliefs represent potential targets for interventions to increase chlamydia testing among young people living in deprived areas. PMID:24287801

  5. Genital Herpes (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... it's important to discuss it. Make sure your teen knows how STDs can be spread (during anal, oral, or vaginal sex) and that these infections often don't have symptoms, so a partner might have an STD without knowing ... other medical issue, teens need this information to stay safe and healthy. ...

  6. Clinical features of external genital warts.

    PubMed

    Lynde, Charles; Vender, Ronald; Bourcier, Marc; Bhatia, Neal

    2013-12-01

    External genital warts (EGWs) are a common sexually transmitted infection caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). Although over 100 HPV types have been identified, some of which are associated with cancer, EGWs are caused by noncancerous HPV subtypes 6 and 11. This cutaneous manifestation of HPV infection can be asymptomatic or produce warty lesions that may assume a cauliflower-like, flat, papular, or keratotic appearance. Physical symptoms may also accompany warts, such as pruritus, burning, pain, and obstruction. EGWs typically appear in anogenital areas, such as the vulva, penis, groin, perineum, perianal skin, or mucosal surfaces. EGWs are typically a transient type of infection that often spontaneously regresses without treatment, but long-term remission rates are currently unknown. Treatment is determined according to the size and number of lesions, which can cluster or develop at multiple sites. Because of the individual variability in disease, treatment should be determined on a case-by-case basis. Further investigation, such as a biopsy, may be advisable in cases of atypical lesions, lesions that are unresponsive to therapies, and immunocompromised individuals, who are essentially more susceptible to HPV infections and less responsive to treatment. Although HPV testing is available, it is not currently recommended for detection and HPV typing. Differential diagnoses may include normal skin variations, other infectious or inflammatory diseases, and cancerous growths. PMID:24388559

  7. Recruitment of BAD by the Chlamydia trachomatis Vacuole Correlates with Host-Cell Survival

    PubMed Central

    Verbeke, Philippe; Welter-Stahl, Lynn; Ying, Songmin; Hansen, Jon; Häcker, Georg; Darville, Toni; Ojcius, David M

    2006-01-01

    Chlamydiae replicate intracellularly in a vacuole called an inclusion. Chlamydial-infected host cells are protected from mitochondrion-dependent apoptosis, partly due to degradation of BH3-only proteins. The host-cell adapter protein 14-3-3? can interact with host-cell apoptotic signaling pathways in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. In Chlamydia trachomatis-infected cells, 14-3-3? co-localizes to the inclusion via direct interaction with a C. trachomatis-encoded inclusion membrane protein. We therefore explored the possibility that the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) pathway may contribute to resistance of infected cells to apoptosis. We found that inhibition of PI3K renders C. trachomatis-infected cells sensitive to staurosporine-induced apoptosis, which is accompanied by mitochondrial cytochrome c release. 14-3-3? does not associate with the Chlamydia pneumoniae inclusion, and inhibition of PI3K does not affect protection against apoptosis of C. pneumoniae-infected cells. In C. trachomatis-infected cells, the PI3K pathway activates AKT/protein kinase B, which leads to maintenance of the pro-apoptotic protein BAD in a phosphorylated state. Phosphorylated BAD is sequestered via 14-3-3? to the inclusion, but it is released when PI3K is inhibited. Depletion of AKT through short-interfering RNA reverses the resistance to apoptosis of C. trachomatis-infected cells. BAD phosphorylation is not maintained and it is not recruited to the inclusion of Chlamydia muridarum, which protects poorly against apoptosis. Thus, sequestration of BAD away from mitochondria provides C. trachomatis with a mechanism to protect the host cell from apoptosis via the interaction of a C. trachomatis-encoded inclusion protein with a host-cell phosphoserine-binding protein. PMID:16710454

  8. Characteristics and Quantities of HIV Host Cells in Human Genital Tract Secretions

    PubMed Central

    Politch, Joseph A.; Marathe, Jai; Anderson, Deborah J.

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected leukocytes have been detected in genital secretions from HIV-infected men and women and may play an important role in the sexual transmission of HIV. However, they have been largely overlooked in studies on mechanisms of HIV transmission and in the design and testing of HIV vaccine and microbicide candidates. This article describes the characteristics and quantities of leukocytes in male and female genital secretions under various conditions and also reviews evidence for the involvement of HIV-infected cells in both horizontal and vertical cell-associated HIV transmission. Additional research is needed in this area to better target HIV prevention strategies. PMID:25414414

  9. Novel genital alphapapillomaviruses in baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis) with cervical dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Bergin, I L; Bell, J D; Chen, Z; Zochowski, M K; Chai, D; Schmidt, K; Culmer, D L; Aronoff, D M; Patton, D L; Mwenda, J M; Wood, C E; Burk, R D

    2013-01-01

    Genital Alphapapillomavirus (?PV) infections are one of the most common sexually transmitted human infections worldwide. Women infected with the highly oncogenic genital human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 are at high risk for development of cervical cancer. Related oncogenic ?PVs exist in rhesus and cynomolgus macaques. Here the authors identified 3 novel genital ?PV types (PhPV1, PhPV2, PhPV3) by PCR in cervical samples from 6 of 15 (40%) wild-caught female Kenyan olive baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis). Eleven baboons had koilocytes in the cervix and vagina. Three baboons had dysplastic proliferative changes consistent with cervical squamous intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). In 2 baboons with PCR-confirmed PhPV1, 1 had moderate (CIN2, n = 1) and 1 had low-grade (CIN1, n = 1) dysplasia. In 2 baboons with PCR-confirmed PhPV2, 1 had low-grade (CIN1, n = 1) dysplasia and the other had only koilocytes. Two baboons with PCR-confirmed PhPV3 had koilocytes only. PhPV1 and PhPV2 were closely related to oncogenic macaque and human ?PVs. These findings suggest that ?PV-infected baboons may be useful animal models for the pathogenesis, treatment, and prophylaxis of genital ?PV neoplasia. Additionally, this discovery suggests that genital ?PVs with oncogenic potential may infect a wider spectrum of non-human primate species than previously thought. PMID:22446324

  10. Candidatus Syngnamydia Venezia, a Novel Member of the Phylum Chlamydiae from the Broad Nosed Pipefish, Syngnathus typhle

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt-Posthaus, Heike; Nufer, Lisbeth; Wilson, Anthony; Svercel, Miroslav; Richter, Denis; Segner, Helmut; Pospischil, Andreas; Vaughan, Lloyd

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia are obligate intracellular bacteria and important pathogens of humans and animals. Chlamydia-related bacteria are also major fish pathogens, infecting epithelial cells of the gills and skin to cause the disease epitheliocystis. Given the wide distribution, ancient origins and spectacular diversity of bony fishes, this group offers a rich resource for the identification and isolation of novel Chlamydia. The broad-nosed pipefish (Syngnathus typhle) is a widely distributed and genetically diverse temperate fish species, susceptible to epitheliocystis across much of its range. We describe here a new bacterial species, Candidatus Syngnamydia venezia; epitheliocystis agent of S. typhle and close relative to other chlamydial pathogens which are known to infect diverse hosts ranging from invertebrates to humans. PMID:23951025

  11. Ultrasound markers of fetal infection, Part 2: Bacterial, parasitic, and fungal infections.

    PubMed

    Bailăo, Luiz Antonio; Osborne, Newton G; Rizzi, Maria Christina S; Bonilla-Musoles, Fernando; Duarte, Geraldo; Bailăo, Teresa Christina R Sicchieri

    2006-06-01

    Up to 1% of all pregnancies have clinically overt intra-amniotic bacterial infections, and an even larger percentage of pregnant women may be affected by silent infections. Although most pregnant women with overt intra-amniotic bacterial infection have experienced prolonged rupture of membranes (PROM), symptomatic and most silent nonviral intra-amniotic infections may occur with intact membranes. The etiology of intra-amniotic infection after PROM is almost always polymicrobial and consists of genital tract pathogens, such as group B streptococci, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, mycoplasmas, aerobic Gram-negative bacilli, such as the coliforms, and facultative and anaerobic endogenous organisms, such as peptococci, peptostreptococci, and Bacteroides species. These organisms gain access to the uterine cavity by the ascending route. Organisms such as Treponema pallidum, Listeria monocytogenes, Toxoplasma gondii, trypanosomes, and plasmodia are capable of gaining access to the amniotic cavity by transplacental hematogenous spread, and cause devastating fetal infections. Symptomatic intra-amniotic infection is usually a diagnosis of exclusion. Diagnostic criteria based on both clinical and laboratory findings lack sensitivity and are nonspecific. It is difficult to obtain uncontaminated intra-amniotic samples, especially when there is PROM. The problem is even greater with silent infections. In most cases, fetal infection is suspected after an unexplained and unexpected adverse outcome. Maternal morbidity is increased with intra-amniotic infection; although maternal mortality is extremely rare in developed countries, this is not the case in societies where pregnant women have limited or no access to medical care. Although infected women who are treated early and aggressively with wide-spectrum antibiotics do well, more than 10% of these women develop bacteremia and up to half of them will require cesarean delivery because of poor uterine contractions and arrest of labor. The overwhelming majority of term neonates exposed to intrauterine infection after PROM do well, but up to 30% of these neonates require treatment of neonatal pneumonia or bacteremia. Outcomes for preterm neonates or for neonates who experienced silent fetal infections are more severe. Morbidity and mortality rates in these cases are high, and survivors may have long-term devastating sequelae. The ability to identify ultrasound markers of fetal infection will help clinicians identify etiologic agents with greater accuracy and correlate these infections with specific antepartum and postpartum syndromes. The recognition of markers of intrauterine infection will also reduce unexpected adverse outcomes that result from undiagnosed fetal infections. PMID:16783243

  12. Prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci and Other Chlamydia Species in Wild Birds in Poland.

    PubMed

    Krawiec, Marta; Piasecki, Tomasz; Wieliczko, Alina

    2015-11-01

    Avian chlamydiosis is a zoonotic disease occurring in humans, poultry, and exotic birds. It has been suggested that some wild bird species play an important role as reservoirs for Chlamydia, especially Chlamydia psittaci. Whereas C. psittaci is the predominant chlamydial agent in birds, in the present study we have determined the prevalence of different species of Chlamydia among selected wild bird species in Poland using a rapid and sensitive real-time PCR method. In total, 369 free-living birds from 35 bird species and 15 orders were examined. Samples from 27 birds (7.3%) were positive for chlamydial DNA in the PCR; 22 positive samples (81.5%) belonged to C. psittaci, three to Chlamydia trachomatis (11.1%), and two (7.4%) classified only to the genus Chlamydia. Most of C. psittaci-positive samples belonged to five orders: Anseriformes, Columbiformes, Gruiformes, Phasianiformes, and Passeriformes. All C. trachomatis samples were obtained from Eurasian coots (Gruiformes). Two Chlamydia-positive samples not classified to any Chlamydia species were obtained from a common wood pigeon (Columbiformes) and a common buzzard (Accipitriformes). Detection of C. psittaci and C. trachomatis in free-living bird populations force to think on significance of birds as reservoir of varied Chlamydia species and their epidemiological importance. PMID:26501593

  13. Development and Validation of a Real-Time PCR for Chlamydia suis Diagnosis in Swine and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Geldhof, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Pigs are the natural host for Chlamydia suis, a pathogen which is phylogenetically highly related to the human pathogen C. trachomatis. Chlamydia suis infections are generally treated with tetracyclines. In 1998, tetracyline resistant C. suis strains emerged on U.S. pig farms and they are currently present in the Belgian, Cypriote, German, Israeli, Italian and Swiss pig industry. Infections with tetracycline resistant C. suis strains are mainly associated with severe reproductive failure leading to marked economical loss. We developed a sensitive and specific TaqMan probe-based C. suis real-time PCR for examining clinical samples of both pigs and humans. The analytical sensitivity of the real-time PCR is 10 rDNA copies/reaction without cross-amplifying DNA of other Chlamydia species. The PCR was successfully validated using conjunctival, pharyngeal and stool samples of slaughterhouse employees, as well as porcine samples from two farms with evidence of reproductive failure and one farm without clinical disease. Chlamydia suis was only detected in diseased pigs and in the eyes of humans. Positive humans had no clinical complaints. PCR results were confirmed by culture in McCoy cells. In addition, Chlamydia suis isolates were also examined by the tet(C) PCR, designed for demonstrating the tetracycline resistance gene tet(C). The tet(C) gene was only present in porcine C. suis isolates. PMID:24816542

  14. A case of HPV and acquired genital lymphangioma: over-lapping clinical features.

    PubMed

    Cestaro, Giovanni; De Rosa, Michele; Gentile, Maurizio; Massaron, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    Lymphatic malformation or lymphangioma is a benign proliferation of the lymphatics accounting for 4% of all vascular malformations and 26% of all benign vascular tumors. There are several reports about genital lymphangiomas mimicking venereal lesions, such as genital warts. Hereby we described a case of a 24 year old man affected by multiple vesicles and warts in genital area. All hematological and biochemical parameters, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Treponema Pallidum tests, C1-Inhibitor and C1-Q values were within limits. An accurate fulguration and wide excision of bigger lesions were performed. Histological examination showed numerous dilated lymphatic vessels in the superficial dermis with infiltration of inflammatory cells, that is a histopathological picture compatible with genital lymphangioma. Considering our clinical suspicion of condylomatosis, HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) Polimerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Genotyping, named INNOLiPA test, was performed, that revealed a genital infection by HPV - genotype 6. We think that our case can be considered an example of HPV infection and acquired genital lymphangioma overlap clinical syndrome. The patient presented any lesions one year after the procedure at follow-up examination. PMID:25818349

  15. The quality of life of patients with genital warts: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Genital warts, which are caused by infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), are one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in Europe. Although genital warts are commonly perceived as a non-serious condition, treatment is often long, of varying effectiveness and the recurrence rate is high. Very few studies have been performed on the personal consequences of genital warts. The aim of this qualitative study, set in Denmark, was to examine the ways in which genital warts may affect patients' quality of life. Methods To obtain an in-depth understanding of patients' perceptions of genital warts, we used qualitative focus-group interviews with five men and five women aged between 18 and 30 years who had genital warts. The interview guide was based on a literature review that identified important issues and questions. The data were analysed using a medical anthropological approach. Results Patients' experiences were related to cultural conceptions of venereal diseases and the respective identities and sexuality of the sexes. The disease had negative psychological and social effects both for men and for women and it affected their sex and love lives, in particular. The psychological burden of the disease was increased by the uncertain timeline and the varying effectiveness of treatment. We identified a need for more patient information about the disease and its psycho-sexual aspects. Conclusions The men and women participating in this study considered their quality of life to be significantly lowered because of genital warts. The experiences described by the participants give insights that may be valuable in treatment and counselling. The quadrivalent HPV vaccine that has now been added to the childhood vaccination programme for girls in Denmark for the prevention of cervical cancer can also prevent 90% of cases of genital warts. Our results suggest that HPV vaccination could considerably reduce the largely unacknowledged psychological and social burden associated with genital warts, in men as well as women. PMID:20205944

  16. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in an Australian high school student population

    PubMed Central

    Debattista, J; Martin, P; Jamieson, J; Crane, K; Dolton, I; Russell-Hall, S; DeSilva, J; Hargrave, R; Robinson, T; Ryan, N; Mortlock, M

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infections among an Australian high school adolescent population. Methods: Over a 4 year period, 14 high schools were selected in which an infertility prevention programme targeting C trachomatis was delivered to senior student populations. Coded first catch urine specimens were analysed by Amplicor PCR and infected students treated. Data retrospectively obtained from chlamydia screening programmes conducted among disadvantaged young people detached from formal education were also collated for comparison. Results: Of a total student test population of 1174, 15 (1.3%; 95% CI 0.7% to 2.1%) were diagnosed with C trachomatis. Of 516 females and 658 males, 12 (2.3%; 95% CI 1.1% to 4.1%) and 3 (0.5%; 95% CI 0.1% to 1.4%) were tested positive respectively. Data collated for three populations of disadvantaged youth returned at total of 89 C trachomatis infections out of 560 people (15.9% 95%CI 13.0–19.2%). Conclusion: The overall prevalence of C trachomatis infection among this population of senior high school adolescents is low, and significantly differs from the higher chlamydia rates detected in disadvantaged adolescents detached from formal schooling (p<0.0001). PMID:12238652

  17. The prevalence and identity of Chlamydia-specific IgE in children with asthma and other chronic respiratory symptoms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent studies have confirmed the presence of viable Chlamydia in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of pediatric patients with airway hyperresponsiveness. While specific IgG and IgM responses to C. pneumoniae are well described, the response and potential contribution of Ag-specific IgE are not known. The current study sought to determine if infection with Chlamydia triggers the production of pathogen-specific IgE in children with chronic respiratory diseases which might contribute to inflammation and pathology. Methods We obtained BAL fluid and serum from pediatric respiratory disease patients who were generally unresponsive to corticosteroid treatment as well as sera from age-matched control patients who saw their doctor for wellness checkups. Chlamydia-specific IgE was isolated from BAL and serum samples and their specificity determined by Western blot techniques. The presence of Chlamydia was confirmed by species-specific PCR and BAL culture assays. Results Chlamydial DNA was detected in the BAL fluid of 134/197 (68%) patients. Total IgE increased with age until 15 years old and then decreased. Chlamydia-specific IgE was detected in the serum and/or BAL of 107/197 (54%) patients suffering from chronic respiratory disease, but in none of the 35 healthy control sera (p?Chlamydia-specific IgE. Asthmatic patients had significantly higher IgE levels compared to non-asthmatics (p?=?0.0001). Patients who were positive for Chlamydia DNA or culture had significantly higher levels of serum IgE compared to negative patients (p?=?0.0071 and p?=?0.0001 respectively). Only 6 chlamydial antigens induced Chlamydia-specific IgE and patients with C. pneumoniae-specific IgE had significantly greater levels of total IgE compared to C. pneumoniae-specific IgE negative ones (p?=?0.0001). Conclusions IgE antibodies play a central role in allergic inflammation; therefore production of Chlamydia-specific IgE may prove significant in the exacerbation of chronic, allergic airway diseases, thus highlighting a direct role for Chlamydia in asthma pathogenesis. PMID:22512977

  18. Actin Recruitment to the Chlamydia Inclusion Is Spatiotemporally Regulated by a Mechanism That Requires Host and Bacterial Factors

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Elizabeth; Kirker, Kelly; Zuck, Meghan; James, Garth; Hybiske, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    The ability to exit host cells at the end of their developmental growth is a critical step for the intracellular bacterium Chlamydia. One exit strategy, extrusion, is mediated by host signaling pathways involved with actin polymerization. Here, we show that actin is recruited to the chlamydial inclusion as a late event, occurring after 20 hours post-infection (hpi) and only within a subpopulation of cells. This event increases significantly in prevalence and extent from 20 to 68 hpi, and actin coats strongly correlated with extrusions. In contrast to what has been reported for other intracellular pathogens, actin nucleation on Chlamydia inclusions did not ‘flash’, but rather exhibited moderate depolymerization dynamics. By using small molecule agents to selectively disrupt host signaling pathways involved with actin nucleation, modulate actin polymerization dynamics and also to disable the synthesis and secretion of chlamydial proteins, we further show that host and bacterial proteins are required for actin coat formation. Transient disruption of either host or bacterial signaling pathways resulted in rapid loss of coats in all infected cells and a reduction in extrusion formation. Inhibition of Chlamydia type III secretion also resulted in rapid loss of actin association on inclusions, thus implicating chlamydial effector proteins(s) as being central factors for engaging with host actin nucleating factors, such as formins. In conclusion, our data illuminate the host and bacterial driven process by which a dense actin matrix is dynamically nucleated and maintained on the Chlamydia inclusion. This late stage event is not ubiquitous for all infected cells in a population, and escalates in prevalence and extent throughout the developmental cycle of Chlamydia, culminating with their exit from the host cell by extrusion. The initiation of actin recruitment by Chlamydia appears to be novel, and may serve as an upstream determinant of the extrusion mechanism. PMID:23071671

  19. Chlamydia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... eggs from the ovaries to the uterus), causing pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). PID often has no symptoms, however some women may ... Even if it doesn’t cause symptoms initially, PID can cause permanent damage to your reproductive system ...

  20. Chlamydia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... behavior and may put you at risk of sexual assault and possible exposure to STIs. The steps work ... behavior and may put you at risk of sexual assault and possible exposure to STIs. The steps work ...

  1. Detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae in a collection of captive snakes and response to treatment with marbofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Rüegg, S R; Regenscheit, N; Origgi, F C; Kaiser, C; Borel, N

    2015-09-01

    In a collection of 58 snakes comprising predominantly Eurasian vipers in Switzerland, five snakes died unexpectedly during hibernation from 2009 to 2012. In one snake, organisms resembling chlamydiae were detected by immunohistochemistry in multiple histiocytic granulomas. Real-time quantitative PCR and microarray analysis were used to determine the presence of Chlamydia pneumoniae in tissue samples and cloacal/choanal swabs from snakes in the collection; 8/53 (15.1%) of the remaining snakes were positive. Although one infected snake had suppurative periglossitis, infection with C. pneumoniae did not appear to be associated with specific clinical signs in snakes. Of seven snakes treated with 5?mg/kg marbofloxacin IM once daily, five became PCR negative for C. pneumoniae following treatment, whereas one animal remained positive and one snake was lost to follow-up. PMID:26049258

  2. "...they should be offering it": a qualitative study to investigate young peoples' attitudes towards chlamydia screening in GP surgeries

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite the known health and healthcare costs of untreated chlamydia infection and the efforts of the National Chlamydia Screening Programme (NCSP) to control chlamydia through early detection and treatment of asymptomatic infection, the rates of screening are well below the 2010-2011 target rate of 35%. General Practitioner (GP) surgeries are a key venue within the NCSP however; previous studies indicate that GP surgery staff are concerned that they may offend their patients by offering a screen. This study aimed to identify the attitudes to, and preferences for, chlamydia screening in 15-24 year old men and women attending GP surgeries (the target group). Methods We undertook 36 interviews in six surgeries of differing screening rates. Our participants were 15-24 year olds attending a consultation with a staff member. Data were analysed thematically. Results GP surgeries are acceptable to young people as a venue for opportunistic chlamydia screening and furthermore they think it is the duty of GP surgery staff to offer it. They felt strongly that it is important for surgery staff to have a non-judgemental attitude and they did not want to be singled out as 'needing' a chlamydia screen. Furthermore, our sample reported a strong preference for being offered a screen by staff and providing the sample immediately at the surgery rather than taking home a testing kit. The positive attitude and subjective norms demonstrated by interviewees suggest that young peoples' behaviour would be to accept a screen if it was offered to them. Conclusion Young people attending GP surgeries have a positive attitude towards chlamydia screening and given the right environment are likely to take up the offer in this setting. The right environment involves normalising screening by offering a chlamydia screen to all 15-24 year olds at every interaction with staff, offering screening with a non-judgemental attitude and minimising barriers to screening such as embarrassment. The GP surgery is the ideal place to screen young people for chlamydia as it is not a threatening place for them and our study has shown that they think it is the normal place to go to discuss health matters. PMID:20955570

  3. Genetics Home Reference: Hand-foot-genital syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Hand-foot-genital syndrome On this page: Description Genetic changes ... Glossary definitions Reviewed April 2008 What is hand-foot-genital syndrome? Hand-foot-genital syndrome is a ...

