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1

Genital chlamydia trachomatis infection among female undergraduate students of University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background: Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide. There is little information about this infection in Nigeria. This study determined the prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection among female undergraduates of University of Port Harcourt and identify the various associated risk factors. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional prospective study of 354 female students was done. Their socio-demographic characteristics and pattern of sexual behaviour was noted followed by collection of endocervical swab which was analysed with a Chlamydia Rapid Test Device. Data management was done by SPSS version 17.0 statistical package. Result: The prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection was 30.2%. First coital exposure at14 years or less had the highest prevalence of the disease. Multiple sexual partners, tribe and inconsistent use of condom were significantly related with Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Conclusion: Genital Chlamydia trachomatis is prevalent among female undergraduates of the University of Port Harcourt.

Arinze, A. Ugboma Henry; Onyebuchi, Nwagwu Victor; Isreal, Jeremiah

2014-01-01

2

Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Tract Infection of Antibody-Deficient Gene Knockout Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of antibody-mediated immunity in primary and secondary Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract infections was examined by using a definitive model of B-cell deficiency, the mMT\\/mMT gene knockout mouse. Vaginally infected B-cell-deficient mMT\\/mMT mice developed a self-limiting primary infection that was indistinguishable from infection of control C57BL\\/6 mice. Sera and vaginal secretions from infected mice were analyzed for anti-Chlamydia antibodies.

HUA SU; KAREN FEILZER; HARLAN D. CALDWELL; RICHARD P. MORRISON

3

Approaches to the management of uncomplicated genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections.  

PubMed

Genital chlamydial infection remains a highly prevalent sexually transmitted infection in the USA. A multifaceted approach to the management of chlamydial infection is essential to ensure cure and prevention of reinfection. This article will review current approaches to the management of uncomplicated genital chlamydial infection, discussing: the pathogen; antimicrobials that are and are not recommended for therapy by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; partner treatment; follow-up; antimicrobial resistance; and potential future therapies. PMID:15482239

Geisler, William M

2004-10-01

4

Vaginal Swabs Are Appropriate Specimens for Diagnosis of Genital Tract Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because self-collected vaginal swabs (VS) are potentially very useful for screening asymptomatic women for Chlamydia trachomatis infection, a multicenter study evaluated that specimen with nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs). The objective was to determine whether VS are equal to Food and Drug Administration (FDA)- cleared specimens (cervical swabs and first-catch urines (FCU)) for diagnosing genital chlamydial infection. All NAATs then

Julius Schachter; William M. McCormack; Max A. Chernesky; David H. Martin; Barbara Van Der Pol; Peter A. Rice; Edward W. Hook; Walter E. Stamm; Thomas C. Quinn; Joan M. Chow

2003-01-01

5

Immunogenicity and protection against genital Chlamydia infection and its complications by a multisubunit candidate vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose: Genital infections due to Chlamydia trachomatis pose a considerable public health challenge worldwide and a vaccine is urgently needed to protect against these infections. We examined whether a vaccine composed of a combination of the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) and porin B protein (PorB) of C. trachomatis would have a protective advantage over a single subunit

Godwin O. Ifere; Qing He; Joseph U. Igietseme; Godwin A. Ananaba; Deborah Lyn; Werner Lubitz; Kathryn L. Kellar; Carolyn M. Black; Francis O. Eko

6

[Prevalence of genital chlamydia trachomatis infections in college students.  

PubMed

Sexually transmitted Chlamydia infection is the most common venereal disease in Iceland. Although considerable information is available on the epidemiology of these infections, the true prevalence of C. trachomatis infections in Iceland is unknown because all the studies have been conducted on selected populations. The purpose of the present study was twofold: To investigate the prevalence of Chlamydia infection in an unselected group of people in the age group at high risk, and to investigate the usefulness of collecting urine samples from college students as a screening method for Chlamydia. All students, aged 18-21, in the senior classes in a college in Reykjavik were requested to submit a first void urine (FVU) specimen taken in the morning and asked to fill out a short questionnaire. The urine samples were tested with a polymerase chain reaction assay, the Amplicor(R) PCR. One hundred eighty three students received urine collection kits. One hundred sixty (87.4%) delivered specimens. Seventy three males and 110 females received the containers. Sixty males (82%) and 100 (91%) females returned the samples. Three samples turned out to be positive (2%), all of them from females. For those who were sexually active (one or more partners for the last six months) the prevalence was 2.6% (117/160). In conclusion: The prevalence of asymptomatic Chlamydia infection in college students in this school was low, probably too low for screening to be cost effective. The procedure was not satisfactory because of the low percentage that enquired about their tests. It is therefore unsuitable in a screening program. PMID:20065480

Davidsson, Steingrimur; Olafsson, Jon Hjaltalin; Karlsson, Sigfus M; Kristinsson, Karl G; Steingrimsson, Olafur

1995-01-01

7

Animal Models for Studying Female Genital Tract Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia trachomatis is a Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen. It is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the world, with more than 100 million new cases of genital tract infections with C. trachomatis occurring each year. Animal models are indispensable for the study of C. trachomatis infections and the development and evaluation of candidate vaccines. In this paper, the most commonly used animal models to study female genital tract infections with C. trachomatis will be reviewed, namely, the mouse, guinea pig, and nonhuman primate models. Additionally, we will focus on the more recently developed pig model.

Kalmar, Isabelle; Vanrompay, Daisy

2013-01-01

8

OT-1 mice display minimal upper genital tract pathology following primary intravaginal Chlamydia muridarum infection.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease worldwide and leads to serious pathological sequelae in the upper genital tract (UGT) including pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility. Several components of the host immune responses have been shown to contribute to the UGT pathology following genital chlamydial infection. We have shown recently that CD8(+) T cells induce the chlamydial UGT pathology via the production of TNF-?. However, those studies did not determine whether the pathology is mediated by bystander or antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells. In this study, we compared chlamydial clearance and UGT pathology in OT-1 transgenic mice and the corresponding C57BL/6J wild-type mice following primary intravaginal Chlamydia muridarum infection. All CD8(+) T cells in the OT-1 mice respond only to the Ova 257-264 peptide and are incapable of responding to other antigenic epitopes including those of Chlamydia. OT-1 mice displayed vaginal chlamydial clearance comparable to the wild-type animals. However, both oviduct and uterine horn pathology were minimal in the OT-1 mice compared with the high degree of pathology observed in the wild-type animals. These results strongly suggest that Chlamydia-specific, not bystander, CD8(+) T cells mediate the UGT pathological sequelae following genital chlamydial infection. PMID:23620186

Manam, Srikanth; Nicholson, Bruce J; Murthy, Ashlesh K

2013-04-01

9

Dissemination of Chlamydia trachomatis Chronic Genital Tract Infection in Gamma Interferon Gene Knockout Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mice (C57BL\\/6), treated with progesterone and infected intravaginally with the mouse pneumonitis strain of Chlamydia trachomatis (MoPn), acquired genital tract disease that ascended from the endocervix to the uterine horns, oviducts, and ovaries in a temporal fashion before the occurrence of spontaneous microbiological resolution by about 28 days after infection. Surprisingly, dissemination of MoPn in small numbers to draining lymph

TODD W. COTTER; KYLE H. RAMSEY; GURWATTAN S. MIRANPURI; CHRISTOFFER E. POULSEN; GERALD I. BYRNE

1997-01-01

10

Co-infection of Mycoplasma genitalium and Chlamydia trachomatis in an infertile female patient with genital tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Genital tuberculosis is a common cause of female infertility in India. But, it is important to screen for other agents like Chlamydia trachomatis and genital Mycoplasmas as well to avoid persistence of infection and its long-term sequelae. Timely diagnosis of these infections using nucleic acid amplification tests and institution of appropriate therapy will improve the conception rates in infertile women. We report a case of co-infection of Mycoplasma genitalium and Chlamydia trachomatis in an infertile female patient with genital tuberculosis. The infections were diagnosed using polymerase chain reaction, and the patient responded to a combination of antituberculosis therapy and 1 g single-dose Azithromycin. PMID:24441248

Kokkayil, Prathyusha; Rawre, Jyoti; Malhotra, Neena; Dhawan, Benu

2013-01-01

11

OT-1 Mice Display Minimal Upper Genital Tract Pathology Following Primary Intravaginal Chlamydia muridarum Infection  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease worldwide and leads to serious pathological sequelae in the upper genital tract (UGT) including pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility. Several components of the host immune responses have been shown to contribute to the UGT pathology following genital chlamydial infection. We have shown recently that CD8+ T cells induce the chlamydial UGT pathology via the production of TNF-?. However, those studies did not determine whether the pathology is mediated by bystander or antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. In this study, we compared chlamydial clearance and UGT pathology in OT-1 transgenic mice and the corresponding C57BL/6J wild type mice following primary intravaginal C. muridarum infection. All CD8+ T cells in the OT-1 mice respond only to the Ova 257–264 peptide and are incapable of responding to other antigenic epitopes including those of Chlamydia. OT-1 mice displayed vaginal chlamydial clearance comparable to the wild type animals. However, both oviduct and uterine horn pathology were minimal in the OT-1 mice compared to the high degree of pathology observed in the wild type animals. These results strongly suggest that Chlamydia-specific, not bystander, CD8+ T cells mediate the UGT pathological sequelae following genital chlamydial infection.

Manam, Srikanth; Nicholson, Bruce J.; Murthy, Ashlesh K.

2013-01-01

12

Blockade of epithelial membrane protein 2 (EMP2) abrogates infection of Chlamydia muridarum murine genital infection model.  

PubMed

New methods are needed to eradicate or prevent Chlamydia trachomatis infections. Blockade of epithelial membrane protein 2 (EMP2) by genetic silencing or neutralizing polyclonal antibody reduced chlamydial infectivity in vitro. This study tests the prediction that recombinant anti-EMP2 diabody could reduce early chlamydial infection of the genital tract in vivo. In a murine infection model, pretreatment with anti-EMP2 diabody, as compared with control diabody, significantly reduced bacterial load, tissue production of inflammatory cytokines, recruitment of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and local tissue inflammation. These findings support EMP2 as a potential preventative and therapeutic target for genital chlamydial infection. PMID:19159428

Shimazaki, Kaori; Chan, Ann M; Moniz, Raymond J; Wadehra, Madhuri; Nagy, Agnes; Coulam, Catherine P; Mareninov, Sergey; Lepin, Eric M; Wu, Anna M; Kelly, Kathleen A; Braun, Jonathan; Gordon, Lynn K

2009-03-01

13

Genital mycoplasma & Chlamydia trachomatis infections in treatment na?ve HIV-1 infected adults  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) enhance the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Thus, screening for STIs is a routine component of primary HIV care. There are limited data for selective screening guidelines for genital mycoplasmas and Chlamydia trachomatis in HIV-infected adults. The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency of genital infections with Ureaplasma spp., Mycoplasma hominis, M. genitalium and C. trachomatis in treatment naïve asymptomatic HIV-1 - infected adults and study their association with CD4+ T-cell count. Methods: First-void urine samples were collected from 100 treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected adults and 50 healthy volunteers. C. trachomatis and M. genitalium were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Ureaplasma spp. and M. hominis were detected by both culture and PCR. Circulating CD4+ cell counts of HIV-1-infected patients were determined from peripheral blood by flow-cytometry. Results: C. trachomatis was detected in 7 per cent of HIV-1-infected adults compared to none in control population. Ureaplasma spp. and M. hominis showed infection rates of 6 and 1 per cent in the HIV group and 2 and 0 per cent in the control group, respectively. None of the individuals from the patient and control groups was tested positive for M. genitalium. A significant association was found between CD4 cell count and detection of C. trachomatis in HIV-infected adults (P = 0.01). Interpretation & conclusions: Screening of HIV-infected individuals for C. trachomatis infection could be recommended as a routine component of HIV care. The role of mycoplasmas as co-pathogens of the genitourinary tract in HIV-1 infected patients seems to be unlikely. Further longitudinal studies need to be done to confirm these findings.

Ghosh, Arnab; Dhawan, Benu; Chaudhry, Rama; Vajpayee, Madhu; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla

2011-01-01

14

Outreach health adviser in a community clinic screening programme improves management of genital chlamydia infection  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess the effectiveness of an outreach health adviser on treatment, partner notification and outcome for clients diagnosed with genital chlamydia (CT) infection at a community young people's clinic. Methods: From August 1999 to March 2000, a genitourinary medicine (GUM) based health adviser helped to develop testing and undertook outreach management of clients aged under 26 years diagnosed with CT infection. In addition to facilitating referral to GUM, she gave antibiotic treatment based on a GUM derived patient group direction to those not wishing to travel to the GUM clinic. She also advised them on contact tracing and the need for a compliance check (CC). Results: Chlamydia positive tests with ligase chain reaction (LCR), on first void urine, were obtained for 62 (12.9%) of 481 female clients, one (5%) of 20 male clients, and nine (53%) of 17 male contacts of female positive cases. All 72 testing positive received their result and were treated. Two urine samples positive for CT showed positive LCR tests for gonorrhoea. Proportions of named contacts seen (67%) and reattendances for compliance checks (60%) were similar to those for women seen in GUM services. Conclusions: Health adviser input with the ability to treat can be effective in reducing the growth of identified but untreated genital chlamydia infection consequent upon community based screening. Such a strategy appears comparable with, and can add to, GUM based treatment of infection. It helps to address the need for alternative management strategies in the light of the national sexual health strategy.

Jones, K; Webb, A; Mallinson, H; Birley, H

2002-01-01

15

The case for further treatment studies of uncomplicated genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection  

PubMed Central

Azithromycin 1?g immediately and doxycycline 100?mg twice daily have good antimicrobial activity against Chlamydia trachomatis and treatment studies have demonstrated a >95% microbiological cure at 2–5?weeks, with antimicrobial resistance being rarely reported. Recently an 8% (95%, CI 5% to 11%) failure rate was observed in 289 women, but not in men, who had been sexually inactive after treatment. At high multiplicities of infection (load) in vitro persistence can often be demonstrated to antimicrobials—heterotypic resistance. The subsequently recovered isolates do not possess antimicrobial resistance at low loads. It is known that genital chlamydia load varies in vivo and is probably greater in women than men. In mass treatment trials of trachoma, treatment failure is associated with high chlamydia loads. It is therefore possible that women with high chlamydia loads may be at increased risk of treatment failure. Given the imminent role out of the National Chlamydia Screening Programme and the consequences of persistent chlamydial infection in women this hypothesis urgently merits further investigation.

Horner, P

2006-01-01

16

Evaluation of chlamydiazyme for the detection of genital infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis.  

PubMed Central

Chlamydiazyme is a 4-h enzyme-linked immunoassay that detects an antigen of Chlamydia trachomatis directly in clinical specimens. This immunoassay was compared with cell culture for the diagnosis of chlamydial infections of the genital tract. The assay was evaluated at five clinics with a total of 1,277 cervical specimens of which 239 were culture positive. At three of these clinics where urethral samples were taken from males, 99 of 363 samples were culture positive. The sensitivity of the assay averaged 89.5% for detecting cervical infections and 78.8% for detecting male urethral infections. Specificity was 97.0% when samples from either males or females were tested. Some patients who were culture negative were infected with chlamydiae according to both Chlamydiazyme and a monoclonal antibody test that detected a chlamydial antigen distinct from the antigen detected by Chlamydiazyme. If the 15 females and 2 males who were positive by both immunoassays but culture negative were considered positive for chlamydial infection, the specificity of the assay was 98.4% in females and 97.7% in males. Chlamydiazyme is a simple and relatively rapid immunoassay that has sufficient sensitivity and specificity to supplant culture in the detection of genital chlamydial infections.

Howard, L V; Coleman, P F; England, B J; Herrmann, J E

1986-01-01

17

Human Female Genital Tract Infection by the Obligate Intracellular Bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis Elicits Robust Type 2 Immunity  

PubMed Central

While Chlamydia trachomatis infections are frequently asymptomatic, mechanisms that regulate host response to this intracellular Gram-negative bacterium remain undefined. This investigation thus used peripheral blood mononuclear cells and endometrial tissue from women with or without Chlamydia genital tract infection to better define this response. Initial genome-wide microarray analysis revealed highly elevated expression of matrix metalloproteinase 10 and other molecules characteristic of Type 2 immunity (e.g., fibrosis and wound repair) in Chlamydia-infected tissue. This result was corroborated in flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry studies that showed extant upper genital tract Chlamydia infection was associated with increased co-expression of CD200 receptor and CD206 (markers of alternative macrophage activation) by endometrial macrophages as well as increased expression of GATA-3 (the transcription factor regulating TH2 differentiation) by endometrial CD4+ T cells. Also among women with genital tract Chlamydia infection, peripheral CD3+ CD4+ and CD3+ CD4- cells that proliferated in response to ex vivo stimulation with inactivated chlamydial antigen secreted significantly more interleukin (IL)-4 than tumor necrosis factor, interferon-?, or IL-17; findings that repeated in T cells isolated from these same women 1 and 4 months after infection had been eradicated. Our results thus newly reveal that genital infection by an obligate intracellular bacterium induces polarization towards Type 2 immunity, including Chlamydia-specific TH2 development. Based on these findings, we now speculate that Type 2 immunity was selected by evolution as the host response to C. trachomatis in the human female genital tract to control infection and minimize immunopathological damage to vital reproductive structures.

Vicetti Miguel, Rodolfo D.; Harvey, Stephen A. K.; LaFramboise, William A.; Reighard, Seth D.; Matthews, Dean B.; Cherpes, Thomas L.

2013-01-01

18

Influence of the tryptophan-indole-IFN? axis on human genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection: role of vaginal co-infections  

PubMed Central

The natural history of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections can vary widely; infections can spontaneously resolve but can also last from months to years, potentially progressing to cause significant pathology. The host and bacterial factors underlying this wide variation are not completely understood, but emphasize the bacterium's capacity to evade/adapt to the genital immune response, and/or exploit local environmental conditions to survive this immune response. IFN? is considered to be a primary host protective cytokine against endocervical C. trachomatis infections. IFN? acts by inducing the host enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxgenase, which catabolizes tryptophan, thereby depriving the bacterium of this essential amino acid. In vitro studies have revealed that tryptophan deprivation causes Chlamydia to enter a viable but non-infectious growth pattern that is termed a persistent growth form, characterized by a unique morphology and gene expression pattern. Provision of tryptophan can reactivate the bacterium to the normal developmental cycle. There is a significant difference in the capacity of ocular and genital C. trachomatis serovars to counter tryptophan deprivation. The latter uniquely encode a functional tryptophan synthase to synthesize tryptophan via indole salvage, should indole be available in the infection microenvironment. In vitro studies have confirmed the capacity of indole to mitigate the effects of IFN?; it has been suggested that a perturbed vaginal microbiome may provide a source of indole in vivo. Consistent with this hypothesis, the microbiome associated with bacterial vaginosis includes species that encode a tryptophanase to produce indole. In this review, we discuss the natural history of genital chlamydial infections, morphological and molecular changes imposed by IFN? on Chlamydia, and finally, the microenvironmental conditions associated with vaginal co-infections that can ameliorate the effects of IFN? on C. trachomatis.

Aiyar, Ashok; Quayle, Alison J.; Buckner, Lyndsey R.; Sherchand, Shardulendra P.; Chang, Theresa L.; Zea, Arnold H.; Martin, David H.; Belland, Robert J.

2014-01-01

19

Prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in the general population of Slovenia: serious gaps in control  

PubMed Central

Methods: Data were collected over 1999–2001 from a probability sample of the general population by face to face interviews and anonymous self administered questionnaires. Respondents were invited to provide a first void urine (FVU) specimen for polymerase chain reaction testing for C trachomatis infection. We compared the results to the equivalent British survey. Results: 1447 individuals contributed FVU specimens (82.6% of survey respondents, 55.3% of those eligible). C trachomatis infection was diagnosed in 3.0% of men and 1.6% of women. Prevalence was highest in men and women aged 18–24 years (4.1% for both). Individuals reporting first heterosexual intercourse before the age of 16, unprotected sexual intercourse with at least one heterosexual partner during the preceding year, concurrent heterosexual relationships during the preceding year, and five or more lifetime heterosexual partners had a higher prevalence. The association was statistically significant only for five or more lifetime partners (adjusted OR 3.0; 95% CI 1.3 to 6.9; p = 0.01). Conclusions: A relatively high prevalence of genital C trachomatis infection among 18–24 year old Slovenians, in the presence of relatively low risk sexual behaviour and low reported incidence rates of chlamydia infection, suggest serious gaps in the diagnosis and treatment of the condition. The results provide support for the introduction of chlamydia screening in Slovenia.

Klavs, I; Rodrigues, L; Wellings, K; Kese, D; Hayes, R

2004-01-01

20

Diagnosis of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections in asymptomatic males by testing urine by PCR.  

PubMed

An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA) (MikroTrak; Syva) was compared with PCR (Amplicor; Roche) for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in first-void urine (FVU) from 184 men attending a skin and venereal disease clinic. The prevalence of C. trachomatis in the population studied was 18.5%. Discrepant results between Syva EIA and Roche PCR were retested by using major outer membrane protein primer-based PCR. After retesting, the sensitivity, the specificity, and the positive and negative predictive values for the Syva EIA were 85.3, 100, 100, and 77.5%, respectively, and those for the Roche PCR 100, 100, 100, and 100%, respectively. It was concluded that PCR provides a highly sensitive and specific noninvasive screening method for genital chlamydial infection in asymptomatic men. PMID:7814464

Domeika, M; Bassiri, M; Mårdh, P A

1994-10-01

21

Diagnosis of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections in asymptomatic males by testing urine by PCR.  

PubMed Central

An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA) (MikroTrak; Syva) was compared with PCR (Amplicor; Roche) for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in first-void urine (FVU) from 184 men attending a skin and venereal disease clinic. The prevalence of C. trachomatis in the population studied was 18.5%. Discrepant results between Syva EIA and Roche PCR were retested by using major outer membrane protein primer-based PCR. After retesting, the sensitivity, the specificity, and the positive and negative predictive values for the Syva EIA were 85.3, 100, 100, and 77.5%, respectively, and those for the Roche PCR 100, 100, 100, and 100%, respectively. It was concluded that PCR provides a highly sensitive and specific noninvasive screening method for genital chlamydial infection in asymptomatic men.

Domeika, M; Bassiri, M; Mardh, P A

1994-01-01

22

Looking for an asymptomatic infection: usefulness of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis and genital herpes.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) genital infections are among the more frequent sexually transmissible infections with different prevalence by age, populations and geographical areas. Both are widespread, have an asymptomatic latent stage detectable only by laboratory and can have serious consequences such as tubal infertility and neonatal herpes. The direct isolation of CT in cervical or urethral discharge through Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (NAATs) allows to detect and to treat the infection with effective antibiotic medication. The screening of all women younger than 25 year old showed to be effective in reducing tubal complications but not in decreasing the incidence of the infection in the general population. Only a proactive screening of younger women, repeated yearly and associated with an effective partner notification could achieve a decrease of the incidence rate in the general population. The detection of type specific herpetic antibodies allows to identify persons with herpetic infection regardless of symptoms. While a population-based screening of general population cannot be proposed at the moment, a selective screening (attenders of STI clinic, HIV-positive patients, pregnant women) is a debated issue between those who consider it an effective means to detect persons with unrecognized symptoms who are infectious and those who think that preventive measures and antiviral medication are not effective enough to be proposed. PMID:23007249

Delmonte, S; Latino, M A

2012-10-01

23

The mouse model of Chlamydia genital tract infection: a review of infection, disease, immunity and vaccine development.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection worldwide. The impact of this pathogen on human reproduction has intensified research efforts to better understand chlamydial infection and pathogenesis. Whilst there are animal models available that mimic many aspects of human chlamydial infection, the mouse is regarded as the most practical and widely used of the models. Studies in mice have greatly contributed to our understanding of the host-pathogen interaction and provided an excellent medium for evaluating vaccines. Here we explore the advantages and disadvantages of all animal models of chlamydial genital tract infection, with a focus on the murine model and what we have learnt from it so far. PMID:24102506

O'Meara, C P; Andrew, D W; Beagley, K W

2014-03-01

24

Screening for genital chlamydia infection: DNA amplification techniques should be the test of choice.  

PubMed

Our objective was to compare the sensitivities for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis, of the ligase chain reaction (LCR) on first voided urine (FVU) specimens and enzyme immunoassay (EIA) on pooled endocervical/endourethral swabs from women and endourethral swabs from men. Men and women taking part in the UK chlamydia screening pilot were tested for chlamydia using LCR on a FVU. Patients attending genitourinary medicine clinics also had cervical and/or urethral swabs taken for chlamydia testing by EIA. In women, EIA on pooled swabs detected 575 of the 785 chlamydia positives and in men, EIA detected 209 of 351 positives. The sensitivity of EIA was 73% and 60% in women and men respectively. By using the EIA test, therefore, 27-40% of patients infected with chlamydia will be given a false negative result. We propose that it is unethical to use non-molecular testing in the future. PMID:14624732

Harindra, V; Underhill, G; Tobin, J M

2003-11-01

25

Differential Regulation of CD4 Lymphocyte Recruitment between the Upper and Lower Regions of the Genital Tract during Chlamydia trachomatis Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis results in both the local recruitment of protective immune responses and an inflammatory infiltrate that may also participate in tubal pathology. As a beginning to understanding the etiology of immune system-mediated tubal pathology, we evaluated the regional recruitment of lymphocyte subsets to different areas of the female genital tract (GT) over the course of a

KATHLEEN A. KELLY; JENNIFER C. WALKER; SHIMUL H. JAMEEL; HEATHER L. GRAY; R. G. Rank

2000-01-01

26

CD4+ T cells are necessary and sufficient to confer protection against Chlamydia trachomatis infection in the murine upper genital tract.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the United States. Chlamydia infections that ascend to the upper genital tract can persist, trigger inflammation, and result in serious sequelae such as infertility. However, mouse models in which the vaginal vault is inoculated with C. trachomatis do not recapitulate the course of human disease. These intravaginal infections of the mouse do not ascend efficiently to the upper genital tract, do not cause persistent infection, do not induce significant inflammation, and do not induce significant CD4? T cell infiltration. In this article, we describe a noninvasive transcervical infection model in which we bypass the cervix and directly inoculate C. trachomatis into the uterus. We show that direct C. trachomatis infection of the murine upper genital tract stimulates a robust Chlamydia-specific CD4? T cell response that is both necessary and sufficient to clear infection and provide protection against reinfection. PMID:22855710

Gondek, David C; Olive, Andrew J; Stary, Georg; Starnbach, Michael N

2012-09-01

27

Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Does Not Affect Resolution of Murine Chlamydial Genital Tract Infections or Eradication of Chlamydiae in Primary Murine Cell Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies indicate that resolution of primary chlamyd- ial genital tract infections and protection from a secondary infection in female mice require T-helper type 1 (Th1) lympho- cytes. Athymic mice or mice lacking major histocompatibility complex class II antigens fail to resolve genital tract infections with the mouse pneumonitis biovar (MoPn) of Chlamydia tra- chomatis (20, 24), but mice depleted

KYLE H. RAMSEY; GURWATTAN S. MIRANPURI; CHRISTOFFER E. POULSEN; NANCY B. MARTHAKIS; LAIMA M. BRAUNE; GERALD I. BYRNE

1998-01-01

28

Management of Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract infection: screening and treatment challenges  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia trachomatis is a prevalent sexually transmitted infection that can lead to serious reproductive morbidity. Management and control of C. trachomatis is a challenge, largely due to its asymptomatic nature and our incomplete understanding of its natural history. Although chlamydia screening programs have been implemented worldwide, several countries have observed increasing rates of reported chlamydia cases. We reviewed the literature relating to the long-term complications of C. trachomatis, as well as screening strategies, treatment, and prevention strategies for reducing chlamydia in the population. Articles from 1950–2010 were identified through a Medline search using the keyword “Chlamydia trachomatis” combined with “screening”, “pelvic inflammatory disease”, “endometritis”, “salpingitis”, “infertility”, “ectopic pregnancy”, “urethritis”, “epididymitis”, “proctitis”, “prostatitis”, “reinfection”, “cost-effectiveness”, “treatment”, “vaccines”, or “prevention”. Progression of C. trachomatis varies, and recurrent infections are common. Currently, there is limited evidence on the effectiveness of chlamydia screening. Higher quality studies are needed to determine the efficacy of more frequent screening, on a broader range of sequelae, including infertility and ectopic pregnancy, in addition to pelvic inflammatory disease. Studies should focus on delineating the natural history of recurrent infections, paying particular attention to treatment failures. Furthermore, alternatives to screening, such as vaccines, should continue to be explored.

Taylor, Brandie D; Haggerty, Catherine L

2011-01-01

29

Effect of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection and Subsequent Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Secretion on Apoptosis in the Murine Genital Tract  

PubMed Central

The pathology observed during Chlamydia infection is due initially to localized tissue damage caused by the infection itself, followed by deleterious host inflammatory responses that lead to permanent scarring. We have recently reported that the infection by Chlamydia in vitro results in apoptosis of epithelial cells and macrophages and that infected monocytes secrete the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1?. At the same time, proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) can also trigger apoptosis of susceptible cells. To study the possible relationship between Chlamydia trachomatis infection and apoptosis in vivo, we used the terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling technique to determine whether infection may cause apoptosis in the genital tract of mice and, conversely, whether cytokines produced during the inflammatory response may modulate the level of apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that infected cells in the endocervix at day 2 or 7 after infection are sometimes apoptotic, although there was not a statistically significant change in the number of apoptotic cells in the endocervix. However, large clumps of apoptotic infected cells were observed in the lumen, suggesting that apoptotic cells may be shed from the endocervix. Moreover, there was a large increase in the number of apoptotic cells in the uterine horns and oviducts after 2 or 7 days of infection, which was accompanied by obvious signs of upper tract pathology. Interestingly, depletion of TNF-? led to a decrease in the level of apoptosis in the uterine horns and oviducts of animals infected for 7 days, suggesting that the inflammatory cytokines may exert part of their pathological effect via apoptosis in infected tissues.

Perfettini, Jean-Luc; Darville, Toni; Gachelin, Gabriel; Souque, Philippe; Huerre, Michel; Dautry-Varsat, Alice; Ojcius, David M.

2000-01-01

30

Semen quality in patients with Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection treated concurrently with prulifloxacin and a phytotherapeutic agent.  

PubMed

Chronic prostatitis (CP) due to Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) infection has a significant impact on young male fertility, and eradication of Ct infection after antibiotic therapy does not always result in recovery of semen quality. The study aim was to evaluate the effects on fertility parameters of L-arginine, L-carnitine, acetyl-L-carnitine, and ginseng extracts (FERTIMEV) associated with prulifloxacin in patients affected by CP and oligoasthenoteratozoospermia due to Ct infection. Two hundred and six patients with proven Ct genital infection and oligoasthenoteratozoospermia were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, and controlled study. Prulifloxacin (600 mg) was administered daily for 14 days, and patients were divided into 2 groups: group A: antibiotic therapy alone; and group B: antibiotic therapy and additional therapy with FERTIMEV (1 vial daily for 6 months). Microbiological and semen parameter analyses were performed both at enrollment and after 6 months. National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index and International Prostatic Symptom Score questionnaires were applied. Of the 206 patients, 109 were assigned to group A and 97 to group B. At the enrollment time, no differences were reported with regard to clinical, instrumental, and laboratory data. Six months after treatment, statistically significant differences were demonstrated between both groups in terms of sperm concentration (21.3 ± 13.2 millions/mL vs 11.5 ± 13.2 millions/mL) (Cohen's d = 0.61) (P < .001, df = 2, F = 62.10) and percentage of motile sperm (42.4% ± 5.2% vs 29.3% ± 11.0%) (Cohen's d = 1.52) (P < .001, df = 2, F = 91.48). In this study treatment with FERTIMEV together with prulifloxacin improved semen parameters in patients with Ct genital infection and oligoasthenoteratozoospermia compared to treatment with prulifloxacin therapy alone. PMID:21979301

Cai, Tommaso; Wagenlehner, Florian M E; Mazzoli, Sandra; Meacci, Francesca; Mondaini, Nicola; Nesi, Gabriella; Tiscione, Daniele; Malossini, Gianni; Bartoletti, Riccardo

2012-01-01

31

CD4+ T cell expression of MyD88 is essential for normal resolution of Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infection.  

PubMed

Resolution of Chlamydia genital tract infection is delayed in the absence of MyD88. In these studies, we first used bone marrow chimeras to demonstrate a requirement for MyD88 expression by hematopoietic cells in the presence of a wild-type epithelium. Using mixed bone marrow chimeras we then determined that MyD88 expression was specifically required in the adaptive immune compartment. Furthermore, adoptive transfer experiments revealed that CD4(+) T cell expression of MyD88 was necessary for normal resolution of genital tract infection. This requirement was associated with a reduced ability of MyD88(-/-)CD4(+) T cells to accumulate in the draining lymph nodes and genital tract when exposed to the same inflammatory milieu as wild-type CD4(+) T cells. We also demonstrated that the impaired infection control we observed in the absence of MyD88 could not be recapitulated by deficiencies in TLR or IL-1R signaling. In vitro, we detected an increased frequency of apoptotic MyD88(-/-)CD4(+) T cells upon activation in the absence of exogenous ligands for receptors upstream of MyD88. These data reveal an intrinsic requirement for MyD88 in CD4(+) T cells during Chlamydia infection and indicate that the importance of MyD88 extends beyond innate immune responses by directly influencing adaptive immunity. PMID:24038087

Frazer, Lauren C; Sullivan, Jeanne E; Zurenski, Matthew A; Mintus, Margaret; Tomasak, Tammy E; Prantner, Daniel; Nagarajan, Uma M; Darville, Toni

2013-10-15

32

Interleukin-17 Contributes to Generation of Th1 Immunity and Neutrophil Recruitment during Chlamydia muridarum Genital Tract Infection but Is Not Required for Macrophage Influx or Normal Resolution of Infection ?  

PubMed Central

Interleukin 17 (IL-17) contributes to development of Th1 immunity and neutrophil influx during Chlamydia muridarum pulmonary infection, but its role during C. muridarum genital tract infection has not been described. We detected similar numbers of Chlamydia-specific Th17 and Th1 cells in iliac nodes of wild-type mice early during genital C. muridarum infection, while Th1 cells predominated later. il17ra?/? mice exhibited a reduced chlamydia-specific Th1 response in draining iliac nodes and decreased local IFN-? production. Neutrophil influx into the genital tract was also decreased. However, il17ra?/? mice resolved infection normally, and no difference in pathology was observed compared to the wild type. Macrophage influx and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) production were increased in il17ra?/? mice, providing a compensatory mechanism to effectively control chlamydial genital tract infection despite a reduced Th1 response. In ifn??/? mice, a marked increase in cellular infiltrates and chronic pathology was associated with an increased Th17 response. Although neutralization of IL-17 in ifn??/? mice decreased neutrophil influx, macrophage infiltration remained intact and the bacterial burden was not increased. Collectively, these results indicate that IL-17 contributes to the generation of Th1 immunity and neutrophil recruitment but is not required for macrophage influx or normal resolution of C. muridarum genital infection. These data highlight the redundant immune mechanisms operative at this mucosal site and the importance of examining site-specific responses to mucosal pathogens.

Scurlock, Amy M.; Frazer, Lauren C.; Andrews, Charles W.; O'Connell, Catherine M.; Foote, Isaac P.; Bailey, Sarabeth L.; Chandra-Kuntal, Kumar; Kolls, Jay K.; Darville, Toni

2011-01-01

33

Systematic screening with information and home sampling for genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections in young men and women in Norway: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background As most genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections are asymptomatic, many patients do not seek health care for testing. Infections remain undiagnosed and untreated. We studied whether screening with information and home sampling resulted in more young people getting tested, diagnosed and treated for chlamydia in the three months following the intervention compared to the current strategy of testing in the health care system. Method We conducted a population based randomized controlled trial among all persons aged 18–25 years in one Norwegian county (41 519 persons). 10 000 persons (intervention) received an invitation by mail with chlamydia information and a mail-back urine sampling kit. 31 519 persons received no intervention and continued with usual care (control). All samples from both groups were analysed in the same laboratory. Information on treatment was obtained from the Norwegian Prescription Database (NorPD). We estimated risk ratios and risk differences of being tested, diagnosed and treated in the intervention group compared to the control group. Results In the intervention group 16.5% got tested and in the control group 3.4%, risk ratio 4.9 (95% CI 4.5-5.2). The intervention led to 2.6 (95% CI 2.0-3.4) times as many individuals being diagnosed and 2.5 (95% CI 1.9-3.4) times as many individuals receiving treatment for chlamydia compared to no intervention in the three months following the intervention. Conclusion In Norway, systematic screening with information and home sampling results in more young people being tested, diagnosed and treated for chlamydia in the three months following the intervention than the current strategy of testing in the health care system. However, the study has not established that the intervention will reduce the chlamydia prevalence or the risk of complications from chlamydia. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov IDNCT00283127

2013-01-01

34

Antigen-specific CD8+ T cells respond to Chlamydia trachomatis in the genital mucosa.  

PubMed

Following sexual transmission, Chlamydia trachomatis specifically targets genital tract epithelial cells. Because epithelial cells are readily recognized by CD8+ T cells, the response of CD8+ T cells to Chlamydia infection has been explored in a number of studies. It has been shown that CD8+ T cells are present in the genital tracts of mice following C. trachomatis infection, but the specificity of these T cells has remained undefined. To determine whether Chlamydia-specific CD8+ T cells migrate to the genital tract in response to Chlamydia infection, we generated retrogenic mice that express a TCR specific for a Chlamydia-specific T cell Ag CrpA. T cells from the retrogenic mice were transferred into naive recipient animals to increase the frequency of Chlamydia-specific T cells to a level at which they could be tracked during primary infection. We observed that the Chlamydia-specific retrogenic T cells proliferated in lymph nodes draining the genital tract in response to genital infection with C. trachomatis. Furthermore, we found that these cells acquired the ability to produce IFN-gamma and migrated into the genital mucosa of the infected mice. PMID:17114470

Roan, Nadia R; Starnbach, Michael N

2006-12-01

35

Chlamydia trachomatis infection: host immune responses and potential vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydia trachomatis causes genital tract infections that affect men, women, and children on a global scale. This review focuses on innate and adaptive immune responses in the female reproductive tract (FRT) to genital tract infections with C. trachomatis. It covers C. trachomatis infections and highlights our current knowledge of genital tract infections, serovar distribution, infectious load, and clinical manifestations of

L Hafner; K Beagley; P Timms

2008-01-01

36

Chlamydia trachomatis infection in primary unexplained infertility  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years Chlamydia trachomatis has emerged as a significant cause of acute salpingitis and reproductory failure. In this study, 85 women suffering from primary infertility and 85 parous women as control group were screened for C. trachomatis genital infection by means of cell culture and antigen detection on genital samples as well as the detection of anti-chlamydial antibodies in

G. Gorini; F. Milano; P. Olliaro; A. Regazzetti; E. G. Rondanelli

1990-01-01

37

Critical Role for Interleukin-1? (IL-1?) during Chlamydia muridarum Genital Infection and Bacterial Replication-Independent Secretion of IL-1? in Mouse Macrophages?  

PubMed Central

Recent findings have implicated interleukin-1? (IL-1?) as an important mediator of the inflammatory response in the female genital tract during chlamydial infection. But how IL-1? is produced and its specific role in infection and pathology are unclear. Therefore, our goal was to determine the functional consequences and cellular sources of IL-1? expression during a chlamydial genital infection. In the present study, IL-1??/? mice exhibited delayed chlamydial clearance and decreased frequency of hydrosalpinx compared to wild-type (WT) mice, implying an important role for IL-1? both in the clearance of infection and in the mediation of oviduct pathology. At the peak of IL-1? secretion in WT mice, the major producers of IL-1? in vivo are F4/80+ macrophages and GR-1+ neutrophils, but not CD45? epithelial cells. Although elicited mouse macrophages infected with Chlamydia muridarum in vitro secrete minimal IL-1?, in vitro prestimulation of macrophages by Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) purified from Escherichia coli or C. trachomatis L2 prior to infection greatly enhanced secretion of IL-1? from these cells. By using LPS-primed macrophages as a model system, it was determined that IL-1? secretion was dependent on caspase-1, potassium efflux, and the activity of serine proteases. Significantly, chlamydia-induced IL-1? secretion in macrophages required bacterial viability but not growth. Our findings demonstrate that IL-1? secreted by macrophages and neutrophils has important effects in vivo during chlamydial infection. Additionally, prestimulation of macrophages by chlamydial TLR ligands may account for the elevated levels of pro-IL-1? mRNA observed in vivo in this cell type.

Prantner, Daniel; Darville, Toni; Sikes, James D.; Andrews, Charles W.; Brade, Helmut; Rank, Roger G.; Nagarajan, Uma M.

2009-01-01

38

Epidemiology of genital Chlamydia trachomatis in England and Wales.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To describe the recent epidemiology of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in England and Wales. DESIGN: Retrospective study of routinely available surveillance datasets and ad hoc prevalence studies. METHODS: Numbers of new cases of genital C trachomatis infection, obtained from the Department of Health and Welsh Office, were combined with the estimated mid-year resident population of England and Wales. Rates were analysed for trend over time using a log linear age period model in GLIM4. Ad hoc prevalence and case finding studies carried out over the past 20 years were critically assessed in terms of study design and testing methodologies. RESULTS: Attendance rates at genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics were higher for women than men over the period 1989 to 1994 as were the number of laboratory reports. The highest rate of attendance (GUM clinic data) was for women aged 16 to 19 years. There was an overall significant linear decrease in the attendance rates over time for both men (p = 0.0172) and women (p = 0.0000) between 1989 and 1994. There was considerable variation in the prevalence of genital C trachomatis infection detected within different clinical settings, together with a substantial level of asymptomatic infection. CONCLUSIONS: Genital C trachomatis infection is broadly distributed throughout the sexually active population, with a substantial reservoir of asymptomatic infection among those generally perceived to be at low risk of a sexually transmitted infection. Young people, particularly women aged 16 to 19 years, are at highest risk of genital C trachomatis infection. This is of concern since younger women are more susceptible than older women to developing complications of chlamydial infection, such as pelvic inflammatory disease. The broad distribution of infection across all sexually active health service attenders and the high level of asymptomatic infection suggest that a new, screening based, approach to the control of genital C trachomatis infection is required. Recommendations are made as to the epidemiological research required to guide such work.

Simms, I; Catchpole, M; Brugha, R; Rogers, P; Mallinson, H; Nicoll, A

1997-01-01

39

Penicillin Kills Chlamydia following the Fusion of Bacteria with Lysosomes and Prevents Genital Inflammatory Lesions in C. muridarum-Infected Mice  

PubMed Central

The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia exists as two distinct forms. Elementary bodies (EBs) are infectious and extra-cellular, whereas reticulate bodies (RBs) replicate within a specialized intracellular compartment termed an ‘inclusion’. Alternative persistent intra-cellular forms can be induced in culture by diverse stimuli such as IFN? or adenosine/EHNA. They do not grow or divide but revive upon withdrawal of the stimulus and are implicated in several widespread human diseases through ill-defined in vivo mechanisms. ?-lactam antibiotics have also been claimed to induce persistence in vitro. The present report shows that upon penicillin G (pG) treatment, inclusions grow as fast as those in infected control cells. After removal of pG, Chlamydia do not revert to RBs. These effects are independent of host cell type, serovar, biovar and species of Chlamydia. Time-course experiments demonstrated that only RBs were susceptible to pG. pG-treated bacteria lost their control over host cell apoptotic pathways and no longer expressed pre-16S rRNA, in contrast to persistent bacteria induced with adenosine/EHNA. Confocal and live-video microscopy showed that bacteria within the inclusion fused with lysosomal compartments in pG-treated cells. That leads to recruitment of cathepsin D as early as 3 h post pG treatment, an event preceding bacterial death by several hours. These data demonstrate that pG treatment of cultured cells infected with Chlamydia results in the degradation of the bacteria. In addition we show that pG is significantly more efficient than doxycycline at preventing genital inflammatory lesions in C. muridarum-C57Bl/6 infected mice. These in vivo results support the physiological relevance of our findings and their potential therapeutic applications.

Dumoux, Maud; Le Gall, Sylvain M.; Habbeddine, Mohamed; Delarbre, Christiane; Hayward, Richard D.; Kanellopoulos-Langevin, Colette; Verbeke, Philippe

2013-01-01

40

Chlamydia Screening in Ireland: a pilot study of opportunistic screening for genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Ireland (2007-2009). Pre-screening Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary\\u000aA series of background studies in 18 to 29 year olds were conducted in a range of primary care settings in Dublin and Galway, 2007-09, to assess the acceptability and feasibility of opportunistic screening for chlamydia:\\u000a- semi-structured interviews with 35 women who had never been tested for a sexually transmitted infection (STI)\\u000a- similar interviews with 30 men

Myles Balfe; Ruairi Brugha; Emer OConnell; Deirdre Vaughan; Diarmuid ODonovan; Claire Coleman; Ronan Conroy; Martin Cormican; Margaret Fitzgerald; Catherine Fleming; Hannah McGee; Andrew Murphy; Grainne Ni Fhoghlu; Ciaran ONeill; Paddy Gillespie

2012-01-01

41

The Duration of Chlamydia muridarum Genital Tract Infection and Associated Chronic Pathological Changes Are Reduced in IL-17 Knockout Mice but Protection Is Not Increased Further by Immunization  

PubMed Central

IL-17 is believed to be important for protection against extracellular pathogens, where clearance is dependent on neutrophil recruitment and local activation of epithelial cell defences. However, the role of IL-17 in protection against intracellular pathogens such as Chlamydia is less clear. We have compared (i) the course of natural genital tract C. muridarum infection, (ii) the development of oviduct pathology and (iii) the development of vaccine-induced immunity against infection in wild type (WT) BALB/c and IL-17 knockout mice (IL-17-/-) to determine if IL-17-mediated immunity is implicated in the development of infection-induced pathology and/or protection. Both the magnitude and duration of genital infection was significantly reduced in IL-17-/- mice compared to BALB/c. Similarly, hydrosalpinx was also greatly reduced in IL-17-/- mice and this correlated with reduced neutrophil and macrophage infiltration of oviduct tissues. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 and MMP2 were increased in WT oviducts compared to IL-17-/- animals at day 7 post-infection. In contrast, oviducts from IL-17-/- mice contained higher MMP9 and MMP2 at day 21. Infection also elicited higher levels of Chlamydia-neutralizing antibody in serum of IL-17-/- mice than WT mice. Following intranasal immunization with C. muridarum Major Outer Membrane Protein (MOMP) and cholera toxin plus CpG adjuvants, significantly higher levels of chlamydial MOMP-specific IgG and IgA were found in serum and vaginal washes of IL-17-/- mice. T cell proliferation and IFN? production by splenocytes was greater in WT animals following in vitro re-stimulation, however vaccination was only effective at reducing infection in WT, not IL-17-/- mice. Intranasal or transcutaneous immunization protected WT but not IL-17-/- mice against hydrosalpinx development. Our data show that in the absence of IL-17, the severity of C. muridarum genital infection and associated oviduct pathology are significantly attenuated, however neither infection or pathology can be reduced further by vaccination protocols that effectively protect WT mice.

Andrew, Dean W.; Cochrane, Melanie; Schripsema, Justin H.; Ramsey, Kyle H.; Dando, Samantha J.; O'Meara, Connor P.; Timms, Peter; Beagley, Kenneth W.

2013-01-01

42

Non-invasive detection of Chlamydia trachomatis genital infections in asymptomatic males and females by enzyme immunoassay (Chlamydiazyme).  

PubMed

First voided urine, urethral and cervical swabs were collected from 300 asymptomatic inmates made up of 200 males and 100 females from prisons in Fiji. The enzyme immunoassay for detection of chlamydial antigen test was performed on the sediment of the urine samples. The prevalence of chlamydial urethritis in the study population of men as determined by culture of urethral swabs was 15%. Compared with the urethral cultures for chlamydia the urine EIA had a sensitivity of 86.6% and a specificity of 98.2%. In women the incidence of urogenital chlamydia infection was 18%. Using the results of the cervical swabs as a reference standard the urine EIA in the females showed a sensitivity of 61.1% with a specificity of 97.6%. Culturing urine sediments from both men and women showed low results (30.0% for men and 22.2% for women). The rapid enzyme immunoassay testing of male FVU sediment appears to be a reliable, non-traumatic and rapid method of diagnosing Chlamydia infection. The judicious use of this non-invasive method may help in detecting and treating men, thus reducing the rapid spread of the pathogen in the community. PMID:8107174

Adjei, O; Lal, V

1994-02-01

43

Detection of male genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae using an automated multiplex PCR system (Cobas Amplicor).  

PubMed

We evaluated Cobas Amplicor, a highly automated polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system, to test first-void urine (FVU) and urethral swab specimens for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in men attending a sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic. Results were compared against an in-house radioimmune dot blot (DB) test for C. trachomatis and selective culture for N. gonorrhoeae. Three hundred and ninety sets of specimens were obtained from 378 consecutive new and returned-new patients. Gonorrhoea prevalence was 9.49%, with no significant difference in sensitivity or specificity between culture and PCR. Chlamydia prevalence was 15.4%, with sensitivities of: DB 55%, PCR of FVU 86.7%, urethral swab PCR 90%. The specificity of PCR on FVU and urethral swabs was 100%. We have shown that Cobas Amplicor PCR is highly sensitive and specific in the diagnosis of chlamydia and gonorrhoea in men attending an STI clinic. Further economic and scientific studies are needed to determine the cost-effectiveness of this technique for screening in primary care settings. PMID:9518010

Higgins, S P; Klapper, P E; Struthers, J K; Bailey, A S; Gough, A P; Moore, R; Corbitt, G; Bhattacharyya, M N

1998-01-01

44

Chlamydial genital infection in prostitutes in Iran.  

PubMed

The prevalence of chlamydial genital infection was studied in 177 prostitutes in Iran; 100 in Teheran and 77 in the port of Bandar Abbas. Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated in eight (6.9%) of 116 patients with valid cultures. Type-specific antibodies were found against C trachomatis serotypes D to K (genital serotypes) in 94.2% and against serotypes A to C (trachoma serotypes) in 2% of the prostitutes. Type-specific IgM at a titre of greater than or equal to 8, indicating current infection, was found in 29.2%, whereas type-specific IgG at a titre greater than or equal to 64, suggesting a current or recent infection, was present in 71.5%. The lower chlamydial isolation rate in these women may have been due to previous treatment with antichlamydial drugs and because of immune responses resulting from repeated reinfection with chlamydiae. The results indicate that in Iran prostitutes are commonly infected with C trachomatis and are probably a major reservoir of chlamydial genital infection. PMID:6824908

Darougar, S; Aramesh, B; Gibson, J A; Treharne, J D; Jones, B R

1983-02-01

45

Intranasal vaccination with Chlamydia pneumoniae induces cross-species immunity against genital Chlamydia muridarum challenge in mice.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the world and specifically in the United States, with the highest incidence in age-groups 14-19 years. In a subset of females, the C. trachomatis genital infection leads to serious pathological sequelae including pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility. Chlamydia pneumoniae, another member of the same genus, is a common cause of community acquired respiratory infection with significant number of children aged 5-14 yr displaying sero-conversion. Since these bacteriae share several antigenic determinants, we evaluated whether intranasal immunization with live C. pneumoniae (1×10(6) inclusion forming units; IFU) in 5 week old female C57BL/6 mice would induce cross-species protection against subsequent intravaginal challenge with Chlamydia muridarum (5×10(4) IFU), which causes a similar genital infection and pathology in mice as C. trachomatis in humans. Mice vaccinated intranasally with live C. pneumoniae, but not mock (PBS) immunized animals, displayed high levels of splenic cellular antigen-specific IFN-? production and serum antibody response against C. muridarum and C. trachomatis. Mice vaccinated with C. pneumoniae displayed a significant reduction in the vaginal C. muridarum shedding as early as day 12 after secondary i.vag. challenge compared to PBS (mock) immunized mice. At day 19 after C. muridarum challenge, 100% of C. pneumoniae vaccinated mice had cleared the infection compared to none (0%) of the mock immunized mice, which cleared the infection by day 27. At day 80 after C. muridarum challenge, C. pneumoniae vaccinated mice displayed a significant reduction in the incidence (50%) and degree of hydrosalpinx compared to mock immunized animals (100%). These results suggest that respiratory C. pneumoniae infection induces accelerated chlamydial clearance and reduction of oviduct pathology following genital C. muridarum challenge, and may have important implications to the C. trachomatis-induced reproductive disease in humans. PMID:23741420

Manam, Srikanth; Chaganty, Bharat K R; Evani, Shankar Jaikishan; Zafiratos, Mark T; Ramasubramanian, Anand K; Arulanandam, Bernard P; Murthy, Ashlesh K

2013-01-01

46

Intranasal Vaccination with Chlamydia pneumoniae Induces Cross-Species Immunity against Genital Chlamydia muridarum Challenge in Mice  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the world and specifically in the United States, with the highest incidence in age-groups 14–19 years. In a subset of females, the C. trachomatis genital infection leads to serious pathological sequelae including pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility. Chlamydia pneumoniae, another member of the same genus, is a common cause of community acquired respiratory infection with significant number of children aged 5–14 yr displaying sero-conversion. Since these bacteriae share several antigenic determinants, we evaluated whether intranasal immunization with live C. pneumoniae (1×106 inclusion forming units; IFU) in 5 week old female C57BL/6 mice would induce cross-species protection against subsequent intravaginal challenge with Chlamydia muridarum (5×104 IFU), which causes a similar genital infection and pathology in mice as C. trachomatis in humans. Mice vaccinated intranasally with live C. pneumoniae, but not mock (PBS) immunized animals, displayed high levels of splenic cellular antigen-specific IFN-? production and serum antibody response against C. muridarum and C. trachomatis. Mice vaccinated with C. pneumoniae displayed a significant reduction in the vaginal C. muridarum shedding as early as day 12 after secondary i.vag. challenge compared to PBS (mock) immunized mice. At day 19 after C. muridarum challenge, 100% of C. pneumoniae vaccinated mice had cleared the infection compared to none (0%) of the mock immunized mice, which cleared the infection by day 27. At day 80 after C. muridarum challenge, C. pneumoniae vaccinated mice displayed a significant reduction in the incidence (50%) and degree of hydrosalpinx compared to mock immunized animals (100%). These results suggest that respiratory C. pneumoniae infection induces accelerated chlamydial clearance and reduction of oviduct pathology following genital C. muridarum challenge, and may have important implications to the C. trachomatis-induced reproductive disease in humans.

Evani, Shankar Jaikishan; Zafiratos, Mark T.; Ramasubramanian, Anand K.; Arulanandam, Bernard P.; Murthy, Ashlesh K.

