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Sample records for genital chlamydia infection

  1. Screening for genital chlamydia infection

    PubMed Central

    Low, Nicola; Redmond, Shelagh; Uusküla, Anneli; van Bergen, Jan; Ward, Helen; Andersen, Berit; Götz, Hannelore

    2013-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To assess the effects and safety of chlamydia screening in pregnant and non-pregnant women and in men, compared with standard care, on chlamydia transmission and on complications of infection.

  2. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women.

    PubMed

    Johannisson, G; Löwhagen, G B; Lycke, E

    1980-12-01

    Specimens for isolation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Candida albicans, and Trichomonas vaginalis were collected from 585 women attending clinics for venereal diseases. The isolation rates in women attending clinics for venereal diseases. The isolation rates in women with and without genitourinary symptoms, the course of untreated chlamydial infection, the occurrence of chlamydial urethritis, and the response to antibiotic treatment were investigated. A 30% incidence of chlamydial amd gonococcal infection was observed. In most cases the gonococcal infection affected both the cervix and the urethra, whereas the chlamydial infection was restricted to either the cervix or the urethra. Sampling of secretions from the urethra revealed chlamydial infections (15%) that otherwise would have remained undetected. In untreated cases chlamydiae persisted for at least 6 weeks. Bacteriologically, chlamydial infections responded equally well to doxycycline, erythromycin, and a combination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole. however, symptoms persisted in 34% of the women. PMID:6777719

  3. The Relationship between Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Infection and Spontaneous Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Amjad; Khodabandehloo, Mazaher; Ramazanzadeh, Rashid; Farhadifar, Fariba; Roshani, Daem; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Farhangi, Niloofar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chlamydia trachomatis is the etiology of most of sexually transmitted diseases. Colonization of C. trachomatis in the genital tract during early gestation has been associated with preterm birth, and preterm premature rupture of the membranes. The role of C. trachomatis on spontaneous abortion has not yet been proved completely. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of C. trachomatis infection among pregnant women and its association with spontaneous abortion. Methods: This case-control study was conducted from August 2012 until January 2013. Totally, 218 women were included; 109 women with spontaneous abortion with gestation age between 10–20 weeks (cases), and 109 women with normal pregnancy with gestation age between 20–30 weeks (controls) in Sanandaj, Iran. DNA was extracted from endocervical swabs and a PCR test was conducted for detection of C. trachomatis infection in women using specific primers. Independent T-test and Chi-square were used for comparison of quantitative and qualitative variables, respectively, and p<0.05 was considered significant. Results: The total prevalence of C. trachomatis infection was 38(17.43%) in endocervical swabs of women. However, the number of cases with C. trachomatis infections was 25 out of 109(22.9%) in the case group and 13 out of 109(11.9%) in control group, respectively. Association between chlamydia infection and spontaneous abortion was statistically significant (OR=2.198, CI 95%: 1.058–4.56). Conclusion: Our study showed that C. trachomatis infection was associated with spontaneous abortion. Thus, screening and treatment of pregnant women may prevent this adverse pregnancy outcome. PMID:27141466

  4. The immune response against Chlamydia suis genital tract infection partially protects against re-infection.

    PubMed

    De Clercq, Evelien; Devriendt, Bert; Yin, Lizi; Chiers, Koen; Cox, Eric; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to reveal the characteristic features of genital Chlamydia suis infection and re-infection in female pigs by studying the immune response, pathological changes, replication of chlamydial bacteria in the genital tract and excretion of viable bacteria. Pigs were intravaginally infected and re-infected with C. suis strain S45, the type strain of this species. We demonstrated that S45 is pathogenic for the female urogenital tract. Chlamydia replication occurred throughout the urogenital tract, causing inflammation and pathology. Furthermore, genital infection elicited both cellular and humoral immune responses. Compared to the primo-infection of pigs with C. suis, re-infection was characterized by less severe macroscopic lesions and less chlamydial elementary bodies and inclusions in the urogenital tract. This indicates the development of a certain level of protection following the initial infection. Protective immunity against re-infection coincided with higher Chlamydia-specific IgG and IgA antibody titers in sera and vaginal secretions, higher proliferative responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), higher percentages of blood B lymphocytes, monocytes and CD8⁺ T cells and upregulated production of IFN-γ and IL-10 by PBMC. PMID:25252649

  5. Female Reproductive Hormones and Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Genital Chlamydia Infection in Tubal Factor Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Nsonwu-Anyanwu, Augusta Chinyere; Charles-Davies, Mabel Ayebantoyo; Taiwo, Victor Olusegun; Li, Bin; Oni, Anthony Alabar; Bello, Folashade Adenike

    2015-01-01

    Background Genital Chlamydia infection (GCI) and the associated pathologies have been implicated in tubal infertility. Though the actual pathologic mechanisms are still uncertain, oxidative stress and other factors have been implicated. The purpose of the study was to determine the possible contribution of female reproductive hormones and biomarkers of oxidative stress in genital Chlamydial infection to tubal occlusion. Methods This prospective case control study was carried out by recruiting 150 age matched women grouped into infertile Chlamydia positive women (n = 50), fertile Chlamydia positive women (n = 50) and fertile Chlamydia negative women as controls (n = 50). High vaginal swabs and endocervical swabs were collected for screening Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Treponema pallidum, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. Sera were collected for estimation of Chlamydia trachomatis antibody, female reproductive hormones [Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Oestradiol (E2), Progesterone (P4), Prolactin (PRL)] and biomarkers of oxidative stress [Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) and 8-hydroxyl-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)] by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Data were analyzed using chi square, analysis of variance and LSD Post hoc to determine mean differences at p = 0.05. Results Among women with GCI, higher levels of LH and 8-OHdG were observed in infertile Chlamydia positive women compared to fertile Chlamydia positive women (p < 0.05). Higher levels of LH and 8-OHdG and lower TAC levels were observed in infertile Chlamydia positive women compared to fertile Chlamydia negative controls (p < 0.05). Conclusion Mechanisms including oxidative DNA damage and reduced antioxidant capacity may be involved in the pathology of Chlamydia induced tubal damage. PMID:25927024

  6. Animal Models for Studying Female Genital Tract Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Kalmar, Isabelle; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen. It is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the world, with more than 100 million new cases of genital tract infections with C. trachomatis occurring each year. Animal models are indispensable for the study of C. trachomatis infections and the development and evaluation of candidate vaccines. In this paper, the most commonly used animal models to study female genital tract infections with C. trachomatis will be reviewed, namely, the mouse, guinea pig, and nonhuman primate models. Additionally, we will focus on the more recently developed pig model. PMID:23836817

  7. Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract infection of antibody-deficient gene knockout mice.

    PubMed Central

    Su, H; Feilzer, K; Caldwell, H D; Morrison, R P

    1997-01-01

    The importance of antibody-mediated immunity in primary and secondary Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract infections was examined by using a definitive model of B-cell deficiency, the microMT/microMT gene knockout mouse. Vaginally infected B-cell-deficient microMT/microMT mice developed a self-limiting primary infection that was indistinguishable from infection of control C57BL/6 mice. Sera and vaginal secretions from infected mice were analyzed for anti-Chlamydia antibodies. C57BL/6 mice produced high-titered serum anti-Chlamydia immunoglobulin G2a (IgG2a), IgG2b, and IgA antibodies, and vaginal washes contained predominately anti-Chlamydia IgA. Serum and vaginal washes from infected B-cell-deficient mice were negative for anti-Chlamydia antibody. T-cell proliferation and delayed-type hypersensitivity assays were used as measures of Chlamydia-specific cell-mediated immunity and were found to be comparable for C57BL/6 and B-cell-deficient mice. Seventy days following primary infection, mice were rechallenged to assess acquired immunity. B-cell-deficient mice which lack anti-Chlamydia antibodies were more susceptible to reinfection than immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice. However, acquired immune resistance was evident in both strains of mice and characterized by decreased shedding of chlamydiae and an infection of shorter duration. Thus, this study demonstrates that cell-mediated immune responses alone were capable of resolving chlamydial infection; however, in the absence of specific antibody, mice were more susceptible to reinfection. Therefore, these data suggest that both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses were important mediators of immune protection in this model, though cell-mediated immune responses appear to play a more dominant role. PMID:9169723

  8. Chlamydia trachomatis in women attending a gynaecological outpatient clinic with lower genital tract infection.

    PubMed

    Svensson, L; Weström, L; Mårdh, P A

    1981-08-01

    In a study of 3794 consecutive women attending a gynaecological outpatient clinic with symptoms of lower genital tract infection (LGTI) 350 (9.2%) harboured Chlamydia trachomatis and 83 (2.2%) Neisseria gonorrhoeae. One hundred and ninety-five patients who were later found to have acute salpingitis and 109 other women in whom the chlamydial cultures were spoiled were excluded from the series. Of the remaining 3490 women, 281 were infected with C trachomatis, 42 with N gonorrhoeae, and 17 with both. Of the 3150 women who were infected with neither organism, 146 were randomly selected as controls. The chlamydia-positive patients were younger (P less than 0.001), did not complain of pelvic discomfort or pain (P less than 0.01), and used oral contraceptives (P less than 0.001) more frequently than did the controls; intrauterine devices were used more often (P less than 0.01) by the controls. Increased vaginal discharge was reported significantly more often in chlamydia-positive patients than in the controls (P less than 0.05). Of 266 women harbouring C trachomatis the organism was still present in 22 (8.3%) when they were followed up from two to more than eight weeks after finishing treatment with doxycycline. Of 91 male consorts of chlamydia-positive women, 53 (58.2%) were infected with C trachomatis. PMID:6791761

  9. Chlamydia trachomatis in women attending a gynaecological outpatient clinic with lower genital tract infection.

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, L; Weström, L; Mårdh, P A

    1981-01-01

    In a study of 3794 consecutive women attending a gynaecological outpatient clinic with symptoms of lower genital tract infection (LGTI) 350 (9.2%) harboured Chlamydia trachomatis and 83 (2.2%) Neisseria gonorrhoeae. One hundred and ninety-five patients who were later found to have acute salpingitis and 109 other women in whom the chlamydial cultures were spoiled were excluded from the series. Of the remaining 3490 women, 281 were infected with C trachomatis, 42 with N gonorrhoeae, and 17 with both. Of the 3150 women who were infected with neither organism, 146 were randomly selected as controls. The chlamydia-positive patients were younger (P less than 0.001), did not complain of pelvic discomfort or pain (P less than 0.01), and used oral contraceptives (P less than 0.001) more frequently than did the controls; intrauterine devices were used more often (P less than 0.01) by the controls. Increased vaginal discharge was reported significantly more often in chlamydia-positive patients than in the controls (P less than 0.05). Of 266 women harbouring C trachomatis the organism was still present in 22 (8.3%) when they were followed up from two to more than eight weeks after finishing treatment with doxycycline. Of 91 male consorts of chlamydia-positive women, 53 (58.2%) were infected with C trachomatis. PMID:6791761

  10. Chemokine Expression Patterns Differ within Anatomically Distinct Regions of the Genital Tract during Chlamydia trachomatis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Maxion, Heather K.; Kelly, Kathleen A.

    2002-01-01

    Untreated infections with Chlamydia trachomatis commonly result in ascending infection to fallopian tubes and subsequent immune-mediated tubal pathology in females. The proposed immune-mediated injury may be associated with the increased recruitment of CD4 cells to the upper genital tract (GT) (oviducts) in comparison to the lower GT (cervix) during infection, as shown in animal models. To understand the mechanisms responsible for this biased recruitment of CD4 cells within the GT, we characterized chemokine expression patterns in the upper and lower GTs in mice during infection with the murine pneumonitis biovar of Chlamydia trachomatis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of supernatants from GT homogenates revealed that the levels of the Th1-associated chemokines CXCL9 (monokine induced by gamma interferon), CXCL10 (interferon-inducible protein 10), and CCL5 (RANTES) were significantly higher in the upper GT than in the lower GT after infection, while the CCL3 (macrophage inflammatory protein 1α) level was not increased. In contrast, the level of chemokine CCL11 (eotaxin) was significantly elevated in the lower GT later in the course of infection. Increased levels of mRNA confirmed the selective differences in chemokine expression within the upper and lower GTs. The increased levels of Th1-inducible chemokines in the upper GT were not due to differences in the magnitude of infection or progesterone pretreatment. These data demonstrate that the upper and lower regions of the GT respond differently to Chlamydia infection. PMID:11854242

  11. Human Female Genital Tract Infection by the Obligate Intracellular Bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis Elicits Robust Type 2 Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Vicetti Miguel, Rodolfo D.; Harvey, Stephen A. K.; LaFramboise, William A.; Reighard, Seth D.; Matthews, Dean B.; Cherpes, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    While Chlamydia trachomatis infections are frequently asymptomatic, mechanisms that regulate host response to this intracellular Gram-negative bacterium remain undefined. This investigation thus used peripheral blood mononuclear cells and endometrial tissue from women with or without Chlamydia genital tract infection to better define this response. Initial genome-wide microarray analysis revealed highly elevated expression of matrix metalloproteinase 10 and other molecules characteristic of Type 2 immunity (e.g., fibrosis and wound repair) in Chlamydia-infected tissue. This result was corroborated in flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry studies that showed extant upper genital tract Chlamydia infection was associated with increased co-expression of CD200 receptor and CD206 (markers of alternative macrophage activation) by endometrial macrophages as well as increased expression of GATA-3 (the transcription factor regulating TH2 differentiation) by endometrial CD4+ T cells. Also among women with genital tract Chlamydia infection, peripheral CD3+ CD4+ and CD3+ CD4- cells that proliferated in response to ex vivo stimulation with inactivated chlamydial antigen secreted significantly more interleukin (IL)-4 than tumor necrosis factor, interferon-γ, or IL-17; findings that repeated in T cells isolated from these same women 1 and 4 months after infection had been eradicated. Our results thus newly reveal that genital infection by an obligate intracellular bacterium induces polarization towards Type 2 immunity, including Chlamydia-specific TH2 development. Based on these findings, we now speculate that Type 2 immunity was selected by evolution as the host response to C. trachomatis in the human female genital tract to control infection and minimize immunopathological damage to vital reproductive structures. PMID:23555586

  12. Human female genital tract infection by the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis elicits robust Type 2 immunity.

    PubMed

    Vicetti Miguel, Rodolfo D; Harvey, Stephen A K; LaFramboise, William A; Reighard, Seth D; Matthews, Dean B; Cherpes, Thomas L

    2013-01-01

    While Chlamydia trachomatis infections are frequently asymptomatic, mechanisms that regulate host response to this intracellular Gram-negative bacterium remain undefined. This investigation thus used peripheral blood mononuclear cells and endometrial tissue from women with or without Chlamydia genital tract infection to better define this response. Initial genome-wide microarray analysis revealed highly elevated expression of matrix metalloproteinase 10 and other molecules characteristic of Type 2 immunity (e.g., fibrosis and wound repair) in Chlamydia-infected tissue. This result was corroborated in flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry studies that showed extant upper genital tract Chlamydia infection was associated with increased co-expression of CD200 receptor and CD206 (markers of alternative macrophage activation) by endometrial macrophages as well as increased expression of GATA-3 (the transcription factor regulating TH2 differentiation) by endometrial CD4(+) T cells. Also among women with genital tract Chlamydia infection, peripheral CD3(+) CD4(+) and CD3(+) CD4(-) cells that proliferated in response to ex vivo stimulation with inactivated chlamydial antigen secreted significantly more interleukin (IL)-4 than tumor necrosis factor, interferon-γ, or IL-17; findings that repeated in T cells isolated from these same women 1 and 4 months after infection had been eradicated. Our results thus newly reveal that genital infection by an obligate intracellular bacterium induces polarization towards Type 2 immunity, including Chlamydia-specific TH2 development. Based on these findings, we now speculate that Type 2 immunity was selected by evolution as the host response to C. trachomatis in the human female genital tract to control infection and minimize immunopathological damage to vital reproductive structures. PMID:23555586

  13. Influence of the tryptophan-indole-IFNγ axis on human genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection: role of vaginal co-infections

    PubMed Central

    Aiyar, Ashok; Quayle, Alison J.; Buckner, Lyndsey R.; Sherchand, Shardulendra P.; Chang, Theresa L.; Zea, Arnold H.; Martin, David H.; Belland, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The natural history of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections can vary widely; infections can spontaneously resolve but can also last from months to years, potentially progressing to cause significant pathology. The host and bacterial factors underlying this wide variation are not completely understood, but emphasize the bacterium's capacity to evade/adapt to the genital immune response, and/or exploit local environmental conditions to survive this immune response. IFNγ is considered to be a primary host protective cytokine against endocervical C. trachomatis infections. IFNγ acts by inducing the host enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxgenase, which catabolizes tryptophan, thereby depriving the bacterium of this essential amino acid. In vitro studies have revealed that tryptophan deprivation causes Chlamydia to enter a viable but non-infectious growth pattern that is termed a persistent growth form, characterized by a unique morphology and gene expression pattern. Provision of tryptophan can reactivate the bacterium to the normal developmental cycle. There is a significant difference in the capacity of ocular and genital C. trachomatis serovars to counter tryptophan deprivation. The latter uniquely encode a functional tryptophan synthase to synthesize tryptophan via indole salvage, should indole be available in the infection microenvironment. In vitro studies have confirmed the capacity of indole to mitigate the effects of IFNγ; it has been suggested that a perturbed vaginal microbiome may provide a source of indole in vivo. Consistent with this hypothesis, the microbiome associated with bacterial vaginosis includes species that encode a tryptophanase to produce indole. In this review, we discuss the natural history of genital chlamydial infections, morphological and molecular changes imposed by IFNγ on Chlamydia, and finally, the microenvironmental conditions associated with vaginal co-infections that can ameliorate the effects of IFNγ on C. trachomatis. PMID:24918090

  14. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis: An update

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Meenakshi; Sood, Seema; Mukherjee, Anjan; Muralidhar, Sumathi; Bala, Manju

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of curable bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide. It manifests primarily as urethritis in males and endocervicitis in females. Untreated chlamydial infection in man can cause epididymitis and proctitis. Though most women with Chlamydia infection are asymptomatic or have minimal symptoms, some develop salpingitis, endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy and tubal factor infertility. It is associated with an increased risk for the transmission or acquisition of HIV and is also attributed to be a risk factor for the development of cervical carcinoma. Early diagnosis and treatment of infected individuals is required to prevent the spread of the disease and severe sequelae. Traditionally, tissue culture was considered the gold standard for the diagnosis. However, with the availability of newer diagnostic techniques particularly molecular methods which are not only highly sensitive and specific but are cost-effective also, the diagnosis has became fast and easy. The purpose of this review is to study the various aspects of genital C. trachomatis infection. Also the advances related to the clinical picture, various diagnostic modalities, prevention, treatment, drug resistance and control measures will be dealt with. PMID:24135174

  15. A review of the human vs. porcine female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of using minipigs as a model of human genital Chlamydia infection.

    PubMed

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Jungersen, Gregers; Agerholm, Jørgen S

    2015-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases constitute major health issues and their prevention and treatment continue to challenge the health care systems worldwide. Animal models are essential for a deeper understanding of the diseases and the development of safe and protective vaccines. Currently a good predictive non-rodent model is needed for the study of genital chlamydia in women. The pig has become an increasingly popular model for human diseases due to its close similarities to humans. The aim of this review is to compare the porcine and human female genital tract and associated immune system in the perspective of genital Chlamydia infection. The comparison of women and sows has shown that despite some gross anatomical differences, the structures and proportion of layers undergoing cyclic alterations are very similar. Reproductive hormonal cycles are closely related, only showing a slight difference in cycle length and source of luteolysing hormone. The epithelium and functional layers of the endometrium show similar cyclic changes. The immune system in pigs is very similar to that of humans, even though pigs have a higher percentage of CD4(+)/CD8(+) double positive T cells. The genital immune system is also very similar in terms of the cyclic fluctuations in the mucosal antibody levels, but differs slightly regarding immune cell infiltration in the genital mucosa - predominantly due to the influx of neutrophils in the porcine endometrium during estrus. The vaginal flora in Göttingen Minipigs is not dominated by lactobacilli as in humans. The vaginal pH is around 7 in Göttingen Minipigs, compared to the more acidic vaginal pH around 3.5-5 in women. This review reveals important similarities between the human and porcine female reproductive tracts and proposes the pig as an advantageous supplementary model of human genital Chlamydia infection. PMID:26411309

  16. Immunization against chlamydial genital infection in guinea pigs with UV-inactivated and viable chlamydiae administered by different routes

    SciTech Connect

    Rank, R.G.; Batteiger, B.E.; Soderberg, L.S. )

    1990-08-01

    Female guinea pigs were immunized with viable or UV light-inactivated chlamydiae, belonging to the species Chlamydia psittaci, by intravenous, subcutaneous, oral, or ocular routes. All animals were then inoculated vaginally with viable chlamydiae to determine the extent of protection against challenge infection induced by the various regimens. The course of genital infection was significantly reduced in intensity in all groups of animals except the unimmunized controls and those animals immunized orally with inactivated antigen. Guinea pigs immunized with viable antigen were more likely to develop resistance to challenge infection and, in general, had a significantly greater degree of protection than animals immunized with inactivated antigen. No one route seemed superior in producing a protective response. Animals in all groups demonstrating protection developed serum and secretion immunoglobulin G antibody responses to chlamydiae. Lymphocyte proliferative reactions to chlamydial antigen were variable among groups. Immunoblot analysis of serum and secretions indicated a wide range of antibody specificities, but most protected animals produced antibodies to the major outer membrane protein, lipopolysaccharide, and the 61-kilodalton protein. No definitive associations could be made between the increased ability of immunization with viable organisms to produce resistance to challenge infection and a particular immune parameter. These data indicate that viable chlamydiae given by various routes are able to induce a strong immune response which can provide resistance against reinfection in some cases or at least reduce the degree of infection to a greater degree than inactivated antigen. However, complete resistance to genital tract infection may be difficult to obtain and alternate immunizations strategies may have to be developed.

  17. Identification of Antigen-Specific Antibody Responses Associated with Upper Genital Tract Pathology in Mice Infected with Chlamydia muridarum

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Hao; Gong, Siqi; Hou, Shuping; Zou, Quanming

    2012-01-01

    Urogenital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in some women can lead to upper genital tract pathologies, such as hydrosalpinx, potentially affecting fertility. In the current study, 27 of 40 mice intravaginally infected with Chlamydia muridarum developed visible hydrosalpinges in the oviduct while the remaining 13 did not, although all infected mice displayed similar infection time courses. Antisera from the 40 mice recognized 130 out of 257 C. muridarum proteins as antigens and 17 as immunodominant antigens. Importantly, the 27 mice with hydrosalpinges preferentially recognized two C. muridarum proteins (TC0582 and TC0912, designated pathology-associated antigens) while the 13 mice with no hydrosalpinx preferentially recognized 10 proteins (TC0047, TC0117, TC0190, TC0197, TC0257, TC0279, TC0326, TC0630, TC0689, and TC0816, designated nonpathology antigens). The preferential recognition was validated by absorption and independently confirmed in Western blots. The C. trachomatis homolog of TC0912 is encoded by a highly polymorphic gene that is associated with ocular pathogenesis. A fragment of TC0912 was found to improve the differentiation of hydrosalpinx from nonhydrosalpinx mice. TC0582 is a highly conserved ATP synthase, and it may contribute to chlamydial pathogenesis via mechanisms similar to those hypothesized for the highly conserved HSP60. Thus, we have identified chlamydial antigens and epitopes that are associated with either susceptibility or resistance to upper genital tract pathology, which will help us to further understand chlamydial pathogenesis and to develop anti-Chlamydia subunit vaccines. PMID:22158739

  18. The Role of the Immune Response in Chlamydia trachomatis Infection of the Male Genital Tract: A Double-Edged Sword

    PubMed Central

    Redgrove, Kate A.; McLaughlin, Eileen A.

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infection in the world, with more than 100 million cases reported annually. While there have been extensive studies into the adverse effects that CT infection has on the female genital tract, and on the subsequent ability of these women to conceive, studies into the consequences on male fertility have been limited and controversial. This is in part due to the asymptomatic nature of the infection, where it is estimated that 50% of men with Chlamydia fail to show any symptoms. It is accepted, however, that acute and/or persistent CT infection is the causative agent for conditions such as urethritis, epididymitis, epididymo-orchitis, and potentially prostatitis. As with most infections, the immune system plays a fundamental role in the body’s attempts to eradicate the infection. The first and most important immune response to Chlamydia infection is a local one, whereby immune cells such as leukocytes are recruited to the site of infections, and subsequently secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines such as interferon gamma. Immune cells also work to initiate and potentiate chronic inflammation through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the release of molecules with degradative properties including defensins, elastase, collagenase, cathespins, and lysozyme. This long-term inflammation can lead to cell proliferation (a possible precursor to cancer), tissue remodeling, and scarring, as well as being linked to the onset of autoimmune responses in genetically disposed individuals. This review will focus on the ability of the immune system to recognize and clear acute and persistent chlamydial infections in the male genital tract, and on the paradoxical damage that chronic inflammation resulting from the infection can cause on the reproductive health of the individual. PMID:25386180

  19. Intramuscular Priming and Intranasal Boosting Induce Strong Genital Immunity Through Secretory IgA in Minipigs Infected with Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Bøje, Sarah; Erneholm, Karin; Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Jungersen, Gregers; Andersen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    International efforts in developing a vaccine against Chlamydia trachomatis have highlighted the need for novel immunization strategies for the induction of genital immunity. In this study, we evaluated an intramuscular (IM) prime/intranasal boost vaccination strategy in a Göttingen Minipig model with a reproductive system very similar to humans. The vaccine was composed of C. trachomatis subunit antigens formulated in the Th1/Th17 promoting CAF01 adjuvant. IM priming immunizations with CAF01 induced a significant cell-mediated interferon gamma and interleukin 17A response and a significant systemic high-titered neutralizing IgG response. Following genital challenge, intranasally boosted groups mounted an accelerated, highly significant genital IgA response that correlated with enhanced bacterial clearance on day 3 post infection. By detecting antigen-specific secretory component (SC), we showed that the genital IgA was locally produced in the genital mucosa. The highly significant inverse correlation between the vaginal IgA SC response and the chlamydial load suggests that IgA in the minipig model is involved in protection against C. trachomatis. This is important both for our understanding of protective immunity and future vaccination strategies against C. trachomatis and genital pathogens in general. PMID:26734002

  20. Intramuscular Priming and Intranasal Boosting Induce Strong Genital Immunity Through Secretory IgA in Minipigs Infected with Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Bøje, Sarah; Erneholm, Karin; Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Jungersen, Gregers; Andersen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    International efforts in developing a vaccine against Chlamydia trachomatis have highlighted the need for novel immunization strategies for the induction of genital immunity. In this study, we evaluated an intramuscular (IM) prime/intranasal boost vaccination strategy in a Göttingen Minipig model with a reproductive system very similar to humans. The vaccine was composed of C. trachomatis subunit antigens formulated in the Th1/Th17 promoting CAF01 adjuvant. IM priming immunizations with CAF01 induced a significant cell-mediated interferon gamma and interleukin 17A response and a significant systemic high-titered neutralizing IgG response. Following genital challenge, intranasally boosted groups mounted an accelerated, highly significant genital IgA response that correlated with enhanced bacterial clearance on day 3 post infection. By detecting antigen-specific secretory component (SC), we showed that the genital IgA was locally produced in the genital mucosa. The highly significant inverse correlation between the vaginal IgA SC response and the chlamydial load suggests that IgA in the minipig model is involved in protection against C. trachomatis. This is important both for our understanding of protective immunity and future vaccination strategies against C. trachomatis and genital pathogens in general. PMID:26734002

  1. Chlamydia infections in women

    MedlinePlus

    Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted infection (STI). This means chlamydia is passed from one person to another during ... Chlamydia is caused by the bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis. Both males and females may have chlamydia without having ...

  2. Spontaneous resolution of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women and protection from reinfection.

    PubMed

    Geisler, William M; Lensing, Shelly Y; Press, Christen G; Hook, Edward W

    2013-06-15

    The natural history of chlamydia is variable and may include persisting asymptomatic infection, complications, or spontaneous resolution before treatment. Reinfection is common. We evaluated whether spontaneous resolution was associated with decreased reinfection in women returning for treatment of a positive chlamydia screening test. At enrollment, participants were tested for chlamydia, treated with azithromycin, and scheduled for a 6-month follow-up visit for repeat testing. Two hundred participants returned 1 to 12 months after treatment. Spontaneous resolution at enrollment was demonstrated in 44 (22.0%). Reinfection at follow-up occurred in 33 (16.5%), being more frequent in those with persisting infection at enrollment versus spontaneous resolution (31 of 156 [19.9%] vs 2 of 44 [4.5%]; P = .016). Adjusting for age, the odds of reinfection was 4 times higher for participants with persisting infection at enrollment (odds ratio 4.0, 95% confidence interval, 1.1-25.6; P = .034). Chlamydia treatment may attenuate protective immunity in some patients. PMID:23470847

  3. Incidence and persistence of carcinogenic genital human papillomavirus infections in young women with or without Chlamydia trachomatis co-infection

    PubMed Central

    Vriend, Henrike J; Bogaards, Johannes A; van Bergen, Jan E A M; Brink, Antoinette A T P; van den Broek, Ingrid V F; Hoebe, Christian J P A; King, Audrey J; van der Sande, Marianne A B; Wolffs, Petra F G; de Melker, Hester E

    2015-01-01

    We assessed whether infection with chlamydia increases the incidence of carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and if HPV persistence is affected by chlamydia co-infection. For 1982 women (16–29 years-old) participating in two consecutive rounds of a chlamydia screening implementation trial, swabs were polymerase chain reaction tested to detect chlamydia and 14 carcinogenic HPV genotypes. HPV type-specific incidence and persistence rates were stratified for chlamydia positivity at follow-up. Associations were assessed by multilevel logistic regression analyses with correction for sexual risk factors. HPV type-specific incidence ranged from 1.4% to 8.9% and persistence from 22.7% to 59.4% after a median follow-up of 11 months (interquartile range: 11–12). Differences in 1-year HPV persistence rates between chlamydia -infected and noninfected women were less distinct than differences in HPV incidence rates (pooled adjusted odds ratios of 1.17 [95% CI: 0.69–1.96] and 1.84 [95% CI: 1.36–2.47], respectively). The effect of chlamydia co-infection on HPV-infection risk did not significantly differ by HPV genotype. In conclusion, infection with chlamydia increases the risk of infection by carcinogenic HPV types and may enhance persistence of some HPV types. Although these findings could reflect residual confounding through unobserved risk factors, our results do give reason to explore more fully the association between chlamydia and HPV type-specific acquisition and persistence. PMID:26194784

  4. The potential protective role of the combination of IL-22 and TNF-α against genital tract Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiumin; Zhu, Danyang; Ye, Jiangbin; Li, Xingqun; Wang, Zhibin; Zhang, Lifang; Xu, Wen

    2015-05-01

    Th22 cells are a novel class of lymphocytes characterized by the secretion of both IL-22 and TNF-α. In summary, Th22 cells have little or no direct impact on other immune cells, but exert selective effects on epithelia. It is not known, however, whether Th22 cells play a role in genital mucosal immunity. Here, we demonstrate that IL-22 and TNF-α synergistically induce several immunomodulatory molecules, such as the antimicrobial peptide mBD-2 (murine β-defensin 2) and the antimicrobial chemokines CXCL-9, -10, and -11 in primary murine oviduct epithelial cells (MOECs). The induction of innate immunity is relevant in an in vitro infection model, in which MOECs stimulated with Th22 cell supernatants or recombinant IL-22 and TNF-α effectively inhibit the growth of Chlamydia trachomatis and maintain the survival of the epithelia compared with IL-22 or TNF-α alone. In summary, we demonstrate that the Th22 cell cytokines IL-22 and TNF-α play important roles in genital tract infection. The potential for Th22 cell cytokines to modulate innate immune mediators may lead to the development of new topical agents to treat and/or prevent immune-mediated sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). In summary, we demonstrate that IL-22 and TNF-α represent a potent, synergistic cytokine combination for inducing genital mucosal immunity. PMID:25734538

  5. Chlamydia Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted disease caused by bacteria. You can get chlamydia during oral, vaginal, or anal sex with an ... partner. Both men and women can get it. Chlamydia usually doesn't cause symptoms. If it does, ...

  6. Comparison of spiramycin and doxycycline for treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis genital infections.

    PubMed Central

    Dylewski, J; Clecner, B; Dubois, J; St-Pierre, C; Murray, G; Bouchard, C; Phillips, R

    1993-01-01

    We performed a single blind controlled multicenter study in which we compared the efficacy and safety of 100 mg of doxycycline versus those of 1 g (3 x 10(6) IU) of spiramycin given orally twice daily for 14 days in the treatment of culture-positive Chlamydia trachomatis genitourinary tract infections. A total of 367 patients were enrolled in the study, and 364 patients were evaluable for safety and 265 patients were evaluable for efficacy. The cure rate between treatment groups was not statistically significant, being 98% (125 of 128 patients) in the spiramycin group and 100% (133 of 133 patients) in the doxycycline group. Female patients who received spiramycin were more likely to report dysethesias that resolved after the completion of therapy. The results of the study show that spiramycin is an effective drug for the treatment of C. trachomatis infection and warrants further assessment over a shorter treatment period (7 days) and during pregnancy. PMID:8328789

  7. Transmission of Chlamydia and genital warts during sleepwalking.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Kailash

    2008-02-01

    A boy aged 15 years infected a girl of 13 years with Chlamydia and genital warts. The boy has been engaged in sexual activities for the last four years. There was no dispute that the boy had had sex with the girl. He was prosecuted but acquitted by the Court on the ground of 'defence of sleepwalking'. This is the first case where sexually transmitted infections like Chlamydia and genital warts have been transmitted sexually through sleepwalking. This case also raises the issues of underage sex and issues of confidentiality. PMID:18334071

  8. Evaluation and comparison of tests to diagnose Chlamydia trachomatis genital infections.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Robinson, D

    1997-11-01

    Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis results in intracytoplasmic inclusions and the generation of infectious elementary bodies (EBs). These can be detected by various procedures. Staining of epithelial cells with vital dyes was first used to detect inclusions, but is insensitive. Thus, Papanicolaou-stained cervical smears cannot be recommended. The advent of the ability to grow chlamydiae in cultured cells over 30 years ago had a major impact on chlamydial research and on detection. However, this procedure is probably <70% sensitive for cervical infection and less for urethral infection in men and is now practised infrequently following the advent of other, mostly less laborious and often equally, or more sensitive detection systems. Thus, staining a smear with a specific fluorescent monoclonal antibody to detect EBs is simple and the direct fluorescent antibody tests became a commercial proposition in the early to mid-1980s. Nevertheless, although highly sensitive and specific in competent hands, technical expertise is crucial and even the most experienced may be unable to read a large number of stained smears on slides quickly. In view of this, it is understandable that enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) gained popularity from the mid-1980s onwards, for they are not very labour intensive and their reading is neither subjective nor tedious. Unfortunately, these aspects outweighed the fact that the ELISAs lack sensitivity, some being very insensitive. The situation has been rescued, however, by the advent in the early 1990s of methods that amplify chlamydial DNA, making it easily detectable by relatively simple procedures. The polymerase chain reaction is such a method and has high specificity and sensitivity, although commercial development has so far not met the high standard expected of it in terms of sensitivity. The ligase chain reaction does not invoke such criticism, and high values for both sensitivity and specificity may be expected, even on urine samples. This augers well for diagnosing an infected individual patient and for effective screening programmes. Antibody tests have no place in a screening programme and are of debatable value in diagnosis. PMID:9433967

  9. Report: Clinical curative effect of traditional Chinese medicine combined with doxycycline in the treatment of genital Chlamydia trachomatis and Urea plasma urealyticum infections.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Yueqin; Han, Zhaodong; Han, Xiaotong

    2015-07-01

    This paper aims to study clinical curative effect of traditional Chinese medicine combined with doxycycline in treating genital Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) and Urea plasma urealyticum (Uu) infections. The observed subjects in this paper were 60 patients who had been randomly divided into two groups, among which the control group was treated with doxycycline and the treatment group with Chinese medicine combined with doxycycline. Results showed that the curative effect of the treatment group was much better than that of the control. So it is proved that Chinese medicine combined with doxycycline is worth promoting because it is a convenient and safe way, which does not easily produce drug-resistant strain. PMID:26431666

  10. Pathogenesis of Genital Tract Disease due to Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Darville, Toni; Hiltke, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Although the pathologic consequences of C. trachomatis genital infection are well-established, the mechanism(s) that result in chlamydia-induced tissue damage are not fully understood. We have reviewed in vitro, animal, and human data related to the pathogenesis of chlamydial disease in an effort to better understand how reproductive sequelae result from C. trachomatis infection. Abundant in vitro data suggest the inflammatory response to chlamydiae is initiated and sustained by actively infected non-immune host epithelial cells. The mouse model indicates a critical role for chlamydia-activation of the innate immune receptor, toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), and subsequent inflammatory cell influx and activation which contributes to the development of chronic genital tract tissue damage. Data from recent vaccine studies in the murine model and from human immunoepidemiologic studies support a role for chlamydia-specific CD4 Th1-IFN-γ-producing cells in protection from infection and disease. However, limited evidence obtained using animal models of repeated infection indicates that while the adaptive T cell response is a key mechanism involved in controlling or eliminating infection, it may have a double-edged nature, and contribute to tissue damage. Important immunologic questions include whether anamnestic CD4 T cell responses drive disease rather than protect against disease, and the role of specific immune cells and inflammatory mediators in the induction of tissue damage with primary and repeated infections. Continued study of the complex molecular and cellular interactions between chlamydiae and their host, and large-scale prospective immunoepidemiologic and immunopathologic studies are needed to address gaps in our understanding of pathogenesis, which thwart development of optimally effective control programs including vaccine development. PMID:20524234

  11. Randomized, Double-Blind, Multicenter Safety and Efficacy Study of Rifalazil Compared with Azithromycin for Treatment of Uncomplicated Genital Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Women

    PubMed Central

    Geisler, William M.; Pascual, Maria Luz G.; Mathew, Judy; Koltun, William D.; Morgan, Franklin; Batteiger, Byron E.; Mayes, Annette; Tao, Sijia; Hurwitz, Selwyn J.; Sayada, Chalom

    2014-01-01

    A randomized, double-blind study comparing single-dose chlamydia therapies of oral rifalazil (25 mg) and azithromycin (1 g) was conducted in 82 women with uncomplicated genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection. The microbiologic cure rate of C. trachomatis with rifalazil (n = 33) was 84.8% at the visit on day 22 to 26 (test-of-cure visit), versus 92.1% with azithromycin (n = 38), and the number of treatment failures in each group was 5 and 3, respectively. The difference in cure rate was ?7.3%, with a lower limit of the 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of ?22.5, and thus, noninferiority was not established at the prespecified margin (lower limit of CI of ?15%). The overall treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE) and treatment-related TEAE rates were lower in the rifalazil group (68% and 55%) than in the azithromycin group (71% and 62%), respectively. Subjects classified as treatment failures at day 22 to 26 had a lower mean plasma concentration of rifalazil at the visit on day 8 to 12 than those classified as treatment cures, but this difference was not significant; however, the levels were similar for both groups at the visit on day 22 to 26. A single 25-mg dose of rifalazil was well tolerated and eradicated C. trachomatis in most of these women with uncomplicated genital C. trachomatis infection. (The study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov under registration no. NCT01631201). PMID:24798277

  12. Protection Against Chlamydia trachomatis Infection and Upper Genital Tract Pathological Changes by Vaccine-Promoted Neutralizing Antibodies Directed to the VD4 of the Major Outer Membrane Protein.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Anja W; Follmann, Frank; Erneholm, Karin; Rosenkrands, Ida; Andersen, Peter

    2015-09-15

    The VD4 region from the Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein contains important neutralizing B-cell epitopes of relevance for antibody-mediated protection against genital tract infection. We developed a multivalent vaccine construct based on VD4s and their surrounding constant segments from serovars D, E, and F. Adjuvanted with cationic liposomes, this construct promoted strong immune responses to serovar-specific epitopes, the conserved LNPTIAG epitope and neutralized serovars D, E, and F. Vaccinated mice were protected against challenge, with protection defined as reduced bacterial numbers in vagina and prevention of pathological changes in the upper genital tract. Adoptive transfer of serum and T-cell depletion experiments demonstrated a dominant role for antibodies and CD4(+) T cells in the protective immune response. Integrating a multivalent VD4 construct into the sequence of the major outer membrane protein resulted in a protective and broadly neutralizing vaccine. Our findings emphasize the important role of antibodies in protection against Chlamydia trachomatis. PMID:25748320

  13. Hepatitis B virus core antigen as a carrier for Chlamydia trachomatis MOMP multi-epitope peptide enhances protection against genital chlamydial infection

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Yirong; Lv, Yan; Feng, Juan; Zhu, Shanli; Xue, Xiangyang; Chen, Shao; Zhang, Lifang

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) is the leading cause of sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. There is no safe and effective vaccine to control the spread of Ct. In development of Ct vaccine, selection of appropriate candidate antigens and an effective delivery system may be the main challenges. Multi-epitope of major outer membrane protein (MOMPm) is the most suitable candidate for a Ct vaccine, while hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg) has unique advantages as vaccine delivery system. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity and protective immune response of a novel candidate vaccine in a murine model of chlamydial genital infection. This candidate vaccine comprises MOMPm peptide delivered with HBcAg. Our results of Ct-specific serum IgG and secretory IgA assay, cytokine assay, and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte assay revealed that immunogenicity of the candidate vaccine was much better than that of the corresponding synthetic MOMPm peptide. Furthermore, the protective effect of the candidate vaccine was also shown much better than that of the synthetic peptide by calculating the isolation of Chlamydia from vaginal swabs and histopathological analysis. Taken together, our results indicate that HBcAg carrying Ct MOMPm could be an effective immune prophylactic for chlamydial infection. PMID:26657117

  14. Hepatitis B virus core antigen as a carrier for Chlamydia trachomatis MOMP multi-epitope peptide enhances protection against genital chlamydial infection.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Pengfei; Du, Wangqi; Xiong, Yirong; Lv, Yan; Feng, Juan; Zhu, Shanli; Xue, Xiangyang; Chen, Shao; Zhang, Lifang

    2015-12-22

    Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) is the leading cause of sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. There is no safe and effective vaccine to control the spread of Ct. In development of Ct vaccine, selection of appropriate candidate antigens and an effective delivery system may be the main challenges. Multi-epitope of major outer membrane protein (MOMPm) is the most suitable candidate for a Ct vaccine, while hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg) has unique advantages as vaccine delivery system. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity and protective immune response of a novel candidate vaccine in a murine model of chlamydial genital infection. This candidate vaccine comprises MOMPm peptide delivered with HBcAg. Our results of Ct-specific serum IgG and secretory IgA assay, cytokine assay, and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte assay revealed that immunogenicity of the candidate vaccine was much better than that of the corresponding synthetic MOMPm peptide. Furthermore, the protective effect of the candidate vaccine was also shown much better than that of the synthetic peptide by calculating the isolation of Chlamydia from vaginal swabs and histopathological analysis. Taken together, our results indicate that HBcAg carrying Ct MOMPm could be an effective immune prophylactic for chlamydial infection. PMID:26657117

  15. Improved partner notification for genital chlamydia can be achieved by centralisation of the duty to a specially trained team.

    PubMed

    Osterlund, Anders

    2014-12-01

    Partner notification is mandatory for Chlamydia trachomatis infections in Sweden. A significant quality improvement of partner notification for genital chlamydia was achieved by increasing the skills and reducing the number of individuals conducting partner notifications. By centralisation of the partner notification to a specially trained team of nurses, an additional 12% of genital chlamydia cases were found. Routine partner notification achieved a score of 3.3 notified partners per index case, and shows how important this activity is for detection of asymptomatic chlamydia infections in the community. PMID:24616118

  16. Major outer membrane protein variants of Chlamydia trachomatis are associated with severe upper genital tract infections and histopathology in San Francisco.

    PubMed

    Dean, D; Oudens, E; Bolan, G; Padian, N; Schachter, J

    1995-10-01

    Cervical and endometrial samples from 33 women with lower genital tract infection (LGTI) or pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) were evaluated for Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein gene (omp1) polymorphism. Polymorphism was correlated with symptoms, clinical findings, and histopathology. F, E, I, D, H, K, and G genotypes were represented. Thirty-seven genotyped samples (66%) displayed omp1 mutations compared with prototype sequences. Significantly, 7 of 7 women with variant F infections had PID compared with 6 non-variant F infections in women with LGTI (P = .003). PID was defined by clinical findings or plasma cells on endometrial biopsy. Of interest, F variants were associated with histopathology. Eleven women (92%) with E genotypes were asymptomatic. Our data suggest that F variants are associated with symptomatic, severe endometrial disease, whereas E genotypes are associated with asymptomatic, milder infections. Detection of virulent genotypes may provide a prognostic indicator for serious sequelae. Larger studies are required to evaluate the molecular, immunologic, and epidemiologic basis for these findings. PMID:7561174

  17. Comparable Genital Tract Infection, Pathology, and Immunity in Rhesus Macaques Inoculated with Wild-Type or Plasmid-Deficient Chlamydia trachomatis Serovar D

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Yanyan; Frazer, Lauren C.; O'Connell, Catherine M.; Tarantal, Alice F.; Andrews, Charles W.; O'Connor, Shelby L.; Russell, Ali N.; Sullivan, Jeanne E.; Poston, Taylor B.; Vallejo, Abbe N.

    2015-01-01

    Rhesus macaques were studied to directly address the potential for plasmid-deficient Chlamydia trachomatis to serve as a live attenuated vaccine in the genital tract. Five repeated cervical inoculations of rhesus macaques with wild-type serovar D strain D/UW-3/Cx or a plasmid-deficient derivative of this strain, CTD153, resulted in infections with similar kinetics and induced comparable levels of protective immunity. After all animals received five challenges with D/UW-3/Cx, levels of inflammation observed grossly and histologically were similar between the groups. Animals in both groups developed evidence of oviduct dilatation; however, reduced oviduct dilatation was observed for “controllers,” i.e., animals without detectable chlamydial DNA in the fimbriae at weeks 5 and 12. Grouping animals into “ascenders” and “controllers” revealed that elevated early T cell responses were associated with protection, whereas higher antibody responses were associated with ascension. Protected animals shared common major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alleles. Overall, genetic differences of individual animals, rather than the presence or absence of the chlamydial plasmid in the primary infecting strain, appeared to play a role in determining the outcome of infection. PMID:26216426

  18. Comparable Genital Tract Infection, Pathology, and Immunity in Rhesus Macaques Inoculated with Wild-Type or Plasmid-Deficient Chlamydia trachomatis Serovar D.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yanyan; Frazer, Lauren C; O'Connell, Catherine M; Tarantal, Alice F; Andrews, Charles W; O'Connor, Shelby L; Russell, Ali N; Sullivan, Jeanne E; Poston, Taylor B; Vallejo, Abbe N; Darville, Toni

    2015-10-01

    Rhesus macaques were studied to directly address the potential for plasmid-deficient Chlamydia trachomatis to serve as a live attenuated vaccine in the genital tract. Five repeated cervical inoculations of rhesus macaques with wild-type serovar D strain D/UW-3/Cx or a plasmid-deficient derivative of this strain, CTD153, resulted in infections with similar kinetics and induced comparable levels of protective immunity. After all animals received five challenges with D/UW-3/Cx, levels of inflammation observed grossly and histologically were similar between the groups. Animals in both groups developed evidence of oviduct dilatation; however, reduced oviduct dilatation was observed for "controllers," i.e., animals without detectable chlamydial DNA in the fimbriae at weeks 5 and 12. Grouping animals into "ascenders" and "controllers" revealed that elevated early T cell responses were associated with protection, whereas higher antibody responses were associated with ascension. Protected animals shared common major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alleles. Overall, genetic differences of individual animals, rather than the presence or absence of the chlamydial plasmid in the primary infecting strain, appeared to play a role in determining the outcome of infection. PMID:26216426

  19. Evaluation of the Versant CT/GC DNA 1.0 Assay (kPCR) for the Detection of Extra-Genital Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae Infections

    PubMed Central

    Marangoni, Antonella; Foschi, Claudio; Nardini, Paola; Compri, Monica; Cevenini, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Screening for extra-genital Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections is a crucial component for sexually transmitted diseases management, even if at present days no commercial methods have been approved for use on pharyngeal and rectal specimens by the US FDA or have received the conformity CE marking. Here we report the analytical sensitivities of the Versant CT/GC 1.0 assay (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, Tarrytown, NY, USA) on rectal and pharyngeal swabs, and an evaluation about the suitability for this assay with two widely used swab collection devices (E-Swab and eNAT, Copan, Brescia, Italy). The limits of detection for rectal and pharyngeal specimens with the Versant assay were 10 copies/ml and 1.0 copies/ml, for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae, respectively. False positive results due to the presence of non-gonococcal Neisseria species were excluded when clinical rectal and pharyngeal samples containing organisms identified as N. meningitidis, N. sicca, N. flavescens and N. subflava were tested. Due to its sensitivity and specificity, the Versant assay represents a good choice for the diagnosis of chlamydial and/or gonococcal infections not only in genito-urinary samples, but also on rectal and pharyngeal swabs. PMID:25799263

  20. Chlamydia trachomatis and Genital Mycoplasmas: Pathogens with an Impact on Human Reproductive Health

    PubMed Central

    Ljubin-Sternak, Sunčanica; Meštrović, Tomislav

    2014-01-01

    The most prevalent, curable sexually important diseases are those caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) and genital mycoplasmas. An important characteristic of these infections is their ability to cause long-term sequels in upper genital tract, thus potentially affecting the reproductive health in both sexes. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), tubal factor infertility (TFI), and ectopic pregnancy (EP) are well documented complications of C. trachomatis infection in women. The role of genital mycoplasmas in development of PID, TFI, and EP requires further evaluation, but growing evidence supports a significant role for these in the pathogenesis of chorioamnionitis, premature membrane rupture, and preterm labor in pregnant woman. Both C. trachomatis and genital mycoplasmas can affect the quality of sperm and possibly influence the fertility of men. For the purpose of this paper, basic, epidemiologic, clinical, therapeutic, and public health issue of these infections were reviewed and discussed, focusing on their impact on human reproductive health. PMID:25614838

  1. Intranasal Vaccination with Chlamydia pneumoniae Induces Cross-Species Immunity against Genital Chlamydia muridarum Challenge in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Evani, Shankar Jaikishan; Zafiratos, Mark T.; Ramasubramanian, Anand K.; Arulanandam, Bernard P.; Murthy, Ashlesh K.

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the world and specifically in the United States, with the highest incidence in age-groups 14–19 years. In a subset of females, the C. trachomatis genital infection leads to serious pathological sequelae including pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility. Chlamydia pneumoniae, another member of the same genus, is a common cause of community acquired respiratory infection with significant number of children aged 5–14 yr displaying sero-conversion. Since these bacteriae share several antigenic determinants, we evaluated whether intranasal immunization with live C. pneumoniae (1×106 inclusion forming units; IFU) in 5 week old female C57BL/6 mice would induce cross-species protection against subsequent intravaginal challenge with Chlamydia muridarum (5×104 IFU), which causes a similar genital infection and pathology in mice as C. trachomatis in humans. Mice vaccinated intranasally with live C. pneumoniae, but not mock (PBS) immunized animals, displayed high levels of splenic cellular antigen-specific IFN-γ production and serum antibody response against C. muridarum and C. trachomatis. Mice vaccinated with C. pneumoniae displayed a significant reduction in the vaginal C. muridarum shedding as early as day 12 after secondary i.vag. challenge compared to PBS (mock) immunized mice. At day 19 after C. muridarum challenge, 100% of C. pneumoniae vaccinated mice had cleared the infection compared to none (0%) of the mock immunized mice, which cleared the infection by day 27. At day 80 after C. muridarum challenge, C. pneumoniae vaccinated mice displayed a significant reduction in the incidence (50%) and degree of hydrosalpinx compared to mock immunized animals (100%). These results suggest that respiratory C. pneumoniae infection induces accelerated chlamydial clearance and reduction of oviduct pathology following genital C. muridarum challenge, and may have important implications to the C. trachomatis-induced reproductive disease in humans. PMID:23741420

  2. Intranasal vaccination with Chlamydia pneumoniae induces cross-species immunity against genital Chlamydia muridarum challenge in mice.

    PubMed

    Manam, Srikanth; Chaganty, Bharat K R; Evani, Shankar Jaikishan; Zafiratos, Mark T; Ramasubramanian, Anand K; Arulanandam, Bernard P; Murthy, Ashlesh K

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the world and specifically in the United States, with the highest incidence in age-groups 14-19 years. In a subset of females, the C. trachomatis genital infection leads to serious pathological sequelae including pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility. Chlamydia pneumoniae, another member of the same genus, is a common cause of community acquired respiratory infection with significant number of children aged 5-14 yr displaying sero-conversion. Since these bacteriae share several antigenic determinants, we evaluated whether intranasal immunization with live C. pneumoniae (1×10(6) inclusion forming units; IFU) in 5 week old female C57BL/6 mice would induce cross-species protection against subsequent intravaginal challenge with Chlamydia muridarum (5×10(4) IFU), which causes a similar genital infection and pathology in mice as C. trachomatis in humans. Mice vaccinated intranasally with live C. pneumoniae, but not mock (PBS) immunized animals, displayed high levels of splenic cellular antigen-specific IFN-γ production and serum antibody response against C. muridarum and C. trachomatis. Mice vaccinated with C. pneumoniae displayed a significant reduction in the vaginal C. muridarum shedding as early as day 12 after secondary i.vag. challenge compared to PBS (mock) immunized mice. At day 19 after C. muridarum challenge, 100% of C. pneumoniae vaccinated mice had cleared the infection compared to none (0%) of the mock immunized mice, which cleared the infection by day 27. At day 80 after C. muridarum challenge, C. pneumoniae vaccinated mice displayed a significant reduction in the incidence (50%) and degree of hydrosalpinx compared to mock immunized animals (100%). These results suggest that respiratory C. pneumoniae infection induces accelerated chlamydial clearance and reduction of oviduct pathology following genital C. muridarum challenge, and may have important implications to the C. trachomatis-induced reproductive disease in humans. PMID:23741420

  3. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis: Understanding the Roles of Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Vaccine Research

    PubMed Central

    Vasilevsky, Sam; Greub, Gilbert; Nardelli-Haefliger, Denise

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted disease worldwide, and despite significant advances in chlamydial research, a prophylactic vaccine has yet to be developed. This Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium, which often causes asymptomatic infection, may cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancies, scarring of the fallopian tubes, miscarriage, and infertility when left untreated. In the genital tract, Chlamydia trachomatis infects primarily epithelial cells and requires Th1 immunity for optimal clearance. This review first focuses on the immune cells important in a chlamydial infection. Second, we summarize the research and challenges associated with developing a chlamydial vaccine that elicits a protective Th1-mediated immune response without inducing adverse immunopathologies. PMID:24696438

  4. A re-evaluation of the role of B cells in protective immunity to Chlamydia infection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin-Xi; McSorley, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the etiological agent of the most commonly reported bacterial sexual transmitted infection (STI) in North America and Europe. The control of Chlamydia infection is hindered by the asymptomatic nature of initial infection but the consequence of untreated infection seriously threatens the reproductive health of young women. Unfortunately, there is no licensed vaccine for Chlamydia vaccine, in part due to our incomplete understanding of the immune response to Chlamydia urogenital infection. It has been well established that T cell-mediated immunity plays a dominant role in protective immunity against Chlamydia and thus the importance of B cells is somewhat underappreciated. Here, we summarize recent progress on understanding the role of B cells during Chlamydia genital tract infections and discuss how B cells and humoral immunity make an effective contribution to host defense against important intracellular pathogens, including Chlamydia. PMID:25704502

  5. A re-evaluation of the role of B cells in protective immunity to Chlamydia infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin-Xi; McSorley, Stephen J

    2015-04-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the etiological agent of the most commonly reported bacterial sexual transmitted infection (STI) in North America and Europe. The control of Chlamydia infection is hindered by the asymptomatic nature of initial infection but the consequence of untreated infection seriously threatens the reproductive health of young women. Unfortunately, there is no licensed vaccine for Chlamydia vaccine, in part due to our incomplete understanding of the immune response to Chlamydia urogenital infection. It has been well established that T cell-mediated immunity plays a dominant role in protective immunity against Chlamydia and thus the importance of B cells is somewhat underappreciated. Here, we summarize recent progress on understanding the role of B cells during Chlamydia genital tract infections and discuss how B cells and humoral immunity make an effective contribution to host defense against important intracellular pathogens, including Chlamydia. PMID:25704502

  6. A multi-subunit Chlamydia vaccine inducing neutralizing antibodies and strong IFN-γ(+) CMI responses protects against a genital infection in minipigs.

    PubMed

    Bøje, Sarah; Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Erneholm, Karin; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Jungersen, Gregers; Andersen, Peter; Follmann, Frank

    2016-02-01

    Chlamydia is the most widespread sexually transmitted bacterial disease and a prophylactic vaccine is highly needed. Ideally, this vaccine is required to induce a combined response of Th1 cell-mediated immune (CMI) response in concert with neutralizing antibodies. Using a novel Göttingen minipig animal model, we evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of a multi-subunit vaccine formulated in the strong Th1-inducing adjuvant CAF01. We evaluated a mixture of two fusion proteins (Hirep1 and CTH93) designed to promote either neutralizing antibodies or cell-mediated immunity, respectively. Hirep1 is a novel immunogen based on the variant domain (VD) 4 region from major outer membrane protein (MOMP) serovar (Sv) D, SvE and SvF, and CTH93 is a fusion molecule of three antigens (CT043, CT414 and MOMP). Pigs were immunized twice intramuscularly with either Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01, UV-inactivated Chlamydia trachomatis SvD bacteria (UV-SvD/CAF01) or CAF01. The Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 vaccine induced a strong CMI response against the vaccine antigens and high titers of antibodies, particularly against the VD4 region of MOMP. Sera from Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 immunized pigs neutralized C. trachomatis SvD and SvF infectivity in vitro. Both Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 and UV-SvD/CAF01 vaccination protected pigs against a vaginal C. trachomatis SvD infection. In conclusion, the Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 vaccine proved highly immunogenic and equally protective as UV-SvD/CAF01 showing promise for the development of a subunit vaccine against Chlamydia. PMID:26268662

  7. A multi-subunit Chlamydia vaccine inducing neutralizing antibodies and strong IFN-γ+ CMI responses protects against a genital infection in minipigs

    PubMed Central

    Bøje, Sarah; Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Erneholm, Karin; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Jungersen, Gregers; Andersen, Peter; Follmann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia is the most widespread sexually transmitted bacterial disease and a prophylactic vaccine is highly needed. Ideally, this vaccine is required to induce a combined response of Th1 cell-mediated immune (CMI) response in concert with neutralizing antibodies. Using a novel Göttingen minipig animal model, we evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of a multi-subunit vaccine formulated in the strong Th1-inducing adjuvant CAF01. We evaluated a mixture of two fusion proteins (Hirep1 and CTH93) designed to promote either neutralizing antibodies or cell-mediated immunity, respectively. Hirep1 is a novel immunogen based on the variant domain (VD) 4 region from major outer membrane protein (MOMP) serovar (Sv) D, SvE and SvF, and CTH93 is a fusion molecule of three antigens (CT043, CT414 and MOMP). Pigs were immunized twice intramuscularly with either Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01, UV-inactivated Chlamydia trachomatis SvD bacteria (UV-SvD/CAF01) or CAF01. The Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 vaccine induced a strong CMI response against the vaccine antigens and high titers of antibodies, particularly against the VD4 region of MOMP. Sera from Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 immunized pigs neutralized C. trachomatis SvD and SvF infectivity in vitro. Both Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 and UV-SvD/CAF01 vaccination protected pigs against a vaginal C. trachomatis SvD infection. In conclusion, the Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 vaccine proved highly immunogenic and equally protective as UV-SvD/CAF01 showing promise for the development of a subunit vaccine against Chlamydia. PMID:26268662

  8. Chlamydia

    MedlinePlus

    ... question & answer discussion forum widgets for professionals dermatology education rash and ... transmitted disease caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis , which affects the genital tract if acquired through vaginal sex, or the mouth or anus if acquired from ...

  9. [Chlamydia infection in neonates and infants].

    PubMed

    Sarlangue, J; Castella, C

    2005-04-01

    Incidence of chlamydial infection depends on maternal colonization during pregnancy, which is different in each population. The transmission is not obligatory but when present, it occurs at birth through the genital tractus. Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the first cause of neonatal conjunctivitis, with no influence of eye lotion application at birth. C. trachomatis is also responsible for interstitial pneumonia with possible consequences on the lung function. The laboratory diagnosis relies on the identification of intracellular bacteria in patient samples by the mean of culture or PCR. Systemic antibiotherapy by macrolides is always necessary, with local application in the case of conjunctivitis. The key point is the detection of colonization of pregnant women with identified risk factors. In positive case, oral treatment of both parents is recommended. PMID:15893235

  10. Plasmid-Cured Chlamydia caviae Activates TLR2-Dependent Signaling and Retains Virulence in the Guinea Pig Model of Genital Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Frazer, Lauren C.; Darville, Toni; Chandra-Kuntal, Kumar; Andrews, Charles W.; Zurenski, Matthew; Mintus, Margaret; AbdelRahman, Yasser M.; Belland, Robert J.; Ingalls, Robin R.; O'Connell, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Loss of the conserved “cryptic” plasmid from C. trachomatis and C. muridarum is pleiotropic, resulting in reduced innate inflammatory activation via TLR2, glycogen accumulation and infectivity. The more genetically distant C. caviae GPIC is a natural pathogen of guinea pigs and induces upper genital tract pathology when inoculated intravaginally, modeling human disease. To examine the contribution of pCpGP1 to C. caviae pathogenesis, a cured derivative of GPIC, strain CC13, was derived and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Transcriptional profiling of CC13 revealed only partial conservation of previously identified plasmid-responsive chromosomal loci (PRCL) in C. caviae. However, 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) treatment of GPIC and CC13 resulted in reduced transcription of all identified PRCL, including glgA, indicating the presence of a plasmid-independent glucose response in this species. In contrast to plasmid-cured C. muridarum and C. trachomatis, plasmid-cured C. caviae strain CC13 signaled via TLR2 in vitro and elicited cytokine production in vivo similar to wild-type C. caviae. Furthermore, inflammatory pathology induced by infection of guinea pigs with CC13 was similar to that induced by GPIC, although we observed more rapid resolution of CC13 infection in estrogen-treated guinea pigs. These data indicate that either the plasmid is not involved in expression or regulation of virulence in C. caviae or that redundant effectors prevent these phenotypic changes from being observed in C. caviae plasmid-cured strains. PMID:22292031

  11. The Recall Response Induced by Genital Challenge with Chlamydia muridarum Protects the Oviduct from Pathology but Not from Reinfection

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Melissa M.; Zurenski, Matthew A.; Frazer, Lauren C.; O'Connell, Catherine M.; Andrews, Charles W.; Mintus, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    The significant morbidities of ectopic pregnancy and infertility observed in women after Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection result from ascension of the bacteria from the endocervix to the oviduct, where an overly aggressive inflammatory response leads to chronic scarring and Fallopian tube obstruction. A vaccine to prevent chlamydia-induced disease is urgently needed. An important question for vaccine development is whether sterilizing immunity at the level of the oviduct is essential for protection because of the possibility that a chlamydial component drives a deleterious anamnestic T cell response upon oviduct reinfection. We show that mice inoculated with attenuated plasmid-cured strains of Chlamydia muridarum are protected from oviduct pathology upon challenge with wild-type C. muridarum Nigg despite induction of a response that did not prevent reinfection of the oviduct. Interestingly, repeated abbreviated infections with Nigg also elicited recall responses that protected the oviduct from pathology despite low-level reinfection of this vulnerable tissue site. Challenged mice displayed significant decreases in tissue infiltration of inflammatory leukocytes with marked reductions in frequencies of neutrophils but significant increases in frequencies of CD4 Th1 and CD8 T cells. An anamnestic antibody response was also detected. These data indicate that exposure to a live attenuated chlamydial vaccine or repeated abbreviated genital infection with virulent chlamydiae promotes anamnestic antibody and T cell responses that protect the oviduct from pathology despite a lack of sterilizing immunity at the site. PMID:22431649

  12. Genital tract infections among HIV-infected pregnant women in Malawi, Tanzania and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Aboud, S; Msamanga, G; Read, J S; Mwatha, A; Chen, Y Q; Potter, D; Valentine, M; Sharma, U; Hoffmann, I; Taha, T E; Goldenberg, R L; Fawzi, W W

    2009-01-01

    Summary The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence and factors associated with genital tract infections among HIV-infected pregnant women from African sites. Participants were recruited from Blantyre and Lilongwe, Malawi; Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; and Lusaka, Zambia. Genital tract infections were assessed at baseline. Of 2627 eligible women enrolled, 2292 were HIV-infected. Of these, 47.8% had bacterial vaginosis (BV), 22.4% had vaginal candidiasis, 18.8% had trichomoniasis, 8.5% had genital warts, 2.6% had chlamydia infection, 2.2% had genital ulcers and 1.7% had gonorrhoea. The main factors associated with genital tract infections included genital warts (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.8, 95% CI 1.2–2.7), genital ulcers (AOR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2–5.1) and abnormal vaginal discharge (AOR 2.5, 95% CI 1.9–3.3) for trichomoniasis. BV was the most common genital tract infection followed by candidiasis and trichomoniasis. Differences in burdens and risk factors call for enhanced interventions for identification of genital tract infections among HIV-infected women. PMID:19050213

  13. Rapid, Transient Phosphatidylserine Externalization Induced in Host Cells by Infection with Chlamydia spp.

    PubMed Central

    Goth, Samuel R.; Stephens, Richard S.

    2001-01-01

    Chlamydia organisms are obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens responsible for a range of human diseases. Persistent infection or reinfection with Chlamydia trachomatis leads to scarring of ocular or genital tissues, and Chlamydia pneumoniae infection is associated with the development of atherosclerosis. We demonstrate that C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae infection in vitro elicits the externalization of the lipid phosphatidylserine on the surface of human epithelial, endothelial, granulocytic, and monocytic cells. Phosphatidylserine externalization is associated with cellular development, differentiation, and death. Infection-induced phosphatidylserine externalization was immediate, transient, calcium dependent, and infectious dose dependent and was unaffected by a broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor. Chlamydia-infected cells accelerated plasma clotting and increased the macrophage phagocytosis of infected cells that was phosphatidylserine dependent. The rapid externalization of phosphatidylserine by infected cells may be an important factor in the pathogenesis of chlamydial infections. PMID:11160008

  14. Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... The number of these infections peaks in school-aged children between 5 and 15 years of age. Signs and Symptoms Illnesses caused by C pneumoniae can cause a prolonged cough, bronchitis, and pneumonia as well as a sore throat, laryngitis, ear ...

  15. Identification and characterization of novel recombinant vaccine antigens for immunization against genital Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Coler, Rhea N.; Bhatia, Ajay; Maisonneuve, Jean-Francois; Probst, Peter; Barth, Brenda; Ovendale, Pamela; Fang, Hang; Alderson, Mark; Lobet, Yves; Cohen, Joe; Mettens, Pascal; Reed, Steven G.

    2009-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection worldwide with over 91 million cases estimated annually. An effective subunit vaccine against Chlamydia may require a multivalent subunit cocktail of antigens in a single formulation for broad coverage of a heterogeneous MHC population. Herein we describe the identification by CD4+ and CD8+ T cell expression cloning, serological expression cloning, and an in silico analysis of the C. trachomatis genome, of novel C. trachomatis antigens. These antigens elicited human CD4+ T cell responses, and a subset proved to be immunogenic and protective when administered as immunoprophylactic vaccines against C. trachomatis challenge. Candidate vaccines consisting of the prioritized C. trachomatis antigens adjuvanted in GSK proprietary AS01B adjuvant were prioritized based on induction of solid protection against challenge in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice with C. trachomatis. Some of the vaccines prevented bacterial shedding and colonization of the upper genital tract to varying degrees by mechanisms that may include CD4+ T cells. PMID:19281568

  16. Microbiological Characteristics of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae Infections in South African Women.

    PubMed

    Dubbink, Jan Henk; de Waaij, Dewi J; Bos, Myrte; van der Eem, Lisette; Bébéar, Cécile; Mbambazela, Nontembeko; Ouburg, Sander; Peters, Remco P H; Morré, Servaas A

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed data of 263 women with at least one genital or anorectal sexually transmitted infection from a cross-sectional study conducted in rural South Africa. We provide new insights concerning the concurrence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, and Trichomonas vaginalis infections as well as the characteristics of bacterial loads. PMID:26511740

  17. [Chlamydia trachomatis infections in teenagers].

    PubMed

    Gille, G; Klapp, C

    2007-01-01

    Adolescents enter puberty early and many have sexual intercourse at a young age. That sexual intercourse can have side effects with life-long consequences is still a taboo field. In Germany, we do not have figures about the prevalence of the most frequently occurring sexually transmitted diseases in young people. Therefore the Medical Association for the Promotion of Women's Health (AGGF) initiated a prevalence study on infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) in girls younger than 18 years in Berlin (n=266). After informed consent, information was given in 92 school classes. Thereafter in 30 offices of gynecologists the girls were offered a PCR test for the detection of CT free of charge. The results--10% of the 17-year-old girls had an acute chlamydial infection after an average of 19 months of sexual activity--suggest that in Germany there is a hidden epidemic among adolescents. Adolescents are not adequately informed about the risks of CT infection; medical counseling is both desired and effective. PMID:17165068

  18. Association of Genital Infections Other Than Human Papillomavirus with Pre-Invasive and Invasive Cervical Neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Ishita; Mandal, Ranajit; Kundu, Pratip; Biswas, Jaydip

    2016-02-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a well-established causative agent of malignancy of the female genital tract and a common Sexually Transmitted Infection. The probable co-factors that prevent spontaneous clearance of HPV and progression to neoplasia are genital tract infections from organisms like Chlamydia, Trichomonas vaginalis etc, smoking, nutritional deficiencies and multiparity. Inflammatory conditions can lead to pre-neoplastic manifestations in the cervical epithelium; however their specific role in cervical carcinogenesis is not yet established. Therefore it is imperative to study the likely association between HPV and co-infection with various common pathogens in the genital tract of women having cervical precancer or cancer. A "Pubmed" search was made for articles in Literature on this topic using the words: Cervical neoplasia, HPV, co-infections, Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN), Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida, Chlamydia and the relevant information obtained was used to draft the review. PMID:27042571

  19. Association of Genital Infections Other Than Human Papillomavirus with Pre-Invasive and Invasive Cervical Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Ranajit; Kundu, Pratip; Biswas, Jaydip

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a well-established causative agent of malignancy of the female genital tract and a common Sexually Transmitted Infection. The probable co-factors that prevent spontaneous clearance of HPV and progression to neoplasia are genital tract infections from organisms like Chlamydia, Trichomonas vaginalis etc, smoking, nutritional deficiencies and multiparity. Inflammatory conditions can lead to pre-neoplastic manifestations in the cervical epithelium; however their specific role in cervical carcinogenesis is not yet established. Therefore it is imperative to study the likely association between HPV and co-infection with various common pathogens in the genital tract of women having cervical precancer or cancer. A “Pubmed” search was made for articles in Literature on this topic using the words: Cervical neoplasia, HPV, co-infections, Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN), Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida, Chlamydia and the relevant information obtained was used to draft the review. PMID:27042571

  20. Susceptibility to reinfection after a primary chlamydial genital infection is associated with a decrease of antigen-specific T cells in the genital tract.

    PubMed Central

    Igietseme, J U; Rank, R G

    1991-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the intensity of specific antichlamydial T cell-mediated immunity in the genital tract of female guinea pigs infected intravaginally with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis would determine the resistance or susceptibility to reinfection after a primary chlamydial infection. T cell-enriched lymphocytes were isolated by collagenase treatment of genital tract tissues from either infected or control uninfected female guinea pigs at various times after infection. The nylon wool-enriched T lymphocytes were evaluated for expression of antigen-specific T cell-mediated immunity in vitro by using a blast transformation assay. Both uninfected and infected genital tracts contained T cells, as evidenced by reactivity to concanavalin A, although a greater number of T lymphocytes was detected in the genital tracts of infected animals compared with that in controls. Significant antigen-specific T-cell activity could be detected in the genital tract tissue by 7 days after a primary genital tract infection with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis. When antigen-specific activity was assessed at different times after infection, the intensity of the response of genital tract-associated T lymphocytes was directly proportional to the degree of resistance of the animals to genital challenge. Thus, susceptibility of animals to reinfection by chlamydiae appears to be associated with the intensity of the local T cell-mediated immune responses in the genital tract of infected animals. PMID:1900810

  1. Chlamydial Variants Differ in Ability To Ascend the Genital Tract in the Guinea Pig Model of Chlamydial Genital Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yeruva, Laxmi; Bowlin, Anne K.; Spencer, Nicole; Maurelli, Anthony T.

    2015-01-01

    An important question in the study of chlamydial genital tract disease is why some women develop severe upper tract disease while others have mild or even “silent” infections with or without pathology. Animal studies suggest that the pathological outcome of an infection is dependent upon both the composition of the infecting chlamydial population and the genotype of the host, along with host physiological effects, such as the cyclical production of reproductive hormones and even the size of the infecting inoculum or the number of repeated infections. In this study, we compared two variants of Chlamydia caviae, contrasting in virulence, with respect to their abilities to ascend the guinea pig genital tract. We then determined the effect of combining the two variants on the course of infection and on the bacterial loads of the two variants in the genital tract. Although the variants individually had similar infection kinetics in the cervix, SP6, the virulent variant, could be isolated from the oviducts more often and in greater numbers than the attenuated variant, AZ2. SP6 also elicited higher levels of interleukin 8 (IL-8) in the lower genital tract and increased leukocyte infiltration in the cervix and uterus compared to AZ2. When the two variants were combined in a mixed infection, SP6 outcompeted AZ2 in the lower genital tract; however, AZ2 was able to ascend the genital tract as readily as SP6. These data suggest that the ability of SP6 to elicit an inflammatory response in the lower genital tract facilitates the spread of both variants to the oviducts. PMID:26015484

  2. The Chlamydia muridarum Organisms Fail to Auto-Inoculate the Mouse Genital Tract after Colonization in the Gastrointestinal Tract for 70 days

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Luying; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Tianyuan; Zhang, Yuyang; Zhu, Cuiming; Sun, Xin; Zhang, Nu; Xue, Min; Zhong, Guangming

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia muridarum is known to colonize in the gastrointestinal tract for long periods of time, which has been hypothesized to serve as a reservoir for spreading to the genital tract. To test this hypothesis, a luciferase-expressing C. muridarum was used to establish a long-lasting infection in the mouse gastrointestinal tract following either intragastric or intrarectal inoculations. In vivo imaging revealed significant bioluminescent signals mainly in the mouse abdominal area throughout the experiments. Ex vivo imaging localized the signals to the mouse gastrointestinal tract, which was confirmed by monitoring the C. muridarum organisms in the mouse organs/tissues. Despite the long-lasting colonization in the gastrointestinal tract and active shedding of infectious organisms in the rectal swabs, the organisms did not cause any significant infection or pathology in the genital tract throughout the experiments, which was reproduced in multiple strains of mice and with an increased inoculation dose to the gastrointestinal tract. The above observations have demonstrated that the long-lasting C. muridarum organisms from the gastrointestinal tract are inefficient in auto-inoculating the genital tract, suggesting that the gastrointestinal tract Chlamydia may utilize an indirect mechanism to affect its pathogenicity in the genital tract. PMID:27192556

  3. Protective immunity against Chlamydia trachomatis can engage both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and bridge the respiratory and genital mucosae.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Catarina V; Zhang, Xuqing; Giovannone, Nicholas; Sennott, Erica L; Starnbach, Michael N

    2015-03-01

    Understanding the cellular populations and mechanisms responsible for overcoming immune compartmentalization is valuable for designing vaccination strategies targeting distal mucosae. In this study, we show that the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis infects the murine respiratory and genital mucosae and that T cells, but not Abs, elicited through intranasal immunization can protect against a subsequent transcervical challenge. Unlike the genital infection where CD8(+) T cells are primed, yet fail to confer protection, we found that intranasal priming engages both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, allowing for protection against genital infection with C. trachomatis. The protection is largely dependent on IFN-γ secretion by T cells. Moreover, different chemokine receptors are critical for C. trachomatis-specific CD4(+) T cells to home to the lung, rather than the CXCR3- and CCR5-dependent migration observed during genital infection. Overall, this study demonstrates that the cross-mucosa protective immunity against genital C. trachomatis infection following intranasal immunization is not dependent on Ab response but is mediated by not only CD4(+) T cells but also by CD8(+) T cells. This study provides insights for the development of vaccines against mucosal pathogens that threaten reproductive health worldwide. PMID:25637024

  4. Genital human papillomavirus infection in men.

    PubMed

    Partridge, Jeffrey M; Koutsky, Laura A

    2006-01-01

    Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, globally one of the most common sexually transmitted infections, is associated with cancers, genital warts, and other epithelial lesions. Although a consistent and coherent picture of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of genital HPV infections in women has developed over the past two decades, less is known about these infections in men. Available data suggest that, as with women, most genital HPV infections in men are symptomless and unapparent, and that HPV16 is probably the most frequently detected type. In populations of similar age, the prevalence of specific HPV types is usually lower in men than in women. Whether this observation relates to lower incidence or shorter duration of infection in men than in women has not yet been determined. Seroprevalence of specific anti-HPV antibodies also seems to be lower in men than in women of similar age, a difference that might be due to lower viral load, lower incidence or duration of infection or lower antibody responses, or both, in men compared with women. Differences in sexual behaviour may also be important predictors of genital HPV infection. With the anticipated availability of prophylactic HPV vaccines in the near future, it becomes increasingly important to understand the incidence and duration of HPV infections in men to develop cost-effective approaches to prevention through a combination of immunisation and promotion of risk-reduction strategies. PMID:16377531

  5. Immunopathogenesis in Chlamydia trachomatis Infected Women

    PubMed Central

    Mascellino, Maria Teresa; Boccia, Priscilla; Oliva, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    We examine the Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) immunopathogenesis on the basis of the complex interaction between host immune response and virulence microorganism factors. Ct infection can be asymptomatic or may produce an inflammation elicited and preserved by reinfections or persistent infections. We discuss the host polymorphisms that, with their anti- or proinflammatory effects, determine the course of the disease. We also took into account the inflammation process following the Chlamydia illness and the role of both CD4 cells producing IFN-γ and CD8 cells with their cytokines production. The crucial role of Ct-hsp60 and the double activity (either damaging or preserving from some kinds of tumors) of anti-Ct-hsp60 antibodies are considered. PMID:22191045

  6. Diagnosis and treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    PubMed

    Miller, Karl E

    2006-04-15

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection most commonly affects the urogenital tract. In men, the infection usually is symptomatic, with dysuria and a discharge from the penis. Untreated chlamydial infection in men can spread to the epididymis. Most women with chlamydial infection have minimal or no symptoms, but some develop pelvic inflammatory disease. Chlamydial infection in newborns can cause ophthalmia neonatorum. Chlamydial pneumonia can occur at one to three months of age, manifesting as a protracted onset of staccato cough, usually without wheezing or fever. Treatment options for uncomplicated urogenital infections include a single 1-g dose of azithromycin orally, or doxycycline at a dosage of 100 mg orally twice per day for seven days. The recommended treatment during pregnancy is erythromycin base or amoxicillin. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommend screening for chlamydial infection in women at increased risk of infection and in all women younger than 25 years. PMID:16669564

  7. Papillomaviral Infections of the Female Genital Tract

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Malcolm G.

    1992-01-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common organism to infect the human genital tract, affecting as much as half, or more, of the sexually active population. This virus has become widely recognized through the well publicized relationship with genital tract neoplasia and through new diagnostic technologies, such as monoclonal antibody analysis, DNA hybridization, and the polymerase chain reaction. This paper describes the full spectrum of HPV infections, starting with pathogenesis and continuing to clinical manifestations, and discusses significance, diagnosis, and management. PMID:21221347

  8. [Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and cardiac ischemic syndromes].

    PubMed

    Varveri, A; Sgorbini, L; Romano, S; Aurigemma, G; Dagianti, A; Sessa, R; Di Pietro, M; Del Piano, M; Dagianti, A; Penco, M

    1998-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the presence of Chlamydia pneumoniae antibodies in patients with angiographically verified atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. A total of 114 consecutive patients were investigated between April 1995 and June 1996. Patients were divided into two groups: 72 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI; 53 men, 19 women, mean age 62.27 +/- 10.1 years), and 42 patients with chronic ischemic heart disease (CAD; 37 men, 5 women, mean age 62.75 +/- 9.2 years). A control group of 50 normal subjects matched for age (mean 62 +/- 9 years), sex, social status and geographical area was used. Identification of Chlamydia pneumoniae was carried out with the microimmunofluorescence method, on two serum samples taken from patients on admission and after 15 days. The IgM, IgG and IgA anti-Chlamydia pneumoniae titers were assessed, values > or = 1:16, > or = 1:32 and > or = 1:8 being respectively considered positive. Acute (IgM > or = 16 or four fold rise of IgG titer) and chronic (IgG > or = 128 e IgA > or = 32 or only elevated IgA titer) infections were analyzed. IgM antibodies were not found in AMI, CAD and control groups. IgG positivity (IgG > or = 32) was found in 38% of the control group, in 58.3% of the AMI group (p < 0.05) and 42.8% of the CAD group (p < 0.01). IgA positivity > or = 8) was found in 22% of the control group, in 31.9% of the AMI group (NS) and in 33.3% of the CAD group (p < or = 0.05). Acute infection was observed in 5.5% of AMI patients and in 12% of CAD patients (NS), whereas no subject of the control group showed these values. Chronic infection was observed in 9.7% of AMI patients and in 16.6% of CAD patients (NS) whereas nobody of the control group showed these values. In conclusion, our results suggest that Chlamydia pneumoniae infection is present only in the AMI and CAD groups. It is possible to suppose that this infection may be linked to atherosclerosis through an endothelial damage or a systemic endogenous procoagulant and inflammatory activity. PMID:9922569

  9. Should we screen heterosexuals for extra-genital chlamydial and gonococcal infections?

    PubMed

    Garner, Anna L; Schembri, Gabriel; Cullen, Thomas; Lee, Vincent

    2015-06-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) are two of the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infections in the UK. Although the high burden of extra-genital infections with GC and CT in men who have sex with men has been well established, a significant number of extra-genital site infections with CT and GC could similarly be present in heterosexual women. For this reason we started to routinely offer extra-genital site testing for GC and CT in all patients attending our sexual health clinic who reported having had receptive anal sex and/or giving oral sex. This followed a review of current evidence by the clinical team and a change in local testing policy. This study not only confirmed a large reservoir of extra-genital infection amongst men who have sex with men, but also demonstrates that a comparable reservoir of extra-genital infection is present amongst heterosexual women. Our study adds to the mounting evidence that extra-genital site testing in heterosexual women should occur when oral or anal sexual activity is reported. PMID:25013220

  10. Polymicrobial infections of the female low genital tract.

    PubMed

    Herman, A; Bukovsky, I; Samra, Z; Roash, Z; Caspi, E

    1990-06-01

    A complete microbiologic analysis of nine infectious agents causing low genital tract infection (LGTI) was obtained in 240 young women, of whom 193 were symptomatic for LGTI and 47 were asymptomatic (control group). The polymicrobial nature of LGTI was demonstrated by both the increased frequency of different microorganisms (1.77 +/- 1.09 SD in symptomatic vs. 1.08 +/- 0.98 in asymptomatic patients) and the increased total number of agents (0 agents 8.3 and 36.2%, 1-2 agents 67.4 and 55.3%, greater than or equal to 3 agents 24.3 and 8.5%, in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients respectively). There was a mutual association between Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis, where the presence of one nearly doubled the frequency of the other. Of 74 symptomatic patients with a single infectious agent, Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated most frequently, suggesting an important role of this agent in infections of the female low genital tract. PMID:2380032

  11. Modern diagnostics of Chlamydia trachomatis infections.

    PubMed

    Sta?czak, Janusz J; Majchrzak, Micha? J; Sta?czak, Grzegorz P

    2005-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) is the most common agent of sexually transmitted infections. The clinical spectrum of the disease ranges from urethritis to infertility in women and to trachoma. Intracellular localisation of the pathogen creates a challenge for routine diagnostics. In this review possible diagnostic tests have been presented, varying from classic cell culture analysis and serodiagnostics (Enzyme-linked Immunoassays, Indirect Immunofluorescence) to the most sophisticated nucleic acid analyses (hybridisation, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Transcription Mediated Amplification, Ligase Chain Reaction), Advantages and disadvantages of the leading tests are discussed. Possible reasons of false positive as well as false negative results of genetic testing are presented. PMID:16082060

  12. 2015 UK national guideline for the management of infection with Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Nwokolo, Nneka C; Dragovic, Bojana; Patel, Sheel; Tong, Cy William; Barker, Gary; Radcliffe, Keith

    2016-03-01

    This guideline offers recommendations on the diagnostic tests, treatment regimens and health promotion principles needed for the effective management of Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection. It covers the management of the initial presentation, as well the prevention of transmission and future infection. The guideline is aimed at individuals aged 16 years and older presenting to healthcare professionals working in departments offering Level 3 care in sexually transmitted infections management within the UK. However, the principles of the recommendations should be adopted across all levels, using local care pathways where appropriate. PMID:26538553

  13. Interleukin-10 modulates antigen presentation by dendritic cells through regulation of NLRP3 inflammasome assembly during Chlamydia infection.

    PubMed

    Omosun, Yusuf; McKeithen, Danielle; Ryans, Khamia; Kibakaya, Caroline; Blas-Machado, Uriel; Li, Duo; Singh, Rajesh; Inoue, Koichi; Xiong, Zhi-Gang; Eko, Francis; Black, Carolyn; Igietseme, Joseph; He, Qing

    2015-12-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) has been implicated in susceptibility to genital chlamydial infection and the development of tubal pathologies. IL-10 limitation also resulted in the rapid elicitation of immune responses against Chlamydia, and decreased levels of IL-10 correlated with protective anti-Chlamydia immunity. To investigate the molecular basis for these effects, we compared the reproductive pathologies and fertility rates in Chlamydia-infected wild-type (WT) and IL-10-knockout (IL-10(-/-)) mice; we also analyzed the expression of the Toll-like receptor (TLR)/interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) superfamily, IL-1? production, NLRP3 inflammasome assembly and activation, and the immunostimulatory capacity and apoptotic predilection of Chlamydia-exposed dendritic cells (DCs) from WT and IL-10(-/-) mice. Our results revealed that, in addition to the rapid clearance of infection, genitally infected IL-10(-/-) mice were protected from tubal pathologies and infertility, whereas WT (IL-10(+/+)) mice were not. Chlamydia-pulsed IL-10(-/-) DCs expressed larger numbers of TLR4/IL-1R molecules and had enhanced IL-1? production. In addition, NLRP3 inflammasome assembly was suppressed in IL-10(-/-) DCs through the inhibition of the P2X purinoceptor 7 (P2X7) receptor (P2X7R), an ATP-gated ion channel, and a decrease in intracellular Ca(2+) levels, which inhibited DC apoptosis. Thus, the potent immunostimulatory capacity of IL-10-deficient DCs is due, at least in part, to the suppression of the intracellular inflammasome assembly, which prevents DC apoptosis, allowing efficient antigen presentation. The results indicate that IL-10 deficiency enables efficient antigen presentation by DCs for rapid and enhanced immune activation against Chlamydia, which results in rapid microbial clearance, which prevents tubal pathologies during infection. Our finding has important implications for the induction of protective immunity against Chlamydia and other infectious and noninfectious diseases by vaccines. PMID:26371131

  14. Asymptomatic respiratory tract infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae TWAR.

    PubMed Central

    Hyman, C L; Augenbraun, M H; Roblin, P M; Schachter, J; Hammerschlag, M R

    1991-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is a newly recognized organism associated with respiratory tract infections. Asymptomatic infection with C. pneumoniae, although it has been suggested to occur, has not been previously documented. We describe two asymptomatic individuals infected with this organism; these infections demonstrate that C. pneumoniae is able to establish a subclinical infection. PMID:1774340

  15. Chlamydia

    MedlinePlus

    ... can get chlamydia by having anal, vaginal, or oral sex with someone who has chlamydia. If your sex ... STDs is to not have vaginal, anal, or oral sex. • • • Being in a long-term mutually monogamous relationship ...

  16. Chlamydia

    MedlinePlus

    ... women who have sex with women get chlamydia? Yes. It is possible to get chlamydia, or any other STI, if you are a woman who ... STI test if you are at risk. 6 Yes. It is possible to get chlamydia, or any other STI, if you are a woman who ...

  17. Chlamydia, mycoplasmas, ureaplasmas, and yeasts in the lower genital tract of females. Comparison between a group attending a venereal disease clinic and a control group.

    PubMed

    Møller, B R; Sparre Jørgensen, A; From, E; Stenderup, A

    1985-01-01

    162 women were investigated. Group I consisted of 85 women, who were partners to men with non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) or presented macroscopic signs of cervicitis; patients who had harbored Neisseria gonorrhoeae were excluded from the study. Group II was a control group of 77 women without any complaints from the urogenital tract and with normal findings at pelvic examination. All the women were tested for infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and Candida albicans. In group I, chlamydiae and mycoplasmas were recovered in 44% and 36%, respectively, the corresponding figures for the control group (group II) being 5% and 19%. The difference is highly significant. No such difference between the two groups was found for ureaplasmas. Sixteen percent of the patients in group I were positive for C. albicans; 12% were positive in group II. Fifty per cent of asymptomatic NGU-partners were chlamydia-positive, and about one-third of patients with either dysuria or vaginal discharge harbored the organism. No difference in the isolation frequency of mycoplasmas was observed between asymptomatic partners to male NGU carriers and women with increased vaginal discharge, whereas the organism was isolated more frequently from patients with dysuria. Fifty-nine per cent of patients with cervicitis were chlamydia-positive, compared with 30% of patients with normal cervical appearance and normal vaginal discharge. Samples obtained from the cervix were more often positive than samples from the urethra. In conclusion, if samples can be taken from only one of the two sites in patients with lower genital tract infection, the cervix is the optimal sampling site. PMID:3885669

  18. Chlamydia caviae infection alters abundance but not composition of the guinea pig vaginal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Neuendorf, Elizabeth; Gajer, Pawel; Bowlin, Anne K; Marques, Patricia X; Ma, Bing; Yang, Hongqiu; Fu, Li; Humphrys, Michael S; Forney, Larry J; Myers, Garry S A; Bavoil, Patrik M; Rank, Roger G; Ravel, Jacques

    2015-06-01

    In humans, the vaginal microbiota is thought to be the first line of defense again pathogens including Chlamydia trachomatis. The guinea pig has been extensively used as a model to study chlamydial infection because it shares anatomical and physiological similarities with humans, such as a squamous vaginal epithelium as well as some of the long-term outcomes caused by chlamydial infection. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the guinea pig-C. caviae model of genital infection as a surrogate for studying the role of the vaginal microbiota in the early steps of C. trachomatis infection in humans. We used culture-independent molecular methods to characterize the relative and absolute abundance of bacterial phylotypes in the guinea pig vaginal microbiota in animals non-infected, mock-infected or infected by C. caviae. We showed that the guinea pig and human vaginal microbiotas are of different bacterial composition and abundance. Chlamydia caviae infection had a profound effect on the absolute abundance of bacterial phylotypes but not on the composition of the guinea pig vaginal microbiota. Our findings compromise the validity of the guinea pig-C. caviae model to study the role of the vaginal microbiota during the early steps of sexually transmitted infection. PMID:25761873

  19. Chlamydia caviae infection alters abundance but not composition of the guinea pig vaginal microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Neuendorf, Elizabeth; Gajer, Pawel; Bowlin, Anne K.; Marques, Patricia X.; Ma, Bing; Yang, Hongqiu; Fu, Li; Humphrys, Michael S.; Forney, Larry J.; Myers, Garry S.A.; Bavoil, Patrik M.; Rank, Roger G.; Ravel, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    In humans, the vaginal microbiota is thought to be the first line of defense again pathogens including Chlamydia trachomatis. The guinea pig has been extensively used as a model to study chlamydial infection because it shares anatomical and physiological similarities with humans, such as a squamous vaginal epithelium as well as some of the long-term outcomes caused by chlamydial infection. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the guinea pig-C. caviae model of genital infection as a surrogate for studying the role of the vaginal microbiota in the early steps of C. trachomatis infection in humans. We used culture-independent molecular methods to characterize the relative and absolute abundance of bacterial phylotypes in the guinea pig vaginal microbiota in animals non-infected, mock-infected or infected by C. caviae. We showed that the guinea pig and human vaginal microbiotas are of different bacterial composition and abundance. Chlamydia caviae infection had a profound effect on the absolute abundance of bacterial phylotypes but not on the composition of the guinea pig vaginal microbiota. Our findings compromise the validity of the guinea pig-C. caviae model to study the role of the vaginal microbiota during the early steps of sexually transmitted infection. PMID:25761873

  20. Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infections and Sudden Unexpected Deaths in Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannsen, Finn

    1993-01-01

    Blood samples from 38 runners on the Danish national orienteering team revealed no ongoing chlamydia pneumoniae, although 42% had an earlier infection, similar to the incidence in the general population. However, over 2% had an ongoing lyme borreliosis infection, and 18% had an earlier infection, which is a higher incidence than in the general…

  1. Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infections and Sudden Unexpected Deaths in Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannsen, Finn

    1993-01-01

    Blood samples from 38 runners on the Danish national orienteering team revealed no ongoing chlamydia pneumoniae, although 42% had an earlier infection, similar to the incidence in the general population. However, over 2% had an ongoing lyme borreliosis infection, and 18% had an earlier infection, which is a higher incidence than in the general

  2. Epidemiology of genital human papillomavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Koutsky, L A; Galloway, D A; Holmes, K K

    1988-01-01

    Recent clinical research has suggested a link between specific human papillomavirus types and the development of cancers of the genital tract and anus; however, supportive epidemiologic data are not well developed. In both the US and the UK, condylomata acuminata is the most commonly diagnosed viral sexually transmitted disease. The highest incidence is among females 20-24 years of age. The results of 6 studies to examine the prevalence of human papillomavirus suggest a rate of 1-13%, with a positive association to the prevalence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in that population. It is estimated that genital human papillomavirus infection has a 10% prevalence among men and women in the US 15-49 years of age: 1% have condylomata, 2% have lesions visible only by magnification with the colposcope or hand lens, and 7% have clinically inapparent infections. Human papillomavirus types 6 and 11 tend to cause condylomata and low-grade epithelial cell atypia, while types 16, 18, and 31 have been found in higher-grade intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cervical cancers. Current evidence suggests a long latency between acquisition of genital papillomavirus infection and the development of cervical malignancy, with cervical cancer generally not developing until the 5th decade and beyond. From an epidemiologic point of view, the current research literature lacks evidence of careful selection and definition of study populations, consistent quality control of clinical and laboratory methods, and thorough statistical analyses. To make it more possible to compare the results of different studies, more attention to epidemiologic factors is needed. PMID:2852116

  3. Relationship between female genital tract infections, mucosal interleukin-17 production and local T helper type 17 cells.

    PubMed

    Masson, Lindi; Salkinder, Amy L; Olivier, Abraham Jacobus; McKinnon, Lyle R; Gamieldien, Hoyam; Mlisana, Koleka; Scriba, Thomas J; Lewis, David A; Little, Francesca; Jaspan, Heather B; Ronacher, Katharina; Denny, Lynette; Abdool Karim, Salim S; Passmore, Jo-Ann S

    2015-12-01

    T helper type 17 (Th17) cells play an important role in immunity to fungal and bacterial pathogens, although their role in the female genital tract, where exposure to these pathogens is common, is not well understood. We investigated the relationship between female genital tract infections, cervicovaginal interleukin-17 (IL-17) concentrations and Th17 cell frequencies. Forty-two cytokines were measured in cervicovaginal lavages from HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected women. Frequencies of Th17 cells (CD3(+)  CD4(+)  IL-17a(+) ) were evaluated in cervical cytobrushes and blood by flow cytometry. Women were screened for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis and herpes simplex virus 2 by PCR, and candidal infections and bacterial vaginosis by Gram stain. Women with bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs), specifically chlamydia and gonorrhoea, had higher genital IL-17 concentrations than women with no STI, whereas women with candidal pseudohyphae/spores had lower IL-17 concentrations compared with women without candidal infections. Viral STIs (herpes simplex virus 2 and HIV) were not associated with significant changes in genital IL-17 concentrations. Genital IL-17 concentrations correlated strongly with other inflammatory cytokines and growth factors. Although Th17 cells were depleted from blood during HIV infection, cervical Th17 cell frequencies were similar in HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected women. Cervical Th17 cell frequencies were also not associated with STIs or candida, although few women had a STI. These findings suggest that IL-17 production in the female genital tract is induced in response to bacterial but not viral STIs. Decreased IL-17 associated with candidal infections suggests that candida may actively suppress IL-17 production or women with dampened IL-17 responses may be more susceptible to candidal outgrowth. PMID:26302175

  4. Maximising retention in a longitudinal study of genital Chlamydia trachomatis among young women in Australia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cohort studies are an important study design however they are difficult to implement, often suffer from poor retention, low participation and bias. The aims of this paper are to describe the methods used to recruit and retain young women in a longitudinal study and to explore factors associated with loss to follow up. Methods The Chlamydia Incidence and Re-infection Rates Study (CIRIS) was a longitudinal study of Australian women aged 16 to 25 years recruited from primary health care clinics. They were followed up via the post at three-monthly intervals and required to return questionnaires and self collected vaginal swabs for chlamydia testing. The protocol was designed to maximise retention in the study and included using recruiting staff independent of the clinic staff, recruiting in private, regular communication with study staff, making the follow up as straightforward as possible and providing incentives and small gifts to engender good will. Results The study recruited 66% of eligible women. Despite the nature of the study (sexual health) and the mobility of the women (35% moved address at least once), 79% of the women completed the final stage of the study after 12 months. Loss to follow up bias was associated with lower education level [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR): 0.7 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.5, 1.0)], recruitment from a sexual health centre as opposed to a general practice clinic [AHR: 1.6 (95% CI: 1.0, 2.7)] and previously testing positive for chlamydia [AHR: 0.8 (95% CI: 0.5, 1.0)]. No other factors such as age, numbers of sexual partners were associated with loss to follow up. Conclusions The methods used were considered effective for recruiting and retaining women in the study. Further research is needed to improve participation from less well-educated women. PMID:21385471

  5. Global Mapping of the Inc-Human Interactome Reveals that Retromer Restricts Chlamydia Infection.

    PubMed

    Mirrashidi, Kathleen M; Elwell, Cherilyn A; Verschueren, Erik; Johnson, Jeffrey R; Frando, Andrew; Von Dollen, John; Rosenberg, Oren; Gulbahce, Natali; Jang, Gwendolyn; Johnson, Tasha; Jäger, Stefanie; Gopalakrishnan, Anusha M; Sherry, Jessica; Dunn, Joe Dan; Olive, Andrew; Penn, Bennett; Shales, Michael; Cox, Jeffery S; Starnbach, Michael N; Derre, Isabelle; Valdivia, Raphael; Krogan, Nevan J; Engel, Joanne

    2015-07-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a leading cause of genital and ocular infections for which no vaccine exists. Upon entry into host cells, C. trachomatis resides within a membrane-bound compartment—the inclusion—and secretes inclusion membrane proteins (Incs) that are thought to modulate the host-bacterium interface. To expand our understanding of Inc function(s), we subjected putative C. trachomatis Incs to affinity purification-mass spectroscopy (AP-MS). We identified Inc-human interactions for 38/58 Incs with enrichment in host processes consistent with Chlamydia's intracellular life cycle. There is significant overlap between Inc targets and viral proteins, suggesting common pathogenic mechanisms among obligate intracellular microbes. IncE binds to sorting nexins (SNXs) 5/6, components of the retromer, which relocalizes SNX5/6 to the inclusion membrane and augments inclusion membrane tubulation. Depletion of retromer components enhances progeny production, revealing that retromer restricts Chlamydia infection. This study demonstrates the value of proteomics in unveiling host-pathogen interactions in genetically challenging microbes. PMID:26118995

  6. Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection Differentially Modulates Human Dendritic Cell Line (MUTZ) Differentiation and Activation.

    PubMed

    Armitage, C W; O'Meara, C P; Beagley, K W

    2015-07-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae are important human pathogens that infect the urogenital/anorectal and respiratory tracts, respectively. Whilst the ability of these bacteria to infect epithelia is well defined, there is also considerable evidence of infection of leucocytes, including dendritic cells (DCs). Using a human dendritic cell line (MUTZ), we demonstrate that the infection and replication of chlamydiae inside DCs is species and serovar specific and that live infection with C. pneumoniae is required to upregulate costimulatory markers CD80, CD83 and human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DR on MUTZ cells, as well as induce secretion of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12 (p70), interferon-gamma and tumour necrosis factor-alpha Conversely, C. trachomatis serovar D failed to upregulate DC costimulatory markers, but did induce secretion of high concentrations of IL-8. Interestingly, we also observed that infection of MUTZ cells with C. pneumoniae or C. trachomatis serovar L2, whilst not replicative, remained infectious and upregulated lymph node migratory marker CCR7 mRNA. Taken together, these data confirm the findings of other groups using primary DCs and demonstrate the utility of MUTZ cells for further studies of chlamydial infection. PMID:25833314

  7. Infection of Human Retinal Pigment Epithelium with Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Boiko, Ernest; Maltsev, Dmitrii; Savicheva, Alevtina; Shalepo, Kira; Khusnutdinova, Tatyana; Pozniak, Alexei; Kvetnoi, Igor; Polyakova, Viktoria; Suetov, Alexei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Little is known about the susceptibility of posterior segment tissues, particularly the human retinal pigment epithelium (hRPE), to Chlamydia trachomatis. The purpose of the study was to investigate the possibility of infecting the hRPE with Chlamydia trachomatis, and to examine the infectivity of different Chlamydia trachomatis clinical isolates for hRPE cells and the hRPE cell response to the infection. Methods Cultured hRPE and McCoy cells were inoculated with eight Chlamydia trachomatis (serovar E) clinical isolates at multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 2.0 or 0.3. To detect Chlamydia trachomatis, samples were stained immunohistochemically with anti-major outer membrane protein antibodies at 24h, 48h, and 72h postinoculation (PI). The changes in the expression of signaling molecules and proteins of cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix in hRPE cells were examined immunohistochemically. Results All eight clinical isolates demonstrated ability to infect hRPE cells. At equal MOI of 0.3, the infectivity of Chlamydia trachomatis clinical isolates for RPE culture was found to be at least as high as that for McCoy cell culture. At 24h PI, the percentage of inclusion-containing cells varied from 1.5 ± 0.52 to 14.6 ± 3.3% in hRPE cell culture infected at MOI of 2.0 against 0.37 ± 0.34 to 8.9 ± 0.2% in McCoy cell culture infected at MOI of 0.3. Collagen type I, collagen type IV, basic fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor-beta and interleukin–8 expression at 48h PI were maximally increased, by 2.1-, 1.3-, 1.5-, 1.5- and 1.6-fold, respectively, in the Chlamydia trachomatis-infected compared with control hRPE cell culture specimens (P < 0.05). Conclusions This study, for the first time, proved the possibility of infecting hRPE cultured cells with Chlamydia trachomatis, which leads to proproliferative and proinflammatory changes in the expression of signaling molecules and extracellular matrix components. PMID:26536616

  8. 2015 European guideline on the management of Chlamydia trachomatis infections.

    PubMed

    Lanjouw, E; Ouburg, S; de Vries, H J; Stary, A; Radcliffe, K; Unemo, M

    2016-04-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infections, which most frequently are asymptomatic, are major public health concerns globally. The 2015 European C. trachomatis guideline provides: up-to-date guidance regarding broader indications for testing and treatment of C. trachomatis infections; a clearer recommendation of using exclusively-validated nucleic acid amplification tests for diagnosis; advice on (repeated) C. trachomatis testing; the recommendation of increased testing to reduce the incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease and prevent exposure to infection; and recommendations to identify, verify and report C. trachomatis variants. Improvement of access to testing, test performance, diagnostics, antimicrobial treatment and follow-up of C. trachomatis patients are crucial to control its spread. For detailed background, evidence base and discussions, see the background review for the present 2015 European guideline on the management of Chlamydia trachomatis infections (Lanjouw E, et al. Int J STD AIDS. 2015). PMID:26608577

  9. Chlamydia trachomatis Infection Leads to Defined Alterations to the Lipid Droplet Proteome in Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Saka, Hector Alex; Thompson, J Will; Chen, Yi-Shan; Dubois, Laura G; Haas, Joel T; Moseley, Arthur; Valdivia, Raphael H

    2015-01-01

    The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis is a major human pathogen and a main cause of genital and ocular diseases. During its intracellular cycle, C. trachomatis replicates inside a membrane-bound vacuole termed an "inclusion". Acquisition of lipids (and other nutrients) from the host cell is a critical step in chlamydial replication. Lipid droplets (LD) are ubiquitous, ER-derived neutral lipid-rich storage organelles surrounded by a phospholipids monolayer and associated proteins. Previous studies have shown that LDs accumulate at the periphery of, and eventually translocate into, the chlamydial inclusion. These observations point out to Chlamydia-mediated manipulation of LDs in infected cells, which may impact the function and thereby the protein composition of these organelles. By means of a label-free quantitative mass spectrometry approach we found that the LD proteome is modified in the context of C. trachomatis infection. We determined that LDs isolated from C. trachomatis-infected cells were enriched in proteins related to lipid metabolism, biosynthesis and LD-specific functions. Interestingly, consistent with the observation that LDs intimately associate with the inclusion, a subset of inclusion membrane proteins co-purified with LD protein extracts. Finally, genetic ablation of LDs negatively affected generation of C. trachomatis infectious progeny, consistent with a role for LD biogenesis in optimal chlamydial growth. PMID:25909443

  10. Chlamydia trachomatis Infection Leads to Defined Alterations to the Lipid Droplet Proteome in Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Saka, Hector Alex; Thompson, J. Will; Chen, Yi-Shan; Dubois, Laura G.; Haas, Joel T.; Moseley, Arthur; Valdivia, Raphael H.

    2015-01-01

    The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis is a major human pathogen and a main cause of genital and ocular diseases. During its intracellular cycle, C. trachomatis replicates inside a membrane-bound vacuole termed an “inclusion”. Acquisition of lipids (and other nutrients) from the host cell is a critical step in chlamydial replication. Lipid droplets (LD) are ubiquitous, ER-derived neutral lipid-rich storage organelles surrounded by a phospholipids monolayer and associated proteins. Previous studies have shown that LDs accumulate at the periphery of, and eventually translocate into, the chlamydial inclusion. These observations point out to Chlamydia-mediated manipulation of LDs in infected cells, which may impact the function and thereby the protein composition of these organelles. By means of a label-free quantitative mass spectrometry approach we found that the LD proteome is modified in the context of C. trachomatis infection. We determined that LDs isolated from C. trachomatis-infected cells were enriched in proteins related to lipid metabolism, biosynthesis and LD-specific functions. Interestingly, consistent with the observation that LDs intimately associate with the inclusion, a subset of inclusion membrane proteins co-purified with LD protein extracts. Finally, genetic ablation of LDs negatively affected generation of C. trachomatis infectious progeny, consistent with a role for LD biogenesis in optimal chlamydial growth. PMID:25909443

  11. Reactivation of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in mice by cortisone treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Laitinen, K; Laurila, A L; Leinonen, M; Saikku, P

    1996-01-01

    Reactivation of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection was studied by inducing immunosuppression by cortisone acetate treatment given every other day for 14 days in intranasally infected NIH/s mice. The treatment started 2 or 4 weeks after primary infection, when no C. pneumoniae was detected. C. pneumoniae could be recovered from the lung cultures on days 7 and 9 in 10 and 60% of the mice, respectively, when cortisone treatment was begun 30 days after infection. These results confirm the persistent nature of C. pneumoniae infection. PMID:8606126

  12. Does Inhibition of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Affect Chlamydial Genital Tract Infection in Mice and Guinea Pigs?

    PubMed Central

    Darville, Toni; Andrews, C. W.; Rank, R. G.

    2000-01-01

    The role of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in host defense against chlamydial infection remains unclear. In order to further evaluate the relevance of TNF-α to host resistance in chlamydial genital tract infection, we examined the effect of local inhibition of the TNF-α response in normal C57 mice and in interferon gamma gene-deficient C57 mice infected intravaginally with the mouse pneumonitis agent of Chlamydia trachomatis. Since the guinea pig model of female genital tract infection more closely approximates the human in terms of ascending infection and development of pathology, we also examined the effect of local inhibition of the TNF-α response in guinea pigs infected intravaginally with the guinea pig strain of Chlamydia psittaci. We successfully blocked the early TNF-α response in the respective animal models. This blockade had no effect on the numbers of organisms isolated from the genital tract during the time of TNF-α inhibition in mice or guinea pigs. Analysis of interleukin-1β, macrophage inflammatory protein-2, and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor in the mouse model revealed that blockade of the TNF-α response did not alter the release of these proinflammatory proteins. Yet, in TNF-α-depleted mice, increased numbers of neutrophils were detected in the genital tract, and, in TNF-α-depleted guinea pigs, increased numbers of neutrophils as well as infiltrating lymphocytes were seen in the endocervix. Blockade of TNF-α does not affect the level of infection in mice or guinea pigs, but it may decrease TNF-α-induced apoptosis of infiltrating inflammatory cells. PMID:10948158

  13. Temporal proteomic profiling of Chlamydia trachomatis-infected HeLa-229 human cervical epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tan, Grace Min Yi; Lim, Hui Jing; Yeow, Tee Cian; Movahed, Elaheh; Looi, Chung Yeng; Gupta, Rishein; Arulanandam, Bernard P; Abu Bakar, Sazaly; Sabet, Negar Shafiei; Chang, Li-Yen; Wong, Won Fen

    2016-05-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading causative agent of bacterial sexually transmitted infections worldwide which can lead to female pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility. A greater understanding of host response during chlamydial infection is essential to design intervention technique to reduce the increasing incidence rate of genital chlamydial infection. In this study, we investigated proteome changes in epithelial cells during C. trachomatis infection by using an isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labeling technique coupled with a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS(3) ) analysis. C. trachomatis (serovar D, MOI 1)-infected HeLa-229 human cervical carcinoma epithelial cells (at 2, 4 and 8 h) showed profound modifications of proteome profile which involved 606 host proteins. MGST1, SUGP2 and ATXN10 were among the top in the list of the differentially upregulated protein. Through pathway analysis, we suggested the involvement of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in host cells upon C. trachomatis infection. Network analysis underscored the participation of DNA repair mechanism during C. trachomatis infection. In summary, intense modifications of proteome profile in C. trachomatis-infected HeLa-229 cells indicate complex host-pathogen interactions at early phase of chlamydial infection. PMID:27134121

  14. Compensatory T Cell Responses in IRG-Deficient Mice Prevent Sustained Chlamydia trachomatis Infections

    PubMed Central

    Olive, Andrew J.; Rohlfing, Amy; Taylor, Gregory A.; Starnbach, Michael N.

    2011-01-01

    The obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of bacterial sexually transmitted diseases in the United States. In women C. trachomatis can establish persistent genital infections that lead to pelvic inflammatory disease and sterility. In contrast to natural infections in humans, experimentally induced infections with C. trachomatis in mice are rapidly cleared. The cytokine interferon-γ (IFNγ) plays a critical role in the clearance of C. trachomatis infections in mice. Because IFNγ induces an antimicrobial defense system in mice but not in humans that is composed of a large family of Immunity Related GTPases (IRGs), we questioned whether mice deficient in IRG immunity would develop persistent infections with C. trachomatis as observed in human patients. We found that IRG-deficient Irgm1/m3(-/-) mice transiently develop high bacterial burden post intrauterine infection, but subsequently clear the infection more efficiently than wildtype mice. We show that the delayed but highly effective clearance of intrauterine C. trachomatis infections in Irgm1/m3(-/-) mice is dependent on an exacerbated CD4+ T cell response. These findings indicate that the absence of the predominant murine innate effector mechanism restricting C. trachomatis growth inside epithelial cells results in a compensatory adaptive immune response, which is at least in part driven by CD4+ T cells and prevents the establishment of a persistent infection in mice. PMID:21731484

  15. Chlamydia trachomatis Infection of Endocervical Epithelial Cells Enhances Early HIV Transmission Events

    PubMed Central

    Buckner, Lyndsey R.; Amedee, Angela M.; Albritton, Hannah L.; Kozlowski, Pamela A.; Lacour, Nedra; McGowin, Chris L.; Schust, Danny J.; Quayle, Alison J.

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis causes a predominantly asymptomatic, but generally inflammatory, genital infection that is associated with an increased risk for HIV acquisition. Endocervical epithelial cells provide the major niche for this obligate intracellular bacterium in women, and the endocervix is also a tissue in which HIV transmission can occur. The mechanism by which CT infection enhances HIV susceptibility at this site, however, is not well understood. Utilizing the A2EN immortalized endocervical epithelial cell line grown on cell culture inserts, we evaluated the direct role that CT-infected epithelial cells play in facilitating HIV transmission events. We determined that CT infection significantly enhanced the apical-to-basolateral migration of cell-associated, but not cell-free, HIVBaL, a CCR5-tropic strain of virus, across the endocervical epithelial barrier. We also established that basolateral supernatants from CT-infected A2EN cells significantly enhanced HIV replication in peripheral mononuclear cells and a CCR5+ T cell line. These results suggest that CT infection of endocervical epithelial cells could facilitate both HIV crossing the mucosal barrier and subsequent infection or replication in underlying target cells. Our studies provide a mechanism by which this common STI could potentially promote the establishment of founder virus populations and the maintenance of local HIV reservoirs in the endocervix. Development of an HIV/STI co-infection model also provides a tool to further explore the role of other sexually transmitted infections in enhancing HIV acquisition. PMID:26730599

  16. Estradiol-Treated Female Mice as Surrogate Hosts for Neisseria gonorrhoeae Genital Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Jerse, Ann E.; Wu, Hong; Packiam, Mathanraj; Vonck, Rachel A.; Begum, Afrin A.; Garvin, Lotisha E.

    2011-01-01

    Historically, animal modeling of gonorrhea has been hampered by the exclusive adaptation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to humans. Genital tract infection can be established in female mice that are treated with 17β-estradiol, however, and many features of experimental murine infection mimic human infection. Here we review the colonization kinetics and host response to experimental murine gonococcal infection, including mouse strain differences and evidence that IL-17 responses, toll-like receptor 4, and T regulatory cells play a role in infection. We also discuss the strengths and limitations of the mouse system and the potential of transgenic mice to circumvent host restrictions. Additionally, we review studies with genetically defined mutants that demonstrated a role for sialyltransferase and the MtrC–MtrD–MtrE active efflux pump in evading innate defenses in vivo, but not for factors hypothesized to protect against the phagocytic respiratory burst and H2O2-producing lactobacilli. Studies using estradiol-treated mice have also revealed the existence of non-host-restricted iron sources in the female genital tract and the influence of hormonal factors on colonization kinetics and selection for opacity (Opa) protein expression. Recent work by others with estradiol-treated mice that are transgenic for human carcinoembryonic adhesion molecules (CEACAMs) supports a role for Opa proteins in enhancing cellular attachment and thus reduced shedding of N. gonorrhoeae. Finally we discuss the use of the mouse model in product testing and a recently developed gonorrhea chlamydia coinfection model. PMID:21747807

  17. Endosulfatases SULF1 and SULF2 limit Chlamydia muridarum infection.

    PubMed

    Kim, J H; Chan, C; Elwell, C; Singer, M S; Dierks, T; Lemjabbar-Alaoui, H; Rosen, S D; Engel, J N

    2013-09-01

    The first step in attachment of Chlamydia to host cells is thought to involve reversible binding to host heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), polymers of variably sulfated repeating disaccharide units coupled to diverse protein backbones. However, the key determinants of HSPG structure that are involved in Chlamydia binding are incompletely defined. A previous genome-wide Drosophila RNAi screen suggested that the level of HSPG 6-O sulfation rather than the identity of the proteoglycan backbone maybe a critical determinant for binding. Here, we tested in mammalian cells whether SULF1 or SULF2, human endosulfatases, which remove 6-O sulfates from HSPGs, modulate Chlamydia infection. Ectopic expression of SULF1 or SULF2 in HeLa cells, which decreases cell surface HSPG sulfation, diminished C. muridarum binding and decreased vacuole formation. ShRNA depletion of endogenous SULF2 in a cell line that primarily expresses SULF2 augmented binding and increased vacuole formation. C. muridarum infection of diverse cell lines resulted indownregulation of SULF2 mRNA. In a murine model of acute pneumonia, mice genetically deficient in both endosulfatases or in SULF2 alone demonstrated increased susceptibility to C. muridarum lung infection. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that the level of HSPG 6-O sulfation is a critical determinant of C. muridarum infection in vivo and that 6-O endosulfatases are previously unappreciated modulators of microbial pathogenesis. PMID:23480519

  18. How often are gonorrhoea and genital yeast infection sexually transmitted?

    PubMed

    Thin, R N; Rendell, P; Wadsworth, J

    1979-08-01

    Although gonorrhoea is often regarded as the sexually transmitted disease against which others are measured, its infectivity is not clearly understood. Estimates of the infection rate have varied from 5--90%. In this study, 50 couples with gonorrhoea were matched with 50 couples with genital yeast infection. Gonorrhoea was diagnosed in both partners of 32 couples and genital yeast infection in both partners of 21 couples. These figures provide an indication of the sexual transmission of these conditions. The higher figure for gonorrhoea may be related to a greater urgency in tracing contacts. PMID:486247

  19. Genital Cytomegalovirus Replication Predicts Syphilis Acquisition among HIV-1 Infected Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Gianella, Sara; Smith, Davey M.; Daar, Eric S.; Dube, Michael P.; Lisco, Andrea; Vanpouille, Christophe; Margolis, Leonid; Haubrich, Richard H.; Morris, Sheldon R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Sexually transmitted infections (STI) are common among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). While behavioral factors are important in STI acquisition, other biological factors such as immune modulation due to chronic viral infection may further predispose to STI acquisition. Design Post Hoc analysis including data collected over 12 months of follow-up from 131 HIV-infected MSM receiving antiretroviral therapy and screened for incident bacterial STI every 3 months. Methods Genital secretions collected at baseline were used to measure herpesvirus replication and inflammatory cytokines. Baseline predictors of STI were determined using survival analysis of time to incident STI. Results All participants were seropositive for cytomegalovirus (CMV), and 52% had detectable genital CMV at baseline. Thirty-five individuals acquired STI during follow-up, sometimes with multiple pathogen (17 syphilis, 21 gonorrhea, 14 chlamydia). Syphilis acquisition was associated with genital CMV replication at baseline (19.1% CMV-shedders versus 4.8% non-shedders, p=0.03) and younger age (p=0.02). Lower seminal MCP-1 was associated with higher seminal CMV levels and with syphilis acquisition (p<0.01). For syphilis acquisition, in multivariable Cox-Proportional Hazard model adjusted hazard rates were 3.56 (95%CI:1.00–12.73) for baseline CMV replication and 2.50 (0.92–6.77) for younger age. Conclusions This post hoc analysis suggest that CMV-associated decrease in seminal MCP-1 levels might predispose HIV-infected MSM to syphilis acquisition, but not other STI. Future studies should determine underlying mechanisms and if a causal association exists. PMID:26061824

  20. A prediction rule for selective screening of Chlamydia trachomatis infection

    PubMed Central

    Gotz, H; van Bergen, J E A M; Veldhuijzen, I; Broer, J; Hoebe, C; Richardus, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infections is aimed at the reduction of these infections and subsequent complications. Selective screening may increase the cost effectiveness of a screening programme. Few population based systematic screening programmes have been carried out and attempts to validate selective screening criteria have shown poor performance. This study describes the development of a prediction rule for estimating the risk of chlamydial infection as a basis for selective screening. Methods: A population based chlamydia screening study was performed in the Netherlands by inviting 21 000 15–29 year old women and men in urban and rural areas for home based urine testing. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for chlamydial infection among 6303 sexually active participants, and the discriminative ability was measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Internal validity was assessed with bootstrap resampling techniques. Results: The prevalence of C trachomatis (CT) infection was 2.6% (95% CI 2.2 to 3.2) in women and 2.0% (95% CI 1.4 to 2.7) in men. Chlamydial infection was associated with high level of urbanisation, young age, Surinam/Antillian ethnicity, low/intermediate education, multiple lifetime partners, a new contact in the previous two months, no condom use at last sexual contact, and complaints of (post)coital bleeding in women and frequent urination in men. A prediction model with these risk factors showed adequate discriminative ability at internal validation (AUC 0.78). Conclusion: The prediction rule has the potential to guide individuals in their choice of participation when offered chlamydia screening and is a promising tool for selective CT screening at population level. PMID:15681717

  1. Resolution of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection Is Associated with a Distinct T Cell Response Profile.

    PubMed

    Picard, Michele D; Bodmer, Jean-Luc; Gierahn, Todd M; Lee, Alexander; Price, Jessica; Cohane, Kenya; Clemens, Veronica; DeVault, Victoria L; Gurok, Galina; Kohberger, Robert; Higgins, Darren E; Siber, George R; Flechtner, Jessica Baker; Geisler, William M

    2015-11-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the causative agent of the most frequently reported bacterial sexually transmitted infection, the total burden of which is underestimated due to the asymptomatic nature of the infection. Untreated C. trachomatis infections can cause significant morbidities, including pelvic inflammatory disease and tubal factor infertility (TFI). The human immune response against C. trachomatis, an obligate intracellular bacterium, is poorly characterized but is thought to rely on cell-mediated immunity, with CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells implicated in protection. In this report, we present immune profiling data of subjects enrolled in a multicenter study of C. trachomatis genital infection. CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells from subjects grouped into disease-specific cohorts were screened using a C. trachomatis proteomic library to identify the antigen specificities of recall T cell responses after natural exposure by measuring interferon gamma (IFN-γ) levels. We identified specific T cell responses associated with the resolution of infection, including unique antigens identified in subjects who spontaneously cleared infection and different antigens associated with C. trachomatis-related sequelae, such as TFI. These data suggest that novel and unique C. trachomatis T cell antigens identified in individuals with effective immune responses can be considered as targets for vaccine development, and by excluding antigens associated with deleterious sequelae, immune-mediated pathologies may be circumvented. PMID:26446421

  2. Current Chlamydia trachomatis Infection, A Major Cause of Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Mania-Pramanik, Jayanti; Kerkar, Shilpa; Sonawane, Shobha; Mehta, Pratibha; Salvi, Vinita

    2012-01-01

    Background In India, the impact of current Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) in reproductive health remains a neglected area of investigation. The present study evaluates if current Chlamydia infection is associated with any clinical complication that needs the attention of clinical investigators. Methods In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 896 women attending the Gynecology Out Patient for the detection of C. trachomatis infection. Polymerase chain reaction was used to diagnose current C. trachomatis infection and ELISA for past infections. Bacterial vaginosis, Candida and Trichomonas were screened. The results of symptomatic and asymptomatic groups were compared. The data was analyzed using Epi Info version 6 and “Z” test. A probability value of p≤0.05 was considered as significant.. Results Statistical analysis revealed significant association between current C. trachomatis infection with infertility when comparing infected fertile (18.6% vs. 9.4%, odds ratio: 2.19, p<0.0005) and uninfected infertile women (45.6% vs. 27.3%, odds ratio: 2.24, p<0.0001). Average infection rate was 12.1%, highest in women with infertility (18.6%) or with ectopic pregnancy (25%). Significant proportions of infected women with infertility (p<0.01) or with recent pregnancy (p<0.001) were asymptomatic. Follow up of infected women who became negative after treatment [28 women from infertility group and 9 women with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA)] revealed live birth in 8 (21.6%) women within one year, 4 with infertility and 4 with RSA. Conclusion Study findings suggest association between current C. trachomatis infection and infertility. Absence of signs and symptoms associated with this infection highlights its diagnosis in women with a history of infertility and RSA for their better management, as revealed by live births with one year of follow up. PMID:23926547

  3. [Genital infections in girls with type 1 diabetes].

    PubMed

    Petrova, Ch; Shentov, B; Tanchev, S; Mikhaĭlov, V; Sredkova, M; POpova, V

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relation between genital infections (frequency, etiology, clinical presentation) among girls with type 1 diabetes and some factors as age of the girls, duration and metabolic control of diabetes. Forty-three girls with type 1 diabetes and twelve healthy girls for controls were involved in the study. Methods used are: genital tract inspection, direct microscopy and cultures from genital discharge and urine. Glycaemic control in the diabetic girls was assessed by measuring total glycosylated haemoglobin. The results show vulvovaginal candidiasis in 27 (62.8%) in diabetic girls versus 2 (16.6%) in controls (p < 0.01). There was clear prevalence of non-albicans Candida species. Concomitant infection with bacterial pathogens were proved in only 6 (13.9%) of diabetic girls and 1 (8.5%) of the controls. The clinical presentation of genital candidiasis was vulvovaginitis and most of the affected diabetic girls (88.9%) were in puberty period. There was no relation between duration and metabolic control of diabetes and genital infections. PMID:15318538

  4. In Vivo and Ex Vivo Imaging Reveals a Long-Lasting Chlamydial Infection in the Mouse Gastrointestinal Tract following Genital Tract Inoculation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qi; Huang, Yumeng; Gong, Siqi; Yang, Zhangsheng; Sun, Xin; Schenken, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Intravaginal infection with Chlamydia muridarum in mice can ascend to the upper genital tract, resulting in hydrosalpinx, a pathological hallmark for tubal infertility in women infected with C. trachomatis. Here, we utilized in vivo imaging of C. muridarum infection in mice following an intravaginal inoculation and confirmed the rapid ascent of the chlamydial organisms from the lower to upper genital tracts. Unexpectedly, the C. muridarum-derived signal was still detectable in the abdominal area 100 days after inoculation. Ex vivo imaging of the mouse organs revealed that the long-lasting presence of the chlamydial signal was restricted to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which was validated by directly measuring the chlamydial live organisms and genomes in the same organs. The C. muridarum organisms spreading from the genital to the GI tracts were detected in different mouse strains and appeared to be independent of oral or rectal routes. Mice prevented from orally taking up excretions also developed the long-lasting GI tract infection. Inoculation of C. muridarum directly into the upper genital tract, which resulted in a delayed vaginal shedding of live organisms, accelerated the chlamydial spreading to the GI tract. Thus, we have demonstrated that the genital tract chlamydial organisms may use a systemic route to spread to and establish a long-lasting infection in the GI tract. The significance of the chlamydial spreading from the genital to GI tracts is discussed. PMID:26099591

  5. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia Infection in Domestic Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in China

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Xiaoting; Qin, Siyuan; Lou, Zhilong; Ning, Hongrui; Sun, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria distributed all over the world, known to cause various forms of diseases in animals and humans. In the present study, a serological survey was conducted to detect the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with rabbit chlamydiosis in northeast China, including Liaoning province, Jilin province, Heilongjiang province, and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Antibodies to Chlamydia were determined by indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 17.88% in total of 800 blood samples. The Chlamydia seroprevalence varied in domestic rabbits from different factors, and genders of domestic rabbits were considered as major risk factors associated with Chlamydia infection. Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in northeast China, with higher exposure risk in female domestic rabbits. These findings suggested the potential importance of domestic rabbits in the transmission of zoonotic Chlamydia infection, and thus Chlamydia should be taken into consideration in diagnosing rabbit diseases. To our knowledge, there is no report of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in China and the results extend the host range for Chlamydia, which has important implications for public health and the local economy. PMID:25945336

  6. [Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and factors with the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections in college students].

    PubMed

    Occhionero, Marcelo; Paniccia, Laura; Pedersen, Dina; Rossi, Gabriela; Mazzucchini, Héctor; Entrocassi, Andrea; Gallo Vaulet, Lucia; Gualtieri, Valeria; Rodríguez Fermepin, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection is nowadays considered one of the most frequent causes of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in the world, mainly affecting the group of young people under 25 years old. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis infection in newly admitted students to Universidad Nacional del Sur, Bahía Blanca, Argentina, and to evaluate the risk factors to acquire STI. For that purpose, 204 young college students with a mean age of 19 were involved in this study. Each participant delivered a sample of first-void urine and completed a questionnaire which was then submitted anonymously. The research for C. trachomatis was done on 114 valid samples through a technique of DNA amplification, whose molecular target was the gene ompA. Four cases of infection by C. trachomatis were detected with a prevalence of 3.5%. The risks factors associated to the infection were a history of 7 or more partners since the start of sexual activity and contact with a new sexual partner in the last 4 months. The prevalence of such infection reflects a moderate circulation of this microorganism in the studied population. This fact, along with some aspects shown by the questionnaire results, would characterize a population having a low risk profile for acquiring STIs. However, some other information obtained from the questionnaires gave some opposite evidence, which would alert us on the need of keeping watch, raising awareness and implementing preventive actions in this population. PMID:25683522

  7. Use of a Guinea Pig-Specific Transcriptome Array for Evaluation of Protective Immunity against Genital Chlamydial Infection following Intranasal Vaccination in Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Veselenak, Ronald L.; Li, Yansong; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Murthy, Ashlesh K.; Cap, Andrew P.; Guentzel, M. Neal; Chambers, James P.; Zhong, Guangming; Rank, Roger G.; Pyles, Richard B.; Arulanandam, Bernard P.

    2014-01-01

    Guinea pigs have been used as a second animal model to validate putative anti-chlamydial vaccine candidates tested in mice. However, the lack of guinea pig-specific reagents has limited the utility of this animal model in Chlamydia sp. vaccine studies. Using a novel guinea pig-specific transcriptome array, we determined correlates of protection in guinea pigs vaccinated with Chlamydia caviae (C. caviae) via the intranasal route, previously reported by us and others to provide robust antigen specific immunity against subsequent intravaginal challenge. C. caviae vaccinated guinea pigs resolved genital infection by day 3 post challenge. In contrast, mock vaccinated animals continued to shed viable Chlamydia up to day 18 post challenge. Importantly, at day 80 post challenge, vaccinated guinea pigs experienced significantly reduced genital pathology - a sequelae of genital chlamydial infections, in comparison to mock vaccinated guinea pigs. Sera from vaccinated guinea pigs displayed antigen specific IgG responses and increased IgG1 and IgG2 titers capable of neutralizing GPIC in vitro. Th1-cellular/inflammatory immune genes and Th2-humoral associated genes were also found to be elevated in vaccinated guinea pigs at day 3 post-challenge and correlated with early clearance of the bacterium. Overall, this study provides the first evidence of guinea pig-specific genes involved in anti-chlamydial vaccination and illustrates the enhancement of the utility of this animal model in chlamydial pathogenesis. PMID:25502875

  8. Genital ulcers associated with acute Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    PubMed

    Taylor, S; Drake, S M; Dedicoat, M; Wood, M J

    1998-08-01

    To date there have been only five reported cases of females with genital ulceration associated with primary Epstein-Barr virus infection. We describe two further patients and review the clinical features of all seven cases, noting the typical features, particularly purple ulcer margins and systemic symptoms, which should alert the physician to consider this diagnosis. PMID:9924475

  9. Genital ulcers associated with acute Epstein-Barr virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, S.; Drake, S. M.; Dedicoat, M.; Wood, M. J.

    1998-01-01

    To date there have been only five reported cases of females with genital ulceration associated with primary Epstein-Barr virus infection. We describe two further patients and review the clinical features of all seven cases, noting the typical features, particularly purple ulcer margins and systemic symptoms, which should alert the physician to consider this diagnosis. ??? PMID:9924475

  10. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections in Greenland. A seroepidemiological study.

    PubMed Central

    Mårdh, P A; Lind, I; From, E; Andersen, A L

    1980-01-01

    In a sero-epidemiological study of the prevalence of chlamydial and gonococcal infections in Greenland three groups of subjects were studied--262 patients attending an outpatient department in the town of Nuuk (of whom 12% harboured Chlamydia trachomatis and 54% Neisseria gonorrhoeae), 63 controls from the same town, and the entire population of 150 in the settlement of Uvkusigsat. Using a microimmunofluorescence test evidence of exposure to C trachomatis was found in 79% of the female and 26% of the male patients, in 12% and 50% of the female and male controls respectively, and in 51% and 21% of the female and male populations of Uvkusigsat respectively. Using an indirect haemagglutination test antibodies to gonococcal pili were found in sera of 92% of the female and 70% of the male patients, in 30% of the male and 10% of the female controls, and in 41% of the women and 33% of the men in Uvkusigsat. The study indicates that genital chlamydial and gonococcal infections are serious public health problems in Greenland and that such infections are acquired early in both sexes and often occur concomitantly. PMID:6775773

  11. Differences in clinical manifestations of genital chlamydial infections related to serovars.

    PubMed Central

    van de Laar, M J; van Duynhoven, Y T; Fennema, J S; Ossewaarde, J M; van den Brule, A J; van Doornum, G J; Coutinho, R A; van den Hoek, J A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the association of serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis with clinical manifestations of genital tract infection and socio-demographic characteristics. METHODS: In 1986-88 the C trachomatis isolates from 159 heterosexual men and 116 women attending a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic were collected and typed accordingly. A medical history was recorded, a physical examination took place and samples were taken for laboratory diagnostics. RESULTS: Serovars E, F and D were the most common for both men (75%) and women (67%). Men infected with serovars of the C-complex had more often a history of STD (p = 0.06). The opposite was demonstrated in women (p = 0.07). In addition, women younger than 18 years at first intercourse were more often infected with C-complex serovars (p = 0.05). For men, the serovars F/G less often produced symptoms of urethral discharge (p = 0.01) than the serovars of the B-complex and C-complex and were less often associated with the presence of 10 or more leukocytes in a Gram-stained smear (p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, infections with serovars F and G caused less obvious symptoms and signs of inflammation in men; in women no differences were found in the clinical manifestation of infections with different serovars. PMID:8976830

  12. Chlamydia pecorum Infection in Free-ranging Koalas ( Phascolarctos cinereus ) on French Island, Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Legione, Alistair R; Amery-Gale, Jemima; Lynch, Michael; Haynes, Leesa; Gilkerson, James R; Sansom, Fiona M; Devlin, Joanne M

    2016-04-28

    We detected Chlamydia pecorum in two koalas ( Phascolarctos cinereus ) from a closed island population in Victoria, Australia, previously free of Chlamydia infection. The ompA and multilocus sequence type were most closely related to published isolates of livestock rather than koala origin, suggesting potential cross-species transmission of C. pecorum . PMID:26981690

  13. Waddlia chondrophila induces systemic infection, organ pathology, and elicits Th1-associated humoral immunity in a murine model of genital infection

    PubMed Central

    Vasilevsky, Sam; Gyger, Joel; Piersigilli, Alessandra; Pilloux, Ludovic; Greub, Gilbert; Stojanov, Milos; Baud, David

    2015-01-01

    Waddlia chondrophila is a known bovine abortigenic Chlamydia-related bacterium that has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes in human. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding how W. chondrophila infection spreads, its ability to elicit an immune response and induce pathology. A murine model of genital infection was developed to investigate the pathogenicity and immune response associated with a W. chondrophila infection. Genital inoculation of the bacterial agent resulted in a dose-dependent infection that spread to lumbar lymph nodes and successively to spleen and liver. Bacterial-induced pathology peaked on day 14, characterized by leukocyte infiltration (uterine horn, liver, and spleen), necrosis (liver) and extramedullary hematopoiesis (spleen). Immunohistochemistry demonstrated the presence of a large number of W. chondrophila in the spleen on day 14. Robust IgG titers were detected by day 14 and remained high until day 52. IgG isotypes consisted of high IgG2a, moderate IgG3 and no detectable IgG1, indicating a Th1-associated immune response. This study provides the first evidence that W. chondrophila genital infection is capable of inducing a systemic infection that spreads to major organs, induces uterus, spleen, and liver pathology and elicits a Th1-skewed humoral response. This new animal model will help our understanding of the mechanisms related to intracellular bacteria-induced miscarriages, the most frequent complication of pregnancy that affects one in four women. PMID:26583077

  14. Genital HPV infection and related lesions in men.

    PubMed

    Anic, Gabriella M; Giuliano, Anna R

    2011-10-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is highly prevalent in men and there is an interest in further understanding the relationship between HPV infection and disease in men, including the development of genital warts, penile intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive penile carcinomas. Genital warts are caused by HPV 6/11 and are the most common clinical manifestation of HPV in men. Though they are benign and not associated with mortality, they are a source of psychosocial distress and physical discomfort. HPV infection can also develop into invasive penile carcinoma which is associated with morbidity and mortality. Approximately 40% of invasive penile carcinomas are attributable to HPV with HPV 16, 18, and 6/11 being the genotypes most commonly detected in penile tumors. Penile carcinomas of the basaloid and warty histologic subtypes are most likely to test positive for HPV. In addition to HPV infection, the risk factors most strongly associated with penile cancer are lack of neonatal circumcision, phimosis (the inability of uncircumcised men to fully retract the foreskin), and anogenital warts. Male vaccination with the quadrivalent HPV vaccine that protects against HPV 6/11/16/18 has been shown to significantly reduce HPV-associated anogenital infection and disease in men. If the quadrivalent vaccine is successfully disseminated to large segments of the young male population, there is the potential for substantial reduction in genital HPV infection and related lesions in men. PMID:21962470

  15. Thiazolino 2-Pyridone Amide Inhibitors of Chlamydia trachomatis Infectivity.

    PubMed

    Good, James A D; Silver, Jim; Núñez-Otero, Carlos; Bahnan, Wael; Krishnan, K Syam; Salin, Olli; Engström, Patrik; Svensson, Richard; Artursson, Per; Gylfe, Åsa; Bergström, Sven; Almqvist, Fredrik

    2016-03-10

    The bacterial pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis is a global health burden currently treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics which disrupt commensal bacteria. We recently identified a compound through phenotypic screening that blocked infectivity of this intracellular pathogen without host cell toxicity (compound 1, KSK 120). Herein, we present the optimization of 1 to a class of thiazolino 2-pyridone amides that are highly efficacious (EC50 ≤ 100 nM) in attenuating infectivity across multiple serovars of C. trachomatis without host cell toxicity. The lead compound 21a exhibits reduced lipophilicity versus 1 and did not affect the growth or viability of representative commensal flora at 50 μM. In microscopy studies, a highly active fluorescent analogue 37 localized inside the parasitiphorous inclusion, indicative of a specific targeting of bacterial components. In summary, we present a class of small molecules to enable the development of specific treatments for C. trachomatis. PMID:26849778

  16. Cytotoxic cells induced after Chlamydia psittaci infection in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lammert, J.K.

    1982-03-01

    The ability of spleen cells from Chlamydia psittaci-infected mice to lyse C. psittaci-infected and uninfected target cell monolayers was studied. The cytotoxicity assay used was a terminal label method in which the number of adherent target cells surviving the interaction with effector cells was determined by measuring the uptake of (3H)uridine by such cells. It was observed that in the first few days postinfection (3 to 5), spleens contained cells that lysed infected and uninfected targets with equal efficiency. Subsequently, infected targets were killed primarily. The activity of effector spleen cells for infected targets continued, although at a reduced level, beyond 21 days postinfection. Intact effector cells were required since a disruption by sonication resulted in a loss of cytotoxicity. The enhanced killing observed with infected targets was also observed when target cells were sensitized with heat- or UV-inactivated C. psittaci. This study suggests that the induction of cytotoxic cells after C. psittaci infection may contribute to the ability of the host to control multiplication of the microorganism.

  17. Chlamydia

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the cervix. It can also lead to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) , which is an infection of the uterus, ovaries, and/or fallopian tubes. PID can cause infertility and ectopic (tubal) pregnancies later ...

  18. Steroids alone or as adjunctive therapy with doxycycline fail to improve oviduct damage in mice infected with Chlamydia muridarum.

    PubMed

    Corr, Tammy E; Sullivan, Jeanne; Frazer, Lauren C; Andrews, Charles W; O'Connell, Catherine M; Darville, Toni

    2014-06-01

    In women, Chlamydia trachomatis can ascend from the cervix to the fallopian tubes, where an overly aggressive host inflammatory response can cause scarring that leads to chronic pelvic pain, infertility, or ectopic pregnancy. Although screening and treatment programs for women have resulted in decreased rates of sequelae, morbidities associated with oviduct scarring continue to occur. Since corticosteroids have anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects, we tested the ability of dexamethasone to inhibit inflammation and prevent oviduct scarring in mice genitally infected with Chlamydia muridarum. The administration of 1 or 2.5 mg/kg of body weight of dexamethasone on days 7 to 21 of infection resulted in reduced accumulation of inflammatory cells in the oviducts compared to that in controls. However, a concomitant increase in bacterial burden was observed, and chronic oviduct disease was not reduced. Adjunctive administration of a prolonged (21-day) or short (3-day) course of dexamethasone in combination with the antibiotic doxycycline also failed to reduce chronic oviduct pathology compared to antibiotic treatment alone. Steroids administered alone or adjunctively with antibiotics failed to prevent oviduct damage in this murine model of C. trachomatis infection. PMID:24695778

  19. Steroids Alone or as Adjunctive Therapy with Doxycycline Fail To Improve Oviduct Damage in Mice Infected with Chlamydia muridarum

    PubMed Central

    Corr, Tammy E.; Sullivan, Jeanne; Frazer, Lauren C.; Andrews, Charles W.; O'Connell, Catherine M.

    2014-01-01

    In women, Chlamydia trachomatis can ascend from the cervix to the fallopian tubes, where an overly aggressive host inflammatory response can cause scarring that leads to chronic pelvic pain, infertility, or ectopic pregnancy. Although screening and treatment programs for women have resulted in decreased rates of sequelae, morbidities associated with oviduct scarring continue to occur. Since corticosteroids have anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects, we tested the ability of dexamethasone to inhibit inflammation and prevent oviduct scarring in mice genitally infected with Chlamydia muridarum. The administration of 1 or 2.5 mg/kg of body weight of dexamethasone on days 7 to 21 of infection resulted in reduced accumulation of inflammatory cells in the oviducts compared to that in controls. However, a concomitant increase in bacterial burden was observed, and chronic oviduct disease was not reduced. Adjunctive administration of a prolonged (21-day) or short (3-day) course of dexamethasone in combination with the antibiotic doxycycline also failed to reduce chronic oviduct pathology compared to antibiotic treatment alone. Steroids administered alone or adjunctively with antibiotics failed to prevent oviduct damage in this murine model of C. trachomatis infection. PMID:24695778

  20. Current methods of laboratory diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infections.

    PubMed Central

    Black, C M

    1997-01-01

    Infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis are probably the most common sexually transmitted diseases in the United States. Commonly unrecognized and often inadequately treated, chlamydial infections can ascend the reproductive tract and cause pelvic inflammatory disease, which often results in the devastating consequences of infertility, ectopic pregnancy, or chronic pelvic pain. C. trachomatis infections are also known to increase the risk for human immunodeficiency virus infection. The obligate intracellular life cycle of C. trachomatis has traditionally required laboratory diagnostic tests that are technically demanding, labor-intensive, expensive, and difficult to access. In spite of these historical challenges, however, laboratory diagnosis of C. trachomatis has been a rapidly advancing area in which there is presently a wide array of commercial diagnostic technologies, costs, manufacturers. This review describes and compares the diagnostic methods for C. trachomatis infection that are currently approved for use in the United States, including the newest DNA amplification technologies which are yet to be licensed for commercial use. Issues to consider in selecting a test for purposes of screening versus diagnosis based on prevalence, performance, legal, social, and cost issues are also discussed. PMID:8993862

  1. Chlamydia psittaci infection in canaries heavily infested by Dermanyssus gallinae.

    PubMed

    Circella, Elena; Pugliese, N; Todisco, G; Cafiero, M A; Sparagano, O A E; Camarda, A

    2011-12-01

    Dermanyssus gallinae is a haematophagous ectoparasite responsible for anemia, weight loss, dermatitis and a decrease in egg production. Dermanyssus gallinae may play a role in the modulation of the host immune system, maybe predisposing the host to some bacterial infections such as chlamydiosis. This is an important zoonosis. Humans are exposed to Chlamydia psittaci through inhalation of the agent dispersed from the infected birds. In this study, a syndrome observed in an aviary of canaries was investigated. A heavy infestation by D. gallinae was reported. Simultaneously, a C. psittaci infection was molecularly confirmed in the canaries. Combined therapy was applied successfully. The association of C. psittaci with the examined mites has been confirmed. Therefore, we think that D. gallinae have played a role in the spreading of C. psittaci infection among the canaries. Moreover, D. gallinae could have played an important role predisposing the canaries to the development of chlamydiosis, by inducing anemia and debilitation. The control of mites in the aviaries may represent a crucial step for the prevention of important infection such as chlamydiosis in birds and humans. PMID:21761223

  2. Trichomonas vaginalis genital infections: progress and challenges.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Laura H; Hobbs, Marcia M; Seña, Arlene C; Sobel, Jack D; Schwebke, Jane R; Krieger, John N; McClelland, R Scott; Workowski, Kimberly A

    2011-12-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) infection is the most prevalent curable sexually transmitted infection in the United States and worldwide. Most TV infections are asymptomatic, and the accurate diagnosis of this infection has been limited by lack of sufficiently sensitive and specific diagnostic tests, particularly for men. To provide updates for the 2010 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, a PubMed search was conducted of all TV literature published from 9 January 2004 through 24 September 2008. Approximately 175 pertinent abstracts and articles were reviewed and discussed with national experts. This article describes advances in TV diagnostics which have led to an improved understanding of the epidemiology of this pathogen, as well as potential biologic and epidemiological interactions between TV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). New data on treatment outcomes, metronidazole-resistant TV, management of nitroimidazole-allergic patients, frequency of recurrent TV infection following treatment, and screening considerations for TV in certain populations are also presented. PMID:22080269

  3. The Pathobiology of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Lower Female Genital Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Jennifer L.; Butler, Emily K.

    2011-01-01

    Infection and disease associated with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the gonococcus, continue to be a global health problem. Asymptomatic and subclinical gonococcal infections occur at a high frequency in females; thus, the true incidence of N. gonorrhoeae infections are presumed to be severely underestimated. Inherent to this asymptomatic/subclinical diseased state is the continued prevalence of this organism within the general population, as well as the medical, economic, and social burden equated with the observed chronic, disease sequelae. As infections of the lower female genital tract (i.e., the uterine cervix) commonly result in subclinical disease, it follows that the pathobiology of cervical gonorrhea would differ from that observed for other sites of infection. In this regard, the potential responses to infection that are generated by the female reproductive tract mucosa are unique in that they are governed, in part, by cyclic fluctuations in steroid hormone levels. The lower female genital tract has the further distinction of being able to functionally discriminate between resident commensal microbiota and transient pathogens. The expression of functionally active complement receptor 3 by the lower, but not the upper, female genital tract mucosa; together with data indicating that gonococcal adherence to and invasion of primary cervical epithelial cells and tissue are predominately aided by this surface-expressed host molecule; provide one explanation for asymptomatic/subclinical gonococcal cervicitis. However, co-evolution of the gonococcus with its sole human host has endowed this organism with variable survival strategies that not only aid these bacteria in successfully evasion of immune detection and function but also enhance cervical colonization and cellular invasion. To this end, we herein summarize current knowledge pertaining to the pathobiology of gonococcal infection of the human cervix. PMID:21747805

  4. The prevalence and clinical significance of Chlamydia infection in island and mainland populations of Victorian koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    PubMed

    Patterson, Jade L S; Lynch, Michael; Anderson, Garry A; Noormohammadi, Amir H; Legione, Alistair; Gilkerson, James R; Devlin, Joanne M

    2015-04-01

    Chlamydia infection is known to impact the health of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, but the clinical significance of Chlamydia infections in Victorian koalas is not well described. We examined the prevalence of Chlamydia infection and assessed associated health parameters in two Victorian koala populations known to be Chlamydia positive. The same testing regimen was applied to a third Victorian population in which Chlamydia had not been detected. We examined 288 koalas and collected samples from the urogenital sinus and conjunctival sacs. Detection and differentiation of Chlamydia species utilized real-time PCR and high-resolution melting curve analysis. Chlamydia pecorum was detected in two populations (prevalences: 25% and 41%, respectively) but only from urogenital sinus swabs. Chlamydia was not detected in the third population. Chlamydia pneumoniae was not detected. Chlamydia pecorum infection was positively associated with wet bottom (indicating chronic urinary tract disease) in one Chlamydia-positive population and with abnormal urogenital ultrasound findings in the other Chlamydia-positive population. The prevalence of wet bottom was similar in all populations (including the Chlamydia-free population), suggesting there is another significant cause (or causes) of wet bottom in Victorian koalas. Ocular disease was not observed. This is the largest study of Chlamydia infection in Victorian koalas, and the results suggest the potential for epidemiologic differences related to Chlamydia infections between Victorian koalas and koalas in Queensland and NSW and also between geographically distinct Victorian populations. Further studies to investigate the genotypes of C. pecorum present in Victorian koalas and to identify additional causes of wet bottom in koalas are indicated. PMID:25588005

  5. [Modern ways of treating female genital infections].

    PubMed

    Sidorova, I S; Belopol'skaia, Kh A

    2012-01-01

    In article various ways of increase of efficiency of treatment of is mixed the bacterial-virus infection of the bottom department of sexual ways at women by means of application in complex therapy of homologous bacteriophages, pectovit, antiviral -immunomodulation therapies and sated with oxygen (oxygenic) water solutions of antiseptic tanks are considered. The scientifically-practical urgency of this problem is represented and actual for the decision of an important social and economic problem of improvement of quality of life, decrease in number of infectious complications and perfection of the medical help to sick women with frequent recidives an infection of the bottom department of sexual ways. PMID:22834321

  6. Oral mucosal changes in women with genital HPV infection.

    PubMed

    Kellokoski, J; Syrjänen, S; Syrjänen, K; Yliskoski, M

    1990-03-01

    Sixty different types of human papillomavirus (HPV) are currently recognized. Of these, HPV types 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 11, 13, 16, 18, 30, 32 and 57 have been identified in oral squamous cell lesions. The prevalence and incidence of clinical HPV infections of oral mucosa are incompletely established, and the figures on subclinical and latent infections are completely lacking. Similarly, no data exist on transmission of oral HPV infections. A long-term prospective follow-up study was started to assess the oral mucosal changes related to HPV infection in women with genital HPV infections. The aim was to elucidate whether genital HPV infections predispose the oral mucosa to this virus. This study reports the clinical, histologic and cytologic findings of oral mucosa as related to the genital status of 334 women prospectively followed-up in Kuopio University Central Hospital since 1981. At the time of examination, 5% presented with hand warts. Clinical wart in oral cavity was found in three patients (0.9%) only. Oral mucosa was clinically normal in 207 of 334 (62%) patients examined. Biopsies (n = 255) were taken from the buccal mucosa beneath the linea alba and above the sulcus in the region of the first molar, or from a lesion whenever present. Cytologic scrapings were taken from both sides of the buccal mucosa. Koilocytes were found in 0.9% of the cytologic scrapings, and in 9.4% of the biopsies. Altogether, four squamous cell papillomas and five flat condylomas were found in the biopsies. Morphologic changes suggestive for HPV were present in 25 biopsies. Hyperkeratosis proved to be a frequent finding (34%) in these biopsies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1692879

  7. Chlamydia Infection Across Host Species Boundaries Promotes Distinct Sets of Transcribed Anti-Apoptotic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Messinger, Joshua E.; Nelton, Emmalin; Feeney, Colleen; Gondek, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydiae, obligate intracellular bacteria, cause significant human and veterinary associated diseases. Having emerged an estimated 700-million years ago, these bacteria have twice adapted to humans as a host species, causing sexually transmitted infection (C. trachomatis) and respiratory associated disease (C. pneumoniae). The principle mechanism of host cell defense against these intracellular bacteria is the induction of cell death via apoptosis. However, in the “arms race” of co-evolution, Chlamydiae have developed mechanisms to promote cell viability and inhibit cell death. Herein we examine the impact of Chlamydiae infection across multiple host species on transcription of anti-apoptotic genes. We found mostly distinct patterns of gene expression (Mcl1 and cIAPs) elicited by each pathogen-host pair indicating Chlamydiae infection across host species boundaries does not induce a universally shared host response. Understanding species specific host-pathogen interactions is paramount to deciphering how potential pathogens become emerging diseases. PMID:26779446

  8. Chlamydia trachomatis Incidence and Re-Infection among Young Women – Behavioural and Microbiological Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Jennifer; Tabrizi, Sepehr N.; Fairley, Christopher K.; Chen, Marcus Y.; Bradshaw, Catriona S.; Twin, Jimmy; Taylor, Nicole; Donovan, Basil; Kaldor, John M.; McNamee, Kathleen; Urban, Eve; Walker, Sandra; Currie, Marian; Birden, Hudson; Bowden, Francis; Gunn, Jane; Pirotta, Marie; Gurrin, Lyle; Harindra, Veerakathy; Garland, Suzanne M.; Hocking, Jane S.

    2012-01-01

    Background This study aimed to estimate rates of chlamydia incidence and re-infection and to investigate the dynamics of chlamydia organism load in prevalent, incident and re-infections among young Australian women. Methods 1,116 women aged 16 to 25 years were recruited from primary care clinics in Australia. Vaginal swabs were collected at 3 to 6 month intervals for chlamydia testing. Chlamydia organism load was measured by quantitative PCR. Results There were 47 incident cases of chlamydia diagnosed and 1,056.34 person years of follow up with a rate of 4.4 per 100 person years (95% CI: 3.3, 5.9). Incident infection was associated with being aged 16 to 20 years [RR = 3.7 (95%CI: 1.9, 7.1)], being employed [RR = 2.4 (95%CI: 1.1, 4.9)] and having two or more new sex partners [RR = 5.5 (95%CI: 2.6, 11.7)]. Recent antibiotic use was associated with a reduced incidence [RR:0.1 (95%CI: 0.0, 0.5)]. There were 14 re-infections with a rate of 22.3 per 100 person years (95%CI: 13.2, 37.6). The median time to re-infection was 4.6 months. Organism load was higher for prevalent than incident infections (p<0.01) and for prevalent than re-infections (p<0.01). Conclusions Chlamydia is common among young women and a high proportion of women are re-infected within a short period of time, highlighting the need for effective partner treatment and repeat testing. The difference in organism load between prevalent and incident infections suggests prevalent infection may be more important for ongoing transmission of chlamydia. PMID:22662220

  9. Immunity against a Chlamydia infection and disease may be determined by a balance of IL-17 signaling.

    PubMed

    O'Meara, Connor P; Armitage, Charles W; Harvie, Marina C G; Andrew, Dean W; Timms, Peter; Lycke, Nils Y; Beagley, Kenneth W

    2014-03-01

    Most vaccines developed against Chlamydia using animal models provide partial protection against a genital tract infection. However, protection against the oviduct pathology associated with infertility is highly variable and often has no defining immunological correlate. When comparing two adjuvants (CTA1-DD and a combination of Cholera toxin plus CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide-CT/CpG) combined with the chlamydial major outer membrane protein (MOMP) antigen and delivered via the intranasal (IN), sublingual (SL) or transcutaneous (TC) routes, we identified two vaccine groups with contrasting outcomes following infection. SL immunization with MOMP/CTA1-DD induced a 70% reduction in the incidence of oviduct pathology, without significantly altering the course of infection. Conversely, IN immunization with MOMP/CT/CpG prevented an ascending infection, but not the oviduct pathology. This anomaly presented a unique opportunity to study the mechanisms by which vaccines can prevent oviduct pathology, other than by controlling the infection. The IL-17 signaling in the oviducts was found to associate with both the enhancement of immunity to infection and the development of oviduct pathology. This conflicting role of IL-17 may provide some explanation for the discordance in protection between infection and disease and suggests that controlling immunopathology, as opposed to the rapid eradication of the infection, may be essential for an effective human chlamydial vaccine that prevents infertility. PMID:24366518

  10. Epidemiology and natural history of genital human papillomavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Bethany A

    2006-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a ubiquitous human pathogen that causes cervical and other anogenital cancers as well as genital warts and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. Human papillomavirus infection is most common among young, sexually active individuals, and it is so prevalent that approximately 75% to 80% of sexually active individuals will become infected in their lifetime. Currently, options are limited for both prevention of infection of patients with HPV-associated disease: infection can only be prevented with complete abstinence from all forms of sexual activity because condoms do not offer complete protection from HPV and HPV can be transmitted by nonintromissive sexual activities. Treatment of patients with HPV-associated disease such as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and genital warts consists of counseling, treatment if indicated, and monitoring for recurrence. Soon, however, prevention of these HPV-related diseases may be available in the form of a prophylactic HPV vaccine. Phase 3 studies of a quadrivalent vaccine that protects against both high- and low-risk types of HPV demonstrated the vaccine to be 100% effective in preventing HPV type 16- and type 18-associated cervical disease, suggesting that these vaccines, if made widely available, will dramatically reduce the burden of HPV-related disease. PMID:16729554

  11. Mutational Analysis of the Chlamydia muridarum Plasticity Zone.

    PubMed

    Rajaram, Krithika; Giebel, Amanda M; Toh, Evelyn; Hu, Shuai; Newman, Jasmine H; Morrison, Sandra G; Kari, Laszlo; Morrison, Richard P; Nelson, David E

    2015-07-01

    Pathogenically diverse Chlamydia spp. can have surprisingly similar genomes. Chlamydia trachomatis isolates that cause trachoma, sexually transmitted genital tract infections (chlamydia), and invasive lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) and the murine strain Chlamydia muridarum share 99% of their gene content. A region of high genomic diversity between Chlamydia spp. termed the plasticity zone (PZ) may encode niche-specific virulence determinants that dictate pathogenic diversity. We hypothesized that PZ genes might mediate the greater virulence and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) resistance of C. muridarum compared to C. trachomatis in the murine genital tract. To test this hypothesis, we isolated and characterized a series of C. muridarum PZ nonsense mutants. Strains with nonsense mutations in chlamydial cytotoxins, guaBA-add, and a phospholipase D homolog developed normally in cell culture. Two of the cytotoxin mutants were less cytotoxic than the wild type, suggesting that the cytotoxins may be functional. However, none of the PZ nonsense mutants exhibited increased IFN-γ sensitivity in cell culture or were profoundly attenuated in a murine genital tract infection model. Our results suggest that C. muridarum PZ genes are transcribed--and some may produce functional proteins--but are dispensable for infection of the murine genital tract. PMID:25939505

  12. Mutational Analysis of the Chlamydia muridarum Plasticity Zone

    PubMed Central

    Rajaram, Krithika; Giebel, Amanda M.; Toh, Evelyn; Hu, Shuai; Newman, Jasmine H.; Morrison, Sandra G.; Kari, Laszlo; Morrison, Richard P.

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenically diverse Chlamydia spp. can have surprisingly similar genomes. Chlamydia trachomatis isolates that cause trachoma, sexually transmitted genital tract infections (chlamydia), and invasive lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) and the murine strain Chlamydia muridarum share 99% of their gene content. A region of high genomic diversity between Chlamydia spp. termed the plasticity zone (PZ) may encode niche-specific virulence determinants that dictate pathogenic diversity. We hypothesized that PZ genes might mediate the greater virulence and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) resistance of C. muridarum compared to C. trachomatis in the murine genital tract. To test this hypothesis, we isolated and characterized a series of C. muridarum PZ nonsense mutants. Strains with nonsense mutations in chlamydial cytotoxins, guaBA-add, and a phospholipase D homolog developed normally in cell culture. Two of the cytotoxin mutants were less cytotoxic than the wild type, suggesting that the cytotoxins may be functional. However, none of the PZ nonsense mutants exhibited increased IFN-γ sensitivity in cell culture or were profoundly attenuated in a murine genital tract infection model. Our results suggest that C. muridarum PZ genes are transcribed—and some may produce functional proteins—but are dispensable for infection of the murine genital tract. PMID:25939505

  13. Differential profiles of immune mediators and in vitro HIV infectivity between endocervical and vaginal secretions from women with Chlamydia trachomatis infection: A pilot study☆

    PubMed Central

    Sperling, Rhoda; Kraus, Thomas A.; Ding, Jian; Veretennikova, Alina; Lorde-Rollins, Elizabeth; Singh, Tricia; Lo, Yungtai; Quayle, Alison J.; Chang, Theresa L.

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection is one of the most prevalent bacterial STIs in the USA and worldwide, and women with C. trachomatis infection are at increased risk of acquiring HIV. Because immune activation at the genital mucosa facilitates HIV/SIV infection, C. trachomatis-mediated cytokine induction may contribute to increased HIV transmission in asymptomatic women. To begin to elucidate the mechanisms, we longitudinally analyzed profiles of innate immune factors and HIV infectivity in genital secretions from anatomically specific sites in asymptomatic women during C. trachomatis infection and post-antibiotic treatment. We found higher levels of cytokines and chemokines in endocervical secretions than vaginal secretions. Compared with the convalescent state, G-CSF, IL-1α, and RANTES were elevated in endocervical secretions, IFN-γ and TNF-α were elevated in vaginal secretions, and IFNγ, IL-1β, and MIP1-α were elevated in cervicolavage fluid (CVL), before adjustment of multiple comparisons. Elevated endocervical levels of IP-10 and MCP-1 were associated with the use of hormonal contraception in infected women after successful treatment, suggesting the role of hormonal contraception in inflammation independent of STIs. Importantly, soluble factors found in endocervical secretions during infection enhanced HIV infectivity while no difference in HIV infectivity was found with vaginal secretions or CVL during infection or at convalescence. Taken together, the profiles of immune mediators and in vitro HIV infectivity indicate that the endocervical and vaginal mucosa are immunologically distinct. Our results underscore the importance of considering anatomical site and local sampling methodology when measuring mucosal responses, particularly in the presence of C. trachomatis infection. PMID:23993451

  14. Vaginal swabs are the optimal specimen for detection of genital Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae using the Cobas 4800 CT/NG test.

    PubMed

    Van Der Pol, Barbara; Taylor, Stephanie N; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Williams, James A; Hook, Edward W

    2013-03-01

    Performance characteristics of the Cobas 4800 CT/NG assay were estimated for vaginal swab samples from more than 4000 women. Vaginal samples identified 92.9% and 98.5% of Chlamydia and Gonorrhea infections, respectively, which was more than any other single specimen type (endocervical swabs or urine) regardless of collection method (clinician collected or self-obtained). PMID:23407470

  15. Inducible nitric oxide synthase regulates production of isoprostanes in vivo during chlamydial genital infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, K H; Sigar, I M; Rana, S V; Gupta, J; Holland, S M; Byrne, G I; Morrow, J D

    2003-12-01

    Urinary nitrite and F(2)-isoprostanes, an index of oxidant stress, were elevated during chlamydial genital infection of mice. Enhancement of urinary nitrite and F(2)-isoprostanes was observed in phagocyte oxidase-deficient mice. Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase reduced isoprostane excretion. We conclude that nitrogen radicals induce F(2)-isoprostane production and excretion during murine chlamydial genital infection. PMID:14638813

  16. Pathogenic Potential of Novel Chlamydiae and Diagnostic Approaches to Infections Due to These Obligate Intracellular Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Corsaro, Daniele; Greub, Gilbert

    2006-01-01

    Novel chlamydiae are newly recognized members of the phylum Chlamydiales that are only distantly related to the classic Chlamydiaceae, i.e., Chlamydia and Chlamydophila species. They also exibit an obligate biphasic intracellular life cycle within eukaryote host cells. Some of these new chlamydiae are currently considered potential emerging human and/or animal pathogens. Parachlamydia acanthamoebae and Simkania negevensis are both emerging respiratory human pathogens, Waddlia chondrophila could be a novel abortigenic bovine agent, and Piscichlamydia salmonis has recently been identified as an agent of the gill epitheliocystis in the Atlantic salmon. Fritschea spp. and Rhabdochlamydia spp. seem to be confined to arthropods, but some evidence for human exposure exists. In this review, we first summarize the data supporting a pathogenic potential of the novel chlamydiae for humans and other vertebrates and the interactions that most of these chlamydiae have with free-living amoebae. We then review the diagnostic approaches to infections potentially due to the novel chlamydiae, especially focusing on the currently available PCR-based protocols, mammalian cell culture, the amoebal coculture system, and serology. PMID:16614250

  17. Genital sores - male

    MedlinePlus

    Sores - male genitals; Ulcers - male genitals ... A common cause of male genital sores are infections that are spread through sexual contact, such as: Genital herpes (small, painful blisters filled with clear ...

  18. The DNA sensor, cyclic GMP-AMP synthase, is essential for induction of IFN-? during Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yugen; Yeruva, Laxmi; Marinov, Anthony; Prantner, Daniel; Wyrick, Priscilla B; Lupashin, Vladimir; Nagarajan, Uma M

    2014-09-01

    IFN-? has been implicated as an effector of oviduct pathology resulting from genital chlamydial infection in the mouse model. In this study, we investigated the role of cytosolic DNA and engagement of DNA sensors in IFN-? expression during chlamydial infection. We determined that three-prime repair exonuclease-1, a host 3' to 5' exonuclease, reduced IFN-? expression significantly during chlamydial infection using small interfering RNA and gene knockout fibroblasts, implicating cytosolic DNA as a ligand for this response. The DNA sensor cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) has been shown to bind cytosolic DNA to generate cyclic GMP-AMP, which binds to the signaling adaptor stimulator of IFN genes (STING) to induce IFN-? expression. We determined that cGAS is required for IFN-? expression during chlamydial infection in multiple cell types. Interestingly, although infected cells deficient for STING or cGAS alone failed to induce IFN-?, coculture of cells depleted for either STING or cGAS rescued IFN-? expression. These data demonstrate that cyclic GMP-AMP produced in infected cGAS(+)STING(-) cells can migrate into adjacent cells via gap junctions to function in trans in cGAS(-)STING(+) cells. Furthermore, we observed cGAS localized in punctate regions on the cytosolic side of the chlamydial inclusion membrane in association with STING, indicating that chlamydial DNA is most likely recognized outside the inclusion as infection progresses. These novel findings provide evidence that cGAS-mediated DNA sensing directs IFN-? expression during Chlamydia trachomatis infection and suggest that effectors from infected cells can directly upregulate IFN-? expression in adjacent uninfected cells during in vivo infection, contributing to pathogenesis. PMID:25070851

  19. [The specifities of the HPV-genital infections in males].

    PubMed

    Skerlev, Mihael; Ljubojevic, Suzana

    2010-08-01

    Anogenital infections caused by Human papillomavirus (HPV) are the most frequently diagnosed sexually transmitted infections of viral origin and up to 150 HPV DNA types have been recognized so far. Anogenital warts (condylomata acuminata) are the most common lesions presented in men, however, during the last decade the other HPV-associated exaggerated lesions such as condylomata plana, penile, scrotal, and anal intraepithelial neoplasias, as well as the penile, urine bladder and prostate cancer have been studied somewhat more extensively. The clinical variations might range from clinically invisible, asymptomatic lesions to the bizarre forms of giant condyloma of Buschke-Löwenstein type, including Bowenoid papulosis, Mb. Bowen, different kinds of eryhtroplasia both in men and women and a large spectrum of HPV-induced dermatovenereological entities in genital region including high-grade intraepithelial genital neoplasias, such as penile, anal, scrotal, vulvar, vaginal etc. (thus not only cervical), and, last but not least - the anogenital warts. A prophylactic vaccine that targets these types should thus substantially reduce the burden of HPV-associated clinical diseases. Ultimately, within the spectrum of therapeutic options for condylomata, no method is really superior to others; recurrences occurred in 30-70% of cases. We definitely need the HPV vaccination programme to eliminate one of the oldest and up to now unsolved problems of the mankind. Since HPV is transmitted by sexual intercourse, treatment of both partners is necessary in order to eliminate the virus from the population. Approaches to this include prophylactic vaccines such as quadrivalent HPV vaccine for both men and women. PMID:21258302

  20. Combination Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Prevents Vaginal Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Macaques Harboring Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Radzio, Jessica; Henning, Tara; Jenkins, Leecresia; Ellis, Shanon; Farshy, Carol; Phillips, Christi; Holder, Angela; Kuklenyik, Susan; Dinh, Chuong; Hanson, Debra; McNicholl, Janet; Heneine, Walid; Papp, John; Kersh, Ellen N; García-Lerma, J Gerardo

    2016-05-15

    Genital inflammation associated with sexually transmitted infections increases susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but it is unclear whether the increased risk can reduce the efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). We investigated whether coinfection of macaques withChlamydia trachomatisandTrichomonas vaginalisdecreases the prophylactic efficacy of oral emtricitabine (FTC)/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). Macaques were exposed to simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) vaginally each week for up to 16 weeks and received placebo or FTC/TDF pericoitally. All animals in the placebo group were infected with SHIV, while 4 of 6 PrEP recipients remained uninfected (P= .03). Oral FTC/TDF maintains efficacy in a macaque model of sexually transmitted coinfection, although the infection of 2 macaques signals a modest loss of PrEP activity. PMID:26743846

  1. Orchitis and Epididymitis in Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) Infected With Chlamydia pecorum.

    PubMed

    Johnston, S D; Deif, H H; McKinnon, A; Theilemann, P; Griffith, J E; Higgins, D P

    2015-11-01

    Although Chlamydia causes disease of the urethra and prostate of male koalas, its impact on the testis and epididymis has not been examined. This study describes chronic-active and granulomatous orchitis and epididymitis with interstitial fibrosis associated with infection by Chlamydia pecorum in 2 of 18 adult male koalas being euthanized at a koala hospital, 8 of which also had chlamydial prostatitis. By immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy, chlamydial inclusions were demonstrated within Sertoli cells directly associated with mild inflammation surrounding intact seminiferous and epididymal tubules, marked pyogranulomatous inflammation around disrupted tubules, replacement of tubules by interstitial fibrosis, and aspermia. The presence of C. pecorum but not Chlamydia pneumoniae was detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction of formalin-fixed tissues of the left and right testes and right epididymis in 1 animal. This is the first report of orchitis and epididymitis in a koala infected with C. pecorum. PMID:25637084

  2. Genital Chlamydia Prevalence in Europe and Non-European High Income Countries: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Redmond, Shelagh M.; Alexander-Kisslig, Karin; Woodhall, Sarah C.; van den Broek, Ingrid V. F.; van Bergen, Jan; Ward, Helen; Uusküla, Anneli; Herrmann, Björn; Andersen, Berit; Götz, Hannelore M.; Sfetcu, Otilia; Low, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Background Accurate information about the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis is needed to assess national prevention and control measures. Methods We systematically reviewed population-based cross-sectional studies that estimated chlamydia prevalence in European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) Member States and non-European high income countries from January 1990 to August 2012. We examined results in forest plots, explored heterogeneity using the I2 statistic, and conducted random effects meta-analysis if appropriate. Meta-regression was used to examine the relationship between study characteristics and chlamydia prevalence estimates. Results We included 25 population-based studies from 11 EU/EEA countries and 14 studies from five other high income countries. Four EU/EEA Member States reported on nationally representative surveys of sexually experienced adults aged 18–26 years (response rates 52–71%). In women, chlamydia point prevalence estimates ranged from 3.0–5.3%; the pooled average of these estimates was 3.6% (95% CI 2.4, 4.8, I2 0%). In men, estimates ranged from 2.4–7.3% (pooled average 3.5%; 95% CI 1.9, 5.2, I2 27%). Estimates in EU/EEA Member States were statistically consistent with those in other high income countries (I2 0% for women, 6% for men). There was statistical evidence of an association between survey response rate and estimated chlamydia prevalence; estimates were higher in surveys with lower response rates, (p = 0.003 in women, 0.018 in men). Conclusions Population-based surveys that estimate chlamydia prevalence are at risk of participation bias owing to low response rates. Estimates obtained in nationally representative samples of the general population of EU/EEA Member States are similar to estimates from other high income countries. PMID:25615574

  3. Factors related to genital Chlamydia trachomatis and its diagnosis by culture in a sexually transmitted disease clinic.

    PubMed

    Magder, L S; Harrison, H R; Ehret, J M; Anderson, T S; Judson, F N

    1988-08-01

    The authors cultured 2,320 patients who attended the Denver Metro Health Clinic for Sexually Transmitted Diseases from September 1981 to June 1983 to determine clinical and epidemiologic factors associated with genital chlamydial infection. Among consecutive heterosexual men with urethral discharge, 226 of 849 (27%) had positive urethral cultures, with rates significantly lower among those with profuse (18%) or purulent (19%) discharges, and higher (37%) among those with symptoms for more than seven days. In a subgroup of men without gonococci, those who had polymorphonuclear leukocytes on smear had higher isolation rates (33%) than those who did not (3%). Among consecutive female patients, 172 of 1,031 (17%) had positive cervical cultures, with rates significantly lower in those who were white (13%), married (7%), or using a diaphragm (0 of 77), and higher in those who were positive for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (38%). There was a marginally significant increased rate of chlamydial isolation among oral contraceptive users only for women aged 20 years or younger. Younger age was significantly associated with chlamydial isolation in both men and women after controlling for sexual activity and other factors. Various patient characteristics can be combined to define subgroups of men and women, with rates of isolation ranging from under 4% to over 60%. These results can be useful in deciding whom to test and whom to treat presumptively in a public health setting. PMID:3394697

  4. Host-pathogen interactions in specific pathogen-free chickens following aerogenous infection with Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia abortus.

    PubMed

    Kalmar, Isabelle; Berndt, Angela; Yin, Lizi; Chiers, Koen; Sachse, Konrad; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2015-03-15

    Although Chlamydia (C.) psittaci infections are recognized as an important factor causing economic losses and impairing animal welfare in poultry production, the specific mechanisms leading to severe clinical outcomes are poorly understood. In the present study, we comparatively investigated pathology and host immune response, as well as systemic dissemination and expression of essential chlamydial genes in the course of experimental aerogeneous infection with C. psittaci and the closely related C. abortus, respectively, in specific pathogen-free chicks. Clinical signs appeared sooner and were more severe in the C. psittaci-infected group. Compared to C. abortus infection, more intense systemic dissemination of C. psittaci correlated with higher and faster infiltration of immune cells, as well as more macroscopic lesions and epithelial pathology, such as hyperplasia and erosion. In thoracic air sac tissue, mRNA expression of immunologically relevant factors, such as IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17, IL-22, LITAF and iNOS was significantly stronger up-regulated in C. psittaci- than in C. abortus-infected birds between 3 and 14 days post-infection. Likewise, transcription rates of the chlamydial genes groEL, cpaf and ftsW were consistently higher in C. psittaci during the acute phase. These findings illustrate that the stronger replication of C. psittaci in its natural host also evoked a more intense immune response than in the case of C. abortus infection. PMID:25638671

  5. Genital infections and syndromic diagnosis among HIV-infected women in HIV care programs in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Djomand, Gaston; Gao, Hongjiang; Singa, Benson; Hornston, Sureyya; Bennett, Eddas; Odek, James; McClelland, R. Scott; John-Stewart, Grace; Bock, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Background Control of genital infections remains challenging in most regions. Despite advocacy by the World Health Organization (WHO) for syndromic case management, there are limited data on the syndromic approach, especially in HIV care settings. This study compared the syndromic approach against laboratory diagnosis among women in HIV care in Kenya. Methods A mobile team visited 39 large HIV care programs in Kenya and enrolled participants using population-proportionate sampling. Participants provided behavioral and clinical data with genital and blood specimens for lab testing. Results Among 1,063 women, 68.4% had been on antiretroviral therapy >1 year; 58.9% were using cotrimoxazole prophylaxis; 51 % had CD4+T-lymphocytes < 350 cells/mL. Most women (63.1%) reported at least one genital symptom. Clinical signs were found in 63% of women; and 30.8% had an etiological diagnosis. Bacterial vaginosis (17.4%), vaginal candidiasis (10.6%) and trichomoniasis (10.5%) were the most common diagnoses. Using laboratory diagnoses as gold standard, sensitivity and positive predictive value of the syndromic diagnosis for vaginal discharge were 47.6% and 52.7%, respectively, indicating a substantial amount of overtreatment. A systematic physical examination increased by 9.3% the positive predictive value for genital ulcer disease. Conclusions Women attending HIV care programs in Kenya have high rates of vaginal infections. Syndromic diagnosis was a poor predictor of those infections. PMID:25614522

  6. Risk Factors for "Chlamydia Trachomatis" Infection in a California Collegiate Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipkin, Diane L.; Gillam, Alix; Grady, Laurie Bisset

    2003-01-01

    "Chlamydia trachomatis" infection in college students has not undergone a detailed large-scale evaluation. The authors undertook a cross-sectional study of 4,086 students enrolled on the campuses of California State University, Sacramento, and 3 local community colleges from fall 2000 through spring 2002. They used an outreach screening model to…

  7. Genital human papillomavirus infections: current and prospective therapies.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Margaret A

    2012-04-01

    Infection with human papillomaviruses (HPVs) is very common and associated with benign and malignant epithelial proliferations of skin and internal squamous mucosae. A subset of the mucosal HPVs are oncogenic and associated with 5 % of all cancers in men and women. There are two licensed prophylactic vaccines, both target HPV 16 and 18, the two most pathogenic, oncogenic types and one, additionally, targets HPV 6 and 11 the cause of genital warts. The approach of deliberate immunization with oncogenic HPV E6 and/or E7 proteins and the generation of antigen-specific cytotoxic T-cells as an immunotherapy for HPV-associated cancer and their high-grade pre-cancers has been tested with a wide array of potential vaccine delivery systems in Phase I/II trials with varying success. Understanding local viral and tumour immune evasion strategies is a prerequisite for the rational design of therapeutic vaccines for HPV-associated infection and disease, progress in this is discussed. There are no antiviral drugs for the treatment of HPV infection and disease. Current therapies are not targeted antiviral therapies, but either attempt physical removal of the lesion or induce inflammation and a bystander immune response. There has been recent progress in the identification and characterization of molecular targets for small molecule antagonists of the HPV proteins E1, E2 and E6 or their interactions with their cellular targets. Lead compounds that could disrupt E1-E2 protein-protein interactions have been discovered as have inhibitors of E6-E6-AP-binding interactions. Some of these compounds showed nanomolar affinities and high specificities and demonstrate the feasibility of this approach for HPV infections. These studies are, however, at an early phase and it is unlikely that any specific anti-HPV chemotherapeutic will be in the clinic within the next 10-20 years. PMID:22323530

  8. NOD1 in contrast to NOD2 functional polymorphism influence Chlamydia trachomatis infection and the risk of tubal factor infertility.

    PubMed

    Branković, Ivan; van Ess, Eleanne F; Noz, Marlies P; Wiericx, Wilhelmina Anke J; Spaargaren, Joke; Morré, Servaas A; Ouburg, Sander

    2015-02-01

    Intracellular pattern-recognition receptors NOD1 and NOD2 are capable of sensing common structural units of bacterial walls. Recognition triggers specific immune signalling pathways and leads to pro-inflammatory cytokine upregulation and adequate immune response. We investigated whether two functional polymorphisms in NOD1 and NOD2 exert an effect on susceptibility to (STD patients) and severity of (female patients visiting the fertility clinic) Chlamydia trachomatis infection in 807 Dutch Caucasian women. A significant association of the NOD1 +32656 GG insertion variant with protection against infection with C. trachomatis has been detected [p: 0.0057; OR: 0.52]. When comparing C. trachomatis-positive women without symptoms to C. trachomatis-positive women with symptoms, and to C. trachomatis-positive women with TFI, we observed an increasing trend in carriage of the GG allele [Ptrend: 0.0003]. NOD2 1007fs failed to reveal an association. We hypothesize that the underlying mechanism might be a functional effect of the GG insertion on IFN-beta-dependent regulation of immune response in the genital tract. The research is part of an ongoing effort of identifying key polymorphisms that determine the risk of TFI and effectively translating them into the clinical setting for the purpose of optimizing diagnostic management of women at risk for developing TFI. PMID:25854006

  9. Genital Warts

    MedlinePlus

    ... infected person. In or around the anus after anal sex with someone who has HPV. Images used with permission of the American Academy ... Genital warts spread from a person who has HPV to another person through: Sex (vaginal, anal, or oral). Genital contact (people's genitals touch). Childbirth ( ...

  10. Development of genital warts after incident detection of human papillomavirus infection in young men.

    PubMed

    Arima, Yuzo; Winer, Rachel L; Feng, Qinghua; Hughes, James P; Lee, Shu-Kuang; Stern, Michael E; O'Reilly, Sandra F; Koutsky, Laura A

    2010-10-15

    Determining the rate at which men develop genital warts after infection with alpha genus human papillomavirus (HPV) types will provide important information for the design of prevention strategies. We conducted a cohort study of 18-21-year-old men who underwent triannual genital examinations. The 24-month cumulative genital wart incidence was 57.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 38.1%-79.1%) among 46 men with incident detection of HPV-6 or HPV-11 infection, 2.0% (95% CI, 0.5%-7.9%) among 161 men with incident detection of infection with other HPV types, and 0.7% (95% CI, 0.2%-2.8%) among 331 men who tested negative for HPV. Our results suggest that genital warts are common after HPV-6 or HPV-11 infection in young men. PMID:20812849

  11. [No firm evidence for screening for Chlamydia in connection with spontaneous abortion].

    PubMed

    Juhl, Caroline Sollberger; Christensen, Martin; Bor, Isil Pinar

    2013-02-01

    Infection with genital Chlamydia while undergoing a vaginal instrumentation increases the risk of pelvic inflammatory disease with pain and sterility as sequelae. A literature study was performed in order to find out if screening and treatment for Chlamydia trachomatis should be offered to all women with miscarriages. This article reviews the available literature on the topic. The results show that there is a need for larger clinical trials before an evidence-based answer can be given. PMID:23402242

  12. STING-Dependent Recognition of Cyclic di-AMP Mediates Type I Interferon Responses during Chlamydia trachomatis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Jeffrey R.; Koestler, Benjamin J.; Carpenter, Victoria K.; Burdette, Dara L.; Waters, Christopher M.; Vance, Russell E.; Valdivia, Raphael H.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT STING (stimulator of interferon [IFN] genes) initiates type I IFN responses in mammalian cells through the detection of microbial nucleic acids. The membrane-bound obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis induces a STING-dependent type I IFN response in infected cells, yet the IFN-inducing ligand remains unknown. In this report, we provide evidence that Chlamydia synthesizes cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP), a nucleic acid metabolite not previously identified in Gram-negative bacteria, and that this metabolite is a prominent ligand for STING-mediated activation of IFN responses during infection. We used primary mouse lung fibroblasts and HEK293T cells to compare IFN-β responses to Chlamydia infection, c-di-AMP, and other type I IFN-inducing stimuli. Chlamydia infection and c-di-AMP treatment induced type I IFN responses in cells expressing STING but not in cells expressing STING variants that cannot sense cyclic dinucleotides but still respond to cytoplasmic DNA. The failure to induce a type I IFN response to Chlamydia and c-di-AMP correlated with the inability of STING to relocalize from the endoplasmic reticulum to cytoplasmic punctate signaling complexes required for IFN activation. We conclude that Chlamydia induces STING-mediated IFN responses through the detection of c-di-AMP in the host cell cytosol and propose that c-di-AMP is the ligand predominantly responsible for inducing such a response in Chlamydia-infected cells. PMID:23631912

  13. Chlorate: a reversible inhibitor of proteoglycan sulphation in Chlamydia trachomatis-infected cells.

    PubMed

    Fadel, Sanaa; Eley, Adrian

    2004-02-01

    Sulphated glycosaminoglycans, such as heparan sulphate, have been shown to be essential for the infectivity of many organisms. The aims of this study were to verify the role of sulphated glycosaminoglycans in chlamydial infection and to investigate whether they are present on chlamydia or chlamydial host cells. The effect of undersulphation of host cells and chlamydial elementary bodies was examined using sodium chlorate. Also studied was whether any inhibitory effect was reversible. The results strongly suggest that Chlamydia trachomatis does not produce heparan sulphate and that heparan sulphate of the host cell is necessary and sufficient to mediate chlamydial infection. The essential role played by the sulphate constituents of the host-cell glycosaminoglycan in the infectivity of LGV serovars, and to a lesser extent of serovar E, was also confirmed. PMID:14729927

  14. Guidelines for the laboratory diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infections in East European countries.

    PubMed

    Domeika, M; Savicheva, A; Sokolovskiy, E; Frigo, N; Brilene, T; Hallén, A; Unemo, M; Ballard, R C; Ward, M

    2009-12-01

    The present guidelines aim to provide comprehensive information regarding the laboratory diagnosis of infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis in East European countries. These recommendations contain important information for laboratory staff working with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and/or STI-related issues. Individual East European countries may be required to make minor national adjustments to these guidelines as a result of lack of accessibility to some reagents or equipment, or laws in a specific country. PMID:19522706

  15. Applications and Therapeutic Actions of Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Women with Genital Infection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chenfang; Zhang, Yuehui; Yu, Yang; Han, Fengjuan

    2014-01-01

    Genital infection is a common worldwide disease among females with clinical features such as bilateral lower abdominal tenderness, abnormal vaginal or cervical discharge, fever, abnormal vaginal bleeding, dyspareunia, vaginal itching, and adnexal tenderness, which can significantly impair women's health and quality of life. Genital infection is commonly treated with antibiotics, leading to an imbalance in gut flora due to prolonged use of antibiotics. Therefore, it is necessary to discover safe and efficacious alternative treatment strategies for patients with genital infection. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is becoming increasingly prevalent among women with genital infection. CAM has interested the western mainstream medical community because of its less invasive, safe, effective, economical, and convenient therapies. CAM focuses on the prevention and treatment of disease and has become an important force in treating chronic disease. During the last few decades, the popularity of CAM has gradually increased. To further understand the efficacy of CAM in treating genital infection, our paper will review the current progress of treating genital infection including vulvitis, vaginitis, cervicitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) with CAM therapies. Several CAM strategies including traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), acupuncture, Psychology interference, and physical therapy are introduced in this review. PMID:24648850

  16. Prevalence of genital infections in medical inpatients in Blantyre, Malawi.

    PubMed

    Maher, D; Hoffman, I

    1995-07-01

    The limited information on the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in Malawi suggests that they are common. In studies in Lilongwe in 1989 and Blantyre in 1990, the prevalence of STDs was 4.4% in unselected outpatients and 42% in antenatal clinic patients respectively. Malawi is one of the countries worst affected by the HIV pandemic, with an estimated national HIV seroprevalence of 10% in the age group over 15 years and of 32% in pregnant women who attended antenatal clinics in Blantyre in 1993. Heterosexual intercourse is the main mode of HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa, accounting for up to 80% of cases of HIV infection. Concomitant genital ulcer disease facilitates sexual transmission of HIV. Non-ulcerative STDs may also play a role in facilitating sexual transmission of HIV but the evidence is less clear. The identification and treatment of people with STDs therefore presents an opportunity for decreasing HIV transmission. Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH) is the District Hospital for Blantyre, Malawi's largest city (about 500,000 population) and the tertiary referral hospital for Malawi's Southern Region. There are two general medical wards, one male and one female, to which about 11,000 patients were admitted in 1993. Bed occupancy can run at up to 150-200% and resources are limited. The top ten causes of admission are malaria, gastroenteritis, anaemia, pneumonia, dysentery, tuberculosis, AIDS, meningitis, hypertension and ascites. The leading causes of death are AIDS and tuberculosis. PMID:8522842

  17. Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in Hungarian women.

    PubMed

    Czeglédy, J; Veress, G; Kónya, J; Gergely, L

    1993-01-01

    The prevalence of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in Hungarian female populations is not essentially different from that found in other countries of Europe and North-America. Using filter in situ hybridization (FISH), we found that, in a group of cytologically normal women some low risk HPV types (such as HPV 6 and 11) and the most important high risk HPV types (HPV 16 and 18) were present in 23% and 8%, respectively. Eighty-eight percent of condyloma acuminatum patients harboured HPV 6 or HPV 11 in their tumours. On the other hand, in precancerous lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, CIN) HPV 16 was the predominant type, being present in 29-48% of patients, depending on the detection method used (Southern blot hybridization vs. polymerase chain reaction). The detection rate of high risk HPV types was found to rise with the increasing severity of cervical neoplasia. Finally, 48% of invasive cervical carcinoma specimens were positive for HPV 16 DNA in a type-specific polymerase chain reaction. For patients with HPV 16 positive primary tumours, all but one lymph node metastases and about 30% of histologically normal lymph nodes proved positive for HPV 16 DNA. Our results--in accordance with the numerous data found in literature--seem to confirm the hypothesis that certain HPV types are greatly involved in the development of cervical cancer. PMID:8184666

  18. Sexually Transmitted and Other Genital Infections in Women With Cervical Human Papillomavirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sikström, B.; Nilsson, S.; Kallings, I.; Mårdh, P.-A.

    1995-01-01

    Objective: We investigated possible correlations between latent cervical human papillomavirus infection (CHPI) and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Methods: Of 972 randomly selected women attending 2 family planning clinics and a youth clinic who had agreed to participate in a study concerning STDs, 66 (6.8%) had latent CHPI. Results: An association was found between latent CHPI on one hand and a history of genital chlamydial infection, gonorrhea, recurrent vaginal candidiasis, cervicitis, or pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) on the other, while no correlation between latent CHPI and coexistent STDs was found. No correlation of latent CHPI to either current or past genital warts was noted. In multifactorial analyses, which included the lifetime number of sexual partners and age at first intercourse, we found that all significant associations except a history of gonorrhea vanished. Conclusions: In this study population, screening for other current STDs in women with latent CHPI would be of limited value. PMID:18476023

  19. Chlamydia trachomatis in pelvic inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Shrikhande, S N; Joshi, S G; Zodpey, S P; Saoji, A M

    1995-04-01

    The prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection and some epidemiologic factors associated with it were studied in 273 pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) patients attending Gynaecologic clinic, Government Medical College, Nagpur. For detection of chlamydial antigen Pharmacia Diagnostics Chlamydia EIA test was used. This study revealed an overall positivity rate of 33% for C. trachomatis infection in PID patients. Of the hypothesised risk factors low socioeconomic status, history of sexual contacts with multiple partners and use of intrauterine devices (IUD) were significantly associated with C. trachomatis infections. However, use of oral contraceptives, barrier contraceptives and increasing age were found to be protective factors for C. trachomatis infection. Thus considering the significant contribution of C. trachomatis in etiology of PID and its independent association with some epidemiologic risk factors, extensive epidemiologic measures are recommended for prevention of these infections. PMID:8919106

  20. Lactobacillus crispatus mediates anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 induction in response to Chlamydia trachomatis infection in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Antonietta; Fiorentino, Margherita; Buommino, Elisabetta; Donnarumma, Giovanna; Losacco, Antonio; Bevilacqua, Nazario

    2015-12-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis, a human pathogen, is a Gram-negative bacillus and a compulsory intracellular parasite. It is the most common cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infections in both industrialized and developing countries. In women, untreated genital infections can result in devastating consequences such as pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and even infertility. Lactobacillus crispatus is an important urogenital species that is routinely found in the vagina of healthy women. Lactobacilli are involved in the maintenance of the normal vaginal microbiota and their dominance in the vagina suggests that they play a crucial role in protecting the genitourinary tract against pathological conditions. Lactobacilli can act through the activation of the immune system, but C. trachomatis is able to effectively evade immune surveillance in some individuals. The aim of our study was to investigate the immunomodulatory efficacy of the potential probiotic strain L. crispatus in HeLa and J774 cells subjected to C. trachomatis infection by studying the expression of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and IL-10. Our results demonstrated, firstly, the lack of any cytotoxic effect on the epithelial cells and macrophages when treated with L. crispatus and its supernatant; in addition, L. crispatus and its supernatant inhibited C. trachomatis adhesion and infectivity in human epithelial cells and macrophages. Our study then showed that L. crispatus and its supernatant reduced IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α production in C. trachomatis-infected HeLa and J774 cells. In contrast, a significant upregulation of the IL-10 expression in HeLa and J774 cells by L. crispatus and supernatant was also demonstrated. Our data indicate that L. crispatus specifically enhances the production of the IL-10 anti-inflammatory cytokine in contrast to the inhibitory effect of L. crispatus on the pro-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:26372530

  1. Infection of Genital Tract and Transmission of Ocular Infection to Newborns by the Agent of Guinea Pig Inclusion Conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Mount, David T.; Bigazzi, Pierluigi E.; Barron, Almen L.

    1972-01-01

    Female guinea pigs were inoculated intravaginally with the agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis (Gp-ic). Evidence for infection was obtained by demonstration of Gp-ic inclusions in epithelial cells of genital tract smears, histopathology, recovery of Gp-ic during infection, and antibody response. Infection of the genital tract was produced with low doses (20-200 median egg lethal doses) of the agent. The infection lasted about 3 weeks, and there was no marked clinical response. Ocular infection that could be detected as early as 3 days after birth in offspring of infected mothers was also demonstrated. Images PMID:4344096

  2. Potentiation of interferon-mediated inhibition of Chlamydia infection by interleukin-1 in human macrophage cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Carlin, J M; Weller, J B

    1995-01-01

    One mechanism by which interferons (IFNs) can inhibit chlamydial infection is by the induction of the enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), which restricts the availability of tryptophan, which is required for chlamydial growth. Other immunomodulating agents, including interleukin-1 (IL-1), can interact synergistically with IFNs, resulting in increased IDO activity in macrophages. The objectives of this study were to establish that IL-1 can enhance IFN-mediated inhibition of chlamydial growth by increasing the amount of IDO activity induced by IFNs and to identify immunomodulatory agents in culture supernatants from chlamydia-infected macrophages that interact synergistically with IFNs in restricting chlamydial growth. Monocyte-derived macrophages were treated with IL-1 combined with gamma IFN (IFN-gamma) or IFN-beta. The ability of treated cells to support the growth of Chlamydia psittaci was directly related to the amount of IDO activity induced; as IDO activity increased, so did inhibition of chlamydial growth. Furthermore, concentrations of IFNs were identified at which little IDO activity was induced and chlamydial growth was permitted yet which in the presence of IL-1 resulted in increased IDO activity and restriction of chlamydial growth. The addition of exogenous tryptophan reversed the effect of combined IFN and IL-1 treatment, indicating that IDO activity induced by combined cytokine treatment was responsible for chlamydial inhibition. Supernatants from chlamydia-infected macrophages were capable of potentiating IDO induction by IFN-gamma and of restricting the growth of C. psittaci. Antibody to IL-1 beta neutralized the potentiating effects of supernatants from chlamydia-infected cells on both IDO induction and chlamydial inhibition. Thus, IL-1 produced in response to chlamydial infection may contribute to the elimination of the infection. PMID:7537250

  3. Association of Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infection With Atherosclerotic Plaque Formation

    PubMed Central

    Assar, Omid; Nejatizadeh, Azim; Dehghan, Farzaneh; Kargar, Mohammad; Zolghadri, Nader

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a complex multifactorial disorder. Studies show that infectious microbial agents may play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis; however, these findings are conflicting. This study investigated the presence of Chlamydia pneumoniae DNA in atherosclerotic plaques of patients suffering from coronary artery disease. In a cross-sectional study, 85 patients (43 females and 42 males with mean age of 61±9.5, range 42-82 years) referred for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and thoracic biopsy as the control groups were enrolled for this study. Standard questionnaires, including demographic and clinical evaluation were administered. Obtained specimens were processed and then nested polymerase chain reaction with primers for Pst1 fragment was carried out to detect Chlamydia pneumoniae DNA. Statistical analysis was done using the SPSS software. Of note, in 25 out of the 85 patients (29.4%), C. pneumoniae was detected within atherosclerotic plaques, whereas, 5 out of the 85 thoracic biopsy (5.9%) were positive for the presence of the mentioned bacteria in internal thoracic artery. There was a statistically significant association between atherosclerotic plaque (study group) and thoracic biopsy (control group) in terms of C. pneumoniae positivity (P=0.0001). The findings of this study support the hypothesis that C. pneumoniae is associated with atherosclerosis.

  4. Poor Performance of the Chlamydia Rapid Test Device for the Detection of Asymptomatic Infections in South African Men: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Abbai-Shaik, N. S.; Reddy, T.; Govender, S.; Ramjee, G.

    2016-01-01

    Background. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no published reports on the diagnostic performance of the Chlamydia Rapid Test (CRT) Device for male urine samples. We evaluated the performance of the CRT Device when compared with that of the BD ProbeTec ET PCR Assay in a population of asymptomatic men. Methods. The study enrolled 100 men between June and July 2015. From each consenting male, 20–30 mL of urine was collected. Sensitivity and specificity of the rapid test compared to PCR were calculated. All analysis was performed in STATA version 13. Results. All men had valid rapid and PCR test results. The test showed a low sensitivity against PCR (20%) (95% CI 3.7–6.2%); however, an excellent specificity was observed (100%) (one sided 97.5% CI: 96.0–100). Conclusions. This test was not found to be suitable as a screening tool for genital Chlamydia infections in men. Our findings emphasize the need for more sensitive POC tests to be developed since the current approach for the management of STIs in Africa is confounded by poor sensitivity and specificity resulting in many infected individuals not being treated. PMID:27195171

  5. Characterisation of Chlamydia pneumoniae and other novel chlamydial infections in captive snakes.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Brown, Alyce; Rüegg, Simon; Polkinghorne, Adam; Borel, Nicole

    2015-07-01

    Chlamydiosis has been described in both free-ranging and captive reptiles. The infection usually manifests as granulomatous inflammation in inner organs such as spleen, heart, lung and liver but might also occur in asymptomatic reptiles. The aim of this study was to investigate and characterise Chlamydia pneumoniae and potential other novel chlamydial infections in the choana and cloaca samples of 137 clinically healthy captive snakes from six private collections. Forty eight samples from 29 animals were found to be positive by a Chlamydiaceae family-specific qPCR. By Chlamydia species-specific ArrayTube Microarray, 43 samples were positive, with 36 of these being identified as C. pneumoniae. The prevalence of Chlamydia ranged from 5 to 33%. PCR and sequencing of the Chlamydiales 16S rRNA signature sequence of 21 Chlamydia positive samples revealed the presence of seven novel 16S rRNA genotypes. BLAST-n and phylogenetic analysis of the near-full length 16S rRNA gene sequence of each of these novel 16S rRNA sequences revealed that five genotypes share closest sequence identity to 16S rRNA sequences from C. pneumoniae (98.6-99.2%), suggesting that these sequences are novel C. pneumoniae strains. One genotype is 96.9% similar to C. pneumoniae strains suggesting it may originate from a yet undescribed chlamydial species within the genus Chlamydia. This study further highlights the broad host range for C. pneumoniae and suggests that reptiles may still contain a significant and largely uncharacterised level of chlamydial genetic diversity that requires further investigation. PMID:25944652

  6. Effects of Population Based Screening for Chlamydia Infections in The Netherlands Limited by Declining Participation Rates

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Boris V.; Over, Eelco A. B.; van den Broek, Ingrid V. F.; Op de Coul, Eline L. M.; van Bergen, Jan E. A. M.; Fennema, Johan S. A.; Götz, Hannelore M.; Hoebe, Christian J. P. A.; de Wit, G. Ardine; van der Sande, Marianne A. B.; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E. E.

    2013-01-01

    Background A large trial to investigate the effectiveness of population based screening for chlamydia infections was conducted in the Netherlands in 2008–2012. The trial was register based and consisted of four rounds of screening of women and men in the age groups 16–29 years in three regions in the Netherlands. Data were collected on participation rates and positivity rates per round. A modeling study was conducted to project screening effects for various screening strategies into the future. Methods and Findings We used a stochastic network simulation model incorporating partnership formation and dissolution, aging and a sexual life course perspective. Trends in baseline rates of chlamydia testing and treatment were used to describe the epidemiological situation before the start of the screening program. Data on participation rates was used to describe screening uptake in rural and urban areas. Simulations were used to project the effectiveness of screening on chlamydia prevalence for a time period of 10 years. In addition, we tested alternative screening strategies, such as including only women, targeting different age groups, and biennial screening. Screening reduced prevalence by about 1% in the first two screening rounds and leveled off after that. Extrapolating observed participation rates into the future indicated very low participation in the long run. Alternative strategies only marginally changed the effectiveness of screening. Higher participation rates as originally foreseen in the program would have succeeded in reducing chlamydia prevalence to very low levels in the long run. Conclusions Decreasing participation rates over time profoundly impact the effectiveness of population based screening for chlamydia infections. Using data from several consecutive rounds of screening in a simulation model enabled us to assess the future effectiveness of screening on prevalence. If participation rates cannot be kept at a sufficient level, the effectiveness of screening on prevalence will remain limited. PMID:23527005

  7. Risk factors associated with Chlamydia and gonorrhea infection among female sex workers in two Mexico-U.S. border cities

    PubMed Central

    Loza, Oralia; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Martinez, Gustavo A.; Lozada, Remedios; Ojeda, Victoria D.; Staines-Orozco, Hugo; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) aged ≥18 years without known HIV infection living in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez who had recent unprotected sex with clients underwent interviews and testing for Chlamydia and gonorrhea using nucleic acid amplification. Correlates of each infection were identified with logistic regression. Among 798 FSWs, prevalence of Chlamydia and gonorrhea was 13.0% and 6.4%. Factors independently associated with Chlamydia were being younger, working in Tijuana versus Ciudad Juarez, and recent methamphetamine injection. Factors independently associated with gonorrhea were working in Tijuana versus Ciudad Juarez, using illegal drugs before or during sex, and having a recent male partner who injects drugs. Chlamydia and gonorrhea infection were more closely associated with FSWs’ drug use behaviors and that of their sexual partners than with sexual behaviors. Prevention should focus on subgroups of FSWs and their partners who use methamphetamine and who inject drugs. PMID:20852194

  8. Identification of Chlamydiae and Mycoplasma species in ruminants with ocular infections.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S; Chahota, R; Bhardwaj, B; Malik, P; Verma, S; Sharma, M

    2015-02-01

    Infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) is a highly contagious ocular inflammatory condition, which is often reported in domestic small and large ruminants. Multiple infectious aetiologies are reported to be involved, but information about the role of certain fastidious bacterial pathogens such as chlamydiae and mycoplasmas is limited in India. Hence, this study was performed to determine the role of these pathogens and their identification by molecular approach. A total of 53 samples from 31 ovine, 14 caprine and eight bovine having clinical symptoms were collected and tested using species-specific PCR tests for chlamydiae and mycoplasmas followed by nucleotide sequence analysis. The results showed 77.41, 14.29 and 25% samples were chlamydiae positive in ovine, caprine and bovine, respectively, whereas 41.93, 14.29 and 37.5% prevalence of mycoplasma infection was detected in ovine, caprine and bovines, respectively. Chlamydophila abortus, Chlamydophila psittaci, Mycoplasma arginini and Mycoplasma hyorhinis were detected from tested samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time these species are identified in IKC cases from India. Coinfection of both chlamydial and mycoplasmal species was detected in eight IKC cases of ovine which suggest synergistic roles played by both chlamydiae and mycoplasma in IKC samples. PMID:25421836

  9. Transcriptional regulation of the Chlamydia heat shock stress response in an intracellular infection.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Brett R; Tan, Ming

    2015-09-01

    Bacteria encode heat shock proteins that aid in survival during stressful growth conditions. In addition, the major heat shock proteins of the intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis have been associated with immune pathology and disease. We developed a ChIP-qPCR method to study the regulation of chlamydial heat shock gene regulation during an intracellular infection. This approach allowed us to show that chlamydial heat shock genes are regulated by the transcription factor HrcA within an infected cell, providing validation for previous in vitro findings. Induction of chlamydial heat shock gene expression by elevated temperature was due to loss of HrcA binding to heat shock promoters, supporting a mechanism of derepression. This heat shock response was rapid, whereas recovery of HrcA binding and return to non-stress transcript levels occurred more slowly. We also found that control of heat shock gene expression was differentially regulated over the course of the intracellular Chlamydia infection. There was evidence of HrcA-mediated regulation of heat shock genes throughout the chlamydial developmental cycle, but the level of repression was lower at early times. This is the first study of Chlamydia-infected cells showing the effect of an environmental signal on transcription factor-DNA binding and target gene expression in the bacterium. PMID:26075961

  10. [Genitourethral infections caused by D-K serotypes of Chlamydia trachomatis].

    PubMed

    Holló, Péter; Jókai, Hajnalka; Herszényi, Krisztina; Kárpáti, Sarolta

    2015-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections of the urogenital tract are most commonly caused by the intracellular bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis worldwide, resulting the clinical picture of acute urethritis in men as well as urethritis and endocervicitis in women. As women often present with few symptoms only or a completely symptom-free disease course, one of the most important long-term complications is chronic pelvic inflammatory disease often followed by the development of infertility caused by chronic scar formation. Well-organized screening programs are considered to have a leading role in the prevention of disease spreading and long lasting unwanted complications. Antibiotic treatment options are often influenced by special circumstances, such as pregnancy and several complicated clinical forms. The aims of the authors are to give a concise review on the current knowledge regarding Chlamydia trachomatis infections and summarize typical clinical signs, modern diagnostic techniques as well as accepted treatment protocols and basic aspects of screening. PMID:25544050

  11. The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Australia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chlamydia trachomatis is a common sexually transmitted infection in Australia. This report aims to measure the burden of chlamydia infection by systematically reviewing reports on prevalence in Australian populations. Methods Electronic databases and conference websites were searched from 1997–2011 using the terms ‘Chlamydia trachomatis’ OR ‘chlamydia’ AND ‘prevalence’ OR ‘epidemiology’ AND ‘Australia’. Reference lists were checked and researchers contacted for additional literature. Studies were categorised by setting and participants, and meta-analysis conducted to determine pooled prevalence estimates for each category. Results Seventy-six studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. There was a high level of heterogeneity between studies; however, there was a trend towards higher chlamydia prevalence in younger populations, Indigenous Australians, and those attending sexual health centres. In community or general practice settings, pooled prevalence for women <25 years in studies conducted post-2005 was 5.0% (95% CI: 3.1, 6.9; five studies), and for men <30 years over the entire review period was 3.9% (95% CI: 2.7, 5.1; six studies). For young Australians aged <25 years attending sexual health, family planning or youth clinics, estimated prevalence was 6.2% (95% CI: 5.1, 7.4; 10 studies) for women and 10.2% (95% CI: 9.5, 10.9; five studies) for men. Other key findings include pooled prevalence estimates of 22.1% (95% CI: 19.0, 25.3; three studies) for Indigenous women <25 years, 14.6% (95% CI: 11.5, 17.8; three studies) for Indigenous men <25 years, and 5.6% (95% CI: 4.8, 6.3; 11 studies) for rectal infection in men who have sex with men. Several studies failed to report basic demographic details such as sex and age, and were therefore excluded from the analysis. Conclusions Chlamydia trachomatis infections are a significant health burden in Australia; however, accurate estimation of chlamydia prevalence in Australian sub-populations is limited by heterogeneity within surveyed populations, and variations in sampling methodologies and data reporting. There is a need for more large, population-based studies and prospective cohort studies to compliment mandatory notification data. PMID:22583480

  12. Chlamydia infection depends on a functional MDM2-p53 axis.

    PubMed

    González, Erik; Rother, Marion; Kerr, Markus C; Al-Zeer, Munir A; Abu-Lubad, Mohammad; Kessler, Mirjana; Brinkmann, Volker; Loewer, Alexander; Meyer, Thomas F

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia, a major human bacterial pathogen, assumes effective strategies to protect infected cells against death-inducing stimuli, thereby ensuring completion of its developmental cycle. Paired with its capacity to cause extensive host DNA damage, this poses a potential risk of malignant transformation, consistent with circumstantial epidemiological evidence. Here we reveal a dramatic depletion of p53, a tumor suppressor deregulated in many cancers, during Chlamydia infection. Using biochemical approaches and live imaging of individual cells, we demonstrate that p53 diminution requires phosphorylation of Murine Double Minute 2 (MDM2; a ubiquitin ligase) and subsequent interaction of phospho-MDM2 with p53 before induced proteasomal degradation. Strikingly, inhibition of the p53-MDM2 interaction is sufficient to disrupt intracellular development of Chlamydia and interferes with the pathogen's anti-apoptotic effect on host cells. This highlights the dependency of the pathogen on a functional MDM2-p53 axis and lends support to a potentially pro-carcinogenic effect of chlamydial infection. PMID:25392082

  13. Chlamydia infection depends on a functional MDM2-p53 axis

    PubMed Central

    González, Erik; Rother, Marion; Kerr, Markus C.; Al-Zeer, Munir A.; Abu-Lubad, Mohammad; Kessler, Mirjana; Brinkmann, Volker; Loewer, Alexander; Meyer, Thomas F.

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia, a major human bacterial pathogen, assumes effective strategies to protect infected cells against death-inducing stimuli, thereby ensuring completion of its developmental cycle. Paired with its capacity to cause extensive host DNA damage, this poses a potential risk of malignant transformation, consistent with circumstantial epidemiological evidence. Here we reveal a dramatic depletion of p53, a tumor suppressor deregulated in many cancers, during Chlamydia infection. Using biochemical approaches and live imaging of individual cells, we demonstrate that p53 diminution requires phosphorylation of Murine Double Minute 2 (MDM2; a ubiquitin ligase) and subsequent interaction of phospho-MDM2 with p53 before induced proteasomal degradation. Strikingly, inhibition of the p53–MDM2 interaction is sufficient to disrupt intracellular development of Chlamydia and interferes with the pathogen’s anti-apoptotic effect on host cells. This highlights the dependency of the pathogen on a functional MDM2-p53 axis and lends support to a potentially pro-carcinogenic effect of chlamydial infection. PMID:25392082

  14. Predictors of Repeat Chlamydia trachomatis and/or Neisseria gonorrhoeae Infections Among African-American Adolescent Females

    PubMed Central

    Sales, Jessica M.; Brown, Jennifer L.; Latham Davis, Teaniese P.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Rose, Eve

    2013-01-01

    Background Young African-American women have the highest rates of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the United States. The objective was to identify baseline predictors of repeat Chlamydia and/or gonorrhoea infections among African-American adolescent females. Methods Sociodemographic, psychosocial and behavioural data were collected at baseline and every 6 months for 2 years from 701 African-American females (14–20 years) enrolled in an HIV prevention trial. Vaginal swabs were self-collected at each visit and assayed for Chlamydia and gonorrhoea using DNA amplification. Among participants testing positive for Chlamydia and/or gonorrhoea at baseline, logistic regression analyses assessed baseline predictors of repeat infection. Results Of 618 (88%) participants with ≥1 follow-up assessment, 123 (20%) had a positive Chlamydia and/or gonorrhoea test result at baseline; 49 (40%) had a repeat infection during the study period. Of those with a repeat infection, 30 (61%) were positive at one follow-up visit, 18 (37%) at two and 1 (2%) at three follow-up visits. Controlling for age and intervention condition, impulsivity (AOR: 1.71, p=.018) was associated with an increased likelihood and having a boyfriend (AOR: 0.21, p=.006) a decreased likelihood of repeat infection. Conclusions Repeat Chlamydia and/or gonorrhoea infections are common among African-American adolescent females. Among young African-American women who test positive for Chlamydia and/or gonorrhoea, tailored interventions for more impulsive adolescents and those not in a relationship may reduce risk of repeat infections. Given high numbers of repeat infections after receipt of an evidence-based intervention, enhanced screening and treatment services for young men may be warranted. PMID:23236082

  15. Asymptomatic Endemic Chlamydia pecorum Infections Reduce Growth Rates in Calves by up to 48 Percent

    PubMed Central

    Poudel, Anil; Elsasser, Theodore H.; Rahman, Kh. Shamsur; Chowdhury, Erfan U.; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Intracellular Chlamydia (C.) bacteria cause in cattle some acute but rare diseases such as abortion, sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis, kerato-conjunctivitis, pneumonia, enteritis and polyarthritis. More frequent, essentially ubiquitous worldwide, are low-level, asymptomatic chlamydial infections in cattle. We investigated the impact of these naturally acquired infections in a cohort of 51 female Holstein and Jersey calves from birth to 15 weeks of age. In biweekly sampling, we measured blood/plasma markers of health and infection and analyzed their association with clinical appearance and growth in dependence of chlamydial infection intensity as determined by mucosal chlamydial burden or contemporaneous anti-chlamydial plasma IgM. Chlamydia 23S rRNA gene PCR and ompA genotyping identified only C. pecorum (strains 1710S, Maeda, and novel strain Smith3v8) in conjunctival and vaginal swabs. All calves acquired the infection but remained clinically asymptomatic. High chlamydial infection associated with reduction of body weight gains by up to 48% and increased conjunctival reddening (P<10−4). Simultaneously decreased plasma albumin and increased globulin (P<10−4) suggested liver injury by inflammatory mediators as mechanisms for the growth inhibition. This was confirmed by the reduction of plasma insulin like growth factor-1 at high chlamydial infection intensity (P<10−4). High anti-C. pecorum IgM associated eight weeks later with 66% increased growth (P = 0.027), indicating a potential for immune protection from C. pecorum-mediated growth depression. The worldwide prevalence of chlamydiae in livestock and their high susceptibility to common feed-additive antibiotics suggests the possibility that suppression of chlamydial infections may be a major contributor to the growth promoting effect of feed-additive antibiotics. PMID:23024776

  16. Chlamydia trachomatis (Mouse Pneumonitis Strain) Induces Cardiovascular Pathology following Respiratory Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Yijun; Wang, Shuhe; Yang, Xi

    1999-01-01

    Chlamydia, especially Chlamydia pneumoniae, infection is closely associated with human cardiovascular diseases. Thus far, however, few experimental studies have been carried out to investigate whether natural C. trachomatis infection can induce cardiovascular pathological changes. In this article, we report that pulmonary infection with C. trachomatis mouse pneumonitis strain (MoPn) can induce myocardial and perivascular inflammation and fibrosis in C57BL/6 mice. The pulmonary MoPn infection appeared to be disseminated systemically, because chlamydial antigens were readily detectable in multiple organs including the cardiovascular tissues. In addition, gamma interferon gene knockout mice with a C57BL/6 genetic background showed significant endocarditis and pancarditis characterized by vegetation in aortic valves, interstitial and pericardial inflammatory cellular infiltration, and growth of the organisms in the heart following respiratory tract MoPn infection. The results indicate that C. trachomatis can induce cardiovascular diseases following respiratory tract infection and suggest that murine MoPn respiratory tract infection may be a useful experimental model for investigating cardiovascular diseases caused by chlamydial infection. PMID:10531278

  17. Human papillomavirus and other genital infections in indigenous women from Paraguay: a cross-sectional analytical study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of cervical cancer in Paraguay is among the highest in the world, with the human papillomavirus (HPV) being a necessary factor for cervical cancer. Knowledge about HPV infection among indigenous women is limited. This cross-sectional study analyzed the frequency of HPV and other genital infections in indigenous Paraguayan women of the Department of Presidente Hayes. Methods This study included 181 sexually active women without cervical lesions. They belonged to the following ethnicities: Maká (n = 40); Nivaclé (n = 23); Sanapaná (n = 33); Enxet Sur (n = 51) and Toba-Qom (n = 34). The detection of HPV and other gynecological infectious microorganisms was performed by either molecular methods (for Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Chlamydia trachomatis), gram staining and/or culture (for Gardnerella vaginalis, Candida sp, Trichomonas vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae), serological methods (for Treponema pallidum, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]) or cytology (cervical inflammation). Results A high prevalence (41.4%) of women positive for at least one sexually transmitted infection (STI) was found (23.2% any-type HPV, 11.6% T pallidum, 10.5% T vaginalis, 9.9% C trachomatis and 0.6% HIV) with 12.2% having more than one STI. HPV infection was the most frequent, with 16.1% of women positive for high-risk HPV types. There was a statistically significant association observed between any-type HPV and C trachomatis (p = 0.004), which indicates that the detection of one of these agents should suggest the presence of the other. There was no association between any-type HPV and other genital infections or cervical inflammation, suggesting that other mechanism could exist to favor infection with the virus. Conclusion This multidisciplinary work suggests that STIs are frequent, making it necessary to implement control measures and improve diagnosis in order to increase the number of cases detected, especially in populations with poor access to health centers. PMID:24206645

  18. Proceedings From the First Asia-Oceania Research Organisation on Genital Infections and Neoplasia (AOGIN) Meeting

    PubMed Central

    Faro, Edited by Sebastian

    2006-01-01

    The First Asia-Oceania Research Organisation on Genital Infections and Neoplasia (AOGIN) Meeting was held in Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia, in July 2005. The conference covered regional issues relating to infection with the human papillomavirus—epidemiology, virology, and immunology, testing, screening, and prevention strategies—as well as cervical cancer screening and its management.

  19. The incidence of Chlamydia pneumoniae lower respiratory tract infections among university students in northern California.

    PubMed Central

    Katzman, D. K.; Tipton, A. C.; Litt, I. F.; Friedman, I. M.; Emmons, R. W.; Schachter, J.

    1991-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae has recently been identified as a cause of lower respiratory tract infections. From March 1987 to March 1988, 259 university students-151 students with lower respiratory tract infections and 108 controls-from the University of California, Berkeley, were studied to determine the incidence and pattern of C pneumoniae lower respiratory tract infections. Serologic evidence of a recent C pneumoniae infection was found in less than 2%, and the organism was not isolated from any of the subjects. Despite the paucity of evidence of a recent infection, 47.5% of this university population showed serologic evidence of a previous C pneumoniae infection. The lower incidence of C pneumoniae infection in our population, when compared with previous reports, suggests that there may be geographic and temporal differences or fluctuations among populations. PMID:1926842

  20. Genital chlamydial infection among women in Nicaragua: validity of direct fluorescent antibody testing, prevalence, risk factors and clinical manifestations.

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, B; Espinoza, F; Villegas, R R; Smith, G D; Ramos, A; Egger, M

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate the performance of a direct fluorescence antibody (DFA) test and to determine the prevalence, risk factors and clinical manifestations of cervical chlamydia infection in different groups of women in Nicaragua. STUDY POPULATION: 926 women, 863 routine clinic attenders (mean age 27 years) and 63 sex workers (mean age 25 years) attending health centres in León, Corinto, Matagalpa and Bluefields. METHODS: Cervical specimens were examined using the Syva MicroTrak test system with a cut-off of 10 or more elementary bodies (EBs). The DFA results were validated by a one-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Discordant results were further examined in nested PCR assays directed at two different target genes. An interviewer-administered questionnaire and a standard gynaecological examination were completed. RESULTS: Sensitivity of DFA was 80.1%, specificity 98.3%, and positive and negative predictive values 62.5% and 99.3%, respectively. Values were lower in locations where samples thawed because of electricity breaks and higher among sex workers. The majority of discordant results was confirmed as positive in nested PCR assays. Prevalence of cervical chlamydia infection based on positivity in DFA and/or PCR ranged from 2% among routine clinic attenders aged 35 years or older, to 8% among adolescent clinic attenders, and to 14% among sex workers. Among routine clinic attenders, young age (odds ratio [OR] 3.6, 95% confidence intervals [95% CI] 1.4-8.9 for women aged 15-19 years as compared with 1 in women 25 years of age or older) and use of oral contraceptives (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.7-9.6) were the only statistically significant risk factors identified in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Presence of mucopurulent cervical discharge (OR 5.9, 95% CI 3.0-11.5) and presence of ectropion (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-6.5) were the clinical signs independently associated with infection. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the DFA test was sensitive and specific while the performance of the PCR assay depends on adequate storage of samples. Genital C trachomatis infection is a common health problem among women in Nicaragua. The wide implementation of syndromic STD management algorithms together with health education programmes aimed at young people is the most promising approach to control STD in Nicaragua. Images PMID:8655162

  1. Specific polymorphisms in the vitamin D metabolism pathway are not associated with susceptibility to Chlamydia trachomatis infection in humans.

    PubMed

    Lanjouw, Esmée; Branković, Ivan; Pleijster, Jolein; Spaargaren, Joke; Hoebe, Christian J P A; van Kranen, Henk J; Ouburg, Sander; Morré, Servaas A

    2016-04-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterium worldwide. Its often asymptomatic course of infection increases chances of transmission, and increases risk of late complications. Genetic variations in the host immune system are known to impact the course of infections. Recent studies have shown a positive impact of vitamin D on the regulation of the immune system. This study assesses the impact of eight polymorphisms in five genes [VDR (rs1544410 G > A, rs2228570 C > T), CYP27B1 (rs10877012 G > T), DHCR7 (rs7944926 G > A, rs3829251 G > A), GC (rs3755967) and CYP2R1 (rs10741657 G > A, rs2060793 G > A)] on susceptibility to Chlamydia infections in humans. These polymorphisms could influence protein expression or function, and thus influence the immune system. Samples of women visiting the STD outpatient clinic in South Limburg were genotyped using the Roche Lightcycler 480. In this study, we did not observe statistically significant differences between the genotype distributions of these polymorphisms in women with or without a Chlamydia infection. This suggests that VDR, CYP27B1, DHCR7, GC and CYP2R1 do not affect the susceptibility to Chlamydia infections. However, due to its pleiotropic nature in the immune system a role for the vitamin D pathway may not be excluded from the whole clinical course of Chlamydia infections (e.g. late complications), and further research is required. PMID:26867646

  2. History of Assisted Reproductive Technology and Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Masahiko; Suzuki, Shunji

    2016-01-01

    Background and Methods To identify whether or not a history of assisted reproductive technology (ART) is associated with the low incidence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection in pregnant women, we reviewed the obstetric records of the Japanese women aged 35 - 42 years. Results The prevalence of CT in the pregnancies without ART was 1.1% (28/2,632) using nucleic acid amplification tests, while it was zero in the pregnancies conceived by ART (0/364, P = 0.049 by the X2 test). Conclusions A history of ART seemed to be a negative risk factor for CT infection in pregnant women. PMID:26858799

  3. REASSESSING THE ROLE OF THE SECRETED PROTEASE CPAF IN CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS INFECTION THROUGH GENETIC APPROACHES

    PubMed Central

    Snavely, Emily A.; Kokes, Marcela; Dunn, Joe D.; Saka, Hector A.; Nguyen, Bidong D.; Bastidas, Robert J.; McCafferty, Dewey G.; Valdivia, Raphael H.

    2014-01-01

    The secreted Chlamydia protease CPAF cleaves a defined set of mammalian and Chlamydia proteins in vitro. As a result, this protease has been proposed to modulate a range of bacterial and host cellular functions. However, it has recently come into question the extent to which many of its identified substrates constitute bona fide targets of proteolysis in infected host cell rather than artifacts of post lysis degradation. Here we clarify the role played by CPAF in cellular models of infection by analyzing Chlamydia trachomatis mutants deficient for CPAF activity. Using reverse genetic approaches, we identified two C. trachomatis strains possessing nonsense, loss-of-function mutations in cpa (CT858), and a third strain containing a mutation in Type II secretion (T2S) machinery that inhibited CPAF activity by blocking zymogen secretion and subsequent proteolytic maturation into the active hydrolase. HeLa cells infected with T2S− or CPAF− C. trachomatis mutants lacked detectable in vitro CPAF proteolytic activity, and were not defective for cellular traits that have been previously attributed to CPAF activity, including resistance to staurosporine-induced apoptosis, Golgi fragmentation, altered NFκB-dependent gene expression, and resistance to reinfection. However, CPAF-deficient mutants did display impaired generation of infectious elementary bodies (EBs), indicating an important role for this protease in the full replicative potential of C. trachomatis. In addition, we provide compelling evidence in live cells that CPAF-mediated protein processing of at least two host protein targets, vimentin filaments and the nuclear envelope protein Lamin-associated protein 1 (LAP1), occurs rapidly after the loss of the inclusion membrane integrity, but before loss of plasma membrane permeability and cell lysis. CPAF-dependent processing of host proteins correlates with a loss of inclusion membrane integrity, and so we propose that CPAF plays a role late in infection, possibly during the stages leading to the dismantling of the infected cell prior to the release of EBs during cell lysis. PMID:24838663

  4. Acceptance of Home-Based Chlamydia Genital and Anorectal Testing Using Short Message Service (SMS) in Previously Tested Young People and Their Social and Sexual Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wolffs, Petra T.; Kok, Gerjo; Hoebe, Christian J. P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Control strategies for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) are most effective when targeting people at highest risk. We assessed test acceptance of home-collection test kits offered by short messaging services (SMS) texts, in high-risk young people, i.e. those who had previously tested CT positive (positive indices), or negative reporting more than 3 sex partners (negative indices), and their sexual and social networks. Methods Young (16 to 25 years old) heterosexuals who previously tested positive (n=536) or negative (n=536) in our STI clinic received, 3 to 20 months after their initial screening, an SMS inviting them to re-test. They were offered a free home-collection test kit including a genital (men and women) and anorectal (women only) test, and a test kit to pass on to a friend or sex partner (peer). SMS reminders were sent in case of non-response. We assessed proportions of tests requested and returned, peers tested, and positivity. Associations with the individual’s initial screening result and other factors were explored using logistic regression. Results Of 1072 people invited to retest, 34.4% (n=369) requested a test. Of these, 55.8% (n=206) retested. Overall, retest participation was higher in positive (22%) than in negative indices (16%) (p<0.001); it was also higher in women and in those aged >22 years. Positivity was 13% and 7% in positive and negative indices, respectively. One in 3 retesters also had a peer tested. Of tested peers (n=87), 84% were friends, 31% were first-time testers, and 7% tested positive. Conclusion Acceptance of a relatively low-cost strategy for genital and anorectal testing, i.e. using SMS and home-collection test kits, was highest in individuals who previously tested CT positive suggesting that implementation for this group may be considered. By further including a peer-led testing component, undetected CT positives can be identified in the social networks surrounding a high-risk individual. PMID:26230085

  5. Intratracheal infection as an efficient route for testing vaccines against Chlamydia abortus in sheep.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, D; Salinas, J; Buendía, A J; Ortega, N; del Río, L; Sánchez, J; Navarro, J A; Gallego, M C; Murcia-Belmonte, A; Cuello, F; Caro, M R

    2015-09-01

    Pregnant ewes have been widely used to test vaccines against Chlamydia abortus. However, this model entails many disadvantages such as high economic costs and long periods of pregnancy. The murine model is very useful for specific studies but cannot replace the natural host for the later stages of vaccine evaluation. Therefore, a non-pregnant model of the natural host might be useful for a vaccine trial to select the best vaccine candidates prior to use of the pregnant model. With this aim, two routes of infection were assessed in young non-pregnant sheep, namely, intranasal (IN) and intratracheal (IT). In addition, groups of non-vaccinated sheep and sheep immunised with an inactivated vaccine were established to investigate the suitability of the model for testing vaccines. After the experimental infection, isolation of the microorganism in several organs, with pathological and immunohistochemical analyses, antibody production assessment and investigation by PCR of the presence of chlamydia in the vagina or rectum were carried out. Experimental IT inoculation of C. abortus induced pneumonia in sheep during the first few days post-infection, confirming the suitability of the IT route for testing vaccines in the natural host. The course of infection and the resulting pathological signs were less severe in vaccinated sheep compared with non-vaccinated animals, demonstrating the success of vaccination. IN infection did not produce evident lesions or demonstrate the presence of chlamydial antigen in the lungs and cannot be considered an appropriate model for testing vaccines. PMID:26095034

  6. Human enteroendocrine cell responses to infection with Chlamydia trachomatis: a microarray study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Enteroendocrine cells (EEC) are highly specialized cells producing signalling molecules vital to the normal functions of the gut. Recently, we showed altered protein distribution in Chlamydia infected EEC in vitro. The aim of this study was to perform a microarray analysis of the response pattern of EEC from both large and small bowel to infection in vitro, using Chlamydia trachomatis infection as a model. Methods Two human EEC lines: LCC-18, derived from a neuroendocrine colonic tumour, and CNDT-2, derived from a small intestinal carcinoid, were infected using cultured C. trachomatis serovar LGV II strain 434 (ATCC VR-902B). Penicillin G was used to induce persistent infection. We used microarray analysis (Affymetrix GeneChip®) for studying changes in gene expression at different stages of infection. Results Twenty-four hours after active and persistent infection, 66 and 411 genes in LCC-18 and 68 and 170 genes in CNDT-2 cells, respectively showed mean expression ratios >2-fold compared to non-infected cells. These genes encoded factors regulating apoptosis, cell differentiation, transcription regulation, cytokine activity, amine biosynthesis and vesicular transport. We found significant differences in gene transcription levels between persistently infected and non-infected cells in 10 genes coding for different solute carrier transporters (SLC) and in 5 genes related to endocrine function (GABARAPL1, GRIP1, DRD2, SYT5 and SYT7). Conclusions Infected EEC cells exhibit cell-type specific patterns related to vesicular transport, secretion and neurotransmitters. EEC play a pivotal role in regulation of gut motility and an impairment of enteroendocrine function can contribute to motility disorders. PMID:24959205

  7. Prevalence of lower genital tract infection among women attending maternal and child health and family planning clinics in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Anh, Phan Kim; Khanh, Nguyen Thi Ngoc; Ha, Dinh Thu; Chien, Do Thi; Thuc, Pham Thi; Luong, Pham Hien; Kilmarx, Peter H; Wongchotigul, Varee; Kitayaporn, Dwip; Rowe, Patrick J

    2003-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of lower genital tract infection (LGTI) with Candida spp, Trichomonas vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and bacterial vaginosis among symptomatic and asymptomatic women attending maternal and child health and family planning (MCH/FP) clinics in Hanoi, Vietnam. A multi-centered, cross-sectional descriptive study stratified by reported symptoms of vaginal discharge was carried out in three MCH/FP clinics among 1,000 women aged 18-44 years in 1998. Of these, 89.1% lived in Hanoi, 97.6% were currently married, and 99.2% had only one sexual partner in the past 12 months. Regarding their contraceptive use, 28.2% did not use any contraception, 25.6% used an intrauterine device (IUD), 22.8% used condoms, and 23.4% used other methods. The overall prevalence of Candida spp was 11.1% (95% CI = 9.1-13.1%); T. vaginalis, 1.3% (95% CI = 0.6-2.0%); no gonococcal infection was found; the prevalence of C. trachomatis was 4.4% (95% CI = 3.1-5.7%); and of bacterial vaginosis, 3.5% (95% CI = 2.4-4.6%). The presence of LGTI was not associated with reported symptom of vaginal discharge. LGTI was common among married and monogamous women attending MCH/FP clinics in Hanoi, of whom many used IUDs and may have an increased risk of complications in the presence of LGTI. The lack of association between symptoms and laboratory-confirmed infection underscores the challenge of diagnosing LGTI when laboratory testing is not available. PMID:12971565

  8. Metabolic Features of Protochlamydia amoebophila Elementary Bodies – A Link between Activity and Infectivity in Chlamydiae

    PubMed Central

    Watzka, Margarete; Wultsch, Anna; Tziotis, Dimitrios; Montanaro, Jacqueline; Richter, Andreas; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Horn, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The Chlamydiae are a highly successful group of obligate intracellular bacteria, whose members are remarkably diverse, ranging from major pathogens of humans and animals to symbionts of ubiquitous protozoa. While their infective developmental stage, the elementary body (EB), has long been accepted to be completely metabolically inert, it has recently been shown to sustain some activities, including uptake of amino acids and protein biosynthesis. In the current study, we performed an in-depth characterization of the metabolic capabilities of EBs of the amoeba symbiont Protochlamydia amoebophila. A combined metabolomics approach, including fluorescence microscopy-based assays, isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), ion cyclotron resonance Fourier transform mass spectrometry (ICR/FT-MS), and ultra-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) was conducted, with a particular focus on the central carbon metabolism. In addition, the effect of nutrient deprivation on chlamydial infectivity was analyzed. Our investigations revealed that host-free P. amoebophila EBs maintain respiratory activity and metabolize D-glucose, including substrate uptake as well as host-free synthesis of labeled metabolites and release of labeled CO2 from 13C-labeled D-glucose. The pentose phosphate pathway was identified as major route of D-glucose catabolism and host-independent activity of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was observed. Our data strongly suggest anabolic reactions in P. amoebophila EBs and demonstrate that under the applied conditions D-glucose availability is essential to sustain metabolic activity. Replacement of this substrate by L-glucose, a non-metabolizable sugar, led to a rapid decline in the number of infectious particles. Likewise, infectivity of Chlamydia trachomatis, a major human pathogen, also declined more rapidly in the absence of nutrients. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that D-glucose is utilized by P. amoebophila EBs and provide evidence that metabolic activity in the extracellular stage of chlamydiae is of major biological relevance as it is a critical factor affecting maintenance of infectivity. PMID:23950718

  9. Chlamydia trachomatis infection among female inmates at Briman prison in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the western countries; its prevalence in the conservative Muslim population of Saudi Arabia is not known, but it is generally believed to be low. This study is the first to investigate the prevalence of and risk factors for C. trachomatis infection in the high-risk group of female inmates at Briman Prison in Jeddah. Methods The inmates were interviewed using a pre-designed questionnaire, and their urine samples were tested for C. trachomatis infection by real-time PCR assay. Results The overall prevalence of C. trachomatis infection was 8.7% in the study population. The ≤25 age group was predominantly affected, with an average prevalence of 16.6%. Two out of five (2/5, 40%) Yamani, (4/33 12.1%) Indonesian, (3/33, 9.1%) Somalian and (2/26, 7.7%) Ethiopian inmates were positive for infection. None of the Saudi inmates (0/14) were positive for infection. Among the studied variables, only age was significantly associated with the infection rate. The other variables (marital status, nationality, religion, employment status, education level, nature of the offense committed, knowledge about protection from STIs, and knowledge about condom use and the purpose of condom use) did not show a significant correlation with Chlamydia infection. Conclusions The overall prevalence of C. trachomatis infection was within the range published by other reports in similar prison settings in developed countries. The results indicate the need for a countrywide screening and treatment program for all inmates at the time of entry into prison. PMID:24649964

  10. Lymphocyte-derived chemotactic factor synthesis in initial genital herpesvirus infection: correlation with lymphocyte transformation.

    PubMed Central

    Rattray, M C; Peterman, G M; Altman, L C; Corey, L; Holmes, K K

    1980-01-01

    Lymphocyte transformation and production of lymphocyte-derived chemotactic factor in response to herpes simplex virus antigen were studied in 15 patients with initial genital herpes and 10 controls. The patients underwent frequent genital examinations, viral cultures, and weekly immunological studies for a period of 11 weeks. The production of lymphocyte-derived chemotactic factor was maximal in week 1 of the disease and declined to control levels by week 6. In contrast, lymphocyte transformation was lowest in week 1, reached a maximum by week 4, and declined to control levels by week 11. Production of lymphocyte-derived chemotactic factor in week 1 was significantly lower in nine patients who developed signs or symptoms of systemic herpes infection than in six who had localized disease. In addition, a marked but transient decline in the production of this lymphokine was observed in patients at the time of clinical recurrence. Virus-specific lymphocyte transformation correlated inversely with the duration of genital pain and lesions and did not correlate with the presence of systemic signs or symptoms. These findings indicate that during initial genital herpes infection the dynamics of lymphocyte transformation and those of lymphocyte-derived chemotactic factor production are different, and that the generation of this lymphokine is an early component of the cellular immune response in this disease. Furthermore, adequate produce of lymphocyte-derived chemotactic factor may be important in restricting herpes simplex virus to the genital area and preventing disease recurrence. PMID:6254875

  11. Impact of genital hygiene and sexual activity on urinary tract infection during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Badran, Yaser Ali; El-Kashef, Tarek Ahmed; Abdelaziz, Alsayed Saad; Ali, Mahmoud Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a bacterial infection commonly occurring during pregnancy. The incidence of UTI in pregnant women depends on parity, race, and socioeconomic status and can be as high as 8%. Objective: The objective was to determine the association of UTI with genital hygiene practices and sexual activity in pregnant women. Patients and Methods: From January 2011 to June 2014, a total of 200 pregnant women attending prenatal clinics in Al-Zahra Hospital and King Khalid Hospital in Saudia Arabia Kingdom were selected. Eighty pregnant women, who had positive urine cultures (cases), were compared with the remaining 120 healthy pregnant women matched for age, social, economic and education status, and parity (controls). Results: In the present work, Escherichia coli were the infecting organism in 83% of cases. Factors associated with UTI included sexual intercourse ≥ 3 times/week (odds ratio [OR] =5.62), recent UTI (OR = 3.27), not washing genitals precoitus (OR = 2.16), not washing genitals postcoitus (OR = 2.89), not voiding urine postcoitus (OR = 8.62) and washing genitals from back to front (OR = 2.96) [OR = odds ratio]. Conclusion: Urinary tract infection in pregnant women was primarily caused by bacteria from the stool (E. coli) and that hygiene habits, and sexual behavior may play a role in UTI in pregnant women. PMID:26692669

  12. High dynamic range detection of Chlamydia trachomatis growth by direct quantitative PCR of the infected cells.

    PubMed

    Eszik, Ildikó; Lantos, Ildikó; Önder, Kamil; Somogyvári, Ferenc; Burián, Katalin; Endrész, Valéria; Virok, Dezső P

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria developing in an intracytoplasmic niche, the inclusion. Chlamydia growth measurement by inclusion counting is a key task in the development of novel antichlamydial antibiotics and in vaccine studies. Most of the current counting methods rely on the immunofluorescent staining of the inclusions and either manual or automatic microscopy detection and enumeration. The manual method is highly labor intensive, while the automatic methods are either medium-throughput or require automatic microscopy. The sensitive and specific PCR technology could be an effective method for growth related chlamydial DNA detection; however the currently described PCR approaches have a major limitation, the requirement of purification of DNA or RNA from the infected cells. This limitation makes this approach unfeasible for high-throughput screenings. To overcome this, we developed a quantitative PCR (qPCR) method for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis DNA directly from the infected HeLa cells. With our method we were able to detect the bacterial growth in a 4 log scale (multiplicity of infection (MOI): 64 to 0.0039), with high correlation between the biological and technical replicates. As a further proof of the method, we applied the direct qPCR for antibiotic minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) measurements. The measured MICs of moxifloxacin, tetracycline, clarithromycin and compound PCC00213 were 0.031μg/ml, 0.031μg/ml, 0.0039μg/ml and 6.2μg/ml respectively, identical or close to the already published MIC values. Our direct qPCR method for chlamydial growth and antibiotic MIC determination is less time-consuming, more objective and more sensitive than the currently applied manual or automatic fluorescent microscopy- based methods. PMID:26578244

  13. Guanylate binding proteins enable rapid activation of canonical and noncanonical inflammasomes in Chlamydia-infected macrophages.

    PubMed

    Finethy, Ryan; Jorgensen, Ine; Haldar, Arun K; de Zoete, Marcel R; Strowig, Till; Flavell, Richard A; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Nagarajan, Uma M; Miao, Edward A; Coers, Jörn

    2015-12-01

    Interferon (IFN)-inducible guanylate binding proteins (GBPs) mediate cell-autonomous host resistance to bacterial pathogens and promote inflammasome activation. The prevailing model postulates that these two GBP-controlled activities are directly linked through GBP-dependent vacuolar lysis. It was proposed that the rupture of pathogen-containing vacuoles (PVs) by GBPs destroyed the microbial refuge and simultaneously contaminated the host cell cytosol with microbial activators of inflammasomes. Here, we demonstrate that GBP-mediated host resistance and GBP-mediated inflammatory responses can be uncoupled. We show that PVs formed by the rodent pathogen Chlamydia muridarum, so-called inclusions, remain free of GBPs and that C. muridarum is impervious to GBP-mediated restrictions on bacterial growth. Although GBPs neither bind to C. muridarum inclusions nor restrict C. muridarum growth, we find that GBPs promote inflammasome activation in C. muridarum-infected macrophages. We demonstrate that C. muridarum infections induce GBP-dependent pyroptosis through both caspase-11-dependent noncanonical and caspase-1-dependent canonical inflammasomes. Among canonical inflammasomes, we find that C. muridarum and the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis activate not only NLRP3 but also AIM2. Our data show that GBPs support fast-kinetics processing and secretion of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18 by the NLRP3 inflammasome but are dispensable for the secretion of the same cytokines at later times postinfection. Because IFN-γ fails to induce IL-1β transcription, GBP-dependent fast-kinetics inflammasome activation can drive the preferential processing of constitutively expressed IL-18 in IFN-γ-primed macrophages in the absence of prior Toll-like receptor stimulation. Together, our results reveal that GBPs control the kinetics of inflammasome activation and thereby shape macrophage responses to Chlamydia infections. PMID:26416908

  14. High Rate of Partner Treatment Among Chlamydia trachomatis-Infected Pregnant Women in Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Minh; Cabeza, Jeanne; Segura, Eddy; García, Patricia J; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2016-05-01

    This was a substudy of 60 Chlamydia trachomatis-infected women from a larger study of pregnant women in Lima, Peru. Participants were encouraged to bring their partners in for concurrent patient-partner treatment. The alternative partner treatment was expedited partner therapy. Partner treatment uptake was 91.7%. Twenty-one partners (38.2%) received treatment through concurrent patient-partner treatment, and 34 (61.8%) through expedited partner therapy. Living with the partner was significantly associated with having the partner treated (P = 0.0028). PMID:27100765

  15. The molecular basis for disease phenotype in chronic Chlamydia-induced arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Carter, John D; Gerard, Herve C; Whittum-Hudson, Judith A; Hudson, Alan P

    2013-01-01

    Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections can elicit an inflammatory arthritis in some individuals, and recent surprising studies have demonstrated that only ocular (trachoma) strains, not genital strains, of the organism are present in the synovial tissues of patients with the disease. This observation suggests an explanation for the small proportion of genitally-infected patients who develop Chlamydia-induced arthritis. Other recent studies have begun to identify the specific chlamydial gene products that elicit the synovial inflammatory response during both active and quiescent disease, although much more study will be required to complete the understanding of that complex process of host–pathogen interaction. Several newly developed experimental methods and approaches for study of the process will enable identification of new therapeutic targets, and possibly strategies for prevention of the disease altogether. PMID:23440251

  16. Virologic and Immunologic Evidence of Multifocal Genital Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jia; Jing, Lichen; Laing, Kerry J.; McClurkan, Christopher M.; Klock, Alexis; Diem, Kurt; Jin, Lei; Stanaway, Jeffrey; Tronstein, Elizabeth; Kwok, William W.; Huang, Meei-li; Selke, Stacy; Fong, Youyi; Magaret, Amalia; Koelle, David M.; Wald, Anna; Corey, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) reactivation is thought to be anatomically and temporally localized, coincident with limited ganglionic infection. Short, subclinical shedding episodes are the most common form of HSV-2 reactivation, with host clearance mechanisms leading to rapid containment. The anatomic distribution of shedding episodes has not been characterized. To precisely define patterns of anatomic reactivation, we divided the genital tract into a 22-region grid and obtained daily swabs for 20 days from each region in 28 immunocompetent, HSV-2-seropositive persons. HSV was detected via PCR, and sites of asymptomatic HSV shedding were subjected to a biopsy procedure within 24 h. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were quantified by immunofluorescence, and HSV-specific CD4+ T cells were identified by intracellular cytokine cytometry. HSV was detected in 868 (7%) of 11,603 genital swabs at a median of 12 sites per person (range, 0 to 22). Bilateral HSV detection occurred on 83 (67%) days with shedding, and the median quantity of virus detected/day was associated with the number of sites positive (P < 0.001). In biopsy specimens of asymptomatic shedding sites, we found increased numbers of CD8+ T cells compared to control tissue (27 versus 13 cells/mm2, P = 0.03) and identified HSV-specific CD4+ T cells. HSV reactivations emanate from widely separated anatomic regions of the genital tract and are associated with a localized cellular infiltrate that was demonstrated to be HSV specific in 3 cases. These data provide evidence that asymptomatic HSV-2 shedding contributes to chronic inflammation throughout the genital tract. IMPORTANCE This detailed report of the anatomic patterns of genital HSV-2 shedding demonstrates that HSV-2 reactivation can be detected at multiple bilateral sites in the genital tract, suggesting that HSV establishes latency throughout the sacral ganglia. In addition, genital biopsy specimens from sites of asymptomatic HSV shedding have increased numbers of CD8+ T cells compared to control tissue, and HSV-specific CD4+ T cells are found at sites of asymptomatic shedding. These findings suggest that widespread asymptomatic genital HSV-2 shedding is associated with a targeted host immune response and contributes to chronic inflammation throughout the genital tract. PMID:24554666

  17. Azithromycin treatment modulates the extracellular signal-regulated kinase mediated pathway and inhibits inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in epithelial cells from infertile women with recurrent Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Pragya; Vardhan, Harsh; Bhengraj, Apurb Rashmi; Jha, Rajneesh; Singh, Laishram Chandreshwor; Salhan, Sudha; Mittal, Aruna

    2011-08-01

    Epidemiological and animal model studies suggest that sequelae of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection are more often associated with second or subsequent infections than with initial infection. Further, in order to establish an acute or long-term persistent infection, C. trachomatis develops several strategies to circumvent host immune responses. Hence, resolution of the C. trachomatis infection may require modulation of host factors especially during persistent or chronic infection. Moreover, azithromycin treatment has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties but its mechanism of action is still not elucidated. Therefore, in order to better understand the effect of azithromycin in chronic conditions, our aim was to study changes in expression of key genes associated with inflammatory cytokines and receptors, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway, and apoptosis pathway before and after therapy with azithromycin in infertile women with recurrent C. trachomatis infection. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to study inflammatory cytokines and receptors, MAPK signaling pathway, and apoptosis pathway before and after therapy with azithromycin in infertile women with recurrent C. trachomatis infection. Further, effect of azithromycin on activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase was studied in epithelial cells by western blotting. Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), CCL5, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1), CXCL5, CXCL9, interleukin-1B (IL-1B), IL-8, baculoviral IAP repeat-containing 3 (BIRC3), myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 (MCL1), and MAPK1 were downregualted after azithromycin treatment. In addition, phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase was inhibited after azithromycin treatment in epithelial cells obtained from women with recurrent infection. Hence, our data suggest that azithromycin with its properties apart from antibacterial activity may contribute to its therapeutic potential in treatment of chronic recurrent infection in infertile women. PMID:21438755

  18. Prevalence of asymptomatic genital infection among pregnant women in Benin City, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akerele, John; Abhulimen, Philip; Okonofua, Friday

    2002-12-01

    The prevalence of asymptomatic genital infection among pregnant women and their susceptibility to antibacterial agents was investigated to provide baseline data on common asymptomatic genital microorganisms and identify potentials for development of clinical disease among this cohort of patients. High vaginal swabs were obtained from five hundred consecutive and consenting pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH) and the Central Hospital, both in Benin City, Nigeria. A total of three hundred specimens showed significant microbial growth, giving a prevalence rate of 60% for asymptomatic genital infections. Candida albicans (65%), Staphylococcus aureus (51.8%) and Enterobacteriacae (E. coli and Klebsiella species) were predominantly isolated, followed by Trichomonas vaginalis and Neisseria gonorrhoea. Most of the bacterial isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, cotrimoxazole, norfloxacin and augmentin. All the isolates except Streptococcus faecalis were resistant to ampicillin. These results show a high rate of asymptomatic genital tract infections among pregnant women in Benin City, which have implications for adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. PMID:12685413

  19. Mouse strain-dependent variation in the course and outcome of chlamydial genital tract infection is associated with differences in host response.

    PubMed Central

    Darville, T; Andrews, C W; Laffoon, K K; Shymasani, W; Kishen, L R; Rank, R G

    1997-01-01

    Whether there is a pathogenic or protective outcome to chlamydial infection may be defined by the host response. We infected C57BL/6 (C57) and C3H/HeN (C3H) mice with the human biovar of Chlamydia trachomatis, serovar E, and, in select experiments, with the mouse pneumonitis agent of C. trachomatis (MoPn). We compared the courses of infection, histopathology, and host responses that resulted from these infections. The duration of infection with either chlamydial biovar was significantly increased in the C3H strain of mice. The intensity of infection was examined in mice infected with serovar E, and it was significantly increased in the C3H strain. Histopathology revealed the incidence of severe hydrosalpinx to be significantly greater in C3H mice than in C57 mice. In contrast, severe distention of the uterine horns was observed in all infected C57 mice compared to none of the C3H mice infected with serovar E and only 25% of those infected with MoPn. Acute inflammation was significantly increased in the uterine horns of C57 mice compared to that of C3H mice. Examination of antigen-specific responses revealed qualitatively similar responses in the two strains. Determination of gamma interferon- versus interleukin 4- producing cells revealed the predominance of a Th1 response in both strains. Serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and IgG2a revealed a predominance of IgG2a antibody in both strains, although the levels of antibody were significantly greater in C3H mice. Lymphocyte proliferation studies revealed increased proliferation in the iliac nodes of both strains at 1 to 3 weeks after infection. Because of the early eradication of infection observed in the C57 strain, we explored the relative production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in the two strains. TNF-alpha levels were significantly increased in the genital tract secretions of C57 mice compared to that of C3H mice during the first week of infection. Increased TNF-alpha may be beneficial to the host by leading to earlier eradication of infection, thereby preventing infection of the oviduct and thus the major disease sequelae associated with chlamydial infection of the genital tract. PMID:9234755

  20. Involvement of Lysosome Membrane Permeabilization and Reactive Oxygen Species Production in the Necrosis Induced by Chlamydia muridarum Infection in L929 Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lixiang; Wang, Cong; Li, Shun; Yu, Xin; Liu, Xue; Ren, Rongrong; Liu, Wenwen; Zhou, Xiaojing; Zhang, Xiaonan; Zhou, Xiaohui

    2016-04-28

    Chlamydiae, obligate intracellular bacteria, are associated with a variety of human diseases. The chlamydial life cycle undergoes a biphasic development: replicative reticulate bodies (RBs) phase and infectious elementary bodies (EBs) phase. At the end of the chlamydial intracellular life cycle, EBs have to be released to the surrounded cells. Therefore, the interactions between Chlamydiae and cell death pathways could greatly influence the outcomes of Chlamydia infection. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we investigated host cell death after Chlamydia infection in vitro, in L929 cells, and showed that Chlamydia infection induces cell necrosis, as detected by the propidium iodide (PI)-Annexin V double-staining flow-cytometric assay and Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), an important factor in induction of necrosis, was increased after Chlamydia infection, and inhibition of ROS with specific pharmacological inhibitors, diphenylene iodonium (DPI) or butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), led to significant suppression of necrosis. Interestingly, live-cell imaging revealed that Chlamydia infection induced lysosome membrane permeabilization (LMP). When an inhibitor upstream of LMP, CA-074-Me, was added to cells, the production of ROS was reduced with concomitant inhibition of necrosis. Taken together, our results indicate that Chlamydia infection elicits the production of ROS, which is dependent on LMP at least partially, followed by induction of host-cell necrosis. To our best knowledge, this is the first live-cell-imaging observation of LMP post Chlamydia infection and report on the link of LMP to ROS to necrosis during Chlamydia infection. PMID:26838343

  1. Programmed Death Ligand 1 Promotes Early-Life Chlamydia Respiratory Infection-Induced Severe Allergic Airway Disease.

    PubMed

    Starkey, Malcolm R; Nguyen, Duc H; Brown, Alexandra C; Essilfie, Ama-Tawiah; Kim, Richard Y; Yagita, Hideo; Horvat, Jay C; Hansbro, Philip M

    2016-04-01

    Chlamydia infections are frequent causes of respiratory illness, particularly pneumonia in infants, and are linked to permanent reductions in lung function and the induction of asthma. However, the immune responses that protect against early-life infection and the mechanisms that lead to chronic lung disease are incompletely understood. In the current study, we investigated the role of programmed death (PD)-1 and its ligands PD-L1 and PD-L2 in promoting early-life Chlamydia respiratory infection, and infection-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and severe allergic airway disease in later life. Infection increased PD-1 and PD-L1, but not PD-L2, mRNA expression in the lung. Flow cytometric analysis of whole lung homogenates identified monocytes, dendritic cells, CD4(+), and CD8(+) T cells as major sources of PD-1 and PD-L1. Inhibition of PD-1 and PD-L1, but not PD-L2, during infection ablated infection-induced AHR in later life. Given that PD-L1 was the most highly up-regulated and its targeting prevented infection-induced AHR, subsequent analyses focused on this ligand. Inhibition of PD-L1 had no effect on Chlamydia load but suppressed infection-induced pulmonary inflammation. Infection decreased the levels of the IL-13 decoy receptor in the lung, which were restored to baseline levels by inhibition of PD-L1. Finally, inhibition of PD-L1 during infection prevented subsequent infection-induced severe allergic airways disease in later life by decreasing IL-13 levels, Gob-5 expression, mucus production, and AHR. Thus, early-life Chlamydia respiratory infection-induced PD-L1 promotes severe inflammation during infection, permanent reductions in lung function, and the development of more severe allergic airway disease in later life. PMID:26378990

  2. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by a herpes simplex virus (HSV). It can cause sores on ... also infect their babies during childbirth. Symptoms of herpes are called outbreaks. You usually get sores near ...

  3. Multiple Human Papillomavirus Infection Is Associated with High-Risk Infection in Male Genital Warts in Ulsan, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Taekmin; Moon, Kyung Hyun; Yang, Sung-Hak; Roh, Min Cheol; Lee, Sang Hoon; Kim, Je Won; Kim, In Kyu; Roh, Kyoung Ho; Park, Sungchan

    2016-03-01

    Further understanding of male human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is necessary to prevent infection in men, as well as transmission to women. In our current study, we investigated patterns of HPV infection and genotype distributions in male genital warts using the Anyplex II HPV28 Detection kit. We reviewed the medical records of 80 male patients who presented to 5 neighborhood clinics in Ulsan, Korea, for the treatment of genital warts between April 2014 and January 2015. All patients underwent HPV genotyping. The prevalence and characteristics of HPV infection were analyzed, and the patterns of HPV infection according to age were assessed. Among the study patients, 13 (16.3%) were negative for HPV infection, 46 (57.3%) were infected with low-risk HPV, and 21 (26.3%) were infected with high-risk HPV. Patients with multiple HPV infection were more likely to have high-risk HPV infection (P = 0.001). The prevalence of HPV infection was much higher in samples obtained by tissue excision due to a definite lesion (P = 0.001). There were no differences in high-risk HPV infection (P = 0.459), multiple HPV infection (P = 0.185), and recurrence at diagnosis (P = 0.178) according to age. HPV-6 and HPV-11 were the most common type overall (39.7% and 13.8%, respectively). HPV-16 and HPV-18 were the most common high-risk infections (both 3.4%). HPV infection is not only commonly encountered in male genital warts, but is also accompanied by high-risk HPV and multiple infections. PMID:26955236

  4. Multiple Human Papillomavirus Infection Is Associated with High-Risk Infection in Male Genital Warts in Ulsan, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Kyung Hyun; Yang, Sung-Hak; Roh, Min Cheol; Lee, Sang Hoon; Kim, Je Won; Kim, In Kyu; Roh, Kyoung Ho

    2016-01-01

    Further understanding of male human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is necessary to prevent infection in men, as well as transmission to women. In our current study, we investigated patterns of HPV infection and genotype distributions in male genital warts using the Anyplex II HPV28 Detection kit. We reviewed the medical records of 80 male patients who presented to 5 neighborhood clinics in Ulsan, Korea, for the treatment of genital warts between April 2014 and January 2015. All patients underwent HPV genotyping. The prevalence and characteristics of HPV infection were analyzed, and the patterns of HPV infection according to age were assessed. Among the study patients, 13 (16.3%) were negative for HPV infection, 46 (57.3%) were infected with low-risk HPV, and 21 (26.3%) were infected with high-risk HPV. Patients with multiple HPV infection were more likely to have high-risk HPV infection (P = 0.001). The prevalence of HPV infection was much higher in samples obtained by tissue excision due to a definite lesion (P = 0.001). There were no differences in high-risk HPV infection (P = 0.459), multiple HPV infection (P = 0.185), and recurrence at diagnosis (P = 0.178) according to age. HPV-6 and HPV-11 were the most common type overall (39.7% and 13.8%, respectively). HPV-16 and HPV-18 were the most common high-risk infections (both 3.4%). HPV infection is not only commonly encountered in male genital warts, but is also accompanied by high-risk HPV and multiple infections. PMID:26955236

  5. Conjunctival fibrosis and the innate barriers to Chlamydia trachomatis intracellular infection: a genome wide association study.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Chrissy h; Franklin, Christopher S; Makalo, Pateh; Joof, Hassan; Sarr, Isatou; Mahdi, Olaimatu S; Sillah, Ansumana; Bah, Momodou; Payne, Felicity; Jeffreys, Anna E; Bottomley, William; Natividad, Angels; Molina-Gonzalez, Sandra; Burr, Sarah E; Preston, Mark; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Rockett, Kirk A; Clark, Taane G; Burton, Matthew J; Mabey, David C W; Bailey, Robin; Barroso, Inês; Holland, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis causes both trachoma and sexually transmitted infections. These diseases have similar pathology and potentially similar genetic predisposing factors. We aimed to identify polymorphisms and pathways associated with pathological sequelae of ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infections in The Gambia. We report a discovery phase genome-wide association study (GWAS) of scarring trachoma (1090 cases, 1531 controls) that identified 27 SNPs with strong, but not genome-wide significant, association with disease (5 × 10(-6) > P > 5 × 10(-8)). The most strongly associated SNP (rs111513399, P = 5.38 × 10(-7)) fell within a gene (PREX2) with homology to factors known to facilitate chlamydial entry to the host cell. Pathway analysis of GWAS data was significantly enriched for mitotic cell cycle processes (P = 0.001), the immune response (P = 0.00001) and for multiple cell surface receptor signalling pathways. New analyses of published transcriptome data sets from Gambia, Tanzania and Ethiopia also revealed that the same cell cycle and immune response pathways were enriched at the transcriptional level in various disease states. Although unconfirmed, the data suggest that genetic associations with chlamydial scarring disease may be focussed on processes relating to the immune response, the host cell cycle and cell surface receptor signalling. PMID:26616738

  6. Conjunctival fibrosis and the innate barriers to Chlamydia trachomatis intracellular infection: a genome wide association study

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Chrissy h.; Franklin, Christopher S.; Makalo, Pateh; Joof, Hassan; Sarr, Isatou; Mahdi, Olaimatu S.; Sillah, Ansumana; Bah, Momodou; Payne, Felicity; Jeffreys, Anna E.; Bottomley, William; Natividad, Angels; Molina-Gonzalez, Sandra; Burr, Sarah E.; Preston, Mark; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Rockett, Kirk A.; Clark, Taane G.; Burton, Matthew J.; Mabey, David C. W.; Bailey, Robin; Barroso, Inês; Holland, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis causes both trachoma and sexually transmitted infections. These diseases have similar pathology and potentially similar genetic predisposing factors. We aimed to identify polymorphisms and pathways associated with pathological sequelae of ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infections in The Gambia. We report a discovery phase genome-wide association study (GWAS) of scarring trachoma (1090 cases, 1531 controls) that identified 27 SNPs with strong, but not genome-wide significant, association with disease (5 × 10−6 > P > 5 × 10−8). The most strongly associated SNP (rs111513399, P = 5.38 × 10−7) fell within a gene (PREX2) with homology to factors known to facilitate chlamydial entry to the host cell. Pathway analysis of GWAS data was significantly enriched for mitotic cell cycle processes (P = 0.001), the immune response (P = 0.00001) and for multiple cell surface receptor signalling pathways. New analyses of published transcriptome data sets from Gambia, Tanzania and Ethiopia also revealed that the same cell cycle and immune response pathways were enriched at the transcriptional level in various disease states. Although unconfirmed, the data suggest that genetic associations with chlamydial scarring disease may be focussed on processes relating to the immune response, the host cell cycle and cell surface receptor signalling. PMID:26616738

  7. Sudden psychotic episode probably due to meningoencephalitis and Chlamydia pneumoniae acute infection

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Background Since 9% to 20% of all cases of acute psychosis presenting to an Emergency Department (ED) are due to a general medical condition, cautious medical workup should be mandatory in such patients. Differential diagnosis must consider conditions as diverse as renal failure or CNS infection. Acute Chlamydia pneumoniae infection usually causes a self-limited respiratory syndrome. Rarely, acute neurological complications occur, with acute meningoencephalitis most frequently reported. Diagnosis requires a high level of suspicion and is difficult to confirm. Case report We describe a 22 year-old female Caucasian who, three days after a mild pharingitis, developed an acute psychosis with exuberant symptoms interspersed with periods of lucidity, in a background of normal consciousness and orientation. Initial medical and imagiological workup were inconclusive. After 20 days of unsuccessful treatment with antipsychotics she developed a high fever and was re-evaluated medically. Lumbar puncture revealed an inflammatory cerebrospinal fluid. MRI showed irregular thickening and nodularity of the lateral ventricles' lining. An anti-Chlamydia pneumoniae IgM antibody titter of 85 IU/ml was detected. All symptoms cleared after treatment with antibiotics and corticosteroids. Conclusion This is, to our knowledge, the first reported case of acute CP-associated meningoencephalitis manifesting as an acute psychotic episode. It illustrates the principle that non-organic psychiatric syndromes must remain a diagnosis of exclusion in first-time acute psychosis. PMID:16164756

  8. Immunization against Genital Herpes with a Vaccine Virus That has Defects in Productive and Latent Infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, Xavier J.; Jones, Cheryl A.; Knipe, David M.

    1999-06-01

    An effective vaccine for genital herpes has been difficult to achieve because of the limited efficacy of subunit vaccines and the safety concerns about live viruses. As an alternative approach, mutant herpes simplex virus strains that are replication-defective can induce protective immunity. To increase the level of safety and to prove that replication was not needed for immunization, we constructed a mutant herpes simplex virus 2 strain containing two deletion mutations, each of which eliminated viral replication. The double-mutant virus induces protective immunity that can reduce acute viral shedding and latent infection in a mouse genital model, but importantly, the double-mutant virus shows a phenotypic defect in latent infection. This herpes vaccine strain, which is immunogenic but has defects in both productive and latent infection, provides a paradigm for the design of vaccines and vaccine vectors for other sexually transmitted diseases, such as AIDS.

  9. Benefits of Rapid Molecular Diagnosis of Chlamydia Trachomatis and Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Infections in Women Attending Family Planning Clinics.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois-Nicolaos, Nadège; Jaureguy, Françoise; Pozzi-Gaudin, Stéphanie; Masson, Claire; Guillet-Caruba, Christelle; Lavisse, Frédérique; Larmignat, Philippe; Benachi, Alexandra; Picard, Bertrand; Doucet-Populaire, Florence

    2015-11-01

    We evaluated the benefits of on-demand systematic screening for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae using the Xpert CT/NG assay in 589 women attending family planning clinics. The sexually transmitted infection prevalence was 16.5% with 15.1% C. trachomatis and 3.1% N. gonorrhoeae infections. The on-demand test allowed for a quicker management of patients at high risk for sexually transmitted infections. PMID:26462191

  10. The effectiveness of an education intervention to prevent chlamydia infection among Greenlandic youth.

    PubMed

    Rink, Elizabeth; Montgomery-Andersen, Ruth; Anastario, Mike

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to implement a sexual health behavioural intervention in Greenland in order to reduce sexually transmitted infection rates among a population of Greenland youth. This behavioural intervention was called Inuulluataarneq (Having the Good Life). Inuulluataarneq's objects included: (1) increase Greenlandic youth's overall knowledge about sexually transmitted infections and sexual health; (2) increase parent/guardian-youth communication about topics related to sexually transmitted infections and sex; and (3) increase consistent condom use among Greenlandic youth. We hypothesised that increased awareness of sexually transmitted infections and sexual health as well as increased communication between parents/guardians and their adolescent children would influence sexual risk behaviour and reduce sexually transmitted infections among our sample population, with a focus on urine samples of chlamydia infection. Results indicate that the influence of having a parent/guardian to speak with about topics related to sex, including the consequences of pregnancy, are key protective factors in reducing sexually transmitted infections among Greenlandic youth. Inuulluataarneq demonstrates that intensive short-term education and skill-building delivered by a trained community member is an effective sexually transmitted infection prevention intervention method among young Inuit populations who live in small isolated Arctic communities. PMID:24713230

  11. Distinct Intensity of Host-Pathogen Interactions in Chlamydia psittaci- and Chlamydia abortus-Infected Chicken Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Braukmann, Maria; Jacobsen, Ilse D.; Westermann, Martin; Menge, Christian; Saluz, Hans-Peter; Berndt, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Factors and mechanisms determining the differences in virulence and host specificity between the zoonotic agents Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia abortus are still largely unknown. In the present study, two strains were compared for their invasiveness, virulence, and capability of eliciting an immune response in chicken embryos. On breeding day 10, embryonated chicken eggs were inoculated with 5 × 104 inclusion-forming units. As shown by immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR, C. psittaci displayed a significantly better capability of disseminating in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and internal organs than C. abortus. The higher infectious potential of C. psittaci in birds was underlined by significantly higher mRNA expression rates of essential chlamydial genes, such as incA, groEL (in CAM, liver, and spleen), cpaf, and ftsW (in CAM). Although the immune responses to both pathogens were similar, C. psittaci elicited higher macrophage numbers and a stronger expression of a subset of immune-related proteins. The data imply that invasiveness of Chlamydia spp. and propagation in the host are not solely dependent on the level of host immune response but, even to a greater extent, on the expression of bacterial factors related to virulence. The fact that C. psittaci has coped far better than C. abortus with the avian embryo's response by upregulating essential genes may be a key to understanding the mechanisms underlying host adaptation and etiopathology. PMID:22689815

  12. Reassessing the role of the secreted protease CPAF in Chlamydia trachomatis infection through genetic approaches.

    PubMed

    Snavely, Emily A; Kokes, Marcela; Dunn, Joe Dan; Saka, Hector A; Nguyen, Bidong D; Bastidas, Robert J; McCafferty, Dewey G; Valdivia, Raphael H

    2014-08-01

    The secreted Chlamydia protease CPAF cleaves a defined set of mammalian and Chlamydia proteins in vitro. As a result, this protease has been proposed to modulate a range of bacterial and host cellular functions. However, it has recently come into question the extent to which many of its identified substrates constitute bona fide targets of proteolysis in infected host cell rather than artifacts of postlysis degradation. Here, we clarify the role played by CPAF in cellular models of infection by analyzing Chlamydia trachomatis mutants deficient for CPAF activity. Using reverse genetic approaches, we identified two C. trachomatis strains possessing nonsense, loss-of-function mutations in cpa (CT858) and a third strain containing a mutation in type II secretion (T2S) machinery that inhibited CPAF activity by blocking zymogen secretion and subsequent proteolytic maturation into the active hydrolase. HeLa cells infected with T2S(-) or CPAF(-) C. trachomatis mutants lacked detectable in vitro CPAF proteolytic activity and were not defective for cellular traits that have been previously attributed to CPAF activity, including resistance to staurosporine-induced apoptosis, Golgi fragmentation, altered NFκB-dependent gene expression, and resistance to reinfection. However, CPAF-deficient mutants did display impaired generation of infectious elementary bodies (EBs), indicating an important role for this protease in the full replicative potential of C. trachomatis. In addition, we provide compelling evidence in live cells that CPAF-mediated protein processing of at least two host protein targets, vimentin filaments and the nuclear envelope protein lamin-associated protein-1 (LAP1), occurs rapidly after the loss of the inclusion membrane integrity, but before loss of plasma membrane permeability and cell lysis. CPAF-dependent processing of host proteins correlates with a loss of inclusion membrane integrity, and so we propose that CPAF plays a role late in infection, possibly during the stages leading to the dismantling of the infected cell prior to the release of EBs during cell lysis. PMID:24838663

  13. High prevalence of hpv multiple genotypes in women with persistent chlamydia trachomatis infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chlamydia trachomatis interaction with HR-HPV types has highlighted a central role in cervical cancer development. The aim of this study was to investigate HPV prevalence and genotypes distribution in women at risk for C. trachomatis infection and negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy. Methods 1071 cervical swabs were tested for C. trachomatis by Real Time PCR and genotyping by ompA gene sequencing. Additionally, a quantitative Real time-PCR was performed to assess the expression of the C. trachomatis Hsp60–encoding gene (Ct604 portion), linked to a persistent status of infection. HPV infection and genotypes was investigated in C. trachomatis positive women using Luminex technology. Results C. trachomatis infection was detected in 53 out of 1071 (4.5%) samples, of which the 53% resulted positive for Hsp60 gene expression. The overall prevalence of HPV infection in C. trachomatis positive samples was of 60.4% (32/53): in 37.5% of samples was present a single genotype, while multiple genotypes infections were found in the 62.5% of them. Among women with a C. trachomatis chronic infection, 68% were HPV co-infected and the 79% showed multiple genotypes. Should be noted that levels of C. trachomatis Hsp60 expression in HPV co-infected women were significantly lower compared to women infected only with C. trachomatis. The C. trachomatis serotype F was found in the majority of samples, independently of HPV infection. Conclusions A high prevalence of HPV multiple infections have been found in young women affected with a C. trachomatis chronic infection. These observations suggested that the expression of CHSP60-1, interfering with both apoptotic and cellular senescence pathways, may promote a favourable local microenvironment for HPV infection. PMID:25621003

  14. Prevalence of reproductive tract infections, genital prolapse, and obesity in a rural community in Lebanon.

    PubMed Central

    Deeb, Mary E.; Awwad, Johnny; Yeretzian, Joumana S.; Kaspar, Hanna G.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of reproduction-related illnesses in a rural community in Lebanon. METHODS: Data were collected through interviews with women in their homes, physical examinations and history taking by physicians in a clinic in the community, and laboratory tests. A total of 557 ever-married women aged 15-60 years were selected randomly. FINDINGS: Just over half of the sample (268, 50.6%) had five or more children, and (320, 78.9%) of women aged < 45 years were using contraception. The prevalence of reproductive tract infections was very low: six (1.2%) women had sexually transmitted diseases and 47 (9.3%) had endogenous reproductive tract infections. None had chlamydial infection or a positive serological finding of syphilis. None had invasive cervical cancer, and only one had cervical dysplasia. In contrast, genital prolapse and gynaecological morbidity were elevated. Half of the women studied (251, 49.6%) had genital prolapse, and 153 (30.2%) were obese. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of reproductive tract infections in this conservative rural community in east Lebanon was low. Possible explanations include the conservative nature of the community, the high rate of utilization of health care services, and the liberal use of antibiotics without a prescription. More importantly, the study showed an unexpectedly high prevalence of genital prolapse and obesity--a finding that has clear implications for primary health care priorities in such rural communities. PMID:14710505

  15. Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infection in HIV-1-infected women taking antiretroviral therapy: a prospective cohort study from Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Low, Andrea J; Konate, Issouf; Nagot, Nicolas; Weiss, Helen A; Mabey, David; Segondy, Michel; Vickerman, Peter; Meda, Nicolas; van de Perre, Philippe; Mayaud, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) are common sexually transmitted infections (STI). We assessed the cumulative risk of NG and CT in a cohort of HIV-1-infected high-risk women taking antiretrovirals over 4 years in Burkina Faso. Methods Between March 2007 and February 2011, participants were followed every 3–6 months. At each visit, participants underwent a gynaecological examination with collection of cervical and vaginal swabs. Random-effects logistic regression models were used to analyse associations of NG and CT infection with behavioural and biological factors. Results 172 women had samples tested for NG and CT during the study period, in a total of 1135 visits. NG was detected in 6.4% of women (11/172, 95% CI 2.7 to 10.1) at a rate of 2.76 cases (95% CI 1.53 to 4.99) per 100 person-years. CT was detected in 1.7% (3/172, 95% CI 0 to 3.7) of women at a rate of 0.75 cases (95% CI 0.24 to 2.34) per 100 person-years. The majority of women were asymptomatic (9/14). In the multivariable model, the presence of NG or CT was associated with tobacco use (aOR=11.85, 95% CI 1.13 to 124.17), and concurrent genital HIV-1 RNA shedding (aOR=4.78, 95% CI 1.17 to 19.46). Higher levels of education (aOR=0.17, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.92), and age greater than 35 years (aOR=0.07, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.92) were associated with lower odds of infection. Conclusions The risk of NG or CT infection remains low among high-risk women in Bobo-Dioulasso. This provides some evidence that antiretroviral use does not contribute to behavioural disinhibition. The asymptomatic nature of most infections underscores the need for regular screening and treatment of STIs in core groups. PMID:24337732

  16. Shear Stress Enhances Chemokine Secretion from Chlamydia pneumoniae-infected Monocytes.

    PubMed

    Evani, Shankar J; Dallo, Shatha F; Murthy, Ashlesh K; Ramasubramanian, Anand K

    2013-09-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common respiratory pathogen that is considered a highly likely risk factor for atherosclerosis. C. pneumoniae is disseminated from the lung into systemic circulation via infected monocytes and lodges at the atherosclerotic sites. During transit, C. pneumoniae-infected monocytes in circulation are subjected to shear stress due to blood flow. The effect of mechanical stimuli on infected monocytes is largely understudied in the context of C. pneumoniae infection and inflammation. We hypothesized that fluid shear stress alters the inflammatory response of C. pneumoniae-infected monocytes and contributes to immune cell recruitment to the site of tissue damage. Using an in vitro model of blood flow, we determined that a physiological shear stress of 7.5 dyn/cm(2) for 1 h on C. pneumoniae-infected monocytes enhances the production of several chemokines, which in turn is correlated with the recruitment of significantly large number of monocytes. Taken together, these results suggest synergistic interaction between mechanical and chemical factors in C. pneumoniae infection and associated inflammation. PMID:24505240

  17. Biophysical regulation of Chlamydia pneumoniae-infected monocyte recruitment to atherosclerotic foci.

    PubMed

    Evani, Shankar J; Ramasubramanian, Anand K

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae infection is implicated in atherosclerosis although the contributory mechanisms are poorly understood. We hypothesize that C. pneumoniae infection favors the recruitment of monocytes to atherosclerotic foci by altering monocyte biophysics. Primary, fresh human monocytes were infected with C. pneumoniae for 8 h, and the interactions between monocytes and E-selectin or aortic endothelium under flow were characterized by video microscopy and image analysis. The distribution of membrane lipid rafts and adhesion receptors were analyzed by imaging flow cytometry. Infected cells rolled on E-selectin and endothelial surfaces, and this rolling was slower, steady and uniform compared to uninfected cells. Infection decreases cholesterol levels, increases membrane fluidity, disrupts lipid rafts, and redistributes CD44, which is the primary mediator of rolling interactions. Together, these changes translate to higher firm adhesion of infected monocytes on endothelium, which is enhanced in the presence of LDL. Uninfected monocytes treated with LDL or left untreated were used as baseline control. Our results demonstrate that the membrane biophysical changes due to infection and hyperlipidemia are one of the key mechanisms by which C. pneumoniae can exacerbate atherosclerotic pathology. These findings provide a framework to characterize the role of 'infectious burden' in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:26785849

  18. Shear Stress Enhances Chemokine Secretion from Chlamydia pneumoniae-infected Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Evani, Shankar J.; Dallo, Shatha F.; Murthy, Ashlesh K.; Ramasubramanian, Anand K.

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common respiratory pathogen that is considered a highly likely risk factor for atherosclerosis. C. pneumoniae is disseminated from the lung into systemic circulation via infected monocytes and lodges at the atherosclerotic sites. During transit, C. pneumoniae-infected monocytes in circulation are subjected to shear stress due to blood flow. The effect of mechanical stimuli on infected monocytes is largely understudied in the context of C. pneumoniae infection and inflammation. We hypothesized that fluid shear stress alters the inflammatory response of C. pneumoniae-infected monocytes and contributes to immune cell recruitment to the site of tissue damage. Using an in vitro model of blood flow, we determined that a physiological shear stress of 7.5 dyn/cm2 for 1 h on C. pneumoniae-infected monocytes enhances the production of several chemokines, which in turn is correlated with the recruitment of significantly large number of monocytes. Taken together, these results suggest synergistic interaction between mechanical and chemical factors in C. pneumoniae infection and associated inflammation. PMID:24505240

  19. Biophysical regulation of Chlamydia pneumoniae-infected monocyte recruitment to atherosclerotic foci

    PubMed Central

    Evani, Shankar J.; Ramasubramanian, Anand K.

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae infection is implicated in atherosclerosis although the contributory mechanisms are poorly understood. We hypothesize that C. pneumoniae infection favors the recruitment of monocytes to atherosclerotic foci by altering monocyte biophysics. Primary, fresh human monocytes were infected with C. pneumoniae for 8 h, and the interactions between monocytes and E-selectin or aortic endothelium under flow were characterized by video microscopy and image analysis. The distribution of membrane lipid rafts and adhesion receptors were analyzed by imaging flow cytometry. Infected cells rolled on E-selectin and endothelial surfaces, and this rolling was slower, steady and uniform compared to uninfected cells. Infection decreases cholesterol levels, increases membrane fluidity, disrupts lipid rafts, and redistributes CD44, which is the primary mediator of rolling interactions. Together, these changes translate to higher firm adhesion of infected monocytes on endothelium, which is enhanced in the presence of LDL. Uninfected monocytes treated with LDL or left untreated were used as baseline control. Our results demonstrate that the membrane biophysical changes due to infection and hyperlipidemia are one of the key mechanisms by which C. pneumoniae can exacerbate atherosclerotic pathology. These findings provide a framework to characterize the role of ‘infectious burden’ in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:26785849

  20. Biophysical regulation of Chlamydia pneumoniae-infected monocyte recruitment to atherosclerotic foci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evani, Shankar J.; Ramasubramanian, Anand K.

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae infection is implicated in atherosclerosis although the contributory mechanisms are poorly understood. We hypothesize that C. pneumoniae infection favors the recruitment of monocytes to atherosclerotic foci by altering monocyte biophysics. Primary, fresh human monocytes were infected with C. pneumoniae for 8 h, and the interactions between monocytes and E-selectin or aortic endothelium under flow were characterized by video microscopy and image analysis. The distribution of membrane lipid rafts and adhesion receptors were analyzed by imaging flow cytometry. Infected cells rolled on E-selectin and endothelial surfaces, and this rolling was slower, steady and uniform compared to uninfected cells. Infection decreases cholesterol levels, increases membrane fluidity, disrupts lipid rafts, and redistributes CD44, which is the primary mediator of rolling interactions. Together, these changes translate to higher firm adhesion of infected monocytes on endothelium, which is enhanced in the presence of LDL. Uninfected monocytes treated with LDL or left untreated were used as baseline control. Our results demonstrate that the membrane biophysical changes due to infection and hyperlipidemia are one of the key mechanisms by which C. pneumoniae can exacerbate atherosclerotic pathology. These findings provide a framework to characterize the role of ‘infectious burden’ in the development and progression of atherosclerosis.

  1. Characterization of CPAF critical residues and secretion during Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhangsheng; Tang, Lingli; Sun, Xin; Chai, Jijie; Zhong, Guangming

    2015-06-01

    CPAF (chlamydial protease-like activity factor), a Chlamydia serine protease, is activated via proximity-induced intermolecular dimerization that triggers processing and removal of an inhibitory peptide occupying the CPAF substrate-binding groove. An active CPAF is a homodimer of two identical intramolecular heterodimers, each consisting of 29-kDa N-terminal and 35-kDa C-terminal fragments. However, critical residues for CPAF intermolecular dimerization, catalytic activity, and processing were defined in cell-free systems. Complementation of a CPAF-deficient chlamydial organism with a plasmid-encoded CPAF has enabled us to characterize CPAF during infection. The transformants expressing CPAF mutated at intermolecular dimerization, catalytic, or cleavage residues still produced active CPAF, although at a lower efficiency, indicating that CPAF can tolerate more mutations inside Chlamydia-infected cells than in cell-free systems. Only by simultaneously mutating both intermolecular dimerization and catalytic residues was CPAF activation completely blocked during infection, both indicating the importance of the critical residues identified in the cell-free systems and exploring the limit of CPAF's tolerance for mutations in the intracellular environment. We further found that active CPAF was always detected in the host cell cytoplasm while nonactive CPAF was restricted to within the chlamydial inclusions, regardless of how the infected cell samples were treated. Thus, CPAF translocation into the host cell cytoplasm correlates with CPAF enzymatic activity and is not altered by sample treatment conditions. These observations have provided new evidence for CPAF activation and translocation, which should encourage continued investigation of CPAF in chlamydial pathogenesis. PMID:25776755

  2. The Relationship between Ethnic Identity and Chlamydia and Gonorrhea Infections among Low Income Detained African American Adolescent Females

    PubMed Central

    Voisin, Dexter R.; Salazar, Laura F.; Crosby, Richard; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between ethnic identity and Chlamydia and Gonorrhea infections among detained African American female adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 123 African American female adolescents within eight detention facilities in Georgia. Using A-CASI technology, data were collected on demographics, ethnic identity, laboratory confirmed Chlamydia and Gonorrhea, and other known correlates for STIs, such as socioeconomic status, parental monitoring and risky sexual behaviors. Rates of Chlamydia and Gonorrhea testing yielded incidence rates of 25.6% and 5.6% respectfully. Findings indicated that controlling for STI correlates, participants who indicated high ethnic identity were 4.3 times more likely to test positive for an STI compared to those scoring low on the measure of ethnic identity. PMID:23075205

  3. Usefulness of quantifying leukocytes in first-voided urine to predict positivity for Chlamydia trachomatis in asymptomatic men at high risk for chlamydial infection.

    PubMed

    Ito, Shin; Horie, Kengo; Seike, Kensaku; Yasuda, Mitsuru; Tsuchiya, Tomohiro; Yokoi, Shigeaki; Nakano, Masahiro; Deguchi, Takashi

    2014-12-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis causes acute non-gonococcal urethritis, but some infected men are asymptomatic. We examined leukocytes in uncentrifuged first-voided urine (FVU) from asymptomatic men at high risk for chlamydial infection by automated urine particle analyzers to assess whether the quantification of urinary leukocytes could predict chlamydial infection in these men. We enrolled 209 asymptomatic men, whose female sexual partners had been diagnosed as having a genital chlamydial infection. Their FVU specimens were examined for quantification of leukocytes with automated urine particle analyzers and tested for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, C. trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma parvum, and Ureaplasma urealyticum by nucleotide acid amplification tests. Eleven men positive for N. gonorrhoeae or M. genitalium were excluded from further analysis. In the remaining 198 men, 84 positive for C. trachomatis (42.4%) had 1.8-1666.9 white blood cells (WBCs)/μl (median, 43.3 WBCs/μl) in their FVU, whereas 114 negative for C. trachomatis had 0.1-1378 WBCs/μl (median, 4.8 WBCs/μl). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed to examine the sensitivity and specificity of leukocytes counts for predicting chlamydial infection. A cut-off point of leukocyte counts of 12.5 WBCs/μl was determined from the ROC curve, resulting in a sensitivity of 86.9% and specificity of 88.6% for predicting chlamydial infection. Leukocyte quantification in FVU by automated urine particle analyzers showed good performance in predicting the positivity and negativity for chlamydial infection in asymptomatic men. This test could potentially develop into a relevant tool for preselecting asymptomatic men prior to C. trachomatis screening. PMID:25156010

  4. The prevalences of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infections among female sex workers in China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have become a major public health problem among female sex workers (FSWs) in China. There have been many studies on prevalences of HIV and syphilis but the data about Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infections are limited in this population in China. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed among FSWs recruited from different types of venues in 8 cities in China. An interview with questionnaire was conducted, followed by collection of a blood and cervical swab specimens for tests of HIV, syphilis, NG and CT infections. Results A total of 3,099 FSWs were included in the study. The overall prevalence rates of HIV, syphilis, NG and CT were 0.26%, 6.45%, 5.91% and 17.30%, respectively. Being a FSW from low-tier venue (adjusted odds ratios [AOR]=1.39) had higher risk and being age of ≥ 21 years (AOR=0.60 for 21–25 years; AOR=0.29 for 26–30 years; AOR=0.35 for 31 years or above) had lower risk for CT infection; and having CT infection was significantly associated with NG infection. Conclusions The high STI prevalence rates found among FSWs, especially among FSWs in low-tier sex work venues, suggest that the comprehensive prevention and control programs including not only behavioral interventions but also screening and medical care are needed to meet the needs of this population. PMID:23390952

  5. Chlamydia trachomatis Antigens Recognized by Women With Tubal Factor Infertility, Normal Fertility, and Acute Infection

    PubMed Central

    Budrys, Nicole M.; Gong, Siqi; Rodgers, Allison K.; Wang, Jie; Louden, Christopher; Shain, Rochelle; Schenken, Robert S.; Zhong, Guangming

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify Chlamydia trachomatis antigens associated with tubal factor infertility and acute infection. Methods A C. trachomatis proteome array was used to compare antibody profiles among women with tubal factor infertility, normal fertility, and acute C. trachomatis infection. Results Thirteen immunodominant antigens reacted with 50% or more sera from all women (N=73). Six C. trachomatis antigens were uniquely recognized by women diagnosed with tubal factor infertility. Combining fragmentation of the six antigens with serum sample dilution, chlamydial antigens HSP60, CT376, CT557, and CT443 could discriminate between women with tubal factor infertility and women with normal fertility with a sensitivity of 63% (95% CI: 0.41–0.77) and specificity of 100% (95% CI: 0.91–1), respectively. These antigens were designated as tubal factor infertility-associated antigens. However, these tubal factor antigens were unable to distinguish tubal factor infertility patients from those with acute infection. A combination of CT875 and CT147 distinguished women with acute infection from all other C. trachomatis-exposed women with a detection sensitivity of 63% (95% CI: 0.41–0.77) and specificity of 100% (95% CI: 0.95–1), respectively. Thus, CT875 and CT147 were designated as acute infection-associated antigens. Conclusion A sequential screening of antibodies against panels of C. trachomatis antigens can be used to identify women with tubal factor infertility and acute C. trachomatis infection. PMID:22525912

  6. Intra-articular co-infection by Borrelia burgdorferi and Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Putschky, N; Schnarr, S; Wollenhaupt, J; Zeidler, H; Kuipers, J

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Chlamydia trachomatis and Borrelia burgdorferi infections are frequently the cause of unexplained oligoarthritis, as shown by identification of bacteria specific DNA in joint material from patients with reactive arthritis, Lyme arthritis, and undifferentiated oligoarthritis. The aim of this study was to determine whether the two organisms occur simultaneously in joint material from patients with arthritis.
METHODS—Seventy six patients with unexplained arthritis were prospectively studied. Synovial fluid was obtained from all patients and examined for DNA from C trachomatis and B burgdorferi using specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocols. Data concerning prior genitourinary infection or a history of tick bite were recorded and serum antibodies to C trachomatis and B burgdorferi were determined.
RESULTS—Six patients (8%) had DNA from both C trachomatis and B burgdorferi in the same synovial fluid specimen (mean leucocyte count 11.925/mm3, 65% granulocytes). These patients (four men, two women; mean age 33.7 years) all had oligoarthritis of the knee, ankle, or both (mean disease duration 11.3 months). From the history and serological examination, four patients had some evidence of actual or previous infection with one or other of the bacteria, while the other two patients had a positive serological test for Chlamydia only.
CONCLUSIONS—DNA from two different microorganisms which are known to be triggering agents for arthritis may be present simultaneously in joint material from patients with unexplained oligoarthritis. This finding raises the question as to whether, in such cases, one or both bacteria contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease or whether they are only innocent bystanders.

 PMID:11350854

  7. Increased Risk of Endometriosis in Patients With Lower Genital Tract Infection: A Nationwide Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wu-Chou; Chang, Cherry Yin-Yi; Hsu, Yu-An; Chiang, Jen-Huai; Wan, Lei

    2016-03-01

    Endometriosis results from the ectopic invasion of endometrial glands and stroma in the peritoneal cavity. The exact etiology of endometriosis is still unknown. It has, however, been shown that there are higher numbers of Escherichia coli in menstrual blood, and higher endotoxin levels in menstrual fluid, as well as, in the peritoneal fluid of patients with endometriosis. In this study, we aimed to determine whether lower genital tract infections could increase the risk of endometriosis.We used the Taiwan National Health Insurance database to conduct a population-based cohort study. We included patients diagnosed with inflammatory diseases of the cervix, vagina, and vulva, and a control group comprising patients matched by age, sex, and comorbidities but without inflammatory diseases of the cervix, vagina, or vulva.A total of 79,512 patients were included in the inflammatory disease group and an equal number of control individuals were selected. The incidence of endometriosis (hazard ratio, 2.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.91-2.12; P < 0.001) was higher among patients than controls. Cox proportional hazards models showed that irrespective of comorbidities, lower genital tract infection was an independent risk factor for endometriosis.Patients with lower genital tract infections exhibit a substantially higher risk for developing endometriosis. PMID:26962775

  8. Chlamydia trachomatis infection among Hispanic women in the California-Mexico border area, 1993: establishing screening criteria in a primary care setting.

    PubMed

    Gunn, R A; Hillis, S D; Shirey, P; Waterman, S H; Greenspan, J R

    1995-01-01

    During January 1-October 15, 1993, three clinics in Imperial County, California, located east of the coastal mountain range which borders Baja California; a large community health center in San Diego County, California; and a public health/family planning clinic in Tijuana in Baja California, Mexico, successfully screened 2378 Hispanic women for Chlamydia trachomatis. The overall chlamydia prevalence was 3.2% (2.1% in Tijuana; 3.3% in California). Chlamydia was more common among the prenatal clients than family planning clients (4.7% vs. 2.6%; p 0.02). Adolescents had the highest chlamydia infection rate (7.5%). Women born in Mexico or those who visited Mexico for at least one week during the last three months had a similar chlamydia prevalence rate as those born in the US or those who had not visited Mexico recently. The multivariate analysis revealed that significant independent predictors of chlamydia infection included young age (25 years) (prevalence ratio [PR] = 4.5 for 20 years and 2.5 for 20-24 years), unmarried status (PR = 2), high risk sex behavior (PR = 1.1), exposure to a sexually transmitted disease (PR = 2.6), discharge/bleeding (PR = 1.4), vaginosis (PR = 3.6), and cervicitis (i.e., chlamydia syndrome) (PR = 6). If the clinics had applied the minimum screening criteria recommended by the US Centers for Disease Control, less than 50% of the clients would have been screened. Yet it would have identified only 69% of chlamydia infections. If clinics would apply the criteria identified in this survey, they would need to screen 64% of their clients, which would identify 92% of clients infected with chlamydia. These findings indicate that, in the California-Mexico border region, chlamydia prevalence among Hispanic women seeking reproductive health care was comparable. They also show that clinics can implement an effective selective screening strategy. PMID:8578402

  9. Is chlamydia screening and testing in Britain reaching young adults at risk of infection? Findings from the third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3)

    PubMed Central

    Woodhall, Sarah C; Soldan, Kate; Sonnenberg, Pam; Mercer, Catherine H; Clifton, Soazig; Saunders, Pamela; da Silva, Filomeno; Alexander, Sarah; Wellings, Kaye; Tanton, Clare; Field, Nigel; Copas, Andrew J; Ison, Catherine A; Johnson, Anne M

    2016-01-01

    Background In the context of widespread opportunistic chlamydia screening among young adults, we aimed to quantify chlamydia testing and diagnosis among 16–24 year olds in Britain in relation to risk factors for prevalent chlamydia infection. Methods Using data from sexually experienced (≥1 lifetime sexual partner) 16-year-old to 24-year-old participants in Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (conducted 2010–2012), we explored socio-demographic and behavioural factors associated with prevalent chlamydia infection (detected in urine; n=1832), self-reported testing and self-reported diagnosis in the last year (both n=3115). Results Chlamydia prevalence was 3.1% (95% CI 2.2% to 4.3%) in women and 2.3% (1.5% to 3.4%) in men. A total of 12.3% of women and 5.3% men had a previous chlamydia diagnosis. Factors associated with prevalent infection were also associated with testing and diagnosis (eg, increasing numbers of sexual partners), with some exceptions. For example, chlamydia prevalence was higher in women living in more deprived areas, whereas testing was not. In men, prevalence was higher in 20–24 than 16–19 year olds but testing was lower. Thirty per cent of women and 53.7% of men with ≥2 new sexual partners in the last year had not recently tested. Conclusions In 2010–2012 in Britain, the proportion of young adults reporting chlamydia testing was generally higher in those reporting factors associated with chlamydia. However, many of those with risk factors had not been recently tested, leaving potential for undiagnosed infections. Greater screening and prevention efforts among individuals in deprived areas and those reporting risk factors for chlamydia may reduce undiagnosed prevalence and transmission. PMID:26290483

  10. Experimental Gonococcal Genital Tract Infection and Opacity Protein Expression in Estradiol-Treated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jerse, Ann E.

    1999-01-01

    The development of effective prophylactic agents against gonorrhea and the study of adaptation by Neisseria gonorrhoeae to the urogenital mucosa are hindered by the lack of a well-established animal model of gonococcal genital tract infection. Here, a murine model of long-term gonococcal genital tract infection is described. Female BALB/c mice were treated with 17-β-estradiol and inoculated intravaginally with wild-type gonococcal strain FA1090 or MS11. N. gonorrhoeae was recovered from vaginal swabs for an average of 12 to 13 days following inoculation with 106 CFU of either strain. Inflammation occurred in over 80% of infected mice, and diplococci were associated with epithelial cells and neutrophils in stained vaginal smears. Ascended infection occurred in 17 to 20% of mice inoculated with strain FA1090. An outbred mouse strain (SLC:ddY) previously reported to be naturally susceptible to N. gonorrhoeae was also tested; however, as with BALB/c mice, estradiol was required for prolonged infection. Although piliation was not maintained during experimental murine infection, 46 to 100% of vaginal isolates from four of eight BALB/c mice and three of four SLC:ddY mice expressed one or more opacity (Opa) proteins within 4 days after inoculation with an Opa-negative variant of strain FA1090. The observed selection for and/or induction of gonococcal Opa protein expression during murine infection appears to parallel events that occur during experimental urethritis in volunteers. PMID:10531218

  11. [The role of Chlamydia trachomatis infections in women with urinary tract diseases].

    PubMed

    Zdrodowska-Stefanow, B; Darewicz, B; Ostaszewska, I; Puciło, K

    1997-04-01

    The aim of our study was to determine the incidence of Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) infections and its role in the etiopathogenesis of urinary tract infections in women. We studied 68 women, who where divided into two groups (I-with urethral syndrome, II-with other urologic diseases). With the use of direct diagnostic methods (immunofluorescence method, tissue culture) C. trachomatis infection was found in 25/68 (36.8%) women. In the group of women with urethral syndrome the percentage of positive results was higher in comparison to the second group, 53.8% and 26.2%, respectively. Specific antichlamydial antibodies of IgG class using direct immunoenzymatic method were found in 10/26 (38.5%) women with urethral syndrome. In the first group the infection was found more often in the urethra (urethra-85.7%, uterine cervix-50%) as in comparison to the second group. In the second group infection was found more often in the uterine cervix (urethra-45.5%, uterine cervix-72.7%). The incidence of C. trachomatis infection in women with urethral syndrome was in direct correlation with a larger number of polynuclear leukocytes in urine sediment (more than 3 in the viewing field). C. trachomatis infection was found in 76.5% of women with leukocyturia and 12.5% of women in which the number of leukocytes in urine sediment was less than 3 in the viewing field. The incidence of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis infections between both study groups did not differ significantly. However, the incidence of yeast-like fungi infections in the group of women with other urologic diseases was double. The clinical sign most often found in women infected with C. trachomatis and with urethral syndrome was dysuria, which was present in all 14 women. In the group of women with other urologic diseases the clinical sign found most often was pollakisuria (72.7%). PMID:9377664

  12. Chlamydia trachomatis Frequency in a Cohort of HPV-Infected Colombian Women

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, Juan David; Soto-De León, Sara Cecilia; Camargo, Milena; Del Río-Ospina, Luisa; Sánchez, Ricardo; Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin; Patarroyo, Manuel Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Background Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis), an obligate intracellular bacterium, is the commonest infectious bacterial agent of sexual transmission throughout the world. It has been shown that the presence of this bacteria in the cervix represents a risk regarding HPV persistence and, thereafter, in developing cervical cancer (CC). Prevalence rates may vary from 2% to 17% in asymptomatic females, depending on the population being analysed. This study reports the identification of C. trachomatis in a cohort of 219 HPV-infected Colombian females. Methods C. trachomatis infection frequency was determined during each of the study’s follow-up visits; it was detected by amplifying the cryptic plasmid sequence by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using two sets of primers: KL5/KL6 and KL1/KL2. Infection was defined as a positive PCR result using either set of primers at any time during the study. Cox proportional risk models were used for evaluating the association between the appearance of infection and a group of independent variables. Results Base line C. trachomatis infection frequency was 28% (n = 61). Most females infected by C. trachomatis were infected by multiple types of HPV (77.42%), greater prevalence occurring in females infected with HPV-16 (19.18%), followed by HPV-58 (17.81%). It was observed that females having had the most sexual partners (HR = 6.44: 1.59–26.05 95%CI) or infection with multiple types of HPV (HR = 2.85: 1.22–6.63 95%CI) had the greatest risk of developing C. trachomatis. Conclusions The study provides data regarding the epidemiology of C. trachomatis /HPV coinfection in different population groups of Colombian females and contributes towards understanding the natural history of C. trachomatis infection. PMID:26807957

  13. Proteomic Analysis of Differentially Expressed Chlamydia pneumoniae Genes during Persistent Infection of HEp-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Molestina, Robert E.; Klein, Jon B.; Miller, Richard D.; Pierce, William H.; Ramirez, Julio A.; Summersgill, James T.

    2002-01-01

    Recent data have shown that the respiratory pathogen Chlamydia pneumoniae expresses an altered gene transcription profile during gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-induced persistent infection in vitro. In the present study, we examined, by proteomics, expression of C. pneumoniae proteins labeled intracellularly with [35S]methionine/cysteine under normal conditions or IFN-γ-mediated persistence. The identity of differentially expressed proteins during persistent infection was determined by matching spots to those of proteins identified in C. pneumoniae elementary bodies by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. Upon treatment with 50 U of IFN-γ per ml, a marked upregulation of major outer membrane protein (MOMP), heat shock protein 60 (Hsp-60/GroEL), and proteins with functions in DNA replication (GyrA), transcription (RpoA, PnP), translation (Rrf), glycolysis (PgK, GlgP), and type III secretion (SctN) was observed at 24 h of infection. In contrast, no significant decreases in bacterial protein expression were found in C. pneumoniae-infected cells due to IFN-γ treatment. Upregulation of C. pneumoniae proteins involved in diverse functions during persistent infection may allow the organism to resist the inhibitory effects of IFN-γ while retaining basic functions. Future studies should examine the differential expression of chlamydial proteins during the developmental cycle under IFN-γ pressure to obtain a finer representation of the gene products involved in establishing persistence. PMID:12010987

  14. Identification of in vivo-induced bacterial protein antigens during calf infection with Chlamydia psittaci.

    PubMed

    Kästner, Julia; Saluz, Hans Peter; Hänel, Frank

    2015-05-01

    Chlamydia (C.) psittaci, the causative agent of ornithosis, is an obligate intracellular pathogen with a unique developmental cycle and a high potential for zoonotic transmission. Various mammalian hosts, such as cattle, horse, sheep and man that are in close contact with contaminated birds can get infected (referred to as psittacosis). Since little is known about long-term sequelae of chronic disease and the molecular mechanisms of chlamydial pathogenesis, a key step in understanding the in vivo situation is the identification of C. psittaci infection-associated proteins. For this, we investigated sera of infected calves. Using the immunoscreening approach In Vivo Induced Antigen Technology (IVIAT) including all relevant controls, we focused on C. psittaci proteins, which are induced in vivo during infection. Sera were pooled, extensively adsorbed against in vitro antigens to eliminate false positive results, and used to screen an inducible C. psittaci 02DC15 genomic expression library. Screening and control experiments revealed 19 immunogenic proteins, which are expressed during infection. They are involved in transport and oxidative stress response, heme and folate biosynthesis, DNA replication, recombination and repair, cell envelope, bacterial secretion systems and hypothetical proteins of so far unknown functions. Some of the proteins found may be considered as diagnostic markers or as candidates for the development of vaccines. PMID:25595025

  15. Chlamydia trachomatis cervicitis in gynecologic outpatients.

    PubMed

    Ripa, K T; Svensson, L; Mårdh, P A; Weström, L

    1978-12-01

    Symptoms suggestive of a lower genital tract infection (LGTI) are common complaints in women who consult gynecologists. Sexually transmitted microorganisms, such as Chlamydia trachomatis. Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis, are responsible for a substantial proportion of LGTI. This study was performed to establish the frequency of LGTI caused by C trachomatis in women attending a gynecologic outpatient clinic. Of 170 women with LGTI, 32.9% harbored one or more of these organisms: C trachomatis was found in 19.3%, N gonorrhoeae in 4.7%, and T vaginalis in 25.9%. The results of the isolation studies were correlated with clinical signs and symptoms. In women under 25 years of age, chlamydial cervicitis was found significantly more often in users of oral contraceptives than in nonusers. In women not taking such drugs, cervical erosion was found more often in Chlamydia-positive than Chlamydia-negative women. Since clinical examination failed to reveal any characteristic signs in cases of chlamydial infection, it was not possible to distinguish a chlamydial from a gonococcal infection. This study also reports the successful treatment of 15 women affected by chlamydial cervicitis with doxycycline or trimethoprim sulphamethoxazole. PMID:104212

  16. Surgical Site Infections in Genital Reconstruction Surgery for Gender Reassignment, Detroit: 1984–2008

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jing J.; Palla, Mohan B.; Bogan, Christopher W.; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Tansek, Ryan; Moshos, Judy; Muthusamy, Arunkumar; Kotra, Harikrishna; Lephart, Paul R.; Wilson, Alan N.; Kaye, Keith S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Gender reassignment surgery (i.e., male-to-female or female-to-male) entails a series of complex surgical procedures. We conducted a study to explore epidemiologic characteristics of patients who underwent genital reconstruction operations as components of gender reassignment and to analyze risk factors for surgical-site infections (SSIs) following these operations. Methods: The study was a retrospective cohort study conducted from 1984–2008 at Harper University Hospital, a tertiary hospital with 625 beds in Detroit, Michigan. Surgical site infection was defined according to established criteria. Results: Records were available for 82 patients who underwent a total of 1,383 operations as part of genital-reconstruction processes. Thirty-nine (47.6%) of the patients underwent female-to-male reassignment (FTM) and 43 (52.4%) underwent male-to-female reassignment (MTF). The average age of the study cohort was 39.5±9.8 y. Of the patients in the cohort, 56 (68.3%) were Caucasian and 67 (81.7%) were single. The average number of operative encounters per patient was 11.8±4.6 for FTM and 4.9±2.4 for MTF. Forty-three (52.4%) patients developed an SSI at least once during their genital reconstruction process, of whom 34 (87%) were in the FTM group and nine (21%) in the MTF group (p<0.001). Staphylococci were the most common pathogens (61%) isolated in these infections, followed by Enterobacteriaceae (50%), Enterococcus (39%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (33.3%). Surgical site infection was associated independently with an increased frequency of operative procedures and operating room encounters. Conclusions: More than 50% of patients who underwent genital reconstruction operations developed an SSI at some point during the genital reconstruction process. Surgical site infections are more common in FTM than in MTF reconstruction operations, and for both FTM and MTF, SSIs are associated independently with an increased frequency of total operative procedures and encounters. PMID:24180342

  17. Clinical and serological manifestations of genital human papillomavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Wikström, A

    1995-01-01

    Efficacy of chemical and/or surgical treatment for penile and anal condylomata acuminata was investigated in two retrospective studies of hetero- and homosexual men. Variation in clinical features and symptomatology as well as the reliability of diagnostic criteria by different methods for acetowhite penile lesions was also studied. Furthermore, the antibody response in the course of penile wart disease as well as in asymptomatic genitoanal papillomavirus infection (GPVI) was analysed. In the first retrospective study, as much as 23% of patients still had condylomas after one year of chemical and/or surgical treatment. On the other hand, 38% were cured after a single treatment session. In the group mainly with anal warts, concurrent penile warts were significantly more common among heterosexual men compared to homosexual men (p < 0.001), while intra-anal wart growth was more common among the homosexual males (p < 0.001). When comparing diagnostic methods for subclinical penile HPV infection, conventional histopathology appeared to be the most valuable diagnostic aid to penoscopy, while the additional use of Southern blot, in situ hybridisation and PCR assays for HPV DNA detection did not increase the predictive value of GPVI. We also describe a new distinct clinical entity, HPV-associated balanoposthitis, comprising a wide range of often long-lasting symptoms, such as itching, burning and dyspareunia. A significant increase in the IgG antibody response against defined epitopes in the L1 and L2 capsid proteins of HPV 6, was found among men with previous condylomata. By following a cohort of STD clinic patients with multiple brush samples from the genitoanal region as well as serum samples taken at several consecutive clinical visits, we identified 16 patients who had seroconverted to HPV seropositivity during follow-up. Antibody responses to several HPV-derived peptide and protein antigens were induced at the same time. Seroconversions were usually seen concomitantly with HPV acquisition or at the visit after HPV DNA was first detected. The HPV antibody response was frequently transient and declined or disappeared after clearance of infection. The antibody responses were induced by several different HPV types, indicating limited type-specificity. The most type-restricted response was against HPV 16 capsids, where seroconversions to continuous seropositivity were induced by infection with HPV 16. PMID:8721519

  18. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia abortus Infection in Tibetan Sheep in Gansu Province, Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Si-Yuan; Yin, Ming-Yang; Cong, Wei; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Zhao, Quan; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Zhou, Ji-Zhang; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia abortus, an important pathogen in a variety of animals, is associated with abortion in sheep. In the present study, 1732 blood samples, collected from Tibetan sheep between June 2013 and April 2014, were examined by the indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test, aiming to evaluate the seroprevalence and risk factors of C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. 323 of 1732 (18.65%) samples were seropositive for C. abortus antibodies at the cut-off of 1 : 16. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk factors associated with seroprevalence, which could provide foundation to prevent and control C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. Gender of Tibetan sheep was left out of the final model because it is not significant in the logistic regression analysis (P > 0.05). Region, season, and age were considered as major risk factors associated with C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep in Gansu province, northwest China, with higher exposure risk in different seasons and ages and distinct geographical distribution. PMID:25401129

  19. Shear stress upregulates IL-1β secretion by Chlamydia pneumoniae- infected monocytes.

    PubMed

    Cheeniyil, Aswathi; Evani, Shankar J; Dallo, Shatha F; Ramasubramanian, Anand K

    2015-04-01

    Infectious agents are increasingly implicated in the development and progression of chronic inflammatory diseases. Several lines of evidence suggest that the common intracellular respiratory pathogen, Chlamydia pneumoniae contributes to the well-established risk factors of atherosclerosis but the exact mechanism is not well understood. It is believed that C. pneumoniae-infected monocytes travel from the lung to the atherosclerotic foci, during which the cells experience mechanical stimuli due to blood flow. In this work, we characterized the effect of physiological levels of shear stress on C. pneumoniae-infected human monocytes in an in vitro flow model. We found that a shear stress of 5 dyn/cm(2) enhanced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β only in infected, but not in uninfected, monocytes. We also found that this enhancement is due to the upregulation of IL-1β gene expression due to shear stress. Our results demonstrate that mechanotransduction is an important, heretofore unaddressed, determinant of inflammatory response to an infection. PMID:25336058

  20. High Frequency of Chlamydia trachomatis Mixed Infections Detected by Microarray Assay in South American Samples

    PubMed Central

    Gallo Vaulet, Lucía; Entrocassi, Carolina; Portu, Ana I.; Castro, Erica; Di Bartolomeo, Susana; Ruettger, Anke; Sachse, Konrad; Rodriguez Fermepin, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Based on sequence variation in the ompA gene encoding the major outer membrane protein, the genotyping scheme distinguishes 17 recognized genotypes, i.e. A, B, Ba, C, D, Da, E, F, G, H, I, Ia, J, K, L1, L2, and L3. Genotyping is an important tool for epidemiological tracking of C. trachomatis infections, including the revelation of transmission pathways and association with tissue tropism and pathogenicity. Moreover, genotyping can be useful for clinicians to establish the correct treatment when LGV strains are detected. Recently a microarray assay was described that offers several advantages, such as rapidity, ease of standardization and detection of mixed infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the DNA microarray-based assay for C. trachomatis genotyping of clinical samples already typed by PCR-RFLP from South America. The agreement between both typing techniques was 90.05% and the overall genotype distribution obtained with both techniques was similar. Detection of mixed-genotype infections was significantly higher using the microarray assay (8.4% of cases) compared to PCR-RFLP (0.5%). Among 178 samples, the microarray assay identified 10 ompA genotypes, i.e. D, Da, E, F, G, H, I, J, K and L2. The most predominant type was genotype E, followed by D and F. PMID:27082962

  1. High Frequency of Chlamydia trachomatis Mixed Infections Detected by Microarray Assay in South American Samples.

    PubMed

    Gallo Vaulet, Lucía; Entrocassi, Carolina; Portu, Ana I; Castro, Erica; Di Bartolomeo, Susana; Ruettger, Anke; Sachse, Konrad; Rodriguez Fermepin, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Based on sequence variation in the ompA gene encoding the major outer membrane protein, the genotyping scheme distinguishes 17 recognized genotypes, i.e. A, B, Ba, C, D, Da, E, F, G, H, I, Ia, J, K, L1, L2, and L3. Genotyping is an important tool for epidemiological tracking of C. trachomatis infections, including the revelation of transmission pathways and association with tissue tropism and pathogenicity. Moreover, genotyping can be useful for clinicians to establish the correct treatment when LGV strains are detected. Recently a microarray assay was described that offers several advantages, such as rapidity, ease of standardization and detection of mixed infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the DNA microarray-based assay for C. trachomatis genotyping of clinical samples already typed by PCR-RFLP from South America. The agreement between both typing techniques was 90.05% and the overall genotype distribution obtained with both techniques was similar. Detection of mixed-genotype infections was significantly higher using the microarray assay (8.4% of cases) compared to PCR-RFLP (0.5%). Among 178 samples, the microarray assay identified 10 ompA genotypes, i.e. D, Da, E, F, G, H, I, J, K and L2. The most predominant type was genotype E, followed by D and F. PMID:27082962

  2. Chlamydia muridarum Infection of Macrophages Elicits Bactericidal Nitric Oxide Production via Reactive Oxygen Species and Cathepsin B

    PubMed Central

    Rajaram, Krithika

    2015-01-01

    The ability of certain species of Chlamydia to inhibit the biogenesis of phagolysosomes permits their survival and replication within macrophages. The survival of macrophage-adapted chlamydiae correlates with the multiplicity of infection (MOI), and optimal chlamydial growth occurs in macrophages infected at an MOI of ≤1. In this study, we examined the replicative capacity of Chlamydia muridarum in the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line at different MOIs. C. muridarum productively infected these macrophages at low MOIs but yielded few viable elementary bodies (EBs) when macrophages were infected at a moderate (10) or high (100) MOI. While high MOIs caused cytotoxicity and irreversible host cell death, macrophages infected at a moderate MOI did not show signs of cytotoxicity until late in the infectious cycle. Inhibition of host protein synthesis rescued C. muridarum in macrophages infected at a moderate MOI, implying that chlamydial growth was blocked by activated defense mechanisms. Conditioned medium from these macrophages was antichlamydial and contained elevated levels of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-10, and beta interferon (IFN-β). Macrophage activation depended on Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) signaling, and cytokine production required live, transcriptionally active chlamydiae. A hydroxyl radical scavenger and inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cathepsin B also reversed chlamydial killing. High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) led to an increase in cathepsin B activity, and pharmacological inhibition of ROS and cathepsin B reduced iNOS expression. Our data demonstrate that MOI-dependent TLR2 activation of macrophages results in iNOS induction via a novel ROS- and cathepsin-dependent mechanism to facilitate C. muridarum clearance. PMID:26015483

  3. Novel rat models to study primary genital herpes simplex virus-2 infection.

    PubMed

    Önnheim, Karin; Ekblad, Maria; Görander, Staffan; Lange, Stefan; Jennische, Eva; Bergström, Tomas; Wildt, Sheryl; Liljeqvist, Jan-Åke

    2015-05-01

    In this study we describe that six rat models (SD, WIST, LEW, BN, F344 and DA) are susceptible to intravaginal herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) infection after pre-treatment with progesterone. At a virus dose of 5 × 10(6) PFU of HSV-2, all rat models were infected presenting anti-HSV-2 antibodies, infectious virus in vaginal washes, and HSV-2 DNA genome copies in lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia and the spinal cord. Most of the LEW, BN, F344, and DA rats succumbed in systemic progressive symptoms at day 8-14 post infection, but presented no or mild genital inflammation while SD and WIST rats were mostly infected asymptomatically. Infected SD rats did not reactivate HSV-2 spontaneously or after cortisone treatment. In an HSV-2 virus dose reduction study, F344 rats were shown to be most susceptible. We also investigated whether an attenuated HSV-1 strain (KOS321) given intravaginally, could protect from a subsequent HSV-2 infection. All LEW, BN, and F344 rats survived a primary HSV-1 infection and no neuronal infection was established. In BN and F344 rats, anti-HSV-1 antibodies were readily detected while LEW rats were seronegative. In contrast to naïve LEW, BN, and F344 rats where only 3 of 18 animals survived 5 × 10(6) PFU of HSV-2, 23 of 25 previously HSV-1 infected rats survived a challenge with HSV-2. The described models provide a new approach to investigate protective effects of anti-viral microbicides and vaccine candidates, as well as to study asymptomatic primary genital HSV-2 infection. PMID:25701211

  4. Prevalence and risk factors for trachoma and ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Niger

    PubMed Central

    Abdou, A; Nassirou, B; Kadri, B; Moussa, F; Munoz, B E; Opong, E; West, S K

    2007-01-01

    Aims To determine the association of personal and household risk factors for trachoma and ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Niger. Methods 12 villages were randomly selected. A census of all households was carried out, and 651 children aged 1–5 years were randomly selected and examined. Household and personal characteristics were determined, trachoma was clinically assessed and a swab for ocular C trachomatis infection was taken. Results The prevalence of trachoma was 43% (95% confidence interval (CI) 39% to 47%) and of infection was 21% (95% CI 18% to 24%). Children aged 3–5 years had a stronger association of clinical signs with infection, compared with those aged 1–2 years. Those with unclean faces were three times more likely to have clinical trachoma or ocular C trachomatis infection, compared with those with clean faces (OR 3.1 (95% CI 1.6 to 6.2) and 3.0 (95% CI 1.4 to 6.3), respectively). 75% of compounds were within 30 min of a water source. Flies on the face were a risk factor for trachoma but not for C trachomatis infection. Conclusions The different association of clinical signs with infection in younger versus older children may be an age‐dependent difference in the duration of clinical disease. In Niger, unclean faces are a major risk factor for trachoma. The ready availability of water for washing suggests that further research on the effect of a strong health education campaign promoting clean children is warranted in this area. PMID:16899525

  5. Male circumcision and prevalence of genital human papillomavirus infection in men: a multinational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Accumulated evidence from epidemiological studies and more recently from randomized controlled trials suggests that male circumcision (MC) may substantially protect against genital HPV infection in men. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between MC and genital HPV infection in men in a large multinational study. Methods A total of 4072 healthy men ages 18–70 years were enrolled in a study conducted in Brazil, Mexico, and the United States. Enrollment samples combining exfoliated cells from the coronal sulcus, glans penis, shaft, and scrotum were analyzed for the presence and genotyping of HPV DNA by PCR and linear array methods. Prevalence ratios (PR) were used to estimate associations between MC and HPV detection adjusting for potential confounders. Results MC was not associated with overall prevalence of any HPV, oncogenic HPV types or unclassified HPV types. However, MC was negatively associated with non-oncogenic HPV infections (PR 0.85, 95% confident interval: 0.76-0.95), in particular for HPV types 11, 40, 61, 71, and 81. HPV 16, 51, 62, and 84 were the most frequently identified genotypes regardless of MC status. Conclusions This study shows no overall association between MC and genital HPV infections in men, except for certain non-oncogenic HPV types for which a weak association was found. However, the lack of association with MC might be due to the lack of anatomic site specific HPV data, for example the glans penis, the area expected to be most likely protected by MC. PMID:23327450

  6. Detection of Chlamydia infection in Peromyscus species rodents from sylvatic and laboratory sources.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Kyle H; Sigar, Ira M; Schripsema, Justin H; Townsend, Kathryn E; Barry, Randall J; Peters, Jan; Platt, Kenneth B

    2016-04-01

    To determine if Chlamydia muridarum, or other chlamydiae, are enzootic in rodents, we probed a serum bank of wild Peromyscus spp. mice for immunoglobulin G-antibody reactivity to ultraviolet light-inactivated C. muridarum elementary bodies (EBs) using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Applying a cut-off for a positive reaction of OD405 nm = 0.1 at a 1:20 dilution, we found titratable antibody reactivity in 190 of 247 specimens surveyed (77%, mean OD405 = 0.33 ± 0.26, range = 0.11-1.81, median = 0.25). In addition, serum samples were obtained from a colony of specific pathogen-free Peromyscus spp. maintained at the University of South Carolina and six of 12 samples were reactive (50%, mean OD405 = 0.19 +/- 0.08, range = 0.1-0.32, median = 0.18). Lastly, 40 additional wild Peromyscus spp. were captured in a disparate region of Midwestern USA and 22 serum specimens were reactive (55%, mean OD405 = 0.22 +/- 0.11, range = 0.1-0.48, median = 0.2). Specificity of selected reactive sera for chlamydial antigen was confirmed on Western blot using resolved purified EBs as the detecting antigen. From tissues removed from several mice at necropsy, the gene for chlamydial 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Positive samples of 16S rRNA were subjected to additional PCR for the major outer membrane protein gene (ompA). The amplicons of three select ompA positive samples were sequenced with ≥99% homology with C. muridarum. Our findings indicate that chlamydial infection is enzootic for Peromyscus spp., and that C. muridarum, or a closely related species or strain, is likely the agent in the tested rodent species. PMID:26733499

  7. PREVALENCE AND PATHOLOGIC FEATURES OF CHLAMYDIA PECORUM INFECTIONS IN SOUTH AUSTRALIAN KOALAS (PHASCOLARCTOS CINEREUS).

    PubMed

    Speight, K Natasha; Polkinghorne, Adam; Penn, Rachel; Boardman, Wayne; Timms, Peter; Fraser, Tamieka; Johnson, Kathryn; Faull, Rachel; Bate, Sarah; Woolford, Lucy

    2016-04-28

    Chlamydia pecorum infection is highly prevalent in many koala ( Phascolarctos cinereus ) populations in the eastern states of Australia, causing ocular and urogenital tract disease. In contrast, the current prevalence of chlamydiosis in South Australian (SA) koalas is largely unknown, with few reports of clinical cases. We examined 65 SA rescued wild koalas at necropsy and collected ocular and urogenital swabs for the detection of C. pecorum by PCR. We detected C. pecorum in ocular or urogenital swabs from 57 koalas (88%), and 34 koalas were positive at both ocular and urogenital sites. Clinically overt chlamydial disease was present in only 12 (21%) positive koalas. Gross lesions were often externally inapparent as they affected the urogenital tract (n=5), and 24 infected koalas had microscopically evident lesions only. Lesions were predominantly mild and included conjunctivitis, cystitis, and urethritis. Reproductive tract disease was infrequently observed. We detected C. pecorum in 16 (28%) koalas with no evidence of chlamydial disease, suggesting the presence of subclinical carriers in this population. Based on these findings, chlamydiosis has a higher occurrence in SA koala populations than previously thought, but is most often mild and does not always result in overt clinical disease; inapparent and subclinical infections appear common. Further studies of the prevalence in wild-caught SA koalas are needed along with research into the host and bacterial factors that may influence disease outcome in these animals. PMID:26967132

  8. Chlamydia trachomatis Co-opts the FGF2 Signaling Pathway to Enhance Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Hwa; Jiang, Shaobo; Elwell, Cherilyn A.; Engel, Joanne N.

    2011-01-01

    The molecular details of Chlamydia trachomatis binding, entry, and spread are incompletely understood, but heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) play a role in the initial binding steps. As cell surface HSPGs facilitate the interactions of many growth factors with their receptors, we investigated the role of HSPG-dependent growth factors in C. trachomatis infection. Here, we report a novel finding that Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 (FGF2) is necessary and sufficient to enhance C. trachomatis binding to host cells in an HSPG-dependent manner. FGF2 binds directly to elementary bodies (EBs) where it may function as a bridging molecule to facilitate interactions of EBs with the FGF receptor (FGFR) on the cell surface. Upon EB binding, FGFR is activated locally and contributes to bacterial uptake into non-phagocytic cells. We further show that C. trachomatis infection stimulates fgf2 transcription and enhances production and release of FGF2 through a pathway that requires bacterial protein synthesis and activation of the Erk1/2 signaling pathway but that is independent of FGFR activation. Intracellular replication of the bacteria results in host proteosome-mediated degradation of the high molecular weight (HMW) isoforms of FGF2 and increased amounts of the low molecular weight (LMW) isoforms, which are released upon host cell death. Finally, we demonstrate the in vivo relevance of these findings by showing that conditioned medium from C. trachomatis infected cells is enriched for LMW FGF2, accounting for its ability to enhance C. trachomatis infectivity in additional rounds of infection. Together, these results demonstrate that C. trachomatis utilizes multiple mechanisms to co-opt the host cell FGF2 pathway to enhance bacterial infection and spread. PMID:21998584

  9. Twelve-Month Antiretroviral Therapy Suppresses Plasma and Genital Viral Loads but Fails to Alter Genital Levels of Cytokines, in a Cohort of HIV-Infected Rwandan Women

    PubMed Central

    Ondoa, Pascale; Gautam, Raju; Rusine, John; Lutter, Rene; Jurriaans, Suzanne; Kootstra, Neeltje; Karita, Etienne; van de Wijgert, Janneke

    2015-01-01

    Background Genital viral load (GVL) is the main determinant of sexual transmission of human immune-deficiency virus (HIV). The effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on local cervico-vaginal immunological factors associated with GVL is poorly described. We aimed to identify the risk factors of detectable GVL, and the impact of ART on HIV genital shedding and its correlates in a cohort of HIV-infected women, attending HIV care in Kigali, Rwanda. Materials and Methods All participants were evaluated for GVL, plasma viral load (PVL), CD4 count, various sexually-transmitted infections (STIs) at baseline and at month 12. Genital concentration of 19 cytokines and mRNA expression of APOBEC3G and BST2, two host HIV restriction factors, were evaluated at baseline in all participants. Cytokine levels were re-assessed at month 12 only in participants eligible for ART at baseline. Risk factors of GVL ≥40copies/mL at baseline and month 12 were assessed using logistic regression. Effect of 12-month ART on various local and systemic immunological parameters was examined using a paired t-test and McNemar as appropriate. Results 96 of the 247 women enrolled in the study were eligible for ART. After 12 months of ART, PVL and GVL decreased to undetectable level in respectively 74 and 88% of treated participants. ART did not affect cytokine levels. HIV genital shedding occurred only when PVL was detectable. At baseline, GVL was independently associated with IL-1β after controlling for PVL, age and N. gonorrhea infection (95% CI 1.32-2.15) and at month 12 with MIP-1β (95% CI 0.96-21.32) after controlling for baseline GVL, PVL and month 12 IL-8. Conclusion Suppressive ART does not necessarily reduce genital level of immune activation. Minimizing all conditions favoring genital inflammation, including active detection and treatment of STIs, might reduce the risk of HIV transmission as supplement to the provision of potent ART. PMID:26010956

  10. Genital mycoplasmas.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Martin

    2009-04-01

    The first described pathogenic organisms that caused urethritis were Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. The significance of detecting mycoplasma with genital swabs remained unclear for a long time. Culture can differentiate between Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis. After introduction of nuclear acid amplification, Mycoplasma genitalium was additionally detected, while gene analysis differentiates between Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum. Mycoplasma genitalium has become the third most frequent pathogen causing non-chlamydial, non-gonococcal urethritis (NCNGU); Ureaplasma urealyticum is less often isolated. Because urethritis caused by Mycoplasma genitalium does not always respond to tetracycline, it is advisable to begin therapy with a macrolide. Mycoplasma hominis is a cofactor for bacterial vaginosis and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). During therapy with metronidazole, the colonization of this mycoplasma is decreased indirectly. PMID:19500195

  11. The Gonococcal Transcriptome during Infection of the Lower Genital Tract in Women

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Ryan; Nudel, Kathleen; Massari, Paola; Tjaden, Brian; Su, Xiaohong; Rice, Peter A.; Genco, Caroline A.

    2015-01-01

    Gonorrhea is a highly prevalent disease resulting in significant morbidity worldwide, with an estimated 106 cases reported annually. Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of gonorrhea, colonizes and infects the human genital tract and often evades host immune mechanisms until successful antibiotic treatment is used. The alarming increase in antibiotic-resistant strains of N. gonorrhoeae, the often asymptomatic nature of this disease in women and the lack of a vaccine directed at crucial virulence determinants have prompted us to perform transcriptome analysis to understand gonococcal gene expression patterns during natural infection. We sequenced RNA extracted from cervico-vaginal lavage samples collected from women recently exposed to infected male partners and determined the complete N. gonorrhoeae transcriptome during infection of the lower genital tract in women. On average, 3.19% of total RNA isolated from female samples aligned to the N. gonorrhoeae NCCP11945 genome and 1750 gonococcal ORFs (65% of all protein-coding genes) were transcribed. High expression in vivo was observed in genes encoding antimicrobial efflux pumps, iron response, phage production, pilin structure, outer membrane structures and hypothetical proteins. A parallel analysis was performed using the same strains grown in vitro in a chemically defined media (CDM). A total of 140 genes were increased in expression during natural infection compared to growth in CDM, and 165 genes were decreased in expression. Large differences were found in gene expression profiles under each condition, particularly with genes involved in DNA and RNA processing, iron, transposase, pilin and lipoproteins. We specifically interrogated genes encoding DNA binding regulators and iron-scavenging proteins, and identified increased expression of several iron-regulated genes, including tbpAB and fbpAB, during infection in women as compared to growth in vitro, suggesting that during infection of the genital tract in women, the gonococcus is exposed to an iron deplete environment. Collectively, we demonstrate that a large portion of the gonococcal genome is expressed and regulated during mucosal infection including genes involved in regulatory functions and iron scavenging. PMID:26244506

  12. Induction of Protective Immunity against Chlamydia muridarum Intravaginal Infection with a Chlamydial Glycogen Phosphorylase

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Bo; Zeng, Hao; Zhou, Zhiguan; Wu, Yimou; Zhong, Guangming

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated 7 C. muridarum ORFs for their ability to induce protection against chlamydial infection in a mouse intravaginal infection model. These antigens, although encoded in C. muridarum genome, are transcriptionally regulated by a cryptic plasmid that is known to contribute to C. muridarum pathogenesis. Of the 7 plasmid-regulated ORFs, the chlamydial glycogen phosphorylase or GlgP, when delivered into mice intramuscularly, induced the most pronounced protective immunity against C. muridarum intravaginal infection. The GlgP-immunized mice displayed a significant reduction in vaginal shedding of live organisms on day 14 after infection. The protection correlated well with a robust C. muridarum-specific antibody and a Th1-dominant T cell responses, which significantly reduced the severity but not overall incidence of hydrosalpinx. The GlgP-induced partial protection against upper genital tract pathology suggests that GlgP may be considered a component for a multi-subunit vaccine. These results have demonstrated that intramuscular immunization of mice with purified proteins can be used to identify vaccine antigens for preventing intravaginal infection with C. trachomatis in humans. PMID:22427926

  13. Persistently elevated level of IL-8 in Chlamydia trachomatis infected HeLa 229 cells is dependent on intracellular available iron.

    PubMed

    Vardhan, Harsh; Dutta, Raini; Vats, Vikas; Gupta, Rishein; Jha, Rajneesh; Jha, Hem Chandra; Srivastava, Pragya; Bhengraj, Apurb Rashmi; Singh Mittal, Aruna

    2009-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a leading cause of sexually transmitted infection worldwide and responsible for myriad of immunopathological changes associated with reproductive health. Delayed secretion of proinflammatory chemokine interleukin (IL)-8 is a hallmark of chlamydial infection and is dependent on chlamydial growth. We examined the effect of iron chelators on IL-8 production in HeLa 229 (cervix epitheloid cell, CCL2) cells infected with C. trachomatis. IL-8 production was induced by Iron chelator DFO and Mimosine, however, synergy with chlamydial infection was obtained with DFO only. Temporal expression of proinflammatory secreted cytokines IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IL-8 did not show synchrony in Chlamydia trachomatis infected cells. Secretion of IL-8 from Hela cells infected with C. trachomatis was not dependent on IL-1 beta and TNF- alpha induction. These results indicate towards involvement of iron in chlamydia induced IL-8 production. PMID:19503841

  14. Population prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the Netherlands. should asymptomatic persons be tested during Population-based chlamydia Screening also for gonorrhoea or only if chlamydial infection is found?

    PubMed Central

    van Bergen, Jan EAM; Spaargaren, Joke; Götz, Hannelore M; Veldhuijzen, Irene K; Bindels, Patrick JE; Coenen, Ton J; Broer, Jan; de Groot, Fetzen; Hoebe, Christian JPA; Richardus, Jan-Hendrik; van Schaik, Daniel; Verhooren, Marije

    2006-01-01

    Background Screening and active case finding for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is recommended to prevent reproductive morbidity. However insight in community prevalence of gonococcal infections and co-infections with Neisseria gonorrhoea (NG) is lacking. Methods Nested study within a large population-based Chlamydia Screening Pilot among 21.000 persons 15–29 year. All CT-positive (166) and a random sample of 605 CT-negative specimens were as well tested for gonococcal infection. Results Overall Chlamydia prevalence in the Pilot was 2.0% (95% CI: 1.7–2.3), highest in very urban settings (3.2%; 95% CI: 2.4–4.0) and dependent of several risk factors. Four gonococcal infections were found among 166 participants with CT infection (4/166 = 2.4%; 95% CI: 0.1%–4.7%). All four had several risk factors and reported symptoms. Among 605 CT-negative persons, no infection with NG could be confirmed. Conclusion A low rate of co-infections and a very low community prevalence of gonococcal infections were found in this population based screening programme among young adults in the Netherlands. Population screening for asymptomatic gonococcal infections is not indicated in the Netherlands. Although co-infection with gonorrhoea among CT-positives is dependent on symptoms and well-known algorithms for elevated risks, we advise to test all CT-positives also for NG, whether symptomatic or asymptomatic. PMID:16522201

  15. [Adolescents and chlamydia: cervix microbiology among adolescents; the first statistics of the family planning centers according to the Calmat law].

    PubMed

    Henry-Suchet, J

    1995-05-01

    Infertility due to Chlamydia trachomatis infection can be prevented by systematic screening of low genital tract infection. This screening is to be done systematically in women < 25 years old in Family Planning Centers. In France, according to Calmat's low, screening and treatment are anonymous and free of charges for adolescents and people without National Health care. In a foreseeable future, screening will be done for both sexes, by PCR or LCR, on first void urines. PMID:7613578

  16. Zinc and Chlamydia trachomatis

    SciTech Connect

    Sugarman, B.; Epps, L.R.

    1985-07-01

    Zinc was noted to have significant effects upon the infection of McCoy cells by each of two strains of Chlamydia trachomatis. With a high or low Chlamydia inoculant, the number of infected cells increased up to 200% utilizing supplemental zinc (up to 1 x 10/sup -4/ M) in the inoculation media compared with standard Chlamydia cultivation media (8 x 10/sup -6/ M zinc). Ferric chloride and calcium chloride did not effect any such changes. Higher concentrations of zinc, after 2 hr of incubation with Chlamydia, significantly decreased the number of inclusions. This direct effect of zinc on the Chlamydia remained constant after further repassage of the Chlamydia without supplemental zinc, suggesting a lethal effect of the zinc. Supplemental zinc (up to 10/sup -4/ M) may prove to be a useful addition to inoculation media to increase the yield of culturing for Chlamydia trachomatis. Similarly, topical or oral zinc preparations used by people may alter their susceptibility to Chamydia trachomatis infections.

  17. Correlates of Chlamydia and Gonorrhea Infection among Female Sex Workers: The Untold Story of Jiangsu, China

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ning; Hu, Hai-Yang; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Yin, Yue-Ping; Mahapatra, Sanchita; Wang, Xiao-Liang; Chen, Xiang-Sheng; Lin, Nan; Zhang, Xun; Huan, Xi-Ping; Yang, Hai-Tao; Fu, Geng-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s) To estimate the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers (FSWs) in the Jiangsu Province, China and measure the association of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infections with their potential correlates. Design A cross-sectional study on a representative sample of FSWs in Yangzhou and Changzhou cities of Jiangsu was conducted. Methods 185 sex-work venues in Yangzhou and 174 in Changzhou were selected by stratified random sampling. 2972 FSWs (1108 in Yangzhou and 1864 in Changzhou), aged 15 years or more, who agreed to participate and provided blood sample for HIV and syphilis testing were interviewed in these venues. Cervical specimens from 849 randomly chosen participants were then tested for CT and NG. Results Proportions of young, school-educated, currently married FSWs who were living alone, migrated from other provinces and engaged in unprotected vaginal intercourse in past 3 months (UVI) were relatively high. Prevalence of HIV, syphilis, CT and NG were 0.20%, 4.88%, 14.61% and 5.42% respectively. Younger age, living alone or with persons other than partners/family members, engaging in UVI and having other STIs seemed to be associated with higher risk of CT or NG infection. Being divorced/widowed and working in middle/low-level venues were identified as additional risk factors for NG. Conclusions Based on a representative sample, this initial effort to identify the correlates of CT/NG infections among FSWs of Jiangsu revealed that focused interventions targeting high-risk FSWs are urgently required for controlling STI epidemics in Yangzhou and Changzhou where substantial number of STI cases were identified. PMID:24454950

  18. Maternal Chlamydia trachomatis Infections and Preterm Births in a University Hospital in Vitoria, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Renylena; Muniz, Renan Rosetti; Cola, Elizandra; Stauffert, Dulce; Silveira, Mariangela Freitas; Miranda, Angelica E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Preterm birth (PTB) is a major determinant of neonatal morbimortality with adverse consequences for health. The causes are multifactorial, with intrauterine infection probably explaining most of these outcomes. It is believed that infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is also involved in PTB and premature rupture of membranes. Objetives To evaluate the prevalence of and associated factors for CT among cases of PTB attended at a University Hospital in Vitoria, Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study performed among parturient who had preterm birth from June 2012 to August 2013 in Vitoria, Brazil. Participants answered a questionnaire including demographic, behavioral, and clinical data. A sample of urine was collected and screened for CT using polymerase chain reaction. Chi-square tests were used for proportion differences and Student’s-t tests and variance analysis were used for testing differences between mean values. Odds ratio was used as a measure of association with a 95% confidence interval. Results The prevalence of PTB during the period of the study was 26% and the prevalence of CT among them was 13.9%. A total of 31.6% pregnant women were younger than 25 years old and women infected by CT were even younger than women not infected by CT (p = 0.022). Most of them (76.2%) were married or had a living partner, and CT infection was more frequent among the single ones (p = 0.018); 16.7% of women reported their first sexual intercourse under 14 years old. The causes of prematurity were maternal-fetal in 40.9%; rupture of the membranes in 29.7% and premature labor in 29.4%. In multivariate analysis, being married was a protective factor for infection [OR = 0.48 (95%CI:0.24–0.97)]. None of the other characteristics were associated with CT infection. Conclusions This study shows a high prevalence of CT infection among parturient who have preterm birth. This high prevalence highlight the need for defining screening strategies focused on young pregnant women in Brazil. PMID:26505892

  19. Protection from genital herpes disease, seroconversion and latent infection in a non-lethal murine genital infection model by immunization with an HSV-2 replication-defective mutant virus.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Fernando M; Knipe, David M

    2016-01-15

    Viral vaccines have traditionally protected against disease, but for viruses that establish latent infection, it is desirable for the vaccine to reduce infection to reduce latent infection and reactivation. While seroconversion has been used in clinical trials of herpes simplex virus (HSV) vaccines to measure protection from infection, this has not been modeled in animal infection systems. To measure the ability of a genital herpes vaccine candidate to protect against various aspects of infection, we established a non-lethal murine model of genital HSV-2 infection, an ELISA assay to measure antibodies specific for infected cell protein 8 (ICP8), and a very sensitive qPCR assay. Using these assays, we observed that immunization with HSV-2 dl5-29 virus reduced disease, viral shedding, seroconversion, and latent infection by the HSV-2 challenge virus. Therefore, it may be feasible to obtain protection against genital disease, seroconversion and latent infection by immunization, even if sterilizing immunity is not achieved. PMID:26609935

  20. TLR2, but Not TLR4, Is Required for Effective Host Defence against Chlamydia Respiratory Tract Infection in Early Life

    PubMed Central

    Starkey, Malcolm R.; Horvat, Jay C.; Beagley, Kenneth W.

    2012-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae commonly causes respiratory tract infections in children, and epidemiological investigations strongly link infection to the pathogenesis of asthma. The immune system in early life is immature and may not respond appropriately to pathogens. Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and 4 are regarded as the primary pattern recognition receptors that sense bacteria, however their contribution to innate and adaptive immunity in early life remains poorly defined. We investigated the role of TLR2 and 4 in the induction of immune responses to Chlamydia muridarum respiratory infection, in neonatal wild-type (Wt) or TLR2-deficient (−/−), 4−/− or 2/4−/− BALB/c mice. Wt mice had moderate disease and infection. TLR2−/− mice had more severe disease and more intense and prolonged infection compared to other groups. TLR4−/− mice were asymptomatic. TLR2/4−/− mice had severe early disease and persistent infection, which resolved thereafter consistent with the absence of symptoms in TLR4−/− mice. Wt mice mounted robust innate and adaptive responses with an influx of natural killer (NK) cells, neutrophils, myeloid (mDCs) and plasmacytoid (pDCs) dendritic cells, and activated CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells into the lungs. Wt mice also had effective production of interferon (IFN)γ in the lymph nodes and lung, and proliferation of lymph node T-cells. TLR2−/− mice had more intense and persistent innate (particularly neutrophil) and adaptive cell responses and IL-17 expression in the lung, however IFNγ responses and T-cell proliferation were reduced. TLR2/4−/− mice had reduced innate and adaptive responses. Most importantly, neutrophil phagocytosis was impaired in the absence of TLR2. Thus, TLR2 expression, particularly on neutrophils, is required for effective control of Chlamydia respiratory infection in early life. Loss of control of infection leads to enhanced but ineffective TLR4-mediated inflammatory responses that prolong disease symptoms. This indicates that TLR2 agonists may be beneficial in the treatment of early life Chlamydia infections and associated diseases. PMID:22724018

  1. Developing effective delivery systems for Chlamydia vaccines.

    PubMed

    Igietseme, Joseph U; Eko, Francis O; He, Qing; Bandea, Claudiu; Black, Carolyn M

    2004-04-01

    Members of the genus Chlamydia cause a plethora of ocular, genital and respiratory diseases, with severe complications, such as blinding trachoma, pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy and tubal factor infertility, interstitial pneumonia, and chronic diseases that may include atherosclerosis, multiple sclerosis, adult-onset asthma and Alzheimer's disease. The current medical opinion is that an effective prophylactic vaccine would constitute the best approach to protect the human population from the most severe consequences of these infections. There are three essential and mutually inclusive areas of challenge confronting researchers developing Chlamydia vaccines. These are to define the elements of protective immunity and the basis of vaccine evaluation, the judicious selection of an immunogenic and safe antigen(s) to form the basis of a subunit vaccine, and to develop effective delivery systems that boost the immune response to achieve long-lasting protective immunity. The development of delivery vehicles and adjuvants to boost protective long-term immunity against chlamydiae currently poses the greatest challenge in vaccine research. However, enormous progress is being made in the construction of novel delivery systems, such as DNA and plasmid expression systems, viral vectors, and living and non-living bacterial delivery systems, and the use of chemical adjuvants. In addition, there is increasing effort being made in designing delivery strategies involving specific immunomodulatory procedures that modify the cytokine and chemokine environment, upregulate co-stimulatory molecules and target vaccines to specific mucosal sites. These efforts will likely culminate in an efficacious chlamydial vaccine in the near future. PMID:15195931

  2. Genital Warts

    MedlinePlus

    ... can get genital warts during oral, vaginal, or anal sex with an infected partner. Correct usage of latex condoms greatly reduces, but does not completely eliminate, the risk of catching or spreading HPV. HPV vaccines may help prevent some of the ...

  3. Chlamydiaceae Genomics Reveals Interspecies Admixture and the Recent Evolution of Chlamydia abortus Infecting Lower Mammalian Species and Humans.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Sandeep J; Marti, Hanna; Didelot, Xavier; Castillo-Ramirez, Santiago; Read, Timothy D; Dean, Deborah

    2015-11-01

    Chlamydiaceae are obligate intracellular bacteria that cause a diversity of severe infections among humans and livestock on a global scale. Identification of new species since 1989 and emergence of zoonotic infections, including abortion in women, underscore the need for genome sequencing of multiple strains of each species to advance our knowledge of evolutionary dynamics across Chlamydiaceae. Here, we genome sequenced isolates from avian, lower mammalian and human hosts. Based on core gene phylogeny, five isolates previously classified as Chlamydia abortus were identified as members of Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia pecorum. Chlamydia abortus is the most recently emerged species and is a highly monomorphic group that lacks the conserved virulence-associated plasmid. Low-level recombination and evidence for adaptation to the placenta echo evolutionary processes seen in recently emerged, highly virulent niche-restricted pathogens, such as Bacillus anthracis. In contrast, gene flow occurred within C. psittaci and other Chlamydiaceae species. The C. psittaci strain RTH, isolated from a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), is an outlying strain with admixture of C. abortus, C. psittaci, and its own population markers. An average nucleotide identity of less than 94% compared with other Chlamydiaceae species suggests that RTH belongs to a new species intermediary between C. psittaci and C. abortus. Hawks, as scavengers and predators, have extensive opportunities to acquire multiple species in their intestinal tract. This could facilitate transformation and homologous recombination with the potential for new species emergence. Our findings indicate that incubator hosts such as birds-of-prey likely promote Chlamydiaceae evolution resulting in novel pathogenic lineages. PMID:26507799

  4. Autoimmunity to human heat shock protein 60, Chlamydia pneumoniae infection, and inflammation in predicting coronary risk.

    PubMed

    Huittinen, Tiina; Leinonen, Maija; Tenkanen, Leena; Mänttäri, Matti; Virkkunen, Hanna; Pitkänen, Taina; Wahlström, Eva; Palosuo, Timo; Manninen, Vesa; Saikku, Pekka

    2002-03-01

    Heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60) and Chlamydia pneumoniae infection have both been associated with cardiovascular diseases. Our aim was to study the role of Hsp60 antibodies as coronary risk predictors and their association with C pneumoniae infection and inflammation. This was a prospective, nested, case-control study. The cases consisted of 239 middle-aged Finnish men who developed myocardial infarction or coronary death during the follow-up. Baseline levels of IgA and IgG antibodies to human-specific and C pneumoniae-specific Hsp60 were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Human Hsp60 IgA, but not IgG or C pneumoniae Hsp60, antibodies were a significant risk factor for coronary events (odds ratio 2.0, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.6, when the fourth and first quartiles are compared). When an elevated human Hsp60 IgA antibody level (above the second quartile) was present simultaneously with a high C pneumoniae IgA antibody level (the third quartile) and an elevated C-reactive protein level (the second quartile), compared with all factors at low levels, the risk was 7.0 (95% CI 2.6 to 19.1) without adjustment and 5.0 (95% CI 1.8 to 14.2) when adjustment was made for age and smoking. In conclusion, an elevated human Hsp60 IgA antibody level was a risk factor for coronary events, especially when it was present together with C pneumoniae infection and inflammation. PMID:11884286

  5. High Prevalence of Rectal Gonorrhea and Chlamydia Infection in Women Attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Reese, Patricia Carr; Esber, Allahna; Lahey, Samantha; Ervin, Melissa; Davis, John A.; Fields, Karen; Turner, Abigail Norris

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Testing women for urogenital Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is common in sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics. However, women may not be routinely tested for rectal GC/CT. This may lead to missed infections in women reporting anal intercourse (AI). Methods: This was a retrospective review of all women who underwent rectal GC/CT testing from August 2012 to June 2013 at an STD clinic in Columbus, Ohio. All women who reported AI in the last year had a rectal swab collected for GC/CT nucleic acid amplification testing (n=331). Using log-binomial regression models, we computed unadjusted and adjusted associations for demographic and behavioral factors associated with rectal GC/CT infection. Results: Participants (n=331) were 47% African-American, with median age of 29 years. Prevalence of rectal GC was 6%, rectal CT was 13%, and either rectal infection was 19%. Prevalence of urogenital GC and CT was 7% and 13% respectively. Among women with rectal GC, 14% tested negative for urogenital GC. Similarly, 14% of women with rectal CT tested negative for urogenital CT. In unadjusted analyses, there was increased rectal GC prevalence among women reporting sex in the last year with an injection drug user, with a person exchanging sex for drugs or money, with anonymous partners, and while intoxicated/high on alcohol or illicit drugs. After multivariable adjustment, no significant associations persisted, but a trend of increased rectal GC prevalence was observed for women <26 years of age (p=0.06) and those reporting sex while intoxicated/high on alcohol or drugs (p=0.05). For rectal CT, only age <26 years was associated with prevalent infection in unadjusted models; this association strengthened after multivariable adjustment (prevalence ratio: 6.03; 95% confidence interval: 2.29–15.90). Conclusion: Nearly one in five women who reported AI in the last year had rectal GC or CT infection. Urogenital testing alone would have missed 14% of rectal infections. Standardized guidelines would increase rectal GC/CT testing in women and help detect missed infections. PMID:25692800

  6. Reversible Inhibition of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Epithelial Cells Due to Stimulation of P2X4 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Pettengill, Matthew A.; Marques-da-Silva, Camila; Avila, Maria Luisa; d'Arc dos Santos Oliveira, Suellen; Lam, Verissa W.; Ollawa, Ikechukwu; Abdul Sater, Ali A.; Coutinho-Silva, Robson; Häcker, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial infections of the mucosal epithelium are a major cause of human disease. The prolonged presence of microbial pathogens stimulates inflammation of the local tissues, which leads to changes in the molecular composition of the extracellular milieu. A well-characterized molecule that is released to the extracellular milieu by stressed or infected cells is extracellular ATP and its ecto-enzymatic degradation products, which function as signaling molecules through ligation of purinergic receptors. There has been little information, however, on the effects of the extracellular metabolites on bacterial growth in inflamed tissues. Millimolar concentrations of ATP have been previously shown to inhibit irreversibly bacterial infection through ligation of P2X7 receptors. We show here that the proinflammatory mediator, ATP, is released from Chlamydia trachomatis-infected epithelial cells. Moreover, further stimulation of the infected cells with micromolar extracellular ADP or ATP significantly impairs the growth of the bacteria, with a profile characteristic of the involvement of P2X4 receptors. A specific role for P2X4 was confirmed using cells overexpressing P2X4. The chlamydiae remain viable and return to normal growth kinetics after removal of the extracellular stimulus, similar to responses previously described for persistence of chlamydial infection. PMID:22988022

  7. Prevalence of anorectal Chlamydia trachomatis infection and its genotype distribution among men who have sex with men in Shenzhen, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Hong; Cai, Yu-Mao; Yin, Yue-Ping; Hong, Fu-Chang; Shi, Mei-Qin; Feng, Tie-Jian; Peng, Rui-Rui; Wang, Bao-Xi; Chen, Xiang-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence and genotype distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among men who have sex with men (MSM), 145 MSM from two sauna settings in Shenzhen, China were invited to participate in this study during September 2008 and May 2009. Anorectal swab and urine samples were collected and tested for chlamydial infection, and positive samples were genotyped. The prevalence of anorectal chlamydial infection was 24% in the study population and was significantly associated with proctitis symptoms. Up to 50% of the anorectal infections were asymptomatic. The most prevalent genotypes were G (39%) and D (37%), followed by J (11%). Genotypes related to lymphogranuloma venereum were not found in the study population. The high prevalence of anorectal infection in MSM suggests the importance of detecting and treating the infection in this population. PMID:21519129

  8. Mapping immunodominant antigens and H-2-linked antibody responses in mice urogenitally infected with Chlamydia muridarum

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Hao; Hou, Shuping; Gong, Siqi; Dong, Xiaohua; Zou, Quanming; Zhong, Guangming

    2012-01-01

    To identify immunodominant antigens and MHC-restricted antibody responses, seven different strains of mice were intravaginally infected with Chlamydia muridarum and compared for antibody responses to 257 C. muridarum proteins. The 7 strains of mice recognized a total of 109 proteins as antigens, of which, 5 antigens (TC0660, TC0727, TC0828, TC0726 & TC0268) were each recognized by 60% or more mice from each mouse strain and thus designated as immunodominant antigens. Furthermore, antibody responses to 19 other antigens displayed strong associations with mouse H-2 haplotypes, including 6 antigens (TC0480, TC0912, TC0229, TCA04, TC0289 & TC0892) whose antibody responses were linked to H-2b, 8 (TC0035, TC0387, TC0052, TC0781, TC0373, TC0117, TC0066 & TC0396) to H-2d and 5 (TC0512, TC0177, TC0589, TC0794 & TC0596) to H-2k haplotypes respectively. Interestingly, H-2b was negatively associated with antibody responses to most of the antigens that were positively linked to H-2d or H-2k haplotypes. These results by mapping C. trachomatis antigens commonly recognized by mice with different strain background and H-2 genes and revealing antigen association with H-2 haplotypes have provided important information for developing chlamydial subunit vaccines and understanding chlamydial pathogenesis. PMID:22421110

  9. Asymptomatic natural Chlamydia pecorum infection reduces growth rates in calves by up to 48 percent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intracellular Chlamydia (C.) bacteria cause in cattle some acute but rare diseases such as abortion, sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis, kerato-conjunctivitis, pneumonia, enteritis and polyarthritis. Much more frequent, essentially ubiquitous worldwide, are low-level, asymptomatic chlamydial infecti...

  10. Southern blot hybridization and PCR in detection of oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in women with genital HPV infections.

    PubMed

    Kellokoski, J K; Syrjänen, S M; Chang, F; Yliskoski, M; Syrjänen, K J

    1992-11-01

    The presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in biopsies taken from clinically normal buccal mucosa (n = 212) and clinical lesions (n = 60) was examined by Southern blot hybridization (SBH) using 32P-labelled HPV DNA probes. Furthermore, one hundred formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded biopsies were analyzed by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), combined with dot blot hybridization and biotinylated HPV DNA probes. With SBH and PCR, 15.4% and 29.4% of the biopsies, respectively, contained HPV DNA. In clinically normal epithelium, 15.6% and 23.1% of the samples were HPV-positive with SBH and PCR, respectively. The HPV types detected in the genital and oral mucosa of index patients differed in all except two cases. Histology could not be relied on distinguishing HPV DNA positive and HPV DNA negative samples. Hand warts were encountered significantly more frequently in patients with a concomitant oral HPV infection. To conclude, oral HPV infections as detected by SBH and PCR are surprisingly common, but similar to the genital tract, the virus seems to exist in a latent form in the vast majority of cases. The frequent concomitant finding of skin warts and oral HPV infection may suggest some kind of HPV-specific immunosuppression. PMID:1334147

  11. Identification of unusual Chlamydia pecorum genotypes in Victorian koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) and clinical variables associated with infection.

    PubMed

    Legione, Alistair R; Patterson, Jade L S; Whiteley, Pam L; Amery-Gale, Jemima; Lynch, Michael; Haynes, Leesa; Gilkerson, James R; Polkinghorne, Adam; Devlin, Joanne M; Sansom, Fiona M

    2016-05-01

    Chlamydia pecorum infection is a threat to the health of free-ranging koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in Australia. Utilizing an extensive sample archive we determined the prevalence of C. pecorum in koalas within six regions of Victoria, Australia. The ompA genotypes of the detected C. pecorum were characterized to better understand the epidemiology of this pathogen in Victorian koalas. Despite many studies in northern Australia (i.e. Queensland and New South Wales), prior Chlamydia studies in Victorian koalas are limited. We detected C. pecorum in 125/820 (15 %) urogenital swabs, but in only one ocular swab. Nucleotide sequencing of the molecular marker C. pecorum ompA revealed that the majority (90/114) of C. pecorum samples typed were genotype B. This genotype has not been reported in northern koalas. In general, Chlamydia infection in Victorian koalas is associated with milder clinical signs compared with infection in koalas in northern populations. Although disease pathogenesis is likely to be multifactorial, the high prevalence of genotype B in Victoria may suggest it is less pathogenic. All but three koalas had C. pecorum genotypes unique to southern koala populations (i.e. Victoria and South Australia). These included a novel C. pecorum ompA genotype and two genotypes associated with livestock. Regression analysis determined that significant factors for the presence of C. pecorum infection were sex and geographical location. The presence of 'wet bottom' in males and the presence of reproductive tract pathology in females were significantly associated with C. pecorum infection, suggesting variation in clinical disease manifestations between sexes. PMID:26932792

  12. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and distribution of serovars in the Eastern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Suarkia, Dagwin L; Mgone, Charles S; Lehmann, Deborah; Passey, Megan E; Lupiwa, Tony; Paniu, Michael M; Kono, Jacinta; Kakazo, Mexy; Yeka, William; Alpers, Michael P

    2007-01-01

    We have used nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the PCR-based endonuclease digestion method to genotype Chlamydia trachomatis serovars in 460 infected individuals from the Eastern Highlands Province of Papua New Guinea. Our study groups comprised women who presented in labour to the Goroka Base Hospital, their newborn infants, symptomatic children who presented to the hospital's Outpatients Department and men and women from 15 randomly selected villages in the Asaro Valley. In this analysis, the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) gene, omp1, of C. trachomatis was amplified using DNA obtained from the endocervix of women, urine from men, and both the eye and nasopharynx of children. Amplified DNAs were digested concurrently using Alul and a combination of EcoRI, Hinl and Hpall restriction enzymes. The mixtures were separated on electrophoretic gels and the respective serovars designated on the basis of resolved digested DNA patterns. Our results, which were confirmed also by omp1 sequence data, show serovars D, E, F, G, H and L3 to be present in the studied communities. The overall relative frequencies of these serovars were 30%, 21%, 25%, 1%, 20% and 2% respectively, with serovars D, E, F and H accounting for 97% of these infections. Double infections among these principal serovars were also detected in all our study groups but at a low overall frequency of 3%. Serovar D was the major agent involved in the aetiology of chlamydial infection in both children and adults though serovar F was the most frequent in newborn infants. Serovar H was relatively less frequent in symptomatic children. No trachoma-related serovars were detected, confirming the rarity of this disease in Papua New Guinea. In contrast, although clinical cases of lymphogranuloma venereum have not been described in the country, the detection of serovar L3 in this study suggests that it may occur. However, the association of L3 also with childhood infection indicates that it may be causing the same pathology as the serovars D-K that are associated with non-ulcerative sexually transmitted infections. PMID:19583096

  13. Simultaneous plasma and genital pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of atazanavir and efavirenz in HIV-infected women starting therapy.

    PubMed

    Neely, Michael; Louie, Stan; Xu, Jiaao; Anthony, Patricia; Thuvamontolrat, Kasalyn; Mordwinkin, Nicholas; Kovacs, Andrea

    2015-07-01

    Few studies have characterized longitudinal female plasma and genital antiretroviral pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Among 20 regimen-naive HIV-infected adult women initiating atazanavir-based therapy (n = 9) or efavirenz-based therapy (n = 11), we measured blood CD4+ T lymphocytes, and paired plasma and genital HIV RNA and atazanavir or efavirenz 2 days before starting therapy and 2, 4, 7, 10, 21, 28, 60, 120, and 180 days after. The mean (range) log10 baseline plasma viral load was 4.89 copies/mL (2.64-6.09 copies/mL), and genital was3.30 (1.60-5.00). In the atazanavir and efavirenz groups, mean (SD) days to a 50% decrease in plasma viral load was 8.2 (4.9) versus 9.3 (7.4), P = .7, and in the genital tract it was 7.3 (3.5) versus 9.3 (7.7), P = .5. The median (interquartile range) plasma:genital concentration ratio for atazanavir was 0.11 (0.001-0.46) versus 0.34 (0.05-1.30) for efavirenz, P = .5. Average plasma efavirenz or atazanavir concentrations over time did not affect virologic response. Blood CD4+ percentages increased by +2.3 (P = .06) and +3.0 (P = .003) for every 1 mg/L increase in average plasma and genital drug concentration, respectively. Plasma and genital viral pharmacodynamics were similar between the groups and independent of average concentrations, but blood CD4+ response was related in particular to genital extravascular drug concentrations. PMID:25683232

  14. Broad HPV distribution in the genital region of men from the HPV infection in men (HIM) study

    PubMed Central

    Sichero, Laura; Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Ferreira, Silvaneide; Sobrinho, João S.; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Galan, Lenice; Silva, Roberto C.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R.; Villa, Luisa L.

    2013-01-01

    The HPV infection in men (HIM) study examines the natural history of genital HPV infection in men. Genotyping methods used in this study identify 37 α-HPV types; however, the viral type could not be identified in approximately 22% of male genital specimens that were HPV PCR positive. Our aim was to genotype HPV-unclassified specimens by sequencing PGMY09/11, GP5+/6+ or FAP59/64 PCR products. Using this approach we were able to detect 86 unique HPV types among 508 of 931 specimens analyzed. We report for the first time the presence of a broad range of α-, β- and γ-HPV at the male genitals. PMID:23722104

  15. Genital Warts

    PubMed Central

    Yanofsky, Valerie R.; Patel, Rita V.

    2012-01-01

    External genital warts, also known as condylomata acuminata, are extremely common, with between 500,000 to one million new cases diagnosed each year in the United States alone. To date, more than 120 distinct subtypes of human papillomavirus have been identified. Human papillomavirus types 6 and 11 rarely give rise to cervical cancers, but are responsible for 90 percent of the cases of genital warts. The current treatment options are largely centered upon removal of the warts rather than elimination of the underlying viral infection. A wide range of therapies are presently in use, which are highly variable and can differ dramatically with respect to cost, side-effect profiles, dosing schedules, duration of treatment, and overall effectiveness. As of yet, no definitive therapy has emerged as the ideal standard of care in the treatment of genital warts, and therapy selection generally occurs in a patient-specific manner. PMID:22768354

  16. Treatment challenges for urogenital and anorectal Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Kong, Fabian Yuh Shiong; Hocking, Jane Simone

    2015-01-01

    While true antimicrobial resistance to Chlamydia trachomatis is a rare occurrence, repeat chlamydia infections continue to be reported following treatment with a single 1 g dose of azithromycin or week long doxycycline - with considerable more concern about azithromycin treatment failure. While most repeat positive cases are likely to be reinfections, emerging evidence indicates treatment failure may play a role. Current data suggests that there may are differences in the efficacy of the drugs between rectal and non-rectal sites of infection and factors such as immune response, drug pharmacokinetics, organism load, auto-inoculation from rectum to cervix in women and the genital microbiome may play a role in treatment failure. Other possible reasons for repeat infection include the low discriminatory power of NAAT tests to differentiate between viable and nonviable organisms and failure to detect LGV infection. This review will present the current evidence regarding the management challenges for urogenital and anorectal chlamydia infections and provide some suggestions for where future research efforts are needed to address important knowledge gaps in this area and provide stronger evidence for the development of robust treatment guidelines. PMID:26220080

  17. Compendium of measures to control Chlamydophila psittaci (formerly Chlamydia psittaci) infection among humans (psittacosis) and pet birds, 2005.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kathleen A; Bradley, Kristy K; Stobierski, Mary G; Tengelsen, Leslie A

    2005-02-15

    Psittacosis, also known as parrot fever and ornithosis, is a bacterial infection of humans that can cause severe pneumonia and other serious health problems. It is caused by Chlamydophila psittaci, formerly known as Chlamydia psittaci. From 1988 through 2003, 935 human cases of psittacosis were reported to the CDC and most resulted from exposure to infected pet birds, usually cockatiels, parakeets, parrots, and macaws. In birds, C. psittaci infection is referred to as avian chlamydiosis. Infected birds shed the bacteria through feces and nasal discharges, and humans become infected from exposure to these materials. This compendium provides information about psittacosis and avian chlamydiosis to public health officials, physicians, veterinarians, the pet bird industry, and others concerned with controlling these diseases and protecting public health. The recommendations in this compendium provide standardized procedures for controlling avian chlamydiosis in birds, a vital step to protecting human health. This document will be reviewed and revised as necessary. PMID:15742693

  18. Inflammatory Genital Infections Mitigate a Severe Genetic Bottleneck in Heterosexual Transmission of Subtype A and C HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Haaland, Richard E.; Hawkins, Paulina A.; Salazar-Gonzalez, Jesus; Johnson, Amber; Tichacek, Amanda; Karita, Etienne; Manigart, Olivier; Mulenga, Joseph; Keele, Brandon F.; Shaw, George M.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Allen, Susan A.; Derdeyn, Cynthia A.; Hunter, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The HIV-1 epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa is driven largely by heterosexual transmission of non-subtype B viruses, of which subtypes C and A are predominant. Previous studies of subtype B and subtype C transmission pairs have suggested that a single variant from the chronically infected partner can establish infection in their newly infected partner. However, in subtype A infected individuals from a sex worker cohort and subtype B individuals from STD clinics, infection was frequently established by multiple variants. This study examined over 1750 single-genome amplified viral sequences derived from epidemiologically linked subtype C and subtype A transmission pairs very early after infection. In 90% (18/20) of the pairs, HIV-1 infection is initiated by a single viral variant that is derived from the quasispecies of the transmitting partner. In addition, the virus initiating infection in individuals who were infected by someone other than their spouse was characterized to determine if genital infections mitigated the severe genetic bottleneck observed in a majority of epidemiologically linked heterosexual HIV-1 transmission events. In nearly 50% (3/7) of individuals infected by someone other than their spouse, multiple genetic variants from a single individual established infection. A statistically significant association was observed between infection by multiple genetic variants and an inflammatory genital infection in the newly infected individual. Thus, in the vast majority of HIV-1 transmission events in cohabiting heterosexual couples, a single genetic variant establishes infection. Nevertheless, this severe genetic bottleneck can be mitigated by the presence of inflammatory genital infections in the at risk partner, suggesting that this restriction on genetic diversity is imposed in large part by the mucosal barrier. PMID:19165325

  19. 'The difference in determinants of Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium in a sample of young Australian women.'

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Differences in the determinants of Chlamydia trachomatis ('chlamydia') and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) genital infection in women are not well understood. Methods A cohort study of 16 to 25 year old Australian women recruited from primary health care clinics, aimed to determine chlamydia and MG prevalence and incidence. Vaginal swabs collected at recruitment were used to measure chlamydia and MG prevalence, organism-load and chlamydia-serovar a cross-sectional analysis undertaken on the baseline results is presented here. Results Of 1116 participants, chlamydia prevalence was 4.9% (95% CI: 2.9, 7.0) (n = 55) and MG prevalence was 2.4% (95% CI: 1.5, 3.3) (n = 27). Differences in the determinants were found - chlamydia not MG, was associated with younger age [AOR:0.9 (95% CI: 0.8, 1.0)] and recent antibiotic use [AOR:0.4 (95% CI: 0.2, 1.0)], and MG not chlamydia was associated with symptoms [AOR:2.1 (95% CI: 1.1, 4.0)]. Having two or more partners in last 12 months was more strongly associated with chlamydia [AOR:6.4 (95% CI: 3.6, 11.3)] than MG [AOR:2.2 (95% CI: 1.0, 4.6)] but unprotected sex with three or more partners was less strongly associated with chlamydia [AOR:3.1 (95%CI: 1.0, 9.5)] than MG [AOR:16.6 (95%CI: 2.0, 138.0)]. Median organism load for MG was 100 times lower (5.7 × 104/swab) than chlamydia (5.6 × 106/swab) (p < 0.01) and not associated with age or symptoms for chlamydia or MG. Conclusions These results demonstrate significant chlamydia and MG prevalence in Australian women, and suggest that the differences in strengths of association between numbers of sexual partners and unprotected sex and chlamydia and MG might be due to differences in the transmission dynamics between these infections. PMID:21284887

  20. The natural history of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women: a multi-parameter evidence synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Price, Malcolm J; Ades, A E; Soldan, Kate; Welton, Nicky J; Macleod, John; Simms, Ian; DeAngelis, Daniela; Turner, Katherine Me; Horner, Paddy J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES The evidence base supporting the National Chlamydia Screening Programme, initiated in 2003, has been questioned repeatedly, with little consensus on modelling assumptions, parameter values or evidence sources to be used in cost-effectiveness analyses. The purpose of this project was to assemble all available evidence on the prevalence and incidence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) in the UK and its sequelae, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy (EP) and tubal factor infertility (TFI) to review the evidence base in its entirety, assess its consistency and, if possible, arrive at a coherent set of estimates consistent with all the evidence. METHODS Evidence was identified using 'high-yield' strategies. Bayesian Multi-Parameter Evidence Synthesis models were constructed for separate subparts of the clinical and population epidemiology of CT. Where possible, different types of data sources were statistically combined to derive coherent estimates. Where evidence was inconsistent, evidence sources were re-interpreted and new estimates derived on a post-hoc basis. RESULTS An internally coherent set of estimates was generated, consistent with a multifaceted evidence base, fertility surveys and routine UK statistics on PID and EP. Among the key findings were that the risk of PID (symptomatic or asymptomatic) following an untreated CT infection is 17.1% [95% credible interval (CrI) 6% to 29%] and the risk of salpingitis is 7.3% (95% CrI 2.2% to 14.0%). In women aged 16-24 years, screened at annual intervals, at best, 61% (95% CrI 55% to 67%) of CT-related PID and 22% (95% CrI 7% to 43%) of all PID could be directly prevented. For women aged 16-44 years, the proportions of PID, EP and TFI that are attributable to CT are estimated to be 20% (95% CrI 6% to 38%), 4.9% (95% CrI 1.2% to 12%) and 29% (95% CrI 9% to 56%), respectively. The prevalence of TFI in the UK in women at the end of their reproductive lives is 1.1%: this is consistent with all PID carrying a relatively high risk of reproductive damage, whether diagnosed or not. Every 1000 CT infections in women aged 16-44 years, on average, gives rise to approximately 171 episodes of PID and 73 of salpingitis, 2.0 EPs and 5.1 women with TFI at age 44 years. CONCLUSIONS AND RESEARCH RECOMMENDATIONS The study establishes a set of interpretations of the major studies and study designs, under which a coherent set of estimates can be generated. CT is a significant cause of PID and TFI. CT screening is of benefit to the individual, but detection and treatment of incident infection may be more beneficial. Women with lower abdominal pain need better advice on when to seek early medical attention to avoid risk of reproductive damage. The study provides new insights into the reproductive risks of PID and the role of CT. Further research is required on the proportions of PID, EP and TFI attributable to CT to confirm predictions made in this report, and to improve the precision of key estimates. The cost-effectiveness of screening should be re-evaluated using the findings of this report. FUNDING The Medical Research Council grant G0801947. PMID:27007215

  1. Standing in the way of eradication: HIV-1 infection and treatment in the male genital tract.

    PubMed

    Shehu-Xhilaga, Miranda; de Kretser, David; Dejucq-Rainsford, Nathalie; Hedger, Mark

    2005-10-01

    As a result of the introduction of the Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) many HIV-1 infected individuals are able to live an improved and extended life style that can include the prospect of having children. Problematically, the male reproductive organs may contribute infected cells and free viral particles to semen in these individuals, increasing the risk of infection from the HIV-1 positive male to the mother and ultimately to the offspring. Though autopsies of AIDS infected individuals have taught us a great deal about specific cell loss and the deterioration of male organs in this setting, it is not clear whether the damage is due to specific targeting of these cells and tissues by HIV-1 or an indirect consequence of viral dissemination in the later stages of infection. Due to lack of access to these organs in the early stages of the disease, little is known about the progression and pathogenesis of the infection within them, particularly during the asymptomatic stage. The molecular and cellular aspects of transmission of this virus remain unclear. Although assisted reproductive techniques have been successfully used to achieve pregnancies in discordant couples in the developed world, investigating the mechanism of the spread of HIV-1 in the cells and tissues of the male reproductive tract remains a critical task, not only to improve our understanding, but also to enable the design of suitable treatment for the eradication of the infection from this potential sanctuary site. In this review, we discuss possible mechanisms by which infection of the male genital tract (MGT) may occur in the context of the anatomy and immunology of the tissues of the male reproductive organs. We revisit the methodology used to evaluate the spread and transmission of HIV-1 from these tissues and pinpoint future directions for study that may provide a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of HIV-1 transmission by this route. PMID:16250881

  2. The overall agreement of proposed definitions of mucopurulent cervicitis in women at high risk of Chlamydia infection.

    PubMed

    Falk, Lars

    2010-09-01

    The overall agreement between different criteria for cervicitis in women infected with Chlamydia trachomatis and/or Mycoplasma genitalium, and in women who tested negative was examined. Women attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases were enrolled because of sexual partners' suspected chlamydia infection. M. genitalium was tested in a sample of first-catch urine and an endocervical specimen, whereas specimens from four different sites were used for detection of C. trachomatis. Signs of friability and purulent endocervical discharge were documented at gynaecological examination. Specimens for microscopy were taken from the endocervix and urethra as well as the vaginal discharge, and bacterial vaginosis was examined for. The criteria being evaluated included cervical friability and/or pus; polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL)/epithelium cell ratio in the vaginal discharge; and more than 30 PMNL per high-power field in the endocervical smear. The overall agreement of the indicators of cervicitis in women infected with C. trachomatis and/or M. genitalium was 40.5% (15/37), and for those women with negative tests 35.3% (12/34). The criteria for cervicitis require further evaluation, including study of a control group of women at low risk of having a sexually transmitted infection. PMID:20814628

  3. Screening tests to detect Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections--2002.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Robert E; Newhall, Wilbert J; Papp, John R; Knapp, Joan S; Black, Carolyn M; Gift, Thomas L; Steece, Richard; Markowitz, Lauri E; Devine, Owen J; Walsh, Cathleen M; Wang, Susan; Gunter, Dorothy C; Irwin, Kathleen L; DeLisle, Susan; Berman, Stuart M

    2002-10-18

    Since publication of CDC's 1993 guidelines (CDC, Recommendations for the prevention and management of Chlamydia trachomatis infections, 1993. MMWR 1993;42[No. RR-12]:1-39), nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) have been introduced as critical new tools to diagnose and treat C. trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections. NAATs for C. trachomatis are substantially more sensitive than previous tests. When using a NAAT, any sacrifice in performance when urine is substituted for a traditional swab specimen is limited, thus reducing dependence on invasive procedures and expanding the venues where specimens can be obtained. NAATs can also detect both C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae organisms in the same specimen. However, NAATs are usually more expensive than previous tests, making test performance from an economic perspective a key consideration. This report updates the 1993 guidelines for selecting laboratory tests for C. trachomatis with an emphasis on screening men and women in the United States. (In this report, screening refers to testing persons in the absence of symptoms or signs indicating C. trachomatis or N. gonorrhoeae infection.) In addition, these guidelines consider tests from an economic perspective and expand the previous guidelines to address detection of N. gonorrhoeae as well as C. trachomatis infections. Because of the increased cost of NAATs, certain laboratories are modifying manufacturers' procedures to improve test sensitivity without incurring the full cost associated with screening with a NAAT. Such approaches addressed in these guidelines are pooling of specimens before testing with a NAAT and additional testing of specimens whose non-NAAT test result is within a gray zone. This report also addresses the need for additional testing after a positive screening test to improve the specificity of a final diagnosis. To prepare these guidelines, CDC staff identified pertinent concerns, compiled the related literature published during 1990 or later, prepared tables of evidence, and drafted recommendations. Consultants, selected for their expertise or disciplinary and organizational affiliations, reviewed the draft recommendations. These final guidelines are the recommendations of CDC staff who considered contributions from scientific consultants. These guidelines are intended for laboratorians, clinicians, and managers who must choose among the multiple available tests, establish standard operating procedures for collecting and processing specimens, interpret test results for laboratory reporting, and counsel and treat patients. PMID:12418541

  4. Autophagy and female genital tract infections: new insights and research directions.

    PubMed

    Jayaram, A; Orfanelli, T; Doulaveris, G; Linhares, I M; Ledger, W J; Witkin, S S

    2014-06-01

    Autophagy is a highly conserved process by which defective organelles, non-functional proteins, and intracellular microorganisms become sequestered within structures called autophagosomes, which fuse with lysosomes and the engulfed components are degraded by lysosomal enzymes. In microbial autophagy degraded peptides are used to induce antigen-specific acquired immunity. Viruses, bacteria, fungi, and protozoa have developed strategies to subvert autophagy and/or to use this process to promote their replication and persistence. This review details the mechanisms by which microorganisms that infect the female genital tract and/or are detrimental to pregnancy interact with this host defence mechanism. Based on an understanding of autophagy-related pathological mechanisms, we propose new avenues for research to more effectively prevent and/or treat these infectious diseases. PMID:24506514

  5. Chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, granuloma inguinale, genital herpes simplex infection, and molluscum contagiosum.

    PubMed

    Basta-Juzbašić, Aleksandra; Čeović, Romana

    2014-01-01

    Chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, and granuloma inguinale may be considered as tropical venereal diseases. These diseases were a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in past centuries. Currently, patients with these bacterial infections that are endemic to the tropics occasionally consult with dermatologists in temperate climates. Due to the increasing frequency of travel to the tropics for tourism and work, as well as the increasing number of immigrants from these areas, it is important for dermatologists practicing in temperate climates to be familiar with the dermatologic manifestations of such infections, to be prepared to diagnose these diseases, and to treat these patients. All three "tropical" infections respond well to prompt and appropriate antimicrobial treatment, although herpes progenitalis still cannot be cured, and the number of people infected keeps growing; moreover, genital herpes can be transmitted by viral shedding before and after the visual signs or symptoms. Acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir can shorten outbreaks and make them less severe or even stop them from happening. There is currently no etiologic treatment for molluscum contagiosum, and the majority of treatment options are mechanical, causing a certain degree of discomfort. The molluscum contagiosum virus, unlike the other infectious agents mentioned, does not invade the skin. PMID:24559566

  6. A single infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae is sufficient to exacerbate atherosclerosis in ApoE deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Sorrentino, Rosalinda; Yilmaz, Atilla; Schubert, Katja; Crother, Timothy R; Pinto, Aldo; Shimada, Kenichi; Arditi, Moshe; Chen, Shuang

    2015-03-01

    Several studies have demonstrated a strong link between Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cp) infection and atherosclerosis progression/exacerbation. Here, we try to understand whether a single administration of Cp could exacerbate atherosclerosis. Apoe(-/-) mice were intranasally infected with Cp followed by a high fat diet. Mice were sacrificed at different time points after Cp infection to monitor the development of the atheroma. Cp infection increased lipid content in the aortic sinus of Apoe(-/-) mice starting from 8 weeks. This was associated with increased numbers of active myeloid dendritic cells and plasmacytoid DCs which were co-localized with T-cells in the atherosclerotic plaque. The serum levels of IFN-γ showed a Th1-like environment typical of atherosclerosis. In conclusion, we demonstrate that one dose of Cp could exacerbate atherosclerotic lesion development, triggering innate immune cell accumulation early on that allowed the involvement of Th1-like cells in the exacerbation of the atherosclerotic plaque at later time points. PMID:25666507

  7. Microarray analysis of a Chlamydia pneumoniae-infected human epithelial cell line by use of gene ontology hierarchy.

    PubMed

    Alvesalo, Joni; Greco, Dario; Leinonen, Maija; Raitila, Tuomas; Vuorela, Pia; Auvinen, Petri

    2008-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae, a gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium, is a common cause of upper and lower respiratory tract infections worldwide. Persistent C. pneumoniae infections have been linked to chronic disease processes, such as atherosclerosis. In the present study, we examined gene expression changes in the human epithelial cell line at different stages of acute C. pneumoniae infection and used gene ontology annotation, along with single-gene analysis, to select a small group of target genes that could possibly play a key role in C. pneumoniae infection. Selected genes were silenced using small interfering RNA, and the effect of silencing on the number of C. pneumoniae inclusions was measured by time-resolved fluorometric immunoassay. The greatest reduction in the number of C. pneumoniae inclusions was due to the silencing of the gene coding for the transcription factor early growth response 1, which decreased the number of inclusions by 38.6%. PMID:18171299

  8. A single infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae is sufficient to exacerbate atherosclerosis in ApoE deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Sorrentino, Rosalinda; Yilmaz, Atilla; Schubert, Katja; Crother, Timothy R.; Pinto, Aldo; Shimada, Kenichi; Arditi, Moshe; Chen, Shuang

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated a strong link between Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cp) infection and atherosclerosis progression/exacerbation. Here, we try to understand whether a single administration of Cp could exacerbate atherosclerosis. Apoe?/? mice were intranasally infected with Cp followed by a high fat diet. Mice were sacrificed at different time points after Cp infection to monitor the development of the atheroma. Cp infection increased lipid content in the aortic sinus of Apoe?/? mice starting from 8 weeks. This was associated with increased numbers of active myeloid Dendritic cells and plasmacytoid DCs which were co-localized with T-cells in the atherosclerotic plaque. The serum levels of IFN-? showed a Th1-like environment typical of atherosclerosis. In conclusion, we demonstrate that one dose of Cp. could exacerbate atherosclerotic lesion development, triggering innate immune cell accumulation early on that allowed the involvement of Th1-like cells in the exacerbation of the atherosclerotic plaque at later time points. PMID:25666507

  9. Vaccination with the Secreted Glycoprotein G of Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Induces Protective Immunity after Genital Infection.

    PubMed

    Önnheim, Karin; Ekblad, Maria; Görander, Staffan; Bergström, Tomas; Liljeqvist, Jan-Åke

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) infects the genital mucosa and establishes a life-long infection in sensory ganglia. After primary infection HSV-2 may reactivate causing recurrent genital ulcerations. HSV-2 infection is prevalent, and globally more than 400 million individuals are infected. As clinical trials have failed to show protection against HSV-2 infection, new vaccine candidates are warranted. The secreted glycoprotein G (sgG-2) of HSV-2 was evaluated as a prophylactic vaccine in mice using two different immunization and adjuvant protocols. The protocol with three intramuscular immunizations combining sgG-2 with cytosine-phosphate-guanine dinucleotide (CpG) motifs and alum induced almost complete protection from genital and systemic disease after intra-vaginal challenge with HSV-2. Robust immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody titers were detected with no neutralization activity. Purified splenic CD4+ T cells proliferated and produced interferon-γ (IFN-γ) when re-stimulated with the antigen in vitro. sgG-2 + adjuvant intra-muscularly immunized mice showed a significant reduction of infectious HSV-2 and increased IFN-γ levels in vaginal washes. The HSV-2 DNA copy numbers were significantly reduced in dorsal root ganglia, spinal cord, and in serum at day six or day 21 post challenge. We show that a sgG-2 based vaccine is highly effective and can be considered as a novel candidate in the development of a prophylactic vaccine against HSV-2 infection. PMID:27110813

  10. Vaccination with the Secreted Glycoprotein G of Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Induces Protective Immunity after Genital Infection

    PubMed Central

    Önnheim, Karin; Ekblad, Maria; Görander, Staffan; Bergström, Tomas; Liljeqvist, Jan-Åke

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) infects the genital mucosa and establishes a life-long infection in sensory ganglia. After primary infection HSV-2 may reactivate causing recurrent genital ulcerations. HSV-2 infection is prevalent, and globally more than 400 million individuals are infected. As clinical trials have failed to show protection against HSV-2 infection, new vaccine candidates are warranted. The secreted glycoprotein G (sgG-2) of HSV-2 was evaluated as a prophylactic vaccine in mice using two different immunization and adjuvant protocols. The protocol with three intramuscular immunizations combining sgG-2 with cytosine-phosphate-guanine dinucleotide (CpG) motifs and alum induced almost complete protection from genital and systemic disease after intra-vaginal challenge with HSV-2. Robust immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody titers were detected with no neutralization activity. Purified splenic CD4+ T cells proliferated and produced interferon-γ (IFN-γ) when re-stimulated with the antigen in vitro. sgG-2 + adjuvant intra-muscularly immunized mice showed a significant reduction of infectious HSV-2 and increased IFN-γ levels in vaginal washes. The HSV-2 DNA copy numbers were significantly reduced in dorsal root ganglia, spinal cord, and in serum at day six or day 21 post challenge. We show that a sgG-2 based vaccine is highly effective and can be considered as a novel candidate in the development of a prophylactic vaccine against HSV-2 infection. PMID:27110813

  11. Complement factor H gene polymorphisms and Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Haas, P; Steindl, K; Schmid-Kubista, KE; Aggermann, T; Krugluger, W; Hageman, GS; Binder, S

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the association of the complement factor H gene (CFH) Y402H polymorphism and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in the Austrian population (Caucasoid descent), and to determine whether there is an association between exposure to Chlamydia pneumoniae—responsible for up to 20% of community-acquired pneumoniae—and the AMD-associated CFH risk polymorphism. Methods Genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis in 75 unrelated AMD patients and compared with 75 healthy, age-matched control subjects. C. pneumoniae serum IgG was tested by ELISA (R&D) in both groups. The association between the CFH Y402H genetic polymorphism and the disease was examined by χ2-test and logistic regression. Results CFH Y402H genotype frequencies differed significantly between AMD patients and healthy controls (1277 TT, 22.7%; 1277 TC, 53.3%; and 1277 CC, 22.7% in the AMD group; 1277 TT, 48.0%; 1277 TC, 38.7%; and 1277 CC, 13.3% in the control group) showing a P-value <0.005 (OR:2.920/3.811). No association was found between a positive C. pneumoniae titre and AMD (P = 0.192), nor was any association found between C. pneumoniae and the CFH Y402H polymorphism. Conclusions Our data confirm that the CFH Y402H polymorphism is a risk factor for AMD in the Austrian population with a higher frequency of the Y402 polymorphism in AMD patients. No association between preceding C. pneumoniae infection and diagnosed AMD was found. PMID:19169230

  12. Epidemiology of Chlamydia psittaci Infection in Racing Pigeons and Pigeon Fanciers in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Ling, Y; Chen, H; Chen, X; Yang, X; Yang, J; Bavoil, P M; He, C

    2015-08-01

    Over 3 million racing pigeons (Columba livia) are registered in Beijing City Center for gambling purposes. During 2008-2010, we evaluated the occurrence and prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci in racing pigeons as well as the possible zoonotic transmission to pigeon fanciers in six districts of Beijing where pigeon races are particularly popular. C. psittaci-specific serum antibody titres were obtained from 370 pigeons and 79 fanciers using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, 206 and 67 throat swabs were, respectively, collected from pigeons and fanciers and tested for the presence of chlamydial antigen using immunofluorescence. C. psittaci-specific serum antibody was detected in 37 of 370 pigeons and 19 of 79 fanciers. Of 206 pigeon clinical specimens, 55 were positive for C. psittaci antigen, while 16 of 67 swabs from the pigeon fanciers were positive. Based on ompA sequence analysis, the genotype of several avian and human isolates was genotype B. Thus, both high-titre C. psittaci-specific antibody and C. psittaci-specific antigen were found with relatively high frequency in the pigeon flocks as well as in the pigeon fanciers. Our study suggests that C. psittaci infection is prevalent among the racing pigeon population in Beijing. Moreover, detection of serum antibodies and antigen in pigeon fanciers suggests that exposure and possible zoonotic transmission of C. psittaci from racing pigeons to humans does occur. In view of the life-threatening respiratory illness C. psittaci may cause in humans, regulatory public health measures, to prevent further spread of the pathogen in avian populations and possible transmission to exposed humans, are urgently needed. PMID:25244602

  13. Molecular Characterization and Subcellular Localization of Macrophage Infectivity Potentiator, a Chlamydia trachomatis Lipoprotein▿

    PubMed Central

    Neff, Laurence; Daher, Sawsan; Muzzin, Patrick; Spenato, Ursula; Gülaçar, Fazil; Gabay, Cem; Bas, Sylvette

    2007-01-01

    Macrophage infectivity potentiator (MIP) was originally reported to be a chlamydial lipoprotein from experiments showing incorporation of radiolabeled palmitic acid into native and recombinant MIP; inhibition of posttranslational processing of recombinant MIP by globomycin, known to inhibit signal peptidase II; and solubility of native MIP in Triton X-114. However, the detailed structural characterization of the lipid moiety on MIP has never been fully elucidated. In this study, bioinformatics and mass spectrometry analysis, as well as radiolabeling and immunochemical experiments, were conducted to further characterize MIP structure and subcellular localization. In silico analysis showed that the amino acid sequence of MIP is conserved across chlamydial species. A potential signal sequence with a contained lipobox was identified, and a recombinant C20A variant was prepared by replacing the probable lipobox cysteine with an alanine. Both incorporation of U-14C-esterified glycerol and [U-14C]palmitic acid and posttranslational processing that was inhibitable by globomycin were observed for recombinant wild-type MIP but not for the recombinant C20A MIP variant. The fatty acid contents of native and recombinant MIP were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the presence of amide-linked fatty acids in recombinant MIP was investigated by alkaline methanolysis. These results demonstrated a lipid modification in MIP similar to that of other prokaryotic lipoproteins. In addition, MIP was detected in an outer membrane preparation of Chlamydia trachomatis elementary bodies and was shown to be present at the surfaces of elementary bodies by surface biotinylation and surface immunoprecipitation experiments. PMID:17449608

  14. Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection-Associated Risk of Cervical Cancer: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Haiyan; Shen, Zhaojun; Luo, Hui; Zhang, Wenwen; Zhu, Xueqiong

    2016-03-01

    As whether Chlamydia trachomatis infection increases the risk of cervical cancer is controversial in the literature, we performed a meta-analysis.Based on a comprehensive search of publications in the Medline, Cochrane, and EMBASE databases, we identified and extracted data from all relevant articles examining C. trachomatis infection and the risk of cervical cancer. The quality of each included study was assessed according to the 9-star Newcastle-Ottawa scale. The strength of association between the C. trachomatis and risk of cervical cancer was estimated by odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). This review was registered at PROSPERO with registration No. CRD42014015672.A total of 22 studies with 4291 cervical cancer cases and 7628 controls were identified. Overall, C. trachomatis was significantly linked to increased cervical cancer risk in prospective studies (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.88-2.61, P < 0.001), as well as in retrospective studies (OR = 2.19, 95% CI: 1.74-2.74, P < 0.001). Additionally, with a multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for HPV and age, C. trachomatis infection was identified as an independent predictor of cervical cancer in 11 studies (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.03-3.01, P = 0.04). Coinfection of human papilloma virus and C. trachomatis has a higher risk of cervical cancer (OR = 4.03, 95% CI: 3.15-5.16, P < 0.001). A subgroup analysis based on histological type indicated an elevated risk for both squamous cell carcinoma (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 2.00-2.45, P < 0.001), and adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.21-2.15, P = 0.001), in associated with C. trachomatis. Subgroup analysis by where C. trachomatis infection was detected showed a significantly higher risk of cervical cancer associated with C. trachomatis infection detected in serum (OR = 2.20, 95% CI: 2.01-2.42, P < 0.001), cervical tissue blocks (OR = 2.88, 95% CI: 1.21-6.83, P = 0.02), and cervical secretion (OR = 2.71, 95% CI: 1.41-5.20, P = 0.003), especially in serum with no obvious heterogeneity.In conclusion, our novel data demonstrate that individuals infected with C. trachomatis have a higher risk of cervical cancer. Therefore, it is necessary to expand C. trachomatis infection screening and treat women with C. trachomatis promptly, particularly those with human papilloma virus infections. This approach will not only protect against pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility, but may also prevent cervical cancer. PMID:27043670

  15. Genital hygiene practices of fishermen targeted for a topical microbicide intervention against sexually transmitted infections in Kisumu, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kwena, Z A; Bukusi, E A; Gorbach, P; Sharma, A; Sang, N M; Holmes, K K

    2010-06-01

    Research on hygiene has been relatively limited in the current era of rigorous observational studies and clinical trials. We set out to investigate the perception and practices of genital hygiene among fishermen working on the beaches along Lake Victoria, targeted for a topical male microbicide hygiene intervention. We conducted 12 focus group discussions involving fishermen (n = 130), recording the discussions in Dholuo (the local language) and transcribing them verbatim before translating into English. Transcripts were double-coded and analysed using constant comparative analysis. Despite easy access to lake water and recognition of a link that may exist between poor genital hygiene and the risk of penile infection and poor sexual relationships, few fishermen regularly washed their genitalia due to fear/embarrassment from cleaning their genitalia in public, traditional Luo beliefs such as that washing with soap would reduce the fish catch, lack of time because of their busy schedules, laziness and lack of responsibility, and excessive consumption of alcohol and illicit drugs. Hygiene practices of the fishermen were poor and could contribute to genital infections including sexually transmitted infections. Given the fishermen's poor genital hygiene practices, they may benefit from hygiene intervention, including that provided by penile microbicides, which can be applied in the privacy of their bedrooms. PMID:20606226

  16. Sexually transmitted infections in U.S. Air Force recruits in basic military training.

    PubMed

    Webber, Bryant J; Pawlak, Mary T; Jones, Nathan M; Tchandja, Juste N; Foster, Gwendolyn A

    2016-02-01

    This study reports the counts, prevalence, and trends of five common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among U.S. Air Force recruits during 2012-2014. Chlamydia and genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) were the most commonly identified STIs in females, with a prevalence of 4,841.2 and 432.3 per 100,000, respectively. Genital HSV was the most commonly identified STI in males at 133.4 per 100,000. There were 13 cases of chlamydia and gonorrhea co-infection among females and none among males. STI prevalence was lower than in a similarly aged U.S. civilian population. PMID:26930147

  17. Mucosal Herpes Immunity and Immunopathology to Ocular and Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Chentoufi, Aziz Alami; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2012-01-01

    Herpes simplex viruses type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are amongst the most common human infectious viral pathogens capable of causing serious clinical diseases at every stage of life, from fatal disseminated disease in newborns to cold sores genital ulcerations and blinding eye disease. Primary mucocutaneous infection with HSV-1 & HSV-2 is followed by a lifelong viral latency in the sensory ganglia. In the majority of cases, herpes infections are clinically asymptomatic. However, in symptomatic individuals, the latent HSV can spontaneously and frequently reactivate, reinfecting the muco-cutaneous surfaces and causing painful recurrent diseases. The innate and adaptive mucosal immunities to herpes infections and disease remain to be fully characterized. The understanding of innate and adaptive immune mechanisms operating at muco-cutaneous surfaces is fundamental to the design of next-generation herpes vaccines. In this paper, the phenotypic and functional properties of innate and adaptive mucosal immune cells, their role in antiherpes immunity, and immunopathology are reviewed. The progress and limitations in developing a safe and efficient mucosal herpes vaccine are discussed. PMID:23320014

  18. Test Positivity for Chlamydia, Gonorrhea and Syphilis Infection Among a Cohort of Individuals Released from Jail in Marion County, Indiana

    PubMed Central

    Wiehe, Sarah E.; Barai, Nikita; Rosenman, Marc B.; Aalsma, Matthew C.; Scanlon, Michael L.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Background Individuals entering jails have high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STI) but there are few data on STI in the post-incarceration period. This study aimed to describe rates of chlamydia, gonorrhea and syphilis infection among individuals released from Marion County (Indianapolis), Indiana jails. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of individuals incarcerated in Marion County, Indiana jails from 2003–2008 (N=118,670). We linked county jail and public health data to identify individuals with positive STI test results in the one-year following release from jail. Rates per 100,000 individuals and cox proportional hazard analyses were performed for each STI, stratified by demographic, STI and jail characteristics. Results We found significantly higher rates of STI in this cohort than in the general population, with rates in the one-year following release being 2 to 7 times higher for chlamydia, 5 to 24 times higher for gonorrhea, and 19 to 32 times higher for syphilis compared to rates in the general population. Characteristics most associated with increased risk of a positive STI test among this cohort were younger age for chlamydia and gonorrhea, older age for syphilis, black race for men, being jailed for prostitution for women, history of STI, and history of prior incarceration. Conclusions This study found high rates of STIs among a cohort of individuals recently released from jail and identified a number of risk factors. Further study is needed to improve targeted STI testing and treatment among this high-risk population. PMID:25504298

  19. Effects of chloramphenicol on Chlamydia trachomatis infection in neonatal conjunctivitis and in McCoy cell cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Hobson, D.; Stefanidis, D.; Rees, E.; Tait, I. A.

    1982-01-01

    It was found that 26 of 127 infants with chlamydial conjunctivitis had previously received chloramphenicol eye drops. This treatment had delayed the onset and reduced the degree of oedema, congestion and discharge compared with infected infants with no 'first-line' chemotherapy, but eye swabs remained positive in 22 (85%) of the chloramphenicol treated infants. The problems of designing laboratory tests which might accurately forecast the clinical value, or lack of value of antibiotics in chlamydial infections were investigated. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of chloramphenicol, against Chlamydia trachomatis in McCoy cell cultures varied widely according to the antibiotic preparation used, the timing and duration of its exhibition in relation to the single step growth cycle of C. trachomatis, and, in particular, the method of examination of infected tissue cultures for residual chlamydial growth after incubation with chloramphenicol. Images Plate 1 PMID:7153511

  20. PD-L1 limits the mucosal CD8+ T cell response to Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Fankhauser, Sarah C.; Starnbach, Michael N.

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the United States. Repeated infections with C. trachomatis lead to serious sequelae such as infertility. It is unclear why the adaptive immune system, specifically the CD8+ T cell response, is unable to protect against subsequent C. trachomatis infections. In this article we characterize the mucosal CD8+ T cell response to C. trachomatis in the murine genital tract. We demonstrate that the immunoinhibitory ligand, PD-L1, contributes to the defective CD8+ T cell response. Deletion or inhibition of PD-L1 restores the CD8+ T cell response and enhances C. trachomatis clearance. PMID:24353266

  1. Concurrence of oral and genital human papillomavirus infection in healthy men: a population-based cross-sectional study in rural China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fangfang; Hang, Dong; Deng, Qiuju; Liu, Mengfei; Xi, Longfu; He, Zhonghu; Zhang, Chaoting; Sun, Min; Liu, Ying; Li, Jingjing; Pan, Yaqi; Ning, Tao; Guo, Chuanhai; Liang, Yongmei; Xu, Ruiping; Zhang, Lixin; Cai, Hong; Ke, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, a primary cause of genital cancer, is also related to the increasing incidence of oropharyngeal cancer among young men. Relatively little is known about the concurrence of oral and genital infection among healthy individuals. Oral and genital swab exfoliated cells were collected simultaneously from 2566 men in rural China. Using general primer-mediated (SPF1/GP6+) PCR and sequencing, HPV testing results were obtained from 2228 men with both valid oral and genital specimens (β-globin-positive). The prevalence of HPV infection was 6.7% in the oral cavity and 16.9% for the external genitalia. Among 43 men (1.9%, 43/2228) with oral-genital coinfection, 60.5% (26/43) harbored an identical HPV type at both sites. The risk of oral HPV infection was higher among men with genital infection than among uninfected men (11.4% vs. 5.7%, Adjusted OR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.6–3.4). In addition, having multiple lifetime sexual partners was a significant risk for oral-genital HPV coinfection (Adjusted OR = 2.6, 95% CI: 1.0–7.0; 2 partners vs. 1 partner). These findings provide a basis for further understanding the natural history and transmission dynamics of oral HPV infection. PMID:26503510

  2. Concurrence of oral and genital human papillomavirus infection in healthy men: a population-based cross-sectional study in rural China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fangfang; Hang, Dong; Deng, Qiuju; Liu, Mengfei; Xi, Longfu; He, Zhonghu; Zhang, Chaoting; Sun, Min; Liu, Ying; Li, Jingjing; Pan, Yaqi; Ning, Tao; Guo, Chuanhai; Liang, Yongmei; Xu, Ruiping; Zhang, Lixin; Cai, Hong; Ke, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, a primary cause of genital cancer, is also related to the increasing incidence of oropharyngeal cancer among young men. Relatively little is known about the concurrence of oral and genital infection among healthy individuals. Oral and genital swab exfoliated cells were collected simultaneously from 2566 men in rural China. Using general primer-mediated (SPF1/GP6+) PCR and sequencing, HPV testing results were obtained from 2228 men with both valid oral and genital specimens (?-globin-positive). The prevalence of HPV infection was 6.7% in the oral cavity and 16.9% for the external genitalia. Among 43 men (1.9%, 43/2228) with oral-genital coinfection, 60.5% (26/43) harbored an identical HPV type at both sites. The risk of oral HPV infection was higher among men with genital infection than among uninfected men (11.4% vs. 5.7%, Adjusted OR?=?2.3, 95% CI: 1.6-3.4). In addition, having multiple lifetime sexual partners was a significant risk for oral-genital HPV coinfection (Adjusted OR?=?2.6, 95% CI: 1.0-7.0; 2 partners vs. 1 partner). These findings provide a basis for further understanding the natural history and transmission dynamics of oral HPV infection. PMID:26503510

  3. Quantification of Poly(I:C)-Mediated Protection against Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Herbst-Kralovetz, Melissa M.; Pyles, Richard B.

    2006-01-01

    Alternative strategies for controlling the growing herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) epidemic are needed. A novel class of immunomodulatory microbicides has shown promise as antiherpetics, including intravaginally applied CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotides that stimulate toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). In the current study, we quantified protection against experimental genital HSV-2 infection provided by an alternative nucleic acid-based TLR agonist, polyinosine-poly(C) (PIC) (TLR3 agonist). Using a protection quantification paradigm, groups of mice were PIC treated and then subdivided into groups challenged with escalating doses of HSV-2. Using this paradigm, a temporal window of PIC efficacy for single applications was defined as 1 day prior to (prophylactic) through 4 h after (therapeutic) viral challenge. PIC treatment within this window protected against 10-fold-higher HSV-2 challenges, as indicated by increased 50% infectious dose values relative to those for vehicle-treated controls. Disease resolution and survival were significantly enhanced by repetitive PIC doses. Using optimal PIC regimens, cytokine induction was evaluated in murine vaginal lavages and in human vaginal epithelial cells. Similar induction patterns were observed, with kinetics that explained the limited durability of PIC-afforded protection. Daily PIC delivery courses did not generate sustained cytokine levels in murine vaginal fluids that would be indicative of local immunotoxicity. No evidence of immunotoxicity was observed in selected organs that were analyzed following repetitive vaginal PIC doses. Animal and in vitro data indicate that PIC may prove to be a valuable preventative microbicide and/or therapeutic agent against genital herpes by increasing resistance to HSV-2 and enhancing disease resolution following a failure of prevention. PMID:17005677

  4. Prevalence of the genital tract bacterial infections after vaginal reconstructive surgery.

    PubMed

    Maghsoudi, Reza; Danesh, Azar; Kabiri, Najmeh; Setorki, Mahbubeh; Doudi, Monir

    2014-09-01

    Due to frequent childbirth, heavy lifting and the structure of the lives of rural women in Shahrekord region, Iran, cystocele and rectocele are of the main medical problems of the women in this area and for its correction, vaginal reconstructive surgery is needed which causes infection. The purpose of this study was to identify the bacteria causing infection after vaginal reconstructive surgery and performing antibiogram to help these patients for faster recovery. Patients enrolled this study were 92 who had undergone previous vaginal reconstructive surgery and now had infection. After examination, the group of patients taking antibiotics (n = 26) were excluded and the remaining 66 completed the study questionnaire. A gynecologist performed sampling; related tests (aerobic and anaerobic culture using an anaerobic culture gas pack jar and type A which provides absolute anaerobic conditions) were performed; antimicrobial susceptibility testing using Disk Diffusion Method was carried out; and the results were recorded. All the positive samples were polymicrobial. Gardnerella vaginalis in 20 cases (31%), peptostreptococci and anaerobic cocci in 9 cases (13.6%), staphylococcus aureus in 8 cases (9.1%), bacteroides and fusobacterium in 7 cases (10.6%), streptococcus group B in 4 cases (6%), yeast cells in 11 cases (16.6%) and Trichomonas vaginalis in wet mount of 4 (6%) existed. Anaerobic bacteria showed 85% sensitivity to clindamycin, 82% to chloramphenicol, 85% sensitivity to ceftizoxime and 45% to penicillin. Facultative anaerobic bacteria showed a sensitivity rate of 90% to ceftizoxime, chloramphenicol and cephalothin. According to our findings, the rate of vaginal bacterial infection in women with vaginal reconstructive surgery has increased; from which, infections with anaerobic bacteria origins have increased dramatically. We recommend antibiotic prophylaxis prior to genital reconstructive surgeries. PMID:26031026

  5. Plasmid Copy Number and Disease Severity in Naturally Occurring Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Chrissy h.; Cassama, Eunice; Nabicassa, Meno; Molina-Gonzalez, Sandra; Burr, Sarah E.; Mabey, David C. W.; Bailey, Robin L.; Holland, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    The Chlamydia trachomatis plasmid is a virulence factor. Plasmid copy number, C. trachomatis load and disease severity were assessed in a treatment-naive population where trachoma is hyperendemic. By using droplet digital PCR, plasmid copy number was found to be stable (median, 5.34 [range, 1 to 18]) and there were no associations with C. trachomatis load or disease severity. PMID:24197878

  6. Sexually Transmitted Infections and Male Circumcision: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Van Howe, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    The claim that circumcision reduces the risk of sexually transmitted infections has been repeated so frequently that many believe it is true. A systematic review and meta-analyses were performed on studies of genital discharge syndrome versus genital ulcerative disease, genital discharge syndrome, nonspecific urethritis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, genital ulcerative disease, chancroid, syphilis, herpes simplex virus, human papillomavirus, and contracting a sexually transmitted infection of any type. Chlamydia, gonorrhea, genital herpes, and human papillomavirus are not significantly impacted by circumcision. Syphilis showed mixed results with studies of prevalence suggesting intact men were at great risk and studies of incidence suggesting the opposite. Intact men appear to be of greater risk for genital ulcerative disease while at lower risk for genital discharge syndrome, nonspecific urethritis, genital warts, and the overall risk of any sexually transmitted infection. In studies of general populations, there is no clear or consistent positive impact of circumcision on the risk of individual sexually transmitted infections. Consequently, the prevention of sexually transmitted infections cannot rationally be interpreted as a benefit of circumcision, and any policy of circumcision for the general population to prevent sexually transmitted infections is not supported by the evidence in the medical literature. PMID:23710368

  7. Correlates of HIV-1 Genital Shedding in Tanzanian Women

    PubMed Central

    Tanton, Clare; Weiss, Helen A.; Le Goff, Jerome; Changalucha, John; Rusizoka, Mary; Baisley, Kathy; Everett, Dean; Ross, David A.; Belec, Laurent; Hayes, Richard J.; Watson-Jones, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Background Understanding the correlates of HIV shedding is important to inform strategies to reduce HIV infectiousness. We examined correlates of genital HIV-1 RNA in women who were seropositive for both herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 and HIV-1 and who were enrolled in a randomised controlled trial of HSV suppressive therapy (aciclovir 400 mg b.i.d vs. placebo) in Tanzania. Methodology Samples, including a cervico-vaginal lavage, were collected and tested for genital HIV-1 and HSV and reproductive tract infections (RTIs) at randomisation and 6, 12 and 24 months follow-up. Data from all women at randomisation and women in the placebo arm during follow-up were analysed using generalised estimating equations to determine the correlates of cervico-vaginal HIV-1 RNA detection and load. Principal Findings Cervico-vaginal HIV-1 RNA was detected at 52.0% of 971 visits among 482 women, and was independently associated with plasma viral load, presence of genital ulcers, pregnancy, bloody cervical or vaginal discharge, abnormal vaginal discharge, cervical ectopy, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, an intermediate bacterial vaginosis score and HSV DNA detection. Similar factors were associated with genital HIV-1 RNA load. Conclusions RTIs were associated with increased presence and quantity of genital HIV-1 RNA in this population. These results highlight the importance of integrating effective RTI treatment into HIV care services. PMID:21390251

  8. Virus-specific antibodies in sera from patients with genital herpes simplex virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Zweerink, H J; Corey, L

    1982-01-01

    Virus-specific antibodies against a number of herpes simplex virus type 2 antigens were determined by radioimmunoprecipitation assays in sequential serum samples obtained from 12 patients with initial genital herpes simplex virus infection. The progressive appearance of antibodies to virus-specific antigens was observed; antibodies against a 130,000-molecular-weight glycoprotein complex appeared first, followed by antibodies against the major nucleocapsid polypeptide and then antibodies against a number of other viral antigens, including a polypeptide with a molecular weight of 62,000. Patients who developed a wide variety of antibodies to viral polypeptides shortly after resolution of their initial episode seemed to experience more severe initial infections and more recurrences than did those who reacted poorly with these virus-specific antigens. This was most apparent with respect to antibodies to virus-specific polypeptides with molecular weights between 30,000 and 43,000. Antibody specificity did not change during the course of follow-up regardless of whether serum samples were taken shortly before, during, or after recurrent episodes. Glycoprotein-specific antibodies were quantitated with the purified 130,000-molecular-weight glycoprotein material. No significant fluctuations in these antibody titers were observed before or after recurrences of the disease. Images PMID:7118244

  9. Kinetics of Local and Systemic Leucocyte and Cytokine Reaction of Calves to Intrabronchial Infection with Chlamydia psittaci

    PubMed Central

    Prohl, Annette; Wolf, Katharina; Weber, Corinna; Müller, Kerstin E.; Menge, Christian; Sachse, Konrad; Rödel, Jürgen; Reinhold, Petra; Berndt, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Infection of cattle with chlamydiae is ubiquitous and, even in the absence of clinical sequeleae, has a quantifiable negative impact on livestock productivity. Despite recent progress, our knowledge about immune response mechanisms capable of counteracting the infection and preventing its detrimental effects is still limited. A well-established model of bovine acute respiratory Chlamydia (C.) psittaci infection was used here to characterize the kinetics of the local and systemic immune reactions in calves. In the course of two weeks following inoculation, leukocyte surface marker expression was monitored by flow cytometry in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Immune-related protein and receptor transcription were determined by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR in blood, BALF and lung tissue. An early increase of IL2RA, IL10 and HSPA1A mRNA expressions was followed by a rise of lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes exhibiting activated phenotypes in blood. Monocytes showed elevated expression rates of CD11b, CD14 and MHC class II. The rates of CD62L expression on CD8hi T cells in blood and on CD4+ T cells in BALF were also augmented and peaked between 2 and 4 dpi. Notably, CD25 antigen expression was significantly elevated, not only on CD8dim/CD62L+ and CD8-/CD62L+ cells in blood, but also on granulocytes in blood and BALF between 2–3 dpi. From 4 dpi onwards, changes declined and the calves recovered from the infection until 10 dpi. The findings highlight the effectiveness of rapid local and systemic immune reaction and indicate activated T cells, monocytes and granulocytes being essential for rapid eradication of the C. psittaci infection. PMID:26252769

  10. Epidemiology of Chlamydia trachomatis endocervical infection in a previously unscreened population in Rome, Italy, 2000 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Marcone, V; Recine, N; Gallinelli, C; Nicosia, R; Lichtner, M; Degener, A M; Chiarini, F; Calzolari, E; Vullo, V

    2012-01-01

    As reliable data on Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Italy are lacking and as there is no Italian screening policy, epidemiological analyses are needed to optimise effective strategies for surveillance of the infection in the country. We collected data from 6,969 sexually active women aged 15 to 55 years who underwent testing for endocervical C. trachomatis infection at the Cervico-Vaginal Pathology Unit in the Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics of Sapienza University in Rome between 2000 and 2009. The mean prevalence of C. trachomatis endocervical infection during this period was 5.2%. Prevalence over time did not show a linear trend. Univariate analysis demonstrated a significant association of infection with multiple lifetime sexual partners, younger age (<40 years), never having been pregnant, smoking, use of oral contraceptives, and human papillomavirus and Trichomonas vaginalis infections. Multivariate stepwise logistic regression showed that T. vaginalis infection, age under 20 years and more than one lifetime sexual partner remained significantly associated with C. trachomatis infection in the final model. Prevalence of C. trachomatis in this study was high, even among women aged 25–39 years (5.1%): our data would suggest that a C. trachomatis screening policy in Italy is warranted, which could lead to a more extensive testing strategy. PMID:22748006

  11. Genital Antibody Responses in Mice after Intranasal Infection with an Attenuated Candidate Vector Strain of Bordetella pertussis

    PubMed Central

    Mielcarek, Nathalie; Nordström, Inger; Menozzi, Franco D.; Locht, Camille; Holmgren, Jan

    2000-01-01

    Intranasal administration of live attenuated Bordetella pertussis, from which the pertussis toxin gene has been deleted, has previously been shown to give rise to high levels of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against both the protective antigen filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) and heterologous antigens genetically fused to FHA. Here, we extend these results by demonstrating that anti-FHA IgA and IgG antibodies are also produced in the genital tract of mice, both in the vagina and in the uterus, after a single intranasal administration of B. pertussis. By comparing the immune responses induced after infection with wild-type virulent B. pertussis with that induced by infection with an attenuated pertussis toxin-deficient strain, we conclude that pertussis toxin produced by the virulent bacteria does not modify antibody production to FHA in the genital tract of B. pertussis-infected mice. The intranasal infection with either the attenuated or the virulent B. pertussis strain also led to the development of immunologic memory that could be efficiently boosted with purified FHA administered either intranasally or intravaginally to give rise to a significant increase in the levels of specific IgA and IgG produced locally in the genital tract, as well as of specific antibodies in the serum. These observations suggest that attenuated B. pertussis could be a promising vector for intranasal administration to induce antibody responses against antigens from sexually transmitted pathogens fused to FHA. PMID:10639408

  12. Vaccine-Induced Serum Immunoglobin Contributes to Protection from Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Genital Infection in the Presence of Immune T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Lynda A.; Zhu, Li; Thebeau, Lydia G.

    2001-01-01

    Herpes simplex type virus 2 (HSV-2) is a sexually transmitted pathogen that causes genital lesions and spreads to the nervous system to establish acute and latent infections. Systemic but not mucosal cellular and humoral immune responses are elicited by immunization of mice with a replication-defective mutant of HSV-2, yet the mice are protected against disease caused by subsequent challenge of the genital mucosa with virulent HSV-2. In this study, we investigated the role of immune serum antibody generated by immunization with a replication-defective HSV-2 vaccine prototype strain in protection of the genital mucosa and the nervous system from HSV-2 infection. Passive transfer of replication-defective virus-immune serum at physiologic concentrations to SCID or B-cell-deficient mice had no effect on replication of challenge virus in the genital mucosa but did significantly reduce the incidence and severity of genital and neurologic disease. In contrast, B-cell-deficient mice immunized with replication-defective HSV-2 were able to control replication of challenge virus in the genital mucosa, but not until 3 days postchallenge, and were not completely protected against genital and neurologic disease. Passive transfer of physiologic amounts of immune serum to immunized, B-cell-deficient mice completely restored their capacity to limit replication of challenge virus in the genital mucosa and prevented signs of genital and systemic disease. In addition, the numbers of viral genomes in the lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia of immunized, B-cell-deficient mice were dramatically reduced by transfer of immune serum prior to challenge. These results suggest that there is an apparent synergism between immune serum antibody and immune T cells in achieving protection and that serum antibody induced by vaccination with replication-defective virus aids in reducing establishment of latent infection after genital infection with HSV-2. PMID:11152492

  13. Chlamydia trachomatis infection rates among a cohort of mobile soldiers stationed at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, 2005–2010

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fort Bragg, a large Army installation with reported high Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) infection rates, is characterized by a highly mobile population and a surrounding Ct-endemic community. We assessed the rates of Ct incidence and recurrence among the installation’s active component Army personnel and determined the association of soldier transience, sociodemographic factors, and history of sexually transmitted infection (STI) with these rates. Methods A cohort of soldiers stationed at Fort Bragg during 2005 to mid-2010 was followed for incident and recurrent Ct infection using laboratory-confirmed reportable disease data. Linkage to demographic and administrative data permitted multivariate analysis to determine association of covariates with initial or recurrent infection. Results Among 67,425 soldiers, 2,198 (3.3%) contracted an incident Ct infection (crude incidence, 21.7 per 1,000 person-years). Among soldiers followed for incident infection, 223 (10.6%, crude incidence 110.8 per 1,000 person-years) contracted a recurrent Ct infection. Being female, of lower rank, under 26 years of age, of non-white race, single, or with a high school diploma or less was significantly associated with incident Ct infection. Having breaks in duty or having deployments during follow-up was associated with a lower infection rate. Among women, having prior deployments was associated with a lower rate of both incident and recurrent infection. Specifically associated with recurrent infection in women was age under 21 years or no education beyond high school. Conclusions This analysis reaffirms risk factors for Ct infection determined in other studies. In addition, infection risk was lower for more mobile soldiers and tied to the specific location of their regular duty assignment. The findings support the STI prevention efforts at Fort Bragg and the surrounding community, regardless of how often or for how long soldiers have deployed for military operations. PMID:24552420

  14. OASL1 deficiency promotes antiviral protection against genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection by enhancing type I interferon production

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Ji Eun; Lee, Myeong Sup; Kim, Young-Joon; Lee, Heung Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Type I interferon (IFN) interferes with virus replication, promotes antiviral responses, and controls innate and adaptive immune responses to certain viruses. Recently, we reported that 2’–5’ oligoadenylate synthetase-like 1 (OASL1) negatively regulates type I IFN production by inhibiting the translation of the type I IFN-regulating master transcription factor, IRF7. Notably, while OASL1-deficient mice induce robust production of type I IFN and are resistant to systemic viral infection, the effects of OASL1 during localized viral infection has not been studied. To this end, we investigated the role of OASL1 during mucosal HSV-2 infection of the genital tract. Oasl1−/− mice exhibited better survival rates than wild type (WT) mice following intravaginal HSV-2 infection, and suppressed virus replication more efficiently despite comparable recruitment of effector immune cells. Moreover, Ly6Chigh monocytes, and not pDCs or other cell types, displayed enhanced production of type I IFNs in Oasl1−/− mice in response to HSV-2 infection. Furthermore, cytotoxic T cell responses including IFN-γ production were accelerated in Oasl1−/− mice after mucosal HSV-2 infection. Collectively, these results demonstrate that OASL1 deficiency promotes antiviral immunity against local mucosal viral infection and suggest that OASL1 could be a therapeutic target for treatment of HSV-2 infection of the genital mucosa. PMID:26750802

  15. OASL1 deficiency promotes antiviral protection against genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection by enhancing type I interferon production.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ji Eun; Lee, Myeong Sup; Kim, Young-Joon; Lee, Heung Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Type I interferon (IFN) interferes with virus replication, promotes antiviral responses, and controls innate and adaptive immune responses to certain viruses. Recently, we reported that 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase-like 1 (OASL1) negatively regulates type I IFN production by inhibiting the translation of the type I IFN-regulating master transcription factor, IRF7. Notably, while OASL1-deficient mice induce robust production of type I IFN and are resistant to systemic viral infection, the effects of OASL1 during localized viral infection has not been studied. To this end, we investigated the role of OASL1 during mucosal HSV-2 infection of the genital tract. Oasl1(-/-) mice exhibited better survival rates than wild type (WT) mice following intravaginal HSV-2 infection, and suppressed virus replication more efficiently despite comparable recruitment of effector immune cells. Moreover, Ly6C(high) monocytes, and not pDCs or other cell types, displayed enhanced production of type I IFNs in Oasl1(-/-) mice in response to HSV-2 infection. Furthermore, cytotoxic T cell responses including IFN-γ production were accelerated in Oasl1(-/-) mice after mucosal HSV-2 infection. Collectively, these results demonstrate that OASL1 deficiency promotes antiviral immunity against local mucosal viral infection and suggest that OASL1 could be a therapeutic target for treatment of HSV-2 infection of the genital mucosa. PMID:26750802

  16. Comparison of Lower Genital Tract Microbiota in HIV-Infected and Uninfected Women from Rwanda and the US

    PubMed Central

    Benning, Lorie; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Anastos, Kathryn; French, Audrey L.; Cohen, Mardge; Gilbert, Douglas; Gillevet, Patrick; Munyazesa, Elisaphane; Landay, Alan L.; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Spear, Gregory T.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have shown that alterations of the bacterial microbiota in the lower female genital tract influence susceptibility to HIV infection and shedding. We assessed geographic differences in types of genital microbiota between HIV-infected and uninfected women from Rwanda and the United States. Methods Genera of lower genital tract bacterial microbiota were identified by high-throughput pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene from 46 US women (36 HIV-infected, 10 HIV-uninfected) and 40 Rwandan women (18 HIV-infected, 22 HIV-uninfected) with similar proportions of low (0–3) Nugent scores. Species of Lactobacillus were identified by assembling sequences along with reference sequences into phylogenetic trees. Prevalence of genera and Lactobacillus species were compared using Fisher's exact tests. Results Overall the seven most prevalent genera were Lactobacillus (74%), Prevotella (56%), Gardnerella (55%), Atopobium (42%), Sneathia (37%), Megasphaera (30%), and Parvimonas (26%), observed at similar prevalences comparing Rwandan to US women, except for Megasphaera (20% vs. 39%, p = 0.06). Additionally, Rwandan women had higher frequencies of Mycoplasma (23% vs. 7%, p = 0.06) and Eggerthella (13% vs. 0%, p = 0.02), and lower frequencies of Lachnobacterium (8% vs. 35%, p<0.01) and Allisonella (5% vs. 30%, p<0.01), compared with US women. The prevalence of Mycoplasma was highest (p<0.05) in HIV-infected Rwandan women (39%), compared to HIV-infected US women (6%), HIV-uninfected Rwandan (9%) and US (10%) women. The most prevalent lactobacillus species in both Rwandan and US women was L. iners (58% vs. 76%, p = 0.11), followed by L. crispatus (28% vs. 30%, p = 0.82), L. jensenii (20% vs. 24%, p = 0.80), L. gasseri (20% vs. 11%, p = 0.37) and L. vaginalis (20% vs. 7%, p = 0.10). Discussion We found similar prevalence of most major bacterial genera and Lactobacillus species in Rwandan and US women. Further work will be needed to establish whether observed differences differentially impact lower genital tract health or susceptibility to genital infections. PMID:24817204

  17. Chlamydia trachomatis prevalence and chlamydial/HPV co-infection among HPV-unvaccinated young Italian females with normal cytology

    PubMed Central

    Panatto, Donatella; Amicizia, Daniela; Bianchi, Silvia; Frati, Elena Rosanna; Zotti, Carla Maria; Lai, Piero Luigi; Domnich, Alexander; Colzani, Daniela; Gasparini, Roberto; Tanzi, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    Infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) and human papillomavirus (HPV) are the two main sexually transmitted infections; however, epidemiological data on Ct prevalence and Ct/HPV co-infection in Italy are scant. This study aimed at estimating the prevalence of Ct infection and Ct/HPV co-infection in young HPV-unvaccinated females with normal cytology, and placed particular attention on the possible association between Ct-DNA positivity and different HPV infecting genotypes. Five hundred 66 healthy females aged 16–26 years without cervical lesions, previously assessed for HPV infection (HPV-DNA prevalence: 18.2%), were tested for Ct-DNA. The overall prevalence of Ct was 5.8% (95% CI: 4.2–8.1), while Ct/HPV co-infection was recorded in 2.7% (95% CI: 1.6–4.3) of subjects. Compared with HPV-DNA-negative females, HPV-DNA positive subjects had significantly (P < 0.001) higher odds of being infected with Ct (odds ratio of 4.20, 95% CI: 2.01–8.71). Both Ct and Ct/HPV infections were much more prevalent in under 18-year-olds than in older women. Subjects positive for single high-risk HPV genotypes and various multiple HPV infections had higher odds of being Ct-DNA positive. Our findings confirm that HPV and Ct infections are very common among asymptomatic young Italian females. This underlines the urgent need for nationwide Ct screening programs and reinforcement of sexual health education, which would be the most important public health strategies, since no Ct vaccines are currently available. PMID:25483545

  18. [Current problems and recent advances in the molecular diagnosis of genital human papillomavirus infections].

    PubMed

    Sahiner, Fatih

    2014-10-01

    It was proven in the early 1980s that cervical cancer (CC) biopsy specimens and CC cell lines contain human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA sequences. In subsequent years, researchers discovered that the E6 and E7 genes of HPV are expressed in CC tissues and these oncoproteins interact with cellular proteins, including pRb and p53. Establishment of the relationship between HPV infections and CC led to increasing interest on this topic. Comprehensive epidemiological studies determined that specific types of HPV are major risk factors for CC. These HPV types, called high-risk or oncogenic types, are associated with other anogenital cancers and a subset of head and neck cancers. A number of commercial and in-house diagnostic techniques, each of which has a different approach and methodology, have been developed to diagnose HPV infections. HPV testing based on the detection of viral DNA has become an important part of CC screening programs. These screening-typing methods and combined approaches, which are used to diagnose and follow-up (management) HPV infections, have advantages and disadvantages. The choice of method is complicated by several factors and challenges that arise owing to the nature of the virus and the assay methodology. For example, a number of different HPV types can cause genital infections, multiple sequence variations are often observed even in the same HPV genotype, the detection sensitivity of the available methods is variable depending on the HPV genotypes and the viral DNA copy number in the samples examined. The capability for the detection of multiple infections and the ability to perform genotyping differ between the methods. The aim of this review is to summarize the methods used for the diagnosis and follow-up of HPV infections, and to share the current informations that may be helpfull for the choice of appropriate method. For this purpose, molecular-based HPV tests that were used in the past and their development processes were described briefly, then currently accepted and widely used methods for diagnosis, screening, and typing were discussed in detail, along with their advantages and disadvantages. PMID:25492665

  19. Infection, Disease, and Transmission Dynamics in Calves after Experimental and Natural Challenge with a Bovine Chlamydia psittaci Isolate

    PubMed Central

    Ostermann, Carola; Rttger, Anke; Schubert, Evelyn; Schrdl, Wieland; Sachse, Konrad; Reinhold, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia (C.) psittaci is the causative agent of psittacosis, a zoonotic disease in birds and man. In addition, C. psittaci has been repeatedly found in domestic animals and is, at least in calves, also able to induce respiratory disease. Knowledge about transmission routes in cattle herds is still deficient, and nothing is known about differences in host response after either experimental or natural exposure to C. psittaci. Therefore, our recently developed respiratory infection model was exploited to evaluate (i) the presence of the pathogen in blood, excretions and air, (ii) the possibility of transmission and (iii) clinical symptoms, acute phase and immune response until 5 weeks after exposure. In this prospective study, intrabronchial inoculation of 108 inclusion-forming units of C. psittaci (n?=?21 calves) led to reproducible acute respiratory illness (of approximately one week), accompanied by a systemic inflammatory reaction with an innate immune response dominated by neutrophils. Excretion and/or exhalation of the pathogen was sufficient to transmit the infection to nave sentinel calves (n?=?3) co-housed with the infected animals. Sentinel calves developed mild to subclinical infections only. Notably, excretion of the pathogen, predominantly via feces, occurred more frequently in animals naturally exposed to C. psittaci (i.e. sentinels) as compared to experimentally-inoculated calves. The humoral immune response was generally weak, and did not emerge regularly following experimental infection; however, it was largely absent after naturally acquired infection. PMID:23691148

  20. Recombinant outer membrane vesicles carrying Chlamydia muridarum HtrA induce antibodies that neutralize chlamydial infection in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Bartolini, Erika; Ianni, Elvira; Frigimelica, Elisabetta; Petracca, Roberto; Galli, Giuliano; Berlanda Scorza, Francesco; Norais, Nathalie; Laera, Donatello; Giusti, Fabiola; Pierleoni, Andrea; Donati, Manuela; Cevenini, Roberto; Finco, Oretta; Grandi, Guido; Grifantini, Renata

    2013-01-01

    Background Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are spheroid particles released by all Gram-negative bacteria as a result of the budding out of the outer membrane. Since they carry many of the bacterial surface-associated proteins and feature a potent built-in adjuvanticity, OMVs are being utilized as vaccines, some of which commercially available. Recently, methods for manipulating the protein content of OMVs have been proposed, thus making OMVs a promising platform for recombinant, multivalent vaccines development. Methods Chlamydia muridarum DO serine protease HtrA, an antigen which stimulates strong humoral and cellular responses in mice and humans, was expressed in Escherichia coli fused to the OmpA leader sequence to deliver it to the OMV compartment. Purified OMVs carrying HtrA (CM rHtrA-OMV) were analyzed for their capacity to induce antibodies capable of neutralizing Chlamydia infection of LLC-MK2 cells in vitro. Results CM rHtrA-OMV immunization in mice induced antibodies that neutralize Chlamydial invasion as judged by an in vitro infectivity assay. This was remarkably different from what observed with an enzymatically functional recombinant HtrA expressed in, and purified from the E. coli cytoplasm (CM rHtrA). The difference in functionality between anti-CM rHtrA and anti-CM rHtrA-OMV antibodies was associated to a different pattern of protein epitopes recognition. The epitope recognition profile of anti-CM HtrA-OMV antibodies was similar to that induced in mice during Chlamydial infection. Conclusions When expressed in OMVs HtrA appears to assume a conformation similar to the native one and this results in the elicitation of functional immune responses. These data further support the potentiality of OMVs as vaccine platform. PMID:24009891

  1. Evaluation of sexual history-based screening of anatomic sites for chlamydia trachomatis and neisseria gonorrhoeae infection in men having sex with men in routine practice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening programmes are implemented in many countries to decrease burden of STI and to improve sexual health. Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae has a prominent role in these protocols. Most of the screening programmes concerning men having sex with men (MSM) are based on opportunistic urethral testing. In The Netherlands, a history-based approach is used. The aim of this study is to evaluate the protocol of screening anatomic sites for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae infection based on sexual history in MSM in routine practice in The Netherlands. Methods All MSM visiting the clinic for STI in The Hague are routinely asked about their sexual practice during consulting. As per protocol, tests for urogenital, oropharyngeal and anorectal infection are obtained based on reported site(s) of sexual contact. All consultations are entered into a database as part of the national STI monitoring system. Data of an 18 months period were retrieved from this database and analysed. Results A total of 1455 consultations in MSM were registered during the study period. The prevalence of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae per anatomic site was: urethral infection 4.0% respectively and 2.8%, oropharynx 1.5% and 4.2%, and anorectum 8.2% and 6.0%. The majority of chlamydia cases (72%) involved a single anatomic site, which was especially manifest for anorectal infections (79%), while 42% of gonorrhoea cases were single site. Twenty-six percent of MSM with anorectal chlamydia and 17% with anorectal gonorrhoea reported symptoms of proctitis; none of the oropharyngeal infections were symptomatic. Most cases of anorectal infection (83%) and oropharyngeal infection (100%) would have remained undiagnosed with a symptom-based protocol. Conclusions The current strategy of sexual-history based screening of multiple anatomic sites for chlamydia and gonorrhoea in MSM is a useful and valid guideline which is to be preferred over a symptom-based screening protocol. PMID:21791061

  2. The IL-6 response to Chlamydia from primary reproductive epithelial cells is highly variable and may be involved in differential susceptibility to the immunopathological consequences of chlamydial infection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chlamydia trachomatis infection results in reproductive damage in some women. The process and factors involved in this immunopathology are not well understood. This study aimed to investigate the role of primary human cellular responses to chlamydial stress response proteases and chlamydial infection to further identify the immune processes involved in serious disease sequelae. Results Laboratory cell cultures and primary human reproductive epithelial cultures produced IL-6 in response to chlamydial stress response proteases (CtHtrA and CtTsp), UV inactivated Chlamydia, and live Chlamydia. The magnitude of the IL-6 response varied considerably (up to 1000 pg ml-1) across different primary human reproductive cultures. Thus different levels of IL-6 production by reproductive epithelia may be a determinant in disease outcome. Interestingly, co-culture models with either THP-1 cells or autologous primary human PBMC generally resulted in increased levels of IL-6, except in the case of live Chlamydia where the level of IL-6 was decreased compared to the epithelial cell culture only, suggesting this pathway may be able to be modulated by live Chlamydia. PBMC responses to the stress response proteases (CtTsp and CtHtrA) did not significantly vary for the different participant cohorts. Therefore, these proteases may possess conserved innate PAMPs. MAP kinases appeared to be involved in this IL-6 induction from human cells. Finally, we also demonstrated that IL-6 was induced by these proteins and Chlamydia from mouse primary reproductive cell cultures (BALB/C mice) and mouse laboratory cell models. Conclusions We have demonstrated that IL-6 may be a key factor for the chlamydial disease outcome in humans, given that primary human reproductive epithelial cell culture showed considerable variation in IL-6 response to Chlamydia or chlamydial proteins, and that the presence of live Chlamydia (but not UV killed) during co-culture resulted in a reduced IL-6 response suggesting this response may be moderated by the presence of the organism. PMID:24238294

  3. Longitudinal monitoring for respiratory pathogens in broiler chickens reveals co-infection of Chlamydia psittaci and Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale.

    PubMed

    De Boeck, Cindy; Kalmar, Isabelle; Dumont, Annelien; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2015-05-01

    Chlamydia psittaci is prevalent in broiler chicken production. However, the role of C. psittaci in the respiratory disease complex needs to be clarified. Our aim was to identify the time point when a C. psittaci infection appeared on a broiler farm and to examine the presence of other respiratory pathogens at that time. We focused on the 'major' respiratory pathogens occurring in Belgian broilers, namely infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale, Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae, and examined their co-occurrence with C. psittaci on three commercial broiler farms. For all farms, 1-day-old broilers showed high maternal antibody titres against C. psittaci in the presence of viable C. psittaci. Maternal antibodies seemed to protect against respiratory signs. Maternal antibodies declined and clinical outbreaks could be identified serologically even before maternal antibodies completely disappeared. Mixed infections with genotypes B/C and B/C/D were observed. Broilers with C. psittaci antibody increases showed conjunctivitis, signs of upper respiratory disease and dyspnoea. C. psittaci always preceded an O. rhinotracheale infection. Infections with aMPV, IBV or Mycoplasma spp. were not observed. Evidence was provided that C. psittaci could occur at an early age in broilers without a predisposing respiratory infection. Both C. psittaci and O. rhinotracheale should be considered when developing prevention strategies for respiratory disease in broilers. PMID:25724936

  4. Neisseria gonorrhoea, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Treponema pallidum infection in antenatal and gynecological patients at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Apea-Kubi, Kwasi Akyem; Yamaguchi, Shinya; Sakyi, Bright; Kishimoto, Toshio; Ofori-Adjei, David; Hagiwara, Toshikatsu

    2004-12-01

    Five hundred and seventeen women attending the gynecology and obstetrics clinics of the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital were examined for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Vaginal swabs were examined for Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida albicans, and Gardnerella vaginalis infection. Endocervical swabs were examined for Neisseria gonorrhoea and Chlamydia trachomatis using a recently developed RNA detection kit. Strain typing was performed to identify serovars of C. trachomatis. Sera were analyzed for Treponema pallidum with a passive-particle agglutination assay kit. The prevalence of infection with N. gonorrhoea was 0.6%, C. trachomatis 3.0%, and T. pallidum 5.6%. Eight samples were PCR-positive for C. trachomatis. Five of these were serovar G, and the rest were serovar E. All cases of mixed infections occurred in pregnant women. In conclusion, a high transmissible risk of T. pallidum infection was observed among our study population and in particular among our pregnant women. The absence of association between the presenting symptoms, clinical findings, and specific pathogens has implications for the syndromic approach to STI case management. The low prevalence of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoea may be due to self medication and requires further research in primary health institutions in rural areas to compare rates. PMID:15623949

  5. Diagnostic efficacy of a real time-PCR assay for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in infertile women in north India

    PubMed Central

    Dhawan, Benu; Rawre, Jyoti; Ghosh, Arnab; Malhotra, Neena; Ahmed, Mir Muneer; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Chaudhry, Rama

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Little is known about the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Indian women with infertility. To improve the diagnosis of C. trachomatis infection in developing countries, there is an urgent need to establish cost-effective molecular test with high sensitivity and specificity. This study was conducted to determine the diagnostic utility of a real time-PCR assay for detention of C. trachomatis infection in infertile women attending an infertility clinic in north India. The in house real time-PCR assay was also compared with a commercial real-time PCR based detection system. Method: Endocervical swabs, collected from 200 infertile women were tested for C. trachomatis by three different PCR assays viz. in-house real time-PCR targeting the cryptic plasmid using published primers, along with omp1 gene and cryptic plasmid based conventional PCR assays. Specimens were also subjected to direct fluorescence assay (DFA) and enzyme immunoassay (EIA) Performance of in-house real time-PCR was compared with that of COBAS Taqman C. trachomatis Test, version 2.0 on all in-house real time-PCR positive sample and 30 consecutive negative samples. Results: C. trachomatis infection was found in 13.5 per cent (27/200) infertile women by in-house real time-PCR, 11.5 per cent (23/200) by cryptic plasmid and/or omp1 gene based conventional PCR, 9 per cent (18/200) by DFA and 6.5 per cent (7/200) by EIA. The in-house real time-PCR exhibited a sensitivity and specificity of 100 per cent, considering COBAS Taqman CT Test as the gold standard. The negative and positive predictive values of the in-house real time-PCR were 100 per cent. The in-house real time-PCR could detect as low as 10 copies of C. trachomatis DNA per reaction. Interpretation & conclusions: In-house real time-PCR targeting the cryptic plasmid of C. trachomatis exhibited an excellent sensitivity and specificity similar to that of COBAS Taqman CT Test, v2.0 for detection of C. trachomatis infection in women attending an infertility clinic. In an effort to prevent Chlamydia infection associated infertility, we recommend screening of women with infertility due to C. trachomatis infection by in-house molecular method as a cost-effective solution in resource limited settings. PMID:25297359

  6. A cross-sectional study on the relationship of age, gestational age and HIV infection to bacterial vaginosis and genital mycoplasma infection

    PubMed Central

    Redelinghuys, Mathys J; Ehlers, Marthie M; Dreyer, Andries W; Lombaard, Hennie; Olorunju, Steve A S; Kock, Marleen M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Pregnant women are especially at risk of developing complications when infected with reproductive tract infections (RTIs). The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and genital mycoplasmas in pregnant women and investigate the associations between BV, genital mycoplasmas, HIV infection, age and gestational age. Design Cross-sectional study with descriptive and analytical components. Setting Antenatal clinic of a tertiary academic hospital in South Africa. Participants 220 pregnant women older than 18 were included in the study and provided self-collected vaginal swabs. Primary and secondary outcomes BV and genital mycoplasma colonisation and/or infection in women of differing age, gestational period and HIV status. Results The prevalence of BV was 17.7% (39/220) (95% CI 12.9 to 23.4), intermediate vaginal flora (IVF) 15% (33/220) (95% CI 10.56 to 20.42), and the overall prevalence of genital mycoplasmas was 84% (185/220) (95% CI 78.47 to 88.58). BV was significantly associated with HIV infection with an OR of 2.84 (95% CI 1.08 to 7.46 and p value=0.034). However, BV was inversely associated with gestational age with an OR of 0.08 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.42 and p value=0.003) for second trimester pregnancies and an OR of 0.03 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.17 and p value<0.001) for third trimester pregnancies using the first trimester as reference. IVF was significantly associated with HIV infection with an OR of 2.7 (95% CI 1.07 to 6.79 and p value=0.035) but not with age or gestational age. Genital mycoplasmas were not significantly associated with age, gestational age, HIV status, BV flora or IVF. Conclusions The high infection rate of genital mycoplasmas and the association of BV with HIV found in this study reiterate the importance of screening for these RTIs in high-risk groups such as pregnant women. PMID:26482771

  7. A case of acute myocarditis associated with Chlamydia trachomatis infection: role of cardiac MRI in the clinical management.

    PubMed

    Dellegrottaglie, S; Russo, G; Damiano, M; Pagliano, P; Ferrara, L; De Simone, C; Guarini, P

    2014-10-01

    We report the case of a 32-year-old male with Chlamydia trachomatis infection and admitted with chest pain, signs of myocardial damage and coronary arteries free from significant atherosclerotic disease. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) documented imaging patterns of myocardial involvement suggestive of acute myocarditis, and repeated cardiac MRI examinations were used to define appropriate clinical management of the patient. In particular, the decision to submit the patient to an additional antibiotic course was based on evidence of persisting myocardial edema, while no further treatments were prescribed once these imaging findings disappeared. The case emphasizes the potential value of cardiac MRI as the only non-invasive modality currently available for evaluating the temporal evolution of myocardial involvement after acute myocarditis. PMID:24878744

  8. Occurrence of Leishmania infantum and associated histological alterations in the genital tract and mammary glands of naturally infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Boechat, Viviane Cardoso; Mendes Junior, Artur Augusto Velho; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Ferreira, Luiz Claudio; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Rodrigues, Francisco das Chagas de Carvalho; Oliveira, Valéria da Costa; de Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes; Menezes, Rodrigo Caldas

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the occurrence of Leishmania infantum in the male and female genital tract and female mammary glands of dogs and the parasite burden and to identify histological alterations associated with this protozoan. Twenty male and 20 female Leishmania-seropositive dogs with isolation of L. infantum were examined. Tissue samples of the prepuce, glans, epididymis, testes, prostate, vulva, vagina, uterus, uterine tubes, and mammary glands were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and histopathology. For parasitological culture and in situ hybridization, samples were collected from the testis, epididymis, and uterus. Additionally, seminal fluid was aspirated from the epididymis for parasitological culture. In the genital tract, 34 (85 %) dogs, including 18 males and 16 females, were positive for Leishmania. Of these, 27 (79 %) animals were symptomatic. Leishmania was detected in the mammary glands of 13 (65 %) females. L. infantum was isolated for the first time from the seminal fluid and uterus of naturally infected dogs. The parasite burden and intensity of the inflammatory reaction were greater in the prepuce and glans of males and in the vulva and mammary glands of females. In addition to inflammation, testicular degeneration, atrophy, absence of spermatogenesis, and necrosis were observed. Detection of amastigote forms in the mammary gland lumen indicates possible elimination of this parasite in milk. The frequent parasitism observed in the genital tract of infected males and females and the viability of L. infantum in seminal fluid and uterus suggest the possibility of bidirectional venereal and vertical transmission. PMID:26979730

  9. Early events of canine herpesvirus 1 infections in canine respiratory and genital mucosae by the use of ex vivo models.

    PubMed

    Li, Yewei; Negussie, Haileleul; Qiu, Yu; Reddy, Vishwanatha R A P; Mateusen, Bart; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2016-04-01

    Canine herpesvirus 1 (CaHV-1) causes a systemic disease in newborn puppies, kennel cough at all ages and genital lesions in adult dogs. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the viral behavior during the early stage of infection in respiratory and genital mucosae, the portals of entry for CaHV-1 by the use of ex vivo explants. CaHV-1 infected and replicated in respiratory and vaginal mucosae in a plaque wise manner. CaHV-1 started to penetrate the basement membrane (BM) only after 48h post inoculation (hpi) in respiratory mucosal explants, but already after 24hpi in vaginal explants. The plaque latitude and penetration depth increased over time and both were larger in the vaginal explants compared to the respiratory mucosal explants. The canine respiratory and genital mucosal explants were suitable to study the early pathogenesis of CaHV-1. CaHV-1 showed a better capacity to replicate and invade vaginal mucosa compared to respiratory mucosa, based on the latitude and penetration depth of the plaques of viral antigen positive cells. PMID:27033934

  10. Transcriptional profiling of human epithelial cells infected with plasmid-bearing and plasmid-deficient Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Porcella, Stephen F; Carlson, John H; Sturdevant, Daniel E; Sturdevant, Gail L; Kanakabandi, Kishore; Virtaneva, Kimmo; Wilder, Hannah; Whitmire, William M; Song, Lihua; Caldwell, Harlan D

    2015-02-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular epitheliotropic bacterial pathogen of humans. Infection of the eye can result in trachoma, the leading cause of preventable blindness in the world. The pathophysiology of blinding trachoma is driven by multiple episodes of reinfection of conjunctival epithelial cells, producing an intense chronic inflammatory response resulting in submucosal tissue remodeling and scarring. Recent reports have shown that infection with trachoma organisms lacking the cryptic chlamydial plasmid is highly attenuated in macaque eyes, a relevant experimental model of human trachoma infection. To better understand the molecular basis of plasmid-mediated infection attenuation and the potential modulation of host immunity, we conducted transcriptional profiling of human epithelial cells infected with C. trachomatis plasmid-bearing (A2497) and plasmid-deficient (A2497P(-)) organisms. Infection of human epithelial cells with either strain increased the expression of host genes coding for proinflammatory (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF], macrophage colony-stimulating factor [MCSF], interleukin-6 [IL-6], IL-8, IL-1α, CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 [ICAM1]), chemoattraction (CCL20, CCL5, CXCL10), immune suppression (PD-L1, NFKB1B, TNFAIP3, CGB), apoptosis (CASP9, FAS, IL-24), and cell growth and fibrosis (EGR1 and IL-20) proteins. Statistically significant increases in the levels of expression of many of these genes were found in A2497-infected cells compared to the levels of expression in A2497P(-)-infected cells. Our findings suggest that the chlamydial plasmid plays a focal role in the host cell inflammatory response to infection and immune avoidance. These results provide new insights into the role of the chlamydial plasmid as a chlamydial virulence factor and its contributions to trachoma pathogenesis. PMID:25404022

  11. Risk of Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis from Migrants to Communities Undergoing Mass Drug Administration for Trachoma Control

    PubMed Central

    West, Sheila K; Munoz, Beatriz; Mkocha, Harran; Gaydos, Charlotte; Quinn, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine the risk of infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in children who are migrants to communities who are undergoing mass drug administration (MDA), and if their neighborhoods have higher rates of infection over time. Methods In 4 communities in Kongwa, Tanzania, all children were enrolled in a longitudinal study of infection and trachoma. New children were identified at census updates as having not been in the community at the previous census. Within communities, neighborhoods were defined as spatially close groups of households, or balozi. All children in the communities were invited to be examined for trachoma, and have ocular swabs taken for evidence of infection. Trachoma was graded using the World Health Organization simplified grading scheme, and swabs were processed using Amplicor. Results Children who were migrants were more likely to be infected and to have trachoma than children who were resident in the community, which was significant by the time of the survey following the third year of MDA (odds ratio, OR, 2.49, 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.036.05). The neighborhoods where newcomers resided were more likely to have infection a year later than neighborhoods with no migrants, which was most pronounced following the third year of MDA (OR 2.86, 95% CI 1.077.65) Conclusion Migrants to communities may be an important source of re-emergent infection, especially as MDA lowers infection among residents. Highly migrant populations may need a special surveillance and treatment program to avoid slowing progress in communities under MDA. PMID:26158574

  12. Late production of CXCL8 in ruminant oro-nasal turbinate cells in response to Chlamydia abortus infection.

    PubMed

    Doull, L; Wattegedera, S R; Longbottom, D; Mwangi, D; Nath, M; Glass, E J; Entrican, G

    2015-11-15

    Chlamydia abortus is an obligate intracellular bacterium that is an important cause of ovine abortion worldwide. There are reports of abortions in cattle, but these are very rare compared to the reported incidence in sheep. The bacterium is transmitted oro-nasally and can establish a sub-clinical infection until pregnancy, when it can invade the placenta and induce an inflammatory cascade leading to placentitis and abortion. Early host-pathogen interactions could explain differential pathogenesis and subsequent disease outcome in ruminant species. In this study, we assessed the ability of sheep and cattle oro-nasal turbinate cells to sense and respond to C. abortus infection. The cells expressed toll like receptor (TLR) 2, TLR4, nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD) 1 and NOD-like receptor pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) mRNA. In response to C. abortus infection, both ovine and bovine turbinate cells produce CXCL8 mRNA and protein late in the bacterial developmental cycle, but do not produce IL-1β or TNF-α. The UV-inactivated bacteria did not elicit a CXCL8 response, suggesting that intracellular multiplication of the bacteria is important for activating the signalling pathways. The production of innate immune cytokines from cattle and sheep turbinate cells in response to C. abortus infection was found to be largely similar. PMID:26342452

  13. Interferon-gamma gene polymorphism influences the frequency of a Chlamydia trachomatis cervical infection in young women.

    PubMed

    Eleutério, José; Teles, Rosiane A; Linhares, Iara M; Normand, Neil; Witkin, Steven S

    2015-11-01

    Cervicitis associated with Chlamydia trachomatis is frequent worldwide, but the factors determining susceptibility to infection remain incompletely determined. We evaluated whether a functional single nucleotide polymorphism at position +874 in the gene coding for interferon gamma (rs2430561) influenced the likelihood of having a cervical C. trachomatis infection. This was a cross-sectional study of 142 sexually-active women attending a general gynaecology service on the outskirts of the city of Fortaleza in northeastern Brazil between August 2011 and August 2012. Endocervical swabs were evaluated for C. trachomatis DNA using hybrid capture. DNA from buccal swabs was utilised for detection of the interferon gamma 874 T/A single nucleotide polymorphism by gene amplification, endonuclease digestion and gel electrophoresis. Nineteen women (13.4%) were positive for C. trachomatis in their cervix. Positivity was 21.7% in women with the A,A genotype versus 7.0% in women with one or two T alleles (p = 0.0227). The variant T allele frequency, associated with elevated interferon gamma production, was 36.2% in women who were negative for C. trachomatis as opposed to 18.4% in women who were positive for a cervical infection with this organism (p = 0.0415). Possession of the T allele at position +874 in the gene coding for interferon gamma is associated with a reduced likelihood of a C. trachomatis cervical infection. PMID:25505046

  14. Should a low prevalence of asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infection in gay men attending HIV clinics discourage from opportunistic screening?

    PubMed

    Ruf, M

    2005-09-01

    Genitourinary (GU) medicine notifications for homosexually acquired Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infections show a 414% increase from 1996 to 2002. However, little is known about the prevalence of CT in men who have sex with men (MSM) outside GU medicine settings. Behavioural studies show that MSM with diagnosed HIV infection continue to engage in high-risk sexual behaviour with the risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI) acquisition and HIV transmission. This study analysed the results of urine-based CT screening in MSM attending a London HIV clinic in order to inform local policy on the benefit and patients' acceptability of opportunistic screening. Among men screened, 1.9% (2/107) had asymptomatic CT infection. Screening was well accepted and practical to be implemented in the clinic routine. It is unclear whether isolated routine urine screening is cost effective in the context of HIV prevention. HIV clinics should incorporate a public health perspective and actively contribute to HIV prevention by addressing sexual health and scope opportunities for STI screening. PMID:16176630

  15. Infection and Cardiovascular Disease

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-17

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Heart Diseases; Myocardial Infarction; Infection; Chlamydia Infections; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Helicobacter Infections; Atherosclerosis

  16. Efficacy of RG1-VLP vaccination against infections with genital and cutaneous human papillomaviruses.

    PubMed

    Schellenbacher, Christina; Kwak, Kihyuck; Fink, Dieter; Shafti-Keramat, Saeed; Huber, Bettina; Jindra, Christoph; Faust, Helena; Dillner, Joakim; Roden, Richard B S; Kirnbauer, Reinhard

    2013-12-01

    Licensed human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines, based on virus-like particles (VLPs) self-assembled from major capsid protein L1, afford type-restricted protection against HPV types 16/18/6/11 (or 16/18 for the bivalent vaccine), which cause 70% of cervical cancers (CxCas) and 90% of genital warts. However, they do not protect against less prevalent high-risk (HR) types causing 30% of CxCa, or cutaneous HPV. In contrast, vaccination with the minor capsid protein L2 induces low-level immunity to type-common epitopes. Chimeric RG1-VLP presenting HPV16 L2 amino acids 17-36 (RG1 epitope) within the DE-surface loop of HPV16 L1 induced cross-neutralizing antisera. We hypothesized that RG1-VLP vaccination protects against a large spectrum of mucosal and cutaneous HPV infections in vivo. Immunization with RG1-VLP adjuvanted with human-applicable alum-MPL (aluminum hydroxide plus 3-O-desacyl-4'-monophosphoryl lipid A) induced robust L2 antibodies (ELISA titers 2,500-12,500), which (cross-)neutralized mucosal HR HPV16/18/45/37/33/52/58/35/39/51/59/68/73/26/69/34/70, low-risk HPV6/11/32/40, and cutaneous HPV2/27/3/76 (titers 25-1,000) using native virion- or pseudovirion (PsV)-based assays, and a vigorous cytotoxic T lymphocyte response by enzyme-linked immunospot. In vivo, mice were efficiently protected against experimental vaginal challenge with mucosal HR PsV types HPV16/18/45/31/33/52/58/35/39/51/59/68/56/73/26/53/66/34 and low-risk HPV6/43/44. Enduring protection was demonstrated 1 year after vaccination. RG1-VLP is a promising next-generation vaccine with broad efficacy against all relevant mucosal and also cutaneous HPV types. PMID:23752042

  17. Genital Warts (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids Up for Sports Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies ... genital warts is typically transmitted through sexual contact (anal, oral, or vaginal) with an infected person, and ...

  18. Genital sores - female

    MedlinePlus

    ... DC. Neoplastic diseases of the vulva. In: Lentz GM, Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, Katz VL, eds . Comprehensive ... Mosby Elsevier; 2012:chap 30. Eckert L, Lentz GM. Infections of the lower genital tract. In: Lentz ...

  19. An optimized, fast-to-perform mouse lung infection model with the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis for in vivo screening of antibiotics, vaccine candidates and modified host-pathogen interactions.

    PubMed

    Dutow, Pavel; Wask, Lea; Bothe, Miriam; Fehlhaber, Beate; Laudeley, Robert; Rheinheimer, Claudia; Yang, Zhangsheng; Zhong, Guangming; Glage, Silke; Klos, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis causes sexually transmitted diseases with infertility, pelvic inflammatory disease and neonatal pneumonia as complications. The duration of urogenital mouse models with the strict mouse pathogen C. muridarum addressing vaginal shedding, pathological changes of the upper genital tract or infertility is rather long. Moreover, vaginal C. trachomatis application usually does not lead to the complications feared in women. A fast-to-perform mouse model is urgently needed to analyze new antibiotics, vaccine candidates, immune responses (in gene knockout animals) or mutants of C. trachomatis. To complement the valuable urogenital model with a much faster and quantifiable screening method, we established an optimized lung infection model for the human intracellular bacterium C. trachomatis serovar D (and L2) in immunocompetent C57BL/6J mice. We demonstrated its usefulness by sensitive determination of antibiotic effects characterizing advantages and limitations achievable by early or delayed short tetracycline treatment and single-dose azithromycin application. Moreover, we achieved partial acquired protection in reinfection with serovar D indicating usability for vaccine studies, and showed a different course of disease in absence of complement factor C3. Sensitive monitoring parameters were survival rate, body weight, clinical score, bacterial load, histological score, the granulocyte marker myeloperoxidase, IFN-γ, TNF-α, MCP-1 and IL-6. PMID:26676260

  20. Infection of U937 monocytic cells with Chlamydia pneumoniae induces extensive changes in host cell gene expression.

    PubMed

    Virok, Dezso; Loboda, Andrey; Kari, Laszlo; Nebozhyn, Michael; Chang, Celia; Nichols, Calen; Endresz, Valeria; Gonczol, Eva; Berencsi, Klara; Showe, Michael K; Showe, Louise C

    2003-11-01

    The effect of infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae on host messenger RNA expression in human monocytic cells with complement DNA microarrays was studied. The data chronicle a cascade of transcriptional events affecting 128 genes, many of which have not previously been reported to be affected by C. pneumoniae infection. Down-regulated genes are primarily associated with RNA and DNA metabolism, chromosomal stability, and cell-cycle regulation. Up-regulated messages include those for a variety of genes with important proinflammatory functions. Many of the up-regulated genes-including the hyaluron receptor CD44, vasoconstrictor endothelin-1, smooth muscle growth factor heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor, and fatty acid binding protein-4-had been previously described as linked to the development of atherosclerosis and other chronic inflammatory diseases. C. pneumoniae-infected monocytes can contribute to the development and progression of diseases for which acute or chronic inflammation has been shown to be important, such as atherosclerosis. PMID:14593587

  1. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Chlamydia psittaci infection in domestic geese Anser domestica, in Hainan province of China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun-Ming; Rong, Guang; Zhou, Han-Lin; Hou, Guan-Yu

    2015-05-01

    Chlamydia psittaci, the agent of psittacosis in humans, infects a wide range of bird species. To assess the risk of psittacosis posed by domestic geese in China, the seroprevalence of C. psittaci infection in domestic geese in Hainan province, tropical China was examined using indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 25.6% (461/1800; 95% CI: 23.6-27.6). The C. psittaci seroprevalence ranged from 19% (95% CI: 14.6-23.4) to 34% (95% CI: 28.6-39.4) among different regions in Hainan province, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.01). The risk factors significantly associated with C. psittaci seroprevalence were the presence of hygiene conditions, age, gender, and environment of geese in the farms. The results of the present investigation indicated the high seroprevalence of C. psittaci infection in geese in Hainan province, tropical China. Close contact with these geese is associated with a risk of zoonotic transmission of C. psittaci. Public education should be implemented to reduce the risk of avian to human transmission of such a pathogenic agent. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report documenting the occurrence of C. psittaci seroprevalence in geese in China. PMID:25700712

  2. Role of Mycoplasma and ureaplasma species in female lower genital tract infections.

    PubMed

    Patel, Meghan Arvind; Nyirjesy, Paul

    2010-11-01

    Genital mycoplasmas are commonly found in the female genital tract. Despite ongoing debate, the evidence that they cause lower genital tract disease in women remains sparse. The data that Mycoplasma genitalium is primarily transmitted sexually are accumulating, but its role as a cause of symptomatic urethritis or cervicitis is open to debate. Although Mycoplasma hominis may be a co-factor in bacterial vaginosis, it has otherwise not been implicated as a cause of lower tract disease. Now that Ureaplasma urealyticum has been divided into U. urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum, their role in causing urethritis and cervicitis remains even more unclear. To date, no convincing evidence exists that antimicrobial therapy should be directed solely at these organisms when treating women with urethritis, bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, or cervicitis. PMID:21308549

  3. Tumor suppressor p53 alters host cell metabolism to limit Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    PubMed

    Siegl, Christine; Prusty, Bhupesh K; Karunakaran, Karthika; Wischhusen, Jörg; Rudel, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    Obligate intracellular bacteria depend entirely on nutrients from the host cell for their reproduction. Here, we show that obligate intracellular Chlamydia downregulate the central tumor suppressor p53 in human cells. This reduction of p53 levels is mediated by the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, activation of HDM2, and subsequent proteasomal degradation of p53. The stabilization of p53 in human cells severely impaired chlamydial development and caused the loss of infectious particle formation. DNA-damage-induced p53 interfered with chlamydial development through downregulation of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). Increased expression of the PPP key enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase rescued the inhibition of chlamydial growth induced by DNA damage or stabilized p53. Thus, downregulation of p53 is a key event in the chlamydial life cycle that reprograms the host cell to create a metabolic environment supportive of chlamydial growth. PMID:25437549

  4. Natural products for the treatment of trachoma and Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Potroz, Michael G; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2015-01-01

    The neglected tropical disease (NTD) trachoma is currently the leading cause of eye disease in the world, and the pathogenic bacteria causing this condition, Chlamydia trachomatis, is also the most common sexually transmitted pathogenic bacterium. Although the serovars of this bacterial species typically vary between ocular and genital infections there is a clear connection between genital C. trachomatis infections and the development of trachoma in infants, such that the solutions to these infections are closely related. It is the unique life cycle of the C. trachomatis bacteria which primarily leads to chronic infections and challenges in treatment using conventional antibiotics. This life cycle involves stages of infective elementary bodies (EBs) and reproductive reticulate bodies (RBs). Most antibiotics only target the reproductive RBs and this often leads to the need for prolonged therapy which facilitates the development of drug resistant pathogens. It is through combining several compounds to obtain multiple antimicrobial mechanisms that we are most likely to develop a reliable means to address all these issues. Traditional and ethnobotanical medicine provides valuable resources for the development of novel formulations and treatment regimes based on synergistic and multi-compound therapy. In this review we intend to summarize the existing literature on the application of natural compounds for controlling trachoma and inhibiting chlamydial bacteria and explore the potential for the development of new treatment modalities. PMID:25751782

  5. SINC, a type III secreted protein of Chlamydia psittaci, targets the inner nuclear membrane of infected cells and uninfected neighbors

    PubMed Central

    Mojica, Sergio A.; Hovis, Kelley M.; Frieman, Matthew B.; Tran, Bao; Hsia, Ru-ching; Ravel, Jacques; Jenkins-Houk, Clifton; Wilson, Katherine L.; Bavoil, Patrik M.

    2015-01-01

    SINC, a new type III secreted protein of the avian and human pathogen Chlamydia psittaci, uniquely targets the nuclear envelope of C. psittaci–infected cells and uninfected neighboring cells. Digitonin-permeabilization studies of SINC-GFP–transfected HeLa cells indicate that SINC targets the inner nuclear membrane. SINC localization at the nuclear envelope was blocked by importazole, confirming SINC import into the nucleus. Candidate partners were identified by proximity to biotin ligase-fused SINC in HEK293 cells and mass spectrometry (BioID). This strategy identified 22 candidates with high confidence, including the nucleoporin ELYS, lamin B1, and four proteins (emerin, MAN1, LAP1, and LBR) of the inner nuclear membrane, suggesting that SINC interacts with host proteins that control nuclear structure, signaling, chromatin organization, and gene silencing. GFP-SINC association with the native LEM-domain protein emerin, a conserved component of nuclear “lamina” structure, or with a complex containing emerin was confirmed by GFP pull down. Our findings identify SINC as a novel bacterial protein that targets the nuclear envelope with the capability of globally altering nuclear envelope functions in the infected host cell and neighboring uninfected cells. These properties may contribute to the aggressive virulence of C. psittaci. PMID:25788290

  6. Ultrastructural changes in avian Chlamydia psittaci serovar A-, B-, and D-infected Buffalo Green Monkey cells.

    PubMed Central

    Vanrompay, D; Charlier, G; Ducatelle, R; Haesebrouck, F

    1996-01-01

    In order to find an explanation for the observed differences in levels of pathogenicity in turkeys of Chlamydia psittaci 84/55 (avian serovar A), 89/1326 (avian serovar B), 92/1293 (avian serovar D), and the Texas Turkey strain (avian serovar D) (P.B. Wyrick, J. Choong, S.T. Knight, D. Goyeau, E.S. Stuart, and A.B. MacDonald, Immunol. Infect. Dis. 4:131-141, 1994), the reproductive cycles of organisms of the four strains were studied in Buffalo Green Monkey cells by transmission electron microscopy, immunoelectron microscopy, and flow cytometry. Organisms of strains most pathogenic in turkeys, namely, the serovar A strain and the 92/1293 serovar D strain, (i) replicated faster, since at 50 h postinoculation significantly larger inclusions with more numerous infectious organisms were observed than with the less pathogenic strains; (ii) were often found devoid of inclusion membranes scattered throughout the cytoplasms; and (iii) induced severe degenerative changes in Buffalo Green Monkey cells. By immunoelectron microscopy and flow cytometry, chlamydial antigens could not be detected in the plasma membranes of infected host cells. However, the presence of chlamydial antigens in inclusion membranes was demonstrated by immunoelectron microscopy. PMID:8606089

  7. Epidemiology of urogenital infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and outline of characteristic features of patients at risk.

    PubMed

    Sessa, R; Latino, M A; Magliano, E M; Nicosia, R; Pustorino, R; Santino, I; Gordini, C; Clerici, P; Colombo, R; Del Piano, M

    1994-09-01

    A study of Chlamydia trachomatis infection was conducted in two stages on 15,656 subjects at urogenital clinics of the Faculty of Medicine and Surgery at La Sapienza University in Rome, the S. Anna Hospital in Turin, and the Niguarda Hospital in Milan. The overall incidence of the disease was 6.4% in patients examined throughout the whole study period. The rate of positive cases was 5.8% for the 5270 patients examined up to 1990, and 6.7% for the 10,386 patients examined from 1990 to 1992, showing an increasing trend. There was a much higher positivity rate in men (9.8%) than in women (6.0%); the difference was statistically significant. Of all patients, 60%, were asymptomatic. In symptomatic patients, C. trachomatis was present in 18.5% of cases of non-gonococcal urethritis and in 12.8% of cases of salpingitis. The highest incidence of C. trachomatis infection was in women who had begun sexual activity at an early age, (under 25 years in age), had several sexual partners and used intra-uterine contraceptive devices or spermicides or both. PMID:8064835

  8. SINC, a type III secreted protein of Chlamydia psittaci, targets the inner nuclear membrane of infected cells and uninfected neighbors.

    PubMed

    Mojica, Sergio A; Hovis, Kelley M; Frieman, Matthew B; Tran, Bao; Hsia, Ru-ching; Ravel, Jacques; Jenkins-Houk, Clifton; Wilson, Katherine L; Bavoil, Patrik M

    2015-05-15

    SINC, a new type III secreted protein of the avian and human pathogen Chlamydia psittaci, uniquely targets the nuclear envelope of C. psittaci-infected cells and uninfected neighboring cells. Digitonin-permeabilization studies of SINC-GFP-transfected HeLa cells indicate that SINC targets the inner nuclear membrane. SINC localization at the nuclear envelope was blocked by importazole, confirming SINC import into the nucleus. Candidate partners were identified by proximity to biotin ligase-fused SINC in HEK293 cells and mass spectrometry (BioID). This strategy identified 22 candidates with high confidence, including the nucleoporin ELYS, lamin B1, and four proteins (emerin, MAN1, LAP1, and LBR) of the inner nuclear membrane, suggesting that SINC interacts with host proteins that control nuclear structure, signaling, chromatin organization, and gene silencing. GFP-SINC association with the native LEM-domain protein emerin, a conserved component of nuclear "lamina" structure, or with a complex containing emerin was confirmed by GFP pull down. Our findings identify SINC as a novel bacterial protein that targets the nuclear envelope with the capability of globally altering nuclear envelope functions in the infected host cell and neighboring uninfected cells. These properties may contribute to the aggressive virulence of C. psittaci. PMID:25788290

  9. Search for uro-genital tract infections in patients with symptoms of prostatitis. Studies on aerobic and strictly anaerobic bacteria, mycoplasmas, fungi, trichomonads and viruses.

    PubMed

    Mårdh, P A; Colleen, S

    1975-01-01

    Seventy-nine patients with symptoms of nonacute prostatitis and 20 healthy volunteers were examined for uro-genital tract infection with bacteria, mycoplasmas, fungi, trichomonads and viruses. No differences in the results of the bacterial cultures were found between the patients and the controls. In only a few cases were established urinary tract pathogens found, but in no instance were these findings reproducible in later specimens. The cultures of the expressed prostatic fluids and the samples of semen gave no information of the occurrence of bacteria over and above that obtainable from examination of the urethral specimens. Significant bacteriuria was not found in any of the patients. Though Neisseria gonorrhoeae could not be isolated from any of the subjects, immunofluorescent studies revealed such organisms in seminal fluid in 8% of the patients. Nine of the patients had 1 to 3 years been considered successfully treated for gonorrhoea. Five of these nine patients were still found to harbour gonococci, as judged from the immunofluorescent studies. Corynebacterium vaginale was recovered in an equally low frequency (5%) from the patients and the volunteers. There was no significant difference in the incidence of T-mycoplasmas between the patients (46%) and the controls (35%), while Mycoplasma hominis was only found in the patients (10%). Trichomonas vaginalis could not be detected in wet smears of expressed prostatic fluid in any of the subjects, but could be cultured from one such specimen. Metacycline treatment (performed according the double blind cross-over technique) was studied for effects on the bacterial flora. In about 10% of the patients, an earlier not observed relative dominance of gram-negative rods was found on the cultures made after the therapy. Candida albicans was only isolated from the patients. It was found more often after (24%) than before the (15%) treatment. Complement-fixing antibodies to N. gonorrhoeae, cytomegalovirus and Chlamydia were found in 10, 19, and 33% of the patients, respectively. The corresponding figures for the healthy males were 0, 20 and 5%. PMID:175434

  10. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) genital shedding in HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women receiving effective combination antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Péré, Héléne; Rascanu, Aida; LeGoff, Jérome; Matta, Mathieu; Bois, Frédéric; Lortholary, Olivier; Leroy, Valériane; Launay, Odile; Bélec, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of genital shedding of HSV-2 DNA was assessed in HIV-1-infected women taking combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA and HSV DNA loads were measured during 12-18 months using frozen plasma, PBMC and cervicovaginal lavage samples from 22 HIV-1-infected women, including 17 women naive for antiretroviral therapy initiating cART and 5 women with virological failure switching to a new regimen. Nineteen (86%) women were HSV-2-seropositive. Among HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women, HIV-1 RNA loads showed a rapid fall from baseline after one month of cART, in parallel in paired plasma and cervicovaginal secretions. In contrast, HIV-1 DNA loads did not show significant variations from baseline up to 18 months of treatment in both systemic and genital compartments. HSV DNA was detected at least once in 12 (63%) of 19 women during follow up: HSV-2 shedding in the genital compartment was observed in 11% of cervicovaginal samples at baseline and in 16% after initiating or switching cART. Cervicovaginal HIV-1 RNA loads were strongly associated with plasma HIV-1 RNA loads over time, but not with cervicovaginal HSV DNA loads. Reactivation of genital HSV-2 replication frequently occurred despite effective cART in HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women. Genital HSV-2 replication under cART does not influence cervicovaginal HIV-1 RNA or DNA shedding. PMID:25769886

  11. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... about one out of every six people aged 14 to 49 years have genital herpes. How is genital herpes spread? You can get herpes by having oral, vaginal, or anal sex with someone who has the disease. Fluids ...

  12. Genital Warts

    MedlinePlus

    ... direct skin-to-skin contact during vaginal or anal sex. HPV, the virus that causes genital warts, can be ... direct skin-to-skin contact during vaginal or anal sex. HPV, the virus that causes genital warts, can be ...

  13. Development and Evaluation of a Next-Generation Digital PCR Diagnostic Assay for Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis Infections

    PubMed Central

    Last, Anna; Molina-Gonzalez, Sandra; Cassama, Eunice; Butcher, Robert; Nabicassa, Meno; McCarthy, Elizabeth; Burr, Sarah E.; Mabey, David C.; Bailey, Robin L.; Holland, Martin J.

    2013-01-01

    Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) is an emulsion PCR process that performs absolute quantitation of nucleic acids. We developed a ddPCR assay for Chlamydia trachomatis infections and found it to be accurate and precise. Using PCR mixtures containing plasmids engineered to include the PCR target sequences, we were able to quantify with a dynamic range between 0.07 and 3,160 targets/μl (r2 = 0.9927) with >95% confidence. Using 1,509 clinical conjunctival swab samples from a population in which trachoma is endemic in Guinea Bissau, we evaluated the specificity and sensitivity of the quantitative ddPCR assay in diagnosing ocular C. trachomatis infections by comparing the performances of ddPCR and the Roche Amplicor CT/NG test. We defined ddPCR tests as positive when we had ≥95% confidence in a nonzero estimate of target load. The sensitivity of ddPCR against Amplicor was 73.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 67.9 to 78.7%), and specificity was 99.1% (95% CI, 98.6 to 99.6%). Negative and positive predictive values were 94.6% (95% CI, 93.4 to 95.8%) and 94.5% (95% CI, 91.3 to 97.7%), respectively. Based on Amplicor CT/NG testing, the estimated population prevalence of C. trachomatis ocular infection was ∼17.5%. Receiver-operator curve analysis was used to select critical cutoff values for use in clinical settings in which a balance between higher sensitivity and specificity is required. We concluded that ddPCR is an effective diagnostic technology suitable for both research and clinical use in diagnosing ocular C. trachomatis infections. PMID:23637300

  14. Mast cells play an important role in chlamydia pneumoniae lung infection by facilitating immune cell recruitment into the airway.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Norika; Shimada, Kenichi; Chen, Shuang; Jones, Heather D; Alsabeh, Randa; Slepenkin, Anatoly V; Peterson, Ellena; Crother, Timothy R; Arditi, Moshe

    2015-04-15

    Mast cells are known as central players in allergy and anaphylaxis, and they play a pivotal role in host defense against certain pathogens. Chlamydia pneumoniae is an important human pathogen, but it is unclear what role mast cells play during C. pneumoniae infection. We infected C57BL/6 (wild-type [WT]) and mast cell-deficient mice (Kit(W-sh/W-sh) [Wsh]) with C. pneumoniae. Wsh mice showed improved survival compared with WT mice, with fewer cells in Wsh bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), despite similar levels of cytokines and chemokines. We also found a more rapid clearance of bacteria from the lungs of Wsh mice compared with WT mice. Cromolyn, a mast cell stabilizer, reduced BALF cells and bacterial burden similar to the levels seen in Wsh mice; conversely, Compound 48/80, a mast cell degranulator, increased the number of BALF cells and bacterial burden. Histology showed that WT lungs had diffuse inflammation, whereas Wsh mice had patchy accumulations of neutrophils and perivascular accumulations of lymphocytes. Infected Wsh mice had reduced amounts of matrix metalloprotease-9 in BALF and were resistant to epithelial integral membrane protein degradation, suggesting that barrier integrity remains intact in Wsh mice. Mast cell reconstitution in Wsh mice led to enhanced bacterial growth and normal epithelial integral membrane protein degradation, highlighting the specific role of mast cells in this model. These data suggest that mast cells play a detrimental role during C. pneumoniae infection by facilitating immune cell infiltration into the airspace and providing a more favorable replicative environment for C. pneumoniae. PMID:25754739

  15. Profiling Antibody Responses to Infections by Chlamydia abortus Enables Identification of Potential Virulence Factors and Candidates for Serodiagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Forsbach-Birk, Vera; Foddis, Corinna; Simnacher, Ulrike; Wilkat, Max; Longbottom, David; Walder, Gernot; Benesch, Christiane; Ganter, Martin; Sachse, Konrad; Essig, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Enzootic abortion of ewes (EAE) due to infection with the obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia (C.) abortus is an important zoonosis leading to considerable economic loss to agriculture worldwide. The pathogen can be transmitted to humans and may lead to serious infection in pregnant women. Knowledge about epidemiology, clinical course and transmission to humans is hampered by the lack of reliable diagnostic tools. Immunoreactive proteins, which are expressed in infected animals and humans, may serve as novel candidates for diagnostic marker proteins and represent putative virulence factors. In order to broaden the spectrum of immunogenic C. abortus proteins we applied 2D immunoblot analysis and screening of an expression library using human and animal sera. We have identified 48 immunoreactive proteins representing potential diagnostic markers and also putative virulence factors, such as CAB080 (homologue of the “macrophage infectivity potentiator”, MIP), CAB167 (homologue of the “translocated actin recruitment protein”, TARP), CAB712 (homologue of the “chlamydial protease-like activity factor”, CPAF), CAB776 (homologue of the “Polymorphic membrane protein D”, PmpD), and the “hypothetical proteins” CAB063, CAB408 and CAB821, which are predicted to be type III secreted. We selected two putative virulence factors for further characterization, i.e. CAB080 (cMIP) and CAB063, and studied their expression profiles at transcript and protein levels. Analysis of the subcellular localization of both proteins throughout the developmental cycle revealed CAB063 being the first C. abortus protein shown to be translocated to the host cell nucleus. PMID:24260366

  16. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... who have sex with women get genital herpes? Yes. It is possible to get genital herpes, or any other STI, if you are a woman who ... sex and avoid sexual activity during an outbreak. Yes. It is possible to get genital herpes, or any other STI, if you are a woman who ...

  17. Herpes Simplex Virus-2 Genital Tract Shedding Is Not Predictable over Months or Years in Infected Persons

    PubMed Central

    Dhankani, Varsha; Kutz, J. Nathan; Schiffer, Joshua T.

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) is a chronic reactivating infection that leads to recurrent shedding episodes in the genital tract. A minority of episodes are prolonged, and associated with development of painful ulcers. However, currently, available tools poorly predict viral trajectories and timing of reactivations in infected individuals. We employed principal components analysis (PCA) and singular value decomposition (SVD) to interpret HSV-2 genital tract shedding time series data, as well as simulation output from a stochastic spatial mathematical model. Empirical and model-derived, time-series data gathered over >30 days consists of multiple complex episodes that could not be reduced to a manageable number of descriptive features with PCA and SVD. However, single HSV-2 shedding episodes, even those with prolonged duration and complex morphologies consisting of multiple erratic peaks, were consistently described using a maximum of four dominant features. Modeled and clinical episodes had equivalent distributions of dominant features, implying similar dynamics in real and simulated episodes. We applied linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to simulation output and identified that local immune cell density at the viral reactivation site had a predictive effect on episode duration, though longer term shedding suggested chaotic dynamics and could not be predicted based on spatial patterns of immune cell density. These findings suggest that HSV-2 shedding patterns within an individual are impossible to predict over weeks or months, and that even highly complex single HSV-2 episodes can only be partially predicted based on spatial distribution of immune cell density. PMID:25375183

  18. Deficient human β-defensin 1 underlies male infertility associated with poor sperm motility and genital tract infection.

    PubMed

    Diao, Ruiying; Fok, Kin Lam; Chen, Hao; Yu, Mei Kuen; Duan, Yonggang; Chung, Chin Man; Li, Zhao; Wu, Hanwei; Li, Zesong; Zhang, Hu; Ji, Ziliang; Zhen, Wanhua; Ng, Chi Fai; Gui, Yaoting; Cai, Zhiming; Chan, Hsiao Chang

    2014-08-13

    Genital tract infection and reduced sperm motility are considered two pivotal etiological factors for male infertility associated with leukocytospermia and asthenozoospermia, respectively. We demonstrate that the amount of human β-defensin 1 (DEFB1) in sperm from infertile men exhibiting either leukocytospermia or asthenozoospermia, both of which are associated with reduced motility and reduced bactericidal activity in sperm, is much lower compared to that in normal fertile sperm. Interference with DEFB1 function also decreases both motility and bactericidal activity in normal sperm, whereas treatment with recombinant DEFB1 markedly restores DEFB1 expression, bactericidal activity, sperm quality, and egg-penetrating ability in sperm from both asthenozoospermia and leukocytospermia patients. DEFB1 interacts with chemokine receptor type 6 (CCR6) in sperm and triggers Ca(2+) mobilization, which is important for sperm motility. Interference with CCR6 function also reduces motility and bactericidal activity of normal sperm. The present finding explains a common defect in male infertility associated with both asthenozoospermia and leukocytospermia, indicating a dual role of DEFB1 in defending male fertility. These results also suggest that the expression of DEFB1 and CCR6 may have diagnostic potential and that treatment of defective sperm with recombinant DEFB1 protein may be a feasible therapeutic approach for male infertility associated with poor sperm motility and genital tract infection. PMID:25122636

  19. Herpes simplex virus-2 genital tract shedding is not predictable over months or years in infected persons.

    PubMed

    Dhankani, Varsha; Kutz, J Nathan; Schiffer, Joshua T

    2014-11-01

    Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) is a chronic reactivating infection that leads to recurrent shedding episodes in the genital tract. A minority of episodes are prolonged, and associated with development of painful ulcers. However, currently, available tools poorly predict viral trajectories and timing of reactivations in infected individuals. We employed principal components analysis (PCA) and singular value decomposition (SVD) to interpret HSV-2 genital tract shedding time series data, as well as simulation output from a stochastic spatial mathematical model. Empirical and model-derived, time-series data gathered over >30 days consists of multiple complex episodes that could not be reduced to a manageable number of descriptive features with PCA and SVD. However, single HSV-2 shedding episodes, even those with prolonged duration and complex morphologies consisting of multiple erratic peaks, were consistently described using a maximum of four dominant features. Modeled and clinical episodes had equivalent distributions of dominant features, implying similar dynamics in real and simulated episodes. We applied linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to simulation output and identified that local immune cell density at the viral reactivation site had a predictive effect on episode duration, though longer term shedding suggested chaotic dynamics and could not be predicted based on spatial patterns of immune cell density. These findings suggest that HSV-2 shedding patterns within an individual are impossible to predict over weeks or months, and that even highly complex single HSV-2 episodes can only be partially predicted based on spatial distribution of immune cell density. PMID:25375183

  20. Noninfectious genital ulcers.

    PubMed

    Kirshen, Carly; Edwards, Libby

    2015-12-01

    Noninfectious genital ulcers are much more common than ulcers arising from infections. Still, it is important to take a thorough history of sexual activity and a sexual abuse screen. A physical exam should include skin, oral mucosa, nails, hair, vulva, and vaginal mucosa if needed. The differential diagnosis of noninfectious genital ulcers includes: lipschütz ulcers, complex aphthosis, Behçet's syndrome, vulvar metastatic Crohn's disease, hidradenitis suppurativa, pyoderma gangrenosum, pressure ulcers, and malignancies. It is important to come to the correct diagnosis to avoid undue testing, stress, and anxiety in patients experiencing genital ulcerations. PMID:26650697

  1. Chlamydia pecorum infections in sheep and cattle: A common and under-recognised infectious disease with significant impact on animal health.

    PubMed

    Walker, Evelyn; Lee, Effie J; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing recognition that infections of livestock by the obligate intracellular bacterium, Chlamydia pecorum, are more widespread than was previously thought. A range of diseases have been associated with this pathogen, with the most important manifestations including infectious arthritis, infertility, enteritis, reduced growth rates, mastitis, and pneumonia. C. pecorum infections have also been associated with sub-clinical disease, highlighting our lack of knowledge about its true economic impact on livestock producers. Diagnosis of C. pecorum infection is based on clinical findings, serology and histopathology, which are not necessarily implemented in subclinical or early stages of infection, thus potentially contributing to under-diagnosis and under-reporting of infections associated with this bacterium. Recent molecular epidemiology studies have revealed that C. pecorum is genetically diverse and that there may be an association between certain strains and disease in sheep and cattle. Antimicrobial treatment of affected animals has questionable efficacy, justifying development of chlamydia vaccines for livestock. This review summarises current knowledge of the prevalence and impact of C. pecorum infections in sheep and cattle and provides an update on attempts to improve detection, management and treatment of infections by this important obligate intracellular pathogen. PMID:26586214

  2. Genital herpes simplex.

    PubMed Central

    Tummon, I. S.; Dudley, D. K.; Walters, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the herpes simplex virus. Following the initial infection the virus becomes latent in the sacral ganglia. Approximately 80% of patients are then subject to milder but unpredictable recurrences and may shed the virus even when they are asymptomatic. The disorder causes concern because genital herpes in the mother can result in rare but catastrophic neonatal infection and because of a possible association between genital herpes and cancer of the cervix. No effective treatment is as yet available. Weekly monitoring for virus by cervical culture from 32 weeks' gestation is recommended for women with a history of genital herpes and for those whose sexual partner has such a history. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 PMID:7020907

  3. Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Pregnancy: The Global Challenge of Preventing Adverse Pregnancy and Infant Outcomes in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Kristina; Nielsen-Saines, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Screening and treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in pregnancy represents an overlooked opportunity to improve the health outcomes of women and infants worldwide. Although Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common treatable bacterial STI, few countries have routine pregnancy screening and treatment programs. We reviewed the current literature surrounding Chlamydia trachomatis in pregnancy, particularly focusing on countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. We discuss possible chlamydial adverse pregnancy and infant health outcomes (miscarriage, stillbirth, ectopic pregnancy, preterm birth, neonatal conjunctivitis, neonatal pneumonia, and other potential effects including HIV perinatal transmission) and review studies of chlamydial screening and treatment in pregnancy, while simultaneously highlighting research from resource-limited countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. PMID:27144177

  4. Outbreak of psittacosis in a group of women exposed to Chlamydia psittaci-infected chickens.

    PubMed

    Laroucau, K; Aaziz, R; Meurice, L; Servas, V; Chossat, I; Royer, H; de Barbeyrac, B; Vaillant, V; Moyen, J L; Meziani, F; Sachse, K; Rolland, P

    2015-01-01

    Eight cases of psittacosis due to Chlamydia psittaci were identified in May 2013 among 15 individuals involved in chicken gutting activities on a mixed poultry farm in France. All cases were women between 42 and 67 years-old. Cases were diagnosed by serology and PCR of respiratory samples. Appropriate treatment was immediately administered to the eight hospitalised individuals after exposure to birds had been discovered. In the chicken flocks, mainly C. gallinacea was detected, a new member of the family Chlamydiaceae, whereas the ducks were found to harbour predominantly C. psittaci, the classical agent of psittacosis. In addition, C. psittaci was found in the same flock as the chickens that the patients had slaughtered. Both human and C. psittaci-positive avian samples carried the same ompA genotype E/B of C. psittaci, which is widespread among French duck flocks. Repeated grassland rotations between duck and chicken flocks on the farm may explain the presence of C. psittaci in the chickens. Inspection by the veterinary service led to temporary closure of the farm. All birds had to be euthanised on site as no slaughterhouses accepted processing them. Farm buildings and grasslands were cleaned and/or disinfected before the introduction of new poultry birds. PMID:26111240

  5. Differential Susceptibilities to Azithromycin Treatment of Chlamydial Infection in the Gastrointestinal Tract and Cervix

    PubMed Central

    Melnyk, Stepan; Spencer, Nicole; Bowlin, Anne; Rank, Roger G.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence from animal studies suggests that chlamydiae may persist in the gastrointestinal tract (GI) and be a reservoir for reinfection of the genital tract. We hypothesize that there may be a differential susceptibility of organisms in the GI and genital tracts. To determine the effect of azithromycin on persistent chlamydial gut infection, C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice were infected orally and genitally and treated with azithromycin (Az) orally (20, 40, or 80 mg/kg of body weight), and the numbers of chlamydiae were determined from cervix and cecal tissues. The Az concentration in the cecum and cervix was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). Az treatment cleared genital infection in both C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice; however, GI infection was not cleared with the same doses. HPLC data showed the presence of Az at both sites of infection, and significant amounts of Az were measured in treatment groups. However, no significant difference in Az levels between the cecum and the cervix was observed, indicating similar levels of Az reaching both sites of infection. These data indicate that antibiotic levels that are sufficient to cure genital infection are ineffectual against GI infection. The results suggest a reevaluation of antibiotic therapy for chlamydial infection. PMID:24100498

  6. Screening to detect asymptomatic shedding of herpes simplex virus (HSV) in women with recurrent genital HSV infection.

    PubMed Central

    Barton, S E; Wright, L K; Link, C M; Munday, P E

    1986-01-01

    To investigate the asymptomatic shedding of herpes simplex virus (HSV) from women with recurrent genital herpes infection, and to assess whether inapparent shedding could occur, eight such women were examined thrice weekly for one month. At each visit colposcopy was performed and multiple sites sampled for HSV. During the study four women had no recurrence of HSV infection, but four had at least one positive viral culture. One of these patients was asymptomatically shedding HSV on nine of her 11 clinic visits. Two episodes of urethral shedding were detected. In this group of patients the presence of inguinal lymphadenopathy was appreciably associated with the isolation of HSV from the urogenital tract. Images PMID:3015773

  7. The role of endoplasmic reticulum-related BiP/GRP78 in interferon gamma-induced persistent Chlamydia pneumoniae infection.

    PubMed

    Shima, Kensuke; Klinger, Matthias; Schütze, Stefan; Kaufhold, Inga; Solbach, Werner; Reiling, Norbert; Rupp, Jan

    2015-07-01

    Direct interaction of Chlamydiae with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is essential in intracellular productive infection. However, little is known about the interplay between Chlamydiae and the ER under cellular stress conditions that are observed in interferon gamma (IFN-γ) induced chlamydial persistent infection. ER stress responses are centrally regulated by the unfolded protein response (UPR) under the control of the ER chaperone BiP/GRP78 to maintain cellular homeostasis. In this study, we could show that the ER directly contacted with productive and IFN-γ-induced persistent inclusions of Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn). BiP/GRP78 induction was observed in the early phase but not in the late phase of IFN-γ-induced persistent infection. Enhanced BiP/GRP78 expression in the early phase of IFN-γ-induced persistent Cpn infection was accompanied by phosphorylation of the eukaryotic initiation factor-2α (eIF2α) and down-regulation of the vesicle-associated membrane protein-associated protein B. Loss of BiP/GRP78 function resulted in enhanced phosphorylation of eIF2α and increased host cell apoptosis. In contrast, enhanced BiP/GRP78 expression in IFN-γ-induced persistent Cpn infection attenuated phosphorylation of eIF2α upon an exogenous ER stress inducer. In conclusion, ER-related BiP/GRP78 plays a key role to restore cells from stress conditions that are observed in the early phase of IFN-γ-induced persistent infection. PMID:25588955

  8. TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 genotypes and haplotypes in the susceptibility to and clinical course of Chlamydia trachomatis infections in Dutch women.

    PubMed

    Verweij, Stephan P; Karimi, Ouafae; Pleijster, Jolein; Lyons, Joseph M; de Vries, Henry J C; Land, Jolande A; Morr, Servaas A; Ouburg, Sander

    2016-02-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infections demonstrate remarkable differences in clinical course that are approximately 40% based on host genetic variation. Here, we study the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and their haplotypes in TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 (TLR2 +2477G>A; TLR2 -16934T>A; TLR4+896A>G; TLR9 -1237T>C and TLR9 +2848G>A) in relation to the susceptibility to, and severity of C. trachomatis infections. We analysed the five SNPs in a cohort of 770 Dutch Caucasian women either attending a sexually transmitted diseases outpatient clinic (n = 731) or having complaints of subfertility (n = 39). Haplotype analyses showed a trend for TLR2 haplotype I (-16934T/+2477G) to protect against the development of symptoms and tubal pathology (Ptrend = 0.03) after Chlamydia infection. In the susceptibility cohort, TLR9 haplotype III (-1237C/+2848A) showed a significant decreasing trend in the development of symptoms after C. trachomatis infection (P = 0.02, OR: 0.55, 95%CI: 0.33-0.91). Logistic regression of the TLR2 haplotypes, TLR4+896A>G, and TLR9 haplotypes showed that the TLR2 haplotype combinations AG-TA and AG-TG confer risk (OR 3.4 (P = 0.01) and 1.6 (P = 0.03)), while the TLR9 haplotype combination TG-TA protects against C. trachomatis infections (OR: 0.4, P = 0.004). Our study shows that both TLR2 and TLR9 genes and SNP combinations do influence the clinical course of Chlamydia infections. PMID:26568059

  9. Chlamydial Pre-Infection Protects from Subsequent Herpes Simplex Virus-2 Challenge in a Murine Vaginal Super-Infection Model

    PubMed Central

    Slade, Jessica; Hall, Jennifer V.; Kintner, Jennifer; Schoborg, Robert V.

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis and Herpes Simplex Virus-2 (HSV-2) genital tract co-infections have been reported in humans and studied in vitro but the clinical consequences are unknown. Limited epidemiologic evidence suggests that these co-infections could be more severe than single infections of either pathogen, but the host-pathogen interactions during co-infection remain uncharacterized. To determine whether disease progression and/or pathogen shedding differs between singly-infected and super-infected animals, we developed an in vivo super-infection model in which female BALB/c mice were vaginally infected with Chlamydia muridarum (Cm) followed later by HSV-2. Pre-infection with Chlamydia 3 or 9 days prior to HSV-2 super-infection conferred significant protection from HSV-2-induced neurologic disease and significantly reduced viral recovery compared to HSV-2 singly-infected controls. Neither protection from mortality nor reduced viral recovery were observed when mice were i) super-infected with HSV-2 on day 27 post Cm; ii) infected with UV-irradiated Cm and super-infected with HSV-2; or iii) azithromycin-treated prior to HSV-2 super-infection. Therefore, protection from HSV-2-induced disease requires active infection with viable chlamydiae and is not observed after chlamydial shedding ceases, either naturally or due to antibiotic treatment. Thus, Chlamydia-induced protection is transient and requires the continued presence of chlamydiae or their components. These data demonstrate that chlamydial pre-infection can alter progression of subsequent HSV-2 infection, with implications for HSV-2 transmission from co-infected humans. PMID:26726882

  10. Chlamydial Pre-Infection Protects from Subsequent Herpes Simplex Virus-2 Challenge in a Murine Vaginal Super-Infection Model.

    PubMed

    Slade, Jessica; Hall, Jennifer V; Kintner, Jennifer; Schoborg, Robert V

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis and Herpes Simplex Virus-2 (HSV-2) genital tract co-infections have been reported in humans and studied in vitro but the clinical consequences are unknown. Limited epidemiologic evidence suggests that these co-infections could be more severe than single infections of either pathogen, but the host-pathogen interactions during co-infection remain uncharacterized. To determine whether disease progression and/or pathogen shedding differs between singly-infected and super-infected animals, we developed an in vivo super-infection model in which female BALB/c mice were vaginally infected with Chlamydia muridarum (Cm) followed later by HSV-2. Pre-infection with Chlamydia 3 or 9 days prior to HSV-2 super-infection conferred significant protection from HSV-2-induced neurologic disease and significantly reduced viral recovery compared to HSV-2 singly-infected controls. Neither protection from mortality nor reduced viral recovery were observed when mice were i) super-infected with HSV-2 on day 27 post Cm; ii) infected with UV-irradiated Cm and super-infected with HSV-2; or iii) azithromycin-treated prior to HSV-2 super-infection. Therefore, protection from HSV-2-induced disease requires active infection with viable chlamydiae and is not observed after chlamydial shedding ceases, either naturally or due to antibiotic treatment. Thus, Chlamydia-induced protection is transient and requires the continued presence of chlamydiae or their components. These data demonstrate that chlamydial pre-infection can alter progression of subsequent HSV-2 infection, with implications for HSV-2 transmission from co-infected humans. PMID:26726882

  11. Community-Based Sexually Transmitted Infection Screening and Increased Detection of Pharyngeal and Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae Infections in Female Sex Workers in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Horas T.H.; Lee, Krystal C.K.; Chan, Denise P.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Female sex workers (FSWs) are vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and are one of the key populations being infected most by Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections. In Hong Kong, limited data on the burden of chlamydial and gonococcal infections exist because regular screenings are not offered. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae in FSWs and to assess predictors associated with unprotected fellatio. Methods A cross-sectional study was conduct on 340 FSWs attending a community organization for HIV/STI screening, and a questionnaire addressing sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics was administered to all FSWs. Results The prevalence of syphilis infection was 2.1%, and none was tested positive for HIV. The positivity for pharyngeal C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae was 3.2% and 4.4%, respectively, whereas that for urogenital chlamydial and gonococcal infection was 10.6% and 0.9%, respectively. Of 313 FSWs offering fellatio, having unprotected fellatio with clients was significantly associated with the perceived low risk of contracting STI via fellatio (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.88), working in clubs (adjusted OR, 11.14), working on streets (adjusted OR, 3.28), recently started working in the sex industry for 1 year or less (adjusted OR, 3.05), and reporting group sex in the previous year (adjusted OR, 11.03). Conclusions The prevalence of HIV and syphilis infection remains low. This study reveals a relatively high prevalence of N. gonorrhoeae detected mostly in the pharynx. Offering pharyngeal screening for STI would facilitate early diagnosis and treatment of gonococcal infection in FSWs in Hong Kong. PMID:25768859

  12. Local and humoral immune responses against primary and repeat Neisseria gonorrhoeae genital tract infections of 17β-estradiol-treated mice

    PubMed Central

    Song, Wenxia; Condron, Sara; Mocca, Brian T.; Veit, Sandra J.; Hill, Dawn; Abbas, Asima; Jerse, Ann E.

    2010-01-01

    The 17β-estradiol-treated mouse model is the only small animal model of gonococcal genital tract infection. Here we show gonococci localized within vaginal and cervical tissue, including the lamina propria, and high numbers of neutrophils and macrophages in genital tissue from infected mice. Infection did not induce a substantial or sustained increase in total or gonococcal-specific antibodies. Mice could be reinfected with the same strain and repeat infection did not boost the antibody response. However, intravaginal immunization of estradiol-treated mice induced gonococcal-specific primary and secondary serum antibody responses. We conclude that similar to human infection, experimental murine infection induces local inflammation but not an acquired immune response or immunological memory. PMID:18762223

  13. Role of Epithelial-Mesenchyme Transition in Chlamydia Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Igietseme, Joseph U.; Omosun, Yusuf; Stuchlik, Olga; Reed, Matthew S.; Partin, James; He, Qing; Joseph, Kahaliah; Ellerson, Debra; Bollweg, Brigid; George, Zenas; Eko, Francis O.; Bandea, Claudiu; Liu, Hsi; Yang, Genyan; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Pohl, Jan; Karem, Kevin; Black, Carolyn M.

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection in women causes serious adverse reproductive complications, and is a strong co-factor for human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated cervical epithelial carcinoma. We tested the hypothesis that Chlamydia induces epithelial-mesenchyme transition (EMT) involving T cell-derived TNF-alpha signaling, caspase activation, cleavage inactivation of dicer and dysregulation of micro-RNA (miRNA) in the reproductive epithelium; the pathologic process of EMT causes fibrosis and fertility-related epithelial dysfunction, and also provides the co-factor function for HPV-related cervical epithelial carcinoma. Using a combination of microarrays, immunohistochemistry and proteomics, we showed that chlamydia altered the expression of crucial miRNAs that control EMT, fibrosis and tumorigenesis; specifically, miR-15a, miR-29b, miR-382 and MiR-429 that maintain epithelial integrity were down-regulated, while miR-9, mi-R-19a, miR-22 and miR-205 that promote EMT, fibrosis and tumorigenesis were up-regulated. Chlamydia induced EMT in vitro and in vivo, marked by the suppression of normal epithelial cell markers especially E-cadherin but up-regulation of mesenchymal markers of pathological EMT, including T-cadherin, MMP9, and fibronectin. Also, Chlamydia upregulated pro-EMT regulators, including the zinc finger E-box binding homeobox protein, ZEB1, Snail1/2, and thrombospondin1 (Thbs1), but down-regulated anti-EMT and fertility promoting proteins (i.e., the major gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43), Mets1, Add1Scarb1 and MARCKSL1). T cell-derived TNF-alpha signaling was required for chlamydial-induced infertility and caspase inhibitors prevented both infertility and EMT. Thus, chlamydial-induced T cell-derived TNF-alpha activated caspases that inactivated dicer, causing alteration in the expression of reproductive epithelial miRNAs and induction of EMT. EMT causes epithelial malfunction, fibrosis, infertility, and the enhancement of tumorigenesis of HPV oncogene-transformed epithelial cells. These findings provide a novel understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of chlamydia-associated diseases, which may guide a rational prevention strategy. PMID:26681200

  14. Role of Epithelial-Mesenchyme Transition in Chlamydia Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Igietseme, Joseph U; Omosun, Yusuf; Stuchlik, Olga; Reed, Matthew S; Partin, James; He, Qing; Joseph, Kahaliah; Ellerson, Debra; Bollweg, Brigid; George, Zenas; Eko, Francis O; Bandea, Claudiu; Liu, Hsi; Yang, Genyan; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Pohl, Jan; Karem, Kevin; Black, Carolyn M

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection in women causes serious adverse reproductive complications, and is a strong co-factor for human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated cervical epithelial carcinoma. We tested the hypothesis that Chlamydia induces epithelial-mesenchyme transition (EMT) involving T cell-derived TNF-alpha signaling, caspase activation, cleavage inactivation of dicer and dysregulation of micro-RNA (miRNA) in the reproductive epithelium; the pathologic process of EMT causes fibrosis and fertility-related epithelial dysfunction, and also provides the co-factor function for HPV-related cervical epithelial carcinoma. Using a combination of microarrays, immunohistochemistry and proteomics, we showed that chlamydia altered the expression of crucial miRNAs that control EMT, fibrosis and tumorigenesis; specifically, miR-15a, miR-29b, miR-382 and MiR-429 that maintain epithelial integrity were down-regulated, while miR-9, mi-R-19a, miR-22 and miR-205 that promote EMT, fibrosis and tumorigenesis were up-regulated. Chlamydia induced EMT in vitro and in vivo, marked by the suppression of normal epithelial cell markers especially E-cadherin but up-regulation of mesenchymal markers of pathological EMT, including T-cadherin, MMP9, and fibronectin. Also, Chlamydia upregulated pro-EMT regulators, including the zinc finger E-box binding homeobox protein, ZEB1, Snail1/2, and thrombospondin1 (Thbs1), but down-regulated anti-EMT and fertility promoting proteins (i.e., the major gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43), Mets1, Add1Scarb1 and MARCKSL1). T cell-derived TNF-alpha signaling was required for chlamydial-induced infertility and caspase inhibitors prevented both infertility and EMT. Thus, chlamydial-induced T cell-derived TNF-alpha activated caspases that inactivated dicer, causing alteration in the expression of reproductive epithelial miRNAs and induction of EMT. EMT causes epithelial malfunction, fibrosis, infertility, and the enhancement of tumorigenesis of HPV oncogene-transformed epithelial cells. These findings provide a novel understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of chlamydia-associated diseases, which may guide a rational prevention strategy. PMID:26681200

  15. Consistent Condom Use Reduces the Genital Human Papillomavirus Burden Among High-Risk Men: The HPV Infection in Men Study

    PubMed Central

    Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William; Papenfuss, Mary R.; Salmerón, Jorge J.; Quiterio, Manuel M.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Villa, Luisa L.; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Data supporting the efficacy of condoms against human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in males are limited. Therefore, we examined the effect of consistent condom use on genital HPV acquisition and duration of infection. Methods. A prospective analysis was conducted within the HPV Infection in Men Study, a multinational HPV cohort study. Men who were recently sexually active (n = 3323) were stratified on the basis of sexual risk behaviors and partnerships. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, type-specific incidence of HPV infection and clearance were modeled for each risk group to assess independent associations with condom use. Results. The risk of HPV acquisition was 2-fold lower among men with no steady sex partner who always used condoms, compared with those who never used condoms (hazard ratio, 0.54), after adjustment for country, age, race, education duration, smoking, alcohol, and number of recent sex partners. The probability of clearing an oncogenic HPV infection was 30% higher among nonmonogamous men who always used condoms with nonsteady sex partners, compared with men who never used condoms (hazard ratio, 1.29), after adjustment for country, age, race, education duration, marital status, smoking, alcohol, and number of recent sex partners. No protective effects of condom use were observed among monogamous men. Conclusions. Condoms should be promoted in combination with HPV vaccination to prevent HPV infection in men. PMID:23644283

  16. Compendium of measures to control Chlamydia psittaci infection among humans (psittacosis) and pet birds (avian chlamydiosis), 2000. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    PubMed

    2000-07-14

    Psittacosis--also known as parrot fever and ornithosis--is spread by a bacterial infection of birds that can cause severe pneumonia and other serious health problems among humans. From 1988 through 1998, 813 cases of psittacosis (infection with Chlamydia psittaci) were reported to CDC, and most resulted from exposure to infected pet birds, usually cockatiels, parakeets, parrots, and macaws. In birds, C. psittaci infection is referred to as avian chlamydiosis (AC). Infected birds shed the bacteria through feces and nasal discharges, and humans become infected from exposure to these materials. This compendium provides information about psittacosis and AC to public health officials, physicians, veterinarians, the pet bird industry, and others concerned about controlling these diseases and protecting public health. The recommendations in this compendium provide standardized procedures for controlling AC in birds, a vital step to protecting human health. PMID:10914931

  17. Patient-Delivered Partner Treatment for Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, and Trichomonas Infection Among Pregnant and Postpartum Women in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Unger, Jennifer A.; Matemo, Daniel; Pintye, Jillian; Drake, Alison; Kinuthia, John; McClelland, R. Scott; John-Stewart, Grace

    2016-01-01

    Background Patient-delivered partner treatment (PDPT) for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) increases rates of partner treatment and decreases reinfection, but has not been evaluated during pregnancy. Methods This prospective cohort was nested within a larger study of peripartum HIV acquisition. Participants with microbiologic diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and/or Trichomonas vaginalis were screened for participation. Questionnaires were administered to determine PDPT acceptability and barriers. Women were reassessed at least 30 days to determine partner treatment and reinfection. Women whose partners did or did not receive PDPT were compared. Results One hundred twelve (22.2%) women in the parent cohort had a treatable STI; 78 within the PDPT study period, of whom 66 were eligible and 59 (89.3%) accepted PDPT. Fifty-one women had PDPT outcome data, 37 (73%) of whom reported partners treated with PDPT. Fourteen women (27%) refused or did not deliver partner treatment. Median age was 22 years (interquartile range, 20–26 years) and 88% were married. Compared with women who delivered PDPT, those who did not were more likely to have a partner living far away (23% vs. 0%, P = 0.004) and to report current intimate partner violence (14% vs. 0%, P = 0.02). Reported PDPT barriers included fear of partner’s anger/abuse (5%) and accusations of being STI source (5%). Conclusion Patient-delivered partner treatment was acceptable and feasible for pregnant/postpartum Kenyan women and may reduce recurrent STIs in pregnancy. PMID:26462189

  18. Culture-independent genome sequencing of clinical samples reveals an unexpected heterogeneity of infections by Chlamydia pecorum.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Nathan L; Sullivan, Mitchell J; Jelocnik, Martina; Myers, Garry S A; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2015-05-01

    Chlamydia pecorum is an important global pathogen of livestock, and it is also a significant threat to the long-term survival of Australia's koala populations. This study employed a culture-independent DNA capture approach to sequence C. pecorum genomes directly from clinical swab samples collected from koalas with chlamydial disease as well as from sheep with arthritis and conjunctivitis. Investigations into single-nucleotide polymorphisms within each of the swab samples revealed that a portion of the reads in each sample belonged to separate C. pecorum strains, suggesting that all of the clinical samples analyzed contained mixed populations of genetically distinct C. pecorum isolates. This observation was independent of the anatomical site sampled and the host species. Using the genomes of strains identified in each of these samples, whole-genome phylogenetic analysis revealed that a clade containing a bovine and a koala isolate is distinct from other clades comprised of livestock or koala C. pecorum strains. Providing additional evidence to support exposure of koalas to Australian livestock strains, two minor strains assembled from the koala swab samples clustered with livestock strains rather than koala strains. Culture-independent probe-based genome capture and sequencing of clinical samples provides the strongest evidence yet to suggest that naturally occurring chlamydial infections are comprised of multiple genetically distinct strains. PMID:25740768

  19. Human Chlamydia pneumoniae isolates demonstrate ability to recover infectivity following penicillin treatment whereas animal isolates do not.

    PubMed

    Chacko, Anu; Beagley, Kenneth W; Timms, Peter; Huston, Wilhelmina M

    2015-03-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae strains have recently been demonstrated to have substantially different capacities to enter and recover from IFN-γ-induced persistence, depending on whether they are from human or animal host sources. Here, we examined the ability of two human and two animal strains to enter and be rescued from penicillin-induced persistence. The ability to form inclusions after the addition of penicillin was much reduced in the two animal isolates (koala LPCoLN, bandicoot B21) compared to the two human isolates (respiratory AR39 and heart A03). The penicillin treatment resulted in a dose-dependent loss of infectious progeny for all isolates, with the human strains failing to produce infectious progeny at lower doses of penicillin than the animal strains. The most remarkable finding however was the contrasting ability of the isolates to recover infectious progeny production after rescue by removal of the penicillin (at 72 h) and continued culture. The animal isolates both showed virtually no recovery from the penicillin treatment conditions. In contrast, the human isolates showed a significant ability to recovery infectivity, with the heart isolate (A03) showing the most marked recovery. Combined, these data further support the hypothesis that the ability to establish and recover from persistence appears to be enhanced in human C. pneumoniae strains compared to animal strains. PMID:25663156

  20. Outbreak of Pneumonia in the Setting of Fatal Pneumococcal Meningitis among US Army Trainees: Potential Role of Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Compared to the civilian population, military trainees are often at increased risk for respiratory infections. We investigated an outbreak of radiologically-confirmed pneumonia that was recognized after 2 fatal cases of serotype 7F pneumococcal meningitis were reported in a 303-person military trainee company (Alpha Company). Methods We reviewed surveillance data on pneumonia and febrile respiratory illness at the training facility; conducted chart reviews for cases of radiologically-confirmed pneumonia; and administered surveys and collected nasopharyngeal swabs from trainees in the outbreak battalion (Alpha and Hotel Companies), associated training staff, and trainees newly joining the battalion. Results Among Alpha and Hotel Company trainees, the average weekly attack rates of radiologically-confirmed pneumonia were 1.4% and 1.2% (most other companies at FLW: 0-0.4%). The pneumococcal carriage rate among all Alpha Company trainees was 15% with a predominance of serotypes 7F and 3. Chlamydia pneumoniae was identified from 31% of specimens collected from Alpha Company trainees with respiratory symptoms. Conclusion Although the etiology of the outbreak remains unclear, the identification of both S. pneumoniae and C. pneumoniae among trainees suggests that both pathogens may have contributed either independently or as cofactors to the observed increased incidence of pneumonia in the outbreak battalion and should be considered as possible etiologies in outbreaks of pneumonia in the military population. PMID:21635754

  1. Molecular epidemiology of selected sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Hamid; Delaney, Andrew; Bentley, Neil; Sonnex, Christopher; Carne, Christopher A

    2013-01-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) are established pathogens for human genital tract. However, the role of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) and Ureaplasma parvum (UP) in genital pathology is poorly unerstood. A prospective study to investigate the prevalence of above infections was performed on a cohort of 1,718 consecutive patients attending a Genitourinary Medicine (GUM) clinic. A previously published in-house real-time PCR assay, for the detection of CT DNA in genital swabs, was modified for this study. Two amplification reactions detected the DNAs of TV, NG, MG, CT, UU and UP in genital swabs from 4 (0.2%), 11 (0.6%), 17 (1%), 129 (8%), 282 (16%) and 636 (37%) patients, respectively. 594 (70%) of 848 women and 333 (38%) of 870 men were infected with at least one type of microorganism. Among 594 infected females, 485 (82%) had a single infection, 97 (16%) had a double infection, and 12 (2%) had a triple infection. Of the 333 infected men, 304 (91%) had a single infection, 27 (8%) had a double infection, and 2 (1%) had a triple infection. The prevalence of infection in both genders decreased with increasing age. The prevalence proportion of UP was significantly higher in women (54%) compared with men (18%). The high prevalence of UU and UP suggests that these bacteria are commensals of genital tract. PMID:24046809

  2. Quantitative In Vivo Detection of Chlamydia muridarum Associated Inflammation in a Mouse Model Using Optical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Manishkumar; Boddicker, Melissa A.; DeMaula, Christopher; Connolly, Brett; Bednar, Bohumil; Heinrichs, Jon H.; Smith, Jeffrey G.

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a bacterial sexually transmitted disease with over 1.3 million cases reported to the CDC in 2010. While Chlamydia infection is easily treated with antibiotics, up to 70% of infections are asymptomatic and go untreated. The current mouse model relies on invasive upper genital tract gross pathology readouts at ~60–80 days postinfection. High throughput optical imaging through the use of biomarkers has been successfully used to quickly evaluate several disease processes. Here we evaluate Neutrophil Elastase 680 (Elastase680) for its ability to measure Chlamydia muridarum associated inflammation in live mice using fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) and In Vivo Imaging System (IVIS). Optical imaging was able to distinguish with statistical significance between vaccinated and nonvaccinated mice as well as mock-challenged and challenged mice 2 weeks after challenge which was 9 weeks sooner than typical gross pathological assessment. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of neutrophils and correlated well with both in vivo and ex vivo imaging. In this report we demonstrate that Elastase680 can be used as a molecular imaging biomarker for inflammation associated with chlamydial infection in a mouse model and that these biomarkers can significantly decrease the time for pathology evaluation and thus increase the rate of therapeutics discovery. PMID:26663988

  3. Neisseria gonorrhoeae catalase is not required for experimental genital tract infection despite the induction of a localized neutrophil response.

    PubMed

    Soler-García, Angel A; Jerse, Ann E

    2007-05-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae produces several antioxidant defenses, including high levels of catalase, which may facilitate the persistence during an inflammatory response via neutralization of H2O2 produced by phagocytes. In vivo testing of the role of catalase in gonococcal survival is critical since several physiological factors impact interactions between N. gonorrhoeae and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). Here we assessed the importance of gonococcal catalase in a surrogate model of female genital tract infection. Female BALB/c mice were treated with 17-beta estradiol to promote susceptibility to N. gonorrhoeae and inoculated intravaginally with wild-type gonococci or a catalase (kat) deletion mutant. A localized PMN influx occurred in an average of 43 and 81% of mice infected with wild-type or kat mutant gonococci, respectively, and PMNs associated with numerous wild-type or catalase-deficient bacteria were observed in vaginal smears. The combined results of six experiments showed a significant difference in the number of days wild-type bacteria were recovered compared to the catalase-deficient gonococci. However, there was much variability between experiments, and we found no correlation between PMN influx, colonization load, and clearance of wild-type or kat mutant bacteria. Estradiol treatment did not impair bacterial uptake, the luminol-dependent chemiluminescence response, or the killing capacity of isolated murine PMNs against N. gonorrhoeae or Staphylococcus aureus. Our data suggest N. gonorrhoeae is not significantly challenged by H2O2 produced by PMNs in the murine lower genital tract; alternatively, redundant defense mechanisms may protect the gonococcus from reactive oxygen species during infection. PMID:17296753

  4. Chlamydia-secreted protease CPAF degrades host antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lingli; Chen, Jianlin; Zhou, Zhiguang; Yu, Ping; Yang, Zhangsheng; Zhong, Guangming

    2015-06-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection in the lower genital tract, if untreated, can ascend to the upper genital tract, potentially leading to complications such as tubal factor infertility. The ascension involves cell-to-cell spreading, which may require C. trachomatis organisms to overcome mucosal extracellular effectors such as antimicrobial peptides. We found that among the 8 antimicrobial peptides tested, the cathelicidin LL-37 that is produced by both urogenital epithelial cells and the recruited neutrophils possessed a most potent antichlamydial activity. Interestingly, this antichlamydial activity was completely inhibited by CPAF, a C. trachomatis-secreted serine protease. The inhibition was dependent on CPAF's proteolytic activity. CPAF selectively degraded LL-37 and other antimicrobial peptides with an antichlamydial activity. CPAF is known to secrete into and accumulate in the infected host cell cytoplasm at the late stage of chlamydial intracellular growth and may be released to confront the extracellular antimicrobial peptides before the intra-inclusion organisms are exposed to extracellular environments during host cell lysis and chlamydial spreading. Thus, the finding that CPAF selectively targets host antimicrobial peptides that possess antichlamydial activities for proteolysis suggests that CPAF may contribute to C. trachomatis pathogenicity by aiding in ascending infection. PMID:25752416

  5. Acyclovir vs isoprinosine (immunovir) for suppression of recurrent genital herpes simplex infection.

    PubMed Central

    Kinghorn, G R; Woolley, P D; Thin, R N; De Maubeuge, J; Foidart, J M; Engst, R

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare the efficacy and safety of oral acyclovir (400 mg twice daily) with oral isoprinosine (500 mg twice daily) in the suppression of recurrent genital herpes. DESIGN--Double-blind, double-dummy, randomised, controlled, parallel group trial. SETTING--13 centres in UK, Belgium and Germany. SUBJECTS--127 immunocompetent patients with frequently recurring genital herpes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Proportions of patients reporting recurrences, recurrence frequency, and mean duration of lesions during breakthrough recurrences in each treatment group during a 6 month treatment period; time to first recurrence during treatment and follow-up after treatment cessation. RESULTS--During treatment, acyclovir recipients showed significant differences (p < 0.05) when compared with isoprinosine recipients in terms of a lower proportion reporting recurrences (31% vs 96%), a reduced mean number of reported recurrences per patient (0.6 vs 3.6), a shorter mean duration of breakthrough lesions (6.4 days vs 8.2 days), and a longer mean time (standard error) to first recurrence (143.7 (9.1) days vs 40.5 (5.4) days. The mean time to first recurrence after treatment cessation did not differ between the two groups. As compared with placebo recipients, isoprinosine treated patients had an increased recurrence frequency (3.6 vs 2.5) during treatment, and a shorter time to first recurrence after treatment cessation. All treatments were well tolerated without serious adverse events or toxicity. CONCLUSIONS--Acyclovir is very effective in suppressing recurrent genital herpes and is clearly superior to isoprinosine which is not clinically useful in the dosage studied. PMID:1385295

  6. Bacterial vaginosis: a synthesis of the literature on etiology, prevalence, risk factors, and relationship with chlamydia and gonorrhea infections.

    PubMed

    Bautista, Christian T; Wurapa, Eyako; Sateren, Warren B; Morris, Sara; Hollingsworth, Bruce; Sanchez, Jose L

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common vaginal disorder in women of reproductive age. Since the initial work of Leopoldo in 1953 and Gardner and Dukes in 1955, researchers have not been able to identify the causative etiologic agent of BV. There is increasing evidence, however, that BV occurs when Lactobacillus spp., the predominant species in healthy vaginal flora, are replaced by anaerobic bacteria, such as Gardenella vaginalis, Mobiluncus curtisii, M. mulieris, other anaerobic bacteria and/or Mycoplasma hominis. Worldwide, it estimated that 20-30% of women of reproductive age attending sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics suffer from BV, and that its prevalence can be as high as 50-60% in high-risk populations (e.g., those who practice commercial sex work (CSW). Epidemiological data show that women are more likely to report BV if they: 1) have had a higher number of lifetime sexual partners; 2) are unmarried; 3) have engaged in their first intercourse at a younger age; 4) have engaged in CSW, and 5) practice regular douching. In the past decade, several studies have provided evidence on the contribution of sexual activity to BV. However, it is difficult to state that BV is a STI without being able to identify the etiologic agent. BV has also emerged as a public health problem due to its association with other STIs, including: human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG). The most recent evidence on the association between BV and CT/NG infection comes from two secondary analyses of cohort data conducted among women attending STI clinics. Based on these studies, women with BV had a 1.8 and 1.9-fold increased risk for NG and CT infection, respectively. Taken together, BV is likely a risk factor or at least an important contributor to subsequent NG or CT infection in high-risk women. Additional research is required to determine whether this association is also present in other low-risk sexually active populations, such as among women in the US military. It is essential to conduct large scale cross-sectional or population-based case-control studies to investigate the role of BV as a risk factor for CT/NG infections. These studies could lead to the development of interventions aimed at reducing the burden associated with bacterial STIs worldwide. PMID:26877884

  7. Seminal Levels of Pro-inflammatory (CXCL1, CXCL9, CXCL10) and Homeostatic (CXCL12) Chemokines in Men With Asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hakimi, Hamid; Zainodini, Nahid; Khorramdelazad, Hossein; Kazemi Arababadi, Mohammad; Hassanshahi, Gholamhossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chemokines play important roles in immune system activation against microbial infections. Objectives: The current study aimed to evaluate seminal levels of CXC chemokines CXCL1, CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL12 in Chlamydia trachomatis infected patients. Materials and Methods: The C. trachomatis infection was determined employing Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-based methods. Seminal concentrations of CXCL1, CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL12 were measured by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Results: The current study results demonstrated that the semen levels of CXCL1 and CXCL9, but not CXCL10 and CXCL12, significantly increased in C. trachomatis infected patients compared to the healthy controls. Conclusions: Based on the current study results, it may be concluded that both CXCL1 and CXCL9 play more important roles than CXCL10 and CXCL12 in induction of immune responses against C. trachomatis and could possibly be considered as future targets for immunotherapy of C. trachomatis infection. PMID:25741424

  8. In silico identification and in vivo analysis of a novel T-cell antigen from Chlamydia, NrdB.

    PubMed

    Barker, Christopher J; Beagley, Kenneth W; Hafner, Louise M; Timms, Peter

    2008-03-01

    Chlamydial infections are a serious economic burden and health threat to developed and developing countries. Development of an efficacious vaccine is thought to be the most convenient, potentially reliable and cost effective option to control chlamydial infection and disease complications. Currently there are very few efficacious vaccine candidates that have been identified and characterized. In this study we have identified a number of unique vaccine candidates using a novel in silico approach. The chlamydial genome was screened for proteins containing epitopes predicted to bind multiple HLA class II molecules (i.e. 'promiscuous' epitopes). A selection of target proteins were cloned, expressed, and purified. Recombinant proteins were screened against sera samples from patients with Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract infections. Two proteins, hypothetical protein CT425 and ribonucleotide reductase small chain protein (NrdB) were identified as being immunoreactive. Using a mouse model, we found that intranasal immunization with NrdB conferred a CD4+ T-cell driven degree of protection similar to that seen with CD4+ T-cells primed from a whole organism, live challenge. In addition, serum from immunized mice was found to neutralize chlamydial infection of a cell monolayer in vitro. NrdB is a highly conserved chlamydial protein with an essential role in the replication of chlamydiae and could be a useful component of a multi-subunit vaccine against chlamydial genital tract infections. PMID:18261829

  9. Diagnosis by AMPLICOR PCR of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in urine samples from women and men attending sexually transmitted disease clinics.

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, T C; Welsh, L; Lentz, A; Crotchfelt, K; Zenilman, J; Newhall, J; Gaydos, C

    1996-01-01

    Screening of urine specimens from men for Chlamydia trachomatis infection by a commercial PCR assay (AMPLICOR C. trachomatis Test; Roche Diagnostic Systems, Inc., Branchburg, N.J.) is a sensitive and specific noninvasive diagnostic assay. Since screening of women for C. trachomatis infection with the AMPLICOR C. trachomatis Test has been limited to use with endocervical swab specimens, we conducted an evaluation of the AMPLICOR C. trachomatis Test for the detection of C. trachomatis using female urine samples and compared the results of those obtained by in vitro culture and PCR of endocervical swab specimens. For 713 men we compared the performance of AMPLICOR C. trachomatis Test with urine specimens with that of culture of urethral specimens. For specimens that were PCR positive and culture negative, two additional tests were used to resolve the discrepancies: direct fluorescent-antibody assay (DFA) of sediment from a spun endocervical specimen culture vial and major outer membrane protein-based PCR of the sediment from the endocervical specimen culture vial. Of 525 urine specimens from females, 67 (12.8%) were PCR positive, and 41 (7.8%) endocervical specimens from the 525 women were culture positive. After resolution of the discrepancies, the resolved sensitivity of the urine PCR was 93.3%, whereas the sensitivity of endocervical swab specimen culture was 67.3%. Of 468 female endocervical swab specimens, 47 (10.0%) had a positive PCR result and 33 (7.0%) were culture positive. The resolved sensitivity of the endocervical swab specimen PCR was 86%. Of 415 matched female urine and endocervical swab specimens, there were 49 confirmed infections; 30 (61.2%) specimens were positive by culture of the endocervical swab specimen, 40 (81.6%) were positive by confirmed endocervical swab specimen PCR, 43 (87.8%) were positive by confirmed urine PCR, and all 49 (100%) were positive by either endocervical swab specimen PCR or urine PCR. For men, the resolved sensitivity of the urine PCR was 88%, and the sensitivity of culture was only 50.7%. These results indicate that urine PCR is highly sensitive for the detection of C. trachomatis in both women and men and provides a noninvasive technique for routine screening for chlamydial infection. PMID:8735088

  10. Antimicrobials in urogenital infections.

    PubMed

    Wagenlehner, Florian M E; Wullt, Björn; Perletti, Gianpaolo

    2011-12-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) and male genital infections are amongst the most prevalent infections. A prudent antibiotic policy therefore has a large impact on society. The clinical classification in uncomplicated cystitis, uncomplicated pyelonephritis, complicated UTI and genital infections is useful, also for the right choice of antibiotic treatment. In this regard pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects have to be considered. Nowadays in uncomplicated cystitis antibiotics exclusively reserved for this indication are preferred, such as fosfomycin trometamol, nitrofurantoin and pivmecillinam, in order to reduce antibiotic pressure in this extremely frequent entity. In complicated UTI a broad bacterial spectrum has to be considered. Different antibiotic substances should be used for treatment, such as penicillins, with β-lactamase inhibitors, cephalosporins or carbapenems, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides or cotrimoxazole, if tested susceptible. For genital infections the pharmacokinetic properties of the antibiotics should especially be considered, such as in prostatitis, where mainly fluoroquinolones and macrolides show sufficient pharmacokinetic parameters for treatment of bacterial infections. Furthermore in genital infections fastidious organisms, such as Chlamydia or Mycoplasma spp. have to be considered with respect to their antimicrobial susceptibility. PMID:22019184

  11. TRAIL-R1 is a negative regulator of pro-inflammatory responses and modulates long-term sequelae resulting from Chlamydia trachomatis infections in humans.

    PubMed

    Al-Kuhlani, Mufadhal; Rothschild, James; Rothchild, James; Pal, Sukumar; de la Maza, Luis M; Ouburg, Sander; Morré, Servaas A; Dean, Deborah; Ojcius, David M

    2014-01-01

    The immune system eliminates Chlamydia trachomatis infection through inflammation. However, uncontrolled inflammation can enhance pathology. In mice, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor (TRAIL-R), known for its effects on apoptosis, also regulates inflammation. In humans, the four homologues of TRAIL-R had never been investigated for effects on inflammation. Here, we examined whether TRAIL-R regulates inflammation during chlamydial infection. We examined TRAIL-R1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in an Ecuadorian cohort with and without C. trachomatis infections. There was a highly significant association for the TRAIL+626 homozygous mutant GG for infection vs no infection in this population. To confirm the results observed in the human population, primary lung fibroblasts and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) were isolated from wildtype (WT) and TRAIL-R-deficient mice, and TRAIL-R1 levels in human cervical epithelial cells were depleted by RNA interference. Infection of BMDMs and primary lung fibroblasts with C. trachomatis strain L2, or the murine pathogen C. muridarum, led to higher levels of MIP2 mRNA expression or IL-1β secretion from TRAIL-R-deficient cells than WT cells. Similarly, depletion of TRAIL-R1 expression in human epithelial cells resulted in a higher level of IL-8 mRNA expression and protein secretion during C. trachomatis infection. We conclude that human TRAIL-R1 SNPs and murine TRAIL-R modulate the innate immune response against chlamydial infection. This is the first evidence that human TRAIL-R1 is a negative regulator of inflammation and plays a role in modulating Chlamydia pathogenesis. PMID:24695582

  12. A New Role of the Complement System: C3 Provides Protection in a Mouse Model of Lung Infection with Intracellular Chlamydia psittaci

    PubMed Central

    Bode, Jenny; Dutow, Pavel; Sommer, Kirsten; Janik, Katrin; Glage, Silke; Tümmler, Burkhard; Munder, Antje; Laudeley, Robert; Sachse, Konrad W.; Klos, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The complement system modulates the intensity of innate and specific immunity. While it protects against infections by extracellular bacteria its role in infection with obligate intracellular bacteria, such as the avian and human pathogen Chlamydia (C.) psittaci, is still unknown. In the present study, knockout mice lacking C3 and thus all main complement effector functions were intranasally infected with C. psittaci strain DC15. Clinical parameters, lung histology, and cytokine levels were determined. A subset of infections was additionally performed with mice lacking C5 or C5a receptors. Complement activation occurred before symptoms of pneumonia appeared. Mice lacking C3 were ∼100 times more susceptible to the intracellular bacteria compared to wild-type mice, with all C3−/− mice succumbing to infection after day 9. At a low infective dose, C3−/− mice became severely ill after an even longer delay, the kinetics suggesting a so far unknown link of complement to the adaptive, protective immune response against chlamydiae. The lethal phenotype of C3−/− mice is not based on differences in the anti-chlamydial IgG response (which is slightly delayed) as demonstrated by serum transfer experiments. In addition, during the first week of infection, the absence of C3 was associated with partial protection characterized by reduced weight loss, better clinical score and lower bacterial burden, which might be explained by a different mechanism. Lack of complement functions downstream of C5 had little effect. This study demonstrates for the first time a strong and complex influence of complement effector functions, downstream of C3 and upstream of C5, on the outcome of an infection with intracellular bacteria, such as C. psittaci. PMID:23189195

  13. Evaluation of pulmonary dysfunctions and acid–base imbalances induced by Chlamydia psittaci in a bovine model of respiratory infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chlamydia psittaci (Cp) is a respiratory pathogen capable of inducing acute pulmonary zoonotic disease (psittacosis) or persistent infection. To elucidate the pathogenesis of this infection, a translational large animal model was recently introduced by our group. This study aims at quantifying and differentiating pulmonary dysfunction and acid–base imbalances induced by Cp. Methods Forty-two calves were grouped in (i) animals inoculated with Cp (n = 21) and (ii) controls sham-inoculated with uninfected cell culture (n = 21). For pulmonary function testing, impulse oscillometry, capnography, and FRC (functional residual capacity) measurement were applied to spontaneously breathing animals. Variables of acid–base status were assessed in venous blood using both (i) traditional Henderson-Hasselbalch and (ii) strong ion approach. Results Both obstructive and restrictive pulmonary disorders were induced in calves experimentally inoculated with Cp. Although disorders in respiratory mechanics lasted for 8–11 days, the pattern of spontaneous breathing was mainly altered in the period of acute illness (until 4 days post inoculation, dpi). Expiration was more impaired than inspiration, resulting in elevated FRC. Ventilation was characterised by a reduction in tidal volume (−25%) combined with an increased percentage of dead space volume and a significant reduction of alveolar volume by 10%. Minute ventilation increased significantly (+50%) due to a compensatory doubling of respiratory rate. Hyperventilatory hypocapnia at 2–3 dpi resulted in slightly increased blood pH at 2 dpi. However, the acid–base equilibrium was additionally influenced by metabolic components, i.e. the systemic inflammatory response, all of which were detected with help of the strong ion theory. Decreased concentrations of albumin (2–10 dpi), a negative acute-phase marker, resulted in a decrease in the sum of non-volatile weak acids (Atot), revealing an alkalotic effect. This was counterbalanced by acidic effects of decreased strong ion difference (SID), mediated by the interplay between hypochloraemia (alkalotic effect) and hyponatraemia (acidic effect). Conclusions This bovine model was found to be suitable for studying pathophysiology of respiratory Cp infection and may help elucidating functional host-pathogen interactions in the mammalian lung. PMID:24517577

  14. Uptake and intra-inclusion accumulation of exogenous immunoglobulin by Chlamydia-infected cells

    PubMed Central

    Pollack, David V; Croteau, Nancy L; Stuart, Elizabeth S

    2008-01-01

    Background Obligate intracellular pathogens belonging to the Chlamydiaceae family possess a number of mechanisms by which to manipulate the host cell and surrounding environment. Such capabilities include the inhibition of apoptosis, down-regulation of major histocompatability complex (MHC) and CD1/d gene expression, and the acquisition of host-synthesized nutrients. It is also documented that a limited number of host-derived macromolecules such as ?-catenin and sphingomyelin accumulate within the inclusion. Results This report provides evidence that immunoglobulin, inherently present in the extracellular environment in vivo and in vitro, enters infected cells and accumulates within the chlamydial inclusion. Using epi-fluorescent and confocal microscopy, this selective uptake of Ig is shown to occur among human leukocytes in vivo as well as cells cultured in vitro. These findings were confirmed by detection of IgG in the lysate of infected cells by western blot hybridization. Sequestered antibodies appear to be present during the entire course of the chlamydial developmental cycle and are distributed throughout this compartment. IgG pre-labeled with fluorescein, when added to the supernatant of infected cell cultures, was also imported and readily visualized. Accumulation of these molecules within the inclusion and the failure of bovine serum albumin or F(ab')2 fragments to accumulate in a similar manner suggests the process of entry is specific for intact IgG molecules and not a result of pinocytosis, diffusion, or any other mass endocytic event. Conclusion Sequestration of a host cell-derived protein within the chlamydial inclusion, although unexpected, is not an unprecedented occurrence. However, selective accumulation of an exogenous host protein, such as extracellular IgG, has not been previously reported in connection with chlamydial infections. The selectivity of this process may indicate that this uptake plays an important role in pathogen physiology or virulence during infection and the phenomenon itself may give rise to novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. PMID:19061499

  15. [Mycoplasmas and antibodies anti-Chlamydia in semen of infertile men and their relationship with seminal quality and markers of male accessory sex glands].

    PubMed

    Lozano-Hernández, Ricardo; Vivas-Acevedo, Giovanny; Muñoz de Vera, María Gladys

    2012-06-01

    Male infertility may be due to inflammation or infection of the genital tract among other causes. Male accessory sex glands and sperm function may also be involved in the problem of infertility. This study tries to associate the most frequent bacteria in semen of infertile men including Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum with the seminal characteristics and levels of fructose, citric acid and alpha-neutral glucosidase as markers of the accessory glands. Detection of antibodies anti Chlamydia trachomatis indicated that it was the most prevalent germ. Antibodies (Ab) anti-Chlamydia, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum were associated with a decrease of the glandular markers fructose and alpha-neutral glucosidase. On the other hand, there were increased pH and leukocytospermia in men positive for antibodies anti-Chlamydia. Microbiological and biochemical evaluation of semen could orient more about the spread of infection and allow for the selection of the most effective therapy. We find that microbiological and glandular accessory markers assessments in semen are important to diagnose and to treat infections. PMID:22978046

  16. Progesterone antagonizes the positive influence of estrogen on Chlamydia trachomatis serovar E in an Ishikawa/SHT-290 co-culture model.

    PubMed

    Kintner, Jennifer; Schoborg, Robert V; Wyrick, Priscilla B; Hall, Jennifer V

    2015-06-01

    Studies indicate that estrogen enhances Chlamydia trachomatis serovar E infection in genital epithelial cells. Hormones have direct and indirect effects on endometrial epithelial cells. Estrogen and progesterone exposure induces endometrial stromal cells to release effectors that subsequently regulate growth and maturation of uterine epithelial cells. Estrogen enhances C. trachomatis infection by aiding entry and intracellular development in endometrial epithelial cell (Ishikawa, IK)/SHT-290 stromal cell co-culture. Enhanced chlamydial infection was mediated by direct estrogen-stimulated signaling events in epithelial cells and indirectly via estrogen-induced stromal cell effectors. The current study investigates the effects of hormones on chlamydial development using culture conditions representative of the menstrual cycle. Chlamydia trachomatis-infected IK or IK/SHT-290 cultures were exposed to 10(-8) M estrogen (E2), 10(-7) M progesterone (P4) or a combination of both hormones (10(-8) M E2 followed by 10(-9) M E2/10(-7) M P4). Chlamydial infectivity and progeny production were significantly decreased (30-66%) in cultures exposed to progesterone or estrogen/progesterone combination compared to estrogen alone. Thus, progesterone antagonized the positive effects of estrogen on chlamydial infection. These data indicate the susceptibility of endometrial epithelial cells to C. trachomatis infection during the menstrual cycle is altered by phase specific actions of sex hormones in the genital tract. PMID:25724891

  17. Quantitative analysis of hormones and inflammatory cytokines in Chlamydia trachomatis-infected women with tubal ectopic pregnancy and early intrauterine pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Shao, Ruijin; Feng, Yi; Zou, Shien; Li, Xin; Cui, Peng; Billig, Håkan

    2016-03-01

    In this data, non-pregnant women during the menstrual cycle, women with normal intrauterine pregnancy (IUP), and women with tubal ectopic pregnancy (EP) after informed consent were included. The serum levels of 17β-estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, beta-human chorionic gonadotropin, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), epidermal growth factor, the Chlamydia (C.) trachomatis IgG and HSP60 were analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to assess the diagnostic discrimination of tubal EP and gestational age-matched IUP. Our data show that C. trachomatis infection is associated with IL-8 levels, which had excellent discriminative validity in positively identifying tubal EP (concomitant with C. trachomatis infection) from IUP and non-pregnant conditions regardless of C. trachomatis infection. PMID:26858978

  18. Compendium of measures to control Chlamydia psittaci infection among humans (psittacosis) and pet birds (avian chlamydiosis), 1998. Center for Disease Control and Prevention.

    PubMed

    1998-07-10

    Psittacosis -- also known as parrot disease, parrot fever, and ornithosiscan cause severe pneumonia and other serious health problems among humans. Approximately 800 cases of psittacosis (infection with Chlamydia psittaci) were reported to CDC from 1987 through 1996, and most resulted from exposure to pet birds, usually parrots, macaws, cockatiels, and parakeets. In birds, C. psittaci infection is referred to as avian chlamydiosis (AC). Infected birds shed the bacteria through feces and nasal discharges, which can remain infectious for several months. This compendium provides information about psittacosis and AC to public health officials, physicians, veterinarians, members of the pet bird industry, and others concerned about controlling these diseases and protecting public health. The recommendations in this compendium provide effective, standardized procedures for controlling AC in birds, a vital step to protecting human health. PMID:9671426

  19. Lactobacilli Inactivate Chlamydia trachomatis through Lactic Acid but Not H2O2

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Zheng; Luna, Yesmin; Yu, Ping; Fan, Huizhou

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus species dominate the microbiome in the lower genital tract of most reproductive-age women. Producing lactic acid and H2O2, lactobacilli are believed to play an important role in prevention of colonization by and growth of pathogens. However, to date, there have been no reported studies characterizing how lactobacilli interact with Chlamydia trachomatis, a leading sexually transmitted bacterium. In this report, we demonstrate inactivation of C. trachomatis infectivity by culture media conditioned by Lactobacillus crispatus, L. gasseri and L. jensenii, known to be dominating organisms in the human vaginal microbiome. Lactobacillus still cultures produced lactic acid, leading to time- and concentration-dependent killing of C. trachomatis. Neutralization of the acidic media completely reversed chlamydia killing. Addition of lactic acid into Lactobacillus-unconditioned growth medium recapitulated the chlamydiacidal activity of conditioned media. The H2O2 concentrations in the still cultures were found to be comparable to those reported for the cervicovaginal fluid, but insufficient to inactivate chlamydiae. Aeration of Lactobacillus cultures by shaking markedly induced H2O2 production, but strongly inhibited Lactobacillus growth and lactic acid production, and thus severely affected acidification, leading to significantly reduced chlamydiacidal efficiency. These observations indicate lactobacilli inactivate chlamydiae primarily through maintaining acidity in a relatively hypoxic environment in the vaginal lumen with limited H2O2, which is consistent with the notion that women with higher vaginal pH are more prone to sexually transmitted C. trachomatis infection. In addition to lactic acid, formic acid and acetic acid also exhibited potent chlamydiacidal activities. Taken together, our findings imply that lowering the vaginal pH through engineering of the vaginal microbiome and other means will make women less susceptible to C. trachomatis infection. PMID:25215504

  20. Soap and water prophylaxis for limiting genital ulcer disease and HIV-1 infection in men in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    O'Farrell, N

    1993-08-01

    In general, East, Central and Southern Africa appear to be worse affected by HIV-1 infection than West Africa. So far there is little evidence to suggest that differences in either sexual behaviour or numbers of sexual partners could account for this disparity. Two risk factors in men for acquiring HIV-1, that tend to vary along this geographical divide, are lack of circumcision and genital ulcer disease (GUD) which are much less common in West Africa. Although uncircumcised men with GUD are an important high frequency HIV-1 transmitter core group, few interventions have targeted such individuals. Given the recent expansion in AIDS-related technologies, is it possible that methods effective in limiting GUD in the preantibiotic era have been overlooked? During the first and second world wars, chancroid, the commonest cause of GUD in Africa today, was controlled successfully with various prophylactics including soap and water. Many parts of Africa are undergoing social upheaval against a background of violence, and in this environment soap and water prophylaxis would now seem to merit re-evaluation as an intervention for preventing both GUD and HIV-1 in uncircumcised men. By facilitating healing of traumatic, inflammatory and infected penile lesions, pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis with soap and water could be a cheap and effective method for decreasing the risks of acquiring GUD and HIV in this vulnerable group of uncircumcised men. PMID:7721293

  1. Genital Tract Infections, Bacterial Vaginosis, HIV, and Reproductive Health Issues among Lima-Based Clandestine Female Sex Workers

    PubMed Central

    Perla, M. E.; Ghee, Annette E.; Sánchez, Sixto; McClelland, R. Scott; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.; Suárez-Ognio, Luis; Lama, Javier R.; Sánchez, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics of 212 Peruvian female sex workers (FSWs) were analyzed. The association between genital tract infections (GTIs) and risk factors by multivariate analysis was evaluated. Eighty-eight percent of FSWs were diagnosed with at least one GTI (HSV-2 80.1%, BV 44.8%, candidiasis 9.9%, syphilis seropositivity 9.4%, Trichomonas vaginalis 2.4%, HIV seropositivity 2.4%). Reported condom use with clients was nearly universal (98.3%), but infrequent with husband/regular partners (7.3%). In multivariate analysis BV was negatively associated with more consistent condom use (PRR = 0.63, 95% CI, 0.42–0.96). Many had not visited a Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) clinic or been tested for HIV in the past year (40.6%, 47.1%, resp.). Nonclient contraceptive use was low (57%) and induced abortion was common (68%). High GTI burden and abortions suggest that a services-access gap persists among marginalized FSWs. Continued health outreach programs and integrating family planning and reproductive health services into existing STI clinic services are recommended. PMID:22811592

  2. Novel sequence types of Chlamydia pecorum infect free-ranging Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Jelocnik, Martina; Self, Rachel; Timms, Peter; Borel, Nicole; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2015-04-01

    Chlamydia pecorum, a recognized pathogen of domesticated ruminants and koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), has been recently reported in a broad range of other wildlife species including water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), ibex (Capra ibex), chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), red deer (Cervus elaphus), and birds. This identification raises questions as to whether cross-host transmission may be a factor in the epidemiology of infections in these species. To begin to address this question, we employed a C. pecorum species-specific multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) scheme to characterize a small collection of C. pecorum-positive samples from wild, free-range ibex, a chamois, and a red deer from Grison, Switzerland, a canton where domesticated and wild ruminants graze in close proximity during the summer. Screening by PCR confirmed low to moderate levels of Chlamydia pecorum DNA in the eyes of healthy ibex (n = 4) and in the deer fecal sample (n = 1). The MLST analysis revealed three novel sequence types (STs; 88, 90, and 89) in these samples. On phylogenetic analysis, the ibex and deer sequences clustered by host species in their own well-supported clades and away from C. pecorum STs found in other hosts. Even though the analyzed sample size was small, the identification of unique C. pecorum STs infecting free-ranging Alpine ibex and red deer provides useful information for further C. pecorum epidemiologic studies. PMID:25647593

  3. Phosphoethanolamine Decoration of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Lipid A Plays a Dual Immunostimulatory and Protective Role during Experimental Genital Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Packiam, Mathanraj; Yedery, Roshan D.; Begum, Afrin A.; Carlson, Russell W.; Ganguly, Jhuma; Sempowski, Gregory D.; Ventevogel, Melissa S.; Shafer, William M.

    2014-01-01

    The induction of an intense inflammatory response by Neisseria gonorrhoeae and the persistence of this pathogen in the presence of innate effectors is a fascinating aspect of gonorrhea. Phosphoethanolamine (PEA) decoration of lipid A increases gonococcal resistance to complement-mediated bacteriolysis and cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs), and recently we reported that wild-type N. gonorrhoeae strain FA1090 has a survival advantage relative to a PEA transferase A (lptA) mutant in the human urethral-challenge and murine lower genital tract infection models. Here we tested the immunostimulatory role of this lipid A modification. Purified lipooligosaccharide (LOS) containing lipid A devoid of the PEA modification and an lptA mutant of strain FA19 induced significantly lower levels of NF-κB in human embryonic kidney Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) cells and murine embryonic fibroblasts than wild-type LOS of the parent strain. Moreover, vaginal proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines were not elevated in female mice infected with the isogenic lptA mutant, in contrast to mice infected with the wild-type and complemented lptA mutant bacteria. We also demonstrated that lptA mutant bacteria were more susceptible to human and murine cathelicidins due to increased binding by these peptides and that the differential induction of NF-κB by wild-type and unmodified lipid A was more pronounced in the presence of CAMPs. This work demonstrates that PEA decoration of lipid A plays both protective and immunostimulatory roles and that host-derived CAMPs may further reduce the capacity of PEA-deficient lipid A to interact with TLR4 during infection. PMID:24686069

  4. Genital injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... It is important to rule out sexual abuse, rape, and assault. The health care provider should ask the girl how the object was placed there. In men and young boys, common causes of genital injury include: Having the ...

  5. Sexually Transmitted Infections and Risk Factors for Gonorrhea and Chlamydia in Female Sex Workers in Soc Trang, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    NGUYEN, THUONG VU; VAN KHUU, NGHIA; LE, TRUC THANH THI; NGUYEN, ANH PHUONG; CAO, VAN; THAM, DUNG CHI; DETELS, ROGER

    2010-01-01

    Goal To determine the prevalence of selected STIs and correlates of chlamydia (CT) and gonorrhea (GC) infection among (FSWs) in Soc Trang province, Vietnam. Study Design Four hundred and six FSWs in Soc Trang province participated in a cross-sectional study between May and August, 2003. The study subjects were interviewed to obtain information about socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics and gynecologic and STI history, using a standardized interview. They underwent a physical examination during which cervical swabs were collected for GC and CT testing by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Vaginal wet mount microscopy was performed to detect candidiasis and trichomoniasis (TV), and blood was drawn for testing for syphilis using rapid plasma reagin (RPR)+ Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA). Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the associations of GC, CT, and GC/CT with selected variables. Results Prevalences were 14.9% for GC, 48.4% for CT, 54.9% for GC/CT, 3.8% for syphilis, 8.9% for trichomoniasis, and 12.2% for candidiasis. Increased risk for CT was associated with sex work for more than 6 months (aOR = 2.40, 95% CI: 0.99–5.82), receiving $4 US or less per sexual transaction (aOR = 1.91, 95% CI 1.13–3.23), and ever having terminated a pregnancy (aOR = 1.68, 95% CI 1.00–2.82). Reduced likelihood of CT was associated with older age (aOR = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.93–1.00) and ever having douched in the past month (aOR = 0.60, 95% CI 0.36–1.00). Only ever douching in the past month was associated with decreased risk for GC (aOR = 0.47, 95% CI 0.25–0.87). Higher likelihood of GC/CT was associated with having more than 4 clients per month (OR = 2.35, 95% CI 1.02–5.41) and receiving $4 US or less per sexual transaction (aOR = 1.74, 95% CI 1.04–2.93). Conclusions The prevalence of GC/CT is high amongst FSWs in Soc Trang. Therefore, periodic presumptive treatment (PPT) for cervicitis, together with World Health Organization-recommended periodic syndromic sexually transmitted disease management, for FSWs and further interventions should be considered, and a 100% condom use program should be promptly implemented. The existing STI health education program for FSWs should be strengthened, with special consideration of the correlates observed in this study. PMID:18685547

  6. Pelvic and abdominal-wall actinomycotic infection by uterus gateway without genital lesions.

    PubMed

    Brezean, I; Aldoescu, S; Catrina, E; Vâlcu, M; Ionuţ, I; Predescu, G; Degeratu, D; Pantea, I

    2010-01-01

    We hereby aim to account on a case of actinomycotic infection occurred in a female patient with an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD). The infection occurred as a pseudo-tumour which raised differential diagnosis issues with a malignant tumour. The diagnosis has been eventually established following the pathologic examination of paraffin-embedded tissues. Although the infection's gateway was the uterus, the subsequent invasion of the parietal, urinary bladder and lateral rectal walls did not seem to affect the fallopian tubes or the ovaries. PMID:20405693

  7. Genital condyloma virus infection following pelvic radiation therapy: report of seven cases

    SciTech Connect

    Lowell, D.M.; Livolsi, V.A.; Ludwig, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    Six women who underwent radiation therapy for gynecologic malignancies demonstrated cytologic evidence of condyloma virus infection 2 or more years following radiation. Histologic confirmation was obtained in two of the cases. A seventh patient developed in situ and invasive squamous cell carcinoma in a vulvar condyloma acuminatum following radiation therapy for Hodgkin's disease. This venereal infection is found most frequently in sexually active younger women (average age, 27 years). It is felt that depressed cell-mediated immunity consequent to the radiation therapy allowed the development of this infection in the older patients described in this report. The evolution of invasive squamous cell carcinoma in the condyloma acuminatum may indicate a possible oncogenic or cocarcinogenic effect of the virus. The immunologic responses to infection caused by the human papillomavirus group are discussed, as well as its potential for malignant transformation.

  8. High-risk human papilloma virus infection decreases the frequency of dendritic Langerhans' cells in the human female genital tract

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez-Flores, Rafael; Mendez-Cruz, Rene; Ojeda-Ortiz, Jorge; Muñoz-Molina, Rebeca; Balderas-Carrillo, Oscar; de la Luz Diaz-Soberanes, Maria; Lebecque, Serge; Saeland, Sem; Daneri-Navarro, Adrian; Garcia-Carranca, Alejandro; Ullrich, Stephen E; Flores-Romo, Leopoldo

    2006-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are often arranged in planar layers in tissues with high antigenic exposure, such as skin and mucosae. Providing an en face view, this arrangement optimizes in situ analysis regarding morphology (even of individual dendrites), topographic distribution (regular/clustered) and quantification. The few reports on human genital DC usually utilize single markers and conventional sections, restricting immunolabelling only to cell parts sectioned by the cut. To better assess DC in situ, we labelled epithelial sheets, prepared from fresh cervix biopsies, with antibodies to major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-CII, CD1a and Langerin, revealing (with each of these markers) a dense DC network in a planar-like, regular distribution. Using the hybrid capture system to detect the high-risk mucotropic human papilloma virus (HPV) group, 16 positive and five negative women were studied and the results were compared between these groups. DC frequency per area was substantially reduced (to ≈ 50% for the three markers) in samples from all HPV-infected patients compared with samples from controls. Unlike HPV– samples, Langerin+ DC in HPV+ cervix exhibited a highly accentuated dendritic appearance. We believe this to be the first study using these three DC-restricted markers (Langerin, CD1a and MHC-CII) in cervical epithelial sheets from high-risk HPV+ donors and also the first study to demonstrate the morphological and quantitative changes triggered by high-risk HPV infection. Cervical DC reduction in early, premalignant high-risk HPV infection might represent viral subversion strategies interfering with efficient antigen handling by the immune system's peripheral sentinels, the DC, perhaps hampering appropriate recruitment and subsequent development of effector (cytotoxic) T cells. PMID:16423058

  9. Enhanced Neutrophil Longevity and Recruitment Contribute to the Severity of Oviduct Pathology during Chlamydia muridarum Infection▿

    PubMed Central

    Frazer, Lauren C.; O'Connell, Catherine M.; Andrews, Charles W.; Zurenski, Matthew A.; Darville, Toni

    2011-01-01

    Our previous studies revealed that intravaginal infection of mice with a plasmid-deficient strain of Chlamydia muridarum, CM3.1, does not induce the development of oviduct pathology. In this study, we determined that infection with CM3.1 resulted in a significantly reduced frequency and absolute number of neutrophils in the oviducts during acute infection. This reduction in neutrophils was associated with significantly lower levels of neutrophil chemokines in the oviducts and decreased production of neutrophil chemokines by oviduct epithelial cells infected with CM3.1 in vitro. Infection with CM3.1 also resulted in an increased frequency of late apoptotic/dead neutrophils in the oviduct. Examination of the ability of Chlamydia trachomatis to prevent neutrophil apoptosis in vitro revealed that C. trachomatis strain D/UW-3/Cx exhibited an enhanced ability to prevent neutrophil apoptosis compared to plasmid-deficient CTD153, and this effect was dependent on the presence of CD14high monocytes. The presence of monocytes also resulted in enhanced neutrophil cytokine production and increased production of tissue-damaging molecules in response to D/UW-3/Cx relative to results with CTD153. Attempts to use antibody-mediated depletion to discern the specific role of neutrophils in infection control and pathology in vivo revealed that although Ly6Ghigh neutrophils were eliminated from the blood and oviducts with this treatment, immature neutrophils and high levels of tissue-damaging molecules were still detectable in the upper genital tract. These data support the role of neutrophils in chlamydia-induced pathology and reveal that novel methods of depletion must be developed before their role can be specifically determined in vivo. PMID:21825059

  10. Female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Ladjali, M; Rattray, T W; Walder, R J

    1993-08-21

    Female genital mutilation, also misleadingly known as female circumcision, is usually performed on girls ranging in from 1 week to puberty. Immediate physical complications include severe pain, shock, infection, bleeding, acute urinary infection, tetanus, and death. Longterm problems include chronic pain, difficulties with micturition and menstruation, pelvic infection leading to infertility, and prolonged and obstructed labor during childbirth. An estimated 80 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation. In Britain alone an estimated 10,000 girls are currently at risk. Religious, cultural, medical, and moral grounds rationalize the custom which is practiced primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab world, Malaysia, Indonesia, and among migrant populations in Western countries. According to WHO it is correlated with poverty, illiteracy, and the low status of women. Women who escape mutilation are not sought in marriage. WHO, the UN Population Fund, the UN Children's Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child have issued declarations on the eradication of female genital mutilation. In Britain, local authorities have intervened to prevent parents from mutilating their daughters. In 1984, the Inter-African Committee Against Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting Women and Children was established to work toward eliminating female genital mutilation and other damaging customs. National committees in 26 African countries coordinate projects run by local people using theater, dance, music, and storytelling for communication. In Australia, Canada, Europe, and the US women have organized to prevent the practice among vulnerable migrants and refugees. PMID:8400925

  11. [Sexually transmitted infections in patients with condylomata acuminata].

    PubMed

    Lodi, A; Betti, R; Radaelli, U; Mauri, A; Masnada, M C; Marazzini, F; Cattaneo, M

    1986-03-10

    42 patients (26 males, 16 females) with genital and perianal warts were submitted to serological testing for HBV markers, anti HSV antibodies and syphilis. Specimens were also collected for microscopic and cultural examination for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia Trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida albicans and other pathogenic bacteria from urethra in men and from urethra, vagina and cervix in women. Women had also cytologic examination from cervix with Papanicolau method. We have found an high incidence of urethral and vaginal asymptomatic infections, of positivity for HBV markers and some positivities of tests for syphilis. Importance of these screening examinations in the management of patients with genital warts is then discussed. PMID:3081835

  12. Caspase-1 Dependent IL-1β Secretion Is Critical for Host Defense in a Mouse Model of Chlamydia pneumoniae Lung Infection

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Kenichi; Crother, Timothy R.; Karlin, Justin; Chen, Shuang; Chiba, Norika; Ramanujan, V. Krishnan; Vergnes, Laurent; Ojcius, David M.; Arditi, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP) is an important human pathogen that causes atypical pneumonia and is associated with various chronic inflammatory disorders. Caspase-1 is a key component of the ‘inflammasome’, and is required to cleave pro-IL-1β to bioactive IL-1β. Here we demonstrate for the first time a critical requirement for IL-1β in response to CP infection. Caspase-1−/− mice exhibit delayed cytokine production, defective clearance of pulmonary bacteria and higher mortality in response to CP infection. Alveolar macrophages harbored increased bacterial numbers due to reduced iNOS levels in Caspase-1−/− mice. Pharmacological blockade of the IL-1 receptor in CP infected wild-type mice phenocopies Caspase-1-deficient mice, and administration of recombinant IL-1β rescues CP infected Caspase-1−/− mice from mortality, indicating that IL-1β secretion is crucial for host immune defense against CP lung infection. In vitro investigation reveals that CP-induced IL-1β secretion by macrophages requires TLR2/MyD88 and NLRP3/ASC/Caspase-1 signaling. Entry into the cell by CP and new protein synthesis by CP are required for inflammasome activation. Neither ROS nor cathepsin was required for CP infection induced inflammasome activation. Interestingly, Caspase-1 activation during CP infection occurs with mitochondrial dysfunction indicating a possible mechanism involving the mitochondria for CP-induced inflammasome activation. PMID:21731762

  13. Identification of a Dendrimeric Heparan Sulfate-Binding Peptide That Inhibits Infectivity of Genital Types of Human Papillomaviruses?

    PubMed Central

    Donalisio, Manuela; Rusnati, Marco; Civra, Andrea; Bugatti, Antonella; Allemand, Donatella; Pirri, Giovanna; Giuliani, Andrea; Landolfo, Santo; Lembo, David

    2010-01-01

    Peptide dendrimers consist of a peptidyl branching core and/or covalently attached surface functional units. They show a variety of biological properties, including antiviral activity. In this study, a minilibrary of linear, dimeric, and dendrimeric peptides containing clusters of basic amino acids was evaluated for in vitro activity against human papillomaviruses (HPVs). The peptide dendrimer SB105-A10 was found to be a potent inhibitor of genital HPV types (i.e., types 16, 18, and 6) in pseudovirus-based neutralization assays. The 50% inhibitory concentration was between 2.8 and 4.2 ?g/ml (0.59 and 0.88 ?M), and no evidence of cytotoxicity was observed. SB105-A10 interacts with immobilized heparin and with heparan sulfates exposed on the cell surface, most likely preventing virus attachment. The findings from this study indicate SB105-A10 to be a leading candidate compound for further development as an active ingredient of a topical microbicide against HPV and other sexually transmitted viral infections. PMID:20643894

  14. An evaluation of the applicability of quantitative clinical standards for the management of genital chlamydial infection using an electronic database.

    PubMed

    McClean, H L; Joshi, U Y; Clark, A

    2002-06-01

    A prototype electronic database was designed for use as a retrospective audit tool to provide data that allowed comparison of genital chlamydial infection management performance with a series of quantitative operational consensus standards. However, some of the terms used by the standards require further definition for translation into database fields to improve accuracy and general application as an audit tool. Construction of the database involved differentiation between prior and clinic diagnostic points, as well as a forward contact trail of specific quantitative indicators of contact tracing. More definition is needed of the meaning of diagnosis and contact in the standards. For clinic-diagnosed patients, the time to treatment was mainly dependent on clinical factors, not on the availability of a chlamydial test result. For about one-third of patients (with prior management), several standards cannot be applied because data are not available, and this raises the issue of data sharing between various agencies involved in chlamydial testing. More data from other clinics may help both to test the appropriateness of, and inform, some of the operational standards. The database could be developed as a real-time audit tool for use with electronic patient records. PMID:12015011

  15. Immunization with a MOMP-Based Vaccine Protects Mice against a Pulmonary Chlamydia Challenge and Identifies a Disconnection between Infection and Pathology

    PubMed Central

    O’Meara, Connor P.; Armitage, Charles W.; Harvie, Marina C. G.; Timms, Peter; Lycke, Nils Y.; Beagley, Kenneth W.

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is responsible for up to 20% of community acquired pneumonia and can exacerbate chronic inflammatory diseases. As the majority of infections are either mild or asymptomatic, a vaccine is recognized to have the greatest potential to reduce infection and disease prevalence. Using the C. muridarum mouse model of infection, we immunized animals via the intranasal (IN), sublingual (SL) or transcutaneous (TC) routes, with recombinant chlamydial major outer membrane protein (MOMP) combined with adjuvants CTA1-DD or a combination of cholera toxin/CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide (CT/CpG). Vaccinated animals were challenged IN with C. muridarum and protection against infection and pathology was assessed. SL and TC immunization with MOMP and CT/CpG was the most protective, significantly reducing chlamydial burden in the lungs and preventing weight loss, which was similar to the protection induced by a previous live infection. Unlike a previous infection however, these vaccinations also provided almost complete protection against fibrotic scarring in the lungs. Protection against infection was associated with antigen-specific production of IFNγ, TNFα and IL-17 by splenocytes, however, protection against both infection and pathology required the induction of a similar pro-inflammatory response in the respiratory tract draining lymph nodes. Interestingly, we also identified two contrasting vaccinations capable of preventing infection or pathology individually. Animals IN immunized with MOMP and either adjuvant were protected from infection, but not the pathology. Conversely, animals TC immunized with MOMP and CTA1-DD were protected from pathology, even though the chlamydial burden in this group was equivalent to the unimmunized controls. This suggests that the development of pathology following an IN infection of vaccinated animals was independent of bacterial load and may have been driven instead by the adaptive immune response generated following immunization. This identifies a disconnection between the control of infection and the development of pathology, which may influence the design of future vaccines. PMID:23613984

  16. Genital Mycoplasma infections and their resistance phenotypes in an African setting.

    PubMed

    Kouegnigan Rerambiah, L; Ndong, J-C; Medzegue, S; Elisee-Ndam, M; Djoba Siawaya, J F

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the antimicrobial susceptibilities of mycoplasmas in Gabonese men and women. A total of 1,332 men and women were included in the study. Sperm, urine, ureteral or vaginal swabs were collected from the subjects. Mycoplasmas identification and antimicrobial susceptibility to azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin, josamycin, pristinamycin, doxycycline, tetracycline, ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were tested using the Mycoplasma IST 2 kit. 794 subjects were positive for Mycoplasma. Respectively, 1.6 % and 82.24 % of subjects were singly infected with M. hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum and 15.87 % had a mixed infection. M. hominis isolates were resistant to erythromycin and had an intermediate (I) to resistant (R) profile to azithromycin and clarithromycin. 84.6 % of M. hominis strains were sensitive (S) to josamycin and pristinamycin. 30.8 % and 92.3 % of M. hominis strains were sensitive to tetracycline and doxycycline, respectively. 76.9 and 84.6 % of M. hominis isolates were sensitive to ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin, respectively. The sensitivity rates of U. urealyticum strains were 45.23 %, 47.7 %, 63.84 %, 90.8 % and 92 % for azithromycin, erythromycin, clarithromycin, pristinamycin and josamycin, respectively. U. urealyticum strains showed 62.2 % and 79.7 % sensitivity to tetracycline and doxycycline, respectively. The resistance rates to azithromycin, clarithromycin and erythromycin for samples with mixed infection were 72.8 %, 84.7 % and 85.6 %, respectively. Josamycin and pristinamycin were 81.5 % effective on samples with mixed infection. The sensitivity rates of samples with mixed infection to tetracycline, doxycycline, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin were 32 %, 69.6 %, 8.9 % and 18.5 %, respectively. Sub-Saharan Africa needs to use antibiotics rationally, as falling to do so would compromise the management of infectious diseases. PMID:25630539

  17. Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection among Women in Bangladesh: Findings from a Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Nahar, Quamrun; Sultana, Farhana; Alam, Anadil; Islam, Jessica Yasmine; Rahman, Mustafizur; Khatun, Fatema; Alam, Nazmul; Dasgupta, Sushil Kanta; Marions, Lena; Ashrafunnessa; Kamal, Mohammed; Cravioto, Alejandro; Reichenbach, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Background There has been no population-based study on human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence or its genotypes in Bangladesh; a country eligible for GAVI funding for HPV vaccine. Methods We used baseline survey data of a prospective cohort study that was conducted in one urban and one rural area of Bangladesh. A total of 997 urban and 905 rural married women, aged 13 to 64 years, were enrolled in the baseline during July-December, 2011. Information was collected on socio-demographic characteristics and potential risk factors for HPV infection followed by gynecological examination and collection of endocervical samples using the cervical cytobrush (Digene cervical sampler). HPV DNA testing was done by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) using a consensus primer set. Results Prevalence of any HPV infection was 7.7% with no significant difference between urban and rural women. Most common high-risk genotypes were HPV16, HPV66, HPV18, HPV45, HPV31 and HPV53. Urban women working as housemaids or garment workers were at higher risk of any HPV infection (OR = 2.15, 95% CI: 1.13–4.11) compared to housewives. Rural women whose husband lived overseas were almost two times more likely to have any HPV infection (OR = 1.93; 95% CI 1.05–3.55) compared to women whose husbands lived with them. Conclusion The prevalence of HPV infection among Bangladeshi women is similar to other regions of Asia. However, type-specific patterns are different. The study findings will inform the formulation of HPV vaccination policies in Bangladesh, monitoring the impact of vaccination programmes, and the identification of target populations for screening. PMID:25271836

  18. Berberine inhibits Chlamydia pneumoniae infection-induced vascular smooth muscle cell migration through downregulating MMP3 and MMP9 via PI3K.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lu; Zhang, Lijun; Wang, Beibei; Wei, Junyan; Liu, Jingya; Zhang, Lijun

    2015-05-15

    The mechanisms by which Chlamydia pneumoniae infection promote vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration required in the development of atherosclerosis have not yet been fully clarified. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have important roles in VSMC migration. However, it is still unknown whether MMPs are involved in C. pneumoniae infection-induced VSMC migration. In addition, whether berberine can exert its inhibitory effects on the infection-induced VSMC migration also remains unclear. Accordingly, we investigated the effects of berberine on C. pneumoniae infection-induced VSMC migration and explored the possible mechanisms involved in this process. Herein, we found that C. pneumoniae infection could induce VSMC migration through Matrigel-coated membrane (P<0.05), which can be significantly inhibited by the broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor GM6001 (P<0.05). Our results also showed that C. pneumoniae infection upregulated both mRNA and protein expressions of MMP3 and MMP9 (P<0.05). The specific phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 significantly suppressed the increases in MMP3 and MMP9 protein expressions induced by C. pneumoniae infection (P<0.05). Further experiments showed that berberine significantly attenuated C. pneumoniae infection-induced VSMC migration (P<0.05). Moreover, berberine suppressed the protein expressions of MMP3 and MMP9 caused by C. pneumoniae infection in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). C. pneumoniae infection-induced increase in the phosphorylation level of Akt at Ser473 was inhibited by the treatment with berberine (P<0.05). Taken together, our data suggest that berberine inhibits C. pneumoniae infection-induced VSMC migration by downregulating the expressions of MMP3 and MMP9 via PI3K. PMID:25746423

  19. The Contribution of Cervicovaginal Infections to the Immunomodulatory Effects of Hormonal Contraception

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pai-Lien; Morrison, Charles S.; Doncel, Gustavo F.; Mendonca, Kevin; Kwok, Cynthia; Chipato, Tsungai; Salata, Robert; Mauck, Christine

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Particular types of hormonal contraceptives (HCs) and genital tract infections have been independently associated with risk of HIV-1 acquisition. We examined whether immunity in women using injectable depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), combined oral contraceptives (COC), or no HCs differs by the presence of cervicovaginal infections. Immune mediators were quantified in cervical swabs from 832 HIV-uninfected reproductive-age Ugandans and Zimbabweans. Bacterial infections and HIV were diagnosed by PCR, genital herpes serostatus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), altered microflora by Nugent score, and Trichomonas vaginalis and Candida albicans infection by wet mount. Generalized linear models utilizing Box-Cox-Power transformation examined associations between levels of mediators, infection status, and HCs. In no-HC users, T. vaginalis was associated with broadest spectrum of aberrant immunity (higher interleukin 1β [IL-1β], IL-8, macrophage inflammatory protein 3α [MIP-3α], β-defensin 2 [BD2], and IL-1 receptor antigen [IL-1RA]). In women with a normal Nugent score and no genital infection, compared to the no-HC group, COC users showed higher levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-1RA, while DMPA users showed higher levels of RANTES and lower levels of BD2, both associated with HIV seroconversion. These effects of COC were blunted in the presence of gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, candidiasis, and an abnormal Nugent score; however, RANTES was increased among COC users with herpes, chlamydia, and abnormal Nugent scores. The effect of DMPA was exacerbated by lower levels of IL-1RA in gonorrhea, chlamydia, or herpes, SLPI in gonorrhea, and IL-1β, MIP-3α, and IL-1RA/IL1β ratio in trichomoniasis. Thus, the effects of HC on cervical immunity depend on the genital tract microenvironment, and a weakened mucosal barrier against HIV may be a combined resultant of genital tract infections and HC use. PMID:26330510

  20. Clueing in on Chlamydia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Wendy

    1991-01-01

    Chlamydia's role in female infertility is discussed. The relationship of this organism to other diseases such as leprosy and tuberculosis is explained. Conditions caused by Chlamydia such as Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) are described. (KR)

  1. Integrative approach to diagnosis of genital human papillomaviruses (HPV) infection of female.

    PubMed

    Dunjic, Momir; Stanisic, Slavisa; Krstic, Dejan; Stanisic, Miodrag; Ignjatic, Z Jovanovic; Dunjic, Marija

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a virus from the papillomavirus family that is capable of infecting humans. Some types of HPVs cause warts, while others can lead to cancers of the cervix, vulva, vagina, penis, oropharynx and anus. High-risk human papillomavirus (hr HPV) has been detected in almost all cervical squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas. All patients examined by colposcopy. Cervical swab is routinely done and patients are screened with both HPV DNA by Real Time Polimerase Chain Reaction (RT PCR) testing and Pap testing. Pictures obtained by colposcopy were examined by indirect Bi-Digital O-Ring Test (BDORT) by using reference control substance (RCS): HPV 16, HPV 18, and Integrin ?5 ?1. BDORT was developed by Prof. Omura Y. of New York and received U.S. patent in 1993. For detection of HPV DNA we used RT PCR and standard Qiagen method which detect 18 types (16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 68, 6, 11, 42, 43, 44) of HPV from smear. From 63 patients where is BDORT indicated presence of HPV, in 49 patients (77.8%) RT PCR confirmed presence of HPV. From 63 patients in 54 patients (85.7%), we detected, by colposcopic exam, some kind of lesions associated with HPV infection. Results obtained by RT PCR: one type (1/18) of DNA HPV in 25 patients (51.02%), 2 types (2/18) in 15 patients (30.61%) and 3 types (3/18) in 9 patients (18.37%). Although BDORT results usually have higher sensitivity and detection rate is much higher, it can be used together with RT PCR in detection of HPV and cervical lesions associated with HPV infection. PMID:25693306

  2. Recent acquisitions in the medical treatment of infertility caused by Chlamydia Trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Al-Moushaly, A

    2013-06-15

    The infertility defined as the incapacity of the people to conceive a child in a given period, usually of 1-2 years of sexually unprotected relations, represents a major dysfunction of the genital apparatus. Its frequency is estimated at 10-15% of the couples at the reproductive age. The incidence of sterility is high, a couple out of 10 being sterile. The conjugal sterility is a phenomenon representative for the couple; the woman is responsible for it only in 35-40% of the cases, in 40% of the cases, the male factor is involved. In 20% of the cases, mixed factors are met, both feminine and masculine, and in 5-10% of the cases, the causes cannot be detected. From the multitude of causes of infertility, the infectious factor plays an important role, the Chlamydia infections being lately blamed in the etiology of sterility. The infections due to Chlamydia Trachomatis (CT) represent the most frequent sexually transmitted diseases, which, most of the times lead to sterility. Taking into account the widespread of this bacterium in the sexually active population, the effective treatment of the CT infection is very important. We have selected 200 cases with PID genital infection in the study. All the selected patients had at least 2, 3 and more than 3 inflammation recurrence episodes, this way being considered cases with medium and severe forms of disease. All these selected patients had at least 2, 3 and more than 3 episodes of inflammation recurrence, this way being considered medium and severe disease cases. In conclusion, there is a high clinical efficiency of the azithromycin treatment in PID case. PMID:23904877

  3. Evaluation of WHO screening algorithm for the presumptive treatment of asymptomatic rectal gonorrhoea and chlamydia infections in at-risk MSM in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Eduard J; Wahome, Elizabeth; Okuku, Haile Selassie; Thiong'o, Alexander N; Smith, Adrian D; Duncan, Sarah; Mwambi, John; Shafi, Juma; McClelland, R Scott; Graham, Susan M

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The WHO recommends that men who have sex with men (MSM) reporting unprotected receptive anal intercourse (RAI) and either multiple partners or a partner with a sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the past 6 months should be presumptively treated for asymptomatic rectal Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infections. We evaluated this recommendation in a cohort of ‘high-risk’ MSM in Coastal Kenya. Methods We assessed presence of genitourinary and rectal symptoms, and determined prevalence and 3-month incidence of rectal NG and CT infections. We performed nucleic acid amplification testing of urine and rectal swab samples collected from MSM followed prospectively, and assessed predictive values of the WHO algorithm at baseline screening. Results Of 244 MSM screened, 240 (98.4%) were asymptomatic, and 147 (61.3%) reported any RAI in the past 6 months. Among 85 (35.4%) asymptomatic MSM meeting criteria for the WHO presumptive treatment (PT) recommendation, we identified 20 with rectal infections (six NG, 12 CT and two NG–CT co-infections). Among 62 asymptomatic MSM who did not meet criteria, we identified seven who were infected. The sensitivity and specificity of the WHO algorithm were 74.1% (95% CI 53.7% to 88.9%) and 45.8% (95% CI 36.7% to 55.2%), respectively. The 3-month incidence of any rectal NG or CT infection in asymptomatic men reporting any RAI was 39.7 (95% CI 24.3 to 64.8) per 100 person-years. Conclusions About one-third of asymptomatic MSM were eligible to receive PT for NG and CT infections. Among MSM who would qualify for PT of rectal STIs, the number needed to treat in order to treat one infection was four. Our results support the value of the WHO screening algorithm and recommended PT strategy in this population. PMID:24327758

  4. The prevalence of lower genital tract infections among ante-natal care (ANC) clinic patients in two central hospitals, Vientiane, Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Thammalangsy, Sivixay; Sihavong, Amphoy; Phouthavane, Traykhouane; Sayabounthavong, Khanthanouvieng; Puapermpoonsiri, Supaporn; Kitayaporn, Dwip; Gallwey, John; Rowe, Patrick J

    2006-01-01

    This study of lower genital tract infections in pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Vientiane, Lao PDR is a response to the reported rapid increase in the number of HIV infections in neighboring countries, and is a recognition of the important role of reproductive tract infections in facilitating HIV transmission. This cross-sectional study determines the prevalence of lower genital tract infections among 500 antenatal attendees (gestational age < or = 20 weeks) attending two hospitals serving urban areas in Vientiane, between September 2001 and March 2002. Most participants were housewives (64.4%) and government workers (16.0%). Their husbands were mainly government officers (31.4%), laborers or farmers (30.2%), and businessmen (12.4%). Sixty-four percent reported a past history of "any vaginal complaints" with 44.2% having sought treatment. Candida spp had the highest prevalence of all infections (27.0%), followed by bacterial vaginosis (14.4% by Amsel's criteria and 22.0% by Nugent's score), C. trachomatis (10.2% by nucleic acid hybridization and 9.6% by PCR), T. vaginalis (1.8%), and N. gonorrhoeae (0.8%), but no syphilis serological markers. Taken in conjunction with other surveillance data from the same period, this study indicates an opportunity to prevent epidemic spread into the community of both sexually transmitted disease and HIV by appropriate preventative programed activities, including treatment services targeted at higher risk community groups. PMID:16771234

  5. Chlamydial infection increases gonococcal colonization in a novel murine coinfection model.

    PubMed

    Vonck, Rachel A; Darville, T; O'Connell, C M; Jerse, Ann E

    2011-04-01

    Genital tract infections caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis serovars D to K occur at high incidence in many areas of the world. Despite high rates of coinfection with these pathogens, investigations of host-parasite interactions have focused on each pathogen individually. We describe here a coinfection model in which female BALB/c mice were first infected with the mouse Chlamydia species C. muridarum and then inoculated with N. gonorrhoeae following treatment with water-soluble 17β-estradiol to promote long-term gonococcal infection. Viable gonococci and chlamydiae were recovered for an average of 8 to 10 days, and diplococci and chlamydial inclusions were observed in lower genital tract tissue by immunohistochemical staining. Estradiol treatment reduced proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels in chlamydia-infected mice; however, coinfected mice had a higher percentage of vaginal neutrophils compared to mice infected with either pathogen alone. We detected no difference in pathogen-specific antibody levels due to coinfection. Interestingly, significantly more gonococci were recovered from coinfected mice compared to mice infected with N. gonorrhoeae alone. We found no evidence that C. muridarum increases gonococcal adherence to, or invasion of, immortalized murine epithelial cells. However, increased vaginal concentrations of inflammatory mediators macrophage inflammatory protein 2 and tumor necrosis factor alpha were detected in C. muridarum-infected mice prior to inoculation with N. gonorrhoeae concurrently with the downregulation of cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide and secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor genes. We conclude that female mice can be successfully infected with both C. muridarum and N. gonorrhoeae and that chlamydia-induced alterations in host innate responses may enhance gonococcal infection. PMID:21245268

  6. Screening for genital and anorectal sexually transmitted infections in HIV prevention trials in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Grijsen, ML; Graham, SM; Mwangome, M; Githua, P; Mutimba, S; Wamuyu, L; Okuku, H; Price, MA; McClelland, RS; Smith, AD; Sanders, EJ

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To demonstrate the value of routine, basic sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening at enrolment into an HIV-1 vaccine feasibility cohort study and to highlight the importance of soliciting a history of receptive anal intercourse (RAI) in adults identified as ‘high risk’. Methods Routine STI screening was offered to adults at high risk for HIV-1 upon enrolment into a cohort study in preparation for HIV-1 vaccine trials. Risk behaviors and STI prevalence were summarized, and the value of microscopy assessed. Associations between prevalent HIV-1 infection and RAI or prevalent STIs were evaluated with multiple logistic regression. Results Participants had a high burden of untreated STIs. Symptom-directed management would have missed 67% of urethritis cases in men and 59% of cervicitis cases in women. RAI was reported by 36% of male and 18% of female participants. RAI was strongly associated with HIV-1 in men (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.8, 95% CI 2.0 – 6.9), and independently associated with syphilis in women (aOR 12.9, 95% CI 3.4 – 48.7). Conclusions High-risk adults recruited for HIV-1 prevention trials carry a high STI burden. Symptom-directed treatment may miss many cases, and simple laboratory-based screening can be done with little cost. Risk assessment should include questions about anal intercourse and whether condoms were used. STI screening, including specific assessment for anorectal disease, should be offered in African research settings recruiting participants at high risk for HIV-1 acquisition. PMID:18375645

  7. Extra-ocular chlamydial infection*

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis, the causative agent of trachoma, affecting hundreds of millions of people, is now recognized as a major cause of sexually transmitted disease. In many countries chlamydial infection now outstrips gonorrhoea as the major cause of genital tract infection. Chlamydial urethritis and cervicitis are frequently complicated by ascending infection involving the endometrium, the fallopian tubes and epididymis. This often results in serious reproductive sequelae, e.g., infertility in the female and ectopic pregnancy. Extra-genital manifestations of chlamydial infection may occur involving the eyes (follicular conjunctivitis), joints (arthritis), and distal intestinal tract. Infection of the newborn child during birth may result in ocular or lung disease. There is need for further research on chlamydial infection, with the involvement of a number of different fields including medicine, epidemiology, microbiology, immunology, molecular genetics and operational research. The role of chlamydia has also to be defined in a variety of clinical syndromes for the development of improved diagnostic reagents and vaccine and the production of improved control and intervention strategies. PMID:3490921

  8. Humoral immune responses in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) either naturally infected with Chlamydia pecorum or following administration of a recombinant chlamydial major outer membrane protein vaccine.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Polkinghorne, Adam; Waugh, Courtney; Hanger, Jon; Loader, Jo; Beagley, Kenneth; Timms, Peter

    2016-02-01

    The development of a vaccine is a key strategy to combat the widespread and debilitating effects of chlamydial infection in koalas. One such vaccine in development uses recombinant chlamydial major outer membrane protein (rMOMP) as an antigen and has shown promising results in several koala trials. Previous chlamydial vaccine studies, primarily in the mouse model, suggest that both cell-mediated and antibody responses will be required for adequate protection. Recently, the important protective role of antibodies has been highlighted. In our current study, we conducted a detailed analysis of the antibody-mediated immune response in koalas that are either (a) naturally-infected, and/or (b) had received an rMOMP vaccine. Firstly, we observed that naturally-infected koalas had very low levels of Chlamydia pecorum-specific neutralising antibodies. A strong correlation between low IgG total titers/neutralising antibody levels, and higher C. pecorum infection load was also observed in these naturally-infected animals. In vaccinated koalas, we showed that the vaccine was able to boost the humoral immune response by inducing strong levels of C. pecorum-specific neutralising antibodies. A detailed characterisation of the MOMP epitope response was also performed in naturally-infected and vaccinated koalas using a PepScan epitope approach. This analysis identified unique sets of MOMP epitope antibodies between naturally-infected non-protected and diseased koalas, versus vaccinated koalas, with the latter group of animals producing a unique set of specific epitope-directed antibodies that we demonstrated were responsible for the in vitro neutralisation activity. Together, these results show the importance of antibodies in chlamydial infection and immunity following vaccination in the koala. PMID:26747718

  9. Genetic Passive Immunization with Adenoviral Vector Expressing Chimeric Nanobody-Fc Molecules as Therapy for Genital Infection Caused by Mycoplasma hominis

    PubMed Central

    Dolzhikova, Inna V.; Shcherbinin, Dmitry N.; Zubkova, Olga V.; Ivanova, Tatiana I.; Tukhvatulin, Amir I.; Shmarov, Maxim M.; Logunov, Denis Y.; Naroditsky, Boris S.; Gintsburg, Aleksandr L.

    2016-01-01

    Developing pathogen-specific recombinant antibody fragments (especially nanobodies) is a very promising strategy for the treatment of infectious disease. Nanobodies have great potential for gene therapy application due to their single-gene nature. Historically, Mycoplasma hominis has not been considered pathogenic bacteria due to the lack of acute infection and partially due to multiple studies demonstrating high frequency of isolation of M. hominis samples from asymptomatic patients. However, recent studies on the role of latent M. hominis infection in oncologic transformation, especially prostate cancer, and reports that M. hominis infects Trichomonas and confers antibiotic resistance to Trichomonas, have generated new interest in this field. In the present study we have generated specific nanobody against M. hominis (aMh), for which the identified target is the ABC-transporter substrate-binding protein. aMh exhibits specific antibacterial action against M. hominis. In an attempt to improve the therapeutic properties, we have developed the adenoviral vector-based gene therapy approach for passive immunization with nanobodies against M. hominis. For better penetration into the mucous layer of the genital tract, we fused aMh with the Fc-fragment of IgG. Application of this comprehensive approach with a single systemic administration of recombinant adenovirus expressing aMh-Fc demonstrated both prophylactic and therapeutic effects in a mouse model of genital M. hominis infection. PMID:26962869

  10. Genetic Passive Immunization with Adenoviral Vector Expressing Chimeric Nanobody-Fc Molecules as Therapy for Genital Infection Caused by Mycoplasma hominis.

    PubMed

    Burmistrova, Daria A; Tillib, Sergey V; Shcheblyakov, Dmitry V; Dolzhikova, Inna V; Shcherbinin, Dmitry N; Zubkova, Olga V; Ivanova, Tatiana I; Tukhvatulin, Amir I; Shmarov, Maxim M; Logunov, Denis Y; Naroditsky, Boris S; Gintsburg, Aleksandr L

    2016-01-01

    Developing pathogen-specific recombinant antibody fragments (especially nanobodies) is a very promising strategy for the treatment of infectious disease. Nanobodies have great potential for gene therapy application due to their single-gene nature. Historically, Mycoplasma hominis has not been considered pathogenic bacteria due to the lack of acute infection and partially due to multiple studies demonstrating high frequency of isolation of M. hominis samples from asymptomatic patients. However, recent studies on the role of latent M. hominis infection in oncologic transformation, especially prostate cancer, and reports that M. hominis infects Trichomonas and confers antibiotic resistance to Trichomonas, have generated new interest in this field. In the present study we have generated specific nanobody against M. hominis (aMh), for which the identified target is the ABC-transporter substrate-binding protein. aMh exhibits specific antibacterial action against M. hominis. In an attempt to improve the therapeutic properties, we have developed the adenoviral vector-based gene therapy approach for passive immunization with nanobodies against M. hominis. For better penetration into the mucous layer of the genital tract, we fused aMh with the Fc-fragment of IgG. Application of this comprehensive approach with a single systemic administration of recombinant adenovirus expressing aMh-Fc demonstrated both prophylactic and therapeutic effects in a mouse model of genital M. hominis infection. PMID:26962869

  11. Oestradiol-induced infection of the genital tract of female mice by Mycoplasma hominis.

    PubMed

    Furr, P M; Taylor-Robinson, D

    1989-10-01

    Treatment of female BALB/c mice with oestradiol rendered them susceptible to vaginal colonization by three of four different strains of Mycoplasma hominis. Overall, the organisms were recovered persistently from the vagina of 68 (87%) of 78 of these mice. Strain TO mice given one of the strains were at least susceptible, all of ten becoming colonized and larger numbers of organisms being recovered. The hormone arrested the reproductive cycle in the oestrous phase, characterized by non-nucleated, cornified vaginal epithelial cells. In contrast, M. hominis organisms were isolated transiently from only seven (10.5%) of 66 BALB/c mice not treated with oestradiol, after intravaginal inoculation; treatment with progesterone, which induced the dioestrous phase of the cycle, did not render any of 10 BALB/c mice susceptible to vaginal colonization. The minimum number of organisms (2.5 x 10(5)) of one strain of M. hominis and the minimum dose of oestradiol (0.05 mg) required to induce persistent colonization were established. Vaginal colonization persisted for more than 200 d in some mice, the numbers of organisms recovered ranging between 10(1) and 10(8). At autopsy there was evidence of spread to the uterine horns and ovaries, and also to the oropharynx, of some animals but not to other organs. Infection was not associated with a polymorphonuclear leucocyte response in the vagina or elsewhere, but a fourfold serum antibody response to M. hominis, measured by the metabolism-inhibition technique, was detected in almost half of the mice tested. PMID:2632670

  12. [Chlamydia pneumoniae and acute respiratory tract infections in breast-feeding infants: simultaneous mother-child serological study in Niamey (Niger)].

    PubMed

    Cénac, Arnaud; Djibo, Ali; Chaigneau, Christine; Degbey, Herbert; Sueur, Jean-Marie; Orfila, Jeanne

    2002-01-01

    The age and the origin of Chlamydia pneumoniae primary infection in Sahelian areas are unknown. To evaluate the prevalence of C. pneumoniae antibodies, the authors studied the serological status of C. pneumoniae-, C. psittaci- and C. trachomatis-specific antibodies of 50 mother-child couples using the microimmunofluorescence technique. Children were 10 to 34 month-old (18,1 6,2, mean SD), breast-fed and hospitalized with acute respiratory tract infections in Niamey (republic of Niger). Specific C. pneumoniae IgG antibodies were present in 46/48 (95.8%) children, IgA in 32/48 (66.6%). In the mothers, specific C. pneumoniae IgG antibodies were present in 40/48 (83.3%), IgA in 31/48 (64.6%). The specific IgM antibodies were steadily absent in mothers and children. In the mother-child couples, 38/46 (79.2%) had specific C. pneumoniae IgG antibodies and 23/47 (48.9%) had IgA. The prevalence of specific C. pneumoniae IgG and IgA antibodies is very high in this population. These results point out that C. pneumoniae primary infection is very precocious in this paediatric population and is very different from American, Asian and European reports. A mother-child direct contamination during the first months of life in this breast-feeding pediatric population is discussed. PMID:12196294

  13. Chlamydia trachomatis Pgp3 Antibody Persists and Correlates with Self-Reported Infection and Behavioural Risks in a Blinded Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Righarts, Antoinette; Vieira, Sueli; Kounali, Daphne; Samuel, Dhanraj; Winston, Alan; Muir, David; Dickson, Nigel P.; McClure, Myra O.

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) serological studies in populations could help monitor changes in lifetime cumulative risk of infection. We developed a double-antigen sandwich ELISA based on the Ct-specific Pgp3 antigen, then tested blind stored sera from over 800 participants in a New Zealand birth cohort from Dunedin at ages 26, 32 and 38. The double-antigen sandwich ELISA was more sensitive than our previously characterised indirect Pgp3 ELISA. Pgp3 antibody was detected more often in women compared to men and correlated with increasing numbers of sexual partners, self-reported Ct, and younger age at sexual debut in both women and men. At age 26, 24.1% (99/411) of women were Pgp3 seropositive, as were 79.5% (35/44) of those reporting Ct infection; Pgp3 antibody persisted to age 38 in 96.5% (83/86). In men at age 26, the figures were 10.7% (47/442) and 25.0% (6/24), respectively, with high (83.9%) antibody persistence to age 38. At age 38, among those Pgp3 seropositive, 63.3% of women and 83.1% of men had not reported Ct infection. Thus, Ct-specific Pgp3 antibody was detected in most women reporting Ct infection and correlated with risk of infection in those who did not, with most infections remaining undetected. As this antibody persisted for at least twelve years in 96% of these women, serology could be used to evaluate Ct prevention programmes among women. PMID:26974653

  14. Risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in adolescents: results from a representative population-based survey in Germany, 2003-2006.

    PubMed

    Haar, K; Bremer, V; Houareau, C; Meyer, T; Desai, S; Thamm, M; Hamouda, O

    2013-01-01

    Infections with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) can lead to severe sequelae; however, they are not notifiable in Germany. We tested urine samples from participants of KiGGS (German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents) for CT infections and linked the results to demographic and behavioural data from 1,925 participants (girls aged 15-17 years and boys aged 16-17 years) to determine a representative prevalence of CT infection in adolescents in Germany and to assess associated risk factors. Prevalence of CT infection was 2.2% (95% CI: 1.4-3.5) in girls and 0.2% (95% CI: 0.1-0.7) in boys. CT infection in girls was associated with higher use of alcohol, marijuana and cigarettes, lower social status, oral contraceptive use, pregnancy, repeated lower abdominal pain and higher rates of doctors' consultations within the preceding three months and consultation of gynaecologists within the last 12 months. In multiple logistic regression, we identified two predictors for CT infection: marijuana consumption often or several times within the last 12 months (F(1,164)=7.56; p<0.05) and general health status less than 'very good' (F(1,164)=3.83; p=0.052). Given our findings, we recommend enhancing sex education before sexual debut and promoting safe sex practices regardless of the contraceptive method used. Well-informed consumption of alcohol should be promoted, the risky behaviour of people intoxicated through consumption of marijuana highlighted and doctors' awareness of CT screening enhanced. PMID:23987832

  15. A Lentiviral Vector-Based, Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) Glycoprotein B Vaccine Affords Cross-Protection against HSV-1 and HSV-2 Genital Infections

    PubMed Central

    Chiuppesi, Flavia; Vannucci, Laura; De Luca, Anna; Lai, Michele; Matteoli, Barbara; Freer, Giulia; Manservigi, Roberto; Ceccherini-Nelli, Luca; Maggi, Fabrizio; Bendinelli, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    Genital herpes is caused by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2, and its incidence is constantly increasing in the human population. Regardless of the clinical manifestation, HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections are highly transmissible to sexual partners and enhance susceptibility to other sexually transmitted infections. An effective vaccine is not yet available. Here, HSV-1 glycoprotein B (gB1) was delivered by a feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) vector and tested against HSV-1 and HSV-2 vaginal challenges in C57BL/6 mice. The gB1 vaccine elicited cross-neutralizing antibodies and cell-mediated responses that protected 100 and 75% animals from HSV-1- and HSV-2-associated severe disease, respectively. Two of the eight fully protected vaccinees underwent subclinical HSV-2 infection, as demonstrated by deep immunosuppression and other analyses. Finally, vaccination prevented death in 83% of the animals challenged with a HSV-2 dose that killed 78 and 100% naive and mock-vaccinated controls, respectively. Since this FIV vector can accommodate two or more HSV immunogens, this vaccine has ample potential for improvement and may become a candidate for the development of a truly effective vaccine against genital herpes. PMID:22491465

  16. The DNA sensor, cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) is essential for induction of IFN beta during Chlamydia trachomatis infection1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yugen; Yeruva, Laxmi; Marinov, Anthony; Prantner, Daniel; Wyrick, Priscilla; Lupashin, Vladimir; Nagarajan, Uma M.

    2014-01-01

    IFNβ has been implicated as an effector of oviduct pathology resulting from genital chlamydial infection in the mouse model. In this study, we investigated the role of cytosolic DNA and engagement of DNA sensors in IFNβ expression during chlamydial infection. We determined that TREX-1, a host 3’to 5’ exonuclease, reduced IFNβ expression significantly during chlamydial infection using siRNA and gene knock out fibroblasts, implicating cytosolic DNA as a ligand for this response. The DNA sensor cGAS has been shown to bind cytosolic DNA to generate cGAMP, which binds to the signaling adaptor STING to induce IFNβ expression. We determined that cGAS is required for IFNβ expression during chlamydial infection in multiple cell types. Interestingly, although infected cells deficient for STING or cGAS alone failed to induce IFNβ, co-culture of cells depleted for either STING or cGAS rescued IFNβ expression. These data demonstrate that cGAMP produced in infected cGAS+STING− cells can migrate into adjacent cells via gap junctions to function in trans in cGAS−STING+ cells. Further, we observed cGAS localized in punctate regions on the cytosolic side of the chlamydial inclusion membrane in association with STING, indicating that chlamydial DNA is likely recognized outside the inclusion as infection progresses. These novel findings provide evidence that cGAS-mediated-DNA sensing directs IFNβ expression during C.trachomatis infection and suggests that effectors from infected cells can directly upregulate IFNβ expression in adjacent uninfected cells during in vivo infection, contributing to pathogenesis. PMID:25070851

  17. Genital contact allergy: A diagnosis missed

    PubMed Central

    Marfatia, Yogesh S.; Patel, Dimpal; Menon, Devi S.; Naswa, Smriti

    2016-01-01

    Genital allergy should be considered as a possible diagnosis in all patients with genital soreness or irritation for which no infection or dermatosis can be identified and in whom symptoms remain unchanged or worsen with treatment. It is an underreported and underdiagnosed condition as patients may not complain about symptoms in this area. Moreover, diagnosis and therapy may not often be conducted by a dermatologist or allergologist. Therefore, many cases of allergic diseases in the genital area remain undetected. PMID:27190404

  18. Molecular Diagnosis of Sexually Transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Harkins, April L.; Munson, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydia, with its Chlamydia trachomatis etiology, is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection in the United States and is often transmitted via asymptomatic individuals. This review summarizes traditional and molecular-based diagnostic modalities specific to C. trachomatis. Several commercially available, FDA-approved molecular methods to diagnose urogenital C. trachomatis infection include nucleic acid hybridization, signal amplification, polymerase chain reaction, strand displacement amplification, and transcription-mediated amplification. Molecular-based methods are rapid and reliable genital specimen screening measures, especially when applied to areas of high disease prevalence. However, clinical and analytical sensitivity for some commercial systems decreases dramatically when testing urine samples. In vitro experiments and clinical data suggest that transcription-mediated amplification has greater analytical sensitivity than the other molecular-based methods currently available. This difference may be further exhibited in testing of extragenital specimens from at-risk patient demographics. The development of future molecular testing could address conundrums associated with confirmatory testing, medicolegal testing, and test of cure. PMID:21822498

  19. Comparison of viral isolation, direct immunofluorescence, and indirect immunoperoxidase techniques for detection of genital herpes simplex virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Moseley, R C; Corey, L; Benjamin, D; Winter, C; Remington, M L

    1981-01-01

    Seventy-six consecutive patients presenting to a genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) clinic were enrolled in a study comparing viral isolation (VI), indirect immunoperoxidase (indirect IP), and direct immunofluorescence (direct FA) techniques for the detection of HSV antigen. Of the 76 patients, 61 (80%) demonstrated HSV by VI, compared with 66% by indirect IP and 55% by direct FA (P less than 0.05). Genital lesions from nine patients demonstrated HSV antigen by direct FA or indirect IP but were VI negative; eight of nine patients had subsequent episodes of genital HSV confirmed by VI. During the vesicular-pustular stage of the disease, VI was positive in 90%, indirect IP was positive in 76%, and direct FA was positive in 71% of the lesions, whereas with ulcerative lesions, VI was positive in 72%, indirect IP was positive in 55%, and direct FA was positive in 38%. These commercially available rapid viral diagnostic techniques are specific and useful, if adequate specimens are obtained from early genital lesions. PMID:6263945

  20. Extragenital Gonorrhea and Chlamydia Testing and Infection Among Men Who Have Sex With Men—STD Surveillance Network, United States, 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Patton, Monica E.; Kidd, Sarah; Llata, Eloisa; Stenger, Mark; Braxton, Jim; Asbel, Lenore; Bernstein, Kyle; Gratzer, Beau; Jespersen, Megan; Kerani, Roxanne; Mettenbrink, Christie; Mohamed, Mukhtar; Pathela, Preeti; Schumacher, Christina; Stirland, Ali; Stover, Jeff; Tabidze, Irina; Kirkcaldy, Robert D.; Weinstock, Hillard

    2015-01-01

    Background Gonorrhea (GC) and chlamydia (CT) are the most commonly reported notifiable diseases in the United States. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that men who have sex with men (MSM) be screened for urogenital GC/CT, rectal GC/CT, and pharyngeal GC. We describe extragenital GC/CT testing and infections among MSM attending sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics. Methods The STD Surveillance Network collects patient data from 42 STD clinics. We assessed the proportion of MSM attending these clinics during July 2011–June 2012 who were tested and positive for extragenital GC/CT at their most recent visit or in the preceding 12 months and the number of extragenital infections that would have remained undetected with urethral screening alone. Results Of 21 994 MSM, 83.9% were tested for urogenital GC, 65.9% for pharyngeal GC, 50.4% for rectal GC, 81.4% for urogenital CT, 31.7% for pharyngeal CT, and 45.9% for rectal CT. Of MSM tested, 11.1% tested positive for urogenital GC, 7.9% for pharyngeal GC, 10.2% for rectal GC, 8.4% for urogenital CT, 2.9% for pharyngeal CT, and 14.1% for rectal CT. More than 70% of extragenital GC infections and 85% of extragenital CT infections were associated with negative urethral tests at the same visit and would not have been detected with urethral screening alone. Conclusions Extragenital GC/CT was common among MSM attending STD clinics, but many MSM were not tested. Most extragenital infections would not have been identified, and likely would have remained untreated, with urethral screening alone. Efforts are needed to facilitate implementation of extragenital GC/CT screening recommendations for MSM. PMID:24647015

  1. Membrane vesicle production by Chlamydia trachomatis as an adaptive response

    PubMed Central

    Frohlich, Kyla M.; Hua, Ziyu; Quayle, Alison J.; Wang, Jin; Lewis, Maria E.; Chou, Chau-wen; Luo, Miao; Buckner, Lyndsey R.; Shen, Li

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria have evolved specific adaptive responses to cope with changing environments. These adaptations include stress response phenotypes with dynamic modifications of the bacterial cell envelope and generation of membrane vesicles (MVs). The obligate intracellular bacterium, Chlamydia trachomatis, typically has a biphasic lifestyle, but can enter into an altered growth state typified by morphologically aberrant chlamydial forms, termed persistent growth forms, when induced by stress in vitro. How C. trachomatis can adapt to a persistent growth state in host epithelial cells in vivo is not well understood, but is an important question, since it extends the host-bacterial relationship in vitro and has thus been indicated as a survival mechanism in chronic chlamydial infections. Here, we review recent findings on the mechanistic aspects of bacterial adaptation to stress with a focus on how C. trachomatis remodels its envelope, produces MVs, and the potential important consequences of MV production with respect to host-pathogen interactions. Emerging data suggest that the generation of MVs may be an important mechanism for C. trachomatis intracellular survival of stress, and thus may aid in the establishment of a chronic infection in human genital epithelial cells. PMID:24959424

  2. Prevalence of genital Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma, Gardnerella, and human papillomavirus in Japanese men with urethritis, and risk factors for detection of urethral human papillomavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Shigehara, Kazuyoshi; Kawaguchi, Shohei; Sasagawa, Toshiyuki; Furubayashi, Keiichi; Shimamura, Masayoshi; Maeda, Yuji; Konaka, Hiroyuki; Mizokami, Atsushi; Koh, Eitetsu; Namiki, Mikio

    2011-08-01

    To analyze the risk factors for HPV infection in the urethra, we examined the prevalence of various microorganisms, for example Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Ureaplasma parvum, Gardnerella vaginalis, and human papillomavirus (HPV) in Japanese male patients with urethritis, and investigated their sexual backgrounds. Rubbed samples obtained from the distal urethra and questionnaires regarding sexual activity and demographic information were collected from 176 participants. N. gonorrhoeae, C. trachomatis, M. genitalium, M. hominis, U. urealyticum, U. parvum, G. vaginalis, and HPV were detected in 19, 26, 18, 12, 12, 8.5, 14, and 20%, respectively, of all cases in this study. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that more than 4 sexual partners within the last year and presence of N. gonorrhoeae and/or C. trachomatis and/or M. genitalium infections were independent risk factors for urethral HPV infection, with odds ratios of 3.85 (95% CI 1.49-9.94) and 2.41 (95% CI 1.03-5.61), respectively. It is likely that urethral HPV detection is associated with current sexual activity and the presence of N. gonorrhoeae, C. trachomatis, and/or M. genitalium infections. PMID:21213011

  3. Calcium, ARMS2 genotype, and Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in early age-related macular degeneration: a multivariate analysis from the Nagahama study.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Isao; Yamashiro, Kenji; Kawaguchi, Takahisa; Nakanishi, Hideo; Akagi-Kurashige, Yumiko; Miyake, Masahiro; Tsujikawa, Akitaka; Yamada, Ryo; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2015-01-01

    Although various risk factors have been identified for the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), risk factors of early AMD have been relatively under studied. We aimed to investigate AMD risk factors by evaluating multiple factors in association with large drusen, an important component of AMD, simultaneously. In a community-based cross-sectional survey in Japan, 971 large drusen cases and 3,209 controls were compared for 65 variables, including systemic, environmental, and genetic factors. The association and the effect size of each factor were evaluated with logistic regression analysis using a backward-elimination approach. Multivariate analyses identified a significant association in serum calcium level (odds ratio [OR] = 0.932, P = 1.05 × 10(-3)), ARMS2 A69S (rs10490924) genotype (OR = 1.046, P < 0.001), Chlamydia pneumoniae IgG (OR = 1.020, P = 0.0440), and age (OR = 1.013, P < 0.001) for large drusen. Hypocalcemia was observed in 7.2% of large drusen cases and in 5.5% of controls (P = 0.0490). C. pneumoniae infections was more frequent in large drusen cases (56.4%) than in controls (51.7%, P = 0.00956). These results suggest that calcium, ARMS2 genotype, C. pneumonia infection, and age are significant factors in the development of the early stages of AMD. PMID:25792034

  4. Calcium, ARMS2 Genotype, and Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infection in Early Age-Related Macular Degeneration: a Multivariate Analysis from the Nagahama Study

    PubMed Central

    Nakata, Isao; Yamashiro, Kenji; Kawaguchi, Takahisa; Nakanishi, Hideo; Akagi-Kurashige, Yumiko; Miyake, Masahiro; Tsujikawa, Akitaka; Yamada, Ryo; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2015-01-01

    Although various risk factors have been identified for the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), risk factors of early AMD have been relatively under studied. We aimed to investigate AMD risk factors by evaluating multiple factors in association with large drusen, an important component of AMD, simultaneously. In a community-based cross-sectional survey in Japan, 971 large drusen cases and 3,209 controls were compared for 65 variables, including systemic, environmental, and genetic factors. The association and the effect size of each factor were evaluated with logistic regression analysis using a backward-elimination approach. Multivariate analyses identified a significant association in serum calcium level (odds ratio [OR] = 0.932, P = 1.05 10?3), ARMS2 A69S (rs10490924) genotype (OR = 1.046, P < 0.001), Chlamydia pneumoniae IgG (OR = 1.020, P = 0.0440), and age (OR = 1.013, P < 0.001) for large drusen. Hypocalcemia was observed in 7.2% of large drusen cases and in 5.5% of controls (P = 0.0490). C. pneumoniae infections was more frequent in large drusen cases (56.4%) than in conrols (51.7%, P = 0.00956). These results suggest that calcium, ARMS2 genotype, C. pneumonia infection, and age are significant factors in the development of the early stages of AMD. PMID:25792034

  5. Directional evolution of Chlamydia trachomatis towards niche-specific adaptation.

    PubMed

    Borges, Vítor; Nunes, Alexandra; Ferreira, Rita; Borrego, Maria J; Gomes, João P

    2012-11-01

    On behalf of the host-pathogen "arms race," a cutting-edge approach for elucidating genotype-phenotype relationships relies on the identification of positively selected loci involved in pathoadaptation. We studied the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis, for which same-species strains display a nearly identical core and pan genome, while presenting a wide range of tissue tropism and ecological success. We sought to evaluate the evolutionary patterns underlying species separation (divergence) and C. trachomatis serovar radiation (polymorphism) and to establish genotype-phenotype associations. By analyzing 60 Chlamydia strains, we detected traces of Muller's ratchet as a result of speciation and identified positively selected genes and codons hypothetically involved in the infection of different human cell types (e.g., columnar epithelial cells of ocular or genital mucosae and mononuclear phagocytes) and also events likely driving pathogenic and ecological success dissimilarities. In general, these genes code for proteins involved in immune response elicitation, proteolysis, and the subversion of host-cell functions, and also for proteins with unknown function(s). Several genes are potentially involved in more than one adaptive process, suggesting multiple functions or a distinct modus operandi for a specific function, and thus should be considered as crucial research targets. In addition, six of the nine genes encoding the putative antigen/adhesin polymorphic membrane proteins seem to be under positive selection along specific serovars, which sustains an essential biological role of this extra-large paralogue family in chlamydial pathobiology. This study provides insight into how evolutionary inferences illuminate ecological processes such as adaptation to different niches, pathogenicity, or ecological success driven by arms races. PMID:22961851

  6. Chlamydiae as agents of human and animal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Schachter, J.; Storz, J.; Tarizzo, M. L.; Bögel, K.

    1973-01-01

    A brief review is given of the properties, occurrence, and public health significance of chlamydiae in man and animals and of the diagnosis and control of chlamydial infections. Chlamydiae occur naturally in a large number of avian and mammalian species. Man is the primary host of chlamydiae causing trachoma, inclusio