  4. Prevention of infection after induced abortion: release date October 2010: SFP guideline 20102.

    PubMed

    Achilles, Sharon L; Reeves, Matthew F

    2011-04-01

    One known complication of induced abortion is upper genital tract infection, which is relatively uncommon in the current era of safe, legal abortion. Currently, rates of upper genital tract infection in the setting of legal induced abortion in the United States are generally less than 1%. Randomized controlled trials support the use of prophylactic antibiotics for surgical abortion in the first trimester. For medical abortion, treatment-dose antibiotics may lower the risk of serious infection. However, the number-needed-to-treat is high. Consequently, the balance of risk and benefits warrants further investigation. Perioperative oral doxycycline given up to 12 h before a surgical abortion appears to effectively reduce infectious risk. Antibiotics that are continued after the procedure for extended durations meet the definition for a treatment regimen rather than a prophylactic regimen. Prophylactic efficacy of antibiotics begun after abortion has not been demonstrated in controlled trials. Thus, the current evidence supports pre-procedure but not post-procedure antibiotics for the purpose of prophylaxis. No controlled studies have examined the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis for induced surgical abortion beyond 15 weeks of gestation. The risk of infection is not altered when an intrauterine device is inserted immediately post-procedure. The presence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae or acute cervicitis carries a significant risk of upper genital tract infection; this risk is significantly reduced with antibiotic prophylaxis. Women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) also have an elevated risk of post-procedural infection as compared with women without BV; however, additional prophylactic antibiotics for women with known BV has not been shown to reduce their risk further than with use of typical pre-procedure antibiotic prophylaxis. Accordingly, evidence to support pre-procedure screening for BV is lacking. Neither povidone-iodine nor chlorhexidine have been shown to alter the risk of infection when used as cervicovaginal preparation. However, chlorhexidine appears to be more effective than povidone iodine at reducing bacteria within the vagina. The Society of Family Planning recommends the routine use of antibiotic prophylaxis, preferably with doxycycline, before surgical abortion. Use of treatment doses of antibiotics with medical abortion may decrease the rare risk of serious infection but universal requirement for such treatment has not been established. PMID:21397086

  5. Detection of all Chlamydophila and Chlamydia spp. of veterinary interest using species-specific real-time PCR assays.

    PubMed

    Pantchev, Alexandra; Sting, Reinhard; Bauerfeind, Rolf; Tyczka, Judith; Sachse, Konrad

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the occurrence of chlamydiae in several mammalian host species. Clinical samples that previously tested positive in a Chlamydiaceae-specific real-time PCR were retested using six species-specific real-time PCR assays to identify the chlamydial species involved. Chlamydophila (Cp.) abortus was the agent most frequently found in cattle, sheep, horses, goats, and pigs. Detection in cattle of Cp. psittaci (11% of samples) and Chlamydia (C.) suis (9%), as well as Cp. psittaci in a goat sample was somewhat unexpected. DNA of two different chlamydiae was identified in 56 (12.7%) of 440 samples tested. Cp. felis was the predominant species found in cats, while in guinea pigs and rabbits only Cp. caviae was detected. Interestingly, the latter two pathogens were also identified in samples from dogs. The data show that mixed chlamydial infections are not rare and suggest an extended host range of individual species. PMID:19733907

  6. Chlamydiosis in British Garden Birds (2005-2011): retrospective diagnosis and Chlamydia psittaci genotype determination.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, K M; Borel, N; Pocknell, A M; Dagleish, M P; Sachse, K; John, S K; Pospischil, A; Cunningham, A A; Lawson, B

    2014-12-01

    The significance of chlamydiosis as a cause of mortality in wild passerines (Order Passeriformes), and the role of these birds as a potential source of zoonotic Chlamydia psittaci infection, is unknown. We reviewed wild bird mortality incidents (2005-2011). Where species composition or post-mortem findings were indicative of chlamydiosis, we examined archived tissues for C. psittaci infection using PCR and ArrayTube Microarray assays. Twenty-one of 40 birds tested positive: 8 dunnocks (Prunella modularis), 7 great tits (Parus major), 3 blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus), 2 collared doves (Streptopelia decaocto, Order Columbiformes), and 1 robin (Erithacus rubecula). Chlamydia psittaci genotype A was identified in all positive passerines and in a further three dunnocks and three robins diagnosed with chlamydiosis from a previous study. Two collared doves had genotype E. Ten of the 21 C. psittaci-positive birds identified in the current study had histological lesions consistent with chlamydiosis and co-localizing Chlamydia spp. antigens on immunohistochemistry. Our results indicate that chlamydiosis may be a more common disease of British passerines than was previously recognized. Wild passerines may be a source of C. psittaci zoonotic infection, and people should be advised to take appropriate hygiene precautions when handling bird feeders or wild birds. PMID:24947738

  7. New insights into Chlamydia intracellular survival mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Cocchiaro, Jordan L.; Valdivia, Raphael H.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Chlamydia sp. are responsible for a wide range of diseases of significant clinical and public health importance. In this review, we highlight how recent cellular and functional genomic approaches have significantly increased our knowledge of the pathogenic mechanisms employed by these genetically intractable bacteria. As the extensive repertoire of chlamydial proteins that are translocated into the mammalian host are identified and characterized, a molecular understanding of how Chlamydiae co-opt host cellular functions and block innate immune pathways is beginning to emerge. PMID:19673891

  8. Experiential Interventions for Clients with Genital Herpes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Anne L.

    1999-01-01

    Explores potential benefits of incorporating concepts and interventions from experimental therapy to help clients with psychosocial difficulties in learning to live with genital herpes. Recommends experimental counseling of two-chair dialog, empty chair, and metaphor for helping clients with emotional sequelae of genital herpes. Presents case…

  9. Predictors of Genital Pain in Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Melissa A.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of genital pain in healthy young adult women, limited research has addressed genital pain during intercourse using contemporary models of multidimensional sexual function. The objectives of this study were threefold: (1) to identify differences in sexual functioning in women who experience genital pain compared to pain free women; (2) to identify predictors of sexual functioning in women with and without genital pain; and (3) to identify predictors of sexual satisfaction in women with and without genital pain. Sexually active female undergraduates (n = 651) were administered the Female Sexual Function Index and the Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory. We evaluated the sexual factors that impact the sexual function of women with any pain (including high and low pain groups) versus women with no history of pain. Women with genital pain reported greater rates of sexual dysfunction as compared to pain-free women; however, sexual functioning in the high versus low pain groups was distinguished primarily by vaginal lubrication. Women in the high pain group showed negative correlations between domains of sexual satisfaction and genital pain frequency and intensity that were not found in the low pain group. For pain-free women, intercourse played a strong role in sexual satisfaction, whereas non-intercourse sexual behavior was central to sexual satisfaction in women who reported pain. The evaluation of levels of genital pain may provide insight into the mechanisms underlying the impairment of sexual function, sexual behavior, and sexual satisfaction. PMID:17674182

  10. Longitudinal Assessment of Pigtailed Macaque Lower Genital Tract Microbiota by Pyrosequencing Reveals Dissimilarity to the Genital Microbiota of Healthy Humans

    PubMed Central

    Kersh, Ellen; Guenthner, Patricia; Vishwanathan, Sundaram Ajay; Gilbert, Douglas; Zariffard, M. Reza; Mirmonsef, Paria; Landay, Alan; Zheng, Luyang; Gillevet, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Vaginal bacterial communities play an important role in human health and have been shown to influence HIV infection. Pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) are used as an animal model of HIV vaginal infection of women. Since the bacterial microbiota could influence retrovirus infection of pigtailed macaques, the genital microbiota in 10 cycling macaques was determined by pyrosequencing. The microbiota of all macaques was polymicrobial with a median of 13 distinct genera. Strikingly, the genera Sneathia and Fusobacterium, both in the phylum Fusobacteria, accounted for 18.9% and 13.3% of sequences while the next most frequent were Prevotella (5.6%), Porphyromonas (4.1%), Atopobium (3.6%), and Parvimonas (2.6%). Sequences corresponding to Lactobacillus comprised only 2.2% of sequences on average and were essentially all L. amylovorus. Longitudinal sampling of the 10 macaques over an 8-week period, which spanned at least one full ovulatory cycle, showed a generally stable presence of the major types of bacteria with some exceptions. These studies show that the microbiota of the pigtailed macaques is substantially dissimilar to that found in most healthy humans, where the genital microbiota is usually dominated by Lactobacillus sp. The polymicrobial makeup of the macaque bacterial populations, the paucity of lactobacilli, and the specific types of bacteria present suggest that the pigtailed macaque microbiota could influence vaginal retrovirus infection. PMID:22264029

  11. Chlamydiaceae infections in pig.

    PubMed

    Schautteet, Katelijn; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria. They are responsible for a broad range of diseases in animals and humans. In pigs, Chlamydia suis, Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia psittaci have been isolated. Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs are associated with different pathologies such as conjunctivitis, pneumonia, pericarditis, polyarthritis, polyserositis, pseudo-membranous or necrotizing enteritis, periparturient dysgalactiae syndrome, vaginal discharge, return to oestrus, abortion, mummification, delivery of weak piglets, increased perinatal and neonatal mortality and inferior semen quality, orchitis, epididymitis and urethritis in boars. However, Chlamydiaceae are still considered as non-important pathogens because reports of porcine chlamydiosis are rare. Furthermore, Chlamydiaceae infections are often unnoticed because tests for Chlamydiaceae are not routinely performed in all veterinary diagnostic laboratories and Chlamydiaceae are often found in association with other pathogens, which are sometimes more easily to detect. However, recent studies have demonstrated that Chlamydiaceae infections in breeding sows, boars and piglets occur more often than thought and are economically important. This paper presents an overview on: the taxonomy of Chlamydiaceae occurring in pigs, diagnostic considerations, epidemiology and pathology of infections with Chlamydiaceae in pigs, public health significance and finally on prevention and treatment of Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs. PMID:21314912

  12. [Investigation of Chlamydia trachomatis seropositivity in patients with cervical cancer].

    PubMed

    Onel, Mustafa; Küçücük, Seden; Töre, Gökhan; A?açfidan, Ali

    2013-10-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most frequent bacterial pathogen causing sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. Many studies emphasize that chlamydial infections may play role as a cofactor in cervical cancers caused by high risk human papillomavirus types. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of antibodies specific for C.trachomatis in patients with cervical cancer in order to detect the frequency of chlamydial infections. A total of 77 patients diagnosed as cervical cancer who have undergone surgery and on treatment at Oncology Institute of Istanbul Faculty of Medicine were included in the study, together with 20 healthy women as the control group. Serum samples obtained from patient and control groups were investigated by a commercial microimmunofluorescence kit (Orgenium Laboratories, Finland) for the detection of C.trachomatis IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies. All of the control subjects (mean age: 30.25 ± 6.4 years) were found seronegative, however the seropositivity rate detected in patients with cervical cancer was 9.1% (7/77). Serological data were interpreted as previous infections in four patients with single IgG positivity (titers: 1/16 in three and 1/32 in one patient), acute infections in two patients with IgG + IgM positivity (titers: IgG 1/64 and IgM 1/64 for both patients), and chronic infection in one patient with IgG + IgA positivity (titers: IgG 1/128 and IgA 1/20). The mean age of seven seropositive patients was 53.88 ± 12.1 years, and three of them had antibodies against FGK, three against BDE and one against CHIJ serogroups of C.trachomatis. None of the cases had the history of sexually transmitted disease. No statistically significance was found between patient and control groups regarding C.trachomatis IgG, IgA and IgM seropositivity (for IgG; p= 0.339, for IgA; p= 1.000, for IgM; p= 1.000). However, it was thought that the statistical evaluations may not be conclusive due to the small number of study groups. In conclusion further studies with large numbers of cases are needed to understand the role of chlamydia infections in the development of cervical cancer. PMID:24237439

  13. Female genital cutting: impact on women's health.

    PubMed

    Nour, Nawal M

    2015-01-01

    More than 130 million women worldwide have undergone female genital cutting (FGC). FGC is practiced in parts of Africa and Asia, in societies with various cultures and religions. Reasons for the continuing practice of FGC include rite of passage, preserving chastity, ensuring marriageability, religion, hygiene, improving fertility, and enhancing sexual pleasure for men. The World Health Organization has classified FGC into four types depending on the extent of tissue removed. Immediate complications include hemorrhage, infection, sepsis, and death. Long-term complications include pain, scarring, urinary issues, and poor obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Efforts are being made nationally and internationally to eradicate this practice. In December 2012, the UN General Assembly accepted a resolution on the elimination of FGC. Although it is illegal to perform FGC in the United States, women from countries where the practice occurs have been and are still immigrating here. Many enter as refugees from war-torn, famine-stricken, or politically unstable countries. They bring along with them their cultural pride, health complications, and fears of being judged when visiting a health provider. A deeper understanding of the history, cultural beliefs, medical complications, and methods of surgical reconstruction is necessary to provide culturally and linguistically competent care to this unique group of women. PMID:25565511

  14. Damage/Danger Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs) Modulate Chlamydia pecorum and C. trachomatis Serovar E Inclusion Development In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Cory Ann; Schoborg, Robert V.; Borel, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Persistence, more recently termed the chlamydial stress response, is a viable but non-infectious state constituting a divergence from the characteristic chlamydial biphasic developmental cycle. Damage/danger associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are normal intracellular components or metabolites that, when released from cells, signal cellular damage/lysis. Purine metabolite DAMPs, including extracellular ATP and adenosine, inhibit chlamydial development in a species-specific manner. Viral co-infection has been shown to reversibly abrogate Chlamydia inclusion development, suggesting persistence/chlamydial stress. Because viral infection can cause host cell DAMP release, we hypothesized DAMPs may influence chlamydial development. Therefore, we examined the effect of extracellular ATP, adenosine, and cyclic AMP exposure, at 0 and 14 hours post infection, on C. pecorum and C. trachomatis serovar E development. In the absence of de novo host protein synthesis, exposure to DAMPs immediately post or at 14 hours post infection reduced inclusion size; however, the effect was less robust upon 14 hours post infection exposure. Additionally, upon exposure to DAMPs immediately post infection, bacteria per inclusion and subsequent infectivity were reduced in both Chlamydia species. These effects were reversible, and C. pecorum exhibited more pronounced recovery from DAMP exposure. Aberrant bodies, typical in virus-induced chlamydial persistence, were absent upon DAMP exposure. In the presence of de novo host protein synthesis, exposure to DAMPs immediately post infection reduced inclusion size, but only variably modulated chlamydial infectivity. Because chlamydial infection and other infections may increase local DAMP concentrations, DAMPs may influence Chlamydia infection in vivo, particularly in the context of poly-microbial infections. PMID:26248286

  15. Exploring short-term responses to changes in the control strategy for Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Clarke, James; White, K A Jane; Turner, Katy

    2012-01-01

    Chlamydia has a significant impact on public health provision in the developed world. Using pair approximation equations we investigate the efficacy of control programmes for chlamydia on short time scales that are relevant to policy makers. We use output from the model to estimate critical measures, namely, prevalence, incidence, and positivity in those screened and their partners. We combine these measures with a costing tool to estimate the economic impact of different public health strategies. Increasing screening coverage significantly increases the annual programme costs whereas an increase in tracing efficiency initially increases annual costs but over time reduces costs below baseline, with tracing accounting for around 10% of intervention costs. We found that partner positivity is insensitive to changes in prevalence due to screening, remaining at around 33%. Whether increases occur in screening or tracing levels, the cost per treated infection increases from the baseline because of reduced prevalence. PMID:22701143

  16. Waddlia: An emerging pathogen and a model organism to study the biology of chlamydiae.

    PubMed

    Lamoth, Fréderic; Pillonel, Trestan; Greub, Gilbert

    2015-01-01

    Waddlia chondrophila is an emerging pathogen associated with abortion in cattle. In humans, a growing body of evidence supports its pathogenic role in miscarriage and in respiratory tract infection. The human pathogenicity of W. chondrophila is further supported by the presence of several virulence factors including a catalase, a functional T3SS and several adhesins. Despite this medical importance, no commercial tests are available and diagnostic of this strict intracellular bacterium mainly relies on serology, PCR and immunohistochemistry. So far, the epidemiology of W. chondrophila remains largely unexplored and zoonotic, waterborne or interhuman transmission has been considered. Apart from its pathogenic role, chlamydiologists are also interested in W. chondrophila in order to better understand biological mechanisms conserved and shared with Chlamydia spp. Indeed, W. chondrophila proved to be a useful model organism to study the pathobiology of chlamydiae thanks to its rapid replication, its large size allowing precise subcellular protein localization, as well as its growth in Dictyostelium amoebae. PMID:26432516

  17. Toward global prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STIs): the need for STI vaccines.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Sami L; Low, Nicola; Newman, Lori M; Bolan, Gail; Kamb, Mary; Broutet, Nathalie

    2014-03-20

    An estimated 499 million curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs; gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, and trichomoniasis) occurred globally in 2008. In addition, well over 500 million people are estimated to have a viral STI such as herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) or human papillomavirus (HPV) at any point in time. STIs result in a large global burden of sexual, reproductive, and maternal-child health consequences, including genital symptoms, pregnancy complications, cancer, infertility, and enhanced HIV transmission, as well as important psychosocial consequences and financial costs. STI control strategies based primarily on behavioral primary prevention and STI case management have had clear successes, but gains have not been universal. Current STI control is hampered or threatened by several behavioral, biological, and implementation challenges, including a large proportion of asymptomatic infections, lack of feasible diagnostic tests globally, antimicrobial resistance, repeat infections, and barriers to intervention access, availability, and scale-up. Vaccines against HPV and hepatitis B virus offer a new paradigm for STI control. Challenges to existing STI prevention efforts provide important reasons for working toward additional STI vaccines. We summarize the global epidemiology of STIs and STI-associated complications, examine challenges to existing STI prevention efforts, and discuss the need for new STI vaccines for future prevention efforts. PMID:24581979

  18. Recommendations for the Laboratory-Based Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae — 2014

    PubMed Central

    Papp, John R.; Schachter, Julius; Gaydos, Charlotte A.; Van Der Pol, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Summary This report updates CDC's 2002 recommendations regarding screening tests to detect Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections (CDC. Screening tests to detect Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections—2002. MMWR 2002;51[No. RR-15]) and provides new recommendations regarding optimal specimen types, the use of tests to detect rectal and oropharyngeal C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae infections, and circumstances when supplemental testing is indicated. The recommendations in this report are intended for use by clinical laboratory directors, laboratory staff, clinicians, and disease control personnel who must choose among the multiple available tests, establish standard operating procedures for collecting and processing specimens, interpret test results for laboratory reporting, and counsel and treat patients. The performance of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) with respect to overall sensitivity, specificity, and ease of specimen transport is better than that of any of the other tests available for the diagnosis of chlamydial and gonococcal infections. Laboratories should use NAATs to detect chlamydia and gonorrhea except in cases of child sexual assault involving boys and rectal and oropharyngeal infections in prepubescent girls and when evaluating a potential gonorrhea treatment failure, in which case culture and susceptibility testing might be required. NAATs that have been cleared by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the detection of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae infections are recommended as screening or diagnostic tests because they have been evaluated in patients with and without symptoms. Maintaining the capability to culture for both N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis in laboratories throughout the country is important because data are insufficient to recommend nonculture tests in cases of sexual assault in prepubescent boys and extragenital anatomic site exposure in prepubescent girls. N. gonorrhoeae culture is required to evaluate suspected cases of gonorrhea treatment failure and to monitor developing resistance to current treatment regimens. Chlamydia culture also should be maintained in some laboratories to monitor future changes in antibiotic susceptibility and to support surveillance and research activities such as detection of lymphogranuloma venereum or rare infections caused by variant or mutated C. trachomatis. PMID:24622331

  19. Effects of Mentha suaveolens Essential Oil on Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Sessa, Rosa; Di Pietro, Marisa; De Santis, Fiorenzo; Filardo, Simone; Ragno, Rino; Angiolella, Letizia

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis, the most common cause of sexually transmitted bacterial infection worldwide, has a unique biphasic developmental cycle alternating between the infectious elementary body and the replicative reticulate body. C. trachomatis is responsible for severe reproductive complications including pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and obstructive infertility. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether Mentha suaveolens essential oil (EOMS) can be considered as a promising candidate for preventing C. trachomatis infection. Specifically, we investigated the in vitro effects of EOMS towards C. trachomatis analysing the different phases of chlamydial developmental cycle. Our results demonstrated that EOMS was effective towards C. trachomatis, whereby it not only inactivated infectious elementary bodies but also inhibited chlamydial replication. Our study also revealed the effectiveness of EOMS, in combination with erythromycin, towards C. trachomatis with a substantial reduction in the minimum effect dose of antibiotic. In conclusion, EOMS treatment may represent a preventative strategy since it may reduce C. trachomatis transmission in the population and, thereby, reduce the number of new chlamydial infections and risk of developing of severe sequelae. PMID:25685793

  20. On reduced relatives with genitive subjects

    E-print Network

    Krause, Cornelia (Cornelia Ann), 1972-

    2001-01-01

    What is the place of relatives with genitive subjects in a typology of relative clauses? Are they full or reduced, headed or free relatives? Can they appear pre- and postnominally? Can they be head-internal relatives? Are ...

  1. Angiokeratoma of vulva mimicking genital warts.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, Amit Kumar; Pandhi, Deepika; Goyal, Surbhi; Bisherwal, Kavita

    2014-12-01

    Angiokeratoma of vulva is a relatively rare lesion which is occasionally misdiagnosed as melanoma, pyogenic granuloma, seborrheic keratosis, or genital warts. We report a case of vulvar angiokeratomas which were diagnosed and managed as genital warts. All asymptomatic dull red-colored papules over vulva should be subjected to astute clinical and histological examination to diagnose angiokeratoma and differentiate it from other lesions. PMID:25404845

  2. Dermatologic therapy of chronic genital disease.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Libby

    2004-01-01

    The adaptation of dermatology for the genital area requires several modifications of standard therapy. This unique area produces issues of both psychological sensitivity and unique environmental factors of constant moisture, warmth, and friction. These issues become far more important when symptoms are chronic. Recognition of normal variants, the multifactorial nature of many genital symptoms, and the avoidance of creating secondary iatrogenic disease are all important. PMID:14756885

  3. Vulvar Epidermoid Cyst and Type 2 Radical Genital Mutilation

    PubMed Central

    Birge, Ozer; Ozbey, Ertugrul Gazi; Arslan, Deniz; Erkan, Mustafa Melih; Demir, Feyza; Akgor, Utku

    2015-01-01

    About 100 million women are estimated to be circumcised globally. Various rates of complications have been encountered, especially after circumcision, such as bleeding, infection, shock, menstrual irregularity, difficulty in urination or common urinary tract infections, inguinal pain, difficulty in sexual intercourse, and genital circumcision scar especially at the vulvar region, and cystic or solid character mass in short and long term. Furthermore, the maternal-fetal morbidity and mortality increase due to bleeding and fistula, which develop after prolonged labor, travail, and difficult labors. Our aim in this paper was to discuss a 42-year-old multiparous female case who had undergone type 2 radical genital mutilation (circumcision) when she was 7 years of age, along with the literature, which has been evaluated for the gradually growing mass at the left inguinal canal region in the last 10 years and diagnosed as epidermoid inclusion cyst developing secondary to postcircumcision surgical ground trauma, since there was no other case found in the literature search that had been circumcised at such an early age and developing after circumcision at such advanced age, and, therefore, this is suggested to be the first case on this subject. PMID:26682078

  4. How to Prevent Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... common STIs? • Chlamydia (see FAQ071 “Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and Syphilis”) • Gonorrhea (see FAQ071 “Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and Syphilis”) • Genital herpes (see FAQ054 “Genital Herpes”) • Human immunodeficiency ...