2013-01-01

47

Chlamydia  

MedlinePLUS

... someone who has the infection. “Having sex” means anal, vaginal, or oral sex. Chlamydia can still be ... since chlamydia can be transmitted by oral or anal sex. What are the symptoms of chlamydia? Chlamydia ...

48

Screening and management of genital chlamydial infections.  

PubMed

Chlamydial genital infection is common and asymptomatic in most cases. National screening efforts developed to educate practitioners, expand screening, and link testing to local health laboratories are not meeting the needs of populations at great risk of disease, including young racial/ethnic minority women and sexual minorities. The development and availability of newer diagnostics will likely make chlamydia testing more efficient and widely available for patients and providers. Practitioners are reminded to have a low threshold to offer testing and presumptive treatment to patients that are deemed at high risk of disease, particularly those who are challenging to engage in care. PMID:24275267

Singh, Devika; Marrazzo, Jeanne M

2013-12-01

49

Entry of genital Chlamydia trachomatis into polarized human epithelial cells.  

PubMed Central

To study the initial invasion process(es) of genital chlamydiae, a model system consisting of hormonally maintained primary cultures of human endometrial gland epithelial cells (HEGEC), grown in a polarized orientation on collagen-coated filters, was utilized. After Chlamydia trachomatis inoculation of the apical surface of polarized HEGEC, chlamydiae were readily visualized, by transmission electron microscopy, in coated pits and coated vesicles. This was true for HEGEC maintained in physiologic concentrations of estrogen (proliferative phase) and of estrogen plus progesterone (secretory phase), despite the finding that association of chlamydiae with secretory-phase HEGEC is significantly reduced (P = 0.025; A.S. Maslow, C.H. Davis, J. Choong, and P.B. Wyrick, Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 159:1006-1014, 1988). In contrast, chlamydiae were rarely observed in the clathrin-associated structures if the HEGEC were cultured on plastic surfaces. The same pattern of coated pit versus noncoated pit entry was reproducible in HeLa cells. The quantity of coated pits associated with isolated membrane sheets derived from HeLa cells, grown on poly-L-lysine-coated cover slips in medium containing the female hormones, was not significantly different as monitored by radiolabeling studies and by laser scanning microscopy. These data suggest that culture conditions which mimic in vivo cellular organization may enhance entry into coated pits for some obligate intracellular pathogens. Images

Wyrick, P B; Choong, J; Davis, C H; Knight, S T; Royal, M O; Maslow, A S; Bagnell, C R

1989-01-01

50

Genital Chlamydia trachomatis: understanding the roles of innate and adaptive immunity in vaccine research.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted disease worldwide, and despite significant advances in chlamydial research, a prophylactic vaccine has yet to be developed. This Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium, which often causes asymptomatic infection, may cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancies, scarring of the fallopian tubes, miscarriage, and infertility when left untreated. In the genital tract, Chlamydia trachomatis infects primarily epithelial cells and requires Th1 immunity for optimal clearance. This review first focuses on the immune cells important in a chlamydial infection. Second, we summarize the research and challenges associated with developing a chlamydial vaccine that elicits a protective Th1-mediated immune response without inducing adverse immunopathologies. PMID:24696438

Vasilevsky, Sam; Greub, Gilbert; Nardelli-Haefliger, Denise; Baud, David

2014-04-01

51

The laboratory diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infections  

PubMed Central

Lower genital tract infections with Chlamydia trachomatis are predominantly asymptomatic in men and women. Diagnostic technology has provided several approaches to the diagnosis of C trachomatis. Outside of cells, Chlamydia can die or degrade without optimal storage and transportation. Because some of the other assays perform better on certain specimen types, it is important for laboratories to recognize these differences and provide advice to physicians and nurses collecting patient specimens, with the objective of diagnosing lower genital tract infections to prevent transmission and upper tract damage. Most invasive specimens, such as cervical or urethral swabs, may be collected for culture, antigen or nucleic acid detection. Noninvasive samples such as first-void urine and vaginal swabs can be easily collected by the patient; these samples must be tested by more sensitive nucleic acid amplification tests. These newer investigative strategies should enable implementation of screening programs to identify and treat partners. Serology has not been particularly useful for the diagnosis of acute C trachomatis infections in adults. Presently, it appears that antibiotic-resistant C trachomatis is not a clinical problem. Laboratories providing C trachomatis diagnosis require participation in continuous quality improvement programs.

Chernesky, Max A

2005-01-01

52

Retesting for genital Chlamydia trachomatis among visitors of a sexually transmitted infections clinic: randomized intervention trial of home- versus clinic-based recall  

PubMed Central

Background Reinfections of Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) are common. In a two-armed intervention study at an urban STI clinic in the Netherlands, heterosexual Ct-positive visitors received an invitation for retesting after 4–5 months. Interventions were either home-based sampling by mailed test-kit, or clinic-based testing without appointment. Methods Data collection included socio-demographic and sexual behavioural variables at first (T0) and repeat test (T1). Participation in retesting, prevalence and determinants of repeat infection among study participants are described and compared with findings from non-participants. Results Of the 216 visitors enrolled in the study, 75 accepted retesting (35%). The retest participation was 46% (50/109) in the home group versus 23% (25/107) in the clinic group (p?=?0.001). Men were less often retested than women (15% versus 43%, p?chlamydia positivity rate at retest was 17.3% (13/75) compared to 12.4% seen at all visits at the STI clinic in 2011. Repeated infections were more frequent among non-Dutch than Dutch participants (27.0% versus 7.9%; p?=?0.04) and in persons reporting symptoms (31.0% versus 7.0%; p?=?0.01). Both untreated infections of current partners as well as unprotected sex with new partners contribute to repeated infections. Conclusion The high rate of repeated infections indicates the need for interventions to increase retesting; improvement of partner-management and risk reduction counselling remain necessary. Home- based testing was more effective than clinic-based testing. However other strategies, including self-triage of patients, may also increase repeat testing rates and personal preferences should be taken into account.

2013-01-01

53

Retesting for genital Chlamydia trachomatis among visitors of a sexually transmitted infections clinic: randomized intervention trial of home- versus clinic-based recall.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Reinfections of Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) are common. In a two-armed intervention study at an urban STI clinic in the Netherlands, heterosexual Ct-positive visitors received an invitation for retesting after 4--5 months. Interventions were either home-based sampling by mailed test-kit, or clinic-based testing without appointment. METHODS: Data collection included socio-demographic and sexual behavioural variables at first (T0) and repeat test (T1). Participation in retesting, prevalence and determinants of repeat infection among study participants are described and compared with findings from non-participants. RESULTS: Of the 216 visitors enrolled in the study, 75 accepted retesting (35%). The retest participation was 46% (50/109) in the home group versus 23% (25/107) in the clinic group (p = 0.001). Men were less often retested than women (15% versus 43%, p < 0.001). The overall chlamydia positivity rate at retest was 17.3% (13/75) compared to 12.4% seen at all visits at the STI clinic in 2011. Repeated infections were more frequent among non-Dutch than Dutch participants (27.0% versus 7.9%; p = 0.04) and in persons reporting symptoms (31.0% versus 7.0%; p = 0.01). Both untreated infections of current partners as well as unprotected sex with new partners contribute to repeated infections. CONCLUSION: The high rate of repeated infections indicates the need for interventions to increase retesting; improvement of partner-management and risk reduction counselling remain necessary. Home- based testing was more effective than clinic-based testing. However other strategies, including self-triage of patients, may also increase repeat testing rates and personal preferences should be taken into account. PMID:23705624

Götz, Hannelore M; Wolfers, Mireille Eg; Luijendijk, Ad; van den Broek, Ingrid Vf

2013-05-24

54

Induction of antibody response to Chlamydia trachomatis in the genital tract by oral immunization.  

PubMed Central

Groups of BALB/c mice were orally immunized with Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2/434/Bu in order to characterize the nature and kinetics of the chlamydial antibody response in the cervix and other mucosal sites. These animals were subsequently challenged intravaginally to determine whether oral immunization offers protection against chlamydial antigen shedding in the genital tract. Following oral immunization, immunoglobulin A antibody activity was detected in the genital tract as well as other mucosal sites. Subsequent intravaginal challenges exhibited booster effects on preexisting antibody activity in the genital tract. Significant protection against challenge infection in the genital tract was observed by oral immunization. This was indicated by the absence of any chlamydial antigen shedding in cervical secretions. On the other hand, passively administered chlamydial-specific serum immunoglobulin G antibody did not significantly influence the course of cervical shedding of the organism and did not confer any protection against a subsequent intravaginal challenge. It is concluded that prior oral immunization can induce a secretory antibody response in the genital tract and provide protection against subsequent infection.

Cui, Z D; Tristram, D; LaScolea, L J; Kwiatkowski, T; Kopti, S; Ogra, P L

1991-01-01

55

Characteristics of murine model of genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and effects of therapy with tetracyclines, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, or azithromycin.  

PubMed Central

Following intravaginal inoculation of progesterone-treated outbred mice with Chlamydia trachomatis MoPn, 4 to 6 log10 inclusion-forming units were recovered in vaginal swabs for 21 days but all animals were culture negative after 28 days. Serum antibody titers were elevated and remained high for at least 70 days. Between 28 and 70 days, upper tract infection (inflammation and distension of the uterine horns, occlusion of oviducts with inflammatory exudate, pyosalpinx, and hydrosalpinx) was seen in > 80% of the animals. Mice were dosed orally, commencing at 7 days after infection, with minocycline, doxycycline, or amoxicillin-clavulanate. Further groups received azithromycin either as a single high dose or as lower once-daily doses. In addition, minocycline and amoxicillin-clavulanate were administered at 24 h after infection, and this early treatment prevented elevation of antibody titers whereas delayed therapy did not. Vaginal swabs from mice in all treatment regimens were culture negative except for 25% of mice receiving either early amoxicillin-clavulanate or low-dose azithromycin, which yielded low numbers (20 to 70 inclusion-forming units) of chlamydiae. Numbers of fertile mice in the early treatment regimens and their litter sizes were similar to those of noninfected controls, although 25% of amoxicillin-clavulanate-treated mice had unilateral hydrosalpinges. In comparison, 88% of untreated mice developed hydrosalpinges and only 25% conceived. Delayed dosing did not affect the outcome of amoxicillin-clavulanate therapy but did diminish the protective efficacy of minocycline such that 50% of treated mice had either unilateral hydrosalpinges or ovarian abscesses. Doxycycline and azithromycin were highly effective in restoring fertility. This model makes possible the study of both short- and long-term outcomes of chlamydial infection. Images

Beale, A S; Upshon, P A

1994-01-01

56

Immunology of Chlamydia infection: implications for a Chlamydia trachomatis vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexually transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis infections are a serious public-health problem. With more than 90 million new cases occurring annually, C. trachomatis is the most common cause of bacterial sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Recent progress in elucidating the immunobiology of Chlamydia muridarum infection of mice has helped to guide the interpretation of immunological findings in studies of human C. trachomatis infection

José Rey-Ladino; Robert C. Brunham

2005-01-01

57

Value of screening for oro-pharyngeal Chlamydia trachomatis infection.  

PubMed Central

AIMS--To determine whether oro-pharyngeal colonisation by Chlamydia trachomatis occurs in patients at risk of genital chlamydia infection; to determine whether screening pharyngeal specimens by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) increases detection of C trachomatis compared with isolation and the immune dot blot test; and to correlate the detection of C trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the pharynx with a history of oro-genital contact. METHODS--Thirteen homosexuals and 11 heterosexuals were included in the study. Urogenital and pharyngeal specimens were tested for C trachomatis and N gonorrhoeae using standard clinical diagnostic procedures. Two different PCR methodologies were also used to detect C trachomatis in the pharyngeal specimens. Results were correlated with the mode of sexual practice. RESULTS--Oro-genital sexual contact was practised by 64.9% (72/111) of heterosexuals in addition to penetrative penovaginal intercourse. Additionally, 62.1% (77/124) of all patients did not use any form of barrier protection. Of those who admitted to oro-genital sexual contact, 17.6% of patients with a genital chlamydial infection and 36.4% of those with genital gonorrhoea also had asymptomatic pharyngeal colonisation. C trachomatis was detected in three of 124 (2.4%) pharyngeal specimens by PCR which were reported as negative by chlamydial culture; one was positive by the immune dot blot test. CONCLUSION--The majority of patients practised unprotected oro-genital contact and significant pharyngeal colonisation by C trachomatis and N gonorrhoeae occurred if genital infection was present. Despite the use of PCR in a population at high risk of sexually transmitted disease, the prevalence of chlamydia in the pharynx was very low. This indicates that transmission of C trachomatis to the oro-pharynx does not pose a serious health risk and that screening of patients for oro-pharyngeal C trachomatis is not worthwhile.

Jebakumar, S P; Storey, C; Lusher, M; Nelson, J; Goorney, B; Haye, K R

1995-01-01

58

Chlamydial genital infection in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A seroepidemiological survey.  

PubMed

A seroepidemiological survey was undertaken in Addis Ababa to assess the prevalence of chlamydial genital infections among patients attending a sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic and patients with no overt genital symptoms. In the STD clinic patients antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis serotypes D to K (genital types) were detected in 68 of 210 (32.4%) men and in 72 of 159 (45.3%) women, a rate of exposure as high or higher than that found in Europe. Serological evidence of active chlamydial infection was present in 26.7% of men and 28.9% of women. Women were at risk of contracting STD, including chlamydial infections, at the age of 14 years or earlier. The titres of antichlamydial IgG were extremely high in some patients attending the STD clinic, with titres of between 1/512 and 1/8192 in 9.5% of men and 13.2% of women. This suggests that some patients had severe or disseminated chlamydial disease. The prevalence of exposure to chlamydial genital infections among 148 patients with no overt genital disease was 14.2%, which is significantly higher than that found in the United Kingdom. Among the total of 517 patients tested the prevalence of exposure to trachoma, lymphogranuloma venereum, and Chlamydia psittaci agents was very low. PMID:7171979

Forsey, T; Darougar, S; Dines, R J; Wright, D J; Friedmann, P S

1982-12-01

59

Genital tract infections among HIV-infected pregnant women in Malawi, Tanzania and Zambia  

PubMed Central

Summary The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence and factors associated with genital tract infections among HIV-infected pregnant women from African sites. Participants were recruited from Blantyre and Lilongwe, Malawi; Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; and Lusaka, Zambia. Genital tract infections were assessed at baseline. Of 2627 eligible women enrolled, 2292 were HIV-infected. Of these, 47.8% had bacterial vaginosis (BV), 22.4% had vaginal candidiasis, 18.8% had trichomoniasis, 8.5% had genital warts, 2.6% had chlamydia infection, 2.2% had genital ulcers and 1.7% had gonorrhoea. The main factors associated with genital tract infections included genital warts (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.8, 95% CI 1.2–2.7), genital ulcers (AOR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2–5.1) and abnormal vaginal discharge (AOR 2.5, 95% CI 1.9–3.3) for trichomoniasis. BV was the most common genital tract infection followed by candidiasis and trichomoniasis. Differences in burdens and risk factors call for enhanced interventions for identification of genital tract infections among HIV-infected women.

Aboud, S; Msamanga, G; Read, J S; Mwatha, A; Chen, Y Q; Potter, D; Valentine, M; Sharma, U; Hoffmann, I; Taha, T E; Goldenberg, R L; Fawzi, W W

2009-01-01

60

Significant roles played by IL-10 in Chlamydia infections.  

PubMed

Chlamydia species are obligate intracellular parasites which cause usually asymptomatic genital tract infections and also are associated with several complications. Previous studies demonstrated that immune responses to Chlamydia species are different and the diseases will be limited to some cases. Additionally, Chlamydia species are able to modulate immune responses via regulating expression of some immune system molecules including cytokines. IL-10, as the main anti-inflammatory cytokine, plays important roles in the induction of immune-tolerance against self-antigen and also immune-homeostasis after microbe elimination. Furthermore, it has been documented that ectopic expression of IL-10 is associated with several chronic infectious diseases. Therefore, it can be hypothesized that changes in the regulation of this cytokine can be associated with infection with several species of Chlamydia and their associated complications. This review collected the recent information regarding the association and relationship of IL-10 with Chlamydia infections. Another aim of this review article is to address recent data regarding the association of genetic variations (polymorphisms) of IL-10 and Chlamydia infections. PMID:24398613

Hakimi, Hamid; Zare-Bidaki, Mohammad; Zainodini, Nahid; Assar, Shokrollah; Arababadi, Mohammad Kazemi

2014-06-01

61

Seroepidemiological survey of chlamydial genital infections in Khartoum, Sudan.  

PubMed

A total of 494 patients (90 men and 404 women) attending a sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) clinic in Khartoum, Sudan, were studied to assess the prevalence of chlamydial genital infections. Antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis serotypes D to K were found in four (4.4%) men and 42 (10.4%) women, and 10 (2.5%) women had antibodies to serotypes A to C. PMID:4018806

Omer, E E; Forsey, T; Darougar, S; Ali, M H; el-Naeem, H A

1985-08-01

62

Use of the ligase chain reaction on urine of men and their female sexual partners for detection of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate an in vitro DNA amplification assay named the ligase chain reaction (LCR) for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis cryptic plasmid DNA in urine from men and women, in comparison with urethral swab culture in men and cervical swab culture in women. METHODS: 591 patients (394 men with urethritis and 197 female sex partners) attending a center for sexually transmitted diseases in northern Italy between January 1994 and January 1995 were enrolled in this study. A cervical swab was collected from women and a urethral swab from men for standard tissue cell culture. From each patient 20 mL of the first stream of the urine (FVU), taken at least 2 h after the last urination, were collected for LCR analysis. Discrepant results were further analyzed by direct fluorescence and a LCR with alternative primers. RESULTS: In men the prevalence of C. trachomatis infection by urethral culture was 13.45% and, after resolution of discordant results, the LCR method performed on FVU showed a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 89.4%, 100%, 100% and 98.2%, respectively; the sensitivity of tissue cell culture was 92.8%. In female sex partners, the prevalence of C. trachomatis infection by cervical culture was 3.04%; LCR detected eight true positive samples, two more than tissue cell culture, and no false-negative results. CONCLUSION: LCR analysis of FVU is a rapid, non-invasive technique and represents a good alternative to tissue cell culture. Further study is needed to investigate possible LCR inhibitors present in urine samples. PMID:11866829

Rumpianesi, Fabio; Donati, Manuela; La Placa, Michelangelo; Negosanti, Massimo; D'Antuono, Antonietta; Cevenini, Roberto

1996-01-01

63

The recall response induced by genital challenge with Chlamydia muridarum protects the oviduct from pathology but not from reinfection.  

PubMed

The significant morbidities of ectopic pregnancy and infertility observed in women after Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection result from ascension of the bacteria from the endocervix to the oviduct, where an overly aggressive inflammatory response leads to chronic scarring and Fallopian tube obstruction. A vaccine to prevent chlamydia-induced disease is urgently needed. An important question for vaccine development is whether sterilizing immunity at the level of the oviduct is essential for protection because of the possibility that a chlamydial component drives a deleterious anamnestic T cell response upon oviduct reinfection. We show that mice inoculated with attenuated plasmid-cured strains of Chlamydia muridarum are protected from oviduct pathology upon challenge with wild-type C. muridarum Nigg despite induction of a response that did not prevent reinfection of the oviduct. Interestingly, repeated abbreviated infections with Nigg also elicited recall responses that protected the oviduct from pathology despite low-level reinfection of this vulnerable tissue site. Challenged mice displayed significant decreases in tissue infiltration of inflammatory leukocytes with marked reductions in frequencies of neutrophils but significant increases in frequencies of CD4 Th1 and CD8 T cells. An anamnestic antibody response was also detected. These data indicate that exposure to a live attenuated chlamydial vaccine or repeated abbreviated genital infection with virulent chlamydiae promotes anamnestic antibody and T cell responses that protect the oviduct from pathology despite a lack of sterilizing immunity at the site. PMID:22431649

Riley, Melissa M; Zurenski, Matthew A; Frazer, Lauren C; O'Connell, Catherine M; Andrews, Charles W; Mintus, Margaret; Darville, Toni

2012-06-01

64

The Recall Response Induced by Genital Challenge with Chlamydia muridarum Protects the Oviduct from Pathology but Not from Reinfection  

PubMed Central

The significant morbidities of ectopic pregnancy and infertility observed in women after Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection result from ascension of the bacteria from the endocervix to the oviduct, where an overly aggressive inflammatory response leads to chronic scarring and Fallopian tube obstruction. A vaccine to prevent chlamydia-induced disease is urgently needed. An important question for vaccine development is whether sterilizing immunity at the level of the oviduct is essential for protection because of the possibility that a chlamydial component drives a deleterious anamnestic T cell response upon oviduct reinfection. We show that mice inoculated with attenuated plasmid-cured strains of Chlamydia muridarum are protected from oviduct pathology upon challenge with wild-type C. muridarum Nigg despite induction of a response that did not prevent reinfection of the oviduct. Interestingly, repeated abbreviated infections with Nigg also elicited recall responses that protected the oviduct from pathology despite low-level reinfection of this vulnerable tissue site. Challenged mice displayed significant decreases in tissue infiltration of inflammatory leukocytes with marked reductions in frequencies of neutrophils but significant increases in frequencies of CD4 Th1 and CD8 T cells. An anamnestic antibody response was also detected. These data indicate that exposure to a live attenuated chlamydial vaccine or repeated abbreviated genital infection with virulent chlamydiae promotes anamnestic antibody and T cell responses that protect the oviduct from pathology despite a lack of sterilizing immunity at the site.

Riley, Melissa M.; Zurenski, Matthew A.; Frazer, Lauren C.; O'Connell, Catherine M.; Andrews, Charles W.; Mintus, Margaret

2012-01-01

65

Pathogenesis of genital HPV infection.  

PubMed Central

Clinical, subclinical, and latent human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are distinguished from HPV-associated neoplasia. Besides HPV additional cofactors are necessary to transform HPV infected tissue to intraepithelial or invasive neoplasia. Risk factors for the presence of HPV are high number of sexual partners, early cohabitarche, young age at first delivery, suppression and alteration of immune status, young age and hormonal influences. While the fact of a high number of sexual partners exclusively increases the risk of HPV infection, it is not known whether the other factors lead to either an increased risk for HPV infection and/or to HPV-associated neoplasia. Subclinical and latent genital HPV infections are highly prevalent. The prevalence rate depends on the sensitivity of the HPV detection system used, on age and sexual activity of the population screened, and on the number of subsequent examinations performed for each subject. Sexual transmission is the main pathway for genital HPV's, however, vertical, peripartal, and oral transmission are also possible. Seroreactivity against genital HPV may be due to an active infection or the result of contact with HPV earlier in life. Antibodies against the HPV 16 E7 protein indicate an increased risk for cervical cancer. Compared with humoral response cellular immune response is probably more important for regression of genital HPV infection: impaired cellular response is characterized by depletion of T helper/inducer cells and/or Langerhans cells and impaired function of natural killer cells and/or the infected keratinocyte. In condylomata replication and transcription of viral nucleic acids and antigen production coincide with cellular differentiation. However, the interaction between HPV and the keratinocyte on a molecular level in subclinical and latent disease is not well understood. Regression or persistence of subclinical and latent genital HPV infections as observed in longitudinal investigations show a constant come-and-go of HPV presence. Subclinical or latent cervical infections with high-risk HPV types (such as HPV 16 and 18) have an increased risk for the development of HPV-associated neoplasia.

Schneider, A

1993-01-01

66

Intranasal Vaccination with a Secreted Chlamydial Protein Enhances Resolution of Genital Chlamydia muridarum Infection, Protects against Oviduct Pathology, and Is Highly Dependent upon Endogenous Gamma Interferon Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is currently no licensed vaccine against Chlamydia trachomatis, the leading cause of sexually trans- mitted bacterial disease worldwide. Conventional vaccination attempts using surface-exposed chlamydial antigens have achieved only partial success. We have employed a novel vaccination strategy using a secreted protein, chlamydial protease-like activity factor (CPAF), which has been shown to degrade host major histo- compatibility complex transcription factors

Ashlesh K. Murthy; James P. Chambers; Patricia A. Meier; Guangming Zhong; Bernard P. Arulanandam

2007-01-01

67

Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in the Female Reproductive Tract of the Rat: Influence of Progesterone on Infectivity and Immune Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the most common cause of sexually transmitted disease in women, chlamydial infections can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy. To better understand the role played by sex hormones in modulating the immune response of the genital tract to microbial infections, we have developed a rat model to study Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Inbred female Lewis rats were

CHARU KAUSHIC; ANDREW D. MURDIN; BRIAN J. UNDERDOWN; CHARLES R. WIRA

1998-01-01

68

Chlamydia  

MedlinePLUS

... since chlamydia can be spread through oral and anal sex. Have an honest and open talk with your ... chlamydia in their rectum, either by having receptive anal sex, or by spread from another infected site (such ...

69

[Chlamydia infections and tubal infertility].  

PubMed

This is a screening study for chlamydial infections (1153 patients females). In the number of 272 cases (23.59%) chlamydial infection was confirmed by ELISA blood tests. We purpose to determine the risk factors for tubal infertility, because Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the most important cause of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and permanent tubal damage. High correlations (correlation coefficient-"r") of chlamydial infection with hygienic level (r=0.51), avoided use of condoms (r=0.58) or number of abortions (r=0.65) were noticed. Results with primary prevention through sexual education have been disappointing, so is necessary preventing or limiting sequelae of chlamydial infection, such as PID and tubal infertility. PMID:15832986

Veghe?, Simina; Lupa?cu, Ivona; Solomi?chi, Valeria; Duca, Elena; Fochi, Mihaela

2004-01-01

70

Repeated Chlamydia trachomatis Infection of Macaca nemestrina Fallopian Tubes Produces a Th1Like Cytokine Response Associated with Fibrosis and Scarring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydia trachomatis-associated female infertility and ectopic pregnancy are caused by postinflammatory fibrosis and scarring of the upper genital tract. Scarring of the upper genital tract is associated with multiple infectious episodes with C. trachomatis. To study the immune response that occurs with multiple infections of C. trachomatis in the female upper genital tract, a Macaca nemestrina model was used. Subcutaneous

WESLEY C. VAN VOORHIS; LYNN K. BARRETT; YVONNE T. COSGROVE SWEENEY; CHOU-CHO KUO; DOROTHY L. PATTON

1997-01-01

71

Population based study of genital Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence and associated factors in Norway: A cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background The number of diagnosed cases of Chlamydia trachomatis infection has been increasing in the past years in Norway although the testing rate has been relatively stable. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis in young men and women in one county in Norway and determine associated factors in order to better target preventive measures. Methods We mailed to a random sample of 10 000 persons aged 18–25 in Rogaland county a mail-back urine sample kit and a self-administered questionnaire with questions on socio-demographic details, health seeking behaviour and symptoms of and history of sexually transmitted diseases. Associations between current Clamydia trachomatis infection and the above mentioned factors were studied by multiple logistic regression. Results The response rate among women was 18.9% (930/4923) and 11.9% (605/5077) among men. The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection was 5.8% (95% CI 4.5-6.8) among women and 5.1% (95% CI 3.8-6.8) among men. For men a greater number of partners during the last year (p for trend?infection (OR 8.6, 95% CI 2.2-33.9). For women a greater number of partners during the last year (p?infection while not having a previous Chlamydia trachomatis diagnosis decreased the odds of having this infection (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.2-0.7). Conclusion Our results indicate the importance of having a visible youth clinic in each municipality. It also suggests targeting women who have had a previous Chlamydia trachomatis infection diagnosed before.

2012-01-01

72

Chlamydial genital infection in Ibadan, Nigeria. A seroepidemiological survey.  

PubMed

Sera from patients attending a sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic, a family planning clinic, and an antenatal clinic in Ibadan, Nigeria, as well as from male blood donors from the same area were tested for the presence of type specific antichlamydial antibodies using a modified micro-immunofluorescence test. Among men and women attending the STD clinic the exposure rates to Chlamydia trachomatis serotypes D to K (genital pathogens) were 18.7% and 26.7% respectively. Antibody titres suggesting active disease in these men and women were found in 11.8% and 22.7% respectively. The highest rate of exposure (35%) was among women attending the family planning clinic; of these women 25% had antibody suggesting active disease. Titres of IgG antibody in this study were similar to those found among men and women with chlamydial genital infections in the United Kingdom. Antibodies to serotypes D to K were also detected in 10.3% of women attending an antenatal clinic and in 9.9% of male blood donors. The prevalence of antibodies to C trachomatis serotypes A to C and lymphogranuloma venereum serotypes was low. These results suggest that the prevalence of chlamydial genital infections in Ibadan, both among STD patients and especially among those individuals not seeking treatment (family planning and antenatal clinic patients), is high. Since serious sequelae can follow chlamydial genital infections it is imperative to carry out further investigations in this area. PMID:7171978

Darougar, S; Forsey, T; Osoba, A O; Dines, R J; Adelusi, B; Coker, G O

1982-12-01

73

General practice update: chlamydia infection in women.  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infection in general practice populations ranges between 2% and 12%. Untreated infection can cause pelvic inflammatory disease, tubal infertility and ectopic pregnancy. These risks are increased by cervical invasive procedures, especially termination of pregnancy. However, most women with chlamydia infection have no symptoms. General practitioners and practice nurses carrying out pelvic examinations should have facilities for taking endocervical specimens for chlamydia. Routine chlamydia screening, should be considered if the local prevalence of infection is over 6%. Otherwise chlamydia testing should be offered to women requesting termination of pregnancy and to those who have risk factors: aged less than 25 years, absence of barrier contraception, recent change of sexual partner, vaginal discharge, friable cervix or sterile pyuria. Women found to have chlamydia infection need appropriate antibiotics, advice about contact tracing and referral to a genitourinary medicine clinic. Good communication between general practitioners and genitourinary physicians is essential. Both general practitioners and practice nurses have an important role to play in reducing the prevalence of cervical chlamydia infection and its potentially devastating consequences.

Oakeshott, P; Hay, P

1995-01-01

74

Inhibition of PCR in Genital and Urine Specimens Submitted for Chlamydia trachomatis Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined the frequency of PCR inhibition in genital and urine specimens submitted for Chlamydia trachomatis testing using the internal control DNA provided with the COBAS AMPLICOR C. trachomatis test and assessed methods to remove it. Inhibition occurred in 65 of 906 (7%) cervical swabs, 23 of 51 (45%) urethral swabs, and 2 of 175 (1.1%) urine samples. Overall, inhibition

B. TOYE; W. WOODS; M. BOBROWSKA; K. RAMOTAR

1998-01-01

75

Chlamydia trachomatis Infection as a Risk Factor for Infertility among Women in Ghana, West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In developing countries, data about the prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections and their sequelae, especially tubal infertility, is scarce. A prospective case-control study was performed enrolling 439 Ghanaian women. The case group included 191 patients with primary or secondary infertility. The control group consisted of 248 healthy pregnant women. First-void urine samples were investigated by PCR, and serum specimens

Jorn Siemer; Oliver Theile; Yaw Larbi; Peter A. Fasching; K. A. Danso; Rolf Kreienberg; Andreas Essig

2008-01-01

76

Tampon sampling for diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis: a potentially useful way to detect genital infections?  

PubMed Central

Genital tract infections are important causes of ill health in developing countries, but diagnosis is difficult. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) was correctly diagnosed by using a vaginal specimen obtained by tampon sampling in 22 of 24 women (91.6%) for whom BV was diagnosed by Gram staining. The yield for other vaginal infections was higher (28% for Trichomonas vaginalis and 32.7% for Candida albicans) than it was for cervical infections (0% for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and 30% for Chlamydia trachomatis). Tampon sampling was acceptable to patients and may facilitate diagnosis of genital infections in developing countries.

Wilkinson, D; Ndovela, N; Kharsany, A; Connolly, C; Sturm, A W

1997-01-01

77

Lack of an Effect of Antibiotic Treatment on Prolonged Detection of Chlamydial DNA in Murine Genital Tract Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The host immune response contributes to the pathology of Chlamydia trachomatis infection of the genital tract. Low- grade, chronic infection may elicit an ongoing inflammatory response that could accelerate pathology. The natural course of C. trachomatis infection was recently described in a study of Colombian women followed for a 5-year period. Molano et al. (4) demonstrated that, for 1,995 women

Dawn M. Reeves; Uma Nagarajan; Catherine O'Connell; Charles W. Andrews; T. Darville

2007-01-01

78

Timing of progression from Chlamydia trachomatis infection to pelvic inflammatory disease: a mathematical modelling study  

PubMed Central

Background Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) results from the ascending spread of microorganisms from the vagina and endocervix to the upper genital tract. PID can lead to infertility, ectopic pregnancy and chronic pelvic pain. The timing of development of PID after the sexually transmitted bacterial infection Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) might affect the impact of screening interventions, but is currently unknown. This study investigates three hypothetical processes for the timing of progression: at the start, at the end, or throughout the duration of chlamydia infection. Methods We develop a compartmental model that describes the trial structure of a published randomised controlled trial (RCT) and allows each of the three processes to be examined using the same model structure. The RCT estimated the effect of a single chlamydia screening test on the cumulative incidence of PID up to one year later. The fraction of chlamydia infected women who progress to PID is obtained for each hypothetical process by the maximum likelihood method using the results of the RCT. Results The predicted cumulative incidence of PID cases from all causes after one year depends on the fraction of chlamydia infected women that progresses to PID and on the type of progression. Progression at a constant rate from a chlamydia infection to PID or at the end of the infection was compatible with the findings of the RCT. The corresponding estimated fraction of chlamydia infected women that develops PID is 10% (95% confidence interval 7-13%) in both processes. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that clinical PID can occur throughout the course of a chlamydia infection, which will leave a window of opportunity for screening to prevent PID.

2012-01-01

79

CD4+ T cells are necessary and sufficient to confer protection against C. trachomatis infection in the murine upper genital tract  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the United States. Chlamydia infections that ascend to the upper genital tract can persist, trigger inflammation, and result in serious sequelae such as infertility. However, mouse models where the vaginal vault is inoculated with C. trachomatis do not recapitulate the course of human disease. These intravaginal infections of the mouse do not ascend efficiently to the upper genital tract, do not cause persistent infection, do not induce significant inflammation, and do not induce significant CD4+ T cell infiltration. Here we describe a non-invasive transcervical infection model where we bypass the cervix and directly inoculate C. trachomatis into the uterus. We show that direct C. trachomatis infection of the murine upper genital tract stimulates a robust Chlamydia-specific CD4+ T cell response that is both necessary and sufficient to clear infection and provide protection against re-infection.

Gondek, David C.; Olive, Andrew J.; Stary, Georg; Starnbach, Michael N.

2012-01-01

80

Inhibition of Apoptosis by Gamma Interferon in Cells and Mice Infected with Chlamydia muridarum (the Mouse Pneumonitis Strain of Chlamydia trachomatis)  

PubMed Central

The effect of gamma interferon (IFN-?) on apoptosis due to infection by Chlamydia muridarum (the mouse pneumonitis strain of Chlamydia trachomatis) was studied in epithelial cells in culture and in the genital tracts of mice. IFN-? concentrations that induce the formation of aberrant, persistent chlamydiae inhibit apoptosis due to C. muridarum infection. In cells treated with an IFN-? concentration that leads to the development of a heterogenous population of normal and aberrant Chlamydia vacuoles, apoptosis was inhibited preferentially in cells that contained the aberrant vacuoles. The inhibitory effect of IFN-? appears to be due in part to expression of host cell indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity, since inhibition of apoptosis could be partially reversed through coincubation with exogenous tryptophan. Apoptotic cells were observed in the genital tracts of wild-type mice infected with C. muridarum, and a significantly larger number of apoptotic cells was detected in infected IFN-?-deficient mice. These results suggest that IFN-? may contribute to pathogenesis of persistent Chlamydia infections in vivo by preventing apoptosis of infected cells.

Perfettini, Jean-Luc; Darville, Toni; Dautry-Varsat, Alice; Rank, Roger G.; Ojcius, David M.

2002-01-01

81

Persistent Chlamydia trachomatis Infections Resist Apoptotic Stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial modulation of apoptosis has added a new dimension of understanding to the dynamic interaction between the human host and its microbial invaders. Persistent infection can be a by-product of inhibition of apoptosis and may significantly impact the pathogenesis of diseases caused by organisms such as Chlamydia trachomatis. We compared apoptotic responses among HeLa 229 cells acutely and persistently infected

DEBORAH DEAN; VIRGINIA C. POWERS

2001-01-01

82

Chlamydia trachomatis infection: implications for HPV status and cervical cancer.  

PubMed

Genital Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infections have been identified as a major health problem concern. CT is associated with adverse effect on women reproduction and also associated with cervical hypertrophy and induction of squamous metaplasia, providing a possible relationship with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Infection by high-risk HPV types is crucial to the pathogenesis of invasive cervical cancer (ICC), but other co-variants/cofactors must be present for the development of malignancy. CT biological effect may damage the mucosal barrier, improving HPV infection, or may interfere in immune response and viral clearance supporting the persistence of HPV infection. Moreover, CT-related chronic cervical inflammation, decrease of lower genital tract antigen-presenting cells, inhibition of cell-mediated immunity, and anti-apoptotic capacity may influence the natural history of HPV infection, namely persistence progression or resolution. Although several epidemiological studies have stated a positive association involving CT and HPV-related cervical neoplastic lesions and/or cervical cancer (CC), the specific role of this bacterium in the pathogenesis of cervical neoplasia has not been completely clarified. The present review summarizes several studies on CT role in cervical cancer and suggests future research directions on HPV and CT interaction. PMID:24346121

Silva, Jani; Cerqueira, Fátima; Medeiros, Rui

2014-04-01

83

Enhanced Virulence of Chlamydia muridarum Respiratory Infections in the Absence of TLR2 Activation  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia trachomatis is a common sexually transmitted pathogen and is associated with infant pneumonia. Data from the female mouse model of genital tract chlamydia infection suggests a requirement for TLR2-dependent signaling in the induction of inflammation and oviduct pathology. We hypothesized that the role of TLR2 in moderating mucosal inflammation is site specific. In order to investigate this, we infected mice via the intranasal route with C. muridarum and observed that in the absence of TLR2 activation, mice had more severe disease, higher lung cytokine levels, and an exaggerated influx of neutrophils and T-cells into the lungs. This could not be explained by impaired bacterial clearance as TLR2-deficient mice cleared the infection similar to controls. These data suggest that TLR2 has an anti-inflammatory function in the lung during Chlamydia infection, and that the role of TLR2 in mucosal inflammation varies at different mucosal surfaces.

He, Xianbao; Nair, Anjali; Mekasha, Samrawit; Alroy, Joseph; O'Connell, Catherine M.; Ingalls, Robin R.

2011-01-01

84

Chlamydia trachomatis infections: screening, diagnosis, and management.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis is a gram-negative bacterium that infects the columnar epithelium of the cervix, urethra, and rectum, as well as nongenital sites such as the lungs and eyes. The bacterium is the cause of the most frequently reported sexually transmitted disease in the United States, which is responsible for more than 1 million infections annually. Most persons with this infection are asymptomatic. Untreated infection can result in serious complications such as pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy in women, and epididymitis and orchitis in men. Men and women can experience chlamydia-induced reactive arthritis. Treatment of uncomplicated cases should include azithromycin or doxycycline. Screening is recommended in all women younger than 25 years, in all pregnant women, and in women who are at increased risk of infection. Screening is not currently recommended in men. In neonates and infants, the bacterium can cause conjunctivitis and pneumonia. Adults may also experience conjunctivitis caused by chlamydia. Trachoma is a recurrent ocular infection caused by chlamydia and is endemic in the developing world. PMID:23316985

Mishori, Ranit; McClaskey, Erica L; WinklerPrins, Vince J

2012-12-15

85

Effect of gamma interferon on resolution of murine chlamydial genital infection.  

PubMed Central

Mice infected in the genital tract with the Chlamydia trachomatis agent of mouse pneumonitis were treated with monoclonal rat anti-gamma interferon (anti-IFN-gamma) antibody to determine whether IFN-gamma participated in the resolution of the infection. In two experiments, anti-IFN-gamma antibody treatment resulted in significantly prolonged infections. In support of these data, passive administration of recombinant IFN-gamma to chronically infected nu/nu mice was able to bring about resolution of the infection in some animals.

Rank, R G; Ramsey, K H; Pack, E A; Williams, D M

1992-01-01

86

Molecular Diagnosis of Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common and important intracel- lular bacterium implicated in upper and lower respiratory tract infections in humans. Also, C. pneumoniae has been associated with chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis and asthma. Since C. pneumoniae can cause severe clinical disease, correct diag- nosis and therapy are important issues. However, conventional assays for the detection of C. pneumoniae have

JENS BOMAN; CHARLOTTE A. GAYDOS; THOMAS C. QUINN

1999-01-01

87

Current problems of perinatal Chlamydia trachomatis infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydia trachomatis has been recognized as a pathogen of trachoma, nongonococcal urethritis, salpingitis, endocervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, inclusion conjunctivitis of neonates, follicular conjunctivitis of adults, infantile pneumonia and associated conditions. Chlamydial infections during pregnancy may also cause a variety of perinatal complications. Different antigenic strains of C. trachomatis from endocervical, nasopharyngeal and conjunctival origins have been associated with different clinical

Kei Numazaki

2004-01-01

88

Intranasal immunization induces long-term protection in mice against a Chlamydia trachomatis genital challenge.  

PubMed Central

In an attempt to confer long-term protective immunity, BALB/c female mice were immunized intranasally with 10(4) inclusion-forming units (IFU) of the Chlamydia trachomatis mouse pneumonitis biovar (MoPn). Animals were subsequently challenged in the ovarian bursa with 10(5) C. trachomatis MoPn IFU at 60, 120, or 180 days post-intranasal immunization. Two control groups were included in the study. One control was sham immunized and mock challenged, and another group was sham immunized and challenged with 10(5) C. trachomatis MoPn IFU. Vaginal cultures were collected at regular intervals following the intrabursal challenge. In comparison with the sham-immunized mice, the animals that were intranasally immunized with C. trachomatis had significant protection, as shown by a reduction in the number of animals that had positive vaginal cultures and by a decrease in the intensity and length of the shedding. Furthermore, histopathological characterization of the genital tract following challenge, in the three groups of mice, showed a minimal inflammatory infiltrate in the C. trachomatis-immunized animals, when compared with the sham-immunized control group. Subsequently, the three groups of female mice that were challenged at 60, 120 and 180 days postimmunization were mated at 6 weeks following the challenge. Overall, in the mice intranasally immunized with C. trachomatis the fertility rates and the number of embryos were similar to those in the sham-immunized and mock-challenged group. In contrast, there was a significant increase in infertility in the groups of mice that were sham immunized and C. trachomatis challenged. In conclusion, intranasal immunization with C. trachomatis induces long-term protection against a genital challenge as shown by a decrease in the infection and infertility rates when compared with sham-immunized animals. Thus, this model may help to characterize the parameters of the immune response that are important in maintaining long-term protection and may aid in identifying the antigenic determinants involved in eliciting protection.

Pal, S; Peterson, E M; de la Maza, L M

1996-01-01

89

Human papilloma virus associated with genital infection.  

PubMed

Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are among the most common sexually transmitted diseases. HPV is associated with a spectrum of diseases ranging from benign vulgar verrucae and condylomata accuminata to malignant cancers of the cervix, vulva, anus and penis. Genital HPV is in most cases transmitted sexually, but non-sexual routes of transmission, such as perinatal and autoinoculation, are possible. Men can be a reservoir of the virus that lives in latent or subclinical form on genital mucosa. Such an asymptomatic infection may be an oncogenic factor in the development of cervical cancer Colposcopic examination of the genitalia after the application of 3-5% acetic acid is a reliable method for the identification of subclinical HPV infection. Successful therapy of anogenital warts is characterized by their complete clearance, as well as by the lack of recurrence. Current treatments do not reliably eradicate HPV infections. The diagnosis and therapy of HPV infection in men is potentially beneficial because the eradication of penile HPV infection may decrease the reservoir of the virus. PMID:18982779

Ljubojevi?, Suzana; Lipozenci?, Jasna; Grgec, Dragana-Ljubojevi?; Prstaci?, Ratko; Skerlev, Michael; Mokos, Zrinka Bukvi?

2008-09-01

90

Chlamydia trachomatis infections in neonates and young children.  

PubMed

In 1911, Lindner and colleagues identified intracytoplasmic inclusions in infants with a nongonococcal form of ophthalmia neonatorum called inclusion conjunctivitis of the newborn (ICN). Mothers of affected infants were found to have inclusions in their cervical epithelial cells, fathers of such infants had inclusions in their urethral cells, and the epidemiology of sexually transmitted chlamydial infections was revealed. Fifty years later, chlamydial isolation procedures were developed, and studies again demonstrated Chlamydia trachomatis as an etiology of ICN and the female birth canal as the reservoir. In the late 1970s, a report by Beem and Saxon described respiratory tract colonization and a distinct pneumonia syndrome in infected infants. Genital chlamydial infection is recognized as the world's most common sexually transmitted disease, with estimates of greater than 4 million new infections occurring annually in the United States. Although most C. trachomatis infections in men and women are asymptomatic, infection can lead to severe reproductive complications in women. The high prevalence in women of child-bearing age results in exposure of an estimated 100,000 neonates in the United States annually. Many of these infants develop conjunctivitis, pneumonia, or both in the first few months of life. Clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, and approaches to prevention of conjunctivitis and pneumonia in the newborn and young infant are reviewed here. Appropriate testing for chlamydial infection in a pediatric victim of sexual assault and the implications of identifying C. trachomatis in suspected cases of childhood sexual abuse also are reviewed. PMID:16210104

Darville, Toni

2005-10-01

91

Epidemiology of infection by serotypes D to K of chlamydia trachomatis.  

PubMed

Non-specific urethritis (NSU) is a sexually transmitted disease; 50% of cases are due to Chlamydia trachomatis, so that this is the commonest sexually transmitted infection in the developed world. Chlamydial infection is now readily diagnosable and the evidence increasingly suggests that it is underdiagnosed. Chlamydial conjunctivitis (in the newborn baby or the adult) in the developed world is a complication of sexually transmitted genital infection by C trachomatis and it indicates a large reservoir of such infections. Because of the association of sexually transmitted diseases, systemic treatment for such chlamydial conjunctivitis should not be given until full genital and serological investigators have been carried out. Chlamydial infection causes serious complications (that were formerly often thought to be gonococcal), such as epididymitis in young men and salpingitis on young women. It may cause local complications in the eye of the newborn baby and even pneumonia in babies and fatal endocarditis in adults. The diagnosis of NSU should lead to the correct treatment of the male patient and of his sexual partners. It is the promiscuous woman, who does not have a regular sexual partner to report back to her that he has NSU, who is at particular risk of undiagnosed chlamydial infection. Routine genital investigations for chlamydia are particularly indicated in her case. Following the parallel of gonorrhoea, it seems that the use of contact tracers may be an effective method for controlling chlamydial infection. PMID:7427689

Dunlop, E M; Darougar, S; Treharne, J D

1980-06-01

92

Current problems of perinatal Chlamydia trachomatis infections.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis has been recognized as a pathogen of trachoma, nongonococcal urethritis, salpingitis, endocervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, inclusion conjunctivitis of neonates, follicular conjunctivitis of adults, infantile pneumonia and associated conditions. Chlamydial infections during pregnancy may also cause a variety of perinatal complications. Different antigenic strains of C. trachomatis from endocervical, nasopharyngeal and conjunctival origins have been associated with different clinical conditions. Control programs emphasizing early diagnosis, targeted screening, and effective treatment will lead to an eventual decline in the incidence of perinatal chlamydial infection. This review focuses on current problems of perinatal C. trachomatis infections in the aspects of microbiological and immunological pathogenesis. PMID:14962349

Numazaki, Kei

2004-02-13

93

Biliary-type pain as a manifestation of genital tract infection: the Curtis-Fitz-Hugh syndrome.  

PubMed

Ten patients with biliary-type pain, in whom investigations of the biliary tract were negative, are reported. All the patients were sexually active premenopausal women and all had evidence of infection with chlamydia trachomatis. Five patients submitted to laparoscopy had fibrinous adhesions between the anterior surface of the liver and the parietal peritoneum (perihepatitis). All 10 patients were diagnosed as suffering from the Curtis-Fitz-Hugh syndrome caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. The clinical similarities between the Curtis-Fitz-Hugh syndrome (right upper quadrant abdominal pain, perihepatitis and genital tract infection) and acute biliary disease are emphasized and the diagnostic implications discussed. PMID:7074334

Wood, J J; Bolton, J P; Cannon, S R; Allan, A; O'Connor, B H; Darougar, S

1982-05-01

94

Interpretation of Chlamydia trachomatis antibody response in chlamydial oculogenital infection.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To study: (a) the chlamydial antibody response (to the D-K serovars) using the micro-immunofluorescence (micro-IF) test in the following groups: (I) chlamydial genital infection only, (II) chlamydial ocular infection only, (III) combined chlamydial ocular and genital infection (oculo-genital infection), (IV) chlamydial ocular infection with chlamydia-negative non-gonococcal urethritis, (V) adenovirus conjunctivitis (control group 1), (VI) male partners of group I-IV with no chlamydial oculogenital infection or non-gonococcal urethritis (control group 2) (b) the cross reactivity of antibodies in patients' sera between the three chlamydial species and within the serovars of C trachomatis in those with culture-positive chlamydial oculo-genital infection. SETTING--oculogenital (diagnostic) clinic at Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, UK. SUBJECTS--209 consecutive patients attending the clinic with Chlamydia trachomatis oculogenital infection and 86 patients with adenovirus conjunctivitis (control group 1) and 55 male partners with no evidence of chlamydial oculogenital infection or non-gonococcal urethritis (control group 2). RESULTS--Of all the patients with proven chlamydial oculogenital infection, 10.5% (22/209) and 94% (197/209) had IgM and IgG antibodies respectively. The geometric mean IgG antibody titres (GMT) were 1:98, 1:123, 1:245 and 1:101 in groups I to IV respectively. The IgG GMT values seen in control groups 1 and 2 were 1:45 and 1:36 respectively. Only 2/86(2%) patients in group V (control group 1) had IgG chlamydial antibodies of 1:32 and 1:64, whilst only 1/55(1.8%) and 4/55(7.3%) of patients in group VI(control group 2) had chlamydial IgG antibody titres of > or = 1:256 and > or = 1:128 respectively. A four-fold rise or fall in IgG antibody titre occurred in 56%(107/192) of patient groups I-IV over 2-6 weeks. Low titre cross-reactive antibody responses against different chlamydial species and serovars were commonly seen; 71%(148/209) of all patients showed cross-reactivity with Chlamydia pneumoniae or psittaci species or both, whilst 92% (193/209) of patients showed some level of cross reactivity to other pooled serovars of C trachomatis (A-C and L 1-3). CONCLUSIONS--Serological diagnosis of chlamydial infection as evidenced by a positive IgM antibody response, high IgG titre (> or = 1:256) or > or = 4-fold rise or fall in IgG antibody titre was seen in 78%(163/209) of patients with culture-positive chlamydial oculogenital infection. Chlamydial IgG antibody titres of > or = 1:256 had a sensitivity of 42.6%, specificity of 98.2%, positive predictive value of 98.8% and a negative predictive value of 31% for chlamydial infection at any site, when considering groups I-IV and control group 2. In this study of 216 patients with conjunctivitis, a positive IgG antibody response (titre > or = 1:16) had a sensitivity of 98.5%, specificity of 97.7%, positive predictive value of 98.5% and a negative predictive value of 97.7%, for chlamydial conjunctivitis. Patients with dual chlamydial infection of conjunctiva and genital tract had a higher IgG GMT titre than those with ocular or genital infection alone: infection at a second site may produce an anamnestic response. Although the micro-IF test is a useful adjunct for the diagnosis of chlamydial infection, cross-reactivity between different chlamydial species and serovars is common. Chlamydial seroepidemiological studies should be interpreted with caution, as studies may attribute a serological response to a particular species or serovar in a setting where two or more are prevalent.

Patel, H C; Goh, B T; Viswalingam, N D; Treharne, J D

1995-01-01

95

Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infection-Associated Erythema Multiforme  

PubMed Central

There is a well-known correlation between Herpes simplex (HSV) infection and erythema multiforme (EM). More recently, in Japan, it was found that Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cp) may promote the development of EM. All cases of Cp infection-associated EM that had been diagnosed in our clinic over the past two years (from 2011 to 2012) were analyzed. Cp infection was diagnosed on the basis of a significant increase (>2.00) in anti-Cp IgM titers, as measured by the HITAZYME-ELISA test. There were 7 cases of Cp-EM, one male and 6 females. Median age was 13 years (range 3-29 years). It is recommended that the possible involvement of Cp infection, besides HSV or Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections, should be considered in all cases of EM.

Imashuku, Shinsaku; Kudo, Naoko

2013-01-01

96

Determinants of cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Italy. The Italian MEGIC Group.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--to analyse the prevalence of cervical chlamydia infection and its determinants in an Italian population of women attending outpatients services for contraceptive counselling or routine gynaecological examination. METHODS--between November 1989 and November 1990 we conducted a cross-sectional study on the prevalence of cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infection among women attending the outpatients service of seven university clinics in Northern (three centres), Central (three centres) and Southern (one centre) Italy. Eligible for the study were subjects with symptomatic low gynaecological tract infection (a total of 2071 women), a history of recurrent abortions (two or more miscarriages and no livebirth (416 subjects)), or sterility (371 subjects), plus a sample of asymptomatic women observed for contraceptive counselling or routine gynaecological examination identified on randomly selected days at the participating centres (1321 subjects). During the gynaecological consultation women were asked about their general characteristics, reproductive history, contraceptive and sexual habits, and history of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) using a standard questionnaire. An endocervical specimen was obtained with a plastic swab. The direct smear immunofluorescent antibody test (IFA test) was used to detect chlamydia antigens. RESULTS--out of the 2071 women with genital infection, 104 (5.0%) had cervical chlamydia infection; the corresponding percentages were 4.6 (19/416), 5.4 (20/371) and 3.9 (51/1321) respectively in women with recurrent abortions, sterility and in asymptomatic subjects. The risk of chlamydia infection was higher in women reporting a history of STD: in comparison with those without a history of STD, the relative risk of chlamydia infection was 1.4 (95% confidence interval, CI, 1.0-2.0). Among women reporting current use of a contraceptive method the risk of cervical chlamydia infection was lower in current users of barrier methods; in comparison with oral contraceptive users, the RR was 0.4 (95% CI, 0.2-0.8) in barrier methods users and 0.5 (95% CI, 0.2-1.1) in intrauterine device or other methods users. No consistent relationship emerged with age, reproductive history or number of sexual partners over the last 12 months. CONCLUSION--in this Italian population the frequency of cervical chlamydia infection appeared to be lower than in other selected groups from Northern European and American countries. Users of barrier contraception methods were at reduced risk of infection.

1993-01-01

97

Chlamydia trachomatis Infection, Immunity, and Pregnancy Outcome  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia trachomatis can ascend from the cervix to the fallopian tubes and survive for long periods of time without causing symptoms. The immune response to infection clears the extracellular organisms but leads to development of a persistent intracellular infection. Repeated cycles of productive infection and persistence eventually induce tubal occlusion and infertility. Persistently infected cells continue to synthesize the chlamydial 60 kD heat shock protein (hsp60). Immunity to conserved regions of hsp60 may result in autoimmunity to human hsp60. Expression of hsp60 by the embryo and decidua during early pregnancy may reactivate hsp60-sensitized lymphocytes, disturb pregnancy-induced immune regulatory mechanisms, and lead to immune rejection of the embryo. Due to this mechanism women with tubal infertility who are sensitized to the human hsp60 may have a decreased probability of successful outcome after undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer.

Neuer, A.; Giraldo, P.; Jeremias, J.; Tolbert, V.; Korneeva, I. L.; Kneissl, D.; Bongiovanni, A. M.

1997-01-01

98

Clinical and microscopic signs of cervicitis and urethritis: correlation with Chlamydia trachomatis infection in female STI patients.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis is among the most prevalent genital infections and is an important cause of tubal factor infertility. The majority of infected females are asymptomatic. Evidence on the reliability of signs of inflammation used to predict chlamydia in female patients is inconsistent. This study examined associations between criteria routinely used in many Scandinavian sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics and a positive chlamydia test in a high-prevalence population. Clinical and microscopic signs of cervicitis and urethritis were recorded in 99 women attending due to chlamydia infection in a sexual partner. Mucopurulent cervical discharge, easily induced bleeding from the cervix, and more polymorpho-nuclear cells than epithelial cells in vaginal wet smear all correlated significantly with a positive Chlamydia trachomatis test (odds ratios: 3.4, 4.0 and 4.8, respectively). Increased numbers of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (>30 and ? 5 respectively) in stained cervical and urethral smears were not significantly correlated with chlamydia infection. Hence, routine collection of cervical and urethral smears in female STI patients is questionable. PMID:23460336

Berntsson, Matilda; Tunbäck, Petra

2013-03-27

99

Case-control study of vulvar vestibulitis risk associated with genital infections.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk of vulvar vestibulitis syndrome (VVS) associated with genital infections in a case-control study. METHODS: Diagnosed cases with VVS (n = 69) and age-frequency-matched healthy controls (n = 65) were enrolled from gynecology clinics in a university medical hospital during 1999. They were compared for potential risk factors and symptoms of disease. RESULTS: VVS cases had a significantly higher risk of physician-reported bacterial vaginosis (BV) (odds ratio, OR = 9.4), Candida albicans (OR = 5.7), pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) (OR = 11.2), trichomoniasis (OR = 20.6), and vulvar dysplasia (OR = l5.7) but no risk associated with human papillomavirus (HPV), ASCUS, cervical dysplasia, genital warts, chlamydia, genital herpes or gonorrhea. Genital symptoms reported significantly more often with VVS included vulvar burning (91 vs. 12%), dyspareunia (81 vs. 15%), vulvar itching (68 vs. 23%) and dysuria (54 vs. 19%) (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: A history of genital infections is associated with an increased risk of VVS. Long-term follow-up case-control studies are needed to elucidate etiologic mechanisms, methods for prevention and effective treatment.

Smith, Elaine M; Ritchie, Justine M; Galask, Rudolph; Pugh, Erica E; Jia, Jian; Ricks-McGillan, Joan

2002-01-01

100

Host immune responses after hypoxic reactivation of IFN-? induced persistent Chlamydia trachomatis infection.  

PubMed

Genital tract infections with Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) are the most frequent sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Severe clinical sequelae such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), tubal occlusion, and tubal infertility are linked to inflammatory processes of chronically infected tissues. The oxygen concentrations in the female urogenital tract are physiologically low and further diminished (0.5-5% O2, hypoxia) during an ongoing inflammation. However, little is known about the effect of a low oxygen environment on genital C. trachomatis infections. In this study, we investigated the host immune responses during reactivation of IFN-? induced persistent C. trachomatis infection under hypoxia. For this purpose, the activation of the MAP-kinases p44/42 and p38 as well as the induction of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 were analyzed. Upon hypoxic reactivation of IFN-? induced persistent C. trachomatis infection, the phosphorylation of the p44/42 but not of the p38 MAP-kinase was significantly diminished compared to IFN-? induced chlamydial persistence under normoxic condition. In addition, significantly reduced IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA expression levels were observed for reactivated Chlamydiae under hypoxia compared to a persistent chlamydial infection under normoxia. Our findings indicate that hypoxia not only reactivates IFN-? induced persistent C. trachomatis infections resulting in increased bacterial growth and progeny but also dampens inflammatory host immune signaling responses that are normally observed in a normoxic environment. PMID:24783060

Jerchel, Stefan; Kaufhold, Inga; Schuchardt, Larissa; Shima, Kensuke; Rupp, Jan

2014-01-01

101

Host immune responses after hypoxic reactivation of IFN-? induced persistent Chlamydia trachomatis infection  

PubMed Central

Genital tract infections with Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) are the most frequent sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Severe clinical sequelae such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), tubal occlusion, and tubal infertility are linked to inflammatory processes of chronically infected tissues. The oxygen concentrations in the female urogenital tract are physiologically low and further diminished (0.5–5% O2, hypoxia) during an ongoing inflammation. However, little is known about the effect of a low oxygen environment on genital C. trachomatis infections. In this study, we investigated the host immune responses during reactivation of IFN-? induced persistent C. trachomatis infection under hypoxia. For this purpose, the activation of the MAP-kinases p44/42 and p38 as well as the induction of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 were analyzed. Upon hypoxic reactivation of IFN-? induced persistent C. trachomatis infection, the phosphorylation of the p44/42 but not of the p38 MAP-kinase was significantly diminished compared to IFN-? induced chlamydial persistence under normoxic condition. In addition, significantly reduced IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA expression levels were observed for reactivated Chlamydiae under hypoxia compared to a persistent chlamydial infection under normoxia. Our findings indicate that hypoxia not only reactivates IFN-? induced persistent C. trachomatis infections resulting in increased bacterial growth and progeny but also dampens inflammatory host immune signaling responses that are normally observed in a normoxic environment.

Jerchel, Stefan; Kaufhold, Inga; Schuchardt, Larissa; Shima, Kensuke; Rupp, Jan

2014-01-01

102

'The difference in determinants of Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium in a sample of young Australian women.'  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Differences in the determinants of Chlamydia trachomatis ('chlamydia') and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) genital infection in women are not well understood. METHODS: A cohort study of 16 to 25 year old Australian women recruited from primary health care clinics, aimed to determine chlamydia and MG prevalence and incidence. Vaginal swabs collected at recruitment were used to measure chlamydia and MG

Jennifer Walker; Christopher K Fairley; Catriona S Bradshaw; Sepehr N Tabrizi; Marcus Y Chen; Jimmy Twin; Nicole Taylor; Basil Donovan; John K Kaldor; Kathleen McNamee; Eve Urban; Sandra Walker; Marian Currie; Hudson Birden; Francis Bowden; Jane Gunn; Marie Pirotta; Lyle Gurrin; Veerakathy Harindra; Suzanne Garland; Jane S Hocking

2011-01-01

103

Experimental Infection of Pregnant Ewes with Chlamydia pecorum  

PubMed Central

Pregnant ewes were infected in midpregnancy with three isolates of Chlamydia pecorum derived from the feces of healthy lambs from three different farms. Oral infection, alone or together with Fasciola hepatica, did not result in tissue invasion, since all placental and fecal samples were negative for chlamydiae. Intravenous infection resulted in placental infection in 16 of 18 ewes in that chlamydiae were cultured from placentas or vaginal swabs. Two ewes bore dead lambs after a shortened gestation time. The chlamydiae isolated were all C. pecorum. There were no significant differences between the weights of the lambs from the infected groups and those from uninfected control ewes. Most ewes showed no serological evidence of infection by the complement fixation test; therefore, it is unlikely that the enteric subtype of C. pecorum is responsible for the cross-reactions sometimes seen in flocks being tested for C. psittaci infection.

Philips, Helen L.; Clarkson, Michael J.

1998-01-01

104

Young pregnant women's views on the acceptability of screening for chlamydia as part of routine antenatal care  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In pregnancy, untreated chlamydia infection has been associated with adverse outcomes for both mother and infant. Like most women, pregnant women infected with chlamydia do not report genital symptoms, and are therefore unlikely to be aware of their infection. The aim of this study was to determine the acceptability of screening pregnant women aged 16-25 years for chlamydia as

Jade E Bilardi; Deborah L De Guingand; Meredith J Temple-Smith; Suzanne Garland; Christopher K Fairley; Sonia Grover; Euan Wallace; Jane S Hocking; Sepehr Tarbrizi; Marie Pirotta; Marcus Y Chen

2010-01-01

105

Inhibition of Matrix Metalloproteinases Protects Mice from Ascending Infection and Chronic Disease Manifestations Resulting from Urogenital Chlamydia muridarum Infection  

PubMed Central

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are a family of host-derived enzymes involved in the turnover of extracellular matrix molecules. We have previously reported enhanced expression of matrix metalloproteinases in Chlamydia muridarum urogenital tract infection of female mice. Kinetics and patterns of MMP expression as well as enhanced expression in susceptible strains of mice in the prior study implied a role for MMP in pathogenesis. To explore this further, we infected a susceptible strain of mice (C3H/HeN) with C. muridarum and treated two groups of mice with either one of two chemical inhibitors of MMP (MMPi; captopril and a chemically modified tetracycline) and reserved infected sham-treated mice as controls. Neither of the treatments affected shedding of viable chlamydiae from the lower urogenital tract, but the administration of either MMPi protected mice from the formation of hydrosalpinx—a surrogate marker of oviduct occlusion and infertility. Interestingly, the mechanism of protection for mice treated with chemically modified tetracycline 3, appeared to be related to prevention of ascending upper genital tract infection. These results imply that MMP are involved in pathogenesis of chlamydial infection in this model by mediating ascension of the infection into the upper genital tract.

Imtiaz, Muhammad T.; Schripsema, Justin H.; Sigar, Ira M.; Kasimos, John N.; Ramsey, Kyle H.

2006-01-01

106

Effects of vaginal lactobacilli in Chlamydia trachomatis infection.  

PubMed

Increasing evidence indicates that abnormal vaginal flora lacking lactobacilli facilitates the acquisition of several sexually transmitted diseases including Chlamydia trachomatis. C. trachomatis, the most common bacterial agent of genital infections worldwide, can progress from the lower to upper reproductive tract and induce severe sequelae. The ability of C. trachomatis to develop into a persistent form has been suggested as key pathogenetic mechanism underlying chronic infections and sequelae. The aim of our study was to investigate the C. trachomatis interaction with vaginal microbiota analyzing the effects of Lactobacillus strains (L. brevis and L. salivarius) on the different phases of C. trachomatis developmental cycle. In addition, the effect of lactobacilli on persistent chlamydial forms induced by HSV-2 coinfection has also been evaluated. Our results demonstrated significant inhibition of C. trachomatis multiplication by vaginal lactobacilli. L. brevis was significantly more effective than L. salivarius (p<0.05) on all the steps of chlamydial infection cycle suggesting that the ability of lactobacilli to protect from infection is strain-dependent. Lactobacilli had an adverse effect on elementary chlamydial bodies (p<0.05), on chlamydial adsorption to epithelial cells (p<0.001) and on intracellular phases of chlamydial replication (p<0.0001). Our study also demonstrated a protective effect of lactobacilli toward persistent C. trachomatis forms induced by HSV-2 coinfection. A significant increase in the production of C. trachomatis infectious progeny was observed in C. trachomatis/HSV-2 coinfection in the presence of L. brevis (p=0.01) despite a significant inhibition of C. trachomatis multiplication (p=0.028). Our data suggest that a healthy vaginal microbiota can reduce the risk of acquiring C. trachomatis infection and counteract the development of persistent chlamydial forms. PMID:24875405

Mastromarino, Paola; Di Pietro, Marisa; Schiavoni, Giovanna; Nardis, Chiara; Gentile, Massimo; Sessa, Rosa

2014-07-01

107

Bioluminescence Imaging of Chlamydia muridarum Ascending Infection in Mice  

PubMed Central

Chlamydial pathogenicity in the upper genital tract relies on chlamydial ascending from the lower genital tract. To monitor chlamydial ascension, we engineered a luciferase-expressing C. muridarum. In cells infected with the luciferase-expressing C. muridarum, luciferase gene expression and enzymatic activity (measured as bioluminescence intensity) correlated well along the infection course, suggesting that bioluminescence can be used for monitoring chlamydial replication. Following an intravaginal inoculation with the luciferase-expressing C. muridarum, 8 of 10 mice displayed bioluminescence signal in the lower with 4 also in the upper genital tracts on day 3 after infection. By day 7, all 10 mice developed bioluminescence signal in the upper genital tracts. The bioluminescence signal was maintained in the upper genital tract in 6 and 2 mice by days 14 and 21, respectively. The bioluminescence signal was no longer detectable in any of the mice by day 28. The whole body imaging approach also revealed an unexpected airway infection following the intravaginal inoculation. Although the concomitant airway infection was transient and did not significantly alter the genital tract infection time courses, caution should be taken during data interpretation. The above observations have demonstrated that C. muridarum can not only achieve rapid ascending infection in the genital tract but also cause airway infection following a genital tract inoculation. These findings have laid a foundation for further optimizing the C. muridarum intravaginal infection murine model for understanding chlamydial pathogenic mechanisms.

Campbell, Jessica; Huang, Yumeng; Liu, Yuanjun; Schenken, Robert; Arulanandam, Bernard; Zhong, Guangming

2014-01-01

108

Chlamydia  

MedlinePLUS

... can get chlamydia by having anal, vaginal, or oral sex with someone who has chlamydia. If your sex ... can get chlamydia through unprotected anal, vaginal, or oral sex. However, sexually active young people are at a ...

109

Puerperal infections of the genital tract: a clinical review.  

PubMed

Puerperal genital tract infections, although less common in the 21st century, continue to affect maternal mortality and morbidity rates in the United States. Puerperal genital tract infections include endometritis as well as abdominal and perineal wound infections. These infections interrupt postpartum restoration, increase the potential for readmission to a health care facility, and can interfere with maternal-infant bonding. In addition, unrecognized or improperly treated genital tract infection could extend to other sites via venous circulation or the lymphatic system and increase the risk of severe complications or sepsis. Midwives are leaders in education, low rates of intervention, and prompt recognition of deviation from normal. Because puerperal genital tract infection usually begins after discharge, detailed education for women will encourage preventative health care, prompt recognition, and treatment. PMID:24406036

Karsnitz, Deborah Brandt

2013-01-01

110

Folate-functionalized dendrimers for targeting Chlamydia-infected tissues in a mouse model of reactive arthritis.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis is an intracellular human pathogen that causes a sexually transmitted disease which may result in an inflammatory arthritis designated Chlamydia-induced reactive arthritis (ReA). The arthritis develops after dissemination of infected cells from the initial site of chlamydial infection. During Chlamydia-associated ReA, the organism may enter into a persistent infection state making treatment with antibiotics a challenge. We hypothesize that folate receptors (FR), which are overexpressed in Chlamydia-infected cells, and the associated inflammation would allow folate-targeted nanodevices to better treat infections. To investigate this, we developed a folate-PAMAM dendrimer-Cy5.5 conjugate (D-FA-Cy5.5), where Cy5.5 is used as the near-IR imaging agent. Uptake of D-FA-Cy5.5 upon systemic administration was assessed and compared to non-folate conjugated controls (D-Cy5.5), using a mouse model of Chlamydia-induced ReA, and near-IR imaging. Our results suggested that there was a higher concentration of folate-based nanodevice in sites of infection and inflammation compared to that of the control nanodevice. The folate-conjugated nanodevices localized to infected paws and genital tracts (major sites of inflammation and infection) at 3-4 fold higher concentrations than were dendrimer alone, suggesting that the overexpression of folate receptors in infected and inflamed tissues enables higher dendrimer uptake. There was an increase in uptake into thymus, spleen, and lung, but no significant differences in the uptake of the folate nanodevices in other organs including kidney and heart, indicating the 'relative specificity' of the D-FA-Cy5.5 conjugate nanodevices. These results suggest that folate targeting dendrimers are able to deliver drugs to attenuate infection and associated inflammation in Chlamydia-induced ReA. PMID:24607214

Benchaala, Ilyes; Mishra, Manoj K; Wykes, Susan M; Hali, Mirabela; Kannan, Rangaramanujam M; Whittum-Hudson, Judith A

2014-05-15

111

[Utility of molecular biology techniques in the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases and genital infections].  

PubMed

Historically, the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) has been difficult. The introduction of molecular biology techniques in microbiological diagnosis and their application to non-invasive samples has produced significant advances in the diagnosis of these diseases. Overall, detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae by molecular biology techniques provides a presumptive diagnosis and requires confirmation by culture in areas with a low prevalence. For Chlamydia trachomatis infections, these techniques are considered to be the most sensitive and specific procedures for mass screening studies, as well as for the diagnosis of symptomatic patients. Diagnosis of Mycoplasma genitalium infection by culture is very slow and consequently molecular techniques are the only procedures that can provide relevant diagnostic information. For Treponema pallidum, molecular techniques can provide direct benefits in the diagnosis of infection. Molecular techniques are not established for the routine diagnosis of donovanosis, but can be recommended when performed by experts. Molecular methods are advisable in Haemophilus ducreyi, because of the difficulties of culture and its low sensitivity. In genital herpes, molecular techniques have begun to be recommended for routine diagnosis and could soon become the technique of choice. For other genital infections, bacterial vaginosis, vulvovaginal candidosis and trichomoniasis, diagnosis by molecular methods is poorly established. With genital warts, techniques available for screening and genotyping of endocervical samples could be used for certain populations, but are not validated for this purpose. PMID:19195446

Otero Guerra, Luis; Lepe Jiménez, José Antonio; Blanco Galán, María Antonia; Aznar Martín, Javier; Vázquez Valdés, Fernando

2008-07-01

112

Prostaglandin E2 modulates dendritic cell function during chlamydial genital infection  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory responses mediated by antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs), can be modulated by the presence of prostaglandins (PG), including prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). PGE2 modifies the production of an immune response by altering DC function through PGE2 receptors. PGE2 is produced by epithelial cells lining the murine female reproductive tract during Chlamydia muridarum infection and likely manipulates the antichlamydial immune response during antigen uptake in the genital mucosa. Our data demonstrate that the PGE2 present locally in the genital tract upon chlamydial genital infection enhanced the recruitment of CD11b+ conventional DCs, but not CD45R+ plasmacytoid DCs, to infected genital tract tissue and draining lymph nodes in vivo. Furthermore, exposure to PGE2in vitro during infection of murine bone-marrow-derived conventional DCs (cDCs) boosted interleukin-10 mRNA and protein while not influencing interleukin-12p40 production. Infection of cDCs markedly increased mRNA production of the costimulatory molecules CD86, CD40 and a member of the C-type lectin family, DEC-205, but addition of PGE2 increased other costimulatory molecules and C-type lectins. Also, exposure of PGE2 to infected cDCs increased Fc?RIII and Fc?RIIb, suggesting that PGE2 enhances the uptake and presentation of C. muridarum and augments production of the antichlamydial adaptive immune response. Taken together, the data suggest that exposure of infected cDCs to PGE2 drives production of a diverse adaptive immune response with implications for regulating tissue inflammation.

Liu, Wei; Kelly, Kathleen Ann

2008-01-01

113

Chlamydia trachomatis vacuole maturation in infected macrophages  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium responsible for one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases. In epithelial cells, C. trachomatis resides in a modified membrane-bound vacuole known as an inclusion, which is isolated from the endocytic pathway. However, the maturation process of C. trachomatis within immune cells, such as macrophages, has not been studied extensively. Here, we demonstrated that RAW macrophages effectively suppressed C. trachomatis growth and prevented Golgi stack disruption, a hallmark defect in epithelial cells after C. trachomatis infection. Next, we systematically examined association between C. trachomatis and various endocytic pathway markers. Spinning disk confocal time-lapse studies revealed significant and rapid association between C. trachomatis with Rab7 and LAMP1, markers of late endosomes and lysosomes. Moreover, pretreatment with an inhibitor of lysosome acidification led to significant increases in C. trachomatis growth in macrophages. At later stages of infection, C. trachomatis associated with the autophagy marker LC3. TEM analysis confirmed that a significant portion of C. trachomatis resided within double-membrane-bound compartments, characteristic of autophagosomes. Together, these results suggest that macrophages can suppress C. trachomatis growth by targeting it rapidly to lysosomes; moreover, autophagy is activated at later stages of infection and targets significant numbers of the invading bacteria, which may enhance subsequent chlamydial antigen presentation.

Sun, He Song; Eng, Edward W. Y.; Jeganathan, Sujeeve; Sin, Alex T-W.; Patel, Prerna C.; Gracey, Eric; Inman, Robert D.; Terebiznik, Mauricio R.; Harrison, Rene E.

2012-01-01

114

Infection of human monocytes by Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia trachomatis: an in vitro comparative study  

PubMed Central

Background An increasing number of studies suggest that chlamydiae can infect immune cells. The altered immune cell function could contribute to the progression of several chronic inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) interactions with in vitro infected human blood monocytes. Results Fresh isolated monocytes were infected with viable CP and CT elementary bodies and infectivity was evaluated by recultivating disrupted monocytes in permissive epithelial cells. The production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species was studied in the presence of specific fluorescent probes. Moreover, TNF-?, INF-?, INF-? and INF-? gene expression was determined. CT clearance from monocytes was complete at any time points after infection, while CP was able to survive up to 48 hours after infection. When NADPH oxydase or nitric oxide synthase inhibitors were used, CT infectivity in monocytes was restored, even if at low level, and CT recovery’s rate was comparable to CP one. CT-infected monocytes produced significantly higher levels of reactive species compared with CP-infected monocytes, at very early time points after infection. In the same meanwhile, TNF-? and INF-? gene expression was significantly increased in CT-infected monocytes. Conclusions Our data confirm that CP, but not CT, is able to survive in infected monocytes up to 48 hours post-infection. The delay in reactive species and cytokines production by CP-infected monocytes seems to be crucial for CP survival.

2014-01-01

115

Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infections and Sudden Unexpected Deaths in Denmark.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Blood samples from 38 runners on the Danish national orienteering team revealed no ongoing chlamydia pneumoniae, although 42% had an earlier infection, similar to the incidence in the general population. However, over 2% had an ongoing lyme borreliosis infection, and 18% had an earlier infection, which is a higher incidence than in the general…

Johannsen, Finn

1993-01-01

116

Fallopian tube obstruction as a sequela to Chlamydia trachomatis infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association of tubal infertility and ectopic pregnancy with\\u000aChlamydia trachomatis\\u000ainfection was investigated using a case-control study design. Although culture methods failed to document active chlamydial infection in the majority of cases, serology revealed a significant association of\\u000aChlamydia trachomatis\\u000aantibody with tubal infertility and ectopic pregnancy. Thirteen of 18 (72 %) women with tubal factor infertility and 18

M. Kosseim; R. C. Brunham

1986-01-01

117

Prevalence of genital mycoplasmas in asymptomatic male partners of women diagnosed as having chlamydial infections.  

PubMed

We examined 209 asymptomatic male partners of women diagnosed as having chlamydial infections for the prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and Ureaplasma parvum in their first-voided urine (FVU) by nucleic acid amplification tests. Quantification of leukocytes in FVU was performed by automated urine particle analyzers. Two (1.0%) men were positive for N. gonorrhoeae, and 92 (44.0%) were positive for C. trachomatis. In men negative for these pathogens, prevalences of M. genitalium, M. hominis, U. urealyticum, and U. parvum were 0.9%, 29.6%, 27.8%, and 20.1%, respectively, and 58.3% were positive for at least one species of the genital mycoplasmas. Leukocyte counts in FVU from 92 men positive for C. trachomatis were significantly greater than those from 115 men negative for C. trachomatis (p < 0.0001). However, there was no significant difference in leukocyte counts between 66 men positive for at least one species of M. hominis, U. urealyticum, and U. parvum and 48 men negative for all the species (p = 0.1657). The present population of asymptomatic male partners of women diagnosed as having chlamydial infections showed a low prevalence of M. genitalium infections but would be at high risk of being infected by the other genital mycoplasmas. However, it was still unclear whether these genital mycoplasmas would contribute to the development of inflammation of the male urethra. When these partners are negative for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae, the recommendation to presumptively treat them to disrupt transmission networks of the genital mycoplasmas would seem premature. PMID:24486047

Ito, Shin; Kikuchi, Mina; Seike, Kensaku; Tsuchiya, Tomohiro; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Yokoi, Shigeaki; Nakano, Masahiro; Deguchi, Takashi

2014-02-01

118

Developing and validating a risk scoring tool for chlamydia infection among sexual health clinic attendees in Australia: a simple algorithm to identify those at high risk of chlamydia infection  

PubMed Central

Objective To develop and validate a risk scoring tool to identify those who are at increased risk of chlamydia infection. Methods We used demographic data, sexual behaviour information and chlamydia positivity results from more than 45?000 individuals who attended Sydney Sexual Health Centre between 1998 and 2009. Participants were randomly allocated to either the development or internal validation data set. Using logistic regression, we created a prediction model and weighted scoring system using the development data set and calculated the odds ratio of chlamydia positivity for participants in successively higher quintiles of score. The internal validation data set was used to evaluate the performance characteristics of the model for five quintiles of risk scores including population attributable risk, sensitivity and specificity. Results In the prediction model, inconsistent condom use, increased number of sexual partners in last 3?months, genital or anal symptoms and presenting to the clinic for sexually transmitted infections screening or being a contact of a sexually transmitted infection case were consistently associated with increased risk of chlamydia positivity in all groups. High scores (upper quintiles) were significantly associated with increased risk of chlamydia infection. A cut-point score of 20 or higher distinguished a increased risk group with a sensitivity of 95%, 67% and 79% among heterosexual men, women and men who have sex with men (MSM), respectively. Conclusion The scoring tool may be included as part of a health promotion and/or clinic website to prompt those who are at increased risk of chlamydia infection, which may potentially lead to increased uptake and frequency of testing.

Guy, Rebecca; Donovan, Basil; McNulty, Anna

2011-01-01

119

Enhanced Neutrophil Longevity and Recruitment Contribute to the Severity of Oviduct Pathology during Chlamydia muridarum Infection?  

PubMed Central

Our previous studies revealed that intravaginal infection of mice with a plasmid-deficient strain of Chlamydia muridarum, CM3.1, does not induce the development of oviduct pathology. In this study, we determined that infection with CM3.1 resulted in a significantly reduced frequency and absolute number of neutrophils in the oviducts during acute infection. This reduction in neutrophils was associated with significantly lower levels of neutrophil chemokines in the oviducts and decreased production of neutrophil chemokines by oviduct epithelial cells infected with CM3.1 in vitro. Infection with CM3.1 also resulted in an increased frequency of late apoptotic/dead neutrophils in the oviduct. Examination of the ability of Chlamydia trachomatis to prevent neutrophil apoptosis in vitro revealed that C. trachomatis strain D/UW-3/Cx exhibited an enhanced ability to prevent neutrophil apoptosis compared to plasmid-deficient CTD153, and this effect was dependent on the presence of CD14high monocytes. The presence of monocytes also resulted in enhanced neutrophil cytokine production and increased production of tissue-damaging molecules in response to D/UW-3/Cx relative to results with CTD153. Attempts to use antibody-mediated depletion to discern the specific role of neutrophils in infection control and pathology in vivo revealed that although Ly6Ghigh neutrophils were eliminated from the blood and oviducts with this treatment, immature neutrophils and high levels of tissue-damaging molecules were still detectable in the upper genital tract. These data support the role of neutrophils in chlamydia-induced pathology and reveal that novel methods of depletion must be developed before their role can be specifically determined in vivo.

Frazer, Lauren C.; O'Connell, Catherine M.; Andrews, Charles W.; Zurenski, Matthew A.; Darville, Toni

2011-01-01

120

The role of Chlamydia and Chlamydophila infections in reactive arthritis.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydophila pneumoniae are human pathogens; the former being the etiologic agent for trachoma as well as a prevalent sexually transmitted bacterium, while C. pneumoniae is a respiratory pathogen responsible for community-acquired pneumonia. Patients with reactive arthritis show evidence of present or past Chlamydial infection. Chlamydia spp., has been strongly implicated as a triggering factor for reactive arthritis. We describe the simultaneous occurrence of C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis infections in a subject with reactive arthritis. We suggest treatment for a patient with Chlamydia-associated arthritis to define a means by which persistent organisms can be induced to return to the active developmental cycle, thereby making them more accessible to antibiotic activity. PMID:22214635

Rizzo, Antonietta; Domenico, Marina Di; Carratelli, Caterina Romano; Paolillo, Rossella

2012-01-01

121

Immunization with an acellular vaccine consisting of the outer membrane complex of Chlamydia trachomatis induces protection against a genital challenge.  

PubMed Central

The ability to induce protection against a genital challenge was studied in BALB/c female mice with three Chlamydia trachomatis mouse pneumonitis (MoPn) major outer membrane protein (MOMP) preparations as well as an acellular vaccine consisting of the chlamydial outer membrane complex (COMC). The MOMP preparations were extracted with three different types of detergents, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), n-octyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (OGP), and Zwittergent 3-14 (Z3-14). A positive immunization control consisted of mice inoculated intranasally with 10(4) C. trachomatis MoPn inclusion-forming units (IFU). Mice inoculated with ovalbumin served as a negative control. Furthermore, a sham-immunized, nonchallenged group was included as a fertility control. Two weeks after the last immunization, the mice were challenged in the left ovarian bursa with 10(5) C. trachomatis MoPn IFU. Vaginal swabs were collected for culture, vaginal and serum samples were assayed for chlamydial-specific antibodies, and splenocytes were collected to determine the lymphoproliferative response. At 42 days after the challenge, the mice were mated with proven male breeder mice. Animals that were considered to be pregnant (as determined by weight) were killed, and the embryos were counted. A significant humoral and cell-mediated immune response was observed in all the groups of mice inoculated with chlamydial antigens. Antibodies to variable domain (VD)1 of the MOMP were detected in serum samples from all the immunized groups. However, antibodies to VD3 and VD4 were detected only in the groups immunized with the Z3-14-MOMP and the COMC. Mice immunized with COMC developed significant immunoglobulin A chlamydia-specific antibodies in the vagina, while mice immunized with the detergent-extracted MOMPs had low antibody titers. Following the intrabursal challenge, a significant decrease in the intensity and duration of vaginal shedding was noted in the mice immunized with COMC and a moderate decrease was noted in the group immunized with OGP-MOMP. No protection against the infection was noted in the groups of animals immunized with SDS- and Z3-14-MOMP. Furthermore, of the mice immunized with the COMC preparation, only 25% (4 of 20) shed C. trachomatis, as determined by vaginal culture, while 83% (40 of 48) of the control mice inoculated with ovalbumin were culture positive (P < 0.05). In addition, after mating, the mice inoculated with COMC were found to have fertility rates comparable to those of the control sham-immunized, nonchallenged animals (70% [14 of 20] versus 81% [17 of 21], respectively [P > 0.05]), and there were no significant differences between the average number of embryos per mouse in the two groups (5.1 versus 5.9, respectively [P > 0.05]). In contrast, mice immunized with the purified MOMP preparations were not protected against infertility. In summary, a preparation of the COMC protected mice against infection and infertility, supporting the feasibility of the development of an acellular vaccine against C. trachomatis infections.

Pal, S; Theodor, I; Peterson, E M; de la Maza, L M

1997-01-01

122

The microbicidal agent C31G inhibits Chlamydia trachomatis infectivity in vitro.  

PubMed Central

Safe and effective vaginal microbicidal compounds are being sought to offer women an independent method for protection against transmission of sexually acquired pathogens. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of two formulations of one such compound, C31G, against Chlamydia trachomatis serovar E alone, its host epithelial cell (HEC-1B) alone, and against chlamydiae-infected HEC-1B cells. Preexposure of isolated, purified infectious chlamydial elementary bodies (EB) to C31G, at pHs 7.2 and 5.7, for 1 h at 4 degrees C resulted in reduced infectivity of EB for HEC-1B cells. Examination of the C31G-exposed 35S-EB on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis autoradiographs and by Western blotting revealed a C31G concentration-dependent and pH-dependent destabilization of the chlamydial envelope, resulting in the release of chlamydial lipopolysaccharide and proteins. Interestingly, when the host human genital columnar epithelial cells were infected with chlamydiae and then exposed to dilute concentrations of C31G which did not alter epithelial cell viability, chlamydial infectivity was also markedly reduced. C31G gained access to the developing chlamydial inclusion causing damage to or destruction of metabolically active reticulate bodies as well as apparent alteration of the inclusion membrane, which resulted in premature escape of chlamydial antigen to the infected epithelial surface. These studies show that the broad-spectrum antiviral and antibacterial microbicide C31G also has antichlamydial activity.

Wyrick, P B; Knight, S T; Gerbig, D G; Raulston, J E; Davis, C H; Paul, T R; Malamud, D

1997-01-01

123

Reactivation of persistent Chlamydia trachomatis infection in cell culture.  

PubMed Central

Gamma interferon induces persistent chlamydial infections in cell culture. These infections are characterized by altered morphologic and biochemical features of the pathogen. These persistent forms are abnormally large and noninfectious and undergo unusual structural and functional changes, including production of a paucity of outer envelope constituents and normal levels of the chlamydial hsp60, an immunopathological antigen. The current investigation evaluates the events that occur during reactivation of infectious Chlamydia trachomatis from persistently infected cell cultures. Transfer of persistent chlamydial organisms to gamma interferon-free medium resulted in recovery of infectivity accompanied by an increase in levels of structural membrane proteins and reorganization of aberrant organisms to morphologically typical elementary bodies. In addition, reactivation of infectious organisms from persistent chlamydiae that were maintained in culture for several weeks was demonstrated. These studies show that persistent C. trachomatis maintains viability for extended periods, illustrate the reversibility of immunologically mediated persistent infections, and characterize reactivation at the ultrastructural and biochemical levels.

Beatty, W L; Morrison, R P; Byrne, G I

1995-01-01

124

[Chlamydia infection and female low fertility in Morocco].  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis infection is recognised as the most common asymptomatic sexually transmitted disease, and this may lead to severe complication including infertility. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the part that this pathology takes in the female hypofertility, using serologic, cell culture, and histopathologic tests. Some of the women had undergone biopsies during coelioscopic exam, the others during salpingectomy. Cervical specimens were carried from other women. They had as clinical signs: primary or secondary infertility, ectopic pregnancy, syndrome of synechie, hydrosalpinx, or pelvic pains. 128 of these women had undergone serologic exam, 57 a cell culture, and 47 an histopathologic test. The results showed that 26% had anti Chlamydia trachomatis antibodies and 46% from them with tubal problems confirmed, had anti Chlamydia trachomatis antibodies as well, only 7% had cell culture positive from cervix specimens, none from the biopsies, and 73% of them had inflammatory responses. All women with inflammatory responses had a serologic and/or cell culture positive tests. Our results allow us to conclude that this infection takes a good part in female hypofertility, there is a correlation between a previous Chlamydia trachomatis infection and a tubal histopathology. In front of the difficulties of isolation by cell culture the detection of the microorganism by molecular biology assays may resolve a lot of problems. PMID:9309266

Radouani, F; Takourt, B; Benomar, H; Guerbaoui, M; Bekkay, M; Boutaleb, Y; Guinet, R; Ibrahimy, S; Benslimane, A

1997-06-01

125

Lipid acquisition by intracellular Chlamydiae.  

PubMed

Chlamydia species are obligate intracellular pathogens that are important causes of human genital tract, ocular and respiratory infections. The bacteria replicate within a specialized membrane-bound compartment termed the inclusion and require host-derived lipids for intracellular growth and development. Emerging evidence indicates that Chlamydia has evolved clever strategies to fulfil its lipid needs by interacting with multiple host cell compartments and redirecting trafficking pathways to its intracellular niche. In this review, we highlight recent findings that have significantly expanded our understanding of how Chlamydia exploit lipid trafficking pathways to ensure the survival of this important human pathogen. PMID:22452394

Elwell, Cherilyn A; Engel, Joanne N

2012-07-01

126

A prospective study of Chlamydia trachomatis infection following legal abortion.  

PubMed

In a prospective study, 288 women were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) in the cervix prior to legal abortion. In the control group (n = 259), CT culturing was carried out only when postoperative infection was suspected. CT was isolated in 14.2% of asymptomatic women. These patients were treated preoperatively with Doxycycline. In this group, no cases of postoperative infection were detected. Among those cases where CT was not detected, 4.9% contracted the infection, while in the control group the rate of infection was 9.7%. In the control group all the infections due to CT gave late symptoms after the operation (1-4 weeks). PMID:3618133

Giertz, G; Kallings, I; Nordenvall, M; Fuchs, T

1987-01-01

127

Genital ulcers associated with acute Epstein-Barr virus infection  

PubMed Central

To date there have been only five reported cases of females with genital ulceration associated with primary Epstein-Barr virus infection. We describe two further patients and review the clinical features of all seven cases, noting the typical features, particularly purple ulcer margins and systemic symptoms, which should alert the physician to consider this diagnosis. ???

Taylor, S.; Drake, S. M.; Dedicoat, M.; Wood, M. J.

1998-01-01

128

Inhibition of chlamydial infection in the genital tract of female mice by topical application of a peptide deformylase inhibitor.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium responsible for a number of health problems, including sexually transmitted infection in humans. We recently discovered that C. trachomatis infection in cell culture is highly susceptible to inhibitors of peptide deformylase, an enzyme that removes the N-formyl group from newly synthesized polypeptides. In this study, one of the deformylase inhibitors, GM6001, was tested for potential antichlamydial activity using a murine genital C. muridarum infection model. Topical application of GM6001 significantly reduced C. muridarum loading in BALB/c mice that were vaginally infected with the pathogen. In striking contrast, growth of the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum is strongly resistant to the PDF inhibitor. GM6001 demonstrated no detectable toxicity against host cells. On the basis of these data and our previous observations, we conclude that further evaluation of PDF inhibitors for prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted chlamydial infection is warranted. PMID:17936604

Balakrishnan, Amit; Wang, Lingling; Li, Xiaojin; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Malatesta, Paul; Fan, Huizhou

2009-01-01

129

HPV Infection in Women: Psychosexual Impact of Genital Warts and Intraepithelial Lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Genital Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most commonly occurring sexually transmitted viral infection in humans. HPV is a wide family of DNA viruses, which may cause benign skin and mucosal tumors (genital, anal or oral warts), intraepithelial neoplasias and\\/or malignant cancers in different organs. Women are more susceptible to the oncogenic effect of HPVs, mostly at the genital

Alessandra Graziottin; Audrey Serafini

2009-01-01

130

Endosulfatases SULF1 and SULF2 limit Chlamydia muridarum infection.  

PubMed

The first step in attachment of Chlamydia to host cells is thought to involve reversible binding to host heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), polymers of variably sulfated repeating disaccharide units coupled to diverse protein backbones. However, the key determinants of HSPG structure that are involved in Chlamydia binding are incompletely defined. A previous genome-wide Drosophila RNAi screen suggested that the level of HSPG 6-O sulfation rather than the identity of the proteoglycan backbone maybe a critical determinant for binding. Here, we tested in mammalian cells whether SULF1 or SULF2, human endosulfatases, which remove 6-O sulfates from HSPGs, modulate Chlamydia infection. Ectopic expression of SULF1 or SULF2 in HeLa cells, which decreases cell surface HSPG sulfation, diminished C.?muridarum binding and decreased vacuole formation. ShRNA depletion of endogenous SULF2 in a cell line that primarily expresses SULF2 augmented binding and increased vacuole formation. C.?muridarum infection of diverse cell lines resulted indownregulation of SULF2 mRNA. In a murine model of acute pneumonia, mice genetically deficient in both endosulfatases or in SULF2 alone demonstrated increased susceptibility to C.?muridarum lung infection. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that the level of HSPG 6-O sulfation is a critical determinant of C.?muridarum infection in vivo and that 6-O endosulfatases are previously unappreciated modulators of microbial pathogenesis. PMID:23480519

Kim, J H; Chan, C; Elwell, C; Singer, M S; Dierks, T; Lemjabbar-Alaoui, H; Rosen, S D; Engel, J N

2013-09-01

131

Epidemiology of genital chlamydial infections in patients with chlamydial conjunctivitis; a retrospective study.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine how often chlamydial conjunctivitis is accompanied by a genital chlamydial infection and if there is a correlation between the dominant hand and the eye first infected. METHODS: We retrospectively studied the records of 65 patients with chlamydial conjunctivitis who were referred to the Outpatient Department of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) of the University Hospital Rotterdam by ophthalmologists of the Eye Hospital Rotterdam. The patients have recently been asked by letter if they were left- or right-handed. RESULTS: Twenty of the 37 men (54%) had a positive chlamydial urethral culture. Seventy per cent of these men had no genital symptoms. Eight of the 37 men (22%) had a non-specific urethritis (NSU). Twenty of the 27 women examined (74%) had a positive chlamydial cervical culture. Sixty per cent of these women had no genital symptoms. Eight women with a genital chlamydial infection also had another genital infection. Five women without a genital chlamydial infection had another genital infection. Two women had no genital infection at all. A correlation between the eye infected and left- or right-handedness of the patient could not be found. CONCLUSIONS: A considerable percentage of the patients with a chlamydial conjunctivitis had a concomitant genital chlamydial infection. The majority of them had no genital symptoms. Since patients with chlamydial conjunctivitis and/or their partners possibly have a concomitant genital chlamydial infection, we recommend referral of both patients and sexual partners to an STD clinic for routine examination and systemic treatment when indicated.

Postema, E J; Remeijer, L; van der Meijden, W I

1996-01-01

132

Subclinical Chlamydial Infection of the Female Mouse Genital Tract Generates a Potent Protective Immune Response: Implications for Development of Live Attenuated Chlamydial Vaccine Strains  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia trachomatis is a major cause of sexually transmitted disease (STD) for which a vaccine is needed. CD4+ T-helper type 1 (Th1) cell-mediated immunity is an important component of protective immunity against murine chlamydial genital infection. Conventional vaccine approaches have not proven effective in eliciting chlamydial-specific CD4 Th1 immunity at the genital mucosa. Thus, it is possible that the development of a highly efficacious vaccine against genital infection will depend on the generation of a live attenuated C. trachomatis vaccine. Attenuated strains of C. trachomatis do not exist, so their potential utility as vaccines cannot be tested in animal models of infection. We have developed a surrogate model to study the effect of chlamydial attenuation on infection and immunity of the female genital tract by treating mice with a subchlamydiacidal concentration of oxytetracycline following vaginal infection. Compared to untreated control mice, antibiotic-treated mice shed significantly fewer infectious organisms (3 log10) from the cervico-vagina, produced a minimal inflammatory response in urogenital tissue, and did not experience infection-related sequelae. Antibiotic-treated mice generated levels of chlamydia-specific antibody and cell-mediated immunity equivalent to those of control mice. Importantly, antibiotic-treated mice were found to be as immune as control untreated mice when rechallenged vaginally. These findings demonstrate that subclinical chlamydial infection of the murine female genital tract is sufficient to stimulate a potent protective immune response. They also present indirect evidence supporting the possible use of live attenuated chlamydial organisms in the development of vaccines against chlamydial STDs.

Su, Hua; Messer, Ronald; Whitmire, William; Hughes, Scott; Caldwell, Harlan D.

2000-01-01

133

[Identification of latent forms of Chlamydia trachomatis in the conjunctiva signifying "new interpretation of ocular chlamydia infections"].  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) sérovar D through K was demonstrated with electron microscopy and biology in 114 patients with bilateral dry eyes. Long time ago latent CT was recognised in conjunctival epithelium of vernal kerato conjunctivitis patients. CT was found in conjunctival section of patients with an extinct trachoma. Aberrants forms of chlamydia bear the responsibility of this long lasting infection. Reticuled body does not product elementary bodies. It becomes an aberrant body which could remain latent during years. DIF and others classical investigations are negatives because abberrant chlamydiae have lost most part of their MOMP albeit keeping immunopathogenicity. PMID:9889578

Verin, P; Mortemousque, B; Gendre, P; Barac'H, D; Dorot, N; Chraibi-Hasseini, K

1997-01-01

134

Rectal Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women. Is it overlooked?  

PubMed

Screening for rectal chlamydia was not routinely offered in our department until we had a local outbreak of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) in men who have sex with men (MSM) in 2004/2005. We later decided to extend the screening to high-risk women (women who had receptive anal sex, contacts of gonorrhoea, women, with anorectal symptoms, women who had been sexually assaulted). A retrospective study of 152 women from whom 160 rectal chlamydia swabs were taken was carried out. Twenty (12.5%) swabs were positive, 19 of which were also positive at the cervix. All were non-LGV serovars. The groups at greatest risk were high-risk women aged less than 20 years and women with proven gonococcal infection where the prevalence was 22.6% and 30%, respectively. We conclude that rectal chlamydial infection in women may be common and further studies are needed to elucidate its importance. PMID:19917639

Sethupathi, M; Blackwell, A; Davies, H

2010-02-01

135

Chlamydia psittaci infection and associated infertility in sheep.  

PubMed Central

Nineteen ewes were injected subcutaneously with the agent of enzootic ovine abortion, Chlamydia psittaci serovar 1, at 50 days gestation. Placental and fetal tissues were examined at 15 days postinfection and thereafter at ten day intervals. Placental infection was detected at 15 days postinfection. Only postinoculation sera collected from postinfected ewes contained antibodies reactive to C. psittaci. Five (26%) chlamydial infected ewes experienced inapparent fetal loss before day 105 of gestation. This finding is significant since C. psittaci infection in sheep is commonly associated with abortion and not infertility.

Papp, J R; Shewen, P E; Gartley, C J

1993-01-01

136

Chlamydia trachomatis infection modulates trophoblast cytokine/chemokine production1  

PubMed Central

It is well established that intrauterine infections can pose a threat to pregnancy by gaining access to the placenta and fetus, and clinical studies have strongly linked bacterial infections with preterm labor. While Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis; Ct) can infect the placenta and decidua, little is known about its effects on trophoblast cell immune function. We have demonstrated that Ct infects trophoblast cells to form inclusions, and completes the life cycle within these cells by generating infectious elementary bodies. Moreover, infection with Ct leads to differential modulation of the trophoblast cell's production of cytokines and chemokines. Using two human first trimester trophoblast cell lines, Sw.71 and H8, the most striking feature we found was that Ct infection results in a strong induction of IL-1? secretion, and a concomitant reduction in MCP-1 (CCL2) production in both cell lines. In addition, we have found that Ct infection of the trophoblast results in the cleavage and degradation of NF?B p65. These findings suggest that the effect of a Chlamydia infection on trophoblast secretion of chemokines and cytokines involves both activation of innate immune receptors expressed by the trophoblast, and virulence factors secreted into the trophoblast by the bacteria. Such altered trophoblast innate immune responses may have a profound impact on the microenvironment of the maternal-fetal interface, and this could influence pregnancy outcome.

de la Torre, Eugenia; Mulla, Melissa J.; Yu, Andrew G.; Lee, Seung-Joon; Kavathas, Paula B.; Abrahams, Vikki M.

2009-01-01

137

Infectivity of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis plasmid-deficient, CT135-null, and double-deficient strains in female mice.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of human bacterial sexually transmitted infections and is the world's leading cause of infectious preventable blindness. The chlamydial 7.5-kb plasmid and chromosomal gene CT135 have been shown to be important virulence factors in both nonhuman primate and mouse infection models. Chlamydia trachomatis plasmid-deficient urogenital isolates and a predicted CT135 null mutant have been evaluated independently in the female mouse genital tract model and both have been shown to reduce infectivity and virulence. However, these attenuating phenotypes have not been evaluated collectively in the murine model. Here, we test the infectivity of C. trachomatis serovar D strains in the mouse model that are plasmid-deficient, CT135 disrupted, or possess a combination of these attenuating genotypes. We find that the presence of the plasmid results in infections with higher infectious burdens, whereas CT135 facilitates a more protracted or chronic infection. Not unexpectedly, a combination of these genetic deficiencies resulted in a strain with enhanced infection attenuation characteristics. PMID:24376189

Sturdevant, Gail L; Zhou, Bing; Carlson, John H; Whitmire, William M; Song, Lihua; Caldwell, Harlan D

2014-06-01

138

Two cases of erythema exsudativum multiforme associated with Chlamydia pneumoniae infection.  

PubMed

We report two cases of erythema exsudativum multiforme (EEM) that we concluded were caused by infections with Chlamydia pneumoniae. High titers of IgG antibody for Chlamydia pneumoniae were shown in the sera of both cases. One case showed the classical symptoms of pneumonia together with radiological changes in the chest; the other case did not show these symptoms. To the best of our knowledge, only three cases of erythema multiforme associated with Chlamydia pneumoniae infection have been reported. PMID:21950477

Hosokawa, Ryoko; Kobayashi, Takashi; Higashino, Toshihide; Asano, Chika; Ono, Koji; Fujimoto, Norihiro; Tajima, Shingo

2012-03-01

139

Immunization with Live and Dead Chlamydia muridarum Induces Different Levels of Protective Immunity in a Murine Genital Tract Model: Correlation with MHC Class II Peptide Presentation and Multifunctional Th1 Cells  

PubMed Central

Mice that were intranasally vaccinated with live or dead Chlamydia muridarum with or without CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotide 1862 elicited widely disparate levels of protective immunity to genital tract challenge. We found that the frequency of multifunctional T cells coexpressing IFN-? and TNF-? with or without IL-2 induced by live C. muridarum most accurately correlated with the pattern of protection against C. muridarum genital tract infection, suggesting that IFN-?+–producing CD4+ T cells that highly coexpress TNF-? may be the optimal effector cells for protective immunity. We also used an immunoproteomic approach to analyze MHC class II-bound peptides eluted from dendritic cells (DCs) that were pulsed with live or dead C. muridarum elementary bodies (EBs). We found that DCs pulsed with live EBs presented 45 MHC class II C. muridarum peptides mapping to 13 proteins. In contrast, DCs pulsed with dead EBs presented only six MHC class II C. muridarum peptides mapping to three proteins. Only two epitopes were shared in common between the live and dead EB-pulsed groups. This study provides insights into the role of Ag presentation and cytokine secretion patterns of CD4+ T effector cells that correlate with protective immunity elicited by live and dead C. muridarum. These insights should prove useful for improving vaccine design for Chlamydia trachomatis.

Yu, Hong; Karunakaran, Karuna P.; Kelly, Isabelle; Shen, Caixia; Jiang, Xiaozhou; Foster, Leonard J.; Brunham, Robert C.

2011-01-01

140

The Pathobiology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Lower Female Genital Tract Infection  

PubMed Central

Infection and disease associated with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the gonococcus, continue to be a global health problem. Asymptomatic and subclinical gonococcal infections occur at a high frequency in females; thus, the true incidence of N. gonorrhoeae infections are presumed to be severely underestimated. Inherent to this asymptomatic/subclinical diseased state is the continued prevalence of this organism within the general population, as well as the medical, economic, and social burden equated with the observed chronic, disease sequelae. As infections of the lower female genital tract (i.e., the uterine cervix) commonly result in subclinical disease, it follows that the pathobiology of cervical gonorrhea would differ from that observed for other sites of infection. In this regard, the potential responses to infection that are generated by the female reproductive tract mucosa are unique in that they are governed, in part, by cyclic fluctuations in steroid hormone levels. The lower female genital tract has the further distinction of being able to functionally discriminate between resident commensal microbiota and transient pathogens. The expression of functionally active complement receptor 3 by the lower, but not the upper, female genital tract mucosa; together with data indicating that gonococcal adherence to and invasion of primary cervical epithelial cells and tissue are predominately aided by this surface-expressed host molecule; provide one explanation for asymptomatic/subclinical gonococcal cervicitis. However, co-evolution of the gonococcus with its sole human host has endowed this organism with variable survival strategies that not only aid these bacteria in successfully evasion of immune detection and function but also enhance cervical colonization and cellular invasion. To this end, we herein summarize current knowledge pertaining to the pathobiology of gonococcal infection of the human cervix.

Edwards, Jennifer L.; Butler, Emily K.

2011-01-01

141

Update on Chlamydia trachomatis.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis is one the most important sexually transmitted diseases; it can cause serious sequelae despite the absence of symptoms in some people. It's estimated that about 25% of women who have acute salpingitis become infertile, and chlamydial infection is the commonest cause. The introduction of screening programs for its detection are still a topic of discussion. The literature shows that the total cost of examination and treatment of complications known to be associated with genital chlamydial infection (PID, chronic pelvic pain, tubal factor infertility) is generally higher than the total cost of a large-scale Chlamydia screening program. The selection of a diagnostic test for detection of chlamydial genital infection depends on availability, local expertise, and prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in the test population. Cell culture is too expensive in nonendemic regions, so the use of non-culture techniques is very attractive. PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and LCR (ligase chain reaction) are actually the two most commonly used alternatives to conventional methods for detecting STD agents. In fact, PCR and LCR have proved useful for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in cervical and urethral samples both in symptomatic and asymptomatic women. Recently, testing of first-void urine (FVU) specimens with these techniques has shown that the amplification tests are as sensitive as tests with endocervical swab cultures. PMID:10818417

Guaschino, S; De Seta, F

2000-01-01

142

Trichomonas vaginalis Genital Infections: Progress and Challenges  

PubMed Central

Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) infection is the most prevalent curable sexually transmitted infection in the United States and worldwide. Most TV infections are asymptomatic, and the accurate diagnosis of this infection has been limited by lack of sufficiently sensitive and specific diagnostic tests, particularly for men. To provide updates for the 2010 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, a PubMed search was conducted of all TV literature published from 9 January 2004 through 24 September 2008. Approximately 175 pertinent abstracts and articles were reviewed and discussed with national experts. This article describes advances in TV diagnostics which have led to an improved understanding of the epidemiology of this pathogen, as well as potential biologic and epidemiological interactions between TV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). New data on treatment outcomes, metronidazole-resistant TV, management of nitroimidazole-allergic patients, frequency of recurrent TV infection following treatment, and screening considerations for TV in certain populations are also presented.

Hobbs, Marcia M.; Sena, Arlene C.; Sobel, Jack D.; Schwebke, Jane R.; Krieger, John N.; McClelland, R. Scott; Workowski, Kimberly A.

2011-01-01

143

Human papillomavirus infection with particular reference to genital disease.  

