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1

Chlamydia trachomatis genital infections in tahiti  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate ofChlamydia trachomatis infection was determined in three populations in Tahiti by means of a direct immunofluorescence test performed in specimens, tissue culture and detection of chlamydial antibody in serum specimens using a single-serotype indirect immunofluorescence test.Chlamydia trachomatis was recovered in 53 % of 53 bar girls, 24 % of 75 women attending a public maternity clinic for routine

E. Chungue; J. L. Cartel; M. Tourneux; A. Mahé; P. Pérolat; F. Flye Sainte Marie; J. Roux

1988-01-01

2

Chlamydia trachomatis infection of the male genital tract: an update.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the most prevalent cause of sexually transmitted diseases. Although the prevalence of chlamydial infection is similar in men and women, current research and screening are still focused on women, who develop the most severe complications, leaving the study of male genital tract (MGT) infection underrated. Herein, we reviewed the literature on genital CT infection with special focus on the MGT. Data indicate that CT certainly infects different parts of the MGT such as the urethra, seminal vesicles, prostate, epididymis and testis. However, whether or not CT infection has detrimental effects on male fertility is still controversial. The most important features of CT infection are its chronic nature and the presence of a mild inflammation that remains subclinical in most individuals. Chlamydia antigens and pathogen recognition receptors (PRR), expressed on epithelial cells and immune cells from the MGT, have been studied in the last years. Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression has been observed in the testis, epididymis, prostate and vas deferens. It has been demonstrated that recognition of chlamydial antigens is associated with TLR2, TLR4, and possibly, other PRRs. CT recognition by PRRs induces a local production of cytokines/chemokines, which, in turn, provoke chronic inflammation that might evolve in the onset of an autoimmune process in genetically susceptible individuals. Understanding local immune response along the MGT, as well as the crosstalk between resident leukocytes, epithelial, and stromal cells, would be crucial in inducing a protective immunity, thus adding to the design of new therapeutic approaches to a Chlamydia vaccine. PMID:23870458

Mackern-Oberti, Juan Pablo; Motrich, Rubén Darío; Breser, María Laura; Sánchez, Leonardo Rodolfo; Cuffini, Cecilia; Rivero, Virginia Elena

2013-11-01

3

Characterization Of The Kinetics Of Chlamydia Muridarum Infection In Defined Regions Of The Murine Genital Tract.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease worldwide, and leads to pathological sequelae including pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility. The continued increase in incidence rates of genital chlamy...

I. Eskildsen

2008-01-01

4

Glycogen Assay for Diagnosis of Female Genital Chlamydia trachomatis Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydia trachomatis can synthesize glycogen at various stages in its developmental cycle. The glycogen content of female genital epithelial cells was detected by anthrone, and the results were compared with those from PCR. A total of 320 cervical samples were examined. Of 92 specimens that were positive by PCR, 78 were positive and 14 were negative by the glycogen assay.

YANG CHUN; ZHU DAO YIN

1998-01-01

5

Genital Chlamydia trachomatis (serotypes DK) infection in Jamaican commercial street sex workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections in commercial street sex workers (CSSW) in Jamaica. METHODS: The prevalence of C trachomatis infection was determined in 129 Jamaican CSSW using the direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) method and the isolation techniques which utilise fluorescent and iodine staining of endocervical cytobrush specimens cultured in McCoy cells. The seroprevalence of C

G Dowe; S D King; A R Brathwaite; Z Wynter; R Chout

1997-01-01

6

Chlamydia Screening in Ireland: a pilot study of opportunistic screening for genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Ireland (2007-2009). Summary Integrated Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genital Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection is the most common curable, bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide [1, 2]. The number of cases notified in Ireland increased from 3,353 in 2005 to 5,781 in 2009 [3]. Notifications have increased since 2004 when legislation requiring laboratory notification came into effect. Chlamydia is usually a ‘silent’ asymptomatic infection, spread without the knowledge of

Myles Balfe; Ruairi Brugha; Emer OConnell; Deirdre Vaughan; Diarmuid ODonovan; Claire Coleman; Ronan Conroy; Martin Cormican; Margaret Fitzgerald; Catherine Fleming; Hannah McGee; Andrew Murphy; Grainne Ni Fhoghlu; Ciaran ONeill; Paddy Gillespie

2012-01-01

7

Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Infection Among Persons Aged 14-39 Years - United States, 2007-2012.  

PubMed

Infection with the bacterium, Chlamydia trachomatis (often termed "chlamydia") is the most frequently reported sexually transmitted infection in the United States. The urethra is the most common site of infection in males, and the urethra and cervix are most commonly infected in females. Ascending infection in females can cause pelvic inflammatory disease, which can lead to infertility and ectopic pregnancy. Genital chlamydial infections are usually asymptomatic, and screening is necessary to identify most infections. Currently, chlamydia screening for sexually active women aged <25 years is recommended by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (grade B recommendation). Chlamydia is nationally notifiable; however, if females do not access care or clinicians do not screen, many infections go undiagnosed, unreported, and untreated. CDC monitors population prevalence of genital chlamydial infection through the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), which tests a sample of the U.S. population aged 14-39 years for genital C. trachomatis and found that the overall chlamydia burden in the United States decreased during 1999-2008. Using data from the most recent cycles of NHANES (2007-2012), CDC estimated chlamydia prevalence among persons aged 14-39 years overall and by demographic characteristics and sexual behaviors. The prevalence of chlamydia among persons aged 14-39 years was 1.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4%-2.0%). Chlamydia prevalence varied by age and race/ethnicity, with prevalence highest among non-Hispanic blacks (5.2%). Among sexually active females aged 14-24 years, the population targeted for routine screening, chlamydia prevalence was 4.7% overall and 13.5% among non-Hispanic black females. As chlamydia is common and infections are usually asymptomatic, health care providers should routinely screen sexually active young women aged <25 years for chlamydial infection, provide prompt treatment for infected persons, and ensure that infected patients' sex partners receive timely treatment to prevent reinfection. PMID:25254560

Torrone, Elizabeth; Papp, John; Weinstock, Hillard

2014-09-26

8

Integrin ?4?1 is necessary for CD4+ T cell-mediated protection against genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection in the United States and a significant health burden worldwide. Protection from Chlamydia infection in the genital mucosa is dependent on IFN-? derived from CD4(+) Th1 cells. These CD4(+) T cells must home successfully to the genital tract to exert their effector function and decrease C. trachomatis burden. Although adhesion receptors expressed by CD4(+) T cells in the genital tract have been characterized, the integrin receptor required for Chlamydia-specific CD4(+) T cell-mediated protection has not been explored. In this study, we demonstrate that C. trachomatis infection of the upper genital tract results in recruitment of Chlamydia-specific CD4(+) T cells robustly expressing the integrin ?4?1. Interfering with ?4?1, but not ?4?7, function resulted in defective CD4(+) T cell trafficking to the uterus and high bacterial load. We conclude that integrin ?4?1 is necessary for CD4(+) T cell-mediated protection against C. trachomatis infection in the genital mucosa. By identifying homing molecules required for successful CD4(+) T cell trafficking to C. trachomatis-infected tissues, we will be better equipped to design vaccines that elicit sterilizing, long-lasting immunity without inducing immune pathologies in the upper genital tract. PMID:24659687

Davila, Sergio J; Olive, Andrew J; Starnbach, Michael N

2014-05-01

9

Influence of the tryptophan-indole-IFN? axis on human genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection: role of vaginal co-infections.  

PubMed

The natural history of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections can vary widely; infections can spontaneously resolve but can also last from months to years, potentially progressing to cause significant pathology. The host and bacterial factors underlying this wide variation are not completely understood, but emphasize the bacterium's capacity to evade/adapt to the genital immune response, and/or exploit local environmental conditions to survive this immune response. IFN? is considered to be a primary host protective cytokine against endocervical C. trachomatis infections. IFN? acts by inducing the host enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxgenase, which catabolizes tryptophan, thereby depriving the bacterium of this essential amino acid. In vitro studies have revealed that tryptophan deprivation causes Chlamydia to enter a viable but non-infectious growth pattern that is termed a persistent growth form, characterized by a unique morphology and gene expression pattern. Provision of tryptophan can reactivate the bacterium to the normal developmental cycle. There is a significant difference in the capacity of ocular and genital C. trachomatis serovars to counter tryptophan deprivation. The latter uniquely encode a functional tryptophan synthase to synthesize tryptophan via indole salvage, should indole be available in the infection microenvironment. In vitro studies have confirmed the capacity of indole to mitigate the effects of IFN?; it has been suggested that a perturbed vaginal microbiome may provide a source of indole in vivo. Consistent with this hypothesis, the microbiome associated with bacterial vaginosis includes species that encode a tryptophanase to produce indole. In this review, we discuss the natural history of genital chlamydial infections, morphological and molecular changes imposed by IFN? on Chlamydia, and finally, the microenvironmental conditions associated with vaginal co-infections that can ameliorate the effects of IFN? on C. trachomatis. PMID:24918090

Aiyar, Ashok; Quayle, Alison J; Buckner, Lyndsey R; Sherchand, Shardulendra P; Chang, Theresa L; Zea, Arnold H; Martin, David H; Belland, Robert J

2014-01-01

10

The mouse model of Chlamydia genital tract infection: a review of infection, disease, immunity and vaccine development.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection worldwide. The impact of this pathogen on human reproduction has intensified research efforts to better understand chlamydial infection and pathogenesis. Whilst there are animal models available that mimic many aspects of human chlamydial infection, the mouse is regarded as the most practical and widely used of the models. Studies in mice have greatly contributed to our understanding of the host-pathogen interaction and provided an excellent medium for evaluating vaccines. Here we explore the advantages and disadvantages of all animal models of chlamydial genital tract infection, with a focus on the murine model and what we have learnt from it so far. PMID:24102506

O'Meara, C P; Andrew, D W; Beagley, K W

2014-03-01

11

Micronucleus frequency in women with genital Chlamydia Trachomatis infection before and after therapy.  

PubMed

The main aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of infection with the intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis, and subsequent treatments with oral doxycycline or azithromycin on the frequency of micronuclei (MN) in peripheral blood lymphocytes of adult female patients receiving standard doses of these drugs. The frequency of micronuclei was measured in the lymphocytes of 38 newly diagnosed adult women with genital C. trachomatis infection. Samples were taken before and after the therapy, and from 50 healthy control females. The therapy was taken orally during 10 days at 2 x 100 mg per day, and then for another 10 days at 1 x 100 mg per day for doxycycline, and as a single dose of 1g for azithromycin. Isolated lymphocytes from all subjects were cultured by use of the whole-blood method and blocked in metaphase with cytochalasin B (Cyt B). One thousand binucleate cells per subject were scored according to published criteria. The frequency of micronuclei was not significantly higher in samples of infected females before therapy, compared with the baseline frequency in healthy control females (p > 0.05). In patients who received doxycycline, the micronucleus frequency after the end of therapy was significantly higher than before treatment (p < 0.001). The mean frequency of micronuclei in females after the end of the therapy with azithromycin did not show an increase (p > 0.05). The application of linear regression analysis showed that the difference in micronucleus frequency before and after therapy (effect of the antibiotics) was affected by the therapy type. Age and smoking did not affect micronucleus frequency in analyzed samples of patients (p = 0.078, 0.579). We conclude that C. trachomatis infection does not induce micronuclei in peripheral blood lymphocytes of infected adult female patients. Therapy with doxycycline significantly increases the micronucleus frequency in lymphocytes of treated patients, but treatment with azithromycin does not induce micronuclei. PMID:16777475

Dimitrijevi?, A; Milosevi?-Djordjevi?, O; Grujici?, D; Arsenijevi?, S

2006-09-19

12

Identification of antigen-specific antibody responses associated with upper genital tract pathology in mice infected with Chlamydia muridarum.  

PubMed

Urogenital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in some women can lead to upper genital tract pathologies, such as hydrosalpinx, potentially affecting fertility. In the current study, 27 of 40 mice intravaginally infected with Chlamydia muridarum developed visible hydrosalpinges in the oviduct while the remaining 13 did not, although all infected mice displayed similar infection time courses. Antisera from the 40 mice recognized 130 out of 257 C. muridarum proteins as antigens and 17 as immunodominant antigens. Importantly, the 27 mice with hydrosalpinges preferentially recognized two C. muridarum proteins (TC0582 and TC0912, designated pathology-associated antigens) while the 13 mice with no hydrosalpinx preferentially recognized 10 proteins (TC0047, TC0117, TC0190, TC0197, TC0257, TC0279, TC0326, TC0630, TC0689, and TC0816, designated nonpathology antigens). The preferential recognition was validated by absorption and independently confirmed in Western blots. The C. trachomatis homolog of TC0912 is encoded by a highly polymorphic gene that is associated with ocular pathogenesis. A fragment of TC0912 was found to improve the differentiation of hydrosalpinx from nonhydrosalpinx mice. TC0582 is a highly conserved ATP synthase, and it may contribute to chlamydial pathogenesis via mechanisms similar to those hypothesized for the highly conserved HSP60. Thus, we have identified chlamydial antigens and epitopes that are associated with either susceptibility or resistance to upper genital tract pathology, which will help us to further understand chlamydial pathogenesis and to develop anti-Chlamydia subunit vaccines. PMID:22158739

Zeng, Hao; Gong, Siqi; Hou, Shuping; Zou, Quanming; Zhong, Guangming

2012-03-01

13

The Role of the Immune Response in Chlamydia trachomatis Infection of the Male Genital Tract: A Double-Edged Sword  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infection in the world, with more than 100 million cases reported annually. While there have been extensive studies into the adverse effects that CT infection has on the female genital tract, and on the subsequent ability of these women to conceive, studies into the consequences on male fertility have been limited and controversial. This is in part due to the asymptomatic nature of the infection, where it is estimated that 50% of men with Chlamydia fail to show any symptoms. It is accepted, however, that acute and/or persistent CT infection is the causative agent for conditions such as urethritis, epididymitis, epididymo-orchitis, and potentially prostatitis. As with most infections, the immune system plays a fundamental role in the body’s attempts to eradicate the infection. The first and most important immune response to Chlamydia infection is a local one, whereby immune cells such as leukocytes are recruited to the site of infections, and subsequently secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines such as interferon gamma. Immune cells also work to initiate and potentiate chronic inflammation through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the release of molecules with degradative properties including defensins, elastase, collagenase, cathespins, and lysozyme. This long-term inflammation can lead to cell proliferation (a possible precursor to cancer), tissue remodeling, and scarring, as well as being linked to the onset of autoimmune responses in genetically disposed individuals. This review will focus on the ability of the immune system to recognize and clear acute and persistent chlamydial infections in the male genital tract, and on the paradoxical damage that chronic inflammation resulting from the infection can cause on the reproductive health of the individual. PMID:25386180

Redgrove, Kate A.; McLaughlin, Eileen A.

2014-01-01

14

Chlamydia trachomatis and genital human papillomavirus infections in female university students in Honduras  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexually transmitted infections are a serious health problem in Honduras. Human papillomavirus (HPV) and Chlamydia trachomatis are major causes of sexually transmitted diseases. To determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis and HPV in young women, 100 female university students in Honduras were assayed for the presence of these pathogens. Twenty-eight percent were positive for HPV and 6% were positive for

N. Tabora; ARNOLDO ZELAYA; JUDITH BAKKERS; WILLEM J. G. MELCHERS; ANNABELLE FERRERA

2005-01-01

15

Tumor necrosis factor alpha production from CD8+ T cells mediates oviduct pathological sequelae following primary genital Chlamydia muridarum infection.  

PubMed

The immunopathogenesis of Chlamydia trachomatis-induced oviduct pathological sequelae is not well understood. Mice genetically deficient in perforin (perforin(-/-) mice) or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) production (TNF-?(-/-) mice) displayed comparable vaginal chlamydial clearance rates but significantly reduced oviduct pathology (hydrosalpinx) compared to that of wild-type mice. Since both perforin and TNF-? are effector mechanisms of CD8(+) T cells, we evaluated the role of CD8(+) T cells during genital Chlamydia muridarum infection and oviduct sequelae. Following vaginal chlamydial challenge, (i) mice deficient in TAP I (and therefore the major histocompatibility complex [MHC] I pathway and CD8(+) T cells), (ii) wild-type mice depleted of CD8(+) T cells, and (iii) mice genetically deficient in CD8 (CD8(-/-) mice) all displayed similar levels of vaginal chlamydial clearance but significantly reduced hydrosalpinx, compared to those of wild-type C57BL/6 mice, suggesting a role for CD8(+) T cells in chlamydial pathogenesis. Repletion of CD8(-/-) mice with wild-type or perforin(-/-), but not TNF-?(-/-), CD8(+) T cells at the time of challenge restored hydrosalpinx to levels observed in wild-type C57BL/6 mice, suggesting that TNF-? production from CD8(+) T cells is important for pathogenesis. Additionally, repletion of TNF-?(-/-) mice with TNF-?(+/+) CD8(+) T cells significantly enhanced the incidence of hydrosalpinx and oviduct dilatation compared to those of TNF-?(-/-) mice but not to the levels found in wild-type mice, suggesting that TNF-? production from CD8(+) T cells and non-CD8(+) cells cooperates to induce optimal oviduct pathology following genital chlamydial infection. These results provide compelling new evidence supporting the contribution of CD8(+) T cells and TNF-? production to Chlamydia-induced reproductive tract sequelae. PMID:21536799

Murthy, Ashlesh K; Li, Weidang; Chaganty, Bharat K R; Kamalakaran, Sangamithra; Guentzel, M Neal; Seshu, J; Forsthuber, Thomas G; Zhong, Guangming; Arulanandam, Bernard P

2011-07-01

16

An atypical CD8 T-cell response to Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infections includes T cells that produce interleukin-13.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis urogenital serovars D-K are intracellular bacterial pathogens that replicate almost exclusively in human reproductive tract epithelium. In the C. muridarum mouse model for human Chlamydia genital tract infections CD4 T helper type 1 cell responses mediate protective immunity while CD8 T-cell responses have been associated with scarring and infertility. Scarring mediated by CD8 T cells requires production of tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?); however, TNF-? is associated with protective immunity mediated by CD4 T cells. The latter result suggests that TNF-? in-and-of itself may not be the sole determining factor in immunopathology. CD8 T cells mediating immunopathology presumably do something in addition to producing TNF-? that is detrimental during resolution of genital tract infections. To investigate the mechanism underlying CD8 immunopathology we attempted to isolate Chlamydia-specific CD8 T-cell clones from mice that self-cleared genital tract infections. They could not be derived with antigen-pulsed irradiated naive splenocytes; instead derivation required use of irradiated immune splenocyte antigen-presenting cells. The Chlamydia-specific CD8 T-cell clones had relatively low cell surface CD8 levels and the majority were not restricted by MHC class Ia molecules. They did not express Plac8, and had varying abilities to terminate Chlamydia replication in epithelial cells. Two of the five CD8 clones produced interleukin-13 (IL-13) in addition to IL-2, TNF-?, IL-10 and interferon-?. IL-13-producing Chlamydia-specific CD8 T cells may contribute to immunopathology during C. muridarum genital tract infections based on known roles of TNF-? and IL-13 in scar formation. PMID:24428415

Johnson, Raymond M; Kerr, Micah S; Slaven, James E

2014-06-01

17

Evaluation and comparison of tests to diagnose Chlamydia trachomatis genital infections.  

PubMed

Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis results in intracytoplasmic inclusions and the generation of infectious elementary bodies (EBs). These can be detected by various procedures. Staining of epithelial cells with vital dyes was first used to detect inclusions, but is insensitive. Thus, Papanicolaou-stained cervical smears cannot be recommended. The advent of the ability to grow chlamydiae in cultured cells over 30 years ago had a major impact on chlamydial research and on detection. However, this procedure is probably <70% sensitive for cervical infection and less for urethral infection in men and is now practised infrequently following the advent of other, mostly less laborious and often equally, or more sensitive detection systems. Thus, staining a smear with a specific fluorescent monoclonal antibody to detect EBs is simple and the direct fluorescent antibody tests became a commercial proposition in the early to mid-1980s. Nevertheless, although highly sensitive and specific in competent hands, technical expertise is crucial and even the most experienced may be unable to read a large number of stained smears on slides quickly. In view of this, it is understandable that enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) gained popularity from the mid-1980s onwards, for they are not very labour intensive and their reading is neither subjective nor tedious. Unfortunately, these aspects outweighed the fact that the ELISAs lack sensitivity, some being very insensitive. The situation has been rescued, however, by the advent in the early 1990s of methods that amplify chlamydial DNA, making it easily detectable by relatively simple procedures. The polymerase chain reaction is such a method and has high specificity and sensitivity, although commercial development has so far not met the high standard expected of it in terms of sensitivity. The ligase chain reaction does not invoke such criticism, and high values for both sensitivity and specificity may be expected, even on urine samples. This augers well for diagnosing an infected individual patient and for effective screening programmes. Antibody tests have no place in a screening programme and are of debatable value in diagnosis. PMID:9433967

Taylor-Robinson, D

1997-11-01

18

Prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection among young men and women in Spain  

PubMed Central

Background There are no accurate data regarding the real prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Spain. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis infections and the risk factors for acquiring them among 1,048 young (15–24 years old) inhabitants of Laviana. Methods The study was completed in the period between 1st November 2010 and 31st December 2011. We conducted a capture strategy in the whole population, instead of only in a sample group, with a capture conducted in schools, in the local health centre, by post and by phone as a last resort. The design was based on the model used by Shafer to increase screening rates. C. trachomatis was identified by RT-PCR in urine samples. Results A total of 487 sexually active people underwent the test, which implies a response rate of 59.8% of the sexually active people (target population). The prevalence was 4.1% (CI 95%: 3.1-5.8): women: 4% ( CI 95%; 2.8-6.4) and men: 4.3% (CI 95%: 2.9-7.2). The circulating genotype was the E genotype. There was an increase in the risk of C. trachomatis infection when barrier contraceptives were not routinely used OR: 4.76 (CI 95%:1.30-17.36) p<0.05. Conclusions In our study the prevalence in women resembles those found in other countries in Europe and the prevalence in men is similar to that in women. Screening for C. trachomatis infection in women would be cost-effective in Spain given the prevalence of C. trachomatis measured by this study. The use of a condom is the best preventative measure for avoiding STIs in sexually active people. PMID:23968487

2013-01-01

19

The case for further treatment studies of uncomplicated genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Azithromycin 1 g immediately and doxycycline 100 mg twice daily have good antimicrobial activity against Chlamydia trachomatis and treatment studies have demonstrated a >95% microbiological cure at 2–5 weeks, with antimicrobial resistance being rarely reported. Recently an 8% (95%, CI 5% to 11%) failure rate was observed in 289 women, but not in men, who had been sexually inactive after

P Horner

2006-01-01

20

Association of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and herpes simplex virus type 2 serostatus with genital human papillomavirus infection in men: the HIM Study  

PubMed Central

Background Studies in women indicate that some sexually transmitted infections promote human papillomavirus (HPV) persistence and carcinogenesis. Little is known about this association in men, therefore we assessed whether Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) serostatus are associated with genital HPV prevalence, an early event in HPV related pathogenesis. Methods Genital exfoliated cells, first-void urine and blood from 3,971 men recruited in the USA, Mexico, and Brazil, were tested for HPV, CT, and HSV-2 antibodies, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association of CT infection and HSV-2 serostatus with four HPV outcomes (any, oncogenic, non-oncogenic only, and multiple infections). Results A total of 64 (1.6%) men were CT positive and 811 (20.4%) men were HSV-2 seropositive. After adjustment for potential confounders, CT was associated with any HPV (aOR 2.19, 95%CI: 1.13–4.24), oncogenic HPV (aOR 3.10, 95%CI: 1.53–6.28), and multiple HPV (aOR 3.43, 95%CI: 1.69-6.95) prevalence. HSV-2 serostatus was associated with any HPV (aOR 1.25, 95%CI: 1.02-1.52), non-oncogenic HPV only (aOR 1.38, 95%CI: 1.08-1.75), and multiple HPV (aOR 1.33, 95%CI: 1.06-1.68) prevalence. In analyses stratified by sexual behaviour, CT infection was significantly associated with HPV detection among men reporting ?2 recent sexual partners, while HSV-2 serostatus was significantly associated with HPV detection in men reporting 0-5 lifetime sexual partners. Conclusion In this population, CT infection and HSV-2 serostatus were associated with prevalent genital HPV infection. Future prospective studies should investigate whether these infections influence HPV acquisition and/or persistence. PMID:23680908

Alberts, Catharina Johanna; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; Papenfuss, Mary R.; da Silva, Roberto Jose Carvalho; Villa, Luisa Lina; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Nyitray, Alan G.; Giuliano, Anna R.

2013-01-01

21

Chlamydia trachomatis infections in infants.  

PubMed Central

In recent years considerable progress has been made in understanding chlamydial infections. The spectrum of pediatric Chlamydia trachomatis infection includes neonatal inclusion conjunctivitis, infantile pneumonia, occasional respiratory or genital tract infections in older children and sexually transmitted diseases in adolescents. The role of maternal chlamydial infection in prematurity and in perinatal death is currently an area of active study. We outline the current knowledge of the biologic characteristics of C. trachomatis, the epidemiologic features of chlamydial infection, and the clinical aspects, diagnosis and treatment of neonatal chlamydial infections. Images Fig. 1 PMID:2645987

Numazaki, K; Wainberg, M A; McDonald, J

1989-01-01

22

Chlamydia Screening in Ireland: a pilot study of opportunistic screening for genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Ireland (2007-2009). Pre-screening Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary\\u000aA series of background studies in 18 to 29 year olds were conducted in a range of primary care settings in Dublin and Galway, 2007-09, to assess the acceptability and feasibility of opportunistic screening for chlamydia:\\u000a- semi-structured interviews with 35 women who had never been tested for a sexually transmitted infection (STI)\\u000a- similar interviews with 30 men

Myles Balfe; Ruairi Brugha; Emer OConnell; Deirdre Vaughan; Diarmuid ODonovan; Claire Coleman; Ronan Conroy; Martin Cormican; Margaret Fitzgerald; Catherine Fleming; Hannah McGee; Andrew Murphy; Grainne Ni Fhoghlu; Ciaran ONeill; Paddy Gillespie

2012-01-01

23

The duration of Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infection and associated chronic pathological changes are reduced in IL-17 knockout mice but protection is not increased further by immunization.  

PubMed

IL-17 is believed to be important for protection against extracellular pathogens, where clearance is dependent on neutrophil recruitment and local activation of epithelial cell defences. However, the role of IL-17 in protection against intracellular pathogens such as Chlamydia is less clear. We have compared (i) the course of natural genital tract C. muridarum infection, (ii) the development of oviduct pathology and (iii) the development of vaccine-induced immunity against infection in wild type (WT) BALB/c and IL-17 knockout mice (IL-17-/-) to determine if IL-17-mediated immunity is implicated in the development of infection-induced pathology and/or protection. Both the magnitude and duration of genital infection was significantly reduced in IL-17-/- mice compared to BALB/c. Similarly, hydrosalpinx was also greatly reduced in IL-17-/- mice and this correlated with reduced neutrophil and macrophage infiltration of oviduct tissues. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 and MMP2 were increased in WT oviducts compared to IL-17-/- animals at day 7 post-infection. In contrast, oviducts from IL-17-/- mice contained higher MMP9 and MMP2 at day 21. Infection also elicited higher levels of Chlamydia-neutralizing antibody in serum of IL-17-/- mice than WT mice. Following intranasal immunization with C. muridarumMajor Outer Membrane Protein (MOMP) and cholera toxin plus CpG adjuvants, significantly higher levels of chlamydial MOMP-specific IgG and IgA were found in serum and vaginal washes of IL-17-/- mice. T cell proliferation and IFN? production by splenocytes was greater in WT animals following in vitro re-stimulation, however vaccination was only effective at reducing infection in WT, not IL-17-/- mice. Intranasal or transcutaneous immunization protected WT but not IL-17-/- mice against hydrosalpinx development. Our data show that in the absence of IL-17, the severity of C. muridarum genital infection and associated oviduct pathology are significantly attenuated, however neither infection or pathology can be reduced further by vaccination protocols that effectively protect WT mice. PMID:24073293

Andrew, Dean W; Cochrane, Melanie; Schripsema, Justin H; Ramsey, Kyle H; Dando, Samantha J; O'Meara, Connor P; Timms, Peter; Beagley, Kenneth W

2013-01-01

24

Improved partner notification for genital chlamydia can be achieved by centralisation of the duty to a specially trained team.  

PubMed

Partner notification is mandatory for Chlamydia trachomatis infections in Sweden. A significant quality improvement of partner notification for genital chlamydia was achieved by increasing the skills and reducing the number of individuals conducting partner notifications. By centralisation of the partner notification to a specially trained team of nurses, an additional 12% of genital chlamydia cases were found. Routine partner notification achieved a score of 3.3 notified partners per index case, and shows how important this activity is for detection of asymptomatic chlamydia infections in the community. PMID:24616118

Osterlund, Anders

2014-12-01

25

[Azithromycin and genital infections].  

PubMed

The lower genital tract infections due to Chlamydia trachomatis are frequent, essentially occurring in young patients, with possible complications and severe sequela, particularly in women where the sterility risk is one of the major consequences. If an effective treatment could be systematically proposed, a good compliance (easy administration and good toleration) is one of the key factor to success. In this context, the azithromycin displays numerous advantages. The azithromycin in vitro activity on Chl. trachomatis strains is permanent with MIC comprised between 0.06 and 0.125 micrograms/ml, with an activity equivalent to those of other macrolides, to tetracyclines and quinolones. Different animal models allow to demonstrate the curative activity of the azithromycin administered as a single dose, at dosage regimen equivalent to those used in man, and a prophylactic activity on the salpingitis onset in provoked Chl. trachomatis infections. Several comparative clinical studies with azithromycin administered as a 1 g single dose displayed very satisfactory results with 98% of bacterial eradication, identical to those obtained with reference treatment. On the other hand, restrictions to the product use are a less constant activity against Neisseria gonorrhoeae and a lack of efficacy on Mycoplasma hominis. The efficacy on Treponema pallidum remains to be clinically tested. PMID:8539079

Micoud, M; Pépin, L F

1995-06-01

26

Genital-tract infection and disease in nude and immunologically competent mice after inoculation of a human strain of Chlamydia trachomatis.  

PubMed

A fast, human strain of Chlamydia trachomatis was introduced into the uterus of progesterone-treated CBA mice and congenic CBA nude mice through the uterine wall or via the cervical canal. The numbers of inclusions produced by samples taken from the vagina of the nude mice were significantly greater (P less than 0.05) than those produced by samples from immunologically competent normal mice. However, the infection was self-limited, lasting about 60 days, and there was no statistical difference in its duration in the nude and normal mice despite the failure of the former to mount a chlamydial antibody response. In contrast, 14 of 18 normal mice had developed a 4-fold or greater rise in the titre of IgG antibody 14 days after inoculation. A serum titre of 1:512 or greater was attained in 15 of these mice, and high titres persisted for 69 days or longer after inoculation. The numbers of polymorphonuclear leucocytes in vaginal smears from both normal and nude mice increased by 12 days after inoculation, indicating an inflammatory cell response. However, interpretation of the cellular response after the 40th day was difficult because of recommencement of the oestrous cycle. The results indicate that T lymphocytes and T-lymphocyte-dependent antibody have little effect on the course of the self-limited chlamydial genital infection. PMID:7171478

Tuffrey, M; Falder, P; Taylor-Robinson, D

1982-10-01

27

[Chlamydia pneumoniae infections].  

PubMed

Chlamydia pneumoniae, an obligate intracellular human pathogen, causes infections of the respiratory tract. It is a significant cause of both lower and upper acute respiratory illnesses, including pneumonia, bronchitis, pharyngitis and sinusitis. Most respiratory infections caused by C. pneumoniae are mild or asymptomatic. Some studies have suggested a possible association of C. pneumoniae infection and acute exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Seroepidemiological studies showing antibody prevalence rates in a range of 50 to 70% suggest that C. pneumoniae is widely distributed and that nearly everybody is infected with the agent at some time. C. pneumoniae can cause prolonged or chronic infections which may be due to persistence for months or years. These persistent infections have been implicated in the development of a number of chronic diseases including atherosclerosis, asthma and COPD. These persistent chlamydial infections can be established in vitro using several methods including cytokines, antibiotics and deprivation of certain nutrients. Despite differences in treatment, chlamydiae respond to form inclusions containing atypical reticulate bodies (RBs), which occasionally have been shown to be pleomorphic forms, termed aberrant form (AF). The AF is generally larger in diameter than typical RBs, and display a sparse densinometric appearance. In general, it is likely that this aberrant developmental step leads to the persistence of viable but nonculturable chlamydiae within infected cells over long periods. Removal of several stress factors described above results in the condensation of nuclei, the appearance of late proteins, and the production of viable, infectious elementary bodies (EBs). Most of the major sequelae of chlamydial disease are thought to arise from either repeated or persistent chlamydial infection of an individual. The persistence would allow constant presentation to the individual immune response of these potentially deleterious immune targets. Since repeated infection can certainly be documented in many clinical settings, persistence is thought to also play a role. PMID:17037392

Miyashita, Naoyuki

2006-09-01

28

Chlamydia  

MedlinePLUS

... Chlamydia – CDC Fact Sheet Chlamydia is a common sexually transmitted disease (STD) that can be easily cured. If left untreated, ... pregnant. What is chlamydia? Chlamydia is a common STD that can infect both men and women. It ...

29

Genital human papillomavirus infection.  

PubMed Central

Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a common sexually transmitted disease that at the present time is not effectively controlled or treated. Many infections are inapparent and transient. However, some HPV infections result in persistent lesions that in some cases undergo carcinogenic progression. A subset of genital HPVs, designated high-risk types, are preferentially associated with high-grade dysplasias and carcinomas. About 90% of cervical cancers contain high-risk HPV DNA, most often HPV16. Development of a subunit vaccine against high-risk genital HPVs is a desirable and, it appears, an increasingly feasible long-term goal. The viral E6 and E7 oncoproteins are selectively maintained and expressed in progressed HPV tumors and could potentially be targets for therapeutic vaccines. The L1 major virion structural proteins have recently been shown to self-assemble into virus-like particles when expressed in insect cells. These particles might serve as the basis for a prophylactic vaccine to prevent genital HPV infection. Images PMID:8146136

Lowy, D R; Kirnbauer, R; Schiller, J T

1994-01-01

30

Intranasal vaccination with Chlamydia pneumoniae induces cross-species immunity against genital Chlamydia muridarum challenge in mice.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the world and specifically in the United States, with the highest incidence in age-groups 14-19 years. In a subset of females, the C. trachomatis genital infection leads to serious pathological sequelae including pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility. Chlamydia pneumoniae, another member of the same genus, is a common cause of community acquired respiratory infection with significant number of children aged 5-14 yr displaying sero-conversion. Since these bacteriae share several antigenic determinants, we evaluated whether intranasal immunization with live C. pneumoniae (1×10(6) inclusion forming units; IFU) in 5 week old female C57BL/6 mice would induce cross-species protection against subsequent intravaginal challenge with Chlamydia muridarum (5×10(4) IFU), which causes a similar genital infection and pathology in mice as C. trachomatis in humans. Mice vaccinated intranasally with live C. pneumoniae, but not mock (PBS) immunized animals, displayed high levels of splenic cellular antigen-specific IFN-? production and serum antibody response against C. muridarum and C. trachomatis. Mice vaccinated with C. pneumoniae displayed a significant reduction in the vaginal C. muridarum shedding as early as day 12 after secondary i.vag. challenge compared to PBS (mock) immunized mice. At day 19 after C. muridarum challenge, 100% of C. pneumoniae vaccinated mice had cleared the infection compared to none (0%) of the mock immunized mice, which cleared the infection by day 27. At day 80 after C. muridarum challenge, C. pneumoniae vaccinated mice displayed a significant reduction in the incidence (50%) and degree of hydrosalpinx compared to mock immunized animals (100%). These results suggest that respiratory C. pneumoniae infection induces accelerated chlamydial clearance and reduction of oviduct pathology following genital C. muridarum challenge, and may have important implications to the C. trachomatis-induced reproductive disease in humans. PMID:23741420

Manam, Srikanth; Chaganty, Bharat K R; Evani, Shankar Jaikishan; Zafiratos, Mark T; Ramasubramanian, Anand K; Arulanandam, Bernard P; Murthy, Ashlesh K

2013-01-01

31

Intranasal Vaccination with Chlamydia pneumoniae Induces Cross-Species Immunity against Genital Chlamydia muridarum Challenge in Mice  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the world and specifically in the United States, with the highest incidence in age-groups 14–19 years. In a subset of females, the C. trachomatis genital infection leads to serious pathological sequelae including pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility. Chlamydia pneumoniae, another member of the same genus, is a common cause of community acquired respiratory infection with significant number of children aged 5–14 yr displaying sero-conversion. Since these bacteriae share several antigenic determinants, we evaluated whether intranasal immunization with live C. pneumoniae (1×106 inclusion forming units; IFU) in 5 week old female C57BL/6 mice would induce cross-species protection against subsequent intravaginal challenge with Chlamydia muridarum (5×104 IFU), which causes a similar genital infection and pathology in mice as C. trachomatis in humans. Mice vaccinated intranasally with live C. pneumoniae, but not mock (PBS) immunized animals, displayed high levels of splenic cellular antigen-specific IFN-? production and serum antibody response against C. muridarum and C. trachomatis. Mice vaccinated with C. pneumoniae displayed a significant reduction in the vaginal C. muridarum shedding as early as day 12 after secondary i.vag. challenge compared to PBS (mock) immunized mice. At day 19 after C. muridarum challenge, 100% of C. pneumoniae vaccinated mice had cleared the infection compared to none (0%) of the mock immunized mice, which cleared the infection by day 27. At day 80 after C. muridarum challenge, C. pneumoniae vaccinated mice displayed a significant reduction in the incidence (50%) and degree of hydrosalpinx compared to mock immunized animals (100%). These results suggest that respiratory C. pneumoniae infection induces accelerated chlamydial clearance and reduction of oviduct pathology following genital C. muridarum challenge, and may have important implications to the C. trachomatis-induced reproductive disease in humans. PMID:23741420

Evani, Shankar Jaikishan; Zafiratos, Mark T.; Ramasubramanian, Anand K.; Arulanandam, Bernard P.; Murthy, Ashlesh K.

2013-01-01

32

Immunology of Chlamydia infection: implications for a Chlamydia trachomatis vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexually transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis infections are a serious public-health problem. With more than 90 million new cases occurring annually, C. trachomatis is the most common cause of bacterial sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Recent progress in elucidating the immunobiology of Chlamydia muridarum infection of mice has helped to guide the interpretation of immunological findings in studies of human C. trachomatis infection

José Rey-Ladino; Robert C. Brunham

2005-01-01

33

Genital Chlamydia trachomatis: understanding the roles of innate and adaptive immunity in vaccine research.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted disease worldwide, and despite significant advances in chlamydial research, a prophylactic vaccine has yet to be developed. This Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium, which often causes asymptomatic infection, may cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancies, scarring of the fallopian tubes, miscarriage, and infertility when left untreated. In the genital tract, Chlamydia trachomatis infects primarily epithelial cells and requires Th1 immunity for optimal clearance. This review first focuses on the immune cells important in a chlamydial infection. Second, we summarize the research and challenges associated with developing a chlamydial vaccine that elicits a protective Th1-mediated immune response without inducing adverse immunopathologies. PMID:24696438

Vasilevsky, Sam; Greub, Gilbert; Nardelli-Haefliger, Denise; Baud, David

2014-04-01

34

Chlamydia trachomatis infection and sexual behaviour among female students attending higher education in the Republic of Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There are no prevalence data on Chlamydia trachomatis relating to female students attending higher education available for the Republic of Ireland. This information is required to guide on the necessity for Chlamydia screening programmes in higher education settings. This research aimed to determine the prevalence of and predictive risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection among female higher education

Emer O'Connell; Wendy Brennan; Martin Cormican; Marita Glacken; Diarmuid O'Donovan; Akke Vellinga; Niall Cahill; Fionnguala Lysaght; Joan O'Donnell

2009-01-01

35

Characteristics of murine model of genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and effects of therapy with tetracyclines, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, or azithromycin.  

PubMed Central

Following intravaginal inoculation of progesterone-treated outbred mice with Chlamydia trachomatis MoPn, 4 to 6 log10 inclusion-forming units were recovered in vaginal swabs for 21 days but all animals were culture negative after 28 days. Serum antibody titers were elevated and remained high for at least 70 days. Between 28 and 70 days, upper tract infection (inflammation and distension of the uterine horns, occlusion of oviducts with inflammatory exudate, pyosalpinx, and hydrosalpinx) was seen in > 80% of the animals. Mice were dosed orally, commencing at 7 days after infection, with minocycline, doxycycline, or amoxicillin-clavulanate. Further groups received azithromycin either as a single high dose or as lower once-daily doses. In addition, minocycline and amoxicillin-clavulanate were administered at 24 h after infection, and this early treatment prevented elevation of antibody titers whereas delayed therapy did not. Vaginal swabs from mice in all treatment regimens were culture negative except for 25% of mice receiving either early amoxicillin-clavulanate or low-dose azithromycin, which yielded low numbers (20 to 70 inclusion-forming units) of chlamydiae. Numbers of fertile mice in the early treatment regimens and their litter sizes were similar to those of noninfected controls, although 25% of amoxicillin-clavulanate-treated mice had unilateral hydrosalpinges. In comparison, 88% of untreated mice developed hydrosalpinges and only 25% conceived. Delayed dosing did not affect the outcome of amoxicillin-clavulanate therapy but did diminish the protective efficacy of minocycline such that 50% of treated mice had either unilateral hydrosalpinges or ovarian abscesses. Doxycycline and azithromycin were highly effective in restoring fertility. This model makes possible the study of both short- and long-term outcomes of chlamydial infection. Images PMID:7811001

Beale, A S; Upshon, P A

1994-01-01

36

Reinfection of the mouse genital tract with Chlamydia trachomatis: the relationship of antibody to immunity.  

PubMed Central

Progesterone-treated CBA mice which had had genital infections with a fast, human strain of Chlamydia trachomatis either 8, 16, 58, or 69 weeks previously were rechallenged through the uterine wall, along with groups of untreated controls. Serum IgG antibody and/or local IgA antibody was measured using a micro-immunofluorescence technique. Although the infection was self-limiting, chlamydiae were cleared significantly more quickly from the previously infected groups than from their controls in all experiments. However, mice which had had a previous infection recently and which had high titres (geometric mean 1: greater than or equal to 2048) of serum IgG antibody and local IgA antibody immediately before rechallenge, were as susceptible as mice which had had a distant past infection and which had much lower titres (geometric mean 1:48) of serum IgG antibody. Thus, some immunity was induced in the mouse model, but pre-existing antibody seemed to be of little importance in this, and did not influence the initial susceptibility to reinfection. PMID:6696831

Tuffrey, M.; Falder, P.; Taylor-Robinson, D.

1984-01-01

37

Genital Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection in Women  

MedlinePLUS

Genital Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection in Women What is HPV? HPV is human papillomavirus. It is the most common viral sexually transmitted infection ... the external genital areas (vulva). How common is HPV? HPV is very common. Most men and women ...

38

Induction of Protective Immunity against Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Infection by a Vaccine Based on Major Outer Membrane Protein-Lipophilic Immune Response-Stimulating Complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The significance of delivery systems in modern vaccine design strategies is underscored by the fact that a promising vaccine formulation may fail in vivo due to an inappropriate delivery method. We evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of a candidate vaccine comprising the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of Chlamydia trachomatis delivered with the lipophilic immune response-stimulating complexes (ISCOMs) as a

JOSEPH U. IGIETSEME; ANDREW MURDIN

2000-01-01

39

Host inflammatory response and development of complications of Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection in CCR5-deficient mice and subfertile women with the CCR5delta32 gene deletion  

Microsoft Academic Search

T cell immunity protects against diseases caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. Incidentally, host inflammatory response that includes T cells appears to also contribute to the pathogenesis of chlamydial diseases such as trachoma and tubal factor infertility (TFI). Therefore, designing effective prevention strategies requires a delineation of immune processes responsible for pathology and those mediating immunity, and identification

Erika L. Barr; Sander Ouburg; Joseph U. Igietseme; Servaas A. Morré; Edith Okwandu; Francis O. Eko; Godwin Ifere; Tesfaye Belay; Qing He; Deborah Lyn; Gift Nwankwo; James Lillard; Carolyn M. Black; Godwin A. Ananaba

40

Chlamydia infections in the neonatal period.  

PubMed

The paper presents current knowledge about the clinical course, diagnostic and treatment of chlamydial infections in the neonatal period. In the neonatal period, infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis are in the majority of maternal origin. Chlamydia mother to child transmission occurs during vaginal birth. It can also occur but rarely, during caesarean section after premature rupture of membranes. Chlamydia trachomatis infection of the genitourinary system in pregnancy increases the danger of intrauterine growth restriction and foetal death. It rises the perinatal morbidity of foetuses and newborns and increases the risk of premature deliveries. Chlamydia trachomatis infection in newborns manifests as conjunctivitis and ophthalmia and less commonly as pharyngitis and otitis media. Erythromycin is applied in prophylaxis and treatment of Chlamydia infections. PMID:16082067

Pokrzywnicka, Ma?gorzata; Krajewski, Pawe?; Kwiatkowska, Maria

2005-01-01

41

Epidemiology of Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it is difficult to estimate the overall prevalence of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, current figures suggest that visible genital warts are present in approximately 1% of sexually active adults in the United States and that at least 15% have subclinical infection, as detected by HPV DNA assays. Genital HPV infection is thus extremely common. The highest rates of

1997-01-01

42

Hidden in plain sight: chlamydial gastrointestinal infection and its relevance to persistence in human genital infection.  

PubMed

Although the concept of persistence in chlamydial infections has been recognized for about 80 years, there is still very little known about the mechanism by which this occurs. In this review, we revisit an old paradigm, long known to chlamydiologists and veterinarians, that in virtually all hosts of chlamydiae, including mammals and birds, chlamydiae reside in the gastrointestinal tract for long periods of time in the absence of clinical disease. Thus, if gastrointestinal infection occurs in most hosts, then it is very likely that gastrointestinal infection occurs in humans as well. We demonstrate that gastrointestinal infection does indeed occur in humans and propose that this anatomical site is the source of persistent infection in humans. The data in ruminants and animal models demonstrate that the immune system is unable to clear chlamydiae from the gut, so they can remain indefinitely, with continual shedding in feces. Clearly, many women become reinfected from an untreated partner; however, we propose that women, cured of genital infection, remain at risk for autoinoculation from the lower gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, there are substantial data demonstrating treatment failure of chlamydial infections, particularly with azithromycin. New data in the mouse model have shown that azithromycin is far less effective against chlamydial gastrointestinal infection than against genital infections. Therefore, it is possible that women cured of genital infection by antibiotics remain infected in the gastrointestinal tract and can become reinfected by autoinoculation from that site. PMID:24421044

Rank, Roger G; Yeruva, Laxmi

2014-04-01

43

Hidden in Plain Sight: Chlamydial Gastrointestinal Infection and Its Relevance to Persistence in Human Genital Infection  

PubMed Central

Although the concept of persistence in chlamydial infections has been recognized for about 80 years, there is still very little known about the mechanism by which this occurs. In this review, we revisit an old paradigm, long known to chlamydiologists and veterinarians, that in virtually all hosts of chlamydiae, including mammals and birds, chlamydiae reside in the gastrointestinal tract for long periods of time in the absence of clinical disease. Thus, if gastrointestinal infection occurs in most hosts, then it is very likely that gastrointestinal infection occurs in humans as well. We demonstrate that gastrointestinal infection does indeed occur in humans and propose that this anatomical site is the source of persistent infection in humans. The data in ruminants and animal models demonstrate that the immune system is unable to clear chlamydiae from the gut, so they can remain indefinitely, with continual shedding in feces. Clearly, many women become reinfected from an untreated partner; however, we propose that women, cured of genital infection, remain at risk for autoinoculation from the lower gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, there are substantial data demonstrating treatment failure of chlamydial infections, particularly with azithromycin. New data in the mouse model have shown that azithromycin is far less effective against chlamydial gastrointestinal infection than against genital infections. Therefore, it is possible that women cured of genital infection by antibiotics remain infected in the gastrointestinal tract and can become reinfected by autoinoculation from that site. PMID:24421044

Yeruva, Laxmi

2014-01-01

44

Genital HPV Infection  

MedlinePLUS

... HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI). HPV is a different virus than HIV and ... older. They are not recommended to screen men, adolescents, or women under the age of 30 years. ...

45

A role for matrix metalloproteinase-9 in pathogenesis of urogenital Chlamydia muridarum infection in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of host-derived enzymes involved in the turnover of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules and the processing of cytokines, chemokines and growth factors. We have previously reported that global inhibition of MMP in Chlamydia muridarum urogenital tract infection of susceptible strains of female mice impeded ascension of C. muridarum into the upper genital tract, blunted acute

Muhammad T. Imtiaz; John T. Distelhorst; Justin H. Schripsema; Ira M. Sigar; John N. Kasimos; Shanon R. Lacy; Kyle H. Ramsey

2007-01-01

46

Role of cervical dendritic cell subsets, co-stimulatory molecules, cytokine secretion profile and beta-estradiol in development of sequalae to Chlamydia trachomatis infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis infection of the female genital tract can lead to serious sequelae resulting in fertility related disorders. Little is known about the mechanism leading to Chlamydia induced pathology and factors responsible for it. As only some of the women develops reproductive disorders while majority of the women clears infection without any severe sequalae, mucosal immune response in women

Tanvi Agrawal; Vikas Vats; Paul K Wallace; Sudha Salhan; Aruna Mittal

2008-01-01

47

Timing of progression from Chlamydia trachomatis infection to pelvic inflammatory disease: a mathematical modelling study  

PubMed Central

Background Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) results from the ascending spread of microorganisms from the vagina and endocervix to the upper genital tract. PID can lead to infertility, ectopic pregnancy and chronic pelvic pain. The timing of development of PID after the sexually transmitted bacterial infection Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) might affect the impact of screening interventions, but is currently unknown. This study investigates three hypothetical processes for the timing of progression: at the start, at the end, or throughout the duration of chlamydia infection. Methods We develop a compartmental model that describes the trial structure of a published randomised controlled trial (RCT) and allows each of the three processes to be examined using the same model structure. The RCT estimated the effect of a single chlamydia screening test on the cumulative incidence of PID up to one year later. The fraction of chlamydia infected women who progress to PID is obtained for each hypothetical process by the maximum likelihood method using the results of the RCT. Results The predicted cumulative incidence of PID cases from all causes after one year depends on the fraction of chlamydia infected women that progresses to PID and on the type of progression. Progression at a constant rate from a chlamydia infection to PID or at the end of the infection was compatible with the findings of the RCT. The corresponding estimated fraction of chlamydia infected women that develops PID is 10% (95% confidence interval 7-13%) in both processes. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that clinical PID can occur throughout the course of a chlamydia infection, which will leave a window of opportunity for screening to prevent PID. PMID:22883325

2012-01-01

48

Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection in Human Monocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydia pneumoniae infection has been associated with cardiovascular diseases in seroepidemiological studies and by demonstration of the pathogen in atherosclerotic lesions. It has the capacity to infect several cell types, including monocyte-derived macrophages, which play an essential role in the development of athero- sclerosis. However, the persistence of C. pneumoniae in mononuclear cells is poorly understood. To study the morphology

SARI AIRENNE; MARJA SURCEL; HANNU ALAKARPPA; KIRSI LAITINEN; JORMA PAAVONEN; PEKKA SAIKKU; AINO LAURILA

49

Chlamydia  

MedlinePLUS

... a chlamydial eye infection (chlamydial conjunctivitis) is possible. Chlamydia also can be passed from a mother to her baby while the baby is being delivered. This can cause pneumonia and conjuntivitis, which can become very serious for ...

50

Chlamydia trachomatis infections: screening, diagnosis, and management.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis is a gram-negative bacterium that infects the columnar epithelium of the cervix, urethra, and rectum, as well as nongenital sites such as the lungs and eyes. The bacterium is the cause of the most frequently reported sexually transmitted disease in the United States, which is responsible for more than 1 million infections annually. Most persons with this infection are asymptomatic. Untreated infection can result in serious complications such as pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy in women, and epididymitis and orchitis in men. Men and women can experience chlamydia-induced reactive arthritis. Treatment of uncomplicated cases should include azithromycin or doxycycline. Screening is recommended in all women younger than 25 years, in all pregnant women, and in women who are at increased risk of infection. Screening is not currently recommended in men. In neonates and infants, the bacterium can cause conjunctivitis and pneumonia. Adults may also experience conjunctivitis caused by chlamydia. Trachoma is a recurrent ocular infection caused by chlamydia and is endemic in the developing world. PMID:23316985

Mishori, Ranit; McClaskey, Erica L; WinklerPrins, Vince J

2012-12-15

51

Chlamydia trachomatis infection: implications for HPV status and cervical cancer.  

PubMed

Genital Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infections have been identified as a major health problem concern. CT is associated with adverse effect on women reproduction and also associated with cervical hypertrophy and induction of squamous metaplasia, providing a possible relationship with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Infection by high-risk HPV types is crucial to the pathogenesis of invasive cervical cancer (ICC), but other co-variants/cofactors must be present for the development of malignancy. CT biological effect may damage the mucosal barrier, improving HPV infection, or may interfere in immune response and viral clearance supporting the persistence of HPV infection. Moreover, CT-related chronic cervical inflammation, decrease of lower genital tract antigen-presenting cells, inhibition of cell-mediated immunity, and anti-apoptotic capacity may influence the natural history of HPV infection, namely persistence progression or resolution. Although several epidemiological studies have stated a positive association involving CT and HPV-related cervical neoplastic lesions and/or cervical cancer (CC), the specific role of this bacterium in the pathogenesis of cervical neoplasia has not been completely clarified. The present review summarizes several studies on CT role in cervical cancer and suggests future research directions on HPV and CT interaction. PMID:24346121

Silva, Jani; Cerqueira, Fátima; Medeiros, Rui

2014-04-01

52

Molecular Diagnosis of Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common and important intracel- lular bacterium implicated in upper and lower respiratory tract infections in humans. Also, C. pneumoniae has been associated with chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis and asthma. Since C. pneumoniae can cause severe clinical disease, correct diag- nosis and therapy are important issues. However, conventional assays for the detection of C. pneumoniae have

JENS BOMAN; CHARLOTTE A. GAYDOS; THOMAS C. QUINN

1999-01-01

53

Postpartum Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections that are diagnosed during the postpartum period (defined as the 3 months after delivery). Study Design: This was a retrospective cohort study of women delivered of infants at ?28 weeks of gestation at an urban hospital from 1992 through 1998, including each woman's first delivery

Barbara E. Mahon; Marc B. Rosenman; Marilyn F. Graham; J. Dennis Fortenberry

2002-01-01

54

Papillomaviral Infections of the Female Genital Tract  

PubMed Central

The human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common organism to infect the human genital tract, affecting as much as half, or more, of the sexually active population. This virus has become widely recognized through the well publicized relationship with genital tract neoplasia and through new diagnostic technologies, such as monoclonal antibody analysis, DNA hybridization, and the polymerase chain reaction. This paper describes the full spectrum of HPV infections, starting with pathogenesis and continuing to clinical manifestations, and discusses significance, diagnosis, and management. PMID:21221347

Munro, Malcolm G.

1992-01-01

55

Chlamydia pneumoniae infection-associated erythema multiforme.  

PubMed

There is a well-known correlation between Herpes simplex (HSV) infection and erythema multiforme (EM). More recently, in Japan, it was found that Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cp) may promote the development of EM. All cases of Cp infection-associated EM that had been diagnosed in our clinic over the past two years (from 2011 to 2012) were analyzed. Cp infection was diagnosed on the basis of a significant increase (>2.00) in anti-Cp IgM titers, as measured by the HITAZYME-ELISA test. There were 7 cases of Cp-EM, one male and 6 females. Median age was 13 years (range 3-29 years). It is recommended that the possible involvement of Cp infection, besides HSV or Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections, should be considered in all cases of EM. PMID:23904964

Imashuku, Shinsaku; Kudo, Naoko

2013-06-13

56

Chlamydia trachomatis  

PubMed Central

Genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis is common, often asymptomatic, yet capable of causing extensive pelvic damage leading to infertility and tubal ectopic pregnancy. Reducing the impact of chlamydial infection involves developing and applying reliable criteria for screening sexually active adolescents and adults, using accurate screening methods for both women and men, ensuring that patients comply with the very effective treatment regimens, and effecting behavioural change that will diminish the risk of STD transmission. PMID:21221352

Cumming, David C.; Kieren, Dianne; Cumming, Ceinwen E.

1992-01-01

57

Chlamydia  

MedlinePLUS

... should I do if I have chlamydia? What health problems can result from untreated chlamydia? How can chlamydia ... place women at higher risk for serious reproductive health problems, such as infertility. Return to top How do ...

58

Effects of vaginal lactobacilli in Chlamydia trachomatis infection.  

PubMed

Increasing evidence indicates that abnormal vaginal flora lacking lactobacilli facilitates the acquisition of several sexually transmitted diseases including Chlamydia trachomatis. C. trachomatis, the most common bacterial agent of genital infections worldwide, can progress from the lower to upper reproductive tract and induce severe sequelae. The ability of C. trachomatis to develop into a persistent form has been suggested as key pathogenetic mechanism underlying chronic infections and sequelae. The aim of our study was to investigate the C. trachomatis interaction with vaginal microbiota analyzing the effects of Lactobacillus strains (L. brevis and L. salivarius) on the different phases of C. trachomatis developmental cycle. In addition, the effect of lactobacilli on persistent chlamydial forms induced by HSV-2 coinfection has also been evaluated. Our results demonstrated significant inhibition of C. trachomatis multiplication by vaginal lactobacilli. L. brevis was significantly more effective than L. salivarius (p<0.05) on all the steps of chlamydial infection cycle suggesting that the ability of lactobacilli to protect from infection is strain-dependent. Lactobacilli had an adverse effect on elementary chlamydial bodies (p<0.05), on chlamydial adsorption to epithelial cells (p<0.001) and on intracellular phases of chlamydial replication (p<0.0001). Our study also demonstrated a protective effect of lactobacilli toward persistent C. trachomatis forms induced by HSV-2 coinfection. A significant increase in the production of C. trachomatis infectious progeny was observed in C. trachomatis/HSV-2 coinfection in the presence of L. brevis (p=0.01) despite a significant inhibition of C. trachomatis multiplication (p=0.028). Our data suggest that a healthy vaginal microbiota can reduce the risk of acquiring C. trachomatis infection and counteract the development of persistent chlamydial forms. PMID:24875405

Mastromarino, Paola; Di Pietro, Marisa; Schiavoni, Giovanna; Nardis, Chiara; Gentile, Massimo; Sessa, Rosa

2014-07-01

59

Bioluminescence Imaging of Chlamydia muridarum Ascending Infection in Mice  

PubMed Central

Chlamydial pathogenicity in the upper genital tract relies on chlamydial ascending from the lower genital tract. To monitor chlamydial ascension, we engineered a luciferase-expressing C. muridarum. In cells infected with the luciferase-expressing C. muridarum, luciferase gene expression and enzymatic activity (measured as bioluminescence intensity) correlated well along the infection course, suggesting that bioluminescence can be used for monitoring chlamydial replication. Following an intravaginal inoculation with the luciferase-expressing C. muridarum, 8 of 10 mice displayed bioluminescence signal in the lower with 4 also in the upper genital tracts on day 3 after infection. By day 7, all 10 mice developed bioluminescence signal in the upper genital tracts. The bioluminescence signal was maintained in the upper genital tract in 6 and 2 mice by days 14 and 21, respectively. The bioluminescence signal was no longer detectable in any of the mice by day 28. The whole body imaging approach also revealed an unexpected airway infection following the intravaginal inoculation. Although the concomitant airway infection was transient and did not significantly alter the genital tract infection time courses, caution should be taken during data interpretation. The above observations have demonstrated that C. muridarum can not only achieve rapid ascending infection in the genital tract but also cause airway infection following a genital tract inoculation. These findings have laid a foundation for further optimizing the C. muridarum intravaginal infection murine model for understanding chlamydial pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:24983626

Campbell, Jessica; Huang, Yumeng; Liu, Yuanjun; Schenken, Robert; Arulanandam, Bernard; Zhong, Guangming

2014-01-01

60

[Investigation of Chlamydia trachomatis with Cell Culture, DFA and PCR Methods in the Genital Swab Samples of Symptomatic Patients].  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis infection is considered the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted disease worldwide. C.trachomatis causes eye infections such as trachoma and newborn inclusion conjunctivitis, newborn pneumonia, genitourinary system infections and suppurative inguinal lymphadenitis namely lymphogranuloma venerum. The aim of this study was to investigate C.trachomatis by direct fluorescent antibody (DFA), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and cell culture methods in the clinical samples sent to the microbiology laboratory with the prediagnosis of genital infections. A total of 50 swab samples obtained from adult patients (49 female, 1 male) who were admitted to Erciyes University Hospital, Kayseri, Turkey between February-March 2010, were included in the study. C.trachomatis antigens were investigated by a commercial DFA (PathoDx, Remel, USA) method. McCoy cell cultures prepared in microplate wells were used for the isolation of C.trachomatis. The growth of C.trachomatis in cell cultures was confirmed by DFA and iodine staining methods. C.trachomatis DNA was investigated by commercially available PCR (Chlamydia trachomatis 330/740 IC; Sacace, Italy) method. In our study, 4 (8%) of the 50 swab samples were found positive with DFA, 1 (2%) was positive with cell culture, and 1 (2%) was positive with PCR. The only sample that gave positive results with all of the three methods was an urethral swab. Three cervical swab samples that were found positive only with DFA method was evaluated as false positivity. When cell culture was considered as the reference method, the sensitivity and specificity of DFA method were estimated as 100% and 94%, respectively, while those rates for PCR were 100% and 100%, respectively. In conclusion, although cell culture is still the gold standard in the diagnosis of C.trachomatis. infections, since it is time consuming and difficult to apply, more rapid and reliable PCR methods may be applied in diagnosis. DFA method which is practical and cheap, is preferred largely in routine laboratory practice. However, false negative and false positive DFA results should be prevented by the maintainence of good quality clinical specimens, evaluation of the test by experienced personnel and use of quality control samples in each run. PMID:23390905

Ozüberk, Osman Özüberk; Gökahmeto?lu, Selma; Ozçelik, Bülent; Ekmekçio?lu, O?uz

2013-01-01

61

Folate-functionalized dendrimers for targeting Chlamydia-infected tissues in a mouse model of reactive arthritis.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis is an intracellular human pathogen that causes a sexually transmitted disease which may result in an inflammatory arthritis designated Chlamydia-induced reactive arthritis (ReA). The arthritis develops after dissemination of infected cells from the initial site of chlamydial infection. During Chlamydia-associated ReA, the organism may enter into a persistent infection state making treatment with antibiotics a challenge. We hypothesize that folate receptors (FR), which are overexpressed in Chlamydia-infected cells, and the associated inflammation would allow folate-targeted nanodevices to better treat infections. To investigate this, we developed a folate-PAMAM dendrimer-Cy5.5 conjugate (D-FA-Cy5.5), where Cy5.5 is used as the near-IR imaging agent. Uptake of D-FA-Cy5.5 upon systemic administration was assessed and compared to non-folate conjugated controls (D-Cy5.5), using a mouse model of Chlamydia-induced ReA, and near-IR imaging. Our results suggested that there was a higher concentration of folate-based nanodevice in sites of infection and inflammation compared to that of the control nanodevice. The folate-conjugated nanodevices localized to infected paws and genital tracts (major sites of inflammation and infection) at 3-4 fold higher concentrations than were dendrimer alone, suggesting that the overexpression of folate receptors in infected and inflamed tissues enables higher dendrimer uptake. There was an increase in uptake into thymus, spleen, and lung, but no significant differences in the uptake of the folate nanodevices in other organs including kidney and heart, indicating the 'relative specificity' of the D-FA-Cy5.5 conjugate nanodevices. These results suggest that folate targeting dendrimers are able to deliver drugs to attenuate infection and associated inflammation in Chlamydia-induced ReA. PMID:24607214

Benchaala, Ilyes; Mishra, Manoj K; Wykes, Susan M; Hali, Mirabela; Kannan, Rangaramanujam M; Whittum-Hudson, Judith A

2014-05-15

62

Condom effectiveness for prevention of Chlamydia trachomatis infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/objectives: A growing body of evidence is increasingly demonstrating the effectiveness of condoms for sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention. The purpose of the present analysis was to provide a disease specific estimate for the effectiveness of condoms in preventing Chlamydia trachomatis infection while controlling for known exposure to infection.Methods: Condom effectiveness for C trachomatis was estimated using a medical record

L M Niccolai; A Rowhani-Rahbar; H Jenkins; S Green; D W Dunne

2005-01-01

63

Monitoring the T cell response to genital tract infection  

E-print Network

transmitted diseases has prompted studies to understand how infection is established in the genital tract is a major cause of sexually transmitted disease and the leading cause of preventable blindness worldwideMonitoring the T cell response to genital tract infection Nadia R. Roan, Todd M. Gierahn, Darren E

Starnbach, Michael

64

Genital chlamydial infection: association between clinical features, organism genotype and load.  

PubMed

The association between the clinical features of genital chlamydial infection and organism genotype and load was evaluated. Chlamydial DNA was detected and quantified in genital swabs from 233 (7?%) of 3384 consecutive patients attending a genitourinary medicine clinic. The chlamydia-positive subcohort comprised 132 (57?%) females and 101 (43?%) males. Clinical features were present in 33?% women and 72?% men. The chlamydial load was found to be higher in women (median load: 5.6 log) than men (median load: 3.5 log). Single variable analysis failed to show a significant association between chlamydial load and clinical features (P value = 0.3). Owing to the limited amount of clinical material, information on chlamydial genotypes was available for 70?% (n?=?162) of chlamydia-positive patients. However, multivariable analysis of these samples did show a significant association between chlamydial load and clinical features (P value = 0.02). This discrepancy is most probably due to the difference in the amount of data analysed by single variable (data from 233 patients) and multivariable (data from 162 patients) analysis. The distribution of chlamydia genotypes was as follows: type E (46?%), F (22?%), D (8?%), K (8?%), G (7?%), J (4?%), I (1?%) and H (0.6?%). No statistically significant association was observed between chlamydial genotype and clinical features in either single variable (P value = 0.6) or multivariable (P value = 0.4) analysis. These findings suggest that chlamydial load and diversity in the ompA gene plays little, if any, role in the pathogenesis of genital chlamydial infection. PMID:21415209

Jalal, Hamid; Verlander, Neville Q; Kumar, Navin; Bentley, Neil; Carne, Christopher; Sonnex, Christopher

2011-07-01

65

Reduced live organism recovery and lack of hydrosalpinx in mice infected with plasmid-free Chlamydia muridarum.  

PubMed

Plasmid-free Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia muridarum fail to induce severe pathology. To evaluate whether the attenuated pathogenicity is due to insufficient infection or inability of the plasmidless chlamydial organisms to trigger pathological responses, we compared plasmid-competent and plasmid-free C. muridarum infections in 5 different strains of mice. All 5 strains developed hydrosalpinx following intravaginal inoculation with plasmid-competent, but not inoculation with plasmid-free, C. muridarum. The lack of hydrosalpinx induction by plasmid-free C. muridarum correlated with significantly reduced live organism recovery from the lower genital tract and shortened infection in the upper genital tract. The plasmid-free C. muridarum organisms failed to induce hydrosalpinx even when the organisms were directly inoculated into the oviduct via an intrabursal injection, which was accompanied by significantly reduced survival of the plasmidless organisms in the genital tracts. Furthermore, plasmid-competent C. muridarum organisms after UV inactivation were no longer able to induce hydrosalpinx even when directly delivered into the oviduct at a high dose. Together, these observations suggest that decreased survival of and shortened infection with plasmid-free C. muridarum may contribute significantly to its attenuated pathogenicity. We conclude that adequate live chlamydial infection in the oviduct may be necessary to induce hydrosalpinx. PMID:24343644

Lei, Lei; Chen, Jianlin; Hou, Shuping; Ding, Yiling; Yang, Zhangsheng; Zeng, Hao; Baseman, Joel; Zhong, Guangming

2014-03-01

66

The role of Chlamydia and Chlamydophila infections in reactive arthritis.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydophila pneumoniae are human pathogens; the former being the etiologic agent for trachoma as well as a prevalent sexually transmitted bacterium, while C. pneumoniae is a respiratory pathogen responsible for community-acquired pneumonia. Patients with reactive arthritis show evidence of present or past Chlamydial infection. Chlamydia spp., has been strongly implicated as a triggering factor for reactive arthritis. We describe the simultaneous occurrence of C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis infections in a subject with reactive arthritis. We suggest treatment for a patient with Chlamydia-associated arthritis to define a means by which persistent organisms can be induced to return to the active developmental cycle, thereby making them more accessible to antibiotic activity. PMID:22214635

Rizzo, Antonietta; Domenico, Marina Di; Carratelli, Caterina Romano; Paolillo, Rossella

2012-01-01

67

Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in adult patients with persistent cough  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydia pneumoniae is a frequent causative agent of acute respiratory disease. To assess whether C. pneumoniae plays a role in persistent cough, the prevalence of C. pneumoniae infection in adult patients with persistent cough was investigated. Nasopharyngeal swabs and serology samples from 366 adult patients with a persistent cough lasting in excess of 2 weeks and 106 control subjects were

Naoyuki Miyashita; Hiroshi Fukano; Koichiro Yoshida; Yoshihito Niki; Toshiharu Matsushima

2003-01-01

68

A role for matrix metalloproteinase-9 in pathogenesis of urogenital Chlamydia muridarum infection in mice.  

PubMed

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of host-derived enzymes involved in the turnover of extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules and the processing of cytokines, chemokines and growth factors. We have previously reported that global inhibition of MMP in Chlamydia muridarum urogenital tract infection of susceptible strains of female mice impeded ascension of C. muridarum into the upper genital tract, blunted acute inflammatory responses and reduced the rate of formation of chronic disease. Because we have also observed that MMP-9 (also known as gelatinase B) is expressed in relatively large quantities in susceptible strains of mice in response to infection during acute phases of infection, we explored this further in a more selected fashion. We infected MMP-9 gene knockout mice and wild type controls intravaginally with C. muridarum. Both groups of mice had similar isolation rates from the lower urogenital tract but the absence of MMP-9 resulted in a slightly lower isolation rate in the upper genital tract, blunted acute inflammatory indices in the affected tissues and a reduced rate of formation of hydrosalpinx-a surrogate marker of infertility. These results imply that MMP-9 is involved in pathogenesis of chlamydial infection in this model possibly by amplifying inflammatory responses. PMID:18023394

Imtiaz, Muhammad T; Distelhorst, John T; Schripsema, Justin H; Sigar, Ira M; Kasimos, John N; Lacy, Shanon R; Ramsey, Kyle H

2007-01-01

69

Lower genital tract infections and HIV in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lower genital tract infections and HIV are major causes of morbidity and mortality among women; thier impact on the US economy\\u000a amounts to several billion dollars each year. Most lower genital tract infections—and their adverse sequelae, such as pelvic\\u000a inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic pain, and increased susceptibility to HIV—are caused by sexually transmitted\\u000a diseases (STDs). This article reviews

Madeline Y. Sutton

2000-01-01

70

Better than nothing? Patient-delivered partner therapy and partner notification for chlamydia: the views of Australian general practitioners  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Genital chlamydia is the most commonly notified sexually transmissible infection (STI) in Australia and worldwide and can have serious reproductive health outcomes. Partner notification, testing and treatment are important facets of chlamydia control. Traditional methods of partner notification are not reaching enough partners to effectively control transmission of chlamydia. Patient-delivered partner therapy (PDPT) has been shown to improve the

Natasha L Pavlin; Rhian M Parker; Anna K Piggin; Carol A Hopkins; Meredith J Temple-Smith; Christopher K Fairley; Jane E Tomnay; Francis J Bowden; Darren B Russell; Jane S Hocking; Marian K Pitts; Marcus Y Chen

2010-01-01

71

2010 European guideline for the management of Chlamydia trachomatis infections.  

PubMed

This guideline aims to provide comprehensive information regarding the management of infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis in European countries. The recommendations contain important information for physicians and laboratory staff working with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and/or STI-related issues. Individual European countries may be required to make minor national adjustments to this guideline as some of the tests or specific local data may not be accessible, or because of specific laws. PMID:21187352

Lanjouw, E; Ossewaarde, J M; Stary, A; Boag, F; van der Meijden, W I

2010-11-01

72

Effects of Azithromycin and Rifampin on Chlamydia trachomatis Infection In Vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in vitro cell culture model was used to investigate the long-term effects of azithromycin, rifampin, and the combination of azithromycin and rifampin on Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Although standard in vitro susceptibility testing indicated efficient inhibition by azithromycin, prolonged treatment did not reveal a clear elimination of chlamydia from host cells. Chlamydia were temporarily arrested in a persistent state, charac-

UTE DRESES-WERRINGLOER; INGRID PADUBRIN; HENNING ZEIDLER; LARS KOHLER

2001-01-01

73

The prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci infections in Belgian commercial turkey poults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci infections in Belgian commericial turkey poults was examined and a follow-up study of one Belgian turkey flock was performed. Sera were examined for the presence of anti-chlamydia antibodies by immunoblotting. Cloacal and conjunctival swab smears and lung impression smears were examined for the presence of chlamydial antigen using the IMAGEN Chlamydia immunofluorescence test. Anti-chlamydia antibodies

D. Vanrompay; P. Butaye; A. Van Nerom; R. Ducatelle; F. Haesebrouck

1997-01-01

74

Incidence of Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection in Vertically HIV1 Infected Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate of seroconversion for antibody to Chlamydia pneumoniae was analysed in blood samples of 26 vertically HIV-1 infected children and 14 seroreverter children (HIV-negative children\\u000a born to HIV-positive mothers) during a 3-year study period. Seroconversion for Chlamydia pneumoniae was found in 13 of 26 HIV-1 infected children and in 1 of 14 in the seroreverter group (P=0.013). A lower

R. Cosentini; S. Esposito; F. Blasi; M. Clerici Schoeller; R. Pinzani; P. Tarsia; L. Fagetti; C. Arosio; N. Principi; L. Allegra

1998-01-01

75

Endosulfatases SULF1 and SULF2 limit Chlamydia muridarum infection.  

PubMed

The first step in attachment of Chlamydia to host cells is thought to involve reversible binding to host heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), polymers of variably sulfated repeating disaccharide units coupled to diverse protein backbones. However, the key determinants of HSPG structure that are involved in Chlamydia binding are incompletely defined. A previous genome-wide Drosophila RNAi screen suggested that the level of HSPG 6-O sulfation rather than the identity of the proteoglycan backbone maybe a critical determinant for binding. Here, we tested in mammalian cells whether SULF1 or SULF2, human endosulfatases, which remove 6-O sulfates from HSPGs, modulate Chlamydia infection. Ectopic expression of SULF1 or SULF2 in HeLa cells, which decreases cell surface HSPG sulfation, diminished C.?muridarum binding and decreased vacuole formation. ShRNA depletion of endogenous SULF2 in a cell line that primarily expresses SULF2 augmented binding and increased vacuole formation. C.?muridarum infection of diverse cell lines resulted indownregulation of SULF2 mRNA. In a murine model of acute pneumonia, mice genetically deficient in both endosulfatases or in SULF2 alone demonstrated increased susceptibility to C.?muridarum lung infection. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that the level of HSPG 6-O sulfation is a critical determinant of C.?muridarum infection in vivo and that 6-O endosulfatases are previously unappreciated modulators of microbial pathogenesis. PMID:23480519

Kim, J H; Chan, C; Elwell, C; Singer, M S; Dierks, T; Lemjabbar-Alaoui, H; Rosen, S D; Engel, J N

2013-09-01

76

[Identification of latent forms of Chlamydia trachomatis in the conjunctiva signifying "new interpretation of ocular chlamydia infections"].  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) sérovar D through K was demonstrated with electron microscopy and biology in 114 patients with bilateral dry eyes. Long time ago latent CT was recognised in conjunctival epithelium of vernal kerato conjunctivitis patients. CT was found in conjunctival section of patients with an extinct trachoma. Aberrants forms of chlamydia bear the responsibility of this long lasting infection. Reticuled body does not product elementary bodies. It becomes an aberrant body which could remain latent during years. DIF and others classical investigations are negatives because abberrant chlamydiae have lost most part of their MOMP albeit keeping immunopathogenicity. PMID:9889578

Verin, P; Mortemousque, B; Gendre, P; Barac'H, D; Dorot, N; Chraibi-Hasseini, K

1997-01-01

77

Human Papillomaviruses and genital co-infections in gynaecological outpatients  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: High grade HPV infections and persistence are the strongest risk factors for cervical cancer. Nevertheless other genital microorganisms may be involved in the progression of HPV associated lesions. METHODS: Cervical samples were collected to search for human Papillomavirus (HPV), bacteria and yeast infections in gynaecologic outpatients. HPV typing was carried out by PCR and sequencing on cervical brush specimens.

Rosita Verteramo; Alessandra Pierangeli; Emanuela Mancini; Ettore Calzolari; Mauro Bucci; John Osborn; Rosa Nicosia; Fernanda Chiarini; Guido Antonelli; Anna Marta Degener

2009-01-01

78

Induction of protective immunity against Chlamydia muridarum intracervical infection in DBA/1j mice.  

PubMed

We previously reported that intracervical inoculation with Chlamydia muridarum induced hydrosalpinx in DBA/1j mice, but intravaginal inoculation failed to do so. In the current study, we found unexpectedly that intrabursal inoculation of live chlamydial organisms via the oviduct failed to induce significant hydrosalpinx. We further tested whether primary infection via intravaginal or intrabursal inoculation could induce protective immunity against hydrosalpinx following intracervical challenge infection. Mice infected intravaginally with C. muridarum were fully protected from developing hydrosalpinx, while intrabursal inoculation offered partial protection. We then compared immune responses induced by the two genital tract inoculations. Both inoculations induced high IFN? and IL-17 T cell responses although the ratio of IgG2a versus IgG1 in intravaginally infected mice was significantly higher than in mice infected intrabursally. When the antigen-specificities of antibody responses were compared, both groups of mice dominantly recognized 24 C. muridarum antigens, while each group preferentially recognized unique sets of antigens. Thus, we have demonstrated that intrabursal inoculation is neither effective for causing hydrosalpinx nor efficient in inducing protective immunity in DBA/1j mice. Intravaginal immunization, in combination with intracervical challenge infection in DBA/1j mice, can be a useful model for understanding mechanisms of chlamydial pathogenicity and protective immunity. PMID:24188757

Tang, Lingli; Yang, Zhangsheng; Zhang, Hongbo; Zhou, Zhiguang; Arulanandam, Bernard; Baseman, Joel; Zhong, Guangming

2014-03-10

79

Two cases of erythema exsudativum multiforme associated with Chlamydia pneumoniae infection.  

PubMed

We report two cases of erythema exsudativum multiforme (EEM) that we concluded were caused by infections with Chlamydia pneumoniae. High titers of IgG antibody for Chlamydia pneumoniae were shown in the sera of both cases. One case showed the classical symptoms of pneumonia together with radiological changes in the chest; the other case did not show these symptoms. To the best of our knowledge, only three cases of erythema multiforme associated with Chlamydia pneumoniae infection have been reported. PMID:21950477

Hosokawa, Ryoko; Kobayashi, Takashi; Higashino, Toshihide; Asano, Chika; Ono, Koji; Fujimoto, Norihiro; Tajima, Shingo

2012-03-01

80

The incidence of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infections among patients in Kumasi, Ghana.  

PubMed

The incidence of urogenital chlamydia infections among selected patients in Kumasi, Ghana was evaluated using an immunofluorescent monoclonal antibody technique. Chlamydia trachomatis was identified in 4 of 110 patients presenting for prenatal care, 2 of 55 female patients with infertility and 6 of 15 males with acute urethritis. The findings demonstrate that C. trachomatis is a frequently identified pathogen among male patients presenting with symptoms of acute urethritis; however, the incidence of chlamydia infections among asymptomatic patients is relatively low. PMID:2904902

Drescher, C; Elkins, T E; Adkeo, O; Akins-Bekoe, P; Agbemadzo, T; Foster, R L; Martey, J O

1988-12-01

81

The superiority of polymerase chain reaction over an amplified enzyme immunoassay for the detection of genital chlamydial infections  

PubMed Central

Background/objectives The polymer conjugate enhanced enzyme immunoassay (IDEIA) and Cobas Amplicor polymerase chain reaction Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) (Amplicor PCR) are two commonly used assays for the diagnosis of CT infection. The performance of these assays was compared for the diagnosis of genital CT infection among 1000 consecutive patients attending a genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinic. Confirmation of positive results and the clinical significance of the absence of cryptic plasmid in chlamydia on the diagnosis of infection by Amplicor PCR were also investigated. Methods IDEIA, Amplicor PCR, and two nested in?house PCR assays targeting cryptic plasmid and omp1 gene were performed on all samples. DNA from Amplicor PCR negative samples was pooled for in?house PCR assays. Each pool contained DNA from seven Amplicor PCR negative samples. Results Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and efficiency of IDEIA in the diagnosis of genital CT infection were 80%, 97%, 80%, 97%, and 95%, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and efficiency of Amplicor PCR were 99%, 98%, 89%, 100%, and 98%, respectively. 16 (11%) of 144 Amplicor PCR positive results were identified as false positive by in?house PCR assays. No isolate of plasmid free CT was detected among the study population. Conclusions IDEIA should not be used for the diagnosis of CT infection because of its poor sensitivity. Although the analytic specificity of Amplicor PCR was 98%, because of the adverse medical, social, and psychological impact of false positive results for patients, confirmation of Amplicor PCR positive results by a different assay with comparable sensitivity is essential. Amplification assays targeting cryptic plasmid are appropriate for the diagnosis of genital CT infections. PMID:16461600

Jalal, H; Stephen, H; Al-Suwaine, A; Sonnex, C; Carne, C

2006-01-01

82

A link between neutrophils and chronic disease manifestations of Chlamydia muridarum urogenital infection of mice.  

PubMed

Vigorous acute inflammatory responses accompany Chlamydia muridarum infections in mice and are positively correlated with adverse urogenital and respiratory tract infection outcomes in the mouse model. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that neutrophils induce an acute inflammatory insult that, in the repair phase, leads to the chronic sequelae of hydrosalpinx - a surrogate marker of infertility in the mouse model. To this end, we induced neutropenia in mice using a neutrophil-depleting monoclonal antibody during acute phases of C. muridarum urogenital infection only (days 2-21 postinfection). To prove induced neutropenia, peripheral blood was monitored for neutrophils during the treatment regimen. Neutropenic mice had a similar infection course as control mice, but had significantly reduced levels of certain histopathological parameters, reduced production of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and reduced rates of hydrosalpinx following resolution of the infection. We conclude that neutrophils are a major source of MMP-9, a previously proved pathological factor in this model. Further, we conclude that acute inflammation in the form of neutrophils and neutrophil activation products are at least partially responsible for inducing the histological changes that ultimately result in fibrosis and infertility in the mouse model of chlamydial upper genital tract disease. PMID:20370824

Lee, Hyo Y; Schripsema, Justin H; Sigar, Ira M; Murray, Candace M; Lacy, Shanon R; Ramsey, Kyle H

2010-06-01

83

Inhibition of Chlamydial Infection in the Genital Tract of Female Mice by Topical Application of a Peptide Deformylase Inhibitor  

PubMed Central

Summary Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium responsible for a number of health problems, including sexually transmitted infection in humans. We recently discovered that C. trachomatis infection in cell culture is highly susceptible to inhibitors of peptide deformylase, an enzyme that removes the N-formyl group from newly synthesized polypeptides. In this study, one of the deformylase inhibitors, GM6001, was tested for potential antichlamydial activity using a murine genital C. muridarum infection model. Topical application of GM6001 significantly reduced C. muridarum loading in BALB/c mice that were vaginally infected with the pathogen. In striking contrast, growth of the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum is strongly resistant to the PDF inhibitor. GM6001 demonstrated no detectable toxicity against host cells. On the basis of these data and our previous observations, we conclude that further evaluation of PDF inhibitors for prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted chlamydial infection is warranted. PMID:17936604

Balakrishnan, Amit; Wang, Lingling; Li, Xiaojin; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Malatesta, Paul; Fan, Huizhou

2009-01-01

84

Developmental Stage Oxidoreductive States of Chlamydia and Infected Host Cells  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT A defining characteristic of Chlamydia spp. is their developmental cycle characterized by outer membrane transformations of cysteine bonds among cysteine-rich outer membrane proteins. The reduction-oxidation states of host cell compartments were monitored during the developmental cycle using live fluorescence microscopy. Organelle redox states were studied using redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein (roGFP1) expressed in CF15 epithelial cells and targeted to the cytosol, mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The redox properties of chlamydiae and the inclusion were monitored using roGFP expressed by Chlamydia trachomatis following transformation. Despite the large morphological changes associated with chlamydial infection, redox potentials of the cytosol (?cyto [average, ?320 mV]), mitochondria (?mito [average, ?345 mV]), and the ER (?ER [average, ?258 mV]) and their characteristic redox regulatory abilities remained unchanged until the cells died, at which point ?cyto and ?mito became more oxidized and ?ER became more reduced. The redox status of the chamydial cytoplasm was measured following transformation and expression of the roGFP biosensor in C. trachomatis throughout the developmental cycle. The periplasmic and outer membrane redox states were assessed by the level of cysteine cross-linking of cysteine-rich envelope proteins. In both cases, the chlamydiae were highly reduced early in the developmental cycle and became oxidized late in the developmental cycle. The production of a late-developmental-stage oxidoreductase/isomerase, DsbJ, may play a key role in the regulation of the oxidoreductive developmental-stage-specific process. PMID:25352618

Wang, Xiaogang; Schwarzer, Christian; Hybiske, Kevin; Machen, Terry E.

2014-01-01

85

The epidemiology of genital human papillomavirus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical and subclinical human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are the most common sexually transmitted infections in the world, and most sexually-active individuals are likely to be exposed to HPV infection during their lifetimes. More than 40 genotypes of HPV infect the epithelial lining of the anogenital tract and other mucosal areas of the body; of these, 13–18 types are considered to

Helen Trottier; Eduardo L. Franco

2006-01-01

86

Epidemiology of genital chlamydial infections in patients with chlamydial conjunctivitis; a retrospective study.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine how often chlamydial conjunctivitis is accompanied by a genital chlamydial infection and if there is a correlation between the dominant hand and the eye first infected. METHODS: We retrospectively studied the records of 65 patients with chlamydial conjunctivitis who were referred to the Outpatient Department of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) of the University Hospital Rotterdam by ophthalmologists of the Eye Hospital Rotterdam. The patients have recently been asked by letter if they were left- or right-handed. RESULTS: Twenty of the 37 men (54%) had a positive chlamydial urethral culture. Seventy per cent of these men had no genital symptoms. Eight of the 37 men (22%) had a non-specific urethritis (NSU). Twenty of the 27 women examined (74%) had a positive chlamydial cervical culture. Sixty per cent of these women had no genital symptoms. Eight women with a genital chlamydial infection also had another genital infection. Five women without a genital chlamydial infection had another genital infection. Two women had no genital infection at all. A correlation between the eye infected and left- or right-handedness of the patient could not be found. CONCLUSIONS: A considerable percentage of the patients with a chlamydial conjunctivitis had a concomitant genital chlamydial infection. The majority of them had no genital symptoms. Since patients with chlamydial conjunctivitis and/or their partners possibly have a concomitant genital chlamydial infection, we recommend referral of both patients and sexual partners to an STD clinic for routine examination and systemic treatment when indicated. PMID:8707324

Postema, E J; Remeijer, L; van der Meijden, W I

1996-01-01

87

Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection in Circulating Human Monocytes Is Refractory to Antibiotic Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Recovery of the intracellular bacterium Chlamydia pneumoniaefrom atherosclerotic plaques has initiated large studies on antimicrobial therapy in coronary artery disease. The basic concept that antibiotic therapy may eliminate and prevent vascular infection was evaluated in vitro and in vivo by examining the antibiotic susceptibility of C pneumoniaein circulating human monocytes, which are thought to transport chlamydiae from the respiratory tract

Jens Gieffers; Henriette Füllgraf; Jürgen Jahn; Matthias Klinger; Klaus Dalhoff; Hugo A. Katus; Werner Solbach; Matthias Maass

2009-01-01

88

Young, male, and infected: the forgotten victims of chlamydia in primary care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To identify current levels of testing men for chlamydia and establish levels of knowledge relating to chlamydia infection among practice nurses in primary care in one north Wales local area health group (LHG) as part of a study to improve delivery of sexual health services in primary care.Methods: Anonymous confidential self completed postal questionnaires were sent to 46 practice

P Robertson; O E Williams

2005-01-01

89

Chlamydia trachomatis-infected patients display variable antibody profiles against the nine-member polymorphic membrane protein family.  

PubMed

Genomic analysis of the Chlamydiaceae has revealed a multigene family encoding large, putatively autotransported polymorphic membrane proteins (Pmps) with nine members in the sexually transmitted pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis. While various pathogenesis-related functions are emerging for the Pmps, observed genotypic and phenotypic variation among several chlamydial Pmps in various Chlamydia species has led us to hypothesize that the pmp gene repertoire is the basis of a previously undetected mechanism of antigenic variation. To test this hypothesis, we chose to examine the serologic response of C. trachomatis-infected patients to each Pmp subtype. Immune serum samples were collected from four populations of patients with confirmed C. trachomatis genital infection: 40 women with pelvic inflammatory disease from Pittsburgh, PA; 27 and 34 adolescent/young females from Oakland, CA, and Little Rock, AR, respectively; and 58 adult male patients from Baltimore, MD. The Pmp-specific antibody response was obtained using immunoblot analysis against each of the nine recombinantly expressed Pmps and quantified by densitometry. Our results show that nearly all C. trachomatis-infected patients mount a strong serologic response against individual or multiple Pmp subtypes and that the antibody specificity profile varies between patients. Moreover, our analysis reveals differences in the strengths and specificities of the Pmp subtype-specific antibody reactivity relating to gender and clinical outcome. Overall, our results indicate that the Pmps elicit various serologic responses in C. trachomatis-infected patients and are consistent with the pmp gene family being the basis of a mechanism of antigenic variation. PMID:19487469

Tan, Chun; Hsia, Ru-ching; Shou, Huizhong; Haggerty, Catherine L; Ness, Roberta B; Gaydos, Charlotte A; Dean, Deborah; Scurlock, Amy M; Wilson, David P; Bavoil, Patrik M

2009-08-01

90

A role for CXC chemokine receptor-2 in the pathogenesis of urogenital Chlamydia muridarum infection in mice.  

PubMed

We tested the hypothesis that a specific chemokine receptor, CXC chemokine receptor-2 (CXCR2), mediates acute inflammatory damage during chlamydial urogenital infection, which ultimately leads to the chronic sequelae of hydrosalpinx - a surrogate marker of infertility. Homozygous CXCR2 genetic knockouts (CXCR2-/-), heterozygous littermates (CXCR2+/-) or homozygous wild-type (wt) controls (CXCR2+/+) were infected intravaginally with Chlamydia muridarum. Although no change was observed in the infection in the lower genital tract based on CXCR zygosity, a delay in the ascension of infection into the upper genital tract was seen in CXCR2-/- mice. Significantly elevated peripheral blood neutrophil counts were observed in CXCR2-/- mice when compared with controls. Reduced rates of acute inflammatory indices were observed in the affected tissue, indicating reduced neutrophil extravasation capacity in the absence of CXCR2. Of note was a reduction in the postinfection development of hydrosalpinx that correlated with CXCR2 zygosity, with both CXCR2-/- (13%) and their CXCR2+/- (35%) littermates displaying significantly lower rates of hydrosalpinx formation than the wt CXCR2-sufficient mice (93%). We conclude that CXCR2 ligands are a major chemotactic signal that induces damaging acute inflammation and the resulting chronic pathology during the repair phase of the host response, but are dispensable for the resolution of infection. PMID:20602634

Lee, Hyo Y; Schripsema, Justin H; Sigar, Ira M; Lacy, Shanon R; Kasimos, John N; Murray, Candace M; Ramsey, Kyle H

2010-10-01

91

Trichomonas vaginalis genital infections: progress and challenges.  

PubMed

Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) infection is the most prevalent curable sexually transmitted infection in the United States and worldwide. Most TV infections are asymptomatic, and the accurate diagnosis of this infection has been limited by lack of sufficiently sensitive and specific diagnostic tests, particularly for men. To provide updates for the 2010 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, a PubMed search was conducted of all TV literature published from 9 January 2004 through 24 September 2008. Approximately 175 pertinent abstracts and articles were reviewed and discussed with national experts. This article describes advances in TV diagnostics which have led to an improved understanding of the epidemiology of this pathogen, as well as potential biologic and epidemiological interactions between TV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). New data on treatment outcomes, metronidazole-resistant TV, management of nitroimidazole-allergic patients, frequency of recurrent TV infection following treatment, and screening considerations for TV in certain populations are also presented. PMID:22080269

Bachmann, Laura H; Hobbs, Marcia M; Seña, Arlene C; Sobel, Jack D; Schwebke, Jane R; Krieger, John N; McClelland, R Scott; Workowski, Kimberly A

2011-12-01

92

Current methods of laboratory diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infections.  

PubMed Central

Infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis are probably the most common sexually transmitted diseases in the United States. Commonly unrecognized and often inadequately treated, chlamydial infections can ascend the reproductive tract and cause pelvic inflammatory disease, which often results in the devastating consequences of infertility, ectopic pregnancy, or chronic pelvic pain. C. trachomatis infections are also known to increase the risk for human immunodeficiency virus infection. The obligate intracellular life cycle of C. trachomatis has traditionally required laboratory diagnostic tests that are technically demanding, labor-intensive, expensive, and difficult to access. In spite of these historical challenges, however, laboratory diagnosis of C. trachomatis has been a rapidly advancing area in which there is presently a wide array of commercial diagnostic technologies, costs, manufacturers. This review describes and compares the diagnostic methods for C. trachomatis infection that are currently approved for use in the United States, including the newest DNA amplification technologies which are yet to be licensed for commercial use. Issues to consider in selecting a test for purposes of screening versus diagnosis based on prevalence, performance, legal, social, and cost issues are also discussed. PMID:8993862

Black, C M

1997-01-01

93

Cellular immune response in genital herpes simplex virus infection.  

PubMed

We studied the relations between the cellular immune response, pre-existing complement-fixing antibody and virus type with duration of virus excretion in genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. Thirty-six patients (seven with HSV-1 and 29 with HSV-2) with genital herpes underwent serologic testing, sequential viral cultures and weekly determination of lymphocyte-transformation stimulation index with inactivated HSV antic n. The duration of virus excretion was shortest in those with pre-existing complement-fixing antibody, was unrelated to virus type, and was inversely correlated with the magnitude of the mean peak stimulation index (r = -0.69, P less than 0.001). Prolonged virus excretion occurred in patients with a delayed and diminished peak index. Recurrent episodes had a higher peak index (29.4 compared to 14.5) (P less than 0.02), an earlier development of the peak during recurrences (9.1 vs. 25.8 days) (P less than 0.01) and a briefer duration of viral shedding than initial episodes. Thus, the temporal course and magnitude of the stimulation index correlate with and may determine the duration of genital HSV infection. PMID:211414

Corey, L; Reeves, W C; Holmes, K K

1978-11-01

94

of Chlamydia psittaci var ovis: screening in a murine model. Infect Immun 42, 525-530  

E-print Network

of Chlamydia psittaci var ovis: screening in a murine model. Infect Immun 42, 525-530 Rodolakis A- pneumoniae, dès la naissance, en faisant appel à la protection transmise aux porcelets par les anticorps

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

95

Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a worldwide-distributed sexually transmitted infection that may lead to infertility. Objectives This study aims to report the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods A community-based study carried out at the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at Jazan General Hospital, Saudi Arabia. The study group included 640 Saudi infertile women who were aged between 18 and 40 years and who attended the gynecology clinic for infertility examination throughout 1 year of study (from July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012). The randomized control group included 100 Saudi fertile women who attended the obstetrics clinic for routine antenatal care. All recruited women were screened for chlamydia infection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of serum-specific antibodies and then retested by the McCoy cell culture technique. Results The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women was high, at 15.0%. The rate of chlamydia infection detected by ELISA was 9.84%, and it was 12.03% by the culture method (P = 0.2443). Conclusion The high prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among Saudi infertile women demands a national screening program for early detection among infertile couples. ELISA is available as a simple screening test alternative to the culture method. PMID:23785247

Kamel, Remah M

2013-01-01

96

Chlamydia trachomatis infection and sexual behaviour among female students attending higher education in the Republic of Ireland  

PubMed Central

Background There are no prevalence data on Chlamydia trachomatis relating to female students attending higher education available for the Republic of Ireland. This information is required to guide on the necessity for Chlamydia screening programmes in higher education settings. This research aimed to determine the prevalence of and predictive risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection among female higher education students in Ireland. Methods All females presenting during one-day periods at Student Health Units in three higher education institutions in two cities in the Republic of Ireland were invited to participate. Participants completed a questionnaire on lifestyle and socio-demographic factors and provided a urine sample. Samples were tested for C. trachomatis DNA by a PCR based technique (Cobas Amplicor, Roche). To examine possible associations between a positive test and demographic and lifestyle risk factors, a univariate analysis was performed. All associations with a p value < 0.05 were included in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Of the 460 sexually active participants 22 tested positive (prevalence 4.8%; 95% CI 3.0 to 7.1%). Variables associated with significantly increased risk were current suggestive symptoms, two or more one-night stands and three or more lifetime sexual partners. The students displayed high-risk sexual behaviour. Conclusion The prevalence of C. trachomatis infection and the lack of awareness of the significance of suggestive symptoms among sexually experienced female students demonstrate the need for a programme to test asymptomatic or non-presenting higher education students. The risk factors identified by multivariate analysis may be useful in identifying those who are most likely to benefit from screening. Alcohol abuse, condom use, sexual behaviour (at home and abroad) and, knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (including asymptomatic nature or relevant symptoms) were identified as target areas for health promotion strategies. These strategies are needed in view of the high-risk sexual activity identified. PMID:19874584

O'Connell, Emer; Brennan, Wendy; Cormican, Martin; Glacken, Marita; O'Donovan, Diarmuid; Vellinga, Akke; Cahill, Niall; Lysaght, Fionnguala; O'Donnell, Joan

2009-01-01

97

Neither Interleukin6 nor Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Is Required for Clearance of Chlamydia trachomatis from the Murine Genital Tract Epithelium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female mice bearing targeted mutations in the interleukin-6 or inducible nitric oxide synthase locus mounted effective immune responses following vaginal infection with Chlamydia trachomatis. Chlamydial clearance rates, local Th1 cytokine production, and host antibody responses were similar to those of immunocompetent control mice. Therefore, neither gene product appears to be critical for the resolution of chlamydial infections of the urogenital

LINDA L. PERRY; KAREN FEILZER; HARLAN D. CALDWELL

1998-01-01

98

Laboratory diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections in women with genital discharge in Madagascar: implications for primary care.  

PubMed

Women seeking care in Madagascar for genital discharge (n = 1,066) were evaluated for syphilis seroreactivity; bacterial vaginosis (BV) and trichomoniasis. Chlamydial infection was assessed by ligase chain reaction (LCR) and by direct immunofluorescence (IF); gonorrhoea by direct microscopy, culture and LCR. Leucocytes were determined in endocervical smears and in urine using leucocyte esterase dipstick (LED). Gonococcal isolates were tested for minimal inhibitory concentrations. BV was found in 56%, trichomoniasis in 25%, and syphilis in 6% of the women. LCR detected gonorrhoea in 13% and chlamydial infection in 11% of the women. Detection of Gram(-) intracellular diplococci in endocervical smears, and gonococcal culture were respectively 23% and 57% sensitive and 98% and 100% specific compared to LCR. Chlamydia antigen detection by IF was 75% sensitive and 77% specific compared to LCR. Leucocytes in endocervical smears and LED testing lacked precision to detect gonococcal and chlamydial infections. Of 67 gonococcal strains evaluated, 19% were fully susceptible to penicillin, 33% to tetracycline; all were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, and spectinomycin. Patients who present with genital discharge in Madagascar should be treated syndromically for gonococcal and chlamydial infections and screened for syphilis. Gonorrhoea should be treated with ciprofloxacin. PMID:12230924

Behets, F M-T F; Andriamiadana, J; Randrianasolo, D; Rasamilalao, D; Ratsimbazafy, N; Dallabetta, G; Cohen, M S

2002-09-01

99

Seroepidemiological and socioeconomic studies of genital chlamydial infection in Ethiopian women  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To measure the prevalence of chlamydial genital infection in Ethiopian women attending gynaecological, obstetric and family planning clinics; to identify the epidemiological, social and economic factors affecting the prevalence of infection in a country where routine laboratory culture and serological tests for chlamydial species are unavailable; to determine the risk factors for genital chlamydial infection in those with serological evidence

M E Duncan; Y Jamil; G Tibaux; A Pelzer; L Mehari; S Darougar

1992-01-01

100

Plasmid CDS5 influences infectivity and virulence in a mouse model of Chlamydia trachomatis urogenital infection.  

PubMed

The native plasmid of both Chlamydia muridarum and Chlamydia trachomatis has been shown to control virulence and infectivity in mice and in lower primates. We recently described the development of a plasmid-based genetic transformation protocol for Chlamydia trachomatis that for the first time provides a platform for the molecular dissection of the function of the chlamydial plasmid and its individual genes or coding sequences (CDS). In the present study, we transformed a plasmid-free lymphogranuloma venereum isolate of C. trachomatis, serovar L2, with either the original shuttle vector (pGFP::SW2) or a derivative of pGFP::SW2 carrying a deletion of the plasmid CDS5 gene (pCDS5KO). Female mice were inoculated with these strains either intravaginally or transcervically. We found that transformation of the plasmid-free isolate with the intact pGFP::SW2 vector significantly enhanced infectivity and induction of host inflammatory responses compared to the plasmid-free parental isolate. Transformation with pCDS5KO resulted in infection courses and inflammatory responses not significantly different from those observed in mice infected with the plasmid-free isolate. These results indicate a critical role of plasmid CDS5 in in vivo fitness and in induction of inflammatory responses. To our knowledge, these are the first in vivo observations ascribing infectivity and virulence to a specific plasmid gene. PMID:24866804

Ramsey, K H; Schripsema, J H; Smith, B J; Wang, Y; Jham, B C; O'Hagan, K P; Thomson, N R; Murthy, A K; Skilton, R J; Chu, P; Clarke, I N

2014-08-01

101

Differential profiles of immune mediators and in vitro HIV infectivity between endocervical and vaginal secretions from women with Chlamydia trachomatis infection: A pilot study?  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia trachomatis infection is one of the most prevalent bacterial STIs in the USA and worldwide, and women with C. trachomatis infection are at increased risk of acquiring HIV. Because immune activation at the genital mucosa facilitates HIV/SIV infection, C. trachomatis-mediated cytokine induction may contribute to increased HIV transmission in asymptomatic women. To begin to elucidate the mechanisms, we longitudinally analyzed profiles of innate immune factors and HIV infectivity in genital secretions from anatomically specific sites in asymptomatic women during C. trachomatis infection and post-antibiotic treatment. We found higher levels of cytokines and chemokines in endocervical secretions than vaginal secretions. Compared with the convalescent state, G-CSF, IL-1?, and RANTES were elevated in endocervical secretions, IFN-? and TNF-? were elevated in vaginal secretions, and IFN?, IL-1?, and MIP1-? were elevated in cervicolavage fluid (CVL), before adjustment of multiple comparisons. Elevated endocervical levels of IP-10 and MCP-1 were associated with the use of hormonal contraception in infected women after successful treatment, suggesting the role of hormonal contraception in inflammation independent of STIs. Importantly, soluble factors found in endocervical secretions during infection enhanced HIV infectivity while no difference in HIV infectivity was found with vaginal secretions or CVL during infection or at convalescence. Taken together, the profiles of immune mediators and in vitro HIV infectivity indicate that the endocervical and vaginal mucosa are immunologically distinct. Our results underscore the importance of considering anatomical site and local sampling methodology when measuring mucosal responses, particularly in the presence of C. trachomatis infection. PMID:23993451

Sperling, Rhoda; Kraus, Thomas A.; Ding, Jian; Veretennikova, Alina; Lorde-Rollins, Elizabeth; Singh, Tricia; Lo, Yungtai; Quayle, Alison J.; Chang, Theresa L.

2013-01-01

102

Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection in Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Analysis of 250 Hospitalizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Two hundred fifty hospitalizations were included in a serologically based prospective study to assess the role of Chlamydia pneumoniae in episodes of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) and the percentage of COPD patients chronically\\u000a infected with this pathogen. Chlamydia pneumoniae-specific IgG, IgA and IgM antibody titers were determined using a commercial kit with the microimmunofluorescence method.

D. Lieberman; M. Ben-Yaakov; Z. Lazarovich; B. Ohana; I. Boldur

2001-01-01

103

Comparison of Five Serologic Tests for Diagnosis of Acute Infections by Chlamydia pneumoniae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serology is often used to diagnose acute infections by Chlamydia pneumoniae. In this study paired sera from patients with acute respiratory tract infection during an epidemic of C. pneumoniae infections were examined by five different antibody tests. These tests were the complement fixation (CF) test, the microimmunofluores- cence (MIF) test, a recombinant enzyme immunoassay (rEIA) (Medac) based on a recombinant

KENNETH PERSSON; JENS BOMAN

2000-01-01

104

Repeat infection with Chlamydia and gonorrhea among females: a systematic review of the literature.  

PubMed

Determining the magnitude of chlamydia and gonorrhea reinfection is critical to inform evidence-based clinical practice guidelines related to retesting after treatment. PubMed was used to identify peer-reviewed English language studies published in the past 30 years that estimated reinfection rates among females treated for chlamydia or gonorrhea. Included in this analysis were original studies conducted in the United States and other industrialized countries that reported data on chlamydia or gonorrhea reinfection in females. Studies were stratified into 3 tiers based on study design. Reinfection rates were examined in relation to the organism, study design, length of follow-up, and population characteristics. Of the 47 studies included, 16 were active cohort (Tier 1), 15 passive cohort (Tier 2), and 16 disease registry (Tier 3) studies. The overall median proportion of females reinfected with chlamydia was 13.9% (n = 38 studies). Modeled chlamydia reinfection within 12 months demonstrated peak rates of 19% to 20% at 8 to 10 months. The overall median proportion of females reinfected with gonorrhea was 11.7% (n = 17 studies). Younger age was associated with higher rates of both chlamydia and gonorrhea reinfection. High rates of reinfection with chlamydia and gonorrhea among females, along with practical considerations, warrant retesting 3 to 6 months after treatment of the initial infection. Further research should investigate effective interventions to reduce reinfection and to increase retesting. PMID:19617871

Hosenfeld, Christina B; Workowski, Kimberly A; Berman, Stuart; Zaidi, Akbar; Dyson, Jeri; Mosure, Debra; Bolan, Gail; Bauer, Heidi M

2009-08-01

105

Screening for cervical Chlamydia trachomatis infections in two Dutch populations.  

PubMed Central

Endocervical cultures for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae were taken from 492 women attending an outpatient clinic for sexually transmitted diseases (group I) and 560 women seeking legal abortion (group II). Possible risk factors for C trachomatis infection were evaluated by multivariate analysis. The prevalence rates for C trachomatis and N gonorrhoeae were 7.3% and 2.5% in group I and 9.4% and 0.4% in group II. From multivariate analysis it was found that age (p less than 0.01), number of sexual partners (p less than 0.01), abnormal vaginal discharge (p less than 0.01), and endocervical mucopus (p = 0.02) were independently associated with chlamydial infection in group I. In the abortion clinic age (p = 0.03) and endocervical mucopus (p = 0.03) were the only significant independent predictors of C trachomatis. In all women vaginal discharge was collected for Gram staining. A significant higher number of polymorphonuclear cells was seen in the smears of C trachomatis positive women (group I: p = 0.04; group II: p = 0.03). In group II there was also a significant association between C trachomatis and Gardnerella type bacterial flora (p = 0.02) and the presence of comma-shaped rods (p = 0.04). Screening for C trachomatis infection may help to decrease the incidence of (post-abortal) pelvic inflammatory disease. Because screening in abortion clinics is not always possible, decreasing the incidence of postabortal pelvic inflammatory disease could be achieved by using prophylactic antibiotics. Selective use of prophylaxis in high risk patients can minimise costs and the incidence of side effects. PMID:2245984

Thewessen, E A; van der Meijden, W I; Doppenberg, H J; Mulder, P G; Wagenvoort, J H; Stolz, E; Michel, M F

1990-01-01

106

Molecular epidemiology of genital human papillomavirus and Chlamydia trachomatis among patients attending a genitourinary medicine clinic - will vaccines protect?  

PubMed

High-risk subtypes of human papillomavirus (HPV) are the main causative agents of cervical cancer, for which Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) may sometimes be a co-factor. Vaccines have been developed against some subtypes of human papillomavirus and a vaccine against CT is in development. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of the subtypes of HPV and CT in genitourinary (GU) medicine clinic attenders. In total, 1000 consecutive patients attending the GU clinic participated in this anonymized point-prevalence study. Urethral swabs from 437 men and urethral plus cervical swabs as a single specimen from 563 women were tested for the subtypes of both organisms. Nested major outer membrane protein (MOMP) polymerase chain reaction detected CT chromosomal DNA in 44/437 (10%) of the men and 73/563 (13%) of the women. Genotypes E, F, and D were the most common. In all, 55/437 (13%) of men and 244/563 (43%) of women were infected with at least one high-risk HPV type. In conclusion, the new HPV vaccines, Gardasil and Cervarix, would have protected against 58% and 45%, respectively, of the high-risk subtypes found in women in this population. The rate of high-risk HPV infection (43%) found in women in this study raises concern. PMID:17785006

Jalal, H; Stephen, H; Bibby, D F; Sonnex, C; Carne, C A

2007-09-01

107

Cervical Cytopathological Findings in Korean Women with Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis, and Ureaplasma urealyticum Infections  

PubMed Central

This is to investigate the cervical cytological abnormalities associated with Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, and Ureaplasma urealyticum infections on routine screen. A total of 714 subjects who had undergone cervical Pap smears and concomitant analyses for cervical infections were included by a retrospective search. The frequencies of reactive cellular change (RCC) and squamous epithelial abnormalities were significantly higher in Chlamydia positive subjects than in uninfected subjects (P < 0.001). Of the 124 subjects tested for M. hominis, M. genitalium, and U. urealyticum, 14 (11%) were positive for M. hominis and 29 (23%) were positive for U. urealyticum. Squamous abnormalities were more frequent in subjects with Ureaplasma infections than in uninfected subjects (24% versus 8%). Taking together these findings, C. trachomatis and U. urealyticum may have a causal role in the development of cervical epithelial changes, including RCC. Thus, extra awareness is warranted in cervical screening of women with Chlamydia or Ureaplasma infections. PMID:24526918

Choi, Yuri; Roh, Jaesook

2014-01-01

108

Complement factor C5 but not C3 contributes significantly to hydrosalpinx development in mice infected with Chlamydia muridarum.  

PubMed

Hydrosalpinx is a pathological hallmark of tubal infertility associated with chlamydial infection. However, the mechanisms of hydrosalpinx remain unknown. Here, we report that complement factor 5 (C5) contributes significantly to chlamydial induction of hydrosalpinx. Mice lacking C5 (C5(-/-)) failed to develop any hydrosalpinx, while ?42% of the corresponding wild-type mice (C5(+/+)) did so following intravaginal infection with Chlamydia muridarum. Surprisingly, deficiency in C3 (C3(-/-)), an upstream component of the complement system, did not affect mouse susceptibility to chlamydial induction of hydrosalpinx. Interestingly, C5 activation was induced by chlamydial infection in oviducts of C3(-/-) mice, explaining why the C3(-/-) mice remained susceptible to chlamydial induction of hydrosalpinx. Similar levels of live chlamydial organisms were recovered from oviduct tissues of both C5(-/-) and C5(+/+) mice, suggesting that C5 deficiency did not affect C. muridarum ascending infection. Furthermore, C5(-/-) mice were still more resistant to hydrosalpinx induction than C5(+/+) mice, even when live C. muridarum organisms were directly delivered into the upper genital tract, both confirming the role of C5 in promoting hydrosalpinx and indicating that the C5-facilitated hydrosalpinx was not due to enhancement of ascending infection. The C5(-/-) mice displayed significantly reduced lumenal inflammatory infiltration and cytokine production in oviduct tissue, suggesting that C5 may contribute to chlamydial induction of hydrosalpinx by enhancing inflammatory responses. PMID:24842924

Yang, Zhangsheng; Conrad, Turner; Zhou, Zhou; Chen, Jianlin; Dutow, Pavel; Klos, Andreas; Zhong, Guangming

2014-08-01

109

T Cell Responses in the Absence of IFN-Exacerbate Uterine Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis  

E-print Network

transmitted disease (1). In many cases, Chla- mydia infection goes undetected by the host and, if left major human diseases. World- wide, Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of bacterial sexually untreated, infection of women can lead to inflammatory sequelae such as pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic

Starnbach, Michael

110

Low prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in asymptomatic young Swiss men  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Prevalence and risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among young men in Switzerland is still unknown. The objective of the present study was to assess prevalence and risk factors for C. trachomatis infection in young Swiss men. METHODS: 517 young Swiss men were enrolled in this cross-sectional study during their compulsory military recruitment. Participants completed a questionnaire and gave

David Baud; Katia Jaton; Claire Bertelli; Jean-Pierre Kulling; Gilbert Greub

2008-01-01

111

Diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis genitourinary infection in women by ligase chain reaction assay of urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genitourinary infection with Chlamydia trachomatis is a common and potentially serious sexually transmitted disease. Diagnosis of C trachomatis infection in women typically relies on culture of endocervical swabs, an invasive and expensive procedure. The ligase chain reaction (LCR) is an in-vitro nucleic acid amplification technique that exponentially amplifies selected DNA sequences. We have compared an LCR-based assay to detect C

H. H Lee; J. D Burczak; S Muldoon; G Leckie; M. A Chernesky; J Schachter; W. W Andrews; W. E Stamm

1995-01-01

112

Disparate Innate Immune Responses to Persistent and Acute Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn) infection may play a role in thepathogenesis ofchronic obstructive pulmonarydisease(COPD). Few data are available comparing persistent and acute infection of this pathogen in the human respiratory tract. Objectives: To study Cpn-induced innate immune responses in lung tissue from patients with COPD and control subjects ex vivo and in vitro. Methods: Cpn detection was done by nested

Daniel Droemann; Jan Rupp; Torsten Goldmann; Ulrike Uhlig; Detlev Branscheid; Ekkehard Vollmer; Peter Kujath; Peter Zabel; Klaus Dalhoff

2007-01-01

113

Human papillomavirus and other genital infections in indigenous women from Paraguay: a cross-sectional analytical study  

PubMed Central

Background The incidence of cervical cancer in Paraguay is among the highest in the world, with the human papillomavirus (HPV) being a necessary factor for cervical cancer. Knowledge about HPV infection among indigenous women is limited. This cross-sectional study analyzed the frequency of HPV and other genital infections in indigenous Paraguayan women of the Department of Presidente Hayes. Methods This study included 181 sexually active women without cervical lesions. They belonged to the following ethnicities: Maká (n?=?40); Nivaclé (n?=?23); Sanapaná (n?=?33); Enxet Sur (n?=?51) and Toba-Qom (n?=?34). The detection of HPV and other gynecological infectious microorganisms was performed by either molecular methods (for Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Chlamydia trachomatis), gram staining and/or culture (for Gardnerella vaginalis, Candida sp, Trichomonas vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae), serological methods (for Treponema pallidum, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]) or cytology (cervical inflammation). Results A high prevalence (41.4%) of women positive for at least one sexually transmitted infection (STI) was found (23.2% any-type HPV, 11.6% T pallidum, 10.5% T vaginalis, 9.9% C trachomatis and 0.6% HIV) with 12.2% having more than one STI. HPV infection was the most frequent, with 16.1% of women positive for high-risk HPV types. There was a statistically significant association observed between any-type HPV and C trachomatis (p?=?0.004), which indicates that the detection of one of these agents should suggest the presence of the other. There was no association between any-type HPV and other genital infections or cervical inflammation, suggesting that other mechanism could exist to favor infection with the virus. Conclusion This multidisciplinary work suggests that STIs are frequent, making it necessary to implement control measures and improve diagnosis in order to increase the number of cases detected, especially in populations with poor access to health centers. PMID:24206645

2013-01-01

114

Constitutive production of IL-13 promotes early-life Chlamydia respiratory infection and allergic airway disease.  

PubMed

Deleterious responses to pathogens during infancy may contribute to infection and associated asthma. Chlamydia respiratory infections in early life are common causes of pneumonia and lead to reduced lung function and asthma. We investigated the role of interleukin-13 (IL-13) in promoting early-life Chlamydia respiratory infection, infection-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), and severe allergic airway disease (AAD). Infected infant Il13(-/-) mice had reduced infection, inflammation, and mucus-secreting cell hyperplasia. Surprisingly, infection of wild-type (WT) mice did not increase IL-13 production but reduced IL-13R?2 decoy receptor levels compared with sham-inoculated controls. Infection of WT but not Il13(-/-) mice induced persistent AHR. Infection and associated pathology were restored in infected Il13(-/-) mice by reconstitution with IL-13. Stat6(-/-) mice were also largely protected. Neutralization of IL-13 during infection prevented subsequent infection-induced severe AAD. Thus, early-life Chlamydia respiratory infection reduces IL-13R?2 production, which may enhance the effects of constitutive IL-13 and promote more severe infection, persistent AHR, and AAD. PMID:23131786

Starkey, M R; Essilfie, A T; Horvat, J C; Kim, R Y; Nguyen, D H; Beagley, K W; Mattes, J; Foster, P S; Hansbro, P M

2013-05-01

115

Pathogenic Potential of Novel Chlamydiae and Diagnostic Approaches to Infections Due to These Obligate Intracellular Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Novel chlamydiae are newly recognized members of the phylum Chlamydiales that are only distantly related to the classic Chlamydiaceae, i.e., Chlamydia and Chlamydophila species. They also exibit an obligate biphasic intracellular life cycle within eukaryote host cells. Some of these new chlamydiae are currently considered potential emerging human and/or animal pathogens. Parachlamydia acanthamoebae and Simkania negevensis are both emerging respiratory human pathogens, Waddlia chondrophila could be a novel abortigenic bovine agent, and Piscichlamydia salmonis has recently been identified as an agent of the gill epitheliocystis in the Atlantic salmon. Fritschea spp. and Rhabdochlamydia spp. seem to be confined to arthropods, but some evidence for human exposure exists. In this review, we first summarize the data supporting a pathogenic potential of the novel chlamydiae for humans and other vertebrates and the interactions that most of these chlamydiae have with free-living amoebae. We then review the diagnostic approaches to infections potentially due to the novel chlamydiae, especially focusing on the currently available PCR-based protocols, mammalian cell culture, the amoebal coculture system, and serology. PMID:16614250

Corsaro, Daniele; Greub, Gilbert

2006-01-01

116

The DNA sensor, cyclic GMP-AMP synthase, is essential for induction of IFN-? during Chlamydia trachomatis infection.  

PubMed

IFN-? has been implicated as an effector of oviduct pathology resulting from genital chlamydial infection in the mouse model. In this study, we investigated the role of cytosolic DNA and engagement of DNA sensors in IFN-? expression during chlamydial infection. We determined that three-prime repair exonuclease-1, a host 3' to 5' exonuclease, reduced IFN-? expression significantly during chlamydial infection using small interfering RNA and gene knockout fibroblasts, implicating cytosolic DNA as a ligand for this response. The DNA sensor cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) has been shown to bind cytosolic DNA to generate cyclic GMP-AMP, which binds to the signaling adaptor stimulator of IFN genes (STING) to induce IFN-? expression. We determined that cGAS is required for IFN-? expression during chlamydial infection in multiple cell types. Interestingly, although infected cells deficient for STING or cGAS alone failed to induce IFN-?, coculture of cells depleted for either STING or cGAS rescued IFN-? expression. These data demonstrate that cyclic GMP-AMP produced in infected cGAS(+)STING(-) cells can migrate into adjacent cells via gap junctions to function in trans in cGAS(-)STING(+) cells. Furthermore, we observed cGAS localized in punctate regions on the cytosolic side of the chlamydial inclusion membrane in association with STING, indicating that chlamydial DNA is most likely recognized outside the inclusion as infection progresses. These novel findings provide evidence that cGAS-mediated DNA sensing directs IFN-? expression during Chlamydia trachomatis infection and suggest that effectors from infected cells can directly upregulate IFN-? expression in adjacent uninfected cells during in vivo infection, contributing to pathogenesis. PMID:25070851

Zhang, Yugen; Yeruva, Laxmi; Marinov, Anthony; Prantner, Daniel; Wyrick, Priscilla B; Lupashin, Vladimir; Nagarajan, Uma M

2014-09-01

117

Genital examination, microscopy and high vaginal swabs: are these valuable components of a sexually transmitted infection screen in asymptomatic women?  

PubMed

Improving access to genitourinary (GU) medicine services in the face of increasing demand and escalating rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) necessitates a review of current practice and modernization of service provision. At a time when GU medicine resources are limited and technology is available to perform non-invasive screening tests for chlamydia and gonorrhoea, we question the cost-effectiveness of routine genital examination, microscopy and culture of a high vaginal swab (HVS) in the management of asymptomatic women attending a GU medicine clinic. We conducted a case-note review of 206 consecutive asymptomatic female GU medicine clinic attendees who requested 'a check up'. We conclude that routine on-site microscopy of samples from the cervix, urethra and vagina, and laboratory culture of a HVS did not influence the outcome of patient care. No clinically significant genital tract pathology was identified on examination, with the possible exception of one woman in whom HSV1 was diagnosed opportunistically. The results of this study have significant implications for service provision and patient management. PMID:17331277

Green, Pippa; Lacey, Helen; Kasperowicz, Regina

2007-02-01

118

Chlamydia trachomatis infection causes mitotic spindle pole defects independently from its effects on centrosome amplification  

PubMed Central

Chlamydiae are gram negative, obligate intracellular bacteria, and Chlamydia trachomatis is the etiologic agent of the most commonly reported sexually transmitted disease in the United States. Chlamydiae undergo a biphasic life cycle that takes place inside a parasitophorous vacuole termed an inclusion. Chlamydial infections have been epidemiologically linked to cervical cancer in patients previously infected by human papillomavirus (HPV). The inclusion associates very closely with host cell centrosomes, and this association is dependent upon the host motor protein dynein. We have previously reported that this interaction induces supernumerary centrosomes in infected cells, leading to multipolar mitotic spindles and inhibiting accurate chromosome segregation. Our findings demonstrate that chlamydial infection causes mitotic spindle defects independently of its effect on centrosome amplification. We show that chlamydial infection increases centrosome spread and inhibits the spindle assembly checkpoint delay to disrupt centrosome clustering. These data suggest chlamydial infection exacerbates the consequences of centrosome amplification by inhibiting the cells’ ability to suppress the effects of these defects on mitotic spindle organization. We hypothesize that these combined effects on mitotic spindle architecture identifies a possible mechanism for Chlamydia as a cofactor in cervical cancer formation. PMID:21477082

Knowlton, Andrea E.; Brown, Heather M.; Richards, Theresa S.; Andreolas, Lauren A.; Patel, Rahul K.; Grieshaber, Scott S.

2011-01-01

119

Chlamydia trachomatis infection results in a modest pro-inflammatory cytokine response and a decrease in T cell chemokine secretion in human polarized endocervical epithelial cells  

PubMed Central

The endocervical epithelium is a major reservoir for Chlamydia trachomatis in women, and genital infections are extended in their duration. Epithelial cells act as mucosal sentinels by secreting cytokines and chemokines in response to pathogen challenge and infection. We therefore determined the signature cytokine and chemokine response of primary-like endocervix-derived epithelial cells in response to a common genital serovar (D) of C. trachomatis. For these studies, we used a recently-established polarized, immortalized, endocervical epithelial cell model (polA2EN) that maintains, in vitro, the architectural and functional characteristics of endocervical epithelial cells in vivo including the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. PolA2EN cells were susceptible to C. trachomatis infection, and chlamydiae in these cells underwent a normal developmental cycle as determined by a one-step growth curve. IL1? protein levels were increased in both apical and basolateral secretions of C. trachomatis infected polA2EN cells, but this response did not occur until 72 hours after infection. Furthermore, protein levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines IL6, TNF? and CXCL8 were not significantly different between C. trachomatis infected polA2EN cells and mock infected cells at any time during the chlamydial developmental cycle up to 120 hours post-infection. Intriguingly, C. trachomatis infection resulted in a significant decrease in the constitutive secretion of T cell chemokines IP10 and RANTES, and this required a productive C. trachomatis infection. Examination of anti-inflammatory cytokines revealed a high constitutive apical secretion of IL1ra from polA2EN cells that was not significantly modulated by C. trachomatis infection. IL-11 was induced by C. trachomatis, although only from the basolateral membrane. These results suggest that C. trachomatis can use evasion strategies to circumvent a robust pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine response. These evasion strategies, together with the inherent immune repertoire of endocervical epithelial cells, may aid chlamydiae in establishing, and possibly sustaining, an intracellular niche in microenvironments of the endocervix in vivo. PMID:23673287

Buckner, Lyndsey R.; Lewis, Maria E.; Greene, Sheila J.; Foster, Timothy P.; Quayle, Alison J.

2013-01-01

120

Factors associated with genital chlamydial and gonococcal infection in females  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND--Predictors of chlamydia and gonorrhoea can be used to increase the cost-effectiveness and acceptability of screening programmes, and allow targeting of control strategies. METHODS--All women attending an STD clinic in 1988-1990 were offered screening for chlamydia and gonorrhoea, and the test results correlated with a wide range of potential predictors using multiple logistic regression. RESULTS--Of 4822 attenders, 3533 (73.3%) were

G Hart

1992-01-01

121

Chlamydia trachomatis genovar distribution in clinical urogenital specimens from Tunisian patients: high prevalence of C. trachomatis genovar E and mixed infections  

PubMed Central

Background This epidemiological study was carried out in Sfax (south of Tunisia) and focused on genital Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) genovar distribution. Methods One hundred and thirty seven genital samples from 4067 patients (4.2%) attending the Habib Bourguiba University hospital of Sfax over 12 years (from 2000 to 2011) were found to be C. trachomatis PCR positive by the Cobas Amplicor system. These samples were genotyped by an in house reverse hybridization method. Results One hundred and eight (78.8%) samples contained only one genovar and 29 (21.2%) samples contained two or three genovars. Genovar E was the most prevalent (70.8%) single genovar and it was detected in 90.6% of all the cases. Genovars J, C and L1-L3 were not detected in our samples whereas ocular genovars A and B were in 5 cases. All the five cases were mixed infections. Men had more mixed infections than women (p=0.02) and were more frequently infected by genovars F and K (p<0.05). No associations between current infection, infertility and the genovar distribution were observed. Patients coinfected with Neisseria gonorrhoeae were also significantly more frequently infected with mixed genovars (p=0.04). Conclusions In conclusion, we have reported a high prevalence of genovar E and of mixed infections in our study population. Such data could have implications for the control and vaccine development of C. trachomatis in Tunisia. PMID:23198910

2012-01-01

122

Cervical Infection with Herpes simplex Virus, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae among Symptomatic Women, Dubai, UAE: A Molecular Approach.  

PubMed

Tragically, genital tract infections are still a major public health problem in many regions. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of cervical infection with Herpes simplex virus (HSV), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) among married women referring to Iranian Hospital, Dubai, UAE. In a retrospective cross-sectional survey, 201 female patients aged 16-80 years who referred to the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Iranian Hospital, Dubai, UAE, in 2010 were enrolled. The patients were categorized into three age groups: 15-30 (group I), 31-40 (group II), and ?41 years old (group III). A cervical swab sample was collected from each woman and the prevalence of cervical infection with HSV, CT, and NG was determined by PCR method. HSV, CT, and NG were detected in 6.5%, 10.4%, and 5.5% of swab samples, respectively. Regarding age, a significant difference was noticed for prevalence of NG and HSV between groups I and III. Because of public health importance of sexual transmitted diseases (STDs), their long-lasting impact on quality of life, and their economic burden, preventing measures and education of women seem necessary. PMID:24982675

Mehrabani, Davood; Behzadi, Mohammad Amin; Azizi, Saeed; Payombarnia, Hamid; Vahdani, Ali; Namayandeh, Mandana; Ziyaeyan, Mazyar

2014-01-01

123

Cervical Infection with Herpes simplex Virus, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae among Symptomatic Women, Dubai, UAE: A Molecular Approach  

PubMed Central

Tragically, genital tract infections are still a major public health problem in many regions. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of cervical infection with Herpes simplex virus (HSV), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) among married women referring to Iranian Hospital, Dubai, UAE. In a retrospective cross-sectional survey, 201 female patients aged 16–80 years who referred to the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Iranian Hospital, Dubai, UAE, in 2010 were enrolled. The patients were categorized into three age groups: 15–30 (group I), 31–40 (group II), and ?41 years old (group III). A cervical swab sample was collected from each woman and the prevalence of cervical infection with HSV, CT, and NG was determined by PCR method. HSV, CT, and NG were detected in 6.5%, 10.4%, and 5.5% of swab samples, respectively. Regarding age, a significant difference was noticed for prevalence of NG and HSV between groups I and III. Because of public health importance of sexual transmitted diseases (STDs), their long-lasting impact on quality of life, and their economic burden, preventing measures and education of women seem necessary. PMID:24982675

Behzadi, Mohammad Amin; Azizi, Saeed; Payombarnia, Hamid; Vahdani, Ali; Namayandeh, Mandana; Ziyaeyan, Mazyar

2014-01-01

124

Chlamydia trachomatis infection prevents front-rear polarity of migrating HeLa cells.  

PubMed

Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens that cause trachoma, sexually transmitted diseases and respiratory infections in humans. Fragmentation of the host cell Golgi apparatus (GA) is essential for chlamydial development, whereas the consequences for host cell functions, including cell migration are not well understood. We could show that Chlamydia trachomatis-infected cells display decelerated migration and fail to repopulate monolayer scratch wounds. Furthermore, infected cells lost the ability to reorient the fragmented GA or the microtubule organization centre (MTOC) after a migratory stimulus. Silencing of golgin-84 phenocopied this defect in the absence of the infection. Interestingly, GA stabilization via knockdown of Rab6A and Rab11A improved its reorientation in infected cells and it was fully rescued after inhibition of Golgi fragmentation with WEHD-fmk. These results show that C.?trachomatis infection perturbs host cell migration on multiple levels, including the alignment of GA and MTOC. PMID:23351274

Heymann, Julia; Rejman Lipinski, Anette; Bauer, Bianca; Meyer, Thomas F; Heuer, Dagmar

2013-07-01

125

Comparative performance of the Roche COBAS Amplicor assay and an in-house real-time PCR assay for diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infection.  

PubMed

This study investigated the comparative performance of the Amplicor assay and an in-house semi-automated, multiplex real-time PCR for the diagnosis of genital chlamydial infection. Four different assays, the COBAS Amplicor CT test (Amplicor PCR), in-house real-time PCR (IHRT-PCR), in-house nested cryptic plasmid PCR and in-house nested major outer membrane protein PCR, were performed on genital swabs from 1000 consecutive patients attending a genitourinary medicine clinic. The samples were designated true positive if Chlamydia trachomatis DNA was detected by at least two of the four above-mentioned assays while a sample was defined as true negative if C. trachomatis DNA was detected in only one or none of the assays. By this criterion, there were 129 true positive and 871 true negative samples for C. trachomatis DNA in this cohort. Amplicor PCR designated 144 samples positive: 128 (89%) of 144 samples were true positive and 16 (11%) were false positive. IHRT-PCR detected 126 of 129 true positive samples and did not generate any false positive results. The sensitivity of IHRT-PCR was comparable with, and specificity was higher than, Amplicor PCR for the diagnosis of genital chlamydial infection. PMID:17314360

Jalal, Hamid; Al-Suwaine, Abdulrahman; Stephen, Hannah; Carne, Christopher; Sonnex, Christopher

2007-03-01

126

Telithromycin Treatment of Chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection in C57BL\\/6J mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infections have been associated with atherosclerosis, but clear knowledge about how these infections should be treated is lacking. We studied the effect of a new ketolide antibiotic, telithromycin, on chronic C. pneumoniae lung infection. Female C57BL\\/6J mice on a 0.2% cholesterol diet were inoculated intranasally with C. pneumoniae either two or three times every fourth week. Telithromycin

Liisa Tormakangas; Hannu Alakarppa; Denise Bem David; Maija Leinonen; Pekka Saikku

2004-01-01

127

Outcome of urogenital infection with Chlamydia muridarum in CD14 gene knockout mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: CD14 has been postulated to play a role in chlamydial immunity and immunopathology. There is evidence to support this role in human infections but its function in a mouse model has not been investigated. METHODS: Female CD14 gene knockout and C57BL\\/6J wild type mice were infected intravaginally with Chlamydia muridarum. The infection course was monitored by detection of viable

Muhammad T Imtiaz; Justin H Schripsema; Ira M Sigar; Kyle H Ramsey

2006-01-01

128

RNAi screen in Drosophila cells reveals the involvement of the Tom complex in Chlamydia infection.  

PubMed

Chlamydia spp. are intracellular obligate bacterial pathogens that infect a wide range of host cells. Here, we show that C. caviae enters, replicates, and performs a complete developmental cycle in Drosophila SL2 cells. Using this model system, we have performed a genome-wide RNA interference screen and identified 54 factors that, when depleted, inhibit C. caviae infection. By testing the effect of each candidate's knock down on L. monocytogenes infection, we have identified 31 candidates presumably specific of C. caviae infection. We found factors expected to have an effect on Chlamydia infection, such as heparansulfate glycosaminoglycans and actin and microtubule remodeling factors. We also identified factors that were not previously described as involved in Chlamydia infection. For instance, we identified members of the Tim-Tom complex, a multiprotein complex involved in the recognition and import of nuclear-encoded proteins to the mitochondria, as required for C. caviae infection of Drosophila cells. Finally, we confirmed that depletion of either Tom40 or Tom22 also reduced C. caviae infection in mammalian cells. However, C. trachomatis infection was not affected, suggesting that the mechanism involved is C. caviae specific. PMID:17967059

Derré, Isabelle; Pypaert, Marc; Dautry-Varsat, Alice; Agaisse, Hervé

2007-10-26

129

Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection Induces Inflammatory Changes in the Aortas of Rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydia pneumoniae, a common human respiratory pathogen, has been associated with atherosclerosis in several seroepidemiological studies. Moreover, its presence in lesions of vessel walls has been demonstrated by culture, immunohistochemistry, PCR, and electron microscopy. In this study, we infected intranasally with C. pneumoniae New Zealand White rabbits which had been fed a normal diet. Reinfection was given 3 weeks later.

KIRSI LAITINEN; AINO LAURILA; LIISA PYHALA; MAIJA LEINONEN; PEKKA SAIKKU

1997-01-01

130

Risk Factors for "Chlamydia Trachomatis" Infection in a California Collegiate Population  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Chlamydia trachomatis" infection in college students has not undergone a detailed large-scale evaluation. The authors undertook a cross-sectional study of 4,086 students enrolled on the campuses of California State University, Sacramento, and 3 local community colleges from fall 2000 through spring 2002. They used an outreach screening model to…

Sipkin, Diane L.; Gillam, Alix; Grady, Laurie Bisset

2003-01-01

131

Prevalence of genital infections in medical inpatients in Blantyre, Malawi.  

PubMed

The limited information on the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in Malawi suggests that they are common. In studies in Lilongwe in 1989 and Blantyre in 1990, the prevalence of STDs was 4.4% in unselected outpatients and 42% in antenatal clinic patients respectively. Malawi is one of the countries worst affected by the HIV pandemic, with an estimated national HIV seroprevalence of 10% in the age group over 15 years and of 32% in pregnant women who attended antenatal clinics in Blantyre in 1993. Heterosexual intercourse is the main mode of HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa, accounting for up to 80% of cases of HIV infection. Concomitant genital ulcer disease facilitates sexual transmission of HIV. Non-ulcerative STDs may also play a role in facilitating sexual transmission of HIV but the evidence is less clear. The identification and treatment of people with STDs therefore presents an opportunity for decreasing HIV transmission. Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital (QECH) is the District Hospital for Blantyre, Malawi's largest city (about 500,000 population) and the tertiary referral hospital for Malawi's Southern Region. There are two general medical wards, one male and one female, to which about 11,000 patients were admitted in 1993. Bed occupancy can run at up to 150-200% and resources are limited. The top ten causes of admission are malaria, gastroenteritis, anaemia, pneumonia, dysentery, tuberculosis, AIDS, meningitis, hypertension and ascites. The leading causes of death are AIDS and tuberculosis. PMID:8522842

Maher, D; Hoffman, I

1995-07-01

132

STING-Dependent Recognition of Cyclic di-AMP Mediates Type I Interferon Responses during Chlamydia trachomatis Infection  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT STING (stimulator of interferon [IFN] genes) initiates type I IFN responses in mammalian cells through the detection of microbial nucleic acids. The membrane-bound obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis induces a STING-dependent type I IFN response in infected cells, yet the IFN-inducing ligand remains unknown. In this report, we provide evidence that Chlamydia synthesizes cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP), a nucleic acid metabolite not previously identified in Gram-negative bacteria, and that this metabolite is a prominent ligand for STING-mediated activation of IFN responses during infection. We used primary mouse lung fibroblasts and HEK293T cells to compare IFN-? responses to Chlamydia infection, c-di-AMP, and other type I IFN-inducing stimuli. Chlamydia infection and c-di-AMP treatment induced type I IFN responses in cells expressing STING but not in cells expressing STING variants that cannot sense cyclic dinucleotides but still respond to cytoplasmic DNA. The failure to induce a type I IFN response to Chlamydia and c-di-AMP correlated with the inability of STING to relocalize from the endoplasmic reticulum to cytoplasmic punctate signaling complexes required for IFN activation. We conclude that Chlamydia induces STING-mediated IFN responses through the detection of c-di-AMP in the host cell cytosol and propose that c-di-AMP is the ligand predominantly responsible for inducing such a response in Chlamydia-infected cells. PMID:23631912

Barker, Jeffrey R.; Koestler, Benjamin J.; Carpenter, Victoria K.; Burdette, Dara L.; Waters, Christopher M.; Vance, Russell E.; Valdivia, Raphael H.

2013-01-01

133

Genital Shedding of Herpes Simplex Virus Among Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Persons with HSV-2 Infection  

PubMed Central

Context Since HSV-2 antibody tests have become commercially available, an increasing number of persons learn that they have genital herpes through serologic testing. The course of natural history of HSV-2 in asymptomatic, seropositive persons is uncertain. Objective To evaluate the virologic and clinical course of HSV genital shedding among participants with symptomatic and asymptomatic HSV-2 infection. Design, Setting and Participants Cohort of 498 immunocompetent HSV-2 seropositive persons enrolled in prospective studies of genital HSV shedding at the University of Washington Virology Research Clinic, Seattle, Washington, and Westover Heights Clinic in Portland, Oregon, between 1992 and 2008. Each participant obtained daily self-collected swabs of genital secretions for ? 30 days. Main Outcome Measurement The rate of viral shedding measured by quantitative real-time fluorescence polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for HSV DNA from genital swabs. Results HSV was detected on 4,753 of 23,683 days (20.1%; 95% CI, 18.3 to 22.0) in persons with symptomatic genital HSV-2 infection compared with 519 of 5,070 days (10.2%; 95% CI, 7.7 to 13.6) in persons with asymptomatic infection, p<0.001. Subclinical shedding rates were higher in persons with symptomatic infection compared with asymptomatic infection (2,708 of 20,735 days (13.1%; 95% CI, 11.5 to14.6) vs. 434 of 4,929 days (8.8%; 95% CI, 6.3 to 11.5), p<0.001. However, the amount of HSV detected during subclinical shedding episodes was similar (median 4.3 [IQR 3.1-5.6] log10 copies in the symptomatic infection group vs. 4.2 [IQR, 2.9-5.5], p=0.27 in the asymptomatic infection group). Days with lesions accounted for 2,045 of 4,753 days (43.0%; 95% CI, 39.8 to 46.5) with genital viral shedding among persons with symptomatic genital HSV-2 infection compared with 85 of 519 days (16.4%; 95% CI, 11.2 to 23.9) among persons with asymptomatic infection, p<0.001. Conclusions Persons with asymptomatic HSV-2 infection shed virus in the genital tract less frequently than persons with symptomatic infection, but much of the difference is attributable to less frequent genital lesions, as lesions are accompanied by frequent viral shedding. PMID:21486977

Tronstein, Elizabeth; Johnston, Christine; Huang, Meei-Li; Selke, Stacy; Magaret, Amalia; Warren, Terri; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna

2011-01-01

134

Prevalence and Determinants of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Infection in Male Genital Warts  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the prevalence and type distribution of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in genital warts of Korean men, and for the first time, to describe the risk factors associated with high-risk HPV infection in male genital warts. Materials and Methods In a single private clinic, 150 consecutive male patients with histopathologic-confirmed genital warts who underwent HPV genotyping by use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were included in this study. We detected HPV DNA in male genital warts and evaluated HPV type distribution, especially high-risk HPV types, by use of PCR. The associations between HPV prevalence and various characteristics, such as age, circumcision status, type of genital warts diagnosis (new vs. recurrent), number of lesions, site of lesions, and gross morphology, were assessed by use of unconditional multiple logistic regression. Results High-risk HPV types were detected in 31 cases (23.5%), and of these, 27 cases (20.5%) contained both high-risk and low-risk HPV types. The most frequently detected high-risk HPV types were HPV16 (6.8%), HPV33 (4.5%), HPV18 (2.3%), and HPV68 (2.3%). In particular, the prevalence of infection with HPV16 and/or HPV18 was 8.3% (11 of 132). In the multivariate analysis, lesions located at sites including the base of the penis or the pubic area, papular or mixed genital warts, and lack of circumcision significantly increased the association with high-risk HPV infection in male genital warts. Conclusions The prevalence of high-risk HPV infection was substantial in male genital warts. The site and morphology of lesions and circumcision status were significantly associated with the prevalence of high-risk HPV infection. PMID:24648877

Park, Sung Jin; Seo, Juhyung; Ha, Seong-Heon

2014-01-01

135

New Murine Model for the Study of Chlamydia trachomatis Genitourinary Tract Infections in Males  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lack of an experimental model has significantly limited the understanding of the pathogenesis of Chlamydia trachomatis infections in males. In an attempt to establish a model using the natural route of infection, we inoculated male mice in the meatus urethra. To establish the 50% infectious dose (ID50), C3H\\/HeN (H-2k) male mice were inoculated in the meatus urethra with doses

Sukumar Pal; Ellena M. Peterson; Luis M. de la Maza

2004-01-01

136

Inhibition of Matrix Metalloproteinases Protects Mice from Ascending Infection and Chronic Disease Manifestations Resulting from Urogenital Chlamydia muridarum Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are a family of host-derived enzymes involved in the turnover of extra- cellular matrix molecules. We have previously reported enhanced expression of matrix metalloproteinases in Chlamydia muridarum urogenital tract infection of female mice. Kinetics and patterns of MMP expression as well as enhanced expression in susceptible strains of mice in the prior study implied a role for

Muhammad T. Imtiaz; Justin H. Schripsema; Ira M. Sigar; John N. Kasimos; Kyle H. Ramsey

2006-01-01

137

Estimating the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and human papillomavirus infection in indigenous women in northern Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To estimate more accurately the age specific prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and human papillomavirus infection (HPV) in indigenous women living in urban, rural, and remote areas of the \\

F. J. Bowden; B. A. Paterson; J. Mein; J. Savage; C. K. Fairley; S. M. Garland; S. N. Tabrizi

1999-01-01

138

Fierce Competition between Toxoplasma and Chlamydia for Host Cell Structures in Dually Infected Cells  

PubMed Central

The prokaryote Chlamydia trachomatis and the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, two obligate intracellular pathogens of humans, have evolved a similar modus operandi to colonize their host cell and salvage nutrients from organelles. In order to gain fundamental knowledge on the pathogenicity of these microorganisms, we have established a cell culture model whereby single fibroblasts are coinfected by C. trachomatis and T. gondii. We previously reported that the two pathogens compete for the same nutrient pools in coinfected cells and that Toxoplasma holds a significant competitive advantage over Chlamydia. Here we have expanded our coinfection studies by examining the respective abilities of Chlamydia and Toxoplasma to co-opt the host cytoskeleton and recruit organelles. We demonstrate that the two pathogen-containing vacuoles migrate independently to the host perinuclear region and rearrange the host microtubular network around each vacuole. However, Toxoplasma outcompetes Chlamydia to the host microtubule-organizing center to the detriment of the bacterium, which then shifts to a stress-induced persistent state. Solely in cells preinfected with Chlamydia, the centrosomes become associated with the chlamydial inclusion, while the Toxoplasma parasitophorous vacuole displays growth defects. Both pathogens fragment the host Golgi apparatus and recruit Golgi elements to retrieve sphingolipids. This study demonstrates that the productive infection by both Chlamydia and Toxoplasma depends on the capability of each pathogen to successfully adhere to a finely tuned developmental program that aims to remodel the host cell for the pathogen's benefit. In particular, this investigation emphasizes the essentiality of host organelle interception by intravacuolar pathogens to facilitate access to nutrients. PMID:23243063

Romano, Julia D.; de Beaumont, Catherine; Carrasco, Jose A.; Ehrenman, Karen; Bavoil, Patrik M.

2013-01-01

139

The prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci infections in Belgian commercial turkey poults.  

PubMed

The prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci infections in Belgian commercial turkey poults was examined and a follow-up study of one Belgian turkey flock was performed. Sera were examined for the presence of anti-chlamydia antibodies by immunoblotting. Cloacal and conjunctival swab smears and lung impression smears were examined for the presence of chlamydial antigen using the IMAGEN Chlamydia immunofluorescence test. Anti-chlamydia antibodies were found in 90 of 100 sera collected at slaughter from turkeys raised during the summer of 1992. The following winter, 73 of 100 sera reacted positively. On all twenty farms examined during 1992, turkeys were positive for anti-chlamydial antibodies. During 1993, chlamydial antigen was detected in swabs from 20 of 40 slaughterhouse turkeys tested. Antigen was found more often in the cloaca than in the conjunctiva. Chlamydial antigen was detected in samples from each of the 4 farms examined. The follow-up study on a turkey farm, sampling the birds at weekly intervals from one week old until 12 weeks of age, revealed that chlamydial antigen and anti-chlamydial antibodies were present during the whole period. During 1994, chlamydial antigen was detected in 45 of 60 lungs from slaughterhouse turkeys from all of 6 farms. During 1995, chlamydial antigen was detected in 41 of 54 lungs of 6 week old commercial turkey poults. The results of the present study indicate that Chlamydia psittaci infections are highly prevalent amongst Belgian commercial turkey poults with apparently little seasonal or year-to-year variation and that turkeys can contract the infection at an early age. PMID:9050173

Vanrompay, D; Butaye, P; Van Nerom, A; Ducatelle, R; Haesebrouck, F

1997-01-01

140

Recurrent Genital Infection in the Guinea Pig: Differences between Herpes Simplex Types 1 and 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Recurrence rates of genital infections are significantly higher for he?es simplex virus (HSV) type 2 than HSV type 1. Reasons for this difference are not known. In this report, multiple strains of HSV-1 and HSV-2 were evaluated in the guinea-pig model. HSV-2 strains showed significantly higher genital lesion recurrence than HSV-1, including HSV-1 McKrae strain which is highly recurrent

Marie L. Landry; David Myerson; Cathy Bull

1992-01-01

141

Serological Association of Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection with Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background We investigated the serological association of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and the Association of Research in Vision and Ophthalmology abstracts were searched to identify studies investigating the serological association of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection with age-related macular degeneration. The quality of original studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Heterogeneity was explored with meta-regression. The odds ratios (ORs) and standardized mean differences (SMD) of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection between AMD patients and controls were pooled. Results In total, 9 studies met the inclusion criteria using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale scores ranging from 4 to 9. There was heterogeneity among studies due to a difference in the study designs and measurement of exposure to Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. The overall OR of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection with AMD was 1.11 (95% confidence interval: 0.78–1.57, P?=?0.56). The overall SMD of antibody titer between AMD and control was 0.43 (95% confidence interval: ?0.12 to 0.99, P?=?0.13). Conclusions Evidence from the current published literature suggested no statistically significant association between Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and AMD. PMID:25062085

Chen, Xueyu; Jhanji, Vishal; Chen, Chupeng; Chen, Haoyu

2014-01-01

142

Transcription factor complex AP-1 mediates inflammation initiated by Chlamydia pneumoniae infection.  

PubMed

Chlamydia pneumoniae is responsible for a high prevalence of respiratory infections worldwide and has been implicated in atherosclerosis. Inflammation is regulated by transcription factor (TF) networks. Yet, the core TF network triggered by chlamydiae remains largely unknown. Primary human coronary artery endothelial cells were mock-infected or infected with C. pneumoniae to generate human transcriptome data throughout the chlamydial developmental cycle. Using systems network analysis, the predominant TF network involved receptor, binding and adhesion and immune response complexes. Cells transfected with interfering RNA against activator protein-1 (AP-1) members FOS, FOSB, JUN and JUNB had significantly decreased expression and protein levels of inflammatory mediators interleukin (IL)6, IL8, CD38 and tumour necrosis factor compared with controls. These mediators have been shown to be associated with C. pneumoniae disease. Expression of AP-1 components was regulated by MAPK3K8, a MAPK pathway component. Additionally, knock-down of JUN and FOS showed significantly decreased expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR)3 during infection, implicating JUN and FOS in TLR3 regulation. TLR3 stimulation led to elevated IL8. These findings suggest that C. pneumoniae initiates signalling via TLR3 and MAPK that activate AP-1, a known immune activator in other bacteria not previously shown for chlamydiae, triggering inflammation linked to C. pneumoniae disease. PMID:23163821

Wang, Anyou; Al-Kuhlani, Mufadhal; Johnston, S Claiborne; Ojcius, David M; Chou, Joyce; Dean, Deborah

2013-05-01

143

Influence of common mucosal co-factors on HIV infection in the female genital tract.  

PubMed

Women constitute almost half of HIV-infected population globally, and the female genital tract (FGT) accounts for approximately 40% of all new HIV infections worldwide. The FGT is composed of upper and lower parts, distinct in their morphological and functional characteristics. Co-factors in the genital microenvironment, such as presence of hormones, semen, and other sexually transmitted infections, can facilitate or deter HIV infection and play a critical role in determining susceptibility to HIV. In this review, we examine some of these co-factors and their potential influence. Presence of physical and chemical barriers such as epithelial tight junctions, mucus, and anti-microbial peptides can actively block and inhibit viral replication, presenting a significant deterrent to HIV. Upon exposure, HIV and other pathogens first encounter the genital epithelium: cells that express a wide repertoire of pattern recognition receptors that can recognize and directly initiate innate immune responses. These and other interactions in the genital tract can lead to direct and indirect inflammation and enhance the number of local target cells, immune activation, and microbial translocation, all of which promote HIV infection and replication. Better understanding of the dynamics of HIV transmission in the female genital tract would be invaluable for improving the design of prophylactic strategies against HIV. PMID:24617528

Ferreira, Victor H; Kafka, Jessica K; Kaushic, Charu

2014-06-01

144

Cutaneous and sensory effects of feminine hygiene pads among women with recent genital infection.  

PubMed

We compared the skin compatibility of two menstrual pad technologies in a single-center, parallel, randomized, examiner-blinded study involving adult women. This report presents the results of a subset of 10 participants who had a genital infection within 12 months prior to the start of the study. In a blinded fashion, participants were randomized to receive one of the two pads for use over two menstrual periods. Participants' skin erythema was graded 24-48 hours following cessation of menstrual flow and on day 14 of each menstrual cycle. Participants subjectively reported any sensory effects. Vulvar erythema scores for the mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, perineum, buttocks, left medial thigh, and right medial thigh assessed after both menstrual cycles were not statistically different between groups or between the two different products. A low incidence of itching and burning occurred in both groups without statistical significance; none of the participants experienced a recurrent or new genital infection. These preliminary results show that participants with recent genital infections included in clinical studies do not exhibit greater vulvar erythema or sensory effects than participants without recent genital infection. The study showed that the safety profile of the products tested remained acceptable in women with recent genital infection. PMID:16835147

Farage, Miranda A; Meyer, Sandy J; Katsarou, Alexandra; Bowtell, Philip; Deliveliotou, Aikaterini; Creatsas, George

2006-01-01

145

Persistent Infection of Mouse Fibroblasts (L Cells) with Chlamydia psittaci: Evidence for a Cryptic Chlamydial Form  

PubMed Central

When monolayers of mouse fibroblasts (L cells) were infected with enough Chlamydia psittaci (strain 6BC) to destroy most of the host cells, 1 in every 105 to 106 originally infected cells gave rise to a colony of L cells persistently infected with strain 6BC. In these populations, the density of L cells and 6BC fluctuated periodically and reciprocally as periods of host cell increase were followed by periods of parasite multiplication. Successive cycles of L-cell and 6BC reproduction were sustained indefinitely by periodic transfer to fresh medium. Isolation of L cells and 6BC from persistent infections provided no evidence that there had been any selection of variants better suited for coexistence. Persistently infected populations consisting mainly of inclusion-free L cells yielded only persistently infected clones, grew more slowly, and cloned less efficiently. They were also almost completely resistant to superinfection with high multiplicities of either 6BC or the lymphogranuloma venereum strain 440L of Chlamydia trachomatis. These properties of persistently infected L cells may be accounted for by assuming that all of the individuals in these populations are cryptically infected with 6BC and that cryptic infection slows the growth of the host cell and makes it immune to infection with exogenous chlamydiae. According to this hypothesis, the fluctuations in host and parasite density occur because some factor periodically sets off the conversion of cryptic chlamydial forms into reticulate bodies that multiply and differentiate into infectious elementary bodies in a conventional chlamydial developmental cycle. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:6262243

Moulder, James W.; Levy, Nancy J.; Schulman, Laura P.

1980-01-01

146

Proceedings From the First Asia-Oceania Research Organisation on Genital Infections and Neoplasia (AOGIN) Meeting  

PubMed Central

The First Asia-Oceania Research Organisation on Genital Infections and Neoplasia (AOGIN) Meeting was held in Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia, in July 2005. The conference covered regional issues relating to infection with the human papillomavirus—epidemiology, virology, and immunology, testing, screening, and prevention strategies—as well as cervical cancer screening and its management.

Faro, Edited by Sebastian

2006-01-01

147

Protective effect of an oral infection with Herpes simplex virus type 1 against subsequent genital infection with Herpes simplex virus type 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of whether oral Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection provides protection against subsequent genital infection by Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was investigated. Mice were used as models. Following conditions in man, both the oral and genital infections applied were noninjurious. Mice infected orally with HSV-1 were weakly protected against virus ‘take’ following vaginal challenge with

Bernhard Sturn; Karl-Eduard Schneweis

1978-01-01

148

Seroepidemiological survey of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection among Singapore university undergraduates: comparison between microimmunofluorescence and neutralization tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydia pneumoniae causes acute human respiratory tract infections, and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. A seroepidemiological study using the microimmunofluorescence (MIF) technique was conducted to determine the prevalence of C. pneumoniae IgG antibodies (at titres of at least 1:16) among 205 apparently healthy Singapore university undergraduates. The overall seroprevalence was 35.1%, with significantly higher seropositivity rates among

Vincent T. K. Chow; M. C. Phoon

2001-01-01

149

Association of Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection with HLA-B*35 in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immune system may interplay between Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and coronary artery disease (CAD). Major histocompatibility complex genes regulate innate and adaptive immunity. Patients with CAD (n 100) and controls (n 74) were enrolled. Human leukocyte antigens (HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-DRB1), four lymphotoxin alpha single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and complement C4A and C4B allotypes were typed, and their haplotypes were inferred. The

Anil Palikhe; Marja-Liisa Lokki; Pekka Saikku; Maija Leinonen; Mika Paldanius; Mikko Seppanen; Ville Valtonen; Markku S. Nieminen; Juha Sinisalo

2008-01-01

150

Chlamydia infection depends on a functional MDM2-p53 axis.  

PubMed

Chlamydia, a major human bacterial pathogen, assumes effective strategies to protect infected cells against death-inducing stimuli, thereby ensuring completion of its developmental cycle. Paired with its capacity to cause extensive host DNA damage, this poses a potential risk of malignant transformation, consistent with circumstantial epidemiological evidence. Here we reveal a dramatic depletion of p53, a tumor suppressor deregulated in many cancers, during Chlamydia infection. Using biochemical approaches and live imaging of individual cells, we demonstrate that p53 diminution requires phosphorylation of Murine Double Minute 2 (MDM2; a ubiquitin ligase) and subsequent interaction of phospho-MDM2 with p53 before induced proteasomal degradation. Strikingly, inhibition of the p53-MDM2 interaction is sufficient to disrupt intracellular development of Chlamydia and interferes with the pathogen's anti-apoptotic effect on host cells. This highlights the dependency of the pathogen on a functional MDM2-p53 axis and lends support to a potentially pro-carcinogenic effect of chlamydial infection. PMID:25392082

González, Erik; Rother, Marion; Kerr, Markus C; Al-Zeer, Munir A; Abu-Lubad, Mohammad; Kessler, Mirjana; Brinkmann, Volker; Loewer, Alexander; Meyer, Thomas F

2014-01-01

151

Asymptomatic Endemic Chlamydia pecorum Infections Reduce Growth Rates in Calves by up to 48 Percent  

PubMed Central

Intracellular Chlamydia (C.) bacteria cause in cattle some acute but rare diseases such as abortion, sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis, kerato-conjunctivitis, pneumonia, enteritis and polyarthritis. More frequent, essentially ubiquitous worldwide, are low-level, asymptomatic chlamydial infections in cattle. We investigated the impact of these naturally acquired infections in a cohort of 51 female Holstein and Jersey calves from birth to 15 weeks of age. In biweekly sampling, we measured blood/plasma markers of health and infection and analyzed their association with clinical appearance and growth in dependence of chlamydial infection intensity as determined by mucosal chlamydial burden or contemporaneous anti-chlamydial plasma IgM. Chlamydia 23S rRNA gene PCR and ompA genotyping identified only C. pecorum (strains 1710S, Maeda, and novel strain Smith3v8) in conjunctival and vaginal swabs. All calves acquired the infection but remained clinically asymptomatic. High chlamydial infection associated with reduction of body weight gains by up to 48% and increased conjunctival reddening (P<10?4). Simultaneously decreased plasma albumin and increased globulin (P<10?4) suggested liver injury by inflammatory mediators as mechanisms for the growth inhibition. This was confirmed by the reduction of plasma insulin like growth factor-1 at high chlamydial infection intensity (P<10?4). High anti-C. pecorum IgM associated eight weeks later with 66% increased growth (P?=?0.027), indicating a potential for immune protection from C. pecorum-mediated growth depression. The worldwide prevalence of chlamydiae in livestock and their high susceptibility to common feed-additive antibiotics suggests the possibility that suppression of chlamydial infections may be a major contributor to the growth promoting effect of feed-additive antibiotics. PMID:23024776

Poudel, Anil; Elsasser, Theodore H.; Rahman, Kh. Shamsur; Chowdhury, Erfan U.; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard

2012-01-01

152

Asymptomatic endemic Chlamydia pecorum infections reduce growth rates in calves by up to 48 percent.  

PubMed

Intracellular Chlamydia (C.) bacteria cause in cattle some acute but rare diseases such as abortion, sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis, kerato-conjunctivitis, pneumonia, enteritis and polyarthritis. More frequent, essentially ubiquitous worldwide, are low-level, asymptomatic chlamydial infections in cattle. We investigated the impact of these naturally acquired infections in a cohort of 51 female Holstein and Jersey calves from birth to 15 weeks of age. In biweekly sampling, we measured blood/plasma markers of health and infection and analyzed their association with clinical appearance and growth in dependence of chlamydial infection intensity as determined by mucosal chlamydial burden or contemporaneous anti-chlamydial plasma IgM. Chlamydia 23S rRNA gene PCR and ompA genotyping identified only C. pecorum (strains 1710S, Maeda, and novel strain Smith3v8) in conjunctival and vaginal swabs. All calves acquired the infection but remained clinically asymptomatic. High chlamydial infection associated with reduction of body weight gains by up to 48% and increased conjunctival reddening (P<10(-4)). Simultaneously decreased plasma albumin and increased globulin (P<10(-4)) suggested liver injury by inflammatory mediators as mechanisms for the growth inhibition. This was confirmed by the reduction of plasma insulin like growth factor-1 at high chlamydial infection intensity (P<10(-4)). High anti-C. pecorum IgM associated eight weeks later with 66% increased growth (P?=?0.027), indicating a potential for immune protection from C. pecorum-mediated growth depression. The worldwide prevalence of chlamydiae in livestock and their high susceptibility to common feed-additive antibiotics suggests the possibility that suppression of chlamydial infections may be a major contributor to the growth promoting effect of feed-additive antibiotics. PMID:23024776

Poudel, Anil; Elsasser, Theodore H; Rahman, Kh Shamsur; Chowdhury, Erfan U; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard

2012-01-01

153

Rabbit Genital Tissue Is Susceptible to Infection by Rabbit Oral Papillomavirus: an Animal Model for a Genital Tissue-Targeting Papillomavirus  

PubMed Central

Rabbit oral papillomavirus (ROPV) is a mucosatropic papillomavirus which naturally infects oral mucosal sites of domestic rabbits. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that rabbit genital mucosa is also susceptible to ROPV infection by using the athymic mouse xenograft system and adult immunocompetent rabbits. Subrenal xenografts of ROPV-infected rabbit vulvar and penile sheath tissues were strongly positive for ROPV infection by histologic, in situ hybridization, and Southern analyses. Direct inoculation of adult rabbit penises with infectious ROPV produced small raised lesions of approximately 1 by 1 by 1 mm that were ROPV positive by both in situ hybridization and Southern analyses and were also viral capsid antigen positive by immunohistological staining. Infection of rabbit genital tissues with ROPV may be a useful animal model for the study of genital tissue-targeting papillomaviruses. PMID:9573297

Harvey, Stephen B.; Cladel, Nancy M.; Budgeon, Lynn R.; Welsh, Patricia A.; Griffith, James W.; Lang, C. Max; Christensen, Neil D.

1998-01-01

154

Activation of Lipid Metabolism Contributes to Interleukin8 Production during Chlamydia trachomatis Infection of Cervical Epithelial Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the most common cause of bacterial sexually transmitted diseases. Infection of the urogenital tract by C. trachomatis causes chronic inflammation and related clinical complica- tions. Unlike other invasive bacteria that induce a rapid cytokine\\/chemokine production, chlamydial infection induces delayed inflammatory response and proinflammatory chemokine production that is dependent on bacterial growth. We present data here to

Elaine Y. Fukuda; Sonya P. Lad; David P. Mikolon; Milena Iacobelli-Martinez; Erguang Li

2005-01-01

155

Geomapping of chlamydia and gonorrhoea in Birmingham  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate if the core population hypothesis is applicable to patients with genital chlamydia infections. Design: Retrospective cross sectional study. Setting: Two genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics in the city of Birmingham and eight adjacent clinics. Subjects: All patients with chlamydia (n = 665) or gonorrhoea (n = 584) attending between 1 October 1995 and 30 September 1996 with a postcode within the Birmingham health district. Controls were 727 patients seen in the same period with no infection. Methods: Postcodes were used to calculate population prevalence rates per 100 000 aged 15–65 in the 39 wards of the city and to estimate the socioeconomic status using the Super Profile (SP). Ethnic specific rates were also calculated. Data were obtained on gonorrhoea and chlamydia isolation from all the major laboratories of the city over the same time period. Results: GUM clinic attenders accounted for 67.6% and 82.5% of all chlamydia and gonorrhoea isolates reported by the laboratories and that were available for our epidemiological analysis. Both infections were more common in men and in black ethnic groups. However, patients with gonorrhoea only infection were more likely to be of black ethnicity than those with chlamydia only infection (p = 0.0001) and to have different SP distribution (p = 0.0001). On logistic regression age <20 years, male sex, black ethnicity, and living in neighbourhoods with SP J ("have nots") were predictive of both infections compared with controls. Overall chlamydia and gonorrhoea prevalence rates were 129 and 98.4 per 105 respectively. Corresponding rates for whites was 64.7 and 37.2 and for black ethnic groups 1105 and 1183 per 105 of each ethnic group. Eight adjacent wards accounted for 41% of the chlamydia and 66.5% of the gonorrhoea. Conclusion: In a large urban setting patients attending GUM clinics with chlamydia belong to core population groups with similar, but not identical, sociodemographic characteristics to patients with gonorrhoea infection. Key Words: gonorrhoea; Chlamydia trachomatis; geomapping; ethnicity PMID:11026881

Shahmanesh, M.; Gayed, S.; Ashcroft, M.; Smith, R.; Roopnarainsingh, R.; Dunn, J.; Ross, J.

2000-01-01

156

Effects of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection on Fertility; A Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Background Nowadays, Chlamydia trachomatis is known as a causative agent of infertility. Because of, asymptomatic nature of infection, many may suffer from its lasting complications such as infertility. This study was performed in Tehran during April 2007 to April 2008 to compare the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in fertile and infertile women using ELISA and PCR methods. Methods Overall, 234 infertile and 223 pregnant women, as the fertile group, participated in this hospital-based case-control study. After completing an informed consent form and the questionnaire, first catch urine and blood sample were obtained for PCR and ELISA (IgG, IgM) tests, respectively. Logistic regression analysis was used to control possible confounding factors, and determine adjusted odds ratio of infertility due to the infection. Results PCR results revealed that 29 (12.4%) of the infertile and 19 (8.5%) of the fertile women were positive for C. trachomatis infection (p = 0.440). IgG was positive in 21 (9.0%) of the infertile and 11 (5.0%) in the fertile group (p = 0.093). IgM assays identified that 2 (0.9%) of the infertile and 4 (1.8%) of the fertile women were positive for the micro-organism (p = 0.375). Conclusion We found no significant differences among fertile and infertile women for Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Nevertheless, molecular techniques which are more sensitive, more specific and non-invasive can be used to detect C. trachomatis infection. PMID:23926567

Rashidi, Batool Hossein; Chamani-Tabriz, Leili; Haghollahi, Fadieh; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Naghizadeh, Mohammad Mehdi; Shariat, Mamak; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Bagheri, Rezvan; Asgari, Soheila; Wylie, Kevan

2013-01-01

157

Lipopolysaccharide-binding alkylpolyamine DS-96 inhibits Chlamydia trachomatis infection by blocking attachment and entry.  

PubMed

Vaginally delivered microbicides are being developed to offer women self-initiated protection against transmission of sexually transmitted infections such as Chlamydia trachomatis. A small molecule, DS-96, rationally designed for high affinity to Escherichia coli lipid A, was previously demonstrated to bind and neutralize lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from a wide variety of Gram-negative bacteria (D. Sil et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51: 2811-2819, 2007, doi:10.1128/AAC.00200-07). Aside from the lack of the repeating O antigen, chlamydial lipooligosaccharide (LOS) shares general molecular architecture features with E. coli LPS. Importantly, the portion of lipid A where the interaction with DS-96 is expected to take place is well conserved between the two organisms, leading to the hypothesis that DS-96 inhibits Chlamydia infection by binding to LOS and compromising the function. In this study, antichlamydial activity of DS-96 was examined in cell culture. DS-96 inhibited the intercellular growth of Chlamydia in a dose-dependent manner and offered a high level of inhibition at a relatively low concentration (8 ?M). The data also revealed that infectious elementary bodies (EBs) were predominantly blocked at the attachment step, as indicated by the reduced number of EBs associated with the host cell surface following pretreatment. Of those EBs that were capable of attachment, the vast majority was unable to gain entry into the host cell. Inhibition of EB attachment and entry by DS-96 suggests that Chlamydia LOS is critical to these processes during the developmental cycle. Importantly, given the low association of host toxicity previously reported by Sil et al., DS-96 is expected to perform well in animal studies as an active antichlamydial compound in a vaginal microbicide. PMID:24663021

Osaka, Ichie; Hefty, P Scott

2014-06-01

158

Reassessing the role of the secreted protease CPAF in Chlamydia trachomatis infection through genetic approaches.  

PubMed

The secreted Chlamydia protease CPAF cleaves a defined set of mammalian and Chlamydia proteins in vitro. As a result, this protease has been proposed to modulate a range of bacterial and host cellular functions. However, it has recently come into question the extent to which many of its identified substrates constitute bona fide targets of proteolysis in infected host cell rather than artifacts of postlysis degradation. Here, we clarify the role played by CPAF in cellular models of infection by analyzing Chlamydia trachomatis mutants deficient for CPAF activity. Using reverse genetic approaches, we identified two C. trachomatis strains possessing nonsense, loss-of-function mutations in cpa (CT858) and a third strain containing a mutation in type II secretion (T2S) machinery that inhibited CPAF activity by blocking zymogen secretion and subsequent proteolytic maturation into the active hydrolase. HeLa cells infected with T2S(-) or CPAF(-) C. trachomatis mutants lacked detectable in vitro CPAF proteolytic activity and were not defective for cellular traits that have been previously attributed to CPAF activity, including resistance to staurosporine-induced apoptosis, Golgi fragmentation, altered NF?B-dependent gene expression, and resistance to reinfection. However, CPAF-deficient mutants did display impaired generation of infectious elementary bodies (EBs), indicating an important role for this protease in the full replicative potential of C. trachomatis. In addition, we provide compelling evidence in live cells that CPAF-mediated protein processing of at least two host protein targets, vimentin filaments and the nuclear envelope protein lamin-associated protein-1 (LAP1), occurs rapidly after the loss of the inclusion membrane integrity, but before loss of plasma membrane permeability and cell lysis. CPAF-dependent processing of host proteins correlates with a loss of inclusion membrane integrity, and so we propose that CPAF plays a role late in infection, possibly during the stages leading to the dismantling of the infected cell prior to the release of EBs during cell lysis. PMID:24838663

Snavely, Emily A; Kokes, Marcela; Dunn, Joe Dan; Saka, Hector A; Nguyen, Bidong D; Bastidas, Robert J; McCafferty, Dewey G; Valdivia, Raphael H

2014-08-01

159

Human enteroendocrine cell responses to infection with Chlamydia trachomatis: a microarray study  

PubMed Central

Background Enteroendocrine cells (EEC) are highly specialized cells producing signalling molecules vital to the normal functions of the gut. Recently, we showed altered protein distribution in Chlamydia infected EEC in vitro. The aim of this study was to perform a microarray analysis of the response pattern of EEC from both large and small bowel to infection in vitro, using Chlamydia trachomatis infection as a model. Methods Two human EEC lines: LCC-18, derived from a neuroendocrine colonic tumour, and CNDT-2, derived from a small intestinal carcinoid, were infected using cultured C. trachomatis serovar LGV II strain 434 (ATCC VR-902B). Penicillin G was used to induce persistent infection. We used microarray analysis (Affymetrix GeneChip®) for studying changes in gene expression at different stages of infection. Results Twenty-four hours after active and persistent infection, 66 and 411 genes in LCC-18 and 68 and 170 genes in CNDT-2 cells, respectively showed mean expression ratios >2-fold compared to non-infected cells. These genes encoded factors regulating apoptosis, cell differentiation, transcription regulation, cytokine activity, amine biosynthesis and vesicular transport. We found significant differences in gene transcription levels between persistently infected and non-infected cells in 10 genes coding for different solute carrier transporters (SLC) and in 5 genes related to endocrine function (GABARAPL1, GRIP1, DRD2, SYT5 and SYT7). Conclusions Infected EEC cells exhibit cell-type specific patterns related to vesicular transport, secretion and neurotransmitters. EEC play a pivotal role in regulation of gut motility and an impairment of enteroendocrine function can contribute to motility disorders. PMID:24959205

2014-01-01

160

Chapter 17: Genital Human Papillomavirus Infections—Current and Prospective Therapies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many therapies are available for the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated disease, particularly exter- nal genital warts. However, at present, these therapies aim to remove the lesion rather than specifically target HPV infec- tion. When disease and infection are local, as in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), excisional therapies remov- ing lesion and transformation-susceptible cells are highly ef- fective. However, when

Margaret Stanley

161

Localization of intracellular Ca2+ stores in HeLa cells during infection with Chlamydia trachomatis.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis elementary bodies (EBs) enter epithelial cells within membrane-bound endosomes that aggregate with each other in a calcium-regulated process, but avoid fusion with lysosomes. Annexin III but not I translocates to chlamydial aggregates and inclusions. In this study, we localize the intracellular Ca2+ stores during the course of infection by analyzing the distribution of three intracellular Ca2+ store proteins: calreticulin, type-1 inositol-1,4, 5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3-R), and Sarcoplasmic/Endoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+ ATPase type 2 (SERCA2) in HeLa cells infected with C. trachomatis serovar L2. In uninfected cells, immunofluorescence staining of the proteins showed a fine granular distributed pattern for all three proteins. After infection with C. trachomatis, calreticulin was found at the periphery of chlamydial aggregates and inclusions from 3 to 48 hours post-infection. In infected cells, SERCA2 was intimately associated with chlamydial inclusions after 3 and 24 hours, but not after 48 hours. Moreover, IP3-R was translocated to and colocalized with EB aggregates and chlamydial inclusions and had a distribution very similar to that of SERCA 2. After 24 hours incubation with chlamydiae, there was a local accumulation of [Ca2+]i (105+/-17 nM) in the proximity of chlamydial inclusions, compared to 50+/-13 nM in other parts of the cell cytoplasm. In the absence of extracellular Ca2+, this local accumulation of Ca2+ increased to 295+/-50 nM after adding 50 microM ATP, and to a similar extent after adding 100 nM thapsigargin (Tg). These data indicate that during infection of HeLa cells with chlamydiae, intracellular Ca2+ stores are redistributed, causing local accumulation of Ca2+ in the vicinity of chlamydial inclusions. These changes may trigger the association of certain proteins such as annexins with chlamydia-containing vesicles, and thereby regulation of membrane-membrane interaction during endosome aggregation and inclusion formation. PMID:9841902

Majeed, M; Krause, K H; Clark, R A; Kihlström, E; Stendahl, O

1999-01-01

162

Metabolic Features of Protochlamydia amoebophila Elementary Bodies - A Link between Activity and Infectivity in Chlamydiae  

PubMed Central

The Chlamydiae are a highly successful group of obligate intracellular bacteria, whose members are remarkably diverse, ranging from major pathogens of humans and animals to symbionts of ubiquitous protozoa. While their infective developmental stage, the elementary body (EB), has long been accepted to be completely metabolically inert, it has recently been shown to sustain some activities, including uptake of amino acids and protein biosynthesis. In the current study, we performed an in-depth characterization of the metabolic capabilities of EBs of the amoeba symbiont Protochlamydia amoebophila. A combined metabolomics approach, including fluorescence microscopy-based assays, isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), ion cyclotron resonance Fourier transform mass spectrometry (ICR/FT-MS), and ultra-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) was conducted, with a particular focus on the central carbon metabolism. In addition, the effect of nutrient deprivation on chlamydial infectivity was analyzed. Our investigations revealed that host-free P. amoebophila EBs maintain respiratory activity and metabolize D-glucose, including substrate uptake as well as host-free synthesis of labeled metabolites and release of labeled CO2 from 13C-labeled D-glucose. The pentose phosphate pathway was identified as major route of D-glucose catabolism and host-independent activity of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was observed. Our data strongly suggest anabolic reactions in P. amoebophila EBs and demonstrate that under the applied conditions D-glucose availability is essential to sustain metabolic activity. Replacement of this substrate by L-glucose, a non-metabolizable sugar, led to a rapid decline in the number of infectious particles. Likewise, infectivity of Chlamydia trachomatis, a major human pathogen, also declined more rapidly in the absence of nutrients. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that D-glucose is utilized by P. amoebophila EBs and provide evidence that metabolic activity in the extracellular stage of chlamydiae is of major biological relevance as it is a critical factor affecting maintenance of infectivity. PMID:23950718

Watzka, Margarete; Wultsch, Anna; Tziotis, Dimitrios; Montanaro, Jacqueline; Richter, Andreas; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Horn, Matthias

2013-01-01

163

Experimental enteric infection of gnotobiotic piglets with Chlamydia suis strain S45.  

PubMed

Enteric chlamydial infections of pigs with Chlamydia (C.) suis are frequent and often subclinical. The enteric pathogenicity of C. suis strain S45 was investigated in gnotobiotic piglets. Piglets from three litters (n=31) were inoculated with egg-grown chlamydiae at 2-3 days of age (n=17) or used as controls (n=14). They were observed for clinical signs, killed and necropsied sequentially at 2-13 days postinoculation (DPI). Feces were collected daily and investigated with an ELISA for chlamydial antigen. At necropsy, specimens were collected for histopathology and for immunohistochemical, PCR-based, and serological (complement fixation test, ELISA) detection of chlamydiae. Chlamydial replication and associated symptoms and lesions were observed from 2 to 13 DPI and were particularly pronounced within the first week PI. Clinical symptoms consisted of moderate-to-severe diarrhea, slight and transient anorexia, weakness and body weight loss. Immunohistochemistry and ELISA revealed that chlamydial replication was particularly marked at 2-4 DPI and primarily located in the small intestinal villus enterocytes. Further sites of replication included large intestinal enterocytes, the lamina propria and Tunica submucosa, and the mesenteric lymphnodes. Histopathological changes included moderate-to-severe villus atrophy with flattened enterocytes and focal villus tip erosions, and moderate mucosal inflammatory cell infiltrates and lymphangitis in the small intestine. PCR of spleen tissue and blood was mostly negative for chlamydiae, indicating that they did not substantially disseminate into the host up to 13 DPI. All sera were negative for anti-chlamydial antibodies. In conclusion, C. suis strain S45 elicited significant enteric disease and lesions in gnotobiotic piglets indicating its pathogenic potential for swine. PMID:18950966

Guscetti, Franco; Schiller, Irene; Sydler, Titus; Heinen, Ernst; Pospischil, Andreas

2009-03-16

164

Development status and future prospects for a vaccine against Chlamydia trachomatis infection.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis continues to be the most commonly reported sexually transmitted bacterial infection in many countries with more than 100 million new cases estimated annually. These acute infections translate into significant downstream health care costs, particularly for women, where complications can include pelvic inflammatory disease and other disease sequelae such as tubal factor infertility. Despite years of research, the immunological mechanisms responsible for protective immunity versus immunopathology are still not well understood, although it is widely accepted that T cell driven IFN-g and Th17 responses are critical for clearing infection. While antibodies are able to neutralize infections in vitro, alone they are not protective, indicating that any successful vaccine will need to elicit both arms of the immune response. In recent years, there has been an expansion in the number and types of antigens that have been evaluated as vaccines, and combined with the new array of mucosal adjuvants, this aspect of chlamydial vaccinology is showing promise. Most recently, the opportunities to develop successful vaccines have been given a significant boost with the development of a genetic transformation system for Chlamydia, as well as the identification of the key role of the chlamydial plasmid in virulence. While still remaining a major challenge, the development of a successful C. trachomatis vaccine is starting to look more likely. PMID:23973245

Hafner, Louise M; Wilson, David P; Timms, Peter

2014-03-20

165

Differential infection outcome of Chlamydia trachomatis in human blood monocytes and monocyte-derived dendritic cells  

PubMed Central

Background Chlamydia trachomatis is an intracellular bacteria which consist of three biovariants; trachoma (serovars A-C), urogenital (serovars D-K) and lymphogranuloma venereum (L1-L3), causing a wide spectrum of disease in humans. Monocytes are considered to disseminate this pathogen throughout the body while dendritic cells (DCs) play an important role in mediating immune response against bacterial infection. To determine the fate of C. trachomatis within human peripheral blood monocytes and monocyte-derived DCs, these two sets of immune cells were infected with serovars Ba, D and L2, representative of the three biovariants of C. trachomatis. Results Our study revealed that the different serovars primarily infect monocytes and DCs in a comparable fashion, however undergo differential infection outcome, serovar L2 being the only candidate to inflict active infection. Moreover, the C. trachomatis serovars Ba and D become persistent in monocytes while the serovars predominantly suffer degradation within DCs. Effects of persistence gene Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) was not clearly evident in the differential infection outcome. The heightened levels of inflammatory cytokines secreted by the chlamydial infection in DCs compared to monocytes seemed to be instrumental for this consequence. The immune genes induced in monocytes and DCs against chlamydial infection involves a different set of Toll-like receptors, indicating that distinct intracellular signalling pathways are adopted for immune response. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that the host pathogen interaction in chlamydia infection is not only serovar specific but manifests cell specific features, inducing separate immune response cascade in monocytes and DCs. PMID:25123797

2014-01-01

166

Molecular cartography in acute Chlamydia pneumoniae infections--a non-targeted metabolomics approach.  

PubMed

Infections with Chlamydia pneumoniae cause several respiratory diseases, such as community-acquired pneumonia, bronchitis or sinusitis. Here, we present an integrated non-targeted metabolomics analysis applying ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry and ultra-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry to determine metabolite alterations in C. pneumoniae-infected HEp-2 cells. Most important permutations are elaborated using uni- and multivariate statistical analysis, logD retention time regression and mass defect-based network analysis. Classes of metabolites showing high variations upon infection are lipids, carbohydrates and amino acids. Moreover, we observed several non-annotated compounds as predominantly abundant after infection, which are promising biomarker candidates for drug-target and diagnostic research. PMID:23354577

Müller, Constanze; Dietz, Inga; Tziotis, Dimitrios; Moritz, Franco; Rupp, Jan; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

2013-06-01

167

HIV target cells in Schistosoma haematobium-infected female genital mucosa.  

PubMed

The parasite Schistosoma haematobium frequently causes genital lesions in women and could increase the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. This study quantifies the HIV target cells in schistosome-infected female genital mucosa. Cervicovaginal biopsies with and without schistosomiasis were immunostained for quantification of CD4(+) T lymphocytes (CD3, CD8), macrophages (CD68), and dendritic Langerhans cells (S100 protein). We found significantly higher densities of genital mucosal CD4(+) T lymphocytes and macrophages surrounding schistosome ova compared with cervicovaginal mucosa without ova (P = 0.034 and P = 0.018, respectively). We found no increased density of Langerhans cells (P = 0.25). This study indicates that S. haematobium may significantly increase the density of HIV target cells (CD4(+) T lymphocytes and macrophages) in the female genitals, creating a beneficial setting for HIV transmission. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings and to evaluate the effect of anti-schistosomal treatment on female genital schistosomiasis. PMID:22144444

Jourdan, Peter Mark; Holmen, Sigve Dhondup; Gundersen, Svein Gunnar; Roald, Borghild; Kjetland, Eyrun Floerecke

2011-12-01

168

Heterogeneity in Risk of Pelvic Inflammatory Diseases After Chlamydia Infection: A Population-Based Study in Manitoba, Canada  

PubMed Central

Background.?The association between chlamydia infection and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a key parameter for models evaluating the impact of chlamydia control programs. We quantified this association using a retrospective population-based cohort. Methods.?We used administrative health data sets to construct a retrospective population-based cohort of women and girls aged 12–24 years who were resident in Manitoba, Canada, between 1992 and 1996. We performed survival analysis on a subcohort of individuals who were tested for chlamydia to estimate the risk of PID diagnosed in a primary care, outpatient, or inpatient setting after ?1 positive chlamydia test. Results.?A total of 73 883 individuals contributed 625 621 person years of follow-up. Those with a diagnosis of chlamydia had an increased risk of PID over their reproductive lifetime compared with those who tested negative (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.43–1.70). This risk increased with each subsequent infection: the AHR was 1.17 for first reinfection (95% CI, 1.06–1.30) and 1.35 for the second (95% CI, 1.04–1.75). The increased risk of PID from reinfection was highest in younger individuals (AHR, 4.55 (95% CI, 3.59–5.78) in individuals aged 12–15 years at the time of their second reinfection, compared with individuals older than 30 years). Conclusions.?There is heterogeneity in the risk of PID after a chlamydia infection. Describing the progression to PID in mathematical models as an average rate may be an oversimplification; more accurate estimates of the cost-effectiveness of screening may be obtained by using an individual-based measure of risk. Health inequalities may be reduced by targeting health promotion interventions at sexually active girls younger than 16 years and those with a history of chlamydia. PMID:25381374

Davies, Bethan; Ward, Helen; Leung, Stella; Turner, Katy M. E.; Garnett, Geoff P.; Blanchard, James F.; Yu, B. Nancy

2014-01-01

169

Efficacy of duplicate genital specimens and repeated testing for confirming positive results for chlamydiazyme detection of Chlamydia trachomatis antigen.  

PubMed Central

In an attempt to increase Chlamydiazyme (Abbott Laboratories) detection of Chlamydia trachomatis antigen and to establish the reproducibility of positive results, we carried out an investigation into the usefulness of testing duplicate specimens, of more aggressive endocervical specimen collection by using cytobrushes instead of swabs, and of the repeated testing of both specimens from patients with one or two positive results. Duplicate endocervical (female) and urethral (male) specimens, including one swab and one cytobrush specimen from 1,331 nonpregnant women, were collected from symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Specimens were transported and tested for C. trachomatis antigen as specified by the manufacturer. Tests on all specimens from patients with positive results were repeated. Antigen was initially detected in one or both specimens from 210 (10.7%) of 1,968 patients, and repetition of the tests confirmed its presence in 198 (10.1%) of the patients, including all 183 patients in whom it was initially detected in both specimens. Initial results from at least 8 of the 12 patients with irreproducible antigen detection were most probably falsely positive. Results from 21 (10.6%) of the 198 patients for whom antigen detection was confirmed were repeatedly positive on only one specimen (9 [4.5%] on the second of the two specimens collected). Of 115 women from whom one swab and one cytobrush sample were taken and who had repeatedly positive results, antigen was detected in 7 (6.1%) only on the swab sample and in 4 (3.5%) only on the cytobrush sample. Use of the cytobrush does not appear justified with the Chlamydiazyme assay, and collection of duplicate specimens provided only a modest increase in detection of C. trachomatis. However, repeated testing of specimens when results from only one of two specimens are positive appears to be of clinical value. PMID:2753999

Kellogg, J A; Seiple, J W; Levisky, J S

1989-01-01

170

Association of Maternal Genital and Reproductive Infections with Verbal Memory and Motor Deficits in Adult Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Maternal exposure to genital and reproductive infections has been associated with schizophrenia in previous studies. Impairments in several neuropsychological functions, including verbal memory, working memory, executive function, and fine-motor coordination occur prominently in patients with schizophrenia. The etiologies of these deficits, however, remain largely unknown. We aimed to assess whether prospectively documented maternal exposure to genital/reproductive infections was related to these neuropsychological deficits in offspring with schizophrenia and other schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The cases were derived from a population-based birth cohort; all cohort members belonged to a prepaid health plan. Cases were assessed for verbal memory, working memory, executive function, and fine-motor coordination. Compared to unexposed cases, patients exposed to maternal genital/reproductive infection performed more poorly on verbal memory, fine-motor coordination, and working memory. Stratification by race revealed associations between maternal G/R infection and verbal memory and fine-motor coordination for case offspring of African-American mothers, but not for case offspring of White mothers. Significant infection-by-race interactions were also observed. Although independent replications are warranted, maternal G/R infections were associated with verbal memory and motor function deficits in African-American patients with schizophrenia. PMID:21600665

Brown, Alan S.; Vinogradov, Sophia; Kremen, William S.; Poole, John H.; Bao, Yuanyuan; Kern, David; McKeague, Ian W.

2011-01-01

171

The epidemiology of herpes simplex types 1 and 2 infection of the genital tract in Edinburgh 1978-1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION--The changing epidemiology of genital herpes in Edinburgh is described in relation to herpes simplex virus (HSV) Type 1 and herpes simplex virus Type 2 infection over a period of 14 years. METHODS--2018 episodes of genital herpes in 1794 patients over a 14 year period were assessed. Data on age, sex, sexual orientation, geographical origin and herpes antibodies were also

J D Ross; I W Smith; R A Elton

1993-01-01

172

Evaluation of PCR, culture, and serology for diagnosis of Chlamydia pneumoniae respiratory infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prospectively studied 156 patients with a diagnosis of\\u000a community-acquired pneumonia requiring admission. Several respiratory\\u000a specimens were obtained for the detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae by cell\\u000a culture and PCR. Three serum samples were obtained from each patient.\\u000a Serological diagnosis of a C. pneumoniae infection was determined by the\\u000a microimmunofluorescence (MIF) test, the complement fixation (CF) test, and\\u000a recombinant lipopolysaccharide (LPS)

R. P. A. J. Verkooyen; D. Willemse; S. C. Hiep-van Casteren; S. A. MOUSAVI JOULANDAN; R. J. Snijder; Helden van H. P; M. F. Peeters; H. A. Verbrugh; Bosch van den J. M

1998-01-01

173

The molecular basis for disease phenotype in chronic Chlamydia-induced arthritis  

PubMed Central

Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections can elicit an inflammatory arthritis in some individuals, and recent surprising studies have demonstrated that only ocular (trachoma) strains, not genital strains, of the organism are present in the synovial tissues of patients with the disease. This observation suggests an explanation for the small proportion of genitally-infected patients who develop Chlamydia-induced arthritis. Other recent studies have begun to identify the specific chlamydial gene products that elicit the synovial inflammatory response during both active and quiescent disease, although much more study will be required to complete the understanding of that complex process of host–pathogen interaction. Several newly developed experimental methods and approaches for study of the process will enable identification of new therapeutic targets, and possibly strategies for prevention of the disease altogether. PMID:23440251

Carter, John D; Gerard, Herve C; Whittum-Hudson, Judith A; Hudson, Alan P

2013-01-01

174

Immunization against Genital Herpes with a Vaccine Virus That has Defects in Productive and Latent Infection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An effective vaccine for genital herpes has been difficult to achieve because of the limited efficacy of subunit vaccines and the safety concerns about live viruses. As an alternative approach, mutant herpes simplex virus strains that are replication-defective can induce protective immunity. To increase the level of safety and to prove that replication was not needed for immunization, we constructed a mutant herpes simplex virus 2 strain containing two deletion mutations, each of which eliminated viral replication. The double-mutant virus induces protective immunity that can reduce acute viral shedding and latent infection in a mouse genital model, but importantly, the double-mutant virus shows a phenotypic defect in latent infection. This herpes vaccine strain, which is immunogenic but has defects in both productive and latent infection, provides a paradigm for the design of vaccines and vaccine vectors for other sexually transmitted diseases, such as AIDS.

da Costa, Xavier J.; Jones, Cheryl A.; Knipe, David M.

1999-06-01

175

The Incidence and Correlates of Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae Infections in Selected Populations in Five Countries  

PubMed Central

Background Asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonorrhea) infections pose diagnostic and control problems in developing countries. Methods Participants in China, India, Peru, Russia, and Zimbabwe were screened for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae infections and symptoms. Results A total of 18,014 participants were evaluated at baseline, 15,054 at 12 months, and 14,243 at 24 months. The incidence of chlamydia in men was 2.0 per 100 person years both from baseline to 12 months and from 12 to 24 months, and in women, 4.6 from baseline to 12 months and 3.6 from 12 to 24 months; a range of 31.2% to 100% reported no symptoms across the 5 countries. The incidence of gonorrhea in men was 0.3 per 100 person years both from baseline to 12 months and from 12 to 24 months, and in women, 1.4 from baseline to 12 months and 1.1 from 12 to 24 months; a range of 66.7% to 100% reported no symptoms. Being female, aged 18 to 24 years, and having more than 1 partner were associated with both the infections. In addition, being divorced, separated, or widowed was associated with gonorrhea. Being male, having 6+ years of education, and reporting only 1 partner were associated with having no symptoms among those infected with chlamydia. No variables correlated with asymptomatic gonorrhea among those infected. Conclusion A high prevalence and incidence of asymptomatic sexually transmitted infections was identified among men and women in a wide variety of settings. More effective programs are needed to identify and treat chlamydia and gonorrhea infections, especially among women, young adults, those with multiple partners, those repeatedly infected, and particularly those at risk without symptoms. The risk of transmission from persons with no symptoms requires further study. PMID:22256336

Detels, Roger; Green, Annette M.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Katzenstein, David; Gaydos, Charlotte; Handsfield, H. Hunter; Pequegnat, Willo; Mayer, Kenneth; Hartwell, Tyler D.; Quinn, Thomas C.

2012-01-01

176

Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in mice induces chronic lung inflammation, iBALT formation, and fibrosis.  

PubMed

Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP) lung infection can induce chronic lung inflammation and is associated with not only acute asthma but also COPD exacerbations. However, in mouse models of CP infection, most studies have investigated specifically the acute phase of the infection and not the longer-term chronic changes in the lungs. We infected C57BL/6 mice with 5 × 10(5) CP intratracheally and monitored inflammation, cellular infiltrates and cytokine levels over time to investigate the chronic inflammatory lung changes. While bacteria numbers declined by day 28, macrophage numbers remained high through day 35. Immune cell clusters were detected as early as day 14 and persisted through day 35, and stained positive for B, T, and follicular dendritic cells, indicating these clusters were inducible bronchus associated lymphoid tissues (iBALTs). Classically activated inflammatory M1 macrophages were the predominant subtype early on while alternatively activated M2 macrophages increased later during infection. Adoptive transfer of M1 but not M2 macrophages intratracheally 1 week after infection resulted in greater lung inflammation, severe fibrosis, and increased numbers of iBALTS 35 days after infection. In summary, we show that CP lung infection in mice induces chronic inflammatory changes including iBALT formations as well as fibrosis. These observations suggest that the M1 macrophages, which are part of the normal response to clear acute C. pneumoniae lung infection, result in an enhanced acute response when present in excess numbers, with greater inflammation, tissue injury, and severe fibrosis. PMID:24204830

Jupelli, Madhulika; Shimada, Kenichi; Chiba, Norika; Slepenkin, Anatoly; Alsabeh, Randa; Jones, Heather D; Peterson, Ellena; Chen, Shuang; Arditi, Moshe; Crother, Timothy R

2013-01-01

177

Update on the impact of Chlamydia trachomatis infection on male fertility.  

PubMed

With approximately 90 million cases annually, infection with Chlamydia trachomatis is the most prevalent sexually transmitted bacterial disease in the world. Considering that these infections are often asymptomatic and cause major complications like acute pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, infertility or infant pneumonia, the estimated costs for diagnosis and treatment in the USA amounts to 2.2 million US dollars for each 500 cases. Therefore, there is a high need for correct, quick and cost-effective diagnosis and treatment of this urogenital tract infection. New innovative therapies provide good results with regard to efficacy and patients' compliance. The success rates of treatments are at least 95%. However, the occurrence of antibiotic resistance should not be ignored and new treatment schemes must be developed. The state-of-the-art of diagnosis and treatment of chlamydial infections as well as the pathophysiology is discussed in this review. In conclusion, infections with C. trachomatis is an important public health problem, especially in third world and developing countries, and more socio-economic studies linking secondary prevention of chlamydial infections, infertility and adverse pregnancy outcome are needed to understand more of its aetiology. In addition, diagnosis and treatment should be improved. Data in men revealed that past infections but not present infections are more related to male infertility. There is still controversial results. In future studies, function of the seminal vesicles and evaluation of the antioxidant capacity should be taken into account when role of C. trachomatis infection on male fertility is assessed. PMID:14871260

Gonzales, G F; Muñoz, G; Sánchez, R; Henkel, R; Gallegos-Avila, G; Díaz-Gutierrez, O; Vigil, P; Vásquez, F; Kortebani, G; Mazzolli, A; Bustos-Obregón, E

2004-02-01

178

Seroepidemiology of Chlamydia pneumoniae TWAR infection in Seattle families, 1966-1979.  

PubMed

Incidence rates of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and information on reinfection and transmission within families were obtained by serologic study of serum samples from prospective family studies conducted 1966-1979. Specimens (n = 3671) from 343 subjects in 68 families were tested for TWAR antibody using the microimmunofluorescence assay. Acute infection was defined as a fourfold rise in antibody titer between consecutive specimens. Sixty-four episodes of infection were identified in 58 persons; 4 had 2 infections and 1 had 3. From late 1975 until early 1979, when 3 serum specimens were collected yearly, rates of infection by age groups 0-4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19, and greater than or equal to 20 years were 0, 9.2, 6.2, 2.2, and 1.5/100 person-years, respectively. Reinfections, defined as infections in persons with previous antibody, constituted most acute infections among adults. Acute infections more often affected a single family member than multiple members, but 2 or 3 family members were infected during the same period 12 times. PMID:1500751

Aldous, M B; Grayston, J T; Wang, S P; Foy, H M

1992-09-01

179

Prevalence of reproductive tract infections, genital prolapse, and obesity in a rural community in Lebanon.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of reproduction-related illnesses in a rural community in Lebanon. METHODS: Data were collected through interviews with women in their homes, physical examinations and history taking by physicians in a clinic in the community, and laboratory tests. A total of 557 ever-married women aged 15-60 years were selected randomly. FINDINGS: Just over half of the sample (268, 50.6%) had five or more children, and (320, 78.9%) of women aged < 45 years were using contraception. The prevalence of reproductive tract infections was very low: six (1.2%) women had sexually transmitted diseases and 47 (9.3%) had endogenous reproductive tract infections. None had chlamydial infection or a positive serological finding of syphilis. None had invasive cervical cancer, and only one had cervical dysplasia. In contrast, genital prolapse and gynaecological morbidity were elevated. Half of the women studied (251, 49.6%) had genital prolapse, and 153 (30.2%) were obese. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of reproductive tract infections in this conservative rural community in east Lebanon was low. Possible explanations include the conservative nature of the community, the high rate of utilization of health care services, and the liberal use of antibiotics without a prescription. More importantly, the study showed an unexpectedly high prevalence of genital prolapse and obesity--a finding that has clear implications for primary health care priorities in such rural communities. PMID:14710505

Deeb, Mary E.; Awwad, Johnny; Yeretzian, Joumana S.; Kaspar, Hanna G.

2003-01-01

180

Broad HPV distribution in the genital region of men from the HPV infection in men (HIM) study  

PubMed Central

The HPV infection in men (HIM) study examines the natural history of genital HPV infection in men. Genotyping methods used in this study identify 37 ?-HPV types; however, the viral type could not be identified in approximately 22% of male genital specimens that were HPV PCR positive. Our aim was to genotype HPV-unclassified specimens by sequencing PGMY09/11, GP5+/6+ or FAP59/64 PCR products. Using this approach we were able to detect 86 unique HPV types among 508 of 931 specimens analyzed. We report for the first time the presence of a broad range of ?-, ?- and ?-HPV at the male genitals. PMID:23722104

Sichero, Laura; Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Ferreira, Silvaneide; Sobrinho, Joao S.; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Galan, Lenice; Silva, Roberto C.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R.; Villa, Luisa L.

2013-01-01

181

Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infection in HIV-1-infected women taking antiretroviral therapy: a prospective cohort study from Burkina Faso  

PubMed Central

Objectives Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) are common sexually transmitted infections (STI). We assessed the cumulative risk of NG and CT in a cohort of HIV-1-infected high-risk women taking antiretrovirals over 4?years in Burkina Faso. Methods Between March 2007 and February 2011, participants were followed every 3–6?months. At each visit, participants underwent a gynaecological examination with collection of cervical and vaginal swabs. Random-effects logistic regression models were used to analyse associations of NG and CT infection with behavioural and biological factors. Results 172 women had samples tested for NG and CT during the study period, in a total of 1135 visits. NG was detected in 6.4% of women (11/172, 95% CI 2.7 to 10.1) at a rate of 2.76 cases (95% CI 1.53 to 4.99) per 100 person-years. CT was detected in 1.7% (3/172, 95% CI 0 to 3.7) of women at a rate of 0.75 cases (95% CI 0.24 to 2.34) per 100 person-years. The majority of women were asymptomatic (9/14). In the multivariable model, the presence of NG or CT was associated with tobacco use (aOR=11.85, 95% CI 1.13 to 124.17), and concurrent genital HIV-1 RNA shedding (aOR=4.78, 95% CI 1.17 to 19.46). Higher levels of education (aOR=0.17, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.92), and age greater than 35?years (aOR=0.07, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.92) were associated with lower odds of infection. Conclusions The risk of NG or CT infection remains low among high-risk women in Bobo-Dioulasso. This provides some evidence that antiretroviral use does not contribute to behavioural disinhibition. The asymptomatic nature of most infections underscores the need for regular screening and treatment of STIs in core groups. PMID:24337732

Low, Andrea J; Konate, Issouf; Nagot, Nicolas; Weiss, Helen A; Mabey, David; Segondy, Michel; Vickerman, Peter; Meda, Nicolas; van de Perre, Philippe; Mayaud, Philippe

2014-01-01

182

MRSA infection of buttocks, vulva, and genital tract in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Staphylococcus aureus, although a common commensal bacterium, is a frequent cause of skin and soft tissue infections as well as life-threatening\\u000a blood stream infections. Resistance to methicillin, which previously was associated with only hospitalized patients, has become\\u000a a common community-based phenomenon. Less well known is S. aureus vaginal colonization and heterosexual transmission, mainly by skin-mucosa contact. Recognizing the vagina as

Orna Reichman; Jack D. Sobel

2009-01-01

183

Vaginal microbicides can interfere with nucleic acid amplification tests used for the diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection.  

PubMed

We confirmed findings from previous studies that cellulose sulfate gel can interfere with nucleic acid amplification tests used for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. We therefore recommend that the effects of microbicide gels on diagnostic assays of sexually transmitted infections be established before starting up clinical studies. PMID:16860515

Crucitti, Tania; Jespers, Vicky; Van Damme, Lut; Van Dyck, Eddy; Buvé, Anne

2007-01-01

184

Characteristics of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in hospitalized infants with lower respiratory tract infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose: To study the epidemiology, presentation and laboratory findings of Chlamydia trachomatis pneumonia in hospitalized infants younger than 6 months. Methods: Between January 2001 and December 2005, infants younger than 6 months admitted to the children's medical center of Taipei Veterans General Hospital with the diagnosis of acute bronchiolitis, bronchopneumonia or pneumonia were prospectively studied. Chest radiograph findings

Chun-Jen Chen; Keh-Gong Wu; Ren-Bin Tang; Han-Chih Yuan; Wen-Jue Soong; Be-Tau Hwang

185

Characterization of an antigen secreted by Chlamydia-infected cell culture.  

PubMed Central

A soluble genus-specific chlamydial antigen has been isolated from the supernatants of cultures infected with Chlamydia trachomatis and from other sources. The antigen is a glycolipid that is secreted during the infective cycle. This exoglycolipid can be hydrolysed and fractionated into polysaccharide and lipid components. Both fractions retain antigenic activity. An immunodominant antigenic determinant of the lipid component contains fatty acids of C17 and C18:1. The polysaccharide immunodominant epitope gives rise to gulose when derivatives are formed. The secretion of the antigen into the media supernatant, the presence of gulose and the observed molecular weight are consistent with properties of alginate secreted by Gram-negative bacteria. Chemical analyses and SDS-PAGE indicate that the exoglycolipid is markedly different from LPS. Images Figure 5 PMID:3443454

Stuart, E S; Tirrell, S M; MacDonald, A B

1987-01-01

186

Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection in Mice Induces Chronic Lung Inflammation, iBALT Formation, and Fibrosis  

E-print Network

a mouse model of Chlamydia pneumoniae pneumonia. J Biol ChemChlamydia pneumoniae, strain TWAR, an important cause of pneumoniaChlamydia pneumoniae (CP), a gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen, is responsible for up to 10% of community acquired pneumonias

2013-01-01

187

A Murine Model for the Study of Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Infections during Pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infant mortality rates in the United States continue to be higher than those of most industrialized countries and have recently increased (9, 13, 18). These high infant mortality rates are mainly due to high rates of premature birth and associated low birth weight. The magnitude of this problem is such that recently, Hillier et al. (13) concluded that preterm delivery,

SUKUMAR PAL; ELLENA M. PETERSON; LUIS M. DE LA MAZA

1999-01-01

188

Enhancement of experimental Mycoplasma pulmonis infection of the mouse genital tract by progesterone treatment.  

PubMed

Experimental infection of the vagina of TO and CBA mice with Mycoplasma pulmonis was enchanced greatly by progesterone treatment. Almost all treated animals became infected, whereas only two-thirds of the untreated TO mice and less than half of the untreated CBA mice did so. Almost 1000-fold more organisms were recovered from treated than from untreated mice and the duration of infection was more than doubled. The enhanced infection in the hormone-treated animals was accompanied by a more severe vaginal polymorphonuclear leucocyte response which reached a maximum two weeks after inoculation of M. pulmonis. In the TO mice the eventual decline in cellular response coincided with the gradual disappearance of the mycoplasmal infection. The implications of these findings for genital infections of other animal species are discussed. PMID:6707467

Furr, P M; Taylor-Robinson, D

1984-04-01

189

Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in HIV-Infected Women: Need for Screening by a Sensitive and Specific Test  

PubMed Central

Reproductive tract infection (RTIs)/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are recognized as a major public health problem, particularly due to their relationship with HIV infection. Early detection and treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis infection (CTI) among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women may impact heterosexual HIV transmission. A total of 120 participants were enrolled: 30 HIV seropositive women with symptoms of RTIs, 30 HIV seropositive women without symptoms of RTIs, 30 HIV seronegative women with symptoms of RTIs, and 30 HIV seronegative women without symptoms of RTIs. One endocervical swab was collected from all participants and CTI was detected by real-time PCR (COBAS TaqMan CT Test, v2.0). CTI was detected in 4 (6.67%) HIV-infected women and in 1 (1.67%) HIV-uninfected woman (OR 4.214; 95% CI 0.457–38.865). Vaginal discharge was present in almost half of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women; lower abdominal pain was present in 11 (18.3%) of HIV-infected and in 9 (15%) of HIV-uninfected women. This study showed that CTI is more prevalent among HIV-infected females as compared to HIV-uninfected females. As the use of real-time PCR is not feasible in most hospitals, efforts should be made to develop a simple, sensitive, and specific test to identify women with CTI for prevention of sequelae and HIV transmission. PMID:24382941

Bhattar, Sonali; Chadha, Sanjim; Tripathi, Reva; Kaur, Ravinder; Sardana, Kabir

2013-01-01

190

The diagnosis of recent herpes simplex virus type 2 genital infections by the simplex-2 test.  

PubMed

The prevalence of complement-fixing (CF) antibody against the AG-4 early antigen of herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 (HSV-2) was determined in patients with culture confirmed HSV-2 genital herpes and control groups using a commercial HSV-2 early antigen (Simplex-2; Gene Link Australia Ltd). Eighty seven per cent of 39 sera collected between 14 and 28 days after confirmed primary and recurrent HSV-2 infection were positive. In acute sera collected between 2-10 days after onset the Simplex-2 test was negative in all 90 patients with presumed primary infection but positive in 53% of 230 sera from recurrent infection. A specificity of 90-94.5% was obtained by testing 36 patients with recent proven HSV-1 infection and 331 control group patients. The Simplex-2 test may be useful in some cases of culture-negative, clinically suspected genital HSV-2 lesions only when sera are collected between 14-28 days after primary and recurrent infection. Its lack of specificity makes it unsuitable for the routine diagnosis of recent HSV-2 infection in the general population. PMID:1337770

Field, P R; Ho, D W; Cunningham, A L

1992-10-01

191

Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinases Subsequent to Urogenital Chlamydia muridarum Infection of Mice  

PubMed Central

The central hypothesis of this study was that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) would be enhanced following murine chlamydial infection and that their expression would vary in mouse strains that differ in their susceptibility to chronic chlamydia-induced disease. To address this hypothesis, female C3H/HeN and C57BL/6 mice were infected intravaginally with Chlamydia muridarum. Uterine and oviduct tissues were assessed for transcription of MMP genes and their tissue inhibitors. An increased activity of MMP genes relative to preinfection tissues was observed in the C3H/HeN mice when compared to C57BL/6 mice. Using gelatin zymography, we detected constitutive MMP-2 activity in both strains of mice but an increase in MMP-9. Casein zymography indicated the presence of two elastase-like activities consistent with MMP-12 and possibly MMP-7. Western blotting and antigen capture enzyme-linked immunoassay also confirmed an increase in MMP-9 but constitutive MMP-2 expression subsequent to the infection in both strains of mice. In C57BL/6 mice, MMP-9 was present in monomer and dimer form throughout the 56-day monitoring period. C3H/HeN mice produced dimeric MMP-9, but increases in the monomer form were also observed through day 14. Post-translational modification of MMP-9 between the two strains also differed. Immunohistochemistry revealed neutrophils as a prominent source for MMP-9 in both strains of mice. We conclude that differences in the relative expression and activity of MMPs, particularly MMP-9, occur in mice differing in their susceptibility to the development of chronic chlamydial disease. These differences may account for disparate outcomes with regard to chronic sequelae of the disease. PMID:16177376

Ramsey, K.H.; Sigar, I.M.; Schripsema, J. H.; Shaba, N.; Cohoon, K. P.

2005-01-01

192

Comparison of Chlamydia trachomatis serovar L2 growth in polarized genital epithelial cells grown in three-dimensional culture with non-polarized cells  

PubMed Central

A common model for studying Chlamydia trachomatis and growing chlamydial stocks uses Lymphogranuloma venereum serovar L2 and non-polarized HeLa cells. However, recent publications indicate that the growth rate and progeny yields can vary considerably for a particular strain depending on the cell line/type used, and seem to be partially related to cell tropism. In the present study, the growth of invasive serovar L2 was compared in endometrial HEC-1B and endocervical HeLa cells polarized on collagen-coated microcarrier beads, as well as in HeLa cells grown in tissue culture flasks. Microscopy analysis revealed no difference in chlamydial attachment/entry patterns or in inclusion development throughout the developmental cycle between cell lines. Very comparable growth curves in both cell lines were also found using real-time PCR analysis, with increases in chlamydial DNA content of 400–500-fold between 2 and 36 h post-inoculation. Similar progeny yields with comparable infectivity were recovered from HEC-1B and HeLa cell bead cultures, and no difference in chlamydial growth was found in polarized vs. non-polarized HeLa cells. In conclusion, unlike other C. trachomatis strains such as urogenital serovar E, invasive serovar L2 grows equally well in physiologically different endometrial and endocervical environments, regardless of the host cell polarization state. PMID:18396437

Dessus-Babus, Sophie; Moore, Cheryl G.; Whittimore, Judy D.; Wyrick, Priscilla B.

2008-01-01

193

Imbalanced secretion of IL1  and IL1RA in Chlamydia pneumoniae-infected mononuclear cells from COPD patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Balanced secretion of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines is essential in limiting pulmonary inflammation in respiratory infections. It was hypothesised that, in acute infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae, mononuclear cells from chronic obstructive pulmonary,disease (COPD) patients lack the opportunity to compensate,for the inflammatory,immune,response by secreting adequate amounts,of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Alveolar macrophages,(AMs) and peripheral blood mononuclear,cells (PBMCs) from eight COPD patients and

J. Rupp; H. Kothe; A. Mueller; M. Maass; K. Dalhoff

2003-01-01

194

Étude séro-épidémiologique de chlamydia pneumoniae au cours des infections respiratoires aiguës basses communautaires à Casablanca (hors pneumopathies)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies report the considerable frequency of respiratory infections due to Chlamydiae pneumoniae (CP), especially in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive broncho-pneumonia COBP.Objective. – The aim of this prospective study was to define the seroprevalence of CP infection in acute episodes in the adult.Methods. – 265 patients were involved in this study, presenting with a non-severe community acquired acute

Z Bouayad; H Afif; N Trombati; A Aichane; C Nejjari; A Bahlaoui

2003-01-01

195

Screening for Chlamydia in general practice: a literature review and summary of the evidence.  

PubMed

Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the commonest curable sexually transmitted disease (STD) in England and Wales and is one of the chief causes of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in women. Infection in women is complicated by the fact that the majority of women with this infection are asymptomatic. It is feasible for general practitioners (GPs) to test for this infection, and there has been debate as to which is the most appropriate screening strategy. In the absence of any national UK guidelines, the purpose of this systematic literature review is to appraise critically and summarize the evidence for screening for genital chlamydia infection in sexually active women attending UK general practice. The four areas to be reviewed are: prevalence of genital chlamydia infection in women attending UK general practice; evidence for routine screening of women attending general practice; evidence for selective screening of women attending general practice; evidence for screening women requesting termination of pregnancy (TOP) or intrauterine device (IUD) insertion. This review should allow GPs and public health practitioners to become aware of the quality of evidence underlying various screening strategies and inform any local guideline development. PMID:9243441

Stokes, T

1997-06-01

196

The quinolones and sexually transmitted infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Chlamydia trachomatis serovars D-K and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are the major sexually transmitted bacteria worldwide. Genital mycoplasmas, in particular Mycoplasma genitalium, are thought to be important causes of sexually transmitted non-gonococcal, non-chlamydial urethritis and cervicitis, more\\u000a commonly termed, non-specific genital infection (NSGI). In tropical countries sexually transmitted infections also include\\u000a lymphogranuloma venereum caused by Chlamydia trachomatis serovars L1, L2 and L3,

Sarah A. Wyllie; Geoffrey L. Ridgway

197

Intranasal Infection with Chlamydia abortus Induces Dose-Dependent Latency and Abortion in Sheep  

PubMed Central

Background Latency is a key feature of the animal pathogen Chlamydia abortus, where infection remains inapparent in the non-pregnant animal and only becomes evident during a subsequent pregnancy. Often the first sign that an animal is infected is abortion occurring late in gestation. Despite this, little is understood of the underlying mechanisms that control latency or the recrudescence of infection that occurs during subsequent pregnancy. The aim of this study was to develop an experimental model of latency by mimicking the natural route of infection through the intranasal inoculation of non-pregnant sheep with C. abortus. Methodology/Principal Findings Three groups of sheep (groups 1, 2 and 3) were experimentally infected with different doses of C. abortus (5×103, 5×105 and 5×107 inclusion forming units (IFU), respectively) prior to mating and monitored over 2 breeding cycles for clinical, microbiological, pathological, immunological and serological outcomes. Two further groups received either negative control inoculum (group 4a,b) or were inoculated subcutaneously on day 70 of gestation with 2×106 IFU C. abortus (group 5). Animals in groups 1, 2 and 5 experienced an abortion rate of 50–67%, while only one animal aborted in group 3 and none in group 4a,b. Pathological, microbiological, immunological and serological analyses support the view that the maternal protective immune response is influenced by initial exposure to the bacterium. Conclusions/Significance The results show that intranasal administration of non-pregnant sheep with a low/medium dose of C. abortus results in a latent infection that leads in a subsequent pregnancy to infection of the placenta and abortion. In contrast a high dose stimulates protective immunity, resulting in a much lower abortion rate. This model will be useful in understanding the mechanisms of infection underlying latency and onset of disease, as well as in the development of novel therapeutics and vaccines for controlling infection. PMID:23469113

Longbottom, David; Livingstone, Morag; Maley, Stephen; van der Zon, Arjan; Rocchi, Mara; Wilson, Kim; Wheelhouse, Nicholas; Dagleish, Mark; Aitchison, Kevin; Wattegedera, Sean; Nath, Mintu; Entrican, Gary; Buxton, David

2013-01-01

198

Emerging Chlamydia psittaci infections in chickens and examination of transmission to humans.  

PubMed

Chlamydia psittaci and atypical Chlamydiaceae infections are (re)-emerging in chickens. We therefore examined the prevalence of C. psittaci, atypical Chlamydiaceae and their zoonotic transmission on 19 Belgian chicken farms. Atypical Chlamydiaceae were not detected in chickens but 18 out of 19 farms were positive for C. psittaci by culture and PCR. C. psittaci ompA genotypes A and D were discovered. None of the examined humans (n = 31) was infected with atypical Chlamydiaceae, but 29 (93.5%) of them were positive for C. psittaci by culture and PCR. Genotypes A, D and a mixed infection with genotypes C and D were found. Humans (n = 2) working at the C. psittaci-negative farm never had respiratory complaints, while 25 out of 29 positive farmers (86.2%) reported yearly medical complaints potentially related to psittacosis. Four of them currently experienced respiratory disease and one of them was being treated with antibiotics. Four farmers (12.5%) mentioned that they had pneumonia after starting to keep chickens. Occupational physicians should be aware of emerging Chlamydiaceae infections in chickens. PMID:24324029

Lagae, Stefanie; Kalmar, Isabelle; Laroucau, Karine; Vorimore, Fabien; Vanrompay, Daisy

2014-03-01

199

Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia abortus Infection in Tibetan Sheep in Gansu Province, Northwest China  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia abortus, an important pathogen in a variety of animals, is associated with abortion in sheep. In the present study, 1732 blood samples, collected from Tibetan sheep between June 2013 and April 2014, were examined by the indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test, aiming to evaluate the seroprevalence and risk factors of C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. 323 of 1732 (18.65%) samples were seropositive for C. abortus antibodies at the cut-off of 1?:?16. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk factors associated with seroprevalence, which could provide foundation to prevent and control C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. Gender of Tibetan sheep was left out of the final model because it is not significant in the logistic regression analysis (P > 0.05). Region, season, and age were considered as major risk factors associated with C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep in Gansu province, northwest China, with higher exposure risk in different seasons and ages and distinct geographical distribution.

Qin, Si-Yuan; Yin, Ming-Yang; Cong, Wei; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Zhao, Quan; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Zhou, Ji-Zhang; Qian, Ai-Dong

2014-01-01

200

Clinical and Serological Outcome of Genital Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Type 2 Inoculation following Oral HSV Type 1 Infection in Guinea-pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The clinical and serological outcome of genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) inoculation in animals previously orally infected with HSV type 1 was evaluated. A prior HSV-1 oral infection modified the genital HSV-2 infection so that only four of 18 (22~) animals were initially symptomatic although all but one animal shed HSV-2 from the cervicovaginal area for at

DAVID I. BERNSTEIN; FRANCIS K. LEE; GARY ECHLER; ANDRE J. NAHMIAS

1989-01-01

201

Genital HSV Detection among HIV-1-Infected Pregnant Women in Labor  

PubMed Central

Objective. To compare genital HSV shedding among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women. Methods. Women with and without known HIV infection who delivered at the University of Washington Medical Center between 1989–1996 had HSV serologies done as part of clinical care. Genital swabs from HSV-2-seropositive women were evaluated by real-time quantitative HSV DNA PCR. Results. HSV-2 seroprevalence was 71% and 30% among 75 HIV-positive and 3051 HIV-negative women, respectively, (P < .001). HSV was detected at delivery in the genital tract of 30.8% of HIV-seropositive versus 9.5% of HIV-negative women (RR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.6 to 6.5, P = .001). The number of virion copies shed per mL was similar (log?3.54 for HIV positive versus 3.90 for HIV negative, P = .99). Conclusions. Our study demonstrated that HIV-, HSV-2-coinfected women are more likely to shed HSV at delivery. PMID:21527986

Patterson, Janna; Hitti, Jane; Selke, Stacy; Huang, Meei-Li; Watts, D. Heather; Brown, Zane; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna

2011-01-01

202

Second European multi-disciplinary conference of national strategies for Chlamydia trach. and human papillomavirus NSCP conf. in Berlin, 2013 enhanced detection, management and surveillance of sexually transmitted infections in Europe are essential!  

PubMed

There is a need for updated guidance on detection, management and surveillance of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilisreporting needs to be mandatory in more European countries to aid collection of data. More widespread Chlamydia screening is needed in many countries as this is the only way to reduce complications. The role of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) screening in a situation where the prevalence of HPV infection has dropped significantly was also discussed in the context of the high cost of screening, the need for a relatively complex infrastructure, particularly in developing countries, and falling vaccination costs. An integrated HPV vaccination and screening policy could be the most appropriate with vaccination at 9-13 years as recommended by WHO and a single HPV screen at 35-39 years, possibly repeated thereafter every 10 years. Female and male HPV vaccination programmes could lead to near elimination of genital warts in both females and males. Surveillance of STIsshould be intensified where needed; additional or better quality data should be collected including reasons for testing, denominator data to estimate positivity rates, diagnostic methods, concurrent STIs, sexual orientation and country of acquisition; more analytical rather than descriptive epidemiology is needed. PMID:24355218

Ozolins, D; D' Elios, M M; Ripa, T; Bailey, R; Timms, P; Spiteri, G; Haar, K; Unemo, M

2013-01-01

203

Etiology of Genital Ulcer Disease in a Sexually Transmitted Infection Reference Center in Manaus, Brazilian Amazon  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine the etiology and factors associated with genital ulcer disease (GUD) among patients presenting to a sexually transmitted infections clinic in Manaus, Brazil; and to compare a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) assay for the diagnosis of GUD with standard methods. Methods Ulcer swabs were collected and used for Tzanck test and processed in an M-PCR to detect herpes simplex virus (HSV-1/2), Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum), and Haemophilus ducreyi (H. ducreyi). Sera were tested for HIV and syphilis antibodies. Multivariable analysis was used to measure the association between clinical aspects and GUD. M-PCR results were compared with syphilis serology and Tzanck tests. Results Overall, 434 GUD samples were evaluated, 84.8% from men. DNA from HSV-2 was detected in 55.3% of GUD samples, T. pallidum in 8.3%, HSV-1 in 3.2%, and 32.5% of GUD specimens were negative for the DNA of all three pathogens. No cases of H. ducreyi were identified. HIV serology among GUD patients was 3.2%. Treponemal antibodies and Tzanck test positivity for genital herpes was detected in 25 (5.8%) and in 125 (30.3%) of GUD patients, respectively. In multivariable analysis genital herpes etiology by M-PCR was associated with the vesicular, multiple and recurrent lesions whereas T. pallidum with non-vesicular, non-recurrent lesions. Compared to M-PCR, syphilis serology was 27.8% sensitive and 96.2% specific whereas Tzanck test was 43.8% sensitive and 88.9% specific. Conclusions The predominance of genital herpes etiology suggests a revision of existing national syndromic treatment guidelines in Brazil to include antiherpetic treatment for all GUD patients. The use of M-PCR can significantly improve the diagnosis of GUD and provide a greater sensitivity than standard diagnostics. PMID:23704961

Gomes Naveca, Felipe; Sabido, Meritxell; Amaral Pires de Almeida, Tatiana; Araujo Veras, Elaine; Contreras Mejia, Matilde del Carmen; Galban, Enrique; Benzaken, Adele Schwartz

2013-01-01

204

Higher Risk Perception of HIV than of Chlamydia and HPV among Secondary School Students in Two German Cities  

PubMed Central

Background Chlamydia and genital human papillomavirus (HPV) are the two most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among teens and young adults in industrialised countries. The majority of adolescents, however, have limited or no knowledge of these infections. Within the context of a cross-sectional survey on awareness and knowledge of sexually transmitted infections, secondary school students attending the 8th grade and above in Bremen and Bremerhaven, two cities in northern Germany, were asked to rate the risk of peers to get infected with HIV, HPV or chlamydia. Methods Between October and December 2011, students aged 12–20 years completed an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire at their school. In addition to answering questions on awareness and knowledge of sexually transmitted infections, all students were also asked to rate the risk of peers to get infected with HIV, HPV or chlamydia. Furthermore, those reporting ever having sexual intercourse were asked to rate their own risk of getting infected with each of the three infections. Results 1,148 students, 55% female, completed the questionnaire. 27% of the students reported having had sexual intercourse. 68% of all students rated the risk of same-aged students to get infected with HIV/AIDS as high/medium. The corresponding proportions for HPV and chlamydia were 19 and 25% respectively. Those reporting ever having sexual intercourse generally perceived their own risk of getting infected with HIV, chlamydia or HPV as lower than that of their peers. Conclusion Generally, the risk of getting infected with HIV was perceived as being higher than that of getting infected with HPV or chlamydia, most likely due to the fact that the students were more aware of HIV than of the other two infections. Efforts should be made to improve awareness and knowledge of HPV and chlamydia among school going adolescents, and to make them realize that these are common infections that are preventable. PMID:23637872

Samkange-Zeeb, Florence; Pöttgen, Saskia; Zeeb, Hajo

2013-01-01

205

Randomized Secondary Prevention Trial of Azithromycin in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease and Serological Evidence for Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection The Azithromycin in Coronary Artery Disease: Elimination of Myocardial Infection with Chlamydia (ACADEMIC) Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background— Chlamydia pneumoniae commonly causes respiratory infection, is vasotropic, causes atherosclerosis in animal models, and has been found in human atheromas. Whether it plays a causal role in clinical coronary artery disease (CAD) and is amenable to antibiotic therapy is uncertain. Methods and Results—CAD patients (n 5302) who had a seropositive reaction to C pneumoniae (IgG titers $1:16) were randomized

Jeffrey L. Anderson; Joseph B. Muhlestein; John Carlquist; Ann Allen; Sanjeev Trehan; Cindy Nielson; Staci Hall; John Brady; Marlene Egger; Benjamin Horne; Tobin Lim

206

Roles of interleukin-12 and gamma interferon in murine Chlamydia pneumoniae infection.  

PubMed

BALB/c and strain 129 mice infected intranasally with Chlamydia pneumoniae displayed a moderate-to-severe inflammation in the lungs and produced interleukin-12 (IL-12), gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and IL-10, with peak levels on days 1 to 3 postinfection (p.i.), returning to basal levels by day 16 p.i. Anti-IL-12 treatment resulted in less-severe pathological changes but higher bacterial titers on days 3 and 7 p.i. By day 16 p.i., the inflammatory responses of control antibody-treated mice subsided. The bacterial titers of both anti-IL-12- and control antibody-treated mice decreased within 3 weeks to marginally detectable levels. Anti-IL-12 treatment significantly reduced lung IFN-gamma production and in vitro spleen cell IFN-gamma production in response to either C. pneumoniae or concanavalin A. In gamma-irradiated infected mice, cytokine production was delayed, and this delay correlated with high bacterial titers in the lungs. Following C. pneumoniae infection, 129 mice lacking the IFN-gamma receptor alpha chain gene (G129 mice) produced similar IL-12 levels and exhibited similarly severe pathological changes but had higher bacterial titers than 129 mice. However, by day 45 p.i., bacterial titers became undetectable in both wild-type 129 and G129 mice. Thus, during C. pneumoniae lung infection, IL-12, more than IFN-gamma, plays a role in pulmonary-cell infiltration. IFN-gamma and IL-12, acting mostly through its induction of IFN-gamma and Th1 responses, play an important role in controlling acute C. pneumoniae infection in the lungs, but eventually all mice control the infection to undetectable levels by IL-12- and IFN-gamma-independent mechanisms. PMID:10722626

Geng, Y; Berencsi, K; Gyulai, Z; Valyi-Nagy, T; Gonczol, E; Trinchieri, G

2000-04-01

207

Haemophilus influenzae type B genital infection and septicemia in pregnant woman: a case report  

PubMed Central

Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae) type B a non-motile, aerobic, gram negative cocobacillus is a commensal of upper respiratory tract. Genitourinary infection due to H. influenzae has been reported but bacteremia associated with such infection appears to be rare. We report a case of 19 years young primigravida with complaints of amenorrhea of 32 weeks and 5 days, pyrexia, abdominal pain and blood stained discharge per vaginum. H. influenzae type B was recovered from the genital tract as well as blood of the mother indicating maternal septicemia. Septicemia caused by H. influenzae type B in pregnant women following vaginal colonization and infection is rare. It has been reported in many parts of world over the years; to the best of our knowledge this is the first reported case from Nepal. H. influenzae should be considered as a potential maternal, fetal, and neonatal pathogen.

Supram, Hosuru Subramanya; Gokhale, Shishir; Bhatta, Dharm Raj; Sharma, JSS; Shrestha, Junu

2014-01-01

208

Infection With Chlamydia pneumoniae Accelerates the Development of Atherosclerosis and Treatment With Azithromycin Prevents It in a Rabbit Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Chlamydia pneumoniae infection has been associated with atherosclerosis by serological studies and detection of bacterial antigen within plaque. We sought to evaluate a possible causal role in an animal model. Methods and Results—Thirty New Zealand White rabbits were given three separate intranasal inoculations of either C pneumoniae (n520) or saline (n510) at 3-week intervals and fed chow enriched with a

Joseph B. Muhlestein; Jeffrey L. Anderson; Elizabeth H. Hammond; Liping Zhao; Sanjeev Trehan; Eric P. Schwobe; John F. Carlquist

2009-01-01

209

Chlamydia trachomatis serovar distribution and other concurrent sexually transmitted infections in heterosexual men with urethritis in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis serovars among 157 heterosexual male patients with urethritis and the presence of coinfections with other sexually transmitted\\u000a infections were studied. One hundred seventeen (74.5%) patients, with a mean age of 33.7 years, were Italians, whereas 40\\u000a (25.5%) were immigrants coming from eastern European countries, Africa, and South America. All the immigrants and 82 (70.0%)\\u000a Italian patients

M. Donati; A. Di Francesco; A. D’Antuono; S. Pignanelli; A. Shurdhi; A. Moroni; R. Baldelli; R. Cevenini

2009-01-01

210

Induction of protective immunity against Chlamydia muridarum intravaginal infection with a chlamydial glycogen phosphorylase.  

PubMed

We evaluated 7 C. muridarum ORFs for their ability to induce protection against chlamydial infection in a mouse intravaginal infection model. These antigens, although encoded in C. muridarum genome, are transcriptionally regulated by a cryptic plasmid that is known to contribute to C. muridarum pathogenesis. Of the 7 plasmid-regulated ORFs, the chlamydial glycogen phosphorylase or GlgP, when delivered into mice intramuscularly, induced the most pronounced protective immunity against C. muridarum intravaginal infection. The GlgP-immunized mice displayed a significant reduction in vaginal shedding of live organisms on day 14 after infection. The protection correlated well with a robust C. muridarum-specific antibody and a Th1-dominant T cell responses, which significantly reduced the severity but not overall incidence of hydrosalpinx. The GlgP-induced partial protection against upper genital tract pathology suggests that GlgP may be considered a component for a multi-subunit vaccine. These results have demonstrated that intramuscular immunization of mice with purified proteins can be used to identify vaccine antigens for preventing intravaginal infection with C. trachomatis in humans. PMID:22427926

Li, Zhihong; Lu, Chunxue; Peng, Bo; Zeng, Hao; Zhou, Zhiguan; Wu, Yimou; Zhong, Guangming

2012-01-01

211

Incidence and Correlates of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in a High Risk Cohort of Kenyan Women  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND In Africa, data on Chlamydia trachomatis infection are scarce because reliable diagnosis is costly and not widely available. Our objective was to evaluate the incidence and correlates of C. trachomatis infection among high-risk Kenyan women. METHODS We conducted prospective cohort analyses using data from a cohort of women who reported transactional sex. C. trachomatis testing was performed using the Gen-Probe Aptima GC/CT Detection System. We used Andersen-Gill proportional hazards modeling to evaluate correlates of C. trachomatis. RESULTS Between August 2006 and December 2010, 865 women contributed 2011 person-years of observation. Sixty-four women experienced 101 episodes of C. trachomatis infection (incidence rate of 5.0/100 person-years). There was a large difference in incidence by age group: those below 25 years had an incidence of 27.6 per 100 person-years (95% CI 16.3 – 46.5), those 25 to 34 years old had an incidence of 8.4 per 100 person-years (95% CI 6.4 – 11.0), and those 35 years old and above had an incidence of 2.6 per 100 person-years (95% CI 1.8 – 3.6). In multivariate analyses, younger age (<25 years and 25–34 years versus ?35 years; hazard ratio [HR] 8.49 95% CI 4.1–17.7 and HR 2.9 95% CI 1.7–5.0 respectively), depot medroxyprogesterone acetate use (HR 1.8 95% CI 1.1–3.0) and recent Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection (HR 3.3 95% CI 1.5–7.4) were significantly associated with increased risk of acquiring C. trachomatis infection. CONCLUSIONS The high incidence of C. trachomatis among younger high-risk women suggests the need for screening as an important public health intervention for this population. PMID:23407467

Masese, Linnet; Baeten, Jared M.; Richardson, Barbra A.; Deya, Ruth; Kabare, Emmanuel; Bukusi, Elizabeth; John-Stewart, Grace; Jaoko, Walter; McClelland, R. Scott

2013-01-01

212

Incidence and clearance of genital human papillomavirus infection in men (HIM): a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) cause genital warts and cancers in men. The natural history of HPV infection in men is largely unknown, and that information is needed to inform prevention strategies. The goal in this study was to estimate incidence and clearance of type-specific genital HPV infection in men, and to assess the associated factors. Methods Men (aged 18–70 years), residing in Brazil, Mexico, and the USA, who were HIV negative and reported no history of cancer were recruited from the general population, universities, and organised health-care systems. They were assessed every 6 months for a median follow-up of 27·5 months (18·0–31·2). Specimens from the coronal sulcus, glans penis, shaft, and scrotum were obtained for the assessment of the status of HPV genotypes. Findings In 1159 men, the incidence of a new genital HPV infection was 38·4 per 1000 person months (95% CI 34·3–43·0). Oncogenic HPV infection was significantly associated with having a high number of lifetime female sexual partners (hazard ratio 2·40, 1·38–4·18, for at least 50 partners vs not more than one partner), and number of male anal-sexual partners (2·57, 1·46–4·49, for at least three male partners vs no recent partners). Median duration of HPV infection was 7·52 months (6·80–8·61) for any HPV and 12·19 months (7·16–18·17) for HPV 16. Clearance of oncogenic HPV infection decreased in men with a high number of lifetime female partners (0·49, 0·31–0·76, for at least 50 female partners vs not more than one partner), and in men in Brazil (0·71, 0·56–0·91) and Mexico (0·73, 0·57–0·94) compared with the USA. Clearance of oncogenic HPV was more rapid with increasing age (1·02, 1·01–1·03). Interpretation The data from this study are useful for the development of realistic cost-effectiveness models for male HPV vaccination internationally. Funding National Cancer Institute. PMID:21367446

Giuliano, Anna R; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Fulp, William; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano, Eduardo; Papenfuss, Mary R; Abrahamsen, Martha; Salmeron, Jorge; Anic, Gabriella M; Rollison, Dana E; Smith, Danelle

2011-01-01

213

Characterization of Chlamydia trachomatis omp1 Genotypes among Sexually Transmitted Disease Patients in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for detection and genotyping of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections based on omp1 gene amplification and sequencing was developed. DNA was extracted from urogenital or urine samples using a Chelex-based method, and an approximately 1,100-bp-long fragment from the omp1 gene was directly amplified and sequenced. Genotyping was performed by BLAST similarity search, and phylogenetic tree analysis was used to

MARGARETHA JURSTRAND; LARS FALK; HANS FREDLUND; MARGRET LINDBERG; PER OLCEN; SOREN ANDERSSON; KENNETH PERSSON; JAN ALBERT; ANDERS BACKMAN

2001-01-01

214

Chlamydia trachomatis IncA Is Localized to the Inclusion Membrane and Is Recognized by Antisera from Infected Humans and Primates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydia psittaci produces a collection of proteins, termed IncA, IncB, and IncC, that are localized to the chlamydial inclusion membrane. In this report we demonstrate that IncA is also produced by Chlamydia trachomatis. C. trachomatis IncA is structurally similar to C. psittaci IncA and is also localized to the inclusion membrane. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated that sera from C. trachomatis-infected patients

JOHN P. BANNANTINE; WALTER E. STAMM; ROBERT J. SUCHLAND; DANIEL D. ROCKEY

1998-01-01

215

Bactericidal Activity of First-Choice Antibiotics against Gamma Interferon-Induced Persistent Infection of Human Epithelial Cells by Chlamydia trachomatis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydia trachomatis is responsible for clinically important chronic inflammatory diseases of humans, including trachoma and pelvic inflammatory disease. Persistent infection of mucosal sites may contribute to the development of these chronic inflammatory diseases. Standard clinical therapy results in satisfactory cure rates of acute infections; however, chronic infection associated with persistence has been suggested to be less responsive to antibiotic therapy.

Nathalie Reveneau; Deborah D. Crane; Elizabeth Fischer; Harlan D. Caldwell

2005-01-01

216

Association of Uterine and Salpingeal Fibrosis with Chlamydial Hsp60 and Hsp10 Antigen-Specific Antibodies in Chlamydia-Infected Koalas  

PubMed Central

Infection by Chlamydia pneumoniae or Chlamydia pecorum commonly causes chronic, fibrotic disease of the urogenital tracts of female koalas. Studies of humans have associated titers of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) against chlamydial hsp60 and hsp10 antigens with chronic infection, salpingeal fibrosis, and tubal infertility. To determine whether a similar relationship exists in Chlamydia-infected koalas, samples were collected opportunistically from 34 wild female koalas and examined by gross pathology and histopathology, PCR, and immunohistochemistry for Chlamydia spp. and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serological responses to chlamydial hsp10 and hsp60 antigens. Greater anti-hsp titers occurred in Chlamydia-infected koalas with fibrous occlusion of the uterus or uterine tube than in other Chlamydia-infected koalas (for hsp10 IgG, P = 0.005; for hsp60 IgG, P = 0.001; for hsp10 IgA, P = 0.04; for hsp60 IgA, P = 0.09). However, as in humans, some koalas with tubal occlusion had low titers. Among Chlamydia-infected koalas with tubal occlusion, those with low titers were more likely to have an active component to their ongoing uterine or salpingeal inflammation (P = 0.007), such that the assay predicted, with 79% sensitivity and 92% specificity, tubal occlusion where an active component of inflammation was absent. Findings of this study permit advancement of clinical and epidemiological studies of host-pathogen-environment interactions and pose intriguing questions regarding the significance of the Th1/Th2 paradigm and antigen-presenting and inflammation-regulating capabilities of uterine epithelial cells and the roles of latency and reactivation of chlamydial infections in pathogenesis of upper reproductive tract disease of koalas. PMID:15879024

Higgins, Damien P.; Hemsley, Susan; Canfield, Paul J.

2005-01-01

217

Local and humoral immune responses against primary and repeat Neisseria gonorrhoeae genital tract infections of 17?-estradiol-treated mice  

PubMed Central

The 17?-estradiol-treated mouse model is the only small animal model of gonococcal genital tract infection. Here we show gonococci localized within vaginal and cervical tissue, including the lamina propria, and high numbers of neutrophils and macrophages in genital tissue from infected mice. Infection did not induce a substantial or sustained increase in total or gonococcal-specific antibodies. Mice could be reinfected with the same strain and repeat infection did not boost the antibody response. However, intravaginal immunization of estradiol-treated mice induced gonococcal-specific primary and secondary serum antibody responses. We conclude that similar to human infection, experimental murine infection induces local inflammation but not an acquired immune response or immunological memory. PMID:18762223

Song, Wenxia; Condron, Sara; Mocca, Brian T.; Veit, Sandra J.; Hill, Dawn; Abbas, Asima; Jerse, Ann E.

2010-01-01

218

Broad Degradation of Proapoptotic Proteins with the Conserved Bcl-2 Homology Domain 3 during Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis  

PubMed Central

Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria that can inhibit apoptosis of their host cell. As shown recently, this inhibition is in part explained by the proteolytic degradation of the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family members (BH3-only proteins) Bim, Puma, and Bad upon chlamydial infection. In this study, we further explore this antiapoptotic mechanism. In cells infected with a Chlamydia trachomatis L2 strain, Bim, Puma, and Bad were degraded with similar kinetics, and the degradation of all three was blocked by inhibition of the proteasome. Furthermore, the BH3-only proteins Bmf, Noxa, and tBid were also targeted by chlamydial infection. The constitutively expressed Bmf disappeared during infection. When Noxa was experimentally induced, the levels were also reduced by infection with C. trachomatis. In death-receptor-induced apoptosis, cleaved and activated tBid was degraded, and this destruction was also prevented by inhibition of the proteasome. These results show that chlamydial infection leads to a broad degradation of BH3-only proteins. This loss of proapoptotic factors can explain the almost general protection of infected cells against apoptotic stimuli. PMID:15731037

Ying, Songmin; Seiffert, Barbara M.; Hacker, Georg; Fischer, Silke F.

2005-01-01

219

Vaccines for Bacterial Sexually Transmitted Infections: A Realistic Goal?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial infections of the genital tract (gonorrhea, chlamydia, chancroid, syphilis) are common and cause significant morbidity. Their importance is heightened by recent appreciation of their roles in facilitation of transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Each is capable of causing repeated infections, suggesting lack of permanent broadly effective immunity. An effective vaccine has yet to be developed for any

P. Frederick Sparling; Christopher Elkins; Priscilla B. Wyrick; Myron S. Cohen

1994-01-01

220

Alarming incidence of genital mycoplasmas among HIV-1-infected MSM in Jiangsu, China.  

PubMed

Males who have sex with men (MSM) are considered at high risk of blood-borne and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), mainly due to the practice of unsafe sex, often combined with drug use and needle-sharing. A cross-sectional study was designed for the detection of genital mycoplasmas during the period from March 2009 to May 2010 in Jiangsu province. This work was approved by the Research ethics Committee of Jiangsu Centers for Diseases Prevention and Control (CDC), and written consent was obtained from all participants. In total, 243 human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1)-infected MSM were screened in this study. Over half of them reported a history of sexual activity with females (65.0 %), and 26.3 % reported a history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) other than HIV. 44.0 % of patients were in the first 2 years of their HIV infection, and 72.4 % were still in HIV progression. Of the 243 analyzed samples, all were positive for at least one kind of mycoplasma. The infection rates of Mycoplasma genitalium, M. fermentans, M. penetrans, and M. pirum were 25.5, 9.9, 2.5, and 18.5 %, respectively. The M. genitalium infection was associated with a history of sexual activity with females, and those who had sex with females showed higher infection rates. Six ?M. penetrans-positive patients were still in HIV infection progression and did not receive highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Men who perform this particular behavior are at higher risk of Mycoplasma infections. Further molecular and epidemiological cohort studies with larger populations are needed in order to identify the role of Mycoplasma infections in HIV-1-infected MSM. PMID:23949791

Wu, J-R; Wang, B; Chen, L-S; Yang, T; Zhou, L-J; Xie, Y-X; Xu, J-S; Guo, H-X; Huan, X-P

2014-02-01

221

Association of HPV infection and Chlamydia trachomatis seropositivity in cases of cervical neoplasia in Midwest Brazil.  

PubMed

High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is considered the main etiological agent for cervical neoplasia. However, the presence of a single type HPV infection alone is unlikely to be sufficient to cause cervical cancer. There is epidemiologic evidence suggesting that HPV and Chlamydia trachomatis play a central role in the etiology of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and subsequent cervical cancer. To evaluate the HPV prevalence and the seropositivity for C. trachomatis in women referred to the colposcopy clinic due to an abnormal cervical smear and to examine the effect of this association on the severity of cervical neoplasia. Following enrollment, 131 patients underwent colposcopy and biopsies when necessary. HPV DNA was detected by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and genotyping was performed by reverse line-blot hybridization assay. C. trachomatis seropositivity was tested by ELISA for the detection of IgG antibodies. The prevalence of HPV infection was 86.3%. Seropositivity for C. trachomatis was 26%. Thirty-one women (27.4%) were positive for C. trachomatis antibodies and HPV-DNA. The most prevalent HPV type in C. trachomatis-seropositive women were HPV 16 (51.6%) and this HPV type was present mainly in neoplasia cases. Positivity for HPV, particularly HPV types 16 and 18, and C. trachomatis seropositivity was significantly associated with a diagnosis of high grade neoplasia. Borderline significance was observed after adjustment for HPV. C. trachomatis seropositivity is associated with high grade neoplasia in women infected with HPV, mainly when the types 16 and 18 were involved. PMID:22585734

da Silva Barros, Narriman Kennia; Costa, Maria Cecília; Alves, Rosane Ribeiro Figueiredo; Villa, Luísa Lina; Derchain, Sophie Françoise Mauricette; Zeferino, Luiz Carlos; Dos Santos Carneiro, Megmar Aparecida; Rabelo-Santos, Silvia Helena

2012-07-01

222

Expression of structural proteins in human female and male genital epithelia and implications for sexually transmitted infections.  

PubMed

Men and women differ in their susceptibility to sexually transmittable infections (STIs) such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, a paucity of published information regarding the tissue structure of the human genital tract has limited our understanding of these gender differences. We collected cervical, vaginal, and penile tissues from human adult donors. Tissues were prepared with hematoxylin and eosin stains or immunofluorescence labeling of epithelial cell proteins and were analyzed for structural characteristics. Rhesus macaque genital tissues were evaluated to assess the use of this model for HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus transmission events. We found the stratified squamous epithelia of the male and female genital tract shared many similarities and important distinctions. Expression of E-cadherins, desmogleins 1/2, and involucrin was seen in all squamous epithelia, though expression patterns were heterogeneous. Filaggrin and a true cornified layer were markedly absent in female tissues but were clearly seen in all male epithelia. Desmogleins 1/2 were more consistent in the outermost strata of female squamous genital epithelia. Macaque tissues were similar to their respective human tissues. These initial observations highlight how male and female genital epithelia resemble and differ from one another. Further information regarding tissue structural characteristics will help to understand how STIs traverse these barriers to cause infection. This knowledge will be essential in future HIV pathogenesis, transmission, and prevention studies. PMID:21976595

Dinh, Minh H; Okocha, Eneniziaogochukwu A; Koons, Ann; Veazey, Ronald S; Hope, Thomas J

2012-02-01

223

Experimental Chlamydia psittaci serotype 1 enteric infection in gnotobiotic piglets: histopathological, immunohistochemical and microbiological findings.  

PubMed

The enteric pathogenicity of the ovine C. psittaci serotype 1 isolate S26/3 was assessed using a litter of gnotobiotic piglets. In one group, eight piglets were inoculated at 3 days of age; at 10 days, two of these were re-inoculated. In a second group, six animals were mock-inoculated at 3 days of age as negative controls; subsequently, at 10 days, three of these piglets were inoculated with C. psittaci. The animals were observed for clinical signs, killed and necropsied sequentially between 4 and 17 days of age. At necropsy, specimens were collected for histopathology, immunohistochemistry and serology. Clinical manifestations consisted of sporadic slight softening of faeces observed between 8 and 12 days post inoculation (d.p.i.) in pigs inoculated at 3 days of age and between 4 and 6 d.p.i. in those inoculated at day 10. Histopathological changes were minimal and inconsistent and occurred almost exclusively in the small intestine in pigs of 15 days of age and older; they consisted of a slight shortening of villi, of a small number of tongue-shaped villi and of villous fusions. Immunohistochemistry revealed small numbers of chlamydial inclusions in the small intestinal enterocytes of only five pigs, all killed within 5 d.p.i. An ELISA run on faecal samples collected daily after inoculation from six of the pigs showed that chlamydial antigen was excreted in the faeces. In pigs inoculated at 3 days, chlamydial antigen was detected inconsistently before, and consistently after 9 d.p.i. Pigs inoculated at 10 days excreted antigen consistently after inoculation until the end of their observation period (8 d.p.i.). Infective chlamydiae were detected from the faeces of inoculated piglets using Vero cell cultures. Sera of all pigs were negative for anti-chlamydial antibodies using a complement fixation test. In conclusion, enteric pathogenicity of C. psittaci serotype 1 in a litter of gnotobiotic piglets proved minimal. The results, therefore, indicate that serotype 1 C. psittaci is not likely to cause enteric disease in conventionally reared pigs. Nevertheless, a potential role of swine in the epidemiology of this agent should be considered with regard to spread of Chlamydia to other species. PMID:9791872

Guscetti, F; Schiller, I; Sydler, T; Corboz, L; Pospischil, A

1998-08-15

224

Chlamydia trachomatis-infected epithelial cells and fibroblasts retain the ability to express surface-presented major histocompatibility complex class I molecules.  

PubMed

The obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis is the causative agent of a variety of infectious diseases such as trachoma and sexually transmitted diseases. In infected target cells, C. trachomatis replicates within parasitophorous vacuoles and expresses the protease-like activity factor CPAF. Previous studies have suggested that CPAF degrades the host transcription factors RFX5 and NF-?B p65, which are involved in the regulation of constitutive and inducible expression of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I). It was speculated that Chlamydia suppresses the surface presentation of MHC I in order to evade an effective immune response. Nevertheless, a recent study suggested that RFX5 and NF-?B p65 may not serve as target substrates for CPAF-mediated degradation, raising concerns about the proposed MHC I subversion by Chlamydia. Hence, we investigated the direct influence of Chlamydia on MHC I expression and surface presentation in infected host cells. By using nine different human cells and cell lines infected with C. trachomatis (serovar D or LGV2), we demonstrate that chlamydial infection does not interfere with expression, maturation, transport, and surface presentation of MHC I, suggesting functional antigen processing in bacterium-infected cells. Our findings provide novel insights into the interaction of chlamydiae with their host cells and should be taken into consideration for the design of future therapies and vaccines. PMID:24343651

Kägebein, Danny; Gutjahr, Melanie; Große, Christina; Vogel, Annette B; Rödel, Jürgen; Knittler, Michael R

2014-03-01

225

Genital Warts  

PubMed Central

External genital warts, also known as condylomata acuminata, are extremely common, with between 500,000 to one million new cases diagnosed each year in the United States alone. To date, more than 120 distinct subtypes of human papillomavirus have been identified. Human papillomavirus types 6 and 11 rarely give rise to cervical cancers, but are responsible for 90 percent of the cases of genital warts. The current treatment options are largely centered upon removal of the warts rather than elimination of the underlying viral infection. A wide range of therapies are presently in use, which are highly variable and can differ dramatically with respect to cost, side-effect profiles, dosing schedules, duration of treatment, and overall effectiveness. As of yet, no definitive therapy has emerged as the ideal standard of care in the treatment of genital warts, and therapy selection generally occurs in a patient-specific manner. PMID:22768354

Yanofsky, Valerie R.; Patel, Rita V.

2012-01-01

226

Early sexual behaviour and Chlamydia trachomatis infection - a population based cross-sectional study on gender differences among adolescents in Norway  

PubMed Central

Background Early sexual behaviour has been shown to differ significantly between genders, but few studies have addressed this topic to explain the commonly observed differences in chlamydia rates between adolescent girls and boys. Our study aimed to determine chlamydia prevalence in adolescents aged 15–20 years in a high-incidence area in Norway, and to identify gender-specific early sexual behaviours associated with infection. Methods A population based cross-sectional study was conducted among all high school students in five towns in Finnmark county in 2009, using a web-based questionnaire and real-time Chlamydia trachomatis PCR in first-void urine samples (participation rate 85%, 800 girls/818 boys, mean age 17.2 years). Crude and multivariable logistic regression models were applied with chlamydia test result as dependent variable. Results Prevalence of chlamydia infection was 5.7% (95% confidence interval, CI, 4.4–7.3%). Girls were twice as likely to be infected as boys (7.3%, 5.3–9.7 vs 3.9%, 2.3–6.0). Girls reported earlier sexual debut, older partners, higher lifetime number of partners, and were poorer condom users. In girls, higher maternal education (odds ratio, OR, 2.2, 95% CI 1.1–4.4), ?2 sexual partners past 6 months (OR 3.6, 1.8–7.3), and partner meeting venue at a private party, bar or disco (OR 5.0, 1.1–22.7) increased the odds of infection in the multivariable model. In boys, condom use at first intercourse (OR 0.06, 0.01–0.42) decreased the odds of infection, while having an older last sexual partner (OR 3.7, 1.3–11.0) increased the odds. In all participants, the risk of infection increased if residence outside the family home during school year (OR 2.0, 1.2–3.6), and decreased if condom was used at last intercourse (OR 0.2, 0.1–0.8). Conclusions We detected significant gender differences in chlamydia prevalence and sexual behaviours, and accordingly differing independent risk factors for chlamydia infection. We suggest that accumulation of essentially different experiences in the early sexually active years contribute to gender disparities in chlamydia risk in individuals this age. Gender-specific approaches may be the best alternative to control chlamydia infection in age group 15–20 years. PMID:23174009

2012-01-01

227

The IL-6 response to Chlamydia from primary reproductive epithelial cells is highly variable and may be involved in differential susceptibility to the immunopathological consequences of chlamydial infection  

PubMed Central

Background Chlamydia trachomatis infection results in reproductive damage in some women. The process and factors involved in this immunopathology are not well understood. This study aimed to investigate the role of primary human cellular responses to chlamydial stress response proteases and chlamydial infection to further identify the immune processes involved in serious disease sequelae. Results Laboratory cell cultures and primary human reproductive epithelial cultures produced IL-6 in response to chlamydial stress response proteases (CtHtrA and CtTsp), UV inactivated Chlamydia, and live Chlamydia. The magnitude of the IL-6 response varied considerably (up to 1000 pg ml-1) across different primary human reproductive cultures. Thus different levels of IL-6 production by reproductive epithelia may be a determinant in disease outcome. Interestingly, co-culture models with either THP-1 cells or autologous primary human PBMC generally resulted in increased levels of IL-6, except in the case of live Chlamydia where the level of IL-6 was decreased compared to the epithelial cell culture only, suggesting this pathway may be able to be modulated by live Chlamydia. PBMC responses to the stress response proteases (CtTsp and CtHtrA) did not significantly vary for the different participant cohorts. Therefore, these proteases may possess conserved innate PAMPs. MAP kinases appeared to be involved in this IL-6 induction from human cells. Finally, we also demonstrated that IL-6 was induced by these proteins and Chlamydia from mouse primary reproductive cell cultures (BALB/C mice) and mouse laboratory cell models. Conclusions We have demonstrated that IL-6 may be a key factor for the chlamydial disease outcome in humans, given that primary human reproductive epithelial cell culture showed considerable variation in IL-6 response to Chlamydia or chlamydial proteins, and that the presence of live Chlamydia (but not UV killed) during co-culture resulted in a reduced IL-6 response suggesting this response may be moderated by the presence of the organism. PMID:24238294

2013-01-01

228

Polymer nanoparticles encapsulating siRNA for treatment of HSV-2 genital infection.  

PubMed

Effective, low-cost, and safe treatments for sexually transmitted viral infections are urgently needed. Here, we show for the first time that intravaginal administration with nanoparticles of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) encapsulating short interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules is effective for prevention of genital HSV-2 infections in mice. PLGA nanoparticles (NPs) were designed to interfere with HSV-2 infection by siRNA-mediated knockdown of nectin, a host cell protein. NPs were characterized in vitro to determine the optimal formulation based on siRNA loading, controlled release profile, and mRNA knockdown. Mice inoculated intravaginally with a lethal dose of HSV-2, and treated with PLGA NPs, showed increased survival from ~9 days (in untreated mice) to >28 days (in PLGA NP treated mice) - the longest survival ever observed with siRNA treatment in this mouse model. This work provides proof-of-concept that topical administration of NPs containing siRNA against a pathologically relevant host cell target can knockdown the gene in tissue and improve survival after HSV-2 infection. Furthermore, this system provides a safe delivery platform that employs materials that are already approved by the FDA and can be modified to enhance delivery of other microbicides. PMID:22705461

Steinbach, Jill M; Weller, Caroline E; Booth, Carmen J; Saltzman, W Mark

2012-08-20

229

Autophagy and female genital tract infections: new insights and research directions.  

PubMed

Autophagy is a highly conserved process by which defective organelles, non-functional proteins, and intracellular microorganisms become sequestered within structures called autophagosomes, which fuse with lysosomes and the engulfed components are degraded by lysosomal enzymes. In microbial autophagy degraded peptides are used to induce antigen-specific acquired immunity. Viruses, bacteria, fungi, and protozoa have developed strategies to subvert autophagy and/or to use this process to promote their replication and persistence. This review details the mechanisms by which microorganisms that infect the female genital tract and/or are detrimental to pregnancy interact with this host defence mechanism. Based on an understanding of autophagy-related pathological mechanisms, we propose new avenues for research to more effectively prevent and/or treat these infectious diseases. PMID:24506514

Jayaram, A; Orfanelli, T; Doulaveris, G; Linhares, I M; Ledger, W J; Witkin, S S

2014-06-01

230

Molecular characterisation and expression analysis of interferon gamma in response to natural Chlamydia infection in the koala, Phascolarctos cinereus.  

PubMed

Interferon gamma (IFN?) is a key Th1 cytokine, with a principal role in the immune response against intracellular organisms such as Chlamydia. Along with being responsible for significant morbidity in human populations, Chlamydia is also responsible for wide spread infection and disease in many animal hosts, with reports that many Australian koala subpopulations are endemically infected. An understanding of the role played by IFN? in koala chlamydial diseases is important for the establishment of better prophylactic and therapeutic approaches against chlamydial infection in this host. A limited number of IFN? sequences have been published from marsupials and no immune reagents to measure expression have been developed. Through preliminary analysis of the koala transcriptome, we have identified the full coding sequence of the koala IFN? gene. Transcripts were identified in spleen and lymph node tissue samples. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that koala IFN? is closely related to other marsupial IFN? sequences and more distantly related to eutherian mammals. To begin to characterise the role of this important cytokine in the koala's response to chlamydial infection, we developed a quantitative real time PCR assay and applied it to a small cohort of koalas with and without active chlamydial disease, revealing significant differences in expression patterns between the groups. Description of the IFN? sequence from the koala will not only assist in understanding this species' response to its most important pathogen but will also provide further insight into the evolution of the marsupial immune system. PMID:23792018

Mathew, Marina; Pavasovic, Ana; Prentis, Peter J; Beagley, Kenneth W; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam

2013-09-25

231

The effects of chronic binge alcohol on the genital microenvironment of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected female rhesus macaques.  

PubMed

Alcohol abuse is a widespread problem among those at risk for and living with HIV and can impact transmission and disease progression. In this study we sought to use the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-macaque model to evaluate the immunological and virological changes in the genital microenvironment of females exposed to chronic alcohol. Female rhesus macaques were treated with alcohol (n=6) or isocaloric sucrose (n=6) for 3 months and then inoculated with SIVmac251. To assess the effects of chronic alcohol on SIV disease and the genital microenvironment, we quantified plasma and genital SIV levels, measured inflammatory cells in genital fluids, and characterized microbial flora by gram stains over 10 weeks post-SIV infection. Following 3 months of alcohol/sucrose treatment, significant differences were observed in the vaginal microenvironment of alcohol-treated animals as compared to controls. Microbial flora of alcohol-treated animals had decreased levels of lactobacillus morphotypes and increased levels of gram-positive cocci relative to sucrose controls. Alcohol-treated animals were also more likely to have white blood cells in vaginal fluids prior to SIV inoculation, which persisted through viral set point. Similar levels of cell-free SIV were observed in plasma and vaginal fluids of both groups, but alcohol-treated animals had a higher incidence and levels of cell-associated SIV shed in vaginal secretions. Chronic alcohol treatment negatively impacts the genital microenvironment prior to and over the course of SIV infection and may increase the risk of genital virus shedding and transmission. PMID:24902876

Loganantharaj, Nisha; Nichols, Whitney A; Bagby, Gregory J; Volaufova, Julia; Dufour, Jason; Martin, David H; Nelson, Steve; Amedee, Angela M

2014-08-01

232

Mucosal Herpes Immunity and Immunopathology to Ocular and Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infections  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex viruses type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are amongst the most common human infectious viral pathogens capable of causing serious clinical diseases at every stage of life, from fatal disseminated disease in newborns to cold sores genital ulcerations and blinding eye disease. Primary mucocutaneous infection with HSV-1 & HSV-2 is followed by a lifelong viral latency in the sensory ganglia. In the majority of cases, herpes infections are clinically asymptomatic. However, in symptomatic individuals, the latent HSV can spontaneously and frequently reactivate, reinfecting the muco-cutaneous surfaces and causing painful recurrent diseases. The innate and adaptive mucosal immunities to herpes infections and disease remain to be fully characterized. The understanding of innate and adaptive immune mechanisms operating at muco-cutaneous surfaces is fundamental to the design of next-generation herpes vaccines. In this paper, the phenotypic and functional properties of innate and adaptive mucosal immune cells, their role in antiherpes immunity, and immunopathology are reviewed. The progress and limitations in developing a safe and efficient mucosal herpes vaccine are discussed. PMID:23320014

Chentoufi, Aziz Alami; BenMohamed, Lbachir

2012-01-01

233

IL-22 Levels are Associated with Trichomonas Vaginalis infection in the Lower Genital Tract  

PubMed Central

Problem IL-22 has important functions at mucosal surfaces, including the induction of antimicrobial peptides and maintenance of epithelium. However IL-22 has not been investigated in the genital tract during TV infection. Methods of Study Women who visited an STD clinic and women from a cohort with frequent Trichomoniasis were studied. IL-22, IL-17 and antimicrobial peptides were measured in cervicovaginal lavage by ELISA. Results In women visiting the STD clinic, those without STDs (n=10) had a median IL-22 of 0 pg/ml while women with infections (n=30) had 27 pg/ml (p=0.04). In the cohort, women with Trichomoniasis (n=19) had significantly higher IL-22 than women with no infections (n=21, 74 versus 0 pg/ml, p=0.0001). IL-17 was also significantly increased in Trichomoniasis and there was a correlation between IL-22 and IL-17 (p=0.001). Conclusion IL-22 is increased in STDs generally and in Trichomoniasis specifically suggesting an antimicrobial response of the mucosa and an epithelial repair process induced by the STDs. PMID:23445169

Moradeke, Makinde Hadijat; Reza, Zariffard; Paria, Mirmonsef; Richard, Novak; Olamide, Jarrett; Alan L, Landay; GregoryT, Spear

2013-01-01

234

Serovar D and E of serogroup B induce highest serological responses in urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infections  

PubMed Central

Background Chlamydia trachomatis is the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide. A strong link between C. trachomatis serogroup/serovar and serological response has been suggested in a previous preliminary study. The aim of the current study was to confirm and strengthen those findings about serological IgG responses in relation to C. trachomatis serogroups and serovars. Methods The study population (n?=?718) consisted of two patient groups with similar characteristics of Dutch STI clinic visitors. We performed genotyping of serovars and used titre based and quantitative commercially available ELISA kits (medac Diagnostika) to determine specific serum IgG levels. Optical density (OD) values generated by both tests were used to calculate the IgG titres (cut-off 1:50). Analyses were conducted stratified by gender. Results We observed very significant differences when comparing the median IgG titres of three serogroups, B, C and I: in women for B vs. C: p?

2014-01-01

235

Sexually Transmitted Infections and Male Circumcision: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

The claim that circumcision reduces the risk of sexually transmitted infections has been repeated so frequently that many believe it is true. A systematic review and meta-analyses were performed on studies of genital discharge syndrome versus genital ulcerative disease, genital discharge syndrome, nonspecific urethritis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, genital ulcerative disease, chancroid, syphilis, herpes simplex virus, human papillomavirus, and contracting a sexually transmitted infection of any type. Chlamydia, gonorrhea, genital herpes, and human papillomavirus are not significantly impacted by circumcision. Syphilis showed mixed results with studies of prevalence suggesting intact men were at great risk and studies of incidence suggesting the opposite. Intact men appear to be of greater risk for genital ulcerative disease while at lower risk for genital discharge syndrome, nonspecific urethritis, genital warts, and the overall risk of any sexually transmitted infection. In studies of general populations, there is no clear or consistent positive impact of circumcision on the risk of individual sexually transmitted infections. Consequently, the prevention of sexually transmitted infections cannot rationally be interpreted as a benefit of circumcision, and any policy of circumcision for the general population to prevent sexually transmitted infections is not supported by the evidence in the medical literature. PMID:23710368

Van Howe, Robert S.

2013-01-01

236

IN VITRO SUSCEPTIBILITY OF CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS TO LPS-BINDING POLYAMINES AND CELLULOSE ETHER POLYMERS: TOWARDS THE DEVELOPMENT OF A MICROBICIDE AGAINST CHLAMYDIA INFECTION  

E-print Network

, and 14 out of 18 PMB analogues exhibited greater than 60% inhibition of Chlamydia growth. Additionally, I was interested in studying the biological role of chlamydial lipooligosaccharide (LOS), using small molecule DS-96 targeting lipid A as a chemical...

Osaka, Ichie

2013-12-31

237

PD-L1 limits the mucosal CD8+ T cell response to Chlamydia trachomatis.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the United States. Repeated infections with C. trachomatis lead to serious sequelae, such as infertility. It is unclear why the adaptive immune system, specifically the CD8(+) T cell response, is unable to protect against subsequent C. trachomatis infections. In this article, we characterize the mucosal CD8(+) T cell response to C. trachomatis in the murine genital tract. We demonstrate that the immunoinhibitory ligand, PD-L1, contributes to the defective CD8(+) T cell response. Deletion or inhibition of PD-L1 restores the CD8(+) T cell response and enhances C. trachomatis clearance. PMID:24353266

Fankhauser, Sarah C; Starnbach, Michael N

2014-02-01

238

Genital Herpes (Beyond the Basics)  

MedlinePLUS

... cold sore on an infected person's lip during oral sex; in this case, genital herpes may be due ... be avoided any time genital ulcers are present. Oral sex should be avoided if there are ulcers or ...

239

Correlates of HIV-1 Genital Shedding in Tanzanian Women  

PubMed Central

Background Understanding the correlates of HIV shedding is important to inform strategies to reduce HIV infectiousness. We examined correlates of genital HIV-1 RNA in women who were seropositive for both herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 and HIV-1 and who were enrolled in a randomised controlled trial of HSV suppressive therapy (aciclovir 400 mg b.i.d vs. placebo) in Tanzania. Methodology Samples, including a cervico-vaginal lavage, were collected and tested for genital HIV-1 and HSV and reproductive tract infections (RTIs) at randomisation and 6, 12 and 24 months follow-up. Data from all women at randomisation and women in the placebo arm during follow-up were analysed using generalised estimating equations to determine the correlates of cervico-vaginal HIV-1 RNA detection and load. Principal Findings Cervico-vaginal HIV-1 RNA was detected at 52.0% of 971 visits among 482 women, and was independently associated with plasma viral load, presence of genital ulcers, pregnancy, bloody cervical or vaginal discharge, abnormal vaginal discharge, cervical ectopy, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, an intermediate bacterial vaginosis score and HSV DNA detection. Similar factors were associated with genital HIV-1 RNA load. Conclusions RTIs were associated with increased presence and quantity of genital HIV-1 RNA in this population. These results highlight the importance of integrating effective RTI treatment into HIV care services. PMID:21390251

Tanton, Clare; Weiss, Helen A.; Le Goff, Jerome; Changalucha, John; Rusizoka, Mary; Baisley, Kathy; Everett, Dean; Ross, David A.; Belec, Laurent; Hayes, Richard J.; Watson-Jones, Deborah

2011-01-01

240

Topical treatment of recurrent genital herpes simplex virus infections with trisodium phosphonoformate (foscarnet): double blind, placebo controlled, multicentre study.  

PubMed Central

A double blind, placebo controlled trial was performed in nine sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinics in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands to investigate the efficacy of trisodium phosphonoformate (foscarnet) cream in treating recurrent genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. The study group comprised 145 male and 85 female patients. Men received 0.3% foscarnet cream and women 1% foscarnet cream for five days. The difference in time to healing between patients receiving foscarnet or placebo was not significant. Fewer patients treated with foscarnet had positive viral cultures after treatment, but the difference was not significant. The development of new lesions, however, was significantly less common in patients given foscarnet. Though topical foscarnet is a safe drug, no appreciable efficacy in treating recurrent genital HSV infection could be shown. PMID:2942457

Barton, S E; Munday, P E; Kinghorn, G R; van der Meijden, W I; Stolz, E; Notowicz, A; Rashid, S; Schuller, J L; Essex-Cater, A J; Kuijpers, M H

1986-01-01

241

Chlamydia muridarum Infection Elicits a Beta Interferon Response in Murine Oviduct Epithelial Cells Dependent on Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 and TRIF  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection in the United States. Utilizing cloned murine oviduct epithelial cell lines, we previously identified Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) as the principal epithelial pattern recognition receptor (PRR) for infection-triggered release of the acute inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. The infected oviduct epithelial cell lines also secreted the immunomodulatory cytokine

Wilbert A. Derbigny; Soon-Cheol Hong; Micah S. Kerr; M. Temkit; R. M. Johnson

2007-01-01

242

Comparison of Lower Genital Tract Microbiota in HIV-Infected and Uninfected Women from Rwanda and the US  

PubMed Central

Introduction Previous studies have shown that alterations of the bacterial microbiota in the lower female genital tract influence susceptibility to HIV infection and shedding. We assessed geographic differences in types of genital microbiota between HIV-infected and uninfected women from Rwanda and the United States. Methods Genera of lower genital tract bacterial microbiota were identified by high-throughput pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene from 46 US women (36 HIV-infected, 10 HIV-uninfected) and 40 Rwandan women (18 HIV-infected, 22 HIV-uninfected) with similar proportions of low (0–3) Nugent scores. Species of Lactobacillus were identified by assembling sequences along with reference sequences into phylogenetic trees. Prevalence of genera and Lactobacillus species were compared using Fisher's exact tests. Results Overall the seven most prevalent genera were Lactobacillus (74%), Prevotella (56%), Gardnerella (55%), Atopobium (42%), Sneathia (37%), Megasphaera (30%), and Parvimonas (26%), observed at similar prevalences comparing Rwandan to US women, except for Megasphaera (20% vs. 39%, p?=?0.06). Additionally, Rwandan women had higher frequencies of Mycoplasma (23% vs. 7%, p?=?0.06) and Eggerthella (13% vs. 0%, p?=?0.02), and lower frequencies of Lachnobacterium (8% vs. 35%, p<0.01) and Allisonella (5% vs. 30%, p<0.01), compared with US women. The prevalence of Mycoplasma was highest (p<0.05) in HIV-infected Rwandan women (39%), compared to HIV-infected US women (6%), HIV-uninfected Rwandan (9%) and US (10%) women. The most prevalent lactobacillus species in both Rwandan and US women was L. iners (58% vs. 76%, p?=?0.11), followed by L. crispatus (28% vs. 30%, p?=?0.82), L. jensenii (20% vs. 24%, p?=?0.80), L. gasseri (20% vs. 11%, p?=?0.37) and L. vaginalis (20% vs. 7%, p?=?0.10). Discussion We found similar prevalence of most major bacterial genera and Lactobacillus species in Rwandan and US women. Further work will be needed to establish whether observed differences differentially impact lower genital tract health or susceptibility to genital infections. PMID:24817204

Benning, Lorie; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Anastos, Kathryn; French, Audrey L.; Cohen, Mardge; Gilbert, Douglas; Gillevet, Patrick; Munyazesa, Elisaphane; Landay, Alan L.; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Spear, Gregory T.

2014-01-01

243

Diagnosis of Legionella pneumophila, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, or Chlamydia pneumoniae lower respiratory infection using the polymerase chain reaction on a single throat swab specimen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae lower respiratory infections using DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on throat swab specimens has been reported. In this study we determined the sensitivity of the detection of Legionella pneumophila in simulated throat swab specimens by PCR. Next, we compared the sensitivity and specificity of a single throat swab PCR with the

Julio A. Ramirez; Sunket Ahkee; Arthur Tolentino; Richard D. Miller; James T. Summersgill

1996-01-01

244

Chlamydia trachomatis infection rates among a cohort of mobile soldiers stationed at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, 2005-2010  

PubMed Central

Background Fort Bragg, a large Army installation with reported high Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) infection rates, is characterized by a highly mobile population and a surrounding Ct-endemic community. We assessed the rates of Ct incidence and recurrence among the installation’s active component Army personnel and determined the association of soldier transience, sociodemographic factors, and history of sexually transmitted infection (STI) with these rates. Methods A cohort of soldiers stationed at Fort Bragg during 2005 to mid-2010 was followed for incident and recurrent Ct infection using laboratory-confirmed reportable disease data. Linkage to demographic and administrative data permitted multivariate analysis to determine association of covariates with initial or recurrent infection. Results Among 67,425 soldiers, 2,198 (3.3%) contracted an incident Ct infection (crude incidence, 21.7 per 1,000 person-years). Among soldiers followed for incident infection, 223 (10.6%, crude incidence 110.8 per 1,000 person-years) contracted a recurrent Ct infection. Being female, of lower rank, under 26 years of age, of non-white race, single, or with a high school diploma or less was significantly associated with incident Ct infection. Having breaks in duty or having deployments during follow-up was associated with a lower infection rate. Among women, having prior deployments was associated with a lower rate of both incident and recurrent infection. Specifically associated with recurrent infection in women was age under 21 years or no education beyond high school. Conclusions This analysis reaffirms risk factors for Ct infection determined in other studies. In addition, infection risk was lower for more mobile soldiers and tied to the specific location of their regular duty assignment. The findings support the STI prevention efforts at Fort Bragg and the surrounding community, regardless of how often or for how long soldiers have deployed for military operations. PMID:24552420

2014-01-01

245

Chlamydia in women: a case for more action?  

PubMed

The 1985 Communicable Disease Surveillance Center figures for sexually transmitted diseases document over 14,000 confirmed cases of genital chlamydial infection in women. Yet, this figure seriously underestimates the size of the problem as many chlamydial infections are silent. The mainstay of diagnosis until recently has been isolation of C. trachomatis in cell culture, which is time consuming, technically demanding, expensive, and available in only a few centers. A firm diagnosis of chlamydial infection cannot be based on serology alone. Antibodies can be detected in 78-100% of womn with C. trachomatis in the cervix, but in those who are culture negative 31-87% also will have antibodies. More support is given to the diagnosis by demonstration of a rising titre of IgG antibody or by detection of IgM, but because of the late presentation of most women with chlamydia this is seldom possible. Newer tests include direct immunofluorescence statining of genital secretions which is rapid and simple. Results of this method compare favorably with those of cell culture, but screening large numbers of smears is expensive and tedious. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays also give good results. C trachomatis is a well known cause of cervicitis and salpingitis and is consequently a major factor in infertility. The frequency of chlamydial infection is influenced by sexual activity and promiscuity, but the effect of contraceptive choice is more difficult to determine. An IUD can provide a nidus for many infections, but the role of oral contraceptives (OCs) is more controversial. Instrumentation of the endocervical canal provides a route for introduction of infection, which is therefore a frequent and important complication of induced abortion. Westergaard et al. in a study of women having 1st trimester abortions found that 10% had symptomless cervical chlamydia; postabortal pelvic inflammatory disease developed in 28% of these patients by comparison with 10% in culture-negative women. Other workers have found similar results. The role of chlamydia as a cause of morbidity in pregnancy is unclear. Complications for the newborn are better established. It has been estimated that between 2-37% of mothers will have a chlamydia infection in pregancy. If 33-50% of newborns at risk get conjunctivitis, and 10-20% get pneumonitis, this gives some indication of the extent of the problem. Several studies have suggested an association between cervical chlamydial infection, anti-chlamydial antibodies, and cervical dysplasia. Emphasis on early diagnosis and treatment is of paramount importance to reduce the prevalence of chlamydial infection and its complications; without this rates of ectopic pregnancy and infertility are bound to increase. PMID:2870360

1986-04-19

246

A new Brevibacterium sp. isolated from infected genital hair of patients with white piedra.  

PubMed

A new aerobic gram-positive non-sporeforming bacillus has been isolated from infected genital hair of patients with white piedra in association with Trichosporon beigelii. This species has been characterised morphologically, nutritionally, by DNA base composition, cell-wall analysis and cellular fatty-acid profile on the basis of 14 isolates. The G+C content of DNA is 63.05 mol%. Cell walls possess meso-diaminopimelic acid (Type IV) and the sugars glucose, galactose, xylose and ribose; mycolic acids are not present. The species has a distinct colonial and microscopic morphology, is strongly proteolytic and produces methanethiol. These findings and the cellular fatty-acid profile are compatible with the genus Brevibacterium. A new species is proposed based on the following characters: colonial and microscopic growth and morphology; conditions for rod-to-coccus cycle; ribose utilisation; and tellurite reduction. The type strain has been named Brevibacterium mcbrellneri E2cr (ATCC 49030). The strong proteolytic properties may be the mechanism of pathogenesis. PMID:8411085

McBride, M E; Ellner, K M; Black, H S; Clarridge, J E; Wolf, J E

1993-10-01

247

Experimental infection of the genital tract of female grivet monkeys by Mycoplasma hominis.  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasma hominis, a common inhabitant of the mucosae of the genitourinary tract of human and nonhuman primates, was inoculated directly into the uterine tubes of five laparotomized grivet monkeys. A self-limiting acute salpingitis and parametritis developed within a few days in all animals. Although there were no clinical signs of overt disease, the gross pathology was characterized by pronounced oedematous swelling and hyperaemia of the tubes and parametria. Microscopically, cellular infiltrations of lymphocytes and some polymorphonuclear leukocytes were found in the acute phase in the subserosa and muscularis of the tubes and in the parametria. Granulation tissue and fat necrosis appeared at a later stage in the parametria. The infection was associated with a marked antibody response and a moderate rise of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and leukocyte counts. The capability of M. hominis to produce salpingitis and parametritis in a nonhuman primate would seem to add rather significantly to the available evidence suggesting an etiological role of this organism in inflammatory diseases of the internal female genitals of humans. Images PMID:97224

M?ller, B R; Freundt, E A; Black, F T; Frederiksen, P

1978-01-01

248

Herpes simplex virus and cytomegalovirus co-infection presenting as exuberant genital ulcer in a woman infected with human immunodeficiency virus.  

PubMed

In patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), genital herpes can result in severe and atypical clinical presentations, and can become resistant to aciclovir treatment. Rarely, these manifestations may represent concurrent herpes simplex virus (HSV) with other agents. We report a 41-year-old black woman with HIV who presented with extensive and painful ulceration of the genitalia. Histological examination of a biopsy sample was suggestive of herpetic infection, and intravenous aciclovir was started, but produced only partial improvement. PCR was performed on the biopsy sample, and both HSV and cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA was detected. Oral valganciclovir was started with therapeutic success. CMV infection is common in patients infected with HIV, but its presence in mucocutaneous lesions is rarely reported. This case exemplifies the difficulties of diagnosis of genital ulcers in patients infected with HIV. The presence of exuberant and persistent HSV genital ulcers in patients with HIV should also raise suspicions of the presence of co-infection with other organisms such as CMV. PMID:25250849

Gouveia, A I; Borges-Costa, J; Soares-Almeida, L; Sacramento-Marques, M; Kutzner, H

2014-12-01

249

Caspase-1 Dependent IL-1? Secretion Is Critical for Host Defense in a Mouse Model of Chlamydia pneumoniae Lung Infection  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP) is an important human pathogen that causes atypical pneumonia and is associated with various chronic inflammatory disorders. Caspase-1 is a key component of the ‘inflammasome’, and is required to cleave pro-IL-1? to bioactive IL-1?. Here we demonstrate for the first time a critical requirement for IL-1? in response to CP infection. Caspase-1?/? mice exhibit delayed cytokine production, defective clearance of pulmonary bacteria and higher mortality in response to CP infection. Alveolar macrophages harbored increased bacterial numbers due to reduced iNOS levels in Caspase-1?/? mice. Pharmacological blockade of the IL-1 receptor in CP infected wild-type mice phenocopies Caspase-1-deficient mice, and administration of recombinant IL-1? rescues CP infected Caspase-1?/? mice from mortality, indicating that IL-1? secretion is crucial for host immune defense against CP lung infection. In vitro investigation reveals that CP-induced IL-1? secretion by macrophages requires TLR2/MyD88 and NLRP3/ASC/Caspase-1 signaling. Entry into the cell by CP and new protein synthesis by CP are required for inflammasome activation. Neither ROS nor cathepsin was required for CP infection induced inflammasome activation. Interestingly, Caspase-1 activation during CP infection occurs with mitochondrial dysfunction indicating a possible mechanism involving the mitochondria for CP-induced inflammasome activation. PMID:21731762

Shimada, Kenichi; Crother, Timothy R.; Karlin, Justin; Chen, Shuang; Chiba, Norika; Ramanujan, V. Krishnan; Vergnes, Laurent; Ojcius, David M.; Arditi, Moshe

2011-01-01

250

Genital Herpes  

MedlinePLUS

What is genital herpes? Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) . Genital herpes is probably best known for ... Symptoms that precede the onset of a disease. Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD): A disease that is spread by sexual ...

251

Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection Promotes Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Migration through a Toll-Like Receptor 2-Related Signaling Pathway  

PubMed Central

The migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from the media to the intima is proposed to be a key event in the development of atherosclerosis. Recently, we reported that Chlamydia pneumoniae infection is involved in VSMC migration. However, the exact mechanisms for C. pneumoniae infection-induced VSMC migration are not yet well elucidated. In this study, we examined the role of the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) activation-related signaling pathway in VSMC migration induced by C. pneumoniae infection. An Affymetrix-based gene expression array was conducted to identify the changes of gene expression in rat primary VSMCs (rVSMCs) infected with C. pneumoniae. Both the microarray analysis and quantitative real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR revealed that TLR2 mRNA expression was strongly upregulated 12 h after C. pneumoniae infection. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis further showed that the expression levels of TLR2 mRNA and protein significantly increased at the different time points after infection. Immunocytochemical analysis suggested a TLR2 recruitment to the vicinity of C. pneumoniae inclusions. Cell migration assays showed that the TLR2-neutralizing antibody could significantly inhibit C. pneumoniae infection-induced rVSMC migration. In addition, C. pneumoniae infection stimulated Akt phosphorylation at Ser 473, which was obviously suppressed by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002, thereby inhibiting rVSMC migration caused by C. pneumoniae infection. Furthermore, both the infection-induced Akt phosphorylation and rVSMC migration were suppressed by the TLR2-neutralizing antibody. Taken together, these data suggest that C. pneumoniae infection can promote VSMC migration possibly through the TLR2-related signaling pathway. PMID:24082081

Wang, Beibei; Zhang, Tengteng; Wang, Haiwei; Zhang, Junxia; Wei, Junyan; Shen, Bingling; Liu, Xin; Xu, Zhelong; Zhang, Lijun

2013-01-01

252

Infection, Disease, and Transmission Dynamics in Calves after Experimental and Natural Challenge with a Bovine Chlamydia psittaci Isolate  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia (C.) psittaci is the causative agent of psittacosis, a zoonotic disease in birds and man. In addition, C. psittaci has been repeatedly found in domestic animals and is, at least in calves, also able to induce respiratory disease. Knowledge about transmission routes in cattle herds is still deficient, and nothing is known about differences in host response after either experimental or natural exposure to C. psittaci. Therefore, our recently developed respiratory infection model was exploited to evaluate (i) the presence of the pathogen in blood, excretions and air, (ii) the possibility of transmission and (iii) clinical symptoms, acute phase and immune response until 5 weeks after exposure. In this prospective study, intrabronchial inoculation of 108 inclusion-forming units of C. psittaci (n?=?21 calves) led to reproducible acute respiratory illness (of approximately one week), accompanied by a systemic inflammatory reaction with an innate immune response dominated by neutrophils. Excretion and/or exhalation of the pathogen was sufficient to transmit the infection to naïve sentinel calves (n?=?3) co-housed with the infected animals. Sentinel calves developed mild to subclinical infections only. Notably, excretion of the pathogen, predominantly via feces, occurred more frequently in animals naturally exposed to C. psittaci (i.e. sentinels) as compared to experimentally-inoculated calves. The humoral immune response was generally weak, and did not emerge regularly following experimental infection; however, it was largely absent after naturally acquired infection. PMID:23691148

Ostermann, Carola; Ruttger, Anke; Schubert, Evelyn; Schrodl, Wieland; Sachse, Konrad; Reinhold, Petra

2013-01-01

253

Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis Serovars in Men and Women with a Symptomatic or Asymptomatic Infection: an Association with Clinical Manifestations?  

PubMed Central

To determine whether certain Chlamydia trachomatis serovars are preferentially associated with a symptomatic or an asymptomatic course of infection, C. trachomatis serovar distributions were analyzed in symptomatically and asymptomatically infected persons. Furthermore, a possible association between C. trachomatis serovars and specific clinical symptoms was investigated. C. trachomatis-positive urine specimens from 219 asymptomatically infected men and women were obtained from population-based screening programs in Amsterdam. Two hundred twenty-one C. trachomatis-positive cervical and urethral swabs from symptomatically and asymptomatically infected men and women were obtained from several hospital-based departments. Serovars were determined using PCR-based genotyping, i.e., restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the nested-PCR-amplified omp1 gene. The most prevalent C. trachomatis serovars, D, E, and F, showed no association with either a symptomatic or asymptomatic course of infection. The most prominent differences found were (i) the association of serovar Ga with symptoms in men (P = 0.0027), specifically, dysuria (P < 0.0001), and (ii) detection of serovar Ia more often in asymptomatically infected people (men and women) (P = 0.035). Furthermore, in women, serovar K was associated with vaginal discharge (P = 0.002) and serovar variants were found only in women (P = 0.045). PMID:10834991

Morré, S. A.; Rozendaal, L.; van Valkengoed, I. G. M.; Boeke, A. J. P.; van Voorst Vader, P. C.; Schirm, J.; de Blok, S.; van den Hoek, J. A. R.; van Doornum, G. J. J.; Meijer, C. J. L. M.; van den Brule, A. J. C.

2000-01-01

254

Diagnostic efficacy of a real time-PCR assay for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in infertile women in north India  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Little is known about the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Indian women with infertility. To improve the diagnosis of C. trachomatis infection in developing countries, there is an urgent need to establish cost-effective molecular test with high sensitivity and specificity. This study was conducted to determine the diagnostic utility of a real time-PCR assay for detention of C. trachomatis infection in infertile women attending an infertility clinic in north India. The in house real time-PCR assay was also compared with a commercial real-time PCR based detection system. Method: Endocervical swabs, collected from 200 infertile women were tested for C. trachomatis by three different PCR assays viz. in-house real time-PCR targeting the cryptic plasmid using published primers, along with omp1 gene and cryptic plasmid based conventional PCR assays. Specimens were also subjected to direct fluorescence assay (DFA) and enzyme immunoassay (EIA) Performance of in-house real time-PCR was compared with that of COBAS Taqman C. trachomatis Test, version 2.0 on all in-house real time-PCR positive sample and 30 consecutive negative samples. Results: C. trachomatis infection was found in 13.5 per cent (27/200) infertile women by in-house real time-PCR, 11.5 per cent (23/200) by cryptic plasmid and/or omp1 gene based conventional PCR, 9 per cent (18/200) by DFA and 6.5 per cent (7/200) by EIA. The in-house real time-PCR exhibited a sensitivity and specificity of 100 per cent, considering COBAS Taqman CT Test as the gold standard. The negative and positive predictive values of the in-house real time-PCR were 100 per cent. The in-house real time-PCR could detect as low as 10 copies of C. trachomatis DNA per reaction. Interpretation & conclusions: In-house real time-PCR targeting the cryptic plasmid of C. trachomatis exhibited an excellent sensitivity and specificity similar to that of COBAS Taqman CT Test, v2.0 for detection of C. trachomatis infection in women attending an infertility clinic. In an effort to prevent Chlamydia infection associated infertility, we recommend screening of women with infertility due to C. trachomatis infection by in-house molecular method as a cost-effective solution in resource limited settings. PMID:25297359

Dhawan, Benu; Rawre, Jyoti; Ghosh, Arnab; Malhotra, Neena; Ahmed, Mir Muneer; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Chaudhry, Rama

2014-01-01

255

Efficacy of RG1-VLP Vaccination against Infections with Genital and Cutaneous Human Papillomaviruses  

PubMed Central

Licensed human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines, based on virus-like particles (VLPs) self-assembled from major capsid protein L1, afford type-restricted protection against HPV types 16/18/6/11 (or 16/18 for the bivalent vaccine), which cause 70% of cervical cancers (CxCas) and 90% of genital warts. However, they do not protect against less prevalent high-risk (HR) types causing 30% of CxCa, or cutaneous HPV. In contrast, vaccination with the minor capsid protein L2 induces low-level immunity to type-common epitopes. Chimeric RG1-VLP presenting HPV16 L2 amino acids 17–36 (RG1 epitope) within the DE-surface loop of HPV16 L1 induced cross-neutralizing antisera. We hypothesized that RG1-VLP vaccination protects against a large spectrum of mucosal and cutaneous HPV infections in vivo. Immunization with RG1-VLP adjuvanted with human-applicable alum-MPL (aluminum hydroxide plus 3-O-desacyl-4?-monophosphoryl lipid A) induced robust L2 antibodies (ELISA titers 2,500–12,500), which (cross-)neutralized mucosal HR HPV16/18/45/37/33/52/58/35/39/51/59/68/73/26/69/34/70, low-risk HPV6/11/32/40, and cutaneous HPV2/27/3/76 (titers 25–1,000) using native virion- or pseudovirion (PsV)-based assays, and a vigorous cytotoxic T lymphocyte response by enzyme-linked immunospot. In vivo, mice were efficiently protected against experimental vaginal challenge with mucosal HR PsV types HPV16/18/45/31/33/52/58/35/39/51/59/68/56/73/26/53/66/34 and low-risk HPV6/43/44. Enduring protection was demonstrated 1 year after vaccination. RG1-VLP is a promising next-generation vaccine with broad efficacy against all relevant mucosal and also cutaneous HPV types. PMID:23752042

Schellenbacher, Christina; Kwak, Kihyuck; Fink, Dieter; Shafti-Keramat, Saeed; Huber, Bettina; Jindra, Christoph; Faust, Helena; Dillner, Joakim; Roden, Richard B.S.; Kirnbauer, Reinhard

2013-01-01

256

Efficacy of RG1-VLP vaccination against infections with genital and cutaneous human papillomaviruses.  

PubMed

Licensed human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines, based on virus-like particles (VLPs) self-assembled from major capsid protein L1, afford type-restricted protection against HPV types 16/18/6/11 (or 16/18 for the bivalent vaccine), which cause 70% of cervical cancers (CxCas) and 90% of genital warts. However, they do not protect against less prevalent high-risk (HR) types causing 30% of CxCa, or cutaneous HPV. In contrast, vaccination with the minor capsid protein L2 induces low-level immunity to type-common epitopes. Chimeric RG1-VLP presenting HPV16 L2 amino acids 17-36 (RG1 epitope) within the DE-surface loop of HPV16 L1 induced cross-neutralizing antisera. We hypothesized that RG1-VLP vaccination protects against a large spectrum of mucosal and cutaneous HPV infections in vivo. Immunization with RG1-VLP adjuvanted with human-applicable alum-MPL (aluminum hydroxide plus 3-O-desacyl-4'-monophosphoryl lipid A) induced robust L2 antibodies (ELISA titers 2,500-12,500), which (cross-)neutralized mucosal HR HPV16/18/45/37/33/52/58/35/39/51/59/68/73/26/69/34/70, low-risk HPV6/11/32/40, and cutaneous HPV2/27/3/76 (titers 25-1,000) using native virion- or pseudovirion (PsV)-based assays, and a vigorous cytotoxic T lymphocyte response by enzyme-linked immunospot. In vivo, mice were efficiently protected against experimental vaginal challenge with mucosal HR PsV types HPV16/18/45/31/33/52/58/35/39/51/59/68/56/73/26/53/66/34 and low-risk HPV6/43/44. Enduring protection was demonstrated 1 year after vaccination. RG1-VLP is a promising next-generation vaccine with broad efficacy against all relevant mucosal and also cutaneous HPV types. PMID:23752042

Schellenbacher, Christina; Kwak, Kihyuck; Fink, Dieter; Shafti-Keramat, Saeed; Huber, Bettina; Jindra, Christoph; Faust, Helena; Dillner, Joakim; Roden, Richard B S; Kirnbauer, Reinhard

2013-12-01

257

Oviduct Infection and Hydrosalpinx in DBA1/j Mice Is Induced by Intracervical but Not Intravaginal Inoculation with Chlamydia muridarum  

PubMed Central

Intravaginal infection with C. muridarum in mice often results in hydrosalpinx similar to that found in women urogenitally infected with C. trachomatis, making the C. muridarum lower genital tract infection murine model suitable for studying C. trachomatis pathogenesis. To our surprise, DBA1/j mice were highly resistant to hydrosalpinx following an intravaginal infection with C. muridarum although these mice were as susceptible to lower genital tract infection as other mouse strains. A significantly lower level of C. muridarum organisms was recovered from the oviduct of DBA1/j mice, correlating the resistance to hydrosalpinx with reduced ascension of C. muridarum to the oviduct. The DBA1/j resistance to hydrosalpinx was effectively overcome by intracervical inoculation with C. muridarum. The intracervically inoculated DBA1/j mice developed severe hydrosalpinx with the highest levels of live C. muridarum organisms recovered from uterine tissue on day 3 and oviduct tissue on day 7 post inoculation while in intravaginally inoculated DBA1/j mice, the peak of live organism recovery from uterine tissue was delayed to day 7 with no rise in the amount of live organisms recovered from the oviduct. These observations have not only validated the correlation between hydrosalpinx and live organism invasion in the oviduct but also demonstrated that the intracervical inoculation, by promoting rapid chlamydial replication in the uterine epithelial cells and ascension to the oviduct of DBA1/j mice, may be used for further understanding chlamydial pathogenic mechanisms. The above findings also suggest that strategies aimed at reducing tubal infection may be most effective in blocking tubal pathology. PMID:23940777

Tang, Lingli; Zhang, Hongbo; Lei, Lei; Gong, Siqi; Zhou, Zhiguang; Baseman, Joel; Zhong, Guangming

2013-01-01

258

Oviduct infection and hydrosalpinx in DBA1/j mice is induced by intracervical but not intravaginal inoculation with Chlamydia muridarum.  

PubMed

Intravaginal infection with C. muridarum in mice often results in hydrosalpinx similar to that found in women urogenitally infected with C. trachomatis, making the C. muridarum lower genital tract infection murine model suitable for studying C. trachomatis pathogenesis. To our surprise, DBA1/j mice were highly resistant to hydrosalpinx following an intravaginal infection with C. muridarum although these mice were as susceptible to lower genital tract infection as other mouse strains. A significantly lower level of C. muridarum organisms was recovered from the oviduct of DBA1/j mice, correlating the resistance to hydrosalpinx with reduced ascension of C. muridarum to the oviduct. The DBA1/j resistance to hydrosalpinx was effectively overcome by intracervical inoculation with C. muridarum. The intracervically inoculated DBA1/j mice developed severe hydrosalpinx with the highest levels of live C. muridarum organisms recovered from uterine tissue on day 3 and oviduct tissue on day 7 post inoculation while in intravaginally inoculated DBA1/j mice, the peak of live organism recovery from uterine tissue was delayed to day 7 with no rise in the amount of live organisms recovered from the oviduct. These observations have not only validated the correlation between hydrosalpinx and live organism invasion in the oviduct but also demonstrated that the intracervical inoculation, by promoting rapid chlamydial replication in the uterine epithelial cells and ascension to the oviduct of DBA1/j mice, may be used for further understanding chlamydial pathogenic mechanisms. The above findings also suggest that strategies aimed at reducing tubal infection may be most effective in blocking tubal pathology. PMID:23940777

Tang, Lingli; Zhang, Hongbo; Lei, Lei; Gong, Siqi; Zhou, Zhiguang; Baseman, Joel; Zhong, Guangming

2013-01-01

259

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Genital Warts: Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Genital Warts Skip Content Marketing Share this: ... infected person. Like many sexually transmitted diseases, genital HPV infections often do not have signs and symptoms ...

260

Chlamydia trachomatis conjunctivitis in a male teenager: a case report.  

PubMed

An 18 year old man was seen at a Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) clinic for counselling and treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection which had been diagnosed during a screening survey of high school students. For two months he had reported conjunctival hyperaemia, increased tearing, itching, and mucopurulent secretions, predominantly on the left eye. His ophthalmologist had made a diagnosis of follicular conjunctivitis and lower superficial punctate keratitis (left eye more than right eye), irresponsive to topical treatment. Chlamydial conjunctivitis was suspected and confirmed by a positive nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) performed on conjunctival scraping. The patient was treated with azithromycin 1 g single dose orally and tetracycline/betamethasone eye ointment for one month. A complete resolution of symptoms was observed three months after aetiological treatment. This case highlights the need to include C. trachomatis infection in the differential diagnosis of acute or chronic follicular conjunctivitis among sexually active young individuals. PMID:24955802

Sulis, Giorgia; Urbinati, Lucia; Franzoni, Alessandra; Gargiulo, Franco; Carvalho, Anna Cristina C; Matteelli, Alberto

2014-06-01

261

Genital sores - female  

MedlinePLUS

... DC. Neoplastic diseases of the vulva. In: Lentz GM, Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, Katz VL, eds . Comprehensive ... Mosby Elsevier; 2012:chap 30. Eckert L, Lentz GM. Infections of the lower genital tract. In: Lentz ...

262

Profiling of Human Antibody Responses to Chlamydia trachomatis Urogenital Tract Infection Using Microplates Arrayed with 156 Chlamydial Fusion Proteins  

PubMed Central

The available chlamydial genome sequences have made it possible to comprehensively analyze host responses to all chlamydial proteins, which is essential for further understanding of chlamydial pathogenesis and development of effective chlamydial vaccines. Microplates arrayed with 156 Chlamydia trachomatis fusion proteins were used to evaluate antibody responses in women urogenitally infected with C. trachomatis. Based on both the antibody recognition frequency and titer, seven chlamydial antigens encoded by open reading frames (ORFs) CT089, CT147, CT226, CT681, CT694, CT795, and CT858, respectively, were identified as relatively immunodominant; six of these are encoded by hypothetical ORFs. Antibody binding to these chlamydial fusion proteins was blocked by C. trachomatis-infected but not by normal HeLa cell lysates or irrelevant bacterial lysates. These results have revealed novel immune-reactive chlamydial antigens, not only indicating that the hypothetical ORF-encoded proteins are expressed during chlamydial infection in humans but also providing the proof of principle that the fusion protein-based approach can be used to profile human immune responses to chlamydial infection at the whole-genome scale. PMID:16495519

Sharma, Jyotika; Zhong, Youmin; Dong, Feng; Piper, Jeanna M.; Wang, Guqi; Zhong, Guangming

2006-01-01

263

Presence and severity of Chlamydia pneumoniae and Cytomegalovirus infection in coronary plaques are associated with acute coronary syndromes.  

PubMed

Although an association between Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn) or Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and coronary atherosclerosis has been reported, such an association is less clear for acute coronary syndromes (ACS). The purpose of this study was to investigate the pathogenic roles of Cpn and CMV infection of coronary plaques in ACS. We divided 38 coronary plaque specimens obtained from 38 patients who underwent directional coronary atherectomy or thrombectomy into an ACS group (n = 21) and a non-ACS group (n = 17). Cpn and CMV in specimens were stained using immunohistochemical techniques and analyzed quantitatively. The detection rate for either Cpn- or CMV-positive cells in ACS patients was slightly higher compared with non-ACS patients. Detection rates for both Cpn- and CMV-positive cells were significantly higher in ACS patients than in non-ACS patients (P = 0.010). Furthermore, the density of Cpn- and CMV-positive cells in plaques was significantly higher in ACS patients than in non-ACS patients (P < 0.003). The results indicate that the presence and severity of Cpn and CMV infection in coronary plaques are greater in patients with ACS compared with non-ACS patients. We conclude that infection with Cpn and CMV in coronary plaques may be involved in the pathogenesis of ACS. PMID:16960406

Liu, Ruiqin; Moroi, Masao; Yamamoto, Masato; Kubota, Tetsuya; Ono, Tsuyoshi; Funatsu, Atsushi; Komatsu, Hiroki; Tsuji, Takahiro; Hara, Hisao; Hara, Hidehiko; Nakamura, Masato; Hirai, Hironori; Yamaguchi, Tetsu

2006-07-01

264

Acute Chlamydia pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections in community-acquired pneumonia and exacerbations of COPD or asthma: therapeutic considerations.  

PubMed

Rates of acute Chlamydia pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections were determined in 115 adults hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), purulent exacerbations of COPD and acute exacerbations of bronchial asthma, by means of serology and molecular methods. Results were compared with those obtained in a matched control group. Common respiratory pathogens were isolated by cultures in 22.5% and 22.2% of CAP and exacerbated COPD patients, respectively. Cultures from exacerbated asthma patients were always negative. Serological and molecular evidence of current C. pneumoniae infection was obtained in 10.0%, 8.9% and 3.3% of CAP, COPD and asthma cases. The corresponding rates of acute M. pneumoniae infection were 17.5%, 6.7% and 3.3%, respectively. Finally, no difference was found between typical and atypical pathogen rates. These findings highlight the importance of taking into account C. pneumoniae and M. pneumoniae infections in guiding the choice of empirical antibacterial treatment for CAP and purulent exacerbations of COPD. PMID:15078002

Meloni, F; Paschetto, E; Mangiarotti, P; Crepaldi, M; Morosini, M; Bulgheroni, A; Fietta, A

2004-02-01

265

Inaccuracy of certain commercial enzyme immunoassays in diagnosing genital infections with herpes simplex virus types 1 or 2.  

PubMed

Type-specific serologic results may be inaccurate if not based on glycoprotein G (gG). Commercial tests based on crude antigen (Zeus Scientific, Raritan, NJ; Wampole Laboratories, Cranbury, NJ; DiaSorin, Stillwater, MN) and one using gG-1 and gG-2 (Focus Technologies, Cypress, CA) were compared with Western blot on serum samples from patients with culture-documented first symptomatic episodes of genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 (n = 17) or HSV-2 (n = 49) infection or recurrent genital episodes (HSV-1, 30; HSV-2, 49). Concordance with Western blot results was 56% for Zeus, 63% for Wampole, 52% to 54% for DiaSorin, and 83% for Focus. Sensitivity and specificity, respectively, for HSV-1 were 77% and 53% (Zeus), 91% and 35% (Wampole), 98% and 8% (DiaSorin), 94% and 70% (DiaSorin predominant antibody), and 83% and 90% (Focus); for HSV-2 they were 88% and 81% (Zeus), 92% and 83% (Wampole), 96% and 54% (DiaSorin), 38% and 98% (DiaSorin predominant antibody), and 98% and 96% (Focus). Type-specific serologic testing for HSV should be performed with gG-based tests for accurate diagnosis of symptomatic genital herpes. PMID:14671972

Morrow, Rhoda Ashley; Friedrich, David

2003-12-01

266

Contribution of interleukin-12 p35 (IL-12p35) and IL-12p40 to protective immunity and pathology in mice infected with Chlamydia muridarum.  

PubMed

The p35 molecule is unique to interleukin-12 (IL-12), while p40 is shared by both IL-12 and IL-23. IL-12 promotes Th1 T cell responses, while IL-23 promotes Th17 T cell responses. The roles of IL-12p35- and IL-12p40-mediated responses in chlamydial infection were compared in mice following an intravaginal infection with Chlamydia muridarum. Mice deficient in either IL-12p35 or p40 both developed similar but prolonged infection time courses, confirming the roles of IL-12-mediated immune responses in clearing primary infection. However, all mice, regardless of genotype, cleared reinfection within 2 weeks, suggesting that an IL-12- or IL-23-independent adaptive immunity is protective against chlamydial infection. All infected mice developed severe oviduct hydrosalpinx despite the increased Th2 responses in IL-12p35- or IL-12p40-deficient mice, suggesting that Th2-dominant responses can contribute to Chlamydia-induced inflammatory pathology. Compared to IL-12p35 knockout mice, the IL-12p40-deficient mice exhibited more extensive spreading of chlamydial organisms into kidney tissues, leading to significantly increased incidence of pyelonephritis, which both confirms the role of IL-12 or IL-23-independent host responses in Chlamydia-induced pathologies and suggests that in the absence of IL-12/IFN-?-mediated Th1 immunity, an IL-23-mediated response may play an important role in restricting chlamydial organisms from spreading into distal organs. These observations together provide important information for both understanding chlamydial pathogenesis and developing anti-Chlamydia vaccines. PMID:23753624

Chen, Lili; Lei, Lei; Zhou, Zhou; He, Jie; Xu, Sha; Lu, Chunxue; Chen, Jianlin; Yang, Zhangsheng; Wu, Gangqiu; Yeh, I-Tien; Zhong, Guangming; Wu, Yimou

2013-08-01

267

Contribution of Interleukin-12 p35 (IL-12p35) and IL-12p40 to Protective Immunity and Pathology in Mice Infected with Chlamydia muridarum  

PubMed Central

The p35 molecule is unique to interleukin-12 (IL-12), while p40 is shared by both IL-12 and IL-23. IL-12 promotes Th1 T cell responses, while IL-23 promotes Th17 T cell responses. The roles of IL-12p35- and IL-12p40-mediated responses in chlamydial infection were compared in mice following an intravaginal infection with Chlamydia muridarum. Mice deficient in either IL-12p35 or p40 both developed similar but prolonged infection time courses, confirming the roles of IL-12-mediated immune responses in clearing primary infection. However, all mice, regardless of genotype, cleared reinfection within 2 weeks, suggesting that an IL-12- or IL-23-independent adaptive immunity is protective against chlamydial infection. All infected mice developed severe oviduct hydrosalpinx despite the increased Th2 responses in IL-12p35- or IL-12p40-deficient mice, suggesting that Th2-dominant responses can contribute to Chlamydia-induced inflammatory pathology. Compared to IL-12p35 knockout mice, the IL-12p40-deficient mice exhibited more extensive spreading of chlamydial organisms into kidney tissues, leading to significantly increased incidence of pyelonephritis, which both confirms the role of IL-12 or IL-23-independent host responses in Chlamydia-induced pathologies and suggests that in the absence of IL-12/IFN-?-mediated Th1 immunity, an IL-23-mediated response may play an important role in restricting chlamydial organisms from spreading into distal organs. These observations together provide important information for both understanding chlamydial pathogenesis and developing anti-Chlamydia vaccines. PMID:23753624

Chen, Lili; Lei, Lei; Zhou, Zhou; He, Jie; Xu, Sha; Lu, Chunxue; Chen, Jianlin; Yang, Zhangsheng; Wu, Gangqiu; Yeh, I-Tien

2013-01-01

268

Chlamydia pneumoniae and atherosclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo review the literature for evidence that chronic infection withChlamydia pneumoniae is associated with atherosclerosis and acute coronary syndromes.DATA SOURCESmedline and Institute of Science and Information bibliographic databases were searched at the end of September 1998. Indexing terms used were chlamydi*, heart, coronary, and atherosclerosis. Serological and pathological studies published as papers in any language since 1988 or abstracts since

Y-K Wong; P J Gallagher; M E Ward

1999-01-01

269

Recent advances in understanding the biology, epidemiology and control of chlamydial infections in koalas.  

PubMed

The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) is recognised as a threatened wildlife species in various parts of Australia. A major contributing factor to the decline and long-term viability of affected populations is disease caused by the obligate intracellular bacteria, Chlamydia. Two chlamydial species infect the koala, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia pneumoniae, and have been reported in nearly all mainland koala populations. Chlamydial infections of koalas are associated with ocular infections leading to blindness and genital tract infections linked to infertility, among other serious clinical manifestations. Diagnosis can be based on clinical presentation alone, however, it is complicated by the observation that many koala chlamydial infections occur with no overt signs of clinical disease. Instead, accurate diagnosis requires detailed clinical assessment and confirmatory testing by a range of PCR-based assays. Antibiotic treatment for koala chlamydial infection is possible, however, results on its success are mixed. A more practical solution for the protection of diseased populations is the application of a koala Chlamydia vaccine, with recent trials indicating promising results. Interestingly, molecular epidemiology studies of koala C. pecorum infections and recent comparative genomic analyses of koala C. pneumoniae have revealed potential differences in their origin that will have wider ramifications for our understanding of human chlamydial infections and host adaptation of the chlamydiae. This review summarises changes to the taxonomy of koala chlamydial infections and recent advances in our understanding of the epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, control and evolution of Chlamydia infections in this iconic wildlife species. PMID:23523170

Polkinghorne, Adam; Hanger, Jon; Timms, Peter

2013-08-30

270

Effect of HIV and Chlamydia Infection on Rectal Inflammation and Cytokine Concentrations in Men Who Have Sex with Men  

PubMed Central

Asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis infections are common in HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). Although C. trachomatis combined with HIV would be likely to enhance inflammation, the asymptomatic course suggests otherwise. We assessed local inflammation, mucosal damage, and cytokine concentrations in rectal mucosal fluid samples from patients with HIV (with or without the use of combination antiretroviral therapy [cART]) and with or without the presence of rectal C. trachomatis. Rectal swabs from 79 MSM (with and without C. trachomatis, HIV, and cART use) who reported a history of receptive anal sex were analyzed for neutrophil activation (measured by myeloperoxidase [MPO]), mucosal leakage (measured by albumin and alpha-2-macroglobulin), and proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. C. trachomatis infection, HIV infection, and cART use in MSM had no differential effects on rectal neutrophilic inflammation and mucosal damage. Interleukin 8 (IL-8) was found to correlate with MPO, and MPO correlated with markers of mucosal damage. In HIV-negative participants, men with C. trachomatis infection had lower concentrations of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), IL-1?, and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) than men without rectal C. trachomatis infection (P = 0.005, 0.007, and 0.07, respectively). We found no difference in anal cytokine concentrations in HIV-infected participants in relation to the presence of C. trachomatis infection or cART use. In participants with rectal C. trachomatis infection, those who were HIV negative had lower median concentrations of IL-8 and IL-1? than those with HIV (P = 0.05 and 0.06, respectively). The slope of the regression line between MPO and IL-8 was reduced in participants with rectal C. trachomatis infection. C. trachomatis dampens cytokine concentrations but not in HIV-infected patients. The extent of mucosal damage was comparable in all patient groups. The apparent reduced neutrophil response to IL-8 in HIV-infected patients with C. trachomatis infection is in accordance with its asymptomatic course. PMID:23904458

Lutter, Rene; Pajkrt, Dasja; Adams, Karin; De Vries, Henry; Heijman, Titia; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; Geerlings, Suzanne

2013-01-01

271

Some Women Need Tests for Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, Experts Say  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. Some Women Need Tests for Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, Experts Say Guidelines include all sexually active females ... September 23, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Chlamydia Infections Gonorrhea Women's Health MONDAY, Sept. 22, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- ...

272

Seroprevalence of Chlamydia psittaci infection in market-sold adult chickens, ducks and pigeons in north-western China.  

PubMed

Chlamydia psittaci, the agent of psittacosis in humans, infects a wide range of avian species. To assess the risk of psittacosis posed by domestic birds in the urban environment, the prevalence of C. psittaci antibodies in 413 chickens (Gallus domesticus; 305 caged and 108 free-range), 334 ducks (Anas spp.; 111 caged and 223 free-range) and 312 pigeons (Columba livia) in Lanzhou, north-western China, was detected using the indirect haemagglutination assay. The specific antibodies were found in sera of 55 (13.32?%) chickens, 130 (38.92?%) ducks and 97 (31.09?%) pigeons. Statistical analysis showed that the seroprevalence of C. psittaci infection in chickens was significantly lower than that in ducks and pigeons (P<0.05). The C. psittaci seroprevalence in caged and free-range chickens was 7.54?% and 29.63?%, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The C. psittaci seroprevalence in caged and free-range ducks was 26.13?% and 45.29?%, respectively (P<0.05). To our knowledge, this is the first study indicating the presence of C. psittaci infection in market-sold chickens, ducks and pigeons in north-western China. Close contact with these birds is associated with a risk of zoonotic transmission of C. psittaci. Public education should be implemented to reduce the risk of avian to human transmission of such a pathogenic agent. PMID:23699067

Cong, W; Huang, S Y; Zhang, X Y; Zhou, D H; Xu, M J; Zhao, Q; Song, H Q; Zhu, X Q; Qian, A D

2013-08-01

273

Pneumonia associated with infection with pneumocystis, respiratory syncytial virus, chlamydia, mycoplasma, and cytomegalovirus in children in Papua New Guinea.  

PubMed Central

Paired serum samples were collected from 94 children with pneumonia admitted to Goroka Hospital, Papua New Guinea. All but three of the children were aged 1-24 months. Only nine children were malnourished, with weight for age less than 70% of the Harvard median (three had weight for age less than 60% of the Harvard median). Pneumocystis carinii antigen was detected in the serum of 23 children. Twenty two children had serological evidence of recent infection with respiratory syncytial virus. Five children were probably infected with Chlamydia trachomatis at the time of the study, and there was less convincing serological evidence of current infection in a further 11 children. Five children showed a fourfold rise in antibody to Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Although only one child showed a fourfold rise in antibody to cytomegalovirus, 86 children had this antibody. No child showed a fourfold rise in antibody to Ureaplasma urealyticum or Legionella pneumophila. P carinii, respiratory syncytial virus, C trachomatis, M pneumoniae, and cytomegalovirus may be important causes of pneumonia in children in developing countries. PMID:3002538

Shann, F; Walters, S; Pifer, L L; Graham, D M; Jack, I; Uren, E; Birch, D; Stallman, N D

1986-01-01

274

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells play a role for effective innate immune responses during Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in mice.  

PubMed

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are known for their robust antiviral response and their pro-tolerance effects towards allergic diseases and tissue engraftments. However, little is known about the role pDCs may play during a bacterial infection, including pulmonary Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP). In this study, we investigated the role of pDCs during pulmonary CP infection. Our results revealed that depletion of pDCs during acute CP infection in mice results in delayed and reduced lung inflammation, with an early delay in cellular recruitment and significant reduction in early cytokine production in the lungs. This was followed by impaired and delayed bacterial clearance from the lungs which then resulted in a severe and prolonged chronic inflammation and iBALT like structures containing large numbers of B and T cells in these animals. We also observed that increasing the pDC numbers in the lung by FLT3L treatment experimentally results in greater lung inflammation during acute CP infection. In contrast to these results, restimulation of T-cells in the draining lymph nodes of pDC-depleted mice induced greater amounts of proinflammatory cytokines than we observed in control mice. These results suggest that pDCs in the lung may provide critical proinflammatory innate immune responses in response to CP infection, but are suppressive towards adaptive immune responses in the lymph node. Thus pDCs in the lung and the draining lymph node appear to have different roles and phenotypes during acute CP infection and may play a role in host immune responses. PMID:23119083

Crother, Timothy R; Ma, Jun; Jupelli, Madhulika; Chiba, Norika; Chen, Shuang; Slepenkin, Anatoly; Alsabeh, Randa; Peterson, Ellena; Shimada, Kenichi; Arditi, Moshe

2012-01-01

275

Hepatitis B virus surface antigen as delivery vector can enhance Chlamydia trachomatis MOMP multi-epitope immune response in mice.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of sexually transmitted infections worldwide. There is currently no commercially available vaccine against C. trachomatis. Major outer membrane protein (MOMP) of C. trachomatis is considered to be an ideal candidate for prophylactic vaccine. We designed a MOMP multi-epitope containing T- and B-cell epitope-rich peptides and developed hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) as antigen delivery vehicle. In order to study the immunogenicity and efficacy of the candidate vaccine in a murine model of chlamydial genital infection, we engineered a recombinant plasmid expressing HBsAg and MOMP multi-epitope genes. Results of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence assay revealed successful expression of the recombinant HBsAg/MOMP multi-epitope gene at both the transcription and translation levels. Intramuscular administration in mice was able to elicit not only antibodies against Chlamydia and HBsAg but also cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity against Chlamydia. In addition, mice inoculated with the rHBsAg were highly resistant to C. trachomatis genital infection. The rHBsAg DNA with MOMP multi-epitope appended at the C terminus of the HBsAg stimulated a stronger immune response and protective response than that appended at the N terminus. Together, our results suggested that use of a recombinant HBsAg encoding the MOMP multi-epitope could be a powerful approach to developing a safe and immunogenic C. trachomatis vaccine. PMID:24458565

Zhu, Shanli; Feng, Yan; Rao, Pinhuan; Xue, