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1

[Contact tracing of genital Chlamydia infection].  

PubMed

The present study evaluates two strategies for partner notification among young women with genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection. The study included 443 women, aged 14-21 years, who visited one of 20 youth clinics during a two months period in 1991. The youth clinics were randomized to use patient referral or provider referral. In the latter group, 11 of 14 women with genital Chlamydia infection revealed their sexual partners. Only five of 24 sexual partners were notified by a letter, and six of 24 partners turned up for examination. In the patient referral group, 16 of 34 women asked to notify their partner, and ten of 31 partners were examined. Partner notification in young women with genital Chlamydia infection seems to be difficult. PMID:8493649

Salvesen, K A; Skjeldestad, F E; Alfsen, G C

1993-04-20

2

Prevalence of genital chlamydia infection in urban women of reproductive age, Nairobi, Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the major causes of sexually transmitted infections throughout the world. Most infections are asymptomatic and remain undetected. Burden of disease in the Kenyan population is not well characterised. This study was done to define the prevalence of genital Chlamydia infection in a representative female population. Findings A cross-sectional study design was employed. All women attending out-patient clinics (antenatal, gynaecology, family planning) and accident and emergency departments at two study sites over a five month period were invited to consent to completion of a questionnaire and vaginal swab collection. A rapid point-of-care immunoassay based test was performed on the swabs. Women who tested positive for Chlamydia were offered treatment, together with their partner(s), and advised to come for a follow-up test. A total of 300 women were tested. The prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis was found to be 6% (95% CI 3.31% – 8.69%). The prevalence was higher in women who represented a higher socioeconomic level, but this difference was not significant (p=0.061). Use of vaginal swabs was observed to be a more acceptable form of sample collection. Conclusion The prevalence of genital Chlamydia is significant in our female population. There is a justifiable need to institute opportunistic screening programs to reduce the burden of this disease. Rapid and low cost point-of-care testing as a potential component of sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening can be utilised.

2013-01-01

3

Pooling Urine Samples for Ligase Chain Reaction Screening for Genital Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Asymptomatic Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accuracy of pooling urine samples for the detection of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection by ligase chain reaction (LCR) was examined. A model was also developed to determine the number of samples to be pooled for optimal cost savings at various population prevalences. Estimated costs included technician time, laboratory consumables, and assay costs of testing pooled samples and retesting individual

KATHERINE A. KACENA; SEAN B. QUINN; M. RENEHOWELL; GUILLERMO E. MADICO; THOMAS C. QUINN; CHARLOTTE A. GAYDOS

4

Chlamydia Screening in Ireland: a pilot study of opportunistic screening for genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Ireland (2007-2009). Summary Integrated Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genital Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection is the most common curable, bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide [1, 2]. The number of cases notified in Ireland increased from 3,353 in 2005 to 5,781 in 2009 [3]. Notifications have increased since 2004 when legislation requiring laboratory notification came into effect. Chlamydia is usually a ‘silent’ asymptomatic infection, spread without the knowledge of

Myles Balfe; Ruairi Brugha; Emer OConnell; Deirdre Vaughan; Diarmuid ODonovan; Claire Coleman; Ronan Conroy; Martin Cormican; Margaret Fitzgerald; Catherine Fleming; Hannah McGee; Andrew Murphy; Grainne Ni Fhoghlu; Ciaran ONeill; Paddy Gillespie

2012-01-01

5

Risk of sequelae after Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection in women.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis infection, the most common reportable disease in the United States, can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. Although C. trachomatis is identified among many women who receive a diagnosis of PID, the incidence and timing of PID and long-term sequelae from an untreated chlamydial infection have not been fully determined. This article examines evidence reviewed as part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Chlamydia Immunology and Control Expert Advisory Meeting; 24 reports were included. We found no prospective studies directly assessing risk of long-term reproductive sequelae, such as infertility, after untreated C. trachomatis infection. Several studies assessed PID diagnosis after untreated chlamydial infection, but rates varied widely, making it difficult to determine an overall estimate. In high-risk settings, 2%-5% of untreated women developed PID within the approximately 2-week period between testing positive for C. trachomatis and returning for treatment. However, the rate of PID progression in the general, asymptomatic population followed up for longer periods appeared to be low. According to the largest studies, after symptomatic PID of any cause has occurred, up to 18% of women may develop infertility. In several studies, repeated chlamydial infection was associated with PID and other reproductive sequelae, although it was difficult to determine whether the risk per infection increased with each recurrent episode. The present review critically evaluates this body of literature and suggests future research directions. Specifically, prospective studies assessing rates of symptomatic PID, subclinical tubal damage, and long-term reproductive sequelae after C. trachomatis infection; better tools to measure PID and tubal damage; and studies on the natural history of repeated chlamydial infections are needed. PMID:20470050

Haggerty, Catherine L; Gottlieb, Sami L; Taylor, Brandie D; Low, Nicola; Xu, Fujie; Ness, Roberta B

2010-06-15

6

Animal Models for Studying Female Genital Tract Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis is a Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen. It is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the world, with more than 100 million new cases of genital tract infections with C. trachomatis occurring each year. Animal models are indispensable for the study of C. trachomatis infections and the development and evaluation of candidate vaccines. In this paper, the most commonly used animal models to study female genital tract infections with C. trachomatis will be reviewed, namely, the mouse, guinea pig, and nonhuman primate models. Additionally, we will focus on the more recently developed pig model. PMID:23836817

De Clercq, Evelien; Kalmar, Isabelle; Vanrompay, Daisy

2013-07-08

7

[Asymptomatic genital infection by Chlamydia trachomatis in women. A cost analysis of control check-ups].  

PubMed

Asymptomatic genital infection by Chlamydia trachomatis is common in women, and one or more consultations to test for cure is the routine practice. We have compared the economic implications of two post-treatment regimens: 1) no control, and 2) one control involving a single test for C trachomatis, with renewed treatment and another test for cure in women who were chlamydia-positive, etc. The costs of the control regimen were double those of the no-control regimen. With no control, 79 more cases of pelvic inflammatory disease, eight more cases of infertility requiring work-up and two more cases of ectopic pregnancy would occur per 10,000 patients. We conclude that routine post-treatment control of asymptomatic genital chlamydial infections is not cost beneficial. PMID:1902332

Schiøtz, H A; Csángó, P A

1991-03-10

8

Public health policies and management strategies for genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection  

PubMed Central

Genital Chlamydia trachomatis is a sexually transmissible bacterial infection that is asymptomatic in the majority of infected individuals and is associated with significant short-term and long-term morbidity. The population prevalence of the infection appears to be increasing. C. trachomatis is of public health significance because of the impacts of untreated disease on reproductive outcomes, transmission of other sexually acquired infections, and the costs to health systems. At the individual level, C. trachomatis infection is readily treatable with antibiotics, although antibiotic resistance appears to be increasing. At the population level, public health control of spread of infection is more problematic. Approaches to control include primary preventive activities, increased access to testing and treatment for people with or at risk of infection, partner notification and treatment, and screening either opportunistically or as part of an organized population screening program. A combination of all of the above approaches is likely to be required to have a significant effect on the burden of disease associated with genital chlamdyia infection and to reduce population prevalence. The development of a vaccine for genital chlamydia infection could significantly reduce the public health burden associated with infection; however a vaccine is not expected to be available in the near future.

Shaw, Kelly; Coleman, David; O'Sullivan, Maree; Stephens, Nicola

2011-01-01

9

Type I Interferon Signaling Exacerbates Chlamydia muridarum Genital Infection in a Murine Model?  

PubMed Central

Type I interferons (IFNs) induced during in vitro chlamydial infection exert bactericidal and immunomodulatory functions. To determine the precise role of type I IFNs during in vivo chlamydial genital infection, we examined the course and outcome of Chlamydia muridarum genital infection in mice genetically deficient in the receptor for type I IFNs (IFNAR?/? mice). A significant reduction in chlamydial shedding and duration of lower genital tract infection was observed in IFNAR?/? mice in comparison to the level of chlamydial shedding and duration of infection in wild-type (WT) mice. Furthermore, IFNAR?/? mice developed less chronic oviduct pathology in comparison to that in WT mice. Compared to the WT, IFNAR?/? mice had a greater number of chlamydial-specific T cells in their iliac lymph nodes 21 days postinfection. IFNAR?/? mice also exhibited earlier and enhanced CD4 T-cell recruitment to the cervical tissues, which was associated with increased expression of CXCL9 in the genital secretions of IFNAR?/? mice, but not with expression of CXCL10, which was reduced in the genital secretions of IFNAR?/? mice. These data suggest that type I IFNs exacerbate C. muridarum genital infection through an inhibition of the chlamydial-specific CD4 T-cell response.

Nagarajan, Uma M.; Prantner, Daniel; Sikes, James D.; Andrews, Charles W.; Goodwin, Anna M.; Nagarajan, Shanmugam; Darville, Toni

2008-01-01

10

Specific-Pathogen-Free Pigs as an Animal Model for Studying Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Infection  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate pigs as a large-animal model for female genital infection with two Chlamydia trachomatis human serovar E strains. Sixteen-week-old specific-pathogen-free female pigs (gilts) were intravaginally infected with the trachoma type E reference strain Bour or the urogenital serovar E strain 468. Several conclusions can be drawn from our findings on the pathogenicity of a primary C.?trachomatis genital infection in gilts. First of all, we demonstrated that the serovar E strains Bour and 468 could ascend in the genital tract of gilts. The serovar E strains could replicate in the superficial columnar cervical epithelium and in the superficial epithelial layer of the uterus, which are known to be the specific target sites for a C.?trachomatis genital infection in women. Second, inflammation and pathology occurred at the replication sites. Third, the organisms could trigger a humoral immune response, as demonstrated by the presence of immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG, and IgA in both serum and genital secretion samples. Our findings imply that the pig model might be useful for studying the pathology, pathogenesis, and immune response to a C.?trachomatis infection of the genital system.

Vanrompay, Daisy; Hoang, Thi Q. T.; De Vos, Liselotte; Verminnen, Kristel; Harkinezhad, Taher; Chiers, Koen; Morre, Servaas A.; Cox, Eric

2005-01-01

11

Chlamydia trachomatis: important relationships to race, contraception, lower genital tract infection, and Papanicolaou smear.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis is a common cause of sexually transmitted disease in adolescent girls. Of 366 adolescent patients screened, 15.3% were found to have chlamydial endocervical infections, with an infection rate of 23.3% in blacks, 14.3% in Hispanics, and 10.3% in whites (P = 0.01, excess for blacks). Of Chlamydia-positive patients, 63.6% had a diagnosis of lower genital tract infection, compared with 35.4% of Chlamydia-negative patients (P = 0.004). Oral contraceptive users had a higher prevalence of infection (23.8%) compared with those using a barrier method (16.2%) or with nonusers (9.3%) (P = 0.004). Inflammatory changes on Papanicolaou smears were associated with chlamydial infection (P = 0.0001). Other variables identified as risk factors for chlamydial infection included both a younger age at first intercourse (P = 0.02) and more years of sexual activity (P = 0.02). Chronologic, menarchal, and gynecologic age, biologic age of the cervix, the number of sexual partners in the last month and during a lifetime, and parity were not found to be associated with recovery of Chlamydia. PMID:6546309

Shafer, M A; Beck, A; Blain, B; Dole, P; Irwin, C E; Sweet, R; Schachter, J

1984-01-01

12

Protective Immunity to Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Infection: Evidence from Human Studies  

PubMed Central

Background Some screening and treatment programs implemented to control genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections and their complications have shown initial reductions in infection prevalence followed by rises to pre-program levels or higher. One hypothesis is that treatment shortens duration of infection, attenuates development of protective immunity and thereby increases risk of re-infection. Methods A literature review was undertaken to assess evidence supporting the concept of protective immunity, its characteristics and its laboratory correlates in human chlamydial infection. The discussion is organized around key questions formulated in preparation for the Chlamydia Immunology and Control Expert Advisory Meeting held by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in April, 2008. Results Definitive human studies are not available, but cross-sectional studies show chlamydia prevalence, organism load and concordance rates in couples decrease with age, and organism load is lower in those with repeat infections, supporting the concept of protective immunity. The protection appears partial and can be overcome upon re-exposure, similar to what is found in rodent models of genital infection. No data are available to define the duration of infection required to confer a degree of immunity or the time course of immunity following resolution of untreated infection. In longitudinal studies of African sex workers, a group presumed to have frequent and ongoing exposure to chlamydial infection, interferon gamma production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to chlamydial heat shock protein 60 was associated with low risk of incident infection. In cross-sectional studies, relevant Th1 type responses are found in infected persons, paralleling the studies in animal models. Conclusions The data support the concept that some degree of protective immunity against re-infection develops following human genital infection, although it appears at best partial. It is likely that factors besides population levels of immunity contribute to trends in prevalence observed in screening and treatment programs. Future studies of protective immunity in humans will require longitudinal follow-up of individuals and populations, frequent biological and behavioral sampling and special cohorts to help control for exposure.

Batteiger, Byron E.; Xu, Fujie; Johnson, Robert E.; Rekart, Michael L.

2010-01-01

13

Comparison of urine, first and second endourethral swabs for PCR based detection of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in male patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To compare endourethral swabs and urine as diagnostic specimens for the detection of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), in male patients attending a genitourinary clinic and to assess whether the first endourethral swab used solely for diagnosing gonococcal infection could be used for C trachomatis detection as well.Methods: Two endourethral swabs were taken from

H Sugunendran; H D L Birley; H Mallinson; M Abbott; C Y W Tong

2001-01-01

14

Repeated Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Infections in Adolescent Women  

PubMed Central

Background Repeated C. trachomatis infections are common among young sexually active women. The relative frequency of re-infection and antibiotic treatment failure is undefined. Methods Adolescent women enrolled in a longitudinal cohort had behavioral and sexually transmitted infection assessment every 3 months, including amplification tests for C. trachomatis, ompA genotyping and interviews and diary entries to document partner-specific coitus and event-specific condom use. Repeated infections were classified as re-infection or treatment failure using an algorithm. All infections with treatment outcomes were used to estimate antibiotic use-effectiveness. Results We observed 478 infection episodes among 210 participants; 176 women remained uninfected. Incidence rate was 34 per 100-woman years. Of those infected, 121 had ?1 repeat infections forming 268 episode pairs; 183 pairs had complete data and were classified with the algorithm. Of repeated infections, 84.2% were definite, probable or possible re-infections, 13.7% were probable or possible treatment failures and 2.2% persisted without documented treatment. For 318 evaluable infections, we estimated a 92.2% treatment use-effectiveness. Conclusions Most repeat chlamydial infections in this high incidence cohort were re-infections, but treatment failures occurred as well. Our results have implications for male screening and partner notification programs and suggest the need for improved antibiotic therapies.

Batteiger, Byron E.; Tu, Wanzhu; Ofner, Susan; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Stothard, Diane R.; Orr, Donald P.; Katz, Barry P.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

2009-01-01

15

Route of Infection That Induces a High Intensity of Gamma Interferon-Secreting T Cells in the Genital Tract Produces Optimal Protection against Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The induction of local T helper type 1 (Th1)-mediated cellular immunity is crucial for resistance of mice to genital infection by the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. We tested the hypothesis that the route of immunization that elicits relatively high numbers of chlamydia-specific, gamma interferon (IFN- g)-secreting T lymphocytes (ISTLs) in the genital tract would induce optimal protective immunity against

JOSEPH U. IGIETSEME; IJINDAH M. URIRI; SHANTHA N. KUMAR; GODWIN A. ANANABA; OMEGBHAI O. OJIOR; INUA A. MOMODU; DEBRA H. CANDAL; CAROLYN M. BLACK

1998-01-01

16

Genital Chlamydia trachomatis: An update.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of curable bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide. It manifests primarily as urethritis in males and endocervicitis in females. Untreated chlamydial infection in man can cause epididymitis and proctitis. Though most women with Chlamydia infection are asymptomatic or have minimal symptoms, some develop salpingitis, endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy and tubal factor infertility. It is associated with an increased risk for the transmission or acquisition of HIV and is also attributed to be a risk factor for the development of cervical carcinoma. Early diagnosis and treatment of infected individuals is required to prevent the spread of the disease and severe sequelae. Traditionally, tissue culture was considered the gold standard for the diagnosis. However, with the availability of newer diagnostic techniques particularly molecular methods which are not only highly sensitive and specific but are cost-effective also, the diagnosis has became fast and easy. The purpose of this review is to study the various aspects of genital C. trachomatis infection. Also the advances related to the clinical picture, various diagnostic modalities, prevention, treatment, drug resistance and control measures will be dealt with. PMID:24135174

Malhotra, Meenakshi; Sood, Seema; Mukherjee, Anjan; Muralidhar, Sumathi; Bala, Manju

2013-09-01

17

Vaccination against Chlamydial Genital Tract Infection after Immunization with Dendritic Cells Pulsed Ex Vivo with Nonviable Chlamydiae  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia trachomatis, an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen of mucosal surfaces, is a major cause of preventable blindness and sexually transmitted diseases for which vaccines are badly needed. Despite considerable effort, antichlamydial vaccines have proven to be elusive using conventional immunization strategies. We report the use of murine bone marrow–derived dendritic cells (DC) pulsed ex vivo with killed chlamydiae as a novel approach to vaccination against chlamydial infection. Our results show that DC efficiently phagocytose chlamydiae, secrete IL-12 p40, and present chlamydial antigen(s) to infection sensitized CD4+ T cells. Mice immunized intravenously with chlamydial-pulsed DC produce protective immunity against chlamydial infection of the female genital tract equal to that obtained after infection with live organisms. Immunized mice shed ?3 logs fewer infectious chlamydiae and are protected from genital tract inflammatory and obstructive disease. Protective immunity is correlated with a chlamydial-specific Th1-biased response that closely mimics the immune response produced after chlamydial infection. Thus, ex vivo antigen-pulsed DC represent a powerful tool for the study of protective immunity to chlamydial mucosal infection and for the identification of chlamydial protective antigens through reconstitution experiments. Moreover, these findings might impact the design of vaccine strategies against other medically important sexually transmitted diseases for which vaccines are sought but which have proven difficult to develop.

Su, Hua; Messer, Ronald; Whitmire, William; Fischer, Elizabeth; Portis, John C.; Caldwell, Harlan D.

1998-01-01

18

Trends in genital chlamydia infection in the Mid-West of Ireland, 2001-2006.  

PubMed

Genital Chlamydia trachomatis (GCT) infection is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) in Ireland. A retrospective analysis of 2,087 laboratory-confirmed GCT patient episodes from 2001 to 2006 in the Mid-West of Ireland was undertaken in conjunction with statutorily notifiable data that were reported by the Sexually Transmitted Disease/Genito-Urinary Medicine (STD/GUM) services in the region and used in national surveillance. Data were analysed by year, source, sex and age. The annual incidence of GCT in the Mid-West is increasing. A substantial proportion of GCT infections were diagnosed in the non-STD/GUM setting. The issue of sexually active young people seeking STI screening is a sensitive one, and delays increase the potential for transmission and the possibility of long-term complications when the disease is not treated. Based on this sample, national surveillance would significantly underestimate the burden of disease in Ireland, due to under-reporting. This would have implications for any national chlamydia screening programme. Among those who sought testing, women aged 15 to 19 years are five times more likely to be found positive than men in the same age group. Of those diagnosed in the non-STD/GUM setting, 83% were women. General practitioners and clinicians might consider targeting those aged 15 to 29 years for opportunistic screening and sexual health advice. Contact tracing and follow-up in the non-STD/GUM setting, as well as access for general practitioners to ongoing education on STIs are challenges to be addressed. PMID:17997925

Whyte, D; Powell, J; Horgan, M; O'Connell, N; Fitzgerald, R; Monahan, R; Greally, T

2007-10-01

19

Incidence of recurrent diagnoses of Chlamydia trachomatis genital infections among male and female soldiers of the US army  

PubMed Central

Background/objectives: Few studies of Chlamydia trachomatis incidence, especially among men, and most studies of C trachomatis in US military populations are cross sectional prevalence surveys. A population based retrospective cohort was used to determine risk factors for repeat diagnoses of genital C trachomatis infections among male and female soldiers with previous C trachomatis infections. Methods: All active duty soldiers diagnosed with C trachomatis genital infections between 1994 and 1998. Cohort members were passively followed until repeat diagnoses of C trachomatis infection, termination of army service, or the end of the study. Results: Among 11 771 soldiers with initial diagnoses of chlamydia, the crude rate of repeat diagnoses was 52.0 per 1000 person years. Women and men aged 20–24 were at greatest unadjusted risk of reinfection. After adjustment, women aged 20–24 and men aged 25–29 were at higher risk than their younger or older counterparts. Conclusions: Results of this study suggest that both male and female soldiers who are diagnosed with chlamydia infections have relatively high risks of reinfection through their 20s. Key Words: epidemiology; military personnel; sexually transmitted diseases; United States

Barnett, S.; Brundage, J.

2001-01-01

20

Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Does Not Affect Resolution of Murine Chlamydial Genital Tract Infections or Eradication of Chlamydiae in Primary Murine Cell Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies indicate that resolution of primary chlamyd- ial genital tract infections and protection from a secondary infection in female mice require T-helper type 1 (Th1) lympho- cytes. Athymic mice or mice lacking major histocompatibility complex class II antigens fail to resolve genital tract infections with the mouse pneumonitis biovar (MoPn) of Chlamydia tra- chomatis (20, 24), but mice depleted

KYLE H. RAMSEY; GURWATTAN S. MIRANPURI; CHRISTOFFER E. POULSEN; NANCY B. MARTHAKIS; LAIMA M. BRAUNE; GERALD I. BYRNE

1998-01-01

21

Induction of protective immunity against a Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection in three genetically distinct strains of mice  

PubMed Central

To establish the feasibility of inducing a protective immune response against a chlamydial genital infection in animals with different genetic backgrounds, groups of C3H/HeN (H-2k), BALB/c (H-2d) and C57BL/6 (H-2b) mice, were immunized intranasally with elementary bodies (EB) of the Chlamydia trachomatis mouse pneumonitis biovar. Following the intranasal immunization strong Chlamydia-specific humoral and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses were detected in the three strains of mice. Eight weeks following immunization the animals were challenged with C. trachomatis in the genital tract. Vaginal cultures showed that the three strains of mice immunized with EB were significantly protected in comparison to the sham immunized animals. To determine the ability of this immunization protocol to protect against infertility six weeks after the genital challenge the animals were mated. Mice of the three strains immunized with EB showed significant protection as demonstrated by the number of animals that were fertile, and the number of embryos present in their uterine horns, in comparison to the sham immunized mice.

Pal, Sukumar; Peterson, Ellena M; de la Maza, Luis M

2003-01-01

22

Spontaneous resolution of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women and protection from reinfection.  

PubMed

The natural history of chlamydia is variable and may include persisting asymptomatic infection, complications, or spontaneous resolution before treatment. Reinfection is common. We evaluated whether spontaneous resolution was associated with decreased reinfection in women returning for treatment of a positive chlamydia screening test. At enrollment, participants were tested for chlamydia, treated with azithromycin, and scheduled for a 6-month follow-up visit for repeat testing. Two hundred participants returned 1 to 12 months after treatment. Spontaneous resolution at enrollment was demonstrated in 44 (22.0%). Reinfection at follow-up occurred in 33 (16.5%), being more frequent in those with persisting infection at enrollment versus spontaneous resolution (31 of 156 [19.9%] vs 2 of 44 [4.5%]; P = .016). Adjusting for age, the odds of reinfection was 4 times higher for participants with persisting infection at enrollment (odds ratio 4.0, 95% confidence interval, 1.1-25.6; P = .034). Chlamydia treatment may attenuate protective immunity in some patients. PMID:23470847

Geisler, William M; Lensing, Shelly Y; Press, Christen G; Hook, Edward W

2013-03-07

23

Mucosal and systemic immune responses to plasmid protein pgp3 in patients with genital and ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection  

PubMed Central

The circulating and cervical B cell responses to Chlamydia trachomatis plasmid protein pgp3 were characterized in children and adults with ocular or genital chlamydial infection using the enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT) and ELISA. No pgp3-specific ASCs were detected in healthy controls, but predominantly IgA ASCs were detected in UK adults with uncomplicated cervicitis or urethritis (P = 0·03, 0·019). In patients with extragenital complications or pelvic inflammatory disease a mixed response with more IgG and IgM ASCs was evident, suggesting a breach of mucosal immune compartmentalization with more extensive infection. In women with chlamydial cervicitis, ASCs secreting predominantly IgA, but also IgG, to pgp3 were present in cervix at presentation, with a frequency 30–50 times higher than blood. Cervical ASC numbers, especially IgG, fell markedly six weeks after antibiotic treatment. We detected principally IgA pgp3-specific antibody secreting cells (ASCs) in children resident in a Gambian endemic area, with a trend towards suppression of IgA responses during intense trachomatous inflammation (P = 0·06), as previously reported for other chlamydial antigens, and in keeping with the findings in genital disease. These data provide a rationale for further studies of immune responses to pgp3 in humans and animal models of chlamydia-induced disease, and its potential use in diagnostic assays and protective immunization strategies.

GHAEM-MAGHAMI, S; RATTI, G; GHAEM-MAGHAMI, M; COMANDUCCI, M; HAY, P E; BAILEY, R L; MABEY, D C W; WHITTLE, H C; WARD, M E; LEWIS, D J M

2003-01-01

24

Cultural method for large-scale screening for Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection.  

PubMed Central

Idoxuridine-treated McCoy cells grown as monolayers in 96 well microplates provide a convenient method for the isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis. Staining of infected monolayers with periodic acid-Schiff reagent (PAS) allows easy recognition of C trachomatis inclusions without the need for dark-ground microscopy. By this method 384 clinical specimens can be examined concurrently. It is sufficiently sensitive to form the basis of a chlamydial culture service for patients attending Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) Clinics. Images

Mallinson, H; Sikotra, S; Arya, O P

1981-01-01

25

Evaluation of the BDProbeTec™ ET System on Urine and Genital Specimens for the Identification of Chlamydia and Gonorrhea Infections in Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new diagnostic test for chlamydia and gonorrhea genital infections was evaluated by comparison with the Abbott LCx assay and culture. The patient population included female patients under 20 years of age attending adolescent, family planning, and obstetric clinics. Most specimen sets included paired urine and cervical swab specimens which were tested by the BDProbeTec ET System as well as

JUDITH C. LOVCHIK; CAREN M. BROWN; DANIELLE M. HILLIGOSS

26

Mice immunized with a chlamydial extract have no increase in early protective immunity despite increased inflammation following genital infection by the mouse pneumonitis agent of Chlamydia trachomatis.  

PubMed Central

We have determined that immunization with a detergent extract of the mouse pneumonitis agent of Chlamydia trachomatis fails to induce a protective inflammatory immune response following genital infection by C. trachomatis. We demonstrated that mice immunized with the detergent extract have increased cutaneous delayed-type hypersensitivity and increased splenic T-cell proliferation in response to the chlamydial extract. After genital infection by C. trachomatis, extract-sensitized mice had significantly increased genital inflammation (P = 0.044) compared with controls. The inflammation was characterized by significantly increased eosinophils in the genitalia (P < 0.0005) and increased genital edema (P < 0.0005). However, the increased genital inflammation of extract-sensitized mice provided no increase in protection against infection (P = 0.92). Images

Blander, S J; Amortegui, A J

1994-01-01

27

Effect of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection and Subsequent Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Secretion on Apoptosis in the Murine Genital Tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathology observed during Chlamydia infection is due initially to localized tissue damage caused by the infection itself, followed by deleterious host inflammatory responses that lead to permanent scarring. We have recently reported that the infection by Chlamydia in vitro results in apoptosis of epithelial cells and macro- phages and that infected monocytes secrete the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1b. At the

JEAN-LUC PERFETTINI; TONI DARVILLE; GABRIEL GACHELIN; PHILIPPE SOUQUE; MICHEL HUERRE; ALICE DAUTRY-VARSAT; DAVID M. OJCIUS

2000-01-01

28

Protective efficacy of a parenterally administered MOMP-derived synthetic oligopeptide vaccine in a murine model of Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract infection: serum neutralizing IgG antibodies do not protect against chlamydial genital tract infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protective efficacy of an alum-adsorbed, parenterally administered synthetic oligopeptide immunogen corresponding to antigenically common T-helper and neutralizing B-cell epitopes of the Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein was studied in a murine model of chlamydial genital tract infection. Mice produced high levels of anti-chlamydial serum IgG neutralizing antibodies following subcutaneous immunization with the alum-adsorbed oligopeptide. Lower but detectable levels

Hua Su; Michael Parnell; Harlan D. Caldwell

1995-01-01

29

Molecular Epidemiology of Genital Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in High-Risk Women in Senegal, West Africa  

PubMed Central

The prevalence and heterogeneity of Chlamydia trachomatis infections in a cohort of female sex workers in Dakar (Senegal) were determined by using endocervical-swab-based PCR DNA amplification assays. The overall prevalence of cervical chlamydial infection was 28.5% (206 of 722), and most of these infections were asymptomatic. An increased number of sexual partners was significantly associated with infection (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.37; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.06 to 1.77), while the presence of a yeast infection was negatively associated with chlamydial infection (AOR = 0.28; 95% CI = 0.10 to 0.83). Six different C. trachomatis genotypes were identified based on phylogenetic analysis of the omp1 gene sequences. Interestingly, genotype E predominated (47.6%) and was not associated with visible signs of cervical inflammation compared to non-E genotypes (P < 0.05). Overall, the high rate of asymptomatic C. trachomatis infection by genotype E may suggest genotype-specific properties that confer a transmission advantage in this high risk population.

Sturm-Ramirez, Katharine; Brumblay, Hunter; Diop, Khady; Gueye-Ndiaye, Aissatou; Sankale, Jean-Louis; Thior, Ibou; N'Doye, Ibrahima; Hsieh, Chung-Cheng; Mboup, Souleymane; Kanki, Phyllis J.

2000-01-01

30

CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells Promote Th17 Responses and Genital Tract Inflammation upon Intracellular Chlamydia muridarum Infection.  

PubMed

The functional role of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) in host responses to intracellular bacterial infection was investigated in an in vitro coculturing system and a murine model of Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infection. Remarkably, C. muridarum infection subverted the immune suppressive role of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs; instead of hampering immune responses, Tregs not only promoted Th17 differentiation from conventional CD4(+) T cells but also themselves converted into proinflammatory Th17 cells in both in vitro and in vivo settings. Anti-CD25 mAb PC61 treatment to deplete ?50% of pre-existing Tregs prior to C. muridarum genital tract infection markedly reduced the frequency and the total number of Th17 but not Th1 CD4(+) cells at both immune induction and memory phases. Most importantly, Treg-depleted mice displayed significantly attenuated inflammation, neutrophil infiltration, and reduced severity of oviduct pathology upon C. muridarum genital infection. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that the level of pre-existing CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Tregs in Chlamydia-infected hosts has a major impact on the development Chlamydia-associated diseases. PMID:23956419

Moore-Connors, Jessica M; Fraser, Robert; Halperin, Scott A; Wang, Jun

2013-08-16

31

Identification of human T cell targets recognized during Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection.  

PubMed

The specificity of the human T cell response to Chlamydia trachomatis was investigated by stimulating lymphocytes from 16 case patients with urogenital infection by use of a size-fractionated serovar D lysate. Considerable heterogeneity was found among case patients, and multiple protein fractions were recognized in each specimen. Mass spectrometry analysis of the 30-42-kDa T cell-stimulating region identified 10 C. trachomatis proteins. Of these, CT583, CT603, and CT610 were identified as strong antigens that induced significantly higher levels of IFN- gamma secretion in PBMCs from case patients, compared with PBMCs from control donors. All 3 proteins were recognized in specimens from case patients infected with serovars D-F, the most prevalent serovars. McDonald-Kreitman and Tajima's D tests involving clinical isolates from the same samples showed evidence for frequency-dependent selection on ct583. We predict that CT583 is a target of acquired protective immune responses in humans. PMID:18008235

Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Follmann, Frank; Højrup, Peter; Leah, Robert; Sand, Carsten; Andersen, Peter; Theisen, Michael

2007-10-31

32

Systematic screening with information and home sampling for genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections in young men and women in Norway: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background As most genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections are asymptomatic, many patients do not seek health care for testing. Infections remain undiagnosed and untreated. We studied whether screening with information and home sampling resulted in more young people getting tested, diagnosed and treated for chlamydia in the three months following the intervention compared to the current strategy of testing in the health care system. Method We conducted a population based randomized controlled trial among all persons aged 18–25 years in one Norwegian county (41 519 persons). 10 000 persons (intervention) received an invitation by mail with chlamydia information and a mail-back urine sampling kit. 31 519 persons received no intervention and continued with usual care (control). All samples from both groups were analysed in the same laboratory. Information on treatment was obtained from the Norwegian Prescription Database (NorPD). We estimated risk ratios and risk differences of being tested, diagnosed and treated in the intervention group compared to the control group. Results In the intervention group 16.5% got tested and in the control group 3.4%, risk ratio 4.9 (95% CI 4.5-5.2). The intervention led to 2.6 (95% CI 2.0-3.4) times as many individuals being diagnosed and 2.5 (95% CI 1.9-3.4) times as many individuals receiving treatment for chlamydia compared to no intervention in the three months following the intervention. Conclusion In Norway, systematic screening with information and home sampling results in more young people being tested, diagnosed and treated for chlamydia in the three months following the intervention than the current strategy of testing in the health care system. However, the study has not established that the intervention will reduce the chlamydia prevalence or the risk of complications from chlamydia. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov IDNCT00283127

2013-01-01

33

A new murine model for testing vaccines against genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections in males  

PubMed Central

Two groups of 50 BALB/c male mice were immunized with live Chlamydia trachomatis mouse pneumonitis (MoPn) using the intranasal (i.n.) or the meatus urethra (intraurethral: i.u.) routes. As a control group, 100 male mice were sham-immunized in parallel. Both groups of animals vaccinated with live organisms developed strong Chlamydia-specific humoral and cell mediated immune responses. Based on the IgG2a/IgG1 ratio and the levels of IFN-? both groups mounted a Th1 immune response. At six weeks following the immunization, all mice were challenged in the meatus urethra. The urethra, urinary bladder, testes and epididymides were harvested at weekly intervals and tested for the presence of C. trachomatis. Based on the culture results from these four organs both groups of Chlamydia-immunized mice showed significant protection. In the group immunized i.u., 10% (5/50) had positive cultures, while in the group immunized i.n. 28% (14/50) had positive cultures during the 5 weeks of observation. In contrast, in the sham-immunized animals 47% (47/100) had positive cultures (P<0.005) during the study period. In addition, the number of positive organs, the length of time that the animal had positive cultures, and the total number of inclusion forming units (IFU) recovered were overall significantly lower in the i.u. or i.n. groups in comparison with the sham-immunized animals. However, in relation to the i.u. immunized group, the protection elicited in the i.n. group was delayed and not as robust. In conclusion, immunization of mice in the meatus urethra may provide the gold standard for testing Chlamydia vaccines in a male model.

Pal, Sukumar; Sarcon, Annahita K.; de la Maza, Luis M.

2010-01-01

34

Chlamydia trachomatis infection: host immune responses and potential vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydia trachomatis causes genital tract infections that affect men, women, and children on a global scale. This review focuses on innate and adaptive immune responses in the female reproductive tract (FRT) to genital tract infections with C. trachomatis. It covers C. trachomatis infections and highlights our current knowledge of genital tract infections, serovar distribution, infectious load, and clinical manifestations of

L Hafner; K Beagley; P Timms

2008-01-01

35

Pathogenesis of Genital Tract Disease due to Chlamydia trachomatis  

PubMed Central

Although the pathologic consequences of C. trachomatis genital infection are well-established, the mechanism(s) that result in chlamydia-induced tissue damage are not fully understood. We have reviewed in vitro, animal, and human data related to the pathogenesis of chlamydial disease in an effort to better understand how reproductive sequelae result from C. trachomatis infection. Abundant in vitro data suggest the inflammatory response to chlamydiae is initiated and sustained by actively infected non-immune host epithelial cells. The mouse model indicates a critical role for chlamydia-activation of the innate immune receptor, toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), and subsequent inflammatory cell influx and activation which contributes to the development of chronic genital tract tissue damage. Data from recent vaccine studies in the murine model and from human immunoepidemiologic studies support a role for chlamydia-specific CD4 Th1-IFN-?-producing cells in protection from infection and disease. However, limited evidence obtained using animal models of repeated infection indicates that while the adaptive T cell response is a key mechanism involved in controlling or eliminating infection, it may have a double-edged nature, and contribute to tissue damage. Important immunologic questions include whether anamnestic CD4 T cell responses drive disease rather than protect against disease, and the role of specific immune cells and inflammatory mediators in the induction of tissue damage with primary and repeated infections. Continued study of the complex molecular and cellular interactions between chlamydiae and their host, and large-scale prospective immunoepidemiologic and immunopathologic studies are needed to address gaps in our understanding of pathogenesis, which thwart development of optimally effective control programs including vaccine development.

Darville, Toni; Hiltke, Thomas J.

2010-01-01

36

The Duration of Chlamydia muridarum Genital Tract Infection and Associated Chronic Pathological Changes Are Reduced in IL-17 Knockout Mice but Protection Is Not Increased Further by Immunization.  

PubMed

IL-17 is believed to be important for protection against extracellular pathogens, where clearance is dependent on neutrophil recruitment and local activation of epithelial cell defences. However, the role of IL-17 in protection against intracellular pathogens such as Chlamydia is less clear. We have compared (i) the course of natural genital tract C. muridarum infection, (ii) the development of oviduct pathology and (iii) the development of vaccine-induced immunity against infection in wild type (WT) BALB/c and IL-17 knockout mice (IL-17-/-) to determine if IL-17-mediated immunity is implicated in the development of infection-induced pathology and/or protection. Both the magnitude and duration of genital infection was significantly reduced in IL-17-/- mice compared to BALB/c. Similarly, hydrosalpinx was also greatly reduced in IL-17-/- mice and this correlated with reduced neutrophil and macrophage infiltration of oviduct tissues. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 and MMP2 were increased in WT oviducts compared to IL-17-/- animals at day 7 post-infection. In contrast, oviducts from IL-17-/- mice contained higher MMP9 and MMP2 at day 21. Infection also elicited higher levels of Chlamydia-neutralizing antibody in serum of IL-17-/- mice than WT mice. Following intranasal immunization with C. muridarumMajor Outer Membrane Protein (MOMP) and cholera toxin plus CpG adjuvants, significantly higher levels of chlamydial MOMP-specific IgG and IgA were found in serum and vaginal washes of IL-17-/- mice. T cell proliferation and IFN? production by splenocytes was greater in WT animals following in vitro re-stimulation, however vaccination was only effective at reducing infection in WT, not IL-17-/- mice. Intranasal or transcutaneous immunization protected WT but not IL-17-/- mice against hydrosalpinx development. Our data show that in the absence of IL-17, the severity of C. muridarum genital infection and associated oviduct pathology are significantly attenuated, however neither infection or pathology can be reduced further by vaccination protocols that effectively protect WT mice. PMID:24073293

Andrew, Dean W; Cochrane, Melanie; Schripsema, Justin H; Ramsey, Kyle H; Dando, Samantha J; O'Meara, Connor P; Timms, Peter; Beagley, Kenneth W

2013-09-20

37

The Duration of Chlamydia muridarum Genital Tract Infection and Associated Chronic Pathological Changes Are Reduced in IL-17 Knockout Mice but Protection Is Not Increased Further by Immunization  

PubMed Central

IL-17 is believed to be important for protection against extracellular pathogens, where clearance is dependent on neutrophil recruitment and local activation of epithelial cell defences. However, the role of IL-17 in protection against intracellular pathogens such as Chlamydia is less clear. We have compared (i) the course of natural genital tract C. muridarum infection, (ii) the development of oviduct pathology and (iii) the development of vaccine-induced immunity against infection in wild type (WT) BALB/c and IL-17 knockout mice (IL-17-/-) to determine if IL-17-mediated immunity is implicated in the development of infection-induced pathology and/or protection. Both the magnitude and duration of genital infection was significantly reduced in IL-17-/- mice compared to BALB/c. Similarly, hydrosalpinx was also greatly reduced in IL-17-/- mice and this correlated with reduced neutrophil and macrophage infiltration of oviduct tissues. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 and MMP2 were increased in WT oviducts compared to IL-17-/- animals at day 7 post-infection. In contrast, oviducts from IL-17-/- mice contained higher MMP9 and MMP2 at day 21. Infection also elicited higher levels of Chlamydia-neutralizing antibody in serum of IL-17-/- mice than WT mice. Following intranasal immunization with C. muridarum Major Outer Membrane Protein (MOMP) and cholera toxin plus CpG adjuvants, significantly higher levels of chlamydial MOMP-specific IgG and IgA were found in serum and vaginal washes of IL-17-/- mice. T cell proliferation and IFN? production by splenocytes was greater in WT animals following in vitro re-stimulation, however vaccination was only effective at reducing infection in WT, not IL-17-/- mice. Intranasal or transcutaneous immunization protected WT but not IL-17-/- mice against hydrosalpinx development. Our data show that in the absence of IL-17, the severity of C. muridarum genital infection and associated oviduct pathology are significantly attenuated, however neither infection or pathology can be reduced further by vaccination protocols that effectively protect WT mice.

Andrew, Dean W.; Cochrane, Melanie; Schripsema, Justin H.; Ramsey, Kyle H.; Dando, Samantha J.; O'Meara, Connor P.; Timms, Peter; Beagley, Kenneth W.

2013-01-01

38

Prevalence of genital Chlamydia in Iranian males with urethritis attending clinics in Mashhad.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis is a common cause of sexually transmitted disease which can cause severe consequences. Effective prevention requires knowledge of prevalence of infection in order to target interventions in a cost-effective manner. To determine the prevalence of chlamydial infection in Mashhad, northeastern Islamic Republic of Iran, this study was performed among male patients with urethritis. Urethral discharge was collected from 150 patients. Cell culture was established for diagnosis of Chlamydia in genital specimens. Cell culture showed that 9.3% of patients in this study were infected with Chlamydia. This study provides strong evidence that prevalence of Chlamydia in our region is quite high, which necessitates screening and treatment for the infection. PMID:19161108

Ghanaat, J; Afshari, J T; Ghazvini, K; Malvandi, M

39

Intranasal Vaccination with Chlamydia pneumoniae Induces Cross-Species Immunity against Genital Chlamydia muridarum Challenge in Mice  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the world and specifically in the United States, with the highest incidence in age-groups 14–19 years. In a subset of females, the C. trachomatis genital infection leads to serious pathological sequelae including pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility. Chlamydia pneumoniae, another member of the same genus, is a common cause of community acquired respiratory infection with significant number of children aged 5–14 yr displaying sero-conversion. Since these bacteriae share several antigenic determinants, we evaluated whether intranasal immunization with live C. pneumoniae (1×106 inclusion forming units; IFU) in 5 week old female C57BL/6 mice would induce cross-species protection against subsequent intravaginal challenge with Chlamydia muridarum (5×104 IFU), which causes a similar genital infection and pathology in mice as C. trachomatis in humans. Mice vaccinated intranasally with live C. pneumoniae, but not mock (PBS) immunized animals, displayed high levels of splenic cellular antigen-specific IFN-? production and serum antibody response against C. muridarum and C. trachomatis. Mice vaccinated with C. pneumoniae displayed a significant reduction in the vaginal C. muridarum shedding as early as day 12 after secondary i.vag. challenge compared to PBS (mock) immunized mice. At day 19 after C. muridarum challenge, 100% of C. pneumoniae vaccinated mice had cleared the infection compared to none (0%) of the mock immunized mice, which cleared the infection by day 27. At day 80 after C. muridarum challenge, C. pneumoniae vaccinated mice displayed a significant reduction in the incidence (50%) and degree of hydrosalpinx compared to mock immunized animals (100%). These results suggest that respiratory C. pneumoniae infection induces accelerated chlamydial clearance and reduction of oviduct pathology following genital C. muridarum challenge, and may have important implications to the C. trachomatis-induced reproductive disease in humans.

Evani, Shankar Jaikishan; Zafiratos, Mark T.; Ramasubramanian, Anand K.; Arulanandam, Bernard P.; Murthy, Ashlesh K.

2013-01-01

40

Intranasal vaccination with Chlamydia pneumoniae induces cross-species immunity against genital Chlamydia muridarum challenge in mice.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the world and specifically in the United States, with the highest incidence in age-groups 14-19 years. In a subset of females, the C. trachomatis genital infection leads to serious pathological sequelae including pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility. Chlamydia pneumoniae, another member of the same genus, is a common cause of community acquired respiratory infection with significant number of children aged 5-14 yr displaying sero-conversion. Since these bacteriae share several antigenic determinants, we evaluated whether intranasal immunization with live C. pneumoniae (1×10(6) inclusion forming units; IFU) in 5 week old female C57BL/6 mice would induce cross-species protection against subsequent intravaginal challenge with Chlamydia muridarum (5×10(4) IFU), which causes a similar genital infection and pathology in mice as C. trachomatis in humans. Mice vaccinated intranasally with live C. pneumoniae, but not mock (PBS) immunized animals, displayed high levels of splenic cellular antigen-specific IFN-? production and serum antibody response against C. muridarum and C. trachomatis. Mice vaccinated with C. pneumoniae displayed a significant reduction in the vaginal C. muridarum shedding as early as day 12 after secondary i.vag. challenge compared to PBS (mock) immunized mice. At day 19 after C. muridarum challenge, 100% of C. pneumoniae vaccinated mice had cleared the infection compared to none (0%) of the mock immunized mice, which cleared the infection by day 27. At day 80 after C. muridarum challenge, C. pneumoniae vaccinated mice displayed a significant reduction in the incidence (50%) and degree of hydrosalpinx compared to mock immunized animals (100%). These results suggest that respiratory C. pneumoniae infection induces accelerated chlamydial clearance and reduction of oviduct pathology following genital C. muridarum challenge, and may have important implications to the C. trachomatis-induced reproductive disease in humans. PMID:23741420

Manam, Srikanth; Chaganty, Bharat K R; Evani, Shankar Jaikishan; Zafiratos, Mark T; Ramasubramanian, Anand K; Arulanandam, Bernard P; Murthy, Ashlesh K

2013-05-31

41

Chlamydial genital infection in prostitutes in Iran.  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of chlamydial genital infection was studied in 177 prostitutes in Iran; 100 in Teheran and 77 in the port of Bandar Abbas. Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated in eight (6.9%) of 116 patients with valid cultures. Type-specific antibodies were found against C trachomatis serotypes D to K (genital serotypes) in 94.2% and against serotypes A to C (trachoma serotypes) in 2% of the prostitutes. Type-specific IgM at a titre of greater than or equal to 8, indicating current infection, was found in 29.2%, whereas type-specific IgG at a titre greater than or equal to 64, suggesting a current or recent infection, was present in 71.5%. The lower chlamydial isolation rate in these women may have been due to previous treatment with antichlamydial drugs and because of immune responses resulting from repeated reinfection with chlamydiae. The results indicate that in Iran prostitutes are commonly infected with C trachomatis and are probably a major reservoir of chlamydial genital infection.

Darougar, S; Aramesh, B; Gibson, J A; Treharne, J D; Jones, B R

1983-01-01

42

The Female Lower Genital Tract Is a Privileged Compartment with IL-10 Producing Dendritic Cells and Poor Th1 Immunity following Chlamydia trachomatis Infection  

PubMed Central

While a primary genital tract infection with C. trachomatis stimulates partial-protection against re-infection, it may also result in severe inflammation and tissue destruction. Here we have dissected whether functional compartments exist in the genital tract that restrict Th1-mediated protective immunity. Apart from the Th1-subset, little is known about the role of other CD4+ T cell subsets in response to a genital tract chlamydial infection. Therefore, we investigated CD4+ T cell subset differentiation in the genital tract using RT-PCR for expression of critical transcription factors and cytokines in the upper (UGT) and lower genital tract (LGT) of female C57BL/6 mice in response to C. trachomatis serovar D infection. We found that the Th1 subset dominated the UGT, as IFN-? and T-bet mRNA expression were high, while GATA-3 was low following genital infection with C. trachomatis serovar D. By contrast, IL-10 and GATA-3 mRNA dominated the LGT, suggesting the presence of Th2 cells. These functional compartments also attracted regulatory T cells (Tregs) differently as increased FoxP3 mRNA expression was seen primarily in the UGT. Although IL-17A mRNA was somewhat up-regulated in the LGT, no significant change in ROR?-t mRNA expression was observed, suggesting no involvement of Th17 cells. The dichotomy between the LGT and UGT was maintained during infection by IL-10 because in IL-10-deficient mice the distinction between the two compartments was completely lost and a dramatic shift to the predominance of Th1 cells in the LGT occurred. Unexpectedly, the major source of IL-10 was CD11c+ CD11b+ DC, probably creating an anti-inflammatory privileged site in the LGT.

Marks, Ellen; Tam, Miguel A.; Lycke, Nils Y.

2010-01-01

43

Polymorphisms in Chlamydia trachomatis tryptophan synthase genes differentiate between genital and ocular isolates  

PubMed Central

We previously reported that laboratory reference strains of Chlamydia trachomatis differing in infection organotropism correlated with inactivating mutations in the pathogen’s tryptophan synthase (trpBA) genes. Here, we have applied functional genomics to extend this work and find that the paradigm established for reference serovars also applies to clinical isolates — specifically, all ocular trachoma isolates tested have inactivating mutations in the synthase, whereas all genital isolates encode a functional enzyme. Moreover, functional enzyme activity was directly correlated to IFN-? resistance through an indole rescue mechanism. Hence, a strong selective pressure exists for genital strains to maintain a functional synthase capable of using indole for tryptophan biosynthesis. The fact that ocular serovars (serovar B) isolated from the genital tract were found to possess a functional synthase provided further persuasive evidence of this association. These results argue that there is an important host-parasite relationship between chlamydial genital strains and the human host that determines organotropism of infection and the pathophysiology of disease. We speculate that this relationship involves the production of indole by components of the vaginal microbial flora, allowing chlamydiae to escape IFN-?–mediated eradication and thus establish persistent infection.

Caldwell, Harlan D.; Wood, Heidi; Crane, Debbie; Bailey, Robin; Jones, Robert B.; Mabey, David; Maclean, Ian; Mohammed, Zeena; Peeling, Rosanna; Roshick, Christine; Schachter, Julius; Solomon, Anthony W.; Stamm, Walter E.; Suchland, Robert J.; Taylor, Lacey; West, Sheila K.; Quinn, Tom C.; Belland, Robert J.; McClarty, Grant

2003-01-01

44

Genital HPV Infection  

MedlinePLUS

... HPV can cause serious health problems, including genital warts and certain cancers. There is no certain way ... that can be caused by HPV include Genital warts (warts on the genital areas); Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis ( ...

