Sample records for genital chlamydia infection

  1. Tumor necrosis factor alpha activity in genital tract secretions of guinea pigs infected with chlamydiae.

    PubMed

    Darville, T; Laffoon, K K; Kishen, L R; Rank, R G

    1995-12-01

    Previous studies using the guinea pig model of chlamydial genital infection demonstrated that primary infection is associated with a marked acute inflammatory response early on, while chronic inflammation appears later, at a time when the level of infection is reduced. Challenge infections result primarily in a chronic inflammatory response. The stimuli that initiate inflammation and lead to tissue damage have not been defined. We investigated the possibility that tumor necrosis factors (TNFs) play a role in the inflammatory response to chlamydial genital tract infection. Cytotoxicity assays for TNF were performed on genital tract secretions collected from female guinea pigs during infection with the Chlamydia psittaci agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis. During the early days of primary infection, high levels of TNF-alpha were detected in genital tract secretions from inbred S2 strain and outbred Hartley strain guinea pigs. Significantly lower levels of TNF-alpha were detected in secretions from both strains during challenge infection. In general, the intensity of the TNF-alpha response was proportional to the intensity of infection. High TNF-alpha levels were present during primary infection at a time of marked neutrophil influx. Thus, TNF-alpha may play an important role in the response to primary chlamydial genital tract infection. PMID:7591122

  2. [Direct diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis genital infections: culture or PCR?].

    PubMed

    Labau, E; Henry, S; Bennet, P; Massip, P; Chabanon, G

    1998-12-01

    PCR and culturing were compared for the routine diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infections. Two laboratories experienced in both techniques participated in the study, which included 513 specimens. Both techniques were performed on each specimen; the portion of the specimen used for PCR was divided in two, and each half was sent to one of the two laboratories, where the tests were run in a blinded fashion. The PCR primers used by the two laboratories matched different parts of the bacterial genome. PCR inhibitors were looked for in all specimens. Overall, PCR was more sensitive than culturing; the difference was marked for sperm and endopelvic specimens and nonsignificant for urethral and cervical specimens. False-positive PCR results were few in number; there were no consistent false-positive results when each specimen was amplified twice. PCR inhibitors were rarely present in urethral and cervical specimens but were found in 7% of sperm and endopelvic specimens. PCR inhibitors should be looked for routinely during PCR testing of sperm or endopelvic specimens. PMID:9922999

  3. Chlamydia trachomatis in women attending a gynaecological outpatient clinic with lower genital tract infection.

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, L; Weström, L; Mårdh, P A

    1981-01-01

    In a study of 3794 consecutive women attending a gynaecological outpatient clinic with symptoms of lower genital tract infection (LGTI) 350 (9.2%) harboured Chlamydia trachomatis and 83 (2.2%) Neisseria gonorrhoeae. One hundred and ninety-five patients who were later found to have acute salpingitis and 109 other women in whom the chlamydial cultures were spoiled were excluded from the series. Of the remaining 3490 women, 281 were infected with C trachomatis, 42 with N gonorrhoeae, and 17 with both. Of the 3150 women who were infected with neither organism, 146 were randomly selected as controls. The chlamydia-positive patients were younger (P less than 0.001), did not complain of pelvic discomfort or pain (P less than 0.01), and used oral contraceptives (P less than 0.001) more frequently than did the controls; intrauterine devices were used more often (P less than 0.01) by the controls. Increased vaginal discharge was reported significantly more often in chlamydia-positive patients than in the controls (P less than 0.05). Of 266 women harbouring C trachomatis the organism was still present in 22 (8.3%) when they were followed up from two to more than eight weeks after finishing treatment with doxycycline. Of 91 male consorts of chlamydia-positive women, 53 (58.2%) were infected with C trachomatis. PMID:6791761

  4. Vaccination against Chlamydia Genital Infection Utilizing the Murine C. muridarum Model? †

    PubMed Central

    Farris, Christina M.; Morrison, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection is a worldwide public health problem, and considerable effort has been expended on developing an efficacious vaccine. The murine model of C. muridarum genital infection has been extremely useful for identification of protective immune responses and in vaccine development. Although a number of immunogenic antigens have been assessed for their ability to induce protection, the majority of studies have utilized the whole organism, the major outer membrane protein (MOMP), or the chlamydial protease-like activity factor (CPAF). These antigens, alone and in combination with a variety of immunostimulatory adjuvants, have induced various levels of protection against infectious challenge, ranging from minimal to nearly sterilizing immunity. Understanding of the mechanisms of natural infection-based immunity and advances in adjuvant biology have resulted in studies that are increasingly successful, but a vaccine licensed for use in humans has not yet been brought to fruition. Here we review immunity to chlamydial genital infection and vaccine development using the C. muridarum model. PMID:21078844

  5. Influence of the tryptophan-indole-IFN? axis on human genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection: role of vaginal co-infections

    PubMed Central

    Aiyar, Ashok; Quayle, Alison J.; Buckner, Lyndsey R.; Sherchand, Shardulendra P.; Chang, Theresa L.; Zea, Arnold H.; Martin, David H.; Belland, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The natural history of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections can vary widely; infections can spontaneously resolve but can also last from months to years, potentially progressing to cause significant pathology. The host and bacterial factors underlying this wide variation are not completely understood, but emphasize the bacterium's capacity to evade/adapt to the genital immune response, and/or exploit local environmental conditions to survive this immune response. IFN? is considered to be a primary host protective cytokine against endocervical C. trachomatis infections. IFN? acts by inducing the host enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxgenase, which catabolizes tryptophan, thereby depriving the bacterium of this essential amino acid. In vitro studies have revealed that tryptophan deprivation causes Chlamydia to enter a viable but non-infectious growth pattern that is termed a persistent growth form, characterized by a unique morphology and gene expression pattern. Provision of tryptophan can reactivate the bacterium to the normal developmental cycle. There is a significant difference in the capacity of ocular and genital C. trachomatis serovars to counter tryptophan deprivation. The latter uniquely encode a functional tryptophan synthase to synthesize tryptophan via indole salvage, should indole be available in the infection microenvironment. In vitro studies have confirmed the capacity of indole to mitigate the effects of IFN?; it has been suggested that a perturbed vaginal microbiome may provide a source of indole in vivo. Consistent with this hypothesis, the microbiome associated with bacterial vaginosis includes species that encode a tryptophanase to produce indole. In this review, we discuss the natural history of genital chlamydial infections, morphological and molecular changes imposed by IFN? on Chlamydia, and finally, the microenvironmental conditions associated with vaginal co-infections that can ameliorate the effects of IFN? on C. trachomatis. PMID:24918090

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis persistence in the female mouse genital tract: inducible nitric oxide synthase and infection outcome.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, K H; Miranpuri, G S; Sigar, I M; Ouellette, S; Byrne, G I

    2001-08-01

    It was previously reported that female mice resolve a primary Chlamydia trachomatis urogenital infection independent of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). We now report that although iNOS-deficient (NOS2(-/-)) mice resolve culture-apparent infection in a fashion similar to that of normal control (NOS2(+/+)) mice, they sustain significantly increased rates of disease, as assessed by hydrosalpinx formation. PCR amplification of ompA followed by Southern blot detection of amplicands revealed the presence of chlamydial DNA in the lower genital tracts of both NOS2(-/-) and NOS2(+/+) mice at > or =120 days postinfection and in upper genital tract tissues at >120 days postinfection. However, only NOS2(-/-) mice shed low numbers of viable chlamydiae from the lower genital tract after immunosuppressive treatment at 120 days postinfection. When cultured primary murine lung fibroblasts were activated in the presence of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), inhibition of chlamydial growth occurred in both NOS2(+/+) and NOS2(-/-) cells, but the inhibition was reversible after removal of the cytokine in the NOS2(-/-) primary cell culture only. The iNOS-independent inhibition was microbistatic but was independent of 2,3-indoleamine dioxygenase activity. We conclude that chlamydial DNA and antigens persist in mice subsequent to culture-apparent resolution. In addition, IFN-gamma induces in vivo inhibition of chlamydial growth through microbistatic mechanisms in the absence of iNOS activity, but in the presence of iNOS activity, IFN-gamma is microbicidal and effects eradication. PMID:11447195

  7. Chlamydia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... red erosions due to a chlamydial infection. Overview Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted disease caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis , which affects the genital tract if acquired ...

  8. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis: An update

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Meenakshi; Sood, Seema; Mukherjee, Anjan; Muralidhar, Sumathi; Bala, Manju

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of curable bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide. It manifests primarily as urethritis in males and endocervicitis in females. Untreated chlamydial infection in man can cause epididymitis and proctitis. Though most women with Chlamydia infection are asymptomatic or have minimal symptoms, some develop salpingitis, endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy and tubal factor infertility. It is associated with an increased risk for the transmission or acquisition of HIV and is also attributed to be a risk factor for the development of cervical carcinoma. Early diagnosis and treatment of infected individuals is required to prevent the spread of the disease and severe sequelae. Traditionally, tissue culture was considered the gold standard for the diagnosis. However, with the availability of newer diagnostic techniques particularly molecular methods which are not only highly sensitive and specific but are cost-effective also, the diagnosis has became fast and easy. The purpose of this review is to study the various aspects of genital C. trachomatis infection. Also the advances related to the clinical picture, various diagnostic modalities, prevention, treatment, drug resistance and control measures will be dealt with. PMID:24135174

  9. Immunization against chlamydial genital infection in guinea pigs with UV-inactivated and viable chlamydiae administered by different routes.

    PubMed

    Rank, R G; Batteiger, B E; Soderberg, L S

    1990-08-01

    Female guinea pigs were immunized with viable or UV light-inactivated chlamydiae (agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis), belonging to the species Chlamydia psittaci, by intravenous, subcutaneous, oral, or ocular routes. All animals were then inoculated vaginally with viable chlamydiae to determine the extent of protection against challenge infection induced by the various regimens. The course of genital infection was significantly reduced in intensity in all groups of animals except the unimmunized controls and those animals immunized orally with inactivated antigen. Guinea pigs immunized with viable antigen were more likely to develop resistance to challenge infection and, in general, had a significantly greater degree of protection than animals immunized with inactivated antigen. No one route seemed superior in producing a protective response. Animals in all groups demonstrating protection developed serum and secretion immunoglobulin G antibody responses to chlamydiae. Lymphocyte proliferative reactions to chlamydial antigen were variable among groups. Immunoblot analysis of serum and secretions indicated a wide range of antibody specificities, but most protected animals produced antibodies to the major outer membrane protein, lipopolysaccharide, and the 61-kilodalton protein. No definitive associations could be made between the increased ability of immunization with viable organisms to produce resistance to challenge infection and a particular immune parameter. These data indicate that viable chlamydiae given by various routes are able to induce a strong immune response which can provide resistance against reinfection in some cases or at least reduce the degree of infection to a greater degree than inactivated antigen. However, complete resistance to genital tract infection may be difficult to obtain and alternate immunizations strategies may have to be developed. PMID:2370110

  10. The Role of the Immune Response in Chlamydia trachomatis Infection of the Male Genital Tract: A Double-Edged Sword

    PubMed Central

    Redgrove, Kate A.; McLaughlin, Eileen A.

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infection in the world, with more than 100 million cases reported annually. While there have been extensive studies into the adverse effects that CT infection has on the female genital tract, and on the subsequent ability of these women to conceive, studies into the consequences on male fertility have been limited and controversial. This is in part due to the asymptomatic nature of the infection, where it is estimated that 50% of men with Chlamydia fail to show any symptoms. It is accepted, however, that acute and/or persistent CT infection is the causative agent for conditions such as urethritis, epididymitis, epididymo-orchitis, and potentially prostatitis. As with most infections, the immune system plays a fundamental role in the body’s attempts to eradicate the infection. The first and most important immune response to Chlamydia infection is a local one, whereby immune cells such as leukocytes are recruited to the site of infections, and subsequently secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines such as interferon gamma. Immune cells also work to initiate and potentiate chronic inflammation through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the release of molecules with degradative properties including defensins, elastase, collagenase, cathespins, and lysozyme. This long-term inflammation can lead to cell proliferation (a possible precursor to cancer), tissue remodeling, and scarring, as well as being linked to the onset of autoimmune responses in genetically disposed individuals. This review will focus on the ability of the immune system to recognize and clear acute and persistent chlamydial infections in the male genital tract, and on the paradoxical damage that chronic inflammation resulting from the infection can cause on the reproductive health of the individual. PMID:25386180

  11. Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Chest & Lungs > Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infections Health Issues Listen Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infections Article Body When you hear the word chlamydia, you might think of the sexually transmitted disease ( ...

  12. Genital HPV Infection

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    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes HIV/AIDS & STDs ... Submit What's this? Submit Button STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes HIV/AIDS & STDs ...

  13. The potential protective role of the combination of IL-22 and TNF-? against genital tract Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiumin; Zhu, Danyang; Ye, Jiangbin; Li, Xingqun; Wang, Zhibin; Zhang, Lifang; Xu, Wen

    2015-05-01

    Th22 cells are a novel class of lymphocytes characterized by the secretion of both IL-22 and TNF-?. In summary, Th22 cells have little or no direct impact on other immune cells, but exert selective effects on epithelia. It is not known, however, whether Th22 cells play a role in genital mucosal immunity. Here, we demonstrate that IL-22 and TNF-? synergistically induce several immunomodulatory molecules, such as the antimicrobial peptide mBD-2 (murine ?-defensin 2) and the antimicrobial chemokines CXCL-9, -10, and -11 in primary murine oviduct epithelial cells (MOECs). The induction of innate immunity is relevant in an in vitro infection model, in which MOECs stimulated with Th22 cell supernatants or recombinant IL-22 and TNF-? effectively inhibit the growth of Chlamydia trachomatis and maintain the survival of the epithelia compared with IL-22 or TNF-? alone. In summary, we demonstrate that the Th22 cell cytokines IL-22 and TNF-? play important roles in genital tract infection. The potential for Th22 cell cytokines to modulate innate immune mediators may lead to the development of new topical agents to treat and/or prevent immune-mediated sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). In summary, we demonstrate that IL-22 and TNF-? represent a potent, synergistic cytokine combination for inducing genital mucosal immunity. PMID:25734538

  14. Considerations on male infertility in genital infections with Chlamydia Trachomatis (CT)

    PubMed Central

    Al-Moushaly, A

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The study tries to highlight the implication of CT infection in male infertility. Material and methods: There were 857 male patients enrolled in the study. The male cases have been investigated in the Gynecology and Urology Department of Ghencea Medical Center, Bucharest. All the selected cases have been done a spermogram test and for the diagnosis of the Chlamydia Trachomatis infection, the ELISA test was used. The test detects the presence in the serum of the anti-chlamydia specific antibodies of type IgA, IgM, IgG (BAG-Chlamydia-AIA). Results and discussions: From the total of the investigated subjects, only 233 cases had a modified spermogram. According to the specialty literature, the human factor is involved in 35% of the infertility cases, the male one in 30%, in 20% both factors are involved and in 15% of the cases, there is no incriminating cause after complete investigations. Accordingly, the study supports the literature data. PMID:24146687

  15. Chlamydia Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted disease caused by bacteria. You can get chlamydia during oral, vaginal, or anal sex with an ... partner. Both men and women can get it. Chlamydia usually doesn't cause symptoms. If it does, ...

  16. Comparison of spiramycin and doxycycline for treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis genital infections.

    PubMed Central

    Dylewski, J; Clecner, B; Dubois, J; St-Pierre, C; Murray, G; Bouchard, C; Phillips, R

    1993-01-01

    We performed a single blind controlled multicenter study in which we compared the efficacy and safety of 100 mg of doxycycline versus those of 1 g (3 x 10(6) IU) of spiramycin given orally twice daily for 14 days in the treatment of culture-positive Chlamydia trachomatis genitourinary tract infections. A total of 367 patients were enrolled in the study, and 364 patients were evaluable for safety and 265 patients were evaluable for efficacy. The cure rate between treatment groups was not statistically significant, being 98% (125 of 128 patients) in the spiramycin group and 100% (133 of 133 patients) in the doxycycline group. Female patients who received spiramycin were more likely to report dysethesias that resolved after the completion of therapy. The results of the study show that spiramycin is an effective drug for the treatment of C. trachomatis infection and warrants further assessment over a shorter treatment period (7 days) and during pregnancy. PMID:8328789

  17. Transmission of Chlamydia and genital warts during sleepwalking.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Kailash

    2008-02-01

    A boy aged 15 years infected a girl of 13 years with Chlamydia and genital warts. The boy has been engaged in sexual activities for the last four years. There was no dispute that the boy had had sex with the girl. He was prosecuted but acquitted by the Court on the ground of 'defence of sleepwalking'. This is the first case where sexually transmitted infections like Chlamydia and genital warts have been transmitted sexually through sleepwalking. This case also raises the issues of underage sex and issues of confidentiality. PMID:18334071

  18. Association of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and herpes simplex virus type 2 serostatus with genital human papillomavirus infection in men: the HIM Study

    PubMed Central

    Alberts, Catharina Johanna; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; Papenfuss, Mary R.; da Silva, Roberto José Carvalho; Villa, Luisa Lina; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Nyitray, Alan G.; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies in women indicate that some sexually transmitted infections promote human papillomavirus (HPV) persistence and carcinogenesis. Little is known about this association in men, therefore we assessed whether Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) serostatus are associated with genital HPV prevalence, an early event in HPV related pathogenesis. Methods Genital exfoliated cells, first-void urine and blood from 3,971 men recruited in the USA, Mexico, and Brazil, were tested for HPV, CT, and HSV-2 antibodies, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association of CT infection and HSV-2 serostatus with four HPV outcomes (any, oncogenic, non-oncogenic only, and multiple infections). Results A total of 64 (1.6%) men were CT positive and 811 (20.4%) men were HSV-2 seropositive. After adjustment for potential confounders, CT was associated with any HPV (aOR 2.19, 95%CI: 1.13–4.24), oncogenic HPV (aOR 3.10, 95%CI: 1.53–6.28), and multiple HPV (aOR 3.43, 95%CI: 1.69-6.95) prevalence. HSV-2 serostatus was associated with any HPV (aOR 1.25, 95%CI: 1.02-1.52), non-oncogenic HPV only (aOR 1.38, 95%CI: 1.08-1.75), and multiple HPV (aOR 1.33, 95%CI: 1.06-1.68) prevalence. In analyses stratified by sexual behaviour, CT infection was significantly associated with HPV detection among men reporting ?2 recent sexual partners, while HSV-2 serostatus was significantly associated with HPV detection in men reporting 0-5 lifetime sexual partners. Conclusion In this population, CT infection and HSV-2 serostatus were associated with prevalent genital HPV infection. Future prospective studies should investigate whether these infections influence HPV acquisition and/or persistence. PMID:23680908

  19. Antibiotic use before chlamydia and gonorrhea genital and extragenital screening in the sexually transmitted infection clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Dukers-Muijrers, Nicole H T M; van Liere, Genevieve A F S; Wolffs, Petra F G; Den Heijer, Casper; Werner, Marita I L S; Hoebe, Christian J P A

    2015-01-01

    Background antibiotic use (i.e., administration of antibiotics not directly related to Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections) has been associated with a lower prevalence of genital C. trachomatis infection in a clinical setting. Associations with specific antibiotic types or with N. gonorrhoeae are lacking. Here, we assessed the prevalence of antibiotic use, the different classes and agents used, and their association with a subsequent sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae test result. At our STI clinic, we systematically registered whether antibiotics were used in the past month (in 29% of the cases, the specific antibiotic agent was named). Patients were screened for urogenital C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae; a third of them were also screened for anorectal and oropharyngeal C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae. The proportion of antibiotics used and their association with C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae prevalence were assessed for heterosexual men, men who have sex with men (MSM), and women. During 14,775 clinic consultations, antibiotic use was reported by 12.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 11.7% to 12.7%), i.e., 14.8% of women, 8.6% of heterosexual men, and 11.6% of MSM. The most reported antibiotics were penicillins, tetracyclines, and macrolides, respectively. The prevalence was 11.0% (95% CI, 10.3% to 11.3%) for C. trachomatis and 1.9% (95% CI, 1.7% to 2.1%) for N. gonorrhoeae. Only tetracycline use was associated with a lower C. trachomatis prevalence (3%). Overall antibiotic use was associated with lower anorectal C. trachomatis prevalence in MSM only (odds ratio, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2 to 0.8). STI clinic visitors commonly report recent antibiotic use. Even in a country with low antibiotic consumption, tetracycline use impacted C. trachomatis prevalence, while there was a notable absence of association with azithromycin. PMID:25313220

  20. A new murine model for testing vaccines against genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections in males

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Sukumar; Sarcon, Annahita K.; de la Maza, Luis M.

    2010-01-01

    Two groups of 50 BALB/c male mice were immunized with live Chlamydia trachomatis mouse pneumonitis (MoPn) using the intranasal (i.n.) or the meatus urethra (intraurethral: i.u.) routes. As a control group, 100 male mice were sham-immunized in parallel. Both groups of animals vaccinated with live organisms developed strong Chlamydia-specific humoral and cell mediated immune responses. Based on the IgG2a/IgG1 ratio and the levels of IFN-? both groups mounted a Th1 immune response. At six weeks following the immunization, all mice were challenged in the meatus urethra. The urethra, urinary bladder, testes and epididymides were harvested at weekly intervals and tested for the presence of C. trachomatis. Based on the culture results from these four organs both groups of Chlamydia-immunized mice showed significant protection. In the group immunized i.u., 10% (5/50) had positive cultures, while in the group immunized i.n. 28% (14/50) had positive cultures during the 5 weeks of observation. In contrast, in the sham-immunized animals 47% (47/100) had positive cultures (P<0.005) during the study period. In addition, the number of positive organs, the length of time that the animal had positive cultures, and the total number of inclusion forming units (IFU) recovered were overall significantly lower in the i.u. or i.n. groups in comparison with the sham-immunized animals. However, in relation to the i.u. immunized group, the protection elicited in the i.n. group was delayed and not as robust. In conclusion, immunization of mice in the meatus urethra may provide the gold standard for testing Chlamydia vaccines in a male model. PMID:20920574

  1. Randomized, Double-Blind, Multicenter Safety and Efficacy Study of Rifalazil Compared with Azithromycin for Treatment of Uncomplicated Genital Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Women

    PubMed Central

    Geisler, William M.; Pascual, Maria Luz G.; Mathew, Judy; Koltun, William D.; Morgan, Franklin; Batteiger, Byron E.; Mayes, Annette; Tao, Sijia; Hurwitz, Selwyn J.; Sayada, Chalom

    2014-01-01

    A randomized, double-blind study comparing single-dose chlamydia therapies of oral rifalazil (25 mg) and azithromycin (1 g) was conducted in 82 women with uncomplicated genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection. The microbiologic cure rate of C. trachomatis with rifalazil (n = 33) was 84.8% at the visit on day 22 to 26 (test-of-cure visit), versus 92.1% with azithromycin (n = 38), and the number of treatment failures in each group was 5 and 3, respectively. The difference in cure rate was ?7.3%, with a lower limit of the 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of ?22.5, and thus, noninferiority was not established at the prespecified margin (lower limit of CI of ?15%). The overall treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE) and treatment-related TEAE rates were lower in the rifalazil group (68% and 55%) than in the azithromycin group (71% and 62%), respectively. Subjects classified as treatment failures at day 22 to 26 had a lower mean plasma concentration of rifalazil at the visit on day 8 to 12 than those classified as treatment cures, but this difference was not significant; however, the levels were similar for both groups at the visit on day 22 to 26. A single 25-mg dose of rifalazil was well tolerated and eradicated C. trachomatis in most of these women with uncomplicated genital C. trachomatis infection. (The study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov under registration no. NCT01631201). PMID:24798277

  2. The Duration of Chlamydia muridarum Genital Tract Infection and Associated Chronic Pathological Changes Are Reduced in IL-17 Knockout Mice but Protection Is Not Increased Further by Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Andrew, Dean W.; Cochrane, Melanie; Schripsema, Justin H.; Ramsey, Kyle H.; Dando, Samantha J.; O’Meara, Connor P.; Timms, Peter; Beagley, Kenneth W.

    2013-01-01

    IL-17 is believed to be important for protection against extracellular pathogens, where clearance is dependent on neutrophil recruitment and local activation of epithelial cell defences. However, the role of IL-17 in protection against intracellular pathogens such as Chlamydia is less clear. We have compared (i) the course of natural genital tract C. muridarum infection, (ii) the development of oviduct pathology and (iii) the development of vaccine-induced immunity against infection in wild type (WT) BALB/c and IL-17 knockout mice (IL-17-/-) to determine if IL-17-mediated immunity is implicated in the development of infection-induced pathology and/or protection. Both the magnitude and duration of genital infection was significantly reduced in IL-17-/- mice compared to BALB/c. Similarly, hydrosalpinx was also greatly reduced in IL-17-/- mice and this correlated with reduced neutrophil and macrophage infiltration of oviduct tissues. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 and MMP2 were increased in WT oviducts compared to IL-17-/- animals at day 7 post-infection. In contrast, oviducts from IL-17-/- mice contained higher MMP9 and MMP2 at day 21. Infection also elicited higher levels of Chlamydia-neutralizing antibody in serum of IL-17-/- mice than WT mice. Following intranasal immunization with C. muridarum Major Outer Membrane Protein (MOMP) and cholera toxin plus CpG adjuvants, significantly higher levels of chlamydial MOMP-specific IgG and IgA were found in serum and vaginal washes of IL-17-/- mice. T cell proliferation and IFN? production by splenocytes was greater in WT animals following in vitro re-stimulation, however vaccination was only effective at reducing infection in WT, not IL-17-/- mice. Intranasal or transcutaneous immunization protected WT but not IL-17-/- mice against hydrosalpinx development. Our data show that in the absence of IL-17, the severity of C. muridarum genital infection and associated oviduct pathology are significantly attenuated, however neither infection or pathology can be reduced further by vaccination protocols that effectively protect WT mice. PMID:24073293

  3. Chlamydia infections in women

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    ... other types of sexually transmitted infections, such as gonorrhea , HIV, syphilis, hepatitis, and herpes. Even if you ... from passing the infection back and forth. Because gonorrhea often occurs with chlamydia, treatment for gonorrhea is ...

  4. In Vitro Passage Selects for Chlamydia muridarum with Enhanced Infectivity in Cultured Cells but Attenuated Pathogenicity in Mouse Upper Genital Tract.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chaoqun; Zhou, Zhou; Conrad, Turner; Yang, Zhangsheng; Dai, Jin; Li, Zhongyu; Wu, Yimou; Zhong, Guangming

    2015-05-01

    Although modern Chlamydia muridarum has been passaged for decades, there are no reports on the consequences of serial passage with strong selection pressure on its fitness. In order to explore the potential for Pasteurian selection to induce genomic and phenotypic perturbations to C. muridarum, a starter population was passaged in cultured cells for 28 generations without standard infection assistance. The resultant population, designated CMG28, displays markedly reduced in vitro dependence on centrifugation for infection and low incidence and severity of upper genital tract pathology following intravaginal inoculation into mice compared to the parental C. muridarum population, CMG0. Deep sequencing of CMG0 and CMG28 revealed novel protein variants in the hypothetical genes TC0237 (Q117E) and TC0668 (G322R). In vitro attachment assays of isogenic plaque clone pairs with mutations in either TC0237 and TC0668 or only TC0237 reveal that TC0237(Q117E) is solely responsible for enhanced adherence to host cells. Paradoxically, double mutants, but not TC0237(Q117E) single mutants, display severely attenuated in vivo pathogenicity. These findings implicate TC0237 and TC0668 as novel genetic factors involved in chlamydial attachment and pathogenicity, respectively, and show that serial passage under selection pressure remains an effective tool for studying Chlamydia pathogenicity. PMID:25712926

  5. Evaluation of the Versant CT/GC DNA 1.0 Assay (kPCR) for the Detection of Extra-Genital Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae Infections

    PubMed Central

    Marangoni, Antonella; Foschi, Claudio; Nardini, Paola; Compri, Monica; Cevenini, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Screening for extra-genital Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections is a crucial component for sexually transmitted diseases management, even if at present days no commercial methods have been approved for use on pharyngeal and rectal specimens by the US FDA or have received the conformity CE marking. Here we report the analytical sensitivities of the Versant CT/GC 1.0 assay (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, Tarrytown, NY, USA) on rectal and pharyngeal swabs, and an evaluation about the suitability for this assay with two widely used swab collection devices (E-Swab and eNAT, Copan, Brescia, Italy). The limits of detection for rectal and pharyngeal specimens with the Versant assay were 10 copies/ml and 1.0 copies/ml, for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae, respectively. False positive results due to the presence of non-gonococcal Neisseria species were excluded when clinical rectal and pharyngeal samples containing organisms identified as N. meningitidis, N. sicca, N. flavescens and N. subflava were tested. Due to its sensitivity and specificity, the Versant assay represents a good choice for the diagnosis of chlamydial and/or gonococcal infections not only in genito-urinary samples, but also on rectal and pharyngeal swabs. PMID:25799263

  6. Parallel observation of four methods for screening women under 25 years of age for genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Macmillan; Hamish McKenzie; Allan Templeton

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To compare four methods of screening women for Chlamydia trachomatis in an obstetrics and gynaecology department. Study design: A total of 303 healthy women under 25 years were recruited from antenatal, induced abortion, and family planning clinics. Each underwent parallel testing of endocervical specimens by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and ligase chain reaction (LCR), vulval swabs by LCR, and urine

  7. Chlamydia trachomatis and Genital Mycoplasmas: Pathogens with an Impact on Human Reproductive Health

    PubMed Central

    Ljubin-Sternak, Sun?anica; Meštrovi?, Tomislav

    2014-01-01

    The most prevalent, curable sexually important diseases are those caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) and genital mycoplasmas. An important characteristic of these infections is their ability to cause long-term sequels in upper genital tract, thus potentially affecting the reproductive health in both sexes. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), tubal factor infertility (TFI), and ectopic pregnancy (EP) are well documented complications of C. trachomatis infection in women. The role of genital mycoplasmas in development of PID, TFI, and EP requires further evaluation, but growing evidence supports a significant role for these in the pathogenesis of chorioamnionitis, premature membrane rupture, and preterm labor in pregnant woman. Both C. trachomatis and genital mycoplasmas can affect the quality of sperm and possibly influence the fertility of men. For the purpose of this paper, basic, epidemiologic, clinical, therapeutic, and public health issue of these infections were reviewed and discussed, focusing on their impact on human reproductive health. PMID:25614838

  8. Chlamydia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... transmitted diseases. Chlamydia is an STI caused by bacteria called chlamydia trachomatis . Chlamydia is the most commonly ... Pain and swelling in the testicles The chlamydia bacteria also can infect your throat if you have ...

  9. Immunology of Chlamydia infection: implications for a Chlamydia trachomatis vaccine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Rey-Ladino; Robert C. Brunham

    2005-01-01

    Sexually transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis infections are a serious public-health problem. With more than 90 million new cases occurring annually, C. trachomatis is the most common cause of bacterial sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Recent progress in elucidating the immunobiology of Chlamydia muridarum infection of mice has helped to guide the interpretation of immunological findings in studies of human C. trachomatis infection

  10. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis: Understanding the Roles of Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Vaccine Research

    PubMed Central

    Vasilevsky, Sam; Greub, Gilbert; Nardelli-Haefliger, Denise

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted disease worldwide, and despite significant advances in chlamydial research, a prophylactic vaccine has yet to be developed. This Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium, which often causes asymptomatic infection, may cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancies, scarring of the fallopian tubes, miscarriage, and infertility when left untreated. In the genital tract, Chlamydia trachomatis infects primarily epithelial cells and requires Th1 immunity for optimal clearance. This review first focuses on the immune cells important in a chlamydial infection. Second, we summarize the research and challenges associated with developing a chlamydial vaccine that elicits a protective Th1-mediated immune response without inducing adverse immunopathologies. PMID:24696438

  11. Quantitative Detection of Chlamydia psittaci and C. pecorum by High-Sensitivity Real-Time PCR Reveals High Prevalence of Vaginal Infection in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    DeGraves, Fred J.; Gao, Dongya; Hehnen, Hans-Robert; Schlapp, Tobias; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard

    2003-01-01

    Bovine vaginal cytobrush specimens were analyzed for the presence of Chlamydia spp. by a high-sensitivity, high-specificity quantitative PCR. The 53% prevalence of low-level Chlamydia psittaci and C. pecorum genital infection detected in virgin heifers suggests predominantely extragenital transmission of Chlamydia in cattle and conforms to the high seroprevalence of anti-Chlamydia antibodies. PMID:12682170

  12. Chlamydia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & ... Personal Plan Dealing With Anger Chlamydia KidsHealth > Teens > Sexual Health > STDs & Other Infections > Chlamydia Print A A A ...

  13. Plasmid-Cured Chlamydia caviae Activates TLR2-Dependent Signaling and Retains Virulence in the Guinea Pig Model of Genital Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Frazer, Lauren C.; Darville, Toni; Chandra-Kuntal, Kumar; Andrews, Charles W.; Zurenski, Matthew; Mintus, Margaret; AbdelRahman, Yasser M.; Belland, Robert J.; Ingalls, Robin R.; O'Connell, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Loss of the conserved “cryptic” plasmid from C. trachomatis and C. muridarum is pleiotropic, resulting in reduced innate inflammatory activation via TLR2, glycogen accumulation and infectivity. The more genetically distant C. caviae GPIC is a natural pathogen of guinea pigs and induces upper genital tract pathology when inoculated intravaginally, modeling human disease. To examine the contribution of pCpGP1 to C. caviae pathogenesis, a cured derivative of GPIC, strain CC13, was derived and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Transcriptional profiling of CC13 revealed only partial conservation of previously identified plasmid-responsive chromosomal loci (PRCL) in C. caviae. However, 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) treatment of GPIC and CC13 resulted in reduced transcription of all identified PRCL, including glgA, indicating the presence of a plasmid-independent glucose response in this species. In contrast to plasmid-cured C. muridarum and C. trachomatis, plasmid-cured C. caviae strain CC13 signaled via TLR2 in vitro and elicited cytokine production in vivo similar to wild-type C. caviae. Furthermore, inflammatory pathology induced by infection of guinea pigs with CC13 was similar to that induced by GPIC, although we observed more rapid resolution of CC13 infection in estrogen-treated guinea pigs. These data indicate that either the plasmid is not involved in expression or regulation of virulence in C. caviae or that redundant effectors prevent these phenotypic changes from being observed in C. caviae plasmid-cured strains. PMID:22292031

  14. The Recall Response Induced by Genital Challenge with Chlamydia muridarum Protects the Oviduct from Pathology but Not from Reinfection

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Melissa M.; Zurenski, Matthew A.; Frazer, Lauren C.; O'Connell, Catherine M.; Andrews, Charles W.; Mintus, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    The significant morbidities of ectopic pregnancy and infertility observed in women after Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection result from ascension of the bacteria from the endocervix to the oviduct, where an overly aggressive inflammatory response leads to chronic scarring and Fallopian tube obstruction. A vaccine to prevent chlamydia-induced disease is urgently needed. An important question for vaccine development is whether sterilizing immunity at the level of the oviduct is essential for protection because of the possibility that a chlamydial component drives a deleterious anamnestic T cell response upon oviduct reinfection. We show that mice inoculated with attenuated plasmid-cured strains of Chlamydia muridarum are protected from oviduct pathology upon challenge with wild-type C. muridarum Nigg despite induction of a response that did not prevent reinfection of the oviduct. Interestingly, repeated abbreviated infections with Nigg also elicited recall responses that protected the oviduct from pathology despite low-level reinfection of this vulnerable tissue site. Challenged mice displayed significant decreases in tissue infiltration of inflammatory leukocytes with marked reductions in frequencies of neutrophils but significant increases in frequencies of CD4 Th1 and CD8 T cells. An anamnestic antibody response was also detected. These data indicate that exposure to a live attenuated chlamydial vaccine or repeated abbreviated genital infection with virulent chlamydiae promotes anamnestic antibody and T cell responses that protect the oviduct from pathology despite a lack of sterilizing immunity at the site. PMID:22431649

  15. Epidemiology of Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1997-01-01

    Although it is difficult to estimate the overall prevalence of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, current figures suggest that visible genital warts are present in approximately 1% of sexually active adults in the United States and that at least 15% have subclinical infection, as detected by HPV DNA assays. Genital HPV infection is thus extremely common. The highest rates of

  16. Hidden in Plain Sight: Chlamydial Gastrointestinal Infection and Its Relevance to Persistence in Human Genital Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yeruva, Laxmi

    2014-01-01

    Although the concept of persistence in chlamydial infections has been recognized for about 80 years, there is still very little known about the mechanism by which this occurs. In this review, we revisit an old paradigm, long known to chlamydiologists and veterinarians, that in virtually all hosts of chlamydiae, including mammals and birds, chlamydiae reside in the gastrointestinal tract for long periods of time in the absence of clinical disease. Thus, if gastrointestinal infection occurs in most hosts, then it is very likely that gastrointestinal infection occurs in humans as well. We demonstrate that gastrointestinal infection does indeed occur in humans and propose that this anatomical site is the source of persistent infection in humans. The data in ruminants and animal models demonstrate that the immune system is unable to clear chlamydiae from the gut, so they can remain indefinitely, with continual shedding in feces. Clearly, many women become reinfected from an untreated partner; however, we propose that women, cured of genital infection, remain at risk for autoinoculation from the lower gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, there are substantial data demonstrating treatment failure of chlamydial infections, particularly with azithromycin. New data in the mouse model have shown that azithromycin is far less effective against chlamydial gastrointestinal infection than against genital infections. Therefore, it is possible that women cured of genital infection by antibiotics remain infected in the gastrointestinal tract and can become reinfected by autoinoculation from that site. PMID:24421044

  17. Impact of Patient Characteristics on Performance of Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests and DNA Probe for Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in Women with Genital Infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeanne M. Marrazzo; Robert E. Johnson; Timothy A. Green; Walter E. Stamm; Julius Schachter; Gail Bolan; Edward W. Hook III; Robert B. Jones; David H. Martin; Carolyn M. Black

    2005-01-01

    The performance of nucleic acid amplified tests (NAAT) for Chlamydia trachomatis at the cervix and in urine was examined in 3,551 women, and the impacts of clinical findings (age, endocervical and urethral inflam- mation, menses, and gonococcal coinfection) were assessed. Ligase chain reaction (LCR) and first-generation uniplex PCR were studied relative to an unamplified DNA probe (PACE2) and to an

  18. Persistent Chlamydia trachomatis Infections Resist Apoptotic Stimuli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DEBORAH DEAN; VIRGINIA C. POWERS

    2001-01-01

    Microbial modulation of apoptosis has added a new dimension of understanding to the dynamic interaction between the human host and its microbial invaders. Persistent infection can be a by-product of inhibition of apoptosis and may significantly impact the pathogenesis of diseases caused by organisms such as Chlamydia trachomatis. We compared apoptotic responses among HeLa 229 cells acutely and persistently infected

  19. Chlamydia

    MedlinePLUS

    In men, chlamydia may cause symptoms similar to gonorrhea. Symptoms may include: Burning feeling during urination Discharge ... you for other types of infections, such as gonorrhea. Even women with no symptoms may need a ...

  20. Chlamydia trachomatis infection: implications for HPV status and cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jani; Cerqueira, Fátima; Medeiros, Rui

    2014-04-01

    Genital Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infections have been identified as a major health problem concern. CT is associated with adverse effect on women reproduction and also associated with cervical hypertrophy and induction of squamous metaplasia, providing a possible relationship with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Infection by high-risk HPV types is crucial to the pathogenesis of invasive cervical cancer (ICC), but other co-variants/cofactors must be present for the development of malignancy. CT biological effect may damage the mucosal barrier, improving HPV infection, or may interfere in immune response and viral clearance supporting the persistence of HPV infection. Moreover, CT-related chronic cervical inflammation, decrease of lower genital tract antigen-presenting cells, inhibition of cell-mediated immunity, and anti-apoptotic capacity may influence the natural history of HPV infection, namely persistence progression or resolution. Although several epidemiological studies have stated a positive association involving CT and HPV-related cervical neoplastic lesions and/or cervical cancer (CC), the specific role of this bacterium in the pathogenesis of cervical neoplasia has not been completely clarified. The present review summarizes several studies on CT role in cervical cancer and suggests future research directions on HPV and CT interaction. PMID:24346121

  1. Postpartum Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara E. Mahon; Marc B. Rosenman; Marilyn F. Graham; J. Dennis Fortenberry

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections that are diagnosed during the postpartum period (defined as the 3 months after delivery). Study Design: This was a retrospective cohort study of women delivered of infants at ?28 weeks of gestation at an urban hospital from 1992 through 1998, including each woman's first delivery

  2. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Archive STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus (HPV) ... 9877 STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus (HPV) ...

  3. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and atherosclerotic coronary disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosa Sessa; Marisa Di Pietro; Iolanda Santino; Massimo del Piano; Antonio Varveri; Armando Dagianti; Maria Penco

    1999-01-01

    Background Previous works have suggested an association between Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and coronary heart disease. We evaluated the prevalence of C pneumoniae infection in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods and Results Ninety-eight patients with AMI, 80 patients with CHD, and 50 control subjects matched for age and sex were investigated. Immunoglobulin (Ig)M, IgG,

  4. Immunopathogenesis in Chlamydia trachomatis Infected Women

    PubMed Central

    Mascellino, Maria Teresa; Boccia, Priscilla; Oliva, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    We examine the Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) immunopathogenesis on the basis of the complex interaction between host immune response and virulence microorganism factors. Ct infection can be asymptomatic or may produce an inflammation elicited and preserved by reinfections or persistent infections. We discuss the host polymorphisms that, with their anti- or proinflammatory effects, determine the course of the disease. We also took into account the inflammation process following the Chlamydia illness and the role of both CD4 cells producing IFN-? and CD8 cells with their cytokines production. The crucial role of Ct-hsp60 and the double activity (either damaging or preserving from some kinds of tumors) of anti-Ct-hsp60 antibodies are considered. PMID:22191045

  5. Genital and extra-genital warts increase the risk of asymptomatic genital human papillomavirus infection in men

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Brenda Y; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Goodman, Marc T; Wilkens, Lynne R; Thompson, Pamela J; Zhu, Xuemei; Tom, James; Ning, Lily

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the relationship of warts in different parts of the body and the risk of asymptomatic genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men. Methods We examined the relationship of self-reported genital and extra-genital warts with the subsequent acquisition of asymptomatic genital HPV infection in a cohort of 331 adult men. Participants were followed at 2-month intervals for up to 4 years. Past and current presence of warts was queried at study entry. At each visit, the external genitals were sampled for HPV DNA testing. Results Men who reported a history of genital warts, including current warts, were at increased risk of acquisition of asymptomatic HPV infection of the penis glans/corona, penis shaft and scrotum. The magnitude of these associations was greatest for HPV 6/11 infection. History of warts on the fingers, arms and trunk of the body was also associated with increased risk of genital HPV infection. Current presence of warts on the fingers and trunk specifically increased the risk of acquisition of HPV types not typically found on the genitals. Conclusions Men with a history of warts on the genitals, fingers, arms and trunk may be at increased risk for acquisition of new genital HPV infections. Warts may provide an efficient reservoir for the transmission of virions to the genitals through auto-inoculation. The potential for the spread of HPV throughout the body through auto-inoculation has important implications for prevention and control of HPV infection. PMID:21602516

  6. Papillomaviral Infections of the Female Genital Tract

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Malcolm G.

    1992-01-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common organism to infect the human genital tract, affecting as much as half, or more, of the sexually active population. This virus has become widely recognized through the well publicized relationship with genital tract neoplasia and through new diagnostic technologies, such as monoclonal antibody analysis, DNA hybridization, and the polymerase chain reaction. This paper describes the full spectrum of HPV infections, starting with pathogenesis and continuing to clinical manifestations, and discusses significance, diagnosis, and management. PMID:21221347

  7. Specific effect of estradiol on the genital mucosal antibody response in chlamydial ocular and genital infections.

    PubMed

    Rank, R G; Barron, A L

    1987-09-01

    Estradiol treatment of female guinea pigs was found to alter the course of genital, but not ocular, infection with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA responses in genital secretions of genitally infected animals were delayed by estradiol treatment, but neither response in the eye resulting from either ocular or genital infection was affected. However, the appearance of IgG in the genital tract after ocular infection was markedly inhibited in estradiol-treated guinea pigs. PMID:3623706

  8. Upper Genital Tract Infections in Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frances E. Likis

    Female upper genital tract infections can occur in the endometrium (endometritis), uterine wall (myometritis), the uterine\\u000a serosa and broad ligaments (parametritis), the fallopian tubes (salpingitis), the ovary (oophoritis), and the pelvic peritoneum\\u000a (peritonitis). Because itmay not be possible to identify the site of infection precisely, the term pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is often used when one or more of these

  9. Isolation of single Chlamydia-infected cells using laser microdissection.

    PubMed

    Podgorny, Oleg V; Polina, Nadezhda F; Babenko, Vladislav V; Karpova, Irina Y; Kostryukova, Elena S; Govorun, Vadim M; Lazarev, Vassili N

    2015-02-01

    Chlamydia are obligate intracellular parasites of humans and animals that cause a wide range of acute and chronic infections. To elucidate the genetic basis of chlamydial parasitism, several approaches for making genetic modifications to Chlamydia have recently been reported. However, the lack of the available methods for the fast and effective selection of genetically modified bacteria restricts the application of genetic tools. We suggest the use of laser microdissection to isolate of single live Chlamydia-infected cells for the re-cultivation and whole-genome sequencing of single inclusion-derived Chlamydia. To visualise individual infected cells, we made use of the vital labelling of inclusions with the fluorescent Golgi-specific dye BODIPY® FL C5-ceramide. We demonstrated that single Chlamydia-infected cells isolated by laser microdissection and placed onto a host cell monolayer resulted in new cycles of infection. We also demonstrated the successful use of whole-genome sequencing to study the genomic variability of Chlamydia derived from a single inclusion. Our work provides the first evidence of the successful use of laser microdissection for the isolation of single live Chlamydia-infected cells, thus demonstrating that this method can help overcome the barriers to the fast and effective selection of Chlamydia. PMID:25546842

  10. Ectopic pregnancy and genital infections: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Tuomivaara, L M

    1990-02-01

    This case-control study was carried out to evaluate the significance of genital infections as risk factors in ectopic pregnancy. The study population consisted of 86 consecutive patients with ectopic pregnancy and two age- and parity-matched control groups of women with normal early pregnancy; those with planned pregnancy (I; 65 pairs) and those having legal abortion (II; 51 pairs). Histories of salpingo-oophoritis in the two groups (22% against 5%, P less than 0.05), and of cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infection (9% against 0%, P less than 0.05) were more common in patients with ectopic pregnancy than in their controls with planned pregnancy; women in the control group who had undergone legal abortion did not differ from patients with ectopic pregnancy. In serological studies antibodies against Herpes simplex viruses were commoner in patients with ectopic pregnancy than in both control groups (89% against 62%, and 88% against 57%, P less than 0.001). Antibodies against cytomegalovirus were also commoner in patients with ectopic pregnancy than in controls who had had a planned pregnancy (88% against 72%, P less than 0.05). The results support the concept that gynaecological infections are among factors predisposing to ectopic pregnancies. PMID:2158799

  11. Effects of vaginal lactobacilli in Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    PubMed

    Mastromarino, Paola; Di Pietro, Marisa; Schiavoni, Giovanna; Nardis, Chiara; Gentile, Massimo; Sessa, Rosa

    2014-07-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that abnormal vaginal flora lacking lactobacilli facilitates the acquisition of several sexually transmitted diseases including Chlamydia trachomatis. C. trachomatis, the most common bacterial agent of genital infections worldwide, can progress from the lower to upper reproductive tract and induce severe sequelae. The ability of C. trachomatis to develop into a persistent form has been suggested as key pathogenetic mechanism underlying chronic infections and sequelae. The aim of our study was to investigate the C. trachomatis interaction with vaginal microbiota analyzing the effects of Lactobacillus strains (L. brevis and L. salivarius) on the different phases of C. trachomatis developmental cycle. In addition, the effect of lactobacilli on persistent chlamydial forms induced by HSV-2 coinfection has also been evaluated. Our results demonstrated significant inhibition of C. trachomatis multiplication by vaginal lactobacilli. L. brevis was significantly more effective than L. salivarius (p<0.05) on all the steps of chlamydial infection cycle suggesting that the ability of lactobacilli to protect from infection is strain-dependent. Lactobacilli had an adverse effect on elementary chlamydial bodies (p<0.05), on chlamydial adsorption to epithelial cells (p<0.001) and on intracellular phases of chlamydial replication (p<0.0001). Our study also demonstrated a protective effect of lactobacilli toward persistent C. trachomatis forms induced by HSV-2 coinfection. A significant increase in the production of C. trachomatis infectious progeny was observed in C. trachomatis/HSV-2 coinfection in the presence of L. brevis (p=0.01) despite a significant inhibition of C. trachomatis multiplication (p=0.028). Our data suggest that a healthy vaginal microbiota can reduce the risk of acquiring C. trachomatis infection and counteract the development of persistent chlamydial forms. PMID:24875405

  12. Chlamydia testing and treatment in community pharmacies: findings and lessons learned from setting out to evaluate an unexpectedly short lived service in Lothian, Scotland 

    E-print Network

    Kapadia, Mufiza Zia

    2013-07-06

    Genital chlamydia is the most commonly diagnosed sexually transmitted infection. In August 2008, the Scottish government directed its health boards to involve community pharmacies in providing chlamydia testing and ...

  13. Human Papillomavirus Genital Infections among Men, China, 2007–2009

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhonghu; Liu, Ying; Sun, Yuan; Xi, Long Fu; Chen, Ke; Zhao, Yiqiang; Gao, Lei; Liu, Fangfang; Pan, Yaqi; Ning, Tao; Zhang, Lixin; Cai, Hong

    2013-01-01

    To determine prevalence of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among men in rural China, we analyzed genital swab specimens. Among 2,236 male residents of rural Henan Province, HPV infection prevalence was 17.5%. The most common oncogenic and nononcogenic types were HPV-16 and HPV-3, respectively. Infection was associated with younger age and multiple sex partners. PMID:23735236

  14. Infection of human monocytes by Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia trachomatis: an in vitro comparative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An increasing number of studies suggest that chlamydiae can infect immune cells. The altered immune cell function could contribute to the progression of several chronic inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) interactions with in vitro infected human blood monocytes. Results Fresh isolated monocytes were infected with viable CP and CT elementary bodies and infectivity was evaluated by recultivating disrupted monocytes in permissive epithelial cells. The production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species was studied in the presence of specific fluorescent probes. Moreover, TNF-?, INF-?, INF-? and INF-? gene expression was determined. CT clearance from monocytes was complete at any time points after infection, while CP was able to survive up to 48 hours after infection. When NADPH oxydase or nitric oxide synthase inhibitors were used, CT infectivity in monocytes was restored, even if at low level, and CT recovery’s rate was comparable to CP one. CT-infected monocytes produced significantly higher levels of reactive species compared with CP-infected monocytes, at very early time points after infection. In the same meanwhile, TNF-? and INF-? gene expression was significantly increased in CT-infected monocytes. Conclusions Our data confirm that CP, but not CT, is able to survive in infected monocytes up to 48 hours post-infection. The delay in reactive species and cytokines production by CP-infected monocytes seems to be crucial for CP survival. PMID:24721461

  15. Chlamydia caviae infection alters abundance but not composition of the guinea pig vaginal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Neuendorf, Elizabeth; Gajer, Pawel; Bowlin, Anne K; Marques, Patricia X; Ma, Bing; Yang, Hongqiu; Fu, Li; Humphrys, Michael S; Forney, Larry J; Myers, Garry S A; Bavoil, Patrik M; Rank, Roger G; Ravel, Jacques

    2015-06-01

    In humans, the vaginal microbiota is thought to be the first line of defense again pathogens including Chlamydia trachomatis. The guinea pig has been extensively used as a model to study chlamydial infection because it shares anatomical and physiological similarities with humans, such as a squamous vaginal epithelium as well as some of the long-term outcomes caused by chlamydial infection. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the guinea pig-C. caviae model of genital infection as a surrogate for studying the role of the vaginal microbiota in the early steps of C. trachomatis infection in humans. We used culture-independent molecular methods to characterize the relative and absolute abundance of bacterial phylotypes in the guinea pig vaginal microbiota in animals non-infected, mock-infected or infected by C. caviae. We showed that the guinea pig and human vaginal microbiotas are of different bacterial composition and abundance. Chlamydia caviae infection had a profound effect on the absolute abundance of bacterial phylotypes but not on the composition of the guinea pig vaginal microbiota. Our findings compromise the validity of the guinea pig-C. caviae model to study the role of the vaginal microbiota during the early steps of sexually transmitted infection. PMID:25761873

  16. Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infections and Sudden Unexpected Deaths in Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannsen, Finn

    1993-01-01

    Blood samples from 38 runners on the Danish national orienteering team revealed no ongoing chlamydia pneumoniae, although 42% had an earlier infection, similar to the incidence in the general population. However, over 2% had an ongoing lyme borreliosis infection, and 18% had an earlier infection, which is a higher incidence than in the general…

  17. Treatment of rectal chlamydia infection may be more complicated than we originally thought.

    PubMed

    Hocking, Jane S; Kong, Fabian Y S; Timms, Peter; Huston, Wilhelmina M; Tabrizi, Sepehr N

    2015-04-01

    Rectal chlamydia diagnoses have been increasing among MSM and may also rise among women as anal sex rates increase among heterosexuals. However, there is growing concern about treatment for rectal chlamydia with treatment failures of up to 22% being reported. This article addresses factors that may be contributing to treatment failure for rectal chlamydia, including the pharmacokinetic properties of azithromycin and doxycycline in rectal tissue, the ability of chlamydia to transform into a persistent state that is less responsive to antimicrobial therapy, the impact of the rectal microbiome on chlamydia, heterotypic resistance, failure to detect cases of lymphogranuloma venereum and the performance of screening tests. If we are to reduce the burden of genital chlamydia, treatment for rectal chlamydia must be efficacious. This highlights the need for randomized controlled trial evidence comparing azithromycin with doxycycline for the treatment of rectal chlamydia. PMID:25480490

  18. Provision of chlamydia testing in a nationwide service offering termination of pregnancy: with data capture to monitor prevalence of infection

    PubMed Central

    Mallinson, H; Hopwood, J; Skidmore, S; Fenton, K; Phillips, C; Jones, I

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To establish a methodology by which all women attending for termination of pregnancy (TOP) at British Pregnancy Advisory Service (BPAS) branches may be approached to participate in Chlamydia trachomatis screening. To examine the feasibility of monitoring C trachomatis prevalence and the impact of charging for screening on the uptake rate in this population. Methods: Patients attending for TOP at participating BPAS branches were offered a test for chlamydia infection and asked to complete a questionnaire. Urine samples from participants were tested using a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT). Results: 1001 women provided a urine sample, a 77% response rate among those participating in the study. Factors significantly associated with taking up chlamydia screening included symptoms, previous TOP, parity, and no previous chlamydial test. Overall prevalence of genital chlamydial infection was 7.5%, with highest age specific prevalences occurring among attendees aged 20–24 years (11.5%) and under 20 years (10.8%). In univariate analysis, chlamydia positivity was significantly associated with respondent age and previous diagnosis with chlamydia. Only 35% of women who had the screening test would have done so had they been asked to pay the £20 clinical, administrative, and laboratory costs of the examination. Conclusions: We have demonstrated the feasibility of routine chlamydia screening and the potential for prospective prevalence monitoring across the nationwide BPAS service. In most cases the chlamydia result was available within the clinical contact period for the TOP. Charging patients directly for the test could reduce uptake of chlamydia screening to levels unsatisfactory for both the public health and prevalence monitoring purposes. PMID:12473801

  19. Identification of people at high risk of genital HPV infections.

    PubMed

    Oriel, J D

    1990-01-01

    Clinical and subclinical genital HPV infection is most prevalent in people aged 20-24 years. HPV-infected women have an earlier debut of sex activity, more partners and more casual relationships and STD than age-matched controls without HPV; although data are not available, the same risk factors probably operate in men. There is no evidence that the presence of non-genital warts affects the incidence of genital lesions. Between 50 and 70% of sex partners of individuals with condylomatous or non-condylomatous genital HPV infection also have lesions. Nothing is yet known about any relationship between infectivity and the number of lesions or their viral content. The infectivity of non-condylomatous HPV infection is uncertain. Immunological factors affect the clinical behaviour of genital warts, and immunosuppression, for example by drugs, radiation and possibly cigarette smoking and the use of oral contraceptives, may increase liability to genital HPV infection. The main risk factors appear to be young age, sexual promiscuity, intercourse with a partner with HPV disease and perhaps deficient immune responses. The identification of people at high risk requires careful clinical examination supplemented by the use of a magnification system, histology and cervical cytology. The identification of HPV genotypes in genital epithelia does not seem to be useful in this context, because they are present in a proportion of normal epithelia. PMID:2175938

  20. Mixed infections with Chlamydia and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus - a new in vitro model of chlamydial persistence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicole Borel; Claudia Dumrese; Urs Ziegler; Andrea Schifferli; Carmen Kaiser; Andreas Pospischil

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chlamydiae induce persistent infections, which have been associated with a wide range of chronic diseases in humans and animals. Mixed infections with Chlamydia and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) may result in generation of persistent chlamydial infections. To test this hypothesis, an in vitro model of dual infection with cell culture-adapted PEDV and Chlamydia abortus or Chlamydia pecorum in

  1. Identifying a Role for Toll-Like Receptor 3 in the Innate Immune Response to Chlamydia muridarum Infection in Murine Oviduct Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shobe, LaTasha R.; Kamran, Jasmine C.; Toomey, Katherine S.; Ofner, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Because epithelial cells are the major cell type productively infected with Chlamydia during genital tract infections, the overall goal of our research was to understand the contribution of infected epithelial cells to the host defense. We previously showed that Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) is the critical pattern recognition receptor in oviduct epithelial (OE) cells that is stimulated during Chlamydia infection, resulting in the synthesis of beta interferon (IFN-?). Here, we present data that implicates TLR3 in the expression of a multitude of other innate-inflammatory immune modulators including interleukin-6 (IL-6), CXCL10, CXCL16, and CCL5. We demonstrate that Chlamydia-induced expression of these cytokines is severely disrupted in TLR3-deficient OE cells, whereas Chlamydia replication in the TLR3-deficient cells is more efficient than in wild-type OE cells. Pretreatment of the TLR3-deficient OE cells with 50 U of IFN-?/ml prior to infection diminished Chlamydia replication and restored the ability of Chlamydia infection to induce IL-6, CXCL10, and CCL5 expression in TLR3-deficient OE cells; however, CXCL16 induction was not restored by IFN-? preincubation. Our findings were corroborated in pathway-focused PCR arrays, which demonstrated a multitude of different inflammatory genes that were defectively regulated during Chlamydia infection of the TLR3-deficient OE cells, and we found that some of these genes were induced only when IFN-? was added prior to infection. Our OE cell data implicate TLR3 as an essential inducer of IFN-? and other inflammatory mediators by epithelial cells during Chlamydia infection and highlight the contribution of TLR3 to the inflammatory cytokine response. PMID:22006569

  2. Recent advances in understanding and managing Chlamydia trachomatis infections

    PubMed Central

    Suchland, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, Chlamydia trachomatis infections rank among the most common sexually transmitted infections (STI), and cause notable reproductive morbidity in women. Although advances in highly accurate and non-invasive diagnostic testing have allowed for better estimation of the burden of disease—especially the asymptomatic state—we still lack a true point-of-care test, and many infections go undetected and untreated. Moreover, limited resources and effort for managing sexual partners of those in whom infection is actually identified comprise a major challenge to control. Here, we review the current state of understanding of this common infection, and efforts to control it. PMID:25580274

  3. Chlamydia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... can cause serious, permanent damage to a woman’s reproductive system, making it difficult or impossible for her to ... chlamydia causes no symptoms, it can damage your reproductive system. Women with symptoms may notice • An abnormal vaginal ...

  4. Chlamydia, Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma infections in infertile couples and effects of these infections on fertility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ?lker Günyeli; Faruk Abike; ?lkkan Dünder; Canan Aslan; Ömer Lütfi Tap?s?z; Osman Temizkan; Ahmet Payasl?; Evrim Erdemo?lu

    2011-01-01

    Objective  In our study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum infections among infertile couples and effects of these infections on infertility.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Prevalence of Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma antibodies and Chlamydia IgM antibodies and its effect on these agents’ sperm\\u000a parameters, namely, morphology, density, and motility were investigated among a total of 212

  5. Prevalence of chlamydial genital infection and associated risk factors in adolescent females at an urban reproductive health care center in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Hirsl-He?ej, Vlasta; Pustisek, Nives; Sikani?-Dugi?, Nives; Domljan, Luka Mislav; Kani, Dubravka

    2006-12-01

    The study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of chlamydial genital infection in sexually active, urban adolescent females 15-19 years; to identify behavioral, demographic, and clinical factors associated with chlamydial infections; and to develop criteria for potential screening strategies. 500 adolescent women, median age 17.7 years, who visited gynecological outpatient clinic in Children's Hospital Zagreb for different reasons were enrolled in this study. Gynecological exam, colposcopy, detection of chlamydial infection by the rapid direct immunoassay of endocervical swab (Clearview Chlamydia-Unipath), endocervical cytological examination--Papanicolaou smear, and questionnaire to obtain demographic, social, behavioral and presence of symptoms data were performed. Positive Chlamydia trachomatis test were found in 16.4% of participants, cytologic cervical abnormalities--cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN I-CIN III) were found in 25.2% and cytological signs of Human papilloma virus were found in 11.4%. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis identified five factors associated with infection: the age of menarche < or =13 years, > or =4 lifetime sexual partners, non-use of contraception (rare or never), cervical friability, and abnormal Papanicolaou test. Urban adolescent sexually active women are at high risk for chlamydial infection and other sexually transmitted diseases including HIV infection. Association between chlamydial genital infection and risk-taking sexual and contraceptive behavior was found. Routine Chlamydia trachomatis testing for this population is recommended as well as implementation of school based sexual health education because of their risk-taking sexual behavior. PMID:17508486

  6. Prevalence of infectious diseases in Bangladeshi women living adjacent to a truck stand: HIV/STD/hepatitis/genital tract infections

    PubMed Central

    Gibney, L.; Macaluso, M.; Kirk, K.; Hassan, M; Schwebke, J.; Vermund, S.; Choudhury, P.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Little is known about infection rates for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other diseases that can be transmitted sexually in Bangladeshi women who may be at intermediate levels of risk—that is, women who are not commercial sex workers (CSWs) but whose sexual contacts may include men at high risk for STD. This study examines HIV/hepatitis/STD and other genital tract infections in women living near Tejgaon truck stand in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Methods: This population based study was conducted from January to December 1998. A random sample of 384 women provided urine and blood samples and participated in an interview; 261 of them also had a physical examination in which vaginal and cervical specimens were taken. Laboratory tests included PCR on urine and cervical swabs for gonorrhoea and chlamydia, culture for trichomoniasis, serology tests for syphilis, herpes simplex 2, hepatitis B, C, D, HIV1, HIV2, and clinical diagnoses of other genital tract infections. Results: None of the participants tested positive for HIV. In the 261 women who had a physical examination, trichomoniasis was detected in 19.5%, chlamydia in 3.4%, gonorrhoea in 5.4%, bacterial vaginosis in 37.2%, and candidiasis in 10%. In the full sample of 384 women, with tests of urine and blood, prevalence of infection with chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis, and herpes simplex 2 was detected in 0%, 6.3%, 5.7%, and 32% respectively. Almost 50% of the subjects had ever been exposed to hepatitis B, 3.6% were currently infective, 1.6% had hepatitis C, and none had hepatitis D. Conclusion: The high prevalence of certain of these infectious diseases indicates the need to implement prevention interventions with these women and, perhaps more importantly, with their male partners. Qualitative research is needed to provide insights into their sexual behaviour and the contexts in which high risk behaviours occur. Key Words: sexually transmitted diseases; Bangladesh; truck drivers PMID:11588280

  7. Use of a Guinea Pig-Specific Transcriptome Array for Evaluation of Protective Immunity against Genital Chlamydial Infection following Intranasal Vaccination in Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Veselenak, Ronald L.; Li, Yansong; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Murthy, Ashlesh K.; Cap, Andrew P.; Guentzel, M. Neal; Chambers, James P.; Zhong, Guangming; Rank, Roger G.; Pyles, Richard B.; Arulanandam, Bernard P.

    2014-01-01

    Guinea pigs have been used as a second animal model to validate putative anti-chlamydial vaccine candidates tested in mice. However, the lack of guinea pig-specific reagents has limited the utility of this animal model in Chlamydia sp. vaccine studies. Using a novel guinea pig-specific transcriptome array, we determined correlates of protection in guinea pigs vaccinated with Chlamydia caviae (C. caviae) via the intranasal route, previously reported by us and others to provide robust antigen specific immunity against subsequent intravaginal challenge. C. caviae vaccinated guinea pigs resolved genital infection by day 3 post challenge. In contrast, mock vaccinated animals continued to shed viable Chlamydia up to day 18 post challenge. Importantly, at day 80 post challenge, vaccinated guinea pigs experienced significantly reduced genital pathology - a sequelae of genital chlamydial infections, in comparison to mock vaccinated guinea pigs. Sera from vaccinated guinea pigs displayed antigen specific IgG responses and increased IgG1 and IgG2 titers capable of neutralizing GPIC in vitro. Th1-cellular/inflammatory immune genes and Th2-humoral associated genes were also found to be elevated in vaccinated guinea pigs at day 3 post-challenge and correlated with early clearance of the bacterium. Overall, this study provides the first evidence of guinea pig-specific genes involved in anti-chlamydial vaccination and illustrates the enhancement of the utility of this animal model in chlamydial pathogenesis. PMID:25502875

  8. [Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and factors with the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections in college students].

    PubMed

    Occhionero, Marcelo; Paniccia, Laura; Pedersen, Dina; Rossi, Gabriela; Mazzucchini, Héctor; Entrocassi, Andrea; Gallo Vaulet, Lucia; Gualtieri, Valeria; Rodríguez Fermepin, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection is nowadays considered one of the most frequent causes of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in the world, mainly affecting the group of young people under 25 years old. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis infection in newly admitted students to Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahía Blanca, Argentina, and to evaluate the risk factors to acquire STI. For that purpose, 204 young college students with a mean age of 19 were involved in this study. Each participant delivered a sample of first-void urine and completed a questionnaire which was then submitted anonymously. The research for C. trachomatis was done on 114 valid samples through a technique of DNA amplification, whose molecular target was the gene ompA. Four cases of infection by C. trachomatis were detected with a prevalence of 3.5%. The risks factors associated to the infection were a history of 7 or more partners since the start of sexual activity and contact with a new sexual partner in the last 4 months. The prevalence of such infection reflects a moderate circulation of this microorganism in the studied population. This fact, along with some aspects shown by the questionnaire results, would characterize a population having a low risk profile for acquiring STIs. However, some other information obtained from the questionnaires gave some opposite evidence, which would alert us on the need of keeping watch, raising awareness and implementing preventive actions in this population. PMID:25683522

  9. The epidemiology of genital human papillomavirus infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen Trottier; Eduardo L. Franco

    2006-01-01

    Clinical and subclinical human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are the most common sexually transmitted infections in the world, and most sexually-active individuals are likely to be exposed to HPV infection during their lifetimes. More than 40 genotypes of HPV infect the epithelial lining of the anogenital tract and other mucosal areas of the body; of these, 13–18 types are considered to

  10. Developmental Stage Oxidoreductive States of Chlamydia and Infected Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaogang; Schwarzer, Christian; Hybiske, Kevin; Machen, Terry E.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A defining characteristic of Chlamydia spp. is their developmental cycle characterized by outer membrane transformations of cysteine bonds among cysteine-rich outer membrane proteins. The reduction-oxidation states of host cell compartments were monitored during the developmental cycle using live fluorescence microscopy. Organelle redox states were studied using redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein (roGFP1) expressed in CF15 epithelial cells and targeted to the cytosol, mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The redox properties of chlamydiae and the inclusion were monitored using roGFP expressed by Chlamydia trachomatis following transformation. Despite the large morphological changes associated with chlamydial infection, redox potentials of the cytosol (?cyto [average, ?320 mV]), mitochondria (?mito [average, ?345 mV]), and the ER (?ER [average, ?258 mV]) and their characteristic redox regulatory abilities remained unchanged until the cells died, at which point ?cyto and ?mito became more oxidized and ?ER became more reduced. The redox status of the chamydial cytoplasm was measured following transformation and expression of the roGFP biosensor in C. trachomatis throughout the developmental cycle. The periplasmic and outer membrane redox states were assessed by the level of cysteine cross-linking of cysteine-rich envelope proteins. In both cases, the chlamydiae were highly reduced early in the developmental cycle and became oxidized late in the developmental cycle. The production of a late-developmental-stage oxidoreductase/isomerase, DsbJ, may play a key role in the regulation of the oxidoreductive developmental-stage-specific process. PMID:25352618

  11. Disseminated herpesvirus infection. Association with primary genital herpes in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Young, E J; Killam, A P; Greene, J F

    1976-06-21

    A patient with primary herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 genital infection had dissemination in the 37th week of her first pregnancy. This was manifested by severe hepatitis, pancreatitis, and genital lesions. Temporary improvement followed the delivery of a healthy infant by cesarean section. Encephalitis became evident on the third postpartum day, and recovery was complicated by profound bradycardia, possibly due to viral myocarditis. Vidarabine was administered for seven days, and the patient survived with only mild neurologic sequellae. To our knowledge, this the fourth reported case of disseminated herpesvirus infection in pregnancy and the first due to HSV type 2. Pregnancy must be considered as a possible predisposing factor in dissemination of primary HSV infection. PMID:178938

  12. Cell death, BAX activation, and HMGB1 release during infection with Chlamydia.

    PubMed

    Jungas, Thomas; Verbeke, Philippe; Darville, Toni; Ojcius, David M

    2004-11-01

    Infection by a number of Chlamydia species leads to resistance of the host cell to apoptosis, followed by induction of host-cell death. In a population of infected cells that displays protection against staurosporine-induced apoptosis among the adherent cells, we find that cells that had been recovered from the supernatant share characteristics of both apoptosis and necrosis, as assayed by the propidium iodide (PI)-annexin V double-labeling technique. Cell death was observed in both an epithelial cell line and primary fibroblasts, although the primary cells had a higher propensity to die through apoptosis than the immortalized cell line. Staurosporine-mediated activation of the pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family member, BAX, was inhibited in the epithelial cell line infected for 32 h with the lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV/L2) but not the murine pneumonitis (MoPn) strain of C. trachomatis, but inhibition of staurosporine-mediated BAX activation disappeared after 48 h of infection with the LGV/L2 strain. Conversely, infection with MoPn (C. muridarum) but not LGV/L2 led to BAX activation after 72 h, as previously reported for shorter (48 h) infection with the guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC) serovar of C. psittaci (C. caviae). These results suggest that the ability to inhibit staurosporine-mediated BAX activation or to activate BAX due to the infection itself may vary as a function of the chlamydial strain. Interestingly, both the epithelial cells and the fibroblasts also released high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) during infection, although much less HMGB1 was released from fibroblasts, consistent with the higher level of apoptosis observed in the primary cells. HMGB1 is released preferentially by necrotic or permeabilized viable cells, but not apoptotic cells. In the extracellular space, HMGB1 promotes inflammation through interaction with specific cell-surface receptors. Higher levels of HMGB1 were also measured in the genital-tract secretions of mice infected vaginally with C. trachomatis, compared to uninfected controls. These results suggest that cells infected with Chlamydia release intracellular factors that may contribute to the inflammatory response observed in vivo. PMID:15488733

  13. Zoonotic infection with Chlamydia psittaci at an avian refuge centre.

    PubMed

    Kalmar, Isabelle D; Dicxk, Veerle; Dossche, Liesbeth; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2014-02-01

    This paper reports the zoonotic transmission of Chlamydia psittaci at a wild bird refuge centre resulting in the infection of members of the staff. Pharyngeal swabs were culture positive in 26% (11/42) of the sampled birds, and molecular characterisation of isolates revealed genotypes A, B, D, and E/B. The finding reflects multiple distinct infections and highlights the endemic nature of this pathogen in avian wildlife. Two clinically normal birds being prepared for release were found to be excreting C. psittaci genotype B or E/B and viable genotype B was detected in pharyngeal swabs from 30% (3/10) of the human workers tested. The findings suggest there should be enhanced surveillance and control measures in place in bird rehabilitation centres in order to minimise the risk of both zoonoses and of re-introduction of infection back into wildlife populations. PMID:24326117

  14. Chlamydia trachomatis Infection Alters the Development of Memory CD8 T Cells1

    E-print Network

    Starnbach, Michael

    Chlamydia trachomatis Infection Alters the Development of Memory CD8 T Cells1 Wendy P. Loomis the development of CD8 memory T cell responses specific for the Chlamydia Ag CrpA. The percentage of CrpA63 expressing the CrpA protein. These alterations in memory T cell development were correlated

  15. Seroprevalence of Antibodies against Pkn1, a Novel Potential Immunogen, in Chlamydia trachomatis-Infected Macaca nemestrina and Human Patients

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Achchhe L.; Mishra, Prashant K.; Sachdev, Divya; Chaudhary, Uma; Patton, Dorothy L.; Saluja, Daman

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is an important cause of sexually transmitted genital tract infections (STIs) and trachoma. Despite major research into chlamydial pathogenesis and host immune responses, immunoprotection has been hampered by the incomplete understanding of protective immunity in the genital tract. Characterized vaccine candidates have shown variable efficacy ranging from no protection to partial protection in vivo. It is therefore a research priority to identify novel chlamydial antigens that may elicit protective immune responses against CT infection. In the present study we assessed the seroprevalence of antibodies against protein kinase1 (Pkn1), DNA ligaseA (LigA), and major outer membrane protein A (OmpA) following natural CT infection in humans and in experimentally induced CT infection in Macaca nemestrina. Antigenic stretches of Pkn1, LigA, and OmpA were identified using bioinformatic tools. Pkn1, LigA, and OmpA genes were cloned in bacterial expression vector and purified by affinity chromatography. Our results demonstrate significantly high seroprevalence of antibodies against purified Pkn1 and OmpA in sera obtained from the macaque animal model and human patients infected with CT. In contrast no significant seroreactivity was observed for LigA. The seroprevalence of antibodies against Pkn1 suggest that nonsurface chlamydial proteins could also be important for developing vaccines for C. trachomatis. PMID:25032212

  16. The Pathobiology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Lower Female Genital Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Jennifer L.; Butler, Emily K.

    2011-01-01

    Infection and disease associated with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the gonococcus, continue to be a global health problem. Asymptomatic and subclinical gonococcal infections occur at a high frequency in females; thus, the true incidence of N. gonorrhoeae infections are presumed to be severely underestimated. Inherent to this asymptomatic/subclinical diseased state is the continued prevalence of this organism within the general population, as well as the medical, economic, and social burden equated with the observed chronic, disease sequelae. As infections of the lower female genital tract (i.e., the uterine cervix) commonly result in subclinical disease, it follows that the pathobiology of cervical gonorrhea would differ from that observed for other sites of infection. In this regard, the potential responses to infection that are generated by the female reproductive tract mucosa are unique in that they are governed, in part, by cyclic fluctuations in steroid hormone levels. The lower female genital tract has the further distinction of being able to functionally discriminate between resident commensal microbiota and transient pathogens. The expression of functionally active complement receptor 3 by the lower, but not the upper, female genital tract mucosa; together with data indicating that gonococcal adherence to and invasion of primary cervical epithelial cells and tissue are predominately aided by this surface-expressed host molecule; provide one explanation for asymptomatic/subclinical gonococcal cervicitis. However, co-evolution of the gonococcus with its sole human host has endowed this organism with variable survival strategies that not only aid these bacteria in successfully evasion of immune detection and function but also enhance cervical colonization and cellular invasion. To this end, we herein summarize current knowledge pertaining to the pathobiology of gonococcal infection of the human cervix. PMID:21747805

  17. Cytotoxic cells induced after Chlamydia psittaci infection in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Lammert, J K

    1982-01-01

    The ability of spleen cells from Chlamydia psittaci-infected mice to lyse C. psittaci-infected and uninfected target cell monolayers was studied. The cytotoxicity assay used was a terminal label method in which the number of adherent target cells surviving the interaction with effector cells was determined by measuring the uptake of [3H]uridine by such cells. It was observed that in the first few days postinfection (3 to 5), spleens contained cells that lysed infected and uninfected targets with equal efficiency. Subsequently, infected targets were killed primarily. The activity of effector spleen cells for infected targets continued, although at a reduced level, beyond 21 days postinfection. Intact effector cells were required since a disruption by sonication resulted in a loss of cytotoxicity. The enhanced killing observed with infected targets was also observed when target cells were sensitized with heat- or UV-inactivated C. psittaci. This study suggests that the induction of cytotoxic cells after C. psittaci infection may contribute to the ability of the host to control multiplication of the microorganism. PMID:7068208

  18. Epizootiology of Chlamydia infections in two free-range koala populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Jackson; Neil White; Phil Giffard; Peter Timms

    1999-01-01

    The prevalence of Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia pneumoniae infections in two free-range koala populations was assessed using genus-specific PCR combined with species-specific DNA probe hybridisation. Population A had a very high overall level of chlamydial infection (85%) with significantly more of these infections being due to C. pecorum (73%) compared to C. pneumoniae (24%). The second population had a much

  19. Steroids Alone or as Adjunctive Therapy with Doxycycline Fail To Improve Oviduct Damage in Mice Infected with Chlamydia muridarum

    PubMed Central

    Corr, Tammy E.; Sullivan, Jeanne; Frazer, Lauren C.; Andrews, Charles W.; O'Connell, Catherine M.

    2014-01-01

    In women, Chlamydia trachomatis can ascend from the cervix to the fallopian tubes, where an overly aggressive host inflammatory response can cause scarring that leads to chronic pelvic pain, infertility, or ectopic pregnancy. Although screening and treatment programs for women have resulted in decreased rates of sequelae, morbidities associated with oviduct scarring continue to occur. Since corticosteroids have anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects, we tested the ability of dexamethasone to inhibit inflammation and prevent oviduct scarring in mice genitally infected with Chlamydia muridarum. The administration of 1 or 2.5 mg/kg of body weight of dexamethasone on days 7 to 21 of infection resulted in reduced accumulation of inflammatory cells in the oviducts compared to that in controls. However, a concomitant increase in bacterial burden was observed, and chronic oviduct disease was not reduced. Adjunctive administration of a prolonged (21-day) or short (3-day) course of dexamethasone in combination with the antibiotic doxycycline also failed to reduce chronic oviduct pathology compared to antibiotic treatment alone. Steroids administered alone or adjunctively with antibiotics failed to prevent oviduct damage in this murine model of C. trachomatis infection. PMID:24695778

  20. Current methods of laboratory diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infections.

    PubMed Central

    Black, C M

    1997-01-01

    Infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis are probably the most common sexually transmitted diseases in the United States. Commonly unrecognized and often inadequately treated, chlamydial infections can ascend the reproductive tract and cause pelvic inflammatory disease, which often results in the devastating consequences of infertility, ectopic pregnancy, or chronic pelvic pain. C. trachomatis infections are also known to increase the risk for human immunodeficiency virus infection. The obligate intracellular life cycle of C. trachomatis has traditionally required laboratory diagnostic tests that are technically demanding, labor-intensive, expensive, and difficult to access. In spite of these historical challenges, however, laboratory diagnosis of C. trachomatis has been a rapidly advancing area in which there is presently a wide array of commercial diagnostic technologies, costs, manufacturers. This review describes and compares the diagnostic methods for C. trachomatis infection that are currently approved for use in the United States, including the newest DNA amplification technologies which are yet to be licensed for commercial use. Issues to consider in selecting a test for purposes of screening versus diagnosis based on prevalence, performance, legal, social, and cost issues are also discussed. PMID:8993862

  1. Sphingolipid trafficking and purification in Chlamydia trachomatis-infected cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular human pathogen, which lacks a system that allows genetic manipulation. Therefore, chlamydial researchers must manipulate the host cell to better understand chlamydial biology. Host-derived lipid acquisition is critical for chlamydial survival within the host. Hence, the ability to track and purify sphingolipids in/from chlamydial infected cells has become an integral part of pivotal studies in chlamydial biology. This Unit outlines protocols that provide details about labeling eukaryotic cells with exogenous lipids to examine Golgi-derived lipid trafficking to the chlamydial inclusion and then performing imaging studies or lipid extractions for quantification. Details are provided to allow these protocols to be applied to subconfluent, polarized or siRNA knockdown cells. In addition, one will find important experimental design considerations and techniques. These methods are powerful tools to aid in the understanding of mechanisms which allow C. trachomatis to manipulate and usurp host cell trafficking pathways. PMID:23184593

  2. Chlamydia trachomatis infection induces replication of latent HHV-6.

    PubMed

    Prusty, Bhupesh K; Siegl, Christine; Hauck, Petra; Hain, Johannes; Korhonen, Suvi J; Hiltunen-Back, Eija; Puolakkainen, Mirja; Rudel, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) exists in latent form either as a nuclear episome or integrated into human chromosomes in more than 90% of healthy individuals without causing clinical symptoms. Immunosuppression and stress conditions can reactivate HHV-6 replication, associated with clinical complications and even death. We have previously shown that co-infection of Chlamydia trachomatis and HHV-6 promotes chlamydial persistence and increases viral uptake in an in vitro cell culture model. Here we investigated C. trachomatis-induced HHV-6 activation in cell lines and fresh blood samples from patients having Chromosomally integrated HHV-6 (CiHHV-6). We observed activation of latent HHV-6 DNA replication in CiHHV-6 cell lines and fresh blood cells without formation of viral particles. Interestingly, we detected HHV-6 DNA in blood as well as cervical swabs from C. trachomatis-infected women. Low virus titers correlated with high C. trachomatis load and vice versa, demonstrating a potentially significant interaction of these pathogens in blood cells and in the cervix of infected patients. Our data suggest a thus far underestimated interference of HHV-6 and C. trachomatis with a likely impact on the disease outcome as consequence of co-infection. PMID:23620749

  3. Chlamydiae in oviducts and uteri of repeat breeder pigs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johannes Kauffold; Falk Melzer; Angela Berndt; Grit Hoffmann; Helmut Hotzel; Konrad Sachse

    2006-01-01

    Chlamydial infections of the genital organs cause reproductive failure in female pigs, and the uterus is recognized a target tissue for an infection. In contrast, information on the effect of chlamydiae on the porcine oviduct is patchily and inconclusive, although the bacteria are known to cause severe tubal defects in humans and laboratory animals. The aim of this study was

  4. Risk factors associated with Chlamydia psittaci infection in psittacine birds.

    PubMed

    Santos, F; Leal, D C; Raso, T F; Souza, B M P S; Cunha, R M; Martinez, V H R; Barrouin-Melo, S M; Franke, C R

    2014-03-01

    Chlamydia psittaci is the aetiological agent of chlamydiosis in birds, especially Psittaciformes. The objective of the present study was to detect C. psittaci by means of semi-nested PCR among psittacine birds sold at pet markets and kept as pet birds in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Questionnaires were used to identify risk factors involved in the epidemiology of the disease. In addition, the management of birds and cages was observed at each location studied. The frequency of C. psittaci infection was 10.6% (33/311) in the psittacine birds studied. Birds kept in households were less frequently positive (3.4%; 5/148) than those at pet markets (17.2%; 28/163). Among the several factors analysed in the epidemiology of the disease, only population density (P = 0.001) and cage hygiene (P = 0.041) in birds at pet markets were significantly associated with C. psittaci infection. These results demonstrate the presence of C. psittaci infection in Psittaciformes kept as pets and held at pet markets in Salvador, Bahia, showing that this micro-organism is a public health concern. Control measures should be encouraged to prevent the spread of the agent among birds, as well as among employees and customers. PMID:24430249

  5. Bacterial vaginosis as a risk factor for upper genital tract infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey F. Peipert; Andrea Boyd Montagno; Amy Sedlacek Cooper; C. James Sung

    1997-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether the clinical diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis is associated with objective evidence of acute upper genital tract infection. Study Design : Women who either met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's minimal criteria for acute pelvic inflammatory disease or had other “nonclassic” signs of upper genital tract infection (i.e., atypical

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis Vaccine Research through the Years

    PubMed Central

    Schautteet, Katelijn; De Clercq, Evelien; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium. It is the leading cause of bacterial sexual transmitted infections (STIs). World Health Organization figures estimated that over 90 million new cases of genital C. trachomatis infections occur worldwide each year. A vaccination program is considered to be the best approach to reduce the prevalence of C. trachomatis infections, as it would be much cheaper and have a greater impact on controlling C. trachomatis infections worldwide rather than a screening program or treating infections with antibiotics. Currently, there are no vaccines available which effectively protect against a C. trachomatis genital infection despite the many efforts that have been made throughout the years. In this paper, the many attempts to develop a protective vaccine against a genital C. trachomatis infection will be reviewed. PMID:21747646

  7. Epithelial Cells Infected with Chlamydophila pneumoniae (Chlamydia pneumoniae) Are Resistant to Apoptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KRISHNARAJ RAJALINGAM; HESHAM AL-YOUNES; ANNE MULLER; THOMAS F. MEYER; AGNES J. SZCZEPEK; THOMAS RUDEL

    2001-01-01

    The obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydophila pneumoniae (Chlamydia pneumoniae) initiates infections in humans via the mucosal epithelia of the respiratory tract. Here, we report that epithelial cells infected with C. pneumoniae are resistant to apoptosis induced by treatment with drugs or by death receptor ligation. The induction of protection from apoptosis depended on the infection conditions since only cells containing large

  8. Chlamydia Induces Anchorage Independence in 3T3 Cells and Detrimental Cytological Defects in an Infection Model

    PubMed Central

    Knowlton, Andrea E.; Fowler, Larry J.; Patel, Rahul K.; Wallet, Shannon M.; Grieshaber, Scott S.

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia are Gram negative, obligate intracellular bacterial organisms with different species causing a multitude of infections in both humans and animals. Chlamydia trachomatis is the causative agent of the sexually transmitted infection (STI) Chlamydia, the most commonly acquired bacterial STI in the United States. Chlamydial infections have also been epidemiologically linked to cervical cancer in women co-infected with the human papillomavirus (HPV). We have previously shown chlamydial infection results in centrosome amplification and multipolar spindle formation leading to chromosomal instability. Many studies indicate that centrosome abnormalities, spindle defects, and chromosome segregation errors can lead to cell transformation. We hypothesize that the presence of these defects within infected dividing cells identifies a possible mechanism for Chlamydia as a cofactor in cervical cancer formation. Here we demonstrate that infection with Chlamydia trachomatis is able to transform 3T3 cells in soft agar resulting in anchorage independence and increased colony formation. Additionally, we show for the first time Chlamydia infects actively replicating cells in vivo. Infection of mice with Chlamydia results in significantly increased cell proliferation within the cervix, and in evidence of cervical dysplasia. Confocal examination of these infected tissues also revealed elements of chlamydial induced chromosome instability. These results contribute to a growing body of data implicating a role for Chlamydia in cervical cancer development and suggest a possible molecular mechanism for this effect. PMID:23308295

  9. Seroreactivity to Chlamydia trachomatis Hsp10 Correlates with Severity of Human Genital Tract Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID LAVERDA; LISA N. ALBANESE; PAUL E. RUTHER; SANDRA G. MORRISON; RICHARD P. MORRISON; KEVIN A. AULT; GERALD I. BYRNE

    2000-01-01

    We have identified the chlamydial heat shock protein Hsp10 as a potential correlate to the immunopatho- genic process in women with tubal factor infertility (TFI). The human serologic response to chlamydial Hsp10, Hsp60, and major outer membrane protein (MOMP) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Three populations of women were studied: uninfected controls (CU), acutely infected (AI) women, and women

  10. Effect of antithymocyte serum on the course of chlamydial genital infection in female guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Rank, R G; Barron, A L

    1983-08-01

    The treatment of female guinea pigs, infected in the genital tract with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis, with rabbit anti-guinea pig thymocyte serum extended the course of the infection by 20 to 30 days. The rabbit anti-guinea pig thymocyte serum was shown to suppress delayed hypersensitivity responses to the guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis agent and the contact allergen oxazolone. The appearance of antibody in genital secretions was delayed, but the infection persisted at low levels even when normal serum and secretory antibody titers were attained, indicating that cell-mediated immunity may play a role in the resolution of chlamydial genital infections. PMID:6603421

  11. Cervical Cytopathological Findings in Korean Women with Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis, and Ureaplasma urealyticum Infections

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yuri; Roh, Jaesook

    2014-01-01

    This is to investigate the cervical cytological abnormalities associated with Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, and Ureaplasma urealyticum infections on routine screen. A total of 714 subjects who had undergone cervical Pap smears and concomitant analyses for cervical infections were included by a retrospective search. The frequencies of reactive cellular change (RCC) and squamous epithelial abnormalities were significantly higher in Chlamydia positive subjects than in uninfected subjects (P < 0.001). Of the 124 subjects tested for M. hominis, M. genitalium, and U. urealyticum, 14 (11%) were positive for M. hominis and 29 (23%) were positive for U. urealyticum. Squamous abnormalities were more frequent in subjects with Ureaplasma infections than in uninfected subjects (24% versus 8%). Taking together these findings, C. trachomatis and U. urealyticum may have a causal role in the development of cervical epithelial changes, including RCC. Thus, extra awareness is warranted in cervical screening of women with Chlamydia or Ureaplasma infections. PMID:24526918

  12. Human papillomavirus and other genital infections in indigenous women from Paraguay: a cross-sectional analytical study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of cervical cancer in Paraguay is among the highest in the world, with the human papillomavirus (HPV) being a necessary factor for cervical cancer. Knowledge about HPV infection among indigenous women is limited. This cross-sectional study analyzed the frequency of HPV and other genital infections in indigenous Paraguayan women of the Department of Presidente Hayes. Methods This study included 181 sexually active women without cervical lesions. They belonged to the following ethnicities: Maká (n?=?40); Nivaclé (n?=?23); Sanapaná (n?=?33); Enxet Sur (n?=?51) and Toba-Qom (n?=?34). The detection of HPV and other gynecological infectious microorganisms was performed by either molecular methods (for Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Chlamydia trachomatis), gram staining and/or culture (for Gardnerella vaginalis, Candida sp, Trichomonas vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae), serological methods (for Treponema pallidum, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]) or cytology (cervical inflammation). Results A high prevalence (41.4%) of women positive for at least one sexually transmitted infection (STI) was found (23.2% any-type HPV, 11.6% T pallidum, 10.5% T vaginalis, 9.9% C trachomatis and 0.6% HIV) with 12.2% having more than one STI. HPV infection was the most frequent, with 16.1% of women positive for high-risk HPV types. There was a statistically significant association observed between any-type HPV and C trachomatis (p?=?0.004), which indicates that the detection of one of these agents should suggest the presence of the other. There was no association between any-type HPV and other genital infections or cervical inflammation, suggesting that other mechanism could exist to favor infection with the virus. Conclusion This multidisciplinary work suggests that STIs are frequent, making it necessary to implement control measures and improve diagnosis in order to increase the number of cases detected, especially in populations with poor access to health centers. PMID:24206645

  13. Evaluation of a High Resolution Genotyping Method for Chlamydia trachomatis Using Routine Clinical Samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yibing Wang; Rachel J. Skilton; Lesley T. Cutcliffe; Emma Andrews; Ian N. Clarke; Pete Marsh

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundGenital chlamydia infection is the most commonly diagnosed sexually transmitted infection in the UK. C. trachomatis genital infections are usually caused by strains which fall into two pathovars: lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) and the genitourinary genotypes D–K. Although these genotypes can be discriminated by outer membrane protein gene (ompA) sequencing or multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), neither protocol affords the high-resolution genotyping

  14. Persistent infection of L cells with an ovine abortion strain of Chlamydia psittaci.

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Martinez, J A; Storz, J

    1985-01-01

    L cells inoculated at multiplicities of infection greater than or equal to 1 inclusion-forming unit of the abortigenic chlamydial strain B577 were destroyed within 10 to 15 days. Upon continued incubation in fresh medium, a few surviving cells repopulated the flasks, and the reemerging cultures remained persistently infected. The persistent state was characterized by cycles of repopulation with a low ratio of infected cells and cycles of extensive cytopathic changes in which greater than 90% of the cells had chlamydial inclusions and which could be delayed or even terminated by penicillin treatment. Immunofluorescence and superinfection during the period of repopulation revealed that the persistently infected cells could adsorb chlamydiae but their multiplication was arrested. This nonpermissive state could be terminated by the specific action of cycloheximide. L cells spontaneously cured from a persistent infection exhibited no change in susceptibility to chlamydiae when compared with normal L cells. However, chlamydiae derived from L cells after 7.5 months of persistence destroyed L-cell monolayers more rapidly and at lower multiplicities of infection than the wild type. This state of chlamydia-host cell interaction could not be established with the arthropathogenic strain LW613 because chlamydial infectivity was lost after the first cytolytic burst of infection in the cell cultures. The persistence described for the strain B577-L-cell system appears to differ from previously described models involving other chlamydial strains. Images PMID:4055027

  15. Persistent infection of L cells with an ovine abortion strain of Chlamydia psittaci.

    PubMed

    Perez-Martinez, J A; Storz, J

    1985-11-01

    L cells inoculated at multiplicities of infection greater than or equal to 1 inclusion-forming unit of the abortigenic chlamydial strain B577 were destroyed within 10 to 15 days. Upon continued incubation in fresh medium, a few surviving cells repopulated the flasks, and the reemerging cultures remained persistently infected. The persistent state was characterized by cycles of repopulation with a low ratio of infected cells and cycles of extensive cytopathic changes in which greater than 90% of the cells had chlamydial inclusions and which could be delayed or even terminated by penicillin treatment. Immunofluorescence and superinfection during the period of repopulation revealed that the persistently infected cells could adsorb chlamydiae but their multiplication was arrested. This nonpermissive state could be terminated by the specific action of cycloheximide. L cells spontaneously cured from a persistent infection exhibited no change in susceptibility to chlamydiae when compared with normal L cells. However, chlamydiae derived from L cells after 7.5 months of persistence destroyed L-cell monolayers more rapidly and at lower multiplicities of infection than the wild type. This state of chlamydia-host cell interaction could not be established with the arthropathogenic strain LW613 because chlamydial infectivity was lost after the first cytolytic burst of infection in the cell cultures. The persistence described for the strain B577-L-cell system appears to differ from previously described models involving other chlamydial strains. PMID:4055027

  16. Low prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in asymptomatic young Swiss men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Baud; Katia Jaton; Claire Bertelli; Jean-Pierre Kulling; Gilbert Greub

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prevalence and risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among young men in Switzerland is still unknown. The objective of the present study was to assess prevalence and risk factors for C. trachomatis infection in young Swiss men. METHODS: 517 young Swiss men were enrolled in this cross-sectional study during their compulsory military recruitment. Participants completed a questionnaire and gave

  17. Diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis genitourinary infection in women by ligase chain reaction assay of urine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. H Lee; J. D Burczak; S Muldoon; G Leckie; M. A Chernesky; J Schachter; W. W Andrews; W. E Stamm

    1995-01-01

    Genitourinary infection with Chlamydia trachomatis is a common and potentially serious sexually transmitted disease. Diagnosis of C trachomatis infection in women typically relies on culture of endocervical swabs, an invasive and expensive procedure. The ligase chain reaction (LCR) is an in-vitro nucleic acid amplification technique that exponentially amplifies selected DNA sequences. We have compared an LCR-based assay to detect C

  18. Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Female Partners of Circumcised and Uncircumcised Adult Men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xavier Castellsague; Rosanna W. Peeling; Silvia Franceschi; Silvia de Sanjose; Jennifer S. Smith; Ginesa Albero; Mireia Diaz; Rolando Herrero; Nubia Munoz

    Male circumcision has been shown to reduce the risk of acquiring and transmitting a number of venereal infections. However, little is known about the association between male circumcision and the risk of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in the female partner. The authors pooled data on 305 adult couples enrolled as controls in one of five case-control studies of invasive cervical cancer

  19. Mixed infections with porcine Chlamydia trachomatis/pecorum and infections with ruminant Chlamydia psittaci serovar 1 associated with abortions in swine.

    PubMed

    Schiller, I; Koesters, R; Weilenmann, R; Thoma, R; Kaltenboeck, B; Heitz, P; Pospischil, A

    1997-11-01

    In a previous immunohistological study, chlamydiae were detected in 5 out of 139 cases of swine abortion, and a possible implication of C. psittaci serovar 1 was suggested. The present study sought to classify the chlamydiae found in the fetal organs of these abortions. DNA extracted from 15 paraffin-embedded tissue specimens (10 livers and 5 lungs, obtained from 10 fetuses from 9 cases of abortion) was amplified in a nested PCR with Chlamydia omp1 genus-specific primers. Chlamydia DNA was amplified in 9 liver and 2 lung specimens. Eight of the amplification products were cloned, and 5 clones of each amplification were sequenced. Sequence analysis demonstrated in 7 specimens the simultaneous presence of porcine C. trachomatis S45 and C. pecorum 1710S omp1 genotypes. All DNA fragments of 1 amplification were identical to the ruminant C. psittaci B577 omp1 genotype (serovar 1). The results suggest that mixed infections with porcine C. trachomatis and C. pecorum dominate chlamydial infections associated with abortion in swine, but ruminant abortigenic C. psittaci are also found. PMID:9453135

  20. Pathogenic Potential of Novel Chlamydiae and Diagnostic Approaches to Infections Due to These Obligate Intracellular Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Corsaro, Daniele; Greub, Gilbert

    2006-01-01

    Novel chlamydiae are newly recognized members of the phylum Chlamydiales that are only distantly related to the classic Chlamydiaceae, i.e., Chlamydia and Chlamydophila species. They also exibit an obligate biphasic intracellular life cycle within eukaryote host cells. Some of these new chlamydiae are currently considered potential emerging human and/or animal pathogens. Parachlamydia acanthamoebae and Simkania negevensis are both emerging respiratory human pathogens, Waddlia chondrophila could be a novel abortigenic bovine agent, and Piscichlamydia salmonis has recently been identified as an agent of the gill epitheliocystis in the Atlantic salmon. Fritschea spp. and Rhabdochlamydia spp. seem to be confined to arthropods, but some evidence for human exposure exists. In this review, we first summarize the data supporting a pathogenic potential of the novel chlamydiae for humans and other vertebrates and the interactions that most of these chlamydiae have with free-living amoebae. We then review the diagnostic approaches to infections potentially due to the novel chlamydiae, especially focusing on the currently available PCR-based protocols, mammalian cell culture, the amoebal coculture system, and serology. PMID:16614250

  1. Chlamydia trachomatis infection results in a modest pro-inflammatory cytokine response and a decrease in T cell chemokine secretion in human polarized endocervical epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Buckner, Lyndsey R.; Lewis, Maria E.; Greene, Sheila J.; Foster, Timothy P.; Quayle, Alison J.

    2013-01-01

    The endocervical epithelium is a major reservoir for Chlamydia trachomatis in women, and genital infections are extended in their duration. Epithelial cells act as mucosal sentinels by secreting cytokines and chemokines in response to pathogen challenge and infection. We therefore determined the signature cytokine and chemokine response of primary-like endocervix-derived epithelial cells in response to a common genital serovar (D) of C. trachomatis. For these studies, we used a recently-established polarized, immortalized, endocervical epithelial cell model (polA2EN) that maintains, in vitro, the architectural and functional characteristics of endocervical epithelial cells in vivo including the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. PolA2EN cells were susceptible to C. trachomatis infection, and chlamydiae in these cells underwent a normal developmental cycle as determined by a one-step growth curve. IL1? protein levels were increased in both apical and basolateral secretions of C. trachomatis infected polA2EN cells, but this response did not occur until 72 hours after infection. Furthermore, protein levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines IL6, TNF? and CXCL8 were not significantly different between C. trachomatis infected polA2EN cells and mock infected cells at any time during the chlamydial developmental cycle up to 120 hours post-infection. Intriguingly, C. trachomatis infection resulted in a significant decrease in the constitutive secretion of T cell chemokines IP10 and RANTES, and this required a productive C. trachomatis infection. Examination of anti-inflammatory cytokines revealed a high constitutive apical secretion of IL1ra from polA2EN cells that was not significantly modulated by C. trachomatis infection. IL-11 was induced by C. trachomatis, although only from the basolateral membrane. These results suggest that C. trachomatis can use evasion strategies to circumvent a robust pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine response. These evasion strategies, together with the inherent immune repertoire of endocervical epithelial cells, may aid chlamydiae in establishing, and possibly sustaining, an intracellular niche in microenvironments of the endocervix in vivo. PMID:23673287

  2. Pgp3 Antibody Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, a Sensitive and Specific Assay for Seroepidemiological Analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gillian S. Wills; Patrick J. Horner; Rosy Reynolds; Anne M. Johnson; David A. Muir; David W. Brown; Alan Winston; Andrew J. Broadbent; David Parker; Myra O. McClure

    2009-01-01

    Understanding of the burden of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and its clinical sequelae is hampered by the absence of accurate, well-characterized tests using serological methods to determine past exposure to infection. An \\

  3. Cervical Infection with Herpes simplex Virus, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae among Symptomatic Women, Dubai, UAE: A Molecular Approach

    PubMed Central

    Behzadi, Mohammad Amin; Azizi, Saeed; Payombarnia, Hamid; Vahdani, Ali; Namayandeh, Mandana; Ziyaeyan, Mazyar

    2014-01-01

    Tragically, genital tract infections are still a major public health problem in many regions. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of cervical infection with Herpes simplex virus (HSV), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) among married women referring to Iranian Hospital, Dubai, UAE. In a retrospective cross-sectional survey, 201 female patients aged 16–80 years who referred to the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Iranian Hospital, Dubai, UAE, in 2010 were enrolled. The patients were categorized into three age groups: 15–30 (group I), 31–40 (group II), and ?41 years old (group III). A cervical swab sample was collected from each woman and the prevalence of cervical infection with HSV, CT, and NG was determined by PCR method. HSV, CT, and NG were detected in 6.5%, 10.4%, and 5.5% of swab samples, respectively. Regarding age, a significant difference was noticed for prevalence of NG and HSV between groups I and III. Because of public health importance of sexual transmitted diseases (STDs), their long-lasting impact on quality of life, and their economic burden, preventing measures and education of women seem necessary. PMID:24982675

  4. Prevalence of Chlamydia infection among women visiting a gynaecology outpatient department: evaluation of an in-house PCR assay for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Screening women for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in developing countries is highly desirable because of asymptomatic infection. The existing diagnostic methods in developing countries are not effective and their sensitivity fall below 45.0% which leads to further spread of infection. There is an urgent need for improved and cost effective diagnostic tests that will reduce the burden of sexually transmitted infections in the developing world. Methods Prevalence of C. trachomatis infection among women visiting gynaecology department of Hindu Rao hospital in Delhi, India was determined using Roche Amplicor Multi Well Plate kit (MWP) as well as using in-house PCR assay. We used 593 endocervical swabs for clinical evaluation of the in-house developed assay against Direct Fluorescence Assay (DFA; Group I n = 274) and Roche Amplicor MWP kit (Group II, n = 319 samples) and determined the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) of the in-house developed assay. Results We detected 23.0% positive cases and there was a higher representation of women aged 18-33 in this group. An in-house PCR assay was developed and evaluated by targeting unique sequence within the gyrA gene of C. trachomatis. Specificity of the reaction was confirmed by using genomic DNA of human and other STI related microorganisms as template. Assay is highly sensitive and can detect as low as 10 fg of C. trachomatis DNA. The resolved sensitivity of in-house PCR was 94.5% compared with 88.0% of DFA assay. The high specificity (98.4%) and sensitivity (97.1%) of the in-house assay against Roche kit and availability of test results within 3 hours allowed for immediate treatment and reduced the risk of potential onward transmission. Conclusions The in-house PCR method is cost effective (~ 20.0% of Roche assay) and hence could be a better alternative for routine diagnosis of genital infection by C. trachomatis to facilitate improved screening and treatment management. PMID:20822551

  5. Host-pathogen interactions in specific pathogen-free chickens following aerogenous infection with Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia abortus.

    PubMed

    Kalmar, Isabelle; Berndt, Angela; Yin, Lizi; Chiers, Koen; Sachse, Konrad; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2015-03-15

    Although Chlamydia (C.) psittaci infections are recognized as an important factor causing economic losses and impairing animal welfare in poultry production, the specific mechanisms leading to severe clinical outcomes are poorly understood. In the present study, we comparatively investigated pathology and host immune response, as well as systemic dissemination and expression of essential chlamydial genes in the course of experimental aerogeneous infection with C. psittaci and the closely related C. abortus, respectively, in specific pathogen-free chicks. Clinical signs appeared sooner and were more severe in the C. psittaci-infected group. Compared to C. abortus infection, more intense systemic dissemination of C. psittaci correlated with higher and faster infiltration of immune cells, as well as more macroscopic lesions and epithelial pathology, such as hyperplasia and erosion. In thoracic air sac tissue, mRNA expression of immunologically relevant factors, such as IFN-?, IL-1?, IL-6, IL-17, IL-22, LITAF and iNOS was significantly stronger up-regulated in C. psittaci- than in C. abortus-infected birds between 3 and 14 days post-infection. Likewise, transcription rates of the chlamydial genes groEL, cpaf and ftsW were consistently higher in C. psittaci during the acute phase. These findings illustrate that the stronger replication of C. psittaci in its natural host also evoked a more intense immune response than in the case of C. abortus infection. PMID:25638671

  6. Applications and Therapeutic Actions of Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Women with Genital Infection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chenfang; Zhang, Yuehui; Yu, Yang; Han, Fengjuan

    2014-01-01

    Genital infection is a common worldwide disease among females with clinical features such as bilateral lower abdominal tenderness, abnormal vaginal or cervical discharge, fever, abnormal vaginal bleeding, dyspareunia, vaginal itching, and adnexal tenderness, which can significantly impair women's health and quality of life. Genital infection is commonly treated with antibiotics, leading to an imbalance in gut flora due to prolonged use of antibiotics. Therefore, it is necessary to discover safe and efficacious alternative treatment strategies for patients with genital infection. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is becoming increasingly prevalent among women with genital infection. CAM has interested the western mainstream medical community because of its less invasive, safe, effective, economical, and convenient therapies. CAM focuses on the prevention and treatment of disease and has become an important force in treating chronic disease. During the last few decades, the popularity of CAM has gradually increased. To further understand the efficacy of CAM in treating genital infection, our paper will review the current progress of treating genital infection including vulvitis, vaginitis, cervicitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) with CAM therapies. Several CAM strategies including traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), acupuncture, Psychology interference, and physical therapy are introduced in this review. PMID:24648850

  7. Genital Chlamydia Prevalence in Europe and Non-European High Income Countries: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Redmond, Shelagh M.; Alexander-Kisslig, Karin; Woodhall, Sarah C.; van den Broek, Ingrid V. F.; van Bergen, Jan; Ward, Helen; Uusküla, Anneli; Herrmann, Björn; Andersen, Berit; Götz, Hannelore M.; Sfetcu, Otilia; Low, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Background Accurate information about the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis is needed to assess national prevention and control measures. Methods We systematically reviewed population-based cross-sectional studies that estimated chlamydia prevalence in European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) Member States and non-European high income countries from January 1990 to August 2012. We examined results in forest plots, explored heterogeneity using the I2 statistic, and conducted random effects meta-analysis if appropriate. Meta-regression was used to examine the relationship between study characteristics and chlamydia prevalence estimates. Results We included 25 population-based studies from 11 EU/EEA countries and 14 studies from five other high income countries. Four EU/EEA Member States reported on nationally representative surveys of sexually experienced adults aged 18–26 years (response rates 52–71%). In women, chlamydia point prevalence estimates ranged from 3.0–5.3%; the pooled average of these estimates was 3.6% (95% CI 2.4, 4.8, I2 0%). In men, estimates ranged from 2.4–7.3% (pooled average 3.5%; 95% CI 1.9, 5.2, I2 27%). Estimates in EU/EEA Member States were statistically consistent with those in other high income countries (I2 0% for women, 6% for men). There was statistical evidence of an association between survey response rate and estimated chlamydia prevalence; estimates were higher in surveys with lower response rates, (p = 0.003 in women, 0.018 in men). Conclusions Population-based surveys that estimate chlamydia prevalence are at risk of participation bias owing to low response rates. Estimates obtained in nationally representative samples of the general population of EU/EEA Member States are similar to estimates from other high income countries. PMID:25615574

  8. RELATION OF CHLAMYDIA PNEUMONIAE INFECTION TO DOCUMENTED CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Zibaeenezhad; A. Amanat; A. Alborzi; A. Obudi

    The possibility that infectious agents may trigger a cascade of reactions leading to inflammation, atherogenesis and vascular thrombotic events has recently been raised. Chlamydia pneumoniae is an infectious agent that has received the most attention with respect to coronary artery disease (CAD). To determine the relationship between C. pneumoniae and CAD, a case control study was conducted on 167 subjects

  9. Genital secretory immune response to chronic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection: a comparison between intravenously and genitally inoculated rhesus macaques.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, C J; Kang, D W; Marthas, M; Moldoveanu, Z; Kiyono, H; Marx, P; Eldridge, J H; Mestecky, J; McGhee, J R

    1992-01-01

    The humoral and genital secretory immune response to chronic SIV infection was compared between female Rhesus macaques inoculated by i.v. or intravaginal routes. Total IgG levels in serum were 10-fold higher in SIV-infected animals when compared with uninfected controls. Vaginal washes from normal macaques contained predominantly IgA and IgG, while those from SIV-infected animals contained high levels of IgG. The SIV-infected animals had high titres of SIV-specific IgG in serum, with lower but detectable IgA and IgM responses. The genital secretory immune response to SIV was similar in intravenously and intravaginally inoculated animals. The anti-SIV response in the vaginal washes consisted mainly of IgG. Within the lamina propria of the reproductive tract of animals chronically infected with SIV there were essentially no IgA or IgG plasma cells and only a small number of IgM plasma cells, while two normal animals had large numbers of IgA plasma cells. These results suggest that the mucosal immune system of the female reproductive tract is impaired in chronic SIV infection. Images Fig. 1 PMID:1606737

  10. Intracellular Parasitism of Chlamydiae: Specific Infectivity of Chlamydiaphage Chp2 in Chlamydophila abortus?

    PubMed Central

    Skilton, R. J.; Cutcliffe, L. T.; Pickett, M. A.; Lambden, P. R.; Fane, B. A.; Clarke, I. N.

    2007-01-01

    The obligate intracellular nature of chlamydiae presents challenges to the characterization of its phages, which are potential tools for a genetic transfer system. An assay for phage infectivity is described, and the infectious properties of phage Chp2 were determined. PMID:17468245

  11. Risk Factors for "Chlamydia Trachomatis" Infection in a California Collegiate Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipkin, Diane L.; Gillam, Alix; Grady, Laurie Bisset

    2003-01-01

    "Chlamydia trachomatis" infection in college students has not undergone a detailed large-scale evaluation. The authors undertook a cross-sectional study of 4,086 students enrolled on the campuses of California State University, Sacramento, and 3 local community colleges from fall 2000 through spring 2002. They used an outreach screening model to…

  12. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matti Lehtinen; Kevin A Ault; Erika Lyytikainen; Joakim Dillner; Suzanne M Garland; Daron G Ferris; Laura A Koutsky; Heather L Sings; Shuang Lu; Richard M Haupt; Jorma Paavonen

    2011-01-01

    ObjectivesHigh-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) is the primary cause of cervical cancer. As Chlamydia trachomatis is also linked to cervical cancer, its role as a potential co-factor in the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or higher was examined.MethodsThe placebo arms of two large, multinational, clinical trials of an HPV6\\/11\\/16\\/18 vaccine were combined. A total of 8441 healthy women

  13. Immunologic, virologic, and pharmacologic characterization of the female upper genital tract in HIV-infected women.

    PubMed

    Rahangdale, Lisa; De Paris, Kristina; Kashuba, Angela D M; Nelson, Julie A E; Cottrell, Mackenzie; Sykes, Craig; Emerson, Cindi; Young, Steven L; Stevens, Trenton; Patterson, Kristine B; Cohen, Myron S

    2015-04-01

    : A comparative analysis of cellular and soluble markers of immune activation in HIV-infected women on combination antiretroviral therapy showed that the upper genital tract (UGT) compared to the lower female genital tract was characterized by higher frequencies of potential HIV target cells and increased inflammatory molecules. Despite the activated UGT milieu, HIV RNA could not be detected in paired samples of plasma, cervicovaginal or endometrial lavage. As antiretroviral concentrations were ?3-fold higher in the endometrium than in the lower genital tract, high antiretroviral penetration and/or metabolism may limit viral replication in the UGT. PMID:25501615

  14. Guidelines for the laboratory diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infections in East European countries.

    PubMed

    Domeika, M; Savicheva, A; Sokolovskiy, E; Frigo, N; Brilene, T; Hallén, A; Unemo, M; Ballard, R C; Ward, M

    2009-12-01

    The present guidelines aim to provide comprehensive information regarding the laboratory diagnosis of infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis in East European countries. These recommendations contain important information for laboratory staff working with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and/or STI-related issues. Individual East European countries may be required to make minor national adjustments to these guidelines as a result of lack of accessibility to some reagents or equipment, or laws in a specific country. PMID:19522706

  15. Early MicroRNA Expression Profile as a Prognostic Biomarker for the Development of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease in a Mouse Model of Chlamydial Genital Infection

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Garry S. A.; Spencer, Nicole; Creasy, Heather Huot; Adams, Nancy E.; Maurelli, Anthony T.; McChesney, Grant R.; Cleves, Mario A.; Ravel, Jacques; Bowlin, Anne; Rank, Roger G.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT It is not currently possible to predict the probability of whether a woman with a chlamydial genital infection will develop pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). To determine if specific biomarkers may be associated with distinct chlamydial pathotypes, we utilized two Chlamydia muridarum variants (C. muridarum Var001 [CmVar001] and CmVar004) that differ in their abilities to elicit upper genital tract pathology in a mouse model. CmVar004 has a lower growth rate in vitro and induces pathology in only 20% of C57BL/6 mouse oviducts versus 83.3% of oviducts in CmVar001-infected mice. To determine if chemokine and cytokine production within 24 h of infection is associated with the outcome of pathology, levels of 15 chemokines and cytokines were measured. CmVar004 infection induced significantly lower levels of CXCL1, CXCL2, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), and CCL2 in comparison to CmVar001 infection with similar rRNA (rs16) levels for Chlamydiae. A combination of microRNA (miRNA) sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis of 134 inflammation-related miRNAs was performed 24 h postinfection to determine if the chemokine/cytokine responses would also be reflected in miRNA expression profiles. Interestingly, 12 miRNAs (miR-135a-5p, miR298-5p, miR142-3p, miR223-3p, miR299a-3p, miR147-3p, miR105, miR325-3p, miR132-3p, miR142-5p, miR155-5p, and miR-410-3p) were overexpressed during CmVar004 infection compared to CmVar001 infection, inversely correlating with the respective chemokine/cytokine responses. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that early biomarkers elicited in the host can differentiate between two pathological variants of chlamydiae and be predictive of upper tract disease. PMID:24961692

  16. The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Australia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chlamydia trachomatis is a common sexually transmitted infection in Australia. This report aims to measure the burden of chlamydia infection by systematically reviewing reports on prevalence in Australian populations. Methods Electronic databases and conference websites were searched from 1997–2011 using the terms ‘Chlamydia trachomatis’ OR ‘chlamydia’ AND ‘prevalence’ OR ‘epidemiology’ AND ‘Australia’. Reference lists were checked and researchers contacted for additional literature. Studies were categorised by setting and participants, and meta-analysis conducted to determine pooled prevalence estimates for each category. Results Seventy-six studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. There was a high level of heterogeneity between studies; however, there was a trend towards higher chlamydia prevalence in younger populations, Indigenous Australians, and those attending sexual health centres. In community or general practice settings, pooled prevalence for women <25?years in studies conducted post-2005 was 5.0% (95% CI: 3.1, 6.9; five studies), and for men <30?years over the entire review period was 3.9% (95% CI: 2.7, 5.1; six studies). For young Australians aged <25?years attending sexual health, family planning or youth clinics, estimated prevalence was 6.2% (95% CI: 5.1, 7.4; 10 studies) for women and 10.2% (95% CI: 9.5, 10.9; five studies) for men. Other key findings include pooled prevalence estimates of 22.1% (95% CI: 19.0, 25.3; three studies) for Indigenous women <25?years, 14.6% (95% CI: 11.5, 17.8; three studies) for Indigenous men <25?years, and 5.6% (95% CI: 4.8, 6.3; 11 studies) for rectal infection in men who have sex with men. Several studies failed to report basic demographic details such as sex and age, and were therefore excluded from the analysis. Conclusions Chlamydia trachomatis infections are a significant health burden in Australia; however, accurate estimation of chlamydia prevalence in Australian sub-populations is limited by heterogeneity within surveyed populations, and variations in sampling methodologies and data reporting. There is a need for more large, population-based studies and prospective cohort studies to compliment mandatory notification data. PMID:22583480

  17. Amino Acid Transport into Cultured McCoy Cells Infected with Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Angela; Pogson, Christopher I.; Pearce, John H.

    2000-01-01

    Amino acid transport into McCoy cells infected with strains representative of the two major biovars of Chlamydia trachomatis has been studied to determine if uptake is increased during infection. Preliminary work suggested that the transport systems L, A/ASC (for neutral amino acid transport), N (for transport of Asn, Gln, and His) and y+ (for cationic amino acids) were present in McCoy cells. With lymphogranuloma venereum biovar strain 434, little difference in the influx of representative amino acids Trp, His, and Lys or the analogue 2-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) was observed during infection. With trachoma biovar strain DK20, a small increase in the initial entry rate and equilibrium concentration of each amino acid was found. McCoy cells appear to have great capacity for concentrating amino acids, which might obviate the need for transport induction by chlamydiae under conditions favoring the growth of infectious organisms. PMID:10948179

  18. Ureaplasma serovars & their antimicrobial susceptibility in patients of infertility & genital tract infections

    PubMed Central

    Dhawan, Benu; Malhotra, Neena; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Rawre, Jyoti; Khanna, Neena; Chaudhry, Rama; Mittal, Suneeta

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Ureaplasmas have been implicated in a variety of clinical conditions. However, only certain serovars of ureaplasmas are disease associated. Only a few classes of antimicrobial agents are available for the treatment of mycoplasmal infections in humans. Increase of resistance of genital mycoplasmas to antimicrobials has been reported worldwide. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence of Ureaplasma serovars in patients with infertility and genital tract infections with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)–based serotyping. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of Ureaplasma spp. and Mycoplasma hominis were also assessed to determine the most suitable treatment strategy. Methods: Sexually active adults (n=147) with symptoms of genital tract infections and 115 infertile women were enrolled. Endocervical swabs from women and urethral swabs from men were subjected to culture and multiplex PCR for detection of genital mycoplasmas. Serotyping of Ureaplasma was done by PCR and antimicrobial susceptibility to doxycycline, azithromycin, josamycin and ofloxacin was done by microbroth dilution method. Results: Ureaplasma was detected in 25.8 per cent patients with genital tract infections and 20.8 per cent in infertile women. Serovar 3/14 was the most frequent isolate followed by serovar 1 and serovar 6. The majority of Ureaplasma isolates were susceptible to doxycycline (91%) and josamycin (86%) followed by ofloxacin (77%) and azithromycin (71%). All the isolates of M. hominis were uniformly susceptible to doxycycline, josamycin and ofloxacin. Interpretation & conclusions: The predominance of Ureaplasma serovar 3/14 suggests their possible pathogenic role in genital tract infections and infertility. For empirical treatment, doxycycline could be the drug of choice for genital mycoplasmas. PMID:23391795

  19. Protective effect of an oral infection with Herpes simplex virus type 1 against subsequent genital infection with Herpes simplex virus type 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernhard Sturn; Karl-Eduard Schneweis

    1978-01-01

    The problem of whether oral Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection provides protection against subsequent genital infection by Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was investigated. Mice were used as models. Following conditions in man, both the oral and genital infections applied were noninjurious. Mice infected orally with HSV-1 were weakly protected against virus ‘take’ following vaginal challenge with

  20. Proceedings From the First Asia-Oceania Research Organisation on Genital Infections and Neoplasia (AOGIN) Meeting

    PubMed Central

    Faro, Edited by Sebastian

    2006-01-01

    The First Asia-Oceania Research Organisation on Genital Infections and Neoplasia (AOGIN) Meeting was held in Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia, in July 2005. The conference covered regional issues relating to infection with the human papillomavirus—epidemiology, virology, and immunology, testing, screening, and prevention strategies—as well as cervical cancer screening and its management.

  1. Tampon Sampling for Diagnosis of Bacterial Vaginosis: a Potentially Useful Way To Detect Genital Infections?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID WILKINSON; NOMFANELO NDOVELA; AYESHA KHARSANY; CATHERINE CONNOLLY; A. WILLEM STURM

    1997-01-01

    Genital tract infections are important causes of ill health in developing countries, but diagnosis is difficult. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) was correctly diagnosed by using a vaginal specimen obtained by tampon sampling in 22 of 24 women (91.6%) for whom BV was diagnosed by Gram staining. The yield for other vaginal infections was higher (28% for Trichomonas vaginalis and 32.7% for

  2. Risk factors associated with Chlamydia and gonorrhea infection among female sex workers in two Mexico-U.S. border cities

    PubMed Central

    Loza, Oralia; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Martinez, Gustavo A.; Lozada, Remedios; Ojeda, Victoria D.; Staines-Orozco, Hugo; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) aged ?18 years without known HIV infection living in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez who had recent unprotected sex with clients underwent interviews and testing for Chlamydia and gonorrhea using nucleic acid amplification. Correlates of each infection were identified with logistic regression. Among 798 FSWs, prevalence of Chlamydia and gonorrhea was 13.0% and 6.4%. Factors independently associated with Chlamydia were being younger, working in Tijuana versus Ciudad Juarez, and recent methamphetamine injection. Factors independently associated with gonorrhea were working in Tijuana versus Ciudad Juarez, using illegal drugs before or during sex, and having a recent male partner who injects drugs. Chlamydia and gonorrhea infection were more closely associated with FSWs’ drug use behaviors and that of their sexual partners than with sexual behaviors. Prevention should focus on subgroups of FSWs and their partners who use methamphetamine and who inject drugs. PMID:20852194

  3. Effects of Population Based Screening for Chlamydia Infections in The Netherlands Limited by Declining Participation Rates

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Boris V.; Over, Eelco A. B.; van den Broek, Ingrid V. F.; Op de Coul, Eline L. M.; van Bergen, Jan E. A. M.; Fennema, Johan S. A.; Götz, Hannelore M.; Hoebe, Christian J. P. A.; de Wit, G. Ardine; van der Sande, Marianne A. B.; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E. E.

    2013-01-01

    Background A large trial to investigate the effectiveness of population based screening for chlamydia infections was conducted in the Netherlands in 2008–2012. The trial was register based and consisted of four rounds of screening of women and men in the age groups 16–29 years in three regions in the Netherlands. Data were collected on participation rates and positivity rates per round. A modeling study was conducted to project screening effects for various screening strategies into the future. Methods and Findings We used a stochastic network simulation model incorporating partnership formation and dissolution, aging and a sexual life course perspective. Trends in baseline rates of chlamydia testing and treatment were used to describe the epidemiological situation before the start of the screening program. Data on participation rates was used to describe screening uptake in rural and urban areas. Simulations were used to project the effectiveness of screening on chlamydia prevalence for a time period of 10 years. In addition, we tested alternative screening strategies, such as including only women, targeting different age groups, and biennial screening. Screening reduced prevalence by about 1% in the first two screening rounds and leveled off after that. Extrapolating observed participation rates into the future indicated very low participation in the long run. Alternative strategies only marginally changed the effectiveness of screening. Higher participation rates as originally foreseen in the program would have succeeded in reducing chlamydia prevalence to very low levels in the long run. Conclusions Decreasing participation rates over time profoundly impact the effectiveness of population based screening for chlamydia infections. Using data from several consecutive rounds of screening in a simulation model enabled us to assess the future effectiveness of screening on prevalence. If participation rates cannot be kept at a sufficient level, the effectiveness of screening on prevalence will remain limited. PMID:23527005

  4. Identification of Chlamydiae and Mycoplasma species in ruminants with ocular infections.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S; Chahota, R; Bhardwaj, B; Malik, P; Verma, S; Sharma, M

    2015-02-01

    Infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) is a highly contagious ocular inflammatory condition, which is often reported in domestic small and large ruminants. Multiple infectious aetiologies are reported to be involved, but information about the role of certain fastidious bacterial pathogens such as chlamydiae and mycoplasmas is limited in India. Hence, this study was performed to determine the role of these pathogens and their identification by molecular approach. A total of 53 samples from 31 ovine, 14 caprine and eight bovine having clinical symptoms were collected and tested using species-specific PCR tests for chlamydiae and mycoplasmas followed by nucleotide sequence analysis. The results showed 77.41, 14.29 and 25% samples were chlamydiae positive in ovine, caprine and bovine, respectively, whereas 41.93, 14.29 and 37.5% prevalence of mycoplasma infection was detected in ovine, caprine and bovines, respectively. Chlamydophila abortus, Chlamydophila psittaci, Mycoplasma arginini and Mycoplasma hyorhinis were detected from tested samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time these species are identified in IKC cases from India. Coinfection of both chlamydial and mycoplasmal species was detected in eight IKC cases of ovine which suggest synergistic roles played by both chlamydiae and mycoplasma in IKC samples. PMID:25421836

  5. Association of Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection with HLA-B*35 in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anil Palikhe; Marja-Liisa Lokki; Pekka Saikku; Maija Leinonen; Mika Paldanius; Mikko Seppanen; Ville Valtonen; Markku S. Nieminen; Juha Sinisalo

    2008-01-01

    The immune system may interplay between Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and coronary artery disease (CAD). Major histocompatibility complex genes regulate innate and adaptive immunity. Patients with CAD (n 100) and controls (n 74) were enrolled. Human leukocyte antigens (HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-DRB1), four lymphotoxin alpha single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and complement C4A and C4B allotypes were typed, and their haplotypes were inferred. The

  6. Gonorrhoea and chlamydia testing rates of HIV-infected men: low despite guidelines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen A Berry; Khalil G Ghanem; Kathleen R Page; Chloe L Thio; Richard D Moore; Kelly A Gebo

    2010-01-01

    ObjectivesScreening HIV-infected men for gonorrhoea (GC) and chlamydia (CT) may decrease HIV transmission and reduce the incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease in female partners. This study determined GC\\/CT testing rates in a clinical HIV cohort before and after 2003 when the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued guidelines for GC\\/CT screening.MethodsFirst GC\\/CT testing episodes were identified for all

  7. Molecular Detection of HPV and Chlamydia trachomatis Infections in Brazilian Women with Abnormal Cervical Cytology

    PubMed Central

    de Abreu, André L. P.; Nogara, Paula R. B.; Souza, Raquel P.; da Silva, Mariana C.; Uchimura, Nelson S.; Zanko, Rodrigo L.; Ferreira, Érika C.; Tognim, Maria C. B.; Teixeira, Jorge J. V.; Gimenes, Fabrícia; Consolaro, Marcia E. L.

    2012-01-01

    The question of whether Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) is a cofactor for human Papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical carcinogenesis is still controversial. We conducted a molecular detection study of both infections in 622 Brazilian women, including 252 women with different grades of abnormal cervical cytology and cervical cancer (CC; cases) and 370 women with normal cytology (controls). Although Ct infection did not seem related to CC carcinogenicity, women with abnormal cytology had a significant high rate of Ct infection. Therefore, it is important to adopt protocols for diagnosis and treatment of this bacterium in conjunction with screening for CC in this population. PMID:23128289

  8. Chlamydia infection depends on a functional MDM2-p53 axis

    PubMed Central

    González, Erik; Rother, Marion; Kerr, Markus C.; Al-Zeer, Munir A.; Abu-Lubad, Mohammad; Kessler, Mirjana; Brinkmann, Volker; Loewer, Alexander; Meyer, Thomas F.

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia, a major human bacterial pathogen, assumes effective strategies to protect infected cells against death-inducing stimuli, thereby ensuring completion of its developmental cycle. Paired with its capacity to cause extensive host DNA damage, this poses a potential risk of malignant transformation, consistent with circumstantial epidemiological evidence. Here we reveal a dramatic depletion of p53, a tumor suppressor deregulated in many cancers, during Chlamydia infection. Using biochemical approaches and live imaging of individual cells, we demonstrate that p53 diminution requires phosphorylation of Murine Double Minute 2 (MDM2; a ubiquitin ligase) and subsequent interaction of phospho-MDM2 with p53 before induced proteasomal degradation. Strikingly, inhibition of the p53–MDM2 interaction is sufficient to disrupt intracellular development of Chlamydia and interferes with the pathogen’s anti-apoptotic effect on host cells. This highlights the dependency of the pathogen on a functional MDM2-p53 axis and lends support to a potentially pro-carcinogenic effect of chlamydial infection. PMID:25392082

  9. Acute Glomerulonephritis in a Child with Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Falsaperla, Raffaele; Giunta, Leandra; Spataro, Giuseppina; Rapisarda, Venerando; Velardita, Mario; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Pavone, Piero

    2013-01-01

    Background. Infectious diseases seem to be an important and independent risk factor for renal failure, but the underlying mechanism of renal involvement during some kinds of infectious diseases is still unclear, even if the literature data report immunomediated and/or autoimmune mechanisms to explain the pathogenic relationship between the two diseases. In paediatric patients, Chlamydia pneumoniae is a rare cause of renal complications and it may manifest in several ways, mainly involving the respiratory system, even if also renal and glomerulalr complications, have been described. Case Diagnosis/Treatment. Herein we report a case of a 3-year-old child who developed an acute glomerulonephritis that was chronologically, clinically, and biologically related to a previous Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. On our knowledge, in the literature it is the youngest patient with renal involvement during course of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection ever reported. Conclusions. The present case supports the hypothesis of a rather close causal relationship between this infective agent and renal and glomerular symptoms occurred in this child, during an acute episode of respiratory disease. PMID:23970901

  10. Acute Glomerulonephritis in a Child with Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Vitaliti, Giovanna; Falsaperla, Raffaele; Giunta, Leandra; Spataro, Giuseppina; Rapisarda, Venerando; Velardita, Mario; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Pavone, Piero

    2013-01-01

    Background. Infectious diseases seem to be an important and independent risk factor for renal failure, but the underlying mechanism of renal involvement during some kinds of infectious diseases is still unclear, even if the literature data report immunomediated and/or autoimmune mechanisms to explain the pathogenic relationship between the two diseases. In paediatric patients, Chlamydia pneumoniae is a rare cause of renal complications and it may manifest in several ways, mainly involving the respiratory system, even if also renal and glomerulalr complications, have been described. Case Diagnosis/Treatment. Herein we report a case of a 3-year-old child who developed an acute glomerulonephritis that was chronologically, clinically, and biologically related to a previous Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. On our knowledge, in the literature it is the youngest patient with renal involvement during course of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection ever reported. Conclusions. The present case supports the hypothesis of a rather close causal relationship between this infective agent and renal and glomerular symptoms occurred in this child, during an acute episode of respiratory disease. PMID:23970901

  11. Modeling Prevention Strategies for Gonorrhea and Chlamydia Using Stochastic Network Simulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mirjam Kretzschmar; Anton J. Severijnen

    1996-01-01

    A simulation model was used to study the spread of two sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), namely gonorrhea and genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatls. The model is based on a stochastic pair formation and separation process, which describes the underlying structure of the sexual contact pattern. It is imple- mented as a Monte Carlo simulation model. Spread of the STDs was

  12. Chlamydia muridarum infection-induced destruction of male germ cells and sertoli cells is partially prevented by Chlamydia major outer membrane protein-specific immune CD4 cells.

    PubMed

    Sobinoff, Alexander P; Dando, Samantha J; Redgrove, Kate A; Sutherland, Jessie M; Stanger, Simone J; Armitage, Charles W; Timms, Peter; McLaughlin, Eileen A; Beagley, Kenneth W

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infections are increasingly prevalent worldwide. Male chlamydial infections are associated with urethritis, epididymitis, and orchitis; however, the role of Chlamydia in prostatitis and male factor infertility remains controversial. Using a model of Chlamydia muridarum infection in male C57BL/6 mice, we investigated the effects of chlamydial infection on spermatogenesis and determined the potential of immune T cells to prevent infection-induced outcomes. Antigen-specific CD4 T cells significantly reduced the infectious burden in the penile urethra, epididymis, and vas deferens. Infection disrupted seminiferous tubules, causing loss of germ cells at 4 and 8 wk after infection, with the most severely affected tubules containing only Sertoli cells. Increased mitotic proliferation, DNA repair, and apoptosis in spermatogonial cells and damaged germ cells were evident in atrophic tubules. Activated caspase 3 (casp3) staining revealed increased (6-fold) numbers of Sertoli cells with abnormal morphology that were casp3 positive in tubules of infected mice, indicating increased levels of apoptosis. Sperm count and motility were both decreased in infected mice, and there was a significant decrease in morphologically normal spermatozoa. Assessment of the spermatogonial stem cell population revealed a decrease in promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF)-positive cells in the seminiferous tubules. Interestingly, adoptive transfer of antigen-specific CD4 cells, particularly T-helper 2-like cells, prior to infection prevented these effects in spermatogenesis and Sertoli cells. These data suggest that chlamydial infection adversely affects spermatogenesis and male fertility, and that vaccination can potentially prevent the spread of infection and these adverse outcomes. PMID:25472923

  13. Conjunctival FOXP3 Expression in Trachoma: Do Regulatory T Cells Have a Role in Human Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis Infection?

    PubMed Central

    Faal, Nkoyo; Bailey, Robin L; Jeffries, David; Joof, Hassan; Sarr, Isatou; Laye, Mass; Mabey, David C. W; Holland, Martin J

    2006-01-01

    Background Trachoma, caused by ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, remains the leading infectious cause of blindness and in 2002 was responsible for 3.6% of total global blindness. Although transmission can be successfully interrupted using antibiotics and improvements in public and personal hygiene, the long-term success of the control programmes advocated by the World Health Organization are still uncertain. For the complete control and prevention of trachoma, a vaccine would be highly desirable. Currently there are no licensed vaccines for trachoma, and no human vaccine trials have been conducted since the 1960s. A barrier to new attempts to design and introduce a vaccine is the identification of immunologic correlates of protective immunity or immunopathology. We studied important correlates of the immune response in a trachoma-endemic population in order to improve our knowledge of this disease. This is essential for the successful development of a vaccine against both ocular and genital C. trachomatis infection. Methods and Findings We used quantitative real-time PCR for C. trachomatis 16S rRNA to identify conjunctival infection. The expression of IFN-?, IDO, IL-10, and FOXP3 mRNA transcripts was measured. We evaluated the role of immune effector and regulatory responses in the control of chlamydial infection and in the resolution of clinical signs of trachoma in endemic communities in Gambia. All host transcripts examined were detectable even in normal conjunctiva. The levels of these transcripts were increased, compared to normal uninfected conjunctiva, when infection was detected, with or without clinical disease signs. Interestingly, when clinical disease signs were present in the absence of infection, the expression of a regulatory T cell transcription factor, FOXP3, remained elevated. Conclusions There is evidence of an increase in the magnitude of the local anti-chlamydial cytokine immune responses with age. This increase is coupled to a decline in the prevalence of infection and active trachoma, suggesting that effective adaptive immunity is acquired over a number of years. The anti-chlamydial and inflammatory immune response at the conjunctival surface, which may control chlamydial replication, is closely matched by counter inflammatory or regulatory IL-10 expression. Differences in the level of FOXP3 expression in the conjunctiva may indicate a role for regulatory T cells in the resolution of the conjunctival immune response, which is important in protection from immunopathology. However, the expression of cytokines that control chlamydial replication and those that regulate the conjunctival immune response is not simply juxtaposed; the interaction between the infection and the clinical disease process is therefore more complex. PMID:16881731

  14. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia spp. Infection in Community-Acquired Pneumonia, Germany, 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Dumke, Roger; Schnee, Christiane; Pletz, Mathias W.; Rupp, Jan; Jacobs, Enno; Sachse, Konrad; Group, CAPNETZ Study

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia spp., which are associated with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), are difficult to propagate, and can cause clinically indistinguishable disease patterns. During 2011–2012, we used molecular methods to test adult patients in Germany with confirmed CAP for infection with these 2 pathogens. Overall, 12.3% (96/783) of samples were positive for M. pneumoniae and 3.9% (31/794) were positive for Chlamydia spp.; C. psittaci (2.1%) was detected more frequently than C. pneumoniae (1.4%). M. pneumoniae P1 type 1 predominated, and levels of macrolide resistance were low (3.1%). Quarterly rates of M. pneumoniae–positive samples ranged from 1.5% to 27.3%, showing a strong epidemic peak for these infections, but of Chlamydia spp. detection was consistent throughout the year. M. pneumoniae–positive patients were younger and more frequently female, had fewer co-occurring conditions, and experienced milder disease than did patients who tested negative. Clinicians should be aware of the epidemiology of these pathogens in CAP. PMID:25693633

  15. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia spp. infection in community-acquired pneumonia, Germany, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Dumke, Roger; Schnee, Christiane; Pletz, Mathias W; Rupp, Jan; Jacobs, Enno; Sachse, Konrad; Rohde, Gernot

    2015-03-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia spp., which are associated with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), are difficult to propagate, and can cause clinically indistinguishable disease patterns. During 2011-2012, we used molecular methods to test adult patients in Germany with confirmed CAP for infection with these 2 pathogens. Overall, 12.3% (96/783) of samples were positive for M. pneumoniae and 3.9% (31/794) were positive for Chlamydia spp.; C. psittaci (2.1%) was detected more frequently than C. pneumoniae (1.4%). M. pneumoniae P1 type 1 predominated, and levels of macrolide resistance were low (3.1%). Quarterly rates of M. pneumoniae-positive samples ranged from 1.5% to 27.3%, showing a strong epidemic peak for these infections, but of Chlamydia spp. detection was consistent throughout the year. M. pneumoniae-positive patients were younger and more frequently female, had fewer co-occurring conditions, and experienced milder disease than did patients who tested negative. Clinicians should be aware of the epidemiology of these pathogens in CAP. PMID:25693633

  16. [To the detection rate of Chlamydia infection in regmatogenous retinal detachment].

    PubMed

    Bo?ko, E V; Pozniak, A L; Ageev, V S

    2008-01-01

    Regmatogenous, or primary, retinal detachment is a vision-threatening condition resulting from retinal rupture. Inflammation and autoimmune processes are of great importance in the pathogenesis of this disease. In this connection, the purpose of the study was to reveal the incidence of Chlamydia infection in regmatogenous retinal detachment. Subretinal fluid (SRF) aspirates and conjunctival scrapes from 50 patients with regmatogenous retinal detachment were studied by direct immunofluorescence test and polymerase chain reaction for Chlamydia trachomatis. The latter was found in 74% of SRF samples and in 90% of conjunctival scapes (in a total of 47 (94%) patients). The findings suggest that regmatogenous retinal detachment is associated with Ch. trachomatis contamination of the organ of vision in most cases. In retinal detachment, it is expedient to include tests for Ch. trachomatis into a complex of diagnostic methods and, when detected, to consider whether antichlamydial therapy is performed. PMID:19062561

  17. Lipopolysaccharide-Binding Alkylpolyamine DS-96 Inhibits Chlamydia trachomatis Infection by Blocking Attachment and Entry

    PubMed Central

    Osaka, Ichie

    2014-01-01

    Vaginally delivered microbicides are being developed to offer women self-initiated protection against transmission of sexually transmitted infections such as Chlamydia trachomatis. A small molecule, DS-96, rationally designed for high affinity to Escherichia coli lipid A, was previously demonstrated to bind and neutralize lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from a wide variety of Gram-negative bacteria (D. Sil et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51:2811–2819, 2007, doi:10.1128/AAC.00200-07). Aside from the lack of the repeating O antigen, chlamydial lipooligosaccharide (LOS) shares general molecular architecture features with E. coli LPS. Importantly, the portion of lipid A where the interaction with DS-96 is expected to take place is well conserved between the two organisms, leading to the hypothesis that DS-96 inhibits Chlamydia infection by binding to LOS and compromising the function. In this study, antichlamydial activity of DS-96 was examined in cell culture. DS-96 inhibited the intercellular growth of Chlamydia in a dose-dependent manner and offered a high level of inhibition at a relatively low concentration (8 ?M). The data also revealed that infectious elementary bodies (EBs) were predominantly blocked at the attachment step, as indicated by the reduced number of EBs associated with the host cell surface following pretreatment. Of those EBs that were capable of attachment, the vast majority was unable to gain entry into the host cell. Inhibition of EB attachment and entry by DS-96 suggests that Chlamydia LOS is critical to these processes during the developmental cycle. Importantly, given the low association of host toxicity previously reported by Sil et al., DS-96 is expected to perform well in animal studies as an active antichlamydial compound in a vaginal microbicide. PMID:24663021

  18. Effects of a Probiotic Strain of Enterococcus faecium on the Rate of Natural Chlamydia Infection in Swine

    PubMed Central

    Pollmann, M.; Nordhoff, M.; Pospischil, A.; Tedin, K.; Wieler, L. H.

    2005-01-01

    Chlamydiae are obligately intracellular pathogens which cause infections associated with a broad range of diseases in both livestock and humans. In addition, a large proportion of animals may become persistently infected asymptomatic carriers and serve as reservoirs for other animals which also shed these potential zoonotic pathogens. Reducing the chlamydial load of animals is therefore of major importance, and since large-scale antibiotic treatment is neither desired nor feasible, alternative means of prevention are needed. Here we performed a study comparing the efficacy of a probiotic strain of Enterococcus faecium on the reduction of both the rate of natural infection and the shedding of chlamydiae in swine. The presence of Chlamydiaceae was detected by species-specific PCR of fecal samples of sows taken at three times prior to the birth of piglets. Piglets delivered from chlamydia-positive sows in either the control or the probiotic group were also examined for the frequency of chlamydiae at various ages. Eighty-five percent of the piglets from the control group were found to be chlamydia positive, whereas chlamydiae were found in only 60% of piglets from the probiotic group, results confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistology, which showed higher rates of infection in the control group. In addition to the reduced frequency of chlamydia-positive piglets in the probiotic group, the time of appearance of positive samples was delayed. To our knowledge, these data show for the first time that a probiotic strain of E. faecium can reduce the rate of carryover infections of piglets by obligate intracellular pathogens. PMID:15972529

  19. Human enteroendocrine cell responses to infection with Chlamydia trachomatis: a microarray study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Enteroendocrine cells (EEC) are highly specialized cells producing signalling molecules vital to the normal functions of the gut. Recently, we showed altered protein distribution in Chlamydia infected EEC in vitro. The aim of this study was to perform a microarray analysis of the response pattern of EEC from both large and small bowel to infection in vitro, using Chlamydia trachomatis infection as a model. Methods Two human EEC lines: LCC-18, derived from a neuroendocrine colonic tumour, and CNDT-2, derived from a small intestinal carcinoid, were infected using cultured C. trachomatis serovar LGV II strain 434 (ATCC VR-902B). Penicillin G was used to induce persistent infection. We used microarray analysis (Affymetrix GeneChip®) for studying changes in gene expression at different stages of infection. Results Twenty-four hours after active and persistent infection, 66 and 411 genes in LCC-18 and 68 and 170 genes in CNDT-2 cells, respectively showed mean expression ratios >2-fold compared to non-infected cells. These genes encoded factors regulating apoptosis, cell differentiation, transcription regulation, cytokine activity, amine biosynthesis and vesicular transport. We found significant differences in gene transcription levels between persistently infected and non-infected cells in 10 genes coding for different solute carrier transporters (SLC) and in 5 genes related to endocrine function (GABARAPL1, GRIP1, DRD2, SYT5 and SYT7). Conclusions Infected EEC cells exhibit cell-type specific patterns related to vesicular transport, secretion and neurotransmitters. EEC play a pivotal role in regulation of gut motility and an impairment of enteroendocrine function can contribute to motility disorders. PMID:24959205

  20. Virologic and Immunologic Evidence of Multifocal Genital Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jia; Jing, Lichen; Laing, Kerry J.; McClurkan, Christopher M.; Klock, Alexis; Diem, Kurt; Jin, Lei; Stanaway, Jeffrey; Tronstein, Elizabeth; Kwok, William W.; Huang, Meei-li; Selke, Stacy; Fong, Youyi; Magaret, Amalia; Koelle, David M.; Wald, Anna; Corey, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) reactivation is thought to be anatomically and temporally localized, coincident with limited ganglionic infection. Short, subclinical shedding episodes are the most common form of HSV-2 reactivation, with host clearance mechanisms leading to rapid containment. The anatomic distribution of shedding episodes has not been characterized. To precisely define patterns of anatomic reactivation, we divided the genital tract into a 22-region grid and obtained daily swabs for 20 days from each region in 28 immunocompetent, HSV-2-seropositive persons. HSV was detected via PCR, and sites of asymptomatic HSV shedding were subjected to a biopsy procedure within 24 h. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were quantified by immunofluorescence, and HSV-specific CD4+ T cells were identified by intracellular cytokine cytometry. HSV was detected in 868 (7%) of 11,603 genital swabs at a median of 12 sites per person (range, 0 to 22). Bilateral HSV detection occurred on 83 (67%) days with shedding, and the median quantity of virus detected/day was associated with the number of sites positive (P < 0.001). In biopsy specimens of asymptomatic shedding sites, we found increased numbers of CD8+ T cells compared to control tissue (27 versus 13 cells/mm2, P = 0.03) and identified HSV-specific CD4+ T cells. HSV reactivations emanate from widely separated anatomic regions of the genital tract and are associated with a localized cellular infiltrate that was demonstrated to be HSV specific in 3 cases. These data provide evidence that asymptomatic HSV-2 shedding contributes to chronic inflammation throughout the genital tract. IMPORTANCE This detailed report of the anatomic patterns of genital HSV-2 shedding demonstrates that HSV-2 reactivation can be detected at multiple bilateral sites in the genital tract, suggesting that HSV establishes latency throughout the sacral ganglia. In addition, genital biopsy specimens from sites of asymptomatic HSV shedding have increased numbers of CD8+ T cells compared to control tissue, and HSV-specific CD4+ T cells are found at sites of asymptomatic shedding. These findings suggest that widespread asymptomatic genital HSV-2 shedding is associated with a targeted host immune response and contributes to chronic inflammation throughout the genital tract. PMID:24554666

  1. Chlamydia trachomatis infection among female inmates at Briman prison in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the western countries; its prevalence in the conservative Muslim population of Saudi Arabia is not known, but it is generally believed to be low. This study is the first to investigate the prevalence of and risk factors for C. trachomatis infection in the high-risk group of female inmates at Briman Prison in Jeddah. Methods The inmates were interviewed using a pre-designed questionnaire, and their urine samples were tested for C. trachomatis infection by real-time PCR assay. Results The overall prevalence of C. trachomatis infection was 8.7% in the study population. The ?25 age group was predominantly affected, with an average prevalence of 16.6%. Two out of five (2/5, 40%) Yamani, (4/33 12.1%) Indonesian, (3/33, 9.1%) Somalian and (2/26, 7.7%) Ethiopian inmates were positive for infection. None of the Saudi inmates (0/14) were positive for infection. Among the studied variables, only age was significantly associated with the infection rate. The other variables (marital status, nationality, religion, employment status, education level, nature of the offense committed, knowledge about protection from STIs, and knowledge about condom use and the purpose of condom use) did not show a significant correlation with Chlamydia infection. Conclusions The overall prevalence of C. trachomatis infection was within the range published by other reports in similar prison settings in developed countries. The results indicate the need for a countrywide screening and treatment program for all inmates at the time of entry into prison. PMID:24649964

  2. Association of Maternal Genital and Reproductive Infections with Verbal Memory and Motor Deficits in Adult Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Alan S.; Vinogradov, Sophia; Kremen, William S.; Poole, John H.; Bao, Yuanyuan; Kern, David; McKeague, Ian W.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal exposure to genital and reproductive infections has been associated with schizophrenia in previous studies. Impairments in several neuropsychological functions, including verbal memory, working memory, executive function, and fine-motor coordination occur prominently in patients with schizophrenia. The etiologies of these deficits, however, remain largely unknown. We aimed to assess whether prospectively documented maternal exposure to genital/reproductive infections was related to these neuropsychological deficits in offspring with schizophrenia and other schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The cases were derived from a population-based birth cohort; all cohort members belonged to a prepaid health plan. Cases were assessed for verbal memory, working memory, executive function, and fine-motor coordination. Compared to unexposed cases, patients exposed to maternal genital/reproductive infection performed more poorly on verbal memory, fine-motor coordination, and working memory. Stratification by race revealed associations between maternal G/R infection and verbal memory and fine-motor coordination for case offspring of African-American mothers, but not for case offspring of White mothers. Significant infection-by-race interactions were also observed. Although independent replications are warranted, maternal G/R infections were associated with verbal memory and motor function deficits in African-American patients with schizophrenia. PMID:21600665

  3. Metabolic Features of Protochlamydia amoebophila Elementary Bodies – A Link between Activity and Infectivity in Chlamydiae

    PubMed Central

    Watzka, Margarete; Wultsch, Anna; Tziotis, Dimitrios; Montanaro, Jacqueline; Richter, Andreas; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Horn, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The Chlamydiae are a highly successful group of obligate intracellular bacteria, whose members are remarkably diverse, ranging from major pathogens of humans and animals to symbionts of ubiquitous protozoa. While their infective developmental stage, the elementary body (EB), has long been accepted to be completely metabolically inert, it has recently been shown to sustain some activities, including uptake of amino acids and protein biosynthesis. In the current study, we performed an in-depth characterization of the metabolic capabilities of EBs of the amoeba symbiont Protochlamydia amoebophila. A combined metabolomics approach, including fluorescence microscopy-based assays, isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), ion cyclotron resonance Fourier transform mass spectrometry (ICR/FT-MS), and ultra-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) was conducted, with a particular focus on the central carbon metabolism. In addition, the effect of nutrient deprivation on chlamydial infectivity was analyzed. Our investigations revealed that host-free P. amoebophila EBs maintain respiratory activity and metabolize D-glucose, including substrate uptake as well as host-free synthesis of labeled metabolites and release of labeled CO2 from 13C-labeled D-glucose. The pentose phosphate pathway was identified as major route of D-glucose catabolism and host-independent activity of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was observed. Our data strongly suggest anabolic reactions in P. amoebophila EBs and demonstrate that under the applied conditions D-glucose availability is essential to sustain metabolic activity. Replacement of this substrate by L-glucose, a non-metabolizable sugar, led to a rapid decline in the number of infectious particles. Likewise, infectivity of Chlamydia trachomatis, a major human pathogen, also declined more rapidly in the absence of nutrients. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that D-glucose is utilized by P. amoebophila EBs and provide evidence that metabolic activity in the extracellular stage of chlamydiae is of major biological relevance as it is a critical factor affecting maintenance of infectivity. PMID:23950718

  4. Effect of gemifloxacin on viability of Chlamydia pneumoniae (Chlamydophila pneumoniae) in an in vitro continuous infection model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrei Kutlin; Patricia M. Roblin; Margaret R. Hammerschlag

    2002-01-01

    Persistent infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae (Chlamydophila pneumoniae) has been implicated in the development of atherosclerosis, asthma and other chronic diseases. However, data on treatment of C. pneumoniae infections are limited. Microbiological failure of antimicro- bial therapy has been described, even after prolonged courses of treatment with azithromycin, doxycycline and erythromycin. Gemifloxacin is an enhanced-affinity fluoroquinolone with excellent activity against most

  5. A Limited Role for Antibody in Protective Immunity Induced by rCPAF and CpG Vaccination Against Primary Genital Chlamydia muridarum Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Ashlesh K.; Chaganty, Bharat K. R.; Li, Weidang; Guentzel, M. Neal; Chambers, James P.; Seshu, J.; Zhong, Guangming; Arulanandam, Bernard P.

    2015-01-01

    Mice deficient in B-cells (?mT mice) were used to evaluate the role of antibody in enhanced chlamydial clearance and reduction of pathology afforded by vaccination with recombinant chlamydial protease-like activity factor (rCPAF). Enhanced, but comparable, chlamydial clearance was observed in ?mT and wild type (WT) mice after rCPAF+CpG vaccination. Chlamydia-induced pathology was present in mock-immunized animals, but at significantly greater levels in ?mT than WT mice, whereas vaccinated ?mT and WT mice exhibited similar reductions in pathology. Thus, antibodies may play a role in protection against chlamydial pathology after primary infection, but were largely dispensable in rCPAF+CpG induced chlamydial clearance and reduction in pathology. PMID:19281569

  6. Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infection and Cardiac Risk Factors in Patients with Myocardial Infection

    PubMed Central

    Azarkar, Zohreh; Jafarnejad, Majid; Zaedast, Mahmood; Saadatjou, Alireza

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Evidences support the possible involvement of microorganisms such as Chlamydia pneumonia in the pathogenesis of ischemic heart diseases through a chronic inflammatory process. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between Chlamydia pneumoniae seropositivity with acute myocardial infarction and its related risk factors. METHODS In this case-control study, 88 patients admitted in CCU with a diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome, without a history of chronic diseases including cancers were selected as cases and 49 surgical patients without an evidence of cardiovascular disease according to clinical examinations and ECG were selected as controls. Demographic characteristics and background risk factors were obtained using a questionnaire by expert nurses. Venous blood sample was obtained from participants for measuring the anti Chlamydia IgG and IgM antibodies using ELISA method. The prevalence of antibodies was compared in both groups and its relation with coronary syndrome was evaluated. RESULTS 88 and 49 patients were enrolled in case and control groups, respectively. Mean age of patients and the controls was 14±59.7 and 13±56.9 years, respectively (P=0.26). Anti Chlamydia IgG seropositivity rate was 63(71.9%) and 23(46.9%) in case and controlcontrol groups, respectively (P<0.01; OR: 2.85; CI 95%: 1.38-5.9). Anti Chlamydia IgM was positive in 1 patient and 1 control. Anti Chlamydia IgG seropositivity rate was higher in patients older than 50 years old than those younger than 50 years old (OR: 2.83; CI 95%: 1.31 -1.14). There was a significant relation between BMI, smoking and Anti Chlamydia IgG seropositivity. CONCLUSION Considering the relation between anti Chlamydia antibody IgG seropositivity with BMI and myocardial infarction, it seems that appropriate diagnosis and treatment of these prone patients can be benefical. PMID:22577429

  7. Differential infection outcome of Chlamydia trachomatis in human blood monocytes and monocyte-derived dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chlamydia trachomatis is an intracellular bacteria which consist of three biovariants; trachoma (serovars A-C), urogenital (serovars D-K) and lymphogranuloma venereum (L1-L3), causing a wide spectrum of disease in humans. Monocytes are considered to disseminate this pathogen throughout the body while dendritic cells (DCs) play an important role in mediating immune response against bacterial infection. To determine the fate of C. trachomatis within human peripheral blood monocytes and monocyte-derived DCs, these two sets of immune cells were infected with serovars Ba, D and L2, representative of the three biovariants of C. trachomatis. Results Our study revealed that the different serovars primarily infect monocytes and DCs in a comparable fashion, however undergo differential infection outcome, serovar L2 being the only candidate to inflict active infection. Moreover, the C. trachomatis serovars Ba and D become persistent in monocytes while the serovars predominantly suffer degradation within DCs. Effects of persistence gene Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) was not clearly evident in the differential infection outcome. The heightened levels of inflammatory cytokines secreted by the chlamydial infection in DCs compared to monocytes seemed to be instrumental for this consequence. The immune genes induced in monocytes and DCs against chlamydial infection involves a different set of Toll-like receptors, indicating that distinct intracellular signalling pathways are adopted for immune response. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that the host pathogen interaction in chlamydia infection is not only serovar specific but manifests cell specific features, inducing separate immune response cascade in monocytes and DCs. PMID:25123797

  8. Azithromycin treatment modulates the extracellular signal-regulated kinase mediated pathway and inhibits inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in epithelial cells from infertile women with recurrent Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Pragya; Vardhan, Harsh; Bhengraj, Apurb Rashmi; Jha, Rajneesh; Singh, Laishram Chandreshwor; Salhan, Sudha; Mittal, Aruna

    2011-08-01

    Epidemiological and animal model studies suggest that sequelae of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection are more often associated with second or subsequent infections than with initial infection. Further, in order to establish an acute or long-term persistent infection, C. trachomatis develops several strategies to circumvent host immune responses. Hence, resolution of the C. trachomatis infection may require modulation of host factors especially during persistent or chronic infection. Moreover, azithromycin treatment has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties but its mechanism of action is still not elucidated. Therefore, in order to better understand the effect of azithromycin in chronic conditions, our aim was to study changes in expression of key genes associated with inflammatory cytokines and receptors, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway, and apoptosis pathway before and after therapy with azithromycin in infertile women with recurrent C. trachomatis infection. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to study inflammatory cytokines and receptors, MAPK signaling pathway, and apoptosis pathway before and after therapy with azithromycin in infertile women with recurrent C. trachomatis infection. Further, effect of azithromycin on activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase was studied in epithelial cells by western blotting. Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), CCL5, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1), CXCL5, CXCL9, interleukin-1B (IL-1B), IL-8, baculoviral IAP repeat-containing 3 (BIRC3), myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 (MCL1), and MAPK1 were downregualted after azithromycin treatment. In addition, phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase was inhibited after azithromycin treatment in epithelial cells obtained from women with recurrent infection. Hence, our data suggest that azithromycin with its properties apart from antibacterial activity may contribute to its therapeutic potential in treatment of chronic recurrent infection in infertile women. PMID:21438755

  9. Immunization against Genital Herpes with a Vaccine Virus That has Defects in Productive and Latent Infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, Xavier J.; Jones, Cheryl A.; Knipe, David M.

    1999-06-01

    An effective vaccine for genital herpes has been difficult to achieve because of the limited efficacy of subunit vaccines and the safety concerns about live viruses. As an alternative approach, mutant herpes simplex virus strains that are replication-defective can induce protective immunity. To increase the level of safety and to prove that replication was not needed for immunization, we constructed a mutant herpes simplex virus 2 strain containing two deletion mutations, each of which eliminated viral replication. The double-mutant virus induces protective immunity that can reduce acute viral shedding and latent infection in a mouse genital model, but importantly, the double-mutant virus shows a phenotypic defect in latent infection. This herpes vaccine strain, which is immunogenic but has defects in both productive and latent infection, provides a paradigm for the design of vaccines and vaccine vectors for other sexually transmitted diseases, such as AIDS.

  10. Heterogeneity in Risk of Pelvic Inflammatory Diseases After Chlamydia Infection: A Population-Based Study in Manitoba, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Bethan; Ward, Helen; Leung, Stella; Turner, Katy M. E.; Garnett, Geoff P.; Blanchard, James F.; Yu, B. Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Background.?The association between chlamydia infection and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a key parameter for models evaluating the impact of chlamydia control programs. We quantified this association using a retrospective population-based cohort. Methods.?We used administrative health data sets to construct a retrospective population-based cohort of women and girls aged 12–24 years who were resident in Manitoba, Canada, between 1992 and 1996. We performed survival analysis on a subcohort of individuals who were tested for chlamydia to estimate the risk of PID diagnosed in a primary care, outpatient, or inpatient setting after ?1 positive chlamydia test. Results.?A total of 73 883 individuals contributed 625 621 person years of follow-up. Those with a diagnosis of chlamydia had an increased risk of PID over their reproductive lifetime compared with those who tested negative (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.43–1.70). This risk increased with each subsequent infection: the AHR was 1.17 for first reinfection (95% CI, 1.06–1.30) and 1.35 for the second (95% CI, 1.04–1.75). The increased risk of PID from reinfection was highest in younger individuals (AHR, 4.55 (95% CI, 3.59–5.78) in individuals aged 12–15 years at the time of their second reinfection, compared with individuals older than 30 years). Conclusions.?There is heterogeneity in the risk of PID after a chlamydia infection. Describing the progression to PID in mathematical models as an average rate may be an oversimplification; more accurate estimates of the cost-effectiveness of screening may be obtained by using an individual-based measure of risk. Health inequalities may be reduced by targeting health promotion interventions at sexually active girls younger than 16 years and those with a history of chlamydia. PMID:25381374

  11. Antimicrobial effect of natural polyphenols with or without antibiotics on Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Antonietta; Carratelli, Caterina Romano; Losacco, Antonio; Iovene, Maria Rosaria

    2014-02-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is a human pathogen that causes multiple diseases worldwide. Despite appropriate therapy with antichlamydial antibiotics, chronic exacerbated diseases often occur and lead to serious sequelae. The use of the macrolide clarithromycin and the fluoroquinolone ofloxacin has improved the treatment of chlamydial infection, but therapy failure is still a major problem. In this work, we studied the pretreatment with natural polyphenols and subsequent treatment with clarithromycin or ofloxacin. The phenolic compounds resveratrol and quercetin improved the antichlamydial effect of clarithromycin and ofloxacin. In particular, resveratrol at 40??M and quercetin at 20??M exhibited significant growth inhibition on C. pneumoniae in presence of clarithromycin or ofloxacin compared to controls. In addition, we demonstrated that both resveratrol and quercetin decreased IL-17 and IL-23 production in a time-dependent manner in C. pneumoniae-infected cells. The results showed a particularly strong inhibition of the IL-23 levels released with combined treatment of resveratrol or quercetin and ofloxacin or clarithromycin, suggesting that the combined treatment may afford a synergistic effect in controlling Chlamydia infections. PMID:23952319

  12. Conjunctival infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in sexual partners of patients with adult inclusion conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Mohamed-Noriega, Karim; Mohamed-Noriega, Jibran; Valdés-Navarro, Manuel A; Cuervo-Lozano, Edgar Eliezar; Fernández-Espinosa, Martín Cesar; Mohamed-Hamsho, Jesús

    2015-04-01

    To compare the incidence of conjunctival infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in sexual partners of patients with newly diagnosed adult inclusion conjunctivitis (AIC) and a control group with healthy eyes. We also compare the observed signs and symptoms of conjunctival infection in patients with newly diagnosed AIC and their sexual partners. We performed a prospective comparative case-control study between patients with newly diagnosed AIC confirmed with direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) (n = 11), their sexual partners (n = 11), and a control group of healthy subjects (n = 11). Clinical history, physical examination, and a DFA test for C. trachomatis of a conjunctival scrapping from the tarsal conjunctiva were performed in all patients. A significantly higher frequency of positive DFA tests for C. trachomatis was observed in the sexual partner group (n = 8, 73 %) compared with the healthy control group (n = 2, 18.2 %) (P = 0.03). Ocular symptoms and signs were observed significantly more often in patients from the confirmed clinically active AIC group (n = 11, 100 %) than in their sexual partners (n = 2, 12.5 %). Sexual partners of patients with AIC are at greater risk of having an asymptomatic conjunctival infection with C. trachomatis than healthy subjects. Sexual partners might be considered a bacterial reservoir and a possible source for chlamydia reinfection. Not treating sexual partners might increase the probability of reinfection. More extended studies with a greater sample size should be done. PMID:24643518

  13. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection induces vascular smooth muscle cell migration via Rac1 activation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junxia; Wang, Haiwei; Zhang, Lijun; Zhang, Tengteng; Wang, Beibei; Li, Xiankui; Wei, Junyan; Zhang, Lijun

    2014-02-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae infection has been shown to be associated with the development of atherosclerosis by promoting the migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). However, how C. pneumoniae infection induces VSMC migration is not fully understood. A primary role of Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1) is to generate a protrusive force at the leading edge that contributes to cell migration. Whether Rac1 activation plays a role in C. pneumoniae infection-induced VSMC migration is not well defined. In the present study, we therefore examined Rac1 activation in C. pneumoniae-infected rat primary VSMCs and the role of Rac1 activation in C. pneumoniae infection-induced VSMC migration. Glutathione S-transferase pull-down assay results showed that Rac1 was activated in C. pneumoniae-infected rat primary VSMCs. A Rac1 inhibitor, NSC23766 (50 µM,) suppressed Rac1 activation stimulated by C. pneumoniae infection, and thereby inhibited C. pneumoniae infection-induced VSMC migration. In addition, C. pneumoniae infection-induced Rac1 activation in the VSMCs was blocked by LY294002 (25 µM), an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). Taken together, these data suggest that C. pneumoniae infection promotes VSMC migration, possibly through activating Rac1 via PI3K. PMID:24248991

  14. Male circumcision and prevalence of genital human papillomavirus infection in men: a multinational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Accumulated evidence from epidemiological studies and more recently from randomized controlled trials suggests that male circumcision (MC) may substantially protect against genital HPV infection in men. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between MC and genital HPV infection in men in a large multinational study. Methods A total of 4072 healthy men ages 18–70?years were enrolled in a study conducted in Brazil, Mexico, and the United States. Enrollment samples combining exfoliated cells from the coronal sulcus, glans penis, shaft, and scrotum were analyzed for the presence and genotyping of HPV DNA by PCR and linear array methods. Prevalence ratios (PR) were used to estimate associations between MC and HPV detection adjusting for potential confounders. Results MC was not associated with overall prevalence of any HPV, oncogenic HPV types or unclassified HPV types. However, MC was negatively associated with non-oncogenic HPV infections (PR 0.85, 95% confident interval: 0.76-0.95), in particular for HPV types 11, 40, 61, 71, and 81. HPV 16, 51, 62, and 84 were the most frequently identified genotypes regardless of MC status. Conclusions This study shows no overall association between MC and genital HPV infections in men, except for certain non-oncogenic HPV types for which a weak association was found. However, the lack of association with MC might be due to the lack of anatomic site specific HPV data, for example the glans penis, the area expected to be most likely protected by MC. PMID:23327450

  15. Prevalence of reproductive tract infections, genital prolapse, and obesity in a rural community in Lebanon.

    PubMed Central

    Deeb, Mary E.; Awwad, Johnny; Yeretzian, Joumana S.; Kaspar, Hanna G.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of reproduction-related illnesses in a rural community in Lebanon. METHODS: Data were collected through interviews with women in their homes, physical examinations and history taking by physicians in a clinic in the community, and laboratory tests. A total of 557 ever-married women aged 15-60 years were selected randomly. FINDINGS: Just over half of the sample (268, 50.6%) had five or more children, and (320, 78.9%) of women aged < 45 years were using contraception. The prevalence of reproductive tract infections was very low: six (1.2%) women had sexually transmitted diseases and 47 (9.3%) had endogenous reproductive tract infections. None had chlamydial infection or a positive serological finding of syphilis. None had invasive cervical cancer, and only one had cervical dysplasia. In contrast, genital prolapse and gynaecological morbidity were elevated. Half of the women studied (251, 49.6%) had genital prolapse, and 153 (30.2%) were obese. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of reproductive tract infections in this conservative rural community in east Lebanon was low. Possible explanations include the conservative nature of the community, the high rate of utilization of health care services, and the liberal use of antibiotics without a prescription. More importantly, the study showed an unexpectedly high prevalence of genital prolapse and obesity--a finding that has clear implications for primary health care priorities in such rural communities. PMID:14710505

  16. Broad HPV distribution in the genital region of men from the HPV infection in men (HIM) study

    PubMed Central

    Sichero, Laura; Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Ferreira, Silvaneide; Sobrinho, João S.; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Galan, Lenice; Silva, Roberto C.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R.; Villa, Luisa L.

    2013-01-01

    The HPV infection in men (HIM) study examines the natural history of genital HPV infection in men. Genotyping methods used in this study identify 37 ?-HPV types; however, the viral type could not be identified in approximately 22% of male genital specimens that were HPV PCR positive. Our aim was to genotype HPV-unclassified specimens by sequencing PGMY09/11, GP5+/6+ or FAP59/64 PCR products. Using this approach we were able to detect 86 unique HPV types among 508 of 931 specimens analyzed. We report for the first time the presence of a broad range of ?-, ?- and ?-HPV at the male genitals. PMID:23722104

  17. Lower genital tract infection and endometritis: insight into subclinical pelvic inflammatory disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harold C Wiesenfeld; Sharon L Hillier; Marijane A Krohn; Antonio J Amortegui; R. Phillips Heine; Daniel V Landers; Richard L Sweet

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To investigate the association between lower genital tract infections and subclinical PID. Fallopian tube damage is a common complication of acute symptomatic pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), yet most women with tubal factor infertility do not have a history of acute PID. Subclinical PID is believed to be an important cause of tubal factor infertility.METHODS:We conducted a cross-sectional study among women

  18. Diagnosis of genital herpes simplex virus infection in the clinical laboratory

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Since the type of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection affects prognosis and subsequent counseling, type-specific testing to distinguish HSV-1 from HSV-2 is always recommended. Although PCR has been the diagnostic standard method for HSV infections of the central nervous system, until now viral culture has been the test of choice for HSV genital infection. However, HSV PCR, with its consistently and substantially higher rate of HSV detection, could replace viral culture as the gold standard for the diagnosis of genital herpes in people with active mucocutaneous lesions, regardless of anatomic location or viral type. Alternatively, antigen detection—an immunofluorescence test or enzyme immunoassay from samples from symptomatic patients--could be employed, but HSV type determination is of importance. Type-specific serology based on glycoprotein G should be used for detecting asymptomatic individuals but widespread screening for HSV antibodies is not recommended. In conclusion, rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis of HSV is now become a necessity, given the difficulty in making the clinical diagnosis of HSV, the growing worldwide prevalence of genital herpes and the availability of effective antiviral therapy. PMID:24885431

  19. Experimental Gonococcal Genital Tract Infection and Opacity Protein Expression in Estradiol-Treated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jerse, Ann E.

    1999-01-01

    The development of effective prophylactic agents against gonorrhea and the study of adaptation by Neisseria gonorrhoeae to the urogenital mucosa are hindered by the lack of a well-established animal model of gonococcal genital tract infection. Here, a murine model of long-term gonococcal genital tract infection is described. Female BALB/c mice were treated with 17-?-estradiol and inoculated intravaginally with wild-type gonococcal strain FA1090 or MS11. N. gonorrhoeae was recovered from vaginal swabs for an average of 12 to 13 days following inoculation with 106 CFU of either strain. Inflammation occurred in over 80% of infected mice, and diplococci were associated with epithelial cells and neutrophils in stained vaginal smears. Ascended infection occurred in 17 to 20% of mice inoculated with strain FA1090. An outbred mouse strain (SLC:ddY) previously reported to be naturally susceptible to N. gonorrhoeae was also tested; however, as with BALB/c mice, estradiol was required for prolonged infection. Although piliation was not maintained during experimental murine infection, 46 to 100% of vaginal isolates from four of eight BALB/c mice and three of four SLC:ddY mice expressed one or more opacity (Opa) proteins within 4 days after inoculation with an Opa-negative variant of strain FA1090. The observed selection for and/or induction of gonococcal Opa protein expression during murine infection appears to parallel events that occur during experimental urethritis in volunteers. PMID:10531218

  20. Background: Chlamydia trachomatis is the bacterial species causing most sexually transmitted infections. It is of high importance for the public health

    E-print Network

    Uppsala Universitet

    Background: Chlamydia trachomatis is the bacterial species causing most sexually transmitted infections. It is of high importance for the public health since it causes reproductive tract diseases and epidemiology in sexual networks affected by Lymphogranuloma vene- reum, i.e. invasive chlamydia strains causing

  1. High prevalence of hpv multiple genotypes in women with persistent chlamydia trachomatis infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chlamydia trachomatis interaction with HR-HPV types has highlighted a central role in cervical cancer development. The aim of this study was to investigate HPV prevalence and genotypes distribution in women at risk for C. trachomatis infection and negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy. Methods 1071 cervical swabs were tested for C. trachomatis by Real Time PCR and genotyping by ompA gene sequencing. Additionally, a quantitative Real time-PCR was performed to assess the expression of the C. trachomatis Hsp60–encoding gene (Ct604 portion), linked to a persistent status of infection. HPV infection and genotypes was investigated in C. trachomatis positive women using Luminex technology. Results C. trachomatis infection was detected in 53 out of 1071 (4.5%) samples, of which the 53% resulted positive for Hsp60 gene expression. The overall prevalence of HPV infection in C. trachomatis positive samples was of 60.4% (32/53): in 37.5% of samples was present a single genotype, while multiple genotypes infections were found in the 62.5% of them. Among women with a C. trachomatis chronic infection, 68% were HPV co-infected and the 79% showed multiple genotypes. Should be noted that levels of C. trachomatis Hsp60 expression in HPV co-infected women were significantly lower compared to women infected only with C. trachomatis. The C. trachomatis serotype F was found in the majority of samples, independently of HPV infection. Conclusions A high prevalence of HPV multiple infections have been found in young women affected with a C. trachomatis chronic infection. These observations suggested that the expression of CHSP60-1, interfering with both apoptotic and cellular senescence pathways, may promote a favourable local microenvironment for HPV infection. PMID:25621003

  2. The effectiveness of an education intervention to prevent chlamydia infection among Greenlandic youth.

    PubMed

    Rink, Elizabeth; Montgomery-Andersen, Ruth; Anastario, Mike

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to implement a sexual health behavioural intervention in Greenland in order to reduce sexually transmitted infection rates among a population of Greenland youth. This behavioural intervention was called Inuulluataarneq (Having the Good Life). Inuulluataarneq's objects included: (1) increase Greenlandic youth's overall knowledge about sexually transmitted infections and sexual health; (2) increase parent/guardian-youth communication about topics related to sexually transmitted infections and sex; and (3) increase consistent condom use among Greenlandic youth. We hypothesised that increased awareness of sexually transmitted infections and sexual health as well as increased communication between parents/guardians and their adolescent children would influence sexual risk behaviour and reduce sexually transmitted infections among our sample population, with a focus on urine samples of chlamydia infection. Results indicate that the influence of having a parent/guardian to speak with about topics related to sex, including the consequences of pregnancy, are key protective factors in reducing sexually transmitted infections among Greenlandic youth. Inuulluataarneq demonstrates that intensive short-term education and skill-building delivered by a trained community member is an effective sexually transmitted infection prevention intervention method among young Inuit populations who live in small isolated Arctic communities. PMID:24713230

  3. A collaborative approach to management of chlamydial infection among teenagers seeking contraceptive care in a community setting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. J. James; S. Hughes; I. Ahmed-Jushuf; R. C. Slack

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To develop and assess a coordinated model of care for effective management of genital chlamydial infection in young women, identified through a selective screening programme in a community based teenage health clinic. METHODS: Selective screening for genital Chlamydia trachomatis was undertaken among young women aged 13-19 years who were having a routine cervical smear test, being referred for termination

  4. Distinct Intensity of Host-Pathogen Interactions in Chlamydia psittaci- and Chlamydia abortus-Infected Chicken Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Braukmann, Maria; Jacobsen, Ilse D.; Westermann, Martin; Menge, Christian; Saluz, Hans-Peter; Berndt, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Factors and mechanisms determining the differences in virulence and host specificity between the zoonotic agents Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia abortus are still largely unknown. In the present study, two strains were compared for their invasiveness, virulence, and capability of eliciting an immune response in chicken embryos. On breeding day 10, embryonated chicken eggs were inoculated with 5 × 104 inclusion-forming units. As shown by immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR, C. psittaci displayed a significantly better capability of disseminating in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and internal organs than C. abortus. The higher infectious potential of C. psittaci in birds was underlined by significantly higher mRNA expression rates of essential chlamydial genes, such as incA, groEL (in CAM, liver, and spleen), cpaf, and ftsW (in CAM). Although the immune responses to both pathogens were similar, C. psittaci elicited higher macrophage numbers and a stronger expression of a subset of immune-related proteins. The data imply that invasiveness of Chlamydia spp. and propagation in the host are not solely dependent on the level of host immune response but, even to a greater extent, on the expression of bacterial factors related to virulence. The fact that C. psittaci has coped far better than C. abortus with the avian embryo's response by upregulating essential genes may be a key to understanding the mechanisms underlying host adaptation and etiopathology. PMID:22689815

  5. Genital Warts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Z Diseases and treatments E - H Genital warts Genital warts Also called condylomata acuminata Genital warts: The ... one visit to the dermatologist. Learn more about genital warts: Genital warts: Signs and symptoms Genital warts: ...

  6. Novel rat models to study primary genital herpes simplex virus-2 infection.

    PubMed

    Önnheim, Karin; Ekblad, Maria; Görander, Staffan; Lange, Stefan; Jennische, Eva; Bergström, Tomas; Wildt, Sheryl; Liljeqvist, Jan-Åke

    2015-05-01

    In this study we describe that six rat models (SD, WIST, LEW, BN, F344 and DA) are susceptible to intravaginal herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) infection after pre-treatment with progesterone. At a virus dose of 5 × 10(6) PFU of HSV-2, all rat models were infected presenting anti-HSV-2 antibodies, infectious virus in vaginal washes, and HSV-2 DNA genome copies in lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia and the spinal cord. Most of the LEW, BN, F344, and DA rats succumbed in systemic progressive symptoms at day 8-14 post infection, but presented no or mild genital inflammation while SD and WIST rats were mostly infected asymptomatically. Infected SD rats did not reactivate HSV-2 spontaneously or after cortisone treatment. In an HSV-2 virus dose reduction study, F344 rats were shown to be most susceptible. We also investigated whether an attenuated HSV-1 strain (KOS321) given intravaginally, could protect from a subsequent HSV-2 infection. All LEW, BN, and F344 rats survived a primary HSV-1 infection and no neuronal infection was established. In BN and F344 rats, anti-HSV-1 antibodies were readily detected while LEW rats were seronegative. In contrast to naïve LEW, BN, and F344 rats where only 3 of 18 animals survived 5 × 10(6) PFU of HSV-2, 23 of 25 previously HSV-1 infected rats survived a challenge with HSV-2. The described models provide a new approach to investigate protective effects of anti-viral microbicides and vaccine candidates, as well as to study asymptomatic primary genital HSV-2 infection. PMID:25701211

  7. Genital oncogenic human papillomavirus infection: a short review on the mode of transmission.

    PubMed

    Tay, S K

    1995-07-01

    The most common oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPVs) detected in the female lower genital tract are HPV types 16 and 18. They are ancient viruses which have evolved with mankind over the last 200 000 years. The identification of their roles in the development of carcinoma of the uterine cervix in the last decade fills the gap between the long-sought link between sexual behaviour and risk of cervical cancer. Indeed, epidemiological, clinical and sophisticated molecular studies employing the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing techniques have established the sexual transmissibility of these viruses. However, there is also compelling evidence indicating that these viruses can be transmitted through non-sexual routes. These include vertical transmission when an infant passes through the HPV-infected birth canal of the mother during vaginal delivery, and transmission by formites contaminated by HPV-infected cells. The long latent phase of HPV infection poses difficulties for accurate identification of the route of infection in an individual patient. Genital oncogenic HPV infection in a woman should not be treated as a venereal disease exclusively, and such patients should be counselled appropriately. PMID:8849195

  8. Genital chlamydial infection among women in Nicaragua: validity of direct fluorescent antibody testing, prevalence, risk factors and clinical manifestations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B Herrmann; F Espinoza; R R Villegas; G D Smith; A Ramos; M Egger

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate the performance of a direct fluorescence antibody (DFA) test and to determine the prevalence, risk factors and clinical manifestations of cervical chlamydia infection in different groups of women in Nicaragua. STUDY POPULATION: 926 women, 863 routine clinic attenders (mean age 27 years) and 63 sex workers (mean age 25 years) attending health centres in León, Corinto, Matagalpa

  9. Comparison of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 growth in polarized genital epithelial cells grown in three-dimensional culture with non-polarized cells.

    PubMed

    Dessus-Babus, Sophie; Moore, Cheryl G; Whittimore, Judy D; Wyrick, Priscilla B

    2008-04-01

    A common model for studying Chlamydia trachomatis and growing chlamydial stocks uses Lymphogranuloma venereum serovar L2 and non-polarized HeLa cells. However, recent publications indicate that the growth rate and progeny yields can vary considerably for a particular strain depending on the cell line/type used, and seem to be partially related to cell tropism. In the present study, the growth of invasive serovar L2 was compared in endometrial HEC-1B and endocervical HeLa cells polarized on collagen-coated microcarrier beads, as well as in HeLa cells grown in tissue culture flasks. Microscopy analysis revealed no difference in chlamydial attachment/entry patterns or in inclusion development throughout the developmental cycle between cell lines. Very comparable growth curves in both cell lines were also found using real-time PCR analysis, with increases in chlamydial DNA content of 400-500-fold between 2 and 36 h post-inoculation. Similar progeny yields with comparable infectivity were recovered from HEC-1B and HeLa cell bead cultures, and no difference in chlamydial growth was found in polarized vs. non-polarized HeLa cells. In conclusion, unlike other C. trachomatis strains such as urogenital serovar E, invasive serovar L2 grows equally well in physiologically different endometrial and endocervical environments, regardless of the host cell polarization state. PMID:18396437

  10. Protective effect of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against abortion in mice infected by Chlamydia psittaci.

    PubMed

    Buzoni-Gatel, D; Bernard, F; Andersen, A; Rodolakis, A

    1990-08-01

    The role of antibody in preventing placental and fetal infection by Chlamydia psittaci was studied in mice. Pregnant mice were passively immunized with polyclonal sera or monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) at day 11 of gestation. The mice were intravenously challenged the following day with the virulent AB7 ovine abortion strain of C. psittaci. Mice were either killed on day 16 of gestation to determine placental and fetal chlamydial infection levels or were permitted to have and raise their young until 8 days old for comparison of survival rates. Immune sera produced a decrease in both placental and fetal infection and reduced the number of young dying in utero or shortly after birth. Polyclonal sera to the highly invasive AB7 and AB4 strains or to the invasive 1B strain were more effective than serum to the invasive AB13 strain. The B577/F3 and B577/A11 monoclonal antibodies gave almost complete protection, with only low levels of placental infection and no detectable fetal infection or decrease in survival rate. The study demonstrates that immune sera and type-specific mAbs can passively transfer resistance to placental and fetal colonization and to abortion and fetal loss in mice intravenously challenged with P. psittaci. PMID:2396474

  11. Association of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection With Redetection of Human Papillomavirus After Apparent Clearance

    PubMed Central

    Shew, Marcia L.; Ermel, Aaron C.; Weaver, Bree A.; Tong, Yan; Tu, Wanzhu; Kester, Laura M.; Denski, Cheryl; Fortenberry, J. D.; Brown, Darron R.

    2013-01-01

    Background.?Persistent infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with an increased risk of cervical malignancy. Redetection of type-specific HPV after a period of nondetection may be caused by reactivation of a low-level persistent infection. Little is known about factors associated with type-specific HPV redetection. Methods.?For a longitudinal cohort of adolescent women with frequent behavioral and sexually transmitted infection (STI) information (every 3 months), Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess the influence of sexual behaviors and STIs on the redetection of oncogenic or high-risk HPV infections. Results.?A total of 210 type-specific high-risk HPV detection episode periods were identified in this longitudinal cohort; 71 (33.8%) were characterized by a period of nondetection followed by redetection. Chlamydia trachomatis (hazard ratio [HR], 3.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.44–6.86) was associated with redetection; redetection was >2 times more likely with each additional self-reported sex partner in the past 3 months (HR, 2.26; 95% CI, 1.35–3.78). Conclusions.?This study demonstrates the role of C. trachomatis and number of recent sexual partners in type-specific HPV redetection. Given that persistent oncogenic HPV infections are associated with cancer-related outcomes, understanding the potential role of such factors in the pathogenesis of HPV-related outcomes is important. PMID:23911713

  12. A novel co-infection model with Toxoplasma and Chlamydia trachomatis highlights the importance of host cell manipulation for nutrient scavenging

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Julia D.; de Beaumont, Catherine; Carrasco, Jose A.; Ehrenman, Karen; Bavoil, Patrik M.; Coppens, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Summary Toxoplasmaand Chlamydia trachomatis are obligate intracellular pathogens that have evolved analogous strategies to replicate within mammalian cells. Both pathogens are known to extensively remodel the cytoskeleton, and to recruit endocytic and exocytic organelles to their respective vacuoles. However, how important these activities are for infectivity by either pathogen remains elusive. Here, we have developed a novel co-infection system to gain insights into the developmental cycles of Toxoplasma and C. trachomatis by infecting human cells with both pathogens, and examining their respective ability to replicate and scavenge nutrients. We hypothesize that the common strategies used by Toxoplasma and Chlamydia to achieve development results in direct competition of the two pathogens for the same pool of nutrients. We show that a single human cell can harbor Chlamydia and Toxoplasma. In co-infected cells, Toxoplasma is able to divert the content of host organelles, such as cholesterol. Consequently, the infectious cycle of Toxoplasma progresses unimpeded. In contrast, Chlamydia’s ability to scavenge selected nutrients is diminished, and the bacterium shifts to a stress-induced persistent growth. Parasite killing engenders an ordered return to normal chlamydial development. We demonstrate that C. trachomatis enters a stress-induced persistence phenotype as a direct result from being barred from its normal nutrient supplies as addition of excess nutrients, e.g., amino acids, leads to substantial recovery of Chlamydia growth and infectivity. Co-infection of C. trachomatis with slow growing strains of Toxoplasma or a mutant impaired in nutrient acquisition does not restrict chlamydial development. Conversely, Toxoplasma growth is halted in cells infected with the highly virulent Chlamydia psittaci. This study illustrates the key role that cellular remodeling plays in the exploitation of host intracellular resources by Toxoplasma and Chlamydia. It further highlights the delicate balance between success and failure of infection by intracellular pathogens in a co-infection system at the cellular level. PMID:23107293

  13. Shear stress upregulates IL-1? secretion by Chlamydia pneumoniae- infected monocytes.

    PubMed

    Cheeniyil, Aswathi; Evani, Shankar J; Dallo, Shatha F; Ramasubramanian, Anand K

    2015-04-01

    Infectious agents are increasingly implicated in the development and progression of chronic inflammatory diseases. Several lines of evidence suggest that the common intracellular respiratory pathogen, Chlamydia pneumoniae contributes to the well-established risk factors of atherosclerosis but the exact mechanism is not well understood. It is believed that C. pneumoniae-infected monocytes travel from the lung to the atherosclerotic foci, during which the cells experience mechanical stimuli due to blood flow. In this work, we characterized the effect of physiological levels of shear stress on C. pneumoniae-infected human monocytes in an in vitro flow model. We found that a shear stress of 5?dyn/cm(2) enhanced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1? only in infected, but not in uninfected, monocytes. We also found that this enhancement is due to the upregulation of IL-1? gene expression due to shear stress. Our results demonstrate that mechanotransduction is an important, heretofore unaddressed, determinant of inflammatory response to an infection. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2015;112: 838-842. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25336058

  14. Emerging Chlamydia psittaci infections in chickens and examination of transmission to humans.

    PubMed

    Lagae, Stefanie; Kalmar, Isabelle; Laroucau, Karine; Vorimore, Fabien; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2014-03-01

    Chlamydia psittaci and atypical Chlamydiaceae infections are (re)-emerging in chickens. We therefore examined the prevalence of C. psittaci, atypical Chlamydiaceae and their zoonotic transmission on 19 Belgian chicken farms. Atypical Chlamydiaceae were not detected in chickens but 18 out of 19 farms were positive for C. psittaci by culture and PCR. C. psittaci ompA genotypes A and D were discovered. None of the examined humans (n = 31) was infected with atypical Chlamydiaceae, but 29 (93.5%) of them were positive for C. psittaci by culture and PCR. Genotypes A, D and a mixed infection with genotypes C and D were found. Humans (n = 2) working at the C. psittaci-negative farm never had respiratory complaints, while 25 out of 29 positive farmers (86.2%) reported yearly medical complaints potentially related to psittacosis. Four of them currently experienced respiratory disease and one of them was being treated with antibiotics. Four farmers (12.5%) mentioned that they had pneumonia after starting to keep chickens. Occupational physicians should be aware of emerging Chlamydiaceae infections in chickens. PMID:24324029

  15. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia abortus Infection in Tibetan Sheep in Gansu Province, Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Si-Yuan; Yin, Ming-Yang; Cong, Wei; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Zhao, Quan; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Zhou, Ji-Zhang; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia abortus, an important pathogen in a variety of animals, is associated with abortion in sheep. In the present study, 1732 blood samples, collected from Tibetan sheep between June 2013 and April 2014, were examined by the indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test, aiming to evaluate the seroprevalence and risk factors of C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. 323 of 1732 (18.65%) samples were seropositive for C. abortus antibodies at the cut-off of 1?:?16. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk factors associated with seroprevalence, which could provide foundation to prevent and control C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. Gender of Tibetan sheep was left out of the final model because it is not significant in the logistic regression analysis (P > 0.05). Region, season, and age were considered as major risk factors associated with C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep in Gansu province, northwest China, with higher exposure risk in different seasons and ages and distinct geographical distribution. PMID:25401129

  16. CD57 expression by T cells in the female genital tract of HIV-zx1 infected women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lenine J. Liebenberg; Adebayo Lawrence Adedeji; Darren P. Martin; Pam P. Gumbi; Lynette Denny; Jo-Ann S. Passmore

    2010-01-01

    Despite an influx of T cells to the cervix during HIV infection, genital T cells are not associated with control of HIV shedding. CD57 expression by T cells has been associated with enhanced migratory potential and CD57+ T cells have been shown to accumulate in tissues during the late stages of HIV disease. We investigated the impact of HIV-infection and

  17. Effects of various doses of estradiol on chlamydial genital infection in ovariectomized guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Pasley, J N; Rank, R G; Hough, A J; Cohen, C; Barron, A L

    1985-01-01

    The effect of various doses of estradiol on genital tract infection by the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC) was investigated in ovariectomized guinea pigs. Prolongation of infection, as determined by chlamydial inclusion counts of cells in Giemsa-stained smears of vaginal scrapings, was observed in animals receiving daily doses of 1.0, 10.0, 100.0, or 1000 micrograms of estradiol. In contrast to controls, ascending infection resulting in endometritis was found in animals receiving doses of greater than or equal to 1.0 microgram of estradiol per day. Response to estradiol treatment was reflected in an increase in cervical-uterine wet weight and uterine wall thickness. No differences were observed in time of appearance of antibody titers to GPIC in serum, but a delay in appearance of IgA antibody to GPIC in genital secretions was found in estradiol-treated animals receiving doses of greater than or equal to 1.0 microgram per day. PMID:4002092

  18. Helicobacter pylori infection transmitted sexually via oral-genital contact: a hypothetical model

    PubMed Central

    Eslick, G.

    2000-01-01

    Note added at proof stage An updated search of the literature was made in August 2000. Objectives: To postulate that Helicobacter pylori infection may be transmitted sexually, using the human female vagina as a reservoir for transmission. Methods: A literature search was performed using Medline, Embase, Biological Abstracts, and Currents Contents (January 1983 to August 2000). Relevant keywords were used and additional manual searches were made using the reference lists from the selected articles to retrieve other papers relevant to the topic. Conclusions: Helicobacter pylori infection could be transmitted sexually with the vagina acting as a potential temporary/permanent reservoir given the right environmental conditions. Key Words: sexually transmitted infections; Helicobacter pylori; vagina; oral-genital contact PMID:11221134

  19. Organon Laboratories Award - Oral Presentation Award: Screening for genital Chlamydia trachomatis in teenagers attending a family planning youth clinic: A prevalence study using a strand displacement assay on urine samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aisling Baird; Tana Green; Helen King; George Kinghorn; Goura Kudesia

    2002-01-01

    BackgroundChlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection. Rates are highest in the 16-24-year-old age group. Untreated it can be a significant cause of morbidity. At least 50% of men and 70% of women with C. trachomatis are asymptomatic.Study aimsThe aims of the study were: To determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis.To determine the success of our referral

  20. Activation of Lipid Metabolism Contributes to Interleukin-8 Production during Chlamydia trachomatis Infection of Cervical Epithelial Cells†

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Elaine Y.; Lad, Sonya P.; Mikolon, David P.; Iacobelli-Martinez, Milena; Li, Erguang

    2005-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the most common cause of bacterial sexually transmitted diseases. Infection of the urogenital tract by C. trachomatis causes chronic inflammation and related clinical complications. Unlike other invasive bacteria that induce a rapid cytokine/chemokine production, chlamydial infection induces delayed inflammatory response and proinflammatory chemokine production that is dependent on bacterial growth. We present data here to show that the lipid metabolism required for chlamydial growth contributes to Chlamydia-induced proinflammatory chemokine production. By gene microarray profiling, validated with biochemical studies, we found that C. trachomatis LGV2 selectively upregulated PTGS2 (COX2) and PTGER4 (EP4) in cervical epithelial HeLa 229 cells. COX2 is an enzyme that catalyzes the rate-limiting step of arachidonic acid conversion to prostaglandins, including prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and other eicosanoids, whereas EP4 is a subtype of cell surface receptors for PGE2. We show that Chlamydia infection induced COX2 protein expression in both epithelial cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells and promoted PGE2 release. Exogenous PGE2 was able to induce interleukin-8 release in HeLa 229 epithelial cells. Finally, we demonstrated that interleukin-8 induction by Chlamydia infection or PGE2 treatment was dependent on extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein activity. Together, these data demonstrate that the host lipid remodeling process required for chlamydial growth contributes to proinflammatory chemokine production. This study also highlights the importance of maintaining a balanced habitat for parasitic pathogens as obligate intracellular organisms. PMID:15972489

  1. Infection with a plasmid-free variant Chlamydia related to Chlamydia trachomatis identified by using multiple assays for nucleic acid detection.

    PubMed Central

    An, Q; Radcliffe, G; Vassallo, R; Buxton, D; O'Brien, W J; Pelletier, D A; Weisburg, W G; Klinger, J D; Olive, D M

    1992-01-01

    Clinical samples in transport media from 40 patients exhibiting pathologies potentially caused by Chlamydia trachomatis infection were analyzed for chlamydial nucleic acid, and the results were compared with those of culture. Chlamydial culture was performed by a shell vial centrifugation method with HeLa 229 host cells. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were used to detect either regions on a 7.5-kb plasmid characteristic of C. trachomatis (plasmid-PCR) or a segment of the 16S rRNA genes (rRNA-PCR). All PCR results were confirmed by hybridization with probes for the specific amplified products in either a Southern or a dot blot format. An RNase protection (RNP) assay was used to detect genus-specific chlamydial 16S rRNA directly from the clinical samples. The PCR assays detected C. trachomatis but not other bacteria, including Chlamydia spp. C. trachomatis was isolated from six samples which were positive by the rDNA-PCR and plasmid-PCR assays. Five of the culture-positive specimens were positive by the RNP assay. Twenty-two samples were negative by all criteria. Surprisingly, nine samples were positive by rRNA-PCR and RNP assays only. Nucleic acid sequencing of the rRNA-PCR-amplified products indicated a close relationship between the variants and C. trachomatis. The data may indicate an unrecognized process in C. trachomatis infection or that these patients were infected by a variant strain of C. trachomatis which lacks the C. trachomatis-specific plasmid. Images PMID:1280642

  2. Transformation of Sexually Transmitted Infection-Causing Serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis Using Blasticidin for Selection

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Honglei; Gong, Siqi; Tian, Yingxin; Yang, Zhangsheng; Brunham, Robert; Zhong, Guangming

    2013-01-01

    Plasmid-free Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 organisms have been transformed with chlamydial plasmid-based shuttle vectors pGFP::SW2 and pBRCT using ?-lactamase as a selectable marker. However, the recommendation of amoxicillin, a ?-lactam antibiotics, as one of the choices for treating pregnant women with cervicitis due to C. trachomatis infection has made the existing shuttle vectors unsuitable for transforming sexually transmitted infection (STI)-causing serovars of C. trachomatis. Thus, in the current study, we modified the pGFP::SW2 plasmid by fusing a blasticidin S deaminase gene to the GFP gene to establish blasticidin resistance as a selectable marker and replacing the ?-lactamase gene with the Sh ble gene to eliminate the penicillin resistance. The new vector termed pGFPBSD/Z::SW2 was used for transforming plasmid-free C. trachomatis serovar D organisms. Using blasticidin for selection, stable transformants were obtained. The GFP-BSD fusion protein was detected in cultures infected with the pGFPBSD/Z::SW2-trasnformed serovar D organisms. The transformation restored the plasmid property to the plasmid-free serovar D organisms. Thus, we have successfully modified the pGFP::SW2 transformation system for studying the biology and pathogenesis of other STI-causing serovars of C. trachomatis. PMID:24303023

  3. A population based seroepidemiological survey of Chlamydia pneumoniae infections in schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Dal Molin, G; Longo, B; Not, T; Poli, A; Campello, C

    2005-01-01

    Aim: A serosurvey was carried out in schoolchildren from a northeastern area of Italy to define the burden of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. Methods: A sample of 649 schoolchildren underwent a simplified version of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire and IgG and IgA antibodies were investigated using an enzyme immunoassay, followed by a microimmunofluorescence assay in reactive sera. Results: Of the children examined, 29% and 19.7% had IgG and IgA antibodies, respectively. The IgG prevalence increased with age. No other sociodemographical variable was related to C pneumoniae infection. An association was established between IgA prevalence and previous otitis media. Conclusions: A mesoendemic (intermediate between high and low endemic level) pattern of C pneumoniae infection is present in schoolchildren from this area and the prevalence rate is related to age. Moreover, this is the first epidemiological evidence of the role of C pneumoniae in otitis. PMID:15917413

  4. Chlamydia trachomatis infection as a risk factor for invasive cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Koskela, P; Anttila, T; Bjørge, T; Brunsvig, A; Dillner, J; Hakama, M; Hakulinen, T; Jellum, E; Lehtinen, M; Lenner, P; Luostarinen, T; Pukkala, E; Saikku, P; Thoresen, S; Youngman, L; Paavonen, J

    2000-01-01

    Cervical carcinoma is a sexually transmitted disease most strongly linked with human-papillomavirus (HPV) infection. We conducted a prospective sero-epidemiologic study to evaluate the role of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in the development of cervical carcinoma, with invasive cancer as an end point. A nested case-control study within a cohort of 530000 Nordic women was performed. Linking data files of 3 Nordic serum banks and the cancer registries of Finland, Norway and Sweden identified 182 women with invasive cervical carcinoma diagnosed during a mean follow-up of 5 years after serum sampling. The serum samples of the cases and matched cancer-free controls were analyzed for IgG antibodies to C. trachomatis, C. pneumoniae (a control microbe) and HPV types 16, 18 and 33, as well as for serum cotinine (an indicator of tobacco smoking). Serum antibodies to C. trachomatis were associated with an increased risk for cervical squamous-cell carcinoma (HPV- and smoking-adjusted OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.3-3.5). The association remained also after adjustment for smoking both in HPV16-seronegative and -seropositive cases (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.8-5.1; OR, 2.3, 95% CI, 0. 8-7.0 respectively). No such association was found for C. pneumoniae. Our prospective study provides sero-epidemiologic evidence that infection with C. trachomatis confers an increased risk for subsequent development of invasive squamous-cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix. PMID:10585579

  5. Prevention of Chlamydia-induced infertility by inhibition of local caspase activity.

    PubMed

    Igietseme, Joseph U; Omosun, Yusuf; Partin, James; Goldstein, Jason; He, Qing; Joseph, Kahaliah; Ellerson, Debra; Ansari, Uzma; Eko, Francis O; Bandea, Claudiu; Zhong, Guangming; Black, Carolyn M

    2013-04-01

    Tubal factor infertility (TFI) represents 36% of female infertility and genital infection by Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) is a major cause. Although TFI is associated with host inflammatory responses to bacterial components, the molecular pathogenesis of Chlamydia-induced infertility remains poorly understood. We investigated the hypothesis that activation of specific cysteine proteases, the caspases, during C. trachomatis genital infection causes the disruption of key fertility-promoting molecules required for embryo development and implantation. We analyzed the effect of caspase inhibition on infertility and the integrity of Dicer, a caspase-sensitive, fertility-promoting ribonuclease III enzyme, and key micro-RNAs in the reproductive system. Genital infection with the inflammation- and caspase-inducing, wild-type C. trachomatis serovar L2 led to infertility, but the noninflammation-inducing, plasmid-free strain did not. We confirmed that caspase-mediated apoptotic tissue destruction may contribute to chlamydial pathogenesis. Caspase-1 or -3 deficiency, or local administration of the pan caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK into normal mice protected against Chlamydia-induced infertility. Finally, the oviducts of infected infertile mice showed evidence of caspase-mediated cleavage inactivation of Dicer and alteration in critical miRNAs that regulate growth, differentiation, and development, including mir-21. These results provide new insight into the molecular pathogenesis of TFI with significant implications for new strategies for treatment and prevention of chlamydial complications. PMID:23303804

  6. Association of Chlamydia trachomatis infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) & cervical intraepithelial neoplasia - A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Bhatla, Neerja; Puri, Kriti; Joseph, Elizabeth; Kriplani, Alka; Iyer, Venkateswaran K.; Sreenivas, V.

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the necessary cause of cervical cancer and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is considered a potential cofactor in the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The objective of this pilot study was to determine the association of CT infection with HPV, other risk factors for cervical cancer, and CIN in symptomatic women. Methods: A total of 600 consecutively selected women aged 30-74 yr with persistent vaginal discharge, intermenstrual/postcoital bleeding or unhealthy cervix underwent conventional Pap smear, Hybrid Capture 2® (HC2) testing for HPV and CT DNA and colposcopy, with directed biopsy of all lesions. Results: HPV DNA was positive in 108 (18.0%) women, CT DNA in 29 (4.8%) women. HPV/CT co-infection was observed in only four (0.7%) women. Of the 127 (21.2%) women with Pap >ASCUS, 60 (47.2%) were HPV positive and four (3.1%) were CT positive. Of the 41 women with CIN1 lesions, 11 (26.8%) were HPV positive, while two were CT positive. Of the 46 women with CIN2+ on histopathology, 41 (89.1%) were HPV positive, two (4.3%) were CT positive and one was positive for both. The risk of CIN2+ disease was significantly increased (P<0.05) by the following factors: age <18 yr at first coitus, HPV infection and a positive Pap smear. Older age (>35 yr), higher parity, use of oral contraceptives or smoking did not show any significant association with HPV or abnormal histopathology. Parity >5 was the only risk factor positivity associated with CT infection (P<0.05). Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings showed that CT infection was not significantly associated with CIN, and most of its risk factors, including HPV infection, in symptomatic women. Longitudinal studies with carefully selected study sample would be able to answer these questions. PMID:23640561

  7. Impact of a Labour Disruption Affecting Local Public Health on the Incidence of Chlamydia Infections in Toronto

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Andrew D.; Gournis, Effie; Al-Bargash, Dana; Shahin, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Labour disruptions that interrupt services can be a natural experiment to examine the effect of halting a program. A five-week municipal labour disruption in Toronto during the summer of 2009 provided an opportunity to investigate the impact of reduced sexual health services. Methods We examined the incidence of reported chlamydia in Toronto during the five years (2004–2008) preceding the labour disruption and during the periods just before, during, and after the labour disruption. Comparisons of actual reports for 2009 were made to immediately adjacent periods around the labour disruption, to historical trends and to forecasted rates. Interrupted time series analysis was used to test for significant differences in the trend of reported chlamydia incidence. Results There was no significant difference in the trend of reported chlamydia incidence around the time of the strike. However, there was a small but significant increase in the incidence of reported chlamydia, particularly among females under 25 years old immediately following the labour disruption. The reported incidence for this group was higher than would be expected based on annual increases and projected seasonal trends. Conclusions There was a small increase in incidence of reported cases of chlamydia for certain groups that went beyond what is expected during the time immediately following the labour disruption. While causation cannot be implied from our ecological study, public health services may play a role in the control of sexually transmitted infections, even in the short-term. This underscores the need for future work to understand whether the changes observed can be attributed to the absence of these services. PMID:24312180

  8. Corn mint (Mentha arvensis) extract diminishes acute Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Salin, Olli; Törmäkangas, Liisa; Leinonen, Maija; Saario, Elise; Hagström, Marja; Ketola, Raimo A; Saikku, Pekka; Vuorela, Heikki; Vuorela, Pia M

    2011-12-28

    Corn mint ( Mentha arvensis ) provides a good source of natural phenols such as flavone glycosides and caffeic acid derivatives, which may have prophylactic properties against inflammations. This study investigated whether corn mint extract would be beneficial against a universal respiratory tract pathogen, Chlamydia pneumoniae , infection. The extract inhibited the growth of C. pneumoniae CWL-029 in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition was confirmed against a clinical isolate K7. The phenolic composition of the extract was analyzed by UPLC-ESI/Q-TOF/MS, the main components being linarin and rosmarinic acid. These compounds were active in vitro against C. pneumoniae. Linarin completely inhibited the growth at 100 ?M. Inbred C57BL/6J mice were inoculated with C. pneumoniae K7. M. arvensis extract was given intraperitoneally once daily for 3 days prior to inoculation and continued for 10 days postinfection. The extract was able to diminish the inflammatory parameters related to C. pneumoniae infection and significantly (p = 0.019) lowered the number of C. pneumoniae genome equivalents detected by PCR at biologically relevant amounts. PMID:22073967

  9. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and cerebrovascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A wealth of published studies have been published on association between Chlamydia pneumoniae (C.pneumoniae) infection and cerebrovascular (CV) disease, but the results were inconsistent. This meta-analysis provides a systematic review of the available evidence from all serological and pathological studies of CV disease and C.pneumoniae. Methods A comprehensive research was conducted of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CNKI, WanFang technological periodical database and reference lists of articles to identify eligible case-control and cohort studies. Odds radio (OR) was calculated for each study outcome. Random effect model was used as pooling method and publication bias was estimated for the results. Results Fifty-two published studies that met criteria were selected. In case control studies, an association between C.pneumoniae infection and CV disease was revealed by serum specific IgG (OR, 1.61; 95% CI: 1.34 to 1.94), serum IgA (OR, 2.33; 95% CI: 1.76 to 3.08) and PCR technique of C.pneumoniae in peripheral blood cells (OR, 1.90; 95% CI: 1.17 to 3.07). No significant association was found in serum anti-C.pneumonae IgM seropositivity or in-situ-detection of C.pneumoniae in arterial biopsies with CV disease. Subgroup analysis by available studies suggested that C.pneumoniae may paly a role in atherosclerotic stroke, but be less significant in stroke of cardioembolism or other etiologies. Conclusion Association between C.pneumoniae infection and CV disease depends on the analytical method adopted, which seems stronger with stroke due to large artery atherosclerosis. Establishing a causal relationship between C.peumoniae infection and CV disease will require more prospective studies with combination of techniques and stratified by etiological subtypes. PMID:24261578

  10. Genetic transformation of a clinical (genital tract), plasmid-free isolate of Chlamydia trachomatis: engineering the plasmid as a cloning vector.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yibing; Kahane, Simona; Cutcliffe, Lesley T; Skilton, Rachel J; Lambden, Paul R; Persson, Kenneth; Bjartling, Carina; Clarke, Ian N

    2013-01-01

    Our study had three objectives: to extend the plasmid-based transformation protocol to a clinical isolate of C. trachomatis belonging to the trachoma biovar, to provide "proof of principle" that it is possible to "knock out" selected plasmid genes (retaining a replication competent plasmid) and to investigate the plasticity of the plasmid. A recently developed, plasmid-based transformation protocol for LGV isolates of C. trachomatis was modified and a plasmid-free, genital tract C. trachomatis isolate from Sweden (SWFP-) was genetically transformed. Transformation of this non-LGV C. trachomatis host required a centrifugation step, but the absence of the natural plasmid removed the need for plaque purification of transformants. Transformants expressed GFP, were penicillin resistant and iodine stain positive for accumulated glycogen. The transforming plasmid did not recombine with the host chromosome. A derivative of pGFP::SW2 carrying a deletion of the plasmid CDS5 gene was engineered. CDS5 encodes pgp3, a protein secreted from the inclusion into the cell cytoplasm. This plasmid (pCDS5KO) was used to transform C. trachomatis SWFP-, and established that pgp3 is dispensable for plasmid function. The work shows it is possible to selectively delete segments of the chlamydial plasmid, and this is the first step towards a detailed molecular dissection of the role of the plasmid. The 3.6 kb ?-galactosidase cassette was inserted into the deletion site of CDS5 to produce plasmid placZ-CDS5KO. Transformants were penicillin resistant, expressed GFP and stained for glycogen. In addition, they expressed ?-galactosidase showing that the lacZ cassette was functional in C. trachomatis. An assay was developed that allowed the visualisation of individual inclusions by X-gal staining. The ability to express active ?-galactosidase within chlamydial inclusions is an important advance as it allows simple, rapid assays to measure directly chlamydial infectivity without the need for plaquing, fluorescence or antibody staining. PMID:23527131

  11. Genital Warts

    PubMed Central

    Yanofsky, Valerie R.; Patel, Rita V.

    2012-01-01

    External genital warts, also known as condylomata acuminata, are extremely common, with between 500,000 to one million new cases diagnosed each year in the United States alone. To date, more than 120 distinct subtypes of human papillomavirus have been identified. Human papillomavirus types 6 and 11 rarely give rise to cervical cancers, but are responsible for 90 percent of the cases of genital warts. The current treatment options are largely centered upon removal of the warts rather than elimination of the underlying viral infection. A wide range of therapies are presently in use, which are highly variable and can differ dramatically with respect to cost, side-effect profiles, dosing schedules, duration of treatment, and overall effectiveness. As of yet, no definitive therapy has emerged as the ideal standard of care in the treatment of genital warts, and therapy selection generally occurs in a patient-specific manner. PMID:22768354

  12. Chlamydia trachomatis Infection and Anti-Hsp60 Immunity: The Two Sides of the Coin

    PubMed Central

    Cappello, Francesco; Conway de Macario, Everly; Di Felice, Valentina; Zummo, Giovanni; Macario, Alberto J. L.

    2009-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection is one of the most common causes of reproductive tract diseases and infertility. CT-Hsp60 is synthesized during infection and is released in the bloodstream. As a consequence, immune cells will produce anti-CT-Hsp60 antibodies. Hsp60, a ubiquitous and evolutionarily conserved chaperonin, is normally sequestered inside the cell, particularly into mitochondria. However, upon cell stress, as well as during carcinogenesis, the chaperonin becomes exposed on the cell surface (sf-Hsp60) and/or is secreted from cells into the extracellular space and circulation. Reports in the literature on circulating Hsp and anti-Hsp antibodies are in many cases short on details about Hsp60 concentrations, and about the specificity spectra of the antibodies, their titers, and their true, direct, pathogenetic effects. Thus, more studies are still needed to obtain a definitive picture on these matters. Nevertheless, the information already available indicates that the concurrence of persistent CT infection and appearance of sf-Hsp60 can promote an autoimmune aggression towards stressed cells and the development of diseases such as autoimmune arthritis, multiple sclerosis, atherosclerosis, vasculitis, diabetes, and thyroiditis, among others. At the same time, immunocomplexes composed of anti-CT-Hsp60 antibodies and circulating Hsp60 (both CT and human) may form deposits in several anatomical locations, e.g., at the glomerular basal membrane. The opposite side of the coin is that pre-tumor and tumor cells with sf-Hsp60 can be destroyed with participation of the anti-Hsp60 antibody, thus stopping cancer progression before it is even noticed by the patient or physician. PMID:19714222

  13. Chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, granuloma inguinale, genital herpes simplex infection, and molluscum contagiosum.

    PubMed

    Basta-Juzbaši?, Aleksandra; ?eovi?, Romana

    2014-01-01

    Chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, and granuloma inguinale may be considered as tropical venereal diseases. These diseases were a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in past centuries. Currently, patients with these bacterial infections that are endemic to the tropics occasionally consult with dermatologists in temperate climates. Due to the increasing frequency of travel to the tropics for tourism and work, as well as the increasing number of immigrants from these areas, it is important for dermatologists practicing in temperate climates to be familiar with the dermatologic manifestations of such infections, to be prepared to diagnose these diseases, and to treat these patients. All three "tropical" infections respond well to prompt and appropriate antimicrobial treatment, although herpes progenitalis still cannot be cured, and the number of people infected keeps growing; moreover, genital herpes can be transmitted by viral shedding before and after the visual signs or symptoms. Acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir can shorten outbreaks and make them less severe or even stop them from happening. There is currently no etiologic treatment for molluscum contagiosum, and the majority of treatment options are mechanical, causing a certain degree of discomfort. The molluscum contagiosum virus, unlike the other infectious agents mentioned, does not invade the skin. PMID:24559566

  14. Rapid screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infection by detecting ?-mannosidase activity in urogenital tract specimens

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chlamydia trachomatis may cause multiple different urogenital tract disorders, but current non-culture assays for rapid screening of C. trachomatis typically use immunochromatography-based methods. We established another new rapid non-culture method for detection of C. trachomatis based on the measurement of ?-mannosidase enzymatic activity in urogenital tract specimens. Method To evaluate the performance of this method, ?-mannosidase activities of C. trachomatis serotype D strain ? and 29 standard strains related to clinical urogenital pathogens were investigated. Furthermore, 553 urogenital tract specimens were used for clinical assays via cell culture method and ligase chain reaction method (LCR), adopting an expanded gold standard. Results Only C. trachomatis was positive for ?-mannosidase activity among different types of microbes tested in the research. When prostate fluid specimens, which have some interfering activity, were excluded, the sensitivity and specificity of the enzymatic method were 91.8% (78/85) and 98.3% (409/416), respectively. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05). Conclusions These results showed that ?-mannosidase activity could be utilised as a screening marker of C. trachomatis infection. PMID:23347393

  15. Lower genital tract infections in infertile Nigerian women compared with controls.

    PubMed Central

    Okonofua, F E; Ako-Nai, K A; Dighitoghi, M D

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the possibility that infertile Nigerian women have a higher rate of cervical colonisation with pathogenic and facultative organisms than fertile controls. DESIGN--The prevalence of common microorganisms in the vagina and endocervical canals of infertile women was compared with that of pregnant controls. SETTING--The Obafemi Awolowo University Hospital Maternity Centre. SUBJECTS--92 infertile women were compared with 86 pregnant controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--rates of isolation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Candida albicans, Trichomonas vaginalis and other facultative organisms in cases and controls. RESULTS--The rate of isolation of Neisseria gonorrheae was 17.4% among infertile women compared with 10.5% in the group of pregnant women (p > 0.05). There was no significant difference between the groups in the rate of isolation of Candida albicans, Trichomonas vaginalis and other facultative organisms. High rates of isolation of microorganisms were observed in both groups. However, women with secondary infertility had higher rate of carriage of Neisseria gonorrheae, Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus as compared with women with primary infertility. Nearly 15% of infertile women had previous episodes of pelvic inflammatory disease and 26% had had induced abortions. A positive history of vaginal discharge was a poor predictor of vagina and endocervical carriage of microorganisms. CONCLUSIONS--High rates of pathogenic organisms exist in the lower genital tract of infertile women and controls. Women with secondary infertility are more likely to have pathogenic organisms than women with primary infertility. A policy of routinely screening women for lower genital tract infections should be pursued in this population because of the high rate of infection. PMID:7635492

  16. Asymptomatic natural Chlamydia pecorum infection reduces growth rates in calves by up to 48 percent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intracellular Chlamydia (C.) bacteria cause in cattle some acute but rare diseases such as abortion, sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis, kerato-conjunctivitis, pneumonia, enteritis and polyarthritis. Much more frequent, essentially ubiquitous worldwide, are low-level, asymptomatic chlamydial infecti...

  17. The IL-6 response to Chlamydia from primary reproductive epithelial cells is highly variable and may be involved in differential susceptibility to the immunopathological consequences of chlamydial infection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chlamydia trachomatis infection results in reproductive damage in some women. The process and factors involved in this immunopathology are not well understood. This study aimed to investigate the role of primary human cellular responses to chlamydial stress response proteases and chlamydial infection to further identify the immune processes involved in serious disease sequelae. Results Laboratory cell cultures and primary human reproductive epithelial cultures produced IL-6 in response to chlamydial stress response proteases (CtHtrA and CtTsp), UV inactivated Chlamydia, and live Chlamydia. The magnitude of the IL-6 response varied considerably (up to 1000 pg ml-1) across different primary human reproductive cultures. Thus different levels of IL-6 production by reproductive epithelia may be a determinant in disease outcome. Interestingly, co-culture models with either THP-1 cells or autologous primary human PBMC generally resulted in increased levels of IL-6, except in the case of live Chlamydia where the level of IL-6 was decreased compared to the epithelial cell culture only, suggesting this pathway may be able to be modulated by live Chlamydia. PBMC responses to the stress response proteases (CtTsp and CtHtrA) did not significantly vary for the different participant cohorts. Therefore, these proteases may possess conserved innate PAMPs. MAP kinases appeared to be involved in this IL-6 induction from human cells. Finally, we also demonstrated that IL-6 was induced by these proteins and Chlamydia from mouse primary reproductive cell cultures (BALB/C mice) and mouse laboratory cell models. Conclusions We have demonstrated that IL-6 may be a key factor for the chlamydial disease outcome in humans, given that primary human reproductive epithelial cell culture showed considerable variation in IL-6 response to Chlamydia or chlamydial proteins, and that the presence of live Chlamydia (but not UV killed) during co-culture resulted in a reduced IL-6 response suggesting this response may be moderated by the presence of the organism. PMID:24238294

  18. The effects of chronic binge alcohol on the genital microenvironment of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected female rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Loganantharaj, Nisha; Nichols, Whitney A; Bagby, Gregory J; Volaufova, Julia; Dufour, Jason; Martin, David H; Nelson, Steve; Amedee, Angela M

    2014-08-01

    Alcohol abuse is a widespread problem among those at risk for and living with HIV and can impact transmission and disease progression. In this study we sought to use the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-macaque model to evaluate the immunological and virological changes in the genital microenvironment of females exposed to chronic alcohol. Female rhesus macaques were treated with alcohol (n=6) or isocaloric sucrose (n=6) for 3 months and then inoculated with SIVmac251. To assess the effects of chronic alcohol on SIV disease and the genital microenvironment, we quantified plasma and genital SIV levels, measured inflammatory cells in genital fluids, and characterized microbial flora by gram stains over 10 weeks post-SIV infection. Following 3 months of alcohol/sucrose treatment, significant differences were observed in the vaginal microenvironment of alcohol-treated animals as compared to controls. Microbial flora of alcohol-treated animals had decreased levels of lactobacillus morphotypes and increased levels of gram-positive cocci relative to sucrose controls. Alcohol-treated animals were also more likely to have white blood cells in vaginal fluids prior to SIV inoculation, which persisted through viral set point. Similar levels of cell-free SIV were observed in plasma and vaginal fluids of both groups, but alcohol-treated animals had a higher incidence and levels of cell-associated SIV shed in vaginal secretions. Chronic alcohol treatment negatively impacts the genital microenvironment prior to and over the course of SIV infection and may increase the risk of genital virus shedding and transmission. PMID:24902876

  19. Mucosal Herpes Immunity and Immunopathology to Ocular and Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Chentoufi, Aziz Alami; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2012-01-01

    Herpes simplex viruses type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are amongst the most common human infectious viral pathogens capable of causing serious clinical diseases at every stage of life, from fatal disseminated disease in newborns to cold sores genital ulcerations and blinding eye disease. Primary mucocutaneous infection with HSV-1 & HSV-2 is followed by a lifelong viral latency in the sensory ganglia. In the majority of cases, herpes infections are clinically asymptomatic. However, in symptomatic individuals, the latent HSV can spontaneously and frequently reactivate, reinfecting the muco-cutaneous surfaces and causing painful recurrent diseases. The innate and adaptive mucosal immunities to herpes infections and disease remain to be fully characterized. The understanding of innate and adaptive immune mechanisms operating at muco-cutaneous surfaces is fundamental to the design of next-generation herpes vaccines. In this paper, the phenotypic and functional properties of innate and adaptive mucosal immune cells, their role in antiherpes immunity, and immunopathology are reviewed. The progress and limitations in developing a safe and efficient mucosal herpes vaccine are discussed. PMID:23320014

  20. Higher incidence of persistent chronic infection of Chlamydia pneumoniae among coronary artery disease patients in India is a cause of concern

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hem C Jha; Harsh Vardhan; Rishein Gupta; Rakesh Varma; Jagdish Prasad; Aruna Mittal

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that Chlamydia pneumoniae may be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, as several studies have demonstrated the presence of the organism in atherosclerotic lesions. C. pneumoniae infections, which are especially persistent infections, have been difficult to diagnose either by serological methods or isolation of the organism from the tissue. Nucleic Acid Amplification tests (NAATs) has

  1. Cervical Epithelial Cells from Chlamydia trachomatis-Infected Sites Coexpress Higher Levels of Chlamydial Heat Shock Proteins 60 and 10 in Infertile Women than in Fertile Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajneesh Jha; Harsh Vardhan; Sylvette Bas; Sudha Salhan; Aruna Mittal

    2009-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: The objective of the present study was to examine the possible relationship between the chlamydial heat shock proteins (cHSP) 60 and 10 expression and the damaging sequelae of a Chlamydia trachomatis infection, such as infertility. Methods: Seven fertile and 7 infertile female patients infected with C. trachomatis attending the gynecology outpatient department of Safdarjung hospital (New Delhi, India) were

  2. Molecular characterisation and expression analysis of interferon gamma in response to natural Chlamydia infection in the koala, Phascolarctos cinereus.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Marina; Pavasovic, Ana; Prentis, Peter J; Beagley, Kenneth W; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2013-09-25

    Interferon gamma (IFN?) is a key Th1 cytokine, with a principal role in the immune response against intracellular organisms such as Chlamydia. Along with being responsible for significant morbidity in human populations, Chlamydia is also responsible for wide spread infection and disease in many animal hosts, with reports that many Australian koala subpopulations are endemically infected. An understanding of the role played by IFN? in koala chlamydial diseases is important for the establishment of better prophylactic and therapeutic approaches against chlamydial infection in this host. A limited number of IFN? sequences have been published from marsupials and no immune reagents to measure expression have been developed. Through preliminary analysis of the koala transcriptome, we have identified the full coding sequence of the koala IFN? gene. Transcripts were identified in spleen and lymph node tissue samples. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that koala IFN? is closely related to other marsupial IFN? sequences and more distantly related to eutherian mammals. To begin to characterise the role of this important cytokine in the koala's response to chlamydial infection, we developed a quantitative real time PCR assay and applied it to a small cohort of koalas with and without active chlamydial disease, revealing significant differences in expression patterns between the groups. Description of the IFN? sequence from the koala will not only assist in understanding this species' response to its most important pathogen but will also provide further insight into the evolution of the marsupial immune system. PMID:23792018

  3. High frequency of genital human papillomavirus infections and related cervical dysplasia in adolescent girls in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Merckx, Mireille; Benoy, Ina; Meys, Joris; Depuydt, Christophe; Temmerman, Marleen; Weyers, Steven; Vanden Broeck, Davy

    2014-07-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are causally related to cervical cancer and a range of other diseases, both in adults and in minors. Information on the frequency of genital HPV infections in adolescents is sparse. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the genotype-specific distribution of HPV genotypes in patients younger than 18 years of age. This observational retrospective study included 4807 samples of patients presenting for opportunistic screening in Belgium between June 2006 and January 2012. For statistical analysis, only the first visits of patients were withheld, reducing the sample to 4180. Samples were collected in liquid-based cytology medium and analyzed using a series of genotype-specific real-time PCR reactions. Cytology was read with previous knowledge of HPV infection and scored using the Bethesda classification. The mean age was 16.9 years. Most youngsters had no complaints (88.4%), were using hormonal contraception (79.5%), and clinical examination did not show any abnormalities (96.0%). The overall HPV frequency was 15.7%, with the most frequently found types being HPV16 (16.7%), HPV51 (14.6%), HPV66 (10.4%), HPV31 (9.9%), and HPV39 (9.1%). More than one-third (39.0%) of the infected girls harbored an infection with at least two HPV genotypes. Cytological abnormalities were found in 8.2% of samples. L-SIL (4.2%) was most frequently observed, followed by ASC-US (3.6%), HSIL (0.3%), and ASC-H (0.1%). The severity of lesions worsened with increasing age. Our findings indicate that an aberrant HPV genotype profile can be found in adolescent girls; moreover, this group shows a high rate of cervical abnormalities. PMID:24858715

  4. Adolescence and other risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis genitourinary infection in women in Melbourne, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Williams, H; Tabrizi, S; Lee, W; Kovacs, G; Garland, S

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To establish the prevalence of and risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis infection to determine the role of universal versus targeted testing. Methods: A prospective study of 1107 women attending two sexual and reproductive health clinics in Melbourne, Australia, was carried out. A questionnaire was used to establish risk factors. Urine samples were tested for C trachomatis by PCR. The main outcome measures were prevalence of and risk factors for C trachomatis infection. Results: Of 1107 recruitable women, 851 (76.9%) consented and were successfully tested. C trachomatis was detected in 18 (4.8% (95% CI 2.9 to 7.5)) of 373 women in the inner city and eight (1.7% (95% CI (0.7 to 3.3)) of 478 women in the suburban clinic. Of women under 25 years, 17 (6.2% (95% CI 3.7 to 9.8)) of 273 in the inner city in contrast with three (1.7% (95% CI 0.4 to 5.0)) of 174 in the suburban clinic were infected. In the inner city clinic, age under 25 years (OR 5.4 (95% CI 0.7 to 41.5)), vaginal discharge (OR 4.1 (95% CI 1.5 to 11.1)), and recent change of sexual partner (OR 4.6 (95% CI 1.6 to 12.9)) were associated with C trachomatis. In contrast, in the suburban clinic, only vaginal discharge (OR 3.5 (95% CI 0.9 to 14.3)) and recent change of sexual partner (OR 3.4 (95% CI 0.8 to 15.7)) were identified as risk factors. Multivariate analysis showed that recent change of partner (OR 4.5 (95% CI 1.5 to 13.8)) was the most strongly associated independent risk factor for infection in the inner city clinic. Conclusion: The high prevalence of C trachomatis indicates that universal testing should be undertaken in the inner city clinic. Young age may not be a risk factor for C trachomatis in more affluent populations with lower prevalence rates. No risk factors were identified with sufficient sensitivity and specificity to be useful for targeted testing. Prevalence and identifiable risk factors for C trachomatis are not transferable between populations, even in the same city. PMID:12576611

  5. Sexually Transmitted Infections and Male Circumcision: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Van Howe, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    The claim that circumcision reduces the risk of sexually transmitted infections has been repeated so frequently that many believe it is true. A systematic review and meta-analyses were performed on studies of genital discharge syndrome versus genital ulcerative disease, genital discharge syndrome, nonspecific urethritis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, genital ulcerative disease, chancroid, syphilis, herpes simplex virus, human papillomavirus, and contracting a sexually transmitted infection of any type. Chlamydia, gonorrhea, genital herpes, and human papillomavirus are not significantly impacted by circumcision. Syphilis showed mixed results with studies of prevalence suggesting intact men were at great risk and studies of incidence suggesting the opposite. Intact men appear to be of greater risk for genital ulcerative disease while at lower risk for genital discharge syndrome, nonspecific urethritis, genital warts, and the overall risk of any sexually transmitted infection. In studies of general populations, there is no clear or consistent positive impact of circumcision on the risk of individual sexually transmitted infections. Consequently, the prevention of sexually transmitted infections cannot rationally be interpreted as a benefit of circumcision, and any policy of circumcision for the general population to prevent sexually transmitted infections is not supported by the evidence in the medical literature. PMID:23710368

  6. A single infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae is sufficient to exacerbate atherosclerosis in ApoE deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Sorrentino, Rosalinda; Yilmaz, Atilla; Schubert, Katja; Crother, Timothy R; Pinto, Aldo; Shimada, Kenichi; Arditi, Moshe; Chen, Shuang

    2015-03-01

    Several studies have demonstrated a strong link between Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cp) infection and atherosclerosis progression/exacerbation. Here, we try to understand whether a single administration of Cp could exacerbate atherosclerosis. Apoe(-/-) mice were intranasally infected with Cp followed by a high fat diet. Mice were sacrificed at different time points after Cp infection to monitor the development of the atheroma. Cp infection increased lipid content in the aortic sinus of Apoe(-/-) mice starting from 8weeks. This was associated with increased numbers of active myeloid dendritic cells and plasmacytoid DCs which were co-localized with T-cells in the atherosclerotic plaque. The serum levels of IFN-? showed a Th1-like environment typical of atherosclerosis. In conclusion, we demonstrate that one dose of Cp could exacerbate atherosclerotic lesion development, triggering innate immune cell accumulation early on that allowed the involvement of Th1-like cells in the exacerbation of the atherosclerotic plaque at later time points. PMID:25666507

  7. Correlation between CD4 T cell Counts and Virus Compartmentalization in Genital and Systemic Compartments of HIV-infected Females

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Suman; Noel, Richard J.; Rodríguez, Nayra; Collado, Santiago; Munoz, Jhoanne; Kumar, Anil; Yamamura, Yashuhiro

    2011-01-01

    The majority of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) across the world occurs by heterosexual transmission and is likely mediated by virus present in genital secretions. In spite of this, infection is followed by clinical markers of the virus present in blood, which may not be representative of the virus involved in transmission. In fact, several studies have demonstrated that the genital tract represents a unique compartment for the virus. We assessed the relationship between immune system integrity, represented by CD4+ T cell counts, and the maintenance of viral compartmentalization between plasma and vaginal fluid virus in treatment naïve women from the Dominican Republic infected by the heterosexual transmission route. We cloned and sequenced cell free virus from plasma and genital fluid samples from six women to assess viral evolution, phylogenetic relatedness, and calculated co-receptor use for the C2V3 region of the envelope. Our analyses demonstrated plasma and vaginal fluid virus compartments remained intact only in samples from women with CD4+ T cell counts over 350 cells/?1 majority of viral forms were predicted to use the CCR5 co-receptor, although several dual tropic forms were also identified. None of the clones were found to use the CXCR4 co-receptor even though many of the patients showed severe disease. Our findings lend further support to the role of an intact immune system in maintaining compartmentalization across blood and genital quasispecies and provide a compelling rationale to specifically consider genital tract viral forms in therapeutic and vaccine research. PMID:21745672

  8. Virus-specific antibodies in sera from patients with genital herpes simplex virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Zweerink, H J; Corey, L

    1982-01-01

    Virus-specific antibodies against a number of herpes simplex virus type 2 antigens were determined by radioimmunoprecipitation assays in sequential serum samples obtained from 12 patients with initial genital herpes simplex virus infection. The progressive appearance of antibodies to virus-specific antigens was observed; antibodies against a 130,000-molecular-weight glycoprotein complex appeared first, followed by antibodies against the major nucleocapsid polypeptide and then antibodies against a number of other viral antigens, including a polypeptide with a molecular weight of 62,000. Patients who developed a wide variety of antibodies to viral polypeptides shortly after resolution of their initial episode seemed to experience more severe initial infections and more recurrences than did those who reacted poorly with these virus-specific antigens. This was most apparent with respect to antibodies to virus-specific polypeptides with molecular weights between 30,000 and 43,000. Antibody specificity did not change during the course of follow-up regardless of whether serum samples were taken shortly before, during, or after recurrent episodes. Glycoprotein-specific antibodies were quantitated with the purified 130,000-molecular-weight glycoprotein material. No significant fluctuations in these antibody titers were observed before or after recurrences of the disease. Images PMID:7118244

  9. Screening guidelines for Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Evaluating physician awareness, agreement, and use.

    PubMed Central

    Weyman, K.; Lanning, A. R.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether physicians were aware of, agreed with, and followed the "1989 Canadian Guidelines for Screening for Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection "as they applied to screening asymptomatic women. DESIGN. A survey consisting of direct questions and case scenarios was scored according to the responses given in the guidelines. SETTING. Six hospital family practice teaching units in downtown Toronto. PARTICIPANTS. Of 153 staff physicians and residents surveyed (all staff and residents registered with the Department of Family and Community Medicine of the University of Toronto for the 1990-1991 academic year), a volunteer sample of 118 responded to a questionnaire through the mail. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES. Reported awareness, agreement, and use of C trachomatis guidelines for screening asymptomatic women were analyzed using frequency distributions and cross-tabulations. RESULTS. Most (69%) respondents were unaware of the guidelines. Of those who were aware, 46% agreed with the guidelines and 39% claimed to follow the guidelines. Staff physicians appeared to be more aware of guidelines than family medicine residents (P = 0.0175, psi 2 = 11.98); P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. There was no statistically significant association between total scores and physicians' reported awareness of guidelines (P = 0.2287, psi 2 = 4.321). CONCLUSIONS. Most physicians in the sample were unaware of the guidelines. Of physicians who reported awareness of the guidelines, less than half agreed with or routinely followed them. Better methods of influencing physician behaviour must be developed before more guidelines are designed and distributed. PMID:7734996

  10. Characterizing the Intracellular Distribution of Metabolites in Intact Chlamydia-Infected Cells by Raman and Two-Photon Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Szaszák, Márta; Chang, Jiun Chiun; Leng, Weinan; Rupp, Jan; Ojcius, David M.; Kelley, Anne Myers

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydiaspecies are obligate intracellular pathogens that proliferate only within infected cells. Currently, there are no known techniques or systems that can probe the spatial distribution of metabolites of interest within intact Chlamydia-infected cells. Here we investigate the ability of Raman microscopy to probe the chemical composition of different compartments (nucleus, inclusion, and cytoplasm) of C. trachomatis-infected epithelial cells. The overall intensity of the Raman spectrum is greatest in the inclusions and lowest in the cytoplasm in fixed cells. Difference spectra generated by normalizing to the intensity of the strong 1004 cm?1 phenylalanine line show distinct differences among the three compartments. Most notably, the concentrations of adenine are greater in both the inclusions and the nucleus than in the cytoplasm, as seen by Raman microscopy. The source of the adenine was explored through a complementary approach, using two-photon microscopy imaging. Autofluorescence measurements of living, infected cells show that the adenine-containing molecules, NAD(P)H and FAD, are present mainly in the cytoplasm, suggesting that these molecules are not the source of the additional adenine signal in the nucleus and inclusions. Experiments of infected cells stained with a DNA-binding dye, Hoechst 33258, reveal that most of the DNA is present in the nucleus and the inclusions, suggesting that DNA/RNA is the main source of the additional Raman adenine signal in the nucleus and inclusions. Thus, Raman and two-photon microscopy are among the few non-invasive methods available to investigate cells infected with Chlamydia and, together, should also be useful for studying infection by other intracellular pathogens that survive within intracellular vacuoles. PMID:23541981

  11. Correlates of HIV-1 Genital Shedding in Tanzanian Women

    PubMed Central

    Tanton, Clare; Weiss, Helen A.; Le Goff, Jerome; Changalucha, John; Rusizoka, Mary; Baisley, Kathy; Everett, Dean; Ross, David A.; Belec, Laurent; Hayes, Richard J.; Watson-Jones, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Background Understanding the correlates of HIV shedding is important to inform strategies to reduce HIV infectiousness. We examined correlates of genital HIV-1 RNA in women who were seropositive for both herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 and HIV-1 and who were enrolled in a randomised controlled trial of HSV suppressive therapy (aciclovir 400 mg b.i.d vs. placebo) in Tanzania. Methodology Samples, including a cervico-vaginal lavage, were collected and tested for genital HIV-1 and HSV and reproductive tract infections (RTIs) at randomisation and 6, 12 and 24 months follow-up. Data from all women at randomisation and women in the placebo arm during follow-up were analysed using generalised estimating equations to determine the correlates of cervico-vaginal HIV-1 RNA detection and load. Principal Findings Cervico-vaginal HIV-1 RNA was detected at 52.0% of 971 visits among 482 women, and was independently associated with plasma viral load, presence of genital ulcers, pregnancy, bloody cervical or vaginal discharge, abnormal vaginal discharge, cervical ectopy, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, an intermediate bacterial vaginosis score and HSV DNA detection. Similar factors were associated with genital HIV-1 RNA load. Conclusions RTIs were associated with increased presence and quantity of genital HIV-1 RNA in this population. These results highlight the importance of integrating effective RTI treatment into HIV care services. PMID:21390251

  12. Roles of bovine Waddlia chondrophila and Chlamydia trachomatis in human preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Baud, D.; Goy, G.; Vasilevsky, S.; Osterheld, M.-C.; Roth-Kleiner, M.; Croxatto, A.; Greub, G.

    2014-01-01

    Waddlia chondrophila and Chlamydia trachomatis are intracellular bacteria associated with human miscarriage. We investigated their role in human preterm birth. Whereas presence of Chlamydia trachomatis DNA in genital tract was associated with human preterm birth, Waddlia was not, despite being present in women's genital tracts. PMID:25755892

  13. Comparison of Lower Genital Tract Microbiota in HIV-Infected and Uninfected Women from Rwanda and the US

    PubMed Central

    Benning, Lorie; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Anastos, Kathryn; French, Audrey L.; Cohen, Mardge; Gilbert, Douglas; Gillevet, Patrick; Munyazesa, Elisaphane; Landay, Alan L.; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Spear, Gregory T.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have shown that alterations of the bacterial microbiota in the lower female genital tract influence susceptibility to HIV infection and shedding. We assessed geographic differences in types of genital microbiota between HIV-infected and uninfected women from Rwanda and the United States. Methods Genera of lower genital tract bacterial microbiota were identified by high-throughput pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene from 46 US women (36 HIV-infected, 10 HIV-uninfected) and 40 Rwandan women (18 HIV-infected, 22 HIV-uninfected) with similar proportions of low (0–3) Nugent scores. Species of Lactobacillus were identified by assembling sequences along with reference sequences into phylogenetic trees. Prevalence of genera and Lactobacillus species were compared using Fisher's exact tests. Results Overall the seven most prevalent genera were Lactobacillus (74%), Prevotella (56%), Gardnerella (55%), Atopobium (42%), Sneathia (37%), Megasphaera (30%), and Parvimonas (26%), observed at similar prevalences comparing Rwandan to US women, except for Megasphaera (20% vs. 39%, p?=?0.06). Additionally, Rwandan women had higher frequencies of Mycoplasma (23% vs. 7%, p?=?0.06) and Eggerthella (13% vs. 0%, p?=?0.02), and lower frequencies of Lachnobacterium (8% vs. 35%, p<0.01) and Allisonella (5% vs. 30%, p<0.01), compared with US women. The prevalence of Mycoplasma was highest (p<0.05) in HIV-infected Rwandan women (39%), compared to HIV-infected US women (6%), HIV-uninfected Rwandan (9%) and US (10%) women. The most prevalent lactobacillus species in both Rwandan and US women was L. iners (58% vs. 76%, p?=?0.11), followed by L. crispatus (28% vs. 30%, p?=?0.82), L. jensenii (20% vs. 24%, p?=?0.80), L. gasseri (20% vs. 11%, p?=?0.37) and L. vaginalis (20% vs. 7%, p?=?0.10). Discussion We found similar prevalence of most major bacterial genera and Lactobacillus species in Rwandan and US women. Further work will be needed to establish whether observed differences differentially impact lower genital tract health or susceptibility to genital infections. PMID:24817204

  14. [Structural changes of the adrenal cortex in experimental genital herpes virus infection].

    PubMed

    Borovaia, T G; Shevliagina, N V; Ivanova, A M; Narovlianski?, A N; Kalmykova, N V; Tret'iakov, O Iu; Didenko, L V

    2013-01-01

    The reactive changes in the adrenal gland cortex were studied in mature female guinea pigs (n=5) in an experimental model of acute genital herpes virus infection. The methods of light and transmission electron microscopy were used. To confirm the presence of viral antigen in the corticosterocytes (CSC), the methods of immunfluorescence and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry were used. It was shown that at day 7 of an acute process, focal CSC reactive changes appeared in the glomerular zone - at the light microscopic level, CSC had intact nuclei and optically empty cytoplasm, while at the electron microscopic level, these CSC demonstrated the damaged membranous organelles, and various membranous structures which were not found in the normal cells. The aggregates of hypertrophied CSC were found in the fasciculate zone. The changes described were reversible, as they practically disappeared by the onset of spontaneous recovery (day 21 after inoculation). The regeneration of CSC of glomerular and fasciculate zones of the adrenal cortex involves both intracellular and cellular mechanisms. PMID:24707741

  15. Chlamydia trachomatis infection rates among a cohort of mobile soldiers stationed at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, 2005–2010

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fort Bragg, a large Army installation with reported high Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) infection rates, is characterized by a highly mobile population and a surrounding Ct-endemic community. We assessed the rates of Ct incidence and recurrence among the installation’s active component Army personnel and determined the association of soldier transience, sociodemographic factors, and history of sexually transmitted infection (STI) with these rates. Methods A cohort of soldiers stationed at Fort Bragg during 2005 to mid-2010 was followed for incident and recurrent Ct infection using laboratory-confirmed reportable disease data. Linkage to demographic and administrative data permitted multivariate analysis to determine association of covariates with initial or recurrent infection. Results Among 67,425 soldiers, 2,198 (3.3%) contracted an incident Ct infection (crude incidence, 21.7 per 1,000 person-years). Among soldiers followed for incident infection, 223 (10.6%, crude incidence 110.8 per 1,000 person-years) contracted a recurrent Ct infection. Being female, of lower rank, under 26 years of age, of non-white race, single, or with a high school diploma or less was significantly associated with incident Ct infection. Having breaks in duty or having deployments during follow-up was associated with a lower infection rate. Among women, having prior deployments was associated with a lower rate of both incident and recurrent infection. Specifically associated with recurrent infection in women was age under 21 years or no education beyond high school. Conclusions This analysis reaffirms risk factors for Ct infection determined in other studies. In addition, infection risk was lower for more mobile soldiers and tied to the specific location of their regular duty assignment. The findings support the STI prevention efforts at Fort Bragg and the surrounding community, regardless of how often or for how long soldiers have deployed for military operations. PMID:24552420

  16. Effects of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Glycoprotein Vaccines and CLDC Adjuvant on Genital Herpes Infection in the Guinea Pig

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, David I; Earwood, Julie D.; Bravo, Fernando J.; Cohen, Gary H; Eisenberg, Roselyn J; Clark, Jennifer R.; Fairman, Jeffrey; Cardin, Rhonda D.

    2011-01-01

    Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are common but results from vaccine trials with HSV-2 glycoprotein D (gD) have been disappointing. We therefore compared a similar HSV gD2 vaccine, to a further truncated gD2 vaccine, to a vaccine with gD2 plus gB2 and gH2/gL2 and to a vaccine with only gB2 and gH2/gL2 in a guinea pig model of genital herpes. All vaccines were administered with cationic liposome-DNA complexes (CLDC) as an adjuvant. All vaccines significantly decreased the severity of acute genital disease and vaginal virus replication compared to the placebo group. The majority of animals in all groups developed at least one episode of recurrent disease but the frequency of recurrent disease was significantly reduced by each vaccine compared to placebo. No vaccine was significantly more protective than gD2 alone for any of the parameters described above. No vaccine decreased recurrent virus shedding. When protection against acute infection of dorsal root ganglia and the spinal cord was evaluated all vaccines decreased the per cent of animal with detectable virus and the quantity of virus but again no vaccine was significantly more protective than another. Improvements in HSV-2 vaccines may require inclusion of more T cell targets, more potent adjuvants or live virus vaccines. PMID:21238569

  17. Infection and Cardiovascular Disease

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2005-06-23

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Heart Diseases; Myocardial Infarction; Infection; Chlamydia Infections; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Helicobacter Infections; Atherosclerosis

  18. Frequency and risk factors for incident and redetected Chlamydia trachomatis infection in sexually active, young, multi-ethnic women: a community based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Aghaizu, Adamma; Reid, Fiona; Kerry, Sally; Hay, Phillip E; Mallinson, Harry; Jensen, Jorgen S; Kerry, Sarah; Kerry, Sheila; Oakeshott, Pippa

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the frequency and risk factors for incident and redetected Chlamydia trachomatis infection in sexually active, young, multi-ethnic women in the community. Design Cohort study. Setting 20 London universities and Further Education colleges. Participants 954 sexually experienced women, mean age 21.5?years (range 16–27), 26% from ethnic minorities, who were recruited to the Prevention of Pelvic Infection (POPI) chlamydia screening trial between 2004 and 2006, and returned repeat postal self-taken vaginal swabs 11–32 (median 16) months after recruitment. Results The estimated annual incidence of chlamydia infection among 907 women who tested negative at baseline was 3.4 per 100 person-years (95% CI 2.5 to 4.6 per 100 person-years), but 6.6 per 100 person-years (95% CI 4.5 to 9.3 per 100 person-years) in the 326 teenagers (<20?years). Predictors of incident chlamydia infection were age <20?years (relative risk (RR) 4.0, 95% CI 2.1 to 7.5), and (after adjusting for age) a new sexual partner during 12?months follow-up (RR 4.4, 95% CI 2.0 to 9.9), smoking (RR 2.2 95% CI 1.2 to 3.9), concurrent bacterial vaginosis (RR 2.0 95% CI 1.1 to 3.9) and high risk carcinogenic human papillomavirus (RR 2.2, 95% CI 1.1 to 4.3). Of 47 women positive for chlamydia at baseline, 12 (25.5%, 95% CI 13.9% to 40.3%) had redetected infection at a median of 16?months follow-up. Taking into account follow-up time (65 person-years), the annual redetection rate was 18.5 per 100 person-years (95% CI 9.9 to 30.0 per 100 person-years). Conclusions One in four women with chlamydia infection at baseline retested positive, supporting recent recommendations to routinely retest chlamydia positives. PMID:25100744

  19. Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection Promotes Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Migration through a Toll-Like Receptor 2-Related Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Beibei; Zhang, Tengteng; Wang, Haiwei; Zhang, Junxia; Wei, Junyan; Shen, Bingling; Liu, Xin; Xu, Zhelong; Zhang, Lijun

    2013-01-01

    The migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from the media to the intima is proposed to be a key event in the development of atherosclerosis. Recently, we reported that Chlamydia pneumoniae infection is involved in VSMC migration. However, the exact mechanisms for C. pneumoniae infection-induced VSMC migration are not yet well elucidated. In this study, we examined the role of the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) activation-related signaling pathway in VSMC migration induced by C. pneumoniae infection. An Affymetrix-based gene expression array was conducted to identify the changes of gene expression in rat primary VSMCs (rVSMCs) infected with C. pneumoniae. Both the microarray analysis and quantitative real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR revealed that TLR2 mRNA expression was strongly upregulated 12 h after C. pneumoniae infection. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis further showed that the expression levels of TLR2 mRNA and protein significantly increased at the different time points after infection. Immunocytochemical analysis suggested a TLR2 recruitment to the vicinity of C. pneumoniae inclusions. Cell migration assays showed that the TLR2-neutralizing antibody could significantly inhibit C. pneumoniae infection-induced rVSMC migration. In addition, C. pneumoniae infection stimulated Akt phosphorylation at Ser 473, which was obviously suppressed by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002, thereby inhibiting rVSMC migration caused by C. pneumoniae infection. Furthermore, both the infection-induced Akt phosphorylation and rVSMC migration were suppressed by the TLR2-neutralizing antibody. Taken together, these data suggest that C. pneumoniae infection can promote VSMC migration possibly through the TLR2-related signaling pathway. PMID:24082081

  20. Infection, Disease, and Transmission Dynamics in Calves after Experimental and Natural Challenge with a Bovine Chlamydia psittaci Isolate

    PubMed Central

    Ostermann, Carola; Rüttger, Anke; Schubert, Evelyn; Schrödl, Wieland; Sachse, Konrad; Reinhold, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia (C.) psittaci is the causative agent of psittacosis, a zoonotic disease in birds and man. In addition, C. psittaci has been repeatedly found in domestic animals and is, at least in calves, also able to induce respiratory disease. Knowledge about transmission routes in cattle herds is still deficient, and nothing is known about differences in host response after either experimental or natural exposure to C. psittaci. Therefore, our recently developed respiratory infection model was exploited to evaluate (i) the presence of the pathogen in blood, excretions and air, (ii) the possibility of transmission and (iii) clinical symptoms, acute phase and immune response until 5 weeks after exposure. In this prospective study, intrabronchial inoculation of 108 inclusion-forming units of C. psittaci (n?=?21 calves) led to reproducible acute respiratory illness (of approximately one week), accompanied by a systemic inflammatory reaction with an innate immune response dominated by neutrophils. Excretion and/or exhalation of the pathogen was sufficient to transmit the infection to naïve sentinel calves (n?=?3) co-housed with the infected animals. Sentinel calves developed mild to subclinical infections only. Notably, excretion of the pathogen, predominantly via feces, occurred more frequently in animals naturally exposed to C. psittaci (i.e. sentinels) as compared to experimentally-inoculated calves. The humoral immune response was generally weak, and did not emerge regularly following experimental infection; however, it was largely absent after naturally acquired infection. PMID:23691148

  1. Sexually transmitted diseases and Chlamydia trachomatis in women consulting for contraception.

    PubMed Central

    Avonts, D; Sercu, M; Heyerick, P; Vandermeeren, I; Piot, P

    1989-01-01

    To study the frequency of genital infections in women consulting their family doctor for contraception, 248 women (median age 23 years) were examined for a range of genital microorganisms. The prevalence of clue cells, Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis were 21.0%, 12.9% and 2.0%, respectively. Neisseria gonorrhoeae was isolated in only one case, whereas Chlamydia trachomatis was found in 6.3% of women. A specific clinical picture for an infection with C. trachomatis in women was not seen. Given the prevalence of over 5% for C. trachomatis and the absence of typical signs and symptoms in infected women, screening for this organism is recommended in women requesting an intrauterine contraceptive device, to prevent complications such as pelvic inflammatory disease and their sequelae. PMID:2560023

  2. Recombinant outer membrane vesicles carrying Chlamydia muridarum HtrA induce antibodies that neutralize chlamydial infection in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Bartolini, Erika; Ianni, Elvira; Frigimelica, Elisabetta; Petracca, Roberto; Galli, Giuliano; Berlanda Scorza, Francesco; Norais, Nathalie; Laera, Donatello; Giusti, Fabiola; Pierleoni, Andrea; Donati, Manuela; Cevenini, Roberto; Finco, Oretta; Grandi, Guido; Grifantini, Renata

    2013-01-01

    Background Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are spheroid particles released by all Gram-negative bacteria as a result of the budding out of the outer membrane. Since they carry many of the bacterial surface-associated proteins and feature a potent built-in adjuvanticity, OMVs are being utilized as vaccines, some of which commercially available. Recently, methods for manipulating the protein content of OMVs have been proposed, thus making OMVs a promising platform for recombinant, multivalent vaccines development. Methods Chlamydia muridarum DO serine protease HtrA, an antigen which stimulates strong humoral and cellular responses in mice and humans, was expressed in Escherichia coli fused to the OmpA leader sequence to deliver it to the OMV compartment. Purified OMVs carrying HtrA (CM rHtrA-OMV) were analyzed for their capacity to induce antibodies capable of neutralizing Chlamydia infection of LLC-MK2 cells in vitro. Results CM rHtrA-OMV immunization in mice induced antibodies that neutralize Chlamydial invasion as judged by an in vitro infectivity assay. This was remarkably different from what observed with an enzymatically functional recombinant HtrA expressed in, and purified from the E. coli cytoplasm (CM rHtrA). The difference in functionality between anti-CM rHtrA and anti-CM rHtrA-OMV antibodies was associated to a different pattern of protein epitopes recognition. The epitope recognition profile of anti-CM HtrA-OMV antibodies was similar to that induced in mice during Chlamydial infection. Conclusions When expressed in OMVs HtrA appears to assume a conformation similar to the native one and this results in the elicitation of functional immune responses. These data further support the potentiality of OMVs as vaccine platform. PMID:24009891

  3. Evaluation of sexual history-based screening of anatomic sites for chlamydia trachomatis and neisseria gonorrhoeae infection in men having sex with men in routine practice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening programmes are implemented in many countries to decrease burden of STI and to improve sexual health. Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae has a prominent role in these protocols. Most of the screening programmes concerning men having sex with men (MSM) are based on opportunistic urethral testing. In The Netherlands, a history-based approach is used. The aim of this study is to evaluate the protocol of screening anatomic sites for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae infection based on sexual history in MSM in routine practice in The Netherlands. Methods All MSM visiting the clinic for STI in The Hague are routinely asked about their sexual practice during consulting. As per protocol, tests for urogenital, oropharyngeal and anorectal infection are obtained based on reported site(s) of sexual contact. All consultations are entered into a database as part of the national STI monitoring system. Data of an 18 months period were retrieved from this database and analysed. Results A total of 1455 consultations in MSM were registered during the study period. The prevalence of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae per anatomic site was: urethral infection 4.0% respectively and 2.8%, oropharynx 1.5% and 4.2%, and anorectum 8.2% and 6.0%. The majority of chlamydia cases (72%) involved a single anatomic site, which was especially manifest for anorectal infections (79%), while 42% of gonorrhoea cases were single site. Twenty-six percent of MSM with anorectal chlamydia and 17% with anorectal gonorrhoea reported symptoms of proctitis; none of the oropharyngeal infections were symptomatic. Most cases of anorectal infection (83%) and oropharyngeal infection (100%) would have remained undiagnosed with a symptom-based protocol. Conclusions The current strategy of sexual-history based screening of multiple anatomic sites for chlamydia and gonorrhoea in MSM is a useful and valid guideline which is to be preferred over a symptom-based screening protocol. PMID:21791061

  4. The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among Saudi women attending the infertility clinic in Central Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alfarraj, Dunia A.; Somily, Ali M.; Alssum, Rasheed M.; Abotalib, Zeinab M.; El-Sayed, Amal A.; Al-Mandeel, Hazim H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) infection among Saudi women, its clinical presentation, and its association to infertility. Methods: This study was conducted between October 2012 and July 2013 at King Khalid University Hospital and King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Female patients aged between 19 and 46 years old with infertility problems seen at both hospitals were recruited to join the study. A separate group of female patients without infertility problems was also recruited from both hospitals to serve as controls for the study. Endocervical swabs were collected from both groups of patients, and samples were analyzed using real time polymerase chain reaction. Results: There was a statistically significantly greater prevalence of C. trachomatis infection in infertile women (n=8, 8.0%) compared with the fertile group of women (n=1, 1.0%). The C. trachomatis infection was significantly correlated to infertility. Conclusion: A significant association between infertility and increased prevalence of C. trachomatis infection is shown in this study, thus, we suggest that screening for Chlamydial infection to be part of the routine investigation for infertility. PMID:25630006

  5. Chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infection may promote coronary artery disease in humans through enhancing secretion of interleukin-4

    PubMed Central

    Clancy, R; Ren, Z; Pang, G; Fletcher, P; D'Este, C

    2006-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory response, probably to a range of initiating causes. Chronic infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae (C.pn) has been suggested as one cause, but the nature of the association is controversial, in large part due to lack of an identified mechanism to link infection with the atherosclerotic process in man. This study examined 139 consecutive subjects with stable chest pain, with the aim of correlating the serological status of C.pn infection with the pattern of secretion of cytokines from CD4+ T lymphocytes. C.pn seropositive subjects secreted significantly more interleukin (IL)-4 than did those who were C.pn seronegative (P = 0·02). No significant difference was noted for secreted interferon (IFN)-?. The amount of secreted IL-4, but not of secreted IFN-?, correlated positively with the extent of coronary artery disease (P = 0·006). A similar correlation with secreted IL-4 was not identified with Helicobacter pylori infection. These results support the hypothesis that C.pn infection contributes to the inflammatory process responsible for coronary artery atherosclerosis. The method used to detect cytokine secretion involves ligation of CD40L on blood CD4+ T cells, which may have relevance to tissue events. PMID:17034570

  6. Diagnostic efficacy of a real time-PCR assay for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in infertile women in north India

    PubMed Central

    Dhawan, Benu; Rawre, Jyoti; Ghosh, Arnab; Malhotra, Neena; Ahmed, Mir Muneer; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Chaudhry, Rama

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Little is known about the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Indian women with infertility. To improve the diagnosis of C. trachomatis infection in developing countries, there is an urgent need to establish cost-effective molecular test with high sensitivity and specificity. This study was conducted to determine the diagnostic utility of a real time-PCR assay for detention of C. trachomatis infection in infertile women attending an infertility clinic in north India. The in house real time-PCR assay was also compared with a commercial real-time PCR based detection system. Method: Endocervical swabs, collected from 200 infertile women were tested for C. trachomatis by three different PCR assays viz. in-house real time-PCR targeting the cryptic plasmid using published primers, along with omp1 gene and cryptic plasmid based conventional PCR assays. Specimens were also subjected to direct fluorescence assay (DFA) and enzyme immunoassay (EIA) Performance of in-house real time-PCR was compared with that of COBAS Taqman C. trachomatis Test, version 2.0 on all in-house real time-PCR positive sample and 30 consecutive negative samples. Results: C. trachomatis infection was found in 13.5 per cent (27/200) infertile women by in-house real time-PCR, 11.5 per cent (23/200) by cryptic plasmid and/or omp1 gene based conventional PCR, 9 per cent (18/200) by DFA and 6.5 per cent (7/200) by EIA. The in-house real time-PCR exhibited a sensitivity and specificity of 100 per cent, considering COBAS Taqman CT Test as the gold standard. The negative and positive predictive values of the in-house real time-PCR were 100 per cent. The in-house real time-PCR could detect as low as 10 copies of C. trachomatis DNA per reaction. Interpretation & conclusions: In-house real time-PCR targeting the cryptic plasmid of C. trachomatis exhibited an excellent sensitivity and specificity similar to that of COBAS Taqman CT Test, v2.0 for detection of C. trachomatis infection in women attending an infertility clinic. In an effort to prevent Chlamydia infection associated infertility, we recommend screening of women with infertility due to C. trachomatis infection by in-house molecular method as a cost-effective solution in resource limited settings. PMID:25297359

  7. Transcriptional Profiling of Human Epithelial Cells Infected with Plasmid-Bearing and Plasmid-Deficient Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, John H.; Sturdevant, Daniel E.; Sturdevant, Gail L.; Kanakabandi, Kishore; Virtaneva, Kimmo; Wilder, Hannah; Whitmire, William M.; Caldwell, Harlan D.

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular epitheliotropic bacterial pathogen of humans. Infection of the eye can result in trachoma, the leading cause of preventable blindness in the world. The pathophysiology of blinding trachoma is driven by multiple episodes of reinfection of conjunctival epithelial cells, producing an intense chronic inflammatory response resulting in submucosal tissue remodeling and scarring. Recent reports have shown that infection with trachoma organisms lacking the cryptic chlamydial plasmid is highly attenuated in macaque eyes, a relevant experimental model of human trachoma infection. To better understand the molecular basis of plasmid-mediated infection attenuation and the potential modulation of host immunity, we conducted transcriptional profiling of human epithelial cells infected with C. trachomatis plasmid-bearing (A2497) and plasmid-deficient (A2497P?) organisms. Infection of human epithelial cells with either strain increased the expression of host genes coding for proinflammatory (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF], macrophage colony-stimulating factor [MCSF], interleukin-6 [IL-6], IL-8, IL-1?, CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 [ICAM1]), chemoattraction (CCL20, CCL5, CXCL10), immune suppression (PD-L1, NFKB1B, TNFAIP3, CGB), apoptosis (CASP9, FAS, IL-24), and cell growth and fibrosis (EGR1 and IL-20) proteins. Statistically significant increases in the levels of expression of many of these genes were found in A2497-infected cells compared to the levels of expression in A2497P?-infected cells. Our findings suggest that the chlamydial plasmid plays a focal role in the host cell inflammatory response to infection and immune avoidance. These results provide new insights into the role of the chlamydial plasmid as a chlamydial virulence factor and its contributions to trachoma pathogenesis. PMID:25404022

  8. Lipid Composition of the Hemagglutinating Active Fraction Obtained from Chick Embryos Infected with Chlamydia psittaci 6BC

    PubMed Central

    Jenkin, Howard M.; Makino, Shigeru; Townsend, DeWayne; Riera, Maria C.; Barron, Almen L.

    1970-01-01

    The lipid composition of the concentrated hemagglutininating active fraction (HF) of allantoic fluid from infected eggs, but free from Chlamydia psittaci 6BC, was compared to concentrated normal allantoic fluid (NAF). Phosphatidyl-choline (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine were the major lipid classes of the total phospholipid fraction. Some quantitative differences were found in the amount of PC and phosphatidylserine present in HF and NAF. Lysophosphatidylcholine was present in HF but absent in NAF. Triglycerides and sterols were the major lipid classes found in neutral lipids of HF and NAF. Quantitative data showed distinct differences in the amount of different neutral lipid classes present between HF and NAF. The fatty acids of various classes of lipids were examined, and differences were noted in a number of phospholipids, sterol esters, and the free fatty acids. Branched-chain saturated fatty acids were found in many lipid classes of the HF, particularly in the phosphatidylethanolamine fraction, but were absent in the NAF. PMID:16557838

  9. Recent advances in understanding the biology, epidemiology and control of chlamydial infections in koalas.

    PubMed

    Polkinghorne, Adam; Hanger, Jon; Timms, Peter

    2013-08-30

    The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) is recognised as a threatened wildlife species in various parts of Australia. A major contributing factor to the decline and long-term viability of affected populations is disease caused by the obligate intracellular bacteria, Chlamydia. Two chlamydial species infect the koala, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia pneumoniae, and have been reported in nearly all mainland koala populations. Chlamydial infections of koalas are associated with ocular infections leading to blindness and genital tract infections linked to infertility, among other serious clinical manifestations. Diagnosis can be based on clinical presentation alone, however, it is complicated by the observation that many koala chlamydial infections occur with no overt signs of clinical disease. Instead, accurate diagnosis requires detailed clinical assessment and confirmatory testing by a range of PCR-based assays. Antibiotic treatment for koala chlamydial infection is possible, however, results on its success are mixed. A more practical solution for the protection of diseased populations is the application of a koala Chlamydia vaccine, with recent trials indicating promising results. Interestingly, molecular epidemiology studies of koala C. pecorum infections and recent comparative genomic analyses of koala C. pneumoniae have revealed potential differences in their origin that will have wider ramifications for our understanding of human chlamydial infections and host adaptation of the chlamydiae. This review summarises changes to the taxonomy of koala chlamydial infections and recent advances in our understanding of the epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, control and evolution of Chlamydia infections in this iconic wildlife species. PMID:23523170

  10. Cutaneous human papillomavirus types detected on the surface of male external genital lesions: A case series within the HPV Infection in Men Study

    PubMed Central

    Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Messina, Jane L.; Stoler, Mark H.; Jukic, Drazen M.; Tommasino, Massimo; Gheit, Tarik; Rollison, Dana E.; Sichero, Laura; Sirak, Bradley A.; Ingles, Donna J.; Abrahamsen, Martha; Lu, Beibei; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPVs) may be associated with cutaneous epithelial lesions and non-melanoma skin cancers. No study has systematically evaluated the presence of genus beta [?]-HPV in male genital skin or external genital lesions (EGLs). Objectives To examine cutaneous ?-HPV types detected on the surface of EGLs in men and describe their presence prior to EGL development. Study design A retrospective case series was conducted among 69 men with pathologically confirmed EGLs (n=72) who participated in the HPV Infection in Men Study. Archived exfoliated cells collected from the surface of each EGL and normal genital skin specimens 6–12 months preceding EGL development were tested for ?-HPV DNA using a type-specific multiplex genotyping assay. Results ?-HPV DNA was detected on 61.1% of all EGLs, with types 38 (16.7%), 5 (15.3%), and 12 (12.5%) most commonly identified. HPV prevalence differed across pathological diagnoses, with the largest number of ?-HPV types detected on condylomas. Most ?-HPV types were detected on normal genital skin prior to EGL development, though the prevalence was lower on EGLs compared to preceding normal genital skin. Conclusions EGLs and the normal genital skin of men harbor a large number of ?-HPV types; however, it appears that ?-HPVs are unrelated to EGL development in men. Despite evidence to support a causal role in skin carcinogenesis at UVR-exposed sites, cutaneous HPV appears unlikely to cause disease at the UVR-unexposed genitals. PMID:24210970

  11. Retinoic acid inhibits the infectivity and growth of Chlamydia pneumoniae in epithelial and endothelial cells through different receptors.

    PubMed

    Puolakkainen, Mirja; Lee, Amy; Nosaka, Tadayoshi; Fukushi, Hideto; Kuo, Cho-Chou; Campbell, Lee Ann

    2008-05-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is a human respiratory pathogen that has also been associated with cardiovascular disease. C. pneumoniae infection accelerates atherosclerotic plaque development in hyperlipidemic animals and promotes oxidation of low density lipoprotein in vitro. All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), an antioxidant, has been shown to inhibit C. pneumoniae infectivity for endothelial cells by preventing binding of the organism to the M6P/IGF2 receptor on the cell surface. This current study investigates whether ATRA similarly affects C. pneumoniae infectivity of epithelial cells, which are the primary site of infection in the respiratory tract, and the effects on intracellular growth in both endothelial and epithelial cells. Because ATRA binds to both the nuclear retinoid acid receptor (RAR) and the M6P/IGF2 receptor, 4-[(E)-2-(5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-2-naphthalenyl)-1-propenyl]benzoic acid (TTNPB), an ATRA analog, which binds to the RAR but not the M6P/IGF2 receptor was used to differentiate the receptor mediating the effects of ATRA. The results of this study showed two separate effects of ATRA. The first effect is through interaction with the M6P/IGF2 receptor on the cell surface preventing attachment of the organism (inhibition by ATRA but not TTNPB) in endothelial cells and the second is through the nuclear receptor (inhibition by both ATRA and TTNPB) which inhibits growth in both epithelial and endothelial cells. PMID:18162363

  12. Persistence of genital tract T cell responses in HIV-infected women on highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Mkhize, Nonhlanhla N; Gumbi, Pamela P; Liebenberg, Lenine J; Ren, Yuan; Smith, Peter; Denny, Lynette; Passmore, Jo-Ann S

    2010-10-01

    Initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for HIV-infected individuals is associated with control of viremia, improved CD4 counts, and declining systemic HIV-specific immune responses. While HAART effectively reduces plasma viremia, it remains unclear how effectively antiretroviral drugs reach mucosal surfaces, such as those of the genital tract. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of HAART on genital tract CD4 T cell reconstitution, HIV shedding, and HIV-specific T cell responses. Cervical cytobrush and blood specimens were obtained from 35 HIV-infected, HAART-naïve women and 27 women on HAART in order to investigate HIV Gag-specific T cell responses by intracellular gamma interferon (IFN-?) staining. Interleukin 1? (IL-1?), IL-6, and IL-8 concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). We show that for HIV-infected women, HAART is associated with significantly improved CD4 T cell counts both in blood and at the cervix. While HAART effectively suppressed both blood and cervical viremia, HIV-specific CD8 T cell responses in blood were lost, while those at the cervix were preserved. PMID:20686039

  13. The sexually transmitted infection, genital herpes (herpes simplex virus 2, or HSV-2), is a

    E-print Network

    Lee, Daeyeol

    cells into the genital tract by topically applying those chemokines." They tested the theory on a mouse barriers against T cells. The same method that works against HSV-2 could work against cancer by pulling T cells directly into the mass. Dr. Iwasaki is optimistic about using prime-and-pull against cancers

  14. The Development and Validation of a High-throughput Screening Method for Chlamydia trachomatis

    E-print Network

    Restivo, Keasha Nicole

    2014-05-31

    ; azithromycin and doxycycline (19). Most Chlamydia infections can be treated with doxycycline or azithromycin, but resistance to tetracycline antibiotics have been observed in... variety of mostly mammalian animal hosts. Chlamydia felis and Chlamydia caviae both cause conjunctivitis in cats and in guinea pigs, respectively (24). Chlamydia muridarum infects...

  15. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Chlamydia psittaci infection in domestic geese Anser domestica, in Hainan province of China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun-Ming; Rong, Guang; Zhou, Han-Lin; Hou, Guan-Yu

    2015-05-01

    Chlamydia psittaci, the agent of psittacosis in humans, infects a wide range of bird species. To assess the risk of psittacosis posed by domestic geese in China, the seroprevalence of C. psittaci infection in domestic geese in Hainan province, tropical China was examined using indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 25.6% (461/1800; 95% CI: 23.6-27.6). The C. psittaci seroprevalence ranged from 19% (95% CI: 14.6-23.4) to 34% (95% CI: 28.6-39.4) among different regions in Hainan province, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.01). The risk factors significantly associated with C. psittaci seroprevalence were the presence of hygiene conditions, age, gender, and environment of geese in the farms. The results of the present investigation indicated the high seroprevalence of C. psittaci infection in geese in Hainan province, tropical China. Close contact with these geese is associated with a risk of zoonotic transmission of C. psittaci. Public education should be implemented to reduce the risk of avian to human transmission of such a pathogenic agent. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report documenting the occurrence of C. psittaci seroprevalence in geese in China. PMID:25700712

  16. Selection for a CEACAM Receptor-Specific Binding Phenotype during Neisseria gonorrhoeae Infection of the Human Genital Tract.

    PubMed

    Sintsova, Anna; Wong, Henry; MacDonald, Kelly S; Kaul, Rupert; Virji, Mumtaz; Gray-Owen, Scott D

    2015-04-01

    Infections by Neisseria gonorrhoeae are increasingly common, are often caused by antibiotic-resistant strains, and can result in serious and lasting sequelae, prompting the reemergence of gonococcal disease as a leading global health concern. N. gonorrhoeae is a human-restricted pathogen that primarily colonizes urogenital mucosal surfaces. Disease progression varies greatly between the sexes: men usually present with symptomatic infection characterized by a painful purulent urethral discharge, while in women, the infection is often asymptomatic, with the most severe pathology occurring when the bacteria ascend from the lower genital tract into the uterus and fallopian tubes. Classical clinical studies demonstrated that clinically infectious strains uniformly express Opa adhesins; however, their specificities were unknown at the time. While in vitro studies have since identified CEACAM proteins as the primary target of Opa proteins, the gonococcal specificity for this human family of receptors has not been addressed in the context of natural infection. In this study, we characterize a collection of low-passage-number clinical-specimen-derived N. gonorrhoeae isolates for Opa expression and assess their CEACAM-binding profiles. We report marked in vivo selection for expression of phase-variable Opa proteins that bind CEACAM1 and CEACAM5 but selection against expression of Opa variants that bind to the neutrophil-restricted decoy receptor CEACAM3. This is the first study showing phenotypic selection for distinct CEACAM-binding phenotypes in vivo, and it supports the opposing functions of CEACAMs that facilitate infection versus driving inflammation within the genital tract. PMID:25605771

  17. Human papillomavirus and chlamydia trachomatis infections in rheumatoid arthritis under anti-TNF therapy: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Waisberg, Mariana G; Ribeiro, Ana C M; Candido, Wellington M; Medeiros, Poliana B; Matsuzaki, Cezar N; Beldi, Mariana C; Tacla, Maricy; Caiaffa-Filho, Helio H; Bonfa, Eloísa; Silva, Clovis A

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate human papillomavirus (HPV) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infections in RA patients pre- and post-TNF blocker. Fifty female RA patients (ACR criteria), who were eligible to anti-TNF therapy [n = 50 at baseline (BL) and n = 45 after 6 months of treatment (6 M)], and 50 age-matched healthy controls were prospectively enrolled. They were assessed for demographic data, gynecologic, sexual, cervical cytology and histological evaluations, disease parameters and current treatment. HPV DNA and CT DNA testing in cervical specimens were done using Hybrid Capture II assays. At BL, the median current age of RA patients and controls was 49 (18-74) versus 49 (18-74) years, p = 1.0. A trend of lower frequency of HPV infection was observed in AR patients pre-anti-TNF compared with controls (14 vs. 30 %, p = 0.054). Further evaluation of AR patients with and without HPV infection before anti-TNF therapy showed that the former group had higher frequency of sexual intercourses (100 vs. 48 %, p = 0.014), higher median number of sexual partners [1 (1-1) vs. 0 (0-1), p = 0.032] and higher frequency of abnormal cervical cytology (43 vs. 7 %, p = 0.029). Current age, disease duration, disease parameters and treatments were alike in both groups (p > 0.05). At 6 M after TNF blockage, HPV infection remained unchanged in five patients, whereas two became negative and one additional patient turned out to be positive (p = 1.0). CT infection was uniformly negative in RA patients pre- and post-TNF blockage and in controls. Anti-TNF does not seem to increase short-term risk of exacerbation and/or progression of HPV and CT infections in RA patients. PMID:25348220

  18. Herpes Simplex Virus-2 Genital Tract Shedding Is Not Predictable over Months or Years in Infected Persons

    PubMed Central

    Dhankani, Varsha; Kutz, J. Nathan; Schiffer, Joshua T.

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) is a chronic reactivating infection that leads to recurrent shedding episodes in the genital tract. A minority of episodes are prolonged, and associated with development of painful ulcers. However, currently, available tools poorly predict viral trajectories and timing of reactivations in infected individuals. We employed principal components analysis (PCA) and singular value decomposition (SVD) to interpret HSV-2 genital tract shedding time series data, as well as simulation output from a stochastic spatial mathematical model. Empirical and model-derived, time-series data gathered over >30 days consists of multiple complex episodes that could not be reduced to a manageable number of descriptive features with PCA and SVD. However, single HSV-2 shedding episodes, even those with prolonged duration and complex morphologies consisting of multiple erratic peaks, were consistently described using a maximum of four dominant features. Modeled and clinical episodes had equivalent distributions of dominant features, implying similar dynamics in real and simulated episodes. We applied linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to simulation output and identified that local immune cell density at the viral reactivation site had a predictive effect on episode duration, though longer term shedding suggested chaotic dynamics and could not be predicted based on spatial patterns of immune cell density. These findings suggest that HSV-2 shedding patterns within an individual are impossible to predict over weeks or months, and that even highly complex single HSV-2 episodes can only be partially predicted based on spatial distribution of immune cell density. PMID:25375183

  19. The CD14 functional gene polymorphism -260 C>T is not involved in either the susceptibility to Chlamydia trachomatis infection or the development of tubal pathology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sander Ouburg; Joke Spaargaren; Janneke E den Hartog; Jolande A Land; Johan SA Fennema; Jolein Pleijster; A Salvador Peña; Servaas A Morré

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The functional polymorphism -260 C>T in the LPS sensing TLR4 co-receptor CD14 gene enhances the transcriptional activity and results in a higher CD14 receptor density. Individuals carrying the T\\/T genotype also have significantly higher serum levels of soluble CD14. The T allele of this polymorphism has recently been linked to Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. We investigated the role of the

  20. Cervical Infection With Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Women From Ten Areas in Four Continents: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvia Franceschi; Jennifer S. Smith; Adriaan van den Brule; Rolando Herrero; Annie Arslan; Pham-Thi-Hoang Anh; F. XAVIER BOSCH; Nguyen-Trong Hieu; Elena Matos; Hector Posso; You-Lin Qiao; Hai-Rim Shin; Sukhon Sukvirach; Jaiye O. Thomas; Peter J. F. Snijders; Chris J. L. M. Meijer

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: Better information on the prevalence of Chlamydia tra- chomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infection is needed in many world areas. Study Design: Cross-sectional study of population-based samples of nonpregnant women aged 15 to 44 years in Nigeria, Colombia, Argen- tina, Vietnam (2 areas), China, Thailand (2 areas), Korea, and Spain. 5,328 consenting women aged 15 to 44 years

  1. High prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections among HIV1 negative men who have sex with men in coastal Kenya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eduard J Sanders; Alexander N Thiongo; Haile Selassie Okuku; John Mwambi; Frances Priddy; Juma Shafi; Henry de Vries; R Scott McClelland; Susan M Graham

    2010-01-01

    ObjectivesTo assess the burden of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) in high-risk HIV-1 negative men who have sex with men (MSM) in Africa.MethodsBefore the start of a pre-exposure prophylaxis trial, HIV-1 negative volunteers were screened for sexually transmitted infection (STI) including CT and NG, using a highly sensitive and specific nucleic acid amplification test. Samples positive for CT

  2. Molecular epidemiology of selected sexually transmitted infections

    PubMed Central

    Jalal, Hamid; Delaney, Andrew; Bentley, Neil; Sonnex, Christopher; Carne, Christopher A

    2013-01-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) are established pathogens for human genital tract. However, the role of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) and Ureaplasma parvum (UP) in genital pathology is poorly unerstood. A prospective study to investigate the prevalence of above infections was performed on a cohort of 1,718 consecutive patients attending a Genitourinary Medicine (GUM) clinic. A previously published in-house real-time PCR assay, for the detection of CT DNA in genital swabs, was modified for this study. Two amplification reactions detected the DNAs of TV, NG, MG, CT, UU and UP in genital swabs from 4 (0.2%), 11 (0.6%), 17 (1%), 129 (8%), 282 (16%) and 636 (37%) patients, respectively. 594 (70%) of 848 women and 333 (38%) of 870 men were infected with at least one type of microorganism. Among 594 infected females, 485 (82%) had a single infection, 97 (16%) had a double infection, and 12 (2%) had a triple infection. Of the 333 infected men, 304 (91%) had a single infection, 27 (8%) had a double infection, and 2 (1%) had a triple infection. The prevalence of infection in both genders decreased with increasing age. The prevalence proportion of UP was significantly higher in women (54%) compared with men (18%). The high prevalence of UU and UP suggests that these bacteria are commensals of genital tract. PMID:24046809

  3. Screening to detect asymptomatic shedding of herpes simplex virus (HSV) in women with recurrent genital HSV infection.

    PubMed Central

    Barton, S E; Wright, L K; Link, C M; Munday, P E

    1986-01-01

    To investigate the asymptomatic shedding of herpes simplex virus (HSV) from women with recurrent genital herpes infection, and to assess whether inapparent shedding could occur, eight such women were examined thrice weekly for one month. At each visit colposcopy was performed and multiple sites sampled for HSV. During the study four women had no recurrence of HSV infection, but four had at least one positive viral culture. One of these patients was asymptomatically shedding HSV on nine of her 11 clinic visits. Two episodes of urethral shedding were detected. In this group of patients the presence of inguinal lymphadenopathy was appreciably associated with the isolation of HSV from the urogenital tract. Images PMID:3015773

  4. Genital herpes simplex.

    PubMed Central

    Tummon, I. S.; Dudley, D. K.; Walters, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the herpes simplex virus. Following the initial infection the virus becomes latent in the sacral ganglia. Approximately 80% of patients are then subject to milder but unpredictable recurrences and may shed the virus even when they are asymptomatic. The disorder causes concern because genital herpes in the mother can result in rare but catastrophic neonatal infection and because of a possible association between genital herpes and cancer of the cervix. No effective treatment is as yet available. Weekly monitoring for virus by cervical culture from 32 weeks' gestation is recommended for women with a history of genital herpes and for those whose sexual partner has such a history. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 PMID:7020907

  5. [Two cases of Chlamydia psittaci infection occurring in employees of the same pet shop].