PubMed Central

HPV is the commonest sexually transmitted viral infection in the United Kingdom and as such poses a major public health problem. In addition to the potential physical morbidity associated with genital warts, abnormal cervical cytology, and anogenital dysplasia and neoplasia, the associated psychological morbidity should not be forgotten. Although our knowledge of viral function and disease pathogenesis has advanced appreciably in recent years, we are still some way from developing an in vitro method of viral propagation. Vaccination against HPV infection will hopefully be achieved within the next 10 years, but a prevention and treatment strategy which is appropriate for both developed and developing nations must be our major long term goal.

Sonnex, C

1998-01-01

144

Dual genitotropic human papillomavirus infections in genital warts.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND METHODS--We have carried out a prospective study of dual genitotropic human papillomavirus (HPV) infections by means of two different DNA detection methods in biopsy specimens obtained from patients who were examined for genital warts at the STD clinic of the School of Medicine in Seville, between January 1990 and December 1991. RESULTS--100 patients with a clinical diagnosis of condilomata acuminata were seen during the study period. DNA of the genitotropic HPV 6/11, 16/18 and 31/33/35 was detected by an in situ hybridisation method in 75 (77%) of the 98 evaluable samples; one of the genotypes tested in 59 (61%) samples, and two or more genotypes tested in the remaining 16 (15%) samples. In 21 (98%) of the 23 negative samples by in situ hybridisation, we were able to detect DNA of genital HPV using a polymerase chain reaction amplification method (PCR). Among the 34 samples where PCR was applied we confirmed the presence of two different HPV genotypes in eight samples. CONCLUSIONS--The frequency of dual infections with human genitotropic papillomavirus in genital warts was 8%, although we believe that this rate should be higher as we have not used the PCR method in all of the samples.

Aznar, J; Ojeda, A; Torres, M J; Palomares, J C; Rodriguez-Pichardo, A

1993-01-01

145

Seroprevalence of Antibodies against Pkn1, a Novel Potential Immunogen, in Chlamydia trachomatis-Infected Macaca nemestrina and Human Patients  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is an important cause of sexually transmitted genital tract infections (STIs) and trachoma. Despite major research into chlamydial pathogenesis and host immune responses, immunoprotection has been hampered by the incomplete understanding of protective immunity in the genital tract. Characterized vaccine candidates have shown variable efficacy ranging from no protection to partial protection in vivo. It is therefore a research priority to identify novel chlamydial antigens that may elicit protective immune responses against CT infection. In the present study we assessed the seroprevalence of antibodies against protein kinase1 (Pkn1), DNA ligaseA (LigA), and major outer membrane protein A (OmpA) following natural CT infection in humans and in experimentally induced CT infection in Macaca nemestrina. Antigenic stretches of Pkn1, LigA, and OmpA were identified using bioinformatic tools. Pkn1, LigA, and OmpA genes were cloned in bacterial expression vector and purified by affinity chromatography. Our results demonstrate significantly high seroprevalence of antibodies against purified Pkn1 and OmpA in sera obtained from the macaque animal model and human patients infected with CT. In contrast no significant seroreactivity was observed for LigA. The seroprevalence of antibodies against Pkn1 suggest that nonsurface chlamydial proteins could also be important for developing vaccines for C. trachomatis.

Patel, Achchhe L.; Mishra, Prashant K.; Sachdev, Divya; Chaudhary, Uma; Patton, Dorothy L.; Saluja, Daman

2014-01-01

146

Zoonotic infection with Chlamydia psittaci at an avian refuge centre.  

PubMed

This paper reports the zoonotic transmission of Chlamydia psittaci at a wild bird refuge centre resulting in the infection of members of the staff. Pharyngeal swabs were culture positive in 26% (11/42) of the sampled birds, and molecular characterisation of isolates revealed genotypes A, B, D, and E/B. The finding reflects multiple distinct infections and highlights the endemic nature of this pathogen in avian wildlife. Two clinically normal birds being prepared for release were found to be excreting C. psittaci genotype B or E/B and viable genotype B was detected in pharyngeal swabs from 30% (3/10) of the human workers tested. The findings suggest there should be enhanced surveillance and control measures in place in bird rehabilitation centres in order to minimise the risk of both zoonoses and of re-introduction of infection back into wildlife populations. PMID:24326117

Kalmar, Isabelle D; Dicxk, Veerle; Dossche, Liesbeth; Vanrompay, Daisy

2014-02-01

147

Cytokine release by ovine macrophages following infection with Chlamydia psittaci  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia psittaci is an obligate intracellular pathogen that causes abortion in both sheep and humans. The disease in sheep (but not humans) is characterized by a long-term persistent phase that appears to be under the control of interferon-gamma. However, nothing is known about cytokine induction that precedes the persistent phase in sheep. Primary alveolar lavage cells recovered from normal adult sheep were used to study cytokine production in the first 72 h of infection with C. psittaci. These cells were phenotypically characteristic of macrophages, being adherent, phagocytic, CD14+ and staining positive for non-specific esterase. In vitro infection of the macrophages with C. psittaci resulted in the release of IL-1?, IL-8 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) as measured by ovine-specific ELISAs. Heat-treated chlamydiae (1 h at 65°C) did not induce the release of IL-1?, but the release of IL-8 was similar to that induced by untreated organisms. The cells from different sheep varied most notably in their patterns of GM-CSF release in response to heat-treated and untreated organisms.

Entrican, G; Wilkie, R; Mcwaters, P; Scheerlinck, J-P; Wood, P R; Brown, J

1999-01-01

148

Steroids Alone or as Adjunctive Therapy with Doxycycline Fail To Improve Oviduct Damage in Mice Infected with Chlamydia muridarum.  

PubMed

In women, Chlamydia trachomatis can ascend from the cervix to the fallopian tubes, where an overly aggressive host inflammatory response can cause scarring that leads to chronic pelvic pain, infertility, or ectopic pregnancy. Although screening and treatment programs for women have resulted in decreased rates of sequelae, morbidities associated with oviduct scarring continue to occur. Since corticosteroids have anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects, we tested the ability of dexamethasone to inhibit inflammation and prevent oviduct scarring in mice genitally infected with Chlamydia muridarum. The administration of 1 or 2.5 mg/kg of body weight of dexamethasone on days 7 to 21 of infection resulted in reduced accumulation of inflammatory cells in the oviducts compared to that in controls. However, a concomitant increase in bacterial burden was observed, and chronic oviduct disease was not reduced. Adjunctive administration of a prolonged (21-day) or short (3-day) course of dexamethasone in combination with the antibiotic doxycycline also failed to reduce chronic oviduct pathology compared to antibiotic treatment alone. Steroids administered alone or adjunctively with antibiotics failed to prevent oviduct damage in this murine model of C. trachomatis infection. PMID:24695778

Corr, Tammy E; Sullivan, Jeanne; Frazer, Lauren C; Andrews, Charles W; O'Connell, Catherine M; Darville, Toni

2014-06-01

149

Vulval swabs as alternative specimens for ligase chain reaction detection of genital chlamydial infection in women.  

PubMed Central

A ligase chain reaction (LCR)-based assay was recently shown to be highly sensitive and specific for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis not only in cervical specimens but also in first-void urine (FVU) specimens form women. The suitability of using vulval swabs as an alternative specimen that can be obtained by noninvasive means for the diagnosis of genital chlamydial infection by LCR was investigated. In a first study of 169 women, vulval, endocervical, and urethral swabs were tested by LCR, culture, and a combination of enzyme immunoassay (EIA) followed by confirmation by direct fluorescent-antibody assay (DFA), and the results were compared with those obtained by testing FVU specimens by LCR and EIA-DFA by using a specimen from an infected patient as a reference standard. Of the 169 women tested, 27 (16%) were shown to be infected. Whereas LCR showed high sensitivities with all specimen types (85.2% for vulval, urine, and endocervical specimens; 92.6% for urethral swabs), the sensitivities of culture and EIA-DFA were high only with endocervical swabs (74.1 and 70.4%, respectively), being 22.2 and 40.7%, respectively, with vulval swabs. In addition, urine testing by EIA-DFA also showed a poor sensitivity (48.1%). In order to further compare LCR performance with vulval specimens to that with FVU specimens, a second study was carried out with specimens from 312 women, of whom 26 were infected. Comparable sensitivity was obtained by LCR with vulval swabs (88.5%; 23 of 26) and FVU specimens (92.3%; 24 of 26). The results indicate that vulval swabs may serve as suitable alternative to specimens that can be obtained by noninvasive means for the detection of C. trachomatis by LCR.

Stary, A; Najim, B; Lee, H H

1997-01-01

150

Vulval swabs as alternative specimens for ligase chain reaction detection of genital chlamydial infection in women.  

PubMed

A ligase chain reaction (LCR)-based assay was recently shown to be highly sensitive and specific for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis not only in cervical specimens but also in first-void urine (FVU) specimens form women. The suitability of using vulval swabs as an alternative specimen that can be obtained by noninvasive means for the diagnosis of genital chlamydial infection by LCR was investigated. In a first study of 169 women, vulval, endocervical, and urethral swabs were tested by LCR, culture, and a combination of enzyme immunoassay (EIA) followed by confirmation by direct fluorescent-antibody assay (DFA), and the results were compared with those obtained by testing FVU specimens by LCR and EIA-DFA by using a specimen from an infected patient as a reference standard. Of the 169 women tested, 27 (16%) were shown to be infected. Whereas LCR showed high sensitivities with all specimen types (85.2% for vulval, urine, and endocervical specimens; 92.6% for urethral swabs), the sensitivities of culture and EIA-DFA were high only with endocervical swabs (74.1 and 70.4%, respectively), being 22.2 and 40.7%, respectively, with vulval swabs. In addition, urine testing by EIA-DFA also showed a poor sensitivity (48.1%). In order to further compare LCR performance with vulval specimens to that with FVU specimens, a second study was carried out with specimens from 312 women, of whom 26 were infected. Comparable sensitivity was obtained by LCR with vulval swabs (88.5%; 23 of 26) and FVU specimens (92.3%; 24 of 26). The results indicate that vulval swabs may serve as suitable alternative to specimens that can be obtained by noninvasive means for the detection of C. trachomatis by LCR. PMID:9157137

Stary, A; Najim, B; Lee, H H

1997-04-01

151

Frequency of antigen-specific B cells during experimental ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection.  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia-specific antibody-secreting cells have been identified in conjunctiva and draining cervical lymph nodes by an ELISPOT assay in a cynomolgus monkey model of trachoma. These local sites contained numbers of chlamydia-specific B cells that were higher than those in distant inguinal lymph nodes and peripheral blood. The numbers of chlamydia-specific immunoglobulin G-secreting B cells observed were 5 to 57 per 10(6) cells in conjunctiva and 24 to 996 per 10(6) cells in cervical lymph nodes during conjunctival infection or after challenge of immune monkeys with the chlamydial 57-kDa heat shock protein (hsp60). These studies demonstrate a large chlamydia-specific B-cell component in the conjunctiva during ocular chlamydial infection. These results are similar to our findings for chlamydia-specific T-cell responses.

Pal, S; Taylor, H R; Huneke, R B; Prendergast, R A; Whittum-Hudson, J A

1992-01-01

152

Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in genital specimens by the Chlamydiazyme test.  

PubMed Central

Cotton swabs were used to collect two specimens each from 416 patients (206 males, 210 females) attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic. The first swab was transported in Specimen Storage Reagent and extracted in Specimen Dilution Buffer for enzyme immunoassay by Chlamydiazyme (Abbott Laboratories); the second swab was extracted into 2SP and inoculated into McCoy cell cultures. In the first phase of the study (215 patients: 111 males, 114 females) enzyme immunoassay results were positive (optical density greater than or equal to 0.1) in 30 of 35 instances in which Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated (sensitivity, 86%). Of 18 false-positive enzyme immunoassay results, 15 (83%) were cervical swabs (specificity, 90%). In a phase II study, using a modified Chlamydiazyme kit, 201 patients were tested (95 males, 106 females). Of 41 chlamydial isolates, 8 were not detected by the Chlamydiazyme test (sensitivity, 81%). Only three positive Chlamydiazyme test results could not be confirmed by culture (specificity, 98%). Overall, Chlamydiazyme assay provided a rapid (4 h), sensitive, and specific assay for the detection of chlamydial antigens.

Jones, M F; Smith, T F; Houglum, A J; Herrmann, J E

1984-01-01

153

Genital sores - male  

MedlinePLUS

Sores - male genitals; Ulcers - male genitals ... A common cause of male genital sores are infections that are spread through sexual contact, such as: Genital herpes (small, painful blisters filled with clear or straw-colored fluid) ...

154

Current methods of laboratory diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infections.  

PubMed Central

Infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis are probably the most common sexually transmitted diseases in the United States. Commonly unrecognized and often inadequately treated, chlamydial infections can ascend the reproductive tract and cause pelvic inflammatory disease, which often results in the devastating consequences of infertility, ectopic pregnancy, or chronic pelvic pain. C. trachomatis infections are also known to increase the risk for human immunodeficiency virus infection. The obligate intracellular life cycle of C. trachomatis has traditionally required laboratory diagnostic tests that are technically demanding, labor-intensive, expensive, and difficult to access. In spite of these historical challenges, however, laboratory diagnosis of C. trachomatis has been a rapidly advancing area in which there is presently a wide array of commercial diagnostic technologies, costs, manufacturers. This review describes and compares the diagnostic methods for C. trachomatis infection that are currently approved for use in the United States, including the newest DNA amplification technologies which are yet to be licensed for commercial use. Issues to consider in selecting a test for purposes of screening versus diagnosis based on prevalence, performance, legal, social, and cost issues are also discussed.

Black, C M

1997-01-01

155

Role of cervical dendritic cell subsets, co-stimulatory molecules, cytokine secretion profile and beta-estradiol in development of sequalae to Chlamydia trachomatis infection  

PubMed Central

Background Chlamydia trachomatis infection of the female genital tract can lead to serious sequelae resulting in fertility related disorders. Little is known about the mechanism leading to Chlamydia induced pathology and factors responsible for it. As only some of the women develops reproductive disorders while majority of the women clears infection without any severe sequalae, mucosal immune response in women with or without fertility disorders was studied to identify factors which may lead to final clinical outcome of chlamydial infection. Methods Myeloid DCs (mDCs) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) populations in cervical mucosa and peripheral blood were analyzed in controls and Chlamydia positive women with or without fertility disorders with multicoloured flow cytometric analysis. Cervical cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma), C-reactive protein levels and sex hormone levels in serum were quantified by ELISA. Results In cervix of Chlamydia positive women with fertility disorders, significantly high (P < 0.05) numbers of pDCs were present with increased CD80 expression. pDCs correlated significantly with C-reactive protein levels, IL-6 and IFN-gamma levels in women with fertility disorders. In contrast, mDCs showed significant upregulation of CD1a during chlamydial infection and correlated significantly with IL-12 levels in Chlamydia positive fertile women. ?-estradiol levels were significantly higher in women having fertility disorders as compared to fertile women and have significant correlations (r = 0.65; P < 0.05) with pDCs numbers, CD80 expression, IL-6 levels and IFN-gamma levels in these women. Conclusion These results suggest that development of sequalae in some women can be a result of interplay of many factors including type of dendritic cell, co stimulatory molecule expression, cytokine secretion pattern and hormone levels.

Agrawal, Tanvi; Vats, Vikas; Wallace, Paul K; Salhan, Sudha; Mittal, Aruna

2008-01-01

156

Assessment of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in asymptomatic male partners of infertile couples.  

PubMed

Three specimens from 111 asymptomatic male partners of infertile couples attending the Department of Urology in Amiens, France, were examined by the PCR COBAS AMPLICOR test (Roche Molecular Diagnostics) for the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis. The specimens analysed were: first void urine (FVU), urine obtained after prostatic massage (UPM) and semen specimens. Serum from each patient was also obtained and analysed for the presence of IgG and IgA chlamydial antibodies by in-house microimmunofluorescence (MIF) and pELISA. C. trachomatis was detected by PCR in 5.4% of FVU samples, 2.7% of semen specimens and in 0.9% of UPM samples. Two treatments for processing the samples (storage at -70 degrees C and heating to 95 degrees C) were routinely used before initial testing to reduce the effects of inhibitors of PCR. Despite these precautions, the PCR method revealed the presence of inhibitors in 7.3% of semen specimens and 3.6% of FVU samples. C. trachomatis was detected by PCR COBAS AMPLICOR in seven of 111 patients (6.3%) and by serology in five of 111 patients (4.5%). The detection of C. trachomatis in FVU, UPM and semen specimens can serve as a marker for the presence of this organism in the genital tract, and can be used as a reliable way of detecting asymptomatic carriers of infection. PMID:15358820

Hamdad-Daoudi, Farida; Petit, Jacques; Eb, François

2004-10-01

157

Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a worldwide-distributed sexually transmitted infection that may lead to infertility. Objectives This study aims to report the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods A community-based study carried out at the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at Jazan General Hospital, Saudi Arabia. The study group included 640 Saudi infertile women who were aged between 18 and 40 years and who attended the gynecology clinic for infertility examination throughout 1 year of study (from July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012). The randomized control group included 100 Saudi fertile women who attended the obstetrics clinic for routine antenatal care. All recruited women were screened for chlamydia infection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of serum-specific antibodies and then retested by the McCoy cell culture technique. Results The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women was high, at 15.0%. The rate of chlamydia infection detected by ELISA was 9.84%, and it was 12.03% by the culture method (P = 0.2443). Conclusion The high prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among Saudi infertile women demands a national screening program for early detection among infertile couples. ELISA is available as a simple screening test alternative to the culture method.

Kamel, Remah M

2013-01-01

158

Sphingolipid trafficking and purification in Chlamydia trachomatis-infected cells.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular human pathogen, which lacks a system that allows genetic manipulation. Therefore, chlamydial researchers must manipulate the host cell to better understand chlamydial biology. Host-derived lipid acquisition is critical for chlamydial survival within the host. Hence, the ability to track and purify sphingolipids in/from chlamydial infected cells has become an integral part of pivotal studies in chlamydial biology. This unit outlines protocols that provide details about labeling eukaryotic cells with exogenous lipids to examine Golgi-derived lipid trafficking to the chlamydial inclusion and then performing imaging studies or lipid extractions for quantification. Details are provided to allow these protocols to be applied to subconfluent, polarized, or siRNA knockdown cells. In addition, one will find important experimental design considerations and techniques. These methods are powerful tools to aid in the understanding of mechanisms, which allow C. trachomatis to manipulate and usurp host cell trafficking pathways. PMID:23184593

Moore, Elizabeth R

2012-11-01

159

Sphingolipid trafficking and purification in Chlamydia trachomatis-infected cells  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular human pathogen, which lacks a system that allows genetic manipulation. Therefore, chlamydial researchers must manipulate the host cell to better understand chlamydial biology. Host-derived lipid acquisition is critical for chlamydial survival within the host. Hence, the ability to track and purify sphingolipids in/from chlamydial infected cells has become an integral part of pivotal studies in chlamydial biology. This Unit outlines protocols that provide details about labeling eukaryotic cells with exogenous lipids to examine Golgi-derived lipid trafficking to the chlamydial inclusion and then performing imaging studies or lipid extractions for quantification. Details are provided to allow these protocols to be applied to subconfluent, polarized or siRNA knockdown cells. In addition, one will find important experimental design considerations and techniques. These methods are powerful tools to aid in the understanding of mechanisms which allow C. trachomatis to manipulate and usurp host cell trafficking pathways.

2012-01-01

160

[The specifities of the HPV-genital infections in males].  

PubMed

Anogenital infections caused by Human papillomavirus (HPV) are the most frequently diagnosed sexually transmitted infections of viral origin and up to 150 HPV DNA types have been recognized so far. Anogenital warts (condylomata acuminata) are the most common lesions presented in men, however, during the last decade the other HPV-associated exaggerated lesions such as condylomata plana, penile, scrotal, and anal intraepithelial neoplasias, as well as the penile, urine bladder and prostate cancer have been studied somewhat more extensively. The clinical variations might range from clinically invisible, asymptomatic lesions to the bizarre forms of giant condyloma of Buschke-Löwenstein type, including Bowenoid papulosis, Mb. Bowen, different kinds of eryhtroplasia both in men and women and a large spectrum of HPV-induced dermatovenereological entities in genital region including high-grade intraepithelial genital neoplasias, such as penile, anal, scrotal, vulvar, vaginal etc. (thus not only cervical), and, last but not least - the anogenital warts. A prophylactic vaccine that targets these types should thus substantially reduce the burden of HPV-associated clinical diseases. Ultimately, within the spectrum of therapeutic options for condylomata, no method is really superior to others; recurrences occurred in 30-70% of cases. We definitely need the HPV vaccination programme to eliminate one of the oldest and up to now unsolved problems of the mankind. Since HPV is transmitted by sexual intercourse, treatment of both partners is necessary in order to eliminate the virus from the population. Approaches to this include prophylactic vaccines such as quadrivalent HPV vaccine for both men and women. PMID:21258302

Skerlev, Mihael; Ljubojevic, Suzana

2010-08-01

161

Human papillomavirus and other genital infections in indigenous women from Paraguay: a cross-sectional analytical study  

PubMed Central

Background The incidence of cervical cancer in Paraguay is among the highest in the world, with the human papillomavirus (HPV) being a necessary factor for cervical cancer. Knowledge about HPV infection among indigenous women is limited. This cross-sectional study analyzed the frequency of HPV and other genital infections in indigenous Paraguayan women of the Department of Presidente Hayes. Methods This study included 181 sexually active women without cervical lesions. They belonged to the following ethnicities: Maká (n?=?40); Nivaclé (n?=?23); Sanapaná (n?=?33); Enxet Sur (n?=?51) and Toba-Qom (n?=?34). The detection of HPV and other gynecological infectious microorganisms was performed by either molecular methods (for Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Chlamydia trachomatis), gram staining and/or culture (for Gardnerella vaginalis, Candida sp, Trichomonas vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae), serological methods (for Treponema pallidum, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]) or cytology (cervical inflammation). Results A high prevalence (41.4%) of women positive for at least one sexually transmitted infection (STI) was found (23.2% any-type HPV, 11.6% T pallidum, 10.5% T vaginalis, 9.9% C trachomatis and 0.6% HIV) with 12.2% having more than one STI. HPV infection was the most frequent, with 16.1% of women positive for high-risk HPV types. There was a statistically significant association observed between any-type HPV and C trachomatis (p?=?0.004), which indicates that the detection of one of these agents should suggest the presence of the other. There was no association between any-type HPV and other genital infections or cervical inflammation, suggesting that other mechanism could exist to favor infection with the virus. Conclusion This multidisciplinary work suggests that STIs are frequent, making it necessary to implement control measures and improve diagnosis in order to increase the number of cases detected, especially in populations with poor access to health centers.

2013-01-01

162

Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Fertile and Infertile Women; A Molecular and Serological Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the world. About 80% of the infected women are asymptomatic, while ascending infections such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and the resultant infertility due to fallopian tube occlusion are common manifestations. Due to the higher prevalence of C. trachomatis infection in infertile than fertile women and

Leili Chamani Tabriz; Rahimi Forooshani; Mohammad Mehdi

163

Plasmid CDS5 Influences Infectivity and Virulence in a Mouse Model of Chlamydia trachomatis Urogenital Infection.  

PubMed

The native plasmid of both Chlamydia muridarum and Chlamydia trachomatis has been shown to control virulence and infectivity in mice and in lower primates. We recently described the development of a plasmid-based genetic transformation protocol for Chlamydia trachomatis that for the first time provides a platform for the molecular dissection of the function of the chlamydial plasmid and its individual genes or coding sequences (CDS). In the present study, we transformed a plasmid-free lymphogranuloma venereum isolate of C. trachomatis, serovar L2, with either the original shuttle vector (pGFP::SW2) or a derivative of pGFP::SW2 carrying a deletion of the plasmid CDS5 gene (pCDS5KO). Female mice were inoculated with these strains either intravaginally or transcervically. We found that transformation of the plasmid-free isolate with the intact pGFP::SW2 vector significantly enhanced infectivity and induction of host inflammatory responses compared to the plasmid-free parental isolate. Transformation with pCDS5KO resulted in infection courses and inflammatory responses not significantly different from those observed in mice infected with the plasmid-free isolate. These results indicate a critical role of plasmid CDS5 in in vivo fitness and in induction of inflammatory responses. To our knowledge, these are the first in vivo observations ascribing infectivity and virulence to a specific plasmid gene. PMID:24866804

Ramsey, K H; Schripsema, J H; Smith, B J; Wang, Y; Jham, B C; O'Hagan, K P; Thomson, N R; Murthy, A K; Skilton, R J; Chu, P; Clarke, I N

2014-08-01

164

Stable marital relationship protects men from oral and genital HPV infections.  

PubMed

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are associated with sexual behavior. Changes in the sexual habits of couples and their impact on male genital and oral HPV infections were determined during 7 years of follow-up (FU). At baseline and 7 years FU, urethral, semen/penile, and oral samples were collected from 46 men and cervical and oral samples of their spouses for HPV DNA detection. Demographic data and risk factors of spouses were recorded by questionnaire at both time points and analyzed for concordance. HPV genotyping was done with the Multimetrix® kit. At baseline, 29.5 % of the male genital and 11 % of their oral samples tested positive. Incident genital HPV infection was found in 23 % and oral infection in 10.9 % of men. Genotype-specific persistence was detected in one man (HPV53) in genital samples. Moderate to almost perfect concordance of changes in sexual habits during FU among spouses were found. Changing partners [p?=?0.028; odds ratio (OR)?=?15; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.355-166.054] and marital status (p?=?0.001; 95 % CI 0.000-0.002) increased the risk of incident genital HPV infections. The overall outcome of genital HPV disease in men was linked to the frequency of sexual intercourse (p?=?0.023; 95 % CI 0.019-0.026) and changes in marital status (p?=?0.022; 95 % CI 0.019-0.026), while oral HPV infections were associated with the number of sexual partners (p?=?0.047; 95 % CI 0.041-0.052). Taken together, asymptomatic genital HPV infections among the men were common. The risk of incident genital HPV infections increased among men reporting a change of sexual partner during FU, implicating that a stable marital relationship protects against oral and genital HPV infection. PMID:24504632

Kero, K M; Rautava, J; Syrjänen, K; Kortekangas-Savolainen, O; Grenman, S; Syrjänen, S

2014-07-01

165

Incidence of severe reproductive tract complications associated with diagnosed genital chlamydial infection: the Uppsala Women's Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate the cumulative incidence of severe complications associated with genital chlamydia infection in the general female population. Methods The Uppsala Women's Cohort Study was a retrospective population based cohort study in Sweden, linking laboratory, hospital, and population registers. We estimated the cumulative incidence of hospital diagnosed pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility, and used multivariable regression models to estimate hazard ratios according to screening status. Results We analysed complete data from 43?715 women in Uppsala aged 15–24?years between January 1985 and December 1989. Follow up until the end of 1999 included 709?000 woman years and 3025 events. The cumulative incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease by age 35?years was 3.9% (95% CI 3.7% to 4.0%) overall: 5.6% (4.7% to 6.7%) in women who ever tested positive for chlamydia, 4.0% (3.7% to 4.4%) in those with negative tests, and 2.9% (2.7% to 3.2%) in those who were never screened. The corresponding figures were: for ectopic pregnancy, 2.3% (2.2% to 2.5%) overall, 2.7% (2.1% to 3.5%), 2.0% (1.8% to 2.3%), and 1.9% (1.7% to 2.1%); and for infertility, 4.1% (3.9% to 4.3%) overall, 6.7% (5.7% to 7.9%), 4.7% (4.4% to 5.1%), and 3.1% (2.8% to 3.3%). Low educational attainment was strongly associated with the development of all outcomes. Conclusions The incidence of severe chlamydia associated complications estimated from ours, and other population based studies, was lower than expected. Studies that incorporate data about pelvic inflammatory disease diagnosed in primary care and behavioural risk factors would further improve our understanding of the natural history of chlamydia. Our results provide reassurance for patients, but mean that the benefits of chlamydia screening programmes might have been overestimated.

Low, N; Egger, M; Sterne, J A C; Harbord, R M; Ibrahim, F; Lindblom, B; Herrmann, B

2006-01-01

166

Chlamydiae and polymorphonuclear leukocytes: Unlikely allies in the spread of chlamydial infection  

PubMed Central

While much is known about the attachment of the chlamydiae to the host cell and intracellular events during the developmental cycle, little is known about the mechanism(s) by which elementary bodies exit the cell. In this report, we use the guinea pig conjunctival model of Chlamydia caviae infection to present in vivo ultrastructural evidence supporting two mechanisms for release of chlamydiae from the mucosal epithelia. Four days after infection, histopathologic observation shows an intense infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) in the conjunctival epithelium. By transmission electron microscopy, a gradient-directed PMN response to chlamydiae-infected epithelial cells was observed. As PMN infiltration intensifies, epithelial hemidesmosome/integrin/focal adhesion adherence with the basal lamina is disconnected and PMNs literally lift off and release infected superficial epithelia from the mucosa. Many of these infected cells appear to be healthy with intact microvilli, nuclei, and mitochondria. While lysis of some infected cells occurs with release of chlamydiae into the extracellular surface milieu, the majority of infected cells are pushed off the epithelium. We propose that PMNs play an active role in detaching infected cells from the epithelium and that these infected cells eventually die releasing organisms but, in the process move to new tissue sites via fluid dynamics.

Rank, Roger G.; Whittimore, Judy; Bowlin, Anne K; Dessus-Babus, Sophie; Wyrick, Priscilla B.

2010-01-01

167

Chlamydia trachomatis vaccine research through the years.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis is a Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium. It is the leading cause of bacterial sexual transmitted infections (STIs). World Health Organization figures estimated that over 90 million new cases of genital C. trachomatis infections occur worldwide each year. A vaccination program is considered to be the best approach to reduce the prevalence of C. trachomatis infections, as it would be much cheaper and have a greater impact on controlling C. trachomatis infections worldwide rather than a screening program or treating infections with antibiotics. Currently, there are no vaccines available which effectively protect against a C. trachomatis genital infection despite the many efforts that have been made throughout the years. In this paper, the many attempts to develop a protective vaccine against a genital C. trachomatis infection will be reviewed. PMID:21747646

Schautteet, Katelijn; De Clercq, Evelien; Vanrompay, Daisy

2011-01-01

168

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells modulate non-protective T cell responses to genital infection by C. muridarum  

PubMed Central

Given their immune modulating capacity, regulatory T cells (Treg) cells may be important players in the induction of the protective T cell response (Th1) to genital chlamydial infection. Recent work has demonstrated that plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) respond to genital chlamydial infection, and that pDC may be uniquely positioned for the induction of Treg cells during this infection. Here we present the first data demonstrating that Treg influx into the draining lymph node and site of infection during genital chlamydial infection. We found that pDC depletion altered the numbers of Treg and non-protective inflammatory cells (IFN? producing CD8+ T and IFN? producing NKT cells) in the spleens of mice genitally infected with C. muridarum. Furthermore, pDC depletion did not alter Th1 cell numbers, indicating that pDC modulate cells which could inhibit and promote non-protective inflammation during genital chlamydial infection. Finally, we demonstrate that depletion of pDC results in less severe dilation and collagen deposition in the oviduct following resolution of infection, implicating pDC activity in the formation of sequelae following genital C. muridarum infection.

Moniz, Raymond J.; Chan, Ann M.; Gordon, Lynn K.; Braun, Jonathan; Arditi, Moshe; Kelly, Kathleen A.

2011-01-01

169

Chlamydia pneumoniae infection among healthy children and children hospitalised with pneumonia in Greece.  

PubMed

Chlamydia pneumoniae has been recognized as a cause of respiratory tract infection in humans, and its prevalence has been shown to vary among different age groups and populations. The prevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae antibody was determined by serological investigation in 343 healthy children and in 77 children consecutively hospitalised for pneumonia in southwestern Greece. Seventy-eight (22.7%) healthy children had IgG Chlamydia pneumoniae titers > or =1/8. The prevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae antibody in the age groups 6 months-5 years, 6-9 years and 10-15 years was 7.9%, 11.4% and 36%, respectively. One child hospitalised for pneumonia had serological results consistent with acute Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. The results of the present study suggest a low prevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae antibody among preschoolers in Greece, followed by a steep rise in children 10-15 years of age. Chlamydia pneumoniae is not a common etiologic agent of childhood pneumonia requiring hospitalisation. PMID:12072942

Triga, M G; Anthracopoulos, M B; Saikku, P; Syrogiannopoulos, G A

2002-04-01

170

Treatment with acyclovir of genital herpes simplex virus infection complicated by eczema herpeticum.  

PubMed Central

Eczema herpeticum is a potentially serious disease that may be fatal. We report two cases of infection with genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) that were complicated by eczema herpeticum and were treated successfully with acyclovir.

Robinson, G E; Underhill, G S; Forster, G E; Kennedy, C; McLean, K

1984-01-01

171

Condom use prevents genital ulcers in women working as prostitutes. Influence of human immunodeficiency virus infection.  

PubMed

Control of genital ulcer disease (GUD) is a proposed intervention to slow the dissemination of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Programs for the control of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) should focus on groups of high-frequency transmitters, such as prostitutes and their clientele. This study illustrates the interaction between the prevalence of chancroid, use of barrier prophylaxis against STDs, and HIV infection in a population of female prostitutes in Nairobi. Four hundred and twenty three women were evaluated. Despite the increased use of condoms, the prevalence of genital ulcers remained constant between 1986-87 and 1987-88. Genital ulcer disease was simultaneously associated with HIV infection (adjusted odds ratio: 3.7, P less than .01) whereas it was independently and inversely associated with more consistent condom use (P less than .01). The authors conclude that genital ulcer disease can be controlled in these populations but concurrent HIV infection increases the difficulty of this intervention. PMID:1948518

Cameron, D W; Ngugi, E N; Ronald, A R; Simonsen, J N; Braddick, M; Bosire, M; Kimata, J; Kamala, J; Ndinya-Achola, J O; Waiyaki, P G

1991-01-01

172

Chlamydia pneumoniae Exacerbates Aortic Inflammatory Foci Caused by Murine Cytomegalovirus Infection in Normocholesterolemic Mice  

PubMed Central

Inflammatory foci induced by murine cytomegalovirus infection in normocholesterolemic mice were present temporarily in the aortic wall, but some of these foci developed into advanced lesions that persisted late after infection. The early foci induced by virus infection were significantly exacerbated following a single inoculation with Chlamydia pneumoniae.

Burian, Katalin; Berencsi, Klara; Endresz, Valeria; Gyulai, Zsofia; Valyi-Nagy, Tibor; Valyi-Nagy, Istvan; Bakay, Marta; Geng, Yuemei; Virok, Dezso; Kari, Laszlo; Hajnal-Papp, Rozalia; Trinchieri, Giorgio; Gonczol, Eva

2001-01-01

173

Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection Among Healthy Children and Children Hospitalised with Pneumonia in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   \\u000a Chlamydia pneumoniae has been recognized as a cause of respiratory tract infection in humans, and its prevalence has been shown to vary among\\u000a different age groups and populations. The prevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae antibody was determined by serological investigation in 343 healthy children and in 77 children consecutively hospitalised\\u000a for pneumonia in southwestern Greece. Seventy-eight (22.7%) healthy children

M. Triga; M. Anthracopoulos; P. Saikku; G. Syrogiannopoulos

2002-01-01

174

[Chlamydia and infertility].  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis has for long been considered to be a major contributor to tubal infertility. However, the scientific evidence based on human clinical research is weak. C. trachomatis is associated with pelvic inflammatory disease, and pelvic inflammatory disease is associated with tubal infertility. But no interventional trial nor well-conducted study or large cohort study has assessed the risk of infertility given an undiagnosed or untreated genital chlamydial infection. We suggest that the many well established registers in Denmark serve to further elucidate the evidence. PMID:23050685

Andersen, Berit; Ostergaard, Lars

2012-10-01

175

Complement Factor C5 but Not C3 Contributes Significantly to Hydrosalpinx Development in Mice Infected with Chlamydia muridarum.  

PubMed

Hydrosalpinx is a pathological hallmark of tubal infertility associated with chlamydial infection. However, the mechanisms of hydrosalpinx remain unknown. Here, we report that complement factor 5 (C5) contributes significantly to chlamydial induction of hydrosalpinx. Mice lacking C5 (C5(-/-)) failed to develop any hydrosalpinx, while ?42% of the corresponding wild-type mice (C5(+/+)) did so following intravaginal infection with Chlamydia muridarum. Surprisingly, deficiency in C3 (C3(-/-)), an upstream component of the complement system, did not affect mouse susceptibility to chlamydial induction of hydrosalpinx. Interestingly, C5 activation was induced by chlamydial infection in oviducts of C3(-/-) mice, explaining why the C3(-/-) mice remained susceptible to chlamydial induction of hydrosalpinx. Similar levels of live chlamydial organisms were recovered from oviduct tissues of both C5(-/-) and C5(+/+) mice, suggesting that C5 deficiency did not affect C. muridarum ascending infection. Furthermore, C5(-/-) mice were still more resistant to hydrosalpinx induction than C5(+/+) mice, even when live C. muridarum organisms were directly delivered into the upper genital tract, both confirming the role of C5 in promoting hydrosalpinx and indicating that the C5-facilitated hydrosalpinx was not due to enhancement of ascending infection. The C5(-/-) mice displayed significantly reduced lumenal inflammatory infiltration and cytokine production in oviduct tissue, suggesting that C5 may contribute to chlamydial induction of hydrosalpinx by enhancing inflammatory responses. PMID:24842924

Yang, Zhangsheng; Conrad, Turner; Zhou, Zhou; Chen, Jianlin; Dutow, Pavel; Klos, Andreas; Zhong, Guangming

2014-08-01

176

Chlamydia Induces Anchorage Independence in 3T3 Cells and Detrimental Cytological Defects in an Infection Model  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia are Gram negative, obligate intracellular bacterial organisms with different species causing a multitude of infections in both humans and animals. Chlamydia trachomatis is the causative agent of the sexually transmitted infection (STI) Chlamydia, the most commonly acquired bacterial STI in the United States. Chlamydial infections have also been epidemiologically linked to cervical cancer in women co-infected with the human papillomavirus (HPV). We have previously shown chlamydial infection results in centrosome amplification and multipolar spindle formation leading to chromosomal instability. Many studies indicate that centrosome abnormalities, spindle defects, and chromosome segregation errors can lead to cell transformation. We hypothesize that the presence of these defects within infected dividing cells identifies a possible mechanism for Chlamydia as a cofactor in cervical cancer formation. Here we demonstrate that infection with Chlamydia trachomatis is able to transform 3T3 cells in soft agar resulting in anchorage independence and increased colony formation. Additionally, we show for the first time Chlamydia infects actively replicating cells in vivo. Infection of mice with Chlamydia results in significantly increased cell proliferation within the cervix, and in evidence of cervical dysplasia. Confocal examination of these infected tissues also revealed elements of chlamydial induced chromosome instability. These results contribute to a growing body of data implicating a role for Chlamydia in cervical cancer development and suggest a possible molecular mechanism for this effect.

Knowlton, Andrea E.; Fowler, Larry J.; Patel, Rahul K.; Wallet, Shannon M.; Grieshaber, Scott S.

2013-01-01

177

Host HDL biogenesis machinery is recruited to the inclusion of Chlamydia trachomatis-infected cells and regulates chlamydial growth.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen that is the most common cause of sexually transmitted bacterial infections and is the etiological agent of trachoma, the leading cause of preventable blindness. The organism infects epithelial cells of the genital tract and eyelid resulting in a damaging inflammatory response. Chlamydia trachomatis grows within a vacuole termed the inclusion, and its growth depends on numerous host factors, including lipids. Although a variety of mechanisms are involved in the acquisition of host cell cholesterol and glycosphingolipids by C.?trachomatis, none of the previously documented pathways for lipid acquisition are absolutely required for growth. Here we demonstrate that multiple components of the host high-density lipoprotein (HDL) biogenesis machinery including the lipid effluxers, ABCA1 and CLA 1, and their extracellular lipid acceptor, apoA-1, are recruited to the inclusion of C.?trachomatis-infected cells. Furthermore, the apoA-1 that accumulates within the inclusion colocalizes with pools of phosphatidylcholine. Knockdown of ABCA1, which mediates the cellular efflux of cholesterol and phospholipids to initiate the formation of HDL in the serum, prevents the growth of C.?trachomatis in infected HeLa cells. In addition, drugs that inhibit the lipid transport activities of ABCA1 and CLA 1 also inhibit the recruitment of phospholipids to the inclusion and prevent chlamydial growth.These results strongly suggest that C.?trachomatis co-opts the host cell lipid transport system involved in the formation of HDL to acquire lipids, such as phosphatidylcholine, that are necessary for growth. PMID:22672264

Cox, John V; Naher, Nirun; Abdelrahman, Yasser M; Belland, Robert J

2012-10-01

178

Applications and Therapeutic Actions of Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Women with Genital Infection  

PubMed Central

Genital infection is a common worldwide disease among females with clinical features such as bilateral lower abdominal tenderness, abnormal vaginal or cervical discharge, fever, abnormal vaginal bleeding, dyspareunia, vaginal itching, and adnexal tenderness, which can significantly impair women's health and quality of life. Genital infection is commonly treated with antibiotics, leading to an imbalance in gut flora due to prolonged use of antibiotics. Therefore, it is necessary to discover safe and efficacious alternative treatment strategies for patients with genital infection. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is becoming increasingly prevalent among women with genital infection. CAM has interested the western mainstream medical community because of its less invasive, safe, effective, economical, and convenient therapies. CAM focuses on the prevention and treatment of disease and has become an important force in treating chronic disease. During the last few decades, the popularity of CAM has gradually increased. To further understand the efficacy of CAM in treating genital infection, our paper will review the current progress of treating genital infection including vulvitis, vaginitis, cervicitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) with CAM therapies. Several CAM strategies including traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), acupuncture, Psychology interference, and physical therapy are introduced in this review.

Liu, Chenfang; Zhang, Yuehui; Yu, Yang; Han, Fengjuan

2014-01-01

179

Targeted interventions required against genital ulcers in African countries worst affected by HIV infection.  

PubMed Central

It remains unclear why there is such marked variation in the severity of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic between African countries. The prevalence of HIV infection has reached high levels in many parts of southern Africa but in most countries of West Africa the levels are much lower. Although there is good evidence that sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and genital ulcers in particular facilitate heterosexual transmission of HIV, there is little comparative STI data from the African countries worst affected by HIV infection. A MEDLINE search covering the period 1966 to August 2000 using the keywords "sexually transmitted diseases", "genital ulcers" and "Africa" was performed to identify factors that might be relevant to the spread of HIV infection in countries with the highest prevalences of the virus. In the countries worst affected by HIV infection, the proportions of men and women with STI who had genital ulcers lay in the ranges 45-68% and 13-68%, respectively. The proportions were much lower in countries of West Africa than in those of southern Africa. The African countries worst affected by HIV infection should adopt a more specialized approach to STI control than hitherto and specifically target the high incidence of genital ulceration. Locally, technical STI committees should draw up country-specific guidelines taking into account the prevalence of the various causes of genital ulceration. In these countries, national AIDS control programmes and donor agencies should develop a specific focus for decreasing the incidence of genital ulcer disease.

O'Farrell, N.

2001-01-01

180

Chlamydia trachomatis infection alters the development of memory CD8+ T cells.  

PubMed

The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the United States and the leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide. Prior exposure to C. trachomatis has been shown to provide incomplete protection against subsequent infection. One possible explanation for the limited immunity afforded by prior C. trachomatis infection is poor activation of Chlamydia-specific memory CD8+ T cells. In this study, we examined the development of CD8+ memory T cell responses specific for the Chlamydia Ag CrpA. The percentage of CrpA63-71-specific T cells expressing an effector memory T cell phenotype (IL-7R+ CD62low) was dramatically diminished in mice immunized with C. trachomatis, compared with mice immunized with vaccinia virus expressing the CrpA protein. These alterations in memory T cell development were correlated with a significant reduction in the capacity of convalescent mice to mount an enhanced recall response to Chlamydia Ags, compared with the primary response. CrpA-specific memory T cells primed during VacCrpA infection also failed to respond to a challenge with Chlamydia. We therefore investigated whether C. trachomatis infection might have a global inhibitory effect on CD8+ T cell activation by coinfecting mice with C. trachomatis and Listeria monocytogenes and we found that the activation of Listeria-specific naive and memory CD8+ T cells was reduced in the presence of C. trachomatis. Together, these results suggest that Chlamydia is able to alter the development of CD8+ T cell responses during both primary and secondary infection, perhaps accounting for the incomplete protection provided by prior Chlamydia infection. PMID:16951365

Loomis, Wendy P; Starnbach, Michael N

2006-09-15

181

Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in the Semen of Asymptomatic Infertile Men: Detection of the Antigen by in situ Hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and other microbes was studied in 94 semen samples from asymptomatic infertile males. Simultaneously, we sought evidence for inflammation of the genital tract by determining the polymorphonuclear granulocyte (PMN)-elastase concentration in the seminal plasma. The C. trachomatis genome was detected in 8 cases using in situ hybridization. The antigen, however, was undetectable by enzyme-linked assay

Ken-ichiro Yoshida; Nobuyuki Kobayashi; Takeharu Negishi

1994-01-01

182

HIV Target Cells in Schistosoma haematobium-Infected Female Genital Mucosa  

PubMed Central

The parasite Schistosoma haematobium frequently causes genital lesions in women and could increase the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. This study quantifies the HIV target cells in schistosome-infected female genital mucosa. Cervicovaginal biopsies with and without schistosomiasis were immunostained for quantification of CD4+ T lymphocytes (CD3, CD8), macrophages (CD68), and dendritic Langerhans cells (S100 protein). We found significantly higher densities of genital mucosal CD4+ T lymphocytes and macrophages surrounding schistosome ova compared with cervicovaginal mucosa without ova (P = 0.034 and P = 0.018, respectively). We found no increased density of Langerhans cells (P = 0.25). This study indicates that S. haematobium may significantly increase the density of HIV target cells (CD4+ T lymphocytes and macrophages) in the female genitals, creating a beneficial setting for HIV transmission. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings and to evaluate the effect of anti-schistosomal treatment on female genital schistosomiasis.

Jourdan, Peter Mark; Holmen, Sigve Dhondup; Gundersen, Svein Gunnar; Roald, Borghild; Kjetland, Eyrun Floerecke

2011-01-01

183

Cervical cytopathological findings in Korean women with Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis, and Ureaplasma urealyticum infections.  

PubMed

This is to investigate the cervical cytological abnormalities associated with Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, and Ureaplasma urealyticum infections on routine screen. A total of 714 subjects who had undergone cervical Pap smears and concomitant analyses for cervical infections were included by a retrospective search. The frequencies of reactive cellular change (RCC) and squamous epithelial abnormalities were significantly higher in Chlamydia positive subjects than in uninfected subjects (P<0.001). Of the 124 subjects tested for M. hominis, M. genitalium, and U. urealyticum, 14 (11%) were positive for M. hominis and 29 (23%) were positive for U. urealyticum. Squamous abnormalities were more frequent in subjects with Ureaplasma infections than in uninfected subjects (24% versus 8%). Taking together these findings, C. trachomatis and U. urealyticum may have a causal role in the development of cervical epithelial changes, including RCC. Thus, extra awareness is warranted in cervical screening of women with Chlamydia or Ureaplasma infections. PMID:24526918

Choi, Yuri; Roh, Jaesook

2014-01-01

184

[Contribution of recent methods to the diagnosis of Chlamydia infections].  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of non- and/or post-gonococcal urethritis in men. The infection is often silent in women, but may be complicated by salpingitis followed by tubal sterility. The direct diagnosis: Since the availability of monoclonal antibodies, the microscopic examination of a smear of the sample is once again a current technique. By using an immuno-fluorescent technique, it is possible to demonstrate the elementary corpuscules in the form of free extracellular particles. This methods is rapid and easy to perform. Culture: Nevertheless, culture remains the reference technique despite the fact that it only reveals "inclusions": clumps of reticulated particles. The technique is simplified by using microculture in flat bottomed microtitration plates, which enables a large number of isolations to be performed in one step. The visualisation by means of monoclonal antibodies is in perfect agreement with classical staining techniques. The serological diagnosis: Micro-immuno-fluorescence (MIF) is still the reference technique. ELISA occasionally fails to correlate with MIF. These discordances can be explained by the different antigens used: protein extracts bound to a support, in the case of ELISA, and whole live particles, in the case of MIF. PMID:3907427

Catalan, F

1985-01-01

185

Cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte-mediated cytolysis of L cells persistently infected with Chlamydia spp.  

PubMed Central

Persistent chlamydial infections have been proposed as a means whereby chlamydiae evade immune resolution of infection. Such a mechanism would require evasion not only of the humoral immune responses but also of cell-mediated immune responses. We hypothesized that if such a mechanism is important, persistently infected cells should not be recognized by cytotoxic T cells. Persistent infections were simulated in vitro by treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis- or Chlamydia psittaci-infected cells with gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), penicillin, or tryptophan depletion. Cultures were examined for induction of a chlamydial stress response (measured by transcription of groesl RNA) and for the effects on viability, infectivity, morphology, and immune recognition. Although both IFN-gamma and penicillin induced aberrant chlamydial morphology and growth, we did not find evidence that these treatments elicited a classical stress response. In addition, T-cell-mediated lysis of Chlamydia-infected target cells treated with IFN-gamma or penicillin or grown in tryptophan-deficient media was examined. The immune cell-mediated lysis of these treated infected cells demonstrated that despite the effects of these compounds on chlamydial growth and development, the infected cells continued to be efficiently recognized and killed by cytotoxic T cells. Thus, it seems unlikely that these in vitro models of persistence represent functional mechanisms to evade immune clearance.

Rasmussen, S J; Timms, P; Beatty, P R; Stephens, R S

1996-01-01

186

Azithromycin inhibits interleukin-6 but not fibrinogen production in hepatocytes infected with cytomegalovirus and chlamydia pneumoniae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydia pneumoniae and cytomegalovirus (CMV) have been associated with the development of atherosclerosis. Inflammatory stimuli initiate the biosynthesis of fibrinogen, interleukin (IL)-6 and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 in the liver. Chronic infection may perpetuate the inflammatory status. We hypothesized that infection of human hepatocytes with the intracellular pathogens C pnemoniae and CMV accelerates biosynthesis of fibrinogen, IL-6, and PAI-1 but

John J. M Bouwman; Frank L. J Visseren; Paul K Bouter; Rob J. A Diepersloot

2004-01-01

187

In Vitro Activities of Azithromycin and Ofloxacin against Chlamydia pneumoniae in a Continuous-Infection Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydia pneumoniae is a well-established cause of community-acquired pneumonia and bronchitis in adults and children. Chronic infections with C. pneumoniae have been implicated in the development of athero- sclerosis and other diseases in humans. Methods currently used for the culture and propagation of C. pneu- moniae are not analogous to the infection as it occurs in vivo. We have established

ANDREI KUTLIN; PATRICIA M. ROBLIN; MARGARET R. HAMMERSCHLAG

1999-01-01

188

Diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis genitourinary infection in women by ligase chain reaction assay of urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genitourinary infection with Chlamydia trachomatis is a common and potentially serious sexually transmitted disease. Diagnosis of C trachomatis infection in women typically relies on culture of endocervical swabs, an invasive and expensive procedure. The ligase chain reaction (LCR) is an in-vitro nucleic acid amplification technique that exponentially amplifies selected DNA sequences. We have compared an LCR-based assay to detect C

H. H Lee; J. D Burczak; S Muldoon; G Leckie; M. A Chernesky; J Schachter; W. W Andrews; W. E Stamm

1995-01-01

189

Chlamydia trachomatis genovar distribution in clinical urogenital specimens from Tunisian patients: high prevalence of C. trachomatis genovar E and mixed infections  

PubMed Central

Background This epidemiological study was carried out in Sfax (south of Tunisia) and focused on genital Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) genovar distribution. Methods One hundred and thirty seven genital samples from 4067 patients (4.2%) attending the Habib Bourguiba University hospital of Sfax over 12 years (from 2000 to 2011) were found to be C. trachomatis PCR positive by the Cobas Amplicor system. These samples were genotyped by an in house reverse hybridization method. Results One hundred and eight (78.8%) samples contained only one genovar and 29 (21.2%) samples contained two or three genovars. Genovar E was the most prevalent (70.8%) single genovar and it was detected in 90.6% of all the cases. Genovars J, C and L1-L3 were not detected in our samples whereas ocular genovars A and B were in 5 cases. All the five cases were mixed infections. Men had more mixed infections than women (p=0.02) and were more frequently infected by genovars F and K (p<0.05). No associations between current infection, infertility and the genovar distribution were observed. Patients coinfected with Neisseria gonorrhoeae were also significantly more frequently infected with mixed genovars (p=0.04). Conclusions In conclusion, we have reported a high prevalence of genovar E and of mixed infections in our study population. Such data could have implications for the control and vaccine development of C. trachomatis in Tunisia.

2012-01-01

190

Cervical Infection with Herpes simplex Virus, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae among Symptomatic Women, Dubai, UAE: A Molecular Approach  

PubMed Central

Tragically, genital tract infections are still a major public health problem in many regions. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of cervical infection with Herpes simplex virus (HSV), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) among married women referring to Iranian Hospital, Dubai, UAE. In a retrospective cross-sectional survey, 201 female patients aged 16–80 years who referred to the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Iranian Hospital, Dubai, UAE, in 2010 were enrolled. The patients were categorized into three age groups: 15–30 (group I), 31–40 (group II), and ?41 years old (group III). A cervical swab sample was collected from each woman and the prevalence of cervical infection with HSV, CT, and NG was determined by PCR method. HSV, CT, and NG were detected in 6.5%, 10.4%, and 5.5% of swab samples, respectively. Regarding age, a significant difference was noticed for prevalence of NG and HSV between groups I and III. Because of public health importance of sexual transmitted diseases (STDs), their long-lasting impact on quality of life, and their economic burden, preventing measures and education of women seem necessary.

Behzadi, Mohammad Amin; Azizi, Saeed; Payombarnia, Hamid; Vahdani, Ali; Namayandeh, Mandana; Ziyaeyan, Mazyar

2014-01-01

191

Pgp3 Antibody Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, a Sensitive and Specific Assay for Seroepidemiological Analysis of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding of the burden of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and its clinical sequelae is hampered by the absence of accurate, well-characterized tests using serological methods to determine past exposure to infection. An \\

Gillian S. Wills; Patrick J. Horner; Rosy Reynolds; Anne M. Johnson; David A. Muir; David W. Brown; Alan Winston; Andrew J. Broadbent; David Parker; Myra O. McClure

2009-01-01

192

Gardnerella, Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in the genital discharge of symptomatic fertile and asymptomatic infertile women.  

PubMed

This study aimed to establish the different prevalence of the microorganisms investigated in the two groups considered: fertile women with symptoms and asymptomatic women with infertility problems. The data from women (n= 952) investigated for two years for quality of genital discharge and the presence of Gardnerella vaginalis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida species, Streptococcus agalactiae, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyiticum and Chlamydia trachomatis were retrospectively analyzed. In the population of fertile women with symptoms the microrganisms most frequently involved are Gardnerella vaginalis (26.6%), Candida species (12.1%) and Streptococcus agalactiae (9.2%). The genital discharges of asymptomatic women with infertility problems are characterized by a prevalence of Gardnerella vaginalis (19.7%), Enterobacteriaceae or Enterococci (12.1%) and Streptococcus agalactiae (8.6%). The reduction of vaginal lactobacilli flora and the presence of an elevated number of polymorphonucleates in the vaginal discharge are important parameters to consider for the evaluation of the health status of the human female urogenital tract. Our results indicate that is important to culture the vaginal discharge for Streptococcus agalactiae and for prevalence of Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococci. Lastly, the reasons for the prevalence of some microorganisms (Gardnerella vaginalis, Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococci, Streptococcus agalactiae) in the population of infertile asymptomatic women need to be better analyzed especially after the recent studies correlating idiopathic infertility with the presence of cervical cytokines in women with an abnormal vaginal flora. PMID:20402416

Casari, Erminia; Ferrario, Antonella; Morenghi, Emanuela; Montanelli, Alessandro

2010-01-01

193

Role of endogenous gamma interferon in host defense against Chlamydia trachomatis infections.  

PubMed Central

BALB/c mice (6 to 8 weeks old) infected with Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L1 were sacrificed, and the yield of Chlamydia inclusion-forming units from the liver and lungs was measured in HeLa 229 cells. The yield of inclusion-forming units reached a peak at 3 days postinfection and then progressively declined. The mice infected with C. trachomatis had no detectable levels of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) in their sera. However, stimulation of their spleen cells with either concanavalin A or heat-killed C. trachomatis resulted in the release of high levels of IFN-gamma (600 to 900 IU/ml) at 5 to 8 days postinfection. The increased release of IFN-gamma from the spleen cells paralleled the clearance of chlamydia from the liver and lungs. Sera and spleen cells from animals immunized with live C. trachomatis were transferred to recipient mice that were subsequently challenged with C. trachomatis. Transfer of spleen cells resulted in a reduction of the infection in the recipient animal as measured by the yield of chlamydia from the spleen, but transfer of the sera did not confer protective immunity. In addition, mice infected with C. trachomatis serovar L1 were treated with a hamster neutralizing monoclonal antibody to recombinant murine IFN-gamma (MAb-MuIFN-gamma). In the animals receiving the MAb-MuIFN-gamma, the yield of chlamydia from the lungs, spleen, and liver was significantly higher than from the control groups of mice. Histopathological analysis of tissues from the chlamydia-infected mice showed that the animals treated with the MAb-MuIFN-gamma had a significantly more extensive inflammatory reaction in their lungs, liver, and spleen. Images

Zhong, G M; Peterson, E M; Czarniecki, C W; Schreiber, R D; de la Maza, L M

1989-01-01

194

Influence of Common Mucosal Co-Factors on HIV Infection in the Female Genital Tract.  

PubMed

Women constitute almost half of HIV-infected population globally, and the female genital tract (FGT) accounts for approximately 40% of all new HIV infections worldwide. The FGT is composed of upper and lower parts, distinct in their morphological and functional characteristics. Co-factors in the genital microenvironment, such as presence of hormones, semen, and other sexually transmitted infections, can facilitate or deter HIV infection and play a critical role in determining susceptibility to HIV. In this review, we examine some of these co-factors and their potential influence. Presence of physical and chemical barriers such as epithelial tight junctions, mucus, and anti-microbial peptides can actively block and inhibit viral replication, presenting a significant deterrent to HIV. Upon exposure, HIV and other pathogens first encounter the genital epithelium: cells that express a wide repertoire of pattern recognition receptors that can recognize and directly initiate innate immune responses. These and other interactions in the genital tract can lead to direct and indirect inflammation and enhance the number of local target cells, immune activation, and microbial translocation, all of which promote HIV infection and replication. Better understanding of the dynamics of HIV transmission in the female genital tract would be invaluable for improving the design of prophylactic strategies against HIV. PMID:24617528

Ferreira, Victor H; Kafka, Jessica K; Kaushic, Charu

2014-06-01

195

Early MicroRNA Expression Profile as a Prognostic Biomarker for the Development of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease in a Mouse Model of Chlamydial Genital Infection  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT It is not currently possible to predict the probability of whether a woman with a chlamydial genital infection will develop pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). To determine if specific biomarkers may be associated with distinct chlamydial pathotypes, we utilized two Chlamydia muridarum variants (C. muridarum Var001 [CmVar001] and CmVar004) that differ in their abilities to elicit upper genital tract pathology in a mouse model. CmVar004 has a lower growth rate in vitro and induces pathology in only 20% of C57BL/6 mouse oviducts versus 83.3% of oviducts in CmVar001-infected mice. To determine if chemokine and cytokine production within 24 h of infection is associated with the outcome of pathology, levels of 15 chemokines and cytokines were measured. CmVar004 infection induced significantly lower levels of CXCL1, CXCL2, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), and CCL2 in comparison to CmVar001 infection with similar rRNA (rs16) levels for Chlamydiae. A combination of microRNA (miRNA) sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis of 134 inflammation-related miRNAs was performed 24 h postinfection to determine if the chemokine/cytokine responses would also be reflected in miRNA expression profiles. Interestingly, 12 miRNAs (miR-135a-5p, miR298-5p, miR142-3p, miR223-3p, miR299a-3p, miR147-3p, miR105, miR325-3p, miR132-3p, miR142-5p, miR155-5p, and miR-410-3p) were overexpressed during CmVar004 infection compared to CmVar001 infection, inversely correlating with the respective chemokine/cytokine responses. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that early biomarkers elicited in the host can differentiate between two pathological variants of chlamydiae and be predictive of upper tract disease.

Myers, Garry S. A.; Spencer, Nicole; Creasy, Heather Huot; Adams, Nancy E.; Maurelli, Anthony T.; McChesney, Grant R.; Cleves, Mario A.; Ravel, Jacques; Bowlin, Anne; Rank, Roger G.

2014-01-01

196

Chlamydia trachomatis Specific Heat Shock Proteins 60 Antibodies can Serve as Prognostic Marker in Secondary Infertile Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The magnitude of reproductive morbidity associated with sexually transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis infection is enormous. A predictive serological test for upper genital tract infection would be a desirable diagnostic tool as C. trachomatis infection may lead to various immunopathological sequelae such as infertility, or ectopic pregnancy. Materials and Methods: Female patients (n = 198) attending gynecology outpatient department of Safdarjung

R. Dutta; R. Jha; S. Salhan; A. Mittal

2008-01-01

197

Proceedings From the First Asia-Oceania Research Organisation on Genital Infections and Neoplasia (AOGIN) Meeting  

PubMed Central

The First Asia-Oceania Research Organisation on Genital Infections and Neoplasia (AOGIN) Meeting was held in Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia, in July 2005. The conference covered regional issues relating to infection with the human papillomavirus—epidemiology, virology, and immunology, testing, screening, and prevention strategies—as well as cervical cancer screening and its management.

Faro, Edited by Sebastian

2006-01-01

198

Chlamydia trachomatis infection prevents front-rear polarity of migrating HeLa cells.  

PubMed

Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens that cause trachoma, sexually transmitted diseases and respiratory infections in humans. Fragmentation of the host cell Golgi apparatus (GA) is essential for chlamydial development, whereas the consequences for host cell functions, including cell migration are not well understood. We could show that Chlamydia trachomatis-infected cells display decelerated migration and fail to repopulate monolayer scratch wounds. Furthermore, infected cells lost the ability to reorient the fragmented GA or the microtubule organization centre (MTOC) after a migratory stimulus. Silencing of golgin-84 phenocopied this defect in the absence of the infection. Interestingly, GA stabilization via knockdown of Rab6A and Rab11A improved its reorientation in infected cells and it was fully rescued after inhibition of Golgi fragmentation with WEHD-fmk. These results show that C.?trachomatis infection perturbs host cell migration on multiple levels, including the alignment of GA and MTOC. PMID:23351274

Heymann, Julia; Rejman Lipinski, Anette; Bauer, Bianca; Meyer, Thomas F; Heuer, Dagmar

2013-07-01

199

Autoprocessing and self-activation of the secreted protease CPAF in Chlamydia-infected cells  

PubMed Central

The Chlamydia-secreted protease/proteasome-like activity factor (CPAF) is synthesized as a proenzyme (proCPAF) and requires processing for proteolytic activity. Recent structural studies have further demonstrated that CPAF is a serine protease that can undergo autoprocessing and self-activation in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro. However, it is not known how CPAF is processed and activated during chlamydial infection. In the current study, we used a mutant CPAF designated as CPAF(E558A) that is deficient in processing by itself as a substrate to search for putative CPAF activation factor(s) in Chlamydia-infected cells. CPAF(E558A) was processed by the lysates made from Chlamydia-infected cells and the processing activity correlated with the presence of endogenous active CPAF in the fractionated lysate samples. CPAF produced in the Chlamydia-infected cells is required for processing the mutant CPAF(E558A) since the processing activity was removed by depletion with anti-CPAF but not control antibodies. Furthermore, a purified and activated wild type CPAF alone was sufficient for processing CPAF(E558A) and no other chlamydial proteases are required. Finally, fusion tag-induced oligomerization can lead to autoprocessing and self-activation of the wild type CPAF in mammalian cells. These observations together have demonstrated that CPAF undergoes autoprocessing and self-activation during chlamydial infection.

Chen, Ding; Lei, Lei; Flores, Rhonda; Huang, Zhiwei; Wu, Zhongming; Chai, Jijie; Zhong, Guangming

2010-01-01

200

[No firm evidence for screening for Chlamydia in connection with spontaneous abortion].  

PubMed

Infection with genital Chlamydia while undergoing a vaginal instrumentation increases the risk of pelvic inflammatory disease with pain and sterility as sequelae. A literature study was performed in order to find out if screening and treatment for Chlamydia trachomatis should be offered to all women with miscarriages. This article reviews the available literature on the topic. The results show that there is a need for larger clinical trials before an evidence-based answer can be given. PMID:23402242

Juhl, Caroline Sollberger; Christensen, Martin; Bor, Isil Pinar

2013-02-01

201

Characterization of the systemic disease and ocular signs induced by experimental infection with Chlamydia psittaci in cats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to the commonly reported ocular signs, Chlamydia psittaci infection of kittens resulted in fever, lethargy, lameness and reduction in weight gain following ocular instillation of virulent organisms. The appearance of these systemic signs was late with respect to the appearance of ocular symptoms and occurred simultaneously with increasing levels of chlamydia-specific IgG. Measurement of acute phase reactants and

Julie TerWee; Marta Sabara; Katrina Kokjohn; Jim Sandbulte; Patrick Frenchick; Kimberly J Dreier

1998-01-01

202

Rabbit Genital Tissue Is Susceptible to Infection by Rabbit Oral Papillomavirus: an Animal Model for a Genital Tissue-Targeting Papillomavirus  

PubMed Central

Rabbit oral papillomavirus (ROPV) is a mucosatropic papillomavirus which naturally infects oral mucosal sites of domestic rabbits. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that rabbit genital mucosa is also susceptible to ROPV infection by using the athymic mouse xenograft system and adult immunocompetent rabbits. Subrenal xenografts of ROPV-infected rabbit vulvar and penile sheath tissues were strongly positive for ROPV infection by histologic, in situ hybridization, and Southern analyses. Direct inoculation of adult rabbit penises with infectious ROPV produced small raised lesions of approximately 1 by 1 by 1 mm that were ROPV positive by both in situ hybridization and Southern analyses and were also viral capsid antigen positive by immunohistological staining. Infection of rabbit genital tissues with ROPV may be a useful animal model for the study of genital tissue-targeting papillomaviruses.

Harvey, Stephen B.; Cladel, Nancy M.; Budgeon, Lynn R.; Welsh, Patricia A.; Griffith, James W.; Lang, C. Max; Christensen, Neil D.

1998-01-01

203

Usefulness of transvaginal hydrolaparoscopy in investigating infertile women with Chlamydia trachomatis infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A new technique called transvaginal hydrolaparoscopy (THL) was recently developed for the exploration of the tubo-ovarian structures in infertile patients without obvious pelvic pathology. This study was performed to investigate the usefulness of THL to evaluate Chlamydia trachomatis tubal infertility. METHODS: Forty-one women with primary and secondary infertility participated in this study. Fourteen had past C. trachomatis infection. In

Hiroaki Shibahara; Hiroyuki Fujiwara; Yuki Hirano; Tatsuya Suzuki; Hiromi Obara; Satoru Takamizawa; Sadayoshi Idei; Ikuo Sato

204

Protective Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Are Induced During Murine Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis  

Microsoft Academic Search

T cell responses are often an important component in immunity to organisms that replicate intracellularly. Cyto- toxic T lymphocyte (CTL) recognition of peptide Ag in the context of MHC class I molecules results in lysis of infected cells and the release of cytokines including IFN-y. Members of the genus Chlamydia are obligate intra- cellular pathogens that cause blindness and sexually

Michael N. Starnbach; Michael J. Bevan; Mary F. Lampe

1994-01-01

205

Differences in infectivity and induction of infertility: a comparative study of Chlamydia trachomatis strains in the murine model.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis, although commonly asymptomatic in women, can result in chronic sequelae, such as pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy and infertility. However, a clear relationship has not been determined between specific serovars and the ability to lead to upper genital tract infection or infertility. Thus, in order to investigate differences in pathogenicity, C3H/HeN mice were infected in the ovarian bursa with the C. trachomatis strains D (UW-3/Cx), F (N.I.1), F (IC-Cal-3) and E (Bour). Differences both in the amount of vaginal shedding as well as subsequent fertility rates were observed between D (UW-3/Cx) and F (N.I.1) compared to F (IC-Cal-3) and E (Bour). Approximately 50% of the mice infected with the D (UW-3/Cx) and F (N.I.1) strains had vaginal shedding for up to 3-4 weeks after infection and fertility rates of less than 25%. Furthermore, mice inoculated with D (UW-3/Cx) and F (N.I.1) showed infertility even in the absence of medroxy progesterone acetate (MPA) treatment. In contrast, both MPA and non-MPA treated mice infected with F (IC-Cal-3) or E (Bour) did not show vaginal shedding and had fertility rates between 45 and 88%. Mutations in the CT135 open reading frame have been associated with virulence. However, no nucleotide differences were found among the four isolates for CT135. This murine model of infection with C. trachomatis may help with the understanding of disease pathology in humans and ultimately vaccine development. PMID:23287699

Carmichael, Jennifer R; Tifrea, Delia; Pal, Sukumar; de la Maza, Luis M

2013-03-01

206

Does Chlamydia pneumoniae infection trigger to development of asthma in wheezy infants?  

PubMed

The role of Chlamydia pneumonia (CP) infection in infantile asthma remains obscure. CP infection was serologically determined (Immunoglobulin M antibody titer of index (ID) > or = 2.00) in wheezing infants who were then re-examined at 3 years of age to determine whether asthma is associated with CP infection. Wheezing infants with CP infection progressed to asthma more frequently than those who were not infected. These findings may suggest that CP infection triggers the development of asthma in wheezy infants. PMID:19905928

Zaitsu, Masafumi

2009-11-01

207

Sensitivity of mitomycin-C treated McCoy cells for isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis from genital specimens.  

PubMed

A new cell culture method was developed for the diagnostic isolation of Chlamydia trachomatis using McCoy cells pretreated with mitomycin-C. This drug acts on the cell by producing cross links between strands of DNA and results in the production of large, flat cells, which are similar to irradiated cells, and large chlamydial inclusions. In tests using a laboratory isolate of Chlamydia trachomatis, there were significantly more inclusions produced in mitomycin-treated monolayers than in cycloheximide-treated monolayers. Using clinical specimens, significantly more isolates were obtained in mitomycin-treated cells than in cycloheximide-treated cells. The new cell culture technique therefore offers a cell culture method which has the advantages of producing large inclusions similar to irradiated cells but with the convenience of drug treatment. PMID:3126059

Woodland, R M; Kirton, R P; Darougar, S

1987-12-01

208

Genital and urinary tract infections in diabetes: impact of pharmacologically-induced glucosuria.  

PubMed

Predisposition to genital infections and urinary tract infections (UTIs) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) results from several factors such as glucosuria, adherence of bacteria to the uroepithelium and immune dysfunction. The tendency to develop these infections could be even higher in patients with T2DM treated with the emerging class of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. Studies have shown that pharmacologically-induced glucosuria with SGLT2 inhibitors raises the risk of developing genital infections and, to a relatively lesser extent, UTIs. However, a definitive dose relationship of the incidence of these infections with the SGLT2 doses is not evident in the existing data. Therefore, the precise role of glucosuria as a causative factor for these infections is yet to be fully elucidated. PMID:24529566

Geerlings, Suzanne; Fonseca, Vivian; Castro-Diaz, David; List, James; Parikh, Shamik

2014-03-01

209

Classical and Molecular Methods for Evaluation of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Women with Tubal Factor Infertility  

PubMed Central

Background Chlamydia trachomatis is the most reported bacterial sexually transmitted disease, especially among young women worldwide. The aim of this study was comparison the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in woman with tubal infertility by means of PCR and cell culture techniques. Methods Fifty-one women with confirmed TFI were enrolled in this study in (avicenna infertility Clinic) between January 2010 and January 2011. Cervical swab and cytobrush specimens were collected from each patient by gynecologists and sent to laboratory in transport media. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in samples was performed using PCR and bacteria culture in MacCoy cell line. The data were analyzed by Fisher's exact test and independent t-test. Statistical significance was established at a p-value <0.05. Results A significant relation was observed between increased the age of first intercourse and chlamydial infection. Six (11.7%) samples had positive PCR result, whereas cell culture results were positive in only 2 (3.9%) samples. A significant relation was also identified between the duration of infertility and infection (p < 0.05) by PCR versus cell culture method. Conclusion The results showed that PCR is a rapid method, compared to cell culture for detecting Chlamydial organism. It also became clear that the age at first intercourse is important to predict the likelihood of Chlamydia trachomatis.

Hajikhani, Bahareh; Motallebi, Tayebeh; Norouzi, Jamileh; Bahador, Abbas; Bagheri, Rezvan; Asgari, Soheila; Chamani-Tabriz, Leili

2013-01-01

210

Condom effectiveness for reducing transmission of gonorrhea and chlamydia: the importance of assessing partner infection status.  

PubMed

This analysis examined the importance of differential exposure to infected partners in epidemiologic studies of latex condom effectiveness for prevention of sexually transmitted infections. Cross-sectional, enrollment visit data were analyzed from Project RESPECT, a trial of counseling interventions conducted at five publicly funded US sexually transmitted disease clinics between 1993 and 1997. The association between consistent condom use in the previous 3 months and prevalent gonorrhea and chlamydia (Gc/Ct) was compared between participants known to have infected partners and participants whose partner infection status was unknown. Among 429 participants with known Gc/Ct exposure, consistent condom use was associated with a significant reduction in prevalent gonorrhea and chlamydia (30% vs. 43%; adjusted prevalence odds ratio = 0.42, 95% confidence interval: 0.18, 0.99). Among 4,314 participants with unknown Gc/Ct exposure, consistent condom use was associated with a lower reduction in prevalent gonorrhea and chlamydia (24% vs. 25%; adjusted prevalence odds ratio = 0.82, 95% confidence interval: 0.66, 1.01). The number of unprotected sex acts was significantly associated with infection when exposure was known (p for trend < 0.01) but not when exposure was unknown (p for trend = 0.73). Restricting analyses to participants with known exposure to infected partners provides a feasible and efficient mechanism for reducing confounding from differential exposure to infected partners in condom effectiveness studies. PMID:14742284

Warner, Lee; Newman, Daniel R; Austin, Harland D; Kamb, Mary L; Douglas, John M; Malotte, C Kevin; Zenilman, Jonathan M; Rogers, Judy; Bolan, Gail; Fishbein, Martin; Kleinbaum, David G; Macaluso, Maurizio; Peterman, Thomas A

2004-02-01

211

Chlamydia trachomatis Infection and Anti-Hsp60 Immunity: The Two Sides of the Coin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection is one of the most common causes of reproductive tract diseases and infertility. CT-Hsp60 is synthesized during infection and is released in the bloodstream. As a consequence, immune cells will produce anti-CT-Hsp60 antibodies. Hsp60, a ubiquitous and evolutionarily conserved chaperonin, is normally sequestered inside the cell, particularly into mitochondria. However, upon cell stress, as well as

Francesco Cappello; Everly Conway de Macario; Valentina Di Felice; Giovanni Zummo; Alberto J. L. Macario

2009-01-01

212

Murine granulated metrial gland cells are susceptible to Chlamydia psittaci infection in vivo.  

PubMed Central

Granulated metrial gland (GMG) cells are the most numerous lymphoid cells in the uteroplacental unit in rodent pregnancy. In an experimental murine model of abortion-causing infection, we have studied the responses of GMG cells to Chlamydia psittaci. Chlamydial inclusions have been found within GMG cells, both in apparently healthy cells and in cells with degenerative changes. Establishing the existence of GMG cells infected by C. psittaci opens a new and interesting chapter in the study of these cells.

Sanchez, J; Buendia, A J; Salinas, J; Bernabe, A; Rodolakis, A; Stewart, I J

1996-01-01

213

Immunocytologic detection of Chlamydia psittaci from cervical and vaginal samples of chronically infected ewes.  

PubMed Central

An immunocytologic method was developed for the detection of chronic Chlamydia psittaci infection from the reproductive tract of ewes. Vaginal and cervical samples from 8 infected and 2 non-infected ewes were stained with a C. psittaci-specific monoclonal antibody. Cells containing C. psittaci were only detected from the 8 infected ewes and the level of detection varied with respect to the estrus cycle. An increased number of infected cells were observed during the periovulation period, thus indicating an optimal window for detection. Images Figure 1.

Papp, J R; Shewen, P E; Thorn, C E; Andersen, A A

1998-01-01

214

Inhibition of Matrix Metalloproteinases Protects Mice from Ascending Infection and Chronic Disease Manifestations Resulting from Urogenital Chlamydia muridarum Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are a family of host-derived enzymes involved in the turnover of extra- cellular matrix molecules. We have previously reported enhanced expression of matrix metalloproteinases in Chlamydia muridarum urogenital tract infection of female mice. Kinetics and patterns of MMP expression as well as enhanced expression in susceptible strains of mice in the prior study implied a role for

Muhammad T. Imtiaz; Justin H. Schripsema; Ira M. Sigar; John N. Kasimos; Kyle H. Ramsey

2006-01-01

215

[Diagnostic-therapeutic guidelines for men whose partners have HPV genital infection].  

PubMed

Human papilloma virus infection is the most frequent sexually transmitted disease. HPV infections are connected with different diseases such as benign warts, condylomata acuminata, malignant cervical, vulvar, vaginal, penile and anal carcinoma. Peniscopy with HPV detection is a specific diagnostic method for diagnosis of subclinical HPV genital infection in asymptomatic men. Taking the samples for HPV detection from asymptomatic men with curette is more qualitative way of getting enough samples then taking swab with wooden stick or (tongue) depressor. Early diagnosis and treatment of HPV infections in men is of potential benefit because their eradication can reduce the viral reservoir and as the result of that the incidence of CIN, carcinoma in situ and invasive cervical carcinoma can be reduced. For the correct diagnosis and for choosing the adequate therapeutical technique, we suggest diagnostic-therapeutic guidelines for HPV genital infection in men. PMID:20030291

Ljubojevi?, Suzana; Lipozenci?, Jasna; Skerlev, Mihael; Zele-Starcevi?, Lidija; Ljubojevi?, Nikola; Babi?, Damir; Grubisi?, Goran; Juki?, Stanko

2009-01-01

216

Estimating the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and human papillomavirus infection in indigenous women in northern Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To estimate more accurately the age specific prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and human papillomavirus infection (HPV) in indigenous women living in urban, rural, and remote areas of the \\

F. J. Bowden; B. A. Paterson; J. Mein; J. Savage; C. K. Fairley; S. M. Garland; S. N. Tabrizi

1999-01-01

217

Genital infection and transmission of pseudorabies virus in feral swine in Florida, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventeen feral swine (FS) naturally infected with pseudorabies virus (PRV) and treated with dexamethasone (4 mg\\/kg body wt) on five consecutive days shed virus primarily from the genital tract and less frequently from the upper respiratory tract. The FS isolates were identified as PRV by virus neutralization with specific polyclonal antiserum and by direct immunofluorescence. Restriction endonuclease analysis with BamHI

Carlos H. Romero; Paul Meade; Julie Santagata; Karen Gillis; Gene Lollis; Edwin C. Hahn; E. Paul J. Gibbs

1997-01-01

218

The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Australia: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Chlamydia trachomatis is a common sexually transmitted infection in Australia. This report aims to measure the burden of chlamydia infection by systematically reviewing reports on prevalence in Australian populations. Methods Electronic databases and conference websites were searched from 1997–2011 using the terms ‘Chlamydia trachomatis’ OR ‘chlamydia’ AND ‘prevalence’ OR ‘epidemiology’ AND ‘Australia’. Reference lists were checked and researchers contacted for additional literature. Studies were categorised by setting and participants, and meta-analysis conducted to determine pooled prevalence estimates for each category. Results Seventy-six studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. There was a high level of heterogeneity between studies; however, there was a trend towards higher chlamydia prevalence in younger populations, Indigenous Australians, and those attending sexual health centres. In community or general practice settings, pooled prevalence for women <25?years in studies conducted post-2005 was 5.0% (95% CI: 3.1, 6.9; five studies), and for men <30?years over the entire review period was 3.9% (95% CI: 2.7, 5.1; six studies). For young Australians aged <25?years attending sexual health, family planning or youth clinics, estimated prevalence was 6.2% (95% CI: 5.1, 7.4; 10 studies) for women and 10.2% (95% CI: 9.5, 10.9; five studies) for men. Other key findings include pooled prevalence estimates of 22.1% (95% CI: 19.0, 25.3; three studies) for Indigenous women <25?years, 14.6% (95% CI: 11.5, 17.8; three studies) for Indigenous men <25?years, and 5.6% (95% CI: 4.8, 6.3; 11 studies) for rectal infection in men who have sex with men. Several studies failed to report basic demographic details such as sex and age, and were therefore excluded from the analysis. Conclusions Chlamydia trachomatis infections are a significant health burden in Australia; however, accurate estimation of chlamydia prevalence in Australian sub-populations is limited by heterogeneity within surveyed populations, and variations in sampling methodologies and data reporting. There is a need for more large, population-based studies and prospective cohort studies to compliment mandatory notification data.

2012-01-01

219

Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and Syphilis  

MedlinePLUS

... chlamydia? Both gonorrhea and chlamydia are caused by bacteria. The bacteria are passed from one person to another through ... inflammatory disease (PID) , an infection that occurs when bacteria move from the vagina and cervix upward into ...

220

Epithelial membrane protein 2 modulates infectivity of Chlamydia muridarum (MoPn).  

PubMed

Chlamydiae are bacterial pathogens which have evolved efficient strategies to enter, replicate, and survive inside host epithelial cells, resulting in acute and chronic diseases in humans and other animals. Several candidate molecules in the host receptor complex have been identified, but the precise mechanisms of infection have not been elucidated. Epithelial membrane protein-2 (EMP2), a 4-transmembrane protein, is highly expressed in epithelial cells in sites of chlamydial infections. Here we show that infectivity of the Chlamydia muridarum (MoPn) is associated with host cellular expression of EMP2 in multiple cell lines. Recombinant knockdown of EMP2 impairs infectivity, whereas infectivity is augmented in cells recombinantly modified to over-express EMP2. An epithelial cell line without native expression of EMP2 is relatively resistant to MoPn infection, whereas infectivity is markedly increased by recombinant expression of EMP2 in that cell line. Blockade of surface EMP2 using a specific anti-EMP2 antibody significantly reduces chlamydial infection efficiency. In addition, MoPn infectivity as measured in the EMP2 overexpressing cell line is not heparin-dependent, suggesting a possible role for EMP2 in the non-reversible phase of early infection. These findings identify EMP2 as a candidate host protein involved in infection of C. muridarum (MoPn). PMID:17544801

Shimazaki, Kaori; Wadehra, Madhuri; Forbes, Ashley; Chan, Ann M; Goodglick, Lee; Kelly, Kathleen A; Braun, Jonathan; Gordon, Lynn K

2007-07-01

221

Serological Association of Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection with Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background We investigated the serological association of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and the Association of Research in Vision and Ophthalmology abstracts were searched to identify studies investigating the serological association of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection with age-related macular degeneration. The quality of original studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Heterogeneity was explored with meta-regression. The odds ratios (ORs) and standardized mean differences (SMD) of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection between AMD patients and controls were pooled. Results In total, 9 studies met the inclusion criteria using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale scores ranging from 4 to 9. There was heterogeneity among studies due to a difference in the study designs and measurement of exposure to Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. The overall OR of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection with AMD was 1.11 (95% confidence interval: 0.78–1.57, P?=?0.56). The overall SMD of antibody titer between AMD and control was 0.43 (95% confidence interval: ?0.12 to 0.99, P?=?0.13). Conclusions Evidence from the current published literature suggested no statistically significant association between Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and AMD.

Chen, Xueyu; Jhanji, Vishal; Chen, Chupeng; Chen, Haoyu

2014-01-01

222

Urethral Cytokine and Immune Responses in Chlamydia trachomatis-Infected Males  

PubMed Central

Penile urethral swabs collected from PCR-confirmed Chlamydia trachomatis-infected, C. trachomatis-uninfected, and non-C. trachomatis-infected, nongonococcal urethritis-infected males were analyzed for cytokine, total immunoglobulin (Ig), and specific antibody levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Differential cellular components of the swab transport medium were also enumerated for the same groups. Although low, the levels of C. trachomatis-specific IgA and IgG antibodies and interleukin 8 cytokine were significantly higher in C. trachomatis-infected individuals. There were no significant differences in the levels of seven additional cytokines evaluated.

Pate, Mitchell S.; Hedges, Spencer R.; Sibley, Don A.; Russell, Michael W.; Hook, Edward W.; Mestecky, Jiri

2001-01-01

223

Concordant Oral-Genital HPV Infection in South Africa Couples: Evidence for Transmission.  

PubMed

Objective: Cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer mortality in South Africa. However, little is known about oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence settings. Method: Thirty-four adult heterosexual couples attending an HIV testing center in Soweto, South Africa were enrolled. Each participant provided an oral rinse sample and genital swab, which were tested for 37 types of HPV DNA, and completed a risk behavior survey. Results: Median age was 31?years and 9% (3/34) of men and 29% (10/34) of women enrolled tested HIV-positive; median CD4 count was 437?cells/mm(3). Oral HPV prevalence was similar in women and men (12 vs. 18%, p?=?0.48), and was non-significantly higher in HIV-infected vs. HIV-uninfected (23 vs. 13%, p?=?0.34) subjects. Most men (82%) and women (84%) reported ever performing oral sex. Median number of lifetime sexual partners was "2-5" while median number of lifetime oral sex partners was 1. Oncogenic HPV subtypes were detected in 4% of oral, 26% of penile, and 74% of vaginal samples, including HPV16 in 1, 12, and 21% of these samples respectively. Genital HPV prevalence was significantly higher than oral HPV prevalence (75 vs. 15%, p???0.001). Thirty-five percent of couples (12/34) had at least one type-specific concordant vaginal-penile HPV infection but only one of nine couples with oral HPV had concordant oral-oral infection. However, 67% (4/6) of men and 25% (1/4) of women with oral HPV infection had partners with concordant genital HPV infection. Implications and Impact: Oral-oral HPV concordance between couples is low, but oral-genital and genital-genital HPV concordance is higher, including concordance of male oral HPV infection with their partners' vaginal HPV infection. This data is consistent with possible transmission of vaginal HPV infection to the oral cavity of sexual partners performing oral sex. PMID:24377087

Vogt, Samantha L; Gravitt, Patti E; Martinson, Neil A; Hoffmann, Jennifer; D'Souza, Gypsyamber

2013-01-01

224

Chapter 6: Epidemiology and transmission dynamics of genital HPV infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter provides an overview of the epidemiology of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, with a focus on the dynamics of sexual transmission. We explore concepts related to the spread of sexually transmitted infections, including population prevalence, duration of infectivity, patterns of sexual contacts, and transmissibility, including modifiers of susceptibility and infectivity. HPV prevalence and incidence are high in most studies,

Ann N. Burchell; Rachel L. Winer; Silvia de Sanjosé; Eduardo L. Franco

2006-01-01

225

Risk factors associated with Chlamydia and gonorrhea infection among female sex workers in two Mexico-U.S. border cities  

PubMed Central

Female sex workers (FSWs) aged ?18 years without known HIV infection living in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez who had recent unprotected sex with clients underwent interviews and testing for Chlamydia and gonorrhea using nucleic acid amplification. Correlates of each infection were identified with logistic regression. Among 798 FSWs, prevalence of Chlamydia and gonorrhea was 13.0% and 6.4%. Factors independently associated with Chlamydia were being younger, working in Tijuana versus Ciudad Juarez, and recent methamphetamine injection. Factors independently associated with gonorrhea were working in Tijuana versus Ciudad Juarez, using illegal drugs before or during sex, and having a recent male partner who injects drugs. Chlamydia and gonorrhea infection were more closely associated with FSWs’ drug use behaviors and that of their sexual partners than with sexual behaviors. Prevention should focus on subgroups of FSWs and their partners who use methamphetamine and who inject drugs.

Loza, Oralia; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Martinez, Gustavo A.; Lozada, Remedios; Ojeda, Victoria D.; Staines-Orozco, Hugo; Patterson, Thomas L.

2011-01-01

226

Rate of Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in Infertile Females and Control Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infertility in famale is one of the most important sequela of genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum. In the present study the frequency of these bacteries was studied in 125 infertile female by direct and indirect immunofluorscence tests and culture method and compared with 250 normal population. Mycoplasma hominis was isolated from 32 (35.6%) of infertile

N Badami; MH Salari

227

Association of Maternal Genital and Reproductive Infections with Verbal Memory and Motor Deficits in Adult Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Maternal exposure to genital and reproductive infections has been associated with schizophrenia in previous studies. Impairments in several neuropsychological functions, including verbal memory, working memory, executive function, and fine-motor coordination occur prominently in patients with schizophrenia. The etiologies of these deficits, however, remain largely unknown. We aimed to assess whether prospectively documented maternal exposure to genital/reproductive infections was related to these neuropsychological deficits in offspring with schizophrenia and other schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The cases were derived from a population-based birth cohort; all cohort members belonged to a prepaid health plan. Cases were assessed for verbal memory, working memory, executive function, and fine-motor coordination. Compared to unexposed cases, patients exposed to maternal genital/reproductive infection performed more poorly on verbal memory, fine-motor coordination, and working memory. Stratification by race revealed associations between maternal G/R infection and verbal memory and fine-motor coordination for case offspring of African-American mothers, but not for case offspring of White mothers. Significant infection-by-race interactions were also observed. Although independent replications are warranted, maternal G/R infections were associated with verbal memory and motor function deficits in African-American patients with schizophrenia.

Brown, Alan S.; Vinogradov, Sophia; Kremen, William S.; Poole, John H.; Bao, Yuanyuan; Kern, David; McKeague, Ian W.

2011-01-01

228

Additional Gonorrhea and Chlamydia Infections Found With Rapid Follow-Up Screening in Men Who Have Sex With Men With an Indication for HIV Postexposure Prophylaxis.  

PubMed

Sexually transmitted infection was found in 16.5% of the men who have sex with men with a postexposure prophylaxis indication. Chlamydia and gonorrhea screening was repeated after 14 days. Among those who were initially sexually transmitted infection negative, 4.1% had chlamydia or gonorrhea. In postexposure prophylaxis-indicated men who have sex with men, repeat chlamydia and gonorrhea screening is advised to diagnose infections not apparent at baseline screening. PMID:25013982

de Vrieze, Nynke H N; van Rooijen, Martijn S; van de Loeff, Maarten Schim; de Vries, Henry J C

2014-08-01

229

Effects of Population Based Screening for Chlamydia Infections in The Netherlands Limited by Declining Participation Rates  

PubMed Central

Background A large trial to investigate the effectiveness of population based screening for chlamydia infections was conducted in the Netherlands in 2008–2012. The trial was register based and consisted of four rounds of screening of women and men in the age groups 16–29 years in three regions in the Netherlands. Data were collected on participation rates and positivity rates per round. A modeling study was conducted to project screening effects for various screening strategies into the future. Methods and Findings We used a stochastic network simulation model incorporating partnership formation and dissolution, aging and a sexual life course perspective. Trends in baseline rates of chlamydia testing and treatment were used to describe the epidemiological situation before the start of the screening program. Data on participation rates was used to describe screening uptake in rural and urban areas. Simulations were used to project the effectiveness of screening on chlamydia prevalence for a time period of 10 years. In addition, we tested alternative screening strategies, such as including only women, targeting different age groups, and biennial screening. Screening reduced prevalence by about 1% in the first two screening rounds and leveled off after that. Extrapolating observed participation rates into the future indicated very low participation in the long run. Alternative strategies only marginally changed the effectiveness of screening. Higher participation rates as originally foreseen in the program would have succeeded in reducing chlamydia prevalence to very low levels in the long run. Conclusions Decreasing participation rates over time profoundly impact the effectiveness of population based screening for chlamydia infections. Using data from several consecutive rounds of screening in a simulation model enabled us to assess the future effectiveness of screening on prevalence. If participation rates cannot be kept at a sufficient level, the effectiveness of screening on prevalence will remain limited.

Schmid, Boris V.; Over, Eelco A. B.; van den Broek, Ingrid V. F.; Op de Coul, Eline L. M.; van Bergen, Jan E. A. M.; Fennema, Johan S. A.; Gotz, Hannelore M.; Hoebe, Christian J. P. A.; de Wit, G. Ardine; van der Sande, Marianne A. B.; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E. E.

2013-01-01

230

Genital warts and infection with human immunodeficiency virus in high-risk women in Burkina Faso: a longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Background Human papillomaviruses are the most common sexually transmitted infections, and genital warts, caused by HPV-6 and 11, entail considerable morbidity and cost. The natural history of genital warts in relation to HIV-1 infection has not been described in African women. We examined risk factors for genital warts in a cohort of high-risk women in Burkina Faso, in order to further describe their epidemiology. Methods A prospective study of 765 high-risk women who were followed at 4-monthly intervals for 27 months in Burkina Faso. Logistic and Cox regression were used to identify factors associated with prevalent, incident and persistent genital warts, including HIV-1 serostatus, CD4+ count, and concurrent sexually transmitted infections. In a subset of 306 women, cervical HPV DNA was tested at enrolment. Results Genital wart prevalence at baseline was 1.6% (8/492) among HIV-uninfected and 7.0% (19/273) among HIV-1 seropositive women. Forty women (5.2%) experienced at least one incident GW episode. Incidence was 1.1 per 100 person-years among HIV-uninfected women, 7.4 per 100 person-years among HIV-1 seropositive women with a nadir CD4+ count >200 cells/?L and 14.6 per 100 person-years among HIV-1 seropositive women with a nadir CD4+ count ?200 cells/?L. Incident genital warts were also associated with concurrent bacterial vaginosis, and genital ulceration. Antiretroviral therapy was not protective against incident or persistent genital warts. Detection of HPV-6 DNA and abnormal cervical cytology were strongly associated with incident genital warts. Conclusions Genital warts occur much more frequently among HIV-1 infected women in Africa, particularly among those with low CD4+ counts. Antiretroviral therapy did not reduce the incidence or persistence of genital warts in this population.

2011-01-01

231

Transcription Factor Complex AP-1 Mediates Inflammation Initiated by Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection  

PubMed Central

Summary Chlamydia pneumoniae is responsible for a high prevalence of respiratory infections worldwide and has been implicated in atherosclerosis. Inflammation is regulated by transcription factor (TF) networks. Yet, the core TF network triggered by chlamydiae remains largely unknown. Primary human coronary artery endothelial cells were mock-infected or infected with C. pneumoniae to generate human transcriptome data throughout the chlamydial developmental cycle. Using systems network analysis, the predominant TF network involved receptor, binding and adhesion, and immune response complexes. Cells transfected with interfering RNA against activator protein-1 (AP-1) members FOS, FOSB, JUN and JUNB had significantly decreased expression and protein levels of inflammatory mediators interleukin (IL)6, IL8, CD38 and tumor necrosis factor compared with controls. These mediators have been shown to be associated with C. pneumoniae disease. Expression of AP-1 components was regulated by MAPK3K8, a MAPK pathway component. Additionally, knockdown of JUN and FOS showed significantly decreased expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR)3 during infection, implicating JUN and FOS in TLR3 regulation. TLR3 stimulation led to elevated IL8. These findings suggest that C. pneumoniae initiates signaling via TLR3 and MAPK that activate AP-1, a known immune activator in other bacteria not previously shown for chlamydiae, triggering inflammation linked to C. pneumoniae disease.

Wang, Anyou; Al-Kuhlani, Mufadhal; Johnston, S. Clayborne; Ojcius, David M.; Chou, Joyce; Dean, Deborah

2012-01-01

232

Cutaneous vasculitis and reactive arthritis following respiratory infection due to Chlamydia pneumoniae: report of a case.  

PubMed

Unlike Chlamydia trachomatis and C. psittaci, the association of C. pneumoniae infection with immunological complications, such as reactive arthritis (ReA) or erythema nodosum (EN) has been rarely reported. Here we present the case history of a patient with C. pneumoniae community acquired pneumonia (CAP) who subsequently developed a ReA and a cutaneous vasculitis. A 45-year-old HLA B27 negative male developed an asymmetric and additive arthritis and a cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis with IgM and complement papillary deposition along hypodermic vessel walls about three weeks after the onset of respiratory symptoms. The diagnosis of chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infection was based on serology and PCR. Cultural and serological investigations for other infectious agents commonly involved in ReA were negative. This is the first report on the occurrence of two immune-based complications, associated to Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. Therefore, since this infection is very common in our population, although often asymptomatic, should be systematically considered as a common causative agent of ReA and of vasculitis. PMID:12508779

Cascina, A; Marone Bianco, A; Mangiarotti, P; Montecucco, C M; Meloni, F

2002-01-01

233

Immunization against Genital Herpes with a Vaccine Virus That has Defects in Productive and Latent Infection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An effective vaccine for genital herpes has been difficult to achieve because of the limited efficacy of subunit vaccines and the safety concerns about live viruses. As an alternative approach, mutant herpes simplex virus strains that are replication-defective can induce protective immunity. To increase the level of safety and to prove that replication was not needed for immunization, we constructed a mutant herpes simplex virus 2 strain containing two deletion mutations, each of which eliminated viral replication. The double-mutant virus induces protective immunity that can reduce acute viral shedding and latent infection in a mouse genital model, but importantly, the double-mutant virus shows a phenotypic defect in latent infection. This herpes vaccine strain, which is immunogenic but has defects in both productive and latent infection, provides a paradigm for the design of vaccines and vaccine vectors for other sexually transmitted diseases, such as AIDS.

da Costa, Xavier J.; Jones, Cheryl A.; Knipe, David M.

1999-06-01

234

Genital lubricants containing zinc salts to reduce risk of HIV infection  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method is disclosed for using a topical genital lubricant with a non-toxic, non-irritating zinc salt during sexual intercourse. The lubricant is spread upon one or more genital surfaces to create an anti-viral chemical barrier that reduces the risk of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus that causes AIDS. Suitable zinc salts include zinc acetate, zinc propionate, and other non-irritating water-soluble organic zinc salts that dissociate readily. When dissolved in water, these salts release divalent zinc ions (Zn.sup.++), which apparently can reduce HIV infectivity by at least three mechanisms. First, zinc ions form crosslinking bonds with cysteine and histidine residues in proteins (such as the gp120 protein of HIV), thereby "gluing" HIV particles to each other, to proteins in vaginal fluids, and to dead or dying cells that will soon be sloughed off from the genital surfaces. This reduces the ability of the HIV to infect susceptible cells. Second, zinc is the active agent in diaper rash ointments and calamine lotion, and it promotes healing and closure of lesions, microabrasions, and other skin breaches; this reduces the ability of HIV to penetrate the skin and reach lymphocytes. Third, concentrations of zinc that do not harm skin can kill HIV-infected lymphocytes, thereby preventing the lymphocytes from infecting other cells via cell--cell binding mechanisms. The toxicity of zinc to lymphocytes also explains why the anti-HIV activity of zinc was not recognized previously, in standard lymphocyte assays.

1997-04-29

235

In vitro Effect of Natural and SemiSynthetic Carbohydrate Polymers on Chlamydia trachomatis Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of different natural and semi-synthetic polysaccharides on Chlamydia trachomatis multiplication in Hela 229 cells was evaluated. Some neutral, negatively and positively charged carbohydrates were able, in a dose-dependent fashion, to inhibit chlamydial infection by interfering mainly with the adsorption process. The inhibiting compounds, whose effect was shown within the concentration range of 8-200 ?g\\/ml, were in order of

Maria Grazia Petronio; Antonella Mansi; Carmela Gallinelli; Silvia Pisani; Lucilla Seganti; Fernanda Chiarini

1997-01-01

236

The Unexpected Impact of a Chlamydia trachomatis Infection Control Program on Susceptibility to Reinfection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. After the introduction of a program to control Chlamydia trachomatis infection in British Columbia, Canada, case rates fell from 216 cases\\/100,000 population in 1991 to 104 cases\\/100,000 population in 1997. Since 1998, rates have increased, and case counts now exceed those recorded before the intervention. Methods. We used Cox proportional-hazards survival analysis and developed a compartmental mathematical model to

Babak Pourbohloul; Sunny Mak; Rick White

2005-01-01

237

Acute Glomerulonephritis in a Child with Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection: A Case Report.  

PubMed

Background. Infectious diseases seem to be an important and independent risk factor for renal failure, but the underlying mechanism of renal involvement during some kinds of infectious diseases is still unclear, even if the literature data report immunomediated and/or autoimmune mechanisms to explain the pathogenic relationship between the two diseases. In paediatric patients, Chlamydia pneumoniae is a rare cause of renal complications and it may manifest in several ways, mainly involving the respiratory system, even if also renal and glomerulalr complications, have been described. Case Diagnosis/Treatment. Herein we report a case of a 3-year-old child who developed an acute glomerulonephritis that was chronologically, clinically, and biologically related to a previous Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. On our knowledge, in the literature it is the youngest patient with renal involvement during course of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection ever reported. Conclusions. The present case supports the hypothesis of a rather close causal relationship between this infective agent and renal and glomerular symptoms occurred in this child, during an acute episode of respiratory disease. PMID:23970901

Vitaliti, Giovanna; Falsaperla, Raffaele; Giunta, Leandra; Spataro, Giuseppina; Rapisarda, Venerando; Velardita, Mario; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Pavone, Piero

2013-01-01

238

The incidence of Chlamydia pneumoniae lower respiratory tract infections among university students in northern California.  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia pneumoniae has recently been identified as a cause of lower respiratory tract infections. From March 1987 to March 1988, 259 university students-151 students with lower respiratory tract infections and 108 controls-from the University of California, Berkeley, were studied to determine the incidence and pattern of C pneumoniae lower respiratory tract infections. Serologic evidence of a recent C pneumoniae infection was found in less than 2%, and the organism was not isolated from any of the subjects. Despite the paucity of evidence of a recent infection, 47.5% of this university population showed serologic evidence of a previous C pneumoniae infection. The lower incidence of C pneumoniae infection in our population, when compared with previous reports, suggests that there may be geographic and temporal differences or fluctuations among populations.

Katzman, D. K.; Tipton, A. C.; Litt, I. F.; Friedman, I. M.; Emmons, R. W.; Schachter, J.

1991-01-01

239

Prevalence of reproductive tract infections, genital prolapse, and obesity in a rural community in Lebanon.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of reproduction-related illnesses in a rural community in Lebanon. METHODS: Data were collected through interviews with women in their homes, physical examinations and history taking by physicians in a clinic in the community, and laboratory tests. A total of 557 ever-married women aged 15-60 years were selected randomly. FINDINGS: Just over half of the sample (268, 50.6%) had five or more children, and (320, 78.9%) of women aged < 45 years were using contraception. The prevalence of reproductive tract infections was very low: six (1.2%) women had sexually transmitted diseases and 47 (9.3%) had endogenous reproductive tract infections. None had chlamydial infection or a positive serological finding of syphilis. None had invasive cervical cancer, and only one had cervical dysplasia. In contrast, genital prolapse and gynaecological morbidity were elevated. Half of the women studied (251, 49.6%) had genital prolapse, and 153 (30.2%) were obese. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of reproductive tract infections in this conservative rural community in east Lebanon was low. Possible explanations include the conservative nature of the community, the high rate of utilization of health care services, and the liberal use of antibiotics without a prescription. More importantly, the study showed an unexpectedly high prevalence of genital prolapse and obesity--a finding that has clear implications for primary health care priorities in such rural communities.

Deeb, Mary E.; Awwad, Johnny; Yeretzian, Joumana S.; Kaspar, Hanna G.

2003-01-01

240

CD57 expression by T cells in the female genital tract of HIV-zx1 infected women  

PubMed Central

Despite an influx of T cells to the cervix during HIV infection, genital T cells are not associated with control of HIV shedding. CD57 expression by T cells has been associated with enhanced migratory potential and CD57+ T cells have been shown to accumulate in tissues during the late stages of HIV disease. We investigated the impact of HIV-infection and clinical status on the expression of CD57 by T cells from the female genital tract in 13 HIV-infected and 5 uninfected women. We found that cervical and blood-derived T cells expressed similar frequencies of CD57. The frequency of CD57 expression by cervical or blood T cells was not associated with clinical status (CD4 counts). No impairment in IFN-? production by CD57+ T cells from the genital tract was observed. We conclude that increased T cell senescence does not appear to be a hallmark of genital mucosal HIV-1 infection.

Liebenberg, Lenine J.; Adedeji, Adebayo Lawrence; Martin, Darren P.; Gumbi, Pam P.; Denny, Lynette; Passmore, Jo-Ann S.

2010-01-01

241

Diversity of Cervicovaginal Microbiota Associated with Female Lower Genital Tract Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The female genital tract (FGT) harbors very large numbers of bacterial species that are known to play an important role on\\u000a vaginal health. Previous studies have focused on bacterial diversity in the vagina, but little is known about the ectocervical\\u000a microbiota associated with FGT infections. In our study, vaginal swabs and ectocervical swabs were collected from 100 participants\\u000a in China,

Zongxin Ling; Xia Liu; Xiaoyi Chen; Haibin Zhu; Karen E. Nelson; Yaxian Xia; Lanjuan Li; Charlie Xiang

2011-01-01

242

Genital warts and genital papillomavirus disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genital infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common STI. Reliable estimates indicate a lifetime risk of infection of more than 50% for the population. Genital HPV infection can be divided into infection with genotypes less likely to be associated with neoplasia (low oncogenic risk) and genotypes with a stronger association with neoplasia (high oncogenic risk). A family of high-risk

Charles JN Lacey

2005-01-01

243

Evaluation of sequential testing strategies using non-amplified and amplified methods for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in endocervical and urine specimens from women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) are more sensitive than other methods for the diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) genital infections. Two unique sequential testing strategies that employed two different commercial NAAT methods to detect CT in a population of women with widely varying infection risk were evaluated. Specimens from 504 women aged 15 to 75 years were studied. Two endocervical

Heather Semeniuk; Ali Zentner; Ron Read; Deirdre Church

2002-01-01

244

Diagnosis of genital herpes simplex virus infection in the clinical laboratory  

PubMed Central

Since the type of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection affects prognosis and subsequent counseling, type-specific testing to distinguish HSV-1 from HSV-2 is always recommended. Although PCR has been the diagnostic standard method for HSV infections of the central nervous system, until now viral culture has been the test of choice for HSV genital infection. However, HSV PCR, with its consistently and substantially higher rate of HSV detection, could replace viral culture as the gold standard for the diagnosis of genital herpes in people with active mucocutaneous lesions, regardless of anatomic location or viral type. Alternatively, antigen detection—an immunofluorescence test or enzyme immunoassay from samples from symptomatic patients--could be employed, but HSV type determination is of importance. Type-specific serology based on glycoprotein G should be used for detecting asymptomatic individuals but widespread screening for HSV antibodies is not recommended. In conclusion, rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis of HSV is now become a necessity, given the difficulty in making the clinical diagnosis of HSV, the growing worldwide prevalence of genital herpes and the availability of effective antiviral therapy.

2014-01-01

245

Diagnosis of genital herpes simplex virus infection in the clinical laboratory.  

PubMed

Since the type of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection affects prognosis and subsequent counseling, type-specific testing to distinguish HSV-1 from HSV-2 is always recommended. Although PCR has been the diagnostic standard method for HSV infections of the central nervous system, until now viral culture has been the test of choice for HSV genital infection. However, HSV PCR, with its consistently and substantially higher rate of HSV detection, could replace viral culture as the gold standard for the diagnosis of genital herpes in people with active mucocutaneous lesions, regardless of anatomic location or viral type. Alternatively, antigen detection-an immunofluorescence test or enzyme immunoassay from samples from symptomatic patients--could be employed, but HSV type determination is of importance. Type-specific serology based on glycoprotein G should be used for detecting asymptomatic individuals but widespread screening for HSV antibodies is not recommended. In conclusion, rapid and accurate laboratory diagnosis of HSV is now become a necessity, given the difficulty in making the clinical diagnosis of HSV, the growing worldwide prevalence of genital herpes and the availability of effective antiviral therapy. PMID:24885431

LeGoff, Jérôme; Péré, Hélène; Bélec, Laurent

2014-01-01

246

Immune Consequences of Chlamydia Infections in Pregnancy and In Vitro Fertilization Outcome  

PubMed Central

This review addresses the immune consequences of Chlamydial infections in pregnancy and in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcome. In pregnancy, many works have shown the risk for perterm labor, preterm birth, or miscarriage with current infection, and stress the need for screening and treatment early in pregnancy. IVF outcome needs to be studied in relation to specific markers like inflammatory cytokines and secretory antibodies to the 60 kD heat shock protein (hsp60) and to Chlamydia, to determine their ability to predict and influence pregnancy outcome.

Askienazy-Elbhar, M.

1996-01-01

247

Chlamydia pneumoniae infection-related hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and acute encephalitis and poliomyelitis-like flaccid paralysis.  

PubMed

A 3-year-old male presented with Chlamydia pneumoniae infection-related hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). The patient developed an episode of HLH with severe skin eruption following C. pneumoniae pneumonia. Symptoms responded to steroid/cyclosporine A therapy, but the patient slowly lost consciousness and developed systemic flaccid paralysis. He was diagnosed with encephalitis/myelitis by brain and spinal MRI. Neurological symptoms and signs gradually resolved. We thought that the immune response to C. pneumoniae infection triggered the development of HLH, associated with unusual neurological complications. This report describes a novel case of C. pneumoniae-associated HLH and with poliomyelitis like flaccid paralysis. PMID:21370423

Yagi, Kanae; Kano, Gen; Shibata, Mayumi; Sakamoto, Izumi; Matsui, Hirofumi; Imashuku, Shinsaku

2011-05-01

248

Diagnosis of genitourinary Chlamydia trachomatis infections by using the ligase chain reaction on patient-obtained vaginal swabs.  

PubMed

We compared the ligase chain reaction (LCR) assay to cell culture for diagnosis of genitourinary chlamydial infections in women using swab specimens obtained by clinicians from the endocervix and by patients from their own vaginas. Specimens from 40 (12.9%) of 309 patients were positive for chlamydial infection by culture, while the specimens of 50 (16.2%) patients were positive by LCR. Chlamydia trachomatis infection was verified for 9 of 10 patients whose LCR specimens were positive but whose cultures were negative. Vaginal and cervical swab specimens were positive by LCR for 46 (93.9%) and 44 (89.8%) of 49 chlamydia-infected patients, respectively. These data suggest that LCR testing for chlamydia with vaginal swab specimens obtained by patients themselves is as sensitive as cervical LCR and more sensitive than cell culture. PMID:9230397

Hook, E W; Smith, K; Mullen, C; Stephens, J; Rinehardt, L; Pate, M S; Lee, H H

1997-08-01

249

Human enteroendocrine cell responses to infection with Chlamydia trachomatis: a microarray study  

PubMed Central

Background Enteroendocrine cells (EEC) are highly specialized cells producing signalling molecules vital to the normal functions of the gut. Recently, we showed altered protein distribution in Chlamydia infected EEC in vitro. The aim of this study was to perform a microarray analysis of the response pattern of EEC from both large and small bowel to infection in vitro, using Chlamydia trachomatis infection as a model. Methods Two human EEC lines: LCC-18, derived from a neuroendocrine colonic tumour, and CNDT-2, derived from a small intestinal carcinoid, were infected using cultured C. trachomatis serovar LGV II strain 434 (ATCC VR-902B). Penicillin G was used to induce persistent infection. We used microarray analysis (Affymetrix GeneChip®) for studying changes in gene expression at different stages of infection. Results Twenty-four hours after active and persistent infection, 66 and 411 genes in LCC-18 and 68 and 170 genes in CNDT-2 cells, respectively showed mean expression ratios >2-fold compared to non-infected cells. These genes encoded factors regulating apoptosis, cell differentiation, transcription regulation, cytokine activity, amine biosynthesis and vesicular transport. We found significant differences in gene transcription levels between persistently infected and non-infected cells in 10 genes coding for different solute carrier transporters (SLC) and in 5 genes related to endocrine function (GABARAPL1, GRIP1, DRD2, SYT5 and SYT7). Conclusions Infected EEC cells exhibit cell-type specific patterns related to vesicular transport, secretion and neurotransmitters. EEC play a pivotal role in regulation of gut motility and an impairment of enteroendocrine function can contribute to motility disorders.

2014-01-01

250

Comparison of performances of two commercially available tests, a PCR assay and a ligase chain reaction test, in detection of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection.  

PubMed

The diagnostic performance of a PCR test (Roche Cobas Amplicor CT/NG Test) and that of a ligase chain reaction (LCR) test (Abbott LCx Chlamydia trachomatis assay) were compared by using endocervical and urethral swab specimen culture as a reference test. First-void urine (FVU) and endocervical and urethral swab specimens were collected from 1,015 unselected patients attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic and a clinic for adolescents in Helsinki, Finland. Chlamydia trachomatis was cultured from samples from the endocervix or urethra. PCR was performed with fresh and frozen urine and the culture transport medium. LCR was performed with fresh and frozen urine and LCx swab transport medium. Diagnostic consistency and diagnostic accuracy were statistically tested. The test results were identical for 984 patients (97%). Discrepant results were observed for 31 patients. Overall, LCR and PCR showed excellent kappa coefficients of consistency for both swab and FVU specimens (0.93 and 0.95, respectively). Sixty-one patients (6%) were culture positive. Testing of FVU by LCR or PCR increased the overall positivity rates to 7.0 and 7.7%, respectively. While PCR of FVU detected the greatest number of C. trachomatis infections (sensitivity, 96.1%), for some PCR-positive FVU specimens the results could not be confirmed (specificity, 99.6%). PCR and LCR were more sensitive than culture (sensitivities, 92 and 93% versus 79% for culture) in the diagnosis of genital C. trachomatis infection. In conclusion, both tests can be recommended for use in the clinical laboratory and for the screening of asymptomatic C. trachomatis infections. PMID:9620366

Puolakkainen, M; Hiltunen-Back, E; Reunala, T; Suhonen, S; Lähteenmäki, P; Lehtinen, M; Paavonen, J

1998-06-01

251

Comparison of Performances of Two Commercially Available Tests, a PCR Assay and a Ligase Chain Reaction Test, in Detection of Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis Infection  

PubMed Central

The diagnostic performance of a PCR test (Roche Cobas Amplicor CT/NG Test) and that of a ligase chain reaction (LCR) test (Abbott LCx Chlamydia trachomatis assay) were compared by using endocervical and urethral swab specimen culture as a reference test. First-void urine (FVU) and endocervical and urethral swab specimens were collected from 1,015 unselected patients attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic and a clinic for adolescents in Helsinki, Finland. Chlamydia trachomatis was cultured from samples from the endocervix or urethra. PCR was performed with fresh and frozen urine and the culture transport medium. LCR was performed with fresh and frozen urine and LCx swab transport medium. Diagnostic consistency and diagnostic accuracy were statistically tested. The test results were identical for 984 patients (97%). Discrepant results were observed for 31 patients. Overall, LCR and PCR showed excellent kappa coefficients of consistency for both swab and FVU specimens (0.93 and 0.95, respectively). Sixty-one patients (6%) were culture positive. Testing of FVU by LCR or PCR increased the overall positivity rates to 7.0 and 7.7%, respectively. While PCR of FVU detected the greatest number of C. trachomatis infections (sensitivity, 96.1%), for some PCR-positive FVU specimens the results could not be confirmed (specificity, 99.6%). PCR and LCR were more sensitive than culture (sensitivities, 92 and 93% versus 79% for culture) in the diagnosis of genital C. trachomatis infection. In conclusion, both tests can be recommended for use in the clinical laboratory and for the screening of asymptomatic C. trachomatis infections.

Puolakkainen, Mirja; Hiltunen-Back, Eija; Reunala, Timo; Suhonen, Satu; Lahteenmaki, Pekka; Lehtinen, Matti; Paavonen, Jorma

1998-01-01

252

Metabolic features of Protochlamydia amoebophila elementary bodies--a link between activity and infectivity in Chlamydiae.  

PubMed

The Chlamydiae are a highly successful group of obligate intracellular bacteria, whose members are remarkably diverse, ranging from major pathogens of humans and animals to symbionts of ubiquitous protozoa. While their infective developmental stage, the elementary body (EB), has long been accepted to be completely metabolically inert, it has recently been shown to sustain some activities, including uptake of amino acids and protein biosynthesis. In the current study, we performed an in-depth characterization of the metabolic capabilities of EBs of the amoeba symbiont Protochlamydia amoebophila. A combined metabolomics approach, including fluorescence microscopy-based assays, isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), ion cyclotron resonance Fourier transform mass spectrometry (ICR/FT-MS), and ultra-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) was conducted, with a particular focus on the central carbon metabolism. In addition, the effect of nutrient deprivation on chlamydial infectivity was analyzed. Our investigations revealed that host-free P. amoebophila EBs maintain respiratory activity and metabolize D-glucose, including substrate uptake as well as host-free synthesis of labeled metabolites and release of labeled CO2 from (13)C-labeled D-glucose. The pentose phosphate pathway was identified as major route of D-glucose catabolism and host-independent activity of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was observed. Our data strongly suggest anabolic reactions in P. amoebophila EBs and demonstrate that under the applied conditions D-glucose availability is essential to sustain metabolic activity. Replacement of this substrate by L-glucose, a non-metabolizable sugar, led to a rapid decline in the number of infectious particles. Likewise, infectivity of Chlamydia trachomatis, a major human pathogen, also declined more rapidly in the absence of nutrients. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that D-glucose is utilized by P. amoebophila EBs and provide evidence that metabolic activity in the extracellular stage of chlamydiae is of major biological relevance as it is a critical factor affecting maintenance of infectivity. PMID:23950718

Sixt, Barbara S; Siegl, Alexander; Müller, Constanze; Watzka, Margarete; Wultsch, Anna; Tziotis, Dimitrios; Montanaro, Jacqueline; Richter, Andreas; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Horn, Matthias

2013-01-01

253

A coding polymorphism in matrix metalloproteinase 9 reduces risk of scarring sequelae of ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Trachoma, an infectious disease of the conjunctiva caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, is an important global cause of blindness. A dysregulated extracellular matrix (ECM) proteolysis during the processes of tissue repair following infection and inflammation are thought to play a key role in the development of fibrotic sequelae of infection, which ultimately leads to blindness. Expression and activity of matrix

Angels Natividad; Graham Cooke; Martin J Holland; Matthew J Burton; Hassan M Joof; Kirk Rockett; Dominic P Kwiatkowski; David CW Mabey; Robin L Bailey

2006-01-01

254

Syphilis, Chlamydia, and Gonorrhea Screening in HIV-Infected Patients in Primary Care, San Francisco, California, 2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recommends sexually transmitted disease (STD) screening among HIV-infected persons in order to reduce HIV transmission. We evaluated the results of routine screening for syphilis and for urogenital, pharyngeal, and rectal gon- orrhea (GC) and chlamydia (CT) among asymptomatic HIV-infected patients at an HIV pri- mary care clinic in San Francisco, California. We found 15

W. Phipps; R. Kohn; J. Stansell; J. D. Klausner

2005-01-01

255

Effects of a Probiotic Strain of Enterococcus faecium on the Rate of Natural Chlamydia Infection in Swine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydiae are obligately intracellular pathogens which cause infections associated with a broad range of diseases in both livestock and humans. In addition, a large proportion of animals may become persistently infected asymptomatic carriers and serve as reservoirs for other animals which also shed these potential zoonotic pathogens. Reducing the chlamydial load of animals is therefore of major importance, and since

M. Pollmann; M. Nordhoff; A. Pospischil; K. Tedin; L. H. Wieler

2005-01-01

256

Sexually Transmitted Infections in Newly Arrived Refugees: Is Routine Screening for Neisseria gonorrheae and Chlamydia trachomatis Infection Indicated?  

PubMed Central

More than 340 million cases of bacterial and protozoal sexually transmitted infections (STIs) occur annually. Approximately 70,000 refugees arrive in the United States on a yearly basis. Refugees are a particularly disenfranchised and vulnerable population. The prevalence of Chlamydia and gonorrhea in refugee populations has not been described, and the utility of routine screening is unknown. We performed a descriptive evaluation of 25,779 refugees who completed a screening medical examination in Minnesota during 2003–2010. A total of 18,516 (72%) refugees were tested for at least one STI: 183 (1.1%) of 17,235 were seropositive for syphilis, 15 (0.6%) of 2,512 were positive for Chlamydia, 5 (0.2%) of 2,403 were positive for gonorrhea, 136 (2.0%) of 6,765 were positive for human immunodeficiency virus, and 6 (0.1%) of 5,873 were positive for multiple STIs. Overall prevalence of Chlamydia (0.6%) and gonorrhea (0.2%) infection was low, which indicated that routine screening may not be indicated. However, further research on this subject is encouraged.

Stauffer, William M.; Painter, John; Mamo, Blain; Kaiser, Robyn; Weinberg, Michelle; Berman, Stuart

2012-01-01

257

Triple-culture tests for diagnosis of chlamydial infection of the female genital tract.  

PubMed

By use of triple-culture tests of each site, Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated from 112 women: from cervical material from 110, urethral material from 32, and rectal material from 19. Triple swabs provided 89 (81%) of 110 diagnoses of cervical infection; the first swab yielded 65 (59%), the second an additional 15 (14%), and the third an additional nine (8%). Three sets of cervical scrapings provided 102 (93%) of 110 diagnoses of cervical infections; the first scrapings yielded 76 (69%), the second an additional 22 (20%), and the third another four (4%). Of 32 women with positive urethral cultures, the first swab was positive in 28 (88%), and the second in the remaining four. Of 19 women with positive rectal cultures, the first swab yielded 11 (58%), the second an additional five (26%), and the third an additional three (16%). The results show that positive culture results obtained by use of a single swab underestimate the prevalence of chlamydial infection. PMID:4002095

Dunlop, E M; Goh, B T; Darougar, S; Woodland, R

1985-01-01

258

Symptomatic urethritis is more prevalent in men infected with Mycoplasma genitalium than with Chlamydia trachomatis  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To study the prevalence, symptoms, and signs of Mycoplasma genitalium and Chlamydia trachomatis infections in men attending a Swedish STD clinic and to study the criteria for urethritis. Methods: A cross sectional study among STD clinic attendees in Örebro, Sweden. Attendees were examined for microscopic urethritis and first void urine (FVU) was tested for M genitalium and C trachomatis. Results: The prevalence of M genitalium and C trachomatis was 7% (34/512) and 12% (61/512), respectively. Dual infection was diagnosed in four men. In both infections 90% of the patients had signs of microscopic urethritis. M genitalium positive men had symptomatic urethritis significantly more often than those infected with C trachomatis (73% v 40%, RR 1.8; 95% CI 1.2 to 2.7). 63% of female partners of men infected with M genitalium were infected with M genitalium compared with chlamydial infection in 67% of female partners of men infected with C trachomatis. Non-chlamydial non-gonococcal urethritis without evidence of M genitalium infection was diagnosed in 180 men (35%). Symptoms and/or visible discharge were reported in 49% in this group. Conclusions: M genitalium is a common infection associated with symptomatic urethritis and with a high prevalence of infected sexual partners supporting its role as a sexually transmitted infection.

Falk, L; Fredlund, H; Jensen, J

2004-01-01

259

Predictors of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among female adolescents: a longitudinal analysis.  

PubMed

Screening guidelines recommend testing all sexually active female adolescents for Chlamydia trachomatis during a pelvic examination at each clinic visit. Such criteria have been based on cross-sectional studies; new evaluations should take into account multiple clinic visits and assess whether criteria are appropriate when a prior test is negative and risk factors are absent. Because repeated observations on an individual may be correlated, the authors used the generalized estimating equation method. Little information exists on subsequent risk of infection; as control programs develop, approaches targeting high-risk populations for recurrent infections are needed. Using data on females aged 15-19 years who visited family planning clinics more than once from 1988 to 1992 (n = 26,921) in Region X (Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington), the authors constructed a retrospective cohort. Teens with chlamydia at their first visit were at high risk for subsequent infection (odds ratio = 1.6, 95% confidence interval 1.4-1.7). Among teens uninfected at the first visit and without risk factors at the second, prevalence at the second visit was 6%. When intervisit correlations using the generalized estimating equation method were taken into account, predictors of chlamydial infection were consistent with those in previous cross sectional studies cervicitis, friable cervix, and multiple, new, or symptomatic sex partner(s). These findings support screening sexually active female adolescents at each visit, even if prior tests results are available. PMID:8916511

Mosure, D J; Berman, S; Kleinbaum, D; Halloran, M E

1996-11-15

260

[Relevance of routine diagnosis of Chlamydia and HIV infections in Vienna prostitutes].  

PubMed

At the Control Center for Veneral Diseases of the Vienna Health Office, 5000 examinations for Chlamydia infection were performed on registered and non-registered prostitutes between 1980 and 1988. During this period, we observed a continuous decrease of the rate of infections from 20.4% to 4% among registered prostitutes and from 31.4% to 12.4% among non-registered prostitutes. Between 1985 and 1988, the cumulative number of HIV infections only rose from 7 to 8 cases among registered prostitutes and from 2 to 3 cases among non-registered prostitutes. All these HIV carriers were associated with i.v. drug abuse. The correlations between these two infections as well as the implications regarding health politics are discussed. PMID:2399759

Kopp, W; Knobler, R; Lindmaier, A; Wachtberger, H; Stary, A; Söltz-Szöts, J

1990-07-01

261

Molecular cartography in acute Chlamydia pneumoniae infections--a non-targeted metabolomics approach.  

PubMed

Infections with Chlamydia pneumoniae cause several respiratory diseases, such as community-acquired pneumonia, bronchitis or sinusitis. Here, we present an integrated non-targeted metabolomics analysis applying ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry and ultra-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry to determine metabolite alterations in C. pneumoniae-infected HEp-2 cells. Most important permutations are elaborated using uni- and multivariate statistical analysis, logD retention time regression and mass defect-based network analysis. Classes of metabolites showing high variations upon infection are lipids, carbohydrates and amino acids. Moreover, we observed several non-annotated compounds as predominantly abundant after infection, which are promising biomarker candidates for drug-target and diagnostic research. PMID:23354577

Müller, Constanze; Dietz, Inga; Tziotis, Dimitrios; Moritz, Franco; Rupp, Jan; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

2013-06-01

262

Evaluation of Chlamydia immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG, and IgA rELISAs Medac for diagnosis of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection.  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia pneumoniae is an important pathogen responsible for a variety of respiratory diseases in humans. Cell culture remains the most specific method for C. pneumoniae diagnosis, but it is labor-intensive and time-consuming. Thus, serology, particularly microimmunofluorescence (MIF) testing, is frequently utilized. However, the MIF test has a significant subjective component. We evaluated a new serological test: Chlamydia Immunoglobulin M (IgG, IgA, and IgM rELISAs Medac, based on a recombinant Chlamydia-specific lipopolysaccharide (LPS) fragment, for the diagnosis of C. pneumoniae infection. The results of this study demonstrated that the use of rELISAs Medac with single sera does not appear to be sensitive or specific for diagnosis of C. pneumoniae infection compared to culture. In children, sensitivities of the rELISAs compared to culture did not exceed 34.2%, and the specificities ranged from 68.4% (IgG) to 91.2% (IgA). In adults, the sensitivities of the rELISAs were slightly higher, up to 77.8% (IgA or IgG), but the specificities ranged from a very low 20.8% for IgA or IgG to 81.1% for IgM. When multiple sera were tested, the results of the rELISAs Medac correlated with culture results in five of eight (62.5%) patients. However, this offers only a retrospective diagnosis, which makes it difficult to manage these patients prospectively.

Kutlin, A; Tsumura, N; Emre, U; Roblin, P M; Hammerschlag, M R

1997-01-01

263

Antimicrobial effect of natural polyphenols with or without antibiotics on Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in vitro.  

PubMed

Chlamydia pneumoniae is a human pathogen that causes multiple diseases worldwide. Despite appropriate therapy with antichlamydial antibiotics, chronic exacerbated diseases often occur and lead to serious sequelae. The use of the macrolide clarithromycin and the fluoroquinolone ofloxacin has improved the treatment of chlamydial infection, but therapy failure is still a major problem. In this work, we studied the pretreatment with natural polyphenols and subsequent treatment with clarithromycin or ofloxacin. The phenolic compounds resveratrol and quercetin improved the antichlamydial effect of clarithromycin and ofloxacin. In particular, resveratrol at 40??M and quercetin at 20??M exhibited significant growth inhibition on C. pneumoniae in presence of clarithromycin or ofloxacin compared to controls. In addition, we demonstrated that both resveratrol and quercetin decreased IL-17 and IL-23 production in a time-dependent manner in C. pneumoniae-infected cells. The results showed a particularly strong inhibition of the IL-23 levels released with combined treatment of resveratrol or quercetin and ofloxacin or clarithromycin, suggesting that the combined treatment may afford a synergistic effect in controlling Chlamydia infections. PMID:23952319

Rizzo, Antonietta; Carratelli, Caterina Romano; Losacco, Antonio; Iovene, Maria Rosaria

2014-02-01

264

Abortion due to infection with Chlamydia psittaci in a sheep farmer's wife.  

PubMed Central

A farmer's wife who had helped with lambing aborted spontaneously in March after a short febrile illness in the 28th week of her pregnancy. She developed disseminated intravascular coagulation post partum with acute renal failure and pulmonary oedema. Recovery was complete after two weeks of hospital care. A strain of Chlamydia psittaci, probably of ovine origin, was isolated from the placenta and fetus. The patient's serum showed rising titres of antibody against chlamydia group antigen; the placental and fetal isolates; and a known ovine abortion, but not a known avian, strain of C psittaci. IgG against both ovine abortion and enteric strains of C psittaci was detected, but IgM against only an abortion strain was detected. Histological examination showed pronounced intervillus placentitis with chlamydial inclusions in the trophoblast but no evidence of fetal infection or amnionitis. Laboratory evidence of chlamydial infection was found in an aborting ewe on the farm in January and in remaining sheep and lambs in July. Doctors should recognise the possible risk to pregnant women in rural areas where chlamydial infections in farm animals are widespread. Images FIG 1 FIG 2

Johnson, F W; Matheson, B A; Williams, H; Laing, A G; Jandial, V; Davidson-Lamb, R; Halliday, G J; Hobson, D; Wong, S Y; Hadley, K M

1985-01-01

265

Genital infection by Chlamydia trachomatis in Lisbon: prevalence and risk markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods. A systematic sample of women observed in general practice family planning and teenager clinics was collected. A questionnaire was administered, followed by a pelvic exam- ination. A first-catch urine sample was taken for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) Amplicor assay. When a sample tested positive, the woman was invited to obtain a urine sample from her partner. Socio-demograhic, behavioural and

Armando Brito de Sá; João Paulo Gomesa; Sílvia Viegasa; Maria Arminda Ferreiraa; Viegas S; Ferreira MA; Paulino A

266

Etiology of Genital Ulcer Disease in a Sexually Transmitted Infection Reference Center in Manaus, Brazilian Amazon  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine the etiology and factors associated with genital ulcer disease (GUD) among patients presenting to a sexually transmitted infections clinic in Manaus, Brazil; and to compare a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) assay for the diagnosis of GUD with standard methods. Methods Ulcer swabs were collected and used for Tzanck test and processed in an M-PCR to detect herpes simplex virus (HSV-1/2), Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum), and Haemophilus ducreyi (H. ducreyi). Sera were tested for HIV and syphilis antibodies. Multivariable analysis was used to measure the association between clinical aspects and GUD. M-PCR results were compared with syphilis serology and Tzanck tests. Results Overall, 434 GUD samples were evaluated, 84.8% from men. DNA from HSV-2 was detected in 55.3% of GUD samples, T. pallidum in 8.3%, HSV-1 in 3.2%, and 32.5% of GUD specimens were negative for the DNA of all three pathogens. No cases of H. ducreyi were identified. HIV serology among GUD patients was 3.2%. Treponemal antibodies and Tzanck test positivity for genital herpes was detected in 25 (5.8%) and in 125 (30.3%) of GUD patients, respectively. In multivariable analysis genital herpes etiology by M-PCR was associated with the vesicular, multiple and recurrent lesions whereas T. pallidum with non-vesicular, non-recurrent lesions. Compared to M-PCR, syphilis serology was 27.8% sensitive and 96.2% specific whereas Tzanck test was 43.8% sensitive and 88.9% specific. Conclusions The predominance of genital herpes etiology suggests a revision of existing national syndromic treatment guidelines in Brazil to include antiherpetic treatment for all GUD patients. The use of M-PCR can significantly improve the diagnosis of GUD and provide a greater sensitivity than standard diagnostics.

Gomes Naveca, Felipe; Sabido, Meritxell; Amaral Pires de Almeida, Tatiana; Araujo Veras, Elaine; Contreras Mejia, Matilde del Carmen; Galban, Enrique; Benzaken, Adele Schwartz

2013-01-01

267

Immune Activation in the Female Genital Tract During HIV Infection Predicts Mucosal CD4 Depletion and HIV Shedding  

PubMed Central

Plasma viral load predicts genital tract human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) shedding in HIV-infected women. We investigated whether local mucosal T-cell activation (HLA-DR, CD38, CCR5, and Ki67) contributed to HIV shedding in the genital tracts of HIV-infected women. We showed that cervical cytobrush-derived T cells expressed higher frequencies of T-cell activation markers (CD38+ and HLA-DR+) than blood-derived T cells. Expression was significantly higher in HIV-infected women than in uninfected women. We found that the frequency of activated proliferating cervical T cells (Ki67+; Ki67+CCR5+) broadly predicted HIV shedding in the genital tract in HIV-infected women, independently of plasma viral loads. Furthermore, activated cervical T cells (HLA-DR+CD38+ and HLA-DR+CCR5+) and local HIV shedding were independently associated with CD4 depletion in the genital tract. These data suggest that the presence of high frequencies of activated T cells in the female genital mucosa during HIV infection facilitates both local HIV shedding and CD4 T-cell depletion.

Jaspan, Heather B.; Hanekom, Willem; Burgers, Wendy; Coetzee, David; Williamson, Anna-Lise; Little, Francesca; Myer, Landon; Coombs, Robert W.; Sodora, Don; Passmore, Jo-Ann

2011-01-01

268

Expression of Toll-like Receptors in Genital Tract Tissues from Normal and HIV-infected Men  

PubMed Central

Problem Cells of the innate immune system use Toll-like receptors (TLRs) to recognize and respond to invading pathogens. This study was carried out to characterize TLR expression in the human male genital tract, an initial infection site for several sexually transmitted pathogens. Method of Study Immunohistochemistry was used to detect expression of TLRs 1–9 in genital tract tissues from HIV? and HIV+ men. Results In HIV? men, TLR1+ leukocytes were detected throughout the genital tract. Leukocytes in the penile urethra also expressed TLRs2, 3, 5, 7 and 9. Epithelial cells in most tissues did not express TLRs; exceptions were the prostate, where TLRs3 and 8 were observed on the apical surface of luminal epithelial cells, and the penile urethra, where epithelial cells expressed TLR9. In genital tissues from HIV+ men with AIDS, few TLR+ cells were detected. Conclusion Cells in the male genital tract can express a variety of TLRs. The penile urethra contained the highest number of TLR+ cells, indicating that this tissue plays a major role in the innate immune defense of the male genital tract. Overall, TLR expression was reduced in genital tissues from HIV+ men.

Pudney, Jeffrey; Anderson, Deborah J.

2014-01-01

269

Secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by epithelial cells in response to Chlamydia infection suggests a central role for epithelial cells in chlamydial pathogenesis.  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia species infect epithelial cells at mucosal surfaces, and are major causes of sexually transmitted diseases. Infection is characterized by inflammation which is exacerbated upon reinfection, ultimately leading to tissue damage and scarring. Although central for the development of disease manifestations, little is known about the mechanisms that initiate and sustain the inflammatory response to Chlamydia. Infection of cervical and colonic epithelial cells with Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia psittaci is shown in the present studies to upregulate mRNA expression and secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-8, GRO alpha, GM-CSF, and IL-6. In contrast to the rapid, but transient, cytokine induction following infection with other invasive bacteria, the epithelial cytokine response to Chlamydia was delayed until 20-24 h after infection, persisted throughout the chlamydial growth cycle (2-4 d), and required bacterial protein synthesis. Moreover, epithelial cell lines and primary endocervical epithelial cells released IL-1alpha after Chlamydia infection, and increased secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines could be inhibited by anti-IL-1alpha. This suggests that IL-1alpha, released following lysis of infected epithelial cells, may amplify the inflammatory response by stimulating additional cytokine production by noninfected neighboring cells. These findings suggest a novel pathophysiologic concept wherein the acute host response to Chlamydia at mucosal surfaces is primarily initiated and sustained by epithelial cells, the first and major targets of chlamydial infection.

Rasmussen, S J; Eckmann, L; Quayle, A J; Shen, L; Zhang, Y X; Anderson, D J; Fierer, J; Stephens, R S; Kagnoff, M F

1997-01-01

270

Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infection in HIV-1-infected women taking antiretroviral therapy: a prospective cohort study from Burkina Faso  

PubMed Central

Objectives Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) are common sexually transmitted infections (STI). We assessed the cumulative risk of NG and CT in a cohort of HIV-1-infected high-risk women taking antiretrovirals over 4?years in Burkina Faso. Methods Between March 2007 and February 2011, participants were followed every 3–6?months. At each visit, participants underwent a gynaecological examination with collection of cervical and vaginal swabs. Random-effects logistic regression models were used to analyse associations of NG and CT infection with behavioural and biological factors. Results 172 women had samples tested for NG and CT during the study period, in a total of 1135 visits. NG was detected in 6.4% of women (11/172, 95% CI 2.7 to 10.1) at a rate of 2.76 cases (95% CI 1.53 to 4.99) per 100 person-years. CT was detected in 1.7% (3/172, 95% CI 0 to 3.7) of women at a rate of 0.75 cases (95% CI 0.24 to 2.34) per 100 person-years. The majority of women were asymptomatic (9/14). In the multivariable model, the presence of NG or CT was associated with tobacco use (aOR=11.85, 95% CI 1.13 to 124.17), and concurrent genital HIV-1 RNA shedding (aOR=4.78, 95% CI 1.17 to 19.46). Higher levels of education (aOR=0.17, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.92), and age greater than 35?years (aOR=0.07, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.92) were associated with lower odds of infection. Conclusions The risk of NG or CT infection remains low among high-risk women in Bobo-Dioulasso. This provides some evidence that antiretroviral use does not contribute to behavioural disinhibition. The asymptomatic nature of most infections underscores the need for regular screening and treatment of STIs in core groups.

Low, Andrea J; Konate, Issouf; Nagot, Nicolas; Weiss, Helen A; Mabey, David; Segondy, Michel; Vickerman, Peter; Meda, Nicolas; van de Perre, Philippe; Mayaud, Philippe

2014-01-01

271

The quinolones and sexually transmitted infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Chlamydia trachomatis serovars D-K and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are the major sexually transmitted bacteria worldwide. Genital mycoplasmas, in particular Mycoplasma genitalium, are thought to be important causes of sexually transmitted non-gonococcal, non-chlamydial urethritis and cervicitis, more\\u000a commonly termed, non-specific genital infection (NSGI). In tropical countries sexually transmitted infections also include\\u000a lymphogranuloma venereum caused by Chlamydia trachomatis serovars L1, L2 and L3,

Sarah A. Wyllie; Geoffrey L. Ridgway

272

Genital Infection with Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 in Women from Natal, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Objective. To evaluate the prevalence of HSV-1 and HSV-2 in pregnant and nonpregnant women, testing the correlation between DNA of the viruses with colposcopic and/or cytological changes, and evaluate association with sociodemographic characteristics and sexual activity. Methods. Included in this study were 106 pregnant and 130 nonpregnant women treated at primary health care units of Natal, Brazil, in the period 2010-2011. The patients were examined by colposcopy, and two cervical specimens were collected: one for cytology examination and another for analysis by PCR for detection of HSV-1 and HSV-2. Results. HSV-1 alone was detected in 16.0% of pregnant and 30.0% of nonpregnant women. For HSV-2, these rates were 12.3% and 15.5%, respectively. HSV-2 had a higher correlation with cytology and/or colposcopy changes than HSV-1 did. Genital HSV-1 infection was not associated with any of the variables tested, whereas HSV-2 infection was associated with ethnicity, marital status, and number of sexual partners. Conclusions. The prevalence of HSV-1 was higher than that observed for HSV-2 in both pregnant and nonpregnant women. The genital infection by HSV-2 was higher in women with changed colposcopy and/or cytology, and it was associated with ethnicity, marital status, and number of sexual partners.

Miranda, Cleine Aglacy Nunes; Lima, Erika Galvao; de Lima, Diego Breno Soares; Cobucci, Ricardo Ney Oliveira; Cornetta, Maria da Conceicao de Mesquita; Fernandes, Thales Allyrio Araujo de Medeiros; de Azevedo, Paulo Roberto Medeiros; de Azevedo, Jenner Chrystian Verissimo; de Araujo, Joselio Maria Galvao; Fernandes, Jose Verissimo

2014-01-01

273

Chlamydia trachomatis: opportunistic screening in primary care.  

PubMed Central

Following the publication of the Chief Medical Officer's report on chlamydial screening, we identified the sexual health of young women as an area for concern. As part of our review we decided to opportunistically search for chlamydial genital infections using a non-invasive technique. Sexually active women under 25 years of age were invited to submit a first void urine sample for polymerase chain reaction analysis. Over the period of a year we found out that 10.9% of sexually active young women tested positive for chlamydia in our practice.

Tobin, C; Aggarwal, R; Clarke, J; Chown, R; King, D

2001-01-01

274

[Genital warts associated with HPV infection during II and III trimester of pregnancy--a case report and analysis of treatment options].  

PubMed

More than 30 HPV types can infect the genital tract. Viral infection can be present in clinical, subclinical or latent form. A visible genital form of HPV infection are genital warts, which are commonly caused by HPV types 6 and 11, and appear on the vulva, cervix, vagina, urethra and anus. Oncogenic HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33 and 35 are also found in genital warts and are associated with vulval (VII), cervical (CIN) and anal (AIN) intraepithelial neoplasia. The general prevalence of HPV infection in the form of visible genital warts estimates to about 1% of sexually active adults. Approximately 15% of the infected group / of all adults have a subclinical or latent infection and at least 80% had been infected with one or more genital HPV types at some point in their lives. The highest rate of frequency of infections occurs in the group of adults, aged from 18 to 28. Over the last twenty years figures have shown a constant growth of the infection rate, which also includes pregnant women. Genital warts can proliferate during pregnancy due to altered immunity and increased blood supply. Cryotherapy, electrocautery, laser therapy, surgery or trichloroacetic acid may be used to remove the warts. In the paper a case report on genital warts associated with HPV infection during II and III trimester of pregnancy and analysis of treatment options has been presented. PMID:18306923

Rozmus-Warcholi?ska, Wioletta; Loch, Tomasz; Czuba, Bartosz; Mazurek, Urszula; Mucha, Jan; Dworak, Dariusz; Sodowski, Krzysztof

2007-11-01

275

Haemophilus influenzae type B genital infection and septicemia in pregnant woman: a case report  

PubMed Central

Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae) type B a non-motile, aerobic, gram negative cocobacillus is a commensal of upper respiratory tract. Genitourinary infection due to H. influenzae has been reported but bacteremia associated with such infection appears to be rare. We report a case of 19 years young primigravida with complaints of amenorrhea of 32 weeks and 5 days, pyrexia, abdominal pain and blood stained discharge per vaginum. H. influenzae type B was recovered from the genital tract as well as blood of the mother indicating maternal septicemia. Septicemia caused by H. influenzae type B in pregnant women following vaginal colonization and infection is rare. It has been reported in many parts of world over the years; to the best of our knowledge this is the first reported case from Nepal. H. influenzae should be considered as a potential maternal, fetal, and neonatal pathogen.

Supram, Hosuru Subramanya; Gokhale, Shishir; Bhatta, Dharm Raj; Sharma, JSS; Shrestha, Junu

2014-01-01

276

Trophoblast infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae and adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with placental dysfunction  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE We sought to determine if Chlamydia pneumoniae impairs invasive trophoblast function and is associated with preeclampsia. STUDY DESIGN We conducted cell viability and invasion assays using primary extravillous trophoblast cells isolated from first trimester placentas. We performed a case-control study to identify C. pneumoniae in trophoblast cells dissected by laser-capture microscopy from placentas in women with severe preeclampsia and controls who delivered at term. RESULTS Trophoblast cell viability and invasion through extracellular matrices were decreased after infection with C. pneumoniae (both P<0.05). C. pneumoniae DNA was detected in trophoblast cells in 15/48 cases but only 3/30 controls (OR=4.1, P=0.02). Positive and negative controls yielded expected results. CONCLUSION Chlamydia pneumoniae infection can reduce trophoblast invasion into the uterine wall and is associated with preeclampsia. Further investigation of the mechanisms by which C. pneumoniae induces trophoblast dysfunction, and the identification of therapies to prevent adverse outcomes attributed to trophoblast dysfunction, are warranted.

Gomez, Luis M.; Parry, Samuel

2009-01-01

277

Endocytic mechanisms utilized by chlamydiae and their influence on induction of productive infection.  

PubMed Central

The microfilament-disrupting drug cytochalasin D and, initially, inoculation at 20 degrees C were used to differentiate between phagocytosis (sensitive to both treatments) and pinocytosis (resistant to both treatments) to assess whether chlamydial uptake into McCoy cells occurred by one or both mechanisms and whether each could contribute to productive infection. Both treatments suppressed the infectivity of Chlamydia trachomatis L2/434/Bu and C. psittaci GPIC (the guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis strain) following static inoculation by only 50%, indicating that there was simultaneous operation of both phagocytosis and pinocytosis during uptake that led to productive infection. Measurement of the entry of organisms by two separate assays established that both strains predominantly used a cytochalasin D-resistant (pinocytic) mechanism, implying that phagocytic uptake was coupled to a higher frequency of productive infection. Integration of the data on infectivity and entry allowed the potential for an organism to infect a host cell to be quantified. This synthesis revealed that for both strains the infectivity potential following phagocytic entry was ca. 10-fold greater than that following pinocytic entry. However, both entry mechanisms were exploited more efficiently by strain L2/434/Bu than by strain GPIC (unless the latter was inoculated with centrifugation), indicating that intrinsic strain properties are more important for infectivity potential than the endocytic mechanism utilized.

Reynolds, D J; Pearce, J H

1991-01-01

278

Chlamydia trachomatis infections and subfertility: opportunities to translate host pathogen genomic data into public health.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infections in women can result in tubal pathology (TP). Worldwide 10-15% of all couples are subfertile, meaning they did not get pregnant after 1 year. Part of the routine subfertility diagnostics is the Chlamydia Antibody Test (CAT) to decide for laparoscopy or not in order to diagnose TP. The CAT positive and negative predictive value is such that many unneeded laparoscopies are done and many TP cases are missed. Addition of host genetic markers related to infection susceptibility and severity could potentially improve the clinical management of couples who suffer from subfertility. In the present study, the potential translational and clinical value of adding diagnostic host genetic marker profiles on the basis of infection and inflammation to the current clinical management of subfertility was investigated. This review provides an overview of the current state of the art of host genetic markers in relation to CT infection, proposes a new clinical diagnostic approach, and investigates how the Learning-Adapting-Leveling model (LAL, a public health genomic (PHG) model) can be of value and provide insight to see whether these host genetic markers can be translated into public health. This review shows that the preliminary basis of adding host genetic marker profiles to the current diagnostic procedures of subfertility is present but has to be further developed before implementation into health care can be achieved. CT infection is an example in the field of PHG with potential diagnostic to be taken up in the future in the field of subfertility diagnosis with a time line for integration to be dependent on enhanced participation of many stakeholders in the field of PHG which could be advanced through the LAL model. PMID:23548718

Lal, J A; Malogajski, J; Verweij, S P; de Boer, P; Ambrosino, E; Brand, A; Ouburg, S; Morré, S A

2013-01-01

279

Measurement of Sputum Antibodies in the Diagnosis of Acute and Chronic Respiratory Infections Associated withChlamydia pneumoniae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to develop methods for the measurement of sputum antibodies in the laboratory diagnosis of acute and chronic lower respiratory tract infections caused by Chlamydia pneumoniae. Paired serum specimens, sputum specimens, and pharyngeal or nasopharyngeal swabs were obtained from 97 pa- tients; 51 of them had community-acquired pneumonia, and 46 had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

L. VONHERTZEN; M. LEINONEN; H.-M. SURCEL; J. KARJALAINEN

1995-01-01

280

Diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae genitourinary infections in males by the Amplicor PCR assay of urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Amplicor CT\\/NG polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test on urine specimens from males was prospectively evaluated against established specimens and laboratory methods for diagnosing Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae genitourinary infections, in patients from a remote region of Western Australia. Seventy-three males who were tested for both C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae by both conventional methodology and Amplicor PCR on

Silvano Palladino; John W Pearman; Ian D Kay; David W Smith; Gerald B Harnett; Marion Woods; Lewis Marshall; Jenny McCloskey

1999-01-01

281

Characteristics of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in hospitalized infants with lower respiratory tract infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose: To study the epidemiology, presentation and laboratory findings of Chlamydia trachomatis pneumonia in hospitalized infants younger than 6 months. Methods: Between January 2001 and December 2005, infants younger than 6 months admitted to the children's medical center of Taipei Veterans General Hospital with the diagnosis of acute bronchiolitis, bronchopneumonia or pneumonia were prospectively studied. Chest radiograph findings

Chun-Jen Chen; Keh-Gong Wu; Ren-Bin Tang; Han-Chih Yuan; Wen-Jue Soong; Be-Tau Hwang

282

Correlation between culture testing of swabs and ligase chain reaction of first void urine from patients recently treated for Chlamydia trachomatis.  

PubMed

We assessed the correlation between ligase chain reaction (LCR) on first void urine (FVU) and cultures of urethral and cervical swabs to detect chlamydia during three post-treatment follow up visits for 10 men and 19 women with genital chlamydial infections who had been treated with azithromycin or doxcycline. PMID:12794211

Jang, D; Sellors, J; Howard, M; Mahony, J; Frost, E; Patrick, D; Bouchard, C; Dubois, J; Scholar, L; Chernesky, M

2003-06-01

283

Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection in Atherosclerotic Lesion Development through Oxidative Stress: A Brief Overview  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia pneumoniae, an obligate intracellular pathogen, is known as a leading cause of respiratory tract infections and, in the last two decades, has been widely associated with atherosclerosis by seroepidemiological studies, and direct detection of the microorganism within atheroma. C. pneumoniae is presumed to play a role in atherosclerosis for its ability to disseminate via peripheral blood mononuclear cells, to replicate and persist within vascular cells, and for its pro-inflammatory and angiogenic effects. Once inside the vascular tissue, C. pneumoniae infection has been shown to induce the production of reactive oxygen species in all the cells involved in atherosclerotic process such as macrophages, platelets, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells, leading to oxidative stress. The aim of this review is to summarize the data linking C. pneumoniae-induced oxidative stress to atherosclerotic lesion development.

Di Pietro, Marisa; Filardo, Simone; De Santis, Fiorenzo; Sessa, Rosa

2013-01-01

284

Chlamydia trachomatis infection in HIV-infected women: need for screening by a sensitive and specific test.  

PubMed

Reproductive tract infection (RTIs)/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are recognized as a major public health problem, particularly due to their relationship with HIV infection. Early detection and treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis infection (CTI) among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women may impact heterosexual HIV transmission. A total of 120 participants were enrolled: 30 HIV seropositive women with symptoms of RTIs, 30 HIV seropositive women without symptoms of RTIs, 30 HIV seronegative women with symptoms of RTIs, and 30 HIV seronegative women without symptoms of RTIs. One endocervical swab was collected from all participants and CTI was detected by real-time PCR (COBAS TaqMan CT Test, v2.0). CTI was detected in 4 (6.67%) HIV-infected women and in 1 (1.67%) HIV-uninfected woman (OR 4.214; 95% CI 0.457-38.865). Vaginal discharge was present in almost half of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women; lower abdominal pain was present in 11 (18.3%) of HIV-infected and in 9 (15%) of HIV-uninfected women. This study showed that CTI is more prevalent among HIV-infected females as compared to HIV-uninfected females. As the use of real-time PCR is not feasible in most hospitals, efforts should be made to develop a simple, sensitive, and specific test to identify women with CTI for prevention of sequelae and HIV transmission. PMID:24382941

Bhattar, Sonali; Bhalla, Preena; Chadha, Sanjim; Tripathi, Reva; Kaur, Ravinder; Sardana, Kabir

2013-01-01

285

Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in HIV-Infected Women: Need for Screening by a Sensitive and Specific Test  

PubMed Central

Reproductive tract infection (RTIs)/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are recognized as a major public health problem, particularly due to their relationship with HIV infection. Early detection and treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis infection (CTI) among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women may impact heterosexual HIV transmission. A total of 120 participants were enrolled: 30 HIV seropositive women with symptoms of RTIs, 30 HIV seropositive women without symptoms of RTIs, 30 HIV seronegative women with symptoms of RTIs, and 30 HIV seronegative women without symptoms of RTIs. One endocervical swab was collected from all participants and CTI was detected by real-time PCR (COBAS TaqMan CT Test, v2.0). CTI was detected in 4 (6.67%) HIV-infected women and in 1 (1.67%) HIV-uninfected woman (OR 4.214; 95% CI 0.457–38.865). Vaginal discharge was present in almost half of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women; lower abdominal pain was present in 11 (18.3%) of HIV-infected and in 9 (15%) of HIV-uninfected women. This study showed that CTI is more prevalent among HIV-infected females as compared to HIV-uninfected females. As the use of real-time PCR is not feasible in most hospitals, efforts should be made to develop a simple, sensitive, and specific test to identify women with CTI for prevention of sequelae and HIV transmission.

Bhattar, Sonali; Chadha, Sanjim; Tripathi, Reva; Kaur, Ravinder; Sardana, Kabir

2013-01-01

286

The Relationship between Ethnic Identity and Chlamydia and Gonorrhea Infections among Low Income Detained African American Adolescent Females  

PubMed Central

This study explored the relationship between ethnic identity and Chlamydia and Gonorrhea infections among detained African American female adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 123 African American female adolescents within eight detention facilities in Georgia. Using A-CASI technology, data were collected on demographics, ethnic identity, laboratory confirmed Chlamydia and Gonorrhea, and other known correlates for STIs, such as socioeconomic status, parental monitoring and risky sexual behaviors. Rates of Chlamydia and Gonorrhea testing yielded incidence rates of 25.6% and 5.6% respectfully. Findings indicated that controlling for STI correlates, participants who indicated high ethnic identity were 4.3 times more likely to test positive for an STI compared to those scoring low on the measure of ethnic identity.

Voisin, Dexter R.; Salazar, Laura F.; Crosby, Richard; DiClemente, Ralph J.

2012-01-01

287

Progressive Hypertrophic Genital Herpes in an HIV-Infected Woman despite Immune Recovery on Antiretroviral Therapy  

PubMed Central

Most HIV-infected individuals are coinfected by Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). HSV-2 reactivates more frequently in HIV-coinfected individuals with advanced immunosuppression, and may have very unusual clinical presentations, including hypertrophic genital lesions. We report the case of a progressive, hypertrophic HSV-2 lesion in an HIV-coinfected woman, despite near-complete immune restoration on antiretroviral therapy for up to three years. In this case, there was prompt response to topical imiquimod. The immunopathogenesis and clinical presentation of HSV-2 disease in HIV-coinfected individuals are reviewed, with a focus on potential mechanisms for persistent disease despite apparent immune reconstitution. HIV-infected individuals and their care providers should be aware that HSV-2 may cause atypical disease even in the context of near-comlpete immune reconstitution on HAART.

Yudin, Mark H.; Kaul, Rupert

2008-01-01

288

Local and humoral immune responses against primary and repeat Neisseria gonorrhoeae genital tract infections of 17?-estradiol-treated mice  

PubMed Central

The 17?-estradiol-treated mouse model is the only small animal model of gonococcal genital tract infection. Here we show gonococci localized within vaginal and cervical tissue, including the lamina propria, and high numbers of neutrophils and macrophages in genital tissue from infected mice. Infection did not induce a substantial or sustained increase in total or gonococcal-specific antibodies. Mice could be reinfected with the same strain and repeat infection did not boost the antibody response. However, intravaginal immunization of estradiol-treated mice induced gonococcal-specific primary and secondary serum antibody responses. We conclude that similar to human infection, experimental murine infection induces local inflammation but not an acquired immune response or immunological memory.

Song, Wenxia; Condron, Sara; Mocca, Brian T.; Veit, Sandra J.; Hill, Dawn; Abbas, Asima; Jerse, Ann E.

2010-01-01

289

[Chlamydiae. 2. Chlamydia trachomatis].  

PubMed

The Chlamydia trachomatis (C.t.) causes trachoma, inclusion conjunctivitis, lymphogranuloma venereum and it is the more frequent responsible of sexually transmitted infections; in fact, only in the United States, 3-4 million of people suffer from these infections each year. Besides, there are many secondary infections that may cause sterility in man and woman. Risk factors, for venereal infections owed to C.t., are related to the number of sexual partners, age, socioeconomics status and sexual preference. More frequently, the C.t. infects persons that begin sexual activity earlier, those who have many sexual partners and an higher level of education. The direct diagnosis for detecting C.t. can be performed with the citologic test, cell culture, direct immunofluorescence and enzyme immuno-assay. Although, the cell culture is the technique of choice, at present the immunofluorescence and enzyme immuno-assay are the methods preferred because of rapidity and esecution. The indirect diagnosis can be achieved by the complement fixation, indirect immunofluorescence and enzyme immuno-assay tests. In this case, excluding the complement fixation test not more reliable, the method of choice depends, above all, upon the kind of infection in progress. Tetracycline, erythromycin, rifampicin and cloramphenicol are considered the treatment of choice. PMID:2483893

Del Piano, M; Nicosia, R; Pustorino, R; Santino, I; Sessa, R

1989-01-01

290

Engineered phage-based therapeutic materials inhibit Chlamydia trachomatis intracellular infection  

PubMed Central

Developing materials that are effective against sexually transmitted pathogens such as Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) and HIV-1 is challenging both in terms of material selection and improving bio-membrane and cellular permeability at desired mucosal sites. Here, we engineered the prokaryotic bacterial virus (M13 phage) carrying two functional peptides, integrin binding peptide (RGD) and a segment of the polymorphic membrane protein D (PmpD) from Ct, as a phage-based material that can ameliorate Ct infection. Ct is a globally prevalent human pathogen for which there are no effective vaccines or microbicides. We show that engineered phage stably express both RGD motifs and Ct peptides and traffic intracellularly and into the lumen of the inclusion in which the organism resides within the host cell. Engineered phage were able to significantly reduce Ct infection in both HeLa and primary endocervical cells compared with Ct infection alone. Polyclonal antibodies raised against PmpD and co-incubated with constructs prior to infection did not alter the course of infection, indicating that PmpD is responsible for the observed decrease in Ct infection. Our results suggest that phage-based design approaches to vector delivery that overcome mucosal cellular barriers may be effective in preventing Ct and other sexually transmitted pathogens.

Bhattarai, Shanta Raj; Yoo, So Young; Lee, Seung-Wuk; Dean, Deborah

2012-01-01

291

Alarming incidence of genital mycoplasmas among HIV-1-infected MSM in Jiangsu, China.  

PubMed

Males who have sex with men (MSM) are considered at high risk of blood-borne and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), mainly due to the practice of unsafe sex, often combined with drug use and needle-sharing. A cross-sectional study was designed for the detection of genital mycoplasmas during the period from March 2009 to May 2010 in Jiangsu province. This work was approved by the Research ethics Committee of Jiangsu Centers for Diseases Prevention and Control (CDC), and written consent was obtained from all participants. In total, 243 human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1)-infected MSM were screened in this study. Over half of them reported a history of sexual activity with females (65.0 %), and 26.3 % reported a history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) other than HIV. 44.0 % of patients were in the first 2 years of their HIV infection, and 72.4 % were still in HIV progression. Of the 243 analyzed samples, all were positive for at least one kind of mycoplasma. The infection rates of Mycoplasma genitalium, M. fermentans, M. penetrans, and M. pirum were 25.5, 9.9, 2.5, and 18.5 %, respectively. The M. genitalium infection was associated with a history of sexual activity with females, and those who had sex with females showed higher infection rates. Six ?M. penetrans-positive patients were still in HIV infection progression and did not receive highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Men who perform this particular behavior are at higher risk of Mycoplasma infections. Further molecular and epidemiological cohort studies with larger populations are needed in order to identify the role of Mycoplasma infections in HIV-1-infected MSM. PMID:23949791

Wu, J-R; Wang, B; Chen, L-S; Yang, T; Zhou, L-J; Xie, Y-X; Xu, J-S; Guo, H-X; Huan, X-P

2014-02-01

292

Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in the general population of women in Qatar  

PubMed Central

Objectives The Arabian Gulf region has limited epidemiological data related to sexually transmitted infections. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among general population women in Doha, Qatar. Methods Endocervical swabs were collected from healthy women attending primary healthcare centres in Doha, June–December 2008. The specimens were tested for C trachomatis by a commercially available PCR-based assay. Data on basic socio-demographic characteristics, medical history and sexual behaviour were obtained using self-administered questionnaires. The prevalence of C trachomatis and of background variables were stratified by nationality, Qatari nationals versus non-Qatari residents. Results A total of 377 women were enrolled in the study, out of whom 351 (37.9% Qataris, 62.1% non-Qataris) were tested for the presence of C trachomatis in their specimens. The mean age of participants was 41.2?years, and the vast majority (93%, 95% CI 90.3 to 95.7) were married. The mean age at sexual debut was significantly lower among Qatari women compared with non-Qatari women (19.2 vs 22.2?years, respectively p<0.001), but the mean number of reported lifetime sexual partners (1.1 partner) was nearly the same in both groups (p=0.110). The prevalence of C trachomatis infection was 5.3% among Qatari women and 5.5% among non-Qatari women, with no statistically significant difference between both groups (p=0.923). Conclusions The prevalence of C trachomatis among women was higher than expected, with no significant difference between Qatari nationals and expatriate residents. The higher prevalence may reflect, in part, the limited access to and use of chlamydia screening and management.

Al-Thani, Asma; Abdul-Rahim, Hanan; Alabsi, Enas; Bsaisu, Haneen N; Haddad, Pascale; Mumtaz, Ghina R; Abu-Raddad, Laith J

2013-01-01

293

Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinases Subsequent to Urogenital Chlamydia muridarum Infection of Mice  

PubMed Central

The central hypothesis of this study was that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) would be enhanced following murine chlamydial infection and that their expression would vary in mouse strains that differ in their susceptibility to chronic chlamydia-induced disease. To address this hypothesis, female C3H/HeN and C57BL/6 mice were infected intravaginally with Chlamydia muridarum. Uterine and oviduct tissues were assessed for transcription of MMP genes and their tissue inhibitors. An increased activity of MMP genes relative to preinfection tissues was observed in the C3H/HeN mice when compared to C57BL/6 mice. Using gelatin zymography, we detected constitutive MMP-2 activity in both strains of mice but an increase in MMP-9. Casein zymography indicated the presence of two elastase-like activities consistent with MMP-12 and possibly MMP-7. Western blotting and antigen capture enzyme-linked immunoassay also confirmed an increase in MMP-9 but constitutive MMP-2 expression subsequent to the infection in both strains of mice. In C57BL/6 mice, MMP-9 was present in monomer and dimer form throughout the 56-day monitoring period. C3H/HeN mice produced dimeric MMP-9, but increases in the monomer form were also observed through day 14. Post-translational modification of MMP-9 between the two strains also differed. Immunohistochemistry revealed neutrophils as a prominent source for MMP-9 in both strains of mice. We conclude that differences in the relative expression and activity of MMPs, particularly MMP-9, occur in mice differing in their susceptibility to the development of chronic chlamydial disease. These differences may account for disparate outcomes with regard to chronic sequelae of the disease.

Ramsey, K.H.; Sigar, I.M.; Schripsema, J. H.; Shaba, N.; Cohoon, K. P.

2005-01-01

294

Randomised controlled trial of screening for Chlamydia trachomatis to prevent pelvic inflammatory disease: the POPI (prevention of pelvic infection) trial  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether screening and treating women for chlamydial infection reduces the incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease over the subsequent 12 months. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Common rooms, lecture theatres, and student bars at universities and further education colleges in London. Participants 2529 sexually active female students, mean age 21 years (range 16-27). Intervention Participants completed a questionnaire and provided self taken vaginal swabs, with follow-up after one year. Samples were randomly allocated to immediate testing and treatment for chlamydial infection, or storage and analysis after a year (deferred screening controls). Main outcome measure Incidence of clinical pelvic inflammatory disease over 12 months. Results Baseline prevalence of chlamydia was 5.4% (68/1254) in screened women and 5.9% (75/1265) in controls. 94% (2377/2529) of women were followed up after 12 months. The incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease was 1.3% (15/1191) in screened women compared with 1.9% (23/1186) in controls (relative risk 0.65, 95% confidence interval 0.34 to 1.22). Seven of 74 control women (9.5%, 95% confidence interval 4.7% to 18.3%) who tested positive for chlamydial infection at baseline developed pelvic inflammatory disease over 12 months compared with one of 63 (1.6%) screened women (relative risk 0.17, 0.03 to 1.01). However, most episodes of pelvic inflammatory disease occurred in women who tested negative for chlamydia at baseline (79%, 30/38). 22% (527/2377) of women reported being tested independently for chlamydia during the trial. Conclusion Although some evidence suggests that screening for chlamydia reduces rates of pelvic inflammatory disease, especially in women with chlamydial infection at baseline, the effectiveness of a single chlamydia test in preventing pelvic inflammatory disease over 12 months may have been overestimated. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00115388.

2010-01-01

295

Pregnancy failure following vaginal infection of sheep with Chlamydia psittaci prior to breeding.  

PubMed Central

Enzootic abortion in sheep, caused by Chlamydia psittaci, has been associated with pregnancy failure in most sheep-producing countries. Late-term abortions or the birth of weak low-birth-weight lambs occurred following primary C. psittaci infection in pregnant ewes. However, the mode by which C. psittaci can be transmitted among sheep has not been established. The present study was designed to determine whether the vaginal tracts of nonpregnant ewes were susceptible to C. psittaci infection and whether such infections had an impact during the next pregnancy. At day 0 of the estrus cycle, the vaginal tracts of 10 nonpregnant ewes were inoculated with C. psittaci and 10 ewes were exposed by subcutaneous injection. The ewes were bred 6 weeks postinfection. Five ewes from the vaginally infected group and four from the subcutaneously infected group were reinfected by subcutaneous injection at day 60 of gestation. Pregnancy outcomes and antibody responses to infection were compared with that of ewes that were infected with C. psittaci, either subcutaneously or intravaginally, for the first time during pregnancy and with that of noninfected control ewes. Subcutaneous infection of nonpregnant ewes did not cause subsequent pregnancy failure; rather, this provided protection against abortion following reinfection during pregnancy. As expected, abortions or the birth of weak lambs was observed in those ewes that received primary C. psittaci infection by either route during pregnancy. Similarly, abortion or the birth of weak lambs was a consequence of vaginal inoculation prior to breeding, thereby confirming the susceptibility of the vaginal mucosa to infection and demonstrating the potential for venereal transmission.

Papp, J R; Shewen, P E

1996-01-01

296

The Chlamydial Plasmid-Encoded Protein pgp3 Is Secreted into the Cytosol of Chlamydia-Infected Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chlamydial cryptic plasmid encodes eight putative open reading frames (ORFs), designated pORF1 to -8. Antibodies raised against these ORF proteins were used to localize the endogenous proteins during chlamydial infection. We found that the pORF5 protein (also known as pgp3) was detected mainly in the cytosol of Chlamydia- infected cells, while the remaining seven proteins were found inside the

Zhongyu Li; Ding Chen; Youmin Zhong; Shiping Wang; Guangming Zhong

2008-01-01

297

Genital Warts  

PubMed Central

External genital warts, also known as condylomata acuminata, are extremely common, with between 500,000 to one million new cases diagnosed each year in the United States alone. To date, more than 120 distinct subtypes of human papillomavirus have been identified. Human papillomavirus types 6 and 11 rarely give rise to cervical cancers, but are responsible for 90 percent of the cases of genital warts. The current treatment options are largely centered upon removal of the warts rather than elimination of the underlying viral infection. A wide range of therapies are presently in use, which are highly variable and can differ dramatically with respect to cost, side-effect profiles, dosing schedules, duration of treatment, and overall effectiveness. As of yet, no definitive therapy has emerged as the ideal standard of care in the treatment of genital warts, and therapy selection generally occurs in a patient-specific manner.

Yanofsky, Valerie R.; Patel, Rita V.

2012-01-01

298

Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection: New Fields for an Old Acquaintance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 is the principal agent of chronic remittent genital herpes. Worldwide, only 10–20% of genital isolates are HSV-1. Studies from the British Isles and Scandinavia indicate, however, that HSV-1 is responsible for a significant proportion or even the majority of first clinical episodes of genital herpes in young women. Actual data show that a trend towards genital

Lars Lippelt; Rüdiger W. Braun; Joachim E. Kühn

2002-01-01

299

Differentiation of primary from nonprimary genital herpes infections by a herpes simplex virus-specific immunoglobulin G avidity assay.  

PubMed Central

An immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody avidity assay which uses protein-denaturing agents and a modification of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay have been investigated for their usefulness in distinguishing primary genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections from nonprimary infections. Forty-nine serum specimens from patients with primary, recurrent, and nonprimary first-episode genital herpes were studied. The clearest separation was obtained with 6 M urea treatment, giving mean avidity indices of 0.398 for sera < or = 100 days after the infection and 0.879 for sera > 100 days after the infection (P < 0.001). No significant difference in avidity indices was observed between the recurrent and nonprimary first-episode infections. Determination of the avidity of HSV-specific IgG will improve the diagnostic potential of HSV serology.

Hashido, M; Inouye, S; Kawana, T

1997-01-01

300

Counseling and educational interventions for women with genital human papillomavirus infection.  

PubMed

Human papillomavirus (HPV) genital infection is a sexually transmitted disease that affects a large proportion of college-aged women. In addition to the distressing medical aspects of HPV infection, sometimes including lengthy and painful treatments, symptom recurrence, a lack of a definitive cure, and its potential for malignant transformation, HPV also results in significant emotional and psychosexual sequalae for the patient. Concurrent with the range of negative emotions experienced by the patient is also a knowledge deficit regarding the disease, its prevention, and its management. This combination of factors within the young women afflicted with this disease often precludes them from effective adherence to their treatment and follow-up plan of care, which are both essential elements in managing this chronic condition. Clinicians who are treating patients with HPV infection must address not only the medical aspects of the disease, but the psychosocial needs as well. This case report describes a newly diagnosed young women with HPV infection and discusses the necessary psychosocial and educational interventions that should be provided to all female patients who are diagnosed with HPV infection. Inclusion of these interventions can reduce the emotional stress that occurs with the diagnosis and can augment a patient's coping skills, thereby serving to improve adherence to the treatment plan and promote a greater sense of empowerment and wellness for the patient. PMID:10977973

Linnehan, M J; Groce, N E

2000-08-01

301

Intranasal Infection with Chlamydia abortus Induces Dose-Dependent Latency and Abortion in Sheep  

PubMed Central

Background Latency is a key feature of the animal pathogen Chlamydia abortus, where infection remains inapparent in the non-pregnant animal and only becomes evident during a subsequent pregnancy. Often the first sign that an animal is infected is abortion occurring late in gestation. Despite this, little is understood of the underlying mechanisms that control latency or the recrudescence of infection that occurs during subsequent pregnancy. The aim of this study was to develop an experimental model of latency by mimicking the natural route of infection through the intranasal inoculation of non-pregnant sheep with C. abortus. Methodology/Principal Findings Three groups of sheep (groups 1, 2 and 3) were experimentally infected with different doses of C. abortus (5×103, 5×105 and 5×107 inclusion forming units (IFU), respectively) prior to mating and monitored over 2 breeding cycles for clinical, microbiological, pathological, immunological and serological outcomes. Two further groups received either negative control inoculum (group 4a,b) or were inoculated subcutaneously on day 70 of gestation with 2×106 IFU C. abortus (group 5). Animals in groups 1, 2 and 5 experienced an abortion rate of 50–67%, while only one animal aborted in group 3 and none in group 4a,b. Pathological, microbiological, immunological and serological analyses support the view that the maternal protective immune response is influenced by initial exposure to the bacterium. Conclusions/Significance The results show that intranasal administration of non-pregnant sheep with a low/medium dose of C. abortus results in a latent infection that leads in a subsequent pregnancy to infection of the placenta and abortion. In contrast a high dose stimulates protective immunity, resulting in a much lower abortion rate. This model will be useful in understanding the mechanisms of infection underlying latency and onset of disease, as well as in the development of novel therapeutics and vaccines for controlling infection.

Longbottom, David; Livingstone, Morag; Maley, Stephen; van der Zon, Arjan; Rocchi, Mara; Wilson, Kim; Wheelhouse, Nicholas; Dagleish, Mark; Aitchison, Kevin; Wattegedera, Sean; Nath, Mintu; Entrican, Gary; Buxton, David

2013-01-01

302

The cotton rat provides a novel model to study genital herpes infection and to evaluate preventive strategies.  

PubMed

Prevention of genital herpes and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) is a critical health priority because of the overwhelming impact on women and infants and the epidemiological association with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS. Small animal models are essential for evaluating strategies for prevention or treatment of STI. Neither the murine nor the guinea pig model of genital herpes fully recapitulates human disease. We demonstrate that herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) readily infects inbred cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus). Consistent infection does not require pretreatment with medroxyprogesterone, and primary disease resembles that observed in humans. The animals develop genital lesions and fully recover. During primary infection, viral DNA is also detected in liver, lungs, brain, and kidneys. Clinical self-limited recurrences occur spontaneously but may also be induced by dexamethasone. Pretreatment of cotton rats with PRO 2000 gel, a candidate vaginal microbicide being evaluated in clinical trials to prevent HSV and HIV, protects cotton rats from HSV. Together, these studies suggest that the cotton rat may provide an excellent model to study genital herpes and to evaluate preventive strategies. PMID:16282463

Yim, Kevin C; Carroll, Clifford J; Tuyama, Ana; Cheshenko, Natalia; Carlucci, Maria Josefina; Porter, David D; Prince, Gregory A; Herold, Betsy C

2005-12-01

303

Racial origin, sexual behaviour, and genital infection among heterosexual men attending a genitourinary medicine clinic in London (1993-4)  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To compare variables of sexual behaviour and incidence of genital infections among heterosexual men of different racial origins. DESIGN: A prospective cross sectional study of sexual behaviour reported by a standardised self administered questionnaire in new patients who presented for screening and diagnosis. SETTING: A genitourinary medicine clinic in west London. SUBJECTS: 1212 consecutive heterosexual men newly attending in

B. A. Evans; R. A. Bond; K. D. MacRae

1998-01-01

304

CD57 expression by T cells in the female genital tract of HIV-zx1 infected women.  

PubMed

Despite an influx of T cells to the cervix during HIV infection, genital T cells are not associated with control of HIV shedding. CD57 expression by T cells has been associated with enhanced migratory potential and CD57+ T cells have been shown to accumulate in tissues during the late stages of HIV disease. We investigated the impact of HIV-infection and clinical status on the expression of CD57 by T cells from the female genital tract in 13 HIV-infected and 5 uninfected women. We found that cervical and blood-derived T cells expressed similar frequencies of CD57. The frequency of CD57 expression by cervical or blood T cells was not associated with clinical status (CD4 counts). No impairment in IFN-gamma production by CD57+ T cells from the genital tract was observed. We conclude that increased T cell senescence does not appear to be a hallmark of genital mucosal HIV-1 infection. PMID:20100671

Liebenberg, Lenine J; Adedeji, Adebayo Lawrence; Martin, Darren P; Gumbi, Pam P; Denny, Lynette; Passmore, Jo-Ann S

2010-04-01

305

Selective screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in nonurban family planning clinics in Wisconsin.  

PubMed

To determine the prevalence of, and identify risk factors for, Chlamydia trachomatis infection, we studied 380 women attending four Wisconsin family planning clinics in October 1985. The patients completed self-administered sexual history questionnaires, were examined by nurse clinicians and had specimens taken for direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) testing for C. trachomatis. Of 335 women with adequate specimens, 10.7 percent had positive DFA tests. Selective screening criteria were developed based on the following risk factors for C. trachomatis: Age less than 20 years and recent exposure to either a new sexual partner or a partner with more than one partner; a partner with symptoms of urethritis; a diagnosis of cervicitis; and inflammatory changes on Pap smear. Thirty-six percent of patients met one or more of these screening criteria, and the criteria had a sensitivity of 72 percent. PMID:3436412

Addiss, D G; Vaughn, M L; Holzhueter, M A; Bakken, L L; Davis, J P

1987-01-01

306

Prevention of Chlamydia-induced infertility by inhibition of local caspase activity.  

PubMed

Tubal factor infertility (TFI) represents 36% of female infertility and genital infection by Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) is a major cause. Although TFI is associated with host inflammatory responses to bacterial components, the molecular pathogenesis of Chlamydia-induced infertility remains poorly understood. We investigated the hypothesis that activation of specific cysteine proteases, the caspases, during C. trachomatis genital infection causes the disruption of key fertility-promoting molecules required for embryo development and implantation. We analyzed the effect of caspase inhibition on infertility and the integrity of Dicer, a caspase-sensitive, fertility-promoting ribonuclease III enzyme, and key micro-RNAs in the reproductive system. Genital infection with the inflammation- and caspase-inducing, wild-type C. trachomatis serovar L2 led to infertility, but the noninflammation-inducing, plasmid-free strain did not. We confirmed that caspase-mediated apoptotic tissue destruction may contribute to chlamydial pathogenesis. Caspase-1 or -3 deficiency, or local administration of the pan caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK into normal mice protected against Chlamydia-induced infertility. Finally, the oviducts of infected infertile mice showed evidence of caspase-mediated cleavage inactivation of Dicer and alteration in critical miRNAs that regulate growth, differentiation, and development, including mir-21. These results provide new insight into the molecular pathogenesis of TFI with significant implications for new strategies for treatment and prevention of chlamydial complications. PMID:23303804

Igietseme, Joseph U; Omosun, Yusuf; Partin, James; Goldstein, Jason; He, Qing; Joseph, Kahaliah; Ellerson, Debra; Ansari, Uzma; Eko, Francis O; Bandea, Claudiu; Zhong, Guangming; Black, Carolyn M

2013-04-01

307

Contraceptive methods and the risk of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in young women.  

PubMed

To evaluate the relation between contraceptive methods and cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infection, the authors studied a population-based sample of 1,779 nonpregnant women aged 15-34 years who underwent cell culture diagnostic testing for the detection of C. trachomatis at a health maintenance organization. Barrier contraceptive method users were classified as those who reported using one of the following methods at time of testing: condom, diaphragm, cervical cap, spermicidal sponge, foam, or vaginal spermicidal suppositories. Barrier methods were associated with a reduction in the risk of chlamydial infection in women aged 25 years or older when compared with all other women in the same age category (adjusted prevalence odds ratio = 0.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.04-0.66). When compared with only noncontracepting women, the adjusted prevalence odds ratio was 0.34 (95% CI 0.06-1.99). The protective effect of barrier methods was not evident in women younger than age 25 years. Oral contraceptive use was not associated with the risk of C. trachomatis infection using either referent group; the adjusted prevalence odds ratio was 0.99 (95% CI 0.57-1.73) compared with all other women, and 0.88 (95% CI 0.44-1.79) compared with noncontracepting women. These findings suggest that present patterns of use of barrier methods differ by age and afford only selective protection against cervical C. trachomatis infections. PMID:7572949

Park, B J; Stergachis, A; Scholes, D; Heidrich, F E; Holmes, K K; Stamm, W E

1995-10-01

308

Selective screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in a primary care population of women.  

PubMed

The authors used cell cultures to assess the prevalence of cervical infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis in a population-based sample of nonpregnant women aged 15 to 34 years who attended two primary care clinics at Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound, Seattle, Washington, between January 1, 1988, and June 30, 1989. C. trachomatis was isolated from 67 of 1,804 women (3.7%), including 13% of those who were less than 20 years of age. Seven patient characteristics were independently predictive of chlamydial infection by stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis: being unmarried, examination showing cervical ectopy, black race, douching, nulliparity, age of 24 years or less, and intercourse with two or more partners within the preceding year. Testing all women who had a score of 5 or more (28% of women) on a weighted index based on risk factors would detect 77% of all infections with a positive predictive value of 9%. These results suggest that it should be feasible to develop a risk factor-based program to screen for cervical infection with C. trachomatis in populations where its prevalence is low. PMID:8356957

Stergachis, A; Scholes, D; Heidrich, F E; Sherer, D M; Holmes, K K; Stamm, W E

1993-08-01

309

Increased frequency of bacterial vaginosis and Chlamydia trachomatis in pregnant women with human papillomavirus infection.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to verify the presence of bacterial vaginosis (BV), Candida sp, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, to determine the prevalence of tobacco use and measure vaginal pH (VpH) in pregnant women with (n = 26) and without (n = 26) human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and make comparisons between these 2 groups. HPV, C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae were diagnosed using hybrid capture, BV using clinical criteria, and Candida sp via cultures. A digital pH meter was used to measure VpH. The frequencies of Candida sp were 19.2 and 23.1% (p = 1), and VpH was 4.4 +/- 0.4 and 4.3 +/- 0.4 (p = 0.23), in the HPV-positive and HPV-negative groups, respectively. Compared to the group of pregnant women without HPV infection, those with HPV infection had a significantly higher prevalence of tobacco use (50 vs. 11.5%; p = 0.006), BV (53.8 vs. 15.4%; p = 0.007), and C. trachomatis (34.6 vs. 7.7%; p = 0.039). No case of N. gonorrhoeae was diagnosed. All cases of C. trachomatis and BV had high-grade HPV infection. PMID:15256825

da Silva, Cléber Sérgio; Adad, Sheila Jorge; Hazarabedian de Souza, Maria Azniv; Macêdo Barcelos, Ana Cristina; Sarreta Terra, Ana Paula; Murta, Eddie Fernando Candido

2004-01-01

310

Autophagy and female genital tract infections: new insights and research directions.  

PubMed

Autophagy is a highly conserved process by which defective organelles, non-functional proteins, and intracellular microorganisms become sequestered within structures called autophagosomes, which fuse with lysosomes and the engulfed components are degraded by lysosomal enzymes. In microbial autophagy degraded peptides are used to induce antigen-specific acquired immunity. Viruses, bacteria, fungi, and protozoa have developed strategies to subvert autophagy and/or to use this process to promote their replication and persistence. This review details the mechanisms by which microorganisms that infect the female genital tract and/or are detrimental to pregnancy interact with this host defence mechanism. Based on an understanding of autophagy-related pathological mechanisms, we propose new avenues for research to more effectively prevent and/or treat these infectious diseases. PMID:24506514

Jayaram, A; Orfanelli, T; Doulaveris, G; Linhares, Im; Ledger, Wj; Witkin, Ss

2014-06-01

311

Polymer Nanoparticles Encapsulating siRNA for Treatment of HSV-2 Genital Infection  

PubMed Central

Effective, low-cost, and safe treatments for sexually transmitted viral infections are urgently needed. Here, we show for the first time that intravaginal administration with nanoparticles of poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) encapsulating short interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules is effective for prevention of genital HSV-2 infections in mice. PLGA nanoparticles (NPs) were designed to interfere with HSV-2 infection by siRNA-mediated knockdown of nectin, a host cell protein. NPs were characterized in vitro to determine the optimal formulation based on siRNA loading, controlled release profile, and mRNA knockdown. Mice inoculated intravaginally with a lethal dose of HSV-2, and treated with PLGA NPs, showed increased survival from ~9 days (in untreated mice) to > 28 days (in PLGA NP treated mice) - the longest survival ever observed with siRNA treatment in this mouse model. This work provides proof-of-concept that topical administration of NPs containing siRNA against a pathologically relevant host cell target can knockdown the gene in tissue and improve survival after HSV-2 infection. Furthermore, this system provides a safe delivery platform that employs materials that are already approved by the FDA and can be modified to enhance delivery of other microbicides.

Steinbach, Jill M.; Weller, Caroline E.; Booth, Carmen J.; Saltzman, W. Mark

2012-01-01

312

Chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, granuloma inguinale, genital herpes simplex infection, and molluscum contagiosum.  

PubMed

Chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, and granuloma inguinale may be considered as tropical venereal diseases. These diseases were a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in past centuries. Currently, patients with these bacterial infections that are endemic to the tropics occasionally consult with dermatologists in temperate climates. Due to the increasing frequency of travel to the tropics for tourism and work, as well as the increasing number of immigrants from these areas, it is important for dermatologists practicing in temperate climates to be familiar with the dermatologic manifestations of such infections, to be prepared to diagnose these diseases, and to treat these patients. All three "tropical" infections respond well to prompt and appropriate antimicrobial treatment, although herpes progenitalis still cannot be cured, and the number of people infected keeps growing; moreover, genital herpes can be transmitted by viral shedding before and after the visual signs or symptoms. Acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir can shorten outbreaks and make them less severe or even stop them from happening. There is currently no etiologic treatment for molluscum contagiosum, and the majority of treatment options are mechanical, causing a certain degree of discomfort. The molluscum contagiosum virus, unlike the other infectious agents mentioned, does not invade the skin. PMID:24559566

Basta-Juzbaši?, Aleksandra; ?eovi?, Romana

2014-01-01

313

Diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infections in asymptomatic men and women by PCR assay.  

PubMed Central

A PCR assay was evaluated for its ability to detect genital chlamydial infection in asymptomatic men and women. Urethral swab specimens were collected from 472 men for culture and PCR assay, and first-void urine (FVU) specimens were collected from 379 of these men for enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and PCR assay. Cervical swab specimens were collected from 242 women for culture, EIA, and PCR assay. Patients were considered infected if they were culture positive or positive by PCR with both plasmid- and major outer membrane protein-based primers. By using this extended "gold standard," the prevalence of infection in this population was 7.6% for men and 7.9% for women. For men, the sensitivities of urethral swab specimen culture and PCR and FVU specimen EIA and PCR were 61, 72, 55, and 91%, respectively. All assays had specificities of > or = 99.8%. The positive and negative predictive values for PCR testing of FVU specimens were 100 and 99.4%, respectively, compared with values of 96.3 and 97.8%, respectively, for PCR of urethral swab specimens. The sensitivities of cervical swab specimen culture and PCR testing were 42 and 90%, respectively, with corresponding specificities of 100 and 99.3%. All cervical swabs were negative by EIA. Molecular techniques such as PCR assays are valuable tools for the detection of symptomatic genital chlamydial infection. In particular, PCR assays of FVU specimens from men offer a highly sensitive, noninvasive screening tool that will likely improve patient compliance for diagnostic testing.

Toye, B; Peeling, R W; Jessamine, P; Claman, P; Gemmill, I

1996-01-01

314

Diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infections in asymptomatic men and women by PCR assay.  

PubMed

A PCR assay was evaluated for its ability to detect genital chlamydial infection in asymptomatic men and women. Urethral swab specimens were collected from 472 men for culture and PCR assay, and first-void urine (FVU) specimens were collected from 379 of these men for enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and PCR assay. Cervical swab specimens were collected from 242 women for culture, EIA, and PCR assay. Patients were considered infected if they were culture positive or positive by PCR with both plasmid- and major outer membrane protein-based primers. By using this extended "gold standard," the prevalence of infection in this population was 7.6% for men and 7.9% for women. For men, the sensitivities of urethral swab specimen culture and PCR and FVU specimen EIA and PCR were 61, 72, 55, and 91%, respectively. All assays had specificities of > or = 99.8%. The positive and negative predictive values for PCR testing of FVU specimens were 100 and 99.4%, respectively, compared with values of 96.3 and 97.8%, respectively, for PCR of urethral swab specimens. The sensitivities of cervical swab specimen culture and PCR testing were 42 and 90%, respectively, with corresponding specificities of 100 and 99.3%. All cervical swabs were negative by EIA. Molecular techniques such as PCR assays are valuable tools for the detection of symptomatic genital chlamydial infection. In particular, PCR assays of FVU specimens from men offer a highly sensitive, noninvasive screening tool that will likely improve patient compliance for diagnostic testing. PMID:8735087

Toye, B; Peeling, R W; Jessamine, P; Claman, P; Gemmill, I

1996-06-01

315

Transformation of Sexually Transmitted Infection-Causing Serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis Using Blasticidin for Selection  

PubMed Central

Plasmid-free Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 organisms have been transformed with chlamydial plasmid-based shuttle vectors pGFP::SW2 and pBRCT using ?-lactamase as a selectable marker. However, the recommendation of amoxicillin, a ?-lactam antibiotics, as one of the choices for treating pregnant women with cervicitis due to C. trachomatis infection has made the existing shuttle vectors unsuitable for transforming sexually transmitted infection (STI)-causing serovars of C. trachomatis. Thus, in the current study, we modified the pGFP::SW2 plasmid by fusing a blasticidin S deaminase gene to the GFP gene to establish blasticidin resistance as a selectable marker and replacing the ?-lactamase gene with the Sh ble gene to eliminate the penicillin resistance. The new vector termed pGFPBSD/Z::SW2 was used for transforming plasmid-free C. trachomatis serovar D organisms. Using blasticidin for selection, stable transformants were obtained. The GFP-BSD fusion protein was detected in cultures infected with the pGFPBSD/Z::SW2-trasnformed serovar D organisms. The transformation restored the plasmid property to the plasmid-free serovar D organisms. Thus, we have successfully modified the pGFP::SW2 transformation system for studying the biology and pathogenesis of other STI-causing serovars of C. trachomatis.

Ding, Honglei; Gong, Siqi; Tian, Yingxin; Yang, Zhangsheng; Brunham, Robert; Zhong, Guangming

2013-01-01

316

Clinical Consequences of Immune Response to CT Upper Genital Tract Infection in Women  

PubMed Central

C. TRACHOMATIS (CT) infections of the upper genital tract in women are either acute, sub acute or chronic. CT infection has a tendency to be chronic, latent and persistent as a consequence of the host immune reaction to CT major outer membrane protein, 57 Kd heat shock protein and lipopolysaccharide. Chlamydial persistence can be induced as a result of inflammatory and/or immune regulated cytokines, Interferon ? depletion of tryptophan causes a stress response involving development of abnormal forms with increased levels of stress response proteins which maintain host immune responses with continuous fibrin exudate. The main clinical consequences are acute and chronic pelvic inflammatory disease, with infertility, ectopic pregnancy and, less frequently, chronic pelvic pain as late sequelae. PID, when acute, is marked by bilateral pelvic pain, plus other infectious signs in typical cases: fever, leucorrhea, red and purulent cervix. In 50% cases, infectious signs are slight or absent or there is an atypical clinical situation. Laparoscopy is the key for diagnosis. It allows the surgeon to have a direct look at the pelvic organs and perform microbiologic and histologic sampling. In severe cases, laparoscopy allows the surgeon to aspirate the purulent discharge and successfully treat pelvic abscesses. Chronic PID usually is clinically silent. It is in most cases discovered some years after the onset of CT infection, in women operated on for tubal infertility or ectopic pregnancy. Further studies, to evaluate treatments efficiency in chronic cases and factors leading to ectopic pregnancy or to recurrence, are indicated.

Askienazy-Elbhar, M.; Orfila, J.

1996-01-01

317

Mucosal Herpes Immunity and Immunopathology to Ocular and Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infections  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex viruses type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are amongst the most common human infectious viral pathogens capable of causing serious clinical diseases at every stage of life, from fatal disseminated disease in newborns to cold sores genital ulcerations and blinding eye disease. Primary mucocutaneous infection with HSV-1 & HSV-2 is followed by a lifelong viral latency in the sensory ganglia. In the majority of cases, herpes infections are clinically asymptomatic. However, in symptomatic individuals, the latent HSV can spontaneously and frequently reactivate, reinfecting the muco-cutaneous surfaces and causing painful recurrent diseases. The innate and adaptive mucosal immunities to herpes infections and disease remain to be fully characterized. The understanding of innate and adaptive immune mechanisms operating at muco-cutaneous surfaces is fundamental to the design of next-generation herpes vaccines. In this paper, the phenotypic and functional properties of innate and adaptive mucosal immune cells, their role in antiherpes immunity, and immunopathology are reviewed. The progress and limitations in developing a safe and efficient mucosal herpes vaccine are discussed.

Chentoufi, Aziz Alami; BenMohamed, Lbachir

2012-01-01

318

Association of Chlamydia trachomatis infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) & cervical intraepithelial neoplasia - A pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the necessary cause of cervical cancer and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is considered a potential cofactor in the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The objective of this pilot study was to determine the association of CT infection with HPV, other risk factors for cervical cancer, and CIN in symptomatic women. Methods: A total of 600 consecutively selected women aged 30-74 yr with persistent vaginal discharge, intermenstrual/postcoital bleeding or unhealthy cervix underwent conventional Pap smear, Hybrid Capture 2® (HC2) testing for HPV and CT DNA and colposcopy, with directed biopsy of all lesions. Results: HPV DNA was positive in 108 (18.0%) women, CT DNA in 29 (4.8%) women. HPV/CT co-infection was observed in only four (0.7%) women. Of the 127 (21.2%) women with Pap >ASCUS, 60 (47.2%) were HPV positive and four (3.1%) were CT positive. Of the 41 women with CIN1 lesions, 11 (26.8%) were HPV positive, while two were CT positive. Of the 46 women with CIN2+ on histopathology, 41 (89.1%) were HPV positive, two (4.3%) were CT positive and one was positive for both. The risk of CIN2+ disease was significantly increased (P<0.05) by the following factors: age <18 yr at first coitus, HPV infection and a positive Pap smear. Older age (>35 yr), higher parity, use of oral contraceptives or smoking did not show any significant association with HPV or abnormal histopathology. Parity >5 was the only risk factor positivity associated with CT infection (P<0.05). Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings showed that CT infection was not significantly associated with CIN, and most of its risk factors, including HPV infection, in symptomatic women. Longitudinal studies with carefully selected study sample would be able to answer these questions.

Bhatla, Neerja; Puri, Kriti; Joseph, Elizabeth; Kriplani, Alka; Iyer, Venkateswaran K.; Sreenivas, V.

2013-01-01

319

Roles of Interleukin-12 and Gamma Interferon in Murine Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection  

PubMed Central

BALB/c and strain 129 mice infected intranasally with Chlamydia pneumoniae displayed a moderate-to-severe inflammation in the lungs and produced interleukin-12 (IL-12), gamma interferon (IFN-?), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), and IL-10, with peak levels on days 1 to 3 postinfection (p.i.), returning to basal levels by day 16 p.i. Anti-IL-12 treatment resulted in less-severe pathological changes but higher bacterial titers on days 3 and 7 p.i. By day 16 p.i., the inflammatory responses of control antibody-treated mice subsided. The bacterial titers of both anti-IL-12- and control antibody-treated mice decreased within 3 weeks to marginally detectable levels. Anti-IL-12 treatment significantly reduced lung IFN-? production and in vitro spleen cell IFN-? production in response to either C. pneumoniae or concanavalin A. In ?-irradiated infected mice, cytokine production was delayed, and this delay correlated with high bacterial titers in the lungs. Following C. pneumoniae infection, 129 mice lacking the IFN-? receptor ? chain gene (G129 mice) produced similar IL-12 levels and exhibited similarly severe pathological changes but had higher bacterial titers than 129 mice. However, by day 45 p.i., bacterial titers became undetectable in both wild-type 129 and G129 mice. Thus, during C. pneumoniae lung infection, IL-12, more than IFN-?, plays a role in pulmonary-cell infiltration. IFN-? and IL-12, acting mostly through its induction of IFN-? and Th1 responses, play an important role in controlling acute C. pneumoniae infection in the lungs, but eventually all mice control the infection to undetectable levels by IL-12- and IFN-?-independent mechanisms.

Geng, Yuemei; Berencsi, Klara; Gyulai, Zsofia; Valyi-Nagy, Tibor; Gonczol, Eva; Trinchieri, Giorgio

2000-01-01

320

Chlamydia trachomatis cytotoxicity associated with complete and partial cytotoxin genes  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular human bacterial pathogen that infects epithelial cells of the eye and genital tract. Infection can result in trachoma, the leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide, and sexually transmitted diseases. A common feature of infection is a chronic damaging inflammatory response for which the molecular pathogenesis is not understood. It has been proposed that chlamydiae have a cytotoxic activity that contributes to this pathology, but a toxin has not been identified. The C. trachomatis genome contains genes that encode proteins with significant homology to large clostridial cytotoxins. Here we show that C. trachomatis makes a replication-independent cytotoxic activity that produces morphological and cytoskeletal changes in epithelial cells that are indistinguishable from those mediated by clostridial toxin B. A mouse chlamydial strain that encodes a full-length cytotoxin caused pronounced cytotoxicity, as did a human strain that has a shorter ORF with homology to only the enzymatically active site of clostridial toxin B. Cytotoxin gene transcripts were detected in chlamydiae-infected cells, and a protein with the expected molecular mass was present in lysates of infected epithelial cells. The protein was present transiently in infected cells during the period of cytotoxicity. Together, these data provide compelling evidence for a chlamydial cytotoxin for epithelial cells and imply that the cytotoxin is present in the elementary body and delivered to host cells very early during infection. We hypothesize that the cytotoxin is a virulence factor that contributes to the pathogenesis of C. trachomatis diseases.

Belland, Robert J.; Scidmore, Marci A.; Crane, Deborah D.; Hogan, Daniel M.; Whitmire, William; McClarty, Grant; Caldwell, Harlan D.

2001-01-01

321

Population attributable risk for chlamydia infection in a cohort of young international travellers (backpackers) and residents in Australia  

PubMed Central

Aim To estimate the population attributable risk (PAR) for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in young men and women in Sydney, Australia. Method Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association between demographic, sexual behaviour and other potential risk factors and chlamydia positivity in young (?30?years) heterosexual international travellers (backpackers) and Australian residents attending a sexual health clinic. Point and interval estimates of PAR were calculated to quantify the proportion of chlamydia infections that can theoretically be prevented if a combination of risk factors is eliminated from a target population. Results In males, the PAR associated with inconsistent condom use in the past 3?months was 65% (95% CI 56% to 71%) in backpackers compared to 50% (95% CI 41% to 56%) in non-backpackers and the PAR associated with reporting three or more female sexual partners in the past 3?months was similar between male backpackers and non-backpackers (33% (95% CI 28% to 40%) and 36% (95% CI 32% to 41%), respectively). In females, the PAR associated with inconsistent condom use in the past 3?months was 51% (95% CI 42% to 59%) in backpackers compared to 41% (95% CI 31% to 51%) in non-backpackers, and the PAR associated with reporting three or more male sexual partners in the past 3?months was 14% (95% CI 11% to 18%) in backpackers compared to 30% (95% CI 25% to 37%) in non-backpackers. Conclusion These findings suggest that the largest number of chlamydia infections could be avoided by increasing condom use, particularly in backpackers. Reporting multiple partners was also associated with a large proportion of infections and the risk associated with this behaviour should be considered in health promotion strategies.

Guy, Rebecca; Donovan, Basil; McNulty, Anna

2011-01-01

322

Optimal Method of Collection of First-Void Urine for Diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

First-void urine (FVU) is the preferred specimen for the diagnosis of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in men. We have developed FirstBurst, a urine collection device that collects the first 4 to 5 ml of FVU and yields a specimen with a sixfold higher C. trachomatis organism load than the regular urine cup by quantitative PCR (32,533 versus 5,271 plasmids\\/ml; P

Craig A. Wisniewski; John A. White; Claude-Edouard C. Michel; Lourdes Mahilum-Tapay; J. P. V. Magbanua; E. C. B. Nadala; P. J. Barber; B. T. Goh; H. H. Lee

2008-01-01

323

Chlamydia muridarum T Cell Antigens and Adjuvants That Induce Protective Immunity in Mice  

PubMed Central

Major impediments to a Chlamydia vaccine lie in discovering T cell antigens and polarizing adjuvants that stimulate protective immunity. We previously reported the discovery of three T cell antigens (PmpG, PmpF, and RplF) via immunoproteomics that elicited protective immunity in the murine genital tract infection model against Chlamydia infection after adoptive transfer of antigen-pulsed dendritic cells. To expand the T cell antigen repertoire necessary for a Chlamydia vaccine, we evaluated 10 new Chlamydia T cell antigens discovered via immunoproteomics in addition to the 3 antigens reported earlier as a molecular subunit vaccine. We first tested five adjuvants, including three cationic liposome formulations (dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide-monophosphoryl lipid A [DDA-MPL], DDA-trehalose 6,6?-dibehenate [DDA-TDB {CAF01}], and DDA-monomycolyl glycerol [DDA-MMG {CAF04}]), Montanide ISA720–CpG-ODN1826, and alum using the PmpG protein as a model T cell antigen in the mouse genital tract infection model. The results showed that the cationic liposomal adjuvants DDA-MPL and DDA-TDB elicited the best protective immune responses, characterized by multifunctional CD4+ T cells coexpressing gamma interferon (IFN-?) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), and reduced infection by more than 3 logs. Using DDA-MPL as an adjuvant, we found that 7 of 13 Chlamydia T cell antigens (PmpG, PmpE, PmpF, Aasf, RplF, TC0420, and TC0825) conferred protection better than or equal to that of the reference vaccine antigen, major outer membrane protein (MOMP). Pools of membrane/secreted proteins, cytoplasmic proteins, and hypothetical proteins were tested individually or in combination. Immunization with combinations protected as well as the best individual protein in that combination. The T cell antigens and adjuvants discovered in this study are of further interest in the development of a molecularly defined Chlamydia vaccine.

Yu, Hong; Karunakaran, Karuna P.; Jiang, Xiaozhou; Shen, Caixia; Andersen, Peter

2012-01-01

324

High frequency of genital human papillomavirus infections and related cervical dysplasia in adolescent girls in Belgium.  

PubMed

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are causally related to cervical cancer and a range of other diseases, both in adults and in minors. Information on the frequency of genital HPV infections in adolescents is sparse. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the genotype-specific distribution of HPV genotypes in patients younger than 18 years of age. This observational retrospective study included 4807 samples of patients presenting for opportunistic screening in Belgium between June 2006 and January 2012. For statistical analysis, only the first visits of patients were withheld, reducing the sample to 4180. Samples were collected in liquid-based cytology medium and analyzed using a series of genotype-specific real-time PCR reactions. Cytology was read with previous knowledge of HPV infection and scored using the Bethesda classification. The mean age was 16.9 years. Most youngsters had no complaints (88.4%), were using hormonal contraception (79.5%), and clinical examination did not show any abnormalities (96.0%). The overall HPV frequency was 15.7%, with the most frequently found types being HPV16 (16.7%), HPV51 (14.6%), HPV66 (10.4%), HPV31 (9.9%), and HPV39 (9.1%). More than one-third (39.0%) of the infected girls harbored an infection with at least two HPV genotypes. Cytological abnormalities were found in 8.2% of samples. L-SIL (4.2%) was most frequently observed, followed by ASC-US (3.6%), HSIL (0.3%), and ASC-H (0.1%). The severity of lesions worsened with increasing age. Our findings indicate that an aberrant HPV genotype profile can be found in adolescent girls; moreover, this group shows a high rate of cervical abnormalities. PMID:24858715

Merckx, Mireille; Benoy, Ina; Meys, Joris; Depuydt, Christophe; Temmerman, Marleen; Weyers, Steven; Vanden Broeck, Davy

2014-07-01

325

PCR testing of genital and urine specimens compared with culture for the diagnosis of chlamydial infection in men and women.  

PubMed

Our aim was to determine the number of chlamydial infections detected by Cobas Amplicor CT/NG multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of genital and first-voided urine (FVU) specimens compared with routine culture. Two hundred and eighty-six female and 276 male patients attending the Genito-Urinary Medicine (GUM) Unit at Edinburgh Royal Infirmary were included in the study. Case notes were analysed retrospectively to determine how many infected patients would not have been treated had diagnosis relied on routine culture. Polymerase chain reaction on FVU from women had a sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of 91%, 100%, 100% and 99.1%: corresponding values for genital PCR and culture were 96%, 100%, 100%, 99.6% and 65%, 100%, 100%, 96.7% respectively. PCR on FVU from men had a sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of 96%, 99.1%, 92.6% and 99.5%: corresponding values for genital PCR and culture were 89%, 99.5%, 95.8%, 98.6% and 48%, 100%, 100%, 94.3% respectively. In both men and women genital PCR and urine PCR were significantly more sensitive than culture. PCR almost doubled the number of patients detected by culture (49 vs 27). Of the 22 cases detected only by PCR 8 would not have received treatment on the basis of clinic treatment policy. PMID:9863578

Young, H; Moyes, A; Horn, K; Scott, G R; Patrizio, C; Sutherland, S

1998-11-01

326

Chlamydia pneumoniae CopD Translocator Protein Plays a Critical Role in Type III Secretion (T3S) and Infection  

PubMed Central

Pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria use type III secretion (T3S) to inject effector proteins into the host cell to create appropriate conditions for infection and intracellular replication. Chlamydia spp. are believed to use T3S to infect their host cell, and the translocator proteins are an essential component of this system. Chlamydia pneumoniae contains genes encoding two sets of translocator proteins; CopB and CopD, and CopB2 and CopD2. In this study, we identified novel interactions between CopD and three type III secretion proteins; namely, CopN, CdsN, and CdsF. We identified a CopD putative chaperone binding motif, PxLxxP, within the N-terminal region (CopD amino acids 120–125), which was necessary for interaction with its putative chaperone LcrH_1. Using size exclusion chromatography, we showed that CopD and LcrH_1 formed higher order structures in solution with CopD and LcrH_1 binding in a ratio of 1?1, which is unique for T3SS translocator proteins. Lastly, we showed that antibodies to CopD reduced C. pneumoniae infectivity by >95%. Collectively, this data suggests that CopD plays a critical role in pathogenesis and likely functions as a hydrophobic translocator of the type III secretion system in Chlamydia pneumoniae.

Bulir, David C.; Waltho, Daniel A.; Stone, Christopher B.; Mwawasi, Kenneth A.; Nelson, Jordan C.; Mahony, James B.

2014-01-01

327

Incidence and Correlates of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in a High Risk Cohort of Kenyan Women  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND In Africa, data on Chlamydia trachomatis infection are scarce because reliable diagnosis is costly and not widely available. Our objective was to evaluate the incidence and correlates of C. trachomatis infection among high-risk Kenyan women. METHODS We conducted prospective cohort analyses using data from a cohort of women who reported transactional sex. C. trachomatis testing was performed using the Gen-Probe Aptima GC/CT Detection System. We used Andersen-Gill proportional hazards modeling to evaluate correlates of C. trachomatis. RESULTS Between August 2006 and December 2010, 865 women contributed 2011 person-years of observation. Sixty-four women experienced 101 episodes of C. trachomatis infection (incidence rate of 5.0/100 person-years). There was a large difference in incidence by age group: those below 25 years had an incidence of 27.6 per 100 person-years (95% CI 16.3 – 46.5), those 25 to 34 years old had an incidence of 8.4 per 100 person-years (95% CI 6.4 – 11.0), and those 35 years old and above had an incidence of 2.6 per 100 person-years (95% CI 1.8 – 3.6). In multivariate analyses, younger age (<25 years and 25–34 years versus ?35 years; hazard ratio [HR] 8.49 95% CI 4.1–17.7 and HR 2.9 95% CI 1.7–5.0 respectively), depot medroxyprogesterone acetate use (HR 1.8 95% CI 1.1–3.0) and recent Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection (HR 3.3 95% CI 1.5–7.4) were significantly associated with increased risk of acquiring C. trachomatis infection. CONCLUSIONS The high incidence of C. trachomatis among younger high-risk women suggests the need for screening as an important public health intervention for this population.

Masese, Linnet; Baeten, Jared M.; Richardson, Barbra A.; Deya, Ruth; Kabare, Emmanuel; Bukusi, Elizabeth; John-Stewart, Grace; Jaoko, Walter; McClelland, R. Scott

2013-01-01

328

Prevalence, clinical features and quantification of genital non-viral infections.  

PubMed

We conducted a study of the prevalence, clinical features and microscopy findings, by retrospective case-notes survey, of six non-viral organisms, among 1718 attendees at a genitourinary (GU) medicine clinic in England. An in-house assay for six non-viral infections was used and quantitation of ureaplasmas performed. The prevalences of the six organisms were: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), 7.1%; Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), 0.6%; Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), 1.0%; Trichomonas vaginalis, 0.2%; Ureaplasma urealyticum, 16.1%; Ureaplasma parvum, 35.6%. Among men (but not women) there were significantly raised odds ratios compared with that for U. parvum, for the symptom of discharge with CT, 7.30; MG, 6.43; NG 19.29; dysuria with CT, 5.89 and MG, 5.95; and the microscopy finding of >4 pus cells per high power field with: CT, 7.22; MG, 4.58 and NG 22.31. Evaluation of a possible link between quantitation of U. urealyticum and urethritis did not confirm research findings elsewhere. PMID:23970658

Carne, C A; Gibbs, J; Delaney, A; Sonnex, C; Verlander, N Q; Smielewska, A; Skeggs, E; Bentley, N; Jalal, H

2013-04-01

329

Population prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the Netherlands. should asymptomatic persons be tested during Population-based chlamydia Screening also for gonorrhoea or only if chlamydial infection is found?  

PubMed Central

Background Screening and active case finding for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is recommended to prevent reproductive morbidity. However insight in community prevalence of gonococcal infections and co-infections with Neisseria gonorrhoea (NG) is lacking. Methods Nested study within a large population-based Chlamydia Screening Pilot among 21.000 persons 15–29 year. All CT-positive (166) and a random sample of 605 CT-negative specimens were as well tested for gonococcal infection. Results Overall Chlamydia prevalence in the Pilot was 2.0% (95% CI: 1.7–2.3), highest in very urban settings (3.2%; 95% CI: 2.4–4.0) and dependent of several risk factors. Four gonococcal infections were found among 166 participants with CT infection (4/166 = 2.4%; 95% CI: 0.1%–4.7%). All four had several risk factors and reported symptoms. Among 605 CT-negative persons, no infection with NG could be confirmed. Conclusion A low rate of co-infections and a very low community prevalence of gonococcal infections were found in this population based screening programme among young adults in the Netherlands. Population screening for asymptomatic gonococcal infections is not indicated in the Netherlands. Although co-infection with gonorrhoea among CT-positives is dependent on symptoms and well-known algorithms for elevated risks, we advise to test all CT-positives also for NG, whether symptomatic or asymptomatic.

van Bergen, Jan EAM; Spaargaren, Joke; Gotz, Hannelore M; Veldhuijzen, Irene K; Bindels, Patrick JE; Coenen, Ton J; Broer, Jan; de Groot, Fetzen; Hoebe, Christian JPA; Richardus, Jan-Hendrik; van Schaik, Daniel; Verhooren, Marije

2006-01-01

330

Corn mint (Mentha arvensis) extract diminishes acute Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Corn mint ( Mentha arvensis ) provides a good source of natural phenols such as flavone glycosides and caffeic acid derivatives, which may have prophylactic properties against inflammations. This study investigated whether corn mint extract would be beneficial against a universal respiratory tract pathogen, Chlamydia pneumoniae , infection. The extract inhibited the growth of C. pneumoniae CWL-029 in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition was confirmed against a clinical isolate K7. The phenolic composition of the extract was analyzed by UPLC-ESI/Q-TOF/MS, the main components being linarin and rosmarinic acid. These compounds were active in vitro against C. pneumoniae. Linarin completely inhibited the growth at 100 ?M. Inbred C57BL/6J mice were inoculated with C. pneumoniae K7. M. arvensis extract was given intraperitoneally once daily for 3 days prior to inoculation and continued for 10 days postinfection. The extract was able to diminish the inflammatory parameters related to C. pneumoniae infection and significantly (p = 0.019) lowered the number of C. pneumoniae genome equivalents detected by PCR at biologically relevant amounts. PMID:22073967

Salin, Olli; Törmäkangas, Liisa; Leinonen, Maija; Saario, Elise; Hagström, Marja; Ketola, Raimo A; Saikku, Pekka; Vuorela, Heikki; Vuorela, Pia M

2011-12-28

331

Failure of in vitro fertilization and embryo replacement following infection with Chlamydia trachomatis.  

PubMed

Antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis were detected in 54 (47.4%) of 114 infertile women attending Bourn Hall Clinic. Antibodies were solely of the IgG class and mainly of a low titer, suggesting past infection. Antibodies were found in significantly more patients with tubal damage (54.4%) than in women whose infertility was due to other causes (16.6%). Seventy-two women completed in vitro fertilization, with 52 having three embryos replaced. We found that this treatment offered the optimum chance of a pregnancy being established, and 20 (38.5%) of these women became pregnant. Antibodies to C. trachomatis were present in only six (30.0%) of the women becoming pregnant, whereas antibodies were found in 21 (65.6%) of those who failed to become pregnant. Thus past infection with C. trachomatis halved the success rate of in vitro fertilization in these patients. The implications of these findings are relevant to all aspects of infertility from prevention to in vitro fertilization treatment. PMID:4056562

Rowland, G F; Forsey, T; Moss, T R; Steptoe, P C; Hewitt, J; Darougar, S

1985-09-01

332

Low Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Non-Urban Pregnant Women in Vellore, S. India  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the prevalence and risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection in pregnant women and the rate of transmission of CT to infants. Methods Pregnant women (?28 weeks gestation) in Vellore, South India were approached for enrollment from April 2009 to January 2010. After informed consent was obtained, women completed a socio-demographic, prenatal, and sexual history questionnaire. Endocervical samples collected at delivery were examined for CT by a rapid enzyme test and nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT). Neonatal nasopharyngeal and conjunctival swabs were collected for NAAT testing. Results Overall, 1198 women were enrolled and 799 (67%) endocervical samples were collected at birth. Analyses were completed on 784 participants with available rapid and NAAT results. The mean age of women was 25.8 years (range 18–39 yrs) and 22% (95% CI: 19.7–24.4%) were primigravida. All women enrolled were married; one reported >one sexual partner; and six reported prior STI. We found 71 positive rapid CT tests and 1/784 (0.1%; 95% CI: 0–0.38%) true positive CT infection using NAAT. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the largest study on CT prevalence amongst healthy pregnant mothers in southern India, and it documents a very low prevalence with NAAT. Many false positive results were noted using the rapid test. These data suggest that universal CT screening is not indicated in this population.

Vidwan, Navjyot K.; Regi, Annie; Steinhoff, Mark; Huppert, Jill S.; Staat, Mary Allen; Dodd, Caitlin; Nongrum, Rida; Anandan, Shalini; Verghese, Valsan

2012-01-01

333

Impact of Short-Term HAART Initiated during the Chronic Stage or Shortly Post-Exposure on SIV Infection of Male Genital Organs  

PubMed Central

Background The male genital tract is suspected to constitute a viral sanctuary as persistent HIV shedding is found in the semen of a subset of HIV-infected men receiving effective antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The origin of this persistent shedding is currently unknown. Phylogenetic studies indicated that HIV in semen from untreated men arises from local sources and/or passive diffusion from the blood. We previously demonstrated in human and macaque low levels and localized infection of several semen-producing organs by HIV/SIV. Using a macaque model, this study investigates the impact of short term HAART (2–4 weeks) initiated either during the asymptomatic chronic stage or 4 h post-intravenous inoculation of SIVmac251 on the infection of male genital organs. Methodology/Principal Findings Short term HAART during the chronic stage decreased blood viral load. No major impact of HAART was observed on SIV DNA levels in male genital organs using a sensitive nested PCR assay. Using in situ hybridization, SIV RNA+ cells were detected in all male genital tract organs from untreated and treated animals with undetectable blood viral load following HAART. Infected CD68+ myeloid cells and CD3+ T lymphocytes were detected pre- and post-HAART. In contrast, short term HAART initiated 4 h post-SIV exposure led to a drastic decrease of the male genital tissues infection, although it failed to prevent systemic infection. In both cases, HAART tended to decrease the number of CD3+ T cells in the male organs. Conclusions Our results indicate that the established infection of male genital organs is not greatly impacted by short term HAART, whereas the same treatment during pre-acute phase of the infection efficiently impairs viral dissemination to the male genital tract. Further investigations are now needed to determine whether infection of male genital organs is responsible for long term persistent HIV shedding in semen despite HAART.

Moreau, Marina; Le Tortorec, Anna; Deleage, Claire; Brown, Charles; Denis, Helene; Satie, Anne-Pascale; Bourry, Olivier; Deureuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Roques, Pierre; Le Grand, Roger; Dejucq-Rainsford, Nathalie

2012-01-01

334

Spontaneous change from overt to covert infection of Chlamydia pecorum in cycloheximide-treated mouse McCoy cells.  

PubMed Central

Some isolates of Chlamydia pecorum from sheep feces failed to produce inclusions on passage in cycloheximide-treated monolayers, but chlamydiae could be recovered several weeks later. Chlamydia psittaci from sheep abortions did not show this phenomenon.

Philips, H L; Clarkson, M J

1995-01-01

335

Correlates of Chlamydia and Gonorrhea Infection among Female Sex Workers: The Untold Story of Jiangsu, China  

PubMed Central

Objective(s) To estimate the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers (FSWs) in the Jiangsu Province, China and measure the association of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infections with their potential correlates. Design A cross-sectional study on a representative sample of FSWs in Yangzhou and Changzhou cities of Jiangsu was conducted. Methods 185 sex-work venues in Yangzhou and 174 in Changzhou were selected by stratified random sampling. 2972 FSWs (1108 in Yangzhou and 1864 in Changzhou), aged 15 years or more, who agreed to participate and provided blood sample for HIV and syphilis testing were interviewed in these venues. Cervical specimens from 849 randomly chosen participants were then tested for CT and NG. Results Proportions of young, school-educated, currently married FSWs who were living alone, migrated from other provinces and engaged in unprotected vaginal intercourse in past 3 months (UVI) were relatively high. Prevalence of HIV, syphilis, CT and NG were 0.20%, 4.88%, 14.61% and 5.42% respectively. Younger age, living alone or with persons other than partners/family members, engaging in UVI and having other STIs seemed to be associated with higher risk of CT or NG infection. Being divorced/widowed and working in middle/low-level venues were identified as additional risk factors for NG. Conclusions Based on a representative sample, this initial effort to identify the correlates of CT/NG infections among FSWs of Jiangsu revealed that focused interventions targeting high-risk FSWs are urgently required for controlling STI epidemics in Yangzhou and Changzhou where substantial number of STI cases were identified.

Jiang, Ning; Hu, Hai-Yang; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Yin, Yue-Ping; Mahapatra, Sanchita; Wang, Xiao-Liang; Chen, Xiang-Sheng; Lin, Nan; Zhang, Xun; Huan, Xi-Ping; Yang, Hai-Tao; Fu, Geng-Feng

2014-01-01

336

Sexually Transmitted Infections and Male Circumcision: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

The claim that circumcision reduces the risk of sexually transmitted infections has been repeated so frequently that many believe it is true. A systematic review and meta-analyses were performed on studies of genital discharge syndrome versus genital ulcerative disease, genital discharge syndrome, nonspecific urethritis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, genital ulcerative disease, chancroid, syphilis, herpes simplex virus, human papillomavirus, and contracting a sexually transmitted infection of any type. Chlamydia, gonorrhea, genital herpes, and human papillomavirus are not significantly impacted by circumcision. Syphilis showed mixed results with studies of prevalence suggesting intact men were at great risk and studies of incidence suggesting the opposite. Intact men appear to be of greater risk for genital ulcerative disease while at lower risk for genital discharge syndrome, nonspecific urethritis, genital warts, and the overall risk of any sexually transmitted infection. In studies of general populations, there is no clear or consistent positive impact of circumcision on the risk of individual sexually transmitted infections. Consequently, the prevention of sexually transmitted infections cannot rationally be interpreted as a benefit of circumcision, and any policy of circumcision for the general population to prevent sexually transmitted infections is not supported by the evidence in the medical literature.

Van Howe, Robert S.

2013-01-01

337

IL12 Administered During Chlamydia psittaci Lung Infection in Mice Confers Immediate and Long-Term Protection and Reduces Macrophage Inflammatory Protein2 Level and Neutrophil Infiltration in Lung Tissue1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protection against infections with the intracellular bacterium Chlamydia spp. requires Th1-polarized CD41 T cell immunity. In BALB\\/c mouse lung infections, immediate innate and nascent Chlamydia-specific immune responses following intranasal inocu- lation of Chlamydia psittaci strain B577 were modulated by 7-day i.p. administration of murine rIL-12, the initiation cytokine for Th1 immunity. Treatment with IL-12 reduced the severity of chlamydial pneumonia,

Jin Huang; Ming-Dong Wang; Stephen Lenz; Dongya Gao; Bernhard Kaltenboeck

338

Genital lesions and distribution of amastigotes in bitches naturally infected with Leishmania chagasi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent reports indicate that Leishmania chagasi has tropism to the male canine genital system, which is associated with shedding of the organism in the semen, supporting the hypothesis of venereal transmission. The aim of this study was to describe the lesions and assess parasite load in the genital system of bitches with canine visceral leishmaniasis (CanL). Symptomatic (n=5) and asymptomatic

Fabiana L. Silva; Antonio A. M. Rodrigues; Isabela O. P. Rego; Raquel L. H. Santos; Raquel G. Oliveira; Teane M. A. Silva; Mariana N. Xavier; Ernane F. Nascimento; Renato L. Santos

2008-01-01

339

TLR2, but not TLR4, is required for effective host defence against Chlamydia respiratory tract infection in early life.  

PubMed

Chlamydia pneumoniae commonly causes respiratory tract infections in children, and epidemiological investigations strongly link infection to the pathogenesis of asthma. The immune system in early life is immature and may not respond appropriately to pathogens. Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and 4 are regarded as the primary pattern recognition receptors that sense bacteria, however their contribution to innate and adaptive immunity in early life remains poorly defined. We investigated the role of TLR2 and 4 in the induction of immune responses to Chlamydia muridarum respiratory infection, in neonatal wild-type (Wt) or TLR2-deficient ((-/-)), 4(-/-) or 2/4(-/-) BALB/c mice. Wt mice had moderate disease and infection. TLR2(-/-) mice had more severe disease and more intense and prolonged infection compared to other groups. TLR4(-/-) mice were asymptomatic. TLR2/4(-/-) mice had severe early disease and persistent infection, which resolved thereafter consistent with the absence of symptoms in TLR4(-/-) mice. Wt mice mounted robust innate and adaptive responses with an influx of natural killer (NK) cells, neutrophils, myeloid (mDCs) and plasmacytoid (pDCs) dendritic cells, and activated CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells into the lungs. Wt mice also had effective production of interferon (IFN)? in the lymph nodes and lung, and proliferation of lymph node T-cells. TLR2(-/-) mice had more intense and persistent innate (particularly neutrophil) and adaptive cell responses and IL-17 expression in the lung, however IFN? responses and T-cell proliferation were reduced. TLR2/4(-/-) mice had reduced innate and adaptive responses. Most importantly, neutrophil phagocytosis was impaired in the absence of TLR2. Thus, TLR2 expression, particularly on neutrophils, is required for effective control of Chlamydia respiratory infection in early life. Loss of control of infection leads to enhanced but ineffective TLR4-mediated inflammatory responses that prolong disease symptoms. This indicates that TLR2 agonists may be beneficial in the treatment of early life Chlamydia infections and associated diseases. PMID:22724018

Beckett, Emma L; Phipps, Simon; Starkey, Malcolm R; Horvat, Jay C; Beagley, Kenneth W; Foster, Paul S; Hansbro, Philip M

2012-01-01

340

Correlates of HIV-1 Genital Shedding in Tanzanian Women  

PubMed Central

Background Understanding the correlates of HIV shedding is important to inform strategies to reduce HIV infectiousness. We examined correlates of genital HIV-1 RNA in women who were seropositive for both herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 and HIV-1 and who were enrolled in a randomised controlled trial of HSV suppressive therapy (aciclovir 400 mg b.i.d vs. placebo) in Tanzania. Methodology Samples, including a cervico-vaginal lavage, were collected and tested for genital HIV-1 and HSV and reproductive tract infections (RTIs) at randomisation and 6, 12 and 24 months follow-up. Data from all women at randomisation and women in the placebo arm during follow-up were analysed using generalised estimating equations to determine the correlates of cervico-vaginal HIV-1 RNA detection and load. Principal Findings Cervico-vaginal HIV-1 RNA was detected at 52.0% of 971 visits among 482 women, and was independently associated with plasma viral load, presence of genital ulcers, pregnancy, bloody cervical or vaginal discharge, abnormal vaginal discharge, cervical ectopy, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, an intermediate bacterial vaginosis score and HSV DNA detection. Similar factors were associated with genital HIV-1 RNA load. Conclusions RTIs were associated with increased presence and quantity of genital HIV-1 RNA in this population. These results highlight the importance of integrating effective RTI treatment into HIV care services.

Tanton, Clare; Weiss, Helen A.; Le Goff, Jerome; Changalucha, John; Rusizoka, Mary; Baisley, Kathy; Everett, Dean; Ross, David A.; Belec, Laurent; Hayes, Richard J.; Watson-Jones, Deborah

2011-01-01

341

Live-attenuated influenza viruses as delivery vectors for Chlamydia vaccines.  

PubMed

Effective delivery systems are needed to design efficacious vaccines against the obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen, Chlamydia trachomatis. Potentially effective delivery vehicles should promote the induction of adequate levels of mucosal T-cell and antibody responses that mediate long-term protective immunity. Antigen targeting to the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) is effective for inducing high levels of specific immune effectors in the genital mucosa, and therefore suitable for vaccine delivery against genital chlamydial infection. We tested the hypothesis that live attenuated influenza A viruses are effective viral vectors for intranasal delivery of subunit vaccines against genital chlamydial infection. Recombinant influenza A/PR8/34 (H1N1) viruses were generated by insertion of immunodominant T-cell epitopes from chlamydial major outer membrane protein into the stalk region of the neuraminidase gene. Intranasal immunization of mice with viral recombinants resulted in a strong T helper 1 (Th1) response against intact chlamydial elementary bodies. Also, immunized mice enjoyed a significant state of protective immunity (P > 0.002) by shedding less chlamydiae and rapidly clearing the infection. Furthermore, a high frequency of Chlamydia-specific Th1 was measured in the genital mucosal and systemic draining lymphoid tissues within 24 hr after challenge of vaccinated mice. Moreover, multiple epitope delivery provided a vaccine advantage over single recombinants. Besides, long-term protective immunity correlated with the preservation of a robustly high frequency of specific Th1 cells and elevated immunoglobulin G2a in genital secretions. Because live attenuated influenza virus vaccines are safe and acceptable for human use, they may provide a new and reliable approach to deliver efficacious vaccines against sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:17451464

He, Qing; Martinez-Sobrido, Luis; Eko, Francis O; Palese, Peter; Garcia-Sastre, Adolfo; Lyn, Deborah; Okenu, Daniel; Bandea, Claudiu; Ananaba, Godwin A; Black, Carolyn M; Igietseme, Joseph U

2007-09-01

342

Optimal Method of Collection of First-Void Urine for Diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Men?  

PubMed Central

First-void urine (FVU) is the preferred specimen for the diagnosis of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in men. We have developed FirstBurst, a urine collection device that collects the first 4 to 5 ml of FVU and yields a specimen with a sixfold higher C. trachomatis organism load than the regular urine cup by quantitative PCR (32,533 versus 5,271 plasmids/ml; P < 0.0001). Consequently, the use of FirstBurst to collect a urine sample improved the sensitivity of a rapid test for Chlamydia over testing of samples collected with a urine cup (82 versus 47% sensitivity using PCR as a reference; P < 0.0015).

Wisniewski, Craig A.; White, John A.; Michel, Claude-Edouard C.; Mahilum-Tapay, Lourdes; Magbanua, Jose Paolo V.; Nadala, Elpidio Cesar B.; Barber, Penelope J.; Goh, Beng T.; Lee, Helen H.

2008-01-01

343

Optimal method of collection of first-void urine for diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in men.  

PubMed

First-void urine (FVU) is the preferred specimen for the diagnosis of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in men. We have developed FirstBurst, a urine collection device that collects the first 4 to 5 ml of FVU and yields a specimen with a sixfold higher C. trachomatis organism load than the regular urine cup by quantitative PCR (32,533 versus 5,271 plasmids/ml; P < 0.0001). Consequently, the use of FirstBurst to collect a urine sample improved the sensitivity of a rapid test for Chlamydia over testing of samples collected with a urine cup (82 versus 47% sensitivity using PCR as a reference; P < 0.0015). PMID:18234860

Wisniewski, Craig A; White, John A; Michel, Claude-Edouard C; Mahilum-Tapay, Lourdes; Magbanua, Jose Paolo V; Nadala, Elpidio Cesar B; Barber, Penelope J; Goh, Beng T; Lee, Helen H

2008-04-01

344

Comparison of Lower Genital Tract Microbiota in HIV-Infected and Uninfected Women from Rwanda and the US  

PubMed Central

Introduction Previous studies have shown that alterations of the bacterial microbiota in the lower female genital tract influence susceptibility to HIV infection and shedding. We assessed geographic differences in types of genital microbiota between HIV-infected and uninfected women from Rwanda and the United States. Methods Genera of lower genital tract bacterial microbiota were identified by high-throughput pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene from 46 US women (36 HIV-infected, 10 HIV-uninfected) and 40 Rwandan women (18 HIV-infected, 22 HIV-uninfected) with similar proportions of low (0–3) Nugent scores. Species of Lactobacillus were identified by assembling sequences along with reference sequences into phylogenetic trees. Prevalence of genera and Lactobacillus species were compared using Fisher's exact tests. Results Overall the seven most prevalent genera were Lactobacillus (74%), Prevotella (56%), Gardnerella (55%), Atopobium (42%), Sneathia (37%), Megasphaera (30%), and Parvimonas (26%), observed at similar prevalences comparing Rwandan to US women, except for Megasphaera (20% vs. 39%, p?=?0.06). Additionally, Rwandan women had higher frequencies of Mycoplasma (23% vs. 7%, p?=?0.06) and Eggerthella (13% vs. 0%, p?=?0.02), and lower frequencies of Lachnobacterium (8% vs. 35%, p<0.01) and Allisonella (5% vs. 30%, p<0.01), compared with US women. The prevalence of Mycoplasma was highest (p<0.05) in HIV-infected Rwandan women (39%), compared to HIV-infected US women (6%), HIV-uninfected Rwandan (9%) and US (10%) women. The most prevalent lactobacillus species in both Rwandan and US women was L. iners (58% vs. 76%, p?=?0.11), followed by L. crispatus (28% vs. 30%, p?=?0.82), L. jensenii (20% vs. 24%, p?=?0.80), L. gasseri (20% vs. 11%, p?=?0.37) and L. vaginalis (20% vs. 7%, p?=?0.10). Discussion We found similar prevalence of most major bacterial genera and Lactobacillus species in Rwandan and US women. Further work will be needed to establish whether observed differences differentially impact lower genital tract health or susceptibility to genital infections.

Benning, Lorie; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Anastos, Kathryn; French, Audrey L.; Cohen, Mardge; Gilbert, Douglas; Gillevet, Patrick; Munyazesa, Elisaphane; Landay, Alan L.; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Spear, Gregory T.

2014-01-01

345

Bacterial Colonization and Beta Defensins in the Female Genital Tract in HIV Infection  

PubMed Central

Beta defensins are antimicrobial peptides that serve to protect the host from microbial invasion at skin and mucosal surfaces. Here we explore the relationships among beta defensin levels, total bacterial colonization, and colonization by bacterial vaginosis (BV)-related bacteria and lactobacilli in the female genital tract in HIV infected women and healthy controls. Cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) samples were obtained from 30 HIV-infected women and 36 uninfected controls. Quantitative PCR assays were used to measure DNA levels of bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA (reflective of total bacterial load), and levels of three BV-related bacteria, three Lactobacillus species (L. crispatus, L. iners and L. jensenii), and total Lactobacillus levels in CVL. Levels of human beta defensins (hBD-2 and hBD-3) were quantified by ELISA. In viremic HIV+ donors, we found that CVL levels of bacterial 16S rDNA were significantly increased, and inversely correlated with peripheral CD4+ T cell counts in HIV+ women, and inversely correlated with age in both HIV+ women and controls. Although CVL DNA levels of BV-associated bacteria tended to be increased, and CVL levels of lactobacillus DNAs tended to be decreased in HIV+ donors, none of these differences was significant. CVL levels of hBD-2 and hBD-3 were correlated and were not different in HIV+ women and controls. However, significant positive correlations between hBD-3 levels and total bacterial DNA levels in controls were not demonstrable in HIV+ women; the significant positive correlations of hBD2 or hBD-3 and three Lactobacillus species in controls were also not demonstrable in HIV+ women. These results suggest that HIV infection is associated with impaired regulation of innate defenses at mucosal sites.

Jiang, Wei; Ghosh, Santosh K.; Flyckt, Rebecca; Kalinowska, Magdalena; Starks, David; Jurevic, Richard; Weinberg, Aaron; Lederman, Michael M.; Rodriguez, Benigno

2012-01-01

346

Protein antigens of Chlamydia psittaci present in infected cells but not detected in the infectious elementary body.  

PubMed Central

Ocular infection of guinea pigs with the guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (GPIC) strain of Chlamydia psittaci produces a clinical condition representative of acute chlamydial conjunctivitis in humans. Guinea pigs which had recovered from two challenges with GPIC were used as a source of sera for the identification of antigens present in GPIC-infected tissue culture cells but absent in the infectious elementary body (EB). Immunoblots of lysates of infected HeLa cells probed with the convalescent-phase sera identified protein antigens of 22, 34, and 52 kDa (p22, p34, and p52, respectively) that were not detected in lysates of purified EB or in uninfected HeLa cells. Protein p22 was also not detected in lysates of purified reticulate bodies. Immunoblotting of lysates of HeLa cells infected with other chlamydiae demonstrated that the antigenicity of p22 and p34 was subspecies specific. Immunoblotting was also used to detect p22 and p34 in lysates of the conjunctivae of infected guinea pigs. Adsorption of convalescent-phase sera with GPIC EB produced a reagent with dominant reactivity toward p22, p34, and a 28-kDa EB protein. Immunofluorescent staining of GPIC-infected HeLa cells demonstrated that these adsorbed sera labeled the inclusion and inclusion membrane, with no apparent reactivity toward EB or reticulate bodies. Collectively, these data identify non-EB chlamydial components which may be released into the inclusion during intracellular growth. Images

Rockey, D D; Rosquist, J L

1994-01-01

347

Retentissement de l’infection genitale a chlamydia trachomatis sur le sperme chez les hommes consultant pour infertilite du couple  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resume\\u000a Introduction  l’infection génitale à Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) est une cause fréquente d’infertilité du couple. Son retentissement sur\\u000a les paramètres du sperme et sur la fertilité masculine reste controversé. Le but de cette étude prospective est d’évaluer\\u000a l’impact de l’infection génitale à CT sur le sperme chez des hommes consultant pour infertilité du couple.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Matériel et méthodes  l’étude a porté sur 97

L. Ammar-Keskes; R. Gdoura; F. Bouzid; F. Ben Salah; D. Sellami; H. Hakim; A. Hammami; T. Rebaï; S. Rekik; J. Orfila

1998-01-01

348

Pathogenesis of Chlamydia induced pelvic inflammatory disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Further research is necessary to elucidate the pathogenesis of chlamydial PID. It is hoped that these endeavours will eventually lead to a vaccine to prevent not only chlamydia infection, but also chlamydia associated infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. In the meantime we need to develop strategies to prevent primary and secondary chlamydia infection and its sequelae. Recently, Scholes

C. R. Cohen; R. C. Brunham

1999-01-01

349

Zinc and Chlamydia trachomatis  

SciTech Connect

Zinc was noted to have significant effects upon the infection of McCoy cells by each of two strains of Chlamydia trachomatis. With a high or low Chlamydia inoculant, the number of infected cells increased up to 200% utilizing supplemental zinc (up to 1 x 10/sup -4/ M) in the inoculation media compared with standard Chlamydia cultivation media (8 x 10/sup -6/ M zinc). Ferric chloride and calcium chloride did not effect any such changes. Higher concentrations of zinc, after 2 hr of incubation with Chlamydia, significantly decreased the number of inclusions. This direct effect of zinc on the Chlamydia remained constant after further repassage of the Chlamydia without supplemental zinc, suggesting a lethal effect of the zinc. Supplemental zinc (up to 10/sup -4/ M) may prove to be a useful addition to inoculation media to increase the yield of culturing for Chlamydia trachomatis. Similarly, topical or oral zinc preparations used by people may alter their susceptibility to Chamydia trachomatis infections.

Sugarman, B.; Epps, L.R.

1985-07-01

350

Direct Amplification, Sequencing and Profiling of Chlamydia trachomatis Strains in Single and Mixed Infection Clinical Samples  

PubMed Central

Sequencing bacterial genomes from DNA isolated directly from clinical samples offers the promise of rapid and precise acquisition of informative genetic information. In the case of Chlamydia trachomatis, direct sequencing is particularly desirable because it obviates the requirement for culture in mammalian cells, saving time, cost and the possibility of missing low abundance strains. In this proof of concept study, we developed methodology that would allow genome-scale direct sequencing, using a multiplexed microdroplet PCR enrichment technology to amplify a 100 kb region of the C. trachomatis genome with 500 1.1–1.3 kb overlapping amplicons (5-fold amplicon redundancy). We integrated comparative genomic data into a pipeline to preferentially select conserved sites for amplicon design. The 100 kb target region could be amplified from clinical samples, including remnants from diagnostics tests, originating from the cervix, urethra and urine, For rapid analysis of these data, we developed a framework for whole-genome based genotyping called binstrain. We used binstrain to estimate the proportion of SNPs originating from 14 C. trachomatis reference serotype genomes in each sample. Direct DNA sequencing methods such as the one described here may have an important role in understanding the biology of C. trachomatis mixed infections and the natural genetic variation of the species within clinically relevant ecological niches.

Joseph, Sandeep J.; Li, Ben; Ghonasgi, Tanvi; Haase, Chad P.; Qin, Zhaohui S.; Dean, Deborah; Read, Timothy D.

2014-01-01

351

Gonorrhea and Chlamydia Testing Rates of HIV-Infected Men: Low Despite Guidelines  

PubMed Central

Objectives Screening HIV-infected men for gonorrhea (GC) and Chlamydia (CT) may decrease HIV transmission and reduce the incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease in female partners. This study determined GC/CT testing rates in a clinical HIV cohort before and after 2003 when the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued guidelines for GC/CT screening. Methods First GC/CT testing episodes were identified for all men enrolling in a Baltimore HIV clinic 1999–2007. Multivariate Cox and logistic regression were used to assess clinical and demographic factors associated with being tested and with having a positive result. Results Among 1110 men, the rate of GC/CT testing upon clinic enrollment increased from 4.0% prior to 2003 to 16.5% afterward, and the rate of ever being tested increased from 34.2% to 49.1% (P <0.001 for both comparisons). Among men with same sex contact, 10% of first testing episodes included extragenital sites. Among the 342 men ever-tested, 5.2% had positive results on first testing. Predictors of testing included enrolling after 2003, younger age, frequent visits, and black race. Predictors of a positive test result included CD4 count ?200 cells/mm3 and younger age. Conclusions GC/CT testing rates among men increased substantially after the 2003 guidelines but remain low. Disseminating existing evidence for GC/CT screening and promoting operational interventions to facilitate it are warranted.

Berry, Stephen A.; Ghanem, Khalil G.; Page, Kathleen R.; Thio, Chloe L.; Moore, Richard D.; Gebo, Kelly A.

2011-01-01

352

Early sexual behaviour and Chlamydia trachomatis infection - a population based cross-sectional study on gender differences among adolescents in Norway  

PubMed Central

Background Early sexual behaviour has been shown to differ significantly between genders, but few studies have addressed this topic to explain the commonly observed differences in chlamydia rates between adolescent girls and boys. Our study aimed to determine chlamydia prevalence in adolescents aged 15–20 years in a high-incidence area in Norway, and to identify gender-specific early sexual behaviours associated with infection. Methods A population based cross-sectional study was conducted among all high school students in five towns in Finnmark county in 2009, using a web-based questionnaire and real-time Chlamydia trachomatis PCR in first-void urine samples (participation rate 85%, 800 girls/818 boys, mean age 17.2 years). Crude and multivariable logistic regression models were applied with chlamydia test result as dependent variable. Results Prevalence of chlamydia infection was 5.7% (95% confidence interval, CI, 4.4–7.3%). Girls were twice as likely to be infected as boys (7.3%, 5.3–9.7 vs 3.9%, 2.3–6.0). Girls reported earlier sexual debut, older partners, higher lifetime number of partners, and were poorer condom users. In girls, higher maternal education (odds ratio, OR, 2.2, 95% CI 1.1–4.4), ?2 sexual partners past 6 months (OR 3.6, 1.8–7.3), and partner meeting venue at a private party, bar or disco (OR 5.0, 1.1–22.7) increased the odds of infection in the multivariable model. In boys, condom use at first intercourse (OR 0.06, 0.01–0.42) decreased the odds of infection, while having an older last sexual partner (OR 3.7, 1.3–11.0) increased the odds. In all participants, the risk of infection increased if residence outside the family home during school year (OR 2.0, 1.2–3.6), and decreased if condom was used at last intercourse (OR 0.2, 0.1–0.8). Conclusions We detected significant gender differences in chlamydia prevalence and sexual behaviours, and accordingly differing independent risk factors for chlamydia infection. We suggest that accumulation of essentially different experiences in the early sexually active years contribute to gender disparities in chlamydia risk in individuals this age. Gender-specific approaches may be the best alternative to control chlamydia infection in age group 15–20 years.

2012-01-01

353

Prevalence of genital chlamydial infection among a community sample of young international backpackers in Sydney, Australia.  

PubMed

We conducted a chlamydia prevalence study from January to June 2009 among a community sample of young international backpackers by recruiting at hostels in Sydney, Australia. Participants completed a questionnaire; men provided a urine sample and women provided a self-collected vaginal swab, which were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis DNA by strand displacement amplification. We recruited 225 men (median age 24 years) and 207 women (median age 23 years). Most (87%) of the travellers came from Europe. A new sexual partner during travel was reported by 67%, and 51% had more than one new sexual partner. Of those reporting a new sexual partner, 40% always used condoms. Prevalence of chlamydia was 3.5% (3.1% in men, 3.9% in women). Previous testing for chlamydia was reported by 40%. Drinking alcohol at hazardous levels was reported by 58% of men and 29% of women. Despite the reporting of new sexual partners and inconsistent condom use, the prevalence of chlamydia in these backpackers was not higher than that found in more general populations, and may relate to good health-care seeking behaviour. Young travellers need education about sexual risks and promotion of condom use prior to travel, and access to public sexual health services. PMID:21464454

Davies, S C; Karagiannis, T; Headon, V; Wiig, R; Duffy, J

2011-03-01

354

'The difference in determinants of Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium in a sample of young Australian women.'  

PubMed Central

Background Differences in the determinants of Chlamydia trachomatis ('chlamydia') and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) genital infection in women are not well understood. Methods A cohort study of 16 to 25 year old Australian women recruited from primary health care clinics, aimed to determine chlamydia and MG prevalence and incidence. Vaginal swabs collected at recruitment were used to measure chlamydia and MG prevalence, organism-load and chlamydia-serovar a cross-sectional analysis undertaken on the baseline results is presented here. Results Of 1116 participants, chlamydia prevalence was 4.9% (95% CI: 2.9, 7.0) (n = 55) and MG prevalence was 2.4% (95% CI: 1.5, 3.3) (n = 27). Differences in the determinants were found - chlamydia not MG, was associated with younger age [AOR:0.9 (95% CI: 0.8, 1.0)] and recent antibiotic use [AOR:0.4 (95% CI: 0.2, 1.0)], and MG not chlamydia was associated with symptoms [AOR:2.1 (95% CI: 1.1, 4.0)]. Having two or more partners in last 12 months was more strongly associated with chlamydia [AOR:6.4 (95% CI: 3.6, 11.3)] than MG [AOR:2.2 (95% CI: 1.0, 4.6)] but unprotected sex with three or more partners was less strongly associated with chlamydia [AOR:3.1 (95%CI: 1.0, 9.5)] than MG [AOR:16.6 (95%CI: 2.0, 138.0)]. Median organism load for MG was 100 times lower (5.7 × 104/swab) than chlamydia (5.6 × 106/swab) (p < 0.01) and not associated with age or symptoms for chlamydia or MG. Conclusions These results demonstrate significant chlamydia and MG prevalence in Australian women, and suggest that the differences in strengths of association between numbers of sexual partners and unprotected sex and chlamydia and MG might be due to differences in the transmission dynamics between these infections.

2011-01-01

355

PmpG303-311, a Protective Vaccine Epitope That Elicits Persistent Cellular Immune Responses in Chlamydia muridarum-Immune Mice  

PubMed Central

Urogenital Chlamydia serovars replicating in reproductive epithelium pose a unique challenge to host immunity and vaccine development. Previous studies have shown that CD4 T cells are necessary and sufficient to clear primary Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infections in the mouse model, making a protective CD4 T cell response a logical endpoint for vaccine development. Our previous proteomics studies identified 13 candidate Chlamydia proteins for subunit vaccines. Of those, PmpG-1 is the most promising vaccine candidate. To further that work, we derived a PmpG303-311-specific multifunctional Th1 T cell clone, designated PmpG1.1, from an immune C57BL/6 mouse and used it to investigate the presentation of the PmpG303-311 epitope by infected epithelial cells. Epithelial presentation of the PmpG303-311 epitope required bacterial replication, occurred 15 to 18 h postinfection, and was unaffected by gamma interferon (IFN-?) pretreatment. Unlike epitopes recognized by other Chlamydia-specific CD4 T cell clones, the PmpG303-311 epitope persisted on splenic antigen-presenting cells (APC) of mice that cleared primary genital tract infections. PmpG1.1 was activated by unmanipulated irradiated splenocytes from immune mice without addition of exogenous Chlamydia antigen, and remarkably, activation of PmpG1.1 by unmanipulated immune splenocytes was stronger 6 months postinfection than it was 3 weeks postinfection. Enhanced presentation of PmpG303-311 epitope on splenic APC 6 months postinfection reflects some type of “consolidation” of a protective immune response. Understanding the antigen-presenting cell populations responsible for presenting PmpG303-311 early (3 weeks) and late (6 months) postinfection will likely provide important insights into stable protective immunity against Chlamydia infections of the genital tract.

Yu, Hong; Kerr, Micah S.; Slaven, James E.; Karunakaran, Karuna P.; Brunham, Robert C.

2012-01-01

356

High Level of Soluble HLA-G in the Female Genital Tract of Beninese Commercial Sex Workers Is Associated with HIV-1 Infection  

PubMed Central

Background Most HIV infections are transmitted across mucosal epithelium. Understanding the role of innate and specific mucosal immunity in susceptibility or protection against HIV infection, as well as the effect of HIV infection on mucosal immunity, are of fundamental importance. HLA-G is a powerful modulator of the immune response. The aim of this study was to investigate whether soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) expression in the female genital tract is associated with HIV-1 infection. Methods and Findings Genital levels of sHLA-G were determined in 52 HIV-1-uninfected and 44 antiretroviral naïve HIV-1-infected female commercial sex workers (CSWs), as well as 71 HIV-1-uninfected non-CSW women at low risk of exposure, recruited in Cotonou, Benin. HIV-1-infected CSWs had higher genital levels of sHLA-G compared with those in both the HIV-1-uninfected CSW (P?=?0.009) and non-CSW groups (P?=?0.0006). The presence of bacterial vaginosis (P?=?0.008), and HLA-G*01:01:02 genotype (P?=?0.002) were associated with higher genital levels of sHLA-G in the HIV-1-infected CSWs, whereas the HLA-G*01:04:04 genotype was also associated with higher genital level of sHLA-G in the overall population (P?=?0.038). When adjustment was made for all significant variables, the increased expression of sHLA-G in the genital mucosa remained significantly associated with both HIV-1 infection (P?=?0.02) and bacterial vaginosis (P?=?0.03). Conclusion This study demonstrates that high level of sHLA-G in the genital mucosa is independently associated with both HIV-1 infection and bacterial vaginosis.

Thibodeau, Valerie; Lajoie, Julie; Labbe, Annie-Claude; Zannou, Marcel D.; Fowke, Keith R.; Alary, Michel; Poudrier, Johanne; Roger, Michel

2011-01-01

357

Chlamydia and chronic arthritis.  

PubMed

Certain bacterial infections have been demonstrated to be causative of reactive arthritis. The most common bacterial trigger of reactive arthritis is Chlamydia trachomatis. Chlamydia pneumoniae is another known cause, albeit far less frequently. Although Chlamydia-induced reactive arthritis will often spontaneously remit, approximately 30% of patients will develop a chronic course. Modern medicine has provided rather remarkable advances in our understanding of the chlamydiae, as these organisms relate to chronic arthritis and the delicate balance between host and pathogen. C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae both have a remarkable ability to disseminate from the initial site of infection and establish persistently viable organisms in distant organ sites, namely the synovial tissue. How these persistent chlamydiae contribute to disease maintenance remains to be fully established, but recent data demonstrating that long-term combination antimicrobial treatment can not only ameliorate the symptoms but eradicate the persistent infection suggest that these chronically infecting chlamydiae are indeed a driving force behind the chronic inflammation. We are beginning to learn that this all appears possible even after an asymptomatic initial chlamydial infection. Both C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae are a clear cause of chronic arthritis in the setting of reactive arthritis; the possibility remains that these same organisms are culpable in other forms of chronic arthritis as well. PMID:21864020

Carter, John D; Inman, Robert D; Whittum-Hudson, Judith; Hudson, Alan P

2012-12-01

358

Association of Helicobacter pylori and Chlamydia pneumoniae infections with coronary heart disease and cardiovascular risk factors.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To investigate the relation between seropositivity to chronic infections with Helicobacter pylori and Chlamydia pneumoniae and both coronary heart disease and cardiovascular risk factors. DESIGN--Cross sectional study of a population based random sample of men. Coronary heart disease was assessed by electrocardiography, Rose angina questionnaire, and a history of myocardial infarction; serum antibody levels to H pylori and C pneumoniae were measured, risk factor levels determined, and a questionnaire administered. SETTING--General practices in Merton, Sutton, and Wandsworth, south London. SUBJECTS--388 white south London men aged 50-69. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Evidence of coronary risk factors and infection with H pylori or C pneumoniae. RESULTS--47 men (12.1%) had electrocardiographic evidence of ischaemia or infarction. 36 (76.6%) and 18 (38.3%) were seropositive for H pylori and C pneumoniae, respectively, compared with 155 (45.5%) and 62 (18.2%) men with normal electrocardiograms. Odds ratios for abnormal electrocardiograms were 3.82 (95% confidence interval 1.60 to 9.10) and 3.06 (1.33 to 7.01) in men seropositive for H pylori and C pneumoniae, respectively, after adjustment for a range of socioeconomic indicators and risk factors for coronary heart disease. Cardiovascular risk factors that were independently associated with seropositivity to H pylori included fibrinogen concentration and total leucocyte count. Seropositivity to C pneumoniae was independently associated with raised fibrinogen and malondialdehyde concentrations. CONCLUSIONS--Both H pylori and C pneumoniae infectins are associated with coronary heart disease. These relations are not explained by a wide range of confounding factors. Possible mechanisms include an increase in risk factor levels due to a low grade chronic inflammatory response.

Patel, P.; Mendall, M. A.; Carrington, D.; Strachan, D. P.; Leatham, E.; Molineaux, N.; Levy, J.; Blakeston, C.; Seymour, C. A.; Camm, A. J.

1995-01-01

359

Influence of Clarithromycin on Early Atherosclerotic Lesions after Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection in a Rabbit Model  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia pneumoniae may play a role in atherogenesis and vascular diseases, and antibiotics may prove useful in these conditions. Three groups of New Zealand White rabbits (24 per group) were infected via the nasopharynx with C. pneumoniae on three separate occasions (2 weeks apart). Group I was untreated and sacrificed at 12 weeks; group II received clarithromycin at 20 mg/kg/day for 8 days, beginning 5 days after each inoculation (early treatment); and group III received a similar dose of clarithromycin starting 2 weeks after the third inoculation and continued for 6 weeks thereafter (delayed treatment). To test for a possible anti-inflammatory effect of clarithromycin, two other groups of uninfected rabbits (12 animals in each) were fed 0.5% cholesterol-enriched chow, and one of these groups was treated with clarithromycin at 30 mg/kg/day for 6 weeks. Of 23 untreated infected rabbits, 8 developed early lesions of atherosclerosis, whereas 2 of the 24 early-treated group II had similar changes (P = 0.036 [75% efficacy]). However, in the delayed-treatment group, group III, 3 of 24 rabbits developed early lesions of atherosclerosis, thus demonstrating 62.5% reduction compared to the untreated controls (P = 0.07 [trend to statistical significance]). C. pneumoniae antigen was detected in 8 of 23 group I (untreated) rabbits versus 1 of 24 of the early-treated (group II) rabbits and 4 of 24 animals in the delayed group III (P = 0.009 and 0.138, respectively). All of the untreated, cholesterol-fed rabbits had moderate to advanced atherosclerosis (grade III or IV); clarithromycin had no effect on reducing the prevalence of but did reduce the extent of atherosclerosis in the cholesterol-fed rabbits by 17% compared to untreated controls. Thus, clarithromycin administration modified C. pneumoniae-induced atherosclerotic lesions and reduced the ability to detect organism in tissue. Early treatment was more effective than delayed treatment.

Fong, Ignatius W.; Chiu, Brian; Viira, Esther; Jang, Dan; Mahony, James B.

2002-01-01

360

Transcriptome Analysis Indicates an Enhanced Activation of Adaptive and Innate Immunity by Chlamydia-Infected Murine Epithelial Cells Treated with Interferon ?  

PubMed Central

Background. Interferon ? (IFN-?) is the major cytokine involved in the elimination of Chlamydia infection. Despite its importance, the combined effect of Chlamydia infection and IFN-? on the gene expression of murine epithelial cells has only partially been described. Methods. The DNA chip method was used to evaluate the impact of IFN-? and both the human strain Chlamydia trachomatis L2 infection and the murine strain Chlamydia muridarum infection on the transcriptome of murine epithelial cells. Results. The gene expression analysis revealed that IFN-? had an enhancing effect on both the up-regulation and down-regulation of the epithelial gene expression. The influenced gene functional classes included cytokine and chemokine expression, antigen presentation, apoptosis, and genes involved in basic metabolic processes such as fatty acid oxidation. We also detected the up-regulation of various genes that could be directly antichlamydial, such as members of the p47 GTPase family, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and monokine induced by IFN-? (MIG). As a functional validation of DNA chip data, we measured the antichlamydial effect of MIG on the extracellular form of Chlamydia. Conclusions. Our results show that IFN-? is a key cytokine that primes epithelial cells to activate adaptive and innate immunity and to express antichlamydial effector genes both intracellularly and extracellularly.

Burian, Katalin; Endresz, Valeria; Deak, Judit; Kormanyos, Zsolt; Pal, Attila; Nelson, David; Virok, Dezso P.

2010-01-01

361

Altered phenotype and function of NK cells infiltrating human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated genital warts during HIV infection.  

PubMed

HIV-infected individuals experience more persistent HPV infections and are less likely to resolve genital warts. This study compared phenotype and functions of NK and T cells from genital warts and blood from 67 women. We compared in vitro functional responses of NK and T cells by multiparametric flow cytometry. HIV+ women had significantly lower frequencies of CD4 T cells in warts (p = 0.001) and blood (p = 0.001). While the distribution of NK cell subsets was similar, HIV+ women tended to have lower frequencies of CD56(Dim) NK cells in both blood (p = 0.0001) and warts (p = 0.006) than HIV- women. Wart NK cells from HIV+ women expressed significantly lower CD107a and produced IFN-?. HAART status was not associated with differences in NK cell functionality. We conclude that wart NK cells from HIV+ women have defects in their ability to degranulate and/or secrete IFN-?, which may provide insights into why HIV+ women fail to spontaneously resolve genital warts. PMID:24440646

Bere, Alfred; Tayib, Shahila; Kriek, Jean-Mari; Masson, Lindi; Jaumdally, Shameem Z; Barnabas, Shaun L; Carr, William H; Allan, Bruce; Williamson, Anna-Lise; Denny, Lynette; Passmore, Jo-Ann S

2014-02-01

362

Effects of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Glycoprotein Vaccines and CLDC Adjuvant on Genital Herpes Infection in the Guinea Pig  

PubMed Central

Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are common but results from vaccine trials with HSV-2 glycoprotein D (gD) have been disappointing. We therefore compared a similar HSV gD2 vaccine, to a further truncated gD2 vaccine, to a vaccine with gD2 plus gB2 and gH2/gL2 and to a vaccine with only gB2 and gH2/gL2 in a guinea pig model of genital herpes. All vaccines were administered with cationic liposome-DNA complexes (CLDC) as an adjuvant. All vaccines significantly decreased the severity of acute genital disease and vaginal virus replication compared to the placebo group. The majority of animals in all groups developed at least one episode of recurrent disease but the frequency of recurrent disease was significantly reduced by each vaccine compared to placebo. No vaccine was significantly more protective than gD2 alone for any of the parameters described above. No vaccine decreased recurrent virus shedding. When protection against acute infection of dorsal root ganglia and the spinal cord was evaluated all vaccines decreased the per cent of animal with detectable virus and the quantity of virus but again no vaccine was significantly more protective than another. Improvements in HSV-2 vaccines may require inclusion of more T cell targets, more potent adjuvants or live virus vaccines.

Bernstein, David I; Earwood, Julie D.; Bravo, Fernando J.; Cohen, Gary H; Eisenberg, Roselyn J; Clark, Jennifer R.; Fairman, Jeffrey; Cardin, Rhonda D.

2011-01-01

363

PD-L1 limits the mucosal CD8+ T cell response to Chlamydia trachomatis.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the United States. Repeated infections with C. trachomatis lead to serious sequelae, such as infertility. It is unclear why the adaptive immune system, specifically the CD8(+) T cell response, is unable to protect against subsequent C. trachomatis infections. In this article, we characterize the mucosal CD8(+) T cell response to C. trachomatis in the murine genital tract. We demonstrate that the immunoinhibitory ligand, PD-L1, contributes to the defective CD8(+) T cell response. Deletion or inhibition of PD-L1 restores the CD8(+) T cell response and enhances C. trachomatis clearance. PMID:24353266

Fankhauser, Sarah C; Starnbach, Michael N

2014-02-01

364

Chlamydia infection in patients with and without cervical intra-epithelial lesions tested by real-time PCR vs. direct immunofluorescence.  

PubMed

This study compares the detection rates of Chlamydia trachomatis by two techniques, direct immunofluorescence (IMF) and real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), in patients with and without intra-epithelial cervical lesions (SIL) in Recife. We conducted a transversal study involving 35 women with SIL and 35 without SIL attended at Ambulatório Especializado da Mulher, Recife, Brazil. They were tested for Chlamydia trachomatis using two techniques, direct IMF or real time PCR. The rates of Chlamydia trachomatis detection were compared and the association with intra-epithelial cervical lesions was determined using the chi-square test at a 5% level of significance. Concordance between the tests was evaluated using kappa. The global prevalence of Chlamydia infection was 47.1% by direct IMF and 58.6% by real time PCR. A significant association was observed between Chlamydia diagnosis and presence of intra-epithelial cervical lesions, with about 80% positive results by direct IMF and 77.1% by real time PCR. However, the detected rate of infection with Chlamydia trachomatis was significantly greater in patients without intra-epithelial cervical lesions tested by real time PCR (40%) when compared to direct IMF (14.3%). The concordance between the tests was weak, with a kappa coefficient of 0.4. Both real time PCR and direct IMF detected elevated rates of Chlamydia infection in patients with intra-epithelial cervical lesions (80%) but the tests were discordant when patients without cervical lesions were tested, possibly because sensitivity of real time PCR is greater. PMID:19030735

Oliveira, Micheline de Lucena; Amorim, Melania Maria Ramos de; Souza, Paulo Roberto Eleutério de; Albuquerque, Lúcia Cristina Bezerra de; Brandão, Lucas André Cavalcanti; Guimarães, Rafael Lima

2008-08-01

365

Attachment and internalization of a Chlamydia trachomatis lymphogranuloma venereum strain by McCoy cells: kinetics of infectivity and effect of lectins and carbohydrates.  

PubMed Central

The kinetics of attachment and ingestion of Chlamydia trachomatis serotype L1 by monolayers of McCoy cells were studied by using a method that discriminated between attachment and uptake. When about 1% of the McCoy cells was infected, the proteinase K-resistant chlamydial fraction, regarded as ingested chlamydiae, reached a constant value after about 3 h of incubation at 37 degrees C. Uptake of chlamydiae at 4 degrees C could not be demonstrated. The attached and ingested chlamydial fractions were constant over an eightfold increase in chlamydial inoculum. Chitobiose and chitotriose, the di- and trisaccharides of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, reduced the association of C. trachomatis serotype L1 with McCoy cells. Higher concentrations of chitobiose also selectively inhibited ingestion of chlamydiae. A corresponding effect of chitobiose was also observed on the number of chlamydial inclusions. Wheat germ agglutinin, specific for N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues, reduced the association of chlamydiae when incubated at 4 degrees C, but not at 37 degrees C. A small inhibiting effect of concanavalin A on association of chlamydiae, but no effect of the corresponding carbohydrates, indicates a nonspecific effect on chlamydial attachment of this lectin. These results suggest that beta 1 leads to 4-linked oligomers of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine are important in the specificity of attachment of C. trachomatis to McCoy cells.

Soderlund, G; Kihlstrom, E

1983-01-01

366

Serovar D and E of serogroup B induce highest serological responses in urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infections  

PubMed Central

Background Chlamydia trachomatis is the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide. A strong link between C. trachomatis serogroup/serovar and serological response has been suggested in a previous preliminary study. The aim of the current study was to confirm and strengthen those findings about serological IgG responses in relation to C. trachomatis serogroups and serovars. Methods The study population (n?=?718) consisted of two patient groups with similar characteristics of Dutch STI clinic visitors. We performed genotyping of serovars and used titre based and quantitative commercially available ELISA kits (medac Diagnostika) to determine specific serum IgG levels. Optical density (OD) values generated by both tests were used to calculate the IgG titres (cut-off 1:50). Analyses were conducted stratified by gender. Results We observed very significant differences when comparing the median IgG titres of three serogroups, B, C and I: in women for B vs. C: p?

2014-01-01

367

Comparison of the Amplicor Chlamydia trachomatis test and cell culture for the detection of urogenital chlamydial infections.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To compare the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) Amplicor Chlamydia trachomatis test with the cell culture method, in diagnosing urogenital chlamydial infections. SUBJECTS--439 patients (327 women and 112 men) attending one STD clinic and Family Planning and Gynaecological Clinics in Lisbon, Portugal, between November 1993 and March 1994. METHODS--In women, two endocervical swab samples were collected: one for PCR Amplicor and one for standard culture technique. Men were asked to submit 20 ml of urine (first pass urine) for PCR Amplicor and one urethral specimen was taken for culture. The order of collection of the specimens was rotated every 50 patients. Discrepant results were further analysed by a second PCR with primers directed against the C trachomatis major outer membrane protein (MOMP) and by direct fluorescent antibody (DFA). RESULTS--After analysis of discrepancies, the adjusted sensitivity and specificity of PCR on endocervical specimens were 92.9% and 100% and the positive and negative predictive values were 100% and 99.7% respectively; on the urine samples these values were 100%, 99.1%, 100% and 99.1%, respectively. CONCLUSION--These results indicate that the PCR Amplicor test is a rapid sensitive and specific assay for the detection of C trachomatis in urogenital infections and provides a non-invasive technique for screening chlamydia infection in men.

Catry, M A; Borrego, M J; Cardoso, J; Azevedo, J; Santo, I

1995-01-01

368

Will droplet digital PCR become the test of choice for detecting and quantifying ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection? Maybe not.  

PubMed

Evaluation of: Roberts CH, Last A, Molina-Gonzalez S et al. Development and evaluation of a next-generation digital PCR diagnostic assay for ocular chlamydia trachomatis infections. J. Clin. Microbiol. 51(7), 2195-2203 (2013). Trachoma is the leading infectious cause of blindness in developing countries. Currently, there is no program to eliminate blinding trachoma as a public health problem. We need better diagnostic tests for research and to assess progress in control programs. Roberts et al. adapted droplet digital PCR (ddPCR), an emulsion PCR process that performs absolute quantitation of nucleic acids, to detect and quantify Chlamydia trachomatis infections. They compared the results with ddPCR on conjunctival swab specimens collected in trachoma-endemic area to results using Roche's Amplicor® C. trachomatis/Neisseria gonorrhoeae (CT/NG) PCR and found that ddPCR sensitivity was 73.3%. The authors concluded that 'ddPCR is an effective diagnostic technology suitable for both research and clinical use in diagnosing ocular C. trachomatis infections'. This reviewer disagrees, feeling that if the stated sensitivity is accurate, it is too low, and suggests there may be good reasons to adapt commercially available tests for this purpose. PMID:24134626

Schachter, Julius

2013-11-01

369

Oncogenic human papillomavirus genital infection in southern Iranian women: population-based study versus clinic-based data  

PubMed Central

Background Epidemiological studies on genital human papilloma viruses infection (HPVs) in general population are crucial for the implementation of health policy guidelines for developing the strategies to prevent the primary and secondary cervical cancer. In different parts of Iran, there is a lack of population-based studies to determine the prevalence of HPV in the general population. The aim of this population-based study is to compare the prevalence rate of genital HPV infection among reproductive women with our previous clinic-based data, which showed a prevalence rate of 5% in women in southern Iran. Results Using general primers for all genotypes of HPV, of 799 randomly selected women, five (0.63%, 95% CI 0.23-1.55%) tested positive for HPV DNA. Overall, seven different HPV genotypes were detected: six types (16, 18, 31, 33, 51 and 56) were carcinogenic, or “high risk genotypes” and one genotype (HPV-66) was “probably carcinogenic.” Conclusions In a population-based study, the prevalence of HPV infection among southern Iranian women was lower than that observed worldwide. However, our gynaecological clinic-based study on the prevalence of HPV infection showed results comparable with other studies in the Middle East and Persian Gulf countries. Since gynaecological clinic-based data may generally overestimate HPV prevalence, estimates of prevalence according to clinic-based data should be adjusted downward by the population-based survey estimates.

2012-01-01

370

Chlamydiae as pathogens: new species and new issues.  

PubMed Central

The recognition of genital chlamydial infection as an important public health problem was made first by the recognition of its role in acute clinical syndromes, as well as in serious reproductive and ocular complications, and secondly by our awareness of its prevalence when diagnostic tests became widely accessible. The recent availability of effective single dose oral antimicrobial therapy and sensitive molecular amplification tests that allow the use of noninvasive specimens for diagnosis and screening is expected to have a major impact in reducing the prevalence of disease in the next decade. Clinical manifestations associated with Chlamydia pneumoniae infection continue to emerge beyond respiratory illness. In particular, its association with atherosclerosis deserves further investigation. Chlamydia pecorum, a pathogen of ruminants, was recently recognized as a new species. The continued application of molecular techniques will likely elucidate an expanding role for chlamydiae in human and animal diseases, delineate the phylogenetic relationships among chlamydial species and within the eubacteria domain, and provide tools for detection and control of chlamydial infections.

Peeling, R. W.; Brunham, R. C.

1996-01-01

371

Sexual behaviour, sexually transmitted infections and attitudes to chlamydia testing among a unique national sample of young Australians: baseline data from a randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Chlamydia infection is the most common notifiable sexually transmitted infection (STI) in Australia and mostly affects young people (15 – 25 years). This paper presents baseline data from a randomised controlled trial that aimed to increase chlamydia testing among sexually active young people. The objectives were to identify associations between sexual behaviour, substance use and STI history and explore attitudes to chlamydia testing. Methods This study was conducted in cyberspace. Study recruitment, allocation, delivery of interventions and baseline and follow up data collection all took place online. Participants were 16 – 25 years old and resided in Australia. Substance use correlates of sexual activity; predictors of history of STIs; barriers to and facilitators of chlamydia testing were analysed. Results Of 856 participants (79.1% female), 704 had experienced penetrative intercourse. Sexually active participants were more likely to smoke regularly or daily, to drink alcohol, or to have binge drunk or used marijuana or other illicit substances recently. Risk factors for having a history of any STI were 3 or more sexual partners ever, 6 or more partners in the past 12 months, condom non-use and being 20 years or older. Almost all sexually active participants said that they would have a chlamydia test if their doctor recommended it. Conclusions Sexually active young people are at risk of STIs and may engage in substance use risk behaviours. Where one health risk behaviour is identified, it is important to seek information about others. Chlamydia testing can be facilitated by doctors and nurses recommending it. Primary care providers have a useful role in chlamydia control. Trial Registration Australian and New Zealand Trials Registry ACTRN12607000582459

2014-01-01

372

Persistence of Genital Tract T Cell Responses in HIV-Infected Women on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy ? †  

PubMed Central

Initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for HIV-infected individuals is associated with control of viremia, improved CD4 counts, and declining systemic HIV-specific immune responses. While HAART effectively reduces plasma viremia, it remains unclear how effectively antiretroviral drugs reach mucosal surfaces, such as those of the genital tract. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of HAART on genital tract CD4 T cell reconstitution, HIV shedding, and HIV-specific T cell responses. Cervical cytobrush and blood specimens were obtained from 35 HIV-infected, HAART-naïve women and 27 women on HAART in order to investigate HIV Gag-specific T cell responses by intracellular gamma interferon (IFN-?) staining. Interleukin 1? (IL-1?), IL-6, and IL-8 concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). We show that for HIV-infected women, HAART is associated with significantly improved CD4 T cell counts both in blood and at the cervix. While HAART effectively suppressed both blood and cervical viremia, HIV-specific CD8 T cell responses in blood were lost, while those at the cervix were preserved.

Mkhize, Nonhlanhla N.; Gumbi, Pamela P.; Liebenberg, Lenine J.; Ren, Yuan; Smith, Peter; Denny, Lynette; Passmore, Jo-Ann S.

2010-01-01

373

Persistence of genital tract T cell responses in HIV-infected women on highly active antiretroviral therapy.  

PubMed

Initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for HIV-infected individuals is associated with control of viremia, improved CD4 counts, and declining systemic HIV-specific immune responses. While HAART effectively reduces plasma viremia, it remains unclear how effectively antiretroviral drugs reach mucosal surfaces, such as those of the genital tract. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of HAART on genital tract CD4 T cell reconstitution, HIV shedding, and HIV-specific T cell responses. Cervical cytobrush and blood specimens were obtained from 35 HIV-infected, HAART-naïve women and 27 women on HAART in order to investigate HIV Gag-specific T cell responses by intracellular gamma interferon (IFN-?) staining. Interleukin 1? (IL-1?), IL-6, and IL-8 concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). We show that for HIV-infected women, HAART is associated with significantly improved CD4 T cell counts both in blood and at the cervix. While HAART effectively suppressed both blood and cervical viremia, HIV-specific CD8 T cell responses in blood were lost, while those at the cervix were preserved. PMID:20686039

Mkhize, Nonhlanhla N; Gumbi, Pamela P; Liebenberg, Lenine J; Ren, Yuan; Smith, Peter; Denny, Lynette; Passmore, Jo-Ann S

2010-10-01

374

In infertile women, cells from Chlamydia trachomatis infected site release higher levels of interferon-gamma, interleukin-10 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha upon heat shock protein stimulation than fertile women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The magnitude of reproductive morbidity associated with sexually transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis infection is enormous. Association of antibodies to chlamydial heat shock proteins (cHSP) 60 and 10 with various disease sequelae such as infertility or ectopic pregnancy has been reported. Cell-mediated immunity is essential in resolution and in protection to Chlamydia as well as is involved in the immunopathogenesis of

Pragya Srivastava; Rajneesh Jha; Sylvette Bas; Sudha Salhan; Aruna Mittal

2008-01-01

375

Effect of recombinant interferon alpha 2 on clinical course of first episode genital herpes infection and subsequent recurrences.  

PubMed Central

Herpes genitalis is an infection associated with considerable morbidity. Acyclovir, though effective, must be taken daily to prevent recurrences. The effects of interferon on this infection were therefore investigated. In a randomised double blind study, 31 patients with first episodes of genital herpes infection were studied to a