  5. The trans-Golgi SNARE syntaxin 10 is required for optimal development of Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Andrea L.; Ouellette, Scot P.; Kabeiseman, Emily J.; Cichos, Kyle H.; Rucks, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis, an obligate intracellular pathogen, grows inside of a vacuole, termed the inclusion. Within the inclusion, the organisms differentiate from the infectious elementary body (EB) into the reticulate body (RB). The RB communicates with the host cell through the inclusion membrane to obtain the nutrients necessary to divide, thus expanding the chlamydial population. At late time points within the developmental cycle, the RBs respond to unknown molecular signals to redifferentiate into infectious EBs to perpetuate the infection cycle. One strategy for Chlamydia to obtain necessary nutrients and metabolites from the host is to intercept host vesicular trafficking pathways. In this study we demonstrate that a trans-Golgi soluble N-ethylmaleimide–sensitive factor attachment protein (SNARE), syntaxin 10, and/or syntaxin 10-associated Golgi elements colocalize with the chlamydial inclusion. We hypothesized that Chlamydia utilizes the molecular machinery of syntaxin 10 at the inclusion membrane to intercept specific vesicular trafficking pathways in order to create and maintain an optimal intra-inclusion environment. To test this hypothesis, we used siRNA knockdown of syntaxin 10 to examine the impact of the loss of syntaxin 10 on chlamydial growth and development. Our results demonstrate that loss of syntaxin 10 leads to defects in normal chlamydial maturation including: variable inclusion size with fewer chlamydial organisms per inclusion, fewer infectious progeny, and delayed or halted RB-EB differentiation. These defects in chlamydial development correlate with an overabundance of NBD-lipid retained by inclusions cultured in syntaxin 10 knockdown cells. Overall, loss of syntaxin 10 at the inclusion membrane negatively affects Chlamydia. Understanding host machinery involved in maintaining an optimal inclusion environment to support chlamydial growth and development is critical toward understanding the molecular signals involved in successful progression through the chlamydial developmental cycle. PMID:26442221

  6. Epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections in rural Haitian men.

    PubMed

    Downey, Robert F; Hammar, Donna; Jobe, Kathleen A; Schmidt, Terri A; Slyke, Lori Van; Yassemi, Yassi; Zive, Dana

    2015-09-01

    The study attempts to determine the prevalence of organisms associated with urethritis in men in rural southwestern Haiti and to determine the association with demographic, clinical and laboratory variables. A standardised verbal interview was conducted; genital examinations were done; urethral swabs were collected for nucleic acid amplification testing, and first void urine was obtained for urinalysis. The mean participant age was 54; 88.8% lived in a rural area. Swabs were positive for Trichomonas vaginalis in 13.7% (28/205), Mycoplasma genitalium in 6.3% (13/205), Chlamydia trachomatis in 4.4% (9/205) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in 0% (0/205). Subjects who never reported using condoms were nearly 3.5 times more likely to have any positive swab result (OR: 3.46, 95% CI 1.31-9.14). Subjects who reported their partners had other sexual partners or were unsure were more than three times likely to have any positive swab result (OR: 3.44, 95% CI 1.33-8.92). Infections with Trichomonas vaginalis and Mycoplasma genitalium were the most common. PMID:25228665

  7. A surveillance model for sexually transmitted infections in India.

    PubMed

    Haldar, Partha; Morineau, Guy; Das, Anjana; Mehendale, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    The strategy for prevention and control of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in India is based on syndromic case management delivered through designated STI/reproductive tract infection (RTI) centers (DSRCs) situated in medical colleges, district hospitals, and STI-clinics of targeted interventions programs. Laboratory tests for enhanced syndromic management are available at some sites. To ensure country-level planning and effective local implementation of STI services, reliable and consistent epidemiologic information is required on the distribution of STI cases, rate and trends of newly acquired infections, and STI prevalence in specific population groups. The present STI management information system is inadequate to meet these requirements because it is based on syndromic data and limited laboratory investigations on STIs reported passively by DSRCs and laboratories. Geographically representative information on the etiology of STI syndromes and antimicrobial susceptibility of STI pathogens although essential for optimizing available treatment options, is deficient. Surveillance must provide high quality information on: (a) prevalence of STIs such as syphilis, trichomoniasis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia among high-risk groups; syphilis in the general population and pregnant antenatal women; (b) demographic characteristics such as age, sex, new/recurrent episode, and type of syndromically diagnosed STI cases; (c) proportion of acute infections such as urethral discharge (UD) in men and nonherpetic genital ulcer disease (GUD) in men and women; (d) etiology of STI syndromes; and (e) gonococcal antimicrobial susceptibility. We describe here a framework for an STI sentinel surveillance system in India, building on the existing STI reporting systems and infrastructure, an overview of the components of the proposed surveillance system, and operational challenges in its implementation. PMID:26584168

  8. Chlamydia trachomatis Relies on Autonomous Phospholipid Synthesis for Membrane Biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jiangwei; Cherian, Philip T; Frank, Matthew W; Rock, Charles O

    2015-07-31

    The obligate intracellular parasite Chlamydia trachomatis has a reduced genome and is thought to rely on its mammalian host cell for nutrients. Although several lines of evidence suggest C. trachomatis utilizes host phospholipids, the bacterium encodes all the genes necessary for fatty acid and phospholipid synthesis found in free living Gram-negative bacteria. Bacterially derived phospholipids significantly increased in infected HeLa cell cultures. These new phospholipids had a distinct molecular species composition consisting of saturated and branched-chain fatty acids. Biochemical analysis established the role of C. trachomatis-encoded acyltransferases in producing the new disaturated molecular species. There was no evidence for the remodeling of host phospholipids and no change in the size or molecular species composition of the phosphatidylcholine pool in infected HeLa cells. Host sphingomyelin was associated with C. trachomatis isolated by detergent extraction, but it may represent contamination with detergent-insoluble host lipids rather than being an integral bacterial membrane component. C. trachomatis assembles its membrane systems from the unique phospholipid molecular species produced by its own fatty acid and phospholipid biosynthetic machinery utilizing glucose, isoleucine, and serine. PMID:25995447

  9. Epidemiological Aspects of Genital Warts in Romania – a 2012 Retrospective Survey

    PubMed Central

    SALAVASTRU, Carmen Maria; NICULESCU, Mihaela Cristina; ZOTA, Alexandra; NICOLA, Gheorghe; MORARIU, Horia Silviu; SOLOVAN, Caius; PATRASCU, Virgil; POPOVICI, Georgeta; VLADUTA, Raluca; PANDURU, Mihaela; TIPLICA, George-Sorin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Genital infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) has become one of the most frequently viral sexually transmitted diseases. The infection may remain asymptomatic, may take the form of external genital warts and may give raise to cervical cancers. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of the patients with genital warts addressing to five tertiary referral dermato-venereological units in Romania (where patients from several counties are referred) and to compare the results with the out-patient data reported by all Romanian hospitals. Material and methods: Data regarding patients with external genital warts who addressed to the hospital emergency rooms, in five tertiary referral dermato-venerological units in Romania (Bucharest, Timisoara, Craiova, Constanta, Târgu-Mures) were collected for the year 2012. For comparison there have been used data collected by the National School of Public Health, Management and Professional Development, during the same year. Outcomes: Data reported at national level in 2012 included 952 patients (731 women and 221 men) with 26 males under 20 years of age and 251 female patients in the age group 0-20 years. In the overall population (males and females combined) the total number of genital warts cases registered at the hospital emergency rooms in the five centers, in the year 2012, was 266 patients (119 men and 147 women) with 4 girls under 14 years of age and 6 male patients in the age group 0-14 years. Conclusions: The high prevalence of the infection with HPV, the costs of treatment and the psychological impact prove that prevention of the disease is the most important step for decreasing the incidence of this disease. General measures for patients awareness regarding the disease and its complications need to be completed with the recommendation for vaccination. A closer monitoring of patients would provide information for a strategic national approach leading to a better outcome. PMID:25705269

  10. Chlamydia trachomatis inhibits telomeric DNA damage signaling via transient hTERT upregulation.

    PubMed

    Padberg, Inken; Janßen, Sabrina; Meyer, Thomas F

    2013-12-01

    Epidemiological data exist to support a positive association between Chlamydia trachomatis (Ctr) infection and gynecological cancers; however, putative cellular mechanisms for this association are lacking. Here, we identified Ctr-induced perturbations to host cell phenotypes in vitro that persisted after clearance of infection and could directly contribute to host cell transformation. In particular, human telomerase catalytic subunit (hTERT) mRNA expression and catalytic subunit activity were increased in acute infected late passage IMR90E1A cells. hTERT upregulation was accompanied by recruitment of ceramide, a known regulator of hTERT, to the chlamydial inclusion and was abrogated following doxycycline-mediated infection clearance. In cells cleared of Ctr infection, average telomere length was slightly increased and immunofluorescence staining of the DNA damage marker ?H2A.X was reduced after clearance of infection compared with cells that had not been infected. Reduced p53 binding to the promoter of the cell cycle checkpoint regulator p21 was also detected in cells cleared of infection and p21 levels were reduced; moreover, this cell population exhibited increased resistance to etoposide-induced DNA damage. Thus, Ctr infection altered cell aging and survival pathways, which persisted after infection clearance. Cells that survive infection are likely to exhibit altered physiology, as evidenced by an increased resistance to DNA damage-induced apoptosis, which may support cellular transformation. PMID:23830072

  11. Hysterosalpingographic findings in women with genital tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Farrokh, Donya; Layegh, Parvaneh; Afzalaghaee, Monavvar; Mohammadi, Mohaddeseh; Fallah Rastegar, Yalda

    2015-01-01

    Background: Genital tuberculosis (TB) is an important cause of infertility in the developing countries, where hysterosalpingography (HSG) remains an initial diagnostic procedure in the evaluation of tubal and peritoneal factors leading to infertility. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the HSG findings of genital TB in infertile women. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed HSG findings in 20 women with genital tuberculosis. HSG was performed in these women as part of infertility work up over 5 years. The other diagnostic procedures used included endometrial curettage and biopsy, histological examination, culture, laparoscopy, hysteroscopy and polymerase chain reaction. Results: The mean age of the participants was 30.5±8 years. All women had clinical history of infertility for at least 4 years. Women presented with pelvic abdominal pain (30-35%) and menstrual disturbances (20-25%). Reviewing 20 cases of female genital TB were encountered various presentations on HSG. Conclusion: HSG is an invaluable procedure in suggesting the diagnosis of genital TB in patients being investigated for infertility. PMID:26221129

  12. In contrast to Chlamydia trachomatis, Waddlia chondrophila grows in human cells without inhibiting apoptosis, fragmenting the Golgi apparatus, or diverting post-Golgi sphingomyelin transport.

    PubMed

    Dille, Stephanie; Kleinschnitz, Eva-Maria; Kontchou, Collins Waguia; Nölke, Thilo; Häcker, Georg

    2015-08-01

    The Chlamydiales are an order of obligate intracellular bacteria sharing a developmental cycle inside a cytosolic vacuole, with very diverse natural hosts, from amoebae to mammals. The clinically most important species is Chlamydia trachomatis. Many uncertainties remain as to how Chlamydia organizes its intracellular development and replication. The discovery of new Chlamydiales species from other families permits the comparative analysis of cell-biological events and may indicate events that are common to all or peculiar to some species and more or less tightly linked to "chlamydial" development. We used this approach in the infection of human cells with Waddlia chondrophila, a species from the family Waddliaceae whose natural host is uncertain. Compared to C. trachomatis, W. chondrophila had slightly different growth characteristics, including faster cytotoxicity. The embedding in cytoskeletal structures was not as pronounced as for the C. trachomatis inclusion. C. trachomatis infection generates proteolytic activity by the protease Chlamydia protease-like activity factor (CPAF), which degrades host substrates upon extraction; these substrates were not cleaved in the case of W. chondrophila. Unlike Chlamydia, W. chondrophila did not protect against staurosporine-induced apoptosis. C. trachomatis infection causes Golgi apparatus fragmentation and redirects post-Golgi sphingomyelin transport to the inclusion; both were absent from W. chondrophila-infected cells. When host cells were infected with both species, growth of both species was reduced. This study highlights differences between bacterial species that both depend on obligate intracellular replication inside an inclusion. Some features seem principally dispensable for intracellular development of Chlamydiales in vitro but may be linked to host adaptation of Chlamydia and the higher virulence of C. trachomatis. PMID:26056386

  13. An Excess of the Proinflammatory Cytokines IFN-? and IL-12 Impairs the Development of the Memory CD8+ T Cell Response to Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuqing; Starnbach, Michael N

    2015-08-15

    The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the United States and the leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide. Transfer of cultured Chlamydia-specific CD8(+) T cells or vaccination with recombinant virus expressing an MHC I-restricted Chlamydia Ag confers protection, yet surprisingly a protective CD8(+) T cell response is not stimulated following natural infection. In this study, we demonstrate that the presence of excess IL-12 and IFN-? contributes to poor memory CD8(+) T cell development during C. trachomatis infection of mice. IL-12 is required for CD8(+) T cell expansion but drives effector CD8(+) T cells into a short-lived fate, whereas IFN-? signaling impairs the development of effector memory cells. We show that transient blockade of IL-12 and IFN-? during priming promotes the development of memory precursor effector CD8(+) T cells and increases the number of memory T cells that participate in the recall protection against subsequent infection. Overall, this study identifies key factors shaping memory development of Chlamydia-specific CD8(+) T cells that will inform future vaccine development against this and other pathogens. PMID:26179901

  14. Enigmatic question of early reactive arthritis disclosed after researches of mycoplasmas, Chlamydia trachomatis and enteropathogens following the holistic vision of human being.

    PubMed

    Del Boccio, M; Pennelli, A; Toniato, E; Martinotti, S; Tenaglia, R; Croce, A; Pugliese, M; Del Boccio, G; Gallenga, P E; Neri, G

    2013-01-01

    An HLA-B27 genetic profile patient is fully investigated by molecular analyses after an anamnestic assessment of multi-site ecosystems, following the holistic vision of human being.VDRL and Widal-Wright (WWR) resulted positive, showing at Wright?s reaction a title of 1:40. Of all the enzymatic activities measured, only the ALP enzymatic pool activities showed a low increasing value of 297 U/L. Of all later acute phase proteins, Only C3 c protein value (127 mg/dL) and fibrinogen (376 mg/dL) were altered. Cultural and molecular oropharyngeal ecosystem investigation resulted significantly positive to Mycoplasmas(Mhand Uu) and Chlamydia trachomatis(Ct) together with a spread of saprophytic flora. From an accurate anamnesis, several and severe uro-genital clinical symptomatology emerged from birth until the beginning of rheumatologic symptomatologies that were confirmed by oldest Mh, Uu and Ctsilent chronic infections between these ecosystems. The molecular HPV research was negative, while the Thin prep pap-test was indicative of vaginosis and cellular reactive changes associated with inflammation. Parasitological research resulted positive for presence of 5-7 newly-formed G. lambliacysts for microscopic field, while digestibility test was positive for presence of several free fatty acid crystals. The remarkable presence of indigested meat fibre and several mucous dense filaments were observed. The pH value was 6.5, while blood faecal test was positive. The values observed were: ferritin 12 microg/L (10-120), total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) 310 &mgr;g/dL (300+-20), unsaturated iron-binding capacity (UIBC) 286 microg/dL (200-220) and iron seric level 24 microg/dL (60-130). Faecal research highlighted a very scarce presence of E. coli, resulting in 102 UFC/g of stool. Of all enteroinvasive pathogens, researched by molecular analyses, only Yersinia spp. was positive. After several specific cycles of antibiotic and antinflammatory therapies, the patient improved its general health condition considerably and showed almost complete regression of aching inguinal lymph node inflammation. In a picture of a worsening inflammatory process, produced by pathogens like Mycoplasmas, chronic silent or low grade inflammation atypical agents, in young HLA-B27 positive patient, VDRL test resulted positive. This value represents the first non-specific unique spy to reveal the precocious immunological signal in order to register the beginning of early innate immune system decay, keeping in mind that mycoplasmal and chlamydial infections are the triggering of cancer in patients genetically susceptible. PMID:24382185

  15. Modest rise in chlamydia and gonorrhoea testing did not increase case detection in a clinical HIV cohort in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Burchell, Ann N; Grewal, Ramandip; Allen, Vanessa G; Gardner, Sandra L; Moravan, Veronika; Bayoumi, Ahmed M; Kaul, Rupert; McGee, Frank; Millson, Margaret (Peggy) E; Remis, Robert S; Raboud, Janet; Mazzulli, Tony; Rourke, Sean B

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We described patterns of testing for chlamydia and gonorrhoea infection among persons in specialty HIV care in Ontario, Canada, from 2008 to 2011. Methods We analysed data from 3165 participants in the OHTN Cohort Study attending one of seven specialty HIV care clinics. We obtained chlamydia and gonorrhoea test results via record linkage with the provincial public health laboratory. We estimated the proportion of participants who underwent testing annually, the positivity rate among those tested and the proportion diagnosed with chlamydia or gonorrhoea among all under observation. We explored risk factors for testing and diagnosis using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results The proportion tested annually rose from 15.2% (95% CI 13.6% to 16.7%) in 2008 to 27.0% (95% CI 25.3% to 28.6%) in 2011 (p<0.0001). Virtually all were urine-based nucleic acid amplification tests. Testing was more common among men who have sex with men (MSM), younger adults, Toronto residents, persons attending primary care clinics and persons who had tested in the previous year or who had more clinic visits in the current year. We observed a decrease in test positivity rates over time. However, the annual proportion diagnosed remained stable and in 2011 this was 0.97% (95% CI 0.61% to 1.3%) and 0.79% (95% CI 0.46% to 1.1%) for chlamydia and gonorrhoea, respectively. Virtually all cases were among MSM. Conclusions Chlamydia and gonorrhoea testing increased over time while test positivity rates declined and the overall proportion diagnosed remained stable, suggesting that the modest increase in testing did not improve case detection. PMID:25178285

  16. STI-GMaS: an open-source environment for simulation of sexually-transmitted infections

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sexually-transmitted pathogens often have severe reproductive health implications if treatment is delayed or absent, especially in females. The complex processes of disease progression, namely replication and ascension of the infection through the genital tract, span both extracellular and intracellular physiological scales, and in females can vary over the distinct phases of the menstrual cycle. The complexity of these processes, coupled with the common impossibility of obtaining comprehensive and sequential clinical data from individual human patients, makes mathematical and computational modelling valuable tools in developing our understanding of the infection, with a view to identifying new interventions. While many within-host models of sexually-transmitted infections (STIs) are available in existing literature, these models are difficult to deploy in clinical/experimental settings since simulations often require complex computational approaches. Results We present STI-GMaS (Sexually-Transmitted Infections – Graphical Modelling and Simulation), an environment for simulation of STI models, with a view to stimulating the uptake of these models within the laboratory or clinic. The software currently focuses upon the representative case-study of Chlamydia trachomatis, the most common sexually-transmitted bacterial pathogen of humans. Here, we demonstrate the use of a hybrid PDE–cellular automata model for simulation of a hypothetical Chlamydia vaccination, demonstrating the effect of a vaccine-induced antibody in preventing the infection from ascending to above the cervix. This example illustrates the ease with which existing models can be adapted to describe new studies, and its careful parameterisation within STI-GMaS facilitates future tuning to experimental data as they arise. Conclusions STI-GMaS represents the first software designed explicitly for in-silico simulation of STI models by non-theoreticians, thus presenting a novel route to bridging the gap between computational and clinical/experimental disciplines. With the propensity for model reuse and extension, there is much scope within STI-GMaS to allow clinical and experimental studies to inform model inputs and drive future model development. Many of the modelling paradigms and software design principles deployed to date transfer readily to other STIs, both bacterial and viral; forthcoming releases of STI-GMaS will extend the software to incorporate a more diverse range of infections. PMID:24923486

  17. Analysis of laboratory testing results collected in an enhanced chlamydia surveillance system in Australia, 2008–2010

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chlamydial infection is the most common notifiable disease in Australia, Europe and the US. Australian notifications of chlamydia rose four-fold from 20,274 cases in 2002 to 80,846 cases in 2011; the majority of cases were among young people aged less than 29 years. Along with test positivity rates, an understanding of the number of tests performed and the demographics of individuals being tested are key epidemiological indicators. The ACCESS Laboratory Network was established in 2008 to address this issue. Methods The ACCESS Laboratory Network collected chlamydia testing data from 15 laboratories around Australia over a three-year period using data extraction software. All chlamydia testing data from participating laboratories were extracted from the laboratory information system; patient identifiers converted to a unique, non-reversible code and de-identified data sent to a single database. Analysis of data by anatomical site included all specimens, but in age and sex specific analysis, only one testing episode was counted. Results From 2008 to 2010 a total of 628,295 chlamydia tests were referred to the 15 laboratories. Of the 592,626 individual episodes presenting for testing, 70% were from female and 30% from male patients. In female patients, chlamydia positivity rate was 6.4% overall; the highest rate in 14 year olds (14.3%). In male patients, the chlamydia positivity rate was 9.4% overall; the highest in 19 year olds (16.5%). The most common sample type was urine (57%). In 3.2% of testing episodes, multiple anatomical sites were sampled. Urethral swabs gave the highest positivity rate for all anatomical sites in both female (7.7%) and male patients (14%), followed by urine (7.6% and 9.4%, respectively) and eye (6.3% and 7.9%, respectively). Conclusions The ACCESS Laboratory Network data are unique in both number and scope and are representative of chlamydia testing in both general practice and high-risk clinics. The findings from these data highlight much lower levels of testing in young people aged 20 years or less; in particular female patients aged less than 16 years, despite being the group with the highest positivity rate. Strategies are needed to increase the uptake of testing in this high-risk group. PMID:24920016

  18. Evidence for horizontal gene transfer between Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Chlamydia phage

    PubMed Central

    Rosenwald, Anne G; Murray, Bradley; Toth, Theodore; Madupu, Ramana; Kyrillos, Alexandra; Arora, Gaurav

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia-infecting bacteriophages, members of the Microviridae family, specifically the Gokushovirinae subfamily, are small (4.5–5 kb) single-stranded circles with 8–10 open-reading frames similar to E. coli phage ?X174. Using sequence information found in GenBank, we examined related genes in Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Chlamydia-infecting bacteriophages. The 5 completely sequenced C. pneumoniae strains contain a gene orthologous to a phage gene annotated as the putative replication initiation protein (PRIP, also called VP4), which is not found in any other members of the Chlamydiaceae family sequenced to date. The C. pneumoniae strain infecting koalas, LPCoLN, in addition contains another region orthologous to phage sequences derived from the minor capsid protein gene, VP3. Phylogenetically, the phage PRIP sequences are more diverse than the bacterial PRIP sequences; nevertheless, the bacterial sequences and the phage sequences each cluster together in their own clade. Finally, we found evidence for another Microviridae phage-related gene, the major capsid protein gene, VP1 in a number of other bacterial species and 2 eukaryotes, the woodland strawberry and a nematode. Thus, we find considerable evidence for DNA sequences related to genes found in bacteriophages of the Microviridae family not only in a variety of prokaryotic but also eukaryotic species.

  19. Female Genital Mutilation: A Capabilities Approach

    E-print Network

    Alavi, Roksana

    Genital Mutilation: A Capabilities Approach* Roksana Alavi University of Kansas In many African countries female genital mutilation (FGM) is quite common in spite of the fact that most of those countries have laws against it.1 FGM is a painful... excision, the female takes the first step towards womanhood. Although some of this is done to girls as young infancy the majority are in their teens and a few are adults. 3 The fundamental societal motive for FGM is simple: It is widely agreed...

  20. Molecular evidence for chlamydial infections in the eyes of sheep.

    PubMed

    Polkinghorne, A; Borel, N; Becker, A; Lu, Z H; Zimmermann, D R; Brugnera, E; Pospischil, A; Vaughan, L

    2009-03-16

    Ocular infections by chlamydiae are associated with ocular disease manifestations such as conjunctivitis and keratitis in humans and animals. Limited evidence exists that members of the order Chlamydiales can also cause ocular disease in sheep. In the current study, the prevalence of chlamydiae in the eyes of sheep was investigated by using PCR methods. Data obtained in sheep by broad-range 16S rRNA order Chlamydiales-specific PCR were compared to the prevalence of antibodies against chlamydiae detected by a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). Flocks tested included a clinically healthy flock and two flocks suffering from ocular disease and with histories of Ovine Enzootic Abortion (OEA). PCR detected DNA of Chlamydophila (Cp.) abortus and Cp. pecorum in the eyes of both healthy and sick animals but also identified Chlamydia (C.) suis and a variety of uncultured chlamydia-like organisms. Good correlation was found between the presence of Cp. abortus DNA in sheep conjunctival samples and seropositivity detected by cELISA. Despite these findings, no association was found between the presence of chlamydial DNA in the sheep conjunctival samples and the onset of clinical disease. These results suggest that the biodiversity of chlamydiae in the eyes of sheep is greater than that previously thought. Further investigations are needed to determine whether a causal relationship between infection by chlamydiae and ocular disease exists in these animals. PMID:18945556

  1. Chlamydia trachomatis genotypes in school adolescents, Italy.

    PubMed

    Stefanelli, Paola; Sulis, Giorgia; Renna, Giovanna; Gargiulo, Franco; Zanotti, Paola; Capelli, Michela; De Francesco, Maria Antonia; Donato, Francesco; Pecorelli, Sergio; Matteelli, Alberto

    2015-12-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis genogroups using ompA and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were determined in consecutive isolates from school students aged 18 or older in the district of Brescia, Italy, 2012-2013. Among 40 samples, 4 ompA genovars and 18 STs were identified. Genovar E predominated (70 %) including five STs derived from ST59 (29 % of all isolates). This study, combining ompA and MLST typing of C. trachomatis school teenagers, suggests limited mixing and sexual interchange in this population. PMID:25940434

  2. Maternal immunity partially protects newborn mice against a Chlamydia trachomatis intranasal challenge

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Sukumar; Tatarenkova, Olga; de la Maza, Luis M.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the role of maternal immunity in protecting newborn mice against a C. trachomatis infection female BALB/c mice were immunized intranasally (i.n.) with 104 inclusion forming units (IFU) of the C. trachomatis mouse pneumonitis biovar (MoPn). As a control, another group of female mice was sham-immunized i.n. with HeLa cell extracts. Immunized animals mounted strong immune responses as evidenced by high Chlamydia-specific antibody titers in serum and milk. Newborn mice born from immunized and sham-immunized dams were challenged i.n. with 103 IFU of MoPn at 2-post natal days (PND). Following inoculation, newborn mice were euthanized at 7-PND and 18-PND and the lungs, spleen and intestine were cultured for Chlamydia. Overall, no significant differences were observed between the mice born from and fed by immunized dams and mice born from and fed by sham-immunized dams. Of the mice born from immunized dams, 75% and 25% had positive lung cultures at 7-PND and 18-PND, respectively. Of the mice born from sham-immunized dams, 82% and 50% had positive lung cultures for those same days. When the number of IFU recovered from the lungs and spleens were compared between the two groups no significant differences were observed. However, when the number of IFU recovered from the small intestine were compared, significant differences were observed between the two groups of newborn mice (2×105 versus 32×106 at 7-PND and 9.2×106 versus 85×106 at 18-PND). In conclusion, maternal immunity plays a limited role in protecting newborn mice against a Chlamydia infection. PMID:20554327

  3. Genital Anxiety and the Quest for the Perfect Vulva: A Feminist Analysis of Female Genital Cosmetic Surgery

    E-print Network

    Chen, Zhongping

    Cosmetic Surgery Ariana Keil 95863710 Women and the Body- Professor Susan Greenhalgh UCI March, 2010 #12;2 Genital Anxiety and the Quest for the Perfect Vulva: A Feminist Analysis of Female Genital Cosmetic Surgery Female genital cosmetic surgery procedures are relatively new, but they are swiftly growing

  4. [Medical and legal aspects of genital mutilation and circumcision part I: female genital mutilation (FGM)].

    PubMed

    Dettmeyer, Reinhard; Laux, Johannes; Friedl, Hannah; Zedler, Barbara; Bratzke, Hansjürgen; Parzeller, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is considered to be against the law and against morality not only in Western countries, although a woman of age and able to consent may sometimes think differently. The procedure may have serious physical and emotional consequences for the girl or woman. Nevertheless there are attempts to justify the procedure with medical and hygienic pseudoarguments, ideology, freedom of religion, cultural identity and social adequacy. Outside the Western world, some people claim that religion and culture alone justify the practice. In Germany, parents can lose the right to determine the residence of their daughter, if she is faced with the risk of genital mutilation in order to prevent that the child or girl is taken to her home country. Genital mutilation as a gender-specific threat is recognized as a reason to grant asylum or prevent deportation. Proposals to make genital mutilation a separate punishable offence are presently discussed by the legislator. PMID:21404547

  5. Condylomatous Genital Lesions in Cynomolgus Macaques from Mauritius

    PubMed Central

    Harari, Ariana; Wood, Charles E.; Van Doorslaer, Koenraad; Chen, Zigui; Domaingue, Marie Claire; Elmore, David; Koenig, Patricia; Wagner, Janice D.; Jennings, Ryan N.; Burk, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    Genital condyloma-like lesions were observed on male and female cynomolgus macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) originating from the island of Mauritius. Cytobrush and/or biopsy samples were obtained from lesions of 57 affected macaques. Primary histologic features included eosinophilic, neutrophilic, and lymphoplasmacytic penile and vulvar inflammation, epidermal hyperplasia with acanthosis, and increased collagenous stroma. Polymerase chain reaction–based assays to amplify viral DNA revealed the presence of macaque lymphocryptovirus (LCV) DNA but not papillomavirus or poxvirus DNA. Subsequent DNA analyses of 3 genomic regions of LCV identified isolates associated with lesions in 19/25 (76%) biopsies and 19/57 (33%) cytology samples. Variable immunolabeling for proteins related to the human LCV Epstein Barr Virus was observed within intralesional plasma cells, stromal cells, and epithelial cells. Further work is needed to characterize the epidemiologic features of these lesions and their association with LCV infection in Mauritian-origin macaques. PMID:23262641

  6. Structure of the Chlamydia trachomatis Immunodominant Antigen Pgp3*

    PubMed Central

    Galaleldeen, Ahmad; Taylor, Alexander B.; Chen, Ding; Schuermann, Jonathan P.; Holloway, Stephen P.; Hou, Shuping; Gong, Siqi; Zhong, Guangming; Hart, P. John

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial disease. Left untreated, it can lead to ectopic pregnancy, pelvic inflammatory disease, and infertility. Here we present the structure of the secreted C. trachomatis protein Pgp3, an immunodominant antigen and putative virulence factor. The ?84-kDa Pgp3 homotrimer, encoded on a cryptic plasmid, consists of globular N- and C-terminal assemblies connected by a triple-helical coiled-coil. The C-terminal domains possess folds similar to members of the TNF family of cytokines. The closest Pgp3 C-terminal domain structural homologs include a lectin from Burkholderia cenocepacia, the C1q component of complement, and a portion of the Bacillus anthracis spore surface protein BclA, all of which play roles in bioadhesion. The N-terminal domain consists of a concatenation of structural motifs typically found in trimeric viral proteins. The central parallel triple-helical coiled-coil contains an unusual alternating pattern of apolar and polar residue pairs that generate a rare right-handed superhelical twist. The unique architecture of Pgp3 provides the basis for understanding its role in chlamydial pathogenesis and serves as the platform for its optimization as a potential vaccine antigen candidate. PMID:23703617

  7. [Clinical study of a new preparation with antiseptic and antiphlogistic action on the female genital tract].

    PubMed

    Brich, M; Galletti, E

    1975-08-01

    55 patients aged 20-68 with various forms of genital tract infection or diseases, such as vaginitis or cervicitis, were treated for 12 days with Agena, an antiseptic and antiinflammatory preparation containing benzalkonium chloride and nonoxynol-9. Disappearance or regression of symptoms was noted in all cases, and no side effects were reported. Gynecological examination and bacteriological tests showed evidence of the efficacy and tolerability of the product. PMID:768815

  8. To Test or Not to Test? Campus Health Officials Grapple with Questions about Screening Students for Genital Herpes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Elizabeth F.

    2005-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control, 17 percent of 20- to 29-year-olds are infected with genital herpes, one of the most common sexually-transmitted diseases in the United States. Because of lack or mildness of symptoms and the tendency to not test for herpes during routine medical exams, the disease can go undiagnosed and can easily be…

  9. Knowledge and Attitudes of University Health Service Clients about Genital Herpes: Implications for Patient Education and Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillard, James R.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Genital herpes virus infection can cause both psychological and medical consequences. A study surveyed knowledge and attitudes of college students to assess degree of familiarity with this disease. Findings suggest misconceptions that could be dealt with in health education programs. (Author/DF)

  10. A Minimalist analysis of Uyghur genitives

    E-print Network

    Politzer-Ahles, Stephen

    2011-10-03

    on the multiplicity of semantic roles that the “possessing” object may bear, and the observation that it may be dropped from the DP, an analogy is made between genitive-possessive DPs and finite TPs. It is proposed that “possessors” behave in a manner parallel...

  11. Genital Evolution: Why Are Females Still Understudied?

    PubMed Central

    Ah-King, Malin; Barron, Andrew B.; Herberstein, Marie E.

    2014-01-01

    The diversity, variability, and apparent rapid evolution of animal genitalia are a vivid focus of research in evolutionary biology, and studies exploring genitalia have dramatically increased over the past decade. These studies, however, exhibit a strong male bias, which has worsened since 2000, despite the fact that this bias has been explicitly pointed out in the past. Early critics argued that previous investigators too often considered only males and their genitalia, while overlooking female genitalia or physiology. Our analysis of the literature shows that overall this male bias has worsened with time. The degree of bias is not consistent between subdisciplines: studies of the lock-and-key hypothesis have been the most male focused, while studies of cryptic female choice usually consider both sexes. The degree of bias also differed across taxonomic groups, but did not associate with the ease of study of male and female genital characteristics. We argue that the persisting male bias in this field cannot solely be explained by anatomical sex differences influencing accessibility. Rather the bias reflects enduring assumptions about the dominant role of males in sex, and invariant female genitalia. New research highlights how rapidly female genital traits can evolve, and how complex coevolutionary dynamics between males and females can shape genital structures. We argue that understanding genital evolution is hampered by an outdated single-sex bias. PMID:24802812

  12. GENITAL HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS (HPV) Dartmouth COOP

    E-print Network

    identified; 30 of them affect the genital tract. 3. All types of HPV are spread by SKIN TO SKIN contact, and vice versa. Adapted from: 1. American Social Health Association . Sponsored by the Department of Community and Family Medicine Rural Health Programs July 06 #12;

  13. Psychosocial Treatment for Recurrent Genital Herpes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, David J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Assigned 21 individuals with recurrent genital herpes to psychosocial intervention, social support, or waiting-list control conditions. Those receiving psychosocial intervention (herpes simplex virus information, relaxation training, stress management instructions, and an imagery technique) reported significantly greater reductions in herpes…

  14. Genital Ulcers: Their Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Sacks, Stephen L.

    1987-01-01

    This article offers some background information on diagnosis and treatment of three major causes of genital ulcers: syphilis, herpes simplex virus (HSV), and chancroid. The author also discusses differential diagnoses and suggests an approach to treatment. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 6Figure 7 PMID:21263799

  15. The transcriptional landscape of Chlamydia pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Gene function analysis of the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia pneumoniae is hampered by the facts that this organism is inaccessible to genetic manipulations and not cultivable outside the host. The genomes of several strains have been sequenced; however, very little information is available on the gene structure and transcriptome of C. pneumoniae. Results Using a differential RNA-sequencing approach with specific enrichment of primary transcripts, we defined the transcriptome of purified elementary bodies and reticulate bodies of C. pneumoniae strain CWL-029; 565 transcriptional start sites of annotated genes and novel transcripts were mapped. Analysis of adjacent genes for co-transcription revealed 246 polycistronic transcripts. In total, a distinct transcription start site or an affiliation to an operon could be assigned to 862 out of 1,074 annotated protein coding genes. Semi-quantitative analysis of mapped cDNA reads revealed significant differences for 288 genes in the RNA levels of genes isolated from elementary bodies and reticulate bodies. We have identified and in part confirmed 75 novel putative non-coding RNAs. The detailed map of transcription start sites at single nucleotide resolution allowed for the first time a comprehensive and saturating analysis of promoter consensus sequences in Chlamydia. Conclusions The precise transcriptional landscape as a complement to the genome sequence will provide new insights into the organization, control and function of genes. Novel non-coding RNAs and identified common promoter motifs will help to understand gene regulation of this important human pathogen. PMID:21989159

  16. Reproductive tract infections in rural women from the highlands, jungle, and coastal regions of Peru.

    PubMed Central

    García, Patricia J.; Chavez, Susana; Feringa, Barbara; Chiappe, Marina; Li, Weili; Jansen, Kathrin U.; Cárcamo, César; Holmes, King K.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To define the prevalences and manifestations of reproductive tract infections (RTIs) in rural Peruvian women. METHODS: During 1997-98, we visited 18 rural districts in coastal, highlands, and jungle regions of Peru. We administered standardized questionnaires and pelvic examinations to members of women's community-based organizations; and collected vaginal fluid for pH, amine odour, Gram stain, microscopy, and culture for Trichomonas vaginalis; cervical specimens for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae; human papilloma virus (HPV) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, and blood for syphilis serology. FINDINGS: The 754 participants averaged 36.9 years of age and 1.7 sex partners ever; 77% reported symptoms indicative of RTIs; 51% and 26% reported their symptoms spontaneously or only with specific questioning, respectively. Symptoms reported spontaneously included abnormal vaginal discharge (29.3% and 22.9%, respectively). One or more RTIs, found in 70.4% of participants, included bacterial vaginosis (43.7%), trichomoniasis (16.5%), vulvovaginal candidiasis (4.5%), chlamydial infection (6.8%), gonorrhoea (1.2%), syphilis seropositivity (1.7%), cervical HPV infection (4.9%), and genital warts or ulcers (2.8%). Of 715 adequate Pap smears, 7 revealed cancer, 4 high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions (SIL) and 15 low-grade SIL. Clinical algorithms had very low sensitivity and predictive values for cervical infection, but over half the women with symptoms of malodorous vaginal discharge, signs of abnormal vaginal discharge, or both, had bacterial vaginosis or trichomoniasis. CONCLUSION: Overall, 77% of women had symptoms indicative of RTIs, and 70% had objective evidence of one or more RTIs. Women with selected symptoms and signs of vaginal infection could benefit from standard metronidazole therapy. PMID:15508193

  17. INFECTION AND IMMUNITY, 0019-9567/98/$04.00 0

    E-print Network

    Starnbach, Michael

    the infected cell and secrete cytokines. Each of these effector functions may be involved in limiting furtherINFECTION AND IMMUNITY, 0019-9567/98/$04.00 0 Nov. 1998, p. 5457­5461 Vol. 66, No. 11 Copyright T Lymphocytes Is Required for Resolution of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection MARY F. LAMPE,1 CHRISTOPHER B

  18. [Impact of exogenous proteolytic enzymes on immunogenesis in patients with urogenital infections].

    PubMed

    Khrianin, A A; Reshetnikov, O V; Safronov, I D

    2012-01-01

    The use of systemic enzyme therapy in combination with antibiotics in the treatment of urogenital chlamydia infection in patients of both sexes proved to improve the therapeutic efficacy and to reduce the risk of the side effects. PMID:23477217

  19. Psychophysical properties of female genital sensation.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Melissa A; Maykut, Caroline A; Huberman, Jackie S; Huang, Lejian; Khalifé, Samir; Binik, Yitzchak M; Apkarian, A Vania; Schweinhardt, Petra

    2013-11-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is characterized by the presence of vulvar touch and pain hypersensitivity. Pain with vaginal distension, which motivates treatment seeking and perpetuates distress, is frequently reported with PVD. However, the concordance between the perception of vulvar and vaginal sensation (ie, somatic and visceral genital sensations, respectively) remains unstudied in healthy women, as well as in clinical populations such as PVD. To evaluate the static and dynamic (time-varying) properties of somatic and visceral genital sensation, women with PVD (n=14) and age- and contraceptive-matched healthy controls (n=10) rated varying degrees of nonpainful and painful genital stimulation. Somatic (vulvar) mechanical sensitivity to nonpainul and painful degrees of force were compared to visceral (vaginal) sensitivity to nonpainful and painful distension volumes. Results indicated that healthy women showed substantial individual variation in and high discrimination of vulvar and vaginal sensation. In contrast, PVD was associated with vulvar allodynia and hyperalgesia, as well as vaginal allodynia. Modeling of dynamic perception revealed novel properties of abnormal PVD genital sensation, including temporal delays in vulvar touch perception and reduced perceptual thresholds for vaginal distension. The temporal properties and magnitude of PVD distension pain were indistinguishable from vaginal fullness in healthy controls. These results constitute the first empirical comparison of somatic and visceral genital sensation in healthy women. Findings provide novel insights into the sensory abnormalities that characterize PVD, including an experimental demonstration of visceral allodynia. This investigation challenges the prevailing diagnostic assessment of PVD and reconceptualizes PVD as a chronic somatic and visceral pain condition. PMID:23707679

  20. In Vitro Activity of Nemonoxacin, a Novel Nonfluorinated Quinolone Antibiotic, against Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Chotikanatis, Kobkul; Kohlhoff, Stephan A.

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro activities of nemonoxacin, levofloxacin, azithromycin, and doxycycline were tested against 10 isolates each of Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae. The MICs at which 90% of the isolates of both C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae were inhibited (MIC90s) were 0.06 ?g/ml (range, 0.03 to 0.13 ?g/ml). The minimal bactericidal concentrations at which 90% of the isolates were killed by nemonoxacin (MBC90s) were 0.06 ?g/ml for C. trachomatis (range, 0.03 to 0.125 ?g/ml) and 0.25 for C. pneumoniae (range, 0.015 to 0.5 ?g/ml). PMID:24366753

  1. Female genital structures in several families of Centropagoidea (Copepoda: Calanoida)

    PubMed Central

    Barthélémy, R.-M.

    1998-01-01

    The female genital structures of 21 calanoid species belonging to the families Candaciidae, Centropagidae, Pontellidae, Sulcanidae, Temoridae and Tortanidae were studied using light and electron microscopy (scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy). Except the monotypic Sulcanidae, their organization conforms to a common pattern characterized by egg-laying ducts opening through paired adjacent gonopores into a small cavity, the genital atrium, covered by a genital operculum and opening to the outside through a distal atrial slit. No seminal receptacle is present and the seminal products must be stored for a brief period in the genital atrium.The genital structures occupy a well delimited genital area, the main changes in which concern their position on the ventral face of the genital double-somite, and operculum morphology. Their organization and possible mode of operation are compared with those of other calanoid families. A possible correlation between absence of seminal receptacles and mating behaviour is discussed.

  2. 21 CFR 866.3120 - Chlamydia serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...and provides epidemiological information on these diseases. Chlamydia are the causative agents of psittacosis (a form of pneumonia), lymphogranuloma venereum (a venereal disease), and trachoma (a chronic disease of the eye and eyelid). (b)...

  3. 21 CFR 866.3120 - Chlamydia serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...and provides epidemiological information on these diseases. Chlamydia are the causative agents of psittacosis (a form of pneumonia), lymphogranuloma venereum (a venereal disease), and trachoma (a chronic disease of the eye and eyelid). (b)...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3120 - Chlamydia serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...and provides epidemiological information on these diseases. Chlamydia are the causative agents of psittacosis (a form of pneumonia), lymphogranuloma venereum (a venereal disease), and trachoma (a chronic disease of the eye and eyelid). (b)...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3120 - Chlamydia serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...and provides epidemiological information on these diseases. Chlamydia are the causative agents of psittacosis (a form of pneumonia), lymphogranuloma venereum (a venereal disease), and trachoma (a chronic disease of the eye and eyelid). (b)...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3120 - Chlamydia serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...and provides epidemiological information on these diseases. Chlamydia are the causative agents of psittacosis (a form of pneumonia), lymphogranuloma venereum (a venereal disease), and trachoma (a chronic disease of the eye and eyelid). (b)...

  7. Cytopathicity of Chlamydia is largely reproduced by expression of a single chlamydial protease

    PubMed Central

    Paschen, Stefan A.; Christian, Jan G.; Vier, Juliane; Schmidt, Franziska; Walch, Axel; Ojcius, David M.; Häcker, Georg

    2008-01-01

    Chlamydiae replicate in a vacuole within epithelial cells and commonly induce cell damage and a deleterious inflammatory response of unknown molecular pathogenesis. The chlamydial protease-like activity factor (CPAF) translocates from the vacuole to the cytosol, where it cleaves several cellular proteins. CPAF is synthesized as an inactive precursor that is processed and activated during infection. Here, we show that CPAF can be activated in uninfected cells by experimentally induced oligomerization, reminiscent of the activation mode of initiator caspases. CPAF activity induces proteolysis of cellular substrates including two novel targets, cyclin B1 and PARP, and indirectly results in the processing of pro-apoptotic BH3-only proteins. CPAF activation induces striking morphological changes in the cell and, later, cell death. Biochemical and ultrastructural analysis of the cell death pathway identify the mechanism of cell death as nonapoptotic. Active CPAF in uninfected human cells thus mimics many features of chlamydial infection, implicating CPAF as a major factor of chlamydial pathogenicity, Chlamydia-associated cell damage, and inflammation. PMID:18625845

  8. The Colposcopic Atlas of Schistosomiasis in the Lower Female Genital Tract Based on Studies in Malawi, Zimbabwe, Madagascar and South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Norseth, Hanne M.; Ndhlovu, Patricia D.; Kleppa, Elisabeth; Randrianasolo, Bodo S.; Jourdan, Peter M.; Roald, Borghild; Holmen, Sigve D.; Gundersen, Svein G.; Bagratee, Jayanthilall; Onsrud, Mathias; Kjetland, Eyrun F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Schistosoma (S.) haematobium is a neglected tropical disease which may affect any part of the genital tract in women. Female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) may cause abnormal vaginal discharge, contact bleeding, genital tumours, ectopic pregnancies and increased susceptibility to HIV. Symptoms may mimic those typical of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and women with genital schistosomiasis may be incorrectly diagnosed. An expert consensus meeting suggested that the following findings by visual inspection should serve as proxy indicators for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis of the lower genital tract in women from S. haematobium endemic areas: sandy patches appearing as (1) single or clustered grains or (2) sandy patches appearing as homogenous, yellow areas, or (3) rubbery papules. In this atlas we aim to provide an overview of the genital mucosal manifestations of schistosomiasis in women. Methodology/Principal findings Photocolposcopic images were captured from women, between 1994 and 2012 in four different study sites endemic for S. haematobium in Malawi, Zimbabwe, South Africa and Madagascar. Images and specimens were sampled from sexually active women between 15 and 49 years of age. Colposcopic images of other diseases are included for differential diagnostic purposes. Significance This is the first atlas to present the clinical manifestations of schistosomiasis in the lower female genital tract. It will be freely available for online use, downloadable as a presentation and for print. It could be used for training purposes, further research, and in clinical practice. PMID:25412334

  9. Application of DNA Chip Scanning Technology for Automatic Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae Inclusions

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanov, Anita; Endrész, Valeria; Urbán, Szabolcs; Lantos, Ildikó; Deák, Judit; Burián, Katalin; Önder, Kamil; Ayaydin, Ferhan; Balázs, Péter

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria that propagate in the inclusion, a specific niche inside the host cell. The standard method for counting chlamydiae is immunofluorescent staining and manual counting of chlamydial inclusions. High- or medium-throughput estimation of the reduction in chlamydial inclusions should be the basis of testing antichlamydial compounds and other drugs that positively or negatively influence chlamydial growth, yet low-throughput manual counting is the common approach. To overcome the time-consuming and subjective manual counting, we developed an automatic inclusion-counting system based on a commercially available DNA chip scanner. Fluorescently labeled inclusions are detected by the scanner, and the image is processed by ChlamyCount, a custom plug-in of the ImageJ software environment. ChlamyCount was able to measure the inclusion counts over a 1-log-unit dynamic range with a high correlation to the theoretical counts. ChlamyCount was capable of accurately determining the MICs of the novel antimicrobial compound PCC00213 and the already known antichlamydial antibiotics moxifloxacin and tetracycline. ChlamyCount was also able to measure the chlamydial growth-altering effect of drugs that influence host-bacterium interaction, such as gamma interferon, DEAE-dextran, and cycloheximide. ChlamyCount is an easily adaptable system for testing antichlamydial antimicrobials and other compounds that influence Chlamydia-host interactions. PMID:24189259

  10. Application of DNA chip scanning technology for automatic detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae inclusions.

    PubMed

    Bogdanov, Anita; Endrész, Valeria; Urbán, Szabolcs; Lantos, Ildikó; Deák, Judit; Burián, Katalin; Önder, Kamil; Ayaydin, Ferhan; Balázs, Péter; Virok, Dezso P

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria that propagate in the inclusion, a specific niche inside the host cell. The standard method for counting chlamydiae is immunofluorescent staining and manual counting of chlamydial inclusions. High- or medium-throughput estimation of the reduction in chlamydial inclusions should be the basis of testing antichlamydial compounds and other drugs that positively or negatively influence chlamydial growth, yet low-throughput manual counting is the common approach. To overcome the time-consuming and subjective manual counting, we developed an automatic inclusion-counting system based on a commercially available DNA chip scanner. Fluorescently labeled inclusions are detected by the scanner, and the image is processed by ChlamyCount, a custom plug-in of the ImageJ software environment. ChlamyCount was able to measure the inclusion counts over a 1-log-unit dynamic range with a high correlation to the theoretical counts. ChlamyCount was capable of accurately determining the MICs of the novel antimicrobial compound PCC00213 and the already known antichlamydial antibiotics moxifloxacin and tetracycline. ChlamyCount was also able to measure the chlamydial growth-altering effect of drugs that influence host-bacterium interaction, such as gamma interferon, DEAE-dextran, and cycloheximide. ChlamyCount is an easily adaptable system for testing antichlamydial antimicrobials and other compounds that influence Chlamydia-host interactions. PMID:24189259

  11. Protection promoted by pGP3 or pGP4 against Chlamydia muridarum is mediated by CD4(+) cells in C57BL/6N mice.

    PubMed

    Mosolygó, Tímea; Szabó, Agnes M; Balogh, Emese P; Faludi, Ildikó; Virók, Dezs? P; Endrész, Valéria; Samu, Alíz; Krenács, Tibor; Burián, Katalin

    2014-09-01

    Urogenital tract infection with Chlamydia trachomatis is a leading cause of sexually transmitted infections. There is currently no commercially available vaccine against C. trachomatis. The highly conserved plasmid of chlamydiae has been considered to be a virulence factor and the plasmid proteins have important roles in the Chlamydia-specific immune response. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of vaccination with plasmid proteins in the prevention of C. muridarum lung infection in a mouse model. C57BL/6N mice were immunised 3 times subcutaneously with recombinant pGP3 or pGP4 and infected with C. muridarum. Immunisation of the mice with recombinant pGP3 or pGP4 protein caused a significantly lower chlamydial burden in the lungs of the infected mice; the lower IFN-? level indicated a reduced extent of inflammation. In vitro or in vivo neutralisation of C. muridarum with sera obtained from immunised mice did not reduce the number of viable C. muridarum in the lungs of mice. However, adoptive transfer of the CD4(+) spleen cells isolated from the immunised mice resulted in a significantly reduced bacterial burden. Our results indicate that it is not the pGP3- and pGP4-specific antibodies, but the CD4(+) cells that are responsible for the protective effect of the immune response to plasmid proteins. PMID:25077421

  12. Chlamydiae interaction with the endoplasmic reticulum: contact, function and consequences.

    PubMed

    Derré, Isabelle

    2015-07-01

    Chlamydiae and chlamydiae-related organisms are obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens. They reside in a membrane-bound compartment termed the inclusion and have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to interact with cellular organelles. This review focuses on the nature, the function(s) and the consequences of chlamydiae-inclusion interaction with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The inclusion membrane establishes very close contact with the ER at specific sites termed ER-inclusion membrane contact sites (MCSs). These MCSs are constituted of a specific set of factors, including the C.?trachomatis effector protein IncD and the host cell proteins CERT and VAPA/B. Because CERT and VAPA/B have a demonstrated role in the non-vesicular trafficking of lipids between the ER and the Golgi, it was proposed that Chlamydia establish MCSs with the ER to acquire host lipids. However, the recruitment of additional factors to ER-inclusion MCSs, such as the ER calcium sensor STIM1, may suggest additional functions unrelated to lipid acquisition. Finally, chlamydiae interaction with the ER appears to induce the ER stress response, but this response is quickly dampened by chlamydiae to promote host cell survival. PMID:25930206

  13. [Can Chlamydia trachomatis human biovars cause abortion in cattle? An immunohistochemical study on a new host-pathogen relationship].

    PubMed

    Ozbek, Ahmet; Ozbek, Elvan; Kalkan, Yildiray; Temur, Ahmet; Küçükkalem, Omer Faruk

    2008-10-01

    Chlamydiae, which are obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens, have been radiated from single-celled eukaryotes into multi-celled hosts during their evolution. Chlamydia trachomatis one of the important species in this group, is classified into three biovars as a result of their evolution. Two of those biovars, Trachoma and LGV, are pathogens only in humans. Initially, the presence of a high specificity between the host and chlamydiae has been recognized and this relation has been considered as an adaptation mechanism. However, some studies have indicated that chlamydiae can also grow in laboratory animals, yolk sacs of embryonated eggs and in vitro cell cultures. The aim of this study was to investigate if C. trachomatis human specific biovars are possible infectious agents in the aborted bovine fetuses. Ninety aborted bovine fetuses were included in the study, and the bacteria which could be the causative agents for abortion were searched by conventional microbiological methods. Twenty-three (25.6%) abortion materials which have yielded negative results with these methods for the presence of bacterial agents other than chlamydiae, were further evaluated in terms of the presence of C. trachomatis. For this purpose the samples were inoculated into the yolk sac of embryonated eggs and the slides prepared from the yolk sac membranes of embryons died after 24 hours of inoculation, were examined for the presence of inclusion bodies by staining with Giemsa method. The presence of C. trachomatis specific antigens and glycogen inclusions in those 23 samples were also investigated by immunohistochemical and Lugol's iodine staining methods, in the fetal tissue samples which were embedded in paraffin. Immunohistochemical method was performed with immunoperoxidase staining by the use of specific antibodies against C. trachomatis major outer membrane proteins. As a result, 5 (21.7%) of the 23 samples were found positive for C. trachomatis with three of the methods (Giemsa, immunoperoxidase and lugol stainings). Although the data of our study have supported that chlamydiae can adapt to new host species other than humans, further advanced studies are needed on this subject. Our results have also emphasized that novel routes of transmission should be considered for C. trachomatis infections. PMID:19149081

  14. A 2-Pyridone-Amide Inhibitor Targets the Glucose Metabolism Pathway of Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Engström, Patrik; Krishnan, K. Syam; Ngyuen, Bidong D.; Chorell, Erik; Normark, Johan; Silver, Jim; Bastidas, Robert J.; Welch, Matthew D.; Hultgren, Scott J.; Wolf-Watz, Hans; Valdivia, Raphael H.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT In a screen for compounds that inhibit infectivity of the obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis, we identified the 2-pyridone amide KSK120. A fluorescent KSK120 analogue was synthesized and observed to be associated with the C. trachomatis surface, suggesting that its target is bacterial. We isolated KSK120-resistant strains and determined that several resistance mutations are in genes that affect the uptake and use of glucose-6-phosphate (G-6P). Consistent with an effect on G-6P metabolism, treatment with KSK120 blocked glycogen accumulation. Interestingly, KSK120 did not affect Escherichia coli or the host cell. Thus, 2-pyridone amides may represent a class of drugs that can specifically inhibit C. trachomatis infection. PMID:25550323

  15. Genital and sexual pain in women.

    PubMed

    Graziottin, Alessandra; Gambini, Dania; Bertolasi, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This chapter discusses the all too common problem of sex-related pain in women. Pain is a complex perceptive experience, involving biologic as well as psychologic and relational meanings. They become increasingly important with the chronicity of pain. Neurologists are quite aware of the painful aspect of many neurologic disorders, but lifelong and acquired genital and sexual pain is still neglected in a consistent percentage of women. One reason is the view - still held by many - that psychologic factors play the most important role in sex-related pain complaints. The consequences of diagnostic delay can be dramatic. Persisting tissue inflammation induces pain to change from acute and "nociceptive," which indicates a "friendly signal," alerting one to ongoing tissue damage, to chronic and "neuropathic," a disease per se. Whilst the primary disease is progressing and neuroinflammation becomes a prominent feature, affected women have to bear years of pain and distress, huge quantifiable and non-quantifiable costs, and a progressive deterioration of personal and relational health and happiness. The scenario is even more dramatic when pain complicates an already disabling disease. The main aspects considered in this chapter include neuroinflammation as a key feature of pain; genital and sexual pain as part of neurologic diseases; and genital and sexual pain syndrome (dyspareunia and vaginismus) as primary problems, and their pelvic comorbidities (bladder pain syndrome, endometriosis, irritable bowel syndrome, provoked vestibulodynia/vulvodynia). Finally, we discuss iatrogenic pain, i.e., genital and sexual pain caused by ill-conceived medical, surgical, pharmacologic or radiologic therapeutic interventions. PMID:26003257

  16. Global and Regional Estimates of Prevalent and Incident Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infections in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Looker, Katharine J.; Magaret, Amalia S.; May, Margaret T.; Turner, Katherine M. E.; Vickerman, Peter; Gottlieb, Sami L.; Newman, Lori M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) commonly causes orolabial ulcers, while HSV-2 commonly causes genital ulcers. However, HSV-1 is an increasing cause of genital infection. Previously, the World Health Organization estimated the global burden of HSV-2 for 2003 and for 2012. The global burden of HSV-1 has not been estimated. Methods We fitted a constant-incidence model to pooled HSV-1 prevalence data from literature searches for 6 World Health Organization regions and used 2012 population data to derive global numbers of 0-49-year-olds with prevalent and incident HSV-1 infection. To estimate genital HSV-1, we applied values for the proportion of incident infections that are genital. Findings We estimated that 3709 million people (range: 3440–3878 million) aged 0–49 years had prevalent HSV-1 infection in 2012 (67%), with highest prevalence in Africa, South-East Asia and Western Pacific. Assuming 50% of incident infections among 15-49-year-olds are genital, an estimated 140 million (range: 67–212 million) people had prevalent genital HSV-1 infection, most of which occurred in the Americas, Europe and Western Pacific. Conclusions The global burden of HSV-1 infection is huge. Genital HSV-1 burden can be substantial but varies widely by region. Future control efforts, including development of HSV vaccines, should consider the epidemiology of HSV-1 in addition to HSV-2, and especially the relative contribution of HSV-1 to genital infection. PMID:26510007

  17. Men's Perceptions and Knowledge of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection and Cervical Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPartland, Tara S.; Weaver, Bethany A.; Lee, Shu-Kuang; Koutsky, Laura A.

    2005-01-01

    The authors assessed young men's knowledge and perceptions of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection to identify factors that predict intention to make positive behavioral changes. Male university students aged 18 to 25 years completed a self-report instrument to assess knowledge and perceptions of genital HPV infection. If diagnosed with…

  18. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of Chlamydia trachomatis Hypothetical Protein CT263 Supports That Menaquinone Synthesis Occurs through the Futalosine Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Barta, Michael L.; Thomas, Keisha; Yuan, Hongling; Lovell, Scott; Battaile, Kevin P.; Schramm, Vern L.; Hefty, P. Scott

    2014-01-01

    The obligate intracellular human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis is the etiological agent of blinding trachoma and sexually transmitted disease. Genomic sequencing of Chlamydia indicated this medically important bacterium was not exclusively dependent on the host cell for energy. In order for the electron transport chain to function, electron shuttling between membrane-embedded complexes requires lipid-soluble quinones (e.g. menaquionone or ubiquinone). The sources or biosynthetic pathways required to obtain these electron carriers within C. trachomatis are poorly understood. The 1.58Ĺ crystal structure of C. trachomatis hypothetical protein CT263 presented here supports a role in quinone biosynthesis. Although CT263 lacks sequence-based functional annotation, the crystal structure of CT263 displays striking structural similarity to 5?-methylthioadenosine nucleosidase (MTAN) enzymes. Although CT263 lacks the active site-associated dimer interface found in prototypical MTANs, co-crystal structures with product (adenine) or substrate (5?-methylthioadenosine) indicate that the canonical active site residues are conserved. Enzymatic characterization of CT263 indicates that the futalosine pathway intermediate 6-amino-6-deoxyfutalosine (kcat/Km = 1.8 × 103 m?1 s?1), but not the prototypical MTAN substrates (e.g. S-adenosylhomocysteine and 5?-methylthioadenosine), is hydrolyzed. Bioinformatic analyses of the chlamydial proteome also support the futalosine pathway toward the synthesis of menaquinone in Chlamydiaceae. This report provides the first experimental support for quinone synthesis in Chlamydia. Menaquinone synthesis provides another target for agents to combat C. trachomatis infection. PMID:25253688

  19. Inhibitory Activity of the Isoflavone Biochanin A on Intracellular Bacteria of Genus Chlamydia and Initial Development of a Buccal Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Hanski, Leena; Genina, Natalja; Uvell, Hanna; Malinovskaja, Kristina; Gylfe, Ĺsa; Laaksonen, Timo; Kolakovic, Ruzica; Mäkilä, Ermei; Salonen, Jarno; Hirvonen, Jouni; Elofsson, Mikael; Sandler, Niklas; Vuorela, Pia M.

    2014-01-01

    Given the established role of Chlamydia spp. as causative agents of both acute and chronic diseases, search for new antimicrobial agents against these intracellular bacteria is required to promote human health. Isoflavones are naturally occurring phytoestrogens, antioxidants and efflux pump inhibitors, but their therapeutic use is limited by poor water-solubility and intense first-pass metabolism. Here, we report on effects of isoflavones against C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis and describe buccal permeability and initial formulation development for biochanin A. Biochanin A was the most potent Chlamydia growth inhibitor among the studied isoflavones, with an IC50?=?12 µM on C. pneumoniae inclusion counts and 6.5 µM on infectious progeny production, both determined by immunofluorescent staining of infected epithelial cell cultures. Encouraged by the permeation of biochanin A across porcine buccal mucosa without detectable metabolism, oromucosal film formulations were designed and prepared by a solvent casting method. The film formulations showed improved dissolution rate of biochanin A compared to powder or a physical mixture, presumably due to the solubilizing effect of hydrophilic additives and presence of biochanin A in amorphous state. In summary, biochanin A is a potent inhibitor of Chlamydia spp., and the in vitro dissolution results support the use of a buccal formulation to potentially improve its bioavailability in antichlamydial or other pharmaceutical applications. PMID:25514140

  20. A Case of Chronic Abdominal Neuropathic Pain and Burning after Female Genital Cutting

    PubMed Central

    Hadid, Vicky; Dahan, Michael Haim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Female genital cutting is prevalent in the Middle Eastern and African countries. This ritual entails not only immediate complications such as infection, pain, and haemorrhage, but also chronic ones including dysmenorrhea and dyspareunia. However, there is limited data on neuropathic pain secondary to female genital mutilation when searching the literature. Case. This case discusses a 38-year-old female with a history of infibulation who presented with a chronic burning abdominal and anterior vulvar pain including the related investigations and treatment. Discussion. This case brings to light the additional delayed complication of this ritual: sensory neuropathy. Our goal is to educate health professionals to be aware of these complications and to appropriately investigate and treat them in order to find a solution to relieve the patients' symptoms. PMID:26137334

  1. Simple Resazurin-Based Microplate Assay for Measuring Chlamydia Infections

    E-print Network

    Osaka, Ichie; Hefty, Scott

    2013-06-01

    :64 20.80 114.35 4.43 ?1.88 106.17 0.42 ?1.48 85.67 1.35 0.57* 1:128 14.79 119.60 9.48 ?1.88 99.23 5.43 ?38.28 88.67 2.00 0.29 1:256 7.20 114.30 0.77 ?1.13 102.47 0.49 ?5.27 100.06 0.72 ?75.83 1:512 3.06 108.15 8.51 ?5.58 105.74 0.61 ?1.76 100.58 0.47 ?4....98 1:1,024 2.16 102.65 4.24 ?14.41 103.46 1.90 ?4.71 102.67 2.49 ?2.57 1:2,048 1.08 120.76 8.34 ?1.56 108.26 0.66 ?0.94 103.06 0.50 ?0.17 1:4,096 0.98 109.81 0.48 ?2.01 108.17 2.61 ?1.67 105.87 0.66 0.31 R2 0.52 0.79 0.98 a Z= factors of?1 and?0...

  2. Microreview Immune-mediated control of Chlamydia infection

    E-print Network

    Starnbach, Michael

    presence of C. trachomatis within the host may induce immune effectors to chronically produce inflammatory tract but can additionally spread into the draining lymph nodes to cause a relatively rare systemic

  3. Infections

    MedlinePLUS

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  4. Identification of a Novel Nuclear Localization Signal Sequence in Chlamydia trachomatis-Secreted Hypothetical Protein CT311

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Lei; Dong, Xiaohua; Li, Zhongyu; Zhong, Guangming

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported that Chlamydia trachomatis hypothetical protein CT311 was secreted out of chlamydial inclusion and into host cell cytosol. We now found that CT311 further entered host cell nucleus at the late stage of infection and continued to accumulate in the nucleus of C. trachomatis-infected cells. When CT311 was expressed via a transgene in mammalian cells, CT311 protein was exclusively detected in the nucleus, suggesting that CT311 by itself is sufficient for nuclear targeting. However, preexisting nuclear CT311 did not affect subsequent chlamydial infection. Using deletion constructs, we mapped a nuclear localization signal sequence of CT311 to residues 21 to 63 (21AVEGKPLSRAAQLRERRKDLHVSGKPSPRYALKKRALEAKKNK63). This sequence was sufficient for targeting a heterologous protein into mammalian cell nucleus and it contains two independent clusters of basic residues (34RERRK38 and 53KKRALEAKKNK63 respectively). Deletion or alanine substitution of the basic residues in either cluster led to loss of nuclear targeting activity, suggesting that both clusters are critical for the nuclear targeting function. These observations have demonstrated that the hypothetical protein CT311 possesses a novel nuclear localization signal sequence with dual modules of basic residues for targeting host cell nucleus during Chlamydia trachomatis infection. PMID:23717625

  5. Andrographolide inhibits intracellular Chlamydia trachomatis multiplication and reduces secretion of proinflammatory mediators produced by human epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hua, Ziyu; Frohlich, Kyla M; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Xiaogeng; Zhang, Jiaxing; Shen, Li

    2015-02-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial disease worldwide. Untreated C. trachomatis infections may cause inflammation and ultimately damage tissues. Here, we evaluated the ability of Andrographolide (Andro), a natural diterpenoid lactone component of Andrographis paniculata, to inhibit C. trachomatis infection in cultured human cervical epithelial cells. We found that Andro exposure inhibited C. trachomatis growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The greatest inhibitory effect was observed when exponentially growing C. trachomatis was exposed to Andro. Electron micrographs demonstrated the accumulation of unusual, structurally deficient chlamydial organisms, correlated with a decrease in levels of OmcB expressed at the late stage of infection. Additionally, Andro significantly reduced the secretion of interleukin6, CXCL8 and interferon-?-induced protein10 produced by host cells infected with C. trachomatis. These results indicate the efficacy of Andro to perturb C. trachomatis transition from the metabolically active reticulate body to the infectious elementary body and concurrently reduce the production of a proinflammatory mediator by epithelial cells in vitro. Further dissection of Andro's anti-Chlamydia action may provide identification of novel therapeutic targets. PMID:25854005

  6. Zoledronic acid affects the cytotoxic effects of Chlamydia pneumoniae and the modulation of cytokine production in human osteosarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Antonietta; Misso, Gabriella; Bevilacqua, Nazario; Donnarumma, Giovanna; Lombardi, Angela; Galdiero, Massimiliano; Caraglia, Michele

    2014-09-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is an obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterium that causes persistent infections with a tendency to chronicize, which might motivate the resistance of chlamydiae to some commonly used antibiotics. The bisphosphonates are an emerging class of drugs mostly used in the palliative care of cancer patients to inhibit proliferation and metastasis of cancer cells but their role in modulating immune responses remains unknown. We investigated the in vitro activity of a highly potent bisphosphonate, zoledronic acid, on the cytotoxic effects of C. pneumoniae in human SaOS-2 osteoblast-like cells and the consequent immune response carried out by this cell line. We have reported that zoledronic acid showed a significant anti-proliferative effect on SaOS-2 cell line infected by C. pneumoniae in a time- and dose-dependent manner. We have also found that zoledronic acid induced growth inhibition of C. pneumoniae. Our data showed that C. pneumoniae-infection of SaOS-2 cells induced a significant gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-?, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-12, detected by RT-PCR, and confirmed by protein release assay. Our results demonstrated that zoledronic acid could facilitate C. pneumoniae-mediated immune response, thus reprofiling this traditional anti-tumor drug as a novel immune regulator in promoting host defense against C. pneumoniae infection. PMID:24975838

  7. Host-pathogen reorganisation during host cell entry by Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Nans, Andrea; Ford, Charlotte; Hayward, Richard D.

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen that remains a significant public health burden worldwide. A critical early event during infection is chlamydial entry into non-phagocytic host epithelial cells. Like other Gram-negative bacteria, C. trachomatis uses a type III secretion system (T3SS) to deliver virulence effector proteins into host cells. These effectors trigger bacterial uptake and promote bacterial survival and replication within the host cell. In this review, we highlight recent cryo-electron tomography that has provided striking insights into the initial interactions between Chlamydia and its host. We describe the polarised structure of extracellular C. trachomatis elementary bodies (EBs), and the supramolecular organisation of T3SS complexes on the EB surface, in addition to the changes in host and pathogen architecture that accompany bacterial internalisation and EB encapsulation into early intracellular vacuoles. Finally, we consider the implications for further understanding the mechanism of C. trachomatis entry and how this might relate to those of other bacteria and viruses. PMID:26320027

  8. Expression and Localization of Predicted Inclusion Membrane Proteins in Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Weber, Mary M; Bauler, Laura D; Lam, Jennifer; Hackstadt, Ted

    2015-12-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular pathogen that replicates in a membrane-bound vacuole termed the inclusion. Early in the infection cycle, the pathogen extensively modifies the inclusion membrane through incorporation of numerous type III secreted effector proteins, called inclusion membrane proteins (Incs). These proteins are characterized by a bilobed hydrophobic domain of 40 amino acids. The presence of this domain has been used to predict up to 59 putative Incs for C. trachomatis; however, localization to the inclusion membrane with specific antibodies has been demonstrated for only about half of them. Here, we employed recently developed genetic tools to verify the localization of predicted Incs that had not been previously localized to the inclusion membrane. Expression of epitope-tagged putative Incs identified 10 that were previously unverified as inclusion membrane localized and thus authentic Incs. One novel Inc and 3 previously described Incs were localized to inclusion membrane microdomains, as evidenced by colocalization with phosphorylated Src (p-Src). Several predicted Incs did not localize to the inclusion membrane but instead remained associated with the bacteria. Using Yersinia as a surrogate host, we demonstrated that many of these are not secreted via type III secretion, further suggesting they may not be true Incs. Collectively, our results highlight the utility of genetic tools for demonstrating secretion from chlamydia. Further mechanistic studies aimed at elucidating effector function will advance our understanding of how the pathogen maintains its unique intracellular niche and mediates interactions with the host. PMID:26416906

  9. DXD Motif-Dependent and -Independent Effects of the Chlamydia trachomatis Cytotoxin CT166

    PubMed Central

    Bothe, Miriam; Dutow, Pavel; Pich, Andreas; Genth, Harald; Klos, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The Gram-negative, intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis causes acute and chronic urogenital tract infection, potentially leading to infertility and ectopic pregnancy. The only partially characterized cytotoxin CT166 of serovar D exhibits a DXD motif, which is important for the enzymatic activity of many bacterial and mammalian type A glycosyltransferases, leading to the hypothesis that CT166 possess glycosyltransferase activity. CT166-expressing HeLa cells exhibit actin reorganization, including cell rounding, which has been attributed to the inhibition of the Rho-GTPases Rac/Cdc42. Exploiting the glycosylation-sensitive Ras(27H5) antibody, we here show that CT166 induces an epitope change in Ras, resulting in inhibited ERK and PI3K signaling and delayed cell cycle progression. Consistent with the hypothesis that these effects strictly depend on the DXD motif, CT166 with the mutated DXD motif causes neither Ras-ERK inhibition nor delayed cell cycle progression. In contrast, CT166 with the mutated DXD motif is still capable of inhibiting cell migration, suggesting that CT166 with the mutated DXD motif cannot be regarded as inactive in any case. Taken together, CT166 affects various fundamental cellular processes, strongly suggesting its importance for the intracellular survival of chlamydia. PMID:25690695

  10. DXD motif-dependent and -independent effects of the chlamydia trachomatis cytotoxin CT166.

    PubMed

    Bothe, Miriam; Dutow, Pavel; Pich, Andreas; Genth, Harald; Klos, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    The Gram-negative, intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis causes acute and chronic urogenital tract infection, potentially leading to infertility and ectopic pregnancy. The only partially characterized cytotoxin CT166 of serovar D exhibits a DXD motif, which is important for the enzymatic activity of many bacterial and mammalian type A glycosyltransferases, leading to the hypothesis that CT166 possess glycosyltransferase activity. CT166-expressing HeLa cells exhibit actin reorganization, including cell rounding, which has been attributed to the inhibition of the Rho-GTPases Rac/Cdc42. Exploiting the glycosylation-sensitive Ras(27H5) antibody, we here show that CT166 induces an epitope change in Ras, resulting in inhibited ERK and PI3K signaling and delayed cell cycle progression. Consistent with the hypothesis that these effects strictly depend on the DXD motif, CT166 with the mutated DXD motif causes neither Ras-ERK inhibition nor delayed cell cycle progression. In contrast, CT166 with the mutated DXD motif is still capable of inhibiting cell migration, suggesting that CT166 with the mutated DXD motif cannot be regarded as inactive in any case. Taken together, CT166 affects various fundamental cellular processes, strongly suggesting its importance for the intracellular survival of chlamydia. PMID:25690695

  11. Chlamydia Trachomatis Secretion of Proteases for Manipulating Host Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Guangming

    2011-01-01

    The human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis secretes numerous effectors into host cells in order to successfully establish and complete the intracellular growth cycle. Three C. trachomatis proteases [chlamydial proteasome/protease-like activity factor (CPAF), tail-specific protease (Tsp), and chlamydial high temperature requirement protein A (cHtrA)] have been localized in the cytosol of the infected cells either by direct immunofluorescence visualization or functional implication. Both CPAF and Tsp have been found to play important roles in C. trachomatis interactions with host cells although the cellular targets of cHtrA have not been identified. All three proteases contain a putative N-terminal signal sequence, suggesting that they may be secreted via a sec-dependent pathway. However, these proteases are also found in chlamydial organism-free vesicles in the lumen of the chlamydial inclusions before they are secreted into host cell cytosol, suggesting that these proteases may first be translocated into the periplasmic region via a sec-dependent pathway and then exported outside of the organisms via an outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) budding mechanism. The vesiculized proteases in the inclusion lumen can finally enter host cell cytosol via vesicle fusing with or passing through the inclusion membrane. Continuing identification and characterization of the C. trachomatis-secreted proteins (CtSPs) will not only promote our understanding of C. trachomatis pathogenic mechanisms but also allow us to gain novel insights into the OMV pathway, a well-known mechanism used by bacteria to export virulence factors although its mechanism remains elusive. PMID:21687409

  12. Differences in Treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis by Ambulatory Care Setting.

    PubMed

    Pearson, William S; Gift, Thomas L; Leichliter, Jami S; Jenkins, Wiley D

    2015-12-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the most commonly reported sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the US and timely, correct treatment can reduce CT transmission and sequelae. Emergency departments (ED) are an important location for diagnosing STIs. This study compared recommended treatment of CT in EDs to treatment in physician offices. Five years of data (2006-2010) were analyzed from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, and the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys (NHAMCS), including the Outpatient survey (NHAMCS-OPD) and Emergency Department survey (NHAMCS-ED). All visits with a CT diagnosis and those with a diagnosis of unspecified venereal disease were selected for analysis. Differences in receipt of recommended treatments were compared between visits to physician offices and emergency departments using Chi square tests and logistic regression models. During the 5 year period, approximately 3.2 million ambulatory care visits had diagnosed CT or an unspecified venereal disease. A greater proportion of visits to EDs received the recommended treatment for CT compared to visits to physician offices (66.1 vs. 44.9 %, p < .01). When controlling for patients' age, sex and race/ethnicity, those presenting to the ED with CT were more likely to receive the recommended antibiotic treatment than patients presenting to a physician's office (OR 2.16; 95 % CI 1.04-4.48). This effect was attenuated when further controlling for patients' expected source of payment. These analyses demonstrate differences in the treatment of CT by ambulatory care setting as well as opportunities for increasing use of recommended treatments for diagnosed cases of this important STI. PMID:25940936

  13. Disparities and Risks of Sexually Transmissible Infections among Men Who Have Sex with Men in China: A Meta-Analysis and Data Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Eric P. F.; Tucker, Joseph D.; Wong, Frank Y.; Nehl, Eric J.; Wang, Yanjie; Zhuang, Xun; Zhang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Background Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including Hepatitis B and C virus, are emerging public health risks in China, especially among men who have sex with men (MSM). This study aims to assess the magnitude and risks of STIs among Chinese MSM. Methods Chinese and English peer-reviewed articles were searched in five electronic databases from January 2000 to February 2013. Pooled prevalence estimates for each STI infection were calculated using meta-analysis. Infection risks of STIs in MSM, HIV-positive MSM and male sex workers (MSW) were obtained. This review followed the PRISMA guidelines and was registered in PROSPERO. Results Eighty-eight articles (11 in English and 77 in Chinese) investigating 35,203 MSM in 28 provinces were included in this review. The prevalence levels of STIs among MSM were 6.3% (95% CI: 3.5–11.0%) for chlamydia, 1.5% (0.7–2.9%) for genital wart, 1.9% (1.3–2.7%) for gonorrhoea, 8.9% (7.8–10.2%) for hepatitis B (HBV), 1.2% (1.0–1.6%) for hepatitis C (HCV), 66.3% (57.4–74.1%) for human papillomavirus (HPV), 10.6% (6.2–17.6%) for herpes simplex virus (HSV-2) and 4.3% (3.2–5.8%) for Ureaplasma urealyticum. HIV-positive MSM have consistently higher odds of all these infections than the broader MSM population. As a subgroup of MSM, MSW were 2.5 (1.4–4.7), 5.7 (2.7–12.3), and 2.2 (1.4–3.7) times more likely to be infected with chlamydia, gonorrhoea and HCV than the broader MSM population, respectively. Conclusion Prevalence levels of STIs among MSW were significantly higher than the broader MSM population. Co-infection of HIV and STIs were prevalent among Chinese MSM. Integration of HIV and STIs healthcare and surveillance systems is essential in providing effective HIV/STIs preventive measures and treatments. Trial Registration PROSPERO No: CRD42013003721 PMID:24587152

  14. Interferon Lambda 4 Genotype Is Not Associated with Recurrence of Oral or Genital Herpes

    PubMed Central

    Lang Kuhs, Krystle A.; Kuniholm, Mark H.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Chen, Sabrina; Desai, Seema; Edlin, Brian R.; Peters, Marion G.; Plankey, Michael; Sharp, Gerald B.; Strickler, Howard D.; Villacres, Maria C.; Quinn, Thomas C.; Gange, Stephen J.; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Greenblatt, Ruth M.; O’Brien, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    IFNL4-?G/TT (rs368234815) genotype is associated with hepatitis C virus clearance and may play a role in other infections. IFN-?4 protein is generated only in individuals who carry the IFNL4-?G allele. The IFNL4 rs12979860-T allele, which is in strong linkage disequilibrium with IFNL4-?G, was recently reported to be associated with more frequent and severe oral herpes episodes. We investigated the association of IFNL4-?G/TT with herpes simplex virus (HSV)-related outcomes among 2,192 African American and European American participants in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). WIHS is a prospective cohort study of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected and at-risk women that began in 1994. This report includes follow-up through 2013. Available data included: HSV–1 and HSV–2 antibodies at study entry; bi-annually ascertained episodes of (self-reported) oral herpes, (self-reported) genital sores and (clinician-observed) genital ulcers; HSV–2 DNA in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) specimens. IFNL4-?G/TT genotyping was determined by TaqMan. We compared women with IFNL4-?G/?G or IFNL4-TT/?G genotypes (i.e., IFNL4-?G carriers) to those with the IFNL4-TT/TT genotype, adjusting for age, race and HIV status. For outcomes with repeated measurements, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 95% confidence interval [CI] and p-value were determined using a generalized estimating equations approach. Median participant age at enrollment was 36 years; 81% were African American, 74% were HIV-infected. Among 1,431 participants tested for antibodies, 72.8% were positive for HSV–1 and 79.0% were positive for HSV–2. We observed no association between IFNL4-?G/TT genotype and any outcome: HSV–1 or HSV–2 antibody prevalence (p>0.1, all comparisons); oral herpes (aOR, 1.2; p = 0.35); genital sores (aOR, 1.0; p = 0.71); genital ulcers (aOR, 1.1; p = 0.53); detectable HSV–2 DNA in CVL (N = 322; aOR, 0.71; p = 0.49); HSV–2 DNA level (p = 0.68). In this large prospective study, IFNL4-?G/TT genotype was not associated with HSV-related outcomes, including episodes of oral or genital herpes. PMID:26431156

  15. The genetic basis of plasmid tropism between Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia muridarum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yibing; Cutcliffe, Lesley T; Skilton, Rachel J; Ramsey, Kyle H; Thomson, Nicholas R; Clarke, Ian N

    2014-10-01

    The development of genetic transformation technology for Chlamydia trachomatis using its endogenous plasmid has recently been described. Chlamydia muridarum cannot be transformed by the C. trachomatis plasmid, indicating a barrier between chlamydial species. To determine which regions of the plasmid conferred the species specificity, we used the novel approach of transforming wild-type C. muridarum carrying the endogenous plasmid pNigg and forced recombination with the C. trachomatis vector pGFP::SW2 which carries the complete C. trachomatis plasmid (pSW2). Penicillin and chloramphenicol-resistant transformants expressing the green fluorescent protein were selected. Recovery of plasmids from these transformants showed they were recombinants. The differences between the pSW2 and pNigg allowed identification of the recombination breakpoints and showed that pGFP::SW2 had exchanged a ~ 1 kbp region with pNigg covering CDS 2. The recombinant plasmid (pSW2NiggCDS2) is maintained under antibiotic selection when transformed into plasmid-cured C. muridarum. The ability to select for recombinants in C. muridarum shows that the barrier is not at transformation, but at the level of plasmid replication or maintenance. Our studies show that CDS 2, together with adjoining sequences, is the main determinant of plasmid tropism. PMID:24700815

  16. Correlate of Immune Protection Against HSV-1 Genital Disease in Vaccinated Women

    PubMed Central

    Belshe, Robert B.; Heineman, Thomas C.; Bernstein, David I.; Bellamy, Abbie R.; Ewell, Marian; van der Most, Robbert; Deal, Carolyn D.

    2014-01-01

    Background.?Previously we conducted a double-blind controlled, randomized efficacy field trial of gD-2 HSV vaccine adjuvanted with ASO4 in 8323 women. Subjects had been previously selected to be seronegative for HSV-1 and HSV-2. We found that vaccine was 82% protective against HSV-1 genital disease, but offered no significant protection against HSV-2 genital disease. Methods.?To better understand the results of the efficacy study, post-vaccination anti-gD-2 antibody concentrations from all HSV infected subjects and matched uninfected controls were measured. Three models were used to determine whether these responses correlated with protection against HSV infection or disease. Similarly, cellular immune responses from a subset of subjects and matched controls were evaluated for a correlation with HSV protection. Results.?Antibodies to gD-2 correlated with protection against HSV-1 infection with higher antibody concentration associated with higher efficacy. Cellular immune responses to gD-2 did not correlate with protection. Conclusions.?The protection against HSV-1 infection observed in the Herpevac Trial for Women was associated with antibodies directed against the vaccine. Clinical Trials Registration?NCT00057330. PMID:24285844

  17. Sister Act: Understanding Sorority Women's Communication About Condom Use 

    E-print Network

    Hernandez, Rachael A.

    2011-10-21

    the age of 25 are at high risk for sexually transmitted diseases, (e.g., chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and genital herpes) and ?make up half of the 19 million sexually transmitted infections 4 (STIs) diagnosed every year? (Wenstock, 2000...

  18. Multiple tumors of the female genital tract.

    PubMed

    Ambrosini, A; Becagli, L; Scrimin, F; Cecchetto, A; Domini, D; Resta, P; De Salvia, D

    1982-01-01

    The increased incidence of multiple primary tumors of genital-breast district has been evaluated, with the possibility of early diagnosis which consent greater survival in cancer patients. We found a particular high incidence of second neoplasia associated with vulval tumors (7.4%). With regard to pathogenetic factors, the oncogenic role of certain treatments is undoubtedly important, especially if they are protracted in time. It is necessary that these patients undergo complete gynecological screening for a time period that is much longer than that held sufficient to consider a patient cured. PMID:7169066

  19. Medicalization of female genital cutting in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Refaat, A

    2009-01-01

    The medicalization of female genital cutting (FGC) has been increasing. This cross-sectional study estimated the determinants of the practice of FGC among Egyptian physicians. Responses from 193 physicians showed that while 88% of them knew at least one adverse physical or sexual consequence, 18% approved of it, mostly as a religious observation (82%). Almost one-fifth (19%) of physicians practised FGC, mostly due to conviction (51%) or for profit (30%). A negative correlation was found between knowledge of the adverse consequences of FGC and both approval and practice. Cultural influences were the highest determinant (81%) followed by lack of knowledge (35%). PMID:20218128

  20. Chemical cross-linking of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed Central

    Birkelund, S; Lundemose, A G; Christiansen, G

    1988-01-01

    Purified elementary bodies (EBs) of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 were analyzed by chemical cross-linking with disuccinimidyl selenodipropionate. The effect of the cross-linking was analyzed by immunoblotting sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-separated components which were reacted with monoclonal antibodies against major outer membrane protein (MOMP) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). It was shown that in EBs, MOMP was cross-linked to the LPS component of the outer membrane. Migration analysis of the cross-linked components showed that with extensive cross-linking, most of the MOMP became cross-linked to LPS, changing the migration rate from 40 to 42.5 kilodaltons. A small fraction of MOMP associated with LPS was shown to be present in bands with migration rates of 100 and 110 kilodaltons. No association of MOMP or LPS to other proteins, or to dimer or multimer forms of MOMP without LPS, was observed. A totally different membrane structure must be present in reticulate bodies, since there, MOMP was so heavily cross-linked that it did not enter the polyacrylamide gel and thus became impossible to analyze. Furthermore, the monoclonal antibody, which reacted with LPS associated with MOMP in the cross-linked EBs, did not react with reticulate bodies. Images PMID:2449399

  1. Chlamydia trachomatis In Vivo to In Vitro Transition Reveals Mechanisms of Phase Variation and Down-Regulation of Virulence Factors

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Vítor; Pinheiro, Miguel; Antelo, Minia; Sampaio, Daniel A.; Vieira, Luís; Ferreira, Rita; Nunes, Alexandra; Almeida, Filipe; Mota, Luís J.; Borrego, Maria J.; Gomes, Joăo P.

    2015-01-01

    Research on the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis demands culture in cell-lines, but the adaptive process behind the in vivo to in vitro transition is not understood. We assessed the genomic and transcriptomic dynamics underlying C. trachomatis in vitro adaptation of strains representing the three disease groups (ocular, epithelial-genital and lymphogranuloma venereum) propagated in epithelial cells over multiple passages. We found genetic features potentially underlying phase variation mechanisms mediating the regulation of a lipid A biosynthesis enzyme (CT533/LpxC), and the functionality of the cytotoxin (CT166) through an ON/OFF mechanism. We detected inactivating mutations in CT713/porB, a scenario suggesting metabolic adaptation to the available carbon source. CT135 was inactivated in a tropism-specific manner, with CT135-negative clones emerging for all epithelial-genital populations (but not for LGV and ocular populations) and rapidly increasing in frequency (~23% mutants per 10 passages). RNA-sequencing analyses revealed that a deletion event involving CT135 impacted the expression of multiple virulence factors, namely effectors known to play a role in the C. trachomatis host-cell invasion or subversion (e.g., CT456/Tarp, CT694, CT875/TepP and CT868/ChlaDub1). This reflects a scenario of attenuation of C. trachomatis virulence in vitro, which may take place independently or in a cumulative fashion with the also observed down-regulation of plasmid-related virulence factors. This issue may be relevant on behalf of the recent advances in Chlamydia mutagenesis and transformation where culture propagation for selecting mutants/transformants is mandatory. Finally, there was an increase in the growth rate for all strains, reflecting gradual fitness enhancement over time. In general, these data shed light on the adaptive process underlying the C. trachomatis in vivo to in vitro transition, and indicates that it would be prudent to restrict culture propagation to minimal passages and check the status of the CT135 genotype in order to avoid the selection of CT135-negative mutants, likely originating less virulent strains. PMID:26207372

  2. The Emergence of the "s"-Genitive in Danish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perridon, Harry

    2013-01-01

    The -"s" genitives of English and Swedish play an important role in grammaticalization theory, as they are often used as counterexamples to the main tenet of that theory, viz. that grammatical change is unidirectional. In this paper I look at the emergence of the -"s" genitive in Danish, hoping that it may shed some new light on the evolution of…

  3. Can You Get Genital Herpes from a Cold Sore?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this tool to play your goals. Hot Topics Stress & Coping Center Writing a Paper Abusive Relationships Dynamic Stretching A Guy's Guide to Body Image Can You Get Genital Herpes From a Cold Sore? KidsHealth > Teens > Q&A > Birth Control, Pregnancy & STDs > Can You Get Genital Herpes ...

  4. Adverse Psychosexual Impact Related to the Treatment of Genital Warts and Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Campaner, Adriana Bittencourt; Vespa Junior, Nelson; Giraldo, Paulo César; Leal Passos, Mauro Romero

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To compare the psychosexual impact related to the treatment of genital warts and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in women. Methods. 75 patients presenting with HPV-induced genital lesions, belonging to one of two patient groups, were included in the study: 29 individuals with genital warts (GWs) and 46 individuals with CIN grades 2 or 3 (CIN 2/3). Initially, medical charts of each woman were examined for extraction of data on the type of HPV-induced infection and treatment administered. Subjects were interviewed to collect sociodemographic data as well as personal, gynecologic, obstetric, and sexual history. After this initial anamnesis, the Sexual Quotient-Female Version (SQ-F) questionnaire was applied to assess sexual function. After application of the questionnaire, patients answered specific questions produced by the researchers, aimed at assessing the impact of the disease and its treatment on their sexual lives. Results. It is noteworthy that patients with CIN 2/3 had statistically similar classification of sexual quotient to patients with GWs (P = 0.115). However, patients with GWs more frequently gave positive answers to the specific questions compared to patients with CIN 2/3. Conclusion. Based on these findings, it is clear that GWs have a greater impact on sexual behavior compared to CIN 2/3. PMID:26316956

  5. Lymphokine-mediated inhibition of Chlamydia replication in mouse fibroblasts is neutralized by anti-gamma interferon immunoglobulin.

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, G I; Krueger, D A

    1983-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to characterize immunologically mediated chlamydial persistence in cell culture. Mouse fibroblasts were activated to restrict Chlamydia psittaci 6BC replication by including mitogen (concanavalin A)-induced spleen cell supernatant fluids from immunized animals in the growth medium. When mouse fibroblasts were incubated with lymphokine for 24 h before infection and then with growth medium after infection (preinfection treatment), chlamydial replication was delayed but eventually detected. No substantial chlamydial growth occurred, even with extended incubation times when mouse fibroblasts were continuously exposed to lymphokine before and after infection. Low levels of infectious chlamydiae were produced in preinfection-treated mouse fibroblasts but not in mouse fibroblasts subjected to continuous lymphokine exposure. Incubation of lymphokine with anti-murine gamma interferon immunoglobulin neutralized the observed lymphokine-mediated activity, but incubation in the presence of anti-murine alpha plus beta interferon serum did not alter lymphokine activity. We conclude that the lymphokine components responsible for activating fibroblasts to restrict C. psittaci replication exhibits properties similar to gamma interferon. Images PMID:6417024

  6. Labial hair tourniquet: unusual complication of an unrepaired genital laceration.

    PubMed

    Dua, Anahita; Jamshidi, Ramin; Lal, Dave R

    2013-07-01

    Hair tourniquet syndrome has been recognized as a medical entity since the 1600 s. Appendages develop acute ischemia from tightening of hair strands circumferentially wrapped around them. Most commonly affected sites are fingers, toes, and penis, but limited reports have described involvement of the female genitalia. Although hair strangulation involving the labia minora or clitoris has been described, it typically occurs in young children. We present a case of an adolescent girl with a labial appendage hair tourniquet resulting from a previous unrepaired genital laceration. This is one of the oldest patients in whom a genital hair tourniquet has been reported, as well as description of a posttraumatic genital appendage. Genital hair tourniquets are medical emergencies that require prompt diagnosis and treatment to avoid tissue necrosis and possible amputation. Genital trauma in general requires surgical evaluation. PMID:23823263

  7. A comparison of three serological assays, protein gel electrophoresis and the polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Chlomydia psittici infections in pet birds 

    E-print Network

    Hofle, Michael David

    1999-01-01

    Three serological assays, protein gel electrophoresis hics. and the polymerase chain reaction assays were evaluated in psittacine birds. Birds suspected of Chlamydia psittaci infections were identified and tested with the following assays...

  8. Nasal and skin delivery of IC31(®)-adjuvanted recombinant HSV-2 gD protein confers protection against genital herpes.

    PubMed

    Wizel, Benjamin; Persson, Josefine; Thörn, Karolina; Nagy, Eszter; Harandi, Ali M

    2012-06-19

    Genital herpes caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) remains the leading cause of genital ulcers worldwide. Given the disappointing results of the recent genital herpes vaccine trials in humans, development of novel vaccine strategies capable of eliciting protective mucosal and systemic immune responses to HSV-2 is urgently required. Here we tested the ability of the adjuvant IC31(®) in combination with HSV-2 glycoprotein D (gD) used through intranasal (i.n.), intradermal (i.d.), or subcutaneous (s.c.) immunization routes for induction of protective immunity against genital herpes infection in C57BL/6 mice. Immunization with gD plus IC31(®) through all three routes of immunization developed elevated gD-specific serum antibody responses with HSV-2 neutralizing activity. Whereas the skin routes promoted the induction of a mixed IgG2c/IgG1 isotype profile, the i.n. route only elicited IgG1 antibodies. All immunization routes were able to induce gD-specific IgG antibody responses in the vaginas of mice immunized with IC31(®)-adjuvanted gD. Although specific lymphoproliferative responses were observed in splenocytes from mice of most groups vaccinated with IC31(®)-adjuvanted gD, only i.d. immunization resulted in a significant splenic IFN-? response. Further, immunization with gD plus IC31(®) conferred 80-100% protection against an otherwise lethal vaginal HSV-2 challenge with amelioration of viral replication and disease severity in the vagina. These results warrant further exploration of IC31(®) for induction of protective immunity against genital herpes and other sexually transmitted infections. PMID:22682292

  9. Chlamydia Pneumoniae and Helicobacter Pylori Serology – Importance in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Grdanoska, Tatjana; Zafirovska, Planinka; Jaglikovski, Branko; Pavlovska, Irina; Zafirova, Beti; Tosheska-Trajkovska, Katerina; Trajkovska-Dokic, Elena; Petrovska, Milena; Cekovska, Zhaklina; Kondova-Topuzovska, Irena; Georgievska-Ismail, Ljubica; Panovski, Nikola

    2012-01-01

    Background: Chronic infections in CHD are due to one or both of the organisms Chlamydia pneumoniae and Helicobacter pylori. Aim: To examine the association between serum markers of Chlamydia pneumoniae and Helicobacter pylori infection and markers of myocardial damage. in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), with chronic coronary artery disease (CAD) and in–control group. Material and methods: Sera were taken from a total of 153 subjects. Subjects were divided in three groups: 64 patients with ACS; 53 patients with CAD and a group of 35 conditionally healthy individuals. Analysis of patients’ sera for IgG antibodies to H. pylori and markers for myocardial damage was done on the Immulite system. The presence of specific IgG and IgA antibodies to C. pneumoniae was determined with MIF, Sero FIA (Savyon Diagnostics, Israel). Statistical analysis of data was done using the statistical program SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences), version 13. Results and discussion: There was a high significant difference in troponin levels between the three groups of subjects (p=0.0000). Levels of creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB) were highest in the ACS group (500.0 ng/mL). There was a statistically significant difference between CG subjects and ACS patients due to more frequent detection of antichlamydial IgA antibodies in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Positive serum immune response for Helicobacter pylori was 17 (53.1%) and 29 (80.6%), respectively. Conclusion: Increased IgA antibody titers for C. Pneumoniae, increased CRP values as well as classic markers of myocardial damage are risk factors for coronary events. PMID:23922522

  10. Immediate toxicity of high multiplicities of Chlamydia psittaci for mouse fibroblasts (L cells).

    PubMed Central

    Moulder, J W; Hatch, T P; Byrne, G I; Kellogg, K R

    1976-01-01

    One hour after suspensions of mouse fibroblasts (L cells) were exposed to 500 to 1,000 L-cell 50% infectious doses of Chlamydia psittaci (6BC), the L cells failed to attach to and spread out on solid substrates, phagocytosed polystyrene latex spheres at reduced rates, incorporated less [14C]isoleucine into protein, and had smaller soluble pools of nucleoside triphosphates. The infected L cells began to die at 8 h and were all dead by 20 h. Lower multiplicities of infection took correspondingly longer to kill the L cells. These effects of high multiplicities of C. psittaci on L cells will be referred to collectively as immediate toxicity. Similar effects were obtained with other strains of C. psittaci and C. trachomatis and with other cell lines. Ultraviolet-inactivated C. psittaci retained the ability to cause immediate toxicity, but heat-inactivated chlamydiae did not. C.psittaci cells had to be ingested by L cells before they were immediately toxic but, once they were phagocytosed, they did not need to multiply or to synthesize macromolecules in order to cause immediate injury to their hosts. Immediate toxicity was not the result of depression of energy metabolism, changes in the levels of intracellular cyclic nucleotides, or release of hydrolases from lysosomes. It was suggested that a lesion is produced in the plasma membrane of the L cell every time it ingests a chlamydial cell, that each act of ingestion produces an independent lesion, and that their injurious effects are additive. Thus, the more ingestion lesions there are, the faster the host cell dies. It was also suggested that induced phagocytosis, inhibition of lysosomal fusion, and death of mice and of cells in culture may all depend on a single activity of C. psittaci. Images PMID:985806

  11. Type II fatty acid synthesis is essential for the replication of Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jiangwei; Abdelrahman, Yasser M; Robertson, Rosanna M; Cox, John V; Belland, Robert J; White, Stephen W; Rock, Charles O

    2014-08-01

    The major phospholipid classes of the obligate intracellular bacterial parasite Chlamydia trachomatis are the same as its eukaryotic host except that they also contain chlamydia-made branched-chain fatty acids in the 2-position. Genomic analysis predicts that C. trachomatis is capable of type II fatty acid synthesis (FASII). AFN-1252 was deployed as a chemical tool to specifically inhibit the enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (FabI) of C. trachomatis to determine whether chlamydial FASII is essential for replication within the host. The C. trachomatis FabI (CtFabI) is a homotetramer and exhibited typical FabI kinetics, and its expression complemented an Escherichia coli fabI(Ts) strain. AFN-1252 inhibited CtFabI by binding to the FabI·NADH complex with an IC50 of 0.9 ?M at saturating substrate concentration. The x-ray crystal structure of the CtFabI·NADH·AFN-1252 ternary complex revealed the specific interactions between the drug, protein, and cofactor within the substrate binding site. AFN-1252 treatment of C. trachomatis-infected HeLa cells at any point in the infectious cycle caused a decrease in infectious titers that correlated with a decrease in branched-chain fatty acid biosynthesis. AFN-1252 treatment at the time of infection prevented the first cell division of C. trachomatis, although the cell morphology suggested differentiation into a metabolically active reticulate body. These results demonstrate that FASII activity is essential for C. trachomatis proliferation within its eukaryotic host and validate CtFabI as a therapeutic target against C. trachomatis. PMID:24958721

  12. Comparative Analysis of Chlamydia psittaci Genomes Reveals the Recent Emergence of a Pathogenic Lineage with a Broad Host Range

    PubMed Central

    Read, Timothy D.; Joseph, Sandeep J.; Didelot, Xavier; Liang, Brooke; Patel, Lisa; Dean, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chlamydia psittaci is an obligate intracellular bacterium. Interest in Chlamydia stems from its high degree of virulence as an intestinal and pulmonary pathogen across a broad range of animals, including humans. C. psittaci human pulmonary infections, referred to as psittacosis, can be life-threatening, which is why the organism was developed as a bioweapon in the 20th century and is listed as a CDC biothreat agent. One remarkable recent result from comparative genomics is the finding of frequent homologous recombination across the genome of the sexually transmitted and trachoma pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis. We sought to determine if similar evolutionary dynamics occurred in C. psittaci. We analyzed 20 C. psittaci genomes from diverse strains representing the nine known serotypes of the organism as well as infections in a range of birds and mammals, including humans. Genome annotation revealed a core genome in all strains of 911 genes. Our analyses showed that C. psittaci has a history of frequently switching hosts and undergoing recombination more often than C. trachomatis. Evolutionary history reconstructions showed genome-wide homologous recombination and evidence of whole-plasmid exchange. Tracking the origins of recombinant segments revealed that some strains have imported DNA from as-yet-unsampled or -unsequenced C. psittaci lineages or other Chlamydiaceae species. Three ancestral populations of C. psittaci were predicted, explaining the current population structure. Molecular clock analysis found that certain strains are part of a clonal epidemic expansion likely introduced into North America by South American bird traders, suggesting that psittacosis is a recently emerged disease originating in New World parrots. PMID:23532978

  13. Photo diagnosis of early pre cancer (LSIL) in genital tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaitkuviene, A.; Andersen-Engels, S.; Auksorius, E.; Bendsoe, N.; Gavriushin, V.; Gustafsson, U.; Oyama, J.; Palsson, S.; Soto Thompson, M.; Stenram, U.; Svanberg, K.; Viliunas, V.; De Weert, M. J.

    2005-11-01

    Permanent infections recognized as oncogenic factor. STD is common concomitant diseases in early precancerous genital tract lesions. Simple optical detection of early regressive pre cancer in cervix is the aim of this study. Hereditary immunosupression most likely is risk factor for cervical cancer development. Light induced fluorescence point monitoring fitted to live cervical tissue diagnostics in 42 patients. Human papilloma virus DNR in cervix tested by means of Hybrid Capture II method. Ultraviolet (337 nm) laser excited fluorescence spectra in the live cervical tissue analyzed by Principal Component (PrC) regression method and spectra decomposition method. PCr method best discriminated pathology group "CIN I and inflammation"(AUC=75%) related to fluorescence emission in short wave region. Spectra decomposition method suggested a few possible fluorophores in a long wave region. Ultraviolet (398 nm) light excitation of live cervix proved sharp selective spectra intensity enhancement in region above 600nm for High-grade cervical lesion. Conclusion: PC analysis of UV (337 nm) light excitation fluorescence spectra gives opportunity to obtain local immunity and Low-grade cervical lesion related information. Addition of shorter and longer wavelengths is promising for multi wave LIF point monitoring method progress in cervical pre-cancer diagnostics and utility for cancer prevention especially in developing countries.

  14. [Efficiency of bacteriological culture and the immunofluorescent assay to detect Campylobacter fetus in bovine genital fluids].

    PubMed

    Marcellino, Romanela B; Morsella, Claudia G; Cano, Dora; Paolicchi, Fernando A

    2015-01-01

    Bovine genital campylobacteriosis is a reproductive disease that affects cattle production. It is caused by Campylobacter fetus subspecies, C. fetus fetus (Cff) and C. fetus venerealis (Cfv). The aim of this study was to identify the presence of C. fetus in genital fluids by bacteriological culture and direct immunofluorescence (DIF) and to compare the results. Two groups of 6 heifers and 5 bulls, one infected with Cff (Cff group) and the other with Cfv (Cfv group) were formed. Two heifers and 2 bulls, all of them uninfected, made up the control group. Samples of cervicovaginal mucus and preputial fluid were processed by culture and DIF. In the Cff group, 100% of the heifers and 80% of the bulls were infected, while in the Cfv group, 50% of the heifers and 60% of the bulls were infected. The degree of agreement (Kappa values) from benchmarking diagnostic techniques were 0.57 for heifers in the Cff group and 0.52 for heifers in the Cfv group, whereas the values for bulls were 0.17 and 0.27, respectively. Heifers yielded more positive results in the DIF assay than in the culture, exhibiting 5.6% increase in the Cff group and 7.4% in the Cfv group. The lowest percentage of positive results for DIF in bulls, 40% less for the Cff group and 5.2% for the Cfv group, could be due to improper sampling. Kappa values showed moderate agreement for the heifers and low for the bulls. PMID:26187267

  15. Influence of Mucosal and Parenteral Immunization with a Replication-Defective Mutant of HSV-2 on Immune Responses and Protection from Genital Challenge

    E-print Network

    Knipe, David M.

    Influence of Mucosal and Parenteral Immunization with a Replication-Defective Mutant of HSV-2 on Immune Responses and Protection from Genital Challenge Lynda A. Morrison,*,1 Xavier J. Da Costa) most frequently initiates infection at a mucosal surface; thus mucosal immune responses are likely

  16. Role of Chlamydia trachomatis and emerging Chlamydia-related bacteria in ectopic pregnancy in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hornung, S; Thuong, B C; Gyger, J; Kebbi-Beghdadi, C; Vasilevsky, S; Greub, G; Baud, D

    2015-09-01

    In this case-control study, we investigated the seroprevalence and molecular evidence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Waddlia chondrophila in ectopic pregnancies (EP) and uneventful control pregnancies in 343 women from Vietnam. Whereas presence of C. trachomatis IgG was strongly associated with EP [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 5·41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2·58-11·32], its DNA remained undetected in all tubal lesions. We confirmed an independent association between antibodies against Waddlia and previous miscarriage (aOR 1·87, 95% CI 1·02-3·42). Further investigations are needed to understand the clinical significance of Waddlia's high seroprevalence (25·9% in control pregnancies) in this urban population. PMID:25543825

  17. Absence of Chlamydia-like organisms in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Van Gils, M.; Aeby, S.; Vanrompay, D.; Greub, G.

    2015-01-01

    Porcine reproductive failure, especially abortion, causes significant economic loss in the pig industry. Waddlia chondrophila and Parachlamydia acanthamoebae are potential abortigenic agents for pigs. Therefore, we investigated the presence of these two Chlamydia-like organisms in abortion-related samples originating from Belgian pig farms. All investigated samples remained negative. PMID:26137311

  18. 21 CFR 866.3120 - Chlamydia serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chlamydia serological reagents. 866.3120 Section 866.3120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3120...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3120 - Chlamydia serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chlamydia serological reagents. 866.3120 Section 866.3120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3120...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3120 - Chlamydia serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chlamydia serological reagents. 866.3120 Section 866.3120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3120...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3120 - Chlamydia serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chlamydia serological reagents. 866.3120 Section 866.3120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3120...

  2. 21 CFR 866.3120 - Chlamydia serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chlamydia serological reagents. 866.3120 Section 866.3120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3120...

  3. RESEARCH ARTICLE SUMMARY A mucosal vaccine against Chlamydia

    E-print Network

    von Andrian, Ulrich H.

    RESEARCH ARTICLE SUMMARY VACCINES A mucosal vaccine against Chlamydia trachomatis generates two* INTRODUCTION: Administering vaccines through nonmucosal routes often leads to poor protection against mucosal pathogens, presum- ably because such vaccines do not generate memory lymphocytes that migrate to mu- cosal

  4. Female genital mutilation: knowledge, attitude and practice among nurses.

    PubMed Central

    Onuh, Sunday O.; Igberase, Gabriel O.; Umeora, Joaness O. U.; Okogbenin, Sylvanus A.; Otoide, Valentine O.; Gharoro, Etedafe P.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Female genital mutilation (FGM) and cutting is a subject of global interest, with many countries of the world still practicing it despite efforts by the WHO and other agencies to discourage the practice. The highest known prevalence is in Africa. OBJECTIVES: To determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of FGM among nurses in the ancient metropolis of Benin in a Nigerian state where FGM is illegal. RESULTS: One-hundred-ninety-three nurses in the study hospital were recruited in the study out of which 182 (94.3%) appropriately filled and returned the questionnaires. The average age of respondents was 37 years, and the average duration of postgraduation experience was 14.5 years. Most respondents are of Bini (36.8%) and Esan (34.1%) ethnic origin. All respondents identified at least one form of FGM, but only 12 respondents (6.6%) could correctly identify the four types of FGM. The harmful effects of FGM identified by the majority of respondents include hemorrhage, difficult labor/childbirth, genital tears, infections and scar/keloid formation. Forty-four (24.2%) of respondents were of the opinion that some forms of FGM are harmless. Eighty nurses admitted to having undergone FGM, for a prevalence of 44%. Five respondents (2.8%) view FGM as a good practice and will encourage the practice. Twelve respondents (6.6%) routinely perform FGM out of which seven (58.3%) viewed FGM as a bad practice. Nurses performing FGM routinely were those who had spent >20 years (59%) and 11-20 years (41%) in the profession. Another 26 (14.3%) had performed FGM before, though not on a routine basis. Of this latter group, 15 will perform FGM in the future when faced with certain circumstances. Reasons for FGM practice were mainly cultural. Eight of the respondents would have their daughters circumcised. CONCLUSION: Nurses perceive FGM in Benin as cultural. Almost half have had FGM themselves, and a small percentage recommend it to their daughters. Discouraging FGM practice will require culturally sensitive education of the healthcare providers and the population at large on the ill effects of FGM, including the risk to health and violations of human rights. PMID:16573307

  5. Therapy for genital herpes in immunocompromised patients: a national survey. The Herpes Simplex Advisory Panel.

    PubMed Central

    Scoular, A; Barton, S

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the extent of aciclovir refractory herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in HIV coinfected patients in the United Kingdom and survey clinicians on their approaches to its management. DESIGN: Questionnaire survey of representative sample of one third of United Kingdom HIV physicians. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Use of antiviral therapies for genital HSV infections in HIV positive patients, reported frequency of aciclovir refractory HSV infection, its therapy, and access to antiviral susceptibility testing facilities. RESULTS: 53 responses were obtained (response rate 61%), representing a sample size of 23% of United Kingdom HIV physicians. Use of non-standard antiviral regimens for HSV infections in HIV coinfected patients was widely practised, irrespective of the clinical characteristics of the HSV infection. Aciclovir refractory HSV infection has been observed by 37 (70%) respondents. Although foscarnet was the most frequently used therapy, used by 27/37 (73%) respondents, in only seven of these 27 (19%) was it a first line treatment for aciclovir refractory cases, frequently being used at a late stage in the clinical course. Antiviral susceptibility testing facilities were available to 46 (87%) clinicians. No respondents reported any evidence of transmission of aciclovir resistant strains. CONCLUSIONS: HIV coinfection has a stronger influence on therapeutic choice than clinical immunosuppression or severity of herpetic infection. Aciclovir treatment failure is commoner than hitherto recognised. There is a need for wider awareness of use of foscarnet at an earlier stage in management of refractory HSV infection. Images PMID:9534751

  6. Chlamydiae in free-ranging and captive frogs in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Blumer, C; Zimmermann, D R; Weilenmann, R; Vaughan, L; Pospischil, A

    2007-03-01

    A total of 210 frog samples originating either from a mass mortality (1991/1992) or from routine postmortem investigations of the years 1990 to 2004 were examined retrospectively for a possible involvement of Chlamydiae. For a prevalence study of Chlamydia in a selected Swiss amphibian population, 403 samples from free-ranging Rana temporaria were examined. Histopathology, immunohistochemistry using a monoclonal antibody against chlamydial lipopolysaccharide, and a 16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by DNA sequencing were performed on the formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues. Using PCR, 8 of 54 (14.8%) frog samples from the mass mortality (1991/1992) were positive for Chlamydia suis S45. A control group of healthy Xenopus laevis had 3 of 38 positive samples, sequenced as C suis S45 (2/3) and an endosymbiont of Acanthamoeba species UWE1 (1/3). Chlamydophila pneumoniae TW-183 was detected from exotic frogs kept in a zoo. Of the frogs collected for the prevalence study, 6 of 238 (2.5%) tested positive, 1 each for C suis S45, Cp pneumoniae TW-183, and uncultured Chlamydiales CRG22, and the remaining 3 revealed Chlamydophila abortus S26/3. In immunohistochemistry, there were 2 positive labeling reactions, 1 in intestine and the other in the epithelium coating the body cavity, both testing positive for Cp pneumoniae TW-183 in PCR. Histologically there were no lesions recorded being characteristic for Chlamydia. Although there is a prevalence of Chlamydia in Swiss frogs, no connection to a mass mortality (1991/1992) could be established. For the first time, C suis S45 and Cp abortus S26/3 were detected in frog material. PMID:17317791

  7. Female genital mutilation/cutting: an update.

    PubMed

    Rouzi, A A; Alturki, F

    2015-01-01

    Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a cultural practice involving several types of external female genitalia cutting. FGM/C is known to occur in all parts of the world but is most prevalent in 28 countries in Africa and the Middle East and among immigrant communities in Europe, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the United States. Studies of FGM/C suffer from many methodological problems including inadequate analysis and an unclear reporting of results. The evidence to link FGM/C to infertility is weak. The management of epidermal clitoral inclusion cysts includes expensive investigations like comprehensive endocrinology tests and MRI resulting in unnecessary anxiety due to delay in surgical treatment. Similarly, unnecessary cesarean sections or rupture of the infibulation scar continue to occur because of the inadequate use of intrapartum defibulation. A significant amount of efforts is required to improve and correct the inadequate care of FGM/C women and girls. PMID:26151997

  8. [Symptomatology and treatment of persistent genital arousal disorder. Case report].

    PubMed

    Er?s, Erika; Brockhauser, Ildikó; Pólyán, Edina

    2015-04-01

    Persistent genital arousal disorder is a rare condition among women characterized by unwanted and intrusive sexual arousal that can persist for an extended period of time and unrelated to sexual desire or sexual stimuli. Since its first documentation in 2001, numerous studies have been dedicated to investigate its specifics. The persistent genital arousal occurs in the absence of sexual interest and fantasies and it causes excessive psychological suffering. Masturbation, spontaneous orgasm or sexual intercourse can offer only a temporary relief. Researches provide a limited insight into the characteristics of persistent genital arousal disorder. This paper presents a case and summarizes the scientific findings on prevalence, etiology and treatment perspectives. PMID:25845321

  9. Antiviral immune responses in the genital tract: clues for vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Akiko

    2013-01-01

    Mucosal surfaces are often exploited as a portal of entry by a wide variety of microorganisms. An advanced understanding has been gained over the past decade of the immune system of the gastrointestinal and the respiratory mucosae. However, despite the fact that many viruses are transmitted sexually through the genital tract, the immune system of the male and female genital mucosae has received much less attention. Here, I describe and highlight differences of the innate and adaptive immune systems of the genital and intestinal mucosae, and discuss the challenges we face in the development of successful vaccines against sexually transmitted viral pathogens. PMID:20829886

  10. Female Genital Mutilation (FGM): Australian Midwives' Knowledge and Attitudes.

    PubMed

    Ogunsiji, Olayide

    2015-11-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a women's health and human rights issue attracting global interest. My purpose in this qualitative study was to report the knowledge and attitudes of Australian midwives toward FGM. Verbatim transcription and thematic analysis of semistructured interviews with 11 midwives resulted in these themes: knowledge of female genital mutilation and attitude toward female genital mutilation. Significant gaps in knowledge about FGM featured prominently. The midwives expressed anger toward FGM and empathy for affected women. Recommendations include increased information on FGM and associated legislation among midwives and other health providers in countries where FGM may be encountered. PMID:25558808

  11. Neonatal herpes simplex virus infection: epidemiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    James, Scott H; Kimberlin, David W

    2015-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) are highly prevalent viruses capable of establishing lifelong infection. Genital herpes in women of childbearing age represents a major risk for mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HSV infection, with primary and first-episode genital HSV infections posing the highest risk. The advent of antiviral therapy with parenteral acyclovir has led to significant improvement in neonatal HSV disease mortality. Further studies are needed to improve the clinician's ability to identify infants at increased risk for HSV infection and prevent MTCT, and to develop novel antiviral agents with increased efficacy in infants with HSV infection. PMID:25677996

  12. Innate Antibacterial Activity in Female Genital Tract Secretions Is Associated with Increased Risk of HIV Acquisition.

    PubMed

    Pellett Madan, Rebecca; Masson, Lindi; Tugetman, Jessica; Werner, Lise; Grobler, Anneke; Mlisana, Koleka; Lo, Yungtai; Che, Denise; Arnold, Kelly B; Karim, Salim S Abdool; Passmore, Jo-Ann S; Herold, Betsy C

    2015-11-01

    Greater inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli and levels of human ? defensin (HBD)-2 in genital tract secretions predicted HIV acquisition in women in the HPTN 035 trial. We investigated whether higher levels of E. coli inhibitory activity and antimicrobial peptides in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) samples predicted HIV acquisition in women in the CAPRISA 002 Acute Infection Study. E. coli inhibitory activity and antimicrobial peptides were quantified in CVL from a subset of CAPRISA 002 participants who did not seroconvert (n=39) and from seroconverting women prior to infection (n=17) and during acute infection (n=11). Women who acquired HIV had significantly greater preinfection CVL E. coli inhibitory activity (p=0.01) and HBD-1 levels (p=0.02) compared to women who remained uninfected. Preinfection E. coli inhibitory activity remained significantly associated with seroconversion following adjustment for the presence of bacterial vaginosis (OR 1.45; 95% CI 1.07, 1.97). Partial least squares discriminant analysis confirmed that preinfection CVL E. coli inhibitory activity, together with higher CVL concentrations of HBD-1 and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor, distinguished seroconverters from nonseroconverters with 67% calibration accuracy. CVL concentrations of human neutrophil peptides (HNP) 1-3 increased significantly with acute infection (p=0.001) and correlated with plasma viral set point (r=0.66, p=0.03). E. coli inhibitory activity in genital tract secretions could provide a biomarker of HIV risk. The correlation between HNP 1-3 and viral set point merits further investigation of the relationship between mucosal inflammation during early HIV infection and disease progression. PMID:26061218

  13. Absence of Chlamydia pneumoniae and signs of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in adolescents with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Bowser, Corinna S; Kumar, Swati; Salciccioli, Louis; Kutlin, Andrei; Lazar, Jason; Rahim, Imran; Suss, Amy; Kohlhoff, Stephan; Hammerschlag, Margaret R; Moallem, Hamid Jack

    2008-05-01

    Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have accelerated atherogenesis. A recent study suggested that Chlamydia pneumoniae infection might also be a contributing factor in the development of atherogenesis in patients with SLE. The objective of this study was to investigate the possible association of C. pneumoniae infection with markers of atherosclerosis in adolescents with SLE compared with age-matched healthy controls. History and exam focused on cardiovascular risk factors were obtained from 20 patients with SLE and 20 age- and sex-matched controls. Laboratory studies included serum lipid profile and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). Detection of C. pneumoniae in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and in nasopharyngeal swab specimens was performed. Carotid Intima-Media Thickness (CIMT) was determined by sonography in all subjects. C. pneumoniae DNA was not detected in PBMCs of any of the patients or controls. Nasopharyngeal cultures were also negative for C. pneumoniae in all patients. CIMT was slightly higher in the SLE group (0.48 +/- 0.049) compared with controls (0.454 +/- 0.041, p = 0.29). There was no significant difference between the two groups in body mass index, blood pressure, hsCRP, and serum cholesterol (total, LDL and HDL). Serum triglycerides were higher in the lupus group (p = 0.03). Children and adolescents with SLE might have accelerated atherosclerosis; however, we did not observe an association with C. pneumoniae infection in this population. PMID:18080155

  14. Waddlia chondrophila and Chlamydia trachomatis antibodies in screening infertile women for tubal pathology.

    PubMed

    Verweij, S P; Kebbi-Beghdadi, C; Land, J A; Ouburg, S; Morré, S A; Greub, G

    2015-01-01

    Since Waddlia chondrophila is closely related to Chlamydia trachomatis, we hypothesise that W. chondrophila may also be associated with tubal factor infertility (TFI) in women, a major complication of chronic C. trachomatis infection. Five hundred twenty serum samples were tested for anti-Waddlia antibodies by ELISA. Among the 520 investigated women, a total number of 142 (27.3%) has had laparoscopic diagnosis performed, and were either classified TFI positive or negative. Presence of high titres of W. chondrophila antibodies was linked to TFI (p < 0.0001; OR: 7.5; 95% CI: 3.3-17). Moreover, antibody positivity to both W. chondrophila and C. trachomatis-MOMP was strongly associated with TFI (p < 0.0001; OR: 21; 95% CI: 3.8-12E1). This association was much stronger than the statistical association of C. trachomatis-MOMP antibodies only (p < 0.0001; OR: 7.1; 95% CI: 3.7-14), suggesting that co-infection with W. chondrophila and C. trachomatis may lead to more severe reproductive sequelae and immune responses than single infection with either Chlamydiales members. PMID:26428856

  15. Investigation of a Chlamydia pneumoniae Outbreak in a Federal Correctional Facility in Texas

    PubMed Central

    Conklin, Laura; Adjemian, Jennifer; Loo, Jennifer; Mandal, Sema; Davis, Carol; Parks, Sharyn; Parsons, Tina; McDonough, Brian; Partida, Jorge; Thurman, Kathleen; Diaz, Maureen H.; Benitez, Alvaro; Pondo, Tracy; Whitney, Cynthia G.; Winchell, Jonas M.; Kendig, Newton; Van Beneden, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Background Chlamydia pneumoniae illness is poorly characterized, particularly as a sole causative pathogen. We investigated a C. pneumoniae outbreak at a federal correctional facility. Methods We identified inmates with acute respiratory illness (ARI) from 1 November 2009 to 24 February 2010 through clinic self-referral and active case finding. We tested oropharyngeal and/or nasopharyngeal swabs for C. pneumoniae by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and serum samples by microimmunofluorescence. Cases were inmates with ARI and radiologically confirmed pneumonia, positive qPCR, or serological evidence of recent infection. Swabs from 7 acutely ill inmates were tested for 18 respiratory pathogens using qPCR TaqMan Array Cards (TACs). Follow-up swabs from case patients were collected for up to 8 weeks. Results Among 33 self-referred and 226 randomly selected inmates, 52 (20.1%) met the case definition; pneumonia was confirmed in 4 by radiology only, in 9 by qPCR only, in 17 by serology only, and in 22 by both qPCR and serology. The prison attack rate was 10.4% (95% confidence interval, 7.0%–13.8%). White inmates and residents of housing unit Y were at highest risk. TAC testing detected C. pneumoniae in 4 (57%) inmates; no other causative pathogens were identified. Among 40 inmates followed prospectively, C. pneumoniae was detected for up to 8 weeks. Thirteen (52%) of 25 inmates treated with azithromycin continued to be qPCR positive >2 weeks after treatment. Conclusions Chlamydia pneumoniae was the causative pathogen of this outbreak. Higher risk among certain groups suggests that social interaction contributed to transmission. Persistence of C. pneumoniae in the oropharynx creates challenges for outbreak control measures. PMID:23723194

  16. Various hysterosalpingography findings of female genital tuberculosis: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Afzali, Nargess; Ahmadi, Firoozeh; Akhbari, Farnaz

    2013-01-01

    Background: Genital tuberculosis is a chorionic disease and mostly occurs by haematogenous spread from extra genital source like lungs, peritoneum, lymph nodes and bones. Transmission through a sexual intercourse is also possible. Since the majority of patients are in reproductive ages, involvement of fallopian tubes and endometrium cause infertility in patients. Cases: Reviewing 4 cases of female genital tuberculosis, which referred to an infertility treatment center with various symptoms, we encountered various appearances on hysterosalpingography (HSG). Conclusion: The genitourinary tract is the most common site of extra pulmonary TB. The primary focus of genital tuberculosis is fallopian tubes, which are almost always affected bilaterally but not symmetrically. Because of common involvement of fallopian tubes and endometrial cavity, disease causes infertility. Diagnosis is not easy because genital tuberculosis has a wide range of clinical and radiological manifestations with slow growing symptoms. Detailed hysterosalpingography finding may be helpful in better diagnosis of the disease. This case series aims to depict the various hystrosalpingographic appearances and pathology produced by tuberculosis and related literatures are reviewed in order to establish a better diagnostic evaluation of genital tuberculosis. PMID:24639787

  17. Sexually Transmitted Infections.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lindsay; Angarone, Michael P

    2015-11-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remain a significant burden on public health in the United States. Primary prevention counseling with early diagnosis and treatment remain the best methods to decrease the incidence of STIs. Through significant public heath interventions, the incidence of gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and trichomoniasis is decreasing; however, the incidence of primary and secondary syphilis is increasing. Human papilloma virus remains the most common STI, but new vaccinations have the possibility of having a significant impact on this virus's disease potential. This review discusses the most common STIs in the United States, focusing on clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:26475947

  18. Recent Developments in Non-HPV-related Adenocarcinomas of the Lower Female Genital Tract and Their Precursors.

    PubMed

    McCluggage, W Glenn

    2016-01-01

    Most adenocarcinomas in the lower female genital tract (cervix, vagina, vulva) arise in the cervix and are associated with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. However, there is an emerging spectrum of non-HPV-related cervical adenocarcinomas, the most common of which is so-called gastric type. In this review, the concept of gastric-type cervical adenocarcinomas and their possible precursor lesions is covered, the precursor lesions still being poorly understood. Other non-HPV-related cervical adenocarcinomas are also discussed, including new information regarding molecular events in mesonephric adenocarcinoma. A variety of primary vaginal adenocarcinomas, including clear cell, endometrioid, intestinal and gastric types are also discussed. The spectrum of benign and malignant glandular lesions involving the lower female genital tract and probably derived from misplaced Skene's (periurethral) glands is also covered. PMID:26645463

  19. An observational study to evaluate three pilot programmes of retesting chlamydia-positive individuals within 6?months in the South West of England

    PubMed Central

    Angel, Georgina; Horner, Paddy J; O'Brien, Norah; Sharp, Matt; Pye, Karl; Priestley, Cecilia; Macleod, John; Looker, Katharine J; Turner, Katherine M E

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate 3 pilot chlamydia retesting programmes in South West England which were initiated prior to the release of new National Chlamydia Screening Programme (NCSP) guidelines recommending retesting in 2014. Methods Individuals testing positive between August 2012 and July 2013 in Bristol (n=346), Cornwall (n=252) and Dorset (n=180) programmes were eligible for inclusion in the retesting pilots. The primary outcomes were retest within 6?months (yes/no) and repeat diagnosis at retest (yes/no), adjusted for area, age and gender. Results Overall 303/778 (39.0%) of participants were retested within 6?months and 31/299 (10.4%) were positive at retest. Females were more likely to retest than males and Dorset had higher retesting rates than the other areas. Conclusions More than a third of those eligible were retested within the time frame of the study. Chlamydia retesting programmes appear feasible within the context of current programmes to identify individuals at continued risk of infection with relatively low resource and time input. PMID:26510723

  20. Genital Cancers in Women: Uterine Cancer.

    PubMed

    Roett, Michelle A

    2015-11-01

    There are two main types of uterine cancer. Endometrial carcinoma, the most commonly diagnosed genital cancer in women, accounts for most cases (more than 95%) and sarcoma comprises the remainder. Endometrial cancer primarily occurs in postmenopausal women. Risk factors include exposure to high levels of endogenous estrogen (eg, obesity, nulliparity, late menopause) or exogenous estrogen (eg, hormone replacement therapy, tamoxifen) and pelvic radiation. Genetics are involved in a small percentage of cases, notably among women in families with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). More than 80% of patients with endometrial cancers present with abnormal uterine bleeding. Endometrial biopsy and transvaginal ultrasound are the first-line tests to evaluate bleeding. If the endometrial lining is thickened on ultrasound, endometrial biopsy is indicated. If symptoms persist after negative biopsy results, or if biopsy results are inadequate, hysteroscopy is performed for tissue sampling. Most patients with endometrial cancer are diagnosed early, when cancer is confined to the uterus. Hysterectomy is the treatment of choice in such cases. Treatment of advanced disease involves radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. Perimenopausal women should be informed that abnormal bleeding could be a sign of cancer and should be evaluated. However, no routine screening is recommended except for women with HNPCC. PMID:26569046

  1. Egyptian court overturns ban on genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    1997-07-01

    The ban on female genital mutilation (FGM) performed by health professionals in Egypt was overturned by a June 24 [1997] ruling of Judge Abdul Aziz Hamade of a mid-level administrative court in Cairo. The judge determined that the ministerial decree, which had been implemented last July by Health Minister Ismail Sallam, inappropriately restricted the practice of doctors. According to news reports, the court cited research purporting to show that failure to perform FGM harmed children, as well as quotes from Mohammed, which FGM advocates said endorsed the procedure under Islamic law. Although the court overturned the ministerial decree, it did acknowledge that Parliament could outlaw the practice; however, human rights groups believe the practice is too popular for Parliament to do so. The suit against the ban had been filed by Sheik Youssef al-Badry, a conservative Islamic cleric, and Munir Fawzi, a Cairo gynecologist. In May, Egypt's highest court had recommended to the mid-level court that FGM should be legal. The decision does not effect a ban on the performance of surgery by those without a medical license, including barbers and midwives. It is estimated that 80% of girls in Egypt undergo FGM. Egypt's highest Sunni Moslem authority contests the endorsement of FGM under Islamic law. PMID:12292628

  2. Intramuscular Immunisation with Chlamydial Proteins Induces Chlamydia trachomatis Specific Ocular Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Badamchi-Zadeh, Alexander; McKay, Paul F.; Holland, Martin J.; Paes, Wayne; Brzozowski, Andrzej; Lacey, Charles; Follmann, Frank; Tregoning, John S.; Shattock, Robin J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis can cause trachoma, which is the leading cause of blindness due to infection worldwide. Despite the large-scale implementation of trachoma control programmes in the majority of countries where trachoma is endemic, there remains a need for a vaccine. Since C. trachomatis infects the conjunctival epithelium and stimulates an immune response in the associated lymphoid tissue, vaccine regimens that enhance local antibody responses could be advantageous. In experimental infections of non-human primates (NHPs), antibody specificity to C. trachomatis antigens was found to change over the course of ocular infection. The appearance of major outer membrane protein (MOMP) specific antibodies correlated with a reduction in ocular chlamydial burden, while subsequent generation of antibodies specific for PmpD and Pgp3 correlated with C. trachomatis eradication. Methods We used a range of heterologous prime-boost vaccinations with DNA, Adenovirus, modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) and protein vaccines based on the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) as an antigen, and investigated the effect of vaccine route, antigen and regimen on the induction of anti-chlamydial antibodies detectable in the ocular lavage fluid of mice. Results Three intramuscular vaccinations with recombinant protein adjuvanted with MF59 induced significantly greater levels of anti-MOMP ocular antibodies than the other regimens tested. Intranasal delivery of vaccines induced less IgG antibody in the eye than intramuscular delivery. The inclusion of the antigens PmpD and Pgp3, singly or in combination, induced ocular antigen-specific IgG antibodies, although the anti-PmpD antibody response was consistently lower and attenuated by combination with other antigens. Conclusions If translatable to NHPs and/or humans, this investigation of the murine C. trachomatis specific ocular antibody response following vaccination provides a potential mouse model for the rapid and high throughput evaluation of future trachoma vaccines. PMID:26501198

  3. The views of general practitioners and practice nurses towards the barriers and facilitators of proactive, internet-based chlamydia screening for reaching young heterosexual men

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chlamydia trachomatis is a common bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI), which disproportionately affects young people under 25 years. Commonly, more women are offered screening than men. This study obtained the views of general practitioners and practice nurses towards Internet-based screening and assessed levels of support for the development of proactive screening targeting young heterosexual men via the Internet. Methods Semi-structured telephone interviews with 10 general practitioners and 8 practice nurses, across Central Scotland. Topics covered: experience of screening heterosexual men for chlamydia, views on the use of the Internet as a way to reach young men for chlamydia screening, beliefs about the potential barriers and facilitators to Internet-based screening. Transcripts from audio recordings were analysed with Framework Analysis, using QSR NVivo10. Results Experiences of chlamydia screening were almost exclusively with women, driven by the nature of consultations and ease of raising sexual health issues with female patients; few practice nurses reported seeing men during consultations. All participants spoke in favour of Internet-based screening for young men. Participants reported ease of access and convenience as potential facilitators of an Internet-based approach but anonymity and confidentiality could be potential barriers and facilitators to the success of an Internet approach to screening. Concerns over practical issues as well as those pertaining to gender and socio-cultural issues were raised. Conclusions Awareness of key barriers and facilitators, such as confidentiality, practicality and socio-cultural influences, will inform the development of an Internet-based approach to screening. However, this approach may have its limits in terms of being able to tackle wider social and cultural barriers, along with shifts in young people’s and health professionals’ attitudes towards screening. Nevertheless, employing innovative efforts as part of a multi-faceted approach is required to ensure effective interventions reach the policy agenda. PMID:24972919

  4. An online study combining the constructs from the theory of planned behaviour and protection motivation theory in predicting intention to test for chlamydia in two testing contexts.

    PubMed

    Powell, Rachael; Pattison, Helen M; Francis, Jill J

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted infection that has potentially serious consequences unless detected and treated early. The health service in the UK offers clinic-based testing for chlamydia but uptake is low. Identifying the predictors of testing behaviours may inform interventions to increase uptake. Self-tests for chlamydia may facilitate testing and treatment in people who avoid clinic-based testing. Self-testing and being tested by a health care professional (HCP) involve two contrasting contexts that may influence testing behaviour. However, little is known about how predictors of behaviour differ as a function of context. In this study, theoretical models of behaviour were used to assess factors that may predict intention to test in two different contexts: self-testing and being tested by a HCP. Individuals searching for or reading about chlamydia testing online were recruited using Google Adwords. Participants completed an online questionnaire that addressed previous testing behaviour and measured constructs of the Theory of Planned Behaviour and Protection Motivation Theory, which propose a total of eight possible predictors of intention. The questionnaire was completed by 310 participants. Sufficient data for multiple regression were provided by 102 and 118 respondents for self-testing and testing by a HCP respectively. Intention to self-test was predicted by vulnerability and self-efficacy, with a trend-level effect for response efficacy. Intention to be tested by a HCP was predicted by vulnerability, attitude and subjective norm. Thus, intentions to carry out two testing behaviours with very similar goals can have different predictors depending on test context. We conclude that interventions to increase self-testing should be based on evidence specifically related to test context. PMID:25929700

  5. In Vitro Activity of AZD0914, a Novel DNA Gyrase Inhibitor, against Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Kohlhoff, Stephan A.; Huband, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro activities of AZD0914, levofloxacin, azithromycin, and doxycycline against 10 isolates each of Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae were tested. For AZD0914, the MIC90s for C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae were 0.25 ?g/ml (range, 0.06 to 0.5 ?g/ml) and 1 ?g/ml (range, 0.25 to 1 ?g/ml), respectively, and the minimal bactericidal concentrations at which 90% of the isolates were killed (MBC90s) were 0.5 ?g/ml for C. trachomatis (range, 0.125 to 1 ?g/ml) and 2 ?g/ml for C. pneumoniae (range, 0.5 to 2 ?g/ml). PMID:25288086

  6. Transnodal Lymphangiography in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Genital Lymphedema

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, F. M. Martinez-Rodrigo, J.; Marti-Bonmati, L.; Santos, E.; Forner, I.; Lloret, M.; Perez-Enguix, D.; Garcia-Marcos, R.

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To report the success of groin nodal lymphography in the diagnosis and treatment of genital lymphedema. Methods and Materials: We present one female (8 years old [patient no. 1]) and two male (69 and [patient no. 2] 31 years old [patient no. 3], respectively) patients with genital lymphedema in whom conservative treatment failed. The girl also had lymphorrhagia. Genital lymphedema was caused by radical cystectomy (patient no. 2), lymphatic hyperplasia (patient no. 1), and idiopathic lymphangitis (patient no. 3). All of them underwent ultrasound-guided bilateral groin lymph node puncture. Afterward, 4-8 ml Lipiodol Ultra-Fluide (Guerbet) were injected at a rate of 0.2 ml/s. Lipiodol progression was assessed by fluoroscopy. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis was performed immediately after and again at 24 h after the procedure to confirm the leak. The follow-up period was 15, 13, and 9 months, respectively. Technical success was considered as bilateral pelvic and abdominal filling of lymphatic vessels. Therapeutic success was considered as improvement or disappearance of genital lymphedema and/or lymphorrhagia. Results: Lipiodol leak to the scrotum was observed in patients no. 2 and 3. Lymphaticopelvic fistula and genital lymphatic hyperplasia were seen in patient no. 1. Genital lymphedema diminished within 1 week and almost disappeared in two cases (patients no. 1 and 3) or significantly improved (patient no. 2). lymphorrhagia also resolved in patient no. 1. No recurrence or worsening was detected during follow-up. Conclusion: Therapeutic lymphangiography by lymph node injection seems to be effective to treat genital lymphedema. Lymph node puncture lymphangiography is feasible and less cumbersome than pedal lymphangiography.

  7. Inhibitory activities of the marine streptomycete-derived compound SF2446A2 against Chlamydia trachomatis and Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Reimer, Anastasija; Blohm, Ariane; Quack, Thomas; Grevelding, Christoph G; Kozjak-Pavlovic, Vera; Rudel, Thomas; Hentschel, Ute; Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan

    2015-11-01

    Infectious diseases caused by chlamydia or schistosomes are a major health problem worldwide, and particularly so in developing countries. The lack of appropriate vaccines renders the search for potent natural products against these disease-causing agents an urgent endeavor. Sponge-associated actinomycetes represent a rich reservoir for natural products. Among them, members of the genus Streptomyces are capable of synthesizing an impressive array of diverse natural products with a wide variety of biological activities. The naphthacene glycoside SF2446A2 was isolated from the calcium alginate beads culture of Streptomyces sp. strain RV15 that had originally been obtained from the Mediterranean sponge Dysidea tupha. Its structure was identified by spectroscopic analysis and MS and comparison with the literature data. SF2446A2 showed inhibitory activity against Chlamydia trachomatis and was able to inhibit the primary infection in a dose-dependent manner, as well as progeny formation. Moreover, it caused disruptive effects on the surface area of Schistosoma mansoni and affected the gonads by impairing oogenesis and spermatogenesis. Our current study demonstrates that sponge-associated actinomycetes are capable of providing compounds with new pharmacological activities and with relevance to drug discovery. PMID:25990954

  8. The prevalence of chlamydiae of bulls from six bull studs in Germany.

    PubMed

    Kauffold, Johannes; Henning, Klaus; Bachmann, Rüdiger; Hotzel, Helmut; Melzer, Falk

    2007-11-01

    Although there are indications for venereal transmission of chlamydiae in cattle, epidemiological data on the presence of these bacteria in bulls and bull semen in particular is still incomplete. We investigated semen (n=120), preputial washing samples (n=121) and faeces (n=122) of bulls from six bull studs located within five Federal States of Germany for the presence of chlamydiae using omp1-PCR and partial omp1 sequencing. Blood serum was examined for chlamydial antibodies using an indirect ELISA (n=122). Chlamydiae were found in 11 (9.2%), 13 (10.7%) and 22 (18.0%) of the semen, preputial washing and faecal samples, respectively. Among individual chlamydial species identified, Chlamydophila (Cp.) psittaci predominated in semen and preputial washing samples, and Cp. pecorum in faeces. Cp. abortus was the third frequently observed species. Chlamydial antibodies were detected in a total of 62 (50.8%) bulls. Bull studs differed in regard to the number of bulls found chlamydia-positive in faeces and serologically positive. No correlation was observed between serological data and PCR of semen, preputial washing samples or faeces. Standard ejaculate parameters did not differ between bulls that were chlamydia-positive and -negative in semen. In conclusion, detection of chlamydiae in semen of bulls suggests a potential for venereal transmission. Chlamydiae appear to be widespread within the bull population in Germany. Serological testing failed to identify bulls shedding chlamydiae in their semen. PMID:17088031

  9. Effective macrophage redox defense against Chlamydia pneumoniae depends on L-type Ca2+ channel activation.

    PubMed

    Azenabor, Anthony A; Chaudhry, Aziz U

    2003-05-01

    Macrophage immune capability depends on their efficient redox potential expressed in the effective release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide. In this study the effect of the activation of a specialized Ca(2+) channel on macrophage redox function during Chlamydia pneumoniae infection was explored. C. pneumoniae exhibited a profound and sustained Ca(2+) influx capacity, with evidence of activity attributable to their lipopolysaccharide (cLPS) content. Also the organism showed an additional Ca(2+) influx signal in macrophages exposed to thapsigargin, and there was evidence for the operation of a single ion channel of the L type as demonstrated by the effect of L-type channel antagonists (methoxyverapamil and nimodipine) despite exposure to Ca(2+)-rich medium. C. pneumoniae or cLPS induced intracellular ROS and NO generation in a manner consistent with dependence on intracellular calcium. L-type Ca(2+) channel blocking significantly prompted C. pneumoniae inclusion formation. These findings suggest that Ca(2+) influx signal and redox function in C. pneumoniae-infected macrophages depend on L-type Ca(2+) channel activation. PMID:12736823

  10. Expression patterns of five polymorphic membrane proteins during the Chlamydia abortus developmental cycle.

    PubMed

    Wheelhouse, Nick; Sait, Michelle; Wilson, Kim; Aitchison, Kevin; McLean, Kevin; Smith, David G E; Longbottom, David

    2012-12-01

    It has been suggested that polymorphic membrane proteins (Pmps) belonging to the Type V autotransporter protein family play an important role in the pathogenesis of Chlamydia abortus (C. abortus; formerly Chlamydophila abortus) infection. In a previous study we demonstrated the expression of all the pmps at the transcriptional level. The purpose of this study was to measure the number of Pmp positive inclusions throughout the C. abortus developmental cycle to investigate heterogeneity in expression patterns. McCoy cells were infected with C. abortus and analysed for Pmp expression over a 72 h period by fluorescent immunocytochemistry. Pmp18D could be detected at all analysed time points, and could only be accurately quantified from 36 hpi while Pmp10G positive inclusions could be visualised from 36hpi. Expression of Pmps 13G, 16G and 17G could only be visualised later in the cycle and within less than half of visualised inclusions. These results indicate that while expression of specific Pmps is constitutive (Pmp18D), the pattern of expression of other Pmps is more variable. This suggests that different members of the Pmp family may play different roles within the developmental cycle of the organism, with some (Pmps10G and 18D) having roles throughout the cycle, while the heterogeneity of expression of others may aid in antigenic variation. PMID:22776512

  11. Chlamydia felis exposure in companion dogs and cats in Lanzhou, China: a public health concern

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chlamydiaceae is a family of obligate intracellular pathogens with a worldwide distribution in many animal species, including humans. No information exists on the prevalence of Chlamydia felis infections in cats and dogs in Lanzhou, the geographical center of China. The aim of this study was to carry out a census of cats and dogs in Lanzhou and document the seroprevalence of C. felis exposure in these companion animals. Results In this study, blood samples were collected from 485 animals (221 cats and 264 pet dogs) in Lanzhou between November 2010 and July 2011 to identify antibodies against C. felis. Thirteen of 221 (5.9%) cats and 32 of 264 (12.1%) pet dogs were positive for C. felis infection using indirect hemagglutination at a cutoff of 1:16. The seroprevalence in household and stray cats was 3.9% and 14.3%, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (P??0.05). Conclusions This is the first report of the seroprevalence of C. felis exposure in cats and dogs in Lanzhou, northwestern China. Our results indicate that the presence of C. felis exposure in cats and dogs may pose a potential threat to human health. PMID:23694730

  12. Sensitive and rapid detection of Chlamydia trachomatis by recombinase polymerase amplification directly from urine samples.

    PubMed

    Krőlov, Katrin; Frolova, Jekaterina; Tudoran, Oana; Suhorutsenko, Julia; Lehto, Taavi; Sibul, Hiljar; Mäger, Imre; Laanpere, Made; Tulp, Indrek; Langel, Ülo

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted human pathogen. Infection results in minimal to no symptoms in approximately two-thirds of women and therefore often goes undiagnosed. C. trachomatis infections are a major public health concern because of the potential severe long-term consequences, including an increased risk of ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic pain, and infertility. To date, several point-of-care tests have been developed for C. trachomatis diagnostics. Although many of them are fast and specific, they lack the required sensitivity for large-scale application. We describe a rapid and sensitive form of detection directly from urine samples. The assay uses recombinase polymerase amplification and has a minimum detection limit of 5 to 12 pathogens per test. Furthermore, it enables detection within 20 minutes directly from urine samples without DNA purification before the amplification reaction. Initial analysis of the assay from clinical patient samples had a specificity of 100% (95% CI, 92%-100%) and a sensitivity of 83% (95% CI, 51%-97%). The whole procedure is fairly simple and does not require specific machinery, making it potentially applicable in point-of-care settings. PMID:24331366

  13. Comparison of sample preparation methods for detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid by PCR.

    PubMed Central

    Maass, M; Dalhoff, K

    1994-01-01

    Amplification inhibitors can lead to false-negative results for PCR. In order to evaluate the reliability of PCR for the detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae, the presence of PCR inhibitors in 75 bronchoalveolar lavage specimens was assessed after treatment by various sample preparation methods. Specimens were collected from patients with acute respiratory infections, including four cases of proven C. pneumoniae infection. Substances inhibitory to the amplification of chlamydial DNA continued to be present in 12% of the samples treated according to the commonly used single-step proteinase K digestion and in 31% of the samples processed by heat treatment. However, the complexing of DNA-contaminating proteins and polysaccharides from digested specimens to cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) followed by DNA extraction efficiently removed inhibitors from all experimental samples and provided subsequent identification of all positive clinical samples by PCR. The CTAB method and proteinase K treatment had comparable detection limits of approximately 0.01 inclusion-forming units. CTAB-based DNA purification of respiratory specimens is recommended to increase the diagnostic sensitivity of PCR and confidence in negative results. Images PMID:7814512

  14. Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Mycoplasma genitalium should it be integrated into routine pregnancy care in French young pregnant women?

    PubMed

    Peuchant, O; Le Roy, C; Desveaux, C; Paris, A; Asselineau, J; Maldonado, C; Chęne, G; Horovitz, J; Dallay, D; de Barbeyrac, B; Bébéar, C

    2015-05-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Mycoplasma genitalium screening during pregnancy is not performed routinely in France. We conducted the first prospective study in 1004 women attending for routine antenatal care to determine the prevalence and risk factors for these bacterial infections. The overall prevalence of C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, and M. genitalium infections was 2.5%, 0%, and 0.8%, respectively. In patients aged 18-24 years, the prevalence increased to 7.9% for C. trachomatis and to 2.4% for M. genitalium. C. trachomatis infection was associated with age ?24 years or being single or having more than 5 sexual partners in a lifetime. M. genitalium infection was more frequent in patients aged ?24 years or who had a history of abortion or their first sexual intercourse after 20 years of age. The high prevalence of C. trachomatis in pregnant women aged ?24 years, mostly asymptomatic, suggests that systematic screening could be beneficial. PMID:25753079

  15. Stopping female genital mutilation. An update.

    PubMed

    Gamble, A

    1995-01-01

    There is widespread consensus among many individuals, countries, and organizations that female genital mutilation (FGM) is a human rights abuse. France, Britain, Sweden, and Switzerland have passed legislation forbidding medical personnel from performing FGM, eighteen African countries have made official statements against FGM, and FGM was an issue in the 1993 World Health Assembly, the 1993 World Human Rights Conference, and the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. True change, however, depends upon a transformation in the informal economic, social, and political structures which perpetuate women's dependency upon marriage and men. The Research Action Information Network for the Bodily Integrity of Women (RAINBOW) and the Development Law and Policy Unit of the Columbia University School of Public Health introduced the Global Action Against FGM (GAAFGM) Project in June 1994. The project is designed to integrate action against FGM into existing health and human rights programs and to pool available resources against FGM. GAAFGM has also coordinated an interagency working group comprised of international agencies, in-country grassroots organizations, and women's groups, which met for the first time in November 1994. The project should provide considerable information and leadership on the issue. On another front, participants in the most recent preparatory meeting for the upcoming Beijing Conference noted the existence of a strong recognition that FGM is a problem upon which the international community should act. The author notes recent litigation brought by the Egyptian Organization for Human Rights against the grand sheik of Al-Azhar University for issuing a fatwa declaring female circumcision an Islamic duty. In addition, a Ghanaian may be granted refugee status in Canada on the basis of her efforts to avoid mutilation if deported to her country of origin. PMID:12346850

  16. Hysterosalpingographic Appearances of Female Genital Tract Tuberculosis: Part II: Uterus

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Firoozeh; Zafarani, Fatemeh; Shahrzad, Gholam Shahrzad

    2014-01-01

    Female genital tuberculosis remains as a major cause of tubal obstruction leading to infertility, especially in developing countries. The global prevalence of genital tuberculosis has increased during the past two decades due to increasing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Genital tuberculosis (TB) is commonly asymptomatic and it is diagnosed during infertility investigations. Despite of recent advances in imaging tools such as computed tomography (CT) scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasongraphy, hysterosalpinography has been considered as the standard screening test for evaluation of tubal infertility and as a valuable tool for diagnosis of female genital tuberculosis. Tuberculosis gives rise to various appearances on hysterosalpingography (HSG) from non-specific changes to specific findings. The present pictorial review illustrates and describes specific and non-specific radiographic features of female genital tuberculosis in two parts. Part I presents specific findings of tuberculosis related to tubes such as "beaded tube", "golf club tube", "pipestem tube", "cobble stone tube" and the "leopard skin tube". Part II will describe adverse effects of tuberculosis on structure of endometrium and radiological specific findings, such as "T-shaped" tuberculosis uterus, "pseudo-unicornuate "uterus, "collar-stud abscess" and "dwarfed" uterus with lymphatic intravasation and occluded tubes which have not been encountered in the majority of non-tuberculosis cases. PMID:24696765

  17. Cervicovaginal bacteria are a major modulator of host inflammatory responses in the female genital tract.

    PubMed

    Anahtar, Melis N; Byrne, Elizabeth H; Doherty, Kathleen E; Bowman, Brittany A; Yamamoto, Hidemi S; Soumillon, Magali; Padavattan, Nikita; Ismail, Nasreen; Moodley, Amber; Sabatini, Mary E; Ghebremichael, Musie S; Nusbaum, Chad; Huttenhower, Curtis; Virgin, Herbert W; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Dong, Krista L; Walker, Bruce D; Fichorova, Raina N; Kwon, Douglas S

    2015-05-19

    Colonization by Lactobacillus in the female genital tract is thought to be critical for maintaining genital health. However, little is known about how genital microbiota influence host immune function and modulate disease susceptibility. We studied a cohort of asymptomatic young South African women and found that the majority of participants had genital communities with low Lactobacillus abundance and high ecological diversity. High-diversity communities strongly correlated with genital pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations in both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Transcriptional profiling suggested that genital antigen-presenting cells sense gram-negative bacterial products in situ via Toll-like receptor 4 signaling, contributing to genital inflammation through activation of the NF-?B signaling pathway and recruitment of lymphocytes by chemokine production. Our study proposes a mechanism by which cervicovaginal microbiota impact genital inflammation and thereby might affect a woman's reproductive health, including her risk of acquiring HIV. PMID:25992865

  18. No Evidence of Human Papillomaviruses in Non-genital Seborrheic Keratosis

    PubMed Central

    Meibodi, Naser Tayyebi; Nahidi, Yalda; Meshkat, Zahra; Esmaili, Habibollah; Gharib, Masoumeh; Gholoobi, Aida

    2013-01-01

    Background: Seborrheic keratosis (SK) is a benign epidermal tumor of unknown etiology. Because of its wart-like morphology, Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) have been suggested as a possible causative agent. Viral involvement, however, has not been confirmed yet despite research and the association between HPVs and seborrheic keratosis has not been studied among Iranian population by PCR. Objectives: The aim of this case-control study was to evaluate the presence of HPVs DNA in non-genital SK by PCR. Materials and Methods: Fifty biopsy specimens obtained from patients with non-genital SK and 50 controls were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: No HPVs DNA was detected by PCR within the tissue extracts from paraffin-embedded SK samples, while one of the controls was HPVs DNA positive. The age range of the patients was 20 to 82 yrs (mean = 52). Twenty-eight patients (56%) were males and 22 patients (44%) were females. The most common anatomic site was the face. Histopathologic changes due to viral infection such as koilocytosis (10%), dyskeratosis (66%), mitosis (28%), and parakeratosis (88%) were evident within the lesions. The most common histologic type was acanthotic type. Conclusion: Our results showed that there is no association between HPVs and seborrheic keratosis in investigated subjects. PMID:23919020