    PubMed

    Maegawa, N; Emoto, T; Mori, H; Yamaguchi, D; Fujinaga, T; Tezuka, N; Sakai, N; Ohtsuka, N; Fukuse, T

    2001-10-01

    We report here 2 cases of psittacosis in a pet shop. In the first case, a 44-year-old male was admitted with fever, and a chest radiograph showed an infiltration shadow in the right lower lung. One day later, a colleague of the first patient, a 42-year-old man, developed fever and was admitted. In this patient, chest radiography revealed an infiltration shadow in the left lower lung. Both patients had mild liver dysfunction. The serum titer of a complement fixation (CF) test against Chlamydia psittaci was elevated fourfold in the first case and sixteen-fold in the second on the analysis of paired acute- and convalescent-phase serum specimens. Clinical symptoms and abnormal laboratory data were attenuated by the administration of minocycline for 2 weeks. Since both patients worked in same pet shop and since some parakeets at the shop had died, we speculated that the psittacosis had originated from these birds. PMID:11828730

  6. Effect of the levonorgestrel intrauterine device on genital HIV-1 RNA shedding among HIV-1–infected women not taking antiretroviral therapy in Nairobi, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Jenell S.; Mwachari, Christina; Balkus, Jennifer; Sanguli, Lucy; Muliro, Angela; Agnew, Kathy; Coombs, Robert W.; Cohen, Craig R; Hitti, Jane

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of the levonorgestrel intrauterine device (LNG-IUD) on genital HIV-1 RNA shedding and inflammation among 25 HIV-infected women. Blood, endocervical, and cervicovaginal lavage samples were collected from HIV-infected women not taking antiretrovirals before LNG-IUD insertion and 1-, 3-, and 6-months thereafter. HIV-1 RNA was quantitated by real-time RT-PCR. Inflammatory markers were measured by EIA. Genital HIV-1 RNA shedding and inflammatory markers did not differ between LNG-IUD placement and month 6, with the exception of interleukin-1B, which increased (0.42 log10; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.75). The LNG-IUD did not increase genital HIV-1 RNA shedding after 6-months of use. PMID:23446496

  7. Multilocus sequence analysis provides insights into molecular epidemiology of Chlamydia pecorum infections in Australian sheep, cattle, and koalas.

    PubMed

    Jelocnik, Martina; Frentiu, Francesca D; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2013-08-01

    Chlamydia pecorum is a significant pathogen of domestic livestock and wildlife. We have developed a C. pecorum-specific multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) scheme to examine the genetic diversity of and relationships between Australian sheep, cattle, and koala isolates. An MLSA of seven concatenated housekeeping gene fragments was performed using 35 isolates, including 18 livestock isolates (11 Australian sheep, one Australian cow, and six U.S. livestock isolates) and 17 Australian koala isolates. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the koala isolates formed a distinct clade, with limited clustering with C. pecorum isolates from Australian sheep. We identified 11 MLSA sequence types (STs) among Australian C. pecorum isolates, 10 of them novel, with koala and sheep sharing at least one identical ST (designated ST2013Aa). ST23, previously identified in global C. pecorum livestock isolates, was observed here in a subset of Australian bovine and sheep isolates. Most notably, ST23 was found in association with multiple disease states and hosts, providing insights into the transmission of this pathogen between livestock hosts. The complexity of the epidemiology of this disease was further highlighted by the observation that at least two examples of sheep were infected with different C. pecorum STs in the eyes and gastrointestinal tract. We have demonstrated the feasibility of our MLSA scheme for understanding the host relationship that exists between Australian C. pecorum strains and provide the first molecular epidemiological data on infections in Australian livestock hosts. PMID:23740730

  8. Multilocus Sequence Analysis Provides Insights into Molecular Epidemiology of Chlamydia pecorum Infections in Australian Sheep, Cattle, and Koalas

    PubMed Central

    Jelocnik, Martina; Frentiu, Francesca D.; Timms, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia pecorum is a significant pathogen of domestic livestock and wildlife. We have developed a C. pecorum-specific multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) scheme to examine the genetic diversity of and relationships between Australian sheep, cattle, and koala isolates. An MLSA of seven concatenated housekeeping gene fragments was performed using 35 isolates, including 18 livestock isolates (11 Australian sheep, one Australian cow, and six U.S. livestock isolates) and 17 Australian koala isolates. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the koala isolates formed a distinct clade, with limited clustering with C. pecorum isolates from Australian sheep. We identified 11 MLSA sequence types (STs) among Australian C. pecorum isolates, 10 of them novel, with koala and sheep sharing at least one identical ST (designated ST2013Aa). ST23, previously identified in global C. pecorum livestock isolates, was observed here in a subset of Australian bovine and sheep isolates. Most notably, ST23 was found in association with multiple disease states and hosts, providing insights into the transmission of this pathogen between livestock hosts. The complexity of the epidemiology of this disease was further highlighted by the observation that at least two examples of sheep were infected with different C. pecorum STs in the eyes and gastrointestinal tract. We have demonstrated the feasibility of our MLSA scheme for understanding the host relationship that exists between Australian C. pecorum strains and provide the first molecular epidemiological data on infections in Australian livestock hosts. PMID:23740730

  9. Infection of Female Primary Lower Genital Tract Epithelial Cells after Natural Pseudotyping of HIV-1: Possible Implications for Sexual Transmission of HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yuyang; George, Alvin; Nouvet, Franklin; Sweet, Stephanie; Emeagwali, Nkiruka; Taylor, Harry E.; Simmons, Glenn; Hildreth, James E. K.

    2014-01-01

    The global AIDS pandemic continues to expand and in some regions of the world, such as southern Africa, the prevalence of HIV-1 infection exceeds 20%. The devastating spread of the virus in young women in these countries appears disproportional to overall risk of infection. Regions with high prevalence of HIV-1 are often also highly endemic for other pathogenic viruses including HSV, CMV and HTLV. We propose that acquisition by HIV-1 of the envelope glycoproteins of other viruses, in a process we call “natural pseudotyping,” expands the cellular tropism of HIV-1, enabling it to infect female genital epithelial cells directly and thereby dramatically increasing risk of infection during sexual intercourse. In this proof-of-concept study, we demonstrate that when HIV-1 co-infects T cells along with the gammaretrovirus xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV), progeny HIV-1 particles are produced capable of infecting primary vaginal, ectocervical and endocervical epithelial cells. These cell types are normally resistant to HIV-1 infection. Infection of primary genital cells was neutralized by antisera against the XMRV glycoprotein, confirming that infection was mediated by the XMRV glycoprotein acquired through pseudotyping of HIV. Inhibition by AZT showed that active replication of HIV-1 occurred in these cells and ruled out non-specific endocytic uptake of the virus. These results demonstrate that natural pseudotyping can expand the tropism of HIV-1 to include genital epithelial cells and have potential implications for sexual transmission of the virus. PMID:25010677

  10. Mast Cells Play an Important Role in Chlamydia pneumoniae Lung Infection by Facilitating Immune Cell Recruitment into the Airway.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Norika; Shimada, Kenichi; Chen, Shuang; Jones, Heather D; Alsabeh, Randa; Slepenkin, Anatoly V; Peterson, Ellena; Crother, Timothy R; Arditi, Moshe

    2015-04-15

    Mast cells are known as central players in allergy and anaphylaxis, and they play a pivotal role in host defense against certain pathogens. Chlamydia pneumoniae is an important human pathogen, but it is unclear what role mast cells play during C. pneumoniae infection. We infected C57BL/6 (wild-type [WT]) and mast cell-deficient mice (Kit(W-sh/W-sh) [Wsh]) with C. pneumoniae. Wsh mice showed improved survival compared with WT mice, with fewer cells in Wsh bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), despite similar levels of cytokines and chemokines. We also found a more rapid clearance of bacteria from the lungs of Wsh mice compared with WT mice. Cromolyn, a mast cell stabilizer, reduced BALF cells and bacterial burden similar to the levels seen in Wsh mice; conversely, Compound 48/80, a mast cell degranulator, increased the number of BALF cells and bacterial burden. Histology showed that WT lungs had diffuse inflammation, whereas Wsh mice had patchy accumulations of neutrophils and perivascular accumulations of lymphocytes. Infected Wsh mice had reduced amounts of matrix metalloprotease-9 in BALF and were resistant to epithelial integral membrane protein degradation, suggesting that barrier integrity remains intact in Wsh mice. Mast cell reconstitution in Wsh mice led to enhanced bacterial growth and normal epithelial integral membrane protein degradation, highlighting the specific role of mast cells in this model. These data suggest that mast cells play a detrimental role during C. pneumoniae infection by facilitating immune cell infiltration into the airspace and providing a more favorable replicative environment for C. pneumoniae. PMID:25754739

  11. Community-Based Sexually Transmitted Infection Screening and Increased Detection of Pharyngeal and Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae Infections in Female Sex Workers in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Horas T.H.; Lee, Krystal C.K.; Chan, Denise P.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Female sex workers (FSWs) are vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and are one of the key populations being infected most by Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections. In Hong Kong, limited data on the burden of chlamydial and gonococcal infections exist because regular screenings are not offered. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae in FSWs and to assess predictors associated with unprotected fellatio. Methods A cross-sectional study was conduct on 340 FSWs attending a community organization for HIV/STI screening, and a questionnaire addressing sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics was administered to all FSWs. Results The prevalence of syphilis infection was 2.1%, and none was tested positive for HIV. The positivity for pharyngeal C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae was 3.2% and 4.4%, respectively, whereas that for urogenital chlamydial and gonococcal infection was 10.6% and 0.9%, respectively. Of 313 FSWs offering fellatio, having unprotected fellatio with clients was significantly associated with the perceived low risk of contracting STI via fellatio (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.88), working in clubs (adjusted OR, 11.14), working on streets (adjusted OR, 3.28), recently started working in the sex industry for 1 year or less (adjusted OR, 3.05), and reporting group sex in the previous year (adjusted OR, 11.03). Conclusions The prevalence of HIV and syphilis infection remains low. This study reveals a relatively high prevalence of N. gonorrhoeae detected mostly in the pharynx. Offering pharyngeal screening for STI would facilitate early diagnosis and treatment of gonococcal infection in FSWs in Hong Kong. PMID:25768859

  12. Acyclovir vs isoprinosine (immunovir) for suppression of recurrent genital herpes simplex infection.

    PubMed Central

    Kinghorn, G R; Woolley, P D; Thin, R N; De Maubeuge, J; Foidart, J M; Engst, R

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare the efficacy and safety of oral acyclovir (400 mg twice daily) with oral isoprinosine (500 mg twice daily) in the suppression of recurrent genital herpes. DESIGN--Double-blind, double-dummy, randomised, controlled, parallel group trial. SETTING--13 centres in UK, Belgium and Germany. SUBJECTS--127 immunocompetent patients with frequently recurring genital herpes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Proportions of patients reporting recurrences, recurrence frequency, and mean duration of lesions during breakthrough recurrences in each treatment group during a 6 month treatment period; time to first recurrence during treatment and follow-up after treatment cessation. RESULTS--During treatment, acyclovir recipients showed significant differences (p < 0.05) when compared with isoprinosine recipients in terms of a lower proportion reporting recurrences (31% vs 96%), a reduced mean number of reported recurrences per patient (0.6 vs 3.6), a shorter mean duration of breakthrough lesions (6.4 days vs 8.2 days), and a longer mean time (standard error) to first recurrence (143.7 (9.1) days vs 40.5 (5.4) days. The mean time to first recurrence after treatment cessation did not differ between the two groups. As compared with placebo recipients, isoprinosine treated patients had an increased recurrence frequency (3.6 vs 2.5) during treatment, and a shorter time to first recurrence after treatment cessation. All treatments were well tolerated without serious adverse events or toxicity. CONCLUSIONS--Acyclovir is very effective in suppressing recurrent genital herpes and is clearly superior to isoprinosine which is not clinically useful in the dosage studied. PMID:1385295

  13. Genital form of pasteurellosis in breeding turkeys infected during artificial insemination and isolation of an unusual strain of Pasteurella multocida.

    PubMed

    Cariou, Nadine; Christensen, Henrik; Salandre, Olivier; Albaric, Olivier; Bisgaard, Magne; Malher, Xavier

    2013-09-01

    A genital and potentially fatal form of Pasteurella multocida infection was reported on two turkey-breeding farms on which birds were vaccinated against Pasteurella multocida. Both outbreaks were linked to the use of semen from young vaccinated toms with a history of respiratory pasteurellosis followed by treatment during rearing. Typing by agar gel immunodiffusion and rapid slide agglutination of P. multocida isolated from cloacal swabs was completed by multilocus sequence typing. Restriction enzyme analysis showed that that the isolates were clonal. They belonged to sequence type (ST) 30, described in chickens, cats, and ducks. This strain differed in sequence type from the ones used in the vaccine (ST8, ST60, ST53, and ST235), which might have limited its effectiveness. No contamination of the semen (n = 30) was found, suggesting fecal contamination during semen collection. PMID:24283141

  14. Human Chlamydia pneumoniae isolates demonstrate ability to recover infectivity following penicillin treatment whereas animal isolates do not.

    PubMed

    Chacko, Anu; Beagley, Kenneth W; Timms, Peter; Huston, Wilhelmina M

    2015-03-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae strains have recently been demonstrated to have substantially different capacities to enter and recover from IFN-?-induced persistence, depending on whether they are from human or animal host sources. Here, we examined the ability of two human and two animal strains to enter and be rescued from penicillin-induced persistence. The ability to form inclusions after the addition of penicillin was much reduced in the two animal isolates (koala LPCoLN, bandicoot B21) compared to the two human isolates (respiratory AR39 and heart A03). The penicillin treatment resulted in a dose-dependent loss of infectious progeny for all isolates, with the human strains failing to produce infectious progeny at lower doses of penicillin than the animal strains. The most remarkable finding however was the contrasting ability of the isolates to recover infectious progeny production after rescue by removal of the penicillin (at 72 h) and continued culture. The animal isolates both showed virtually no recovery from the penicillin treatment conditions. In contrast, the human isolates showed a significant ability to recovery infectivity, with the heart isolate (A03) showing the most marked recovery. Combined, these data further support the hypothesis that the ability to establish and recover from persistence appears to be enhanced in human C. pneumoniae strains compared to animal strains. PMID:25663156

  15. Prevalence of Lower Genital Tract Infections Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)–Seropositive and High?Risk HIV?Seronegative Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph W. Hogan; Dora Warren; Robert S. Klein; Jeffrey Peipert; Paula Schuman; Scott Holmberg; Jean Anderson; Ellie Schoenbaum; David Vlahov; Kenneth H. Mayer

    1999-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess whether the prevalence of lower genital tract infections among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive women was higher than among high-risk HIV-seronegative women at their baseline visit for the HIV Epidemiology Research Study. Results were available for 851 HIV-seropositive and 434 HIV-seronegative women. Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection was more prevalent among HIV-seropositive women (64% vs.

  16. Seminal Levels of Pro-inflammatory (CXCL1, CXCL9, CXCL10) and Homeostatic (CXCL12) Chemokines in Men With Asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hakimi, Hamid; Zainodini, Nahid; Khorramdelazad, Hossein; Kazemi Arababadi, Mohammad; Hassanshahi, Gholamhossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chemokines play important roles in immune system activation against microbial infections. Objectives: The current study aimed to evaluate seminal levels of CXC chemokines CXCL1, CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL12 in Chlamydia trachomatis infected patients. Materials and Methods: The C. trachomatis infection was determined employing Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-based methods. Seminal concentrations of CXCL1, CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL12 were measured by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Results: The current study results demonstrated that the semen levels of CXCL1 and CXCL9, but not CXCL10 and CXCL12, significantly increased in C. trachomatis infected patients compared to the healthy controls. Conclusions: Based on the current study results, it may be concluded that both CXCL1 and CXCL9 play more important roles than CXCL10 and CXCL12 in induction of immune responses against C. trachomatis and could possibly be considered as future targets for immunotherapy of C. trachomatis infection. PMID:25741424

  17. Respiratory and pericardial lesions in turkeys infected with avian or mammalian strains of Chlamydia psittaci.

    PubMed

    Tappe, J P; Andersen, A A; Cheville, N F

    1989-09-01

    Three groups of turkeys were inoculated with strains of C. psittaci (B577, VS1, TT3) from different restriction endonuclease groups. Turkeys were necropsied at 15 times through post-inoculation day 70. Birds infected with the TT3 strain were lethargic and had decreased body weight. After forced exercise, dyspnea was seen in VS1-infected turkeys. Pericarditis was the most severe lesion in TT3-infected birds. Airsacculitis and bronchopneumonia were the most severe lesions in VS1-infected turkeys. Lateral nasal adenitis was in both VS1- and TT3-infected birds. Only mild peribronchial pneumonia was in B577-infected turkeys. Chlamydial antigen, identified by light microscopy using an immunoperoxidase technique, was seen from post-inoculation days 9 through 50 in the lateral nasal gland and at earlier times in other tissue from VS1- and TT3-infected turkeys. No chlamydial antigen was detected in tissue from B577-infected birds. These studies showed that chlamydial strains from different restriction endonuclease groups are associated with distinct disease syndromes in turkeys. PMID:2686147

  18. Condom Effectiveness for Reducing Transmission of Gonorrhea and Chlamydia: The Importance of Assessing Partner Infection Status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lee Warner; Daniel R. Newman; Harland D. Austin; Mary L. Kamb; John M. Douglas; C. Kevin Malotte; Jonathan M. Zenilman; Judy Rogers; Gail Bolan

    This analysis examined the importance of differential exposure to infected partners in epidemiologic studies of latex condom effectiveness for prevention of sexually transmitted infections. Cross-sectional, enrollment visit data were analyzed from Project RESPECT, a trial of counseling interventions conducted at five publicly funded US sexually transmitted disease clinics between 1993 and 1997. The association between consistent condom use in the

  19. Dermatoses of the Male Genital Area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfred R. Eichmann

    2005-01-01

    This is an overview of dermatoses which are predominantly seen in the genital area. Five large groups of dermatoses can be distinguished: inflammatory dermatoses without any causative organism, infections and dermatoses originating from cutaneous appendages, precancerous lesions, pigmented lesions and genital pruritus. The etiology, causative factors, clinical features and newer treatment options are considered. Because of local environmental factors, genital

  20. Chlamydia (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and Chlamydia psittaci, which birds can pass to humans. This article refers specifically to the STD. Chlamydia ... Diseases (STDs) Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) Chlamydia 5 Myths About STDs How to Perform a Testicular Self- ...

  1. [Chlamydia urethritis in nephrologic practice].

    PubMed

    Stanojci?, A; Peri?, J; Radmilovi?, A

    1996-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an ubiquitous bacterium, strictly intracellular organism. The D-K serovars urethritis, cervicitis, endometritis, salpingitis, periappendicitis and perihepatitis, in women, urethritis, prostatitis, epididymitis and Reiter's syndrome in 1-2% of cases in men. Sterility is the most serious complication in both sexes. Chlamydial infections are sexually transmitted diseases, often asymptomatic, prone to recurrences. Cure occurs only when both sexual partners are treated simultaneously. We treated 40 patients, 24 women and 16 men, from 1991-1994, who presented in nephrologic offices with symptoms of chlamydial urethritis. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis was performed by direct fluorescent antibody stain. All patients had positive urethral swab, six women had chlamydial cervicitis too, one man had Reiter's syndrome, one man orchiepididymitis, and five men prostatitis. Optimal therapy for Chlamydia trachomatis infections consists of a 10-14 day regimen of quinolone, of tetracycline, and macrolides. We used sulfonamide rarely. Because of very serious sequelae of initial infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, every patient with urethritis should be examined by urethral swab for Chlamydia testing. Both partners should be examined and treated simultaneously. PMID:9102910

  2. TRAIL-R1 is a negative regulator of pro-inflammatory responses and modulates long-term sequelae resulting from Chlamydia trachomatis infections in humans.

    PubMed

    Al-Kuhlani, Mufadhal; Rothchild, James; Pal, Sukumar; de la Maza, Luis M; Ouburg, Sander; Morré, Servaas A; Dean, Deborah; Ojcius, David M

    2014-01-01

    The immune system eliminates Chlamydia trachomatis infection through inflammation. However, uncontrolled inflammation can enhance pathology. In mice, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor (TRAIL-R), known for its effects on apoptosis, also regulates inflammation. In humans, the four homologues of TRAIL-R had never been investigated for effects on inflammation. Here, we examined whether TRAIL-R regulates inflammation during chlamydial infection. We examined TRAIL-R1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in an Ecuadorian cohort with and without C. trachomatis infections. There was a highly significant association for the TRAIL+626 homozygous mutant GG for infection vs no infection in this population. To confirm the results observed in the human population, primary lung fibroblasts and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) were isolated from wildtype (WT) and TRAIL-R-deficient mice, and TRAIL-R1 levels in human cervical epithelial cells were depleted by RNA interference. Infection of BMDMs and primary lung fibroblasts with C. trachomatis strain L2, or the murine pathogen C. muridarum, led to higher levels of MIP2 mRNA expression or IL-1? secretion from TRAIL-R-deficient cells than WT cells. Similarly, depletion of TRAIL-R1 expression in human epithelial cells resulted in a higher level of IL-8 mRNA expression and protein secretion during C. trachomatis infection. We conclude that human TRAIL-R1 SNPs and murine TRAIL-R modulate the innate immune response against chlamydial infection. This is the first evidence that human TRAIL-R1 is a negative regulator of inflammation and plays a role in modulating Chlamydia pathogenesis. PMID:24695582

  3. TRAIL-R1 Is a Negative Regulator of Pro-Inflammatory Responses and Modulates Long-Term Sequelae Resulting from Chlamydia trachomatis Infections in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Al-Kuhlani, Mufadhal; Rothchild, James; Pal, Sukumar; Ouburg, Sander

    2014-01-01

    The immune system eliminates Chlamydia trachomatis infection through inflammation. However, uncontrolled inflammation can enhance pathology. In mice, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor (TRAIL-R), known for its effects on apoptosis, also regulates inflammation. In humans, the four homologues of TRAIL-R had never been investigated for effects on inflammation. Here, we examined whether TRAIL-R regulates inflammation during chlamydial infection. We examined TRAIL-R1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in an Ecuadorian cohort with and without C. trachomatis infections. There was a highly significant association for the TRAIL+626 homozygous mutant GG for infection vs no infection in this population. To confirm the results observed in the human population, primary lung fibroblasts and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) were isolated from wildtype (WT) and TRAIL-R-deficient mice, and TRAIL-R1 levels in human cervical epithelial cells were depleted by RNA interference. Infection of BMDMs and primary lung fibroblasts with C. trachomatis strain L2, or the murine pathogen C. muridarum, led to higher levels of MIP2 mRNA expression or IL-1? secretion from TRAIL-R-deficient cells than WT cells. Similarly, depletion of TRAIL-R1 expression in human epithelial cells resulted in a higher level of IL-8 mRNA expression and protein secretion during C. trachomatis infection. We conclude that human TRAIL-R1 SNPs and murine TRAIL-R modulate the innate immune response against chlamydial infection. This is the first evidence that human TRAIL-R1 is a negative regulator of inflammation and plays a role in modulating Chlamydia pathogenesis. PMID:24695582

  4. Vaccination of Koalas with a Recombinant Chlamydia pecorum Major Outer Membrane Protein Induces Antibodies of Different Specificity Compared to Those Following a Natural Live Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kollipara, Avinash; Polkinghorne, Adam; Beagley, Kenneth W.; Timms, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydial infection in koalas is common across the east coast of Australia and causes significant morbidity, infertility and mortality. An effective vaccine to prevent the adverse consequences of chlamydial infections in koalas (particularly blindness and infertility in females) would provide an important management tool to prevent further population decline of this species. An important step towards developing a vaccine in koalas is to understand the host immune response to chlamydial infection. In this study, we used the Pepscan methodology to identify B cell epitopes across the Major Outer Membrane Protein (MOMP) of four C. pecorum strains/genotypes that are recognized, either following (a) natural live infection or (b) administration of a recombinant MOMP vaccine. Plasma antibodies from the koalas naturally infected with a C. pecorum G genotype strain recognised the epitopes located in the variable domain (VD) four of MOMP G and also VD4 of MOMP H. By comparison, plasma antibodies from an animal infected with a C. pecorum F genotype strain recognised epitopes in VD1, 2 and 4 of MOMP F, but not from other genotype MOMPs. When Chlamydia-free koalas were immunised with recombinant MOMP protein they produced antibodies not only against epitopes in the VDs but also in conserved domains of MOMP. Naturally infected koalas immunised with recombinant MOMP protein also produced antibodies against epitopes in the conserved domains. This work paves the way for further refinement of a MOMP-based Chlamydia vaccine that will offer wide cross-protection against the variety of chlamydial infections circulating in wild koala populations. PMID:24086379

  5. Genital Tract Infections, Bacterial Vaginosis, HIV, and Reproductive Health Issues among Lima-Based Clandestine Female Sex Workers

    PubMed Central

    Perla, M. E.; Ghee, Annette E.; Sánchez, Sixto; McClelland, R. Scott; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.; Suárez-Ognio, Luis; Lama, Javier R.; Sánchez, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics of 212 Peruvian female sex workers (FSWs) were analyzed. The association between genital tract infections (GTIs) and risk factors by multivariate analysis was evaluated. Eighty-eight percent of FSWs were diagnosed with at least one GTI (HSV-2 80.1%, BV 44.8%, candidiasis 9.9%, syphilis seropositivity 9.4%, Trichomonas vaginalis 2.4%, HIV seropositivity 2.4%). Reported condom use with clients was nearly universal (98.3%), but infrequent with husband/regular partners (7.3%). In multivariate analysis BV was negatively associated with more consistent condom use (PRR = 0.63, 95% CI, 0.42–0.96). Many had not visited a Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) clinic or been tested for HIV in the past year (40.6%, 47.1%, resp.). Nonclient contraceptive use was low (57%) and induced abortion was common (68%). High GTI burden and abortions suggest that a services-access gap persists among marginalized FSWs. Continued health outreach programs and integrating family planning and reproductive health services into existing STI clinic services are recommended. PMID:22811592

  6. Electron tomography and cryo-SEM characterization reveals novel ultrastructural features of host-parasite interaction during Chlamydia abortus infection.

    PubMed

    Wilkat, M; Herdoiza, E; Forsbach-Birk, V; Walther, P; Essig, A

    2014-08-01

    Chlamydia (C.) abortus is a widely spread pathogen among ruminants that can be transmitted to women during pregnancy leading to severe systemic infection with consecutive abortion. As a member of the Chlamydiaceae, C. abortus shares the characteristic feature of an obligate intracellular biphasic developmental cycle with two morphological forms including elementary bodies (EBs) and reticulate bodies (RBs). In contrast to other chlamydial species, C. abortus ultrastructure has not been investigated yet. To do so, samples were fixed by high-pressure freezing and processed by different electron microscopic methods. Freeze-substituted samples were analysed by transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopical tomography and immuno-electron microscopy, and freeze-fractured samples were analysed by cryo-scanning electron microscopy. Here, we present three ultrastructural features of C. abortus that have not been reported up to now. Firstly, the morphological evidence that C. abortus is equipped with the type three secretion system. Secondly, the accumulation and even coating of whole inclusion bodies by membrane complexes consisting of multiple closely adjacent membranes which seems to be a C. abortus specific feature. Thirdly, the formation of small vesicles in the periplasmic space of RBs in the second half of the developmental cycle. Concerning the time point of their formation and the fact that they harbour chlamydial components, these vesicles might be morphological correlates of an intermediate step during the process of redifferentiation of RBs into EBs. As this feature has also been shown for C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae, it might be a common characteristic of the family of Chlamydiaceae. PMID:24522393

  7. Progesterone antagonizes the positive influence of estrogen on Chlamydia trachomatis serovar E in an Ishikawa/SHT-290 co-culture model.

    PubMed

    Kintner, Jennifer; Schoborg, Robert V; Wyrick, Priscilla B; Hall, Jennifer V

    2015-06-01

    Studies indicate that estrogen enhances Chlamydia trachomatis serovar E infection in genital epithelial cells. Hormones have direct and indirect effects on endometrial epithelial cells. Estrogen and progesterone exposure induces endometrial stromal cells to release effectors that subsequently regulate growth and maturation of uterine epithelial cells. Estrogen enhances C. trachomatis infection by aiding entry and intracellular development in endometrial epithelial cell (Ishikawa, IK)/SHT-290 stromal cell co-culture. Enhanced chlamydial infection was mediated by direct estrogen-stimulated signaling events in epithelial cells and indirectly via estrogen-induced stromal cell effectors. The current study investigates the effects of hormones on chlamydial development using culture conditions representative of the menstrual cycle. Chlamydia trachomatis-infected IK or IK/SHT-290 cultures were exposed to 10(-8) M estrogen (E2), 10(-7) M progesterone (P4) or a combination of both hormones (10(-8) M E2 followed by 10(-9) M E2/10(-7) M P4). Chlamydial infectivity and progeny production were significantly decreased (30-66%) in cultures exposed to progesterone or estrogen/progesterone combination compared to estrogen alone. Thus, progesterone antagonized the positive effects of estrogen on chlamydial infection. These data indicate the susceptibility of endometrial epithelial cells to C. trachomatis infection during the menstrual cycle is altered by phase specific actions of sex hormones in the genital tract. PMID:25724891

  8. Evaluation of pulmonary dysfunctions and acid–base imbalances induced by Chlamydia psittaci in a bovine model of respiratory infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chlamydia psittaci (Cp) is a respiratory pathogen capable of inducing acute pulmonary zoonotic disease (psittacosis) or persistent infection. To elucidate the pathogenesis of this infection, a translational large animal model was recently introduced by our group. This study aims at quantifying and differentiating pulmonary dysfunction and acid–base imbalances induced by Cp. Methods Forty-two calves were grouped in (i) animals inoculated with Cp (n?=?21) and (ii) controls sham-inoculated with uninfected cell culture (n?=?21). For pulmonary function testing, impulse oscillometry, capnography, and FRC (functional residual capacity) measurement were applied to spontaneously breathing animals. Variables of acid–base status were assessed in venous blood using both (i) traditional Henderson-Hasselbalch and (ii) strong ion approach. Results Both obstructive and restrictive pulmonary disorders were induced in calves experimentally inoculated with Cp. Although disorders in respiratory mechanics lasted for 8–11 days, the pattern of spontaneous breathing was mainly altered in the period of acute illness (until 4 days post inoculation, dpi). Expiration was more impaired than inspiration, resulting in elevated FRC. Ventilation was characterised by a reduction in tidal volume (?25%) combined with an increased percentage of dead space volume and a significant reduction of alveolar volume by 10%. Minute ventilation increased significantly (+50%) due to a compensatory doubling of respiratory rate. Hyperventilatory hypocapnia at 2–3 dpi resulted in slightly increased blood pH at 2 dpi. However, the acid–base equilibrium was additionally influenced by metabolic components, i.e. the systemic inflammatory response, all of which were detected with help of the strong ion theory. Decreased concentrations of albumin (2–10 dpi), a negative acute-phase marker, resulted in a decrease in the sum of non-volatile weak acids (Atot), revealing an alkalotic effect. This was counterbalanced by acidic effects of decreased strong ion difference (SID), mediated by the interplay between hypochloraemia (alkalotic effect) and hyponatraemia (acidic effect). Conclusions This bovine model was found to be suitable for studying pathophysiology of respiratory Cp infection and may help elucidating functional host-pathogen interactions in the mammalian lung. PMID:24517577

  9. Genital HSV2 Infection Induces Short-Term NK Cell Memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed F. Abdul-Careem; Amanda J. Lee; Elishka A. Pek; Navkiran Gill; Amy E. Gillgrass; Marianne V. Chew; Sarah Reid; Ali A. Ashkar

    2012-01-01

    NK cells are known as innate immune cells that lack immunological memory. Recently, it has been shown that NK cells remember encounters with chemical haptens that induce contact hypersensitivity and cytomegalovirus infection. Here, we show the existence of NK cell memory following HSV-2 infection. Stimulation with HSV-2 Ags led to higher IFN? production in NK cells that were exposed 30

  10. A Bovine Model of Respiratory Chlamydia psittaci Infection: Challenge Dose Titration

    PubMed Central

    Reinhold, Petra; Ostermann, Carola; Liebler-Tenorio, Elisabeth; Berndt, Angela; Vogel, Anette; Lambertz, Jacqueline; Rothe, Michael; Rüttger, Anke; Schubert, Evelyn; Sachse, Konrad

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to establish and evaluate a bovine respiratory model of experimentally induced acute C. psittaci infection. Calves are natural hosts and pathogenesis may resemble the situation in humans. Intrabronchial inoculation of C. psittaci strain DC15 was performed in calves aged 2–3 months via bronchoscope at four different challenge doses from 106 to 109 inclusion-forming units (ifu) per animal. Control groups received either UV-inactivated C. psittaci or cell culture medium. While 106 ifu/calf resulted in a mild respiratory infection only, the doses of 107 and 108 induced fever, tachypnea, dry cough, and tachycardia that became apparent 2–3 days post inoculation (dpi) and lasted for about one week. In calves exposed to 109 ifu C. psittaci, the respiratory disease was accompanied by severe systemic illness (apathy, tremor, markedly reduced appetite). At the time point of most pronounced clinical signs (3 dpi) the extent of lung lesions was below 10% of pulmonary tissue in calves inoculated with 106 and 107 ifu, about 15% in calves inoculated with 108 and more than 30% in calves inoculated with 109 ifu C. psittaci. Beside clinical signs and pathologic lesions, the bacterial load of lung tissue and markers of pulmonary inflammation (i.e., cell counts, concentration of proteins and eicosanoids in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid) were positively associated with ifu of viable C. psittaci. While any effect of endotoxin has been ruled out, all effects could be attributed to infection by the replicating bacteria. In conclusion, the calf represents a suitable model of respiratory chlamydial infection. Dose titration revealed that both clinically latent and clinically manifest infection can be reproduced experimentally by either 106 or 108 ifu/calf of C. psittaci DC15 while doses above 108 ifu C. psittaci cannot be recommended for further studies for ethical reasons. This defined model of different clinical expressions of chlamydial infection allows studying host-pathogen interactions. PMID:22299031

  11. Genital Problems in Men

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Do you have a painless sore on the shaft or head of your penis? Yes This may be a symptom of GENITAL ... BALANITIS, an infection of the head of the penis. See your doctor. Depending ... or semen, or pain with ejaculation? Yes You may have PROSTATITIS, an ...

  12. Genital herpes - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... helps keep your immune system strong. Eat healthy foods. Good nutrition also helps your immune system stay ... 2010 Dec17;59(RR-12):1-110. Lentz GM, Eckert LO. Infections of the lower genital tracts: ...

  13. Lactobacilli Inactivate Chlamydia trachomatis through Lactic Acid but Not H2O2

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Zheng; Luna, Yesmin; Yu, Ping; Fan, Huizhou

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus species dominate the microbiome in the lower genital tract of most reproductive-age women. Producing lactic acid and H2O2, lactobacilli are believed to play an important role in prevention of colonization by and growth of pathogens. However, to date, there have been no reported studies characterizing how lactobacilli interact with Chlamydia trachomatis, a leading sexually transmitted bacterium. In this report, we demonstrate inactivation of C. trachomatis infectivity by culture media conditioned by Lactobacillus crispatus, L. gasseri and L. jensenii, known to be dominating organisms in the human vaginal microbiome. Lactobacillus still cultures produced lactic acid, leading to time- and concentration-dependent killing of C. trachomatis. Neutralization of the acidic media completely reversed chlamydia killing. Addition of lactic acid into Lactobacillus-unconditioned growth medium recapitulated the chlamydiacidal activity of conditioned media. The H2O2 concentrations in the still cultures were found to be comparable to those reported for the cervicovaginal fluid, but insufficient to inactivate chlamydiae. Aeration of Lactobacillus cultures by shaking markedly induced H2O2 production, but strongly inhibited Lactobacillus growth and lactic acid production, and thus severely affected acidification, leading to significantly reduced chlamydiacidal efficiency. These observations indicate lactobacilli inactivate chlamydiae primarily through maintaining acidity in a relatively hypoxic environment in the vaginal lumen with limited H2O2, which is consistent with the notion that women with higher vaginal pH are more prone to sexually transmitted C. trachomatis infection. In addition to lactic acid, formic acid and acetic acid also exhibited potent chlamydiacidal activities. Taken together, our findings imply that lowering the vaginal pH through engineering of the vaginal microbiome and other means will make women less susceptible to C. trachomatis infection. PMID:25215504

  14. IL-12 administered during Chlamydia psittaci lung infection in mice confers immediate and long-term protection and reduces macrophage inflammatory protein-2 level and neutrophil infiltration in lung tissue.

    PubMed

    Huang, J; Wang, M D; Lenz, S; Gao, D; Kaltenboeck, B

    1999-02-15

    Protection against infections with the intracellular bacterium Chlamydia spp. requires Th1-polarized CD4+ T cell immunity. In BALB/c mouse lung infections, immediate innate and nascent Chlamydia-specific immune responses following intranasal inoculation of Chlamydia psittaci strain B577 were modulated by 7-day i.p. administration of murine rIL-12, the initiation cytokine for Th1 immunity. Treatment with IL-12 reduced the severity of chlamydial pneumonia, abolished mortality (37.5% in untreated mice), and significantly reduced numbers of chlamydial organisms in lungs. On day 4 after inoculation, the neutrophil:macrophage ratio in bronchointerstitial pneumonias was 1.96 in untreated mice and 0.51 in IL-12-treated mice. This immediate, IL-12-mediated shift in innate inflammatory phenotype was correlated with a significant reduction of lung concentrations of the neutrophil chemoattractant macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 (putative murine homologue of human IL-8), monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and TNF-alpha; and a reduction in MIP-1alpha and IFN-gamma, at high-dose infection only, and IL-12-independent IL-10 levels. Chlamydia-specific Ab titers and Ig isotype ratios indicated an IL-12-dependent Th1 shift. Recall responses of IL-12-primed mice to secondary chlamydial lung infection eliminated chlamydiae more effectively and generated a lung cytokine profile conducive to perpetuation of the Th1 memory population. These data support the hypothesis that genetic differences in endogenous IL-12 production and response pathways could determine disease outcomes characterized by poor chlamydial clearance and a purulent inflammatory infiltrate vs effective elimination of chlamydiae in a macrophage-dominated response. PMID:9973497

  15. Opportunistic screening for genital chlamydial infection. I: Acceptability of urine testing in primary and secondary healthcare settings

    PubMed Central

    Pimenta, J; Catchpole, M; Rogers, P; Perkins, E; Jackson, N; Carlisle, C; Randall, S; Hopwood, J; Hewitt, G; Underhill, G; Mallinson, H; McLean, L; Gleave, T; Tobin, J; Harindra, V; Ghosh, A

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the acceptability of opportunistic screening for Chlamydia trachomatis in young people in a range of healthcare settings. Design: An opportunistic screening programme (1 September 1999 to 31 August 2000) using urine samples tested by ligase chain reaction (LCR). Data on uptake and testing were collected and in-depth interviews were used for programme evaluation. Setting: General practice, family planning, genitourinary medicine clinics, adolescent sexual health clinics, termination of pregnancy clinics, and women's services in hospitals (antenatal, colposcopy, gynaecology and infertility clinics) in two health authorities (Wirral and Portsmouth and South East Hampshire). Main participants: Sexually active women aged between 16 and 24 years attending healthcare settings for any reason. Main outcome measures: Uptake data: proportion of women accepting a test by area, healthcare setting, and age; overall population coverage achieved in 1 year. Evaluation data: participants' attitudes and views towards opportunistic screening and urine testing. Results: Acceptance of testing by women (16–24 years) was 76% in Portsmouth and 84% in Wirral. Acceptance was lower in younger women (Portsmouth only) and varied by healthcare setting within each site. 50% of the target female population were screened in Portsmouth and 39% in Wirral. Both the opportunistic offer of screening and the method of screening were universally acceptable. Major factors influencing a decision to accept screening were the non-invasive nature of testing and treatment, desire to protect future fertility, and the experimental nature of the screening programme. Conclusions: An opportunistic model of urine screening for chlamydial infection is a practical, universally acceptable method of screening. PMID:12576607

  16. Better than nothing? Patient-delivered partner therapy and partner notification for chlamydia: the views of Australian general practitioners

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Genital chlamydia is the most commonly notified sexually transmissible infection (STI) in Australia and worldwide and can have serious reproductive health outcomes. Partner notification, testing and treatment are important facets of chlamydia control. Traditional methods of partner notification are not reaching enough partners to effectively control transmission of chlamydia. Patient-delivered partner therapy (PDPT) has been shown to improve the treatment of sexual partners. In Australia, General Practitioners (GPs) are responsible for the bulk of chlamydia testing, diagnosis, treatment and follow up. This study aimed to determine the views and practices of Australian general practitioners (GPs) in relation to partner notification and PDPT for chlamydia and explored GPs' perceptions of their patients' barriers to notifying partners of a chlamydia diagnosis. Methods In-depth, semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 40 general practitioners (GPs) from rural, regional and urban Australia from November 2006 to March 2007. Topics covered: GPs' current practice and views about partner notification, perceived barriers and useful supports, previous use of and views regarding PDPT. Transcripts were imported into NVivo7 and subjected to thematic analysis. Data saturation was reached after 32 interviews had been completed. Results Perceived barriers to patients telling partners (patient referral) included: stigma; age and cultural background; casual or long-term relationship, ongoing relationship or not. Barriers to GPs undertaking partner notification (provider referral) included: lack of time and staff; lack of contact details; uncertainty about the legality of contacting partners and whether this constitutes breach of patient confidentiality; and feeling both personally uncomfortable and inadequately trained to contact someone who is not their patient. GPs were divided on the use of PDPT - many felt concerned that it is not best clinical practice but many also felt that it is better than nothing. GPs identified the following factors which they considered would facilitate partner notification: clear clinical guidelines; a legal framework around partner notification; a formal chlamydia screening program; financial incentives; education and practical support for health professionals, and raising awareness of chlamydia in the community, in particular amongst young people. Conclusions GPs reported some partners do not seek medical treatment even after they are notified of being a sexual contact of a patient with chlamydia. More routine use of PDPT may help address this issue however GPs in this study had negative attitudes to the use of PDPT. Appropriate guidelines and legislation may make the use of PDPT more acceptable to Australian GPs. PMID:20849663

  17. Detection of viral, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections in exacerbations of asthma in children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    François Freymuth; Astrid Vabret; Jacques Brouard; Fabienne Toutain; Renaud Verdon; Joelle Petitjean; Stéphanie Gouarin; Jean-François Duhamel; Bernard Guillois

    1999-01-01

    Background: A high frequency of virus infections has been recently pointed out in the exacerbations of asthma in children. Objectives: To confirm this, using conventional and molecular detection methods, and expanding the study to younger children.Study design: One hundred and thirty-two nasal aspirates from 75 children hospitalized for a severe attack of asthma were studied (32 infants, mean age 9.1

  18. Vulvovaginal candida in a young sexually active population: prevalence and association with oro-genital sex and frequent pain at intercourse

    PubMed Central

    Rylander, E; Berglund, A; Krassny, C; Petrini, B

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the prevalence of vulvovaginal candida among sexually active adolescents. To determine past and present symptoms, including pain at intercourse and potential behavioural risk factors associated with vulvovaginal candidiasis. Methods: At an adolescent centre, 219 sexually active women who underwent genital examination, also completed a questionnaire on a history of genital symptoms and infections, sexual and hygiene habits, and the use of contraceptives. Symptoms and clinical signs were registered. Vaginal samples were analysed for candida species and urine for Chlamydia trachomatis. Results: Candida culture was positive in 42% of the women and only 15% were asymptomatic. A history of recurrent candidiasis was given by 22%. Frequent pain at intercourse was reported by 24% and frequent oro-genital sex by 42% of the women. Frequent pain at intercourse was significantly associated with both the growth of candida and a history of recurrent candidiasis. Oro-genital sex was an independent risk factor for the growth of candida. Conclusion: In sexually active adolescents, who underwent genital examination, candida cultures were positive in 42%. The habit of frequent oro-genital sex was associated with the growth of candida. Pain at intercourse was associated with the growth of candida and recurrent candidiasis. PMID:14755037

  19. Chlamydia trachomatis mouse pneumonitis lung infection in IL-18 and IL-12 knockout mice: IL-12 is dominant over IL-18 for protective immunity.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, H.; Yang, X.; Takeda, K.; Zhang, D.; Fan, Y.; Luo, M.; Shen, C.; Wang, S.; Akira, S.; Brunham, R. C.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Interferon (IFN)-gamma is a key to protective immunity against a variety of intracellular bacterial infections, including Chlamydia trachomatis. Interleukin (IL)-18, a recently identified Th1 cytokine, together with IL-12 is a strong stimulator for IFN-gamma production. We investigated the relative roles of IL-18 and IL- 12 in protective immunity to C. trachomatis mouse pneumonitis (MoPn) infection using gene knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice were intranasally infected with C. trachomatis MoPn and protective immunity was assessed among groups of mice by daily body weight changes, lung growth of MoPn, and histopathological appearances at day 10 postinfection. The corresponding immune responses for each group of mice at the same postinfection time point were evaluated by measuring antigen-specific antibody isotype responses and cytokine profiles. RESULTS: Our results showed that IL-18 deficiency had little or no influence on clearance of MoPn from the lung, although KO mice exhibited slightly more severe inflammatory reactions in lung tissues, as well as reduced systemic and local IFN-gamma production, compared with WT mice. Results with IL-18 KO mice were in sharp contrast to those observed with IL-12 KO mice that showed substantially reduced clearance of MoPn from the lungs, substantial reductions of antigen-specific systemic and lung IFN-gamma production, decreased ratio of MoPn-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG)2a/IgG1, and severe pathological changes in the lung with extensive polymorphonuclear, instead of mononuclear, cell infiltration. Exogenous IL-12 or IL-18 was able to increase IFN-gamma production in IL-18 KO mice; whereas, only exogenous IL-12, but not IL-18, enhanced IFN-gamma production in IL-12 KO mice. Caspase-1 is the key protease for activation of IL-18 precursor into the bioactive form, and caspase-1 KO mice also displayed similar bacterial clearance and body weight loss to that in WT mice at early stages of MoPn infection. This further confirmed that IL-18 was not essential for host defense against chlamydia infection. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that IL-12, rather than IL-18, plays the dominant role in the development of protective immunity against chlamydia lung infection, although both cytokines are involved in the in vivo regulation of IFN-gamma production. PMID:10997341

  20. Novel Sequence Types of Chlamydia pecorum Infect Free-Ranging Alpine Ibex (Capra ibex) and Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Jelocnik, Martina; Self, Rachel; Timms, Peter; Borel, Nicole; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2015-04-01

    Chlamydia pecorum, a recognized pathogen of domesticated ruminants and koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), has been recently reported in a broad range of other wildlife species including water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), ibex (Capra ibex), chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), red deer (Cervus elaphus), and birds. This identification raises questions as to whether cross-host transmission may be a factor in the epidemiology of infections in these species. To begin to address this question, we employed a C. pecorum species-specific multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) scheme to characterize a small collection of C. pecorum-positive samples from wild, free-range ibex, a chamois, and a red deer from Grison, Switzerland, a canton where domesticated and wild ruminants graze in close proximity during the summer. Screening by PCR confirmed low to moderate levels of Chlamydia pecorum DNA in the eyes of healthy ibex (n?=?4) and in the deer fecal sample (n?=?1). The MLST analysis revealed three novel sequence types (STs; 88, 90, and 89) in these samples. On phylogenetic analysis, the ibex and deer sequences clustered by host species in their own well-supported clades and away from C. pecorum STs found in other hosts. Even though the analyzed sample size was small, the identification of unique C. pecorum STs infecting free-ranging Alpine ibex and red deer provides useful information for further C. pecorum epidemiologic studies. PMID:25647593

  1. Chlamydia pneumoniae genome sequence analysis and identification of HLA-A2-restricted CD8+ T cell epitopes recognized by infection-primed T cells.

    PubMed

    Capo, Sabrina; Nuti, Sandra; Scarselli, Maria; Tavarini, Simona; Montigiani, Silvia; Mori, Elena; Finco, Oretta; Abrignani, Sergio; Grandi, Guido; Bensi, Giuliano

    2005-10-10

    In the present study, we performed in silico analysis of Chlamydia pneumoniae genome sequence to identify human HLA-A2-restricted T cell epitopes. Thirty-one Chlamydia-specific protein antigens were selected and peptides were derived thereof using an HLA-A2 epitope predictive algorithm. Firstly, we tested binding of 55 selected 9mer peptides to HLA-A2 in vitro. Next, infection of HLA-A2 transgenic mice with C. pneumoniae elementary bodies and assessment of effector CD8+ T cells allowed us to identify which of the epitopes binding to HLA-A2 in vitro were recognized by C. pneumoniae infection-primed CD8+ T cells. Finally, we could confirm that CD8+ T cells in association with HLA-A2 recognized the most reactive peptides when the corresponding full-length genes were used to DNA-immunize HLA-A2 transgenic mice. By using this approach, a novel HLA-A2-restricted epitope in the outer membrane protein A (OmpA) of C. pneumoniae was identified, which proved to mediate specific lysis of peptide-loaded target cells. PMID:15982792

  2. Female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Ladjali, M; Rattray, T W; Walder, R J

    1993-08-21

    Female genital mutilation, also misleadingly known as female circumcision, is usually performed on girls ranging in from 1 week to puberty. Immediate physical complications include severe pain, shock, infection, bleeding, acute urinary infection, tetanus, and death. Longterm problems include chronic pain, difficulties with micturition and menstruation, pelvic infection leading to infertility, and prolonged and obstructed labor during childbirth. An estimated 80 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation. In Britain alone an estimated 10,000 girls are currently at risk. Religious, cultural, medical, and moral grounds rationalize the custom which is practiced primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab world, Malaysia, Indonesia, and among migrant populations in Western countries. According to WHO it is correlated with poverty, illiteracy, and the low status of women. Women who escape mutilation are not sought in marriage. WHO, the UN Population Fund, the UN Children's Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child have issued declarations on the eradication of female genital mutilation. In Britain, local authorities have intervened to prevent parents from mutilating their daughters. In 1984, the Inter-African Committee Against Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting Women and Children was established to work toward eliminating female genital mutilation and other damaging customs. National committees in 26 African countries coordinate projects run by local people using theater, dance, music, and storytelling for communication. In Australia, Canada, Europe, and the US women have organized to prevent the practice among vulnerable migrants and refugees. PMID:8400925

  3. The Frequency of Chlamydia trachomatis Major Outer Membrane Protein-Specific CD8+ T Lymphocytes in Active Trachoma Is Associated with Current Ocular Infection

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Martin J.; Faal, Nkoyo; Sarr, Isatou; Joof, Hassan; Laye, Mass; Cameron, Ewen; Pemberton-Pigott, Frederick; Dockrell, Hazel M.; Bailey, Robin L.; Mabey, David C. W.

    2006-01-01

    Chlamydia-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes are able to control model infections but may be implicated in disease pathogenesis. HLA-A2 peptide tetramers to Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein 258-266 (MOMP258-266) and MOMP260-268 were used to characterize HLA class I-restricted CD8+ T cells in Gambian children aged 4 to 15 years with clinical signs of active trachoma and/or infection with C. trachomatis. The frequencies of circulating HLA-A2 tetramer binding cells (TBC) were determined in whole blood samples by flow cytometric analysis. Initial screening of subjects with an anti-HLA-A2 antibody confirmed the presence of either HLA-A2 or HLA-A28. These were subsequently further divided by molecular subtyping. The C. trachomatis-specific HLA-A2 peptide tetramers were able to bind T cells with receptors from subjects which were restricted by either the HLA-A2 or the HLA-A28 restriction element. In this population, the median value of C. trachomatis-specific CD8+ T cells was 0.02%, with frequencies of up to 3.71% of CD8+ T cells reactive with a single tetramer in a minority of subjects. TBC were detected more often in subjects who were infected at the ocular surface, and their presence was associated with infection episodes of longer duration. Detection of C. trachomatis-specific TBC was not associated with the presence of disease or with the estimated load of ocular C. trachomatis infection at the time of sample collection. High frequencies of C. trachomatis-specific cells did not predict subsequent appearance or resolution of the clinical disease signs of active trachoma. PMID:16495527

  4. Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection among Women in Bangladesh: Findings from a Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Nahar, Quamrun; Sultana, Farhana; Alam, Anadil; Islam, Jessica Yasmine; Rahman, Mustafizur; Khatun, Fatema; Alam, Nazmul; Dasgupta, Sushil Kanta; Marions, Lena; Ashrafunnessa; Kamal, Mohammed; Cravioto, Alejandro; Reichenbach, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Background There has been no population-based study on human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence or its genotypes in Bangladesh; a country eligible for GAVI funding for HPV vaccine. Methods We used baseline survey data of a prospective cohort study that was conducted in one urban and one rural area of Bangladesh. A total of 997 urban and 905 rural married women, aged 13 to 64 years, were enrolled in the baseline during July-December, 2011. Information was collected on socio-demographic characteristics and potential risk factors for HPV infection followed by gynecological examination and collection of endocervical samples using the cervical cytobrush (Digene cervical sampler). HPV DNA testing was done by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) using a consensus primer set. Results Prevalence of any HPV infection was 7.7% with no significant difference between urban and rural women. Most common high-risk genotypes were HPV16, HPV66, HPV18, HPV45, HPV31 and HPV53. Urban women working as housemaids or garment workers were at higher risk of any HPV infection (OR?=?2.15, 95% CI: 1.13–4.11) compared to housewives. Rural women whose husband lived overseas were almost two times more likely to have any HPV infection (OR?=?1.93; 95% CI 1.05–3.55) compared to women whose husbands lived with them. Conclusion The prevalence of HPV infection among Bangladeshi women is similar to other regions of Asia. However, type-specific patterns are different. The study findings will inform the formulation of HPV vaccination policies in Bangladesh, monitoring the impact of vaccination programmes, and the identification of target populations for screening. PMID:25271836

  5. Chlamydia psittaci exposure in pet birds.

    PubMed

    Cong, W; Huang, S Y; Zhang, X X; Zhou, D H; Xu, M J; Zhao, Q; Qian, A D; Zhu, X Q

    2014-04-01

    Chlamydia psittaci is a zoonotic pathogen with a wide range of avian hosts and may be transmitted to humans and cause severe disease. To assess the risk of psittacosis posed by pet birds, the seroprevalence of Chlamydia psittaci antibodies in 360 Eurasian siskins (Carduelis spinus), 289 oriental skylarks (Alauda arvensis) and 36 black-tailed grosbeaks (Coccothraustes migratorius) in Gansu province, north-western China was detected by an indirect haemagglutination assay. Twenty-seven out of 289 (9.34?%) Alauda arvensis, 45 out of 360 (12.50?%) Carduelis spinus and 2 out of 36 (5.56?%) Coccothraustes migratorius were positive for Chlamydia psittaci infection at a cut-off dilution of 1?:?16. The prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci was higher in Carduelis spinus (12.5?%) than in Alauda arvensis (9.34?%) and Coccothraustes migratorius (5.56?%); however, the differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Statistical analysis indicated that Chlamydia psittaci seroprevalence in adult pet birds (12.4?%, 67/540) was significantly higher than that in juvenile pet birds (4.83?%, 7/145) (P<0.01). There was no statistical difference in Chlamydia psittaci seroprevalence between male (12.4?%) and female (8.27?%) birds. To our knowledge, this is the first report indicating the seroprevalence of Chlamydia psittaci exposure in pet birds in China. Our results indicate that close contact with pet birds poses the risk of zoonotic transmission of Chlamydia psittaci. PMID:24445511

  6. [The study on the epidemiological features and risk factor of Chlamydia trachomatis reproductive tract infection (CTRTI) among 664 married women at reproductive age in rural areas].

    PubMed

    Li, W; Huang, X H; Wang, T Y

    1997-04-01

    The infection rate and risk factors of CTRTI among 664 married women at reporductive age in rural areas in Chengjiang county, Yunnan province were investigated. Specimens of cervical swab were detected for CT antigen using Chlamydia EIA(Syva co., USA). The selection of major risk factors was through Logistic regression and chi 2-test. The results showed that the overall infection rate of CTRTI was 5.0%, with 60.6% of these cases asymptomatic. The major risk factors include: spouse who has symptoms of RTIs; history of others vaginitis; divorce; habit of washing face, feet and vulva with the same wash basin; age of menarche; amenorrhoea during lactation; low education and living in poverty. PMID:9812502

  7. Immunization with a MOMP-Based Vaccine Protects Mice against a Pulmonary Chlamydia Challenge and Identifies a Disconnection between Infection and Pathology

    PubMed Central

    O’Meara, Connor P.; Armitage, Charles W.; Harvie, Marina C. G.; Timms, Peter; Lycke, Nils Y.; Beagley, Kenneth W.

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is responsible for up to 20% of community acquired pneumonia and can exacerbate chronic inflammatory diseases. As the majority of infections are either mild or asymptomatic, a vaccine is recognized to have the greatest potential to reduce infection and disease prevalence. Using the C. muridarum mouse model of infection, we immunized animals via the intranasal (IN), sublingual (SL) or transcutaneous (TC) routes, with recombinant chlamydial major outer membrane protein (MOMP) combined with adjuvants CTA1-DD or a combination of cholera toxin/CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide (CT/CpG). Vaccinated animals were challenged IN with C. muridarum and protection against infection and pathology was assessed. SL and TC immunization with MOMP and CT/CpG was the most protective, significantly reducing chlamydial burden in the lungs and preventing weight loss, which was similar to the protection induced by a previous live infection. Unlike a previous infection however, these vaccinations also provided almost complete protection against fibrotic scarring in the lungs. Protection against infection was associated with antigen-specific production of IFN?, TNF? and IL-17 by splenocytes, however, protection against both infection and pathology required the induction of a similar pro-inflammatory response in the respiratory tract draining lymph nodes. Interestingly, we also identified two contrasting vaccinations capable of preventing infection or pathology individually. Animals IN immunized with MOMP and either adjuvant were protected from infection, but not the pathology. Conversely, animals TC immunized with MOMP and CTA1-DD were protected from pathology, even though the chlamydial burden in this group was equivalent to the unimmunized controls. This suggests that the development of pathology following an IN infection of vaccinated animals was independent of bacterial load and may have been driven instead by the adaptive immune response generated following immunization. This identifies a disconnection between the control of infection and the development of pathology, which may influence the design of future vaccines. PMID:23613984

  8. Integrative approach to diagnosis of genital human papillomaviruses (HPV) infection of female.

    PubMed

    Dunjic, Momir; Stanisic, Slavisa; Krstic, Dejan; Stanisic, Miodrag; Ignjatic, Z Jovanovic; Dunjic, Marija

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a virus from the papillomavirus family that is capable of infecting humans. Some types of HPVs cause warts, while others can lead to cancers of the cervix, vulva, vagina, penis, oropharynx and anus. High-risk human papillomavirus (hr HPV) has been detected in almost all cervical squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas. All patients examined by colposcopy. Cervical swab is routinely done and patients are screened with both HPV DNA by Real Time Polimerase Chain Reaction (RT PCR) testing and Pap testing. Pictures obtained by colposcopy were examined by indirect Bi-Digital O-Ring Test (BDORT) by using reference control substance (RCS): HPV 16, HPV 18, and Integrin ?5 ?1. BDORT was developed by Prof. Omura Y. of New York and received U.S. patent in 1993. For detection of HPV DNA we used RT PCR and standard Qiagen method which detect 18 types (16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 68, 6, 11, 42, 43, 44) of HPV from smear. From 63 patients where is BDORT indicated presence of HPV, in 49 patients (77.8%) RT PCR confirmed presence of HPV. From 63 patients in 54 patients (85.7%), we detected, by colposcopic exam, some kind of lesions associated with HPV infection. Results obtained by RT PCR: one type (1/18) of DNA HPV in 25 patients (51.02%), 2 types (2/18) in 15 patients (30.61%) and 3 types (3/18) in 9 patients (18.37%). Although BDORT results usually have higher sensitivity and detection rate is much higher, it can be used together with RT PCR in detection of HPV and cervical lesions associated with HPV infection. PMID:25693306

  9. Chlamydial Infection Increases Gonococcal Colonization in a Novel Murine Coinfection Model?

    PubMed Central

    Vonck, Rachel A.; Darville, T.; O'Connell, C. M.; Jerse, Ann E.

    2011-01-01

    Genital tract infections caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis serovars D to K occur at high incidence in many areas of the world. Despite high rates of coinfection with these pathogens, investigations of host-parasite interactions have focused on each pathogen individually. We describe here a coinfection model in which female BALB/c mice were first infected with the mouse Chlamydia species C. muridarum and then inoculated with N. gonorrhoeae following treatment with water-soluble 17?-estradiol to promote long-term gonococcal infection. Viable gonococci and chlamydiae were recovered for an average of 8 to 10 days, and diplococci and chlamydial inclusions were observed in lower genital tract tissue by immunohistochemical staining. Estradiol treatment reduced proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels in chlamydia-infected mice; however, coinfected mice had a higher percentage of vaginal neutrophils compared to mice infected with either pathogen alone. We detected no difference in pathogen-specific antibody levels due to coinfection. Interestingly, significantly more gonococci were recovered from coinfected mice compared to mice infected with N. gonorrhoeae alone. We found no evidence that C. muridarum increases gonococcal adherence to, or invasion of, immortalized murine epithelial cells. However, increased vaginal concentrations of inflammatory mediators macrophage inflammatory protein 2 and tumor necrosis factor alpha were detected in C. muridarum-infected mice prior to inoculation with N. gonorrhoeae concurrently with the downregulation of cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide and secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor genes. We conclude that female mice can be successfully infected with both C. muridarum and N. gonorrhoeae and that chlamydia-induced alterations in host innate responses may enhance gonococcal infection. PMID:21245268

  10. Berberine inhibits Chlamydia pneumoniae infection-induced vascular smooth muscle cell migration through downregulating MMP3 and MMP9 via PI3K.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lu; Zhang, Lijun; Wang, Beibei; Wei, Junyan; Liu, Jingya; Zhang, Lijun

    2015-05-15

    The mechanisms by which Chlamydia pneumoniae infection promote vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration required in the development of atherosclerosis have not yet been fully clarified. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have important roles in VSMC migration. However, it is still unknown whether MMPs are involved in C. pneumoniae infection-induced VSMC migration. In addition, whether berberine can exert its inhibitory effects on the infection-induced VSMC migration also remains unclear. Accordingly, we investigated the effects of berberine on C. pneumoniae infection-induced VSMC migration and explored the possible mechanisms involved in this process. Herein, we found that C. pneumoniae infection could induce VSMC migration through Matrigel-coated membrane (P<0.05), which can be significantly inhibited by the broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor GM6001 (P<0.05). Our results also showed that C. pneumoniae infection upregulated both mRNA and protein expressions of MMP3 and MMP9 (P<0.05). The specific phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 significantly suppressed the increases in MMP3 and MMP9 protein expressions induced by C. pneumoniae infection (P<0.05). Further experiments showed that berberine significantly attenuated C. pneumoniae infection-induced VSMC migration (P<0.05). Moreover, berberine suppressed the protein expressions of MMP3 and MMP9 caused by C. pneumoniae infection in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). C. pneumoniae infection-induced increase in the phosphorylation level of Akt at Ser473 was inhibited by the treatment with berberine (P<0.05). Taken together, our data suggest that berberine inhibits C. pneumoniae infection-induced VSMC migration by downregulating the expressions of MMP3 and MMP9 via PI3K. PMID:25746423

  11. Genital manifestations of tropical diseases

    PubMed Central

    Richens, J

    2004-01-01

    Genital symptoms in tropical countries and among returned travellers can arise from a variety of bacterial, protozoal, and helminthic infections which are not usually sexually transmitted. The symptoms may mimic classic sexually transmitted infections (STIs) by producing ulceration (for example, amoebiasis, leishmaniasis), wart-like lesions (schistosomiasis), or lesions of the upper genital tract (epididymo-orchitis caused by tuberculosis, leprosy, and brucellosis; salpingitis as a result of tuberculosis, amoebiasis, and schistosomiasis). A variety of other genital symptoms less suggestive of STI are also seen in tropical countries. These include hydrocele (seen with filariasis), which can be no less stigmatising than STI, haemospermia (seen with schistosomiasis), and hypogonadism (which may occur in lepromatous leprosy). This article deals in turn with genital manifestations of filariasis, schistosomiasis, amoebiasis, leishmaniasis, tuberculosis and leprosy and gives clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:14755029

  12. 9 CFR 113.71 - Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...show clinical signs of feline pneumonitis infection other than fever, the test is inconclusive and may be repeated. (ii) If a significant difference in clinical signs other than fever or chlamydia shedding cannot be demonstrated between...

  13. 9 CFR 113.71 - Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...show clinical signs of feline pneumonitis infection other than fever, the test is inconclusive and may be repeated. (ii) If a significant difference in clinical signs other than fever or chlamydia shedding cannot be demonstrated between...

  14. 9 CFR 113.71 - Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...show clinical signs of feline pneumonitis infection other than fever, the test is inconclusive and may be repeated. (ii) If a significant difference in clinical signs other than fever or chlamydia shedding cannot be demonstrated between...

  15. 9 CFR 113.71 - Chlamydia Psittaci Vaccine (Feline Pneumonitis), Live Chlamydia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...show clinical signs of feline pneumonitis infection other than fever, the test is inconclusive and may be repeated. (ii) If a significant difference in clinical signs other than fever or chlamydia shedding cannot be demonstrated between...

  16. Therapy of pediatric genital diseases.

    PubMed

    Fiorillo, Loretta

    2004-01-01

    Infants and children have special issues with regard to genital disease. Infants are incontinent, and have an increase in local irritation and infection risk. In addition, the adult sex hormones which enhance the health of genital skin are deficient. Also, the choice of therapy must be modified to take into account the more fragile nature of prepubertal skin, the tolerance of children to painful treatments, and the lack of experience of some medications in children. PMID:14756896

  17. Male circumcision and the incidence and clearance of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men: the HPV Infection in men (HIM) cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Reported associations of male circumcision (MC) with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men have been inconsistent. Methods 4,033 healthy men were examined every six months for a median of 17.5 months. In each study visit, exfoliated cell specimens from the coronal sulcus/glans penis, penile shaft, and scrotum were collected and combined into one sample per person for HPV DNA detection. Samples were tested for 37 HPV types. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the association between MC and the incidence and clearance of HPV infections and specific genotypes. Results The overall incidence of new HPV infections did not differ by MC status (for any HPV, adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91-1.27). However, incidence was significantly lower among circumcised versus uncircumcised men for HPV types 58 (p?=?0.01), 68 (p?genital HPV detection, except for certain HPV types. The use of a single combined sample from the penis and scrotum for HPV DNA detection likely limited our ability to identify a true effect of MC at the distal penis. PMID:24517172

  18. Recent acquisitions in the medical treatment of infertility caused by Chlamydia Trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Al-Moushaly, A

    2013-06-15

    The infertility defined as the incapacity of the people to conceive a child in a given period, usually of 1-2 years of sexually unprotected relations, represents a major dysfunction of the genital apparatus. Its frequency is estimated at 10-15% of the couples at the reproductive age. The incidence of sterility is high, a couple out of 10 being sterile. The conjugal sterility is a phenomenon representative for the couple; the woman is responsible for it only in 35-40% of the cases, in 40% of the cases, the male factor is involved. In 20% of the cases, mixed factors are met, both feminine and masculine, and in 5-10% of the cases, the causes cannot be detected. From the multitude of causes of infertility, the infectious factor plays an important role, the Chlamydia infections being lately blamed in the etiology of sterility. The infections due to Chlamydia Trachomatis (CT) represent the most frequent sexually transmitted diseases, which, most of the times lead to sterility. Taking into account the widespread of this bacterium in the sexually active population, the effective treatment of the CT infection is very important. We have selected 200 cases with PID genital infection in the study. All the selected patients had at least 2, 3 and more than 3 inflammation recurrence episodes, this way being considered cases with medium and severe forms of disease. All these selected patients had at least 2, 3 and more than 3 episodes of inflammation recurrence, this way being considered medium and severe disease cases. In conclusion, there is a high clinical efficiency of the azithromycin treatment in PID case. PMID:23904877

  19. The burden of infection with HSV-1 and HSV-2 in England and Wales: implications for the changing epidemiology of genital herpes

    PubMed Central

    Vyse, A; Gay, N; Slomka, M; Gopal, R; Gibbs, T; Morgan-Capner, P; Brown, D

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To measure the burden of infection with herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2) in the general population of England and Wales and to assess temporal changes in the incidence of HSV-1 infection in childhood. Methods: 4930 residual blood samples taken from people aged 0–69 years and submitted to 15 public health laboratories in England and Wales between January 1994 and June 1995, and 500 samples taken from people aged 10–14 years between November 1986 and December 1987, were screened for IgG antibody to HSV-1 and HSV-2 using type specific ELISA assays. Results: The prevalence of antibody to HSV-1 in 10–14 year olds declined from 34% in samples collected in 1986–7 to 24% in samples collected in 1994–5 (p<0.001). HSV-1 antibody prevalence in adults increased with age and was higher in females than males, reaching 54% in females aged 25–30 years in 1994–5. In samples collected in 1994–5 from people aged 16–69 years HSV-2 antibody was detected in sera from 3.3% of men and 5.1% of women. Conclusions: The incidence of HSV-1 infection in childhood is falling in England and Wales. The prevalence of HSV-2 infection in the general population is low, with the rate of infection significantly lower than that described for the general population in the United States and developing countries. The falling rate of HSV-1 infection in childhood may be one factor contributing to the increasing incidence of genital HSV-1 infection. Key Words: herpes simplex virus; genital herpes; prevalence PMID:10961195

  20. The major CD8 T cell effector memory subset in the normal and Chlamydia trachomatis-infected human endocervix is low in perforin

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The local tissue microenvironment plays an important role in the induction, homing, maintenance and development of effector functions of T cells. Thus, site-specific differences in phenotypes of mucosal and systemic T cell populations have been observed. Chlamydia trachomatis most commonly infects the endocervix in women, yet little is known about Chlamydia-specific effector T cell immunity at this unique mucosal site. Our previous flow-cytometry-based study of cervical-cytobrush retrieved cells indicated that CD8 T cells are significantly increased in the C. trachomatis-infected human endocervix. The cytolytic function of CD8 T cells is important in the protective immunity against many intracellular pathogens, and requires the cytolytic granule perforin to facilitate the entry of other molecules that mediate the lysis of target cells. Determination of perforin expression of the CD8 T cell population in the endocervix would therefore provide insights on the granule-mediated cytolytic potential of these cells at this site. Results Our histological data revealed that C. trachomatis-infected tissues have significantly higher numbers of CD3 and CD8 T cells compared to non-infected tissues (p<0.01), and that the majority of CD8+ cells do not express perforin in situ. A subsequent flow cytometric analysis of paired blood and endocervix-derived cells (n=16) revealed that while all the CD8 T cell subsets: naïve, effector memory (TEM), central memory (TCM) and terminally differentiated effector memory (TEMRA) can be found in the blood, the endocervix is populated mainly by the TEM CD8 T cell subset. Our data also showed that perforin expression in the TEM population is significantly lower in the endocervix than in the blood of C. trachomatis positive women (n=15; p<0.0001), as well as in C. trachomatis-negative individuals (n=6; p<0.05). Interestingly, our in vitro co-culture study suggests that the exposure of HeLa 229 cervical epithelial cells to IFN gamma could potentially induce a decrease in perforin content in CD8 TEM cells in the same microenvironment. Conclusions The low perforin content of CD8 TEM cells in the endocervix, the local site of C. trachomatis infection in women, may reflect the unique immunological environment that balances immune protection against sexually transmitted infections and immune- tolerance to support conception. PMID:23216954

  1. Pregnancy Complications: Chlamydia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in the community. Home > Pregnancy > Pregnancy Complications > Chlamydia Pregnancy complications Pregnancy complications may need special medical care. ... younger than 25. Can chlamydia cause problems during pregnancy? Yes. If you get it before or during ...

  2. Clueing in on Chlamydia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Wendy

    1991-01-01

    Chlamydia's role in female infertility is discussed. The relationship of this organism to other diseases such as leprosy and tuberculosis is explained. Conditions caused by Chlamydia such as Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) are described. (KR)

  3. Antibody Signature of Spontaneous Clearance of Chlamydia trachomatis Ocular Infection and Partial Resistance against Re-challenge in a Nonhuman Primate Trachoma Model

    PubMed Central

    Kari, Laszlo; Bess, Leah N.; Watkins, Heather S.; Southern, Timothy R.; Song, Lihua; Whitmire, William M.; Olivares-Zavaleta, Norma; Caldwell, Harlan D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Chlamydia trachomatis is the etiological agent of trachoma the world's leading cause of infectious blindness. Here, we investigate whether protracted clearance of a primary infection in nonhuman primates is attributable to antigenic variation or related to the maturation of the anti-chlamydial humoral immune response specific to chlamydial antigens. Methodology/Principal Findings Genomic sequencing of organisms isolated throughout the protracted primary infection revealed that antigenic variation was not related to the inability of monkeys to efficiently resolve their infection. To explore the maturation of the humoral immune response as a possible reason for delayed clearance, sera were analyzed by radioimmunoprecipitation using intrinsically radio-labeled antigens prepared under non-denaturing conditions. Antibody recognition was restricted to the antigenically variable major outer membrane protein (MOMP) and a few antigenically conserved antigens. Recognition of MOMP occurred early post-infection and correlated with reduction in infectious ocular burdens but not with infection eradication. In contrast, antibody recognition of conserved antigens, identified as PmpD, Hsp60, CPAF and Pgp3, appeared late and correlated with infection eradication. Partial immunity to re-challenge was associated with a discernible antibody recall response against all antigens. Antibody recognition of PmpD and CPAF was destroyed by heat treatment while MOMP and Pgp3 were partially affected, indicating that antibody specific to conformational epitopes on these proteins may be important to protective immunity. Conclusions/Significance Our findings suggest that delayed clearance of chlamydial infection in NHP is not the result of antigenic variation but rather a consequence of the gradual maturation of the C. trachomatis antigen-specific humoral immune response. However, we cannot conclude that antibodies specific for these proteins play the primary role in host protective immunity as they could be surrogate markers of T cell immunity. Collectively, our results argue that an efficacious subunit trachoma vaccine might require a combination of these antigens delivered in their native conformation. PMID:23738030

  4. Comparison of viral isolation, direct immunofluorescence, and indirect immunoperoxidase techniques for detection of genital herpes simplex virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Moseley, R C; Corey, L; Benjamin, D; Winter, C; Remington, M L

    1981-01-01

    Seventy-six consecutive patients presenting to a genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) clinic were enrolled in a study comparing viral isolation (VI), indirect immunoperoxidase (indirect IP), and direct immunofluorescence (direct FA) techniques for the detection of HSV antigen. Of the 76 patients, 61 (80%) demonstrated HSV by VI, compared with 66% by indirect IP and 55% by direct FA (P less than 0.05). Genital lesions from nine patients demonstrated HSV antigen by direct FA or indirect IP but were VI negative; eight of nine patients had subsequent episodes of genital HSV confirmed by VI. During the vesicular-pustular stage of the disease, VI was positive in 90%, indirect IP was positive in 76%, and direct FA was positive in 71% of the lesions, whereas with ulcerative lesions, VI was positive in 72%, indirect IP was positive in 55%, and direct FA was positive in 38%. These commercially available rapid viral diagnostic techniques are specific and useful, if adequate specimens are obtained from early genital lesions. PMID:6263945

  5. Functional and Biochemical Analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis MurC, an Enzyme Displaying UDP-N-Acetylmuramate:Amino Acid Ligase Activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars Hesse; Julieanne Bostock; Sebastien Dementin; Didier Blanot; Dominique Mengin-Lecreulx; Ian Chopra

    2003-01-01

    Chlamydiae are unusual obligate intracellular bacteria that cause serious infections in humans. Chlamydiae contain genes that appear to encode products with peptidoglycan biosynthetic activity. The organisms are also susceptible to antibiotics that inhibit peptidoglycan synthesis. However, chlamydiae do not synthesize detect- able peptidoglycan. The paradox created by these observations is known as the chlamydial anomaly. The MurC enzyme of chlamydiae,

  6. Inflammation, Infection, and Future Cardiovascular Risk

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2005-06-23

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Myocardial Infarction; Venous Thromboembolism; Heart Diseases; Infection; Chlamydia Infections; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Helicobacter Infections; Herpesviridae Infections; Inflammation

  7. Risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in adolescents: results from a representative population-based survey in Germany, 2003-2006.

    PubMed

    Haar, K; Bremer, V; Houareau, C; Meyer, T; Desai, S; Thamm, M; Hamouda, O

    2013-01-01

    Infections with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) can lead to severe sequelae; however, they are not notifiable in Germany. We tested urine samples from participants of KiGGS (German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents) for CT infections and linked the results to demographic and behavioural data from 1,925 participants (girls aged 15-17 years and boys aged 16-17 years) to determine a representative prevalence of CT infection in adolescents in Germany and to assess associated risk factors. Prevalence of CT infection was 2.2% (95% CI: 1.4-3.5) in girls and 0.2% (95% CI: 0.1-0.7) in boys. CT infection in girls was associated with higher use of alcohol, marijuana and cigarettes, lower social status, oral contraceptive use, pregnancy, repeated lower abdominal pain and higher rates of doctors' consultations within the preceding three months and consultation of gynaecologists within the last 12 months. In multiple logistic regression, we identified two predictors for CT infection: marijuana consumption often or several times within the last 12 months (F(1,164)=7.56; p<0.05) and general health status less than 'very good' (F(1,164)=3.83; p=0.052). Given our findings, we recommend enhancing sex education before sexual debut and promoting safe sex practices regardless of the contraceptive method used. Well-informed consumption of alcohol should be promoted, the risky behaviour of people intoxicated through consumption of marijuana highlighted and doctors' awareness of CT screening enhanced. PMID:23987832

  8. Chlamydia and Gonorrhea Screening in San Francisco High Schools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHARLOTTE K. KENT; ANNA BRANZUELA; LYN FISCHER; TRISH BASCOM; JEFFREY D. KLAUSNER

    2002-01-01

    Background: Previous school-based studies in cities with a high prevalence of chlamydia found a substantial prevalence of chlamydial infection among students. Goal: The goal was to determine the feasibility and accept- ability of chlamydia and gonorrhea screening in San Francisco high schools. Study Design: Sexually transmitted disease (STD) education and screening were conducted at four high schools. Students provided basic

  9. Genital Herpes (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that's usually caused by the herpes simplex virus type ... cold sores around the mouth. In some cases, genital herpes causes blisters and pain in the genital ...

  10. Molecular Diagnosis of Sexually Transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Harkins, April L.; Munson, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydia, with its Chlamydia trachomatis etiology, is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection in the United States and is often transmitted via asymptomatic individuals. This review summarizes traditional and molecular-based diagnostic modalities specific to C. trachomatis. Several commercially available, FDA-approved molecular methods to diagnose urogenital C. trachomatis infection include nucleic acid hybridization, signal amplification, polymerase chain reaction, strand displacement amplification, and transcription-mediated amplification. Molecular-based methods are rapid and reliable genital specimen screening measures, especially when applied to areas of high disease prevalence. However, clinical and analytical sensitivity for some commercial systems decreases dramatically when testing urine samples. In vitro experiments and clinical data suggest that transcription-mediated amplification has greater analytical sensitivity than the other molecular-based methods currently available. This difference may be further exhibited in testing of extragenital specimens from at-risk patient demographics. The development of future molecular testing could address conundrums associated with confirmatory testing, medicolegal testing, and test of cure. PMID:21822498

  11. Characterization of ompA Genotypes by Sequence Analysis of DNA from All Detected Cases of Chlamydia trachomatis Infections during 1 Year of Contact Tracing in a Swedish County

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Lysen; Anders Osterlund; Carl-Johan Rubin; Tina Persson; Ingrid Persson; Bjorn Herrmann

    2004-01-01

    In this study we aimed to characterize the ompA gene by sequencing DNA from all detected cases of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in a Swedish county during 2001, in order to improve the efficiency of contact tracing. Approximately 990 bp of the ompA gene was amplified, and sequence analysis was achieved in 678 (94%) of 725 C. trachomatis-positive cases in this

  12. Genetic variation in Chlamydia trachomatis and their hosts: impact on disease severity and tissue tropism

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Gerald I

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infections are a global health problem. This obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen comprises lymphogranuloma venereum (L1–L3), ocular (A–C) and genital (D–K) serovars. Although genetically similar, each serovar group differs in disease severity and tissue tropism through mechanisms that are not well understood. It is clear that host genetic differences also play a role in chlamydial disease outcome and key host polymorphisms are beginning to emerge from both human and experimental animal studies. In this review, we will highlight pathogen and host genes that link genetic diversity, disease severity and tissue tropism. We will also use this information to provide new insights that may be helpful in developing improved management strategies for these important pathogens. PMID:24020741

  13. Isolation of adenovirus type 19 from the male and female genital tracts.

    PubMed Central

    Harnett, G B; Newnham, W A

    1981-01-01

    During routine screening for genital herpes simplex virus infection in patients attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic adenovirus type 19 was isolated from both men and women. Peak incidences of genital infection with adenovirus type 19 corresponded with those of eye infection with the same virus in the general community. Thus, the relationship between genital and eye infection with adenovirus, the part played by genital infection in its dissemination, and the clinical symptoms it may produce need further study. PMID:7470836

  14. Ivermectin Inhibits Growth of Chlamydia trachomatis in Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pettengill, Matthew A.; Lam, Verissa W.; Ollawa, Ikechukwu; Marques-da-Silva, Camila; Ojcius, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Ivermectin is currently approved for treatment of both clinical and veterinary infections by nematodes, including Onchocerca cervicalis in horses and Onchocerca volvulus in humans. However, ivermectin has never been shown to be effective against bacterial pathogens. Here we show that ivermectin also inhibits infection of epithelial cells by the bacterial pathogen, Chlamydia trachomatis, at doses that could be envisioned clinically for sexually-transmitted or ocular infections by Chlamydia. PMID:23119027

  15. Calcium, ARMS2 Genotype, and Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infection in Early Age-Related Macular Degeneration: a Multivariate Analysis from the Nagahama Study

    PubMed Central

    Nakata, Isao; Yamashiro, Kenji; Kawaguchi, Takahisa; Nakanishi, Hideo; Akagi-Kurashige, Yumiko; Miyake, Masahiro; Tsujikawa, Akitaka; Yamada, Ryo; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2015-01-01

    Although various risk factors have been identified for the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), risk factors of early AMD have been relatively under studied. We aimed to investigate AMD risk factors by evaluating multiple factors in association with large drusen, an important component of AMD, simultaneously. In a community-based cross-sectional survey in Japan, 971 large drusen cases and 3,209 controls were compared for 65 variables, including systemic, environmental, and genetic factors. The association and the effect size of each factor were evaluated with logistic regression analysis using a backward-elimination approach. Multivariate analyses identified a significant association in serum calcium level (odds ratio [OR] = 0.932, P = 1.05 × 10?3), ARMS2 A69S (rs10490924) genotype (OR = 1.046, P < 0.001), Chlamydia pneumoniae IgG (OR = 1.020, P = 0.0440), and age (OR = 1.013, P < 0.001) for large drusen. Hypocalcemia was observed in 7.2% of large drusen cases and in 5.5% of controls (P = 0.0490). C. pneumoniae infections was more frequent in large drusen cases (56.4%) than in conrols (51.7%, P = 0.00956). These results suggest that calcium, ARMS2 genotype, C. pneumonia infection, and age are significant factors in the development of the early stages of AMD. PMID:25792034

  16. Calcium, ARMS2 Genotype, and Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infection in Early Age-Related Macular Degeneration: a Multivariate Analysis from the Nagahama Study.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Isao; Yamashiro, Kenji; Kawaguchi, Takahisa; Nakanishi, Hideo; Akagi-Kurashige, Yumiko; Miyake, Masahiro; Tsujikawa, Akitaka; Yamada, Ryo; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2015-01-01

    Although various risk factors have been identified for the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), risk factors of early AMD have been relatively under studied. We aimed to investigate AMD risk factors by evaluating multiple factors in association with large drusen, an important component of AMD, simultaneously. In a community-based cross-sectional survey in Japan, 971 large drusen cases and 3,209 controls were compared for 65 variables, including systemic, environmental, and genetic factors. The association and the effect size of each factor were evaluated with logistic regression analysis using a backward-elimination approach. Multivariate analyses identified a significant association in serum calcium level (odds ratio [OR] = 0.932, P = 1.05 × 10(-3)), ARMS2 A69S (rs10490924) genotype (OR = 1.046, P < 0.001), Chlamydia pneumoniae IgG (OR = 1.020, P = 0.0440), and age (OR = 1.013, P < 0.001) for large drusen. Hypocalcemia was observed in 7.2% of large drusen cases and in 5.5% of controls (P = 0.0490). C. pneumoniae infections was more frequent in large drusen cases (56.4%) than in conrols (51.7%, P = 0.00956). These results suggest that calcium, ARMS2 genotype, C. pneumonia infection, and age are significant factors in the development of the early stages of AMD. PMID:25792034

  17. Membrane vesicle production by Chlamydia trachomatis as an adaptive response

    PubMed Central

    Frohlich, Kyla M.; Hua, Ziyu; Quayle, Alison J.; Wang, Jin; Lewis, Maria E.; Chou, Chau-wen; Luo, Miao; Buckner, Lyndsey R.; Shen, Li

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria have evolved specific adaptive responses to cope with changing environments. These adaptations include stress response phenotypes with dynamic modifications of the bacterial cell envelope and generation of membrane vesicles (MVs). The obligate intracellular bacterium, Chlamydia trachomatis, typically has a biphasic lifestyle, but can enter into an altered growth state typified by morphologically aberrant chlamydial forms, termed persistent growth forms, when induced by stress in vitro. How C. trachomatis can adapt to a persistent growth state in host epithelial cells in vivo is not well understood, but is an important question, since it extends the host-bacterial relationship in vitro and has thus been indicated as a survival mechanism in chronic chlamydial infections. Here, we review recent findings on the mechanistic aspects of bacterial adaptation to stress with a focus on how C. trachomatis remodels its envelope, produces MVs, and the potential important consequences of MV production with respect to host-pathogen interactions. Emerging data suggest that the generation of MVs may be an important mechanism for C. trachomatis intracellular survival of stress, and thus may aid in the establishment of a chronic infection in human genital epithelial cells. PMID:24959424

  18. Anti-inflammatory effects of silver-polyvinyl pyrrolidone (Ag-PVP) nanoparticles in mouse macrophages infected with live Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Yilma, Abebayehu N; Singh, Shree R; Dixit, Saurabh; Dennis, Vida A

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a very common sexually transmissible infection in both developing and developed countries. A hallmark of C. trachomatis infection is the induction of severe inflammatory responses which play critical roles in its pathogenesis. Antibiotics are the only treatment option currently available for controlling C. trachomatis infection; however, they are efficacious only when administered early after an infection. The objectives of this study are to explore alternative strategies in the control and regulation of inflammatory responses triggered by a C. trachomatis infection. We employed silver-polyvinyl pyrrolidone (Ag-PVP) nanoparticles, which have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties, as our target and the in vitro mouse J774 macrophage model of C. trachomatis infection. Our hypothesis is that small sizes of Ag-PVP nanoparticles will control inflammatory mediators triggered by a C. trachomatis infection. Cytotoxicity studies using Ag-PVP nanoparticles of 10, 20, and 80 nm sizes revealed >80% macrophage viability up to a concentration of 6.25 ?g/mL, with the 10 nm size being the least toxic. All sizes of Ag-PVP nanoparticles, especially the 10 nm size, reduced the levels of the prototypic cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin (IL)-6, as elicited from C. trachomatis infected macrophages. Additionally, Ag-PVP nanoparticles (10 nm) selectively inhibited a broad spectrum of other cytokines and chemokines produced by infected macrophages. Of significance, Ag-PVP nanoparticles (10 nm) caused perturbations in a variety of upstream (toll like receptor 2 [TLR2], nucleotide-binding oligomerization-protein 2 [NOD2], cluster of differentiation [CD]40, CD80, and CD86) and downstream (IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 3 [IRAK3] and matrix metallopeptidase 9 [MMP9]) inflammatory signaling pathways by downregulating their messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) gene transcript expressions as induced by C. trachomatis in macrophages. Collectively, our data provides further evidence for the anti-inflammatory properties of Ag-PVP nanoparticles, and opens new possibilities for smaller sizes of Ag-PVP nanoparticles to be employed as regulators of inflammatory responses induced by C. trachomatis. PMID:23882139

  19. Evaluations of Unformulated and Formulated Dendrimer-Based Microbicide Candidates in Mouse and Guinea Pig Models of Genital Herpes

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, D. I.; Stanberry, L. R.; Sacks, S.; Ayisi, N. K.; Gong, Y. H.; Ireland, J.; Mumper, R. J.; Holan, G.; Matthews, B.; McCarthy, T.; Bourne, N.

    2003-01-01

    Prevention of sexually transmitted infections is a priority in developed and developing countries. One approach to prevention is the use of topical microbicides, and one promising approach is the use of dendrimers, highly branched macromolecules synthesized from a polyfunctional core. Three new dendrimer products developed to provide stable and cost-efficient microbicides were initially evaluated in vitro for anti-herpes simplex virus activity and then in vivo by using a mouse model of genital herpes. From these experiments one product, SPL7013, was chosen for further evaluation to define the dose and duration of protection. Unformulated SPL7013 provided significant protection from genital herpes disease and infection at concentrations as low as 1 mg/ml and for at least 1 h following topical (intravaginal) administration of 10 mg/ml. This compound was then formulated into three vehicles and further evaluated in mouse and guinea pig models of genital herpes infection. In the murine evaluations each of the formulations provided significant protection at concentrations of 10 and 50 mg/ml. Formulated compounds provided protection for at least 1 h at a concentration of 10 mg/ml. From these experiments formulation 2V was chosen for dose ranging experiments using the guinea pig model of genital herpes. The guinea pig evaluations suggested that doses of 30 to 50 mg/ml were required for optimal protection. From these studies a lead compound and formulation (2V of SPL7013) was chosen for ongoing evaluations in primate models of simian immunodeficiency virus and Chlamydia trachomatis infection. PMID:14638483

  20. Differences in Chlamydia trachomatis serovar E growth rate in polarized endometrial and endocervical epithelial cells grown in three-dimensional culture.

    PubMed

    Guseva, Natalia V; Dessus-Babus, Sophie; Moore, Cheryl G; Whittimore, Judy D; Wyrick, Priscilla B

    2007-02-01

    In vitro studies of obligate intracellular chlamydia biology and pathogenesis are highly dependent on the use of experimental models and growth conditions that mimic the mucosal architecture and environment these pathogens encounter during natural infections. In this study, the growth of Chlamydia trachomatis genital serovar E was monitored in mouse fibroblast McCoy cells and compared to more relevant host human epithelial endometrium-derived HEC-1B and cervix-derived HeLa cells, seeded and polarized on collagen-coated microcarrier beads, using a three-dimensional culture system. Microscopy analysis of these cell lines prior to infection revealed morphological differences reminiscent of their in vivo architecture. Upon infection, early chlamydial inclusion distribution was uniform in McCoy cells but patchy in both epithelial cell lines. Although no difference in chlamydial attachment to or entry into the two genital epithelial cell lines was noted, active bacterial genome replication and transcription, as well as initial transformation of elementary bodies to reticulate bodies, were detected earlier in HEC-1B than in HeLa cells, suggesting a faster growth, which led to higher progeny counts and titers in HEC-1B cells upon completion of the developmental cycle. Chlamydial development in the less relevant McCoy cells was very similar to that in HeLa cells, although higher progeny counts were obtained. In conclusion, this three-dimensional bead culture system represents an improved model for harvesting large quantities of infectious chlamydia progeny from their more natural polarized epithelial host cells. PMID:17088348

  1. STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL STUDIES OF AN ATYPICAL OMPR/PHOB TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATOR, CHXR, FROM CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS

    E-print Network

    Hickey, John Michael

    2011-04-18

    Chlamydia infections have an immense impact on public health and are associated with diverse disease manifestations including atherosclerosis, blindness, and sterility. The chlamydial developmental cycle is intrinsically ...

  2. Detection of immunoglobulin M antibodies to glycoprotein G-2 by western blot (immunoblot) for diagnosis of initial herpes simplex virus type 2 genital infections.

    PubMed Central

    Ho, D W; Field, P R; Irving, W L; Packham, D R; Cunningham, A L

    1993-01-01

    Western blots (immunoblots) for the detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies specific for herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 in patients' sera were developed. The locations of the type-specific glycoprotein G (gpG-2) of HSV-2 (92- and 140-kDa forms) and glycoprotein C of HSV-1 (gpC-1), which carries mostly type-specific antigenic epitopes, were checked with specific monoclonal antibodies. Western blot assays for IgM antibody to gpC-1 or gpG-2 were performed after depletion of IgG by precipitation with anti-human IgG. In patients with primary HSV-2 genital infections, seroconversion of IgM and IgG antibodies to both the 92- and 140-kDa forms of gpG-2 was observed, although both antibodies appeared in convalescent-phase serum after the first week. IgM and IgG antibodies to low-molecular-size polypeptides (40 to 65 kDa) were the first antibodies observed in patients with primary infection, but these antibodies were cross-reactive with HSV-1 and HSV-2. However, in patients with recurrent HSV-2 infections, IgG antibodies to both forms of gpG-2 and the low-molecular-size polypeptides were found no matter how early after onset the patient was bled, and IgM to gpG-2 did not appear. In patients with nonprimary initial genital HSV-2 infections, IgG antibody to HSV-1 was demonstrated in the first serum specimen, and HSV-2-specific IgM was found in 39% of the serum specimens. Hence, the Western blot assay can be used to test for IgM antibody to gpG-2, allowing for the retrospective diagnosis of inital HSV-2 infections and its use as a supplementary test to the gpG-2 IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays developed elsewhere. In contrast, IgM antibody to gpG-2 is not usually detected in patients with recurrent HSV-2 infections. Images PMID:7508453

  3. Enrofloxacin and Macrolides Alone or in Combination with Rifampicin as Antimicrobial Treatment in a Bovine Model of Acute Chlamydia psittaci Infection

    PubMed Central

    Prohl, Annette; Lohr, Markus; Ostermann, Carola; Liebler-Tenorio, Elisabeth; Berndt, Angela; Schroedl, Wieland; Rothe, Michael; Schubert, Evelyn; Sachse, Konrad; Reinhold, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia psittaci is a zoonotic bacterium with a wide host range that can cause respiratory disease in humans and cattle. In the present study, effects of treatment with macrolides and quinolones applied alone or in combination with rifampicin were tested in a previously established bovine model of respiratory C. psittaci infection. Fifty animals were inoculated intrabronchially at the age of 6–8 weeks. Seven served as untreated controls, the others were assigned to seven treatment groups: (i) rifampicin, (ii) enrofloxacin, (iii) enrofloxacin + rifampicin, (iv) azithromycin, (v) azithromycin + rifampicin, (vi) erythromycin, and (vii) erythromycin + rifampicin. Treatment started 30 hours after inoculation and continued until 14 days after inoculation (dpi), when all animals were necropsied. The infection was successful in all animals and sufficient antibiotic levels were detected in blood plasma and tissue of the treated animals. Reisolation of the pathogen was achieved more often from untreated animals than from other groups. Nevertheless, pathogen detection by PCR was possible to the same extent in all animals and there were no significant differences between treated and untreated animals in terms of local (i.e. cell count and differentiation of BALF-cells) and systemic inflammation (i.e. white blood cells and concentration of acute phase protein LBP), clinical signs, and pathological findings at necropsy. Regardless of the reduced reisolation rate in treated animals, the treatment of experimentally induced respiratory C. psittaci infection with enrofloxacin, azithromycin or erythromycin alone or in combination with rifampicin was without obvious benefit for the host, since no significant differences in clinical and pathological findings or inflammatory parameters were detected and all animals recovered clinically within two weeks. PMID:25768665

  4. Immunization of Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn)-Infected Apobtm2SgyLdlrtm1Her/J Mice with a Combined Peptide of Cpn Significantly Reduces Atherosclerotic Lesion Development

    PubMed Central

    Faludi, Ildiko; Szabo, Andrea; Gonczol, Eva; Kakkar, Vijay; Lu, Xinjie

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antigenic effect of a peptide containing two epitopes of Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn) on atherosclerotic lesion formation in mice infected with Cpn. Materials and Methods Six-week-old Apobtm2SgyLdlrtm1Her/J mice were immunized using a repetitive immunization multiple-sites strategy with KLH-conjugated peptides derived from the major outer membrane protein and the putative outer membrane protein 5 of Cpn. Mice were fed a high-fat diet and infected with Cpn twice during the 10-week diet period. Lesions were evaluated histologically; local and systemic immune responses were analyzed by immunohistochemistry of aorta samples and cytokine measurements in plasma samples and splenocyte supernatants. Results Mice immunized with the combined Cpn peptide showed a greater reduction in lesion size compared to mice immunized with either epitope alone [54.7% vs 39.8% or 41.72%] and was also associated with a significant decrease in lesion area in descending aortas compared with those in controls (88.9% for combined Cpn peptide, 81.9% for MOMP peptide and 75.7% for Omp5, respectively). This effect was associated with a shift in the cellular composition of plaques towards decreased inflammatory cell and increased regulatory T-cell content. Additionally, the effect was also connected with decreased secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and increased production of anti-inflammatory cytokines demonstrated in plasma and in supernatant on stimulated spleen cells. Conclusions Atherosclerotic lesion formation may be promoted by Cpn infection in the presence of a high-fat diet, and reduced by immunization with the combined Cpn peptide. The combined peptide has more potential than either epitope alone in reducing atherosclerotic lesion development through Treg expansion. PMID:24349031

  5. Evaluation of the NucliSens Basic Kit for Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Genital Tract Specimens Using Nucleic Acid Sequence-Based Amplification of 16S rRNA

    PubMed Central

    Mahony, J. B.; Song, X.; Chong, S.; Faught, M.; Salonga, T.; Kapala, J.

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated a new RNA amplification and detection kit, the NucliSens Basic Kit (Organon Teknika), for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in genitourinary specimens. The Basic Kit provides an open platform for RNA amplification and detection and contains isolation reagents for nucleic acid extraction, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) reagents (enzymes and buffers), and a generic ruthenium-labeled probe for electrochemiluminescent (ECL) detection of amplified product. Using freshly purified and titrated stocks of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae and in vitro-generated RNA transcripts for sensitivity determinations, the Basic Kit detected 1 inclusion-forming unit of C. trachomatis, 1 CFU of N. gonorrhoeae, and 100 RNA molecules of 16S rRNA for both bacteria. The clinical performance of the Basic Kit was evaluated by testing a total of 250 specimens for N. gonorrhoeae by culture and NASBA and a total of 96 specimens for C. trachomatis by PCR and NASBA. The Basic Kit detected 139 of 142 N. gonorrhoeae culture-positive specimens and gave a negative result for 73 of 74 culture-negative specimens, for a sensitivity and specificity of 97.9 and 98.7%, respectively. For C. trachomatis, the Basic Kit detected 24 of 24 PCR-positive specimens and gave a negative result for 71 of 72 PCR-negative specimens, for a sensitivity and specificity of 100 and 98.6%, respectively. The Basic Kit also detected specimens containing both N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis, using a multiplex NASBA assay using primers for both bacteria. The NucliSens Basic Kit offers a versatile platform for the development of sensitive RNA detection assays for sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:11283067

  6. Inactivated HSV-2 in MPL/alum adjuvant provides nearly complete protection against genital infection and shedding following long term challenge and rechallenge.

    PubMed

    Morello, Christopher S; Kraynyak, Kimberly A; Levinson, Michael S; Chen, Zhijiang; Lee, Kuo-Fen; Spector, Deborah H

    2012-10-12

    Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2) infection can result in life-long recurrent genital disease, asymptomatic virus shedding, and transmission. No vaccine to date has shown significant protection clinically. Here, we used a mouse model of genital HSV-2 infection to test the efficacy of a vaccine consisting of whole, formalin-inactivated HSV-2 (FI-HSV2) formulated with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and alum adjuvants. Vaccine components were administered alone or as a prime-boost immunization together with DNA vaccines encoding a truncated glycoprotein D2 (gD2t) and two conserved HSV-2 genes necessary for virus replication, UL5 (DNA helicase) and UL30 (DNA polymerase). Our results show: (1) compared with mock immunized controls, mice immunized with FI-HSV2 plus MPL/alum consistently showed protection against disease burden and total viral shedding while the mice immunized with gD2t protein with MPL/alum did not; (2) protection against genital disease and viral replication correlated with the type of boost in a prime-boost immunization with little advantage afforded by a DNA prime; (3) intramuscular (i.m.) immunization with FI-HSV2 in MPL/Alhydrogel adjuvant provided nearly complete protection against vaginal HSV-2 shedding after a lethal intravaginal (i.vag.) short-term challenge and long-term rechallenge; (4) single formulation immunization with DNA vaccines, FI-HSV2, and MPL in an aluminum phosphate (Adju-Phos) adjuvant did not increase protection relative to FI-HSV2/MPL/Adju-Phos alone; and (5) addition of MPL/alum to the FI-HSV2 was required for optimal protection against disease, viral replication, and latent virus load in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Most notably, an optimized vaccine formulation of FI-HSV2 MPL/Alhydrogel given i.m. completely protected against detectable vaginal HSV-2 shedding in the majority of animals and HSV-2 latent DNA in the DRG of all animals. PMID:22947141

  7. Transmission of Chlamydiae from grackles to turkeys.

    PubMed

    Grimes, J E

    1978-01-01

    Two female common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula) were inoculated intratracheally with 1.6 X 10(8) chick embryo lethal doses50 of a chlamydial organism isolated from turkeys. Eight female grackles were kept as uninoculated contacts. Six days later, two 12-week-old Broad-Breasted White turkeys (1 male and 1 female) were placed in the pen with the grackles. Chlamydiae were isolated in mice from cloacal swabs taken 14 days postinoculation from the infected grackles. Swabs from the contact grackles did not yield chlamydiae, nor did swabs taken 7 days later from all birds. Twenty-one days after being placed with the grackles, the turkeys developed signs of chlamydiosis. Cloacal swabs taken at 24 days yielded chlamydiae from only the female. Visceral organ tissues collected at 28 days from the male yielded chlamydiae. The only lesions in the turkeys at necropsy were enlarged spleens. The turkeys were serologically negative for chlamydial antibody both when placed and 15 days later, but were positive at days 24 and 28. These results indicate contact transmission of chlamydiae from infected grackles to turkeys. PMID:678235

  8. New Concepts in Understanding Genital Herpes

    PubMed Central

    Schiffer, Joshua T.; Corey, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    Herpes Simplex Virus-2 (HSV-2) is a lifelong infection that causes recurrent genital ulcers and on rare occasions, disseminated and visceral disease. Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) infection is an increasingly important cause of genital ulcers as well. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are the most common cause of genital ulcers in adults but acquisition and chronic infection are more commonly asymptomatic than symptomatic. Both the symptomatic and asymptomatic forms of HSV are of clinical consequence for several reasons. HSV-2 infection enhances HIV-1 acquisition, as well as transmission. In addition, both sexual and perinatal transmission can occur during asymptomatic viral shedding. Perinatal transmission is of particular concern because neonatal HSV infection results in severe morbiditiy to the newborn. Antiviral medicines are effective for limiting recurrence duration and decreasing transmission likelihood, though no available intervention completely prevents transmission. This highlights the importance of laboratory diagnostics for this lifelong infection, as well as the need for an HSV vaccine. PMID:19857385

  9. Short communication: genital tumor growth factor-?1 levels in HIV-infected Indian women are associated with reduced levels of innate antimicrobial products and increased HIV shedding.

    PubMed

    Thakar, Madhuri; Patil, Rahul; Shukre, Subodh; Bichare, Shubhangi; Kadam, Poonam; Khopkar, Priyanka; Ghate, Manisha; Paranjape, Ramesh

    2014-07-01

    Tumor growth factor (TGF)-?1 is a cytokine with potent immunoinhibitory functions and is known to be secreted by vaginal epithelial cells. The present study was designed to determine the association of cervicovaginal levels of TGF- ?1 with various innate immune secretions such as cytokines and antimicrobial polypeptides [Trappin-2/Elafin and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI)] and cervical HIV shedding in HIV-infected Indian women. TGF- ?1, antimicrobial polypeptides, and cytokine levels were estimated in the cervicovaginal lavages (CVLs) of 36 age-matched HIV-infected and 31 HIV-uninfected asymptomatic Indian women using an ELISA and Bio-Plex Assay, respectively. The nonparametric Mann-Whitney test and Spearman's test were used to compare the levels from both the groups and to determine the association of the TGF-?1 levels with cervical viral shedding and antimicrobial peptides. The levels of Trappin-2/Elafin and SLPI were similar in the CVLs of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women, but were significantly associated with a low cervical viral load (r=-0.501, p=0.005 for Trappin-2/Elafin and r=-0.488, p=0.007 for SLPI). Eleven (30.5%) of the 36 HIV-infected women showed 5- to 30-fold higher levels of TGF-?1 as compared to the levels in uninfected women. The TGF-?1 levels were significantly associated with higher cervical viral load (r=0.425, p=0.03) and with lower levels of Trappin-2/Elafin (r=-0.407, p=0.03) and SLPI (r=-0.405, p=0.04). The findings indicate a possible interdependent mechanism driving the identified higher TGF-?1 and lower antimicrobial peptide (Trappin-2/Elafin and SLPI) levels at the genital mucosa surface in HIV-infected women. We postulate that a combination of increased TGF-?1 secretion and altered levels of Trappin-2/Elafin and SLPI contributes to increased HIV shedding. The observation warrants further studies to identify the underlying mechanisms linking increased mucosal TGF-?1 levels and genital HIV shedding. Considering the known association of HIV and cervical cancers, it will also be important to assess the predictive capacity of TGF-?1 levels in HIV-associated cervical malignancies. PMID:24547777

  10. Inactivated simian immunodeficiency virus vaccine failed to protect rhesus macaques from intravenous or genital mucosal infection but delayed disease in intravenously exposed animals

    SciTech Connect

    Sutjipto, S.; Pedersen, N.C.; Miller, C.J.; Gardner, M.B.; Hanson, C.V.; Gettie, A.; Jennings, M.; Higgins, J.; Marx, P.A. (Univ. of California, Davis (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Eight rhesus macaques were immunized four times over a period of 8 months with a psoralen-UV-light-inactivated whole simian immunodeficiency virus vaccine adjuvanted with threonyl muramyl dipeptide. Eight unvaccinated control animals received adjuvant alone. Only the vaccinated animals made antibodies before challenge exposure to the viral core and envelope as determined by Western blotting (immunoblotting) and virus-neutralizing antibodies. Ten days after the final immunization, one-half of the vaccinated and nonvaccinated monkeys were challenged exposed intravenously (i.v.) and one-half were challenge exposed via the genital mucosa with virulent simian immunodeficiency virus. All of the nonvaccinated control monkeys became persistently infected. In spite of preexisting neutralizing antibodies and an anamnestic antibody response, all of the immunized monkeys also became persistently infected. However, there was evidence that the clinical course in immunized i.v. infected animals was delayed. All four mock-vaccinated i.v. challenge-exposed animals died with disease from 3 to 9 months postchallenge. In contrast, only one of four vaccinated i.v. challenge-exposed monkeys had died by 11 months postchallenge.

  11. The Epidemic of HIV, Syphilis, Chlamydia and Gonorrhea and the Correlates of Sexual Transmitted Infections among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Jiangsu, China, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Geng-Feng; Jiang, Ning; Hu, Hai-Yang; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Yin, Yue-Ping; Mahapatra, Sanchita; Wang, Xiao-Liang; Chen, Xiang-Sheng; Babu, Giridhar R.; Xu, Xiao-Qin; Ding, Ping; Qiu, Tao; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Guo, Hongxiong; Huan, Xi-Ping; Tang, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Background In China, the HIV/AIDS epidemic is expanding among men who have sex with men (MSM). As independent risk factors of HIV infection, the epidemics of Chlamydia (CT) and Gonorrhea (NG) in MSM were not well studied, particular for the risk factors of these infectious. The objectives of current reported study were to understand the dynamics of HIV and other sexual transmitted infections (STIs) among MSM in Jiangsu, China, and to measure factors that correlated with STIs. Methods In order to gain more participants, a multisite cross-sectional study design was used in our study, by using convenience-sampling to recruit MSM in two Changzhou and Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China, between the July and October of 2009. Results In this comprehensive survey involving MSM in two cities of Jiangsu province of China, the prevalence of STIs of CT (6.54%), NG (3.63%), syphilis (20.34%) and HIV (11.62%) were measured. Overall, the STIs prevalence (CT, NG or syphilis) for the participants in our study was 26.39%, meanwhile, 3.4% (14 out of the 413) participants had at least two kinds of STIs. Meeting casual partners at parks, public restrooms or other public areas, having had anal sex with men in the past six months, having had STI symptoms in the past year were positively correlated with STIs positive, with adjusted ORs of 4.61(95%CI 1.03–20.75), 1.91(95%CI 1.14–3.21) and 2.36(95%CI 1.07,5.24). Conclusion Our study findings reiterate the fact that Chinese MSM are highly susceptible to acquiring syphilis, CT, NG and HIV, and there is an urgent need for intervention targeted towards this population. Behavioral measures should constitute an important part of the targeted intervention. Furthermore, the already implemented preventive and diagnostic services for HIV should be expanded to include syphilis CT and NG, too. PMID:25775451

  12. Chlamydiaceae and Chlamydia-like organisms in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus)--organ distribution and histopathological findings.

    PubMed

    Burach, Fabienne; Pospischil, Andreas; Hanger, Jon; Loader, Jo; Pillonel, Trestan; Greub, Gilbert; Borel, Nicole

    2014-08-01

    Chlamydial infections in koalas can cause life-threatening diseases leading to blindness and sterility. However, little is known about the systemic spread of chlamydiae in the inner organs of the koala, and data concerning related pathological organ lesions are limited. The aim of this study was to perform a thorough investigation of organs from 23 koalas and to correlate their histopathological lesions to molecular chlamydial detection. To reach this goal, 246 formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded organ samples from 23 koalas were investigated by histopathology, Chlamydiaceae real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, ArrayTube Microarray for Chlamydiaceae species identification as well as Chlamydiales real-time PCR and sequencing. By PCR, two koalas were positive for Chlamydia pecorum whereas immunohistochemical labelling for Chlamydiaceae was detected in 10 tissues out of nine koalas. The majority of these (n=6) had positive labelling in the urogenital tract related to histopathological lesions such as cystitis, endometritis, pyelonephritis and prostatitis. Somehow unexpected was the positive labelling in the gastrointestinal tract including the cloaca as well as in lung and spleen indicating systemic spread of infection. Uncultured Chlamydiales were detected in several organs of seven koalas by PCR, and four of these suffered from plasmacytic enteritis of unknown aetiology. Whether the finding of Chlamydia-like organisms in the gastrointestinal tract is linked to plasmacytic enteritis is unclear and remains speculative. However, as recently shown in a mouse model, the gastrointestinal tract might play a role being the site for persistent chlamydial infections and being a source for reinfection of the genital tract. PMID:24888862

  13. Detection of Chlamydia psittaci by Immunofluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Vester J.; Thacker, W. Lanier; Cacciapuoti, A. F.

    1972-01-01

    A direct fluorescent-antibody (FA) test was developed to detect Chlamydia psittaci in dural impressions from specimen-inoculated mice. Technical procedures for the test were compared. C. psittaci was found in mice after infection as early by the FA technique as it was by cytochemical staining methods usually used. The lymphogranuloma venereum organism was also stained by conjugated antibody to C. psittaci. A distinctive advantage of the described FA test is that organisms are identified immunologically as members of the genus Chlamydia simultaneously with their detection. Images PMID:4626909

  14. Genital and Urinary Tract Defects

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Genital and urinary tract defects Genital and urinary tract ... of waste and extra fluids. What problems can genital and urinary tract defects cause? Genital and urinary ...

  15. Genital warts

    MedlinePLUS

    Condylomata acuminata; Penile warts; Human papilloma virus (HPV); Venereal warts; Condyloma; HPV DNA test; Sexually transmitted disease (STD) - warts; Sexually transmitted infection (STI) - warts; LSIL-HPV; Low-grade dysplasia- ...

  16. Wild birds as possible hosts and vectors of mammalian strains of Chlamydia psittaci

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Mark Caylor

    1982-01-01

    ). Since the early 1940's, chlamydiae have been 1solated from many natural infections of domestic and wild animals (72). For example, intrauterine chlamydial infections and abortions were ident1fied in ewes by Stamp et al. 1n 1950 (70). Chlamydiae also...

  17. Full Genome Sequences of All Nine Chlamydia psittaci Genotype Reference Strains

    PubMed Central

    Van Lent, Sarah; Piet, Jurgen R.; Beeckman, Delphine; van der Ende, Arie; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Bavoil, Patrik; Myers, Garry; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2012-01-01

    Chlamydia psittaci primarily infects birds, but zoonotic transmission occurs in people in close contact with infected birds. The clinical outcome ranges from inapparent disease to pneumonia. Here we report the genome sequences of all 9 Chlamydia psittaci genotype reference strains. PMID:23209198

  18. Interaction of chlamydiae and host cells in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Moulder, J W

    1991-01-01

    The obligately intracellular bacteria of the genus Chlamydia, which is only remotely related to other eubacterial genera, cause many diseases of humans, nonhuman mammals, and birds. Interaction of chlamydiae with host cells in vitro has been studied as a model of infection in natural hosts and as an example of the adaptation of an organism to an unusual environment, the inside of another living cell. Among the novel adaptations made by chlamydiae have been the substitution of disulfide-bond-cross-linked polypeptides for peptidoglycans and the use of host-generated nucleotide triphosphates as sources of metabolic energy. The effect of contact between chlamydiae and host cells in culture varies from no effect at all to rapid destruction of either chlamydiae or host cells. When successful infection occurs, it is usually followed by production of large numbers of progeny and destruction of host cells. However, host cells containing chlamydiae sometimes continue to divide, with or without overt signs of infection, and chlamydiae may persist indefinitely in cell cultures. Some of the many factors that influence the outcome of chlamydia-host cell interaction are kind of chlamydiae, kind of host cells, mode of chlamydial entry, nutritional adequacy of the culture medium, presence of antimicrobial agents, and presence of immune cells and soluble immune factors. General characteristics of chlamydial multiplication in cells of their natural hosts are reproduced in established cell lines, but reproduction in vitro of the subtle differences in chlamydial behavior responsible for the individuality of the different chlamydial diseases will require better in vitro models. PMID:2030670

  19. Multi Locus Sequence Typing of Chlamydia Reveals an Association between Chlamydia psittaci Genotypes and Host Species

    PubMed Central

    Pannekoek, Yvonne; Dickx, Veerle; Beeckman, Delphine S. A.; Jolley, Keith A.; Keijzers, Wendy C.; Vretou, Evangelia; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Vanrompay, Daisy; van der Ende, Arie

    2010-01-01

    Chlamydia comprises a group of obligate intracellular bacterial parasites responsible for a variety of diseases in humans and animals, including several zoonoses. Chlamydia trachomatis causes diseases such as trachoma, urogenital infection and lymphogranuloma venereum with severe morbidity. Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired respiratory tract infections. Chlamydia psittaci, causing zoonotic pneumonia in humans, is usually hosted by birds, while Chlamydia abortus, causing abortion and fetal death in mammals, including humans, is mainly hosted by goats and sheep. We used multi-locus sequence typing to asses the population structure of Chlamydia. In total, 132 Chlamydia isolates were analyzed, including 60 C. trachomatis, 18 C. pneumoniae, 16 C. abortus, 34 C. psittaci and one of each of C. pecorum, C. caviae, C. muridarum and C. felis. Cluster analyses utilizing the Neighbour-Joining algorithm with the maximum composite likelihood model of concatenated sequences of 7 housekeeping fragments showed that C. psittaci 84/2334 isolated from a parrot grouped together with the C. abortus isolates from goats and sheep. Cluster analyses of the individual alleles showed that in all instances C. psittaci 84/2334 formed one group with C. abortus. Moving 84/2334 from the C. psittaci group to the C. abortus group resulted in a significant increase in the number of fixed differences and elimination of the number of shared mutations between C. psittaci and C. abortus. C. psittaci M56 from a muskrat branched separately from the main group of C. psittaci isolates. C. psittaci genotypes appeared to be associated with host species. The phylogentic tree of C. psittaci did not follow that of its host bird species, suggesting host species jumps. In conclusion, we report for the first time an association between C. psittaci genotypes with host species. PMID:21152037

  20. Injectable PAMAM dendrimer-PEG hydrogels for the treatment of genital infections: formulation, in-vitro and in-vivo evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Navath, Raghavendra S.; Menjoge, Anupa R.; Dai, Hui; Romero, Roberto; Kannan, Sujatha; Kannan, Rangaramanujam M.

    2012-01-01

    Local intravaginal drug therapy is preferred for treatment of ascending genital infections during pregnancy. In the present study, in-situ forming biodegradable hydrogel for sustained release of amoxicillin in the cervicovaginal region is described. A generation 4 poly(amidoamine) [G4-(NH2)64] dendrimer with peripheral thiopyridyl terminations is crosslinked with 8-arm polyethylene glycol (PEG) bearing thiol terminations. The hydrogels were formulated and tested in-vivo in pregnant guinea pig model for volume, retention times, biodegradation, tolerability and transport across fetal membrane. The physicochemical characterization of the hydrogels was carried out using differential calorimetry, SEM, and confocal imaging. The hydrogels offer antibacterial activity arising from sustained release of amoxicillin from gels. The in-vivo studies in guinea pig showed that 100-200 ?L of gel sufficiently covered the cervicovaginal region with a residence time of at least 72 h and gel was primarily retained in the maternal tissues without crossing the fetal membranes into the fetus. The dendrimer gels were stable upto 72 h and the in-vivo biodegradation of gel occurred after 72 h and this correlated well with the in-vitro degradation pattern. The pH of the vagina was not altered upon application of the gel and none of the animals aborted upto 72 h after application of gel. The histological evaluation of the cervical tissues showed absence of edema in epithelial cell layer, no sloughing of the epithelial or superficial mucous layer, absence of necrosis and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the submucosal layers confirmed that tissues were tolerant to the gel. The immunohistofluorescence images showed the localization of the gel components on the superficial mucified epithelial layer. The crosslinking density and swelling of hydrogels was impacted by the polymer content and the 10 % hydrogels exhibited highest crosslink density. The in-vitro drug release studies carried out using Franz diffusion cells showed that amoxicillin release from 6 and 10 % gels was sustained for 240 h as compared to 3 % gels. As the polymer concentration increased to 10 % the release pattern from gels approached diffusion controlled mechanism with diffusional exponent n = 0.49. In conclusion, the biodegradable in-situ forming hydrogels of present study offer a therapeutic option to provide sustained localized delivery of amoxicillin intracervically to the pregnant woman for the treatment of ascending genital infections. PMID:21615144

  1. Human papillomavirus, genital warts, and vaccines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Po-Ren Hsueh

    Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related diseases, including cancers, low-grade neoplasia, genital warts, and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, have a substantial impact on public health. The increasing incidence of HPV infection and genital warts highlights the need for an effective strategy for the management of this disease. Immunization holds the promise of reducing the overall burden of clinical HPV-related diseases. A prophylactic quadrivalent HPV

  2. Diagnosis and management of genital ulcers.

    PubMed

    Roett, Michelle A; Mayor, Mejebi T; Uduhiri, Kelechi A

    2012-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus infection and syphilis are the most common causes of genital ulcers in the United States. Other infectious causes include chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, granuloma inguinale (donovanosis), secondary bacterial infections, and fungi. Noninfectious etiologies, including sexual trauma, psoriasis, Behçet syndrome, and fixed drug eruptions, can also lead to genital ulcers. Although initial treatment of genital ulcers is generally based on clinical presentation, the following tests should be considered in all patients: serologic tests for syphilis and darkfield microscopy or direct fluorescent antibody testing for Treponema pallidum, culture or polymerase chain reaction test for herpes simplex virus, and culture for Haemophilus ducreyi in settings with a high prevalence of chancroid. No pathogen is identified in up to 25 percent of patients with genital ulcers. The first episode of herpes simplex virus infection is usually treated with seven to 10 days of oral acyclovir (five days for recurrent episodes). Famciclovir and valacyclovir are alternative therapies. One dose of intramuscular penicillin G benzathine is recommended to treat genital ulcers caused by primary syphilis. Treatment options for chancroid include a single dose of intramuscular ceftriaxone or oral azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, or erythromycin. Lymphogranuloma venereum and donovanosis are treated with 21 days of oral doxycycline. Treatment of noninfectious causes of genital ulcers varies by etiology, and ranges from topical wound care for ulcers caused by sexual trauma to consideration of subcutaneous pegylated interferon alfa-2a for ulcers caused by Behçet syndrome. PMID:22335265

  3. Male Genital Lichen Sclerosus

    PubMed Central

    Bunker, Christopher Barry; Shim, Tang Ngee

    2015-01-01

    Male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease responsible for male sexual dyspareunia and urological morbidity. An afeared complication is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis. The precise etiopathogenesis of MGLSc remains controversial although genetic, autoimmune and infective (such as human papillomavirus (HPV) hepatitis C (HCV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Borrelia) factors have been implicated: Consideration of all the evidence suggests that chronic exposure of susceptible epithelium to urinary occlusion by the foreskin seems the most likely pathomechanism. The mainstay of treatment is topical ultrapotent corticosteroid therapy. Surgery is indicated for cases unresponsive to topical corticosteroid therapy, phimosis, meatal stenosis, urethral stricture, carcinoma in situ (CIS) and squamous cell carcinoma.

  4. Male genital lichen sclerosus.

    PubMed

    Bunker, Christopher Barry; Shim, Tang Ngee

    2015-01-01

    Male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease responsible for male sexual dyspareunia and urological morbidity. An afeared complication is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis. The precise etiopathogenesis of MGLSc remains controversial although genetic, autoimmune and infective (such as human papillomavirus (HPV) hepatitis C (HCV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Borrelia) factors have been implicated: Consideration of all the evidence suggests that chronic exposure of susceptible epithelium to urinary occlusion by the foreskin seems the most likely pathomechanism. The mainstay of treatment is topical ultrapotent corticosteroid therapy. Surgery is indicated for cases unresponsive to topical corticosteroid therapy, phimosis, meatal stenosis, urethral stricture, carcinoma in situ (CIS) and squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25814697

  5. The Potential Influence of a Social Media Intervention on Risky Sexual Behavior and Chlamydia Incidence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krista Jones; Kathleen A. Baldwin; Patricia Ryan Lewis

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive pilot study was to evaluate an evidence-based social-networking intervention aimed at reducing the incidence of Chlamydia among 15- to 24-year-olds. The intervention consists of a Facebook site that addresses signs, symptoms, treatment, screening, and prevention of Chlamydia infection. Findings included a 23% self-reported increase in condom utilization, and a 54% reduction in positive Chlamydia cases

  6. Detection of bacterial antigens and Alzheimer’s disease-like pathology in the central nervous system of BALB/c mice following intranasal infection with a laboratory isolate of Chlamydia pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Little, Christopher S.; Joyce, Timothy A.; Hammond, Christine J.; Matta, Hazem; Cahn, David; Appelt, Denah M.; Balin, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Pathology consistent with that observed in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has previously been documented following intranasal infection of normal wild-type mice with Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn) isolated from an AD brain (96-41). In the current study, BALB/c mice were intranasally infected with a laboratory strain of Cpn, AR-39, and brain and olfactory bulbs were obtained at 1–4 months post-infection (pi). Immunohistochemistry for amyloid beta or Cpn antigens was performed on sections from brains of infected or mock-infected mice. Chlamydia-specific immunolabeling was identified in olfactory bulb tissues and in cerebrum of AR-39 infected mice. The Cpn specific labeling was most prominent at 1 month pi and the greatest burden of amyloid deposition was noted at 2 months pi, whereas both decreased at 3 and 4 months. Viable Cpn was recovered from olfactory bulbs of 3 of 3 experimentally infected mice at 1 and 3 months pi, and in 2 of 3 mice at 4 months pi. In contrast, in cortical tissues of infected mice at 1 and 4 months pi no viable organism was obtained. At 3 months pi, only 1 of 3 mice had a measurable burden of viable Cpn from the cortical tissues. Mock-infected mice (0 of 3) had no detectable Cpn in either olfactory bulbs or cortical tissues. These data indicate that the AR-39 isolate of Cpn establishes a limited infection predominantly in the olfactory bulbs of BALB/c mice. Although infection with the laboratory strain of Cpn promotes deposition of amyloid beta, this appears to resolve following reduction of the Cpn antigen burden over time. Our data suggest that infection with the AR-39 laboratory isolate of Cpn results in a different course of amyloid beta deposition and ultimate resolution than that observed following infection with the human AD-brain Cpn isolate, 96-41. These data further support that there may be differences, possibly in virulence factors, between Cpn isolates in the generation of sustainable AD pathology. PMID:25538615

  7. Antibiotic resistance in Chlamydiae

    PubMed Central

    Sandoz, Kelsi M; Rockey, Daniel D

    2011-01-01

    There are few documented reports of antibiotic resistance in Chlamydia and no examples of natural and stable antibiotic resistance in strains collected from humans. While there are several reports of clinical isolates exhibiting resistance to antibiotics, these strains either lost their resistance phenotype in vitro, or lost viability altogether. Differences in procedures for chlamydial culture in the laboratory, low recovery rates of clinical isolates and the unknown significance of heterotypic resistance observed in culture may interfere with the recognition and interpretation of antibiotic resistance. Although antibiotic resistance has not emerged in chlamydiae pathogenic to humans, several lines of evidence suggest they are capable of expressing significant resistant phenotypes. The adept ability of chlamydiae to evolve to antibiotic resistance in vitro is demonstrated by contemporary examples of mutagenesis, recombination and genetic transformation. The isolation of tetracycline-resistant Chlamydia suis strains from pigs also emphasizes their adaptive ability to acquire antibiotic resistance genes when exposed to significant selective pressure. PMID:20860486

  8. White side test: A simple and rapid test for evaluation of nonspecific bacterial genital infections of repeat breeding cattle

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Fayaz Ahmad; Bhattacharyya, Hiranya Kumar; Hussain, Syed Akram

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the grades of nonspecific bacterial infection of genitalia of repeat breeding cattle by a simple and rapid test under field condition. For this purpose, a total of 100 crossbred Jersey cows comprising of 80 repeat breeding animals presented for treatment and 20 normal cyclic (control group) animals presented for artificial insemination at their first service were selected. Estrual cervical mucus from all the animals was collected at 8 to 12 hr after the onset of behavioral estrus and subjected to white side test (WST) and bacteriological examination. The results of WST showed only 15% of control group had infection but the remaining 85% were free of it. In contrast, the majority of repeat breeding animals (57/80) showed infection (71.25%) and only 28.75% animals were free of infection. In bacterial culture, 60 (75.00%) from the 80 repeat breeding animals were found positive, and 20 (25.00%) were free of bacteria. All the three samples of control group that showed no color reaction in WST had also no growth in bacterial culture. The WST results showed a positive (p < 0.01) correlation of 0.48 with bacterial culture. It is thus concluded that under field condition WST can be used as a prime modality for ascertaining nonspecific bacterial infection of repeat breeding cattle before subjecting them to any antibiotic therapy thereby reducing the cost of diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25568715

  9. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection in pregnant women and mother-to-child transmission of genital HPV genotypes: a prospective study in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Studies on HPV infection in pregnant women and HPV transmission to the child have yielded inconsistent results. Methods To estimate mother-to-child HPV transmission we carried out a prospective cohort study that included 66 HPV-positive and 77 HPV-negative pregnant women and their offspring attending a maternity hospital in Barcelona. To estimate HPV prevalence and genotype distribution in pregnancy we also carried out a related screening survey of cervical HPV-DNA detection among 828 pregnant women. Cervical cells from the mother were collected at pregnancy (mean of 31 weeks) and at the 6-week post-partum visit. Exfoliated cells from the mouth and external genitalia of the infants were collected around birth, at the 6-week post-partum visit, and around 3, 6, 12, and 24 months of age. All samples were tested for HPV using PCR. Associations between potential determinants of HPV infection in pregnant women and of HPV positivity in infants were also explored by logistic regression modelling. Results Overall cervical HPV-DNA detection in pregnant women recruited in the HPV screening survey was 6.5% (54/828). Sexual behavior-related variables, previous histories of genital warts or sexually transmitted infections, and presence of cytological abnormalities were statistically significantly and positively associated with HPV DNA detection in pregnant women recruited in the cohort. At 418 infant visits and a mean follow-up time of 14 months, 19.7% of infants born to HPV-positive mothers and 16.9% of those born to HPV-negative mothers tested HPV positive at some point during infants' follow-up. The most frequently detected genotype both in infants and mothers was HPV-16, after excluding untyped HPV infections. We found a strong and statistically significant association between mother's and child's HPV status at the 6-week post-partum visit. Thus, children of mothers' who were HPV-positive at the post-partum visit were about 5 times more likely to test HPV-positive than children of corresponding HPV-negative mothers (p = 0.02). Conclusion This study confirms that the risk of vertical transmission of HPV genotypes is relatively low. HPV persistence in infants is a rare event. These data also indicate that vertical transmission may not be the sole source of HPV infections in infants and provides partial evidence for horizontal mother-to-child HPV transmission. PMID:19473489

  10. New insights into Chlamydia and arthritis. Promise of a cure?

    PubMed

    Zeidler, Henning; Hudson, Alan P

    2014-04-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae together comprise the most frequent causative pathogens that elicit reactive arthritis (ReA). Advances in our understanding of the molecular biology/molecular genetics of these organisms have improved significantly the ability to detect chlamydiae in the joint for diagnostic purposes, as well as extending our current understanding of the pathogenic processes they elicit in the joint and elsewhere. An important aspect of the latter is that synovial chlamydiae infect the joint in an unusual but metabolically active state. While some standard treatments can provide a palliative effect on the ReA disease phenotype, many reports have indicated that standard antibiotic treatment does not provide a cure. Of critical importance, however, two recent reports of controlled clinical trials demonstrated that Chlamydia-ReA can be treated successfully using combination antibiotic therapy. These observations offer the opportunity of a cure for this disease, thereby increasing the practical importance of awareness and diagnosis of the spondyloarthritis caused by Chlamydia. In this viewpoint, we provide an overview of recent key findings in the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of Chlamydia-induced arthritis. Our intention is for these insights to be translated rapidly into clinical practice to overcome misdiagnosis and underdiagnosis of the disease, and for them to stimulate the continued development of a cure. PMID:24297377

  11. Chlamydia in canine or feline coronary arteriosclerotic lesions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There are numerous reports linking Chlamydia infection to human coronary atherosclerosis. However, there is a lack of data regarding this correlation in dogs and cats, and there are no reports investigating coronary arteriosclerosis and Chlamydia in these species. The aim of the present study was to examine whether there is a correlation between canine and feline spontaneous atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis and the presence of Chlamydia. Archived histopathological samples of dogs (n = 16) and cats (n = 13) with findings of atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis in heart tissue were examined for the presence of Chlamydiaceae using real-time PCR, ArrayTube Microarray and immunohistochemistry. Additionally, arteriosclerotic lesions of all cases were histologically classified and graded. Results Both canine atherosclerotic cases, and all 14 canine arteriosclerotic cases were negative for Chlamydia. Only one of the 13 arteriosclerotic feline cases was positive for Chlamydia by real-time PCR, revealing C. abortus by ArrayTube Microarray. To our knowledge, this is the first description of C. abortus in a cat. Overall, the type and grade of canine and feline arteriosclerotic lesions revealed similarities, and were predominantly moderate and hyperplastic. Conclusions These findings suggest that there is no obvious correlation between canine and feline coronary arteriosclerosis and the presence of Chlamydia. In order to draw final conclusions about the correlation between Chlamydia and canine atherosclerosis, examination of more samples is required. PMID:21906306

  12. Head-to-Head Multicenter Comparison of DNA Probe and Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests for Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Women Performed with an Improved Reference Standard

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolyn M. Black; Jeanne Marrazzo; Robert E. Johnson; Edward W. Hook III; Robert B. Jones; Timothy A. Green; Julius Schachter; Walter E. Stamm; Gail Bolan; David H. Martin; Georgia Atlanta

    2002-01-01

    Few evaluations of tests for Chlamydia trachomatis have compared nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) with diagnostic tests other than those by culture. In a five-city study of 3,551 women, we compared the results of commercial ligase chain reaction (LCR) and PCR tests performed on cervical swabs and urine with the results of PACE 2 tests performed on cervical swabs, using

  13. Chlamydia trachomatis ompA genotypes in male patients with urethritis in Greece – Conservation of the serovar distribution and evidence for mixed infections with Chlamydophila abortus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Panagiotis Psarrakos; Eleni Papadogeorgakis; Konrad Sachse; Evangelia Vretou

    2011-01-01

    PCR amplification and nucleotide sequencing of the ompA gene of Chlamydia trachomatis were used to determine the prevalence and distribution of genotypes in 51 urine and urethral specimens from Greek male patients with urethritis, that were positive by the COBAS Amplicor test. A single C. trachomatis serovar was identified in 43 of the 51 amplified samples. Serovars F and E were

  14. Prevention of premature birth by screening and treatment for common genital tract infections: Results of a prospective controlled evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A. McGregor; Janice I. French; Ruth Parker; Deborah Draper; Elisa Patterson; Ward Jones; Kyja Thorsgard; John McFee

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to analyze (1) the effects of prevalent lower reproductive tract infections and (2) the effect of systematic diagnosis and treatment to reduce risks of early pregnancy loss (< 22 weeks), preterm premature rupture of membranes, and overall preterm birth.STUDY DESIGN: A prospective, controlled treatment trial was conducted on 1260 women. During the first 7 months of

  15. Syndromic treatment of gonococcal and chlamydial infections in women seeking primary care for the genital discharge syndrome: decision-making.

    PubMed Central

    Behets, F. M.; Miller, W. C.; Cohen, M. S.

    2001-01-01

    The syndromic treatment of gonococcal and chlamydial infections in women seeking primary care in clinics where resources are scarce, as recommended by WHO and implemented in many developing countries, necessitates a balance to be struck between overtreatment and undertreatment. The present paper identifies factors that are relevant to the selection of specific strategies for syndromic treatment in the above circumstances. Among them are the general aspects of decision-making and caveats concerning the rational decision-making approach. The positive and negative implications are outlined of providing or withholding treatment following a specific algorithm with a given accuracy to detect infection, i.e. sensitivity, specificity and predictive values. Other decision-making considerations that are identified are related to implementation and include the stability of risk factors with regard to time, space and the implementer, acceptability by stakeholders, and environmental constraints. There is a need to consider empirically developed treatment algorithms as a basis for policy discourse, to be evaluated together with the evidence, alternatives and arguments by the stakeholders. PMID:11731816

  16. Influence of Vaginal Bacteria and d- and l-Lactic Acid Isomers on Vaginal Extracellular Matrix Metalloproteinase Inducer: Implications for Protection against Upper Genital Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Witkin, Steven S.; Mendes-Soares, Helena; Linhares, Iara M.; Jayaram, Aswathi; Ledger, William J.; Forney, Larry J.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT We evaluated levels of vaginal extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-8) in vaginal secretions in relation to the composition of vaginal bacterial communities and d- and l-lactic acid levels. The composition of vaginal bacterial communities in 46 women was determined by pyrosequencing the V1 to V3 region of 16S rRNA genes. Lactobacilli were dominant in 71.3% of the women, followed by Gardnerella (17.4%), Streptococcus (8.7%), and Enterococcus (2.2%). Of the lactobacillus-dominated communities, 51.5% were dominated by Lactobacillus crispatus, 36.4% by Lactobacillus iners, and 6.1% each by Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus jensenii. Concentrations of l-lactic acid were slightly higher in lactobacillus-dominated vaginal samples, but most differences were not statistically significant. d-Lactic acid levels were higher in samples containing L. crispatus than in those with L. iners (P < 0.0001) or Gardnerella (P = 0.0002). The relative proportion of d-lactic acid in vaginal communities dominated by species of lactobacilli was in concordance with the proportions found in axenic cultures of the various species grown in vitro. Levels of l-lactic acid (P < 0.0001) and the ratio of l-lactic acid to d-lactic acid (P = 0.0060), but not concentrations of d-lactic acid, were also correlated with EMMPRIN concentrations. Moreover, vaginal concentrations of EMMPRIN and MMP-8 levels were highly correlated (P < 0.0001). Taken together, the data suggest the relative proportion of l- to d-lactic acid isomers in the vagina may influence the extent of local EMMPRIN production and subsequent induction of MMP-8. The expression of these proteins may help determine the ability of bacteria to transverse the cervix and initiate upper genital tract infections. PMID:23919998

  17. Presence of Chlamydia trachomatis in young women in Northern Sardinia.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Stefania; Usai, D; Molicotti, Paola; Deriu, Antonella; Sechi, Leonardo Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease among women. The aim of this study was to determine by PCR the incidence of C. trachomatis among young women in Northern Sardinia since no studies are present in this area. The results obtained showed a moderate increase of chlamydial infection since 1997. PMID:17319603

  18. Field evaluation of a new commercially available ELISA based on a recombinant antigen for diagnosing Chlamydophila abortus ( Chlamydia psittaci serotype 1) infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J Buend??a; F Cuello; L Del Rio; M. C Gallego; M. R Caro; J Salinas

    2001-01-01

    A new commercially available ELISA (ELISAr-Chlamydia) for detecting antibodies against Chlamydophilaabortus has been evaluated using sheep field serum samples. The ELISA is based on a recombinant antigen which expresses part of a protein from the 80–90kDa family that is specific to C.abortus. Sera (105) from six flocks with confirmed ovine chlamydial abortion (OEA) outbreaks were used in this study, as

  19. Differential transcriptional responses between the interferon-?-induction and iron-limitation models of persistence for Chlamydia pneumoniae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Timms; David Good; Charles Wan; Christina Theodoropoulos; Sanghamitra Mukhopadhyay; James Summersgill; Sarah Mathews

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Chlamydia spp. are important pathogens of humans and animals that cause a wide range of acute and chronic infections. A persistence model has been developed in which Chlamydia spp. do not complete their developmental cycle, have significantly reduced infectivity for new host cells, and exhibit abnormal inclusion and reticulate body morphology. This study was performed to compare

  20. Liposomal gD ectodomain (gD1-306) vaccine protects against HSV2 genital or rectal infection of female and male mice.

    PubMed

    Olson, K; Macias, P; Hutton, S; Ernst, W A; Fujii, G; Adler-Moore, J P

    2009-12-11

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2) is the most common causative agent of genital herpes, with infection rates as high as 1 in 6 adults. The present studies were done to evaluate the efficacy of a liposomal HSV2 gD(1-306) vaccine (L-gD(1-306)-HD) in an acute murine HSV2 infection model of intravaginal (female) or intrarectal (male or female) challenge. Two doses of L-gD(1-306)-HD containing 60 microg gD(1-306)-HD and 15 microg monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) per dose provided protection against HSV2 intravaginal challenge (86-100% survival, P< or =0.0003 vs. control liposomes; P=0.06 vs. L-gD(1-306)-HD without MPL). Both male and female mice (BALB/c and C57BL/6) immunized with L-gD(1-306)-HD/MPL were significantly protected against HSV2 intrarectal challenge, with higher survival rates compared to controls (71-100%, P< or =0.007). L-gD(1-306)-HD/MPL also provided increased survival when compared to a liposomal peptide vaccine, L-gD(264-285)-HD/MPL (male BALB/c, P

  1. Genital Warts (HPV)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Get Genital Warts If You've Had All the Shots? Talking to Your Partner About Condoms I Have Bumps On ... Warts. What Should I Do? Do I Have to Get All Three HPV Vaccine Shots? 5 Myths About STDs Can Getting the HPV Vaccine Help If I Already Have Genital ...

  2. Genital lesions in male red fronted gazelles (Gazella rufifrons) experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei and the effect of melarsamine hydrochloride (Cymelarsan®) and diminazene aceturate (Berenil®) in its treatment.

    PubMed

    Mbaya, A W; Nwosu, C O; Kumshe, H A

    2011-09-01

    Thirty red fronted gazelles (Gazella rufifrons) were used to assess the genital lesions associated with trypanosomosis and the efficacy of melarsamine hydrochloride (Cymelarsan®) and diminazene aceturate (Berenil®) in the treatment of the condition. The animals were divided into 6 equal groups (A-F). Animals in groups A-E were infected with Trypanosoma brucei, and later treated on day 8 post infection (p.i.) with either melarsamine hydrochloride (Cymelarsan®) at 0.3 mg/kg (Group A) and 0.6 mg/kg (Group B) or diminazene aceturate (Berenil®) at 3.5 mg/kg (Group C) and 7.0 mg/kg (Group D). Animals in group E remained untreated while group F served as healthy controls. Parasitaemia was established by day 8 p.i. in all infected groups and eliminated by day 16 following treatment on day 8 p.i. with melarsamine hydrochloride (Cymelarsan®) (Groups A and B) or diminazene aceturate (Berenil®) (Group D). On the other hand, diminazene aceturate treatment (Berenil®) on day 8 p.i. at 3.5 mg/kg (Group C) caused a temporary disappearance of parasites from the circulation by day 16 p.i. but there was a relapse parasitaemia on day 44 with a peak count of 500 ± 2.79 × 10(3) parasites/?L of blood by day 52 p.i. In the infected/untreated group (E), parasitaemia fluctuated but attained the same peak as Group C by day 52 p.i. Increase in body temperatures (40.5 ± 3.16 - 42.8 ± 3.25 °C) occurred during the first wave of parasitaemia but declined to pre-infection values from day 28 p.i. in Groups A, B and D. In Groups C and E, there was a second wave of parasitaemia (P < 0.05) with peak counts of 42.4 ± 0.81 × 10(3)/?L and 41.8 ± 0.80 × 10(3)/?L respectively by day 52 p.i. A significant (P < 0.05) decline in packed cell volume was also noted by day 52 p.i. The major clinical signs observed in Groups C and E were pyrexia, inappetance, emaciation, anaemia, dullness, starry hair coat, pallor of buccal and ocular mucous membranes. Similarly, in Groups C and E, the testicles appeared oedematous and painful to touch with degenerative changes, morphological sperm abnormalities and oligospermia with 2.0% and 0% sperm reserves respectively. Sperm reserve was 100% in Groups A, B and D. It is therefore, concluded that trypanosomosis can cause serious infertility in male red fronted gazelles and that early treatments with melarsamine hydrochloride (Cymelarsan®) at 0.3 and 0.6 mg/kg body weight or diminazene aceturate (Berenil®) at 7.0 mg/kg body weight may prevent such effects. PMID:21601916

  3. Condom Fact Sheet in Brief

    MedlinePLUS

    ... transmitted only by genital fluids (STDs such as gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, and HIV infection) than against infections ... transmitted by genital fluids (STDs such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis). Consistent and correct use of latex ...

  4. GENITAL HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS (HPV) Dartmouth COOP

    E-print Network

    identified; 30 of them affect the genital tract. 3. All types of HPV are spread by SKIN TO SKIN contact. Risk factors for HPV including previous treatment for cancer or precancer, HIV infection, weakened. HPV is the only cause of cervical cancer. HPV may also be linked to cancer of the anus, vulva, vagina

  5. High co-occurrence of anorectal chlamydia with urogenital chlamydia in women visiting an STI clinic revealed by routine universal testing in an observational study; a recommendation towards a better anorectal chlamydia control in women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Symptom- and sexual history-based testing i.e., testing on indication, for anorectal sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in women is common. Yet, it is unknown whether this strategy is effective. Moreover, little is known about alternative transmission routes i.e. by fingers/toys. This study assesses anorectal STI prevalence and infections missed by current testing practice, thereby informing the optimal control strategy for anorectal STIs in women. Methods Women (n?=?663) attending our STI-clinic between May 2012-July 2013 were offered routine testing for anorectal and urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Data were collected on demographics, sexual behaviour and symptoms. Women were assigned to one of the categories: indication (reported anal sex/symptoms), fingers/toys (only reported use of fingers/toys), or without indication. Results Of women, 92% (n?=?654) participated. There were 203 reports (31.0%) of anal sex and/or symptoms (indication), 48 reports (7.3%) of only using fingers/toys (fingers/toys), and 403 reports (61.6%) of no anal symptoms, no anal sex and no anal use of fingers/toys (without indication). The overall prevalence was 11.2% (73/654) for urogenital chlamydia and 8.4% (55/654) for anorectal chlamydia. Gonorrhoea infections were not observed. Prevalence of anorectal chlamydia was 7.9% (16/203) for women with indication and 8.6% (39/451) for all other women (P?=?0.74). Two-thirds (39/55) of anorectal infections were diagnosed in women without indication. Isolated anorectal chlamydia was rare (n?=?3): of all women with an anorectal infection, 94.5% (52/55) also had co-occurrence of urogenital chlamydia. Of all women with urogenital chlamydia, 71.2% (52/73) also had anorectal chlamydia. Conclusions Current selective testing on indication of symptoms and sexual history is not an appropriate control strategy for anorectal chlamydia in women visiting an STI clinic. Routine universal anorectal testing is feasible and may be a possible control strategy in women. Yet costs may be a problem. When more restricted control measures are preferred, possible alternatives include (1) anorectal testing only in women with urogenital chlamydia (problem: treatment delay or loss to follow up), and (2) direct treatment for urogenital chlamydia that is effective for anorectal chlamydia as well. PMID:24885306

  6. Multiple Neoplastic Lesions of the Lower Genital Tract in a Human Papilloma Virus-Infected Kidney-Pancreas Allograft Recipient: A Case Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Bobrowska; P. Kami?ski; A. Cyganek; J. Jabiry-Zieniewicz; L. Bablok; M. Durlik; P. Fiedor

    2005-01-01

    States of immunodeficiency are associated with an increased rate of certain cancers. Immunosuppressed allograft recipients are at high risk of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)-related de novo malignancies. A female pancreas plus kidney transplant patient developed multiple genital malignancies within 6 years. The genome of human papilloma virus type 16 was detected in malignant lesions obtained from surgical procedures. All detected

  7. Clinical Evaluation of A New Model of Self-Obtained Method for the Assessment of Genital Human Papilloma Virus Infection in an Underserved Population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chi-Chang Chang; Chih-Jen Tseng; Wei-wei Liu; Smita Jain; Shang-Gwo Horng; Yung-Kuei Soong; Swei Hsueh; Chia C. Pao

    Background: We designed a self-sampling method to collect exfoliated genital cells for human papilloma virus (HPV) detection. The aim was to assess whether it was suitable as an assistant tool for the early detection of cervical pre-cancer and cancer in a special category of the women who are not frequently screened for cervical cancer. Methods: We compared the results of

  8. Genital Warts (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... prescription medication or other medical procedures, such as freezing or laser treatments. A teen who is being treated for genital warts also should be tested for other STDs, and should have time alone with the doctor to openly discuss issues ...

  9. Genital fixed drug eruptions.

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, V H; Gangwani, O P

    1986-01-01

    Twenty nine patients with genital fixed drug eruptions were studied during one year. In 15 the genitalia were exclusively affected, whereas the other 14 had cutaneous lesions in addition. It was striking that those whose lesions were exclusively genital reported for consultation much earlier. Drug history was the mainstay of diagnosis. Provocation tests with graded doses of the suspected drug(s) were undertaken in all cases. Tetracycline was the commonest causative drug, followed by oxyphenbutazone and acetylsalicylic acid. Images PMID:3949352

  10. Diversity within inc genes of clinical Chlamydia trachomatis variant isolates that occupy non-fusogenic inclusions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel D. Rockey; Wasna Viratyosin; John P. Bannantine; Robert J. Suchland; Walter E. Stamm

    2002-01-01

    The obligately intracellular chlamydiae are bacterial pathogens that occupy intracellular vacuoles, termed inclusions, as they develop and multiply. Typical Chlamydia trachomatis isolates occupy inclusions that fuse with other C. trachomatis inclusions within cells infected with multiple elementary bodies (wild-type phenotype). The authors of this study have recently described C. trachomatis isolates that form multiply-lobed, non-fusogenic inclusions within single cells infected

  11. What is pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)? PID is an infection of the female reproductive organs

    E-print Network

    Virginia Tech

    are the sexually transmitted infections of Chlamydia and Gonorrhea. Sometimes other types of infections play a role swab and may test positive for the presence of Chlamydia or Gonorrhea. What is the treatment for PID

  12. Laboratory diagnosis of human chlamydial infections.

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, R C

    1989-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a human pathogen that causes ocular disease (trachoma and inclusion conjunctivitis), genital disease (cervicitis, urethritis, salpingitis, and lymphogranuloma venereum), and respiratory disease (infant pneumonitis). Respiratory chlamydioses also occur with infection by avian strains of C. psittaci or infection by the newly described TWAR agent. Diagnosis of most acute C. trachomatis infections relies on detection of the infecting agent by cell culture, fluorescent antibody, immunoassay, cytopathologic, or nucleic acid hybridization methods. Individual non-culture tests for C. trachomatis are less sensitive and specific than the best chlamydial cell culture system but offer the advantages of reduced technology and simple transport of clinical specimens. Currently available nonculture tests for C. trachomatis perform adequately as screening tests in populations in which the prevalence of infection is greater than 10%. A negative culture or nonculture test for C. trachomatis does not, however, exclude infection. The predictive value of a positive nonculture test may be unsatisfactory when populations of low infection prevalence are tested. Tests that detect antibody responses to chlamydial infection have limited utility in diagnosis of acute chlamydial infection because of the high prevalence of persistent antibody in healthy adults and the cross-reactivity due to infection by the highly prevalent C. trachomatis and TWAR agents. Assays for changes in antibody titer to the chlamydial genus antigen are used for the diagnosis of respiratory chlamydioses. A single serum sample that is negative for chlamydial antibody excludes the diagnosis of lymphogranuloma venereum. PMID:2650858

  13. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis Oculotropic and Genitotropic Strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John H. Carlson; Stephen F. Porcella; Grant McClarty; Harlan D. Caldwell

    2005-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection is an important cause of preventable blindness and sexually transmitted disease (STD) in humans. C. trachomatis exists as multiple serovariants that exhibit distinct organotropism for the eye or urogenital tract. We previously reported tissue-tropic correlations with the presence or absence of a functional tryptophan synthase and a putative GTPase-inactivating domain of the chlamydial toxin gene. This suggested

  14. The molecular mechanism of T-cell control of Chlamydia in mice: role of nitric oxide.

    PubMed Central

    Igietseme, J U

    1996-01-01

    T-cell mediated immunity (CMI) is crucial for protection against genital chlamydial infection in mice. To define the underlying molecular mechanism for this protection, several T-cell clones generated against the Chlamydia trachomatis agent of mouse pneumonitis (MoPn) were analysed in an in vitro model of the mucosal epithelium, the polarized epithelial-lymphocyte co-culture (PELC) system, for immunobiological functions that correlated with chlamydial inhibition. The six clones analysed were classified as protective or non-protective on the basis of their ability to cure genital chlamydial infection in syngeneic mice. The results revealed a direct relationship between the ability of a clone to protect in vivo and to inhibit the multiplication of MoPn in vitro. Also, the protective ability of a clone correlated with its capacity to elaborate relatively high levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and to induce nitric oxide (NO) production. Moreover, neutralizing anti-IFN-gamma antibodies used alone at 50 micrograms/ml or in combination with anti-tumour necrosis-factor (TNF-alpha), and the L-arginine analogue and NO synthase inhibitor, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine monoacetate (MLA), could significantly suppress the ability of protective clones to inhibit MoPn in epithelial cells. The results suggested that the IFN-gamma-inducible NO synthease pathway is important for chlamydial control in mice. Furthermore, IFN-gamma could stimulate infected murine epithelial cells (line TM3) to secrete NO, resulting in inhibition of MoPn growth. However, the degree of MoPn inhibition obtained with IFN-gamma alone was less than that observed when T cells were co-cultured with infected epithelial cells. T-cell-derived NO could partly explain the enhanced chlamydial inhibition when T cells were co-cultured with infected epithelial cells. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that, besides T-cell-derived IFN-gamma, other factors associated with lymphoepithelial interactions are likely to contribute an important role in chlamydial control by T cells in mice. PMID:8666420

  15. Paper-based molecular diagnostic for Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Linnes, Jacqueline C.; Fan, Andy; Rodriguez, Natalia M.; Lemieux, Bertrand; Kong, Huimin; Klapperich, Catherine M.

    2014-01-01

    Herein we show the development of a minimally instrumented paper-based molecular diagnostic for point of care detection of sexually transmitted infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. This new diagnostic platform incorporates cell lysis, isothermal nucleic acid amplification, and lateral flow visual detection using only a pressure source and heat block, eliminating the need for expensive laboratory equipment. This paper-based test can be performed in less than one hour and has a clinically relevant limit of detection that is 100x more sensitive than current rapid immunoassays used for chlamydia diagnosis. PMID:25309740

  16. Increased incidence of Chlamydia species within the coronary arteries of patients with symptomatic atherosclerotic versus other forms of cardiovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph B. Muhlestein; Elizabeth H. Hammond; John F. Carlquist; Ellen Radicke; Matthew J. Thomson; Labros A. Karagounis; Marion L. Woods; Jeffrey L. Anderson

    1996-01-01

    Objectives. The objectives of this study were to test prospectively for an association between Chlamydia and atherosclerosis by comparing the incidence of the pathogen found within atherosclerotic plaques in patients undergoing directional coronary atherectomy with a variety of control specimens and comparing the clinical features between the groups.Background. Previous work has suggested an association between Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and coronary

  17. Highly specific and efficient primers for in-house multiplex PCR detection of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although sophisticated methodologies are available, the use of endpoint polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect 16S rDNA genes remains a good approach for estimating the incidence and prevalence of specific infections and for monitoring infections. Considering the importance of the early diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), the development of a sensitive and affordable method for identifying pathogens in clinical samples is needed. Highly specific and efficient primers for a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (m-PCR) system were designed in silico to detect the 16S rDNA genes of four bacteria that cause genital infections, and the PCR method was developed. Methods The Genosensor Probe Designer (GPD) (version 1.0a) software was initially used to design highly specific and efficient primers for in-house m-PCR. Single-locus PCR reactions were performed and standardised, and then primers for each locus in turn were added individually in subsequent amplifications until m-PCR was achieved. Amplicons of the expected size were obtained from each of the four bacterial gene fragments. Finally, the analytical specificity and limits of detection were tested. Results Because they did not amplify any product from non-STI tested species, the primers were specific. The detection limits for the Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum primer sets were 5.12?×?105, 3.9?×?103, 61.19?×?106 and 6.37?×?105 copies of a DNA template, respectively. Conclusions The methodology designed and standardised here could be applied satisfactorily for the simultaneous or individual detection of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum. This method is at least as efficient as other previously described methods; however, this method is more affordable for low-income countries. PMID:24997675

  18. Isolation of Chlamydia psittaci from cats with conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Studdert, M J; Studdert, V P; Wirth, H J

    1981-11-01

    Chlamydia psittaci was repeatedly demonstrated in stained smears of conjunctival scrapings from a group of cats in a single household and in 5 instances the organism was isolated by yolk sac inoculation of 6-day-old pathogen free, embryonated hen eggs. Thirteen of 15 cats in the cattery developed conjunctivitis at various times over a 9-month period. The outstanding features of the disease were its severity, chronicity and refractoriness to treatment. Prolonged (2 week) treatment with tetracycline was required to effect clinical recovery. Nine of 14 cats in the household developed significant complement-fixing (CF) antibody titres (greater than 128) to the chlamydia group antigen. A single serum from the owner had a titre of 32 although no associated illness was recognized. Of 134 serums collected from random source cats aged 1 month to 16 years, 17 (12.7%) also contained CF antibody to chlamydia group antigen. This is the first report of the isolation of chlamydia from cats with conjunctivitis outside North America and the first report to indicate general incidence figures for chlamydia infection of cats where vaccination is not used. PMID:7342937

  19. The genital tract immune milieu: an important determinant of HIV susceptibility and secondary transmission.

    PubMed

    Kaul, R; Pettengell, C; Sheth, P M; Sunderji, S; Biringer, A; MacDonald, K; Walmsley, S; Rebbapragada, A

    2008-01-01

    HIV is generally sexually acquired across the genital or rectal mucosa after exposure to the genital secretions of an HIV-infected partner. Most exposures to HIV do not result in infection, likely due to protection afforded by an intact mucosal epithelium, as well as by innate and adaptive mucosal immune factors present in the genital tract. Another important mucosal determinant of transmission may be the number and activation status of potential HIV target cells, including CCR5/CD4+ T cells and DC-SIGN+ dendritic cells. The simultaneous presence of other genital infections, including classical sexually transmitted infections (STIs), can enhance HIV susceptibility either by breaching the epithelial barrier, recruiting HIV target cells to the genital tract, or by generating a pro-inflammatory local immune milieu. In HIV-infected individuals, genital co-infections increase HIV levels in the genital secretions, thereby increasing secondary sexual transmission. Co-infections that act as important HIV cofactors include human cytomegalovirus (CMV), Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2), Neisseria gonorrhoeae and many others. Strategies focused on genital co-infections, such as vaccines, microbicides and suppressive therapy, are feasible in the short term and have the potential to curb the pandemic. PMID:17395270

  20. Chlamydia pneumoniae--a new causative agent of reactive arthritis and undifferentiated oligoarthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Braun, J; Laitko, S; Treharne, J; Eggens, U; Wu, P; Distler, A; Sieper, J

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine whether reactive arthritis (ReA) known to occur after a urogenital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis can also follow an infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae, a recently described species of Chlamydiae that is a common cause of respiratory tract infections. METHODS--Specific antibodies (microimmunofluorescence test) and lymphocyte proliferation to C trachomatis and C pneumoniae in paired samples of peripheral blood and synovial fluid were investigated in 70 patients with either reactive arthritis (ReA) or undifferentiated oligoarthritis (UOA). RESULTS--Five patients with acute ReA after an infection with C pneumoniae are reported. Three had a symptomatic preceding upper respiratory tract infection and two had no such symptoms. In all patients a C pneumoniae-specific lymphocyte proliferation in synovial fluid and a high specific antibody titre suggesting an acute infection was found. CONCLUSION--C pneumoniae needs to be considered a new important cause of reactive arthritis. Images PMID:8129453

  1. DNA microarray-based detection of multiple pathogens: Mycoplasma spp. and Chlamydia spp.

    PubMed

    Schnee, Christiane; Sachse, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    Rapid detection of slow-growing or non-culturable microorganisms, such as Mycoplasma spp. and Chlamydia spp., is still a challenge to diagnosticians in the veterinary field. In addition, as epidemiological evidence on the frequency of mixed infections involving two and more bacterial species has been emerging, detection methods allowing simultaneous identification of different pathogens are required. In the present chapter, we describe DNA microarray-based procedures for the detection of 83 Mollicutes species (Mycoplasma assay) and 11 Chlamydia spp. (Chlamydia assay). The assays are suitable for use in a routine diagnostic environment, as well as in microbiological research. PMID:25399098

  2. Abortion and subsequent excretion of chlamydiae from the reproductive tract of sheep during estrus.

    PubMed Central

    Papp, J R; Shewen, P E; Gartley, C J

    1994-01-01

    Chlamydia psittaci serovar 1 infection in pregnant sheep typically causes abortion or the birth of weak lambs. Eight sheep that experienced chlamydia-induced abortion during their first pregnancy were successfully rebred yearly for the past 2 years. Chlamydia-specific lipopolysaccharide was detectable for approximately 3 weeks in vaginal swabs taken from the experimentally infected sheep following abortion. There was no evidence of chlamydiae in vaginal, placental, or neonatal samples obtained immediately after each subsequent successful pregnancy. Sera collected from the experimentally infected sheep had persistent, high antibody levels to C. psittaci, suggesting continued exposure of the immune system to the organism. Examination of vaginal specimens obtained during various stages of the estrus cycle revealed detectable levels of chlamydiae only when the animal was near ovulation. Chlamydiae were not detected in swabs from sheep that did not experience abortion. Enhanced chlamydial excretion during the periovulation period of sheep may provide sufficient stimulation of the immune system to account for the persistent antibody response. Furthermore, the association between estrus and chlamydial shedding has important implications for transmission of infection to other ewes during breeding. PMID:8063395

  3. Chlamydia Trachomatis and Neisseria Gonorrhoeae prevalence among women of reproductive age living in urogenital schistosomiasis endemic area in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many studies have shown an overlap in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and urogenital schistosomiasis among young women living in schistosomiasis endemic areas. Yet we found no study assessing the prevalence of STI infections in urogenital schistosomiasis endemic areas in Ghana. As part of an epidemiological study on urogenital schistosomiasis and HIV, we sought to assess the prevalence of both Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorhoeae (NG) infections among women living in schistosomiasis endemic communities and explore the relationship between the sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and demographic characteristics, sexual behaviour and self-reported symptoms. Methods This was a cross-sectional study in which endocervical samples were collected from 191 women aged 15–49 years from October 2005 to March 2006. Samples were examined for CT and NG using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). A structured questionnaire was also used to elicit information on study participant’s gynaecological and obstetric history and symptoms for genital infection. Chi-square test and binary logistic regression were used to assess association between CT and NG and other variables such as age, sexual behaviour and self-reported symptoms. Results The overall prevalence of CT and NG were 6.3% and 2.6% respectively.The highest prevalence rates of CT were in the 15 to 19 year group while only individuals between 15 and 39 years were positive for NG. There was no association between CT and age, contraceptive use and the other variables assessed. NG on the other hand was found to be associated with age, number of births and number of sexual partners only by chi-square test. Conclusions Our research revealed higher prevalence of CT and NG infections when compared to previous studies conducted among higher risk groups in non-urogenital schistosomiasis areas in Ghana. We therefore recommend further studies of these STIs in urogenital schistosomiasis endemic areas in the country. PMID:24917067

  4. Genital Problems in Infants

    MedlinePLUS

    ... tight to pull back? Yes This condition is called PHIMOSIS. See your child's doctor. No 5. Is it difficult to tell the sex of your infant at birth or shortly after? AMBIGUOUS GENITALIA is a birth defect in which the genitals are not ...

  5. Genital lesions following bestiality.

    PubMed

    Mittal, A; Shenoi, S D; Kumar, K B; Sharma, P V

    2000-01-01

    A 48-year-old man presented with painful genital lesions with history of bestiality and abnor-mal sexual behaviour. Examination revealed multiple irregular tender ulcers and erosions, with phimosis and left sided tender inguinal adenopathy. VDRL, TPHA, HIV-ELISA were negative. He was treated with ciprofloxacin 500mg b.d. along with saline compresses with complete resolution. PMID:20877040

  6. Genital fournier's gangrene: experience with 38 patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed J. Hejase; Jose E. Simonin; Richard Bihrle; Christopher L. Coogan

    1996-01-01

    Objectives. Fournier's gangrene (FG) is an extensive fulminant infection of the genitals, perineum, or the abdominal wall. We report our experience with the management of this difficult infectious disease.Methods. Thirty-eight patients were admitted with the diagnosis of FG between May 1993 and May 1995. All patients were treated with broad-spectrum triple antimicrobial therapy, broad debridement, exhaustive cleaning, and application of

  7. Mucosal Immunity in the Female Genital Tract, HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Reis Machado, Juliana; da Silva, Marcos Vinícius; Cavellani, Camila Lourencini; Antônia dos Reis, Marlene; Monteiro, Maria Luiza Gonçalves dos Reis; Teixeira, Vicente de Paula Antunes; Rosa Miranda Corrêa, Rosana

    2014-01-01

    Mucosal immunity consists of innate and adaptive immune responses which can be influenced by systemic immunity. Despite having been the subject of intensive studies, it is not fully elucidated what exactly occurs after HIV contact with the female genital tract mucosa. The sexual route is the main route of HIV transmission, with an increased risk of infection in women compared to men. Several characteristics of the female genital tract make it suitable for inoculation, establishment of infection, and systemic spread of the virus, which causes local changes that may favor the development of infections by other pathogens, often called sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The relationship of these STDs with HIV infection has been widely studied. Here we review the characteristics of mucosal immunity of the female genital tract, its alterations due to HIV/AIDS, and the characteristics of coinfections between HIV/AIDS and the most prevalent STDs. PMID:25313360

  8. New approach to managing genital warts

    PubMed Central

    Lopaschuk, Catharine C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To summarize and determine the appropriate use for the new and old management tools for genital warts. Sources of information The following databases were searched: MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ACP Journal Club, and Trip. The bibliographies of retrieved papers were also reviewed. Clinical trials, qualitative review articles, consensus reports, and clinical practice guidelines were retrieved. Main message Symptomatic warts are prevalent in at least 1% of the population between the ages of 15 and 49, with estimates of up to 50% of the population being infected with human papillomavirus at some point in their lifetime. Imiquimod and podophyllotoxin are 2 new treatments for external genital warts that are less painful and can be applied by patients at home. In addition, the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine has been shown to be efficacious in preventing genital warts and cervical cancer. There is still a role for the older treatment methods in certain situations, such as intravaginal, urethral, anal, or recalcitrant warts; or for pregnant patients. Conclusion The new treatments of external genital warts can reduce the pain of treatment and the number of office visits. Other treatment methods are still useful in certain situations. PMID:23851535

  9. Selenium and vitamin E effect on antibody production of sheep vaccinated against enzootic abortion ( Chlamydia psittaci)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Giadinis; G. Koptopoulos; N. Roubies; V. Siarkou; A. Papasteriades

    2000-01-01

    The effect of selenium (Se) and vitamin E (vit E) on antibody production of sheep vaccinated against Chlamydia psittaci (ovis) was investigated. Thirty-two sheep, one year old, seronegative to Chlamydia infection, vaccinated against enterotoxemia and dewormed were used.Injectable sodium selenite (0.1 mg\\/kg b.w.) was given twice to animals of the first group (gSe), with a three week interval. The sheep

  10. Emerging chlamydial infections.

    PubMed

    Corsaro, Daniele; Venditti, Danielle

    2004-01-01

    Chlamydiae are important intracellular bacterial pathogens of vertebrates. In the last years, novel members of this group have been discovered: Parachlamydia acanthamoebae and Simkania negevensis seems to be emerging respiratory human pathogens, while Waddlia chondrophila might be a new agent of bovine abortion. Various species have been showed to infect also the herpetofauna and fishes, and some novel chlamydiae are endosymbionts of arthropods. In addition, molecular studies evidenced a huge diversity of chlamydiae from both environmental and clinical samples, most of such a diversity could be formed by novel lineages of chlamydiae. Experimental studies showed that free-living amoebae may support multiplication of various chlamydiae, then could play an important role as reservoir/vector of chlamydial infections. Here we reviewed literature data concerning chlamydial infections, with a particular emphasis on the novely described chlamydial organisms. PMID:15239381

  11. Differential susceptibilities to azithromycin treatment of chlamydial infection in the gastrointestinal tract and cervix

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence from animal studies suggests that chlamydiae may persist in the gastrointestinal tract (GI) and be a reservoir for reinfection of the genital tract. We hypothesize that there may be a differential susceptibility of organisms in the GI and genital tracts. To determine the effect of azithromy...

  12. Evaluation of intra- and extra-epithelial secretory IgA in chlamydial infections.

    PubMed

    Armitage, Charles W; O'Meara, Connor P; Harvie, Marina C G; Timms, Peter; Wijburg, Odilia L; Beagley, Kenneth W

    2014-12-01

    Immunoglobulin A is an important mucosal antibody that can neutralize mucosal pathogens by either preventing attachment to epithelia (immune exclusion) or alternatively inhibit intra-epithelial replication following transcytosis by the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR). Chlamydia trachomatis is a major human pathogen that initially targets the endocervical or urethral epithelium in women and men, respectively. As both tissues contain abundant secretory IgA (SIgA) we assessed the protection afforded by IgA targeting different chlamydial antigens expressed during the extra- and intra-epithelial stages of infection. We developed an in vitro model using polarizing cells expressing the murine pIgR together with antigen-specific mouse IgA, and an in vivo model using pIgR(-/-) mice. Secretory IgA targeting the extra-epithelial chlamydial antigen, the major outer membrane protein, significantly reduced infection in vitro by 24% and in vivo by 44%. Conversely, pIgR-mediated delivery of IgA targeting the intra-epithelial inclusion membrane protein A bound to the inclusion but did not reduce infection in vitro or in vivo. Similarly, intra-epithelial IgA targeting the secreted protease Chlamydia protease-like activity factor also failed to reduce infection. Together, these data suggest the importance of pIgR-mediated delivery of IgA targeting extra-epithelial, but not intra-epithelial, chlamydial antigens for protection against a genital tract infection. PMID:24827556

  13. Genital flora in pregnancy and its association with intrauterine growth retardation.

    PubMed Central

    Germain, M; Krohn, M A; Hillier, S L; Eschenbach, D A

    1994-01-01

    A study of risk factors for intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was conducted among a cohort of 13,914 pregnant women enrolled in the multicenter Vaginal Infections and Prematurity Study. From 23 through 26 weeks of gestational age, cultures of specimens from the vagina and cervix were done for group B streptococci, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida albicans, Gardnerella vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and anaerobic gram-negative rods belonging to the genera Bacteroides, Porphyromonas, and Prevotella. Newborns who were small for their gestational age were delivered by 1,251 women, and infants of the appropriate weight for their gestational age were delivered by 10,332 women. When controlling for ethnicity and smoking and excluding women treated with antibiotics, the Mantel-Haenszel adjusted relative risk of IUGR was 1.16 for Bacteroides, Prevotella, and Porphyromonas spp. (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.01 to 1.33), 1.16 for M. hominis (95% CI, 1.04 to 1.29), 1.20 for U. urealyticum (95% CI, 1.05 to 1.38), and 1.22 for T. vaginalis (95% CI, 1.05 to 1.42). There was also a strong and significant trend for an increasing risk of IUGR with the number of these four microbes recovered. Among women colonized with all four isolates, the adjusted odds ratio of IUGR was 1.79 (95% CI, 1.27 to 2.52) in comparison with women not colonized with any of these microorganisms. Group B streptococci, N. gonorrhoeae, C. trachomatis, and C. albicans were not significantly associated with IUGR. These results suggest that infection is associated with some cases of IUGR and that specific microorganisms, alone or in combination, are involved. Since genital isolates are highly correlated with each other, the relative contribution of each microbe is difficult to determine. PMID:7814541

  14. Chlamydia pneumoniae encodes a functional aromatic amino acid hydroxylase

    PubMed Central

    Abromaitis, Stephanie; Hefty, P. Scott; Stephens, Richard S.

    2010-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is a community-acquired respiratory pathogen that has been associated with the development of atherosclerosis. Analysis of the C. pneumoniae genome identified a gene (Cpn1046) homologous to eukaryotic aromatic amino acid hydroxylases. Aromatic amino acid hydroxylases (AroAA-H) hydroxylate phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan into tyrosine, dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), and 5-hydroxytryptophan, respectively. Sequence analysis of Cpn1046 demonstrated that residues essential for AroAA-H enzymatic function are conserved and that a subset of Chlamydia species contain an AroAA-H homolog. The chlamydial AroAA-H are transcriptionally linked to a putative bacterial membrane transport protein. We determined that recombinant Cpn1046 is able to hydroxylate phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan with roughly equivalent activity for all three substrates. Cpn1046 is expressed within 24 h of infection, allowing C. pneumoniae to hydroxylae host stores of aromatic amino acids during the period of logarithmic bacterial growth. From these results we can conclude that C. pneumoniae, as well as a subset of other Chlamydia species, encode an AroAA-H that is able to use all three aromatic amino acids as substrates. The maintenance of this gene within a number of Chlamydia suggests that the enzyme may have an important role in shaping the metabolism or overall pathogenesis of these bacteria. PMID:19141112

  15. Seroprevalence and genotype of Chlamydia in pet parrots in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, N-Z; Zhang, X-X; Zhou, D-H; Huang, S-Y; Tian, W-P; Yang, Y-C; Zhao, Q; Zhu, X-Q

    2015-01-01

    Parrots are one of the most popular pet birds in China, and can harbour Chlamydia which has significance for human and animal health. We investigated, by indirect haemagglutination assay, the seroprevalence of Chlamydia infection in four species of parrots, namely budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), lovebirds (Agapornis sp.), cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and Alexandrine parakeets (Psittacula eupatria) that were collected from Weifang and Beijing cities, North China and explored the association between potential risk factors and chlamydial seropositivity. We further determined the genotype of Chlamydia in 21 fresh faecal samples based on the ompA sequence by reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships. Of the 311 parrots examined, 35·37% (95% confidence interval 30·06-40·68) were seropositive, and species, gender, age, season and geographical location were identified as risk factors. Two PCR-positive samples represented Chlamydia psittaci genotype A. The occurrence of C. psittaci genotype A in the droppings of two pet parrots in China suggests potential environmental contamination with Chlamydiaceae and may raise a public health concern. PMID:24588856

  16. High Level of Soluble HLA-G in the Female Genital Tract of Beninese Commercial Sex Workers Is Associated with HIV1 Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valérie Thibodeau; Julie Lajoie; Annie-Claude Labbé; Marcel D. Zannou; Keith R. Fowke; Michel Alary; Johanne Poudrier; Michel Roger; Sunil K. Ahuja

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundMost HIV infections are transmitted across mucosal epithelium. Understanding the role of innate and specific mucosal immunity in susceptibility or protection against HIV infection, as well as the effect of HIV infection on mucosal immunity, are of fundamental importance. HLA-G is a powerful modulator of the immune response. The aim of this study was to investigate whether soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G)

  17. Chlamydiae and atherosclerosis: can psittacine cases support the link?

    PubMed

    Schenker, Olivier A; Hoop, Richard K

    2007-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is a common disease in pet birds, particularly in psittacines. Little is known about the role of risk factors predisposing birds to this disease. In our study, we tried to detect chlamydiae in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded atherosclerotic tissue from 103 pet birds to clarify their role in atherosclerosis. Methods used were polymerase chain reaction (PCR), sequencing, and immunohistochemistry. Histopathologic examination served to classify the extent of atherosclerotic lesions. In the PCR, 4 (3.9%) of 103 cases, all of them with advanced stages of atherosclerosis, were positive. Subsequent sequence analysis revealed high identities (94%-100%) with Chlamydophila psittaci in three cases. Interestingly, two of these birds came from C. psittaci-infected populations. Because of the low incidence (3.9%), the occurrence only in advanced stages, and the association with C psittaci-infected avian populations, a causal relationship between chlamydiae and atherosclerosis in pet birds is rather improbable. PMID:17461260

  18. Experimental transmission of Chlamydia psittaci to turkeys from wild birds.

    PubMed

    Grimes, J E; Owens, K J; Singer, J R

    1979-01-01

    Wild birds were inoculated with Chlamydia psittaci to determine species that could be potential hosts and vectors in transmitting the agent to domestic turkeys. Infection occurred in turkeys exposed to starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula), brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), and Inca doves (Cardafella inca). Mourning doves (Zenaidura macroura) shed the agent sparingly, but turkeys exposed to them did not become infected, These findings and knowledge of the habits of these various species are discussed. It was concluded that the Inca dove should be considered a potential source of turkey chlamydiosis in Texas. The species studied and other species not studied should be included in serologic surveys and surveillance studies attempting isolation of chlamydiae. PMID:546413

  19. Identifying Relationships between High-Risk Sexual Behaviors and Screening Positive for Chlamydia and Gonorrhea in School-Wide Screening Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salerno, Jennifer; Darling-Fisher, Cindy; Hawkins, Nicole M.; Fraker, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Background: This article describes a school-wide sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening to identify adolescent high-risk sexual behaviors, STI history/incidence, and presence of chlamydia and gonorrhea, and examines relationships between high-risk behaviors and screening positive for chlamydia and gonorrhea in an alternative high school…

  20. Depilatory cream vs. shaving: does it influence recurrences of genital warts?

    PubMed

    Kaptanoglu, Asli Feride; Duruk, Nazike

    2005-06-01

    Genital warts are common infections caused by human papilloma viruses (HPV). Although the diagnosis is straight forward and many different treatment choices are present, recurrences are almost inevitable. There are many factors influencing recurrences such as immunity, HPV types, sexual partnership, and hygiene. Hair removal methods may be an issue in recurrence. In this retrospective study, the recurrence rate of genital warts in 50 patients using depilatory creams or shaving as a regular hair removal method before and after treatment by electrocauterization were evaluated. Both methods showed no difference in recurrence rates. Therefore, no depilatory method can be advised as decreasing genital recurrence of genital warts. PMID:16035422

  1. Identification and localization of Chlamydia pneumoniae in the Alzheimer's brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian J. Balin; Hervé C. Gérard; E. James Arking; Denah M. Appelt; Patrick J. Branigan; J. Todd Abrams; Judith A. Whittum-Hudson; Alan P. Hudson

    1998-01-01

    We assessed whether the intracellular bacterium Chlamydia pneumoniae was present in post-mortem brain samples from patients with and without late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD), since some indirect\\u000a evidence seems to suggest that infection with the organism might be associated with the disease. Nucleic acids prepared from\\u000a those samples were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for DNA sequences from the

  2. Improved Plaque Assay Identifies a Novel Anti-Chlamydia Ceramide Derivative with Altered Intracellular Localization

    PubMed Central

    Banhart, Sebastian; Saied, Essa M.; Martini, Andrea; Koch, Sophia; Aeberhard, Lukas; Madela, Kazimierz; Arenz, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a medically important human pathogen causing different diseases, including trachoma, the leading cause of preventable blindness in developing countries, and sexually transmitted infections that can lead to infertility and ectopic pregnancies. There is no vaccine against C. trachomatis at present. Broad-spectrum antibiotics are used as standard therapy to treat the infection but have unwanted side effects, such as inducing persistent or recurring infections and affecting the host microbiome, necessitating the development of novel anti-Chlamydia therapies. Here, we describe the establishment of a robust, fast, and simple plaque assay using liquid overlay medium (LOM) for the identification of anti-Chlamydia compounds. Using the LOM plaque assay, we identified nitrobenzoxadiazole (NBD)-labeled 1-O-methyl-ceramide-C16 as a compound that efficiently inhibits C. trachomatis replication without affecting the viability of the host cell. Further detailed analyses indicate that 1-O-methyl-NBD-ceramide-C16 acts outside the inclusion. Thereby, 1-O-methyl-NBD-ceramide-C16 represents a lead compound for the development of novel anti-Chlamydia drugs and furthermore constitutes an agent to illuminate sphingolipid trafficking pathways in Chlamydia infections. PMID:25001308

  3. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis from Urine Specimens by PCR in Women with Cervicitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Fallah; B Kazemi; H Goudarzi; N Badami; F Doostdar; M Naseri; M Ghazi

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common agent of urogenital infections in both men and women. Diagnosis of chlamy- dial infections is based on isolation of bacteria in tissue culture media that requires at least 48 to 72h. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a sensitive and specific method for detection of small quantity of bacterial DNA in clinical samples. The first

  4. Genital prolapse in women

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Prolapse of the uterus or vagina is usually the result of loss of pelvic support, and causes mainly non-specific symptoms. It may affect over half of women aged 50 to 59 years, but spontaneous regression may occur. Risks of genital prolapse increase with advancing parity and age, increasing weight of the largest baby delivered, and hysterectomy. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-surgical treatments in women with genital prolapse? What are the effects of surgical treatments in women with anterior vaginal wall prolapse? What are the effects of surgical treatments in women with posterior vaginal wall prolapse? What are the effects of surgical treatments in women with upper vaginal wall prolapse? What are the effects of using different surgical materials in women with genital prolapse? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 14 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: abdominal Burch colposuspension; abdominal sacral colpopexy; abdominal sacrohysteropexy; anterior colporrhaphy with mesh reinforcement; laparoscopic surgery; mesh or synthetic grafts; native (autologous) tissue; open abdominal surgery; pelvic floor muscle exercises; posterior colporrhaphy (with or without mesh reinforcement); posterior intravaginal slingplasty (infracoccygeal sacropexy); sacrospinous colpopexy (vaginal sacral colpopexy); sutures; traditional anterior colporrhaphy; transanal repair; ultralateral anterior colporrhaphy alone or with cadaveric fascia patch; vaginal hysterectomy; vaginal oestrogen; vaginal pessaries; and vaginal sacrospinous colpopexy. PMID:21726473

  5. Genital prolapse in women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Prolapse of the uterus or vagina is usually the result of loss of pelvic support, and causes mainly non-specific symptoms. It may affect over half of women aged 50 to 59 years, but spontaneous regression may occur. Risks of genital prolapse increase with advancing parity and age, increasing weight of the largest baby delivered, and hysterectomy. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-surgical treatments in women with genital prolapse? What are the effects of surgical treatments in women with anterior vaginal wall prolapse? What are the effects of surgical treatments in women with posterior vaginal wall prolapse? What are the effects of surgical treatments in women with upper vaginal wall prolapse? What are the effects of using different surgical materials in women with genital prolapse? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to August 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 15 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: abdominal Burch colposuspension; abdominal sacral colpopexy; abdominal sacrohysteropexy; anterior colporrhaphy with mesh reinforcement; laparoscopic surgery; mesh or synthetic grafts; native (autologous) tissue; open abdominal surgery; pelvic floor muscle exercises; posterior colporrhaphy (with or without mesh reinforcement); posterior intravaginal slingplasty (infracoccygeal sacropexy); sacrospinous colpopexy (vaginal sacral colpopexy); sutures; traditional anterior colporrhaphy; transanal repair; ultralateral anterior colporrhaphy alone or with cadaveric fascia patch; vaginal hysterectomy; vaginal oestrogen; vaginal pessaries; and vaginal sacrospinous colpopexy. PMID:22414610

  6. Genetic diversity of Chlamydia pecorum strains in wild koala locations across Australia and the implications for a recombinant C. pecorum major outer membrane protein based vaccine.

    PubMed

    Kollipara, Avinash; Polkinghorne, Adam; Wan, Charles; Kanyoka, Pride; Hanger, Jon; Loader, Joanne; Callaghan, John; Bell, Alicia; Ellis, William; Fitzgibbon, Sean; Melzer, Alistar; Beagley, Kenneth; Timms, Peter

    2013-12-27

    The long term survival of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) is at risk due to a range of threatening processes. A major contributing factor is disease caused by infection with Chlamydia pecorum, which has been detected in most mainland koala populations and is associated with ocular and genital tract infections. A critical aspect for the development of vaccines against koala chlamydial infections is a thorough understanding of the prevalence and strain diversity of C. pecorum infections across wild populations. In this study, we describe the largest survey (403 koalas from eight wild populations and three wildlife hospitals) examining the diversity of C. pecorum infections. 181 of the 403 koalas tested (45%) positive for C. pecorum by species-specific quantitative PCR with infection rates ranging from 20% to 61% in the eight wild populations sampled. The ompA gene, which encodes the chlamydial major outer membrane protein (MOMP), has been the major target of several chlamydial vaccines. Based on our analysis of the diversity of MOMP amino types in the infected koalas, we conclude that, (a) there exists significant diversity of C. pecorum strains in koalas, with 10 distinct, full length C. pecorum MOMP amino types identified in the 11 koala locations sampled, (b) despite this diversity, there are predicted T and B cell epitopes in both conserved as well as variable domains of MOMP which suggest cross-amino type immune responses, and (c) a recombinant MOMP-based vaccine consisting of MOMP "F" could potentially induce heterotypic protection against a range of C. pecorum strains. PMID:24012135

  7. Perforin-2 Restricts Growth of Chlamydia trachomatis in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    McCormack, R.; de Armas, L. R.; Podack, E. R.

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium that preferentially infects epithelial cells. Professional phagocytes provide C. trachomatis only a limited ability to survive and are proficient killers of chlamydiae. We present evidence herein that identifies a novel host defense protein, perforin-2, that plays a significant role in the eradication of C. trachomatis during the infection of macrophages. Knockdown of perforin-2 in macrophages did not alter the invasion of host cells but did result in chlamydial growth that closely mirrored that detected in HeLa cells. C trachomatis L2, serovar B, and serovar D and C. muridarum were all equally susceptible to perforin-2-mediated killing. Interestingly, induction of perforin-2 expression in epithelial cells is blocked during productive chlamydial growth, thereby protecting chlamydiae from bactericidal attack. Ectopic expression of perforin-2 in HeLa cells, however, does result in killing. Overall, our data implicate a new innate resistance protein in the control of chlamydial infection and may help explain why the macrophage environment is hostile to chlamydial growth. PMID:23753625

  8. Comparative evaluation of the protective efficacy of two formulations of a recombinant Chlamydia abortus subunit candidate vaccine in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Pan, Qing; Pais, Roshan; Ohandjo, Adaugo; He, Cheng; He, Qing; Omosun, Yusuf; Igietseme, J U; Eko, F O

    2015-04-01

    Chlamydia abortus (C. abortus) is the causative agent of ovine enzootic abortion (OEA) and poses a zoonotic risk to pregnant women. Current live attenuated 1B vaccines are efficacious but cause disease in vaccinated animals and inactivated vaccines are only marginally protective. We tested the ability of a new C. abortus subunit vaccine candidate based on the conserved and immunogenic polymorphic membrane protein D (Pmp18D) formulated in CpG1826+FL (Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 Ligand; Flt3L) or Vibrio cholerae ghosts (VCG) to induce innate and cross protective immunity against genital C. abortus infection. We found that delivery of rPmp18D with VCG was more effective than with CpG+FL in up-regulating the expression of molecules critically involved in T cell activation and differentiation, including MHC II, CD40, CD80, and CD86, activation of TLRs and NLRP3 inflammasome engagement, and secretion of IL-1? and TNF-? but not IL-10 and IL-4. rVCG-Pmp18D-immunized mice elicited more robust antigen-specific IFN-?, IgA and IgG2c antibody responses compared to CpG+FL-delivered rPmp18D. Based on the number of mice with positive vaginal cultures, length of vaginal shedding, and number of inclusion forming units recovered following challenge with the heterologous C. abortus strain B577, vaccine delivery with VCG induced superior protective immunity than delivery with a combination of CpG1826 and FL, a nasal DC-targeting adjuvant. These results demonstrate that the ability of VCG to enhance protective immunity against genital C. abortus infection is superior to that of CpG+FL adjuvants. PMID:25698486

  9. Evaluation of Dry and Wet Transported Intravaginal Swabs in Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae Infections in Female Soldiers by PCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charlotte A. Gaydos; Kimberly A. Crotchfelt; Nina Shah; Marie Tennant; Thomas C. Quinn; Joel C. Gaydos; Kelly T. McKee; Anne M. Rompalo

    2002-01-01

    Screening women for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in nonclinic settings is highly desirable because many infections are asymptomatic. This is especially true for military women, for whom logistical, social, and other job-related obstacles present barriers to accessing medical care. We assessed the accuracy of intravaginal swabs transported by mail in a wet versus a dry state for PCR (Amplicor CT\\/NG

  10. Bacteria-Targeting Nanoparticles for Managing Infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radovic-Moreno, Aleksandar Filip

    Bacterial infections continue to be a significant concern particularly in healthcare settings and in the developing world. Current challenges include the increasing spread of drug resistant (DR) organisms, the side effects of antibiotic therapy, the negative consequences of clearing the commensal bacterial flora, and difficulties in developing prophylactic vaccines. This thesis was an investigation of the potential of a class of polymeric nanoparticles (NP) to contribute to the management of bacterial infections. More specifically, steps were taken towards using these NPs (1) to achieve greater spatiotemporal control over drug therapy by more targeted antibiotic delivery to bacteria, and (2) to develop a prophylactic vaccine formulation against the common bacterial sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. In the first part, we synthesized polymeric NPs containing poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-block-poly(L-histidine)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PLH-PEG). We show that these NPs are able to bind to bacteria under model acidic infection conditions and are able to encapsulate and deliver vancomycin to inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria in vitro. Further work showed that the PLGA-PLH-PEG-based NPs demonstrated the potential for competition for binding bacteria at a site of infection from soluble protein and model phagocytic and tissue-resident cells in a NP composition dependent manner. The NPs demonstrated low toxicity in vitro, were well tolerated by mice in vivo, and circulated in the blood on timescales comparable to control PLGA-PEG NPs. In the second part, we used PLGA-PLH-PEG-based NPs to design a prophylactic vaccine against the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis, the most common cause of bacterial STD in the world. Currently, no vaccines against this pathogen are approved for use in humans. We first formulated NPs encapsulating the TLR7 agonist R848 conjugated to poly(lactic acid) (R848-PLA) in PLGA-PLH-PEG-based NPs, then incubated these R848-NPs with UV-inactivated C. trachomatis bacteria in acidity, forming a construct. Mice immunized with this vaccine via genital or intranasal routes demonstrated protection from genital infection post immunization in a primarily CD4+ T cell-dependent manner. These results may suggest avenues for future work in designing and developing more targeted drug therapies or vaccine formulations for managing bacterial infections using polymeric nanoparticles. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, libraries.mit.edu/docs - docs mit.edu)

  11. In Silico Scrutiny of Genes Revealing Phylogenetic Congruence with Clinical Prevalence or Tropism Properties of Chlamydia trachomatis Strains

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Rita; Antelo, Minia; Nunes, Alexandra; Borges, Vítor; Damião, Vera; Borrego, Maria José; Gomes, João Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Microbes possess a multiplicity of virulence factors that confer them the ability to specifically infect distinct biological niches. Contrary to what is known for other bacteria, for the obligate intracellular human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis, the knowledge of the molecular basis underlying serovars’ tissue specificity is scarce. We examined all ~900 genes to evaluate the association between individual phylogenies and cell-appetence or ecological success of C. trachomatis strains. Only ~1% of the genes presented a tree topology showing the segregation of all three disease groups (ocular, urogenital, and lymphatic) into three well-supported clades. Approximately 28% of the genes, which include the majority of the genes encoding putative type III secretion system effectors and Inc proteins, present a phylogenetic tree where only lymphogranuloma venereum strains form a clade. Similarly, an exclusive phylogenetic segregation of the most prevalent genital serovars was observed for 61 proteins. Curiously, these serovars are phylogenetically cosegregated with the lymphogranuloma venereum serovars for ~20% of the genes. Some clade-specific pseudogenes were identified (novel findings include the conserved hypothetical protein CT037 and the predicted ?-hemolysin CT473), suggesting their putative expendability for the infection of particular niches. Approximately 3.5% of the genes revealed a significant overrepresentation of nonsynonymous mutations, and the majority encode proteins that directly interact with the host. Overall, this in silico scrutiny of genes whose phylogeny is congruent with clinical prevalence or tissue specificity of C. trachomatis strains may constitute an important database of putative targets for future functional studies to evaluate their biological role in chlamydial infections. PMID:25378473

  12. Cutaneous metastases presenting as genital ulcer disease.

    PubMed

    Vasuki, S; Durgalakshmi, J; Latha, J

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous metastasis from an internal organ malignancy is rare and as, the presenting sign of malignancy is an uncommon phenomenon. Their presence, signals a poor prognosis. We report a case of 50-year-old female who was referred to sexually transmitted diseases - out patient department, with complaints of multiple genital ulcers to rule out sexually transmitted infections. After thorough evaluation, she was found to be a case of carcinoma cervix with metastatic squamous cell carcinomatous deposits on external genitalia. This case was unique because of relatively asymptomatic nature of internal malignancy and atypical presentation of carcinoma cervix as cutaneous metastasis. PMID:24958986

  13. The Chlamydia pneumoniae Genome Database

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    TIGR, The Institute for Genomic Research, released this online genome database in March 2000. Published in Nuc. Acids Res. (28:1397-1406, 2000) by Read et al., the Chlamydia pneumoniae Genome Database page also offers the latest versions of sequence data and related annotation.

  14. Symptomatic Vaginal Discharge Is a Poor Predictor of Sexually Transmitted Infections and Genital Tract Inflammation in High-Risk Women in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Mlisana, Koleka; Naicker, Nivashnee; Werner, Lise; Roberts, Lindi; van Loggerenberg, Francois; Baxter, Cheryl; Passmore, Jo-Ann S.; Grobler, Anneke C.; Sturm, A. Willem; Williamson, Carolyn; Ronacher, Katharina; Walzl, Gerhard; Abdool Karim, Salim S.

    2012-01-01

    Background.?Diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is a public health priority, particularly in regions where the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is high. In most developing countries, STIs are managed syndromically. We assessed the adequacy of syndromic diagnosis of STIs, compared with laboratory diagnosis of STIs, and evaluated the association between STI diagnosis and the risk of HIV acquisition in a cohort of high-risk women. Methods.?HIV-uninfected high-risk women (n = 242) were followed for 24 months. Symptoms of STIs were recorded, and laboratory diagnosis of common STI pathogens was conducted every 6 months. Forty-two cytokines were measured by Luminex in cervicovaginal lavage specimens at enrollment. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection was evaluated monthly. Results.?Only 12.3% of women (25 of 204) who had a laboratory-diagnosed, discharge-causing STI had clinically evident discharge. Vaginal discharge was thus a poor predictor of laboratory-diagnosed STIs (sensitivity, 12.3%; specificity, 93.8%). Cervicovaginal cytokine concentrations did not differ between women with asymptomatic STIs and those with symptomatic STIs and were elevated in women with asymptomatic STIs, compared with women with no STIs or bacterial vaginosis. Although laboratory-diagnosed STIs were associated with increased risk of HIV infection (hazard ratio, 3.3 [95% confidence interval, 1.5–7.2)], clinical symptoms were not. Conclusions.?Syndromic STI diagnosis dependent on vaginal discharge was poorly predictive of laboratory-diagnosed STI. Laboratory-diagnosed STIs were associated with increased susceptibility to HIV acquisition, while vaginal discharge was not. PMID:22517910

  15. Genital Herpes (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... have lesions around the anus without having had anal sex. Likelihood of recurrence — Genital herpes recurs frequently ... is most often transmitted between partners during oral, anal, or vaginal sex. It is also possible for ...

  16. The quantity of nitric oxide released by macrophages regulates Chlamydia-induced disease

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jin; DeGraves, Fred J.; Lenz, Stephen D.; Gao, Dongya; Feng, Pu; Li, Dan; Schlapp, Tobias; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard

    2002-01-01

    Intracellular bacteria of the genus Chlamydia cause numerous typically chronic diseases, frequently with debilitating sequelae. Genetic determinants of disease susceptibility after infection with Chlamydia bacteria are unknown. C57BL/6 mice develop severe pneumonia and poor immunity against Chlamydia after moderate respiratory infection whereas BALB/c mice are protected from disease and develop vigorous Th1 immunity. Here we show that infected C57BL/6 macrophages release more NO synthesized by NO synthase 2 (NOS2) than BALB/c macrophages and have lower mRNA concentrations of arginase II, a competitor of NOS2 for the common substrate, l-arginine. Reduction, but not elimination, of NO production by incomplete inhibition of NOS2 abolishes susceptibility of C57BL/6 mice to Chlamydia-induced disease. Thus, the quantity of NO released by infected macrophages is the effector mechanism that regulates between pathogenic and protective responses to chlamydial infection, and genes controlling NO production determine susceptibility to chlamydial disease. PMID:11904441

  17. Nonoxidative antimicrobial effects of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte granule proteins on Chlamydia spp. in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Register, K B; Davis, C H; Wyrick, P B; Shafer, W M; Spitznagel, J K

    1987-01-01

    Proteins from isolated granules of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes were assessed for their nonoxidative microbicidal effect on chlamydiae by two different methods: a radioisotope assay for elementary body integrity and a biological assay for inclusion development. Crude granule extract, which consisted of a mixture of all granule proteins, caused a 20 to 30% decrease in infectivity and a 52% decrease in infectivity when incubated with Chlamydia psittaci CAL-10 and Chlamydia trachomatis serovar E, respectively. To define more specifically the components that were damaging to chlamydiae, crude granule extract was subjected to Sephadex G-75 column chromatography and isolated granule fractions were obtained. Only fractions containing lysozyme as the major component consistently caused reductions in infectivity of C. trachomatis elementary bodies. In contrast, fractions collected after the lysozyme fraction, containing proteins with molecular masses of 13,000 daltons or less, had detrimental effects on C. psittaci infectivity. Additional experiments using highly purified human polymorphonuclear leukocyte lysozyme confirmed its infectivity-reducing action upon C. trachomatis but not upon C. psittaci. Images PMID:3653985

  18. Zip-related genital injury

    PubMed Central

    Bagga, Herman S.; Tasian, Gregory E.; McGeady, James; Blaschko, Sarah D.; McCulloch, Charles E.; McAninch, Jack W.; Breyer, Benjamin N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the epidemiology of genital injuries caused by trouser zips and to educate both consumers and the caregivers of patients who sustain such injuries. Patients and Methods The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System, a dataset validated to provide a probability sample of patients who present to emergency departments (EDs) in the USA with injuries, was analysed to characterize zip-related genital injuries occurring between 2002 and 2010. A total of 523 cases were analysed to obtain national estimates. Results Between 2002 and 2010, an estimated 17 616 patients presented to US EDs with trouser zip injuries to the genitals. The penis was almost always the only genital organ involved. Zip injuries represented nearly one-fifth of all penile injuries. Amongst adults, zips were the most frequent cause of penile injuries. Annual zip-related genital injury incidence remained stable over the study period. Conclusions Zip-related genital injuries a3ect both paediatric and adult cohorts. Practitioners should be familiar with various zip-detachment strategies for these populations. PMID:23490164

  19. Distribution Study of Chlamydia trachomatis Serovars among High-Risk Women in China Performed Using PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Genotyping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xing Gao; Xiang-Sheng Chen; Yue-Ping Yin; Ming-Ying Zhong; Mei-Qin Shi; Wan-Hui Wei; Qiang Chen; Rosanna W. Peeling; David Mabey

    2007-01-01

    This was one of the first epidemiological studies in China focused on genital Chlamydia trachomatis serotype distribution in high-risk female populations using omp1 gene-based restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. One thousand seven hundred seventy cervical swab samples from women attending sexually trans- mitted disease clinics and female sex workers in six cities in China (Shenzhen and Guangzhou in southern China,

  20. Genital Appearance Dissatisfaction: Implications for Women’s Genital Image Self-Consciousness, Sexual Esteem, Sexual Satisfaction, and Sexual Risk

    PubMed Central

    Schick, Vanessa R.; Calabrese, Sarah K.; Rima, Brandi N.; Zucker, Alyssa N.

    2010-01-01

    Findings regarding the link between body image and sexuality have been equivocal, possibly because of the insensitivity of many of body image measures to potential variability across sensory aspects of the body (e.g., appearance versus odor), individual body parts (e.g., genitalia versus thighs), and social settings (e.g., public versus intimate). The current study refined existing methods of evaluating women’s body image in the context of sexuality by focusing upon two highly specified dimensions: satisfaction with the visual appearance of the genitalia and self-consciousness about the genitalia during a sexual encounter. Genital appearance dissatisfaction, genital image self-consciousness, and multiple facets of sexuality were examined with a sample of 217 undergraduate women using an online survey. Path analysis revealed that greater dissatisfaction with genital appearance was associated with higher genital image self-consciousness during physical intimacy, which, in turn, was associated with lower sexual esteem, sexual satisfaction, and motivation to avoid risky sexual behavior. These findings underscore the detrimental impact of negative genital perceptions on young women’s sexual wellbeing, which is of particular concern given their vulnerability at this stage of sexual development as well as the high rates of sexually transmitted infections within this age group. Interventions that enhance satisfaction with the natural appearance of their genitalia could facilitate the development of a healthy sexual self-concept and provide long-term benefits in terms of sexual safety and satisfaction. PMID:20824180

  1. Emergence of Resistance to Rifampin and Rifalazil in Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Chlamydia trachomatis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrei Kutlin; Stephan Kohlhoff; Patricia Roblin; Margaret R. Hammerschlag; Paul Riska

    2005-01-01

    Although rifamycins have excellent activity against Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Chlamydia trachomatis in vitro, concerns about the possible development of resistance during therapy have discouraged their use for treatment of chlamydial infections. Rifalazil, a new semisynthetic rifamycin with a long half-life, is the most active antimicrobial against C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis in vitro, indicating its potential for treatment of acute

  2. Cardiac heart disease in the era of sucrose polyester, Helicobacter pylori and Chlamydia pneumoniae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. M Fouad; Orval Mamer; Francois Sauriol; M Khayyal; A Lesimple; G Ruhenstroth-Bauer

    2004-01-01

    Recent evidence associates inflammatory mediators with coronary heart disease. Elevation of acute-phase reaction (APR) proteins such as serum amyloid A, fibrinogen, CRP and haptoglobin in response to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection was shown to initiate gastritis and ischemic heart disease. Positive Chlamydia pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae) serology is associated with increased levels of inflammatory cytokines and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?),

  3. Demonstration of Chlamydia pneumoniae in the walls of abdominal aortic aneurysms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jukka Juvonen; Tatu Juvonen; Aino Laurila; Hannu Alakärppä; Kari Lounatmaa; Heljä-Marja Surcel; Maija Leinonen; Matti I. Kairaluoma; Pekka Saikku

    1997-01-01

    Background: Seroepidemiologic studies have indicated an association between chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and coronary heart disease. The organism, which is a common respiratory pathogen, has been demonstrated in atherosclerotic lesions of the aorta and coronary arteries. Abdominal aortic aneurysms are frequently associated with atherosclerosis, and inflammation may actually be an important factor in aneurysmal dilatation. Hence it could be assumed

  4. Immunological's host profile for HPV and Chlamydia trachomatis, a cervical cancer cofactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana Catarina Simonetti; José Humberto de Lima Melo; Paulo Roberto Eleutério de Souza; Danyelly Bruneska; José Luiz de Lima Filho

    2009-01-01

    Over 100 different genotypes of human papillomavirus (HPV) have been isolated to date, while Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually-transmitted pathogen. This review considers evidence that C. trachomatis infection became a cofactor for HPV establishment and the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

  5. Histone Methylation by NUE, a Novel Nuclear Effector of the Intracellular Pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meghan E. Pennini; Stéphanie Perrinet; Alice Dautry-Varsat; Agathe Subtil

    2010-01-01

    Sequence analysis of the genome of the strict intracellular pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis revealed the presence of a SET domain containing protein, proteins that primarily function as histone methyltransferases. In these studies, we demonstrated secretion of this protein via a type III secretion mechanism. During infection, the protein is translocated to the host cell nucleus and associates with chromatin. We therefore

  6. Genital ulcers in women: clinical, microbiologic and histopathologic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Christiane Maria Moreira; Giraldo, Paulo César; Gomes, Francis de Assis Moraes; Amaral, Rose; Passos, Mauro Romero Leal; Gonçalves, Ana Katherine da Silveira

    2007-04-01

    Female genital ulcer is a disease that affects a large number of women, and its etiologic diagnosis can be difficult. The disease may increase the risk of acquiring HIV. Genital ulcer may be present in sexually transmitted diseases (STD)--syphilis, chancroid, genital herpes, donovanosis, lymphogranuloma venereum; and other non-STD disorders (NSTD)--Behçet's syndrome, pemphigus, Crohn's disease, erosive lichen planus and others. This study evaluated the clinical-histopathologic-microbiologic characteristics of female genital ulcers. A cross-sectional descriptive prospective study was conducted during a six-month period to investigate the first 53 women without a definitive diagnosis, seeking medical care for genital ulcers at a genital infections outpatient facility in a university hospital. A detailed and specific history was taken, followed by a dermatologic and gynecologic examination. In addition to collecting material from the lesions for microbiologic study, a biopsy of the ulcer was performed for histopathologic investigation. The average age of the patients was 32.7 years, 56.6% had junior high school education and higher education. The most frequent etiology was herpetic lesion, followed by auto-immune ulcers. At the time of their first consultation, around 60% of the women were using inadequate medication that was inconsistent with the final diagnosis. Histologic diagnosis was conclusive in only 26.4% of the patients (14/53). Cure was obtained in 99% of the cases after proper therapy. The female genital ulcers studied were equally distributed between sexually transmitted and non-sexually transmitted causes. Herpes was the most frequent type of genital ulcer, affecting women indiscriminately, mostly between the ages of 20 and 40 years. The etiologic diagnosis of herpetic ulcers is difficult to make even when various diagnostic methods are applied. It is imperative that NSTD should be included in the differential diagnoses of female genital ulcers. The histopathologic exam is not a diagnostic tool in the majority of cases and should not be considered the gold standard test, being of little value in cases of NSTD and STD ulcers. PMID:17625773

  7. [Mucocutaneous abnormalities in Chlamydia trachomatis-induced reactive arthritis].

    PubMed

    Quint, Koen D; van der Helm-van Mil, Annette H M; Bergman, Wilma; Lavrijsen, A P M Sjan

    2010-01-01

    Reactive arthritis (previously known as Reiters syndrome) is an inflammatory arthritis that is a type of spondyloarthropathy. The disease consists of the classical triad of arthritis, urethritis and conjunctivitis, but mucocutaneous abnormalities also frequently appear: balanitis circinata, keratoderma blennorrhagicum, aphthous ulcers in the mouth and nail disorders. These skin lesions are mainly found in reactive arthritis induced by Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct). Reactive arthritis is often triggered by a sexually transmitted infection (Chlamydia trachomatis) or an enteric infection (such as Salmonella or Shigella). It is thought that human antibodies against the pathogen cross-react with the HLA antigen (mainly HLA-B27). To distinguish between reactive arthritis and psoriatic arthritis, screening of the urine or synovium for Ct infection should be carried out. Acute reactive arthritis is treated with NSAIDs as the first choice. In addition, patients may receive an intra-articular injection of glucocorticoids. The mucocutaneous abnormalities respond well to topical glucocorticoids. Although in the Netherlands a Ct induced reactive arthritis is not yet treated with antibiotics, a recent published clinical trial in patients with a chronic Ct induced reactive arthritis showed a significant reduction in complaints in the group treated with a combination of antibiotics for 6 months, compared to the placebo group. Active genitourinary Ct infection should be treated with antibiotics, the first choice being azithromycin 1000 mg as a single dose. It is important that the patient's partner is tested at the same time and if necessary treated simultaneously to prevent reinfection. PMID:20699017

  8. Mathematical analysis of a Chlamydia epidemic model with pulse vaccination strategy.

    PubMed

    Samanta, G P

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we have considered a dynamical model of Chlamydia disease with varying total population size, bilinear incidence rate and pulse vaccination strategy. We have defined two positive numbers [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. It is proved that there exists an infection-free periodic solution which is globally attractive if [Formula: see text] and the disease is permanent if [Formula: see text] The important mathematical findings for the dynamical behaviour of the Chlamydia disease model are also numerically verified using MATLAB. Finally epidemiological implications of our analytical findings are addressed critically. PMID:25077807

  9. Use of synthetic antigens improves detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of antibodies against abortigenic Chlamydia psittaci in ruminants.

    PubMed Central

    Kaltenboeck, B; Heard, D; DeGraves, F J; Schmeer, N

    1997-01-01

    Synthetic peptide antigens were prepared for use in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) to detect serum antibodies against abortigenic strains of Chlamydia psittaci in livestock. Peptide antigens were identified with C. psittaci B577-immune sera by solid-phase scanning of overlapping octapeptides of variable domains (VDs) of the major outer membrane protein of C. psittaci serovar 1 (omp1 type C. psittaci B577). Two VD 4 regions and one VD 2 region were strongly reactive with all C. psittaci B577 antisera. Peptides encompassing these regions were synthesized with biotin and a serine-glycine-serine-glycine spacer at the N terminus and were attached to streptavidin-coated microtiter plates. In direct ELISAs with these plates, the synthetic peptides reacted with C. psittaci B577 antisera, but not with sera from specific-pathogen-free animals. Serum specimens from 40 sheep and 40 cattle, obtained from herds with abortion problems, were screened for antibodies by these C. psittaci B577 peptide ELISAs and an ELISA with recombinant, genus-specific Chlamydia lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antigen. Results from these newly developed ELISAs were compared to those from the reference C. psittaci B577 elementary body (EB) ELISA and the Chlamydia complement fixation test (CFT). The C. psittaci B577 peptide ELISAs, the LPS ELISA, and the EB ELISA correctly identified the presence or absence of antibodies against chlamydiae in all sheep and bovine sera. The Chlamydia CFT, which is the most widely accepted serodiagnostic method for chlamydial infections in animals, correctly identified the presence or absence of antibodies against chlamydiae in only 78 and 4.9% of sheep and bovine sera, respectively. These results suggest that the C. psittaci B577-peptide and Chlamydia LPS ELISAs are superior for the serodiagnosis of ruminant infections with abortigenic chlamydiae, since they are more sensitive than the CFT, they are easy to standardize, and they use readily available synthetic antigens instead of organism-derived CFT antigen. PMID:9276405

  10. Use of synthetic antigens improves detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of antibodies against abortigenic Chlamydia psittaci in ruminants.

    PubMed

    Kaltenboeck, B; Heard, D; DeGraves, F J; Schmeer, N

    1997-09-01

    Synthetic peptide antigens were prepared for use in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) to detect serum antibodies against abortigenic strains of Chlamydia psittaci in livestock. Peptide antigens were identified with C. psittaci B577-immune sera by solid-phase scanning of overlapping octapeptides of variable domains (VDs) of the major outer membrane protein of C. psittaci serovar 1 (omp1 type C. psittaci B577). Two VD 4 regions and one VD 2 region were strongly reactive with all C. psittaci B577 antisera. Peptides encompassing these regions were synthesized with biotin and a serine-glycine-serine-glycine spacer at the N terminus and were attached to streptavidin-coated microtiter plates. In direct ELISAs with these plates, the synthetic peptides reacted with C. psittaci B577 antisera, but not with sera from specific-pathogen-free animals. Serum specimens from 40 sheep and 40 cattle, obtained from herds with abortion problems, were screened for antibodies by these C. psittaci B577 peptide ELISAs and an ELISA with recombinant, genus-specific Chlamydia lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antigen. Results from these newly developed ELISAs were compared to those from the reference C. psittaci B577 elementary body (EB) ELISA and the Chlamydia complement fixation test (CFT). The C. psittaci B577 peptide ELISAs, the LPS ELISA, and the EB ELISA correctly identified the presence or absence of antibodies against chlamydiae in all sheep and bovine sera. The Chlamydia CFT, which is the most widely accepted serodiagnostic method for chlamydial infections in animals, correctly identified the presence or absence of antibodies against chlamydiae in only 78 and 4.9% of sheep and bovine sera, respectively. These results suggest that the C. psittaci B577-peptide and Chlamydia LPS ELISAs are superior for the serodiagnosis of ruminant infections with abortigenic chlamydiae, since they are more sensitive than the CFT, they are easy to standardize, and they use readily available synthetic antigens instead of organism-derived CFT antigen. PMID:9276405

  11. Unsuspected Gonorrhea and Chlamydia in Patients of an Urban Adult Emergency Department A Critical Population for STD Control Intervention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SUPRIYA D. MEHTA; RICHARD E. ROTHMAN; GABOR D. KELEN; THOMAS C. QUINN; JONATHAN M. ZENILMAN

    Background: Urban emergency departments (EDs) provid- ing services to patients at high risk for sexually transmitted infection may be logical sites for intervention. Goal: To determine the prevalence of gonorrhea (GC) and chlamydia (CT) in an adult ED patient population, and to assess risk factors for infection. Study Design: Cross-sectional study of patients aged 18 to 44 in an urban

  12. Higher Prevalence of Sexual Transmitted Diseases and Correlates of Genital Warts among Heterosexual Males Attending Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinics (MSCs) in Jiangmen, China: Implication for the Up-Taking of STD Related Service

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhengjun; Lu, Hekun; Tan, Xueling; Zhang, Baoyuan; Best, John; Yang, Ligang; Zheng, Heping; Jiang, Ning; Yin, Yueping; Yang, Bin; Chen, Xiangsheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Increasing burden of STDs is one of China’s major public health concerns. However, only a limited number of studies have ever investigated the prevalence of these STDs, particular for genital warts and its correlates among heterosexual males attending STD clinics in China. In order to fill this gap, we conducted a cross-sectional study among MSCs in Jiangmen, China, between the years of 2009 and 2010. Method The eligible participants were recruited from several STD-clinics in public hospitals. We collected demographic information and behaviors of the participants. After HIV and syphilis testing, we further checked whether the participants had genital warts and genital herpes. In addition, urine samples were collected from part of the participants for CT and NG testing. Results Of the 533 eligible participants, over three-fifths were aged 35 or below, nearly three quarters had no college degree, over three-fifths were residence of Jiangmen. The prevalence of HIV, syphilis, genital warts, genital herpes, CT and NG were 0.19%, 7.50%, 7.32%, 5.25%, 9.73% and 6.19%, respectively. Living with family members (versus living alone), no STD-related service in past year, experiencing STDs related symptoms in past year, and sex with FSWs in last three months were positively associated with genital warts, with adjusted ORs of 5.54 (95% CI 1.94–15.81), 2.26 (95% CI 1.08–4.74), 1.99 (95% CI 1.00–3.99) and 2.01 (95% CI 1.00–4.04), respectively. Conclusion Our study indicates that the prevalence of STDs among MSCs in Jiangmen was high, which may further spread HIV among MSCs. Targeted interventions that focused on STDs related services uptake should be implemented urgently. PMID:25811185

  13. Genital Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Native Women

    MedlinePLUS

    Genital Human Papillomavirus (HPV) At least 50% of sexually active women and men will get it. Most will not ... possible effects of HPV. W hat is genital human papillomavirus (HPV)? HPV is a common virus. There ...

  14. Female genital mutilation in Djibouti.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, M; Ollé-Goig, J E

    2012-12-01

    The practice of female genital mutilation (we will use the latest definition adopted by WHO/UNFP: female genital mutilation/cutting or FGM/C) is still widespread in 28 African countries. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that more than two million females undergo some form of genital mutilation every year. Its negative health impact and its ethical and human rights aspects have been discussed and attempts to eliminate it have been the objectives of several meetings promoted by national and international organisations thanks to an increased awareness related to FGM/C in those countries practicing it and also, maybe due to the number of Africans migrating to industrialized countries. We review the present situation in Djibouti, a small country in the Horn of Africa, where 98 % of the female population has suffered different forms of FGM/C. PMID:23515242

  15. Neighborhoods and infectious disease risk: acquisition of chlamydia during the transition to young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Ford, Jodi L; Browning, Christopher R

    2014-02-01

    Adolescents and young adults have the highest rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the USA despite national priority goals targeting their reduction. Research on the role of neighborhoods in shaping STI risk among youth has increased in recent years, but few studies have explored the longitudinal effects of neighborhoods on STI acquisition during the adolescent to young adult transition. The aims of this study were to examine: (1) the longitudinal relationships between the neighborhood context (poverty, residential instability, and racial/ethnic concentration) of exposure during adolescence and young adults' acquisition of chlamydia, and (2) the extent to which sexual risk behaviors and depression over the transition from adolescence to young adulthood mediate the relationship between the neighborhood context of exposure during adolescence and young adults' acquisition of chlamydia. A longitudinal observational design was employed using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), waves 1-3 (1994-2002). The sample was composed of 11,460 young adults aged 18 to 27 years. Neighborhood measures during adolescence were derived from the 1990 US Census appended to adolescents' interview data. Chlamydia infection was measured via urine assay at wave 3 and 4.6 % of the young adults in the sample tested positive for chlamydia. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were conducted adjusting for numerous neighborhood and individual risk factors. Multivariate findings indicated exposure to neighborhood poverty during adolescence increased the likelihood of a positive urine test for chlamydia during young adulthood (AOR = 1.23, 95 % CI = 1.06, 1.42), and the association was not mediated by sexual risk behaviors or depression. Further research is needed to better understand the pathways through which exposure to neighborhood poverty contributes to chlamydia over the life course as are comprehensive STI prevention strategies addressing neighborhood poverty. PMID:23494850

  16. Survey of diagnostic services for genital herpes in fourteen countries in Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Domeika, Marius; Babayan, Karen; Ismailov, Rashad; Shimanskaya, Iryna; Chudomirova, Krasimira; Brilene, Tatjana; Kvlividze, Oleg; Deak, Judith; Askarova, Gulsum; Mamajeva, Galina; Kucinskiene, Vesta; Frigo, Natalia; Savicheva, Alevtina; Krasnoselskich, Tatiana; Mavrov, Gennadiy; Kasymov, Olim; Izvekova, Olga; Unemo, Magnus; Ballard, Ronald Campbell

    2011-05-01

    This paper reports survey-based data on the diagnosis and management of genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in 14 countries of the Eastern European Network for Sexual and Reproductive Health (EE SRH). Only 43% of the countries could provide the number of genital HSV cases recorded at national level. Eighty-six percent of countries employed syndromic management in cases of genital ulcer disease. Most countries performed type-specific and/or non-type-specific enzyme immunoassays to detect HSV antibodies. Non-type-specific serology for diagnostic purposes should be actively discouraged. Direct detection methods for HSV, such as PCR, antigen detection and culture, are available in the region, but their usage was extremely low. Their use in Eastern European countries should be actively promoted. The availability of laboratory services must be improved, and countries in the region should implement consensus recommendations for the laboratory diagnosis of genital HSV infections in order to improve clinical practice. PMID:21369687

  17. Septins arrange F-actin-containing fibers on the Chlamydia trachomatis inclusion and are required for normal release of the inclusion by extrusion.

    PubMed

    Volceanov, Larisa; Herbst, Katharina; Biniossek, Martin; Schilling, Oliver; Haller, Dirk; Nölke, Thilo; Subbarayal, Prema; Rudel, Thomas; Zieger, Barbara; Häcker, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular human pathogen that grows inside a membranous, cytosolic vacuole termed an inclusion. Septins are a group of 13 GTP-binding proteins that assemble into oligomeric complexes and that can form higher-order filaments. We report here that the septins SEPT2, -9, -11, and probably -7 form fibrillar structures around the chlamydial inclusion. Colocalization studies suggest that these septins combine with F actin into fibers that encase the inclusion. Targeting the expression of individual septins by RNA interference (RNAi) prevented the formation of septin fibers as well as the recruitment of actin to the inclusion. At the end of the developmental cycle of C. trachomatis, newly formed, infectious elementary bodies are released, and this release occurs at least in part through the organized extrusion of intact inclusions. RNAi against SEPT9 or against the combination of SEPT2/7/9 substantially reduced the number of extrusions from a culture of infected HeLa cells. The data suggest that a higher-order structure of four septins is involved in the recruitment or stabilization of the actin coat around the chlamydial inclusion and that this actin recruitment by septins is instrumental for the coordinated egress of C. trachomatis from human cells. The organization of F actin around parasite-containing vacuoles may be a broader response mechanism of mammalian cells to the infection by intracellular, vacuole-dwelling pathogens. Importance: Chlamydia trachomatis is a frequent bacterial pathogen throughout the world, causing mostly eye and genital infections. C. trachomatis can develop only inside host cells; it multiplies inside a membranous vacuole in the cytosol, termed an inclusion. The inclusion is covered by cytoskeletal "coats" or "cages," whose organization and function are poorly understood. We here report that a relatively little-characterized group of proteins, septins, is required to organize actin fibers on the inclusion and probably through actin the release of the inclusion. Septins are a group of GTP-binding proteins that can organize into heteromeric complexes and then into large filaments. Septins have previously been found to be involved in the interaction of the cell with bacteria in the cytosol. Our observation that they also organize a reaction to bacteria living in vacuoles suggests that they have a function in the recognition of foreign compartments by a parasitized human cell. PMID:25293760

  18. Studies on the response of ewes to live chlamydiae adapted to chicken embryos or tissue culture.

    PubMed Central

    Becerra, V M; Ata, F A; Storz, J

    1976-01-01

    Ewes infected before gestation with chicken embryo or tissue culture adapted chlamydial strain B-577 were challenge inoculated with the homologous strain at four to 18 weeks of gestation. The ewes responsed with group specific complement fixing antibody titers of 1:8 to 1:256 by the second week after initial infection. A secondary antibody response in the surviving challenge inoculated ewes occurred at the time of lambing and reached titers of 1:32 to 1:256 by the second week after parturition. Group specific complement fixing antibodies did not appear to play a significant role in resistance to chlamydial infection. Ewes infected with the chicken embryo adapted strain B-577 excreted chlamydiae in their feces 60 days after inoculation. However, chlamydiae were not recovered from feces of ewes infected with the tissue culture adapted strain B-577. Placentas of ewes challenge inoculated by the intravenous route were consistently infected. Chlamydiae were recovered from placentas, some fetuses and lambs. In two instances when challenge inoculation was given by the intramuscular route, infection was detected only by the direct fluorescent antibody method. PMID:1000377

  19. Biotyping of Chlamydia psittaci based on inclusion morphology and response to diethylaminoethyl-dextran and cycloheximide.

    PubMed Central

    Spears, P; Storz, J

    1979-01-01

    Strains of Chlamydia psittaci from cattle, sheep, pigs, mice, guinea pigs, rabbits, cats, and parrots were subdivided based on their biological characteristics. Chlamydiae grown in the yolk sac of chicken embryos were used to infect L cell monolayers. The host cells were infected without further treatment or treated with diethylaminoethyl-dextran, cycloheximide, or both. The following criteria were used for biotyping the strains: the morphology of the inclusions and time after infection at which they appeared, the effect of chlamydial multiplication on the host cell cytoskeleton, and the change in the number of cells infected in response to diethylaminoethyl-dextran and cycloheximide. These properties were determined for 29 strains of C. psittaci. Based on the results, the strains were placed into eight biotypes. Images PMID:457272

  20. Bacterial vaginosis and human immunodeficiency virus infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory T Spear; Elizabeth St John; M Reza Zariffard

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies indicate that bacterial vaginosis (BV), a common alteration of lower genital tract flora in women, is associated with increased susceptibility to HIV infection. Other recent studies show that HIV is detected more frequently and at higher levels in the lower genital tract of HIV-seropositive women with BV. In vitro studies show that genital tract secretions from women with

  1. The cell-penetrating peptide, Pep-1, has activity against intracellular chlamydial growth but not extracellular forms of Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Narae; Yamanaka, Kinrin; Tran, Dat; Chandrangsu, Pete; Akers, Johnny C.; de Leon, Jessica C.; Morrissette, Naomi S.; Selsted, Michael E.; Tan, Ming

    2009-01-01

    Objectives In the course of studies to identify novel treatment strategies against the pathogenic bacterium, Chlamydia, we tested the carrier peptide, Pep-1, for activity against an intracellular infection. Methods Using a cell culture model of Chlamydia trachomatis infection, the effect of Pep-1 was measured by incubating the peptide with extracellular chlamydiae prior to infection, or by adding Pep-1 to the medium at varying times after infection, and assaying for inhibition of inclusion formation. Results Pep-1 had a concentration-dependent effect on chlamydial growth with 100% inhibition of inclusion formation at 8 mg/L peptide. There was a window of susceptibility during the chlamydial developmental cycle with a maximal effect when treatment was begun within 12 h of infection. Pep-1 treatment caused a severe reduction in the production of infectious progeny even when started later, when the effect on inclusion formation was minimal. Furthermore, electron micrographs showed a paucity of progeny elementary bodies (EBs) in the inclusion. In contrast, pre-incubation of EBs with Pep-1 prior to infection did not affect inclusion formation. Taken together, these findings indicate that the antichlamydial effect was specific for the intracellular stage of chlamydial infection. By comparison, Pep-1 had no antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus or the obligate intracellular parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Conclusions Pep-1 has antichlamydial activity by preventing intracellular chlamydial growth and replication but has no effect on extracellular chlamydiae. PMID:18957395

  2. Male genital tuberculosis in Siberians.

    PubMed

    Kulchavenya, Ekaterina; Khomyakov, Victor

    2006-02-01

    To study the epidemiology and the clinical picture of male genital tuberculosis in Siberia, Russia. Five hundred and fourteen patients with genitourinary tuberculosis were enrolled in the study: 414 had kidney tuberculosis only, 100 had genital involvement. The clinical picture and structure of genital tuberculosis were investigated: 42 had tuberculosis of scrotal organs and 58 had tuberculosis of the prostate. Urinary cultures, urinalysis, three-glass test, and investigation of the prostate secretion, Mycobacteria culture, and susceptibility testing were performed in all 514 patients. 33.6% of all patients earlier suffered from pulmonary or extrapulmonary tuberculosis and were successfully cured. In 61.9% nephrotuberculosis was diagnosed alongside with an orchiepididymitis. In 30.9% of patients bilateral epididymorchitis was diagnosed. Mycobacteriuria was present in 38.1%. Scrotal fistula was found in 11.9%. In 66.7% the symptoms appeared acutely. Half of the patients with prostate tuberculosis complained of dysuria, 23 (39.6%) had perineal pain, 34 (58.6%) had flank pain. Leucocytes in urine were present in 49 (84.5%) patients, and in prostatic secretion in 45 (77.6%) patients. Erythrocytes in urine were present in 31 (53.4%) patients, and in prostatic secretions in 17 (29.3%) patients. Male genital tuberculosis has no specific pathognomonic signs. Using a special algorithm for the management of patients with prostatitis or epididymitis is recommended. PMID:16429302

  3. An Unusual Presentation of Primary Male Genital Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Lakmichi, Mohamed Amine; Kamaoui, Imane; Eddafali, Brahim; Sellam, A. Ibn; Dahami, Zakaria; Moudouni, Said Mohamed; Sarf, Ismail

    2011-01-01

    Urogenital tuberculosis is a rare disease; however, it is the second most common location for tuberculosis after the lung. Currently, incidence of urogenital tuberculosis is increasing due to factors such as a higher prevalence of immunosuppression (especially that caused by human immunodeficiency virus infection) and drug abuse. Herein a new case of male genital primary tuberculosis is reported presenting as a scrotal tumor; the originality of this observation lies in its unusual pseudotumor form. PMID:22114548

  4. Characteristics and quantities of HIV host cells in human genital tract secretions.

    PubMed

    Politch, Joseph A; Marathe, Jai; Anderson, Deborah J

    2014-12-15

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected leukocytes have been detected in genital secretions from HIV-infected men and women and may play an important role in the sexual transmission of HIV. However, they have been largely overlooked in studies on mechanisms of HIV transmission and in the design and testing of HIV vaccine and microbicide candidates. This article describes the characteristics and quantities of leukocytes in male and female genital secretions under various conditions and also reviews evidence for the involvement of HIV-infected cells in both horizontal and vertical cell-associated HIV transmission. Additional research is needed in this area to better target HIV prevention strategies. PMID:25414414

  5. Psychosocial impact of Chlamydia trachomatis testing in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Kangas, Ida; Andersen, Berit; Olesen, Frede; Møller, Jens K; Østergaard, Lars

    2006-01-01

    Background Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infections are widespread, and each year many tests are performed in general practice. Aim First, to quantify the magnitude of stigmatisation, problems related to partner, and anxiety of infertility among men and women tested for C. trachomatis in general practice. Second, to investigate the effect of a C. trachomatis test result on planned future condom use. Design of study Comparative cross-sectional study. Setting General practices in Aarhus County, Denmark. Method Men and women tested for C. trachomatis in general practice were given a questionnaire about feelings of stigmatisation, fear of partner's reaction, fear of future infertility and other psychosocial side effects related to being infected or not infected with C. trachomatis. Results A total of 277 participated in the study. The response rates were 61% (82/135) and 54% (195/365) among infected and non-infected individuals, respectively. Among the infected individuals 32% (9/28) of the men's partners and 35% (19/54) of the women's partners were upset about the test result, 9% (5/54) of the women and 11% (3/28) of the men split with their partner, 59% (32/54) of the women and 54% (15/28) of the men expressed nervousness about infertility, and 91% (19/21) of the women but only 56% (5/9) of the men said that they would use a condom more often in the future. All these figures were significantly lower for both men and women having C. trachomatis negative test results. Conclusion A chlamydia test affects the individual in terms of sexuality, relation to partner, reproduction, and future contraceptive strategy. The influence is highest among women and individuals with a positive test result. These findings should be taken into account in screening programmes targeting young women and men. PMID:16882376

  6. Guidance on management of asymptomatic neonates born to women with active genital herpes lesions.

    PubMed

    Kimberlin, David W; Baley, Jill

    2013-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection of the neonate is uncommon, but genital herpes infections in adults are very common. Thus, although treating an infant with neonatal herpes is a relatively rare occurrence, managing infants potentially exposed to HSV at the time of delivery occurs more frequently. The risk of transmitting HSV to an infant during delivery is determined in part by the mother's previous immunity to HSV. Women with primary genital HSV infections who are shedding HSV at delivery are 10 to 30 times more likely to transmit the virus to their newborn infants than are women with recurrent HSV infection who are shedding virus at delivery. With the availability of commercial serological tests that reliably can distinguish type-specific HSV antibodies, it is now possible to determine the type of maternal infection and, thus, further refine management of infants delivered to women who have active genital HSV lesions. The management algorithm presented herein uses both serological and virological studies to determine the risk of HSV transmission to the neonate who is delivered to a mother with active herpetic genital lesions and tailors management accordingly. The algorithm does not address the approach to asymptomatic neonates delivered to women with a history of genital herpes but no active lesions at delivery. PMID:23359576

  7. Guidance on Management of Asymptomatic Neonates Born to Women With Active Genital Herpes Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Kimberlin, David W.; Baley, Jill; Brady, Michael T.; Byington, Carrie L.; Davies, H. Dele; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Glode, Mary P.; Jackson, Mary Anne; Keyserling, Harry L.; Maldonado, Yvonne A.; Murray, Dennis L.; Orenstein, Walter A.; Schutze, Gordon E.; Willoughby, Rodney E.; Zaoutis, Theoklis E.; Papile, Lu-Ann; Bhutani, Vinod K.; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Cummings, James; Kumar, Praveen; Polin, Richard A.; Tan, Rosemarie C.; Wang, Kasper S.; Watterberg, Kristi L.

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection of the neonate is uncommon, but genital herpes infections in adults are very common. Thus, although treating an infant with neonatal herpes is a relatively rare occurrence, managing infants potentially exposed to HSV at the time of delivery occurs more frequently. The risk of transmitting HSV to an infant during delivery is determined in part by the mother’s previous immunity to HSV. Women with primary genital HSV infections who are shedding HSV at delivery are 10 to 30 times more likely to transmit the virus to their newborn infants than are women with recurrent HSV infection who are shedding virus at delivery. With the availability of commercial serological tests that reliably can distinguish type-specific HSV antibodies, it is now possible to determine the type of maternal infection and, thus, further refine management of infants delivered to women who have active genital HSV lesions. The management algorithm presented herein uses both serological and virological studies to determine the risk of HSV transmission to the neonate who is delivered to a mother with active herpetic genital lesions and tailors management accordingly. The algorithm does not address the approach to asymptomatic neonates delivered to women with a history of genital herpes but no active lesions at delivery. PMID:23359576

  8. S. haematobium as a Common Cause of Genital Morbidity in Girls: A Cross-sectional Study of Children in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kleppa, Elisabeth; Zulu, Siphosenkosi Gift; Gundersen, Svein Gunnar; Taylor, Myra; Kvalsvig, Jane D.; Kjetland, Eyrun Floerecke

    2013-01-01

    Background Schistosoma (S.) haematobium infection is a common cause of genital morbidity in adult women. Ova in the genital mucosal lining may cause lesions, bleeding, pain, discharge, and the damaged surfaces may pose a risk for HIV. In a heterogeneous schistosomiasis endemic area in South Africa, we sought to investigate if young girls had genital symptoms and if this was associated with urinary S. haematobium. Methodology In a cross-sectional study of 18 randomly chosen primary schools, we included 1057 schoolgirls between the age of 10 and 12 years. We interviewed assenting girls, whose parents had consented to their participation and examined three urines from each of them for schistosome ova. Principal findings One third of the girls reported to have a history of genital symptoms. Prior schistosomal infection was reported by 22% (226/1020), this was associated with current genital symptoms (p<0.001). In regression analysis the genital symptoms were significantly associated both with urinary schistosomiasis (p<0.001) and water contact (p<0.001). Conclusions Even before sexually active age, a relatively large proportion of the participating girls had similar genital symptoms to those reported for adult genital schistosomiasis previously. Anti-schistosomal treatment should be considered at a young age in order to prevent chronic genital damage and secondary infections such as HIV, sexually transmitted diseases and other super-infections. PMID:23556009

  9. Recruitment of BAD by the Chlamydia trachomatis Vacuole Correlates with Host-Cell Survival

    PubMed Central

    Verbeke, Philippe; Welter-Stahl, Lynn; Ying, Songmin; Hansen, Jon; Häcker, Georg; Darville, Toni; Ojcius, David M

    2006-01-01

    Chlamydiae replicate intracellularly in a vacuole called an inclusion. Chlamydial-infected host cells are protected from mitochondrion-dependent apoptosis, partly due to degradation of BH3-only proteins. The host-cell adapter protein 14-3-3? can interact with host-cell apoptotic signaling pathways in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. In Chlamydia trachomatis-infected cells, 14-3-3? co-localizes to the inclusion via direct interaction with a C. trachomatis-encoded inclusion membrane protein. We therefore explored the possibility that the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) pathway may contribute to resistance of infected cells to apoptosis. We found that inhibition of PI3K renders C. trachomatis-infected cells sensitive to staurosporine-induced apoptosis, which is accompanied by mitochondrial cytochrome c release. 14-3-3? does not associate with the Chlamydia pneumoniae inclusion, and inhibition of PI3K does not affect protection against apoptosis of C. pneumoniae-infected cells. In C. trachomatis-infected cells, the PI3K pathway activates AKT/protein kinase B, which leads to maintenance of the pro-apoptotic protein BAD in a phosphorylated state. Phosphorylated BAD is sequestered via 14-3-3? to the inclusion, but it is released when PI3K is inhibited. Depletion of AKT through short-interfering RNA reverses the resistance to apoptosis of C. trachomatis-infected cells. BAD phosphorylation is not maintained and it is not recruited to the inclusion of Chlamydia muridarum, which protects poorly against apoptosis. Thus, sequestration of BAD away from mitochondria provides C. trachomatis with a mechanism to protect the host cell from apoptosis via the interaction of a C. trachomatis-encoded inclusion protein with a host-cell phosphoserine-binding protein. PMID:16710454

  10. Recruitment of BAD by the Chlamydia trachomatis vacuole correlates with host-cell survival.

    PubMed

    Verbeke, Philippe; Welter-Stahl, Lynn; Ying, Songmin; Hansen, Jon; Häcker, Georg; Darville, Toni; Ojcius, David M

    2006-05-01

    Chlamydiae replicate intracellularly in a vacuole called an inclusion. Chlamydial-infected host cells are protected from mitochondrion-dependent apoptosis, partly due to degradation of BH3-only proteins. The host-cell adapter protein 14-3-3beta can interact with host-cell apoptotic signaling pathways in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. In Chlamydia trachomatis-infected cells, 14-3-3beta co-localizes to the inclusion via direct interaction with a C. trachomatis-encoded inclusion membrane protein. We therefore explored the possibility that the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) pathway may contribute to resistance of infected cells to apoptosis. We found that inhibition of PI3K renders C. trachomatis-infected cells sensitive to staurosporine-induced apoptosis, which is accompanied by mitochondrial cytochrome c release. 14-3-3beta does not associate with the Chlamydia pneumoniae inclusion, and inhibition of PI3K does not affect protection against apoptosis of C. pneumoniae-infected cells. In C. trachomatis-infected cells, the PI3K pathway activates AKT/protein kinase B, which leads to maintenance of the pro-apoptotic protein BAD in a phosphorylated state. Phosphorylated BAD is sequestered via 14-3-3beta to the inclusion, but it is released when PI3K is inhibited. Depletion of AKT through short-interfering RNA reverses the resistance to apoptosis of C. trachomatis-infected cells. BAD phosphorylation is not maintained and it is not recruited to the inclusion of Chlamydia muridarum, which protects poorly against apoptosis. Thus, sequestration of BAD away from mitochondria provides C. trachomatis with a mechanism to protect the host cell from apoptosis via the interaction of a C. trachomatis-encoded inclusion protein with a host-cell phosphoserine-binding protein. PMID:16710454

  11. Phylogenetic analysis of the outer-membrane-protein genes of Chlamydiae, and its implication for vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Fitch, W M; Peterson, E M; de la Maza, L M

    1993-07-01

    Examination of 18 complete and 6 partial sequences of the major outer-membrane protein from 24 chlamydiae isolates was used to reconstruct their evolutionary relationships. From this analysis, assuming that the clades with 100% bootstrap support are correct, come the following conclusions: (1) The tree of these sequences is not congruent with the phylogeny of the hosts, and thus host switching would seem to have occurred, thereby limiting the extent to which there has been coevolution of parasite and host. (2) The tree is also noncongruent with clustering by type of cell infected, thereby limiting the extent to which there has been coevolution of parasite and the cell type that it infects. (3) The tree is also noncongruent with clustering by the organ infected (eyes or genitalia), thereby limiting the extent to which there has been coevolution of parasite and the organ that it infects. (4) The tree is also noncongruent with genital strains arising from lymphogranuloma venereum strains. (5) The tree is also noncongruent with the geographic site at which the isolates were obtained, thereby limiting the extent of divergence explained by geographic separation. (6) There are estimated to be 185 amino acid positions that are invariable (as opposed to unvaried) in the major outer-membrane protein. There are 10 unvaried positions in the variable domains, of which 9 appear to be invariable, giving some reason to hope that development of a vaccine might be possible. (7) The rate of change of this protein is too small to see increased divergence over the time span of isolation of these genes, giving hope to any vaccine having longevity. Bootstrapping supports those portions of the tree on which the first five conclusions above depend. The picture that these results provide is more one of pathogen versatility than one of coevolutionary constraints. In addition, we examined 10 60-KDa, outer-membrane protein-2 genes, all but one of which were from these same strains. The tree was not, among the trachomatis strains, congruent with the major-outer-membrane protein tree, suggesting that gene exchange could be occurring among strains. Moreover, there is an apparent slowdown in divergence in this gene, among the trachomatis strains. PMID:8355605

  12. Genital schistosomiasis and its unacknowledged role on HIV transmission in the STD intervention studies.

    PubMed

    Kjetland, Eyrun F; Hegertun, Ingrid Ea; Baay, Marc Fd; Onsrud, Mathias; Ndhlovu, Patricia D; Taylor, Myra

    2014-09-01

    Treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) has been hypothesised to decrease HIV transmission. Although observational studies show an association between STIs and HIV, only one prospective randomised controlled trial (RCT) has confirmed this. Female genital schistosomiasis can cause genital lesions, accompanied by bloody discharge, ulcers or malodorous discharge. Genital schistosomiasis is common, starts before puberty and symptoms can be mistaken for STIs. Three observational studies have found an association between schistosomiasis and HIV. Genital lesions that develop in childhood are chronic. This paper sought to explore the possible effects of schistosomiasis on the RCTs of STI treatment for HIV prevention. In the study sites, schistosomiasis was a likely cause of genital lesions. The studies recruited women that may have had genital schistosomal lesions established in childhood. Schistosomiasis endemic areas with different prevalence levels may have influenced HIV incidence in intervention and control sites differently, and some control group interventions may have influenced the impact of schistosomiasis on the study results. Schistosomiasis is a neglected cause of genital tract disease. It may have been an independent cause of HIV incidence in the RCTs of STI treatment for HIV prevention and may have obscured the findings of these trials. PMID:24621458

  13. Genome sequencing and comparative analysis of three Chlamydia pecorum strains associated with different pathogenic outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chlamydia pecorum is the causative agent of a number of acute diseases, but most often causes persistent, subclinical infection in ruminants, swine and birds. In this study, the genome sequences of three C. pecorum strains isolated from the faeces of a sheep with inapparent enteric infection (strain W73), from the synovial fluid of a sheep with polyarthritis (strain P787) and from a cervical swab taken from a cow with metritis (strain PV3056/3) were determined using Illumina/Solexa and Roche 454 genome sequencing. Results Gene order and synteny was almost identical between C. pecorum strains and C. psittaci. Differences between C. pecorum and other chlamydiae occurred at a number of loci, including the plasticity zone, which contained a MAC/perforin domain protein, two copies of a >3400 amino acid putative cytotoxin gene and four (PV3056/3) or five (P787 and W73) genes encoding phospholipase D. Chlamydia pecorum contains an almost intact tryptophan biosynthesis operon encoding trpABCDFR and has the ability to sequester kynurenine from its host, however it lacks the genes folA, folKP and folB required for folate metabolism found in other chlamydiae. A total of 15 polymorphic membrane proteins were identified, belonging to six pmp families. Strains possess an intact type III secretion system composed of 18 structural genes and accessory proteins, however a number of putative inc effector proteins widely distributed in chlamydiae are absent from C. pecorum. Two genes encoding the hypothetical protein ORF663 and IncA contain variable numbers of repeat sequences that could be associated with persistence of infection. Conclusions Genome sequencing of three C. pecorum strains, originating from animals with different disease manifestations, has identified differences in ORF663 and pseudogene content between strains and has identified genes and metabolic traits that may influence intracellular survival, pathogenicity and evasion of the host immune system. PMID:24417976

  14. Varicella: Pediatric Genital\\/Rectal Vesicular Lesions of Unclear Origin— Simon & Steele

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harold K Simon; Dale W Steele

    1995-01-01

    Three children who presented with localized vesicular rash in the diaper area were found to have primary varicella-zoster infections. Primary varicella can closely mimic genital herpes simplex virus (HSV I or 2), which may be an indicator of sexual abuse. To avoid unfounded investigation for sexual abuse, primary varicella-zoster infection must be included in the differential diagnosis. Direct fluorescent antibody

  15. Identification of immunodominant antigens of Chlamydia trachomatis using proteome microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Douglas M.; Pal, Sukumar; Kayala, Mathew A.; Teng, Andy; Kim, Paul J.; Baldi, Pierre; Felgner, Philip L.; Liang, Xiaowu; de la Maza, Luis M.

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted pathogen in the world. In order to control this infection, there is an urgent need to formulate a vaccine. Identification of protective antigens is required to implement a subunit vaccine. To identify potential antigen vaccine candidates, three strains of mice, BALB/c, C3H/HeN and C57BL/6, were inoculated with live and inactivated C. trachomatis mouse pneumonitis (MoPn) by different routes of immunization. Using a protein microarray, serum samples collected after immunization were tested for the presence of antibodies against specific chlamydial antigens. A total of 225 open reading frames (ORF) of the C. trachomatis genome were cloned, expressed, and printed in the microarray. Using this protein microarray, a total of seven C. trachomatis dominant antigens were identified (TC0052, TC0189, TC0582, TC0660, TC0726, TC0816 and, TC0828) as recognized by IgG antibodies from all three strains of animals after immunization. In addition, the microarray was probed to determine if the antibody response exhibited a Th1 or Th2 bias. Animals immunized with live organisms mounted a predominant Th1 response against most of the chlamydial antigens while mice immunized with inactivated Chlamydia mounted a Th2-biased response. In conclusion, using a high throughput protein microarray we have identified a set of novel proteins that can be tested for their ability to protect against a chlamydial infection. PMID:20044059

  16. Candidatus Syngnamydia Venezia, a Novel Member of the Phylum Chlamydiae from the Broad Nosed Pipefish, Syngnathus typhle

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt-Posthaus, Heike; Nufer, Lisbeth; Wilson, Anthony; Svercel, Miroslav; Richter, Denis; Segner, Helmut; Pospischil, Andreas; Vaughan, Lloyd

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia are obligate intracellular bacteria and important pathogens of humans and animals. Chlamydia-related bacteria are also major fish pathogens, infecting epithelial cells of the gills and skin to cause the disease epitheliocystis. Given the wide distribution, ancient origins and spectacular diversity of bony fishes, this group offers a rich resource for the identification and isolation of novel Chlamydia. The broad-nosed pipefish (Syngnathus typhle) is a widely distributed and genetically diverse temperate fish species, susceptible to epitheliocystis across much of its range. We describe here a new bacterial species, Candidatus Syngnamydia venezia; epitheliocystis agent of S. typhle and close relative to other chlamydial pathogens which are known to infect diverse hosts ranging from invertebrates to humans. PMID:23951025

  17. Ultrasound markers of fetal infection, Part 2: Bacterial, parasitic, and fungal infections.

    PubMed

    Bailão, Luiz Antonio; Osborne, Newton G; Rizzi, Maria Christina S; Bonilla-Musoles, Fernando; Duarte, Geraldo; Bailão, Teresa Christina R Sicchieri

    2006-06-01

    Up to 1% of all pregnancies have clinically overt intra-amniotic bacterial infections, and an even larger percentage of pregnant women may be affected by silent infections. Although most pregnant women with overt intra-amniotic bacterial infection have experienced prolonged rupture of membranes (PROM), symptomatic and most silent nonviral intra-amniotic infections may occur with intact membranes. The etiology of intra-amniotic infection after PROM is almost always polymicrobial and consists of genital tract pathogens, such as group B streptococci, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, mycoplasmas, aerobic Gram-negative bacilli, such as the coliforms, and facultative and anaerobic endogenous organisms, such as peptococci, peptostreptococci, and Bacteroides species. These organisms gain access to the uterine cavity by the ascending route. Organisms such as Treponema pallidum, Listeria monocytogenes, Toxoplasma gondii, trypanosomes, and plasmodia are capable of gaining access to the amniotic cavity by transplacental hematogenous spread, and cause devastating fetal infections. Symptomatic intra-amniotic infection is usually a diagnosis of exclusion. Diagnostic criteria based on both clinical and laboratory findings lack sensitivity and are nonspecific. It is difficult to obtain uncontaminated intra-amniotic samples, especially when there is PROM. The problem is even greater with silent infections. In most cases, fetal infection is suspected after an unexplained and unexpected adverse outcome. Maternal morbidity is increased with intra-amniotic infection; although maternal mortality is extremely rare in developed countries, this is not the case in societies where pregnant women have limited or no access to medical care. Although infected women who are treated early and aggressively with wide-spectrum antibiotics do well, more than 10% of these women develop bacteremia and up to half of them will require cesarean delivery because of poor uterine contractions and arrest of labor. The overwhelming majority of term neonates exposed to intrauterine infection after PROM do well, but up to 30% of these neonates require treatment of neonatal pneumonia or bacteremia. Outcomes for preterm neonates or for neonates who experienced silent fetal infections are more severe. Morbidity and mortality rates in these cases are high, and survivors may have long-term devastating sequelae. The ability to identify ultrasound markers of fetal infection will help clinicians identify etiologic agents with greater accuracy and correlate these infections with specific antepartum and postpartum syndromes. The recognition of markers of intrauterine infection will also reduce unexpected adverse outcomes that result from undiagnosed fetal infections. PMID:16783243

  18. Prevalence and factors associated with asymptomatic gonococcal and chlamydial infection among US Navy and Marine Corps men infected with the HIV: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Robert J; Refugio, Oliver N; Adams, Nehkonti; O'Brien, Kevin P; Johnson, Mark D; Groff, Harold L; Maves, Ryan C; Bavaro, Mary F; Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) can facilitate transmission of HIV. Men who have sex with men (MSM) may harbour infections at genital and extragenital sites. Data regarding extragenital GC and CT infections in military populations are lacking. We examined the prevalence and factors associated with asymptomatic GC and CT infection among this category of HIV-infected military personnel. Design Cross-sectional cohort study (pilot). Setting Infectious diseases clinic at a single military treatment facility in San Diego, CA. Participants Ninety-nine HIV-positive men were evaluated—79% men who had sex with men, mean age 31?years, 36% black and 33% married. Inclusion criteria: male, HIV-infected, Department of Defense beneficiary. Exclusion criteria: any symptom related to the urethra, pharynx or rectum. Primary outcome measures GC and CT screening results. Results Twenty-four per cent were infected with either GC or CT. Rectal swabs were positive in 18% for CT and 3% for GC; pharynx swabs were positive in 8% for GC and 2% for CT. Only one infection was detected in the urine (GC). Anal sex (p=0.04), male partner (OR 7.02, p=0.04) and sex at least once weekly (OR 3.28, p=0.04) were associated with infection. Associated demographics included age <35?years (OR 6.27, p=0.02), non-Caucasian ethnicity (p=0.03), <3?years since HIV diagnosis (OR 2.75, p=0.04) and previous sexually transmitted infection (STI) (OR 5.10, p=0.001). Conclusions We found a high prevalence of extragenital GC/CT infection among HIV-infected military men. Only one infection was detected in the urine, signalling the need for aggressive three-site screening of MSM. Clinicians should be aware of the high prevalence in order to enhance health through comprehensive STI screening practices. PMID:23793671

  19. Development and Validation of a Real-Time PCR for Chlamydia suis Diagnosis in Swine and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Geldhof, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Pigs are the natural host for Chlamydia suis, a pathogen which is phylogenetically highly related to the human pathogen C. trachomatis. Chlamydia suis infections are generally treated with tetracyclines. In 1998, tetracyline resistant C. suis strains emerged on U.S. pig farms and they are currently present in the Belgian, Cypriote, German, Israeli, Italian and Swiss pig industry. Infections with tetracycline resistant C. suis strains are mainly associated with severe reproductive failure leading to marked economical loss. We developed a sensitive and specific TaqMan probe-based C. suis real-time PCR for examining clinical samples of both pigs and humans. The analytical sensitivity of the real-time PCR is 10 rDNA copies/reaction without cross-amplifying DNA of other Chlamydia species. The PCR was successfully validated using conjunctival, pharyngeal and stool samples of slaughterhouse employees, as well as porcine samples from two farms with evidence of reproductive failure and one farm without clinical disease. Chlamydia suis was only detected in diseased pigs and in the eyes of humans. Positive humans had no clinical complaints. PCR results were confirmed by culture in McCoy cells. In addition, Chlamydia suis isolates were also examined by the tet(C) PCR, designed for demonstrating the tetracycline resistance gene tet(C). The tet(C) gene was only present in porcine C. suis isolates. PMID:24816542

  20. Microbes Can Cause Different Kinds of Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... long as 20 years after the infection began. Latent Infections Latent infections are “hidden” or “silent” and may or ... cause genital herpes and cold sores, can remain latent in nerve cells for short or long periods ...

  1. Isolated itching of the genitals.

    PubMed

    Pomares, Christelle; Marty, Pierre; Delaunay, Pascal

    2014-04-01

    A 38-year-old man, returned from Ivory Coast 2 months ago and presented with a 3-month history of pruritus exclusively on the scrotum. Itching was continuous during the day and no pruritus was described in his wife and son. Clinical examination of the genitals revealed several nodules on the scrotum, a chancrous lesion was seen on the penis, and multiple excoriations were noted. Dermoscopy exam with a dermatoscope of the whole body was performed and no papules, nodules, or burrow were found. Microscopic examination of several superficial skin samples obtained by scraping in the peri-genital area revealed one adult of Sarcoptes scabiei. The patient and his relatives were successfully treated with Ivermectin 200 ?g/kg with a second dose 2 weeks later. Very rare cases are described on localized scabies (scalp, feet) and they mainly occurred in an immunocompromised patient unlike this patient who does not have any immunosuppression. PMID:24696404

  2. The quality of life of patients with genital warts: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Genital warts, which are caused by infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), are one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in Europe. Although genital warts are commonly perceived as a non-serious condition, treatment is often long, of varying effectiveness and the recurrence rate is high. Very few studies have been performed on the personal consequences of genital warts. The aim of this qualitative study, set in Denmark, was to examine the ways in which genital warts may affect patients' quality of life. Methods To obtain an in-depth understanding of patients' perceptions of genital warts, we used qualitative focus-group interviews with five men and five women aged between 18 and 30 years who had genital warts. The interview guide was based on a literature review that identified important issues and questions. The data were analysed using a medical anthropological approach. Results Patients' experiences were related to cultural conceptions of venereal diseases and the respective identities and sexuality of the sexes. The disease had negative psychological and social effects both for men and for women and it affected their sex and love lives, in particular. The psychological burden of the disease was increased by the uncertain timeline and the varying effectiveness of treatment. We identified a need for more patient information about the disease and its psycho-sexual aspects. Conclusions The men and women participating in this study considered their quality of life to be significantly lowered because of genital warts. The experiences described by the participants give insights that may be valuable in treatment and counselling. The quadrivalent HPV vaccine that has now been added to the childhood vaccination programme for girls in Denmark for the prevention of cervical cancer can also prevent 90% of cases of genital warts. Our results suggest that HPV vaccination could considerably reduce the largely unacknowledged psychological and social burden associated with genital warts, in men as well as women. PMID:20205944

  3. Supporting women after genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Alison

    Female genital mutilation is a common practice in many cultures, and has a range of complications. Many women in the UK have undergone the procedure and many girls are at risk. This article discusses the types of FGM and its complications, and explains how nurses can identify those who have had or are at risk of FGM and either offer support or specialist referral. PMID:24881177

  4. [Genital autoaggression. An unusual presentation].

    PubMed

    Nuñez Mora, C; Mayor Arenal, M; Tabernero Gómez, A; Cárcamo Valor, P I; Martínez-Piñeiro Carames, J A

    1998-01-01

    Self-injuries are relatively common and usually consist in incisive injuries on the penis and the scrotum. This paper presents one case of genital self-injury by injection of petrol on the back of the penis. A description is offered of the clinical form of presentation, as well as the good evolution following medical treatment. Finally, a revision of likely complications is included. PMID:9580266

  5. Female genital mutilations - a testimony.

    PubMed

    Youssouf, Samia

    2013-02-01

    In Djibouti, the prevalence of female genital mutilations (FGMs) amounts to 98% and the practice is still in use. When I left, in 1999, I knew I would involve myself in the fight against FGMs and I describe here the outcome of an obstacle course of more than ten years duration. This paper is written on behalf of innumerable women, who could give you a similar account. PMID:23205512

  6. Koinfektion vonKoinfektion von Chlamydia pneumoniaeChlamydia pneumoniae undund HaemophilusHaemophilus influenzaeinfluenzae im humanen Lungengewebsmodellim humanen Lungengewebsmodell

    E-print Network

    Groppe, Jinghua

    Koinfektion vonKoinfektion von Chlamydia pneumoniaeChlamydia pneumoniae undund HaemophilusEinleitung Chlamydophila pneumoniae (Cpn) und nontypeable Haemo- philus influenzae (NTHI) sind häufig vorkommende respirato

  7. Population-level intervention to promote chlamydia screening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Kim Oh; Diane Grimley; Gustavo Heudebert

    2000-01-01

    Background: HEDIS 2000 measure includes chlamydia screening in women which is designed to assess the percentage of sexually active women 15 to 25 years who have received at least one screening test for chlamydia during the reporting year. This study is being undertaken to determine feasibility of implementing a population-level intervention within HMOs to promote chlamydia screening. This abstract presents

  8. Vaccination with major outer membrane protein proteosomes elicits protection in mice against a Chlamydia respiratory challenge

    PubMed Central

    Tifrea, Delia F.; Pal, Sukumar; Toussi, Deana N.; Massari, Paola; de la Maza, Luis M.

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines formulated with the Chlamydia muridarum native major outer membrane protein (nMOMP) have so far been shown to elicit the most robust protection against this pathogen. nMOMP is a membrane protein and therefore, detergents are used to keep it in solution. Detergents however, have toxic effects. To address this limitation, we tested a nMOMP proteosome vaccine and compared it for its ability to elicit protection against nMOMP solubilized in the detergent Z3-14. The two preparations were formulated with or without CpG + Montanide (C/M). As a control antigen we used ovalbumin. Mice vaccinated with nMOMP developed strong humoral and cell mediated Chlamydia-specific immune responses. Based on the IgG2a/IgG1 levels in serum and amounts of IFN-? in splenocytes supernatants the immune responses were predominantly Th1-biased. The animals were subsequently challenged intranasally with 2×103 Chlamydia inclusion forming units (IFU) and the course of the infection was followed for 10 days when the mice were euthanized. Based on changes in body weight, weight of the lungs and number of IFU recovered from the lungs, mice immunized with nMOMP-Ps and nMOMP+Z3-14 adjuvanted with C/M showed the most robust protection. In summary, nMOMP-Ps should be considered as Chlamydia vaccine candidates. PMID:23999313

  9. Chlamydiaceae and Chlamydia-like organisms in free-living small mammals in Europe and Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Sarah; Guerra, Diogo; Pospischil, Andreas; Hilbe, Monika; Weissenböck, Herbert; Novotný, Ladislav; Greub, Gilbert; Croxatto, Antony; Teifke, Jens Peter; Ulrich, Rainer G; Schlegel, Mathias; Ruhl, Silke; Schotte, Ulrich; Binder, Alfred; Sauer, Sabine; Borel, Nicole

    2014-04-01

    Few data are available on the occurrence of chlamydial infections in wild small mammals. We investigated the significance of free-living small mammals as reservoirs or transmission hosts for microorganisms of the phylum/class Chlamydiae. We obtained 3,664 tissue samples from 911 animals in Switzerland, Germany, Austria, the Czech Republic, and Afghanistan. Samples included internal organs (n = 3,652) and feces (n = 12) from 679 rodents (order Rodentia) and 232 insectivores (order Soricomorpha) and were tested by three TaqMan® real-time PCRs specific for members of the family Chlamydiaceae and selected Chlamydia-like organisms such as Parachlamydia spp. and Waddlia spp. Only one of 911 (0.11%) animals exhibited a questionable positive result by Chlamydiaceae-specific real-time PCR. Five of 911 animals were positive by specific real-time PCR for Parachlamydia spp. but could not be confirmed by quantitative PCR targeting the Parachlamydia acanthamoebae secY gene (secY qPCR). One of 746 animals (0.13%) was positive by real-time PCR for Waddlia chondrophila. This result was confirmed by Waddlia secY qPCR. This is the first detection of Chlamydia-like organisms in small wildlife in Switzerland. Considering previous negative results for Chlamydiaceae in wild ruminant species from Switzerland, these data suggest that wild small mammals are unlikely to be important carriers or transport hosts for Chamydiaceae and Chlamydia-like organisms. PMID:24484495

  10. Comparison of koala LPCoLN and human strains of Chlamydia pneumoniae highlights extended genetic diversity in the species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Candice M Mitchell; Kelley M Hovis; Patrik M Bavoil; Garry SA Myers; Jose A Carrasco; Peter Timms

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chlamydia pneumoniae is a widespread pathogen causing upper and lower respiratory tract infections in addition to a range of other diseases in humans and animals. Previous whole genome analyses have focused on four essentially clonal (> 99% identity) C. pneumoniae human genomes (AR39, CWL029, J138 and TW183), providing relatively little insight into strain diversity and evolution of this species.

  11. Real-Time PCR for Chlamydia pneumoniae Utilizing the Roche Lightcycler and a 16S rRNA Gene Target

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justin Hardick; Nancy Maldeis; Mellisa Theodore; Billie Jo Wood; Samuel Yang; Shin Lin; Thomas Quinn; Charlotte Gaydos

    2004-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae (CPN) causes pneumonia in humans, and has emerged as an important respira- tory pathogen. There are also established links be- tween CPN infection and coronary artery disease. Tra- ditional culture methods for CPN detection can be time consuming and difficult. There are a variety of molecular-based amplification methods for CPN de- tection. These methods are more sensitive than

  12. Genetics Home Reference: Hand-foot-genital syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Hand-foot-genital syndrome On this page: Description Genetic changes ... Glossary definitions Reviewed April 2008 What is hand-foot-genital syndrome? Hand-foot-genital syndrome is a ...

  13. Multilocus VNTR analysis-ompA typing of venereal isolates of Chlamydia trachomatis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Masaaki; Ogawa, Motohiko; Saijo, Masayuki; Ando, Shuji

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis isolated in Japan using a high-resolution genotyping method, the multilocus VNTR analysis (MLVA)-ompA typing method. Seventeen serotypes of C. trachomatis standard strain (A-L3) and 44 clinical isolates were obtained from clinical settings. Genotyping of the ompA gene allowed clinical isolates to be divided into nine serotypes: B (6.8%), D (15.9%), E (25%), F (20.5%), G (18.1%), H (6.8%), Ia (2.3%), J (2.3%), and K (2.3%). These isolates were further divided into 28 types after combining ompA genotyping data with MLVA data (Hunter-Gaston discriminatory index D, 0.949). Thus, our results demonstrated that MLVA could identify clinical isolates that could not be distinguished by ompA typing. PMID:25066435

  14. Presence of CD8+ T cells in the ectocervical mucosa correlates with genital viral shedding in HIV-infected women despite a low prevalence of HIV RNA-expressing cells in the tissue.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Anna; Hirbod, Taha; Li, Qingsheng; Bohman, Karin; Ball, Terry B; Plummer, Francis A; Kaul, Rupert; Kimani, Joshua; Broliden, Kristina; Tjernlund, Annelie

    2014-04-15

    The female genital tract is a portal of entry for sexual HIV transmission and a possible viral reservoir. In this study, the ectocervical CD8+ T cell distribution was explored in situ and was related to expression of CD3 and HLA-DR and presence of HIV RNA. For this purpose, ectocervical tissue samples and genital secretions were collected from HIV-seropositive (HIV+) Kenyan female sex workers (FSWs) (n = 20), HIV-seronegative (HIV-) FSWs (n = 17), and HIV(-) lower-risk women (n = 21). Cell markers were assessed by in situ staining and by quantitative PCR. HIV RNA expression in tissue was analyzed by in situ hybridization, and viral shedding was assessed by quantitative PCR. The HIV+ FSW group had a higher amount of total cells and CD8+, CD3+, and HLA-DR+ cells compared with the HIV(-)FSW group and HIV- lower-risk women. The majority of CD8+ cells were CD3+ T cells, and the numbers of CD8+ cells correlated significantly with plasma and cervical viral load. HIV RNA expression in situ was found in 4 of the 20 HIV+FSW women but did not correlate with cervical or plasma viral load. Thus, the HIV+ women displayed high numbers of CD8+, CD3+, and HLA-DR+ cells, as well as a limited number of HIV RNA+ cells, in their ectocervical mucosa; hence, this localization cannot be neglected as a potential viral reservoir. The elevated levels of CD8+ T cells may play a role in the immunopathogenesis of HIV in the female genital tract. PMID:24639358

  15. Ureaplasma urealyticum, Ureaplasma parvum, Mycoplasma hominis and Mycoplasma genitalium infections and semen quality of infertile men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Radhouane Gdoura; Wiem Kchaou; Chiraz Chaari; Abir Znazen; Leila Keskes; Tarek Rebai; Adnane Hammami

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genital ureaplasmas (Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum) and mycoplasmas (Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma hominis) are potentially pathogenic species playing an etiologic role in both genital infections and male infertility. Reports are, however, controversial regarding the effects of these microorganisms infections in the sperm seminological variables. This study aimed at determining the frequency of genital ureplasmas and mycoplasmas in semen

  16. Mapping Antigenic Domains Expressed by Chlamydia trachomatis Major Outer Membrane Protein Genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Baehr; You-Xun Zhang; Theresa Joseph; Hua Su; Francis E. Nano; Karin D. E. Everett; Harlan D. Caldwell

    1988-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate prokaryotic intracellular pathogen of humans that infects mucosal epithelial cells. Exposed domains of its major outer membrane protein (MOMP) are both serotyping and protective antigenic determinants. To identify these domains, we have cloned and epitope-mapped the genes of serovars A, C (C serogroup) and L2, B (B serogroup) with a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs).

  17. Immunoblots of outer-membrane proteins of chlamydiae with sera from turkeys experimentally exposed to avian and mammalian Chlamydia psittaci.

    PubMed

    Jensen, A E; Andersen, A A; Tappe, J P; Thoen, C O

    1993-01-01

    Outer-membrane protein (OMP)-enriched preparations from avian (turkey/TT3 and parrot/VS1) and mammalian (sheep abortion/B577) strains of Chlamydia psittaci were compared by immunoblotting using sera from turkeys exposed to these strains. Turkeys inoculated with avian chlamydiae became infected and developed strong serological responses, but turkeys inoculated with B577 failed to develop detectable serological responses. Sera from turkeys exposed to either of the two avian strains could be differentiated on the basis of immunoreaction patterns with OMPs of homologous and heterologous strains. Fewer bands and often weaker reactions were detected using sera from TT3- and VS1-inoculated birds with the heterologous avian strain. Sera from turkeys inoculated with either avian strain reacted with the 97,400-molecular weight (MW) protein. The sera reacted with the major outer-membrane protein (MOMP) of the homologous strains but not consistently with the MOMP of the heterologous strain. Results suggest that the 97,400-MW protein is highly immunogenic for turkeys and antigenically more complex than the MOMP. PMID:8452492

  18. Inhibition of Chlamydia trachomatis growth in McCoy, HeLa, and human prostate cells by zinc.

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, S B; Harris, D; Giles, P; Martin, R R; Wallace, R J

    1985-01-01

    Zinc salts (10(-4) and 10(-5) M) inhibited the number of Chlamydia trachomatis inclusions in McCoy, HeLa, and primary human prostate epithelial cell cultures. Addition of zinc salts 1 h before or 24 h after inoculation with C. trachomatis was found to inhibit growth. Both C. trachomatis serotype D and a lymphogranuloma venereum strain were inhibited by the zinc salts. Although the mechanism of inhibition is not known, the continued presence of the zinc appeared necessary for maximal effect. At the concentrations tested, zinc was not directly toxic to the McCoy cells. These results suggest that the levels of zinc in prostatic secretions may be sufficient to preclude the recovery of chlamydia in the diagnostic laboratory or to inhibit chlamydia from infecting the prostate in vivo. PMID:4026267

  19. Retinoic acid prevents Chlamydia pneumoniae-induced foam cell development in a mouse model of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shinn-Jong; Campbell, Lee Ann; Berry, Mark W; Rosenfeld, Michael E; Kuo, Cho-Chou

    2008-10-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae, a common respiratory pathogen, has been associated with cardiovascular disease. C. pneumoniae infection accelerates atherosclerotic lesion development in hyperlipidemic animals. Retinoic acid, an anti-oxidant, inhibits infection of endothelial cells by C. pneumoniae. The present study demonstrated that retinoic acid suppresses the acceleration of foam cell lesion development induced by C. pneumoniae in hyperlipidemic C57BL/6J mice. Retinoic acid treatment had no effect on foam cell lesion development in uninfected animals. Lung infection and duration was decreased in treated mice, suggesting one mechanism by which retinoic acid reduces C. pneumoniae-accelerated foam cell lesion formation in hyperlipidemic mice. PMID:18678272

  20. Chlamydophila abortus ( Chlamydia psittaci serotype 1) Clearance is Associated with the Early Recruitment of Neutrophils and CD8 +T Cells in a Mouse Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Del R??o; A. J. Buend??a; J. Sánchez; B. Garcés; M. R. Caro; M. C. Gallego; A. Bernabé; F. Cuello; J. Salinas

    2000-01-01

    The immune mechanisms in response to Chlamydophila abortus (Chlamydia psittaci serotype 1) infection were studied in C57BL\\/6 and CBA mice. The infection was monitored and the following aspects of the immune response were evaluated: the nature of the leucocyte infiltrate in the liver, the percentages of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), macrophages and lymphocytes in the spleen, and the concentrations of cytokines

  1. Outer membrane proteins preferentially load MHC class II peptides: Implications for a Chlamydia trachomatis T cell vaccine.

    PubMed

    Karunakaran, Karuna P; Yu, Hong; Jiang, Xiaozhou; Chan, Queenie; Moon, Kyung-Mee; Foster, Leonard J; Brunham, Robert C

    2015-04-27

    CD4 T cell immune responses such as interferon-? and tumor necrosis factor-? secretion are necessary for Chlamydia immunity. We used an immunoproteomic approach in which Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia muridarum-derived peptides presented by MHC class II molecules on the surface of infected dendritic cells (DCs) were identified by tandem mass spectrometry using bone marrow derived DCs (BMDCs) from mice of different MHC background. We first compared the C. muridarum immunoproteome in C3H mice to that previously identified in C57BL/6 mice. Fourteen MHC class II binding peptides from 11 Chlamydia proteins were identified from C3H infected BMDCs. Two C. muridarum proteins overlapped between C3H and C57B/6 mice and both were polymorphic membrane proteins (Pmps) which presented distinct class II binding peptides. Next we studied DCs from C57BL/6 mice infected with the human strain, C. trachomatis serovar D. Sixty MHC class II binding peptides derived from 27 C. trachomatis proteins were identified. Nine proteins were orthologous T cell antigens between C. trachomatis and C. muridarum and 2 of the nine were Pmps which generated MHC class II binding epitopes at distinct sequences within the proteins. As determined by antigen specific splenocyte responses outer membrane proteins PmpF, -G and -H and the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) were antigenic in mice previously infected with C. muridarum or C. trachomatis. Furthermore a recombinant protein vaccine consisting of the four Pmps (PmpEFGH) with MOMP formulated with a Th1 polarizing adjuvant significantly accelerated (p<0.001) clearance in the C57BL/6 mice C. trachomatis transcervical infection model. We conclude that Chlamydia outer membrane proteins are important T cell antigens useful in the development of a C. trachomatis subunit vaccine. PMID:25738816

  2. Inclusion Biogenesis and Reactivation of Persistent Chlamydia trachomatis Requires Host Cell Sphingolipid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, D. Kesley; Gu, Ling; Rowe, Regina K.; Beatty, Wandy L.

    2009-01-01

    Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular pathogens that must coordinate the acquisition of host cell-derived biosynthetic constituents essential for bacterial survival. Purified chlamydiae contain several lipids that are typically found in eukaryotes, implying the translocation of host cell lipids to the chlamydial vacuole. Acquisition and incorporation of sphingomyelin occurs subsequent to transport from Golgi-derived exocytic vesicles, with possible intermediate transport through endosomal multivesicular bodies. Eukaryotic host cell-derived sphingomyelin is essential for intracellular growth of Chlamydia trachomatis, but the precise role of this lipid in development has not been delineated. The present study identifies specific phenotypic effects on inclusion membrane biogenesis and stability consequent to conditions of sphingomyelin deficiency. Culturing infected cells in the presence of inhibitors of serine palmitoyltransferase, the first enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of host cell sphingomyelin, resulted in loss of inclusion membrane integrity with subsequent disruption in normal chlamydial inclusion development. Surprisingly, this was accompanied by premature redifferentiation to and release of infectious elementary bodies. Homotypic fusion of inclusions was also disrupted under conditions of sphingolipid deficiency. In addition, host cell sphingomyelin synthesis was essential for inclusion membrane stability and expansion that is vital to reactivation of persistent chlamydial infection. The present study implicates both the Golgi apparatus and multivesicular bodies as key sources of host-derived lipids, with multivesicular bodies being essential for normal inclusion development and reactivation of persistent C. trachomatis infection. PMID:19936056

  3. Chlamydia trachomatis Outer Membrane Complex Protein B (OmcB) Is Processed by the Protease CPAF

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Shuping; Lei, Lei; Yang, Zhangsheng; Qi, Manli; Liu, Quanzhong

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported that the Chlamydia trachomatis outer membrane complex protein B (OmcB) was partially processed in Chlamydia-infected cells. We have now confirmed that the OmcB processing occurred inside live cells during chlamydial infection and was not due to proteolysis during sample harvesting. OmcB processing was preceded by the generation of active CPAF, a serine protease known to be able to cross the inner membrane via a Sec-dependent pathway, suggesting that active CPAF is available for processing OmcB in the periplasm. In a cell-free system, CPAF activity is both necessary and sufficient for processing OmcB. Both depletion of CPAF from Chlamydia-infected cell lysates with a CPAF-specific antibody and blocking CPAF activity with a CPAF-specific inhibitory peptide removed the OmcB processing ability of the lysates. A highly purified wild-type CPAF but not a catalytic residue-substituted mutant CPAF was sufficient for processing OmcB. Most importantly, in chlamydial culture, inhibition of CPAF with a specific inhibitory peptide blocked OmcB processing and reduced the recovery of infectious organisms. Thus, we have identified OmcB as a novel authentic target for the putative chlamydial virulence factor CPAF, which should facilitate our understanding of the roles of CPAF in chlamydial biology and pathogenesis. PMID:23222729

  4. Genital Cutting and Western Discourses on Sexuality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KIRSTEN BELL

    2005-01-01

    This article explores dominant discourses surrounding male and female genital cutting. Over a similar period of time, these genital operations have separately been subjected to scrutiny and criticism. However, al- though critiques of female circumcision have been widely taken up, gen- eral public opinion toward male circumcision remains indifferent. This difference cannot merely be explained by the natural attributes and

  5. Immunogenicity of a vaccine formulated with the Chlamydia trachomatis serovar F, native major outer membrane protein in a nonhuman primate model

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chunmei; Pal, Sukumar; Bettahi, Ilham; Oxford, Kristie L.; Barry, Peter A.; de la Maza, Luis M.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the ability of a vaccine formulated with the genital Chlamydia trachomatis, serovar F, native major outer membrane protein (Ct-F-nMOMP), to induce systemic and mucosal immune responses, rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were immunized three times by the intramuscular (i.m.) and subcutaneous (s.c.) routes using CpG-2395 and Montanide ISA 720 VG, as adjuvants. As controls, another group of M. mulatta was immunized with ovalbumin instead of Ct-F-nMOMP using the same formulation and routes. High levels of Chlamydia-specific IgG and IgA antibodies were detected in plasma, vaginal washes, tears, saliva, and stools from the Ct-F-nMOMP immunized animals. Also, high neutralizing antibody titers were detected in the plasma from these animals. Monkeys immunized with ovalbumin had no detectable Chlamydia-specific antibodies. Furthermore, as measured by a lymphoproliferative assay, significant Chlamydia-specific cell-mediated immune responses were detected in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from the rhesus macaques vaccinated with Ct-F-nMOMP when compared with the animals immunized with ovalbumin. In addition, the levels of two Th1 cytokines, IFN-? and TNF-?, were significantly higher in the animals immunized with Ct-F-nMOMP when compared with those from the monkeys immunized with ovalbumin. To our knowledge, this is the first time that mucosal and systemic immune responses have been investigated in a nonhuman primate model using a subunit vaccine from a human genital C. trachomatis serovar. PMID:21376796

  6. Evaluation of Chlamydia pneumoniae 43- and 53-Kilodalton Recombinant Proteins for Serodiagnosis by Western Blot

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Lee Ann; Roberts, Shane; Inoue, Shiuichiro; Kong, Lilly; Kuo, Cho-chou

    2001-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common cause of respiratory infection. It has also been shown to be associated with coronary heart disease. Two proteins that have been reported to be recognized frequently during human infection are proteins having molecular masses of 43 and 53 kDa. In order to develop a useful alternative serological test to the microimmunofluorescence (micro-IF) assay, recombinant 43-kDa and 53-kDa chlamydia-specific proteins were evaluated in dot blot and/or for comparison to the standard micro-IF test. Primers for amplification were derived from genome sequence information for two C. pneumoniae genes (CPn0809 and CPn0980) encoding 53-kDa proteins and four C. pneumoniae genes (CPn0562, CPn0927, CPn0928, and Cpn0929) encoding 43-kDa proteins of unknown function, which were Chlamydia specific and not found in Chlamydia trachomatis. The 53-kDa protein product of CPn0809 or the N-terminal 18-kDa portion had better specificity than any of the 43-kDa recombinants but was much less sensitive than micro-IF. In contrast, the 53-kDa protein encoded by CPn0980 was recognized by 11 of 12 (92%) acute-phase sera, 35 of 46 (76%) chronic sera, 0 of 12 micro-IF-negative sera (C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis negative), and 1 of 12 (8%) C. pneumoniae negative, C. trachomatis positive sera. Thus, it appears that the 53-kDa protein encoded by CPn0980 has potential use for serodiagnosis of C. pneumoniae infection. PMID:11687468

  7. Chlamydiaceae infections in pig

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria. They are responsible for a broad range of diseases in animals and humans. In pigs, Chlamydia suis, Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia psittaci have been isolated. Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs are associated with different pathologies such as conjunctivitis, pneumonia, pericarditis, polyarthritis, polyserositis, pseudo-membranous or necrotizing enteritis, periparturient dysgalactiae syndrome, vaginal discharge, return to oestrus, abortion, mummification, delivery of weak piglets, increased perinatal and neonatal mortality and inferior semen quality, orchitis, epididymitis and urethritis in boars. However, Chlamydiaceae are still considered as non-important pathogens because reports of porcine chlamydiosis are rare. Furthermore, Chlamydiaceae infections are often unnoticed because tests for Chlamydiaceae are not routinely performed in all veterinary diagnostic laboratories and Chlamydiaceae are often found in association with other pathogens, which are sometimes more easily to detect. However, recent studies have demonstrated that Chlamydiaceae infections in breeding sows, boars and piglets occur more often than thought and are economically important. This paper presents an overview on: the taxonomy of Chlamydiaceae occurring in pigs, diagnostic considerations, epidemiology and pathology of infections with Chlamydiaceae in pigs, public health significance and finally on prevention and treatment of Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs. PMID:21314912

  8. Profound and Sustained Reduction in Chlamydia trachomatis in The Gambia: A Five-Year Longitudinal Study of Trachoma Endemic Communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew J. Burton; Martin J. Holland; Pateh Makalo; Esther A. N. Aryee; Ansumana Sillah; Sandra Cohuet; Angels Natividad; Neal D. E. Alexander; David C. W. Mabey; Robin L. Bailey

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundThe elimination of blinding trachoma focuses on controlling Chlamydia trachomatis infection through mass antibiotic treatment and measures to limit transmission. As the prevalence of disease declines, uncertainty increases over the most effective strategy for treatment. There are little long-term data on the effect of treatment on infection, especially in low prevalence settings, on which to base guidelines.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsThe population of

  9. Female genital cutting: impact on women's health.

    PubMed

    Nour, Nawal M

    2015-01-01

    More than 130 million women worldwide have undergone female genital cutting (FGC). FGC is practiced in parts of Africa and Asia, in societies with various cultures and religions. Reasons for the continuing practice of FGC include rite of passage, preserving chastity, ensuring marriageability, religion, hygiene, improving fertility, and enhancing sexual pleasure for men. The World Health Organization has classified FGC into four types depending on the extent of tissue removed. Immediate complications include hemorrhage, infection, sepsis, and death. Long-term complications include pain, scarring, urinary issues, and poor obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Efforts are being made nationally and internationally to eradicate this practice. In December 2012, the UN General Assembly accepted a resolution on the elimination of FGC. Although it is illegal to perform FGC in the United States, women from countries where the practice occurs have been and are still immigrating here. Many enter as refugees from war-torn, famine-stricken, or politically unstable countries. They bring along with them their cultural pride, health complications, and fears of being judged when visiting a health provider. A deeper understanding of the history, cultural beliefs, medical complications, and methods of surgical reconstruction is necessary to provide culturally and linguistically competent care to this unique group of women. PMID:25565511

  10. Pasteurellosis as a cause of genital lesions in rams. A descriptive study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. García-Pastor; J. M. Blasco; M. Barberán

    2009-01-01

    Pasteurellosis is one of the most prevalent diseases of sheep, but the involvement of Pasteurellae in genital pathology of rams has been described rarely. One hundred and eighty-four rams showing palpable lesions in testes, epididymides or scrotum were submitted to bacteriological studies, and seven mature rams found infected with bacterial species belonging to the Pasteurella cluster (i.e., Mannheimia, Pasteurella and

  11. Female genital mutilation in Greece.