45

Immunology of Chlamydia infection: implications for a Chlamydia trachomatis vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexually transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis infections are a serious public-health problem. With more than 90 million new cases occurring annually, C. trachomatis is the most common cause of bacterial sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Recent progress in elucidating the immunobiology of Chlamydia muridarum infection of mice has helped to guide the interpretation of immunological findings in studies of human C. trachomatis infection

José Rey-Ladino; Robert C. Brunham

2005-01-01

46

Retesting for genital Chlamydia trachomatis among visitors of a sexually transmitted infections clinic: randomized intervention trial of home- versus clinic-based recall  

PubMed Central

Background Reinfections of Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) are common. In a two-armed intervention study at an urban STI clinic in the Netherlands, heterosexual Ct-positive visitors received an invitation for retesting after 4–5 months. Interventions were either home-based sampling by mailed test-kit, or clinic-based testing without appointment. Methods Data collection included socio-demographic and sexual behavioural variables at first (T0) and repeat test (T1). Participation in retesting, prevalence and determinants of repeat infection among study participants are described and compared with findings from non-participants. Results Of the 216 visitors enrolled in the study, 75 accepted retesting (35%). The retest participation was 46% (50/109) in the home group versus 23% (25/107) in the clinic group (p?=?0.001). Men were less often retested than women (15% versus 43%, p?chlamydia positivity rate at retest was 17.3% (13/75) compared to 12.4% seen at all visits at the STI clinic in 2011. Repeated infections were more frequent among non-Dutch than Dutch participants (27.0% versus 7.9%; p?=?0.04) and in persons reporting symptoms (31.0% versus 7.0%; p?=?0.01). Both untreated infections of current partners as well as unprotected sex with new partners contribute to repeated infections. Conclusion The high rate of repeated infections indicates the need for interventions to increase retesting; improvement of partner-management and risk reduction counselling remain necessary. Home- based testing was more effective than clinic-based testing. However other strategies, including self-triage of patients, may also increase repeat testing rates and personal preferences should be taken into account.

2013-01-01

47

Chlamydia Infections - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chlamydia Infections - Multiple Languages Amharic (amarunya) Chinese - Simplified (????) Chinese - Traditional (????) Oromo (Afaan Oromo) Spanish (español) Amharic (amarunya) Chlamydia English amarunya (Amharic) PDF Minnesota Department of Health ...

48

Effects of Estradiol and Progesterone on Susceptibility and Early Immune Responses to Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in the Female Reproductive Tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used a previously described rodent model to examine the influence of hormonal environment on susceptibility and immune responses to genital Chlamydia infection. Ovariectomized rats were administered estradiol, progesterone, or a combination of both, infected with Chlamydia trachomatis via the intrauterine route, and sacrificed 5 days later. Histopathological examination showed severe inflammation in the uteri and vaginae of progesterone-treated

CHARU KAUSHIC; FAN ZHOU; ANDREW D. MURDIN; CHARLES R. WIRA

2000-01-01

49

Genital Mycoplasmas in Placental Infections  

PubMed Central

Objective: The involvement of the genital mycoplasmas Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis in complications of pregnancy has remained controversial especially because these microorganisms are frequent colonizers of the lower genital tract. Recovery of bacteria from the placenta appears to be the sole technique to represent a true infection and not vaginal contamination. Therefore, we investigated the presence of genital mycoplasmas, aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, and fungi in human placentas and evaluated their association with morbidity and mortality of pregnancy. Methods: We cultured placentas from 82 women with complicated pregnancies. One hundred placentas from women with uncomplicated pregnancies were evaluated as controls. When possible, placentas were examined histologically for presence of chorioamnionitis. Results: Microorganisms were recovered from 52% of the placentas of complicated pregnancies and U. urealyticum was the microorganism isolated most frequently from the placenta. A significant association between positive mycoplasma culture of the placenta and complication of pregnancy was found, and chorioamnionitis was positively related to isolation of mycoplasmas. Conclusions: These data suggest that genital mycoplasmas are able to infect the human placenta where they can cause chorioamnionitis. This infection of the placenta by genital mycoplasmas is related to preterm birth and fatal outcome of pregnancy.

Stein, Andreas; Boubli, Leon; Blanc, Bernard

1994-01-01

50

Epidemiology of Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it is difficult to estimate the overall prevalence of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, current figures suggest that visible genital warts are present in approximately 1% of sexually active adults in the United States and that at least 15% have subclinical infection, as detected by HPV DNA assays. Genital HPV infection is thus extremely common. The highest rates of

1997-01-01

51

Chlamydia trachomatis Infection Does Not Enhance Local Cellular Immunity against Concurrent Candida Vaginal Infection  

PubMed Central

Although Th1-type cell-mediated immunity (CMI) is the predominant host defense mechanism against mucosal Candida albicans infection, CMI against a vaginal C. albicans infection in mice is limited at the vaginal mucosa despite a strong Candida-specific Th1-type response in the draining lymph nodes. In contrast, Th1-type CMI is highly effective against an experimental Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract infection. This study demonstrated through two independent designs that a concurrent Candida and Chlamydia infection could not accelerate or modulate the anti-Candida CMI response. Together, these results suggest that host responses to these genital tract infections are independent and not influenced by the presence of the other.

Kelly, Kathleen A.; Gray, Heather L.; Walker, Jennifer C.; Rank, Roger G.; Wormley, Floyd L.; Fidel, Paul L.

2001-01-01

52

Population based study of genital Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence and associated factors in Norway: A cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background The number of diagnosed cases of Chlamydia trachomatis infection has been increasing in the past years in Norway although the testing rate has been relatively stable. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis in young men and women in one county in Norway and determine associated factors in order to better target preventive measures. Methods We mailed to a random sample of 10 000 persons aged 18–25 in Rogaland county a mail-back urine sample kit and a self-administered questionnaire with questions on socio-demographic details, health seeking behaviour and symptoms of and history of sexually transmitted diseases. Associations between current Clamydia trachomatis infection and the above mentioned factors were studied by multiple logistic regression. Results The response rate among women was 18.9% (930/4923) and 11.9% (605/5077) among men. The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection was 5.8% (95% CI 4.5-6.8) among women and 5.1% (95% CI 3.8-6.8) among men. For men a greater number of partners during the last year (p for trend?infection (OR 8.6, 95% CI 2.2-33.9). For women a greater number of partners during the last year (p?infection while not having a previous Chlamydia trachomatis diagnosis decreased the odds of having this infection (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.2-0.7). Conclusion Our results indicate the importance of having a visible youth clinic in each municipality. It also suggests targeting women who have had a previous Chlamydia trachomatis infection diagnosed before.

2012-01-01

53

Repeated Chlamydia trachomatis Infection of Macaca nemestrina Fallopian Tubes Produces a Th1Like Cytokine Response Associated with Fibrosis and Scarring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydia trachomatis-associated female infertility and ectopic pregnancy are caused by postinflammatory fibrosis and scarring of the upper genital tract. Scarring of the upper genital tract is associated with multiple infectious episodes with C. trachomatis. To study the immune response that occurs with multiple infections of C. trachomatis in the female upper genital tract, a Macaca nemestrina model was used. Subcutaneous

WESLEY C. VAN VOORHIS; LYNN K. BARRETT; YVONNE T. COSGROVE SWEENEY; CHOU-CHO KUO; DOROTHY L. PATTON

1997-01-01

54

Asymptomatic Chlamydia infection in pregnant women.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis infection is currently among the most prevalent sexually transmitted diseases in the United States. A review of three textbooks of obstetrics reveals that none of them recommend routine chlamydia screening in prenatal patients, although two recommend routine screening for gonorrhea. A study was done at the Barberton Citizens Hospital Family Practice Residency Program to determine the incidence of asymptomatic chlamydia infection in pregnant women and to compare this to the incidence of asymptomatic Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection in the same population. A total of 69 patients were screened for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis as part of their routine prenatal evaluations at the first prenatal visit and the visit of 36 weeks gestation. Neisseria gonorrhoeae was detected by growth on standard Martin-Lewis culture plates. Chlamydia trachomatis was detected by positive immunofluorescence using a standardized specimen kit (Syva Company, Palo Alto, California). The data were collected over a 12-month period from July of 1987 through July of 1988. There were no positive cultures for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (0%) in this group of patients. On the other hand, five patients tested positive for Chlamydia trachomatis (7.2%). The results of this study indicate that routine screening for Chlamydia trachomatis should be considered as part of the routine prenatal care. A larger, multi-centered study could be done in the future to confirm these results, as well as to determine if any regional differences exist. PMID:2601940

Hagley, M T; Costa, A J

1989-11-01

55

Diagnosis and Treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydia trachomatis infection most commonly affects the urogenital tract. In men, the infec- tion usually is symptomatic, with dysuria and a discharge from the penis. Untreated chlamydial infection in men can spread to the epididymis. Most women with chlamydial infection have minimal or no symptoms, but some develop pelvic inflammatory disease. Chlamydial infec- tion in newborns can cause ophthalmia neonatorum.

KARL E. MILLER

56

Timing of progression from Chlamydia trachomatis infection to pelvic inflammatory disease: a mathematical modelling study  

PubMed Central

Background Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) results from the ascending spread of microorganisms from the vagina and endocervix to the upper genital tract. PID can lead to infertility, ectopic pregnancy and chronic pelvic pain. The timing of development of PID after the sexually transmitted bacterial infection Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) might affect the impact of screening interventions, but is currently unknown. This study investigates three hypothetical processes for the timing of progression: at the start, at the end, or throughout the duration of chlamydia infection. Methods We develop a compartmental model that describes the trial structure of a published randomised controlled trial (RCT) and allows each of the three processes to be examined using the same model structure. The RCT estimated the effect of a single chlamydia screening test on the cumulative incidence of PID up to one year later. The fraction of chlamydia infected women who progress to PID is obtained for each hypothetical process by the maximum likelihood method using the results of the RCT. Results The predicted cumulative incidence of PID cases from all causes after one year depends on the fraction of chlamydia infected women that progresses to PID and on the type of progression. Progression at a constant rate from a chlamydia infection to PID or at the end of the infection was compatible with the findings of the RCT. The corresponding estimated fraction of chlamydia infected women that develops PID is 10% (95% confidence interval 7-13%) in both processes. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that clinical PID can occur throughout the course of a chlamydia infection, which will leave a window of opportunity for screening to prevent PID.

2012-01-01

57

Repeat infection with Chlamydia trachomatis: a prospective cohort study from an STI-clinic in Stockholm  

PubMed Central

Background Infection with genital Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) is the most common notifiable sexually transmitted infection (STI) in Sweden. A mutated Chlamydia, nvCT, has contributed to the increase. The occurrence of repeat infections is not investigated in Sweden. The current paper presents the study protocol for the first Swedish clinical investigation of repeat Chlamydial infection. The concern of the study is whether a Chlamydia infection at inclusion indicates an increased risk for Chlamydia at follow-up after 6–8 months, gender-specific risk factors for and clinical presentation of repeat infections. Methods and design Sesam City is a drop-in clinic in the city centre of Stockholm. Patients 20 years and older are admitted. During 2007, the clinic had 15 000 visits, 60% made by men. In December 2007, a cohort study began, and data collection was finished in April 2009. A total of 2813 study participants aged 20–39 years were recruited. Data collection included an anonymous self-administered paper-and-pen questionnaire on sexual behaviour, reproductive health and history of Chlamydia, and condom use. Chlamydia tests were performed by self-sampled specimens, analyzed by the ProbeTec (Becton Dickinson) method, Ct-positive specimens also analyzed with a nvCT-specific method. Data from medical records were summarized in clinical report forms. Patients positive for Chlamydia were retested 4 weeks after treatment. Contact tracing covered sexual contacts during the last 12 months. At follow-up 6–8 months after inclusion, Chlamydia tests were performed, and a new questionnaire and CRF completed. Discussion A STI-clinic-based prospective cohort study allowed us to survey 2813 adult patients. The collected data will provide gender-specific information on the occurrence of and risk for repeat Chlamydia infection, the occurrence of nvCT, and clinical data and information on sexual behaviour and reproductive health, risk-taking and condom use.

Edgardh, Karin; Kuhlmann-Berenzon, Sharon; Grunewald, Maria; Rotzen-Ostlund, Maria; Qvarnstrom, Ivar; Everljung, Jennie

2009-01-01

58

Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection in Human Monocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydia pneumoniae infection has been associated with cardiovascular diseases in seroepidemiological studies and by demonstration of the pathogen in atherosclerotic lesions. It has the capacity to infect several cell types, including monocyte-derived macrophages, which play an essential role in the development of athero- sclerosis. However, the persistence of C. pneumoniae in mononuclear cells is poorly understood. To study the morphology

SARI AIRENNE; MARJA SURCEL; HANNU ALAKARPPA; KIRSI LAITINEN; JORMA PAAVONEN; PEKKA SAIKKU; AINO LAURILA

59

Persistent Chlamydia trachomatis Infections Resist Apoptotic Stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial modulation of apoptosis has added a new dimension of understanding to the dynamic interaction between the human host and its microbial invaders. Persistent infection can be a by-product of inhibition of apoptosis and may significantly impact the pathogenesis of diseases caused by organisms such as Chlamydia trachomatis. We compared apoptotic responses among HeLa 229 cells acutely and persistently infected

DEBORAH DEAN; VIRGINIA C. POWERS

2001-01-01

60

Unveiling New Molecular Factors Useful for Detection of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease due to Chlamydia trachomatis Infection  

PubMed Central

Background. Untreated Chlamydia trachomatis infections in women can result in disease sequelae such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ultimately culminating in tubal occlusion and infertility. While nucleic acid amplification tests can effectively diagnose uncomplicated lower genital tract infections, they are not suitable for diagnosing upper genital tract pathological sequelae. Objective. The purpose of this paper was to provide a comprehensive review of new molecular factors associated with the diagnosis and prognosis of PID. Material and Methods. The literature was searched using the key words “Chlamydia trachomatis infections,” “pelvic inflammatory disease,” and “molecular factors” in the PubMed database. Relevant articles published between 1996 and 2012 were evaluated. Conclusions. The use of new molecular factors could potentially facilitate earlier diagnosis and prognosis in women with PID due to C. trachomatis infection.

Rodriguez-Cerdeira, Carmen; Sanchez-Blanco, Elena; Molares-Vila, Alberto; Alba, Alfonso

2012-01-01

61

Chlamydia trachomatis infections: screening, diagnosis, and management.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis is a gram-negative bacterium that infects the columnar epithelium of the cervix, urethra, and rectum, as well as nongenital sites such as the lungs and eyes. The bacterium is the cause of the most frequently reported sexually transmitted disease in the United States, which is responsible for more than 1 million infections annually. Most persons with this infection are asymptomatic. Untreated infection can result in serious complications such as pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy in women, and epididymitis and orchitis in men. Men and women can experience chlamydia-induced reactive arthritis. Treatment of uncomplicated cases should include azithromycin or doxycycline. Screening is recommended in all women younger than 25 years, in all pregnant women, and in women who are at increased risk of infection. Screening is not currently recommended in men. In neonates and infants, the bacterium can cause conjunctivitis and pneumonia. Adults may also experience conjunctivitis caused by chlamydia. Trachoma is a recurrent ocular infection caused by chlamydia and is endemic in the developing world. PMID:23316985

Mishori, Ranit; McClaskey, Erica L; WinklerPrins, Vince J

2012-12-15

62

Current problems of perinatal Chlamydia trachomatis infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydia trachomatis has been recognized as a pathogen of trachoma, nongonococcal urethritis, salpingitis, endocervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, inclusion conjunctivitis of neonates, follicular conjunctivitis of adults, infantile pneumonia and associated conditions. Chlamydial infections during pregnancy may also cause a variety of perinatal complications. Different antigenic strains of C. trachomatis from endocervical, nasopharyngeal and conjunctival origins have been associated with different clinical

Kei Numazaki

2004-01-01

63

Molecular Diagnosis of Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common and important intracel- lular bacterium implicated in upper and lower respiratory tract infections in humans. Also, C. pneumoniae has been associated with chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis and asthma. Since C. pneumoniae can cause severe clinical disease, correct diag- nosis and therapy are important issues. However, conventional assays for the detection of C. pneumoniae have

JENS BOMAN; CHARLOTTE A. GAYDOS; THOMAS C. QUINN

1999-01-01

64

Papillomaviral Infections of the Female Genital Tract  

PubMed Central

The human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common organism to infect the human genital tract, affecting as much as half, or more, of the sexually active population. This virus has become widely recognized through the well publicized relationship with genital tract neoplasia and through new diagnostic technologies, such as monoclonal antibody analysis, DNA hybridization, and the polymerase chain reaction. This paper describes the full spectrum of HPV infections, starting with pathogenesis and continuing to clinical manifestations, and discusses significance, diagnosis, and management.

Munro, Malcolm G.

1992-01-01

65

Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and atherosclerotic coronary disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Previous works have suggested an association between Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and coronary heart disease. We evaluated the prevalence of C pneumoniae infection in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods and Results Ninety-eight patients with AMI, 80 patients with CHD, and 50 control subjects matched for age and sex were investigated. Immunoglobulin (Ig)M, IgG,

Rosa Sessa; Marisa Di Pietro; Iolanda Santino; Massimo del Piano; Antonio Varveri; Armando Dagianti; Maria Penco

1999-01-01

66

Polymorphisms in the Chlamydia trachomatis Cytotoxin Locus Associated with Ocular and Genital Isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydia trachomatis is a strict human pathogen producing infections that cause medically important chronic inflammatory diseases, such as blinding trachoma and tubal factor infertility. Isolates exist as serotypes that fall into distinct biologic and pathological groups corresponding to differences in infection tissue tropism and invasion properties. Paradoxically, genome sequencing of several diverse strains has revealed a remarkable level of genomic

John H. Carlson; Scott Hughes; Daniel Hogan; Gordon Cieplak; Daniel E. Sturdevant; Grant McClarty; Harlan D. Caldwell; Robert J. Belland

2004-01-01

67

Chlamydia trachomatis infection in early neonatal period  

PubMed Central

Background The clinical characteristics of Chlamydia trachomatis respiratory tract infections in Japanese neonates were investigated. Methods Clinical, laboratory and microbiological characteristics of five infants with pneumonia due to C. trachomatis in early neonatal period were analyzed. Results Only C. trachomatis was identified in 4 infants. Both C. trachomatis and cytomegalovirus was identified in one. Wheezing, tachypnea and cyanosis were common in infants. Mothers of five infants had negative chlamydial EIAs at 20 weeks of gestation. Conclusions We identified five cases of C. trachomatis respiratory tract infections in early neonatal period with the possibility of intrauterine infection. Targeted screening, early diagnosis, and effective treatment of perinatal and neonatal chlamydial infections seems to be necessary

Numazaki, Kei; Asanuma, Hideomi; Niida, Yuichi

2003-01-01

68

Test-of-cure for asymptomatic genital chlamydial infections in women. A cost-benefit analysis.  

PubMed

Asymptomatic genital infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis is common, and one or more test-of-cure consultations in such cases is routine. The economic implications of two post-treatment strategies, either no test-of-cure, or one test-of-cure consultation with a single test for C. trachomatis, renewed treatment, and another test-of-cure of those still chlamydia-positive, and so on, have been compared. The costs of the test-of-cure strategy are twice those of the no-test regimen. Without test-of-cure, 79 more cases of pelvic inflammatory disease, 8 cases of infertility requiring treatment, and 2 cases of ectopic pregnancy would occur for every 10,000 patients. It is concluded that routine test-of-cure of asymptomatic genital chlamydial infections after treatment is not cost beneficial. PMID:1523529

Schiøtz, H A; Csángó, P A

69

Kawasaki disease and Chlamydia pneumoniae infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydia pneumoniae infections have been associated with coronary artery disease. Although Kawasaki disease is characterized by an association\\u000a with coronary artery disease in children predominantly under the age of 5, the etiology is still unknown. Serum samples were\\u000a obtained from 72 infants and children, aged 5 months to 7 years, in the active febrile phase of Kawasaki disease and tested

Kei Numazaki; Shunzo Chiba

1996-01-01

70

Diagnosis and treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis infection.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis infection most commonly affects the urogenital tract. In men, the infection usually is symptomatic, with dysuria and a discharge from the penis. Untreated chlamydial infection in men can spread to the epididymis. Most women with chlamydial infection have minimal or no symptoms, but some develop pelvic inflammatory disease. Chlamydial infection in newborns can cause ophthalmia neonatorum. Chlamydial pneumonia can occur at one to three months of age, manifesting as a protracted onset of staccato cough, usually without wheezing or fever. Treatment options for uncomplicated urogenital infections include a single 1-g dose of azithromycin orally, or doxycycline at a dosage of 100 mg orally twice per day for seven days. The recommended treatment during pregnancy is erythromycin base or amoxicillin. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommend screening for chlamydial infection in women at increased risk of infection and in all women younger than 25 years. PMID:16669564

Miller, Karl E

2006-04-15

71

Epidemiology of infection by serotypes D to K of chlamydia trachomatis.  

PubMed Central

Non-specific urethritis (NSU) is a sexually transmitted disease; 50% of cases are due to Chlamydia trachomatis, so that this is the commonest sexually transmitted infection in the developed world. Chlamydial infection is now readily diagnosable and the evidence increasingly suggests that it is underdiagnosed. Chlamydial conjunctivitis (in the newborn baby or the adult) in the developed world is a complication of sexually transmitted genital infection by C trachomatis and it indicates a large reservoir of such infections. Because of the association of sexually transmitted diseases, systemic treatment for such chlamydial conjunctivitis should not be given until full genital and serological investigators have been carried out. Chlamydial infection causes serious complications (that were formerly often thought to be gonococcal), such as epididymitis in young men and salpingitis on young women. It may cause local complications in the eye of the newborn baby and even pneumonia in babies and fatal endocarditis in adults. The diagnosis of NSU should lead to the correct treatment of the male patient and of his sexual partners. It is the promiscuous woman, who does not have a regular sexual partner to report back to her that he has NSU, who is at particular risk of undiagnosed chlamydial infection. Routine genital investigations for chlamydia are particularly indicated in her case. Following the parallel of gonorrhoea, it seems that the use of contact tracers may be an effective method for controlling chlamydial infection.

Dunlop, E M; Darougar, S; Treharne, J D

1980-01-01

72

Caspase1 Contributes to Chlamydia trachomatis-Induced Upper Urogenital Tract Inflammatory Pathologies without Affecting the Course of Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydia trachomatis infection induces inflammatory pathologies in the upper genital tract, potentially leading to ectopic pregnancy and infertility in the affected women. Caspase-1 is required for processing and release of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-18, and possibly IL-33. In the present study, we evaluated the role of caspase-1 in chlamydial infection and pathogenesis. Although chlamydial infection induced caspase-1 activation

Wen Cheng; Pooja Shivshankar; Zhongyu Li; Lili Chen; I-Tien Yeh; Guangming Zhong

2008-01-01

73

Herpes Simplex Virus Viremia during Primary Genital Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is com- monly associated with systemic symptoms. A systematic eval- uation of HSV viremia during primary genital infection has not been performed previously. Plasma samples from adults with a first clinical episode of genital HSV infection were as- sayed for HSV DNA by polymerase chain reaction. One hun- dredsixty-fouradultshadconfirmedprimarygenitalHSVin- fection. Of these, 40

Christine Johnston; Amalia Magaret; Stacy Selke; Michael Remington; Lawrence Corey; Anna Wald

2008-01-01

74

Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infection-Associated Erythema Multiforme  

PubMed Central

There is a well-known correlation between Herpes simplex (HSV) infection and erythema multiforme (EM). More recently, in Japan, it was found that Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cp) may promote the development of EM. All cases of Cp infection-associated EM that had been diagnosed in our clinic over the past two years (from 2011 to 2012) were analyzed. Cp infection was diagnosed on the basis of a significant increase (>2.00) in anti-Cp IgM titers, as measured by the HITAZYME-ELISA test. There were 7 cases of Cp-EM, one male and 6 females. Median age was 13 years (range 3-29 years). It is recommended that the possible involvement of Cp infection, besides HSV or Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections, should be considered in all cases of EM.

Imashuku, Shinsaku; Kudo, Naoko

2013-01-01

75

[Current aspects of Chlamydia trachomatis infection].  

PubMed

The number of detection and diagnosis of urogenital infections with Chlamydia trachomatis is increasing among both men and women. Three-quarters involve young people between 15 and 24 years. Infection, often asymptomatic, is more common in women. It is necessary to identify it to avoid complications.The number of rectal lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is also growing. The affected patients are homo/bisexuel men frequently co-infected with HIV. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are the tests of choice to the diagnosis of C. trachomatis infection regardless of the clinical situation. Most of tests simultaneously detect C. trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The recommended treatment regimens for a non-complicated infection to C. trachomatis is azithromycin 1g orally in a single dose or doxycyline 100 mg orally twice a day for 7 days. Doxycyclin for 21 days remains the treatment of choice for LGV. Patients should be instructed to refer their sex partners for treatment. PMID:23419460

de Barbeyrac, Bertille

2013-02-16

76

Chlamydia trachomatis Infection, Immunity, and Pregnancy Outcome  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia trachomatis can ascend from the cervix to the fallopian tubes and survive for long periods of time without causing symptoms. The immune response to infection clears the extracellular organisms but leads to development of a persistent intracellular infection. Repeated cycles of productive infection and persistence eventually induce tubal occlusion and infertility. Persistently infected cells continue to synthesize the chlamydial 60 kD heat shock protein (hsp60). Immunity to conserved regions of hsp60 may result in autoimmunity to human hsp60. Expression of hsp60 by the embryo and decidua during early pregnancy may reactivate hsp60-sensitized lymphocytes, disturb pregnancy-induced immune regulatory mechanisms, and lead to immune rejection of the embryo. Due to this mechanism women with tubal infertility who are sensitized to the human hsp60 may have a decreased probability of successful outcome after undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer.

Neuer, A.; Giraldo, P.; Jeremias, J.; Tolbert, V.; Korneeva, I. L.; Kneissl, D.; Bongiovanni, A. M.

1997-01-01

77

Clinical and microscopic signs of cervicitis and urethritis: correlation with Chlamydia trachomatis infection in female STI patients.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis is among the most prevalent genital infections and is an important cause of tubal factor infertility. The majority of infected females are asymptomatic. Evidence on the reliability of signs of inflammation used to predict chlamydia in female patients is inconsistent. This study examined associations between criteria routinely used in many Scandinavian sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics and a positive chlamydia test in a high-prevalence population. Clinical and microscopic signs of cervicitis and urethritis were recorded in 99 women attending due to chlamydia infection in a sexual partner. Mucopurulent cervical discharge, easily induced bleeding from the cervix, and more polymorpho-nuclear cells than epithelial cells in vaginal wet smear all correlated significantly with a positive Chlamydia trachomatis test (odds ratios: 3.4, 4.0 and 4.8, respectively). Increased numbers of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (>30 and ? 5 respectively) in stained cervical and urethral smears were not significantly correlated with chlamydia infection. Hence, routine collection of cervical and urethral smears in female STI patients is questionable. PMID:23460336

Berntsson, Matilda; Tunbäck, Petra

2013-03-27

78

Urinary Tract Infection and Chlamydia Infection in Adolescent Females  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Objective: To examine whether clinical or laboratory findings could distinguish Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) from urinary tract infection (UTI) among adolescent females in whom providers tested for both.Design, Setting, Participants: A laboratory database at an urban teen health center was reviewed to identify females who had both urine culture and ligase chain reaction (LCR) test for CT ordered at the

Jill S Huppert; Frank M Biro; Jessica Mehrabi; Gail B Slap

2003-01-01

79

Caspase-1 contributes to Chlamydia trachomatis-induced upper urogenital tract inflammatory pathologies without affecting the course of infection.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis infection induces inflammatory pathologies in the upper genital tract, potentially leading to ectopic pregnancy and infertility in the affected women. Caspase-1 is required for processing and release of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-18, and possibly IL-33. In the present study, we evaluated the role of caspase-1 in chlamydial infection and pathogenesis. Although chlamydial infection induced caspase-1 activation and processing of IL-1beta, mice competent and mice deficient in caspase-1 experienced similar courses of chlamydial infection in their urogenital tracts, suggesting that Chlamydia-activated caspase-1 did not play a significant role in resolution of chlamydial infection. However, when genital tract tissue pathologies were examined, the caspase-1-deficient mice displayed much reduced inflammatory damage. The reduction in inflammation was most obvious in the fallopian tube tissue. These observations demonstrated that although caspase-1 is not required for controlling chlamydial infection, caspase-1-mediated responses can exacerbate the Chlamydia-induced inflammatory pathologies in the upper genital tract, suggesting that the host caspase-1 may be targeted for selectively attenuating chlamydial pathogenicity without affecting the host defense against chlamydial infection. PMID:18025098

Cheng, Wen; Shivshankar, Pooja; Li, Zhongyu; Chen, Lili; Yeh, I-Tien; Zhong, Guangming

2007-11-19

80

Development of Secondary Inclusions in Cells Infected by Chlamydia trachomatis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria that occupy a nonacidified vacuole (the inclusion) during their entire developmental cycle. These bacteria produce a set of proteins (Inc proteins) that localize to the surface of the inclusion within infected cells. Chlamydia trachomatis IncA is also commonly found in long fibers that extend away from the inclusion. We used standard and confocal immunofluorescence

Robert J. Suchland; Daniel D. Rockey; Damir T. Alzhanov; Walter E. Stamm

2005-01-01

81

Genital Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection in Women  

MedlinePLUS

... the skin around the genitals and cause genital warts. Other types of HPV are called “high risk”. ... with a “low risk” virus can cause genital warts but will not produce major problems. However, sometimes “ ...

82

Pregnancy Outcome in Swiss-Webster Mice Infected With Chlamydia trachomatis  

PubMed Central

Objective: The objective of this study was to observe pregnancy outcomes in mice infected transvaginally with Chlamydia trachomatis. Methods: Pregnant mice were inoculated transvaginally with either C. trachomatis (CT) or sterile calf serum (CON) on pregnancy day 4. Pregnancy outcomes as well as genital tract histology and culture were compared. Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher's exact test and Student's t-test. Results: Twenty-four of 26 CT mice had positive uterine cultures for C. trachomatis. Inflammation occurred in 9 (34.6%) (P = 0.002, 95% confidence interval = 1.7–3.5) and intrauterine fetal demise occurred in 5 (19.2%) (P = 0.05, 95% confidence interval = 1.6–2.9) of CT mice. No mice in the CON group (0/24) had positive uterine cultures, developed inflammation, or experienced intrauterine fetal demise. Conclusions: Lower genital tract chlamydial infection is associated with intrauterine fetal demise in Swiss-Webster mice.

Graham, Jack M.; Blanco, Jorge D.; Seraj, Ibrahim M.; Bishop, Karen D.

1994-01-01

83

Young pregnant women's views on the acceptability of screening for chlamydia as part of routine antenatal care  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In pregnancy, untreated chlamydia infection has been associated with adverse outcomes for both mother and infant. Like most women, pregnant women infected with chlamydia do not report genital symptoms, and are therefore unlikely to be aware of their infection. The aim of this study was to determine the acceptability of screening pregnant women aged 16-25 years for chlamydia as

Jade E Bilardi; Deborah L De Guingand; Meredith J Temple-Smith; Suzanne Garland; Christopher K Fairley; Sonia Grover; Euan Wallace; Jane S Hocking; Sepehr Tarbrizi; Marie Pirotta; Marcus Y Chen

2010-01-01

84

Case-control study of vulvar vestibulitis risk associated with genital infections.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk of vulvar vestibulitis syndrome (VVS) associated with genital infections in a case-control study. METHODS: Diagnosed cases with VVS (n = 69) and age-frequency-matched healthy controls (n = 65) were enrolled from gynecology clinics in a university medical hospital during 1999. They were compared for potential risk factors and symptoms of disease. RESULTS: VVS cases had a significantly higher risk of physician-reported bacterial vaginosis (BV) (odds ratio, OR = 9.4), Candida albicans (OR = 5.7), pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) (OR = 11.2), trichomoniasis (OR = 20.6), and vulvar dysplasia (OR = l5.7) but no risk associated with human papillomavirus (HPV), ASCUS, cervical dysplasia, genital warts, chlamydia, genital herpes or gonorrhea. Genital symptoms reported significantly more often with VVS included vulvar burning (91 vs. 12%), dyspareunia (81 vs. 15%), vulvar itching (68 vs. 23%) and dysuria (54 vs. 19%) (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: A history of genital infections is associated with an increased risk of VVS. Long-term follow-up case-control studies are needed to elucidate etiologic mechanisms, methods for prevention and effective treatment.

Smith, Elaine M; Ritchie, Justine M; Galask, Rudolph; Pugh, Erica E; Jia, Jian; Ricks-McGillan, Joan

2002-01-01

85

Human papillomavirus genital infections among men, China, 2007-2009.  

PubMed

To determine prevalence of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among men in rural China, we analyzed genital swab specimens. Among 2,236 male residents of rural Henan Province, HPV infection prevalence was 17.5%. The most common oncogenic and nononcogenic types were HPV-16 and HPV-3, respectively. Infection was associated with younger age and multiple sex partners. PMID:23735236

He, Zhonghu; Liu, Ying; Sun, Yuan; Xi, Long Fu; Chen, Ke; Zhao, Yiqiang; Gao, Lei; Liu, Fangfang; Pan, Yaqi; Ning, Tao; Zhang, Lixin; Cai, Hong; Ke, Yang

2013-06-01

86

Cytokine Response of Lymphocytes Persistently Infected with Chlamydia pneumoniae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydia pneumoniae infection of lymphocytes in blood has been documented, and it is apparent that control of this pathogen in lymphocytes as well as immune functions of the infected lymphocytes may be critical in the development of chronic inflammatory diseases associated with infection by this bacterium. Since immune function of lymphocytes infected with C. pneumoniae has not been well studied,

Riho Takano; Hiroyuki Yamaguchi; Shigehiro Sugimoto; Shinichi Nakamura; Herman Friedman; Yoshimasa Yamamoto

2005-01-01

87

Characterization of Lymphocyte Response in the Female Genital Tract during Ascending Chlamydial Genital Infection in the Guinea Pig Model  

PubMed Central

It is well known that pathology caused by chlamydial infection is associated closely with the host response to the organism and that both innate and adaptive host responses contribute to tissue damage. While it is likely that the organism itself initiates the acute inflammatory response by eliciting cytokine and chemokine production from the host cell, the adaptive response is the result of activation of the cell-mediated immune response. While there are several studies describing the nature of the pathologic response in primate, guinea pig, and murine models, there is less information on the kinetics of the CD4 and CD8 response following primary and challenge infections. In this study, we have quantified by flow cytometry the mononuclear cell response to genital infection with the agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis in the cervix, endometrium, and oviducts at various times following a primary intravaginal infection and after a challenge infection. Tissues from individual animals were assessed for cells expressing CD4, CD8, or Mac-1 and for B cells. Peak responses of each subset occurred 10 to 14 days after a primary infection. The number of Mac-1-expressing cells in each tissue site was found to be dependent on the size of the inoculating dose of chlamydiae. The responses of each cell type were generally stronger in the cervix than in the upper genital tract. In contrast to the murine model but consistent with the primate models, there were equal numbers of CD4 and CD8 cells present in the infiltrates. Twenty-one days after challenge infection, which was performed 50 days after the primary infection, there was a significant increase in the number of CD4, CD8, and B cells in the oviduct compared to the number of these cells at the same time after a primary infection, providing clear cellular evidence for a cell-mediated immune pathologic response.

Rank, Roger G.; Bowlin, Anne K.; Kelly, Kathleen A.

2000-01-01

88

Pathogenesis of Chlamydia induced pelvic inflammatory disease  

PubMed Central

Further research is necessary to elucidate the pathogenesis of chlamydial PID. It is hoped that these endeavours will eventually lead to a vaccine to prevent not only chlamydia infection, but also chlamydia associated infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. In the meantime we need to develop strategies to prevent primary and secondary chlamydia infection and its sequelae. Recently, Scholes et. al demonstrated that a population based approach to identify and test women at high risk for cervical C trachomatis infection effectively reduced risk of PID. Hopefully, through the use of public health measures, we can see similar decreases of chlamydia associated genital tract disease worldwide. ???

Cohen, C. R.; Brunham, R. C.

1999-01-01

89

Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infections and Sudden Unexpected Deaths in Denmark.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Blood samples from 38 runners on the Danish national orienteering team revealed no ongoing chlamydia pneumoniae, although 42% had an earlier infection, similar to the incidence in the general population. However, over 2% had an ongoing lyme borreliosis infection, and 18% had an earlier infection, which is a higher incidence than in the general…

Johannsen, Finn

1993-01-01

90

Maximising retention in a longitudinal study of genital Chlamydia trachomatis among young women in Australia  

PubMed Central

Background Cohort studies are an important study design however they are difficult to implement, often suffer from poor retention, low participation and bias. The aims of this paper are to describe the methods used to recruit and retain young women in a longitudinal study and to explore factors associated with loss to follow up. Methods The Chlamydia Incidence and Re-infection Rates Study (CIRIS) was a longitudinal study of Australian women aged 16 to 25 years recruited from primary health care clinics. They were followed up via the post at three-monthly intervals and required to return questionnaires and self collected vaginal swabs for chlamydia testing. The protocol was designed to maximise retention in the study and included using recruiting staff independent of the clinic staff, recruiting in private, regular communication with study staff, making the follow up as straightforward as possible and providing incentives and small gifts to engender good will. Results The study recruited 66% of eligible women. Despite the nature of the study (sexual health) and the mobility of the women (35% moved address at least once), 79% of the women completed the final stage of the study after 12 months. Loss to follow up bias was associated with lower education level [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR): 0.7 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.5, 1.0)], recruitment from a sexual health centre as opposed to a general practice clinic [AHR: 1.6 (95% CI: 1.0, 2.7)] and previously testing positive for chlamydia [AHR: 0.8 (95% CI: 0.5, 1.0)]. No other factors such as age, numbers of sexual partners were associated with loss to follow up. Conclusions The methods used were considered effective for recruiting and retaining women in the study. Further research is needed to improve participation from less well-educated women.

2011-01-01

91

Simple resazurin-based microplate assay for measuring Chlamydia infections.  

PubMed

The conventional method for quantification of Chlamydia infection using fluorescence microscopy typically involves time- and labor-intensive manual enumeration, which is not applicable for a large-scale analysis required for an inhibitory compound screen. In this study, an alamarBlue (resazurin) assay was adopted to measure Chlamydia infection by measuring the redox capability of infected host cells in a 96-well format. The assay provided measurements comparable to those of the conventional microscopy method while drastically reducing the time required for analysis. PMID:23507273

Osaka, Ichie; Hefty, P Scott

2013-03-18

92

Chlamydia pneumoniae infection is not involved in carotid artery stenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have suggested the existence of a close relationship between Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and atherosclerosis. However, it has been speculated that C. pneumoniae infection is not associated with early atherosclerosis but with advanced atherosclerosis. In the present study, we test this hypothesis. In 524 consecutive patients who underwent cerebral angiography were recruited for the study. From the films obtained

Yutaka Hirashima; Naoya Kuwayama; Michiya Kubo; Hideki Origasa; Shunro Endo

2002-01-01

93

Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Infants Delivered by Cesarean Section  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes a well documented case of Chlamydia trachomatis pneumonia in a child delivered by cesarean section. The case indicates that infants delivered by cesarean section are still at risk of developing chlamydial infection. Various routes of infection are discussed, with a review of chlamydial disease in infants born by cesarean section.

Leonard J. La Scolea; John S. Paroski; Lorraine Burzynski; Howard S. Faden

1984-01-01

94

Chlamydia pneumoniae infections in mouse models: relevance for atherosclerosis research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mouse models have been frequently used in the study of Chlamydia pneumoniae (also known as Chlamydophila pneumoniae) infections. This gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium causes respiratory infections, followed by dissemination of the bacterium to various organs throughout the body, including cardiovascular tissues, supporting the current hypothesis of a relationship between C. pneumoniae and atherosclerosis. Recently, clinical trials evaluated the effect of

Martijn D. de Kruif; Tymen T. Kellera; Jacobus M. Ossewaardec

95

Mixed infections with Chlamydia and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus - a new in vitro model of chlamydial persistence  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Chlamydiae induce persistent infections, which have been associated with a wide range of chronic diseases in humans and animals. Mixed infections with Chlamydia and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) may result in generation of persistent chlamydial infections. To test this hypothesis, an in vitro model of dual infection with cell culture-adapted PEDV and Chlamydia abortus or Chlamydia pecorum in

Nicole Borel; Claudia Dumrese; Urs Ziegler; Andrea Schifferli; Carmen Kaiser; Andreas Pospischil

2010-01-01

96

Identifying a Role for Toll-Like Receptor 3 in the Innate Immune Response to Chlamydia muridarum Infection in Murine Oviduct Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Because epithelial cells are the major cell type productively infected with Chlamydia during genital tract infections, the overall goal of our research was to understand the contribution of infected epithelial cells to the host defense. We previously showed that Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) is the critical pattern recognition receptor in oviduct epithelial (OE) cells that is stimulated during Chlamydia infection, resulting in the synthesis of beta interferon (IFN-?). Here, we present data that implicates TLR3 in the expression of a multitude of other innate-inflammatory immune modulators including interleukin-6 (IL-6), CXCL10, CXCL16, and CCL5. We demonstrate that Chlamydia-induced expression of these cytokines is severely disrupted in TLR3-deficient OE cells, whereas Chlamydia replication in the TLR3-deficient cells is more efficient than in wild-type OE cells. Pretreatment of the TLR3-deficient OE cells with 50 U of IFN-?/ml prior to infection diminished Chlamydia replication and restored the ability of Chlamydia infection to induce IL-6, CXCL10, and CCL5 expression in TLR3-deficient OE cells; however, CXCL16 induction was not restored by IFN-? preincubation. Our findings were corroborated in pathway-focused PCR arrays, which demonstrated a multitude of different inflammatory genes that were defectively regulated during Chlamydia infection of the TLR3-deficient OE cells, and we found that some of these genes were induced only when IFN-? was added prior to infection. Our OE cell data implicate TLR3 as an essential inducer of IFN-? and other inflammatory mediators by epithelial cells during Chlamydia infection and highlight the contribution of TLR3 to the inflammatory cytokine response.

Shobe, LaTasha R.; Kamran, Jasmine C.; Toomey, Katherine S.; Ofner, Susan

2012-01-01

97

Polymorphisms in the Chlamydia trachomatis Cytotoxin Locus Associated with Ocular and Genital Isolates  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia trachomatis is a strict human pathogen producing infections that cause medically important chronic inflammatory diseases, such as blinding trachoma and tubal factor infertility. Isolates exist as serotypes that fall into distinct biologic and pathological groups corresponding to differences in infection tissue tropism and invasion properties. Paradoxically, genome sequencing of several diverse strains has revealed a remarkable level of genomic synteny, suggesting that minor genetic differences determine the pathogen host- and tissue-specific infection characteristics. To better understand the genetic basis of chlamydial pathobiologic diversity, we performed comparative DNA-DNA microarray genomic hybridizations with all 15 C. trachomatis serovariants. We found there are few major genetic differences among the 15 serovars. An exception was the cytotoxin locus located in the plasticity zone, a region that exhibited significant polymorphisms among serovars. We therefore sequenced this region from all 15 serovars. The cytotoxin gene was interrupted by extensive mutations and deletions among the different serovars; however, three basic open reading frame motifs were discovered that correlated with noninvasive oculotropic, urogenitotropic, and invasive serovars. Of interest, only noninvasive genitotropic serovars possessed an intact N-terminal portion of the putative toxin gene. This region contains the UDP-glucose binding domain and the glycosyltransferase domain required for enzymatic activity of the clostridial toxin homologs, suggesting a role in urogenital infection or pathogenesis.

Carlson, John H.; Hughes, Scott; Hogan, Daniel; Cieplak, Gordon; Sturdevant, Daniel E.; McClarty, Grant; Caldwell, Harlan D.; Belland, Robert J.

2004-01-01

98

Early Local Cytokine Profiles in Strains of Mice with Different Outcomes from Chlamydial Genital Tract Infection  

PubMed Central

In this study, we expand on the examination of genetically determined differences in host responses that correlate with clearance of Chlamydia trachomatis from the genital tract. We infected C57BL/6, BALB/c, and C3H/HeN mice with the mouse pneumonitis agent of C. trachomatis (MoPn). C57BL/6 mice had the shortest course of infection (22 days) and the lowest incidence of severe hydrosalpinx. BALB/c mice also had a short course of infection (25 days), but all developed hydrosalpinx. C3H/HeN mice had the longest course of infection (38 days), and all developed severe hydrosalpinx. Determination of local cytokine responses by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of genital tract secretions revealed that the levels of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?) were significantly increased in the C57BL/6 and BALB/c strains compared to those in the C3H/HeN strain whereas the level of IL-6 was not different. The level of the neutrophil chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) was increased during the first week of infection in all three strains but was significantly higher in the BALB/c strain, the strain with the most rapid influx of neutrophils into the genital tract. Prolonged detection of MIP-2 in C3H/HeN mice was associated with a protracted presence of neutrophils in the genital tract. Early increases in the levels of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-? and IL-1? are associated with earlier eradication of infection in the C57BL/6 and BALB/c strains than in the C3H/HeN strain. Increased levels of MIP-2 and neutrophils in BALB/c and C3H/HeN mice relative to C57BL/6 mice suggest that these responses may contribute to pathology.

Darville, Toni; Andrews, Charles W.; Sikes, James D.; Fraley, Patrick L.; Rank, Roger. G.

2001-01-01

99

Better than nothing? Patient-delivered partner therapy and partner notification for chlamydia: the views of Australian general practitioners  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Genital chlamydia is the most commonly notified sexually transmissible infection (STI) in Australia and worldwide and can have serious reproductive health outcomes. Partner notification, testing and treatment are important facets of chlamydia control. Traditional methods of partner notification are not reaching enough partners to effectively control transmission of chlamydia. Patient-delivered partner therapy (PDPT) has been shown to improve the

Natasha L Pavlin; Rhian M Parker; Anna K Piggin; Carol A Hopkins; Meredith J Temple-Smith; Christopher K Fairley; Jane E Tomnay; Francis J Bowden; Darren B Russell; Jane S Hocking; Marian K Pitts; Marcus Y Chen

2010-01-01

100

Lower genital tract infections and HIV in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lower genital tract infections and HIV are major causes of morbidity and mortality among women; thier impact on the US economy\\u000a amounts to several billion dollars each year. Most lower genital tract infections—and their adverse sequelae, such as pelvic\\u000a inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic pain, and increased susceptibility to HIV—are caused by sexually transmitted\\u000a diseases (STDs). This article reviews

Madeline Y. Sutton

2000-01-01

101

Chlamydia trachomatis infection in dizygotic twins delivered by caesarean section.  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from the conjunctiva, pharynx, and rectum of one 10 day old twin delivered by caesarean section without prior rupture of the chorioamnion and from the pharynx of her brother. The means by which C trachomatis causes such infection is not known.

Bell, T A

1988-01-01

102

Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection Induces Differentiation of Monocytes into Macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Migration and differentiation of monocytes to the intima of blood vessels may be a crucial first step in the development of atherosclerosis associated with Chlamydia (Chlamydophila) pneumoniae. However, the involve- ment of C. pneumoniae infection in such steps is not clear. In the present study, therefore, the differentiation- inducing activity of C. pneumoniae to monocytes was examined. Human THP-1 monocytic

Hiroyuki Yamaguchi; Shusaku Haranaga; Ray Widen; Herman Friedman; Yoshimasa Yamamoto

2002-01-01

103

Infective endocarditis with glomerulonephritis associated with cat chlamydia (C. psittaci) infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A patient with glomerulonephritis and endocarditis is described who had evidence of feline Chlamydia psittaci infection. Treatment with antichlamydial drugs resulted in resolution of the glomerulonephritis and the endocarditis. It is recommended that screening for chlamydia is included in the investigation of patients with suspected or obscure endocarditis.

R J Regan; J R Dathan; J D Treharne

1979-01-01

104

Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in Urine Samples by Nucleic Acid Tests: Comparison with Culture and Enzyme Immunoassay of Genital Swab Specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two commercially available nucleic acid-based tests, ligase chain reaction (LCR; Abbott Laboratories) and PCR (Roche Diagnostics), for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in male and female urine samples were compared with culture and enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (Microtrak; Syva) for C. trachomatis detection in genital samples. The samples were collected from 1,005 patients who attended a sexually transmitted disease clinic. In

SONIA SCHEPETIUK; TUCKWENG KOK; LEANNE MARTIN; RUSSELL WADDELL; GEOFFREY HIGGINS

1997-01-01

105

Host-Cell Survival and Death During Chlamydia Infection  

PubMed Central

Different Chlamydia trachomatis strains are responsible for prevalent bacterial sexually-transmitted disease and represent the leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide. Factors that predispose individuals to disease and mechanisms by which chlamydiae cause inflammation and tissue damage remain unclear. Results from recent studies indicate that prolonged survival and subsequent death of infected cells and their effect on immune effector cells during chlamydial infection may be important in determining the outcome. Survival of infected cells is favored at early times of infection through inhibition of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Death at later times displays features of both apoptosis and necrosis, but pro-apoptotic caspases are not involved. Most studies on chlamydial modulation of host-cell death until now have been performed in cell lines. The consequences for pathogenesis and the immune response will require animal models of chlamydial infection, preferably mice with targeted deletions of genes that play a role in cell survival and death.

Ying, Songmin; Pettengill, Matthew; Ojcius, David M.; Hacker, Georg

2008-01-01

106

Spider Venom Peptides for Gene Therapy of Chlamydia Infection ?  

PubMed Central

Spider venoms are vast natural pharmacopoeias selected by evolution. The venom of the ant spider Lachesana tarabaevi contains a wide variety of antimicrobial peptides. We tested six of them (latarcins 1, 2a, 3a, 4b, 5, and cytoinsectotoxin 1a) for their ability to suppress Chlamydia trachomatis infection. HEK293 cells were transfected with plasmid vectors harboring the genes of the selected peptides. Controlled expression of the transgenes led to a significant decrease of C. trachomatis viability inside the infected cells.

Lazarev, Vassili N.; Polina, Nadezhda F.; Shkarupeta, Marina M.; Kostrjukova, Elena S.; Vassilevski, Alexander A.; Kozlov, Sergey A.; Grishin, Eugene V.; Govorun, Vadim M.

2011-01-01

107

Animal Models of Ascending Genital-Tract Infection in Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

This article reviews animal models currently used for investigation of ascending genital-tract infection in pregnancy. The specific models reviewed are those in the rabbit, monkey, and mouse. These models investigate both the direct effects of bacteria in the setting of ascending infection and the role of cytokines produced by the immune system. For each model, experiments that delineate the pathophysiology of ascending genital-tract infection in pregnancy are described. Intervention experiments, including the use of antibiotics, anti-inflammatory agents, immunotherapy, and anti-cytokine therapy, are described. Comparison of these models is made with respect to pathogenesis in humans, reproducibility, anatomy, and cost.

McDuffie, Robert S.; Gibbs, Ronald S.

1994-01-01

108

The possible association of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection with nasal polyps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to investigate the possible etiologic role of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in nasal polyps. This prospective clinical study was undertaken enrolling 30 patients with nasal polyps, and 30\\u000a age and sex-matched control subjects from whom epithelial material was obtained during endoscopic surgery. IgG specific ELISA\\u000a was used to determine seropositivity, and indirect immunoflorescence to determine

Teoman Zafer Apan; Do?an Alpay; Ye?im Alpay

2007-01-01

109

Distribution of Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection in the Atherosclerotic Carotid Artery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose— Chlamydia pneumoniaeinfection has recently become noteworthy in relation to atheroscle- rosis. We investigated by immunohistochemistry the distribution of C pneumoniae infection in the atherosclerotic carotid artery. Methods—Twenty carotid atherosclerotic lesions that were resected during carotid endarterectomy were investigated. Parallel sections were stained immunohistochemically with monoclonal antibodies for a C pneumoniae-specific antigen, macrophages, and smooth muscle cells. Results—Immunoreactivity

Katsuhiro Yamashita; Kazunobu Ouchi; Mutsunori Shirai; Toshikazu Gondo; Teruko Nakazawa; Haruhide Ito

110

Comparison of the Clearview Chlamydia test, Chlamydiazyme, and cell culture for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in women with a low prevalence of infection.  

PubMed Central

Two antigen detection systems, Clearview Chlamydia (Unipath Ltd., Bedford, United Kingdom) and Chlamydiazyme (Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, Ill.), were compared with culture for the diagnosis of chlamydia infection in women attending gynecological clinics. Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from 43 (4.5%) of the 965 women tested. In comparison with tissue culture, the Clearview Chlamydia and Chlamydiazyme tests had sensitivities of 79.0 and 74.4%, respectively, and both had a specificity of 99.6%. The results show that the Clearview Chlamydia test is comparable to Chlamydiazyme for the detection of C. trachomatis from endocervical specimens in a population with a low prevalence of infection.

Skulnick, M; Small, G W; Simor, A E; Low, D E; Khosid, H; Fraser, S; Chua, R

1991-01-01

111

Laboratory diagnosis of Chlamydia pneumoniae infections  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia pneumoniae is an important cause of respiratory illness. There is a need for accurate and rapid laboratory diagnostic methods that will lead to improved patient care, appropriate use of antimicrobial therapy and a better understanding of the epidemiology of this emerging pathogen. Culture is highly specific but is technically demanding, expensive, has a long turnaround time and its sensitivity is highly dependent on transport conditions. Antigen detection tests such as enzyme immunoassay and direct fluorescent antibody assay, and molecular detection methods such as the polymerase chain reaction assay, may provide a rapid diagnosis without the requirement for stringent transport conditions. The results of these tests should be interpreted with caution until more thorough evaluation is available. Serology remains the method of choice. The limitations of different serological methods for the laboratory diagnosis of C pneumoniae are discussed.

Peeling, Rosanna W

1995-01-01

112

Isolation of 'Chlamydia trachomatis' from the Human Genital Tract by Cell Culture: A Summary. (40).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of examination of 183 specimens from the human genital tract are reported, 156 from males and 27 from females. The specimens were obtained in a series of collaborative studies in 5 different locations. Inoculation of irradiated cell monolayers...

F. B. Gordon A. L. Quan

1970-01-01

113

Human Mannose-Binding Protein Inhibits Infection of HeLa Cells by Chlamydia trachomatis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role that collectin (mannose-binding protein) may play in the host's defense against chlamydial infection was investigated. Recombinant human mannose-binding protein was used in the inhibition of cell culture infec- tion by Chlamydia trachomatis (C\\/TW-3\\/OT, E\\/UW-5\\/Cx, and L2\\/434\\/Bu), Chlamydia pneumoniae (AR-39), and Chlamydia psittaci (6BC). Mannose-binding protein (MBP) inhibited infection of all chlamydial strains by at least 50% at 0.098

ALBERTINA F. SWANSON; R. ALAN B. EZEKOWITZ; AMY LEE; CHO-CHOU KUO

1998-01-01

114

Mcl-1 Is a Key Regulator of Apoptosis Resistance in Chlamydia trachomatis-Infected Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydia are obligate intracellular bacteria that cause variety of human diseases. Host cells infected with Chlamydia are protected against many different apoptotic stimuli. The induction of apoptosis resistance is thought to be an important immune escape mechanism allowing Chlamydia to replicate inside the host cell. Infection with C. trachomatis activates the Raf\\/MEK\\/ERK pathway and the PI3K\\/AKT pathway. Here we show

Krishnaraj Rajalingam; Manu Sharma; Christine Lohmann; Monique Oswald; Oliver Thieck; Christopher J. Froelich; Thomas Rudel; Raphael H. Valdivia

2008-01-01

115

Modulation of MICA on the surface of Chlamydia trachomatis-infected endocervical epithelial cells promotes NK cell-mediated killing.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis serovars D-K are obligate intracellular bacteria that have tropism for the columnar epithelial cells of the genital tract. Chlamydia trachomatis infection has been reported to induce modifications in immune cell ligand expression on epithelial host cells. In this study, we used an in vitro infection model that resulted in a partial infection of C. trachomatis-exposed primary-like immortalized endocervical epithelial cells (A2EN). Using this model, we demonstrated that expression of the natural killer (NK) cell activating ligand, MHC class I-related protein A (MICA), was upregulated on C. trachomatis-infected, but not on noninfected bystander cells. MICA upregulation was concomitant with MHC class I downregulation and impacted the susceptibility of C. trachomatis-infected cells to NK cell activity. The specificity of MICA upregulation was reflected by a higher cytolytic activity of an NK cell line (NK92MI) against C. trachomatis-infected cells compared with uninfected control cells. Significantly, data also indicated that NK cells exerted a partial, but incomplete sterilizing effect on C. trachomatis as shown by the reduction in recoverable inclusion forming units (IFU) when cocultured with C. trachomatis-infected cells. Taken together, our data suggest that NK cells may play a significant role in the ability of the host to counter C. trachomatis infection. PMID:22251247

Ibana, Joyce Altamarino; Aiyar, Ashok; Quayle, Alison Jane; Schust, Danny Joseph

2012-02-16

116

The chlamydia screening studies: rationale and design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Screening has been recommended to reduce the prevalence and morbidity associated with genital chlamydia infection in the United Kingdom.Methods: We describe the rationale and study design of the Chlamydia Screening Studies (ClaSS), a collaborative project designed to evaluate screening outside genitourinary medicine clinics. A non-selective, active screening approach in 16–39 year olds randomly sampled from 27 general practice lists

N Low; A McCarthy; J Macleod; C Salisbury; P J Horner; T E Roberts; R Campbell; A Herring; S Skidmore; E Sanford; J A C Sterne; G Davey Smith; A Graham; M Huengsberg; J Ross; M Egger

2004-01-01

117

An Important Proportion of Genital Samples Submitted for Chlamydia trachomatis Detection by PCR Contain Small Amounts of Cellular DNA as Measured by b-Globin Gene Amplification  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the quality of genital samples submitted for Chlamydia trachomatis detection by PCR by a second PCR assay for the presence of human b-globin DNA. Endocervical and urethral samples were first tested by the COBAS AMPLICOR C. trachomatis assay (Roche Diagnostic Systems) with an internal control and were then amplified for the presence of b-globin DNA with primers PC04

FRANCOIS COUTLEE; MANON DE LADURANTAYE; CAROLE TREMBLAY; JEAN VINCELETTE; LOUISE LABRECQUE; MICHEL ROGER

118

Genotyping of the prevalent Chlamydia trachomatis strains involved in cervical infections in women in Ahvaz, Iran.  

PubMed

To determine the prevalence of cervical Chlamydia trachomatis genotypes in Iran for the first time and their association with three clinical symptoms/signs, i.e. abnormal vaginal discharge, lower abdominal pain (LAP) and swab-induced bleeding, and patient age, 620 cervical specimens were obtained from women with symptomatic genital infection referred to gynaecological clinics and 108 C. trachomatis-positive specimens were genotyped by direct omp1 gene PCR-RFLP analysis. Eight genotypes were identified. The most prevalent genotype was E (31.5 %), followed by F (23.1 %), D/Da (13 %), K (9.2 %), I (8.3 %), G (7.5 %), H (5.5 %) and J (1.9 %). For analysing the association of C. trachomatis genotypes with symptoms/signs and age, P-values were separately evaluated for genogroups and genotypes. The analysis of genogroups showed that women infected with genogroup F/G manifested the symptom of LAP significantly more often than those infected with the other genogroups (P=0.02), while the analysis of genotypes revealed that women infected with genotype F reported LAP slightly more often than women infected with the other genotypes (P=0.08). No significant correlation between genogroups and age was found; however, genotype E was somewhat less prevalent among women aged 25-34 years than among other age groups (P=0.08). PMID:20508000

Taheri Beni, Behrouz; Beni, Behrouz Taheri; Motamedi, Hossein; Ardakani, Mohammad Roayaei

2010-05-27

119

Infections in the male genital tract and reactive oxygen species  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the male genital tract, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated by spermatozoa and leukocytes including neutrophils and macrophages. ROS are involved in the regulation of sperm functions such as capacitation and the acrosome reaction. Infections lead to an excessive ROS production, resulting in an 'oxidative burst' from neutrophils\\/macrophages as a first-line defence mechanism. This is modulated by several cytokines

F. R. Ochsendorf

1999-01-01

120

Epidemiological Studies Relating Genital Herpetic Infection to Cervical Carcinoma1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A large number of epidemiological studies, with a variety of different approaches, have focused in the past decade on the relation of genital herpetic or herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection to cervical cancer. The results reported here of the high frequency of HSV-2 antibodies in young women (<21 years) with cervical carcinoma in situ and in women

J. Nahmias; Zuher M. Naib; William E. Josey

121

Genital ulcers associated with acute Epstein-Barr virus infection.  

PubMed

To date there have been only five reported cases of females with genital ulceration associated with primary Epstein-Barr virus infection. We describe two further patients and review the clinical features of all seven cases, noting the typical features, particularly purple ulcer margins and systemic symptoms, which should alert the physician to consider this diagnosis. PMID:9924475

Taylor, S; Drake, S M; Dedicoat, M; Wood, M J

1998-08-01

122

Genital ulcers associated with acute Epstein-Barr virus infection  

PubMed Central

To date there have been only five reported cases of females with genital ulceration associated with primary Epstein-Barr virus infection. We describe two further patients and review the clinical features of all seven cases, noting the typical features, particularly purple ulcer margins and systemic symptoms, which should alert the physician to consider this diagnosis. ???

Taylor, S.; Drake, S. M.; Dedicoat, M.; Wood, M. J.

1998-01-01

123

Comparative Assessment of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Iranian Women with Cervicitis: A Cross-Sectional Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydia trachomatis infections are the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STI) recognized through- out the world. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis among a randomized statis- tical group of women suffering from cervicitis in Tehran- Iran. During a 12- month- period, Jan 2003 to Jan 2004, 142 en- docervical samples were taken

J Zaeimi Yazdi; N Badami; B Kazemi; F Aminharati; Z Eftekhar; A Berahme; M Mahmoudi

2006-01-01

124

Chlamydiae and Mycoplasma infections in pulmonary MALT lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia pneumoniae, Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia psittaci were detected at low frequencies (<20%) among 69 pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas, 30 other lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) and 44 non-LPD. The incidence of individual Chlamydiae was generally higher in MALT lymphoma than non-LPD, although not reaching statistical significance. Mycoplasma pneumoniae DNA was not detected.

Chanudet, E; Adam, P; Nicholson, A G; Wotherspoon, A C; Ranaldi, R; Goteri, G; Pileri, S A; Ye, H; Muller-Hermelink, H K; Du, M-Q

2007-01-01

125

Chlamydiae and Mycoplasma infections in pulmonary MALT lymphoma.  

PubMed

Chlamydia pneumoniae, Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia psittaci were detected at low frequencies (<20%) among 69 pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas, 30 other lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) and 44 non-LPD. The incidence of individual Chlamydiae was generally higher in MALT lymphoma than non-LPD, although not reaching statistical significance. Mycoplasma pneumoniae DNA was not detected. PMID:17876330

Chanudet, E; Adam, P; Nicholson, A G; Wotherspoon, A C; Ranaldi, R; Goteri, G; Pileri, S A; Ye, H; Müller-Hermelink, H K; Du, M-Q

2007-09-18

126

Molecular epidemiology of herpes simplex virus type 1 genital infection in association with clinical manifestations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?The antigenic types of herpes simplex virus (HSV), HSV-1 and HSV-2 are considered to be the etiology of genital herpes. Symptoms\\u000a of primary HSV-1 and HSV-2 genital infections are similar, however, recurrence of the infection is less frequent after the\\u000a HSV-1-related genital infection. We determined genotypes of 79 HSV-1 strains isolated from genital lesions in women (43 from\\u000a primary and

K. Umene; T. Kawana

2000-01-01

127

Genital Tract Sequestration of SIV following Acute Infection  

PubMed Central

We characterized the evolution of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in the male genital tract by examining blood- and semen-associated virus from experimentally and sham vaccinated rhesus monkeys during primary infection. At the time of peak virus replication, SIV sequences were intermixed between the blood and semen supporting a scenario of high-level virus “spillover” into the male genital tract. However, at the time of virus set point, compartmentalization was apparent in 4 of 7 evaluated monkeys, likely as a consequence of restricted virus gene flow between anatomic compartments after the resolution of primary viremia. These findings suggest that SIV replication in the male genital tract evolves to compartmentalization after peak viremia resolves.

Whitney, James B.; Hraber, Peter T.; Luedemann, Corinne; Giorgi, Elena E.; Daniels, Marcus G.; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Rao, Srinivas S.; Mascola, John R.; Nabel, Gary J.; Korber, Bette T.; Letvin, Norman L.

2011-01-01

128

The epidemiology of genital human papillomavirus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical and subclinical human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are the most common sexually transmitted infections in the world, and most sexually-active individuals are likely to be exposed to HPV infection during their lifetimes. More than 40 genotypes of HPV infect the epithelial lining of the anogenital tract and other mucosal areas of the body; of these, 13–18 types are considered to

Helen Trottier; Eduardo L. Franco

2006-01-01

129

Differences in clinical manifestations of genital chlamydial infections related to serovars.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To study the association of serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis with clinical manifestations of genital tract infection and socio-demographic characteristics. METHODS: In 1986-88 the C trachomatis isolates from 159 heterosexual men and 116 women attending a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic were collected and typed accordingly. A medical history was recorded, a physical examination took place and samples were taken for laboratory diagnostics. RESULTS: Serovars E, F and D were the most common for both men (75%) and women (67%). Men infected with serovars of the C-complex had more often a history of STD (p = 0.06). The opposite was demonstrated in women (p = 0.07). In addition, women younger than 18 years at first intercourse were more often infected with C-complex serovars (p = 0.05). For men, the serovars F/G less often produced symptoms of urethral discharge (p = 0.01) than the serovars of the B-complex and C-complex and were less often associated with the presence of 10 or more leukocytes in a Gram-stained smear (p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, infections with serovars F and G caused less obvious symptoms and signs of inflammation in men; in women no differences were found in the clinical manifestation of infections with different serovars.

van de Laar, M J; van Duynhoven, Y T; Fennema, J S; Ossewaarde, J M; van den Brule, A J; van Doornum, G J; Coutinho, R A; van den Hoek, J A

1996-01-01

130

Respiratory tract infection due to Chlamydia pneumoniae in military personnel.  

PubMed

The objective of this investigation was to determine whether Chlamydia pneumoniae was involved in an outbreak of respiratory disease among military recruits, 92 patients (average age 20.1 years) were included in the study if they had a sore throat or cough for more than 1 week. In addition to sore throat and cough, fatigue, headache, dyspnoea and vertigo were the most frequent symptoms. The patients received standard treatment with 100 mg of doxycycline b.i.d. for 14 days. In 38.8% of cases symptoms were alleviated after 1-2 weeks of treatment, and in 22.4% of cases after 2-3 weeks of treatment. Pretreatment throat washings and sera were sampled for Chlamydia. Sera were drawn for Chlamydia, Mycoplasma and adenovirus serology. Cell culture (Hep-2) and 3 different serological methods-microimmunofluorescence (MIF), enzyme immunoassay with a recombinant glycoconjugate antigen (r-EIA) and immunoperoxidase assay (IPA)-were used. Cell culture was found to have too low a sensitivity to be of diagnostic value. Acute infection was demonstrated in 13% by MIF IgM and in an additional 21% by MIF IgG (titre rises). Enzyme immunoassay IgM was found in 17% and IPA IgM in 19% of individuals without MIF IgM antibodies. Microimmunofluorescence was found to be the most useful test for serodiagnosis. The combination of serological methods showed that 40 out of 52 (76.9%) had an acute infection with possible chlamydial aetiology. In conclusion, methodological improvements are necessary for the aetiological diagnosis of chlamydial respiratory infections. PMID:9259077

Csángó, P A; Haraldstad, S; Pedersen, J E; Jagars, G; Føreland, I

1997-01-01

131

HPV Infection in Women: Psychosexual Impact of Genital Warts and Intraepithelial Lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Genital Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most commonly occurring sexually transmitted viral infection in humans. HPV is a wide family of DNA viruses, which may cause benign skin and mucosal tumors (genital, anal or oral warts), intraepithelial neoplasias and\\/or malignant cancers in different organs. Women are more susceptible to the oncogenic effect of HPVs, mostly at the genital

Alessandra Graziottin; Audrey Serafini

2009-01-01

132

Partner notification of chlamydia infection in primary care: randomised controlled trial and analysis of resource use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a practice nurse led strategy to improve the notification and treatment of partners of people with chlamydia infection. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting 27 general practices in the Bristol and Birmingham areas. Participants 140 men and women with chlamydia (index cases) diagnosed by screening of a home collected urine sample or vulval swab specimen.

Anne McCarthy; Mia Huengsberg; Emma Sanford; Jonathan A C Sterne; John Macleod; Chris Salisbury; Karl Pye; Aisha Holloway; Andrea Morcom; Rita Patel; Paddy Horner

2005-01-01

133

Chlamydial genital infection in Algiers: a sero-epidemiological survey.  

PubMed

Using a microimmunofluorescence test, the prevalence of antichlamydial immunoglobulin (Ig) G in 720 people in Algiers was studied. 34 (36%) of women with low genital infection, 28 (30%) of 91 patients attending a cancer screening clinic, and 44 (100%) of prostitutes had antichlamydial IgG at a titre greater than or equal to 1:16. Among 180 women seeking a rubeola test, 48 (26.6%) had IgG titres greater than or equal to 1:16. 144 infants less than 3 months old were also tested and 16.6% of them had IgG titres greater than or equal to 1:160; 20 (20.7%) of 97 men with chronic urethritis had IgG titres greater than or equal to 1:16. Antibody titres suggesting active disease in prostitutes, patients attending the cancer screening clinic and women with low genital infection were found in 95%, 11% and 17% respectively. PMID:2096526

Kadi, Z; Bouguermouh, A; Djenaoui, T; Allouache, A; Dali, S; Hadji, N

134

Risk profile for chlamydia infection in women from public health clinics in New York State  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of chlamydial infection and associated risk factors were studied in 1531 women from ten clinics in New York State excluding New York City. OverallChlamydia infection rates were 13.6%; 17.6% in eight high risk family planning and STD clinics, and 5.7% in two low risk college and private clinics. Risk factors forChlamydia infection included: age <20 years (odds ratio

Yangsook Han; Dale L. Morse; Charles E. Lawrence; Dennis Murphy; Sally Hipp

1993-01-01

135

Dual genitotropic human papillomavirus infections in genital warts.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND METHODS--We have carried out a prospective study of dual genitotropic human papillomavirus (HPV) infections by means of two different DNA detection methods in biopsy specimens obtained from patients who were examined for genital warts at the STD clinic of the School of Medicine in Seville, between January 1990 and December 1991. RESULTS--100 patients with a clinical diagnosis of condilomata acuminata were seen during the study period. DNA of the genitotropic HPV 6/11, 16/18 and 31/33/35 was detected by an in situ hybridisation method in 75 (77%) of the 98 evaluable samples; one of the genotypes tested in 59 (61%) samples, and two or more genotypes tested in the remaining 16 (15%) samples. In 21 (98%) of the 23 negative samples by in situ hybridisation, we were able to detect DNA of genital HPV using a polymerase chain reaction amplification method (PCR). Among the 34 samples where PCR was applied we confirmed the presence of two different HPV genotypes in eight samples. CONCLUSIONS--The frequency of dual infections with human genitotropic papillomavirus in genital warts was 8%, although we believe that this rate should be higher as we have not used the PCR method in all of the samples.

Aznar, J; Ojeda, A; Torres, M J; Palomares, J C; Rodriguez-Pichardo, A

1993-01-01

136

Neither Interleukin6 nor Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Is Required for Clearance of Chlamydia trachomatis from the Murine Genital Tract Epithelium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female mice bearing targeted mutations in the interleukin-6 or inducible nitric oxide synthase locus mounted effective immune responses following vaginal infection with Chlamydia trachomatis. Chlamydial clearance rates, local Th1 cytokine production, and host antibody responses were similar to those of immunocompetent control mice. Therefore, neither gene product appears to be critical for the resolution of chlamydial infections of the urogenital

LINDA L. PERRY; KAREN FEILZER; HARLAN D. CALDWELL

1998-01-01

137

[Chlamydia and sexually transmitted germs. Description and bacteriological diagnosis].  

PubMed

In this article, the author emphasizes the articular complications of genital infections caused by gonococci, mycoplasma and Chlamydia. He describes the laboratory techniques used to isolate, identify on appropriate media and, if need be, assay the serum or joint antibodies for each of these micro-organisms. If it is difficult to determine the aetiology of a particular case of joint pain, one should keep in mind the possibility that an old or recent genital infection may be responsible. PMID:6420875

Catalan, F

1983-12-01

138

CT043, a Protective Antigen That Induces a CD4+ Th1 Response during Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Mice and Humans?  

PubMed Central

Despite several decades of intensive studies, no vaccines against Chlamydia trachomatis, an intracellular pathogen causing serious ocular and urogenital diseases, are available yet. Infection-induced immunity in both animal models and humans strongly supports the notion that for a vaccine to be effective a strong CD4+ Th1 immune response should be induced. In the course of our vaccine screening program based on the selection of chlamydial proteins eliciting cell-mediated immunity, we have found that CT043, a protein annotated as hypothetical, induces CD4+ Th1 cells both in chlamydia-infected mice and in human patients with diagnosed C. trachomatis genital infection. DNA priming/protein boost immunization with CT043 results in a 2.6-log inclusion-forming unit reduction in the murine lung infection model. Sequence analysis of CT043 from C. trachomatis human isolates belonging to the most representative genital serovars revealed a high degree of conservation, suggesting that this antigen could provide cross-serotype protection. Therefore, CT043 is a promising vaccine candidate against C. trachomatis infection.

Meoni, Eva; Faenzi, Elisa; Frigimelica, Elisabetta; Zedda, Luisanna; Skibinski, David; Giovinazzi, Serena; Bonci, Alessandra; Petracca, Roberto; Bartolini, Erika; Galli, Giuliano; Agnusdei, Mauro; Nardelli, Filomena; Buricchi, Francesca; Norais, Nathalie; Ferlenghi, Ilaria; Donati, Manuela; Cevenini, Roberto; Finco, Oretta; Grandi, Guido; Grifantini, Renata

2009-01-01

139

Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a worldwide-distributed sexually transmitted infection that may lead to infertility. Objectives This study aims to report the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods A community-based study carried out at the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at Jazan General Hospital, Saudi Arabia. The study group included 640 Saudi infertile women who were aged between 18 and 40 years and who attended the gynecology clinic for infertility examination throughout 1 year of study (from July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012). The randomized control group included 100 Saudi fertile women who attended the obstetrics clinic for routine antenatal care. All recruited women were screened for chlamydia infection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of serum-specific antibodies and then retested by the McCoy cell culture technique. Results The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women was high, at 15.0%. The rate of chlamydia infection detected by ELISA was 9.84%, and it was 12.03% by the culture method (P = 0.2443). Conclusion The high prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among Saudi infertile women demands a national screening program for early detection among infertile couples. ELISA is available as a simple screening test alternative to the culture method.

Kamel, Remah M

2013-01-01

140

Sphingolipid trafficking and purification in Chlamydia trachomatis-infected cells.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular human pathogen, which lacks a system that allows genetic manipulation. Therefore, chlamydial researchers must manipulate the host cell to better understand chlamydial biology. Host-derived lipid acquisition is critical for chlamydial survival within the host. Hence, the ability to track and purify sphingolipids in/from chlamydial infected cells has become an integral part of pivotal studies in chlamydial biology. This unit outlines protocols that provide details about labeling eukaryotic cells with exogenous lipids to examine Golgi-derived lipid trafficking to the chlamydial inclusion and then performing imaging studies or lipid extractions for quantification. Details are provided to allow these protocols to be applied to subconfluent, polarized, or siRNA knockdown cells. In addition, one will find important experimental design considerations and techniques. These methods are powerful tools to aid in the understanding of mechanisms, which allow C. trachomatis to manipulate and usurp host cell trafficking pathways. PMID:23184593

Moore, Elizabeth R

2012-11-01

141

Role of cervical dendritic cell subsets, co-stimulatory molecules, cytokine secretion profile and beta-estradiol in development of sequalae to Chlamydia trachomatis infection  

PubMed Central

Background Chlamydia trachomatis infection of the female genital tract can lead to serious sequelae resulting in fertility related disorders. Little is known about the mechanism leading to Chlamydia induced pathology and factors responsible for it. As only some of the women develops reproductive disorders while majority of the women clears infection without any severe sequalae, mucosal immune response in women with or without fertility disorders was studied to identify factors which may lead to final clinical outcome of chlamydial infection. Methods Myeloid DCs (mDCs) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) populations in cervical mucosa and peripheral blood were analyzed in controls and Chlamydia positive women with or without fertility disorders with multicoloured flow cytometric analysis. Cervical cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma), C-reactive protein levels and sex hormone levels in serum were quantified by ELISA. Results In cervix of Chlamydia positive women with fertility disorders, significantly high (P < 0.05) numbers of pDCs were present with increased CD80 expression. pDCs correlated significantly with C-reactive protein levels, IL-6 and IFN-gamma levels in women with fertility disorders. In contrast, mDCs showed significant upregulation of CD1a during chlamydial infection and correlated significantly with IL-12 levels in Chlamydia positive fertile women. ?-estradiol levels were significantly higher in women having fertility disorders as compared to fertile women and have significant correlations (r = 0.65; P < 0.05) with pDCs numbers, CD80 expression, IL-6 levels and IFN-gamma levels in these women. Conclusion These results suggest that development of sequalae in some women can be a result of interplay of many factors including type of dendritic cell, co stimulatory molecule expression, cytokine secretion pattern and hormone levels.

Agrawal, Tanvi; Vats, Vikas; Wallace, Paul K; Salhan, Sudha; Mittal, Aruna

2008-01-01

142

Seroepidemiological and socioeconomic studies of genital chlamydial infection in Ethiopian women  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To measure the prevalence of chlamydial genital infection in Ethiopian women attending gynaecological, obstetric and family planning clinics; to identify the epidemiological, social and economic factors affecting the prevalence of infection in a country where routine laboratory culture and serological tests for chlamydial species are unavailable; to determine the risk factors for genital chlamydial infection in those with serological evidence

M E Duncan; Y Jamil; G Tibaux; A Pelzer; L Mehari; S Darougar

1992-01-01

143

Chlamydia trachomatis strains and virulence: rethinking links to infection prevalence and disease severity.  

PubMed

An unanswered question concerning prevalence and disease severity of Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection is whether more prevalent strains or strains more likely to cause serious disease complications are causally associated with specific virulence attributes. The major method for distinguishing chlamydial strains is based on differences in the major outer membrane protein (MOMP). A subset of MOMP serovars (D and E serovars) are easily the most prevalent strains identified worldwide, but MOMP serovar and genovar analyses have not yielded consistent strain-dependent virulence distinctions. Expansion of the definitions of chlamydial strains beyond the MOMP paradigm are needed to better understand virulence properties for this pathogen and how these properties reflect disease severity. Substantive genetic and phenotypic differences have emerged for the 2 major C. trachomatis pathobiotypes associated with either trachoma or sexually transmitted diseases, but differences within the sexually transmitted disease group have not yielded reliable disease severity attributes. A number of candidate virulence factors have been identified, including the polymorphic outer membrane autotransporter family of proteins, the putative large cytotoxin, type III secretion effectors, stress response proteins, and proteins or other regulatory factors produced by the cryptic plasmid. Continued work on development of a chlamydial gene transfer system and application of genomic approaches to large collections of clinical isolates will be required to associate key chlamydial virulence factors with prevalence and disease severity in a definitive way. PMID:20470049

Byrne, Gerald I

2010-06-15

144

Chlamydia trachomatis Infection Induces Replication of Latent HHV-6  

PubMed Central

Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) exists in latent form either as a nuclear episome or integrated into human chromosomes in more than 90% of healthy individuals without causing clinical symptoms. Immunosuppression and stress conditions can reactivate HHV-6 replication, associated with clinical complications and even death. We have previously shown that co-infection of Chlamydia trachomatis and HHV-6 promotes chlamydial persistence and increases viral uptake in an in vitro cell culture model. Here we investigated C. trachomatis-induced HHV-6 activation in cell lines and fresh blood samples from patients having Chromosomally integrated HHV-6 (CiHHV-6). We observed activation of latent HHV-6 DNA replication in CiHHV-6 cell lines and fresh blood cells without formation of viral particles. Interestingly, we detected HHV-6 DNA in blood as well as cervical swabs from C. trachomatis-infected women. Low virus titers correlated with high C. trachomatis load and vice versa, demonstrating a potentially significant interaction of these pathogens in blood cells and in the cervix of infected patients. Our data suggest a thus far underestimated interference of HHV-6 and C. trachomatis with a likely impact on the disease outcome as consequence of co-infection.

Prusty, Bhupesh K.; Siegl, Christine; Hauck, Petra; Hain, Johannes; Korhonen, Suvi J.; Hiltunen-Back, Eija; Puolakkainen, Mirja; Rudel, Thomas

2013-01-01

145

A Survey on the Prevalence of Chlamydia Trachomatis and Mycoplasma Genitalium Infections in Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Men Referring to Urology Clinic of Labbafinejad Hospital, Tehran, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium infections are the most prevalent sexually transmitted bacterial infections in the world that cause urogenital infections in both men and women. It appears that infertility is a complication of these infections. Objective This study was designed to estimate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium in symptomatic and asymptomatic men and to assess risk factors associated with infection. Patients and Methods Urine specimens were collected from 200 men; 100 of them were symptomatic and 100 asymptomatic. Samples were examined by PCR to detect the infections. Results C. trachomatis was detected in 20% of symptomatic and in 4% of asymptomatic men (P < 0.001). The prevalence of M. genitalium was revealed to be 12% and 2% in symptomatic and asymptomatic men, respectively (P < 0.01). Four of 100 men in the symptomatic group were infected with both organisms. C. trachomatis infection was associated with dysuria, urethral discharge, testicular swelling, and genital ulcer (P < 0.05). M. genitalium infection was related with dysuria, testis inflammation, pelvic pain and low educational level (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the prevalence of infections at ages 30-39 years was more than other ages. Conclusions Considering the role of these bacteria in urogenital infections, a screening test is recommended. Since the PCR assay is a highly sensitive and specific assay for the detection of these bacteria in male urine specimens, it provides a noninvasive technique for routine screening.

Yeganeh, Omid; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Yaghmaie, Farhad; Kamali, Kourosh; Heidari-Vala, Hamed; Zeraati, Hojjat; Shakhssalim, Nasser; Zarei, Saeed; Chamani-Tabriz, Leili

2013-01-01

146

Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

Chlamydia pneumoniae, an intracellular bacterium, is associated with respiratory diseases, reinfectivity and chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension and stroke. The risk of infection is higher and infections are a serious clinical problem in patients with type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Although diabetes mellitus and hyperglycaemia are considered possible risk factors for various types of aetiological agents, the epidemiological evidence concerning C. pneumoniae infection is scanty. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, an indicator of a hyperglycaemic state, on C. pneumoniae infection and disease chronicity; in addition we compared the duration of diabetes with the occurrence of C. pneumoniae infection. C. pneumoniae blood real time PCR and serology (IgG, IgA and IgM) assays by an ELISA method were performed. C. pneumoniae DNA was detected in 46.5?% [95?% confidence interval (CI)?=?35.1-57.9?%] of the patients with T1DM; this prevalence is higher (P<0.05) than in non-diabetic paediatric controls, 10.5?% (95?% CI?=?3.6-17.4?%). IgG/IgA C. pneumoniae antibody positivity was significantly (P?0.05) more common in patients in poor metabolic control (HbA1c >9?%) versus patients in good metabolic control (HbA1c <7?%), suggesting that the metabolic control of the disease is compromised in the patients with T1DM. In conclusion, adolescents with T1DM were more likely to show signs of infection with C. pneumoniae compared with healthy adolescents and the results suggest an increased risk of progressing from an acute C. pneumoniae infection to a chronic form. PMID:22859582

Rizzo, Antonietta; Paolillo, Rossella; Iafusco, Dario; Prisco, Francesco; Romano Carratelli, Caterina

2012-08-02

147

Individual immunity and susceptibility to female genital tract infection.  

PubMed

The responses to genital tract infection vary among different women to a far greater extent than has previously been appreciated. All women are not genetically identical and have not been exposed to identical environments; therefore it is naive to expect that a particular microorganism will elicit the identical response and have the identical sequelae for each infected individual. The genes inherited from one's parents, which contain specific polymorphisms in immune response genes, greatly influence the direction and magnitude of the immune response to microorganisms. Similarly, extrinsic variables, such as the type or quantity of a specific infection, whether there is a coinfection with another microorganism, such as an intracellular parasite, and whether an immediate hypersensitivity response is concurrently induced also determine the nature of the host response and thus the consequences of microbial exposure. Finally, factors such as the frequency of sexual intercourse and previous immune sensitization to spermatozoa or other components of a particular ejaculate also influence the outcome. An increased awareness of the uniqueness of each host will lead to the development of more precise individualized treatments and improvements in combating infectious diseases of the female genital tract. PMID:10920340

Witkin, S S; Linhares, I; Giraldo, P; Jeremias, J; Ledger, W J

2000-07-01

148

[Innate immunity to infection in the lower female genital tract].  

PubMed

Due to the contact with the external environment, the lower female genital tract is non-sterile. The innate immune system has evolved many mechanisms to protect vaginal tissues from pathogens at the same time allowing for survival of the comensal flora. Innate immunity in the lower female genital tract undergoes hormonal regulation. Estrogen and progesterone levels also influence the vaginal mucosal epithelium remodeling with the neutrophlis playing a crucial role, as the most numerous leukocytes in the vaginal tissue. Being exposed to the environment, the vaginal epithelium consists a physical barrier for pathogens, but it also shows the presence of MHC class I and pattern recognition receptors. By production of cytokines and chemokines, the vaginal epithelium attracts innate immune cells such as neutrophiles, macrophages, dendritic cells or NK cells. Vaginal comensal flora is another important mechanism of innate immunity by production of lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide, inhibiting pathogen's growth. Disturbances of vaginal microflora can result in pathogenic infections such as bacterial vaginosis or candidosis. Together with herpes genitalis, HPV infection, chlamydiosis, trichomatosis and gonorrhoea, vaginal infections increase the risk of acquiring another sexually transmitted disease, includig HIV due to the impaired mucosal integrity, facilitating for tissue penetration by pathogens and development of local inflammation. PMID:23667098

Gregorczyk, Karolina Paulina; Krzy?owska, Ma?gorzata

2013-05-10

149

Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis Infections among Ethnic Groups in Paramaribo, Suriname; Determinants and Ethnic Sexual Mixing Patterns  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about the epidemiology of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection (chlamydia) in Suriname. Suriname is a society composed of many ethnic groups, such as Creoles, Maroons, Hindustani, Javanese, Chinese, Caucasians, and indigenous Amerindians. We estimated determinants for chlamydia, including the role of ethnicity, and identified transmission patterns and ethnic sexual networks among clients of two clinics in Paramaribo, Suriname. Methods Participants were recruited at two sites a sexually transmitted infections (STI) clinic and a family planning (FP) clinic in Paramaribo. Urine samples from men and nurse-collected vaginal swabs were obtained for nucleic acid amplification testing. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify determinants of chlamydia. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed to genotype C. trachomatis. To identify transmission patterns and sexual networks, a minimum spanning tree was created, using full MLST profiles. Clusters in the minimum spanning tree were compared for ethnic composition. Results Between March 2008 and July 2010, 415 men and 274 women were included at the STI clinic and 819 women at the FP clinic. Overall chlamydia prevalence was 15% (224/1508). Age, ethnicity, and recruitment site were significantly associated with chlamydia in multivariable analysis. Participants of Creole and Javanese ethnicity were more frequently infected with urogenital chlamydia. Although sexual mixing with other ethnic groups did differ significantly per ethnicity, this mixing was not independently significantly associated with chlamydia. We typed 170 C. trachomatis-positive samples (76%) and identified three large C. trachomatis clusters. Although the proportion from various ethnic groups differed significantly between the clusters (P?=?0.003), all five major ethnic groups were represented in all three clusters. Conclusion Chlamydia prevalence in Suriname is high and targeted prevention measures are required. Although ethnic sexual mixing differed between ethnic groups, differences in prevalence between ethnic groups could not be explained by sexual mixing.

van der Helm, Jannie J.; Bom, Reinier J. M.; Grunberg, Antoon W.; Bruisten, Sylvia M.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; Sabajo, Leslie O. A.; de Vries, Henry J. C.

2013-01-01

150

Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Regulates Production of Isoprostanes In Vivo during Chlamydial Genital Infection in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urinary nitrite and F2-isoprostanes, an index of oxidant stress, were elevated during chlamydial genital infection of mice. Enhancement of urinary nitrite and F2-isoprostanes was observed in phagocyte oxidase- deficient mice. Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase reduced isoprostane excretion. We conclude that nitrogen radicals induce F2-isoprostane production and excretion during murine chlamydial genital infection. Disease outcome subsequent to genital tract

K. H. Ramsey; I. M. Sigar; S. V. Rana; J. Gupta; S. M. Holland; G. I. Byrne; J. D. Morrow

2003-01-01

151

Examination of an inducible expression system for limiting iron availability during Chlamydia trachomatis infection.  

PubMed

The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis requires iron in order to complete its developmental cycle. Addition of an iron-chelating drug, Desferal (deferoxamine mesylate), to infected cell culture causes Chlamydia to enter persistence. Here, we explore the ability of a stably-transfected cell line with inducible over-expression of the eukaryotic iron efflux protein ferroportin to starve C. trachomatis serovar E for iron. Ferroportin-induced iron removal is perhaps a more direct method of removing iron from the intracellular compartment versus exposure to an exogenous chemical chelator. Following induction, ferroportin-green fluorescent protein (Fpn-GFP) was detected in the plasma membrane, and cells expressing Fpn-GFP remained viable throughout the timescale required for Chlamydia to complete its developmental cycle. Following Fpn-GFP induction in infected cells, chlamydial infectivity remained unchanged, indicating chlamydiae were not in persistence. Ferritin levels indicate only a small decrease in cellular iron following Fpn-GFP expression relative to cultures exposed to Desferal. These data indicate that expression of Fpn-GFP in chlamydiae-infected cells is not capable of reducing iron below the threshold concentration needed to cause chlamydiae to enter persistence. PMID:17544798

Dill, Brian D; Raulston, Jane E

2007-04-07

152

Chlamydia psittaci infections: a review with emphasis on avian chlamydiosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the first part of this article the general characteristics of Chlamydia psittaci namely the history, taxonomy, morphology, reproductive cycle, metabolism and genetics are reviewed. For the taxonomy in particular, a considerable amount of new information has become available in recent years, following the application of monoclonal antibodies and restriction enzymes. Using these techniques isolates of Chlamydia psittaci from birds

D. Vanrompay; R. Ducatelle; F. Haesebrouck

1995-01-01

153

Genital HPV infection not a local but a regional infection: experience from a female teenage group.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--To investigate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in a group of female teenagers, and to analyse to what extent HPV DNA was also detectable, in urethra and cervix samples among the patients with macroscopic genital warts compared with those without. DESIGN--The patients were interviewed about their sexual habits and history of venereal diseases. They underwent a gynaecological health control examination, including macroscopic inspection for genital warts and collection of a cytological vaginal smear (Pap smear). Cell samples were also taken from endocervix and urethra and from vulva lesions, when found. These samples were tested for HPV DNA of the types 6, 11, 16, 18 and 33 using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. SETTING--An adolescence out-patient clinic in Malmö, Sweden. SUBJECTS--Forty-nine female teenagers consulting for gynaecological complaints, some of them for genital warts. RESULTS--Twenty patients had present and four had a history of genital warts (group A). The other 25 patients had no visible lesions (group B). In the first group (A) 18 of the 24 patients were positive for HPV DNA in one or more of the three locations studied. More patients were positive in urethra (17) than in cervix (15). In group B four of the 25 patients were positive for HPV DNA in urethra, three of these also in cervix. In the two groups 11 and four patients, respectively, showed pathological Pap smears. CONCLUSIONS--The finding of HPV DNA in urethra, both from women with and without visible genital warts, indicates that there is a high probability that the infection is also present in cervix, suggesting that the genital HPV infections are multifocal. Thus, patients with genital warts are most likely to have cervical HPV infections and will more often have pathological Pap smears than patients without warts.

Rymark, P; Forslund, O; Hansson, B G; Lindholm, K

1993-01-01

154

Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection in Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Analysis of 250 Hospitalizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Two hundred fifty hospitalizations were included in a serologically based prospective study to assess the role of Chlamydia pneumoniae in episodes of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) and the percentage of COPD patients chronically\\u000a infected with this pathogen. Chlamydia pneumoniae-specific IgG, IgA and IgM antibody titers were determined using a commercial kit with the microimmunofluorescence method.

D. Lieberman; M. Ben-Yaakov; Z. Lazarovich; B. Ohana; I. Boldur

2001-01-01

155

Examination of an inducible expression system for limiting iron availability during Chlamydia trachomatis infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis requires iron in order to complete its developmental cycle. Addition of an iron-chelating drug, Desferal (deferoxamine mesylate), to infected cell culture causes Chlamydia to enter persistence. Here, we explore the ability of a stably-transfected cell line with inducible over-expression of the eukaryotic iron efflux protein ferroportin to starve C. trachomatis serovar E for iron.

Brian D. Dill; Jane E. Raulston

2007-01-01

156

Noninvasive screening for genital chlamydial infections in asymptomatic men: Strategies and costs using a urine PCR assay  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate cost saving strategies to screen for genital chlamydial infection in men using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology. METHODS: Men with no urethral symptoms presenting to a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic were recruited. Study participants underwent a questionnaire interview. Urethral swabs were taken to perform a smear for polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) and for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis by culture and PCR. First-catch urine was collected for a leukocyte esterase test (LET) and PCR. RESULTS: C trachomatis infection was detected in 36 of 463 (7.8%) men. LET and PMN were positive in 10 (28%) and 12 (33%) infected men, respectively. Risk factors for chlamydial infection were younger than age 25 years, LET-positive, PMN-positive and STD contact (P<0.001). The direct cost of genital chlamydial infection in men in Canada has been previously estimated at $381/case. Based on a sensitivity of 90% for urine PCR, the estimated direct cost of testing all participants to detect 32 cases was $453/case. Using risk factors recommended in the Canadian STD Guidelines (age younger than 25 years, new partner, STD contact or unprotected sex), the same number of cases would have been detected by testing only 384 men at $376/case. Using age younger than 25 years or STD contact as the screening criterion, 78% of those infected would have been detected at $259/case, and no new cases would have been detected by adding LET-positive or PMN-positive as risk factors. CONCLUSION: Targeted screening for chlamydial infection using urine PCR assay and risk factors recommended in the Canadian guidelines could substantially reduce the cost of screening at a STD clinic setting. LET and PMN smear did not appear to be useful indicators of chlamydial infection in this population.

Peeling, Rosanna W; Toye, Baldwin; Jessamine, Peter; Gemmill, Ian

1998-01-01

157

Comparison of Five Serologic Tests for Diagnosis of Acute Infections by Chlamydia pneumoniae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serology is often used to diagnose acute infections by Chlamydia pneumoniae. In this study paired sera from patients with acute respiratory tract infection during an epidemic of C. pneumoniae infections were examined by five different antibody tests. These tests were the complement fixation (CF) test, the microimmunofluores- cence (MIF) test, a recombinant enzyme immunoassay (rEIA) (Medac) based on a recombinant

KENNETH PERSSON; JENS BOMAN

2000-01-01

158

Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among women in a Middle Eastern community  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Common vaginal infections that manifest in women are usually easily diagnosed. However, Chlamydia infection is often asymptomatic, leading to infertility before it is detected. If it occurs in pregnancy, it could lead to significant neonatal morbidity. It may also play a role with other viral infections for e.g. Human Papilloma Virus in the development of cervical cancer. The objective

Saad Ghazal-Aswad; Padmanabhan Badrinath; Nawal Osman; Samar Abdul-Khaliq; Shirley Mc Ilvenny; Islam Sidky

2004-01-01

159

Chlamydia trachomatis infection and risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia  

PubMed Central

Objectives High-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) is the primary cause of cervical cancer. As Chlamydia trachomatis is also linked to cervical cancer, its role as a potential co-factor in the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or higher was examined. Methods The placebo arms of two large, multinational, clinical trials of an HPV6/11/16/18 vaccine were combined. A total of 8441 healthy women aged 15–26?years underwent cervicovaginal cytology (Papanicolaou (Pap) testing) sampling and C trachomatis testing at day 1 and every 12?months thereafter for up to 4?years. Protocol-specified guidelines were used to triage participants with Pap abnormalities to colposcopy and definitive therapy. The main outcome measured was CIN. Results At baseline, 2629 (31.1%) tested positive for hrHPV DNA and 354 (4.2%) tested positive for C trachomatis. Among those with HPV16/18 infection (n=965; 11.4%) or without HPV16/18 infection (n=7382, 87.5%), the hazard ratios (HRs) associated with development of any CIN grade 2 according to baseline C trachomatis status were 1.82 (95% CI: 1.06 to 3.14) and 1.74 (95% CI 1.05 to 2.90), respectively. The results were comparable when only the 12 most common hrHPV infections were considered, but the excess risk disappeared when the outcome was expanded to include CIN grade 3 or worse. Conclusion Further studies based on larger cohorts with longitudinal follow-up in relation to the C trachomatis acquisition and a thorough evaluation of temporal relationships of infections with hrHPV types, C trachomatis and cervical neoplasia are needed to demonstrate whether and how in some situations C trachomatis sets the stage for cervical carcinogenesis. Trial registration NCT00092521 and NCT00092534.

Ault, Kevin A; Lyytikainen, Erika; Dillner, Joakim; Garland, Suzanne M; Ferris, Daron G; Koutsky, Laura A; Sings, Heather L; Lu, Shuang; Haupt, Richard M; Paavonen, Jorma

2011-01-01

160

Genital herpes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are common. In both developed and developing countries, the incidence of infection appears to be increasing. The epidemiology of HSV is shifting, and new genital infections are increasingly with HSV-1. Such infections are indistinguishable from HSV-2 infections. Acquisition episodes are often asymptomatic and many individuals are unaware of their infection status. Recurrences are more

Raj Patel

2005-01-01

161

Sensitivity of mitomycin-C treated McCoy cells for isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis from genital specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new cell culture method was developed for the diagnostic isolation ofChlamydia trachomatisusing McCoy cells pretreated with mitomycin-C. This drug acts on the cell by producing cross links between strands of DNA and results in the production of large, flat cells, which are similar to irradiated cells, and large chlamydial inclusions. In tests using a laboratory isolate ofChlamydia trachomatis,there were

R. M. Woodland; R. P. Kirton; S. Darougar

1987-01-01

162

Are plant extracts a potential therapeutic approach for genital infections?  

PubMed

More than 40% of the new drugs registered from 1981 to 2006 were obtained, derived or inspired from natural compounds. The influence of natural products in the anti-infective area is quite marked, being a great percentage of drugs derived or extracted from natural products. Vaginal infections are one of the most common reasons a women visits a gynecologist. Given the high popularity of natural therapies among women who suffer from chronic infections, it is urgent for women's healthcare providers to be knowledgeable about such therapies. Additionally, many phytotherapeutic products have been suggested as natural sources of antimicrobial compounds. The increased resistance to conventional antibiotics is one of the main factors justifying the search and development of new antimicrobial agents, especially those of natural origin. Currently, phytochemicals are considered by the scientific community as very attractive targets for potential drug discovery and therapy. In this review, we will focus on the most relevant reports published during the last twenty years about the antimicrobial activity of plant extracts upon microorganisms most frequently involved in genital infections, such as Candida spp., Gardnerella vaginalis, Trichomonas vaginalis and Human papillomavirus. The relationship between their composition and the antimicrobial effects will be highlighted and vaginal therapeutic delivery systems that vehicle plant extracts both commercialized and under investigation will be included. PMID:23651308

Palmeira-de-Oliveira, A; Silva, B M; Palmeira-de-Oliveira, R; Martinez-de-Oliveira, J; Salgueiro, L

2013-01-01

163

Repeated Chlamydia trachomatis infection of Macaca nemestrina fallopian tubes produces a Th1-like cytokine response associated with fibrosis and scarring.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis-associated female infertility and ectopic pregnancy are caused by postinflammatory fibrosis and scarring of the upper genital tract. Scarring of the upper genital tract is associated with multiple infectious episodes with C. trachomatis. To study the immune response that occurs with multiple infections of C. trachomatis in the female upper genital tract, a Macaca nemestrina model was used. Subcutaneous pockets containing autologous salpingeal tissue implants were inoculated three times with C. trachomatis. The inflammation after three inoculations was associated with a mononuclear infiltrate dominated by CD8 T-cell lymphocytes. Perforin mRNA was induced in infected pockets, demonstrating that activated cytolytic lymphocytes were present in the lesions. Fibrosis, as evidenced by fibroblast proliferation and connective tissue deposition, was observed by the third infection. Cytokine mRNAs induced by repeated chlamydial infection included gamma interferon, interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-6, and IL-10 mRNAs, but IL-4 mRNA was not induced. Nearly identical findings were found in macaque fallopian tubes infected in situ repeatedly with C. trachomatis, validating the subcutaneous pocket model of chlamydial salpingitis. However, it was not possible to evaluate if there was an induction of perforin mRNA in infected salpingeal tubes in situ, because there was a high basal level of perforin mRNA in these tissues. These results suggest that repeated chlamydial infection of the female upper genital tract leads to CD8 T-cell predominance, a Th1-like cytokine milieu, and these inflammatory changes are associated with progression to fibrosis associated with female infertility. PMID:9169748

Van Voorhis, W C; Barrett, L K; Sweeney, Y T; Kuo, C C; Patton, D L

1997-06-01

164

Repeated Chlamydia trachomatis infection of Macaca nemestrina fallopian tubes produces a Th1-like cytokine response associated with fibrosis and scarring.  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia trachomatis-associated female infertility and ectopic pregnancy are caused by postinflammatory fibrosis and scarring of the upper genital tract. Scarring of the upper genital tract is associated with multiple infectious episodes with C. trachomatis. To study the immune response that occurs with multiple infections of C. trachomatis in the female upper genital tract, a Macaca nemestrina model was used. Subcutaneous pockets containing autologous salpingeal tissue implants were inoculated three times with C. trachomatis. The inflammation after three inoculations was associated with a mononuclear infiltrate dominated by CD8 T-cell lymphocytes. Perforin mRNA was induced in infected pockets, demonstrating that activated cytolytic lymphocytes were present in the lesions. Fibrosis, as evidenced by fibroblast proliferation and connective tissue deposition, was observed by the third infection. Cytokine mRNAs induced by repeated chlamydial infection included gamma interferon, interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-6, and IL-10 mRNAs, but IL-4 mRNA was not induced. Nearly identical findings were found in macaque fallopian tubes infected in situ repeatedly with C. trachomatis, validating the subcutaneous pocket model of chlamydial salpingitis. However, it was not possible to evaluate if there was an induction of perforin mRNA in infected salpingeal tubes in situ, because there was a high basal level of perforin mRNA in these tissues. These results suggest that repeated chlamydial infection of the female upper genital tract leads to CD8 T-cell predominance, a Th1-like cytokine milieu, and these inflammatory changes are associated with progression to fibrosis associated with female infertility.

Van Voorhis, W C; Barrett, L K; Sweeney, Y T; Kuo, C C; Patton, D L

1997-01-01

165

Prevalence of Chlamydia infection among women visiting a gynaecology outpatient department: evaluation of an in-house PCR assay for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Screening women for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in developing countries is highly desirable because of asymptomatic infection. The existing diagnostic methods in developing countries are not effective and their sensitivity fall below 45.0% which leads to further spread of infection. There is an urgent need for improved and cost effective diagnostic tests that will reduce the burden of sexually transmitted

Achchhe L Patel; Divya Sachdev; Poonam Nagpal; Uma Chaudhry; Subash C Sonkar; Suman L Mendiratta; Daman Saluja

2010-01-01

166

Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Female Partners of Circumcised and Uncircumcised Adult Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male circumcision has been shown to reduce the risk of acquiring and transmitting a number of venereal infections. However, little is known about the association between male circumcision and the risk of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in the female partner. The authors pooled data on 305 adult couples enrolled as controls in one of five case-control studies of invasive cervical cancer

Xavier Castellsague; Rosanna W. Peeling; Silvia Franceschi; Silvia de Sanjose; Jennifer S. Smith; Ginesa Albero; Mireia Diaz; Rolando Herrero; Nubia Munoz

167

Chlamydia pneumoniae infection is associated with coronary artery disease but not implicated in inducing plaque instability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Many authors have shown an association between Chlamydia pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae) infection and coronary artery disease. However, whether C. pneumoniae infection plays an important role in triggering an acute coronary event remains to be elucidated. Methods: Sixty-four consecutive patients with unstable angina (group A), 56 consecutive patients with stable exertional angina (group B) and 74 control subjects (group C)

Silvio Romano; Maria Penco; Simona Fratini; Marisa Di Pietro; Rosa Sessa; Massimo Del Piano; Francesco Fedele; Armando Dagianti

2004-01-01

168

Influence of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection on aortic stiffness in healthy young men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though Chlamydia pneumoniae infection has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, its role in early atherogenesis has not been well elucidated. To clarify whether C. pneumoniae infection was related to early atherogenesis, we evaluated the association between serological detection of C. pneumoniae antibodies and aortic stiffness in 102 healthy young male volunteers (mean age 27.1±0.4 years). Serum C. pneumoniae

Naohito Tasaki; Masamitsu Nakajima; Hideya Yamamoto; Michinori Imazu; Tomokazu Okimoto; Masaya Otsuka; Yoshito Shimizu; Nobuoki Kohno

2003-01-01

169

Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and lung cancer risk: A meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydia pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae) is a common cause of acute respiratory infection and has been hypothesised to cause several chronic diseases, including lung cancer. Numbers studies were conducted to analyse the association between C. pneumoniae infection and risk of lung cancer, but no clear consensus had been found. To assess this relationship more precisely, a meta-analysis was performed. The electronic

Ping Zhan; Li-jun Suo; Qian Qian; Xiao-kun Shen; Li-Xin Qiu; Li-ke Yu; Yong Song

2011-01-01

170

Quantitative Detection of Respiratory Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection by Real-Time PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydia pneumoniae is an obligate intracellular pathogen that causes upper and lower respiratory tract infections in humans (6) and is responsible for an average of 10% of cases of community-acquired pneumonia (8). Diagnosis of C. pneu- moniae infection is usually based on serology, but other con- ventional methods with limited sensitivity, such as culturing and antigen detection, are also used.

Yvonne Kuoppa; Jens Boman; Lena Scott; Urban Kumlin; Iréne Eriksson; Annika Allard

2002-01-01

171

Expression of inflammatory host genes in Chlamydia trachomatis-infected human monocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to perform a comprehensive gene expression analysis of cytokines, chemokines, and their receptors in Chlamydia trachomatis-infected human monocytes in order to elucidate molecular aspects of their involvement in the host response. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from three healthy donors were separated and infected with C. trachomatis elementary bodies serovar K (UW\\/31\\/Cx) at a multiplicity

Sina Schrader; Andreas Klos; Simone Hess; Henning Zeidler; Jens G Kuipers; Markus Rihl

2007-01-01

172

In Vitro Activities of Azithromycin and Ofloxacin against Chlamydia pneumoniae in a Continuous-Infection Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydia pneumoniae is a well-established cause of community-acquired pneumonia and bronchitis in adults and children. Chronic infections with C. pneumoniae have been implicated in the development of athero- sclerosis and other diseases in humans. Methods currently used for the culture and propagation of C. pneu- moniae are not analogous to the infection as it occurs in vivo. We have established

ANDREI KUTLIN; PATRICIA M. ROBLIN; MARGARET R. HAMMERSCHLAG

1999-01-01

173

Pathogenic Potential of Novel Chlamydiae and Diagnostic Approaches to Infections Due to These Obligate Intracellular Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Novel chlamydiae are newly recognized members of the phylum Chlamydiales that are only distantly related to the classic Chlamydiaceae, i.e., Chlamydia and Chlamydophila species. They also exibit an obligate biphasic intracellular life cycle within eukaryote host cells. Some of these new chlamydiae are currently considered potential emerging human and/or animal pathogens. Parachlamydia acanthamoebae and Simkania negevensis are both emerging respiratory human pathogens, Waddlia chondrophila could be a novel abortigenic bovine agent, and Piscichlamydia salmonis has recently been identified as an agent of the gill epitheliocystis in the Atlantic salmon. Fritschea spp. and Rhabdochlamydia spp. seem to be confined to arthropods, but some evidence for human exposure exists. In this review, we first summarize the data supporting a pathogenic potential of the novel chlamydiae for humans and other vertebrates and the interactions that most of these chlamydiae have with free-living amoebae. We then review the diagnostic approaches to infections potentially due to the novel chlamydiae, especially focusing on the currently available PCR-based protocols, mammalian cell culture, the amoebal coculture system, and serology.

Corsaro, Daniele; Greub, Gilbert

2006-01-01

174

Chlamydia Screening: A Routine Test  

MedlinePLUS

... C hlamydia is a common sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis . Any sexually ... OF CHLAMYDIA The best way to prevent an STI like chlamydia is to abstain from sexual activity ...

175

Factors associated with genital chlamydial and gonococcal infection in females  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND--Predictors of chlamydia and gonorrhoea can be used to increase the cost-effectiveness and acceptability of screening programmes, and allow targeting of control strategies. METHODS--All women attending an STD clinic in 1988-1990 were offered screening for chlamydia and gonorrhoea, and the test results correlated with a wide range of potential predictors using multiple logistic regression. RESULTS--Of 4822 attenders, 3533 (73.3%) were

G Hart

1992-01-01

176

Analysis of Herpes Simplex Virus-Specific T Cells in the Murine Female Genital Tract Following Genital Infection with Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

A murine model of genital infection with a thymidine kinase-deficient (tk-) strain of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was utilized to examine the development of the local T cell response in the genital mucosa and draining genital lymph nodes (gLN). HSV-specific cytokine-secreting T cells were detected in the gLN 4 days postintravaginal inoculation but not in the urogenital tract

Gregg N. Milligan; David I. Bernstein

1995-01-01

177

Genital human papillomavirus infections: current and prospective therapies.  

PubMed

Infection with human papillomaviruses (HPVs) is very common and associated with benign and malignant epithelial proliferations of skin and internal squamous mucosae. A subset of the mucosal HPVs are oncogenic and associated with 5 % of all cancers in men and women. There are two licensed prophylactic vaccines, both target HPV 16 and 18, the two most pathogenic, oncogenic types and one, additionally, targets HPV 6 and 11 the cause of genital warts. The approach of deliberate immunization with oncogenic HPV E6 and/or E7 proteins and the generation of antigen-specific cytotoxic T-cells as an immunotherapy for HPV-associated cancer and their high-grade pre-cancers has been tested with a wide array of potential vaccine delivery systems in Phase I/II trials with varying success. Understanding local viral and tumour immune evasion strategies is a prerequisite for the rational design of therapeutic vaccines for HPV-associated infection and disease, progress in this is discussed. There are no antiviral drugs for the treatment of HPV infection and disease. Current therapies are not targeted antiviral therapies, but either attempt physical removal of the lesion or induce inflammation and a bystander immune response. There has been recent progress in the identification and characterization of molecular targets for small molecule antagonists of the HPV proteins E1, E2 and E6 or their interactions with their cellular targets. Lead compounds that could disrupt E1-E2 protein-protein interactions have been discovered as have inhibitors of E6-E6-AP-binding interactions. Some of these compounds showed nanomolar affinities and high specificities and demonstrate the feasibility of this approach for HPV infections. These studies are, however, at an early phase and it is unlikely that any specific anti-HPV chemotherapeutic will be in the clinic within the next 10-20 years. PMID:22323530

Stanley, Margaret A

2012-02-08

178

Prevalence of Chlamydia infection among women visiting a gynaecology outpatient department: evaluation of an in-house PCR assay for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis  

PubMed Central

Background Screening women for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in developing countries is highly desirable because of asymptomatic infection. The existing diagnostic methods in developing countries are not effective and their sensitivity fall below 45.0% which leads to further spread of infection. There is an urgent need for improved and cost effective diagnostic tests that will reduce the burden of sexually transmitted infections in the developing world. Methods Prevalence of C. trachomatis infection among women visiting gynaecology department of Hindu Rao hospital in Delhi, India was determined using Roche Amplicor Multi Well Plate kit (MWP) as well as using in-house PCR assay. We used 593 endocervical swabs for clinical evaluation of the in-house developed assay against Direct Fluorescence Assay (DFA; Group I n = 274) and Roche Amplicor MWP kit (Group II, n = 319 samples) and determined the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) of the in-house developed assay. Results We detected 23.0% positive cases and there was a higher representation of women aged 18-33 in this group. An in-house PCR assay was developed and evaluated by targeting unique sequence within the gyrA gene of C. trachomatis. Specificity of the reaction was confirmed by using genomic DNA of human and other STI related microorganisms as template. Assay is highly sensitive and can detect as low as 10 fg of C. trachomatis DNA. The resolved sensitivity of in-house PCR was 94.5% compared with 88.0% of DFA assay. The high specificity (98.4%) and sensitivity (97.1%) of the in-house assay against Roche kit and availability of test results within 3 hours allowed for immediate treatment and reduced the risk of potential onward transmission. Conclusions The in-house PCR method is cost effective (~ 20.0% of Roche assay) and hence could be a better alternative for routine diagnosis of genital infection by C. trachomatis to facilitate improved screening and treatment management.

2010-01-01

179

Persistent Chlamydia Pneumoniae serology is related to decline in lung function in women but not in men. Effect of persistent Chlamydia pneumoniae infection on lung function  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Chlamydia pneumoniae (C pn) infection causes an acute inflammation in the respiratory system that may become persistent, but little is known about the long-term respiratory effects of C pn infections. Aim: To estimate the long term respiratory effects of C pn with change in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) as a main

Thorarinn Gislason; Vilmundur Guðnason; Bryndis Benediktsdottir; Isleifur Olafsson; Thor Aspelund; Bjarni Thjodleifsson; Christer Janson

2010-01-01

180

Infectivity of Chlamydia psittaci of bovine and ovine origins for cultured cells.  

PubMed

The infectivity of 2 strains of Chlamydia psittaci of mammalian origin were studied in mouse L cells. Infectivity was enhanced by centrifuging the chlamydial inoculum onto the cell monolayer. Infectivity increased as force of centrifugation increased. The enhanced infectivity was not caused by centrifugal sedimentation of chlamydiae, since centrifugation longer than 10 minutes and an inoculum dose larger than 0.4 ml did not further enhance infectivity. Centrifuge-enhanced adsorption was temperature dependent, because infection was not detected when stationary or centrifuge-assisted adsorption occurred at less than 15 C. Infectivity was higher in cultures centrifuged at 37 degrees C than in cultures centrifuged at room temperature. Treatments of cells with cycloheximide, colchicine, and hydrocortisone enhanced infectivity of chlamydiae above that of untreated cells. In addition, developing chlamydial inclusions were larger and easier to observe in colchicine-treated cells. Infectivity was thought to be enhanced in colchicine-treated cells, because cells with depolymerized microtubules provided favorable conditions for the early phases of chlamydial multiplication. Treatment of cells with cytochalasin B, carbachol, cGMP, lumicolchicine, or vinblastine did not significantly alter chlamydial infectivity. PMID:7181187

Dennis, M W; Storz, J

1982-11-01

181

RELATION OF CHLAMYDIA PNEUMONIAE INFECTION TO DOCUMENTED CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility that infectious agents may trigger a cascade of reactions leading to inflammation, atherogenesis and vascular thrombotic events has recently been raised. Chlamydia pneumoniae is an infectious agent that has received the most attention with respect to coronary artery disease (CAD). To determine the relationship between C. pneumoniae and CAD, a case control study was conducted on 167 subjects

M. J. Zibaeenezhad; A. Amanat; A. Alborzi; A. Obudi

182

Progesterone Increases Susceptibility and Decreases Immune Responses to Genital Herpes Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depo-provera, a long-acting progestational formulation, is widely used to facilitate infection of sexually transmitted diseases in animal models. We have previously reported that hormone treatments change suscep- tibility and immune responses to genital tract infections. In this study we compared the changes in suscepti- bility of mice to genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) after Depo-provera or a saline

Charu Kaushic; Ali A. Ashkar; Lesley A. Reid; Kenneth L. Rosenthal

2003-01-01

183

Chlamydia trachomatis infection during pregnancy associated with preterm delivery: a population-based prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infection and may influence pregnancy outcome. This study\\u000a was conducted to assess the effect of chlamydial infection during pregnancy on premature delivery and birthweight. Pregnant\\u000a women attending a participating midwifery practice or antenatal clinic between February 2003 and January 2005 were eligible\\u000a for the study. From 4,055 women self-administered questionnaires

G. Ingrid J. G. Rours; Liesbeth Duijts; Henriette A. Moll; Lidia R. Arends; Ronald de Groot; Vincent W. Jaddoe; Albert Hofman; Eric A. P. Steegers; Johan P. Mackenbach; Alewijn Ott; Hendrina F. M. Willemse; Elizabeth A. E. van der Zwaan; Roel P. Verkooijen; Henri A. Verbrugh

2011-01-01

184

Telithromycin Treatment of Chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection in C57BL\\/6J mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infections have been associated with atherosclerosis, but clear knowledge about how these infections should be treated is lacking. We studied the effect of a new ketolide antibiotic, telithromycin, on chronic C. pneumoniae lung infection. Female C57BL\\/6J mice on a 0.2% cholesterol diet were inoculated intranasally with C. pneumoniae either two or three times every fourth week. Telithromycin

Liisa Tormakangas; Hannu Alakarppa; Denise Bem David; Maija Leinonen; Pekka Saikku

2004-01-01

185

Viability and gene expression in Chlamydia trachomatis during persistent infection of cultured human monocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principal host cell for persistently infecting synovial Chlamydia trachomatis is the macrophage. During infection of human monocytes\\/macrophages in culture this bacterium displays aberrant morphology\\u000a and produces no new elementary bodies, reflecting the situation in synovium. Here we investigate the metabolic status of C. trachomatis (serovar K) during an extended infection of human peripheral monocytes in vitro. Using reverse transcription-polymerase

Hervé C. Gérard; Lars Köhler; Patrick J. Branigan; Henning Zeidler; H. Ralph Schumacher; Alan P. Hudson

1998-01-01

186

[No firm evidence for screening for Chlamydia in connection with spontaneous abortion].  

PubMed

Infection with genital Chlamydia while undergoing a vaginal instrumentation increases the risk of pelvic inflammatory disease with pain and sterility as sequelae. A literature study was performed in order to find out if screening and treatment for Chlamydia trachomatis should be offered to all women with miscarriages. This article reviews the available literature on the topic. The results show that there is a need for larger clinical trials before an evidence-based answer can be given. PMID:23402242

Juhl, Caroline Sollberger; Christensen, Martin; Bor, Isil Pinar

2013-02-01

187

Relationship between Chlamydia pneumoniae infection, inflammatory markers, and coronary heart diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydia pneumoniae is an intracellular pathogen and an important cause of respiratory tract infections in humans and more recently it has been associated with chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis.Numerous studies have been performed to show the “infectious” hypothesis of atherosclerosis by direct detection of the organisms within atheromatous plaques by seroepidemiological estimation and by animal, immunological and antibiotic interventional studies.

C. Romano Carratelli; I. Nuzzo; D. Cozzolino; C. Bentivoglio; R. Paolillo; A. Rizzo

2006-01-01

188

Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae Infections Among Men and Women Entering California Prisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. We estimated the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection among newly arriving inmates at 6 California prisons. Methods. In this cross-sectional study in 1999, urine specimens collected from 698 men aged 18 to 25 years and 572 women aged 18 years or older were tested at intake for C trachomatis and N gonorrhoeae using ligase chain reaction.

Kyle T. Bernstein; Joan M. Chow; Juan Ruiz; Julius Schachter; Evalyn Horowitz; Rebecca Bunnell; Gail Bolan

189

Risk Factors for "Chlamydia Trachomatis" Infection in a California Collegiate Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Chlamydia trachomatis" infection in college students has not undergone a detailed large-scale evaluation. The authors undertook a cross-sectional study of 4,086 students enrolled on the campuses of California State University, Sacramento, and 3 local community colleges from fall 2000 through spring 2002. They used an outreach screening model to…

Sipkin, Diane L.; Gillam, Alix; Grady, Laurie Bisset

2003-01-01

190

Use of self-collected vaginal specimens for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of a self-collected vaginal introital specimen, obtained by women using only an instruction booklet as a guide, for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR).Methods: Comparison analysis in an Urban hospital clinic, using a convenience sample of 101 women undergoing screening or treatment for C trachomatis infection. Subjects were given an illustrated

Margaret Polaneczky; Claire Quigley; Laurie Pollock; Dorothy Dulko; Steven S. Witkin

1998-01-01

191

Vaginal Douching as a Risk Factor for Cervical Chlamydia trachomatis Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the association between vaginal douching and cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infection.Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional data from a study conducted at Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound, a nonprofit health maintenance organization in western Washington state. Participants were nonpregnant women Group Health enrollees between the ages of 18 and 34 years who were attending two primary care clinics either

Delia Scholes; Andy Stergachis; Laura E. Ichikawa; Fred E. Heidrich; King K. Holmes; Walter E. Stamm

1998-01-01

192

Mailed, home-obtained urine specimens: a reliable screening approach for detecting asymptomatic chlamydia trachomatis infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of mailed, home-obtained urine specimens could facilitate screening programs for the detection of asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infections. Since transport time could have an adverse effect on the sensitivity of C. trachomatis detection by PCR, the influence of DNA degradation on amplification was moni- tored over the course of 1 week. Therefore, urine specimens were aliquoted on the day

SERVAAS A. MORRE ´; Valkengoed van I. G. M; AFKE DE JONG; A. JOAN P. BOEKE; Eijk van J. T. M; C. J. L. M. Meijer; Brule van den A. J. C

1999-01-01

193

Prevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae antibodies in patients with acute respiratory infections in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS--To evaluate the prevalence of antibodies to Chlamydia pneumoniae (TWAR) in relation to other aetiological agents of acute respiratory infections in Israeli patients. METHOD--Serum samples from 604 patients (183 children and 421 adults) were collected over three years. Antibodies to C pneumoniae, C trachomatis, and Legionella sp were evaluated using the microimmunofluorescence (MIF) assay. Antibodies to Mycoplasma pneumoniae were detected

M Ben-Yaakov; Z Lazarovich; S Beer; A Levin; I Shoham; I Boldur

1994-01-01

194

Sexually Transmitted and Other Genital Infections in Women With Cervical Human Papillomavirus Infection  

PubMed Central

Objective: We investigated possible correlations between latent cervical human papillomavirus infection (CHPI) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Methods: Of 972 randomly selected women attending 2 family planning clinics and a youth clinic who had agreed to participate in a study concerning STDs, 66 (6.8%) had latent CHPI. Results: An association was found between latent CHPI on one hand and a history of genital chlamydial infection, gonorrhea, recurrent vaginal candidiasis, cervicitis, or pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) on the other, while no correlation between latent CHPI and coexistent STDs was found. No correlation of latent CHPI to either current or past genital warts was noted. In multifactorial analyses, which included the lifetime number of sexual partners and age at first intercourse, we found that all significant associations except a history of gonorrhea vanished. Conclusions: In this study population, screening for other current STDs in women with latent CHPI would be of limited value.

Sikstrom, B.; Nilsson, S.; Kallings, I.; Mardh, P.-A.

1995-01-01

195

Characteristics of gram-stained cervical smear from patients with Chlamydia trachomatis infection.  

PubMed

Cervical discharges from 142 women attending the Public Gynecologic Service of Araraqura (SESA), Brazil were cultured for Chlamydia trachomatis. Gram-smears and plating on semiquantitative sheep blood agar and chocolate agar were also carried out. An isolation rate of 18% was reported. The presence of purulent cervical secretion was observed in 8 (32%) out of 25 women. It was also observed that a substantial proportion of culture-positive women had no symptoms. Our data demonstrate that screening tests should be based on specific diagnostic techniques for Chlamydia trachomatis since the majority of infected women we examined were asymptomatic. PMID:8209109

Raddi, M S; Vidal, A F; Santana, D M

196

HIV Target Cells in Schistosoma haematobium-Infected Female Genital Mucosa  

PubMed Central

The parasite Schistosoma haematobium frequently causes genital lesions in women and could increase the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. This study quantifies the HIV target cells in schistosome-infected female genital mucosa. Cervicovaginal biopsies with and without schistosomiasis were immunostained for quantification of CD4+ T lymphocytes (CD3, CD8), macrophages (CD68), and dendritic Langerhans cells (S100 protein). We found significantly higher densities of genital mucosal CD4+ T lymphocytes and macrophages surrounding schistosome ova compared with cervicovaginal mucosa without ova (P = 0.034 and P = 0.018, respectively). We found no increased density of Langerhans cells (P = 0.25). This study indicates that S. haematobium may significantly increase the density of HIV target cells (CD4+ T lymphocytes and macrophages) in the female genitals, creating a beneficial setting for HIV transmission. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings and to evaluate the effect of anti-schistosomal treatment on female genital schistosomiasis.

Jourdan, Peter Mark; Holmen, Sigve Dhondup; Gundersen, Svein Gunnar; Roald, Borghild; Kjetland, Eyrun Floerecke

2011-01-01

197

Generation of reactive oxygen species and formation of membrane lipid peroxides in cells infected with Chlamydia trachomatis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular pathogens that cause many diseases for which the pathogenic mechanisms are largely unknown. Because reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in pathogenesis of many viral and bacterial infections, the authors assessed the release of ROS in selected host cells (monocytes, Sup-T1 cells, and Hep-2 cells) infected with Chlamydia trachomatis.Methods: Infected cell cultures demonstrated a

Anthony A. Azenabor; James B. Mahony

2000-01-01

198

The silent suffering women--a population based study on the association between reported symptoms and past and present infections of the lower genital tract.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--To assess the prevalence of lower genital tract symptoms and the association between reported symptoms and past and present signs of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in young women. DESIGN--All women belonging to the 19-, 21-, 23- and 25-year age cohorts and living in the catchment area of the community health centre, were invited by mail to take part in a population-based study. The participants answered a structured questionnaire and a gynaecologic examination was performed. Samples for wet smear, cervical Pap smear, HPV DNA determination and Chlamydia trachomatis culture were taken at the gynaecologic examination. The presence of genital warts was noted. A blood sample was analysed for antibodies against C trachomatis and HSV-2. SETTING--The community health care centre was located in Umeå, a city in Northern Sweden. RESULTS--Of the 886 women who were eligible, 611 (70%) participated in the investigation. One out of four women reported symptoms from the lower genital tract. The most commonly reported symptoms were itching, followed by discharge, and soreness. The most commonly reported STD was C trachomatis (15%). The most prevalent present STD was HPV infection (20%) whereas C trachomatis infection could be isolated from 2.7% of the women. Antibodies against C trachomatis and HSV-2 were present among 22% and 6% of the women, respectively. There was a significant correlation between the women's complaint of vaginal discharge and previous C trachomatis infection, lack of lactobacilli and presence of leucocytosis in wet smear. CONCLUSIONS--We have in a population-based study of young healthy women found that one out of four women had some kind of lower genital tract complaint. Itching was the most commonly reported symptom and was associated with pseudohyphae and acetowhite patches. Reported vaginal discharge and soreness were associated with the history of a past C trachomatis infection and signs of a disturbed vaginal flora.

Jonsson, M; Karlsson, R; Rylander, E; Boden, E; Edlund, K; Evander, M; Gustavsson, A; Wadell, G

1995-01-01

199

Chlamydial Protease-Like Activity Factor Induces Protective Immunity against Genital Chlamydial Infection in Transgenic Mice That Express the Human HLA-DR4 Allele?  

PubMed Central

There is no licensed vaccine available against Chlamydia trachomatis, the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted disease. We have found that intranasal immunization with recombinant chlamydial protease-like activity factor (CPAF) induces CD4+ T-cell- and gamma interferon (IFN-?)-dependent protective immunity against murine genital chlamydial infection, thus making CPAF a viable vaccine candidate for further characterization. HLA-DR4 is the predominant allele involved in chlamydial antigen presentation to CD4+ T cells in humans. We used engineered mice that lack endogenous major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) alleles but express a human HLA allele (HLA-DR4 transgenic [tg] mice) to examine primary immune and CPAF-mediated responses against genital Chlamydia muridarum challenge. Upon primary bacterial exposure, HLA-DR4 tg mice developed Chlamydia-specific IFN-? and antibody production and resolved the infection within 30 days, similar to challenged conventional C57BL/6 animals. Moreover, C. muridarum-challenged HLA-DR4 tg mice exhibited CPAF-specific antibody and IFN-? production. Upon CPAF-plus-interleukin-12 (IL-12) vaccination, HLA-DR4 tg animals exhibited robust CPAF-specific IFN-? production and elevated titers of anti-CPAF total antibody and immunoglobulin G2a (IgG2a) and lower titers of IgG2b and IgG1 antibodies. HLA-DR4 tg and C57BL/6 mice vaccinated with CPAF plus IL-12 resolved the primary genital chlamydial infection significantly earlier than mock-immunized animals, whereas similarly vaccinated MHC class II-deficient mice displayed minimal antigen-specific immune responses and failed to resolve the infection even at 30 days postchallenge. Together, these results demonstrate the importance of human HLA-DR4 molecules in the recognition and presentation of CPAF epitopes, leading to the generation of protective antichlamydial immunity and making these mice a valuable model for mapping HLA-DR4-restricted chlamydial epitopes.

Murthy, Ashlesh K.; Cong, Yu; Murphey, Cathi; Guentzel, M. Neal; Forsthuber, Thomas G.; Zhong, Guangming; Arulanandam, Bernard P.

2006-01-01

200

Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among women in a Middle Eastern community  

PubMed Central

Background Common vaginal infections that manifest in women are usually easily diagnosed. However, Chlamydia infection is often asymptomatic, leading to infertility before it is detected. If it occurs in pregnancy, it could lead to significant neonatal morbidity. It may also play a role with other viral infections for e.g. Human Papilloma Virus in the development of cervical cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia infection in women undergoing screening for cervical abnormalities as a part of a research project in primary and secondary care institutions in the United Arab Emirates. Methods In this cross sectional study married women attending primary and secondary care participating in a large nationwide cervical abnormalities screening survey were offered Chlamydia testing using a commercially available test kit. This kit uses a rapid immunoassay for the direct detection of Chlamydia trachomatis antigen in endocervical swab specimens. As this study was performed in a traditional Islamic country, unmarried women were excluded from testing, as the management of any positive cases would create legal and social problems. All married women consenting to take part in the study were included irrespective of age. Results Of 1039 women approached over a period of eight months 919 (88.5%) agreed to participate. The number of women in the 16 to 19 years was small (0.01%) and 30% were aged over 40 years. The prevalence of Chlamydia infection in this study was 2.6% (95% confidence interval 1.2–3.3%), which was marginally higher in women screened in secondary care (p = 0.05). Conclusion This is one of the few reports on the prevalence of Chlamydia infection in women from the Middle East. Due to cultural and social constraints this study excluded a large proportion of women aged less than 19 years of age. Hence no direct comparisons on prevalence could be made with studies from the West, which all included younger women at high risk of Chlamydia. However this study emphasizes the importance of cultural factors while interpreting results of studies from different cultures and communities.

Ghazal-Aswad, Saad; Badrinath, Padmanabhan; Osman, Nawal; Abdul-Khaliq, Samar; Mc Ilvenny, Shirley; Sidky, Islam

2004-01-01

201

Classical and Molecular Methods for Evaluation of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Women with Tubal Factor Infertility  

PubMed Central

Background Chlamydia trachomatis is the most reported bacterial sexually transmitted disease, especially among young women worldwide. The aim of this study was comparison the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in woman with tubal infertility by means of PCR and cell culture techniques. Methods Fifty-one women with confirmed TFI were enrolled in this study in (avicenna infertility Clinic) between January 2010 and January 2011. Cervical swab and cytobrush specimens were collected from each patient by gynecologists and sent to laboratory in transport media. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in samples was performed using PCR and bacteria culture in MacCoy cell line. The data were analyzed by Fisher's exact test and independent t-test. Statistical significance was established at a p-value <0.05. Results A significant relation was observed between increased the age of first intercourse and chlamydial infection. Six (11.7%) samples had positive PCR result, whereas cell culture results were positive in only 2 (3.9%) samples. A significant relation was also identified between the duration of infertility and infection (p < 0.05) by PCR versus cell culture method. Conclusion The results showed that PCR is a rapid method, compared to cell culture for detecting Chlamydial organism. It also became clear that the age at first intercourse is important to predict the likelihood of Chlamydia trachomatis.

Hajikhani, Bahareh; Motallebi, Tayebeh; Norouzi, Jamileh; Bahador, Abbas; Bagheri, Rezvan; Asgari, Soheila; Chamani-Tabriz, Leili

2013-01-01

202

Determinants of different Candida species infections of the genital tract in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We have analyzed the differences in the epidemiological characteristics of women with different Candida low female genital tract infection. Study design: Eligible for the study were 4228 women aged 18–70 years with symptomatic low gynecological tract infection and clinical findings suggestive for Candida infection consecutively attending during the study period first level outpatients gynecological services in Italy. CHROMagar Candida

Fabio Parazzini; Elisabetta Di Cintio; Vito Chiantera; Secondo Guaschino

2000-01-01

203

Cervicovaginal chlamydia trachomatis infection in pregnant adolescent and adult women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  We studied the incidence of cervicalChlamydia trachomatis (CT) in 65 adolescents aged between 14 and 19 years and 65 adults aged 20 years or more. All subject were more than three\\u000a months advanced in a normal pregnancy. Two samples for cytology were obtained from each patient, one ecto- and endocervical,\\u000a with Ayre’s spatula and cytobrush, and one only endocervical with

M. J. Cavaliere; M. Y. S. Maeda; N. K. Shirata; A. Longatto Filho; L. W. S. Shih; M. de Siqueira; M. G. B. de Muelenare Correa; H. F. Oliveira

1993-01-01

204

Infectivity of Chlamydia trachomatis Serovar LGV but Not E Is Dependent on Host Cell Heparan Sulfate  

PubMed Central

The ability of heparan sulfate, heparin, and other glycosaminoglycans to inhibit the infectivity of Chlamydia trachomatis serovars E and LGV was examined using a simple competitive inhibition assay with three cell types from the human female reproductive tract, including primary human endosalpingeal cells. With the majority of the glycosaminoglycans tested, LGV was more significantly inhibited than serovar E. We have compared chlamydial infectivity between a wild-type Chinese hamster ovary cell line and two glycosaminoglycan-deficient cell lines. LGV was shown to be unable to infect heparan sulfate-deficient and GAG-deficient Chinese hamster ovary cell lines, whereas the E serovar infected these cells as efficiently as the control (nondeficient) cells. These two sets of experiments confirmed that serovar LGV is more dependent on a heparan sulfate-related mechanism of infectivity than is serovar E. This is further supported by the fact that attempts to purify a heparan sulfate-like molecule from either serovar cultured in glycosaminoglycan-deficient cell lines were nonproductive. Previous reports have suggested that chlamydia are able to produce a heparan sulfate-like molecule that is important for attachment and infectivity. We have attempted to detect possible binding of a specific heparan sulfate antibody to C. trachomatis by flow cytometry. Results showed no binding of the heparan sulfate antibody to C. trachomatis serovar LGV or E. Our results strongly indicate that chlamydiae do not produce a heparan sulfate-like molecule but rather use host cell heparan sulfate in order to infect cells.

Taraktchoglou, Maria; Pacey, Allan A.; Turnbull, Jeremy E.; Eley, Adrian

2001-01-01

205

Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in adults with chronic cough compared with healthy blood donors  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: In a small uncontrolled study, persistent cough has recently been found to be associated with serological evidence of acute Chlamydia pneumoniae,infection. In order to assess whether C. pneumoniae plays a role in chronic cough, the prevalence of C. pneumoniae,infection in 201 adult patients with chronic cough was compared,with the prevalence in 106 healthy blood donors,without respiratory tract symptoms,in the

N. H. Birkebaek; J. s. Jensen; T. Seefeldt; J. Degn; B. Huniche; P. l. Andersen; L Ostergaard

2000-01-01

206

Long-term effects of natural amino acids on infection with Chlamydia trachomatis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supplementation of culture media with leucine, isoleucine, methionine, or phenylalanine was previously found to inhibit Chlamydia trachomatis growth in HEp-2 cells. Here, we investigated the long-term effects of these additives on C. trachomatis infection in the same cell model. Amino acid addition 30h post-infection (pi) effectively suppressed the generation of infectious progeny monitored for 10 days pi. With the exception

Joscha Gussmann; Hesham M. Al-Younes; Peter R. Braun; Volker Brinkmann; Thomas F. Meyer

2008-01-01

207

Sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Tunisia: high prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) in female sex workers (FSW) in Tunisia.Methods188 prostitutes from three Tunisian towns were enrolled at their weekly medical visit. Demographic and sexual behaviour data were collected. C trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) and human papillomavirus (HPV) were

Abir Znazen; Olfa Frikha-Gargouri; Lamia Berrajah; Sihem Bellalouna; Hela Hakim; Nabiha Gueddana; Adnene Hammami

2010-01-01

208

Chlamydia trachomatis Infection and Anti-Hsp60 Immunity: The Two Sides of the Coin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection is one of the most common causes of reproductive tract diseases and infertility. CT-Hsp60 is synthesized during infection and is released in the bloodstream. As a consequence, immune cells will produce anti-CT-Hsp60 antibodies. Hsp60, a ubiquitous and evolutionarily conserved chaperonin, is normally sequestered inside the cell, particularly into mitochondria. However, upon cell stress, as well as

Francesco Cappello; Everly Conway de Macario; Valentina Di Felice; Giovanni Zummo; Alberto J. L. Macario

2009-01-01

209

Chlamydia trachomatis Infection and Anti-Hsp60 Immunity: The Two Sides of the Coin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection is one of the most common causes of reproductive tract diseases and infertility. CT-Hsp60 is synthesized during infection and is released in the bloodstream. As a consequence, immune cells will produce anti-CT-Hsp60 antibodies. Hsp60, a ubiquitous and evolutionarily conserved chaper- onin, is normally sequestered inside the cell, particularly into mitochondria. However, upon cell stress, as well

Francesco Cappello; Everly Conway de Macario; Valentina Di Felice; Giovanni Zummo; Alberto J. L. Macario

2009-01-01

210

Gamma Interferon Production by Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Is Required for Resolution of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we used mice in which the gene for gamma interferon (IFN-g) has been disrupted (IFN-g2\\/2 mice) to study the role of this cytokine in the resolution of Chlamydia trachomatis infection. We show that IFN-g2\\/2 mice are impaired in the ability to clear infection with C. trachomatis compared to IFN-g1\\/1 control mice. Activated CD81 cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL)

MARY F. LAMPE; CHRISTOPHER B. WILSON; MICHAEL J. BEVAN; MICHAEL N. STARNBACH

1998-01-01

211

Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection Does Not Induce or Modify Atherosclerosis in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Seroepidemiological studies have linked Chlamydia pneumoniae(CP) to coronary heart disease, and recent experimental studies suggest that it may accelerate or even induce atherosclerosis. We therefore evaluated the effect of CP infection on atherosclerosis in atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein E- knockout (apoE-KO) and wild-type C57BL\\/6J mice. Methods and Results—Six- to 8-week-old female mice were infected intranasally with live CP and then fed a

Giuseppina Caligiuri; Martin Rottenberg; Antonino Nicoletti; Hans Wigzell; Göran K. Hansson

2010-01-01

212

Relationship of Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection to Severity of Human Coronary Atherosclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Infection with Chlamydia pneumoniaehas been postulated to play a pathogenic role in atherosclerosis. We examined the role of infection with C pneumoniae in relation to the extent of coronary atherosclerosis. Methods and Results—Coronary atherosclerosis was graded microscopically on a postmortem basis in a blinded fashion in 60 subjects as mild (n518) or severe (n542) atherosclerosis. Serum antibodies to C pneumoniae

Katharina Ericson; Tom G. P. Saldeen; Olle Lindquist; Carl Påhlson; Jawahar L. Mehta

213

Guidelines for the laboratory diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infections in East European countries.  

PubMed

The present guidelines aim to provide comprehensive information regarding the laboratory diagnosis of infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis in East European countries. These recommendations contain important information for laboratory staff working with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and/or STI-related issues. Individual East European countries may be required to make minor national adjustments to these guidelines as a result of lack of accessibility to some reagents or equipment, or laws in a specific country. PMID:19522706

Domeika, M; Savicheva, A; Sokolovskiy, E; Frigo, N; Brilene, T; Hallén, A; Unemo, M; Ballard, R C; Ward, M

2009-06-08

214

Chlamydia trachomatis Infection of Human Mesothelial Cells Alters Proinflammatory, Procoagulant, and Fibrinolytic Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we demonstrate the capability of Chlamydia trachomatis to infect cultured human mesothelial cell (MC) monolayers and to induce the production of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 1b (IL-1b) and IL-8. Seventy-two hours after initial infection, both the procoagulant activity of MC and the activity of the fibrinolytic inhibitor (plasminogen activator inhibitor 1) in the supernatants were enhanced. These

MIREILLE VAN WESTREENEN; APOLLO PRONK; ROB J. A. DIEPERSLOOT; PHILIP G. DE GROOT; PIET LEGUIT

1998-01-01

215

The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Australia: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Chlamydia trachomatis is a common sexually transmitted infection in Australia. This report aims to measure the burden of chlamydia infection by systematically reviewing reports on prevalence in Australian populations. Methods Electronic databases and conference websites were searched from 1997–2011 using the terms ‘Chlamydia trachomatis’ OR ‘chlamydia’ AND ‘prevalence’ OR ‘epidemiology’ AND ‘Australia’. Reference lists were checked and researchers contacted for additional literature. Studies were categorised by setting and participants, and meta-analysis conducted to determine pooled prevalence estimates for each category. Results Seventy-six studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. There was a high level of heterogeneity between studies; however, there was a trend towards higher chlamydia prevalence in younger populations, Indigenous Australians, and those attending sexual health centres. In community or general practice settings, pooled prevalence for women <25?years in studies conducted post-2005 was 5.0% (95% CI: 3.1, 6.9; five studies), and for men <30?years over the entire review period was 3.9% (95% CI: 2.7, 5.1; six studies). For young Australians aged <25?years attending sexual health, family planning or youth clinics, estimated prevalence was 6.2% (95% CI: 5.1, 7.4; 10 studies) for women and 10.2% (95% CI: 9.5, 10.9; five studies) for men. Other key findings include pooled prevalence estimates of 22.1% (95% CI: 19.0, 25.3; three studies) for Indigenous women <25?years, 14.6% (95% CI: 11.5, 17.8; three studies) for Indigenous men <25?years, and 5.6% (95% CI: 4.8, 6.3; 11 studies) for rectal infection in men who have sex with men. Several studies failed to report basic demographic details such as sex and age, and were therefore excluded from the analysis. Conclusions Chlamydia trachomatis infections are a significant health burden in Australia; however, accurate estimation of chlamydia prevalence in Australian sub-populations is limited by heterogeneity within surveyed populations, and variations in sampling methodologies and data reporting. There is a need for more large, population-based studies and prospective cohort studies to compliment mandatory notification data.

2012-01-01

216

Fierce Competition between Toxoplasma and Chlamydia for Host Cell Structures in Dually Infected Cells  

PubMed Central

The prokaryote Chlamydia trachomatis and the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, two obligate intracellular pathogens of humans, have evolved a similar modus operandi to colonize their host cell and salvage nutrients from organelles. In order to gain fundamental knowledge on the pathogenicity of these microorganisms, we have established a cell culture model whereby single fibroblasts are coinfected by C. trachomatis and T. gondii. We previously reported that the two pathogens compete for the same nutrient pools in coinfected cells and that Toxoplasma holds a significant competitive advantage over Chlamydia. Here we have expanded our coinfection studies by examining the respective abilities of Chlamydia and Toxoplasma to co-opt the host cytoskeleton and recruit organelles. We demonstrate that the two pathogen-containing vacuoles migrate independently to the host perinuclear region and rearrange the host microtubular network around each vacuole. However, Toxoplasma outcompetes Chlamydia to the host microtubule-organizing center to the detriment of the bacterium, which then shifts to a stress-induced persistent state. Solely in cells preinfected with Chlamydia, the centrosomes become associated with the chlamydial inclusion, while the Toxoplasma parasitophorous vacuole displays growth defects. Both pathogens fragment the host Golgi apparatus and recruit Golgi elements to retrieve sphingolipids. This study demonstrates that the productive infection by both Chlamydia and Toxoplasma depends on the capability of each pathogen to successfully adhere to a finely tuned developmental program that aims to remodel the host cell for the pathogen's benefit. In particular, this investigation emphasizes the essentiality of host organelle interception by intravacuolar pathogens to facilitate access to nutrients.

Romano, Julia D.; de Beaumont, Catherine; Carrasco, Jose A.; Ehrenman, Karen; Bavoil, Patrik M.

2013-01-01

217

Changing epidemiology of genital herpes simplex virus infection in Melbourne, Australia, between 1980 and 2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate changes in the proportions of patients infected with genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 from 1980 to 2003 in Melbourne, Australia.Methods: A total of 25 372 patients were studied retrospectively. The proportions of HSV-1 and HSV-2 detected in these individuals were analysed by age, sex, and genital site.Results: In 1980 only 15.8% of HSV

T Tran; J D Druce; M C Catton; H Kelly; C J Birch

2004-01-01

218

Synergistic effect of ultrasound and antibiotics against Chlamydia trachomatis-infected human epithelial cells in vitro.  

PubMed

To investigate whether or not the combined ultrasound and antibiotic treatment is effective against chlamydial infection, a new ultrasound exposure system was designed to treat chlamydia-infected cells. First, the minimum inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics against Chlamydia trachomatis were determined. Infected cultures were treated with antibiotics then sonicated at intensity of 0.15 or 0.44 W/cm(2) with or without Bubble liposomes. After 48 or 72 h after infection, chlamydial inclusions were stained and examined by fluorescence microscopy. The internalization of dextran-fluorescein conjugates by ultrasound irradiation with Bubble liposomes was observed by fluorescence microscopy. The results showed that application of nanobubble-enhanced ultrasound caused no significant effect on cell viability and chlamydial infectivity. However, Doxycycline (1/2 MIC) or CZX (1.0 ?g/ml) in combination with nanobubble-enhanced ultrasound dramatically reduced the number of inclusions compared with that administered with antibiotics only. Bubble dose-dependent synergy was also observed. After ultrasound irradiation at intensity of 0.44 W/cm(2) on the presence of Bubble liposomes, 10% of HeLa cells were observed to have internalized the dextran molecules. This study suggests the possibility of using nanobubble-enhanced ultrasound to deliver antibiotic molecules into cells to eradiate intracellular bacteria, such as chlamydiae, without causing much damage to the cells itself. PMID:20728399

Ikeda-Dantsuji, Yurika; Feril, Loreto B; Tachibana, Katsuro; Ogawa, Koichi; Endo, Hitomi; Harada, Yoshimi; Suzuki, Ryo; Maruyama, Kazuo

2010-07-27

219

Risk factors associated with Chlamydia and gonorrhea infection among female sex workers in two Mexico-U.S. border cities  

PubMed Central

Female sex workers (FSWs) aged ?18 years without known HIV infection living in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez who had recent unprotected sex with clients underwent interviews and testing for Chlamydia and gonorrhea using nucleic acid amplification. Correlates of each infection were identified with logistic regression. Among 798 FSWs, prevalence of Chlamydia and gonorrhea was 13.0% and 6.4%. Factors independently associated with Chlamydia were being younger, working in Tijuana versus Ciudad Juarez, and recent methamphetamine injection. Factors independently associated with gonorrhea were working in Tijuana versus Ciudad Juarez, using illegal drugs before or during sex, and having a recent male partner who injects drugs. Chlamydia and gonorrhea infection were more closely associated with FSWs’ drug use behaviors and that of their sexual partners than with sexual behaviors. Prevention should focus on subgroups of FSWs and their partners who use methamphetamine and who inject drugs.

Loza, Oralia; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Martinez, Gustavo A.; Lozada, Remedios; Ojeda, Victoria D.; Staines-Orozco, Hugo; Patterson, Thomas L.

2011-01-01

220

Effects of Population Based Screening for Chlamydia Infections in The Netherlands Limited by Declining Participation Rates  

PubMed Central

Background A large trial to investigate the effectiveness of population based screening for chlamydia infections was conducted in the Netherlands in 2008–2012. The trial was register based and consisted of four rounds of screening of women and men in the age groups 16–29 years in three regions in the Netherlands. Data were collected on participation rates and positivity rates per round. A modeling study was conducted to project screening effects for various screening strategies into the future. Methods and Findings We used a stochastic network simulation model incorporating partnership formation and dissolution, aging and a sexual life course perspective. Trends in baseline rates of chlamydia testing and treatment were used to describe the epidemiological situation before the start of the screening program. Data on participation rates was used to describe screening uptake in rural and urban areas. Simulations were used to project the effectiveness of screening on chlamydia prevalence for a time period of 10 years. In addition, we tested alternative screening strategies, such as including only women, targeting different age groups, and biennial screening. Screening reduced prevalence by about 1% in the first two screening rounds and leveled off after that. Extrapolating observed participation rates into the future indicated very low participation in the long run. Alternative strategies only marginally changed the effectiveness of screening. Higher participation rates as originally foreseen in the program would have succeeded in reducing chlamydia prevalence to very low levels in the long run. Conclusions Decreasing participation rates over time profoundly impact the effectiveness of population based screening for chlamydia infections. Using data from several consecutive rounds of screening in a simulation model enabled us to assess the future effectiveness of screening on prevalence. If participation rates cannot be kept at a sufficient level, the effectiveness of screening on prevalence will remain limited.

Schmid, Boris V.; Over, Eelco A. B.; van den Broek, Ingrid V. F.; Op de Coul, Eline L. M.; van Bergen, Jan E. A. M.; Fennema, Johan S. A.; Gotz, Hannelore M.; Hoebe, Christian J. P. A.; de Wit, G. Ardine; van der Sande, Marianne A. B.; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E. E.

2013-01-01

221

Proceedings From the First Asia-Oceania Research Organisation on Genital Infections and Neoplasia (AOGIN) Meeting  

PubMed Central

The First Asia-Oceania Research Organisation on Genital Infections and Neoplasia (AOGIN) Meeting was held in Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia, in July 2005. The conference covered regional issues relating to infection with the human papillomavirus—epidemiology, virology, and immunology, testing, screening, and prevention strategies—as well as cervical cancer screening and its management.

Faro, Edited by Sebastian

2006-01-01

222

Serologic evidence of past infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, in relation to ovarian cancer.  

PubMed

Pelvic inflammatory disease has been inconsistently linked with ovarian cancer. We measured antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis, to chlamydial heat shock protein (CHSP) 60, and to CHSP10, in 117 women with ovarian cancer and in 171 age- and ethnicity-matched population-based control subjects from Oahu, Hawaii. IgG antibodies to serovar D of chlamydia elementary bodies (EB) and IgG antibodies to CHSP60-1, CHSP60-2, CHSP60-3, and CHSP10 were detected using an ELISA assay. The probability of having ovarian cancer was 90% greater in women with the highest, compared with the lowest (optical density, >or =0.40 vs. <0.10), levels of chlamydia-EB antibodies (P=.05). There was also a monotonic trend (P=.09) in ovarian cancer risk associated with CHSP60-1 but not with CHSP60-2, CHSP60-3, or CHSP10. These data suggest that past or chronic persistent infection with chlamydia may be a risk factor for ovarian cancer. PMID:12660930

Ness, Roberta B; Goodman, Marc T; Shen, Caixia; Brunham, Robert C

2003-03-14

223

The chlamydia screening studies: rationale and design  

PubMed Central

Background: Screening has been recommended to reduce the prevalence and morbidity associated with genital chlamydia infection in the United Kingdom. Methods: We describe the rationale and study design of the Chlamydia Screening Studies (ClaSS), a collaborative project designed to evaluate screening outside genitourinary medicine clinics. A non-selective, active screening approach in 16–39 year olds randomly sampled from 27 general practice lists in the Bristol and Birmingham areas formed the basis of interlinked studies: a case-control study was used to investigate factors to improve the targeting of screening; participants with chlamydia were invited to enrol in a randomised controlled trial to evaluate partner notification conducted in primary care; and laboratory based studies were used to assess the best specimens and tests. We also explored psychosocial effects of screening and partner notification and modelled the cost effectiveness of the programme. Conclusion: Results from four pilot practices show that mailing of specimens for chlamydia testing is feasible but that it is difficult to achieve high response rates with postal screening. The high prevalence of asymptomatic infection in men suggests that efforts to screen men for chlamydia should be strengthened.

Low, N; McCarthy, A; Macleod, J; Salisbury, C; Horner, P; Roberts, T; Campbell, R; Herring, A; Skidmore, S; Sanford, E; Sterne, J; Davey, S; Graham, A; Huengsberg, M; Ross, J; Egger, M; t for

2004-01-01

224

Effect of the Purinergic Receptor P2X7 on Chlamydia Infection in Cervical Epithelial Cells and Vaginally Infected Mice1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ligation of the purinergic receptor, P2X7R, with its agonist ATP has been previously shown to inhibit intracellular infection by chlamydiae and mycobacteria in macrophages. The effect of P2X7R on chlamydial infection had never been investigated in the preferred target cells of chlamydiae, cervical epithelial cells, nor in vaginally infected mice. In this study, we show that treatment of epithelial cells

Toni Darville; Lynn Welter-Stahl; Cristiane Cruz; Ali Abdul Sater; Charles W. Andrews; David M. Ojcius

2007-01-01

225

Infection of Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages with Chlamydia trachomatis Induces Apoptosis of T Cells: a Potential Mechanism for Persistent Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viruses can escape T-cell surveillance by infecting macrophages and thereby induce apoptosis of noninfected T cells. This ability had not been demonstrated for bacteria. We investigated whether infection of macrophages with the important human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis can induce T-cell apoptosis. Because Chlamydia- Mycoplasma coinfection is a frequent event, the ability of Mycoplasma fermentans-infected macrophages to induce T-cell apoptosis was

MICHAEL C. JENDRO; TOBIAS DEUTSCH; BRITTA KORBER; LARS KOHLER; JENS G. KUIPERS; BIRGIT KRAUSSE-OPATZ; JURGEN WESTERMANN; ELKE RAUM; HENNING ZEIDLER

2000-01-01

226

Genital chlamydial infection among women in Nicaragua: validity of direct fluorescent antibody testing, prevalence, risk factors and clinical manifestations.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To validate the performance of a direct fluorescence antibody (DFA) test and to determine the prevalence, risk factors and clinical manifestations of cervical chlamydia infection in different groups of women in Nicaragua. STUDY POPULATION: 926 women, 863 routine clinic attenders (mean age 27 years) and 63 sex workers (mean age 25 years) attending health centres in León, Corinto, Matagalpa and Bluefields. METHODS: Cervical specimens were examined using the Syva MicroTrak test system with a cut-off of 10 or more elementary bodies (EBs). The DFA results were validated by a one-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Discordant results were further examined in nested PCR assays directed at two different target genes. An interviewer-administered questionnaire and a standard gynaecological examination were completed. RESULTS: Sensitivity of DFA was 80.1%, specificity 98.3%, and positive and negative predictive values 62.5% and 99.3%, respectively. Values were lower in locations where samples thawed because of electricity breaks and higher among sex workers. The majority of discordant results was confirmed as positive in nested PCR assays. Prevalence of cervical chlamydia infection based on positivity in DFA and/or PCR ranged from 2% among routine clinic attenders aged 35 years or older, to 8% among adolescent clinic attenders, and to 14% among sex workers. Among routine clinic attenders, young age (odds ratio [OR] 3.6, 95% confidence intervals [95% CI] 1.4-8.9 for women aged 15-19 years as compared with 1 in women 25 years of age or older) and use of oral contraceptives (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.7-9.6) were the only statistically significant risk factors identified in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Presence of mucopurulent cervical discharge (OR 5.9, 95% CI 3.0-11.5) and presence of ectropion (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-6.5) were the clinical signs independently associated with infection. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the DFA test was sensitive and specific while the performance of the PCR assay depends on adequate storage of samples. Genital C trachomatis infection is a common health problem among women in Nicaragua. The wide implementation of syndromic STD management algorithms together with health education programmes aimed at young people is the most promising approach to control STD in Nicaragua. Images

Herrmann, B; Espinoza, F; Villegas, R R; Smith, G D; Ramos, A; Egger, M

1996-01-01

227

Seroepidemiological survey of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection among Singapore university undergraduates: comparison between microimmunofluorescence and neutralization tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydia pneumoniae causes acute human respiratory tract infections, and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. A seroepidemiological study using the microimmunofluorescence (MIF) technique was conducted to determine the prevalence of C. pneumoniae IgG antibodies (at titres of at least 1:16) among 205 apparently healthy Singapore university undergraduates. The overall seroprevalence was 35.1%, with significantly higher seropositivity rates among

Vincent T. K. Chow; M. C. Phoon

2001-01-01

228

Development and evaluation of screening strategies for Chlamydia trachomatis infections in an STD clinic  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES--To identify predictors for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among visitors of an STD clinic in Amsterdam in 1986-1988. To design predictor-based screening programmes for C trachomatis. To evaluate the chosen screening strategy in 1993. METHODS--In 1986-1988, 947 heterosexual men and 648 women participated in the study. A medical history was recorded, a physical examination took place and samples were taken for

Y T van Duynhoven; M J van de Laar; J S Fennema; G J van Doornum; J A van den Hoek

1995-01-01

229

Association of Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection with HLA-B*35 in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immune system may interplay between Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and coronary artery disease (CAD). Major histocompatibility complex genes regulate innate and adaptive immunity. Patients with CAD (n 100) and controls (n 74) were enrolled. Human leukocyte antigens (HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-DRB1), four lymphotoxin alpha single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and complement C4A and C4B allotypes were typed, and their haplotypes were inferred. The

Anil Palikhe; Marja-Liisa Lokki; Pekka Saikku; Maija Leinonen; Mika Paldanius; Mikko Seppanen; Ville Valtonen; Markku S. Nieminen; Juha Sinisalo

2008-01-01

230

Asymptomatic endemic Chlamydia pecorum infections reduce growth rates in calves by up to 48 percent.  

PubMed

Intracellular Chlamydia (C.) bacteria cause in cattle some acute but rare diseases such as abortion, sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis, kerato-conjunctivitis, pneumonia, enteritis and polyarthritis. More frequent, essentially ubiquitous worldwide, are low-level, asymptomatic chlamydial infections in cattle. We investigated the impact of these naturally acquired infections in a cohort of 51 female Holstein and Jersey calves from birth to 15 weeks of age. In biweekly sampling, we measured blood/plasma markers of health and infection and analyzed their association with clinical appearance and growth in dependence of chlamydial infection intensity as determined by mucosal chlamydial burden or contemporaneous anti-chlamydial plasma IgM. Chlamydia 23S rRNA gene PCR and ompA genotyping identified only C. pecorum (strains 1710S, Maeda, and novel strain Smith3v8) in conjunctival and vaginal swabs. All calves acquired the infection but remained clinically asymptomatic. High chlamydial infection associated with reduction of body weight gains by up to 48% and increased conjunctival reddening (P<10(-4)). Simultaneously decreased plasma albumin and increased globulin (P<10(-4)) suggested liver injury by inflammatory mediators as mechanisms for the growth inhibition. This was confirmed by the reduction of plasma insulin like growth factor-1 at high chlamydial infection intensity (P<10(-4)). High anti-C. pecorum IgM associated eight weeks later with 66% increased growth (P?=?0.027), indicating a potential for immune protection from C. pecorum-mediated growth depression. The worldwide prevalence of chlamydiae in livestock and their high susceptibility to common feed-additive antibiotics suggests the possibility that suppression of chlamydial infections may be a major contributor to the growth promoting effect of feed-additive antibiotics. PMID:23024776

Poudel, Anil; Elsasser, Theodore H; Rahman, Kh Shamsur; Chowdhury, Erfan U; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard

2012-09-14

231

Effect of Prolonged Treatment with Azithromycin, Clarithromycin, or Levofloxacin on Chlamydia pneumoniae in a Continuous-Infection Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persistent infections with Chlamydia pneumoniae have been implicated in the development of chronic diseases, such as atherosclerosis and asthma. Although azithromycin, clarithromycin, and levofloxacin are frequently used for the treatment of respiratory C. pneumoniae infections, little is known about the dose and duration of therapy needed to treat a putative chronic C. pneumoniae infection. In this study, we investigated the

Andrei Kutlin; Patricia M. Roblin; Margaret R. Hammerschlag

2002-01-01

232

3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine increases susceptibility to genital herpes simplex virus infection in mice.  

PubMed

Abused by >1.2 million Americans, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) (commonly referred to as ecstasy) is popular in the dance club, rave, and circuit party scenes. MDMA and other similar drugs are reportedly associated with increased incidence of sexually transmitted infectious diseases, such as AIDS and genital herpes, and may have immunological effects. In the present study, we demonstrate that MDMA causes increased susceptibility to herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in mice and earlier onset of genital herpes. We also demonstrate that MDMA has an effect on the cytokines of the innate immune system-both systemically and, for the first time, in the genital tract. These data suggest that MDMA may play an important biological role in infection. PMID:19758099

Pennock, Jeffry W; Stegall, Rachael; Bubar, Marcy J; Milligan, Gregg; Cunningham, Kathryn A; Bourne, Nigel

2009-10-15

233

Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in genital swabs: comparison of commercial and in house amplification methods with culture  

PubMed Central

AIMS: To evaluate the sensitivity of the Roche Cobas, Roche Amplicor plate kit, ligase chain reaction (LCR), and an in house polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by titration of purified elementary bodies (EB) and also to test 245 urethral and endocervical specimens for Chlamydia trachomatis by the four assays as well as conventional culture. STUDY DESIGN: EB titrations were run in duplicate in each commercial assay and six times in the in house PCR. Clinical samples were aliquoted and tested by each assay and were considered positive if C trachomatis was detected by two or more separate tests or if the sample was either culture or immunofluorescence positive. Major outer membrane protein (MOMP) specific primers were used as a confirmatory assay for the in house PCR. RESULTS: The in house PCR, Roche Cobas Amplicor, LCR, and Amplicor plate kit gave detection limits of approximately 1, 1-2, 2, and 2-4 EBs respectively. By the criteria described above for definition of a C trachomatis positive result in clinical samples we identified 23 true positives among the 245 clinical specimens. The in house PCR detected all 23 giving a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 98%. The Roche Cobas Amplicor, Roche Amplicor plate kit, and LCR detected 21, 19, and 19 of these respectively giving sensitivities of 87.5%, 82%, and 82% respectively and specificities of 99.5%, 99%, and 100% respectively. The culture gave a sensitivity of 78% and specificity of 100%. CONCLUSION: All four amplification assays had a greater sensitivity than the culture used routinely in this laboratory. The in house plasmid PCR had the greatest sensitivity and when combined with confirmation by immunofluorescence detected the greatest number of positives. This increased sensitivity is likely to have been achieved by the use of a DNA purification step and of nested primers in the amplification stage and their combined use in routine diagnostic assays for chlamydia might increase the frequency of C trachomatis detections. However, this assay is much less user friendly than the two semiautomated commercial assays investigated in this study. ???

Shattock, R. M.; Patrizio, C.; Simmonds, P.; Sutherland, S.

1998-01-01

234

Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis lung infection in an HIV-positive homosexual man.  

PubMed

A 31-year-old homosexual man, who was human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive was admitted for fever and cough. Chest computed tomography (CT) revealed the presence of diffuse interstitial reticular nodulation, and brain nuclear magnetic resonance imaging showed the presence of nodular frontal lesions. Microscopic examination of sputum and other body fluids showed the presence of acid-fast bacilli and culture-only growth Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Serology for respiratory tract pathogens was negative except for Chlamydia. An antibody titer in the immunoglobulin G (IgG) class of 1:64 for Chlamydia pneumoniae and, unexpectedly, an antibody titer of 1:1024 for C. trachomatis were found. The patient was successfully treated with antituberculosis agents, and clarithromycin, for presumptive chlamydial infection. PMID:11788074

Monno, R; Maggi, P; Carbonara, S; Sibilio, G; D'Aprile, A; Costa, D; Pastore, G

2001-12-01

235

Immune Consequences of Chlamydia Infections in Pregnancy and In Vitro Fertilization Outcome  

PubMed Central

This review addresses the immune consequences of Chlamydial infections in pregnancy and in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcome. In pregnancy, many works have shown the risk for perterm labor, preterm birth, or miscarriage with current infection, and stress the need for screening and treatment early in pregnancy. IVF outcome needs to be studied in relation to specific markers like inflammatory cytokines and secretory antibodies to the 60 kD heat shock protein (hsp60) and to Chlamydia, to determine their ability to predict and influence pregnancy outcome.

Askienazy-Elbhar, M.

1996-01-01

236

Serological detection of phage infection in Chlamydia psittaci recovered from ducks.  

PubMed

Antiserum prepared against a phage which infects a Chlamydia psittaci isolate recovered from domestic ducks was used to screen other recent avian C psittaci isolates by indirect immunofluorescence. Two more phage infected strains from ducks were discovered. However, phage was not detected in every isolate examined from common source ducks, although such birds are likely to be infected with the same C psittaci strain. Moreover, phage could not always be demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescence in McCoy cell monolayers infected with the phage-containing strain. The results suggest that phage infection is probably an integral part of duck chlamydiosis in the United Kingdom at present, but that the infection is often cryptic. PMID:3544465

Bacon, E J; Richmond, S J; Wood, D J; Stirling, P; Bevan, B J; Chalmers, W S

237

Infection of Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages with Chlamydia trachomatis Induces Apoptosis of T Cells: a Potential Mechanism for Persistent Infection  

PubMed Central

Viruses can escape T-cell surveillance by infecting macrophages and thereby induce apoptosis of noninfected T cells. This ability had not been demonstrated for bacteria. We investigated whether infection of macrophages with the important human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis can induce T-cell apoptosis. Because Chlamydia-Mycoplasma coinfection is a frequent event, the ability of Mycoplasma fermentans-infected macrophages to induce T-cell apoptosis was also studied. Infected macrophages were cocultivated with autologous T cells in different activation states. Propidium iodide-based fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis demonstrated that macrophages infected with viable chlamydiae induced T-cell death. Apoptosis was identified as the mode of death induction by using a terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling assay. Induction of T-cell death was macrophage dependent. Incubation of T cells with infectious chlamydiae in the absence of macrophages did not lead to T-cell apoptosis. UV irradiation of chlamydiae diminished the ability to induce death. T-cell death was induced by a cell-free supernatant of infected macrophages. Not only phytohemagglutinin-preactivated T cells but also non-mitogen-preactivated T cells were susceptible to C. trachomatis-induced apoptosis. In contrast, M. fermentans infection of macrophages did not induce T-cell death. Coinfection had no additional effect. In summary, intracellular chlamydial infection of macrophages can induce T-cell apoptosis. Apoptosis induction by chlamydiae possibly explains how persistently infected macrophages escape T-cell surveillance and why the Chlamydia-specific T-cell response is diminished during persistent chlamydial infection.

Jendro, Michael C.; Deutsch, Tobias; Korber, Britta; Kohler, Lars; Kuipers, Jens G.; Krausse-Opatz, Birgit; Westermann, Jurgen; Raum, Elke; Zeidler, Henning

2000-01-01

238

Efficacy of duplicate genital specimens and repeated testing for confirming positive results for chlamydiazyme detection of Chlamydia trachomatis antigen.  

PubMed Central

In an attempt to increase Chlamydiazyme (Abbott Laboratories) detection of Chlamydia trachomatis antigen and to establish the reproducibility of positive results, we carried out an investigation into the usefulness of testing duplicate specimens, of more aggressive endocervical specimen collection by using cytobrushes instead of swabs, and of the repeated testing of both specimens from patients with one or two positive results. Duplicate endocervical (female) and urethral (male) specimens, including one swab and one cytobrush specimen from 1,331 nonpregnant women, were collected from symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Specimens were transported and tested for C. trachomatis antigen as specified by the manufacturer. Tests on all specimens from patients with positive results were repeated. Antigen was initially detected in one or both specimens from 210 (10.7%) of 1,968 patients, and repetition of the tests confirmed its presence in 198 (10.1%) of the patients, including all 183 patients in whom it was initially detected in both specimens. Initial results from at least 8 of the 12 patients with irreproducible antigen detection were most probably falsely positive. Results from 21 (10.6%) of the 198 patients for whom antigen detection was confirmed were repeatedly positive on only one specimen (9 [4.5%] on the second of the two specimens collected). Of 115 women from whom one swab and one cytobrush sample were taken and who had repeatedly positive results, antigen was detected in 7 (6.1%) only on the swab sample and in 4 (3.5%) only on the cytobrush sample. Use of the cytobrush does not appear justified with the Chlamydiazyme assay, and collection of duplicate specimens provided only a modest increase in detection of C. trachomatis. However, repeated testing of specimens when results from only one of two specimens are positive appears to be of clinical value.

Kellogg, J A; Seiple, J W; Levisky, J S

1989-01-01

239

Long-term clinical, microbiological, and immunological observations of a volunteer repeatedly infected with Chlamydia trachomatis.  

PubMed

A blind volunteer was inoculated in one eye with an isolate of Chlamydia trachomatis in 1961 and followed for 20 years. During this time, many observations were made of his clinical responses to the first inoculation and several subsequent inoculations with the same and other strains, chlamydial shedding, and antibody and cell-mediated immune responses. Evidence is presented that partial resistance to chlamydial eye infection developed during repeated infections and that antibodies, cell-mediated immune reactions, and specific antigen in conjunctival cells persisted for many years after the last infection. The antibody response was directed mainly against the original infecting immunotype, regardless of whether the response was restimulated by infection with the same immunotype or with other immunotypes. The lymphocyte stimulation response appeared to be species specific. PMID:7153340

Hanna, L; Jawetz, E; Dawson, C R; Thygeson, P

1982-11-01

240

Chapter 6: Epidemiology and transmission dynamics of genital HPV infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter provides an overview of the epidemiology of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, with a focus on the dynamics of sexual transmission. We explore concepts related to the spread of sexually transmitted infections, including population prevalence, duration of infectivity, patterns of sexual contacts, and transmissibility, including modifiers of susceptibility and infectivity. HPV prevalence and incidence are high in most studies,

Ann N. Burchell; Rachel L. Winer; Silvia de Sanjosé; Eduardo L. Franco

2006-01-01

241

The molecular basis for disease phenotype in chronic Chlamydia-induced arthritis  

PubMed Central

Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections can elicit an inflammatory arthritis in some individuals, and recent surprising studies have demonstrated that only ocular (trachoma) strains, not genital strains, of the organism are present in the synovial tissues of patients with the disease. This observation suggests an explanation for the small proportion of genitally-infected patients who develop Chlamydia-induced arthritis. Other recent studies have begun to identify the specific chlamydial gene products that elicit the synovial inflammatory response during both active and quiescent disease, although much more study will be required to complete the understanding of that complex process of host–pathogen interaction. Several newly developed experimental methods and approaches for study of the process will enable identification of new therapeutic targets, and possibly strategies for prevention of the disease altogether.

Carter, John D; Gerard, Herve C; Whittum-Hudson, Judith A; Hudson, Alan P

2013-01-01

242

The Preterm Prediction Study: Association of second-trimester genitourinary chlamydia infection with subsequent spontaneous preterm birth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study was undertaken to determine the association between genitourinary tract infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and spontaneous preterm birth. Study Design: Genitourinary tract infection with C trachomatis was determined with a ligase chain reaction assay of voided urine samples collected at 24 weeks’ gestation (22 weeks’ to 24 weeks 6 days’ gestation) and 28 weeks’ gestation (27 weeks’ to

William W. Andrews; Robert L. Goldenberg; Brian Mercer; Jay Iams; Paul Meis; Atef Moawad; Anita Das; J. Peter VanDorsten; Steve N. Caritis; Gary Thurnau; Menachem Miodovnik; James Roberts; Donald McNellis

2000-01-01

243

Syphilis, Chlamydia, and Gonorrhea Screening in HIV-Infected Patients in Primary Care, San Francisco, California, 2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recommends sexually transmitted disease (STD) screening among HIV-infected persons in order to reduce HIV transmission. We evaluated the results of routine screening for syphilis and for urogenital, pharyngeal, and rectal gon- orrhea (GC) and chlamydia (CT) among asymptomatic HIV-infected patients at an HIV pri- mary care clinic in San Francisco, California. We found 15

W. Phipps; R. Kohn; J. Stansell; J. D. Klausner

2005-01-01

244

Chlamydia trachomatis infection among women 26 to 39 years of age in the United States, 1999 to 2010.  

PubMed

Using data from a nationally representative survey, we identified predictors of chlamydial infection in women aged 26 to 39 years. Chlamydia prevalence was low overall but varied by sociodemographics and sexual behaviors. Findings support current recommendations that women older than 25 years should not be routinely screened for chlamydial infection. PMID:23486500

Torrone, Elizabeth A; Geisler, William M; Gift, Thomas L; Weinstock, Hillard S

2013-04-01

245

Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infection and Cardiac Risk Factors in Patients with Myocardial Infection  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Evidences support the possible involvement of microorganisms such as Chlamydia pneumonia in the pathogenesis of ischemic heart diseases through a chronic inflammatory process. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between Chlamydia pneumoniae seropositivity with acute myocardial infarction and its related risk factors. METHODS In this case-control study, 88 patients admitted in CCU with a diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome, without a history of chronic diseases including cancers were selected as cases and 49 surgical patients without an evidence of cardiovascular disease according to clinical examinations and ECG were selected as controls. Demographic characteristics and background risk factors were obtained using a questionnaire by expert nurses. Venous blood sample was obtained from participants for measuring the anti Chlamydia IgG and IgM antibodies using ELISA method. The prevalence of antibodies was compared in both groups and its relation with coronary syndrome was evaluated. RESULTS 88 and 49 patients were enrolled in case and control groups, respectively. Mean age of patients and the controls was 14±59.7 and 13±56.9 years, respectively (P=0.26). Anti Chlamydia IgG seropositivity rate was 63(71.9%) and 23(46.9%) in case and controlcontrol groups, respectively (P<0.01; OR: 2.85; CI 95%: 1.38-5.9). Anti Chlamydia IgM was positive in 1 patient and 1 control. Anti Chlamydia IgG seropositivity rate was higher in patients older than 50 years old than those younger than 50 years old (OR: 2.83; CI 95%: 1.31 -1.14). There was a significant relation between BMI, smoking and Anti Chlamydia IgG seropositivity. CONCLUSION Considering the relation between anti Chlamydia antibody IgG seropositivity with BMI and myocardial infarction, it seems that appropriate diagnosis and treatment of these prone patients can be benefical.

Azarkar, Zohreh; Jafarnejad, Majid; Zaedast, Mahmood; Saadatjou, Alireza

2011-01-01

246

Evaluation of Chlamydia immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG, and IgA rELISAs Medac for diagnosis of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection.  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia pneumoniae is an important pathogen responsible for a variety of respiratory diseases in humans. Cell culture remains the most specific method for C. pneumoniae diagnosis, but it is labor-intensive and time-consuming. Thus, serology, particularly microimmunofluorescence (MIF) testing, is frequently utilized. However, the MIF test has a significant subjective component. We evaluated a new serological test: Chlamydia Immunoglobulin M (IgG, IgA, and IgM rELISAs Medac, based on a recombinant Chlamydia-specific lipopolysaccharide (LPS) fragment, for the diagnosis of C. pneumoniae infection. The results of this study demonstrated that the use of rELISAs Medac with single sera does not appear to be sensitive or specific for diagnosis of C. pneumoniae infection compared to culture. In children, sensitivities of the rELISAs compared to culture did not exceed 34.2%, and the specificities ranged from 68.4% (IgG) to 91.2% (IgA). In adults, the sensitivities of the rELISAs were slightly higher, up to 77.8% (IgA or IgG), but the specificities ranged from a very low 20.8% for IgA or IgG to 81.1% for IgM. When multiple sera were tested, the results of the rELISAs Medac correlated with culture results in five of eight (62.5%) patients. However, this offers only a retrospective diagnosis, which makes it difficult to manage these patients prospectively.

Kutlin, A; Tsumura, N; Emre, U; Roblin, P M; Hammerschlag, M R

1997-01-01

247

Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in young stroke patients: a case--control study.  

PubMed

Retrospective and cross-sectional studies have suggested that both bacterial and viral infections may be risk factors for atherosclerosis, ischemic stroke and acute coronary events. The correlation between Chlamydia pneumoniae and atherosclerosis remains a source of controversy. Our case-control study is aimed at evaluating the frequency of C. pneumoniae infection in a cohort of young adults with recent cerebrovascular disease and in particular etiologic stroke subtypes. Chlamydia pneumoniae IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies were evaluated by microimmunofluorescence method and antibody titers to both recombinant antigens chlamydial outer protein 2 and 60-kDa chlamydial heat shock protein (HSP60) by ELISA. The two groups differed with regard to the prevalence of C. pneumoniae IgA (P < 0.001) and IgG (P < 0.0001), as well as the titer of anti-R-HSP60 IgG (P < 0.001). We found an increase in IgA titers, suggestive of persistent, chronic active infection, in 16 patients in whom the etiology of the cerebral ischemic event was large-vessel atherothrombosis. Persistent, active C. pneumoniae infection may be an additional risk factor for ischemic stroke mainly of atherotrombotic origin in young subjects. However, a large-scale prospective confirmation of our findings is required. PMID:15142225

Anzini, A; Cassone, A; Rasura, M; Ciervo, A; Beccia, M; Di Lisi, F; Fieschi, C

2004-05-01

248

Comparison of complement fixation and microimmunofluorescence tests in respiratory infections caused by chlamydia and an evaluation of the serum amyloid a protein in chlamydial infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

We retrospectively analyzed serum samples for antibodies to chlamydia species using the micro-immunofluorescence (MIF) test\\u000a from 72 patients previously tested by the clamydia complement fixation (CF) test, which is used to detect pulmonary psittacosis.\\u000a Nineteen patients were positive for chlamydia with the CF test. Of these, 9 patients (47.4%) were also positive forC. psittaci infection, and 7 patients (36.8%) were

Hironori Tanaka; Yoichi Hirakata; Mitsuo Kakur; Ryoji Yoshida; Hiromu Takemura; Ryusuke Mizukane; Kazuo Ishida; Kazunori Tomono; Hironobu Koga; Shigeru Konno; Shimeru Kamihira

1997-01-01

249

[The relation between Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and abdominal aortic aneurysm].  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to evaluate the frequency of C. pneumoniae infection in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patients by measuring C. pneumoniae specific serum IgG, IgM and IgA levels and the activation of their immune system by measuring the concentrations of IL-10, IL-12, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha in patients' serum. Microimmunofluorescence method was applied to evaluate the level of anti-C. pneumoniae IgG, IgA and IgM. The concentrations of cytokines were evaluated using ELISA method. Serologic markers of persistent C. pneumoniae infection have been detected in 25/28 (89.3%) patients and in 6/20 (30%) healthy controls. In 40% (10/25) of patients with serologic markers of persistent C. pneumoniae infection high titers of specific IgG and IgA indicated active infection--reinfection or exacerbation of chronic infection. Mean concentrations of IL-10, IL-12, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha indicated lack of protection against intracellular pathogens. Since all patients in this group were diagnosed as having symptomatic AAA, we suggest that active infection can exacerbate inflammation in the AAA wall and accelerate progression of the disease. In our opinion patients with active C. pneumoniae infection may be candidates to the antimicrobial treatment. PMID:11899845

Wolski, A; Mazur, E; Nied?wiadek, J; Slepko, J; Kozio?-Montewka, M; Michalak, J

2001-12-01

250

Immunization against Genital Herpes with a Vaccine Virus That has Defects in Productive and Latent Infection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An effective vaccine for genital herpes has been difficult to achieve because of the limited efficacy of subunit vaccines and the safety concerns about live viruses. As an alternative approach, mutant herpes simplex virus strains that are replication-defective can induce protective immunity. To increase the level of safety and to prove that replication was not needed for immunization, we constructed a mutant herpes simplex virus 2 strain containing two deletion mutations, each of which eliminated viral replication. The double-mutant virus induces protective immunity that can reduce acute viral shedding and latent infection in a mouse genital model, but importantly, the double-mutant virus shows a phenotypic defect in latent infection. This herpes vaccine strain, which is immunogenic but has defects in both productive and latent infection, provides a paradigm for the design of vaccines and vaccine vectors for other sexually transmitted diseases, such as AIDS.

da Costa, Xavier J.; Jones, Cheryl A.; Knipe, David M.

1999-06-01

251

Role of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in asthma in Northeast of Iran.  

PubMed

The role of Chlamydia pneumoniae in asthma has drawn much attention in recent years. In this study we assessed the prevalence of C. pneumoniae infections in patients with chronic stable and acute exacerbation of asthma and compared it with normal population. Twenty adult patients with chronic stable asthma and 21 patients with acute exacerbations of asthma and 41 matched control subjects were studied for presence of C. pneumoniae using cell culture. This study suggests that positive results of C. pneumoniae culture are associated with both chronic stable and acute exacerbation of asthma. It could be concluded that C. pneumoniae is a risk factor for either development or exacerbation of asthma. PMID:18322313

Ahmadi Torshizi, Ali; Tohidi, Mohammad; Attaran, Davood; Khaje Karamadin, Mehrangiz; Ghazvini, Kiarash

2008-03-01

252

Role of Gamma-Delta T Cells in Murine Chlamydia trachomatisInfection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of gamma-delta T cells in host resistance to Chlamydia trachomatis was characterized by using a murine model of pneumonia caused by the mouse pneumonitis agent (MoPn), murineC. trachomatis. At days 3 and 7 after infection, gamma-delta T-cell-deficient knockout mice had significantly higher levels of MoPn in thelungsthandidimmunologicallyintactcontrols.Atday20,paradoxically,gamma-deltaT-cell-deficientmice were more resistant to MoPn than were controls. This increased resistance

DWIGHT M. WILLIAMS; BARRY G. GRUBBS; KATHLEEN KELLY; ELIZABETH PACK; ANDROGER G. RANK; San Antonio

1996-01-01

253

Evaluation of PCR, culture, and serology for diagnosis of Chlamydia pneumoniae respiratory infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prospectively studied 156 patients with a diagnosis of\\u000a community-acquired pneumonia requiring admission. Several respiratory\\u000a specimens were obtained for the detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae by cell\\u000a culture and PCR. Three serum samples were obtained from each patient.\\u000a Serological diagnosis of a C. pneumoniae infection was determined by the\\u000a microimmunofluorescence (MIF) test, the complement fixation (CF) test, and\\u000a recombinant lipopolysaccharide (LPS)

R. P. A. J. Verkooyen; D. Willemse; S. C. Hiep-van Casteren; S. A. MOUSAVI JOULANDAN; R. J. Snijder; Helden van H. P; M. F. Peeters; H. A. Verbrugh; Bosch van den J. M

1998-01-01

254

Assessing a Potential Role of Host Pannexin 1 during Chlamydia trachomatis Infection  

PubMed Central

Pannexin 1 (Panx1) is a plasma membrane channel glycoprotein that plays a role in innate immune response through association with the inflammasome complex. Probenecid, a classic pharmacological agent for gout, has also been used historically in combination therapy with antibiotics to prevent cellular drug efflux and has been reported to inhibit Panx1. As the inflammasome has been implicated in the progression of Chlamydia infections, and with chlamydial infections at record levels in the US, we therefore investigated whether probenecid would have a direct effect on Chlamydia trachomatis development through inhibition of Panx1. We found chlamydial development to be inhibited in a dose-dependent, yet reversible manner in the presence of probenecid. Drug treatment induced an aberrant chlamydial morphology consistent with persistent bodies. Although Panx1 was shown to localize to the chlamydial inclusion, no difference was seen in chlamydial development during infection of cells derived from wild-type and Panx1 knockout mice. Therefore, probenecid may inhibit C. trachomatis growth by an as yet unresolved mechanism.

McKuen, Mary J.; Dahl, Gerhard; Fields, Kenneth A.

2013-01-01

255

Prevalence of reproductive tract infections, genital prolapse, and obesity in a rural community in Lebanon.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of reproduction-related illnesses in a rural community in Lebanon. METHODS: Data were collected through interviews with women in their homes, physical examinations and history taking by physicians in a clinic in the community, and laboratory tests. A total of 557 ever-married women aged 15-60 years were selected randomly. FINDINGS: Just over half of the sample (268, 50.6%) had five or more children, and (320, 78.9%) of women aged < 45 years were using contraception. The prevalence of reproductive tract infections was very low: six (1.2%) women had sexually transmitted diseases and 47 (9.3%) had endogenous reproductive tract infections. None had chlamydial infection or a positive serological finding of syphilis. None had invasive cervical cancer, and only one had cervical dysplasia. In contrast, genital prolapse and gynaecological morbidity were elevated. Half of the women studied (251, 49.6%) had genital prolapse, and 153 (30.2%) were obese. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of reproductive tract infections in this conservative rural community in east Lebanon was low. Possible explanations include the conservative nature of the community, the high rate of utilization of health care services, and the liberal use of antibiotics without a prescription. More importantly, the study showed an unexpectedly high prevalence of genital prolapse and obesity--a finding that has clear implications for primary health care priorities in such rural communities.

Deeb, Mary E.; Awwad, Johnny; Yeretzian, Joumana S.; Kaspar, Hanna G.

2003-01-01

256

Male circumcision and prevalence of genital human papillomavirus infection in men: a multinational study  

PubMed Central

Background Accumulated evidence from epidemiological studies and more recently from randomized controlled trials suggests that male circumcision (MC) may substantially protect against genital HPV infection in men. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between MC and genital HPV infection in men in a large multinational study. Methods A total of 4072 healthy men ages 18–70?years were enrolled in a study conducted in Brazil, Mexico, and the United States. Enrollment samples combining exfoliated cells from the coronal sulcus, glans penis, shaft, and scrotum were analyzed for the presence and genotyping of HPV DNA by PCR and linear array methods. Prevalence ratios (PR) were used to estimate associations between MC and HPV detection adjusting for potential confounders. Results MC was not associated with overall prevalence of any HPV, oncogenic HPV types or unclassified HPV types. However, MC was negatively associated with non-oncogenic HPV infections (PR 0.85, 95% confident interval: 0.76-0.95), in particular for HPV types 11, 40, 61, 71, and 81. HPV 16, 51, 62, and 84 were the most frequently identified genotypes regardless of MC status. Conclusions This study shows no overall association between MC and genital HPV infections in men, except for certain non-oncogenic HPV types for which a weak association was found. However, the lack of association with MC might be due to the lack of anatomic site specific HPV data, for example the glans penis, the area expected to be most likely protected by MC.

2013-01-01

257

Chlamydia psittaci in Swedish wetland birds: a risk to zoonotic infection?  

PubMed

Chlamydia psittaci in birds may be transmitted to humans and cause respiratory infections, sometimes as severe disease. Our study investigated the C. psittaci prevalence in migratory birds in Sweden by real-time PCR. Fecal specimens or cloacal swabs were collected from 497 birds from 22 different species, mainly mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), at two bird observatories in Sweden. DNA from C psittaci was found in six (1.2%) birds from three different species. Five of the positive specimens were infected with four novel strains of C. psittaci, based on sequencing of partial 16S rRNA gene and ompA gene, and the sixth was indentified as a recently described Chlamydiaceae-like bacterium. Considering exposure to humans it is concluded that the risk of zoonotic infection is low. PMID:23397847

Blomqvist, Maria; Christerson, Linus; Waldenström, Jonas; Herrmann, Björn; Olsen, Björn

2012-12-01

258

Chlamydia pneumoniae infection induces inflammatory changes in the aortas of rabbits.  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia pneumoniae, a common human respiratory pathogen, has been associated with atherosclerosis in several seroepidemiological studies. Moreover, its presence in lesions of vessel walls has been demonstrated by culture, immunohistochemistry, PCR, and electron microscopy. In this study, we infected intranasally with C. pneumoniae New Zealand White rabbits which had been fed a normal diet. Reinfection was given 3 weeks later. Six of the nine reinfected animals showed inflammatory changes consisting of intimal thickening or fibroid plaques resembling atherosclerosis in 2 to 4 weeks after reinfection. One rabbit had calcified lesions. Immunohistochemistry for C. pneumoniae was strongly positive in the three older affected animals. No lesions were seen in the controls. The results suggest that C. pneumoniae infection is capable of inducing inflammatory atherosclerosis-like changes in the aortas of infected rabbits.

Laitinen, K; Laurila, A; Pyhala, L; Leinonen, M; Saikku, P

1997-01-01

259

Comparison of Five Serologic Tests for Diagnosis of Acute Infections by Chlamydia pneumoniae  

PubMed Central

Serology is often used to diagnose acute infections by Chlamydia pneumoniae. In this study paired sera from patients with acute respiratory tract infection during an epidemic of C. pneumoniae infections were examined by five different antibody tests. These tests were the complement fixation (CF) test, the microimmunofluorescence (MIF) test, a recombinant enzyme immunoassay (rEIA) (Medac) based on a recombinant lipopolysaccharide of chlamydia and measuring antibodies to a common chlamydial antigen, and two tests that utilize preparations of C. pneumoniae organisms, the SeroCp-EIA (Savyon) (with preserved lipopolysaccharide) and the LOY-EIA (Labsystems) (without this antigen). Both of the last two tests should measure specific antibodies to C. pneumoniae, although cross-reacting antibodies may also be detected by the SeroCp-EIA. Acute infection of C. pneumoniae was serologically confirmed in 44% of the cases by at least two different tests. Using an expanded “gold standard,” i.e., the presence of significant reactions in at least two tests, the sensitivity of the CF test was 69%, that of the MIF test was 88%, that of the rEIA was 89%, that of the LOY-EIA was 96%, and that of the SeroCp-EIA was 92%. Specificity was high for all methods, but adjustments of diagnostic criteria were made to several of the tests. The basis for these adjustments and supportive data are presented. Infections of C. pneumoniae were detected in patients from 8 to 83 years of age. Two peaks in the incidence of such infections were observed: one among young teenagers and a second in adults 30 to 45 years of age, corresponding to parents of young teen-agers. The tests were equally sensitive in different age groups. Reinfections seemed to be rare.

Persson, Kenneth; Boman, Jens

2000-01-01

260

Prevalence and determinants of Chlamydia trachomatis infections in women from Bogota, Colombia  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Chlamydia trachomatis infection in the cervix and uterus has been hypothesised to be a co-factor for cervical cancer. We performed a cross sectional study in Bogota, Colombia, where cervical cancer rates are high, to determine the prevalence and determinants of C trachomatis infection, and in particular its association with human papillomavirus (HPV). Methods: 1829 low income sexually active women were interviewed and tested for C trachomatis, using an endogenous plasmid PCR-EIA, and for 37 HPV types, using a general primer GP5+/6+ mediated PCR-EIA. Results: The overall prevalence of C trachomatis was 5.0%, and it did not differ substantially between women with normal (5.0%) and those with abnormal (5.2%) cervical cytology. Women infected with any HPV type (15.1%) had a slightly increased risk of being simultaneously infected with C trachomatis (adjusted OR 1.3, 95% CI: 0.8 to 2.4). This association was stronger when multiple HPV infections (adjusted OR 2.5, 95% CI: 1.1 to 5.9) were present. No other lifestyle or reproductive characteristics were clearly associated with risk of C trachomatis infection. Conclusions: HPV infected women, particularly women with multiple HPV infections, are at increased risk of being infected with C trachomatis.

Molano, M; Weiderpass, E; Posso, H; Morre, S; Ronderos, M; Franceschi, S; Arslan, A; Meijer, C; Munoz, N; van den Brule, A J C

2003-01-01

261

[Diagnosis of ocular Chlamydia infections. Experiences with 2 test systems].  

PubMed

It is well known that both direct and indirect test systems are available for identifying chlamydial infections. In the author's laboratory two of these systems were compared by examining conjunctival scrapings, sera, and tears from more than 150 patients with chronic, therapy-resistant conjunctivitis. The principal criteria considered were the time and technical effort involved and the sensitivity and specificity of these tests in ophthalmology. According to the authors' findings, direct identification of the pathogens with FITC-labeled monoclonal antibodies is useful for diagnosing fresh infections. In cases of chronic disease, however, the indirect serologic test is of greater value, because it is usually impossible to isolate the viruses. This test shows specific IgA and IgG antibodies in serum and tears that do not occur before the tenth (IgA) or 30th (IgG) day after infection. The sensitivity and specificity of both tests seem to be on a par with the culture system, which is still the "gold standard" for diagnosis. For a secure diagnosis both test systems should be used, though of course always taking the clinical picture into consideration. PMID:2657198

Ehgartner, E M; Vidic, B; Auerbach, B; Fellinger, C; Friess, H G

1989-03-01

262

Prevalence of human papilloma virus genital infections in sexually transmitted diseases clinic attendees in Ibadan.  

PubMed

All patients, who presented at the Sexually Transmitted Disease clinic of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, between the period of August 1996 and January 1998 were included in this study. They were examined for genital infections in order to determine the prevalence rate of Human papilloma virus genital infection (genital warts) among them. Out of the 1,373 patients seen in the clinic during the period, 861 (62.71%) had STD while the remaining 512 (37.29%) had other conditions. Out of these 861 cases, 69 (8.01%) had HPV genital infection, while the remaining 792 (91.9%) had other STDS. Of these 69 cases of genital warts, 35 (50.7%) were males while 34 (49.3%) were females. Their ages ranged between 17 and 74 years, with the peak incidence in the 20-29 years age group. 32 (46.4%) had concurrent genital infections with non-gonococcal urethritis and cervicitis 9(13%) constituting the most common type. The highest incidence (36.2%) of this condition was found among petty traders while the lowest was found among the business executives and applicants. In 67 (97%) of these patients, the nature of sexual intercourse was vaginal, while in 1 (1.5%) it was oral and another 1 (1.5%) both vaginal and oral. 26 (37.7%) of the patients had just one sexual partner, while 7 (8.1%) had 2 or more. Only 2 (2.9%) admitted to have had any sexual contact with commercial sex workers. The sites of warts in males include the shaft of the penis, the glans penis, perineum and intrameatum. In females, warts were found in the vulva, vagina, cervix, perineum and perianal regions. 42 (60.9%) of these patients were placed on 20% podophyllin on tincture of benzoin, 17 (24.6%) on cryotherapy and 1 (1.5%) on both. They all did well on the different treatment regimens except for 1 (1.5%) that had to change from podophyllin to cryotherapy when there was no reduction in size. 11 (15.9%) were however lost to follow up. PMID:11126083

Okesola, A O; Fawole, O I

263

Local Immune Responses to Chlamydia pneumoniae in the Lungs of BALB\\/c Mice during Primary Infection and Reinfection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses play a major role in protection as well as pathogenesis of many intracellular bacterial infections. In this study, we evaluated the infection kinetics and assessed histologically the lymphoid reactions and local, in vitro-restimulated CMI responses in lungs of BALB\\/c mice, during both primary infection and reinfection with Chlamydia pneumoniae. The primary challenge resulted in a self-

JENNI M. PENTTILA; MARJUKKA ANTTILA; MIRJA PUOLAKKAINEN; AINO LAURILA; KARI VARKILA; MATTI SARVAS; P. HELENA MAKELA; NINA RAUTONEN; Orion Pharma

1998-01-01

264

Contrasting Roles of IL-22 and IL-17 in Murine Genital Tract Infection by Neisseria gonorrhoeae  

PubMed Central

Murine genital tract infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae has previously been found to induce IL-17 which is important in both recruitment of neutrophils and prompt clearance of the infection. As IL-22 is another Th17-related cytokine that has been implicated in the immune responses in several infection models, we investigated its role in vaginal gonococcal infection of mice. Production of IL-22 was observed in response to stimulation with N. gonorrhoeae in both mouse splenic mononuclear cells and vaginal tissue explants cultured ex vivo. Tissue from mice genetically deficient in IL-22 showed diminished production of IL-6 and the CXC chemokine KC in response to N. gonorrhoeae, whereas IL-17 and the chemokines LIX and MIP-2? were produced to the same extent as in wild-type tissue. IL-22-deficient mice were unexpectedly resistant to genital tract infection with N. gonorrhoeae in vivo, but showed no change in the influx of neutrophils to the site of infection. These results reveal divergent roles for IL-17 and IL-22 in response to gonococcal infection.

Feinen, Brandon; Russell, Michael W.

2012-01-01

265

Measurement of Sputum Antibodies in the Diagnosis of Acute and Chronic Respiratory Infections Associated withChlamydia pneumoniae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to develop methods for the measurement of sputum antibodies in the laboratory diagnosis of acute and chronic lower respiratory tract infections caused by Chlamydia pneumoniae. Paired serum specimens, sputum specimens, and pharyngeal or nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained from 97 pa- tients; 51 of them had community-acquired pneumonia, and 46 had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

L. VONHERTZEN; M. LEINONEN; H.-M. SURCEL; J. KARJALAINEN

1995-01-01

266

Persistent airflow limitation in adult-onset nonatopic asthma is associated with serologic evidence of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Persistent airflow limitation may develop in patients with asthma, particularly in adults with nonatopic (intrinsic) disease. Although the underlying mechanisms are still unknown, respiratory infections might be involved. Objective: We investigated the annual loss of lung function in relation to seropositivity to Chlamydia pneumoniae in different subgroups of patients with severe asthma according to age at onset of asthma

Anneke ten Brinke; Jaap T. van Dissel; Peter J. Sterk; Aeilko H. Zwinderman; Klaus F. Rabe; Elisabeth H. Bel

2001-01-01

267

Chlamydia pneumoniae Expresses Genes Required for DNA Replication but Not Cytokinesis during Persistent Infection of HEp2 Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydia pneumoniae causes community-acquired pneumonia and is associated with several chronic dis- eases, including asthma and atherosclerosis. The intracellular growth rate of C. pneumoniae slows dramatically during chronic infection, and such persistence leads to attenuated production of new elementary bodies, appearance of morphologically aberrant reticulate bodies, and altered expression of several chlamydial genes. We used an in vitro system to

GERALD I. BYRNE; SCOT P. OUELLETTE; ZHAO WANG; J. P. Rao; LIN LU; WANDY L. BEATTY; ALAN P. HUDSON

2001-01-01

268

Partner notification of chlamydia infection in primary care: randomised controlled trial and analysis of resource use  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a practice nurse led strategy to improve the notification and treatment of partners of people with chlamydia infection. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting 27 general practices in the Bristol and Birmingham areas. Participants 140 men and women with chlamydia (index cases) diagnosed by screening of a home collected urine sample or vulval swab specimen. Interventions Partner notification at the general practice immediately after diagnosis by trained practice nurses, with telephone follow up by a health adviser; or referral to a specialist health adviser at a genitourinary medicine clinic. Main outcome measures Primary outcome was the proportion of index cases with at least one treated sexual partner. Specified secondary outcomes included the number of sexual contacts elicited during a sexual history, positive test result for chlamydia six weeks after treatment, and the cost of each strategy in 2003 sterling prices. Results 65.3% (47/72) of participants receiving practice nurse led partner notification had at least one partner treated compared with 52.9% (39/68) of those referred to a genitourinary medicine clinic (risk difference 12.4%, 95% confidence interval -1.8% to 26.5%). Of 68 participants referred to the clinic, 21 (31%) did not attend. The costs per index case were £32.55 for the practice nurse led strategy and £32.62 for the specialist referral strategy. Conclusion Practice based partner notification by trained nurses with telephone follow up by health advisers is at least as effective as referral to a specialist health adviser at a genitourinary medicine clinic, and costs the same. Trial registration Clinical trials: NCT00112255.

Low, Nicola; McCarthy, Anne; Roberts, Tracy E; Huengsberg, Mia; Sanford, Emma; Sterne, Jonathan A C; Macleod, John; Salisbury, Chris; Pye, Karl; Holloway, Aisha; Morcom, Andrea; Patel, Rita; Robinson, Suzanne M; Horner, Paddy; Barton, Pelham M; Egger, Matthias

2006-01-01

269

Distinct Intensity of Host-Pathogen Interactions in Chlamydia psittaci- and Chlamydia abortus-Infected Chicken Embryos  

PubMed Central

Factors and mechanisms determining the differences in virulence and host specificity between the zoonotic agents Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia abortus are still largely unknown. In the present study, two strains were compared for their invasiveness, virulence, and capability of eliciting an immune response in chicken embryos. On breeding day 10, embryonated chicken eggs were inoculated with 5 × 104 inclusion-forming units. As shown by immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR, C. psittaci displayed a significantly better capability of disseminating in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and internal organs than C. abortus. The higher infectious potential of C. psittaci in birds was underlined by significantly higher mRNA expression rates of essential chlamydial genes, such as incA, groEL (in CAM, liver, and spleen), cpaf, and ftsW (in CAM). Although the immune responses to both pathogens were similar, C. psittaci elicited higher macrophage numbers and a stronger expression of a subset of immune-related proteins. The data imply that invasiveness of Chlamydia spp. and propagation in the host are not solely dependent on the level of host immune response but, even to a greater extent, on the expression of bacterial factors related to virulence. The fact that C. psittaci has coped far better than C. abortus with the avian embryo's response by upregulating essential genes may be a key to understanding the mechanisms underlying host adaptation and etiopathology.

Braukmann, Maria; Jacobsen, Ilse D.; Westermann, Martin; Menge, Christian; Saluz, Hans-Peter; Berndt, Angela

2012-01-01

270

Characteristics of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in hospitalized infants with lower respiratory tract infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose: To study the epidemiology, presentation and laboratory findings of Chlamydia trachomatis pneumonia in hospitalized infants younger than 6 months. Methods: Between January 2001 and December 2005, infants younger than 6 months admitted to the children's medical center of Taipei Veterans General Hospital with the diagnosis of acute bronchiolitis, bronchopneumonia or pneumonia were prospectively studied. Chest radiograph findings

Chun-Jen Chen; Keh-Gong Wu; Ren-Bin Tang; Han-Chih Yuan; Wen-Jue Soong; Be-Tau Hwang

271

Acute respiratory infection due to Chlamydia pneumoniae: current status of diagnostic methods.  

PubMed

Reliable diagnosis of respiratory infection due to Chlamydia pneumoniae and investigation of its role in chronic diseases remain difficult because of the absence of well-standardized and commercially available diagnostic tests. In 2001, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention published recommendations for standardizing the diagnostic approach. In this review, we discuss the current state of knowledge of C. pneumoniae-associated respiratory infections in the context of epidemiological studies published during the past 5 years, with particular emphasis on the diagnostic strategies used and their impact on results. The single most likely factor underlying wide variations in data is the significant interstudy variation of the choice of diagnostic methods and criteria used. Adoption of a more unified approach, both for choices of diagnostic methods and for validation of new molecular assays, is long overdue and will be critically important for development of a standardized test for clinical laboratories. PMID:17243062

Kumar, Swati; Hammerschlag, Margaret R

2007-01-18

272

Characterization of an antigen secreted by Chlamydia-infected cell culture.  

PubMed Central

A soluble genus-specific chlamydial antigen has been isolated from the supernatants of cultures infected with Chlamydia trachomatis and from other sources. The antigen is a glycolipid that is secreted during the infective cycle. This exoglycolipid can be hydrolysed and fractionated into polysaccharide and lipid components. Both fractions retain antigenic activity. An immunodominant antigenic determinant of the lipid component contains fatty acids of C17 and C18:1. The polysaccharide immunodominant epitope gives rise to gulose when derivatives are formed. The secretion of the antigen into the media supernatant, the presence of gulose and the observed molecular weight are consistent with properties of alginate secreted by Gram-negative bacteria. Chemical analyses and SDS-PAGE indicate that the exoglycolipid is markedly different from LPS. Images Figure 5

Stuart, E S; Tirrell, S M; MacDonald, A B

1987-01-01

273

Role of mercury (Hg) in resistant infections & effective treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis and Herpes family viral infections (and potential treatment for cancer) by removing localized Hg deposits with Chinese parsley and delivering effective antibiotics using various drug uptake enhancement methods.  

PubMed

The authors found that antibiotics used to treat various infections often were ineffective in the presence of abnormal localized deposits of heavy metals like Hg and Pb, which were often observed to co-exist with Chlamydia trachomatis, Herpes Simplex Types I & II, Cytomegalovirus(CMV), and other micro-organisms. Our earlier research revealed that despite rigorous treatment with antibiotics together with various drug uptake enhancement techniques, subjects who had been treated for Chlamydia trachomatis infections, seemingly successfully with disappearance of their symptoms, were often experiencing recurrences within several months after completion of their treatment despite taking precautions against reinfection. Careful examination of the entire body of these symptom-free patients with the Bi-Digital O-Ring Test revealed that the Chlamydia trachomatis had retreated to 3 approximately 5 hiding places with localized increase in uric acid levels: 1) sublingual caruncle, 2) a small round area in the right and/or left axillae, 3) the genitals (Corona Glandis area of the Glans Penis at the Fossa Navicularis of the urethra in the male, and near the orifice of the urethra in the female), 4) Insulin-like Growth Factor positive horizontal lines, particularly above and below the knees, 5) the maxillary, ethmoid and frontal sinuses and the horizontal lines at the base of the nostrils (particularly small areas where Insulin-like Growth Factors exist). We found that all these areas contain Insulin-like Growth Factors I & II which are reduced in the presence of infection. Even when drug uptake of antibiotics was selectively increased in these 3 approximately 5 areas by various drug uptake enhancement methods developed by the 1st author, still the infection persisted. In the spring of 1995, use of Chinese parsley for successful elimination of Hg deposits existing in various organs of the first author as the result of the decay of radioactive Thallium 201 injected for cardiac SPECT, was accidentally discovered after eating Vietnamese soup, which happened to contain Chinese parsley, also called cilantro. We also found Chinese parsley accelerates the excretion of Hg, Pb, and A1 from the body though the urine. Our subjects were given a course of antibiotics (Doxycycline for Chlamydia trachomatis infection) or anti-viral agents (EPA with DHA for Herpes Family Viruses) together with Chinese parsley. Since these vegetable/herbs were eaten, the amount of effective substance absorbed varied and some people did not like the taste of these relatively large amounts of either cooked or raw parsley or its juice, but together with effective antibiotics delivered by drug uptake enhancement methods to the infected areas, the substances worked synergistically, rapidly reducing the generalized symptoms and infection. The micro-organisms retreated to the 3 approximately 5 areas listed above where, with continued treatment, they were significantly reduced, but not completely eliminated. Because of these problems, a pharmaceutical company was asked to produce a Chinese parsley table containing a controlled amount in a highly absorbable form. When 11 subjects were treated with Doxycycline for Chlamydia trachomatis infection, or anti-viral agents (EPA with DHA) for Herpes Family Viruses, drug uptake enhancement methods to selectively increase delivery of the drugs to the affected areas, and Chinese parsley tablets to remove the heavy metal deposits, the last traces of the infections and clinical symptoms disappeared completely. Therefore we hypothesized that the infectious micro-organisms mentioned above, somehow utilize the Hg or Pb to protect themselves from what would otherwise be effective antibiotics, and/or that heavy metal deposits in some way make antibiotics ineffective. Since the micro-organisms retreat to areas in which Insulin-like Growth Factors I & II normally exist, they may be utilizing them for their own growth and multiplication. These phenomena ma PMID:8686573

Omura, Y; Beckman, S L

274

Low diagnostic accuracy of selective screening criteria for asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infections in the general population  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To develop and validate selective screening criteria for asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infections in the general population. Methods: 11 505 people, aged 15–40 years, registered in 16 general practices in Amsterdam were invited to return by mail a home obtained first void urine sample and a questionnaire. Participants were randomly allocated into a development group (75%) or a validation group (25%). C trachomatis infection was determined by the ligase chain reaction. In the development group a set of criteria was identified by means of stepwise logistic regression analysis. The diagnostic accuracy (area under the ROC curve; AUC) and sensitivity, and the corresponding percentage of people selected for screening were calculated. The criteria developed in this study were applied to the validation group. Results: The prevalence of asymptomatic C trachomatis infections among men was found to be 2.4% (1.7–3.0), and among women 2.8% (2.2–3.4). Screening men, based on Surinam/Antillean origin and painful micturition, yielded an AUC of 0.58 (0.55–0.60). Screening women, based on Surinam/Antillean origin, new sex partner in the previous 2 months, and unmarried/not cohabiting, yielded an AUC of 0.67 (0.65–0.69). Application of the criteria for men to the validation group yielded an AUC of 0.53 (0.48–0.57); by screening 10% of the men, 15% of the cases were detected. The AUC of the criteria for women in the validation group was 0.58 (0.54–0.61); by screening 51% of the women, 63% of the cases were detected. Conclusion: The prevalence of asymptomatic C trachomatis infections in Amsterdam is less than 3%. No suitable selective screening criteria for the general population could be identified. Key Words: screening; prevalence; Chlamydia trachomatis

van Valkengoed, I. G M; Morre, S.; van den Brule, A. J C; Meijer, C.; Deville, W.; Bouter, L.; Boeke, A

2000-01-01

275

Evaluation of Chlamydia immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG, and IgA rELISAs Medac for diagnosis of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection.  

PubMed

Chlamydia pneumoniae is an important pathogen responsible for a variety of respiratory diseases in humans. Cell culture remains the most specific method for C. pneumoniae diagnosis, but it is labor-intensive and time-consuming. Thus, serology, particularly microimmunofluorescence (MIF) testing, is frequently utilized. However, the MIF test has a significant subjective component. We evaluated a new serological test: Chlamydia Immunoglobulin M (IgG, IgA, and IgM rELISAs Medac, based on a recombinant Chlamydia-specific lipopolysaccharide (LPS) fragment, for the diagnosis of C. pneumoniae infection. The results of this study demonstrated that the use of rELISAs Medac with single sera does not appear to be sensitive or specific for diagnosis of C. pneumoniae infection compared to culture. In children, sensitivities of the rELISAs compared to culture did not exceed 34.2%, and the specificities ranged from 68.4% (IgG) to 91.2% (IgA). In adults, the sensitivities of the rELISAs were slightly higher, up to 77.8% (IgA or IgG), but the specificities ranged from a very low 20.8% for IgA or IgG to 81.1% for IgM. When multiple sera were tested, the results of the rELISAs Medac correlated with culture results in five of eight (62.5%) patients. However, this offers only a retrospective diagnosis, which makes it difficult to manage these patients prospectively. PMID:9067658

Kutlin, A; Tsumura, N; Emre, U; Roblin, P M; Hammerschlag, M R

1997-03-01

276

Structural and polypeptide differences between envelopes of infective and reproductive life cycle forms of Chlamydia spp.  

PubMed Central

Significant differences in cysteine-containing proteins and detergent-related solubility properties were observed between outer membrane protein complexes of reproductive (reticulate body) and infective (elementary body) forms of Chlamydia psittaci (6BC). Elementary bodies harvested at 48 h postinfection possessed a 40-kilodalton major outer membrane protein and three extraordinarily cysteine-rich outer membrane proteins of 62, 59, and 12 kilodaltons, all of which were not solubilized by sodium dodecyl sulfate in the absence of thiol reagents. Intracellularly dividing reticulate bodies harvested at 21 h postinfection were severely deficient in the cysteine-rich proteins but possessed almost as much major outer membrane protein as did the elementary bodies. Most of the major outer membrane protein of reticulate bodies was solubilized by sodium dodecyl sulfate and was present in envelopes as monomers, although a proportion formed disulfide-cross-linked oligomers. By 21 to 24 h postinfection, reticulate bodies commenced synthesis of the cysteine-rich proteins which were found in outer membranes as disulfide-cross-linked complexes. The outer membranes of reticulate bodies of Chlamydia trachomatis (LGV434) also were found to be deficient in cysteine-rich proteins and to be more susceptible to dissociation in sodium dodecyl sulfate than were outer membranes of elementary bodies. Images

Hatch, T P; Allan, I; Pearce, J H

1984-01-01

277

A link between Helicobacter pylori and/or Chlamydia spp. infections and atherosclerosis.  

PubMed

Antibodies to Helicobacter pylori, Chlamydia spp. and Mycobacterium bovis were determined in patients with coronary heart disease, H. pylori-related dyspepsia, and tuberculosis, and healthy controls. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was conducted with a glycine extract and CagA protein of H. pylori, chlamydial lipopolysaccharide and mycobacterial heat shock protein Hsp65. The prevalence of anti-glycine extract IgG in coronary heart disease patients was higher than in the tuberculosis group and controls, and the same as in dyspeptic patients. Anti-chlamydial IgG were more prevalent in the coronary heart disease group than in healthy subjects. There was no difference in the prevalence of anti-CagA IgG in the coronary heart disease group and controls or anti-Hsp65 IgG in the patients with coronary heart disease, dyspepsia, tuberculosis, and controls. Anti-glycine extract IgA (like anti-glycine extract IgG) were more prevalent in the coronary heart disease group than in the healthy group. The highest anti-glycine extract IgG/IgA and anti-chlamydial IgG titers were more frequent in coronary heart disease patients as compared with controls. Infections with H. pylori and Chlamydia spp. and enhanced production of antibodies to these pathogens may predispose to human atherosclerosis. PMID:12738390

Chmiela, Magdalena; Kowalewicz-Kulbat, Magdalena; Miszczak, Aneta; Wisniewska, Monika; Rechcinski, Tomasz; Kolodziej, Katarzyna; Kasprzak, Jaroslaw; Wadstrom, Torkel; Rudnicka, Wieslawa

2003-05-25

278

Genital chlamydial infection among women in Nicaragua: validity of direct fluorescent antibody testing, prevalence, risk factors and clinical manifestations  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To validate the performance of a direct fluorescence antibody (DFA) test and to determine the prevalence, risk factors and clinical manifestations of cervical chlamydia infection in different groups of women in Nicaragua. STUDY POPULATION: 926 women, 863 routine clinic attenders (mean age 27 years) and 63 sex workers (mean age 25 years) attending health centres in León, Corinto, Matagalpa

B Herrmann; F Espinoza; R R Villegas; G D Smith; A Ramos; M Egger

1996-01-01

279

Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, and Ureaplasma urealyticum infections and seminal quality in infertile and fertile men in Kuwait.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, mycoplasmas, and ureaplasmas in semen samples of infertile compared with fertile men and to evaluate the seminological variables of semen from infected and noninfected men. A total of 127 infertile and 188 fertile men seen in a maternity hospital clinic were recruited into the study over a period of 14 months. Specimens were obtained by masturbation and examined for the presence of Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, and C trachomatis by polymerase chain reaction. Semen analysis was performed according to World Health Organization guidelines. U urealyticum, M hominis, M genitalium, and C trachomatis were demonstrated in the semen samples of 31 (24.4%) vs 49 (26.1%), 22 (17.1%) vs 61 (32.4%), 6 (4.7%) vs 6 (3.2%), and 5 (3.9%) vs 7 (3.7%), respectively, of infertile and control men. Mixed infections were detected in 14 (11%) of infertile and 29 (15.4%) of fertile men. The infertile men positive for M hominis had semen samples that showed statistically significant differences in the mean of sperm pH and leukocyte count between infected and uninfected men (P < .03 and P < .001, respectively). Similarly, there was statistically significant difference in the leukocyte counts of M genitalium and C trachomatis in infected compared with uninfected men. A similar trend was noted in infected fertile compared with uninfected men. The difference in prevalence of these urogenital pathogens among infertile compared with fertile men was not statistically significant. However, genital mycoplasmas and chlamydial infections appeared to influence semen quality negatively. PMID:22052774

Al-Sweih, Noura A; Al-Fadli, Amani H; Omu, Alexander E; Rotimi, Vincent O

2011-11-03

280

Chlamydia bacteriophages.  

PubMed

Phages are called "good viruses" due to their ability to infect and kill pathogenic bacteria. Chlamydia are small, Gram-negative (G-) microbes that can be dangerous to human and animals. In humans, these bacteria are etiological agents of diseases such as psittacosis or respiratory tract diseases, while in animals, the infection may result in enteritis in cattle and chronic bowel diseases, as well as miscarriages in sheep. The first-known representative of chlamydiaphages was Chp1. It was discovered in Chlamydia psittaci isolates. Since then, four more species of chlamydiaphages have been identified [Chp2, Chp3, ?CPG1 ?CPAR39 (?Cpn1) and Chp4]. All of them were shown to infect Chlamydia species. This paper described all known chlamydiaphages. They were characterised in terms of origin, host range, and their molecular structure. The review concerns the characterisation of bacteriophages that infects pathogenic and dangerous bacteria with unusual, intracellular life cycles that are pathogenic. In the era of antibiotic resistance, it is difficult to cure chlamydophilosis. Those bacteriophages can be an alternative to antibiotics, but before this happens, we need to get to know chlamydiaphages better. PMID:23903989

Sliwa-Dominiak, Joanna; Suszy?ska, Ewa; Pawlikowska, Ma?gorzata; Deptu?a, Wies?aw

2013-08-01

281

IFN-? expression in placenta is associated to resistance to Chlamydia abortus after intragastric infection.  

PubMed

Intragastric infection mimics the natural route of infection of Chlamydia abortus (etiological agent of ovine enzootic abortion). In the mouse model, intragastric experimental infection induces very mild signs of infection followed by late term abortions, as it is shown by the natural ovine host. In order to evaluate the immune mechanisms associated to the dissemination of the pathogen from the gastrointestinal tract, we have administered an intragastric dose of C. abortus to pregnant mice. Systemic and local expression of cytokines, tissue colonization and excretion of bacteria after parturition were monitored during pregnancy. Susceptible CBA/J mice showed a higher bacterial colonization of the placenta and excretion of live bacteria after parturition that were related to a higher local IL-10 expression. By contrast, resistant C57BL/6 mouse strain had higher local IFN-? mRNA expression in the placenta just before parturition and a transient bacterial colonization of the reproductive tract, with no excretion of C. abortus after parturition. In summary, intragastric infection not only mimics the natural route of infection of C. abortus, but can also be useful in order to understand the immunopathogenesis of chlamydial abortion in the mouse. PMID:23287018

del Rio, L; Barberá-Cremades, M; Navarro, J A; Buendía, A J; Cuello, F; Ortega, N; Gallego, M C; Salinas, J; Caro, M R

2012-12-31

282

[Investigations on the application antigens for CFT to the diagnosis of infections in cattle and sheep caused by Chlamydia germs].  

PubMed

Studies were carried out to evaluate and choose the best methods to produce Chlamydial antigens for CFT. The antigens were prepared by the following 4 methods: Beer's method using placentas of ewes infected with Chlamydia: from infected chicken embryos by means of an original own method and by the method of Gyulai at al. (as modified by the author); by the author's method using bull testicles infected with orchitis granulomatosa. Chlamydial antigens obtained in these experiments were active in CFT with some positive Chlamydial sera. The results obtained indicated that the method of Gyulai at al. as modified by the author would be the most useful one under Polish conditions for the production of Chlamydial antigen used in CFT. This test was used for serological diagnosis of Chlamydia infections in cattle and sheep. PMID:16296028

Sadowski, J M

1975-01-01

283

The quinolones and sexually transmitted infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Chlamydia trachomatis serovars D-K and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are the major sexually transmitted bacteria worldwide. Genital mycoplasmas, in particular Mycoplasma genitalium, are thought to be important causes of sexually transmitted non-gonococcal, non-chlamydial urethritis and cervicitis, more\\u000a commonly termed, non-specific genital infection (NSGI). In tropical countries sexually transmitted infections also include\\u000a lymphogranuloma venereum caused by Chlamydia trachomatis serovars L1, L2 and L3,

Sarah A. Wyllie; Geoffrey L. Ridgway

284

Outbreak of respiratory tract infections on an islet in Korea: possible Chlamydia pneumoniae infection.  

PubMed

In March 2004, we experienced an outbreak of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection on an islet of Korea. In order to assess the significance of the epidemic, we performed a mass examination of 137 students (7-16 years old; male, 69; female, 58) at a school. The examination consisted of a questionnaire inquiring about respiratory symptoms, a serum antibody test for C. pneumoniae using a microimmunofluorescence (MIF) method and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and nasopharyngeal swab tests to detect of the organism by specific PCR and cell culture. The results demonstrated that 72 (58.3%) of the students had respiratory symptoms such as rhinorrhea, a sore throat, and/or cough or fever. The PCR positivity of acute-phase patients was 63% (12/19) and PCR positivity using the culture sample was 94% (18/19). However, the existence of the organism was not confirmed fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). ELISA, one of the serological methods utilized, demonstrated, in the same patients, 48% (13/27) positive IgM antibodies at the acute phase of the outbreak, and 16% (3/19) positive IgM antibodies during the convalescent phase. The index value (ID) 3.0 for single-sera IgG was 19% (5/27) and that for IgA was 4% (1/27) at the acute phase; the corresponding percentages in the convalescent phase were 11% (2/19) and 5% (1/19), respectively. However, as regards paired sera, no patient demonstrated a 1.35 ELISA ID value at 2 weeks, or an increased value of 1.0 at 8 weeks after the onset of the outbreak. In the MIF experiment, the percent positivity of unpaired IgM from the acute phase was 58% (11/19). At convalescent phase, this percentage was 47% (9/19); however, the positivity of paired serum IgG was 26% (5/19). In the same sample, the percentage of positive cases demonstrated by both ELISA and MIF approaches for single IgM was 37% (7/19) at the acute phase and 11% (2/19) at the convalescent phase. We were unable to isolate C. pneumoniae by cell culture, but we did obtain sufficient serological and PCR data to consider C. pneumoniae as the causative agent of the outbreak. Meaningful results were acquired in terms of serology, and were compared to the healthy population in Korea. Although it remains necessary to investigate the possibility of co-infection and to determine whether or not this outbreak coincides with the prevalence of influenza, it was unequivocally concluded that this outbreak of C. pneumoniae infection has occurred on an islet of Korea. PMID:17060694

Lee, Kwang-Jun; Kwon, Su-Jin; Choi, Bo-Ram; Bae, Song-Mee; Kishimoto, Toshio; Ando, Shuji; Mashida, Chikako; Lee, Young-Hee; Oh, Hee-Bok; Kim, Ki-Sang

2006-10-01

285

Anal infections with concomitant Chlamydia trachomatis genotypes among men who have sex with men in Amsterdam, the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) proctitis is caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) genotype L and is endemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) in western society. Genotype L infections need to be\\u000a distinguished from non-LGV (genotypes A-K) Ct infections since they require prolonged antibiotic treatment. For this purpose,\\u000a an in-house developed pmpH based LGV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test is

Koen D Quint; Reinier JM Bom; Wim GV Quint; Sylvia M Bruisten; Maarten F Schim van der Loeff; Servaas A Morré; Henry JC de Vries

2011-01-01

286

Effects of Levofloxacin and Doxycycline on Interleukin6 Production of Chlamydia trachomatis-Infected Human Synovial Fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Alarge amount (80,000–100,000 pg\\/ml) of interleukin-6 (IL-6) was detected in cultures of human synoviocytes infected with Chlamydia trachomatis. In this study, we investigated the effect of antibiotics on the IL-6 production of C. trachomatis-infected human fibroblast-like synovial cells (HFLS). Methods: The minimum inhibitory concentrations of levofloxacin and doxycycline against C. trachomatis were determined in either HFLS or HeLa 229

Yurika Ikeda-Dantsuji; Ichiro Konomi; Ariaki Nagayama

2007-01-01

287

Monoclonal immunoglobulin A antibody to the major outer membrane protein of the Chlamydia trachomatis mouse pneumonitis biovar protects mice against a chlamydial genital challenge.  

PubMed

In order to analyze the protective role that IgA may play in a chlamydial infection two IgA monoclonal antibodies (mAb), MoPn 4-2 and MoPn 13-2, were raised against the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of the Chlamydia trachomatis mouse pneumonitis (MoPn) biovar. mAb MoPn 4-2 was found to be serovar specific while mAb MoPn 13-2 was species specific. mAb MoPn 4-2 recognized a surface exposed conformational epitope as shown by its ability to bind to native EBs and nonreduced MOMP while failing to bind to heat and trypsin treated EBs, to reduced MOMP and to synthetic MOMP peptides. In contrast, mAb MoPn 13-2 recognized a nonconformational epitope since it was able to bind treated EBs, to reduced MOMP and to the synthetic peptide MTTWNPTISGSGI located in variable domain 4 of the MOMP. Both mAbs agglutinated intact EBs and had in vitro neutralizing activity. However, mAb MoPn 4-2 had a 20-fold higher in vitro neutralizing ability when compared to mAb MoPn 13-2 (50% neutralization at 5 micrograms ml-1 vs 100 micrograms ml-1). In an in vitro in vivo infectivity assay, mAb MoPn 4-2 protected mice against infertility when C. trachomatis MoPn elementary bodies were preincubated with the mAb before inoculation. In addition, passive transfer of mAb MoPn 4-2 resulted in significant protection as measured by a decrease in the number of mice infected, and in the intensity and duration of vaginal shedding. These results support previous findings suggesting that IgA antibodies can play a role in protection against a chlamydial infection, and further encourage work to develop vaccination strategies that elicit mucosal immunity. PMID:9160528

Pal, S; Theodor, I; Peterson, E M; de la Maza, L M

1997-04-01

288

[If it's not only itching or burning: management of sexually transmitted infections (part 1)].  

PubMed

Current clinical aspects of genital ulcer diseases, urethritis and genital warts are reviewed. In the first part we focus on the commonest sexually transmitted pathogens associated with urethritis, including Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoea; and we provide an overview about human papilloma virus related genital infections. Diagnostic and treatment approaches are based on the most recent internationally published guidelines and should help practitioners managing their patients, preventing irreversible complications and further transmission. PMID:23823683

Vuichard, Danielle; Itin, Peter

2013-07-01

289

Detection of Chlamydia (Bedsonia) in Certain Infections of Man. I. Laboratory Procedures: Comparison of Yolk SAC and Cell Culture for Detection and Isolation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A total of 37 specimens derived from suspected cases of chlamydial infection, together with appropriate control specimens, were examined for the presence of microorganisms of the genus Chlamydia by 2 different laboratory procedures performed in parallel, ...

F. B. Gordon I. A. Harper A. L. Quan J. D. Treharne R. S. C. Dwyer

1969-01-01

290

Association of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection With Redetection of Human Papillomavirus After Apparent Clearance.  

PubMed

Background.?Persistent infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with an increased risk of cervical malignancy. Redetection of type-specific HPV after a period of nondetection may be caused by reactivation of a low-level persistent infection. Little is known about factors associated with type-specific HPV redetection. Methods.?For a longitudinal cohort of adolescent women with frequent behavioral and sexually transmitted infection (STI) information (every 3 months), Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess the influence of sexual behaviors and STIs on the redetection of oncogenic or high-risk HPV infections. Results.?A total of 210 type-specific high-risk HPV detection episode periods were identified in this longitudinal cohort; 71 (33.8%) were characterized by a period of nondetection followed by redetection. Chlamydia trachomatis (hazard ratio [HR], 3.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.44-6.86) was associated with redetection; redetection was >2 times more likely with each additional self-reported sex partner in the past 3 months (HR, 2.26; 95% CI, 1.35-3.78). Conclusions.?This study demonstrates the role of C. trachomatis and number of recent sexual partners in type-specific HPV redetection. Given that persistent oncogenic HPV infections are associated with cancer-related outcomes, understanding the potential role of such factors in the pathogenesis of HPV-related outcomes is important. PMID:23911713

Shew, Marcia L; Ermel, Aaron C; Weaver, Bree A; Tong, Yan; Tu, Wanzhu; Kester, Laura M; Denski, Cheryl; Fortenberry, J D; Brown, Darron R

2013-08-02

291

Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection among Low- and High-Risk Filipino Women and Performance of Chlamydia Rapid Tests in Resource-Limited Settings?  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection was determined with a PCR-based test of women from low- and high-risk populations in Iloilo City, Philippines, between August 2002 and March 2006. Two rapid tests for C. trachomatis, Clearview Chlamydia MF and the Chlamydia Rapid Test (CRT), were also evaluated in these resource-limited settings. Specimens were obtained from female sex workers (FSWs; n = 1,484) attending a social hygiene clinic (SHC) and from women (n = 838) attending an obstetrics-gynecology (OB-GYN) clinic. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the rapid tests were determined, with PCR as the gold standard. The PCR positivity rate for SHC participants (72% asymptomatic) ranged from 17.9 to 32.0% during the study period. Compared with those of PCR, the sensitivities and specificities of the Clearview test were 53.5 and 99.1%, respectively, with endocervical swab specimens (CS; n = 822) from the FSWs and 31.1 and 95.2%, respectively, with vaginal swab specimens (VS; n = 333) from these women. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of the CRT with VS from the FSWs were 71.0, 99.0, 97.1, and 87.9%, respectively. At the OB-GYN site, the PCR positivity rate with VS was 6.3%. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of the CRT with these specimens were 86.8, 99.6, 93.9, and 99.1%, respectively. The performance of the Clearview test at the SHC was thus markedly lower with VS than with CS, whereas the CRT performed well with VS from both populations.

Saison, Francis; Mahilum-Tapay, Lourdes; Michel, Claude-Edouard E.; Buttress, Nigel D.; Nadala, Elpidio Cesar B.; Magbanua, Jose Paolo V.; Harding-Esch, Emma M.; Villaruel, M. Odeta; Canong, Lorna; Celis, Rey L.; Lee, Helen H.

2007-01-01

292

Treatment of acute gonococcal urethritis in men with simultaneous infection with Chlamydia trachomatis.  

PubMed

Each of 201 men with symptoms and signs of acute urethritis was randomly assigned to one of two treatment regimens: ampicillin (2g) plus probenecid (1g), or sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMX-TMP) (sulphamethoxazole 1600 mg plus trimethoprim 320 mg) four tablets twice daily for two days. Before treatment Neisseria gonorrhoeae was isolated from 162 patients, while coexistent Chlamydia trachomatis was recovered from 42 (26%) men. After treatment N gonorrhoeae persisted in 11 (14.3%) of the 77 patients treated with ampicillin and probenecid and in three (3.5%) of the 85 treated with SMX-TMP (p less than 0.05), while C trachomatis persisted in four (16%) of the 25 men treated with SMX-TMP and in all 17 patients treated with ampicillin and probenecid. SMX-TMP was thus more effective than ampicillin in treating acute gonorrhoea in men and in eradicating concurrent C trachomatis infection. PMID:6367888

Csángó, P A; Salveson, A; Gundersen, T; Jagars, G; Bjerk, O

1984-04-01

293

Treatment of acute gonococcal urethritis in men with simultaneous infection with Chlamydia trachomatis.  

PubMed Central

Each of 201 men with symptoms and signs of acute urethritis was randomly assigned to one of two treatment regimens: ampicillin (2g) plus probenecid (1g), or sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMX-TMP) (sulphamethoxazole 1600 mg plus trimethoprim 320 mg) four tablets twice daily for two days. Before treatment Neisseria gonorrhoeae was isolated from 162 patients, while coexistent Chlamydia trachomatis was recovered from 42 (26%) men. After treatment N gonorrhoeae persisted in 11 (14.3%) of the 77 patients treated with ampicillin and probenecid and in three (3.5%) of the 85 treated with SMX-TMP (p less than 0.05), while C trachomatis persisted in four (16%) of the 25 men treated with SMX-TMP and in all 17 patients treated with ampicillin and probenecid. SMX-TMP was thus more effective than ampicillin in treating acute gonorrhoea in men and in eradicating concurrent C trachomatis infection.

Csango, P A; Salveson, A; Gundersen, T; Jagars, G; Bjerk, O

1984-01-01

294

Higher Risk Perception of HIV than of Chlamydia and HPV among Secondary School Students in Two German Cities  

PubMed Central

Background Chlamydia and genital human papillomavirus (HPV) are the two most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among teens and young adults in industrialised countries. The majority of adolescents, however, have limited or no knowledge of these infections. Within the context of a cross-sectional survey on awareness and knowledge of sexually transmitted infections, secondary school students attending the 8th grade and above in Bremen and Bremerhaven, two cities in northern Germany, were asked to rate the risk of peers to get infected with HIV, HPV or chlamydia. Methods Between October and December 2011, students aged 12–20 years completed an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire at their school. In addition to answering questions on awareness and knowledge of sexually transmitted infections, all students were also asked to rate the risk of peers to get infected with HIV, HPV or chlamydia. Furthermore, those reporting ever having sexual intercourse were asked to rate their own risk of getting infected with each of the three infections. Results 1,148 students, 55% female, completed the questionnaire. 27% of the students reported having had sexual intercourse. 68% of all students rated the risk of same-aged students to get infected with HIV/AIDS as high/medium. The corresponding proportions for HPV and chlamydia were 19 and 25% respectively. Those reporting ever having sexual intercourse generally perceived their own risk of getting infected with HIV, chlamydia or HPV as lower than that of their peers. Conclusion Generally, the risk of getting infected with HIV was perceived as being higher than that of getting infected with HPV or chlamydia, most likely due to the fact that the students were more aware of HIV than of the other two infections. Efforts should be made to improve awareness and knowledge of HPV and chlamydia among school going adolescents, and to make them realize that these are common infections that are preventable.

Samkange-Zeeb, Florence; Pottgen, Saskia; Zeeb, Hajo

2013-01-01

295

Diagnosis of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by micro-immunofluorescence and ELISA.  

PubMed

The incidence of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection was determined in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) by prospective serial serology. Chlamydia-specific IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies were detected with a recombinant DNA lipopolysaccharide (LPS) ELISA as well as with a micro-immunofluorescence (MIF) assay with C. pneumoniae elementary bodies. From 271 consecutive COPD patients who visited the outpatient clinic of the department of pulmonary diseases (211 males, 60 females, age range 34-88 years, mean age 66 SD 10 years), blood samples (n = 1058) were taken every 2-7 months; the observation period ranged from 3 to 19 months (mean 15 SD 4). The prevalence of chlamydial IgG was 72% with the MIF and 53% with the rDNA LPS ELISA. More than 90% of the COPD patients had no significant changes in their chlamydia-specific IgG, IgA and IgM titres in either test during the observation period. Seven (3%) patients had MIF results indicating acute C. pneumoniae infection during their surveillance period, of whom five were confirmed by rDNA LPS ELISA. Eleven (4%) additional patients were infected during observation, as determined by rDNA LPS ELISA only. These patients had significantly elevated C. pneumoniae-specific IgG and IgA MIF titres, as compared with the patients without infection. All 18 patients with serological evidence of acute infection during their surveillance period were re-tested in a commercial MIF test that can distinguish between C. pneumoniae, C. trachomatis and C. psittaci LPS-specific antibodies, but no evidence of C. trachomatis or C. psittaci infection was found. The incidence of chlamydial infection was 2.2 and 5.3/100 person-years, when diagnosed by MIF and rDNA LPS ELISA, respectively. It is concluded that the rDNA LPS chlamydia assay may currently be the most sensitive serological tool for diagnosing recent respiratory chlamydia infections and that C. pneumoniae infection occurs frequently in COPD patients. PMID:9368538

Verkooyen, R P; Van Lent, N A; Mousavi Joulandan, S A; Snijder, R J; van den Bosch, J M; Van Helden, H P; Verbrugh, H A

1997-11-01

296

High prevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in an asymptomatic Jordanian population.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The bacterium Chlamydia pneumoniae is associated with respiratory diseases and nonrespiratory illnesses like atherosclerosis. This study aims to investigate the seroprevalence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) against C. pneumoniae in an asymptomatic population in Jordan and to analyze the immunity state in relation to age and gender. METHODS: Serum samples were collected from 588 apparently healthy individuals aged 2-86 years. Using the microimmunofluorescence (MIF) test, seropositivity was defined as an anti-C. pneumoniae IgG titer ?1:16. Titers from 1:16 to 1:256 were considered indicative for a past infection, whereas 1:512 was considered diagnostic of an acute infection. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of C. pneumoniae was 54.9%. The mean seropositivity in males was slightly higher than females. The seroprevalence of infection was relatively low in children aged 2-9 years, and steadily increased to reach a plateau of 66.7% at around 30-39 years of age, which remained stable in later years. Recent infection was indicated in 14.3% of study subjects. The seropositivity was highest in males, and more frequent in adults than in children and teenagers. CONCLUSION: A high seroprevalence of C. pneumoniae in the asymptomatic population suggests that infection with this pathogen is common in Jordan. Higher seropositivity in males compared to females was observed. The primary infection is acquired during the first four decades of life, and in older ages high antibody levels are likely maintained by reinfection or persistent infection. PMID:23751768

Al-Younes, Hesham M

2013-06-01

297

Modulation of P2Z/P2X(7) receptor activity in macrophages infected with Chlamydia psittaci.  

PubMed

Given the role that extracellular ATP (ATP(o))-mediated apoptosis may play in inflammatory responses and in controlling mycobacterial growth in macrophages, we investigated whether ATP(o) has any effect on the viability of chlamydiae in macrophages and, conversely, whether the infection has any effect on susceptibility to ATP(o)-induced killing via P2Z/P2X(7) purinergic receptors. Apoptosis of J774 macrophages could be selectively triggered by ATP(o), because other purine/pyrimidine nucleotides were ineffective, and it was inhibited by oxidized ATP, which irreversibly inhibits P2Z/P2X(7) purinergic receptors. Incubation with ATP(o) but not other extracellular nucleotides inhibits the growth of intracellular chlamydiae, consistent with previous observations on ATP(o) effects on growth of intracellular mycobacteria. However, chlamydial infection for 1 day also inhibits ATP(o)-mediated apoptosis, which may be a mechanism to partially protect infected cells against the immune response. Infection by Chlamydia appears to protect cells by decreasing the ability of ATP(o) to permeabilize macrophages to small molecules and by abrogating a sustained Ca(2+) influx previously associated with ATP(o)-induced apoptosis. PMID:11121379

Coutinho-Silva, R; Perfettini, J L; Persechini, P M; Dautry-Varsat, A; Ojcius, D M

2001-01-01

298

Genital, oral, and anal human papillomavirus infection in men who have sex with men.  

PubMed

Even though the incidence of anal cancer among men who have sex with men (MSM) is higher than the incidence of cervical cancer among women, few MSM are identified as high-risk patients in primary care or have received vaccination for human papillomavirus (HPV), the most common sexually transmitted infection worldwide, with 6.2 million new infections each year. The authors review the current literature on diagnosis and basic management of genital, oral, and anal HPV infection. Early diagnosis and treatment of patients with HPV infection is important because this infection causes patients substantial distress even in its benign manifestations. It has also been implicated in a host of cancers, including oral, cervical, penile, and anal cancers and is an independent risk factor for the development of human immunodeficiency virus infection. The incidence of HPV infection drops in women older than 30 years but remains high for MSM in all age ranges. For all of these reasons, physicians should routinely assess the sexual practices of all male patients, especially MSM, and educate them on the HPV infection risks, diagnosis, and treatment options. Physicians can have a significant impact in the primary prevention of HPV by routinely offering HPV vaccination to male patients younger than 26 years. PMID:21415374

Dietz, Craig A; Nyberg, Chessa R

2011-03-01

299

Diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infections in asymptomatic men and women by PCR assay.  

PubMed Central

A PCR assay was evaluated for its ability to detect genital chlamydial infection in asymptomatic men and women. Urethral swab specimens were collected from 472 men for culture and PCR assay, and first-void urine (FVU) specimens were collected from 379 of these men for enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and PCR assay. Cervical swab specimens were collected from 242 women for culture, EIA, and PCR assay. Patients were considered infected if they were culture positive or positive by PCR with both plasmid- and major outer membrane protein-based primers. By using this extended "gold standard," the prevalence of infection in this population was 7.6% for men and 7.9% for women. For men, the sensitivities of urethral swab specimen culture and PCR and FVU specimen EIA and PCR were 61, 72, 55, and 91%, respectively. All assays had specificities of > or = 99.8%. The positive and negative predictive values for PCR testing of FVU specimens were 100 and 99.4%, respectively, compared with values of 96.3 and 97.8%, respectively, for PCR of urethral swab specimens. The sensitivities of cervical swab specimen culture and PCR testing were 42 and 90%, respectively, with corresponding specificities of 100 and 99.3%. All cervical swabs were negative by EIA. Molecular techniques such as PCR assays are valuable tools for the detection of symptomatic genital chlamydial infection. In particular, PCR assays of FVU specimens from men offer a highly sensitive, noninvasive screening tool that will likely improve patient compliance for diagnostic testing.

Toye, B; Peeling, R W; Jessamine, P; Claman, P; Gemmill, I

1996-01-01

300

Chlamydia infection promotes host DNA damage and proliferation but impairs the DNA damage response.  

PubMed

The obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis (Ctr) has been associated with cervical and ovarian cancer development. However, establishment of causality and the underlying mechanisms remain outstanding. Our analysis of Ctr-induced alterations to global host histone modifications revealed distinct patterns of histone marks during acute and persistent infections. In particular, pH2AX (Ser139) and H3K9me3, hallmarks of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and senescence-associated heterochromatin foci (SAHF), respectively, showed sustained upregulation during Ctr infection. Ctr-induced reactive oxygen species were found to contribute to persistent DSBs, which in turn elicited SAHF formation in an ERK-dependent manner. Furthermore, Ctr interfered with DNA damage responses (DDR) by inhibiting recruitment of the DDR proteins pATM and 53BP1 to damaged sites. Despite impaired DDR, Ctr-infected cells continued to proliferate, supported by enhanced oncogenic signals involving ERK, CyclinE, and SAHF. Thus, by perturbing host chromatin, DSB repair, and cell-cycle regulation, Ctr generates an environment favorable for malignant transformation. PMID:23768498

Chumduri, Cindrilla; Gurumurthy, Rajendra Kumar; Zadora, Piotr K; Mi, Yang; Meyer, Thomas F

2013-06-12

301

Characterization of Chlamydia trachomatis omp1 Genotypes among Sexually Transmitted Disease Patients in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for detection and genotyping of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections based on omp1 gene amplification and sequencing was developed. DNA was extracted from urogenital or urine samples using a Chelex-based method, and an approximately 1,100-bp-long fragment from the omp1 gene was directly amplified and sequenced. Genotyping was performed by BLAST similarity search, and phylogenetic tree analysis was used to

MARGARETHA JURSTRAND; LARS FALK; HANS FREDLUND; MARGRET LINDBERG; PER OLCEN; SOREN ANDERSSON; KENNETH PERSSON; JAN ALBERT; ANDERS BACKMAN

2001-01-01

302

Chlamydia trachomatis Co-opts the FGF2 Signaling Pathway to Enhance Infection  

PubMed Central

The molecular details of Chlamydia trachomatis binding, entry, and spread are incompletely understood, but heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) play a role in the initial binding steps. As cell surface HSPGs facilitate the interactions of many growth factors with their receptors, we investigated the role of HSPG-dependent growth factors in C. trachomatis infection. Here, we report a novel finding that Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 (FGF2) is necessary and sufficient to enhance C. trachomatis binding to host cells in an HSPG-dependent manner. FGF2 binds directly to elementary bodies (EBs) where it may function as a bridging molecule to facilitate interactions of EBs with the FGF receptor (FGFR) on the cell surface. Upon EB binding, FGFR is activated locally and contributes to bacterial uptake into non-phagocytic cells. We further show that C. trachomatis infection stimulates fgf2 transcription and enhances production and release of FGF2 through a pathway that requires bacterial protein synthesis and activation of the Erk1/2 signaling pathway but that is independent of FGFR activation. Intracellular replication of the bacteria results in host proteosome-mediated degradation of the high molecular weight (HMW) isoforms of FGF2 and increased amounts of the low molecular weight (LMW) isoforms, which are released upon host cell death. Finally, we demonstrate the in vivo relevance of these findings by showing that conditioned medium from C. trachomatis infected cells is enriched for LMW FGF2, accounting for its ability to enhance C. trachomatis infectivity in additional rounds of infection. Together, these results demonstrate that C. trachomatis utilizes multiple mechanisms to co-opt the host cell FGF2 pathway to enhance bacterial infection and spread.

Kim, Jung Hwa; Jiang, Shaobo; Elwell, Cherilyn A.; Engel, Joanne N.

2011-01-01

303

Severity of Carotid Atherosclerosis Unrelated to Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients: A Clinicopathological Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Both clinical and pathological alterations of the carotid arteries were correlated with Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in 67 acute ischemic stroke patients with severe neurological symptoms. Methods: In the clinical study, intima-media thickness (IMT) of the common carotid arteries was determined in vivoby B-mode ultrasound measurement and C. pneumoniae-specific IgG and IgA responses were detected. In the pathological study, the

József Kónya; Sándor Molnár; Mária T. Magyar; Csilla C. Szekeres; Levente Kerényi; László Csiba

2008-01-01

304

Prevalence of active infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae and human cytomegalovirus in patients with type II diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

By promoting the inflammatory process in the arterial wall,Chlamydia pneumoniae (CPN) and human cytomegalovirus (CMV) participate in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Since patients with\\u000a diabetes mellitus (DM) are at high risk of CVD, we studied markers of CMV and CPN infection in DM patients as possible predictors\\u000a of cardiovascular complications. The seroprevalence rates of CMV in 44 DM

K. Roubalová; J. Brož; D. Hrubá; M. Hýblová; P. Kraml

2007-01-01

305

Serological markers of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in men and women and subsequent coronary events. The Scottish Heart Health Study Cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims To investigate the relationship between serum markers of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and subsequent coronary events. Methods and Results In a nested case-control study, based on the Scottish Heart Health Study cohort, we estimated IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies to C. pneumoniae, and circulating immune complexes containing C. pneumo- niae antigen in baseline serum samples from 217 cases experiencing a

R. Tavendale; D. Parratt; S. D. Pringle; R. A'Brook; H. Tunstall-Pedoe

2002-01-01

306

Chlamydia pneumoniae GroEL1 Protein Is Cell Surface Associated and Required for Infection of HEp2 Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydia pneumoniae is an important obligate intracellular pathogen that replicates within an inclusion in the eukaryotic cell. The initial event of a chlamydial infection is the adherence to and subsequent uptake of the infectious elementary bodies (EBs) by the human cell. These processes require yet-unidentified bacterial and eukaryotic surface proteins. The GroEL1 protein, which exhibits a very strong antigenicity and

Frederik N. Wuppermann; Katja Molleken; Marion Julien; Christian A. Jantos; Johannes H. Hegemann

2008-01-01

307

Chlamydia trachomatis serovar distribution and other concurrent sexually transmitted infections in heterosexual men with urethritis in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis serovars among 157 heterosexual male patients with urethritis and the presence of coinfections with other sexually transmitted\\u000a infections were studied. One hundred seventeen (74.5%) patients, with a mean age of 33.7 years, were Italians, whereas 40\\u000a (25.5%) were immigrants coming from eastern European countries, Africa, and South America. All the immigrants and 82 (70.0%)\\u000a Italian patients

M. Donati; A. Di Francesco; A. D’Antuono; S. Pignanelli; A. Shurdhi; A. Moroni; R. Baldelli; R. Cevenini

2009-01-01

308

Is Urine Leukocyte Esterase Test a Useful Screening Method To PredictChlamydia trachomatisInfection in Women?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the use of the leukocyte esterase test (LET) onfirst-catch urine specimens from women as a screening test to predict infection with Chlamydia trachomatis. For diagnosis, we used Abbott's ligase chain reaction (LCR) on urine specimens and isolation by tissue culture (TC) on cervical brushes. Of 4,053 women attending sexually transmitted disease and family planning clinics, 4.3% (n 5

JOAN M. CHOW; JEANNE MONCADA; DAVID BROOKS; GAIL BOLAN; HOWARD SHAW; ANDJULIUS SCHACHTER

1996-01-01

309

Criteria for selective screening of cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infections in women attending private gynecology practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To develop a screening strategy for Chlamydia trachomatis in private gynecology practices. Study design: Forty-six gynecologists in the greater Paris area systematically screened all consecutive female attenders during one week. Endocervical swabs were tested by enzyme immunoassay, and, if positive, was further confirmed by direct fluorescent antibody test. Results: Overall (out of 1893 women tested), the chlamydia prevalence was

J. Warszawski; L. Meyer; P. Weber

1999-01-01

310

Persistently elevated level of IL-8 in Chlamydia trachomatis infected HeLa 229 cells is dependent on intracellular available iron.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis is a leading cause of sexually transmitted infection worldwide and responsible for myriad of immunopathological changes associated with reproductive health. Delayed secretion of proinflammatory chemokine interleukin (IL)-8 is a hallmark of chlamydial infection and is dependent on chlamydial growth. We examined the effect of iron chelators on IL-8 production in HeLa 229 (cervix epitheloid cell, CCL2) cells infected with C. trachomatis. IL-8 production was induced by Iron chelator DFO and Mimosine, however, synergy with chlamydial infection was obtained with DFO only. Temporal expression of proinflammatory secreted cytokines IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IL-8 did not show synchrony in Chlamydia trachomatis infected cells. Secretion of IL-8 from Hela cells infected with C. trachomatis was not dependent on IL-1 beta and TNF- alpha induction. These results indicate towards involvement of iron in chlamydia induced IL-8 production. PMID:19503841

Vardhan, Harsh; Dutta, Raini; Vats, Vikas; Gupta, Rishein; Jha, Rajneesh; Jha, Hem Chandra; Srivastava, Pragya; Bhengraj, Apurb Rashmi; Singh Mittal, Aruna

2009-05-26

311

The role of toll-like receptor ligands/agonists in protection against genital HSV-2 infection.  

PubMed

Control of virus replication initially depends on rapid activation of the innate immune responses. Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands are potent inducers of innate immunity against viral infections, including herpes simplex virus (HSV). HSV-2 is currently one of the most common sexually transmitted infections in developed nations and is becoming more prevalent in adolescents. HSV-2 infects the genital mucosa and is associated with an increased risk of obtaining other sexually transmitted infections such as HIV. There is currently no vaccine available against HSV-2. In the last several years, there has been an interest in utilizing Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands to initiate innate immune responses in order to provide an early line of defence against viral replication. This review highlights recent studies investigating the effect of various TLR ligands on genital HSV-2 infection. A considerable body of information has been published on the effect of local delivery of TLR ligands on HSV-2 replication in genital mucosa. We have outlined ligands that have a potential to provide protection against HSV-2 infection. In addition, we have presented possible mechanisms by which the local delivery of TLR ligands provides innate protection against genital HSV-2. PMID:18154594

Gill, Navkiran; Davies, Elizabeth J; Ashkar, Ali A

2008-01-01

312

Genetic Transformation of a Clinical (Genital Tract), Plasmid-Free Isolate of Chlamydia trachomatis: Engineering the Plasmid as a Cloning Vector  

PubMed Central

Our study had three objectives: to extend the plasmid-based transformation protocol to a clinical isolate of C. trachomatis belonging to the trachoma biovar, to provide “proof of principle” that it is possible to “knock out” selected plasmid genes (retaining a replication competent plasmid) and to investigate the plasticity of the plasmid. A recently developed, plasmid-based transformation protocol for LGV isolates of C. trachomatis was modified and a plasmid-free, genital tract C. trachomatis isolate from Sweden (SWFP-) was genetically transformed. Transformation of this non-LGV C. trachomatis host required a centrifugation step, but the absence of the natural plasmid removed the need for plaque purification of transformants. Transformants expressed GFP, were penicillin resistant and iodine stain positive for accumulated glycogen. The transforming plasmid did not recombine with the host chromosome. A derivative of pGFP::SW2 carrying a deletion of the plasmid CDS5 gene was engineered. CDS5 encodes pgp3, a protein secreted from the inclusion into the cell cytoplasm. This plasmid (pCDS5KO) was used to transform C. trachomatis SWFP-, and established that pgp3 is dispensable for plasmid function. The work shows it is possible to selectively delete segments of the chlamydial plasmid, and this is the first step towards a detailed molecular dissection of the role of the plasmid. The 3.6 kb ?-galactosidase cassette was inserted into the deletion site of CDS5 to produce plasmid placZ-CDS5KO. Transformants were penicillin resistant, expressed GFP and stained for glycogen. In addition, they expressed ?-galactosidase showing that the lacZ cassette was functional in C. trachomatis. An assay was developed that allowed the visualisation of individual inclusions by X-gal staining. The ability to express active ?-galactosidase within chlamydial inclusions is an important advance as it allows simple, rapid assays to measure directly chlamydial infectivity without the need for plaquing, fluorescence or antibody staining.

Wang, Yibing; Kahane, Simona; Cutcliffe, Lesley T.; Skilton, Rachel J.; Lambden, Paul R.; Persson, Kenneth; Bjartling, Carina; Clarke, Ian N.

2013-01-01

313

Genetic transformation of a clinical (genital tract), plasmid-free isolate of Chlamydia trachomatis: engineering the plasmid as a cloning vector.  

PubMed

Our study had three objectives: to extend the plasmid-based transformation protocol to a clinical isolate of C. trachomatis belonging to the trachoma biovar, to provide "proof of principle" that it is possible to "knock out" selected plasmid genes (retaining a replication competent plasmid) and to investigate the plasticity of the plasmid. A recently developed, plasmid-based transformation protocol for LGV isolates of C. trachomatis was modified and a plasmid-free, genital tract C. trachomatis isolate from Sweden (SWFP-) was genetically transformed. Transformation of this non-LGV C. trachomatis host required a centrifugation step, but the absence of the natural plasmid removed the need for plaque purification of transformants. Transformants expressed GFP, were penicillin resistant and iodine stain positive for accumulated glycogen. The transforming plasmid did not recombine with the host chromosome. A derivative of pGFP::SW2 carrying a deletion of the plasmid CDS5 gene was engineered. CDS5 encodes pgp3, a protein secreted from the inclusion into the cell cytoplasm. This plasmid (pCDS5KO) was used to transform C. trachomatis SWFP-, and established that pgp3 is dispensable for plasmid function. The work shows it is possible to selectively delete segments of the chlamydial plasmid, and this is the first step towards a detailed molecular dissection of the role of the plasmid. The 3.6 kb ?-galactosidase cassette was inserted into the deletion site of CDS5 to produce plasmid placZ-CDS5KO. Transformants were penicillin resistant, expressed GFP and stained for glycogen. In addition, they expressed ?-galactosidase showing that the lacZ cassette was functional in C. trachomatis. An assay was developed that allowed the visualisation of individual inclusions by X-gal staining. The ability to express active ?-galactosidase within chlamydial inclusions is an important advance as it allows simple, rapid assays to measure directly chlamydial infectivity without the need for plaquing, fluorescence or antibody staining. PMID:23527131

Wang, Yibing; Kahane, Simona; Cutcliffe, Lesley T; Skilton, Rachel J; Lambden, Paul R; Persson, Kenneth; Bjartling, Carina; Clarke, Ian N

2013-03-18

314

Progressive Hypertrophic Genital Herpes in an HIV-Infected Woman despite Immune Recovery on Antiretroviral Therapy  

PubMed Central

Most HIV-infected individuals are coinfected by Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). HSV-2 reactivates more frequently in HIV-coinfected individuals with advanced immunosuppression, and may have very unusual clinical presentations, including hypertrophic genital lesions. We report the case of a progressive, hypertrophic HSV-2 lesion in an HIV-coinfected woman, despite near-complete immune restoration on antiretroviral therapy for up to three years. In this case, there was prompt response to topical imiquimod. The immunopathogenesis and clinical presentation of HSV-2 disease in HIV-coinfected individuals are reviewed, with a focus on potential mechanisms for persistent disease despite apparent immune reconstitution. HIV-infected individuals and their care providers should be aware that HSV-2 may cause atypical disease even in the context of near-comlpete immune reconstitution on HAART.

Yudin, Mark H.; Kaul, Rupert

2008-01-01

315

Seroepidemiological Studies of Chlamydia pneumoniae Infections in 1 ñ 36 Months Old Children with Respiratory Tract Infections and Other Diseases in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presence of specific IgM, IgG and IgA antibodies against Chlamydia pneumoniae was evaluated in children aged 1 week to 36 months to investigate the role of C. pneumoniae in respiratory infections and other diseases. Serum samples were obtained from 150 hospitalized children, including 123 children presenting the clinical symptoms of various respiratory tract infections, two children with acute diarrhoea, two

EDYTA PODSIAD; AGNIESZKA SZMIGIELSKA

316

Chlamydia trachomatis IncA Is Localized to the Inclusion Membrane and Is Recognized by Antisera from Infected Humans and Primates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydia psittaci produces a collection of proteins, termed IncA, IncB, and IncC, that are localized to the chlamydial inclusion membrane. In this report we demonstrate that IncA is also produced by Chlamydia trachomatis. C. trachomatis IncA is structurally similar to C. psittaci IncA and is also localized to the inclusion membrane. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that sera from C. trachomatis-infected patients

JOHN P. BANNANTINE; WALTER E. STAMM; ROBERT J. SUCHLAND; DANIEL D. ROCKEY

1998-01-01

317

Differences in Cell Activation by Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Human Endothelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Seroepidemiological studies and demonstration of viable bacteria in atherosclerotic plaques have linked Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection to the development of chronic vascular lesions and coronary heart disease. In this study, we characterized C. pneumoniae-mediated effects on human endothelial cells and demonstrated enhanced phosphorylation and activation of the endothelial mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family members extracellular receptor kinase (ERK1/2), p38-MAPK, and c-Jun-NH2 kinase (JNK). Subsequent interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression was dependent on p38-MAPK and ERK1/2 activation as demonstrated by preincubation of endothelial cells with specific inhibitors for the p38-MAPK (SB202190) or ERK (U0126) pathway. Inhibition of either MAPK had almost no effect on intercellular cell adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) expression. While Chlamydia trachomatis was also able to infect endothelial cells, it did not induce the expression of endothelial IL-8 or ICAM-1. These effects were specific for a direct stimulation with viable C. pneumoniae and independent of paracrine release of endothelial cell-derived mediators like platelet-activating factor, NO, prostaglandins, or leukotrienes. Thus, C. pneumoniae triggers an early signal transduction cascade in target cells that could lead to endothelial cell activation, inflammation, and thrombosis, which in turn may result in or promote atherosclerosis.

Krull, M.; Kramp, J.; Petrov, T.; Klucken, A. C.; Hocke, A. C.; Walter, C.; Schmeck, B.; Seybold, J.; Maass, M.; Ludwig, S.; Kuipers, Jens G.; Suttorp, N.; Hippenstiel, S.

2004-01-01

318

Effect of patient characteristics on performance of an enzyme immunoassay for detecting cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infection.  

PubMed Central

We compared the performance of a commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (Chlamydiazyme; Abbott Diagnostics, North Chicago, Ill.) with that of cell culture for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis cervical infection in 1,417 women attending public health clinics. Confirmatory chlamydial testing by a direct fluorescent-antibody test (MicroTrak; Syva Co., Palo Alto, Calif.) was performed on specimens from women who had positive EIAs. Overall, only 57% of women who had a positive chlamydial test by cell culture were also positive by EIA. We noted a strong association between the number of chlamydial inclusions in cell culture and a positive EIA outcome. The proportion of culture-positive women who also had a positive EIA declined with age and a history of previous sexually transmitted disease and increased among oral contraceptive users. The results of direct fluorescent-antibody confirmatory testing suggested that cell culture was also insensitive for the detection of C. trachomatis infection. Our observations demonstrate that the performance of the chlamydial EIA may vary greatly with individual patient characteristics and that the utility of EIA as a screening test may be limited, especially in older women.

Magder, L S; Klontz, K C; Bush, L H; Barnes, R C

1990-01-01

319

Seroprevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women with bad obstetric history and infertility.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis has currently emerged as the most common sexually transmitted pathogen. It is usually asymptomatic and is difficult to diagnose clinically. It is one of the causes for bad Obstetric History (BOH) and infertility. Women at highest risk often have the least access to health care facilities. Therefore there is a need for a rapid, simple, inexpensive and non-invasive test to detect C. trachomatis infection. Serological testing forms the mainstay of diagnosing the disease and to treat BOH and infertility. Hence the present study was conducted. Enzyme linked immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was used for detection of IgG antibodies against C. trachomatis. Out of 260 cases, 130 had history of BOH, 80 had history of infertility and 50 healthy pregnant women (HPW) were used as controls. The seropositivity of C. trachomatis in the study was 25.4% (66). Out of 130 cases of BOH, seropositivity was 27.7% (36). Out of 80 cases of infertility, seropositivity was 35% (28) and out of 50 cases of HPW seropositivity was 4% (2). In BOH cases, women with history of two abortions showed seropositivity of 7.3% and women with history of three or more abortions showed seropositivity of 62.5%. Hence, seropositivity of C. trachomatis infection was found to be significant among women with BOH and infertility as compared to HPW. PMID:23781640

Salmani, Manjunath P; Mindolli, Preeti B; Vishwanath, G

2011-12-01

320

Incidence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women in England: two methods of estimation.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Information on the incidence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is essential for models of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of screening programmes. We developed two independent estimates of CT incidence in women in England: one based on an incidence study, with estimates 'recalibrated' to the general population using data on setting-specific relative risks, and allowing for clearance and re-infection during follow-up; the second based on UK prevalence data, and information on the duration of CT infection. The consistency of independent sources of data on incidence, prevalence and duration, validates estimates of these parameters. Pooled estimates of the annual incidence rate in women aged 16-24 and 16-44 years for 2001-2005 using all these data were 0·05 [95% credible interval (CrI) 0·035-0·071] and 0·021 (95% CrI 0·015-0·028), respectively. Although, the estimates apply to England, similar methods could be used in other countries. The methods could be extended to dynamic models to synthesize, and assess the consistency of data on contact and transmission rates. PMID:23759367

Price, M J; Ades, A E; DE Angelis, D; Welton, N J; Macleod, J; Turner, K; Horner, P J

2013-06-13

321

Vaccines for Bacterial Sexually Transmitted Infections: A Realistic Goal?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial infections of the genital tract (gonorrhea, chlamydia, chancroid, syphilis) are common and cause significant morbidity. Their importance is heightened by recent appreciation of their roles in facilitation of transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Each is capable of causing repeated infections, suggesting lack of permanent broadly effective immunity. An effective vaccine has yet to be developed for any

P. Frederick Sparling; Christopher Elkins; Priscilla B. Wyrick; Myron S. Cohen

1994-01-01

322

Association of genital human papillomavirus infection with HIV acquisition: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Objectives To conduct a systematic review and a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies investigating the association of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and HIV acquisition. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data Sources Scientific databases and conference abstracts were systematically searched to identify all relevant studies published up to 31 January 2012. Search terms included ‘HIV’, ‘HPV’, ‘human papillomavirus’ and ‘papillomaviridae’ as keywords or text, in the title or abstract. Methods To be eligible for inclusion, a study had to be conducted among humans, report data on HIV incidence, and assess genital HPV infection. Summary ORs and 95% CIs were estimated from the extracted data using random-effect meta-analysis. Subgroup analyses were conducted for high-risk (HR) and low-risk (LR) HPV oncogenic risk groups. Between-study heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed. Results Of 2601 identified abstracts, six observational studies, comprising 6567 participants were retained for the systematic review and the meta-analysis. HIV acquisition was significantly associated with HPV infection (summary OR=1.96; 95% CI 1.55 to 2.49). HIV incident infection was significantly associated with HR-HPV in five of six studies and with LR-HPV in two out of five. The association was significant for HR-HPV (summary OR=1.92; 95% CI 1.49 to 2.46) and borderline for LR-HPV. No between-study heterogeneity was detected. There was a borderline indication of publication bias. Conclusions Further research is needed to elucidate the biological mechanisms involved, and assess the effect of HPV vaccination on HIV acquisition, using vaccines with broad coverage of HPV genotypes. Such research could have important public health implications for HIV prevention.

Lissouba, Pascale; Van de Perre, Philippe; Auvert, Bertran

2013-01-01

323

Genital Warts  

PubMed Central

External genital warts, also known as condylomata acuminata, are extremely common, with between 500,000 to one million new cases diagnosed each year in the United States alone. To date, more than 120 distinct subtypes of human papillomavirus have been identified. Human papillomavirus types 6 and 11 rarely give rise to cervical cancers, but are responsible for 90 percent of the cases of genital warts. The current treatment options are largely centered upon removal of the warts rather than elimination of the underlying viral infection. A wide range of therapies are presently in use, which are highly variable and can differ dramatically with respect to cost, side-effect profiles, dosing schedules, duration of treatment, and overall effectiveness. As of yet, no definitive therapy has emerged as the ideal standard of care in the treatment of genital warts, and therapy selection generally occurs in a patient-specific manner.

Yanofsky, Valerie R.; Patel, Rita V.

2012-01-01

324

A prospective study of Chlamydia trachomatis in first trimester abortion.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from 34 (17.9%) of 190 unselected women applying for first trimester abortion and from 27 (15.9%) of the 170 women who actually had the operation. C. trachomatis was more common among the younger women. Neisseria gonorrhoeae was isolated from 3 (1.6%) of 190 women. Culture positive patients and partners were given antibiotic treatment for 10 days, usually postoperatively. Early postoperative genital infection developed in 2 (7.4%) of the 27 chlamydia-positive and in 3 (2.0%) of the 143 chlamydia-negative women. There were no late infections. The antibiotic treatment significantly reduced the rate of postoperative pelvic inflammatory disease. At examination after 4-7 weeks all cultures were negative. Significantly more women with chlamydia-positive cultures were sero-positive preoperatively: with a microimmunofluorescence method, IgG titres greater than or equal to 1:160 were found in 74.1% of culture positive and in 47.6% of culture negative patients (p = 0.01). However, serological IgG screening does not identify individual high risk patients and so is of little clinical use in this context. We recommend preoperative screening for C. trachomatis in all women requesting an abortion and 10 days antibiotic treatment for all carriers. PMID:4037674

Shioøtz, H; Csángó, P A

1985-01-01

325

Expression of Structural Proteins in Human Female and Male Genital Epithelia and Implications for Sexually Transmitted Infections1  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Men and women differ in their susceptibility to sexually transmittable infections (STIs) such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, a paucity of published information regarding the tissue structure of the human genital tract has limited our understanding of these gender differences. We collected cervical, vaginal, and penile tissues from human adult donors. Tissues were prepared with hematoxylin and eosin stains or immunofluorescence labeling of epithelial cell proteins and were analyzed for structural characteristics. Rhesus macaque genital tissues were evaluated to assess the use of this model for HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus transmission events. We found the stratified squamous epithelia of the male and female genital tract shared many similarities and important distinctions. Expression of E-cadherins, desmogleins 1/2, and involucrin was seen in all squamous epithelia, though expression patterns were heterogeneous. Filaggrin and a true cornified layer were markedly absent in female tissues but were clearly seen in all male epithelia. Desmogleins 1/2 were more consistent in the outermost strata of female squamous genital epithelia. Macaque tissues were similar to their respective human tissues. These initial observations highlight how male and female genital epithelia resemble and differ from one another. Further information regarding tissue structural characteristics will help to understand how STIs traverse these barriers to cause infection. This knowledge will be essential in future HIV pathogenesis, transmission, and prevention studies.

Dinh, Minh H.; Okocha, Eneniziaogochukwu A.; Koons, Ann; Veazey, Ronald S.; Hope, Thomas J.

2011-01-01

326

Chlamydia and chronic arthritis.  

PubMed

Certain bacterial infections have been demonstrated to be causative of reactive arthritis. The most common bacterial trigger of reactive arthritis is Chlamydia trachomatis. Chlamydia pneumoniae is another known cause, albeit far less frequently. Although Chlamydia-induced reactive arthritis will often spontaneously remit, approximately 30% of patients will develop a chronic course. Modern medicine has provided rather remarkable advances in our understanding of the chlamydiae, as these organisms relate to chronic arthritis and the delicate balance between host and pathogen. C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae both have a remarkable ability to disseminate from the initial site of infection and establish persistently viable organisms in distant organ sites, namely the synovial tissue. How these persistent chlamydiae contribute to disease maintenance remains to be fully established, but recent data demonstrating that long-term combination antimicrobial treatment can not only ameliorate the symptoms but eradicate the persistent infection suggest that these chronically infecting chlamydiae are indeed a driving force behind the chronic inflammation. We are beginning to learn that this all appears possible even after an asymptomatic initial chlamydial infection. Both C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae are a clear cause of chronic arthritis in the setting of reactive arthritis; the possibility remains that these same organisms are culpable in other forms of chronic arthritis as well. PMID:21864020

Carter, John D; Inman, Robert D; Whittum-Hudson, Judith; Hudson, Alan P

2011-08-24

327

Chlamydia trachomatis Infection and Anti-Hsp60 Immunity: The Two Sides of the Coin  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection is one of the most common causes of reproductive tract diseases and infertility. CT-Hsp60 is synthesized during infection and is released in the bloodstream. As a consequence, immune cells will produce anti-CT-Hsp60 antibodies. Hsp60, a ubiquitous and evolutionarily conserved chaperonin, is normally sequestered inside the cell, particularly into mitochondria. However, upon cell stress, as well as during carcinogenesis, the chaperonin becomes exposed on the cell surface (sf-Hsp60) and/or is secreted from cells into the extracellular space and circulation. Reports in the literature on circulating Hsp and anti-Hsp antibodies are in many cases short on details about Hsp60 concentrations, and about the specificity spectra of the antibodies, their titers, and their true, direct, pathogenetic effects. Thus, more studies are still needed to obtain a definitive picture on these matters. Nevertheless, the information already available indicates that the concurrence of persistent CT infection and appearance of sf-Hsp60 can promote an autoimmune aggression towards stressed cells and the development of diseases such as autoimmune arthritis, multiple sclerosis, atherosclerosis, vasculitis, diabetes, and thyroiditis, among others. At the same time, immunocomplexes composed of anti-CT-Hsp60 antibodies and circulating Hsp60 (both CT and human) may form deposits in several anatomical locations, e.g., at the glomerular basal membrane. The opposite side of the coin is that pre-tumor and tumor cells with sf-Hsp60 can be destroyed with participation of the anti-Hsp60 antibody, thus stopping cancer progression before it is even noticed by the patient or physician.

Cappello, Francesco; Conway de Macario, Everly; Di Felice, Valentina; Zummo, Giovanni; Macario, Alberto J. L.

2009-01-01

328

Prevalence and serovar distribution of asymptomatic cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infections as determined by highly sensitive PCR.  

PubMed Central

The prevalence rates and serovar distributions of Chlamydia trachomatis cervical infections were investigated in two different groups of women. Group I consisted of 393 asymptomatic young women (aged 17 to 30 years) who were invited to participate in a C. trachomatis screening program. Group II consisted of 734 randomly selected patients (aged 17 to 68 years) attending an inner-city gynecological outpatient clinic. C. trachomatis was detected in cervical scrapes by PCR specific for endogenous plasmid. These plasmid PCR-positive samples were subsequently subjected to genotyping by C. trachomatis-specific omp1 PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (J. Lan, J. M. M. Walboomers, R. Roosendaal, G. J. van Doornum, D. M. MacLaren, C. J. L. M. Meijer, and A. J. C. van den Brule, J. Clin. Microbiol. 31:1060-1065, 1993). The overall prevalence rates of C. trachomatis found in patients younger than 30 years were 9.2 and 11.8% in groups I and II, respectively. A clear age dependency was seen in group II, with the highest prevalence rate (20%) found in patients younger than 20 years, while the rate declined significantly after 30 years of age (5.9%). In women younger than 30 years, the genotyping results showed that serovars E, I, and D (in decreasing order) were frequent in group I, while serovars F, E, and G (in decreasing order) were predominantly found in group II. The study shows that C. trachomatis infections are highly prevalent in asymptomatic young women. The different serovar distributions found most likely reflect the different compositions of the study groups, but additional analysis of the case histories of individual patients suggests that certain serovars might be associated with symptomatic (i.e., serovar G) or asymptomatic (i.e., serovars D and I) infections.

Lan, J; Melgers, I; Meijer, C J; Walboomers, J M; Roosendaal, R; Burger, C; Bleker, O P; van den Brule, A J

1995-01-01

329

The epidemic cycle of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in eastern Finland, 1972-1987.  

PubMed Central

The epidemic cycle of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection was examined in two areas in eastern Finland over a period of 15 years, 1972-87. The C. pneumoniae IgG antibody prevalence was determined with 5-year intervals in a random sample of the population aged 25-59 years. The total number of sera studied using immunofluorescence was 2387. In 1972 the antibody prevalence was 57% and it increased to 66% in 1977. Over the next 5 years the prevalence decreased to 44% in 1982, but by 1987 it had again increased to 59%. The temporal variation in prevalence was statistically significant (P < 0.001) and similar for both genders. Throughout the observation period the overall prevalence was 7-11% higher in men than in women (P < 0.01). The antibody prevalence increased with age, being the highest among the oldest study subjects of both genders. The periods of high and low prevalence alternated in an epidemic cycle (P < 0.001) of about 10 years.

Karvonen, M.; Tuomilehto, J.; Pitkaniemi, J.; Saikku, P.

1993-01-01

330

Persistent Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection of Cardiomyocytes Is Correlated with Fatal Myocardial Infarction  

PubMed Central

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) associated with unfavorable prognosis is likely to be the consequence of a diffuse active chronic inflammatory process that destabilizes the whole coronary tree and myocardium, suggesting a possible common causal agent underlying both conditions. The main objective of this study was to investigate whether Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP) infection occurred beyond the coronary plaques, namely in the myocardium of individuals who died of AMI. The presence of CP cell wall antigen (OMP-2) and CP-HSP60 was investigated in the myocardium and coronary plaques of 10 AMI and 10 age-matched control patients by immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, and molecular biology. OMP-2 antigens were found in the unaffected myocardium of 9 of 10 AMI patients. Conversely, only 1 of 10 control patients exhibited a positive staining for CP. Moreover, OMP-2 and CP-HSP60 were detected in the whole coronary tree. CP presence was strongly associated with a T-cell inflammatory infiltrate. Our results suggest that CP may underlie both coronary and myocardial vulnerabilities in patients who died of AMI and corroborate the notion that CP may act by reducing cardiac reserves, thus worsening the ischemic burden of myocardium.

Spagnoli, Luigi Giusto; Pucci, Sabina; Bonanno, Elena; Cassone, Antonio; Sesti, Fabiola; Ciervo, Alessandra; Mauriello, Alessandro

2007-01-01

331

'The difference in determinants of Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium in a sample of young Australian women.'  

PubMed Central

Background Differences in the determinants of Chlamydia trachomatis ('chlamydia') and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) genital infection in women are not well understood. Methods A cohort study of 16 to 25 year old Australian women recruited from primary health care clinics, aimed to determine chlamydia and MG prevalence and incidence. Vaginal swabs collected at recruitment were used to measure chlamydia and MG prevalence, organism-load and chlamydia-serovar a cross-sectional analysis undertaken on the baseline results is presented here. Results Of 1116 participants, chlamydia prevalence was 4.9% (95% CI: 2.9, 7.0) (n = 55) and MG prevalence was 2.4% (95% CI: 1.5, 3.3) (n = 27). Differences in the determinants were found - chlamydia not MG, was associated with younger age [AOR:0.9 (95% CI: 0.8, 1.0)] and recent antibiotic use [AOR:0.4 (95% CI: 0.2, 1.0)], and MG not chlamydia was associated with symptoms [AOR:2.1 (95% CI: 1.1, 4.0)]. Having two or more partners in last 12 months was more strongly associated with chlamydia [AOR:6.4 (95% CI: 3.6, 11.3)] than MG [AOR:2.2 (95% CI: 1.0, 4.6)] but unprotected sex with three or more partners was less strongly associated with chlamydia [AOR:3.1 (95%CI: 1.0, 9.5)] than MG [AOR:16.6 (95%CI: 2.0, 138.0)]. Median organism load for MG was 100 times lower (5.7 × 104/swab) than chlamydia (5.6 × 106/swab) (p < 0.01) and not associated with age or symptoms for chlamydia or MG. Conclusions These results demonstrate significant chlamydia and MG prevalence in Australian women, and suggest that the differences in strengths of association between numbers of sexual partners and unprotected sex and chlamydia and MG might be due to differences in the transmission dynamics between these infections.

2011-01-01

332

Early sexual behaviour and Chlamydia trachomatis infection - a population based cross-sectional study on gender differences among adolescents in Norway  

PubMed Central

Background Early sexual behaviour has been shown to differ significantly between genders, but few studies have addressed this topic to explain the commonly observed differences in chlamydia rates between adolescent girls and boys. Our study aimed to determine chlamydia prevalence in adolescents aged 15–20 years in a high-incidence area in Norway, and to identify gender-specific early sexual behaviours associated with infection. Methods A population based cross-sectional study was conducted among all high school students in five towns in Finnmark county in 2009, using a web-based questionnaire and real-time Chlamydia trachomatis PCR in first-void urine samples (participation rate 85%, 800 girls/818 boys, mean age 17.2 years). Crude and multivariable logistic regression models were applied with chlamydia test result as dependent variable. Results Prevalence of chlamydia infection was 5.7% (95% confidence interval, CI, 4.4–7.3%). Girls were twice as likely to be infected as boys (7.3%, 5.3–9.7 vs 3.9%, 2.3–6.0). Girls reported earlier sexual debut, older partners, higher lifetime number of partners, and were poorer condom users. In girls, higher maternal education (odds ratio, OR, 2.2, 95% CI 1.1–4.4), ?2 sexual partners past 6 months (OR 3.6, 1.8–7.3), and partner meeting venue at a private party, bar or disco (OR 5.0, 1.1–22.7) increased the odds of infection in the multivariable model. In boys, condom use at first intercourse (OR 0.06, 0.01–0.42) decreased the odds of infection, while having an older last sexual partner (OR 3.7, 1.3–11.0) increased the odds. In all participants, the risk of infection increased if residence outside the family home during school year (OR 2.0, 1.2–3.6), and decreased if condom was used at last intercourse (OR 0.2, 0.1–0.8). Conclusions We detected significant gender differences in chlamydia prevalence and sexual behaviours, and accordingly differing independent risk factors for chlamydia infection. We suggest that accumulation of essentially different experiences in the early sexually active years contribute to gender disparities in chlamydia risk in individuals this age. Gender-specific approaches may be the best alternative to control chlamydia infection in age group 15–20 years.

2012-01-01

333

Polymer Nanoparticles Encapsulating siRNA for Treatment of HSV-2 Genital Infection  

PubMed Central

Effective, low-cost, and safe treatments for sexually transmitted viral infections are urgently needed. Here, we show for the first time that intravaginal administration with nanoparticles of poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) encapsulating short interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules is effective for prevention of genital HSV-2 infections in mice. PLGA nanoparticles (NPs) were designed to interfere with HSV-2 infection by siRNA-mediated knockdown of nectin, a host cell protein. NPs were characterized in vitro to determine the optimal formulation based on siRNA loading, controlled release profile, and mRNA knockdown. Mice inoculated intravaginally with a lethal dose of HSV-2, and treated with PLGA NPs, showed increased survival from ~9 days (in untreated mice) to > 28 days (in PLGA NP treated mice) - the longest survival ever observed with siRNA treatment in this mouse model. This work provides proof-of-concept that topical administration of NPs containing siRNA against a pathologically relevant host cell target can knockdown the gene in tissue and improve survival after HSV-2 infection. Furthermore, this system provides a safe delivery platform that employs materials that are already approved by the FDA and can be modified to enhance delivery of other microbicides.

Steinbach, Jill M.; Weller, Caroline E.; Booth, Carmen J.; Saltzman, W. Mark

2012-01-01

334

Lower genital tract infections in infertile Nigerian women compared with controls.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To investigate the possibility that infertile Nigerian women have a higher rate of cervical colonisation with pathogenic and facultative organisms than fertile controls. DESIGN--The prevalence of common microorganisms in the vagina and endocervical canals of infertile women was compared with that of pregnant controls. SETTING--The Obafemi Awolowo University Hospital Maternity Centre. SUBJECTS--92 infertile women were compared with 86 pregnant controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--rates of isolation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Candida albicans, Trichomonas vaginalis and other facultative organisms in cases and controls. RESULTS--The rate of isolation of Neisseria gonorrheae was 17.4% among infertile women compared with 10.5% in the group of pregnant women (p > 0.05). There was no significant difference between the groups in the rate of isolation of Candida albicans, Trichomonas vaginalis and other facultative organisms. High rates of isolation of microorganisms were observed in both groups. However, women with secondary infertility had higher rate of carriage of Neisseria gonorrheae, Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus as compared with women with primary infertility. Nearly 15% of infertile women had previous episodes of pelvic inflammatory disease and 26% had had induced abortions. A positive history of vaginal discharge was a poor predictor of vagina and endocervical carriage of microorganisms. CONCLUSIONS--High rates of pathogenic organisms exist in the lower genital tract of infertile women and controls. Women with secondary infertility are more likely to have pathogenic organisms than women with primary infertility. A policy of routinely screening women for lower genital tract infections should be pursued in this population because of the high rate of infection.

Okonofua, F E; Ako-Nai, K A; Dighitoghi, M D

1995-01-01

335

Two coiled-coil domains of Chlamydia trachomatis IncA affect membrane fusion events during infection.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis replicates in a parasitophorous membrane-bound compartment called an inclusion. The inclusions corrupt host vesicle trafficking networks to avoid the degradative endolysosomal pathway but promote fusion with each other in order to sustain higher bacterial loads in a process known as homotypic fusion. The Chlamydia protein IncA (Inclusion protein A) appears to play central roles in both these processes as it participates to homotypic fusion and inhibits endocytic SNARE-mediated membrane fusion. How IncA selectively inhibits or activates membrane fusion remains poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed the spatial and molecular determinants of IncA's fusogenic and inhibitory functions. Using a cell-free membrane fusion assay, we found that inhibition of SNARE-mediated fusion requires IncA to be on the same membrane as the endocytic SNARE proteins. IncA displays two coiled-coil domains showing high homology with SNARE proteins. Domain swap and deletion experiments revealed that although both these domains are capable of independently inhibiting SNARE-mediated fusion, these two coiled-coil domains cooperate in mediating IncA multimerization and homotypic membrane interaction. Our results support the hypothesis that Chlamydia employs SNARE-like virulence factors that positively and negatively affect membrane fusion and promote infection. PMID:23936096

Ronzone, Erik; Paumet, Fabienne

2013-07-23

336

Influence of Clarithromycin on Early Atherosclerotic Lesions after Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection in a Rabbit Model  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia pneumoniae may play a role in atherogenesis and vascular diseases, and antibiotics may prove useful in these conditions. Three groups of New Zealand White rabbits (24 per group) were infected via the nasopharynx with C. pneumoniae on three separate occasions (2 weeks apart). Group I was untreated and sacrificed at 12 weeks; group II received clarithromycin at 20 mg/kg/day for 8 days, beginning 5 days after each inoculation (early treatment); and group III received a similar dose of clarithromycin starting 2 weeks after the third inoculation and continued for 6 weeks thereafter (delayed treatment). To test for a possible anti-inflammatory effect of clarithromycin, two other groups of uninfected rabbits (12 animals in each) were fed 0.5% cholesterol-enriched chow, and one of these groups was treated with clarithromycin at 30 mg/kg/day for 6 weeks. Of 23 untreated infected rabbits, 8 developed early lesions of atherosclerosis, whereas 2 of the 24 early-treated group II had similar changes (P = 0.036 [75% efficacy]). However, in the delayed-treatment group, group III, 3 of 24 rabbits developed early lesions of atherosclerosis, thus demonstrating 62.5% reduction compared to the untreated controls (P = 0.07 [trend to statistical significance]). C. pneumoniae antigen was detected in 8 of 23 group I (untreated) rabbits versus 1 of 24 of the early-treated (group II) rabbits and 4 of 24 animals in the delayed group III (P = 0.009 and 0.138, respectively). All of the untreated, cholesterol-fed rabbits had moderate to advanced atherosclerosis (grade III or IV); clarithromycin had no effect on reducing the prevalence of but did reduce the extent of atherosclerosis in the cholesterol-fed rabbits by 17% compared to untreated controls. Thus, clarithromycin administration modified C. pneumoniae-induced atherosclerotic lesions and reduced the ability to detect organism in tissue. Early treatment was more effective than delayed treatment.

Fong, Ignatius W.; Chiu, Brian; Viira, Esther; Jang, Dan; Mahony, James B.

2002-01-01

337

Mailed, Home-Obtained Urine Specimens: a Reliable Screening Approach for Detecting Asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis Infections  

PubMed Central

The use of mailed, home-obtained urine specimens could facilitate screening programs for the detection of asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infections. Since transport time could have an adverse effect on the sensitivity of C. trachomatis detection by PCR, the influence of DNA degradation on amplification was monitored over the course of 1 week. Therefore, urine specimens were aliquoted on the day of collection or arrival. Two groups of urine specimens were investigated. Group I contains first-void C. trachomatis-positive and -negative urine samples. DNA degradation was monitored in group I samples for 7 days at room temperature (RT) and at 4°C by amplifying different lengths of the human ?-globin gene and the C. trachomatis plasmid target. DNA degradation was observed only for the larger human ?-globin fragments at days 5 to 7 at RT. In contrast, at 4°C all targets could be amplified. Urine specimens were also frozen and thawed before aliquoting to mimic freezing during transport. This resulted in a lower sensitivity for the detection of C. trachomatis after thawing and 3 to 4 days at RT. In addition, mailed, home-obtained C. trachomatis-positive urine specimens (group II) were analyzed for 7 days after arrival by two commercially available C. trachomatis detection systems (PCR and ligase chain reaction [LCR]). The C. trachomatis plasmid target in mailed, home-obtained urine specimens could be amplified by both PCR and LCR after 1 week of storage and/or transport at RT. In conclusion, our findings indicate that mailed, home-obtained urine specimens are suitable for the sensitive detection of asymptomatic C. trachomatis infections by amplification methods, even if the transport time is up to 1 week at RT. These findings support the feasibility and validity of screening programs based on mailed, home-obtained urine specimens. Larger studies should be initiated to confirm our results.

Morre, Servaas A.; van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.; de Jong, Afke; Boeke, A. Joan P.; van Eijk, Jacques T. M.; Meijer, Chris J. L. M.; van den Brule, Adriaan J. C.

1999-01-01

338

PmpG303-311, a Protective Vaccine Epitope That Elicits Persistent Cellular Immune Responses in Chlamydia muridarum-Immune Mice  

PubMed Central

Urogenital Chlamydia serovars replicating in reproductive epithelium pose a unique challenge to host immunity and vaccine development. Previous studies have shown that CD4 T cells are necessary and sufficient to clear primary Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infections in the mouse model, making a protective CD4 T cell response a logical endpoint for vaccine development. Our previous proteomics studies identified 13 candidate Chlamydia proteins for subunit vaccines. Of those, PmpG-1 is the most promising vaccine candidate. To further that work, we derived a PmpG303-311-specific multifunctional Th1 T cell clone, designated PmpG1.1, from an immune C57BL/6 mouse and used it to investigate the presentation of the PmpG303-311 epitope by infected epithelial cells. Epithelial presentation of the PmpG303-311 epitope required bacterial replication, occurred 15 to 18 h postinfection, and was unaffected by gamma interferon (IFN-?) pretreatment. Unlike epitopes recognized by other Chlamydia-specific CD4 T cell clones, the PmpG303-311 epitope persisted on splenic antigen-presenting cells (APC) of mice that cleared primary genital tract infections. PmpG1.1 was activated by unmanipulated irradiated splenocytes from immune mice without addition of exogenous Chlamydia antigen, and remarkably, activation of PmpG1.1 by unmanipulated immune splenocytes was stronger 6 months postinfection than it was 3 weeks postinfection. Enhanced presentation of PmpG303-311 epitope on splenic APC 6 months postinfection reflects some type of “consolidation” of a protective immune response. Understanding the antigen-presenting cell populations responsible for presenting PmpG303-311 early (3 weeks) and late (6 months) postinfection will likely provide important insights into stable protective immunity against Chlamydia infections of the genital tract.

Yu, Hong; Kerr, Micah S.; Slaven, James E.; Karunakaran, Karuna P.; Brunham, Robert C.

2012-01-01

339

Cervical Epithelial Cells from Chlamydia trachomatis-Infected Sites Coexpress Higher Levels of Chlamydial Heat Shock Proteins 60 and 10 in Infertile Women than in Fertile Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: The objective of the present study was to examine the possible relationship between the chlamydial heat shock proteins (cHSP) 60 and 10 expression and the damaging sequelae of a Chlamydia trachomatis infection, such as infertility. Methods: Seven fertile and 7 infertile female patients infected with C. trachomatis attending the gynecology outpatient department of Safdarjung hospital (New Delhi, India) were

Rajneesh Jha; Harsh Vardhan; Sylvette Bas; Sudha Salhan; Aruna Mittal

2009-01-01

340

Higher incidence of persistent chronic infection of Chlamydia pneumoniae among coronary artery disease patients in India is a cause of concern  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that Chlamydia pneumoniae may be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, as several studies have demonstrated the presence of the organism in atherosclerotic lesions. C. pneumoniae infections, which are especially persistent infections, have been difficult to diagnose either by serological methods or isolation of the organism from the tissue. Nucleic Acid Amplification tests (NAATs) has

Hem C Jha; Harsh Vardhan; Rishein Gupta; Rakesh Varma; Jagdish Prasad; Aruna Mittal

2007-01-01

341

Clinical Consequences of Immune Response to CT Upper Genital Tract Infection in Women  

PubMed Central

C. TRACHOMATIS (CT) infections of the upper genital tract in women are either acute, sub acute or chronic. CT infection has a tendency to be chronic, latent and persistent as a consequence of the host immune reaction to CT major outer membrane protein, 57 Kd heat shock protein and lipopolysaccharide. Chlamydial persistence can be induced as a result of inflammatory and/or immune regulated cytokines, Interferon ? depletion of tryptophan causes a stress response involving development of abnormal forms with increased levels of stress response proteins which maintain host immune responses with continuous fibrin exudate. The main clinical consequences are acute and chronic pelvic inflammatory disease, with infertility, ectopic pregnancy and, less frequently, chronic pelvic pain as late sequelae. PID, when acute, is marked by bilateral pelvic pain, plus other infectious signs in typical cases: fever, leucorrhea, red and purulent cervix. In 50% cases, infectious signs are slight or absent or there is an atypical clinical situation. Laparoscopy is the key for diagnosis. It allows the surgeon to have a direct look at the pelvic organs and perform microbiologic and histologic sampling. In severe cases, laparoscopy allows the surgeon to aspirate the purulent discharge and successfully treat pelvic abscesses. Chronic PID usually is clinically silent. It is in most cases discovered some years after the onset of CT infection, in women operated on for tubal infertility or ectopic pregnancy. Further studies, to evaluate treatments efficiency in chronic cases and factors leading to ectopic pregnancy or to recurrence, are indicated.

Askienazy-Elbhar, M.; Orfila, J.

1996-01-01

342

Correlates of HIV-1 Genital Shedding in Tanzanian Women  

PubMed Central

Background Understanding the correlates of HIV shedding is important to inform strategies to reduce HIV infectiousness. We examined correlates of genital HIV-1 RNA in women who were seropositive for both herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 and HIV-1 and who were enrolled in a randomised controlled trial of HSV suppressive therapy (aciclovir 400 mg b.i.d vs. placebo) in Tanzania. Methodology Samples, including a cervico-vaginal lavage, were collected and tested for genital HIV-1 and HSV and reproductive tract infections (RTIs) at randomisation and 6, 12 and 24 months follow-up. Data from all women at randomisation and women in the placebo arm during follow-up were analysed using generalised estimating equations to determine the correlates of cervico-vaginal HIV-1 RNA detection and load. Principal Findings Cervico-vaginal HIV-1 RNA was detected at 52.0% of 971 visits among 482 women, and was independently associated with plasma viral load, presence of genital ulcers, pregnancy, bloody cervical or vaginal discharge, abnormal vaginal discharge, cervical ectopy, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, an intermediate bacterial vaginosis score and HSV DNA detection. Similar factors were associated with genital HIV-1 RNA load. Conclusions RTIs were associated with increased presence and quantity of genital HIV-1 RNA in this population. These results highlight the importance of integrating effective RTI treatment into HIV care services.

Tanton, Clare; Weiss, Helen A.; Le Goff, Jerome; Changalucha, John; Rusizoka, Mary; Baisley, Kathy; Everett, Dean; Ross, David A.; Belec, Laurent; Hayes, Richard J.; Watson-Jones, Deborah

2011-01-01

343

Will droplet digital PCR become the test of choice for detecting and quantifying ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection? Maybe not.  

PubMed

Evaluation of: Roberts CH, Last A, Molina-Gonzalez S et al. Development and evaluation of a next-generation digital PCR diagnostic assay for ocular chlamydia trachomatis infections. J. Clin. Microbiol. 51(7), 2195-2203 (2013). Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness in developing countries. Currently, there is no program to eliminate blinding trachoma as a public health problem. We need better diagnostic tests for research and to assess progress in control programs. Roberts et al. adapted droplet digital PCR (ddPCR), an emulsion PCR process that performs absolute quantitation of nucleic acids, to detect and quantify Chlamydia trachomatis infections. They compared the results with ddPCR on conjunctival swab specimens collected in trachoma-endemic area to results using Roche's Amplicor® C. trachomatis/Neisseria gonorrhoeae (CT/NG) PCR and found that ddPCR sensitivity was 73.3%. The authors concluded that 'ddPCR is an effective diagnostic technology suitable for both research and clinical use in diagnosing ocular C. trachomatis infections'. This reviewer disagrees, feeling that if the stated sensitivity is accurate, it is too low, and suggests there may be good reasons to adapt commercially available tests for this purpose. PMID:24134626

Schachter, Julius

2013-10-17

344

Evaluation of Chlamydia Immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG, and IgA rELISAs Medac for Diagnosis ofChlamydia pneumoniaeInfection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydiapneumoniaeisanimportantpathogenresponsibleforavarietyofrespiratorydiseasesinhumans. Cell culture remains the most specific method for C. pneumoniae diagnosis, but it is labor-intensive and time-consuming. Thus, serology, particularly microimmunofluorescence (MIF) testing, is frequently utilized. However, the MIF test has a significant subjective component. We evaluated a new serological test: Chlamydia Immunoglobulin M (IgG), IgA, and IgM rELISAs Medac, based on a recombinant Chlamydia-specific lipo- polysaccharide (LPS) fragment,

ANDREI KUTLIN; NAOKI TSUMURA; UMIT EMRE; PATRICIA M. ROBLIN; ANDMARGARET R. HAMMERSCHLAG

1997-01-01

345

Chlamydiae as pathogens: new species and new issues.  

PubMed Central

The recognition of genital chlamydial infection as an important public health problem was made first by the recognition of its role in acute clinical syndromes, as well as in serious reproductive and ocular complications, and secondly by our awareness of its prevalence when diagnostic tests became widely accessible. The recent availability of effective single dose oral antimicrobial therapy and sensitive molecular amplification tests that allow the use of noninvasive specimens for diagnosis and screening is expected to have a major impact in reducing the prevalence of disease in the next decade. Clinical manifestations associated with Chlamydia pneumoniae infection continue to emerge beyond respiratory illness. In particular, its association with atherosclerosis deserves further investigation. Chlamydia pecorum, a pathogen of ruminants, was recently recognized as a new species. The continued application of molecular techniques will likely elucidate an expanding role for chlamydiae in human and animal diseases, delineate the phylogenetic relationships among chlamydial species and within the eubacteria domain, and provide tools for detection and control of chlamydial infections.

Peeling, R. W.; Brunham, R. C.

1996-01-01

346

Chlamydiae as pathogens: new species and new issues.  

PubMed

The recognition of genital chlamydial infection as an important public health problem was made first by the recognition of its role in acute clinical syndromes, as well as in serious reproductive and ocular complications, and secondly by our awareness of its prevalence when diagnostic tests became widely accessible. The recent availability of effective single dose oral antimicrobial therapy and sensitive molecular amplification tests that allow the use of noninvasive specimens for diagnosis and screening is expected to have a major impact in reducing the prevalence of disease in the next decade. Clinical manifestations associated with Chlamydia pneumoniae infection continue to emerge beyond respiratory illness. In particular, its association with atherosclerosis deserves further investigation. Chlamydia pecorum, a pathogen of ruminants, was recently recognized as a new species. The continued application of molecular techniques will likely elucidate an expanding role for chlamydiae in human and animal diseases, delineate the phylogenetic relationships among chlamydial species and within the eubacteria domain, and provide tools for detection and control of chlamydial infections. PMID:8969247

Peeling, R W; Brunham, R C

347

Impact of Short-Term HAART Initiated during the Chronic Stage or Shortly Post-Exposure on SIV Infection of Male Genital Organs  

PubMed Central

Background The male genital tract is suspected to constitute a viral sanctuary as persistent HIV shedding is found in the semen of a subset of HIV-infected men receiving effective antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The origin of this persistent shedding is currently unknown. Phylogenetic studies indicated that HIV in semen from untreated men arises from local sources and/or passive diffusion from the blood. We previously demonstrated in human and macaque low levels and localized infection of several semen-producing organs by HIV/SIV. Using a macaque model, this study investigates the impact of short term HAART (2–4 weeks) initiated either during the asymptomatic chronic stage or 4 h post-intravenous inoculation of SIVmac251 on the infection of male genital organs. Methodology/Principal Findings Short term HAART during the chronic stage decreased blood viral load. No major impact of HAART was observed on SIV DNA levels in male genital organs using a sensitive nested PCR assay. Using in situ hybridization, SIV RNA+ cells were detected in all male genital tract organs from untreated and treated animals with undetectable blood viral load following HAART. Infected CD68+ myeloid cells and CD3+ T lymphocytes were detected pre- and post-HAART. In contrast, short term HAART initiated 4 h post-SIV exposure led to a drastic decrease of the male genital tissues infection, although it failed to prevent systemic infection. In both cases, HAART tended to decrease the number of CD3+ T cells in the male organs. Conclusions Our results indicate that the established infection of male genital organs is not greatly impacted by short term HAART, whereas the same treatment during pre-acute phase of the infection efficiently impairs viral dissemination to the male genital tract. Further investigations are now needed to determine whether infection of male genital organs is responsible for long term persistent HIV shedding in semen despite HAART.

Moreau, Marina; Le Tortorec, Anna; Deleage, Claire; Brown, Charles; Denis, Helene; Satie, Anne-Pascale; Bourry, Olivier; Deureuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Roques, Pierre; Le Grand, Roger; Dejucq-Rainsford, Nathalie

2012-01-01

348

Persistent Chlamydia Pneumoniae serology is related to decline in lung function in women but not in men. Effect of persistent Chlamydia pneumoniae infection on lung function  

PubMed Central

Background Chlamydia pneumoniae (C pn) infection causes an acute inflammation in the respiratory system that may become persistent, but little is known about the long-term respiratory effects of C pn infections. Aim: To estimate the long term respiratory effects of C pn with change in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) as a main outcome variable. Methods The study comprised of 1109 subjects (500 men and 609 women, mean age 28 ± 6 years) that participated in the Reykjavik Heart Study of the Young. Spirometry and blood samples for measurements of IgG antibodies for C pn were done at inclusion and at the end of the follow-up period (mean follow-up time 27 ± 4 years). Results Having IgG against C pn at both examinations was significantly associated to a larger decrease in FEV1 (6 mL/year) and FVC (7 mL/year) in women but not in men. In women the association between C pn and larger FEV1 decline was only found in women that smoked at baseline where having C pn IgG was associated with 10 mL/year decline compared to smokers without C pn IgG. These results were still significant after adjustment for age, smoking and change in body weight. Conclusion Our results indicate that persistent C pn serology is related to increased decline in lung function in women but not in men. This effect was, however, primarily found in smoking women. This study is a further indication that the pathophysiological process leading to lung impairment may differ between men and women.

2010-01-01

349

Survival of Chlamydia muridarum within Dendritic Cells?  

PubMed Central

Immune responses to Chlamydia trachomatis underlay both immunity and immunopathology. Immunopathology in turn has been attributed to chronic persistent infection with persistence being defined as the presence of organisms in the absence of replication. We hypothesized that dendritic cells (DCs) play a central role in Chlamydia immunity and immunopathology by favoring the long-term survival of C. muridarum. This hypothesis was examined based on (i) direct staining of Chlamydia in infected DCs to evaluate the development of inclusions, (ii) titration of infected DCs on HeLa cells to determine cultivability, and (iii) transfer of Chlamydia-infected DCs to naive mice to evaluate infectivity. The results show that Chlamydia survived within DCs and developed both typical and atypical inclusions that persisted in a subpopulation of DCs for more than 9 days after infection. Since the cultivability of Chlamydia from DCs onto HeLa was lower than that estimated by the number of inclusions in DCs, this suggests that the organisms may be in state of persistence. Intranasal transfer of long-term infected DCs or DCs purified from the lungs of infected mice caused mouse lung infection, suggesting that in addition to persistent forms, infective Chlamydia organisms also developed within chronically infected DCs. Interestingly, after in vitro infection with Chlamydia, most DCs died. However, Chlamydia appeared to survive in a subpopulation of DCs that resisted infection-induced cell death. Surviving DCs efficiently presented Chlamydia antigens to Chlamydia-specific CD4+ T cells, suggesting that the bacteria are able to both direct their own survival and still allow DC antigen-presenting function. Together, these results raise the possibility that Chlamydia-infected DCs may be central to the maintenance of T-cell memory that underlies both immunity and immunopathology.

Rey-Ladino, Jose; Jiang, Xiaozhou; Gabel, Brent R.; Shen, Caixia; Brunham, Robert C.

2007-01-01

350

Survival of Chlamydia muridarum within dendritic cells.  

PubMed

Immune responses to Chlamydia trachomatis underlay both immunity and immunopathology. Immunopathology in turn has been attributed to chronic persistent infection with persistence being defined as the presence of organisms in the absence of replication. We hypothesized that dendritic cells (DCs) play a central role in Chlamydia immunity and immunopathology by favoring the long-term survival of C. muridarum. This hypothesis was examined based on (i) direct staining of Chlamydia in infected DCs to evaluate the development of inclusions, (ii) titration of infected DCs on HeLa cells to determine cultivability, and (iii) transfer of Chlamydia-infected DCs to naive mice to evaluate infectivity. The results show that Chlamydia survived within DCs and developed both typical and atypical inclusions that persisted in a subpopulation of DCs for more than 9 days after infection. Since the cultivability of Chlamydia from DCs onto HeLa was lower than that estimated by the number of inclusions in DCs, this suggests that the organisms may be in state of persistence. Intranasal transfer of long-term infected DCs or DCs purified from the lungs of infected mice caused mouse lung infection, suggesting that in addition to persistent forms, infective Chlamydia organisms also developed within chronically infected DCs. Interestingly, after in vitro infection with Chlamydia, most DCs died. However, Chlamydia appeared to survive in a subpopulation of DCs that resisted infection-induced cell death. Surviving DCs efficiently presented Chlamydia antigens to Chlamydia-specific CD4+ T cells, suggesting that the bacteria are able to both direct their own survival and still allow DC antigen-presenting function. Together, these results raise the possibility that Chlamydia-infected DCs may be central to the maintenance of T-cell memory that underlies both immunity and immunopathology. PMID:17502393

Rey-Ladino, Jose; Jiang, Xiaozhou; Gabel, Brent R; Shen, Caixia; Brunham, Robert C

2007-05-14

351

[The role of endothelial dysfunction and Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in patients with ischemic stroke].  

PubMed

The research purposed to investigate the Chlamydia Pneumoniae infection in patients with ischemic stroke and to establish the correlation with elevated C. pneumonia antibody titers and endothelial dysfunction. 72 patients with acute ischemic stroke, aged 45 to 75 (45 male and 32 female) have been researched. Patients were grouped according to etiology of stroke (based on International classification TOAST). The blood was taken in 48 hours from stroke onset. ELISA method was applied to detect the antibodies against C. Pneumoniae. The intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery were assessed by B-mode ultrasonography (Acuson128XP/10) with a 7.5-MHz linear-array transducer. Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery were measured from high-resolution, 2-dimensional ultrasound images obtained by an ultrasound machine with a 7.5-MHz linear-array transducer. Free NO were examined by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) method in blood. Control consisted with 15 healthy volunteers. Multivariate logistic regression showed a significant positive correlation between blood elevated titers of IgA and IgG of stroke patients and the intima-media thickness of the carotid artery (correlation coefficient by Pearson r = 0,31; p<0,05, r = 0,27; p<0,05). On multiple regression analysis, percent FMD showed a significant negative correlation with the intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery (r= -0,57, p<0,05), positive correlation between NO and the intima-media thickness of the carotid artery (r= 0,72, p<0,05). Association between antibody seropositivity for C. pneumoniae and increase of the IMT in the common carotid artery indicates persistent chronic infection in patients with ischemic stroke. Correlation between NO, an increase of the IMT in the common carotid and artery flow-mediated dilation of brachial artery indicates on the participation of NO in development of endothelial dysfunction and its significant role in pathogenesis of ischemic stroke. These findings support the concept that NO-inducible endothelial dysfunction is related to atherogenesis. PMID:17525503

Devidze, E T; Sanikidze, T V; Samadashvili, D A

2007-04-01

352

Genital Herpes  

MedlinePLUS

... Division of STD Prevention CS233825A What is genital herpes? Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) ... type 2 (HSV-2). How common is genital herpes? CDC estimates that, annually, 776,000 people in ...

353

Bacterial Colonization and Beta Defensins in the Female Genital Tract in HIV Infection  

PubMed Central

Beta defensins are antimicrobial peptides that serve to protect the host from microbial invasion at skin and mucosal surfaces. Here we explore the relationships among beta defensin levels, total bacterial colonization, and colonization by bacterial vaginosis (BV)-related bacteria and lactobacilli in the female genital tract in HIV infected women and healthy controls. Cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) samples were obtained from 30 HIV-infected women and 36 uninfected controls. Quantitative PCR assays were used to measure DNA levels of bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA (reflective of total bacterial load), and levels of three BV-related bacteria, three Lactobacillus species (L. crispatus, L. iners and L. jensenii), and total Lactobacillus levels in CVL. Levels of human beta defensins (hBD-2 and hBD-3) were quantified by ELISA. In viremic HIV+ donors, we found that CVL levels of bacterial 16S rDNA were significantly increased, and inversely correlated with peripheral CD4+ T cell counts in HIV+ women, and inversely correlated with age in both HIV+ women and controls. Although CVL DNA levels of BV-associated bacteria tended to be increased, and CVL levels of lactobacillus DNAs tended to be decreased in HIV+ donors, none of these differences was significant. CVL levels of hBD-2 and hBD-3 were correlated and were not different in HIV+ women and controls. However, significant positive correlations between hBD-3 levels and total bacterial DNA levels in controls were not demonstrable in HIV+ women; the significant positive correlations of hBD2 or hBD-3 and three Lactobacillus species in controls were also not demonstrable in HIV+ women. These results suggest that HIV infection is associated with impaired regulation of innate defenses at mucosal sites.

Jiang, Wei; Ghosh, Santosh K.; Flyckt, Rebecca; Kalinowska, Magdalena; Starks, David; Jurevic, Richard; Weinberg, Aaron; Lederman, Michael M.; Rodriguez, Benigno

2012-01-01

354

Importance of myeloid differentiation factor 88 in innate and acquired immune protection against genital herpes infection in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role as pattern-recognition receptors to sense and respond to pathogens. Our laboratory and others have shown recently that activation of TLR\\/MyD88 signaling through vaginal administration of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides, either singly or in combination with recombinant glycoprotein from herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), confers immunity against genital herpes infection. In this study, we have

Sara Tengvall; Ali M. Harandi

2008-01-01

355

Evidence that Chlamydia trachomatis causes seronegative arthritis in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydia trachomatis elementary bodies (EBs) were found in synovial membranes or synovial fluid cell deposits from five of 15 women with seronegative mono- or oligoarthritis by means of a fluorescein conjugated anti-chlamydial monoclonal antibody (Micro Trak; Syva). Genital tract specimens were taken from only five of the patients, one of whom had intra-articular EBs, but none was chlamydia positive. Six

D Taylor-Robinson; B J Thomas; J Dixey; M F Osborn; P M Furr; A C Keat

1988-01-01

356

Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to investigate the possible association of Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn) in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Thirty-eight acutely exacerbated COPD patients and 17 healthy smokers were enrolled in the study, as the study and control groups respectively. Nasopharyngeal swabs and paired serum samples for antibody testing of Cpn (microimmunofluorescence—MIF) were obtained

D. KARNAK; S. BEDER; O. KAYACAN

2001-01-01

357

Relation of Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infection to Documented Coronary Artery Disease in Shiraz, Southern Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility that infectious agents may trigger a cascade of reactions leading to inflammation, atherogenesis, and vascular thrombotic events has recently been raised. Chlamydia pneumoniae is one of those that have received the most investigative attention with respect to coronary artery disease (CAD). This study was undertaken for the first time in Shiraz, Iran to determine this relationship. A case-control

M. J. Zibaeenezhad; A. Amanat; A. Alborzi; A. Obudi

2005-01-01

358

Chlamydia and mycoplasma infections during pregnancy and their relationships to orofacial cleft  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum antibodies to Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia trachomatis have been studied in a group of newborns with orofacial cleft (OC) and their mothers (n = 59) as compared to a control group of healthy newborns and their mothers (n = 40) assayed by ELISA and Western blot analysis. In the first group, IgG antibodies to M. pneumoniae were found by

Agáta Molnárová; Elena Ková?ová; Juraj Majtán; Jozef Fedeleš; Eva Bieliková; Silvia Cvachová; Ján Vojtaššák; Vanda Repiská

2006-01-01

359

Abortion due to infection with Chlamydia psittaci in a sheep farmer's wife  

Microsoft Academic Search

A farmer's wife who had helped with lambing aborted spontaneously in March after a short febrile illness in the 28th week of her pregnancy. She developed disseminated intravascular coagulation post partum with acute renal failure and pulmonary oedema. Recovery was complete after two weeks of hospital care. A strain of Chlamydia psittaci, probably of ovine origin, was isolated from the

F W Johnson; B A Matheson; H Williams; A G Laing; V Jandial; R Davidson-Lamb; G J Halliday; D Hobson; S Y Wong; K M Hadley

1985-01-01

360

Modulation of cytokine and ?-defensin 2 expressions in human gingival fibroblasts infected with Chlamydia pneumoniae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human ?-defensin 2 is an antimicrobial peptide that is produced by several epithelial cells after stimulation with micro-organisms and inflammatory mediators. Gram-negative bacteria, which are typically detected in periodontal pockets in periodontitis, elicit a stronger antibacterial peptide response of human ?-defensin 2 by epithelial cells. In this study, we investigated whether Chlamydia pneumoniae is able both to enter and grow

Antonietta Rizzo; Rossella Paolillo; Elisabetta Buommino; Alfonso Galeota Lanza; Luigi Guida; Marco Annunziata; Caterina Romano Carratelli

2008-01-01

361

Chlamydia muridarum Infection Elicits a Beta Interferon Response in Murine Oviduct Epithelial Cells Dependent on Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 and TRIF  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection in the United States. Utilizing cloned murine oviduct epithelial cell lines, we previously identified Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) as the principal epithelial pattern recognition receptor (PRR) for infection-triggered release of the acute inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. The infected oviduct epithelial cell lines also secreted the immunomodulatory cytokine

Wilbert A. Derbigny; Soon-Cheol Hong; Micah S. Kerr; M. Temkit; R. M. Johnson

2007-01-01

362

Genital Herpes Complicating Pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 22% of pregnant women are infected with herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2, and 2% of women will acquire HSV during pregnancy. Remarkably, up to 90% of these women are undiagnosed because they are asymptomatic or have subtle symptoms attributed to other vulvovaginal disorders. Diagnosis of genital herpes relies on laboratory confirmation with culture or polymerase chain reaction assay of genital

Carolyn Gardella; Anna Wald; Rhoda Ashley; Lawrence Corey; Zane A. Brown

363

Circumcision status and incident herpes simplex virus type 2 infection, genital ulcer disease, and HIV infection  

PubMed Central

Objective We assessed the protective effect of medical male circumcision (MMC) against HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), and genital ulcer disease (GUD) incidence. Design Two thousand, seven hundred and eighty-seven men aged 18–24 years living in Kisumu, Kenya were randomly assigned to circumcision (n=1391) or delayed circumcision (n =1393) and assessed by HIV and HSV-2 testing and medical examinations during follow-ups at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Methods Cox regression estimated the risk ratio of each outcome (incident HIV, GUD, HSV-2) for circumcision status and multivariable models estimated HIV risk associated with HSV-2, GUD, and circumcision status as time-varying covariates. Results HIV incidence was 1.42 per 100 person-years. Circumcision was 62% protective against HIV [risk ratio =0.38; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.22–0.67] and did not change when controlling for HSV-2 and GUD (risk ratio =0.39; 95% CI 0.23–0.69). GUD incidence was halved among circumcised men (risk ratio =0.52; 95% CI 0.37–0.73). HSV-2 incidence did not differ by circumcision status (risk ratio =0.94; 95% CI 0.70–1.25). In the multivariable model, HIV seroconversions were tripled (risk ratio =3.44; 95% CI 1.52–7.80) among men with incident HSV-2 and seven times greater (risk ratio =6.98; 95% CI 3.50–13.9) for men with GUD. Conclusion Contrary to findings from the South African and Ugandan trials, the protective effect of MMC against HIV was independent of GUD and HSV-2, and MMC had no effect on HSV-2 incidence. Determining the causes of GUD is necessary to reduce associated HIV risk and to understand how circumcision confers protection against GUD and HIV

Mehta, Supriya D.; Moses, Stephen; Parker, Corette B.; Agot, Kawango; Maclean, Ian; Bailey, Robert C.

2013-01-01

364

Epidemiology of Chlamydia trachomatis endocervical infection in a previously unscreened population in Rome, Italy, 2000 to 2009.  

PubMed

As reliable data on Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Italy are lacking and as there is no Italian screening policy, epidemiological analyses are needed to optimise effective strategies for surveillance of the infection in the country. We collected data from 6,969 sexually active women aged 15 to 55 years who underwent testing for endocervical C. trachomatis infection at the Cervico-Vaginal Pathology Unit in the Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics of Sapienza University in Rome between 2000 and 2009. The mean prevalence of C. trachomatis endocervical infection during this period was 5.2%. Prevalence over time did not show a linear trend. Univariate analysis demonstrated a significant association of infection with multiple lifetime sexual partners, younger age (<40 years), never having been pregnant, smoking, use of oral contraceptives, and human papillomavirus and Trichomonas vaginalis infections. Multivariate stepwise logistic regression showed that T. vaginalis infection, age under 20 years and more than one lifetime sexual partner remained significantly associated with C. trachomatis infection in the final model. Prevalence of C. trachomatis in this study was high, even among women aged 25–39 years (5.1%): our data would suggest that a C. trachomatis screening policy in Italy is warranted, which could lead to a more extensive testing strategy. PMID:22748006

Marcone, V; Recine, N; Gallinelli, C; Nicosia, R; Lichtner, M; Degener, A M; Chiarini, F; Calzolari, E; Vullo, V

2012-06-21

365

Diagnosis of Legionella pneumophila, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, or Chlamydia pneumoniae lower respiratory infection using the polymerase chain reaction on a single throat swab specimen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae lower respiratory infections using DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on throat swab specimens has been reported. In this study we determined the sensitivity of the detection of Legionella pneumophila in simulated throat swab specimens by PCR. Next, we compared the sensitivity and specificity of a single throat swab PCR with the

Julio A. Ramirez; Sunket Ahkee; Arthur Tolentino; Richard D. Miller; James T. Summersgill

1996-01-01

366

Urinary inhibitors of polymerase chain reaction and ligase chain reaction and testing of multiple specimens may contribute to lower assay sensitivities for diagnosing Chlamydia trachomatis infected women  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a comparison of commercial ligase chain reaction (LCR; Abbott) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR; Roche) assays, measuring plasmid genes ofChlamydia trachomatis, some specimens were found to be negative by either or both assays but positive in traditional culture or antigen detection tests. Of 767 women, 35 were found to be infected by cervical or urine testing. Twenty three specimens

Max A. Chernesky; Dan Jang; John Sellors; Kathy Luinstra; Sylvia Chong; Santina Castriciano; James B. Mahony

1997-01-01

367

Mucosal immunization with recombinant MOMP genetically linked with modified cholera toxin confers protection against Chlamydia trachomatis infection.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis is a major human health pathogen due to its role in sexually transmitted diseases. Thus, there is a need to develop an effective vaccine at the mucosal surface against this pathogen. In an effort to develop a mucosal vaccine, a modified cholera toxin gene was genetically linked to the C. trachomatis MoPn NiggII MOMP gene to generate a recombinant protein with the mucosal adjuvant properties of the cholera toxin and immunological antigenicity of the chlamydial protein. The recombinant fusion protein (rMOMP) was expressed in E. coli, purified and analyzed by SDS-PAGE, immunoblot, and GM1-ELISA, and subsequently used to immunize BALB/c mice via intranasal (i.n.) and intravaginal (vag.) routes. The rMOMP protein administered via the i.n. route induced a higher concentration of anti-MOMP specific antibodies in both serum and vaginal washes as compared to mice immunized with Chlamydia or PBS. Antibody isotype analysis revealed that i.n. administration of rMOMP to mice induced higher concentrations of serum and vaginal wash IgA, IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b antibodies. Vaginal washes from all immunized mice following a chlamydial challenge infection were analyzed by indirect immunoflourescence to study the level of protection provided by various immunogens. Maximum protection against C. trachomatis as assessed by reduction in C. trachomatis inclusion forming units (IFU) was provided by i.n. immunization of mice with rMOMP. This is a first report using genetic fusion of cholera toxin and MOMP genes and provides a novel approach for the design and development of a mucosal vaccine against Chlamydia. PMID:16194585

Singh, Shree R; Hulett, Kara; Pillai, Shreekumar R; Dennis, Vida A; Oh, M K; Scissum-Gunn, Karyn

2005-09-12

368

?-2,3-Sialyltransferase Enhances Neisseria gonorrhoeae Survival during Experimental Murine Genital Tract Infection  

PubMed Central

The addition of host-derived sialic acid to Neisseria gonorrhoeae lipooligosaccharide is hypothesized to be an important mechanism by which gonococci evade host innate defenses. This hypothesis is based primarily on in vitro assays of complement-mediated and phagocytic killing. Here we report that a nonpolar ?-2,3-sialyltransferase (lst) mutant of N. gonorrhoeae was significantly attenuated in its capacity to colonize the lower genital tract of 17-? estradiol-treated female BALB/c mice during competitive infection with the wild-type strain. Genetic complementation of the lst mutation restored recovery of the mutant to wild-type levels. Studies with B10.D2-HCoH2dH2-T18c/OSN (C5-deficient) mice showed that attenuation of the lst mutant was not due to increased sensitivity to complement-mediated bacteriolysis, a result that is consistent with recently reported host restrictions in the complement cascade. However, Lst-deficient gonococci were killed more rapidly than sialylated wild-type gonococci following intraperitoneal injection into normal mice, which is consistent with sialylation conferring protection against killing by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). As reported for human PMNs, sialylated gonococci were more resistant to killing by murine PMNs, and sialylation led to reduced association with and induction of a weaker respiratory burst in PMNs from estradiol-treated mice. In summary, these studies suggest sialylation confers a survival advantage to N. gonorrhoeae in mice by increasing resistance to PMN killing. This report is the first direct demonstration that ?-2,3-sialyltransferase contributes to N. gonorrhoeae pathogenesis in an in vivo model. This study also validates the use of experimental murine infection to study certain aspects of gonococcal pathogenesis.

Wu, Hong; Jerse, Ann E.

2006-01-01

369

High Level of Soluble HLA-G in the Female Genital Tract of Beninese Commercial Sex Workers Is Associated with HIV-1 Infection  

PubMed Central

Background Most HIV infections are transmitted across mucosal epithelium. Understanding the role of innate and specific mucosal immunity in susceptibility or protection against HIV infection, as well as the effect of HIV infection on mucosal immunity, are of fundamental importance. HLA-G is a powerful modulator of the immune response. The aim of this study was to investigate whether soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) expression in the female genital tract is associated with HIV-1 infection. Methods and Findings Genital levels of sHLA-G were determined in 52 HIV-1-uninfected and 44 antiretroviral naïve HIV-1-infected female commercial sex workers (CSWs), as well as 71 HIV-1-uninfected non-CSW women at low risk of exposure, recruited in Cotonou, Benin. HIV-1-infected CSWs had higher genital levels of sHLA-G compared with those in both the HIV-1-uninfected CSW (P?=?0.009) and non-CSW groups (P?=?0.0006). The presence of bacterial vaginosis (P?=?0.008), and HLA-G*01:01:02 genotype (P?=?0.002) were associated with higher genital levels of sHLA-G in the HIV-1-infected CSWs, whereas the HLA-G*01:04:04 genotype was also associated with higher genital level of sHLA-G in the overall population (P?=?0.038). When adjustment was made for all significant variables, the increased expression of sHLA-G in the genital mucosa remained significantly associated with both HIV-1 infection (P?=?0.02) and bacterial vaginosis (P?=?0.03). Conclusion This study demonstrates that high level of sHLA-G in the genital mucosa is independently associated with both HIV-1 infection and bacterial vaginosis.

Thibodeau, Valerie; Lajoie, Julie; Labbe, Annie-Claude; Zannou, Marcel D.; Fowke, Keith R.; Alary, Michel; Poudrier, Johanne; Roger, Michel

2011-01-01

370

Caspase-1 dependent IL-1? secretion is critical for host defense in a mouse model of Chlamydia pneumoniae lung infection.  

PubMed

Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP) is an important human pathogen that causes atypical pneumonia and is associated with various chronic inflammatory disorders. Caspase-1 is a key component of the 'inflammasome', and is required to cleave pro-IL-1? to bioactive IL-1?. Here we demonstrate for the first time a critical requirement for IL-1? in response to CP infection. Caspase-1?/? mice exhibit delayed cytokine production, defective clearance of pulmonary bacteria and higher mortality in response to CP infection. Alveolar macrophages harbored increased bacterial numbers due to reduced iNOS levels in Caspase-1?/? mice. Pharmacological blockade of the IL-1 receptor in CP infected wild-type mice phenocopies Caspase-1-deficient mice, and administration of recombinant IL-1? rescues CP infected Caspase-1?/? mice from mortality, indicating that IL-1? secretion is crucial for host immune defense against CP lung infection. In vitro investigation reveals that CP-induced IL-1? secretion by macrophages requires TLR2/MyD88 and NLRP3/ASC/Caspase-1 signaling. Entry into the cell by CP and new protein synthesis by CP are required for inflammasome activation. Neither ROS nor cathepsin was required for CP infection induced inflammasome activation. Interestingly, Caspase-1 activation during CP infection occurs with mitochondrial dysfunction indicating a possible mechanism involving the mitochondria for CP-induced inflammasome activation. PMID:21731762

Shimada, Kenichi; Crother, Timothy R; Karlin, Justin; Chen, Shuang; Chiba, Norika; Ramanujan, V Krishnan; Vergnes, Laurent; Ojcius, David M; Arditi, Moshe

2011-06-23

371

Genital Herpes in a Primary Care Clinic: Demographic and Sexual Correlates of Herpes Simplex Type 2 Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Background,and Objectives: Genital herpes,remains one of the most prevalent,sexually transmitted,diseases (STDs). The sexual behavioral correlates of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection in the general population,have not been,well characterized. Goals: To assess demographic,and sexual behavioral,correlates of symptomatic,and subclinical HSV-2 infection. Study Design: Cross-sectional survey of 922 randomly chosen patients and 78 of their partners (1,000 total) in a

Anna Mph Koutsky; Laura Ashley; L Rhoda

372

Lower Genital Tract Infections Among HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative Incarcerated Women: A Mandate for Screening and Treatment in Prisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, lower genital tract infections (LGTIs), and their associated risk behaviors is high among incarcerated women in the United States. Correctional systems do not have a standardized program of LGTI screening and treatment. Because many LGTIs are asymptomatic, opportunities to detect and treat such infections in incarcerated women are often missed. This study

Catherine Remollino; Heidi W. Brown; Jennifer Adelson-Mitty; Jennifer Clarke; Anne Spaulding; Lori Boardman; Timothy P. Flanigan; Susan Cu-Uvin

2004-01-01

373

Serotyping and Genotyping of Genital Chlamydia trachomatis Isolates Reveal Variants of Serovars Ba, G, and J as Confirmed by omp1 Nucleotide Sequence Analysis  

PubMed Central

Urogenital isolates (n = 93) of Chlamydia trachomatis were differentiated into serovars and variants by serotyping with monoclonal antibodies and genotyping by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the PCR-amplified omp1 gene, respectively. The types of 87 of the 93 isolates (94%) were identical, as determined by both methods. Among these 87 isolates, 3 isolates were identified as the recently described new serovariant Ga/IOL-238 by omp1 nucleotide sequence analysis of the variable domains. Of the remaining six isolates, three isolates serotyped as both L2 and Ba but were identified as Ba/A-7 by genotyping by RFLP analysis of omp1. The omp1 nucleotide sequences of variable domains VD1, VD2, and VD4 of these urogenital Ba strains were identical to the sequences of the variable domains of Ba/J160, an ocular Ba type. The three remaining isolates were serotyped as J, but the patterns obtained by RFLP analysis of omp1, which were identical for the three isolates, differed from that of prototype serovar J/UW36. omp1 nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that these strains are genovariants of serovar J/UW36. Nucleotide sequence differences between serovar J/UW36 and this J genovariant, designated Jv, were found in both variable and constant domains. In conclusion, this study shows that the PCR-based genotyping of clinical C. trachomatis isolates by RFLP analysis of omp1 has a higher discriminatory power and is more convenient than serotyping. Variants of C. trachomatis serovars Ba, G, and J were identified and characterized.

Morre, Servaas A.; Ossewaarde, Jacobus M.; Lan, Jar; van Doornum, Gerard J. J.; Walboomers, Jan M. M.; MacLaren, David M.; Meijer, Chris J. L. M.; van den Brule, Adriaan J. C.

1998-01-01

374

Degradation of Transcription Factor Rfx5 during the Inhibition of Both Constitutive and Interferon ?-Inducible Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Expression in Chlamydia-Infected Cells  

PubMed Central

We have previously shown that the obligate intracellular pathogen chlamydia can suppress interferon (IFN)-?–inducible major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression in infected cells by degrading upstream stimulation factor (USF)-1. We now report that chlamydia can also inhibit both constitutive and IFN-?–inducible MHC class I expression in the infected cells. The inhibition of MHC class I molecule expression correlates well with degradation of RFX5, an essential downstream transcription factor required for both the constitutive and IFN-?–inducible MHC class I expression. We further demonstrate that a lactacystin-sensitive proteasome-like activity identified in chlamydia-infected cell cytosolic fraction can degrade both USF-1 and RFX5. This proteasome-like activity is dependent on chlamydial but not host protein synthesis. Host preexisting proteasomes may not be required for the unique proteasome-like activity. These observations suggest that chlamydia-secreted factors may directly participate in the proteasome-like activity. Efforts to identify the chlamydial factors are underway. These findings provide novel information on the molecular mechanisms of chlamydial evasion of host immune recognition.

Zhong, Guangming; Liu, Li; Fan, Tao; Fan, Peiyi; Ji, Hezhao

2000-01-01

375

Serum reactivity to Chlamydia trachomatis and C. pneumoniae antigens in patients with documented infection and in healthy children by microimmunofluorescence and immunoblotting techniques.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis and C. pneumoniae are both important human pathogens. Antigenic cross-reactivity between the two species may complicate serologic diagnosis of infection with one or the other agent. In this study we examined sera of persons with chlamydia infections and of healthy children by microimmunofluorescence (MIF) against C. trachomatis L2 antigen and against C. pneumoniae TW-183 antigen to explore the degree of cross-reactivity found by these two methods. Likewise, the cross-reactivity seen by immunoblot with sera of rabbits immunized against one of the antigens when tested on the other was examined. While among healthy children stratified by age, MIF seropositivity to C. pneumoniae TW-183 increased with age, no such trend was observed with respect to seropositivity to C. trachomatis L2 antigens, and 81% of children seropositive to TW-183 did not react on L2 antigen. Moreover, 27% of those positive on L2 antigen were negative on TW-183. Immunoblot analysis showed much greater antibody cross-reactivity than that detected by MIF. The immunoblot cross-reactivity was probably not attributable solely to double infection since sera of rabbits immunized to only one species of chlamydia reacted strongly with both chlamydiae in immunoblot analysis. The data presented need to be taken into account in the development of serologic tests based on a small number of antigens or on partially denatured antigens. PMID:8240791

Gonen, R; Shemer-Avni, Y; Csángó, P A; Sarov, B; Friedman, M G

1993-09-01

376

Role for Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in Protection from Chronic Chlamydia trachomatis Urogenital Disease in Mice and Its Regulation by Oxygen Free Radicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been previously reported that although inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene knockout (NOS2\\/) mice resolve Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection, the production of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) via iNOS protects a significant proportion of mice from hydrosalpinx formation and infertility. We now report that higher in vivo RNS production correlates with mouse strain-related innate resistance to hydro- salpinx formation.

K. H. Ramsey; I. M. Sigar; S. V. Rana; J. Gupta; S. M. Holland; G. I. Byrne

2001-01-01

377

Infection, Disease, and Transmission Dynamics in Calves after Experimental and Natural Challenge with a Bovine Chlamydia psittaci Isolate  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia (C.) psittaci is the causative agent of psittacosis, a zoonotic disease in birds and man. In addition, C. psittaci has been repeatedly found in domestic animals and is, at least in calves, also able to induce respiratory disease. Knowledge about transmission routes in cattle herds is still deficient, and nothing is known about differences in host response after either experimental or natural exposure to C. psittaci. Therefore, our recently developed respiratory infection model was exploited to evaluate (i) the presence of the pathogen in blood, excretions and air, (ii) the possibility of transmission and (iii) clinical symptoms, acute phase and immune response until 5 weeks after exposure. In this prospective study, intrabronchial inoculation of 108 inclusion-forming units of C. psittaci (n?=?21 calves) led to reproducible acute respiratory illness (of approximately one week), accompanied by a systemic inflammatory reaction with an innate immune response dominated by neutrophils. Excretion and/or exhalation of the pathogen was sufficient to transmit the infection to naïve sentinel calves (n?=?3) co-housed with the infected animals. Sentinel calves developed mild to subclinical infections only. Notably, excretion of the pathogen, predominantly via feces, occurred more frequently in animals naturally exposed to C. psittaci (i.e. sentinels) as compared to experimentally-inoculated calves. The humoral immune response was generally weak, and did not emerge regularly following experimental infection; however, it was largely absent after naturally acquired infection.

Ostermann, Carola; Ruttger, Anke; Schubert, Evelyn; Schrodl, Wieland; Sachse, Konrad; Reinhold, Petra

2013-01-01

378

Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae infection promotes vascular smooth muscle cell adhesion and migration through IQ domain GTPase-activating protein 1.  

PubMed

The mechanisms for Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae (C. pneumoniae) infection-induced atherosclerosis are still unclear. Cell adhesion has important roles in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration required in the development of atherosclerosis. However, it is still unknown whether IQ domain GTPase-activating protein 1 (IQGAP1) plays pivotal roles in C. pneumoniae infection-induced the adhesion and migration of rat primary VSMCs. Accordingly, in this study, we demonstrated that rat primary VSMC adhesion (P < 0.001) and migration (P < 0.01) measured by cell adhesion assay and Transwell assay, respectively, were significantly enhanced after C. pneumoniae infection. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that the mRNA expression levels of IQGAP1 in the infected rat primary VSMCs were found to increase gradually to reach a peak and then decrease gradually to a level similar to the control. We further showed that the increases in rat primary VSMC adhesion to Matrigel (P < 0.001) and migration (P < 0.01) caused by C. pneumoniae infection were markedly inhibited after IQGAP1 knockdown by a pool of four short hairpin RNAs. Taken together, our results suggest that C. pneumoniae infection may promote the adhesion and migration of VSMCs possibly by upregulating the IQGAP1 expression. PMID:22835851

Zhang, Lijun; Li, Xiankui; Zhang, Lijun; Wang, Beibei; Zhang, Tengteng; Ye, Jing

2012-07-23

379

Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis Serovars in Men and Women with a Symptomatic or Asymptomatic Infection: an Association with Clinical Manifestations?  

PubMed Central

To determine whether certain Chlamydia trachomatis serovars are preferentially associated with a symptomatic or an asymptomatic course of infection, C. trachomatis serovar distributions were analyzed in symptomatically and asymptomatically infected persons. Furthermore, a possible association between C. trachomatis serovars and specific clinical symptoms was investigated. C. trachomatis-positive urine specimens from 219 asymptomatically infected men and women were obtained from population-based screening programs in Amsterdam. Two hundred twenty-one C. trachomatis-positive cervical and urethral swabs from symptomatically and asymptomatically infected men and women were obtained from several hospital-based departments. Serovars were determined using PCR-based genotyping, i.e., restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the nested-PCR-amplified omp1 gene. The most prevalent C. trachomatis serovars, D, E, and F, showed no association with either a symptomatic or asymptomatic course of infection. The most prominent differences found were (i) the association of serovar Ga with symptoms in men (P = 0.0027), specifically, dysuria (P < 0.0001), and (ii) detection of serovar Ia more often in asymptomatically infected people (men and women) (P = 0.035). Furthermore, in women, serovar K was associated with vaginal discharge (P = 0.002) and serovar variants were found only in women (P = 0.045).

Morre, S. A.; Rozendaal, L.; van Valkengoed, I. G. M.; Boeke, A. J. P.; van Voorst Vader, P. C.; Schirm, J.; de Blok, S.; van den Hoek, J. A. R.; van Doornum, G. J. J.; Meijer, C. J. L. M.; van den Brule, A. J. C.

2000-01-01

380

Genital Warts (HPV)  

MedlinePLUS

KidsHealth > Teens > Infections > Sexually Transmitted Diseases > Genital Warts (HPV) Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? (click to view) What Are They? Signs and Symptoms When Do Symptoms ...

381

Identification of Concomitant Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis IncA-Negative Mutant and Wild-Type Strains by Genomic, Transcriptional, and Biological Characterizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical isolates of Chlamydia trachomatis that lack IncA on their inclusion membrane form nonfusogenic inclusions and have been associated with milder, subclinical infections in patients. The molecular events associated with the generation of IncA-negative strains and their roles in chlamydial sexually transmitted infections are not clear. We explored the biology of the IncA-negative strains by analyzing their genomic structure, transcription,

Robert J. Suchland; Brendan M. Jeffrey; Minsheng Xia; Ajay Bhatia; Hencelyn G. Chu; Daniel D. Rockey; Walter E. Stamm

2008-01-01

382

Risk of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Following Chlamydia trachomatis Infection: Analysis of Prospective Studies With a Multistate Model  

PubMed Central

Our objective in this study was to estimate the probability that a Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection will cause an episode of clinical pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and the reduction in such episodes among women with CT that could be achieved by annual screening. We reappraised evidence from randomized controlled trials of screening and controlled observational studies that followed untreated CT-infected and -uninfected women to measure the development of PID. Data from these studies were synthesized using a continuous-time Markov model which takes into account the competing risk of spontaneous clearance of CT. Using a 2-step piecewise homogenous Markov model that accounts for the distinction between prevalent and incident infections, we investigated the possibility that the rate of PID due to CT is greater during the period immediately following infection. The available data were compatible with both the homogenous and piecewise homogenous models. Given a homogenous model, the probability that a CT episode will cause clinical PID was 0.16 (95% credible interval (CrI): 0.06, 0.25), and annual screening would prevent 61% (95% CrI: 55, 67) of CT-related PID in women who became infected with CT. Assuming a piecewise homogenous model with a higher rate during the first 60 days, corresponding results were 0.16 (95% CrI: 0.07, 0.26) and 55% (95% CrI: 32, 72), respectively.

Price, Malcolm J.; Ades, A. E.; De Angelis, Daniela; Welton, Nicky J.; Macleod, John; Soldan, Kate; Simms, Ian; Turner, Katy; Horner, Paddy J.

2013-01-01

383

Risk of pelvic inflammatory disease following Chlamydia trachomatis infection: analysis of prospective studies with a multistate model.  

PubMed

Our objective in this study was to estimate the probability that a Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection will cause an episode of clinical pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and the reduction in such episodes among women with CT that could be achieved by annual screening. We reappraised evidence from randomized controlled trials of screening and controlled observational studies that followed untreated CT-infected and -uninfected women to measure the development of PID. Data from these studies were synthesized using a continuous-time Markov model which takes into account the competing risk of spontaneous clearance of CT. Using a 2-step piecewise homogenous Markov model that accounts for the distinction between prevalent and incident infections, we investigated the possibility that the rate of PID due to CT is greater during the period immediately following infection. The available data were compatible with both the homogenous and piecewise homogenous models. Given a homogenous model, the probability that a CT episode will cause clinical PID was 0.16 (95% credible interval (CrI): 0.06, 0.25), and annual screening would prevent 61% (95% CrI: 55, 67) of CT-related PID in women who became infected with CT. Assuming a piecewise homogenous model with a higher rate during the first 60 days, corresponding results were 0.16 (95% CrI: 0.07, 0.26) and 55% (95% CrI: 32, 72), respectively. PMID:23813703

Price, Malcolm J; Ades, A E; De Angelis, Daniela; Welton, Nicky J; Macleod, John; Soldan, Kate; Simms, Ian; Turner, Katy; Horner, Paddy J

2013-06-27

384

Chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infection may promote coronary artery disease in humans through enhancing secretion of interleukin-4  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory response, probably to a range of initiating causes. Chronic infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae (C.pn) has been suggested as one cause, but the nature of the association is controversial, in large part due to lack of an identified mechanism to link infection with the atherosclerotic process in man. This study examined 139 consecutive subjects with stable chest pain, with the aim of correlating the serological status of C.pn infection with the pattern of secretion of cytokines from CD4+ T lymphocytes. C.pn seropositive subjects secreted significantly more interleukin (IL)-4 than did those who were C.pn seronegative (P = 0·02). No significant difference was noted for secreted interferon (IFN)-?. The amount of secreted IL-4, but not of secreted IFN-?, correlated positively with the extent of coronary artery disease (P = 0·006). A similar correlation with secreted IL-4 was not identified with Helicobacter pylori infection. These results support the hypothesis that C.pn infection contributes to the inflammatory process responsible for coronary artery atherosclerosis. The method used to detect cytokine secretion involves ligation of CD40L on blood CD4+ T cells, which may have relevance to tissue events.

Clancy, R; Ren, Z; Pang, G; Fletcher, P; D'Este, C

2006-01-01

385

Oncogenic human papillomavirus genital infection in southern Iranian women: population-based study versus clinic-based data  

PubMed Central

Background Epidemiological studies on genital human papilloma viruses infection (HPVs) in general population are crucial for the implementation of health policy guidelines for developing the strategies to prevent the primary and secondary cervical cancer. In different parts of Iran, there is a lack of population-based studies to determine the prevalence of HPV in the general population. The aim of this population-based study is to compare the prevalence rate of genital HPV infection among reproductive women with our previous clinic-based data, which showed a prevalence rate of 5% in women in southern Iran. Results Using general primers for all genotypes of HPV, of 799 randomly selected women, five (0.63%, 95% CI 0.23-1.55%) tested positive for HPV DNA. Overall, seven different HPV genotypes were detected: six types (16, 18, 31, 33, 51 and 56) were carcinogenic, or “high risk genotypes” and one genotype (HPV-66) was “probably carcinogenic.” Conclusions In a population-based study, the prevalence of HPV infection among southern Iranian women was lower than that observed worldwide. However, our gynaecological clinic-based study on the prevalence of HPV infection showed results comparable with other studies in the Middle East and Persian Gulf countries. Since gynaecological clinic-based data may generally overestimate HPV prevalence, estimates of prevalence according to clinic-based data should be adjusted downward by the population-based survey estimates.

2012-01-01

386

Risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection and genital ulcer disease among persons attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Italy.  

PubMed Central

To assess the relative importance of ulcerative and non-ulcerative sexually transmitted disease in the transmission of HIV, a seroprevalence study was conducted on 2210 patients at the sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic of the S. Maria e S. Gallicano Hospital in Rome, between 1989 and 1994. Among male patients, by univariate analysis, strong predictors of HIV infection were homosexuality, sexual exposure to a HIV-positive partner, hepatitis B virus infection, and positive syphilis serology. An increased risk was estimated for patients with past genital herpes (odds ratio (OR) 3.86, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.40-18.2), and primary syphilis (OR 5.79, 95% CI 0.59-28.6). By multivariate analysis, a positive association was found with homosexuality (OR 6.9, 95% CI 2.9-16.5), and positive syphilis serology (OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.3-9.2). An adjusted OR of 2.41 was calculated for current and/or past genital herpes. These results, although not conclusive, suggest a role of ulcerative diseases as risk factors for prevalent HIV infection, and indicate that positive syphilis serology is an unbiased criterion for identifying individuals at increased risk of HIV infection.

Corona, R.; Caprilli, F.; Tosti, M. E.; Gentili, G.; Giglio, A.; Prignano, G.; Pasquini, P.; Mele, A.

1998-01-01

387

Chlamydia pneumoniae and atherosclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo review the literature for evidence that chronic infection withChlamydia pneumoniae is associated with atherosclerosis and acute coronary syndromes.DATA SOURCESmedline and Institute of Science and Information bibliographic databases were searched at the end of September 1998. Indexing terms used were chlamydi*, heart, coronary, and atherosclerosis. Serological and pathological studies published as papers in any language since 1988 or abstracts since

Y-K Wong; P J Gallagher; M E Ward

1999-01-01

388

Monitoring of Chlamydia trachomatis infections after antibiotic treatment using RNA detection by nucleic acid sequence based amplification.  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the value of RNA detection by nucleic acid sequence based amplification (NASBA) for the monitoring of Chlamydia trachomatis infections after antibiotic treatment. METHODS: Cervical smears (n = 97) and urine specimens (n = 61) from 25 C trachomatis positive female patients were analysed for the presence of C trachomatis 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) by NASBA and C trachomatis plasmid DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) before and up to five weeks after antibiotic treatment. RESULTS: Chlamydia trachomatis RNA was found in all cervical smears taken before antibiotic treatment (n = 24) and in two smears taken one week after antibiotic treatment; no C trachomatis RNA was detected after two weeks or more. In contrast, C trachomatis DNA was found in all such specimens before treatment, and 21 of 25, six of 21, and five of 20 smears were found to be positive at one, two, and three weeks after treatment, respectively. After four weeks, only one of six smears was positive, and this smear had been negative in the two preceding weeks. Of the 61 urine samples investigated, C trachomatis DNA and C trachomatis RNA were found in all before treatment (n = 15), whereas one week after treatment four of 15 were C trachomatis DNA positive and C trachomatis RNA was detected in one sample only. CONCLUSIONS: These data show that RNA detection by NASBA can be used successfully to monitor C trachomatis infections after antibiotic treatment. Furthermore, it might be possible to use urine specimens as a test of cure because neither C. trachomatis DNA or RNA could be detected two weeks or more after treatment.

Morre, S A; Sillekens, P T; Jacobs, M V; de Blok, S; Ossewaarde, J M; van Aarle, P; van Gemen, B; Walboomers, J M; Meijer, C J; van den Brule, A J

1998-01-01

389

Oviduct infection and hydrosalpinx in DBA1/j mice is induced by intracervical but not intravaginal inoculation with Chlamydia muridarum.  

PubMed

Intravaginal infection with C. muridarum in mice often results in hydrosalpinx similar to that found in women urogenitally infected with C. trachomatis, making the C. muridarum lower genital tract infection murine model suitable for studying C. trachomatis pathogenesis. To our surprise, DBA1/j mice were highly resistant to hydrosalpinx following an intravaginal infection with C. muridarum although these mice were as susceptible to lower genital tract infection as other mouse strains. A significantly lower level of C. muridarum organisms was recovered from the oviduct of DBA1/j mice, correlating the resistance to hydrosalpinx with reduced ascension of C. muridarum to the oviduct. The DBA1/j resistance to hydrosalpinx was effectively overcome by intracervical inoculation with C. muridarum. The intracervically inoculated DBA1/j mice developed severe hydrosalpinx with the highest levels of live C. muridarum organisms recovered from uterine tissue on day 3 and oviduct tissue on day 7 post inoculation while in intravaginally inoculated DBA1/j mice, the peak of live organism recovery from uterine tissue was delayed to day 7 with no rise in the amount of live organisms recovered from the oviduct. These observations have not only validated the correlation between hydrosalpinx and live organism invasion in the oviduct but also demonstrated that the intracervical inoculation, by promoting rapid chlamydial replication in the uterine epithelial cells and ascension to the oviduct of DBA1/j mice, may be used for further understanding chlamydial pathogenic mechanisms. The above findings also suggest that strategies aimed at reducing tubal infection may be most effective in blocking tubal pathology. PMID:23940777

Tang, Lingli; Zhang, Hongbo; Lei, Lei; Gong, Siqi; Zhou, Zhiguang; Baseman, Joel; Zhong, Guangming

2013-08-05

390

Chlamydia pneumoniae (TWAR).  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia pneumoniae (TWAR) is a recently recognized third species of the genus Chlamydia that causes acute respiratory disease. It is distinct from the other two chlamydial species that infect humans, C. trachomatis and C. psittaci, in elementary body morphology and shares less than 10% of the DNA homology with those species. The organism has a global distribution, with infection most common among children between the ages of 5 and 14 years. In children, TWAR infection is usually mild or asymptomatic, but it may be more severe in adults. Pneumonia and bronchitis are the most common clinical manifestations of infection, and TWAR is responsible for approximately 10% of cases of pneumonia and 5% of cases of bronchitis in the United States. The microimmunofluorescence serologic assay is specific for TWAR and can distinguish between recent and past infections. The organism can be isolated in cell culture; however, PCR techniques have recently facilitated its detection in tissues and clinical specimens.

Kuo, C C; Jackson, L A; Campbell, L A; Grayston, J T

1995-01-01

391

Contribution of interleukin-12 p35 (IL-12p35) and IL-12p40 to protective immunity and pathology in mice infected with Chlamydia muridarum.  

PubMed

The p35 molecule is unique to interleukin-12 (IL-12), while p40 is shared by both IL-12 and IL-23. IL-12 promotes Th1 T cell responses, while IL-23 promotes Th17 T cell responses. The roles of IL-12p35- and IL-12p40-mediated responses in chlamydial infection were compared in mice following an intravaginal infection with Chlamydia muridarum. Mice deficient in either IL-12p35 or p40 both developed similar but prolonged infection time courses, confirming the roles of IL-12-mediated immune responses in clearing primary infection. However, all mice, regardless of genotype, cleared reinfection within 2 weeks, suggesting that an IL-12- or IL-23-independent adaptive immunity is protective against chlamydial infection. All infected mice developed severe oviduct hydrosalpinx despite the increased Th2 responses in IL-12p35- or IL-12p40-deficient mice, suggesting that Th2-dominant responses can contribute to Chlamydia-induced inflammatory pathology. Compared to IL-12p35 knockout mice, the IL-12p40-deficient mice exhibited more extensive spreading of chlamydial organisms into kidney tissues, leading to significantly increased incidence of pyelonephritis, which both confirms the role of IL-12 or IL-23-independent host responses in Chlamydia-induced pathologies and suggests that in the absence of IL-12/IFN-?-mediated Th1 immunity, an IL-23-mediated response may play an important role in restricting chlamydial organisms from spreading into distal organs. These observations together provide important information for both understanding chlamydial pathogenesis and developing anti-Chlamydia vaccines. PMID:23753624

Chen, Lili; Lei, Lei; Zhou, Zhou; He, Jie; Xu, Sha; Lu, Chunxue; Chen, Jianlin; Yang, Zhangsheng; Wu, Gangqiu; Yeh, I-Tien; Zhong, Guangming; Wu, Yimou

2013-06-10

392

Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection and Restenosis in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  \\u000a \\u000a Background: The aim of this study was to establish whether Chlamydia pneumoniae is implicated in the development of restenosis in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) after percutaneous transluminal\\u000a coronary angioplasty (PTCA).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and Methods: 67 patients were selected for study after they underwent control angiography after PTCA. Sera were tested for anti-chlamydial\\u000a antibodies with a genusspecific ELISA and

R. Krausse; J. Leiendecker; G. Herrmann; T. Harder; U. Ullmann

2003-01-01

393

A mathematical model of chlamydial infection incorporating movement of chlamydial particles.  

PubMed

We present a spatiotemporal mathematical model of chlamydial infection, host immune response, and movement of infectious particles. The resulting partial differential equations model both the dynamics of the infection and changes in infection profile observed spatially along the length of the host genital tract. This model advances previous Chlamydia modelling by incorporating spatial change. Numerical solutions and model analysis are carried out, and we present a hypothesis regarding the potential for treatment and prevention of infection by increasing chlamydial particle motility. PMID:24091779

Mallet, Dann G; Bagher-Oskouei, Masoumeh; Farr, A Charisse; Simpson, Daniel P; Sutton, Kelly-Jean

2013-10-04

394

The influence of HIV\\/AIDS on the association between genital human papillomavirus and cervical cancer in HIV\\/AIDS infected women: A literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: With over 440 million cases of infections worldwide, genital HPV is the most frequent sexually transmitted infection. There are several types including high risk types 16, 18, 58 and 70 among others, which are known to cause cervical cell abnormality and if persistent, can lead to cervical cancer which globally, claims 288,000 lives annually. 33.4 million people worldwide are

Honey Nyambura Muigai

2010-01-01

395

Genital Warts  

MedlinePLUS

Genital warts Basics In-Depth Multimedia Resources Reprints A single copy of this article may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Genital warts By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: http://www. ...

396

Effect of HIV and Chlamydia Infection on Rectal Inflammation and Cytokine Concentrations in Men Who Have Sex with Men.  

PubMed

Asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infections are common in HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). Although C. trachomatis combined with HIV would be likely to enhance inflammation, the asymptomatic course suggests otherwise. We assessed local inflammation, mucosal damage, and cytokine concentrations in rectal mucosal fluid samples from patients with HIV (with or without the use of combination antiretroviral therapy [cART]) and with or without the presence of rectal C. trachomatis. Rectal swabs from 79 MSM (with and without C. trachomatis, HIV, and cART use) who reported a history of receptive anal sex were analyzed for neutrophil activation (measured by myeloperoxidase [MPO]), mucosal leakage (measured by albumin and alpha-2-macroglobulin), and proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. C. trachomatis infection, HIV infection, and cART use in MSM had no differential effects on rectal neutrophilic inflammation and mucosal damage. Interleukin 8 (IL-8) was found to correlate with MPO, and MPO correlated with markers of mucosal damage. In HIV-negative participants, men with C. trachomatis infection had lower concentrations of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), IL-1?, and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) than men without rectal C. trachomatis infection (P = 0.005, 0.007, and 0.07, respectively). We found no difference in anal cytokine concentrations in HIV-infected participants in relation to the presence of C. trachomatis infection or cART use. In participants with rectal C. trachomatis infection, those who were HIV negative had lower median concentrations of IL-8 and IL-1? than those with HIV (P = 0.05 and 0.06, respectively). The slope of the regression line between MPO and IL-8 was reduced in participants with rectal C. trachomatis infection. C. trachomatis dampens cytokine concentrations but not in HIV-infected patients. The extent of mucosal damage was comparable in all patient groups. The apparent reduced neutrophil response to IL-8 in HIV-infected patients with C. trachomatis infection is in accordance with its asymptomatic course. PMID:23904458

Heiligenberg, Marlies; Lutter, René; Pajkrt, Dasja; Adams, Karin; De Vries, Henry; Heijman, Titia; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F; Geerlings, Suzanne

2013-07-31

397

Seroprevalence of Chlamydia psittaci infection in market-sold adult chickens, ducks and pigeons in north-western China.  

PubMed

Chlamydia psittaci, the agent of psittacosis in humans, infects a wide range of avian species. To assess the risk of psittacosis posed by domestic birds in the urban environment, the prevalence of C. psittaci antibodies in 413 chickens (Gallus domesticus; 305 caged and 108 free-range), 334 ducks (Anas spp.; 111 caged and 223 free-range) and 312 pigeons (Columba livia) in Lanzhou, north-western China, was detected using the indirect haemagglutination assay. The specific antibodies were found in sera of 55 (13.32?%) chickens, 130 (38.92?%) ducks and 97 (31.09?%) pigeons. Statistical analysis showed that the seroprevalence of C. psittaci infection in chickens was significantly lower than that in ducks and pigeons (P<0.05). The C. psittaci seroprevalence in caged and free-range chickens was 7.54?% and 29.63?%, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The C. psittaci seroprevalence in caged and free-range ducks was 26.13?% and 45.29?%, respectively (P<0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first study indicating the presence of C. psittaci infection in market-sold chickens, ducks and pigeons in north-western China. Close contact with these birds is associated with a risk of zoonotic transmission of C. psittaci. Public education should be implemented to reduce the risk of avian to human transmission of such a pathogenic agent. PMID:23699067

Cong, W; Huang, S Y; Zhang, X Y; Zhou, D H; Xu, M J; Zhao, Q; Song, H Q; Zhu, X Q; Qian, A D

2013-05-22

398

Vaccination with the Defined Chlamydial Secreted Protein CPAF Induces Robust Protection Against Female Infertility Following Repeated Genital Chlamydial Challenge  

PubMed Central

We previously have shown the efficacy of recombinant (r) chlamydial protease-like activity factor (CPAF) vaccination against hydrosalpinx development following primary genital chlamydial challenge. In this study, we evaluated further the protection induced by rCPAF vaccination against infertility. Following primary challenge, fertility levels were not significantly different between the mock- and CPAF-vaccinated and Chlamydia alone challenged mice. However, following secondary genital chlamydial challenge, mock (PBS) immunized mice displayed a significant reduction of fertility compared to age-matched naïve mice, while mice vaccinated intranasally with rCPAF+CpG displayed significant prevention of infertility. These results suggest that hydrosalpinx may be a reliable indicator of impending infertility, and that rCPAF is a promising candidate to prevent infertility resulting from repeated genital chlamydial infections.

Murthy, Ashlesh K.; Li, Weidang; Guentzel, M. Neal; Zhong, Guangming; Arulanandam, Bernard P.

2011-01-01

399

Genital herpes simplex.  

PubMed Central

Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the herpes simplex virus. Following the initial infection the virus becomes latent in the sacral ganglia. Approximately 80% of patients are then subject to milder but unpredictable recurrences and may shed the virus even when they are asymptomatic. The disorder causes concern because genital herpes in the mother can result in rare but catastrophic neonatal infection and because of a possible association between genital herpes and cancer of the cervix. No effective treatment is as yet available. Weekly monitoring for virus by cervical culture from 32 weeks' gestation is recommended for women with a history of genital herpes and for those whose sexual partner has such a history. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 4 FIG. 5

Tummon, I. S.; Dudley, D. K.; Walters, J. H.

1981-01-01

400

Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Play a Role for Effective Innate Immune Responses during Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection in Mice  

PubMed Central

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are known for their robust antiviral response and their pro-tolerance effects towards allergic diseases and tissue engraftments. However, little is known about the role pDCs may play during a bacterial infection, including pulmonary Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP). In this study, we investigated the role of pDCs during pulmonary CP infection. Our results revealed that depletion of pDCs during acute CP infection in mice results in delayed and reduced lung inflammation, with an early delay in cellular recruitment and significant reduction in early cytokine production in the lungs. This was followed by impaired and delayed bacterial clearance from the lungs which then resulted in a severe and prolonged chronic inflammation and iBALT like structures containing large numbers of B and T cells in these animals. We also observed that increasing the pDC numbers in the lung by FLT3L treatment experimentally results in greater lung inflammation during acute CP infection. In contrast to these results, restimulation of T-cells in the draining lymph nodes of pDC-depleted mice induced greater amounts of proinflammatory cytokines than we observed in control mice. These results suggest that pDCs in the lung may provide critical proinflammatory innate immune responses in response to CP infection, but are suppressive towards adaptive immune responses in the lymph node. Thus pDCs in the lung and the draining lymph node appear to have different roles and phenotypes during acute CP infection and may play a role in host immune responses.

Crother, Timothy R.; Ma, Jun; Jupelli, Madhulika; Chiba, Norika; Chen, Shuang; Slepenkin, Anatoly; Alsabeh, Randa; Peterson, Ellena; Shimada, Kenichi; Arditi, Moshe

2012-01-01

401

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells play a role for effective innate immune responses during Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in mice.  

PubMed

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are known for their robust antiviral response and their pro-tolerance effects towards allergic diseases and tissue engraftments. However, little is known about the role pDCs may play during a bacterial infection, including pulmonary Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP). In this study, we investigated the role of pDCs during pulmonary CP infection. Our results revealed that depletion of pDCs during acute CP infection in mice results in delayed and reduced lung inflammation, with an early delay in cellular recruitment and significant reduction in early cytokine production in the lungs. This was followed by impaired and delayed bacterial clearance from the lungs which then resulted in a severe and prolonged chronic inflammation and iBALT like structures containing large numbers of B and T cells in these animals. We also observed that increasing the pDC numbers in the lung by FLT3L treatment experimentally results in greater lung inflammation during acute CP infection. In contrast to these results, restimulation of T-cells in the draining lymph nodes of pDC-depleted mice induced greater amounts of proinflammatory cytokines than we observed in control mice. These results suggest that pDCs in the lung may provide critical proinflammatory innate immune responses in response to CP infection, but are suppressive towards adaptive immune responses in the lymph node. Thus pDCs in the lung and the draining lymph node appear to have different roles and phenotypes during acute CP infection and may play a role in host immune responses. PMID:23119083

Crother, Timothy R; Ma, Jun; Jupelli, Madhulika; Chiba, Norika; Chen, Shuang; Slepenkin, Anatoly; Alsabeh, Randa; Peterson, Ellena; Shimada, Kenichi; Arditi, Moshe

2012-10-31

402

Caspase1 Dependent IL1beta Secretion Is Critical for Host Defense in a Mouse Model of Chlamydia pneumoniae Lung Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP) is an important human pathogen that causes atypical pneumonia and is associated with various chronic inflammatory disorders. Caspase-1 is a key component of the ‘inflammasome’, and is required to cleave pro-IL-1? to bioactive IL-1?. Here we demonstrate for the first time a critical requirement for IL-1? in response to CP infection. Caspase-1?\\/? mice exhibit delayed cytokine production,

Kenichi Shimada; Timothy R. Crother; Justin Karlin; Shuang Chen; Norika Chiba; V. Krishnan Ramanujan; Laurent Vergnes; David M. Ojcius; Moshe Arditi; Georg Häcker

2011-01-01

403

Co-Infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae and Helicobacter pylori Results in Vascular Endothelial Dysfunction and Enhanced VCAM-1 Expression in ApoE-Knockout Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Upregulation of proinflammatory endothelial cell adhesion molecules and decreased bioactivity of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) are important in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. We investigated the effects of co-infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae and Helicobacter pylori on these two events in apoE-KO mice. Methods: Thirty-two apoE-KO mice, 8 weeks old, were equally divided into 4 groups. The first 2 groups were

Petru Liuba; Erkki Pesonen; Ilari Paakkari; Satish Batra; Leif Andersen; Anders Forslid; Seppo Ylä-Herttuala; Kenneth Persson; Torkel Wadström; Xin Wang; Ricardo Laurini

2003-01-01

404

Poor correlation between microimmunofluorescence serology and polymerase chain reaction for detection of vascular Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in coronary artery disease patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydia pneumoniae has been associated to coronary artery disease by various methods including recovery of viable bacteria from plaques. The\\u000a pathogenetical relevance of this is unclear but investigation of antichlamydial therapy in coronary arteriosclerosis is already\\u000a in progress. The microimmunofluorescence test (MIF), the only species-specific serological assay available, might be considered\\u000a useful in identifying patients with vascular chlamydial infection. However,

Matthias Maass; Jens Gieffers; Eike Krause; Peter M. Engel; Claus Bartels; Werner Solbach

1998-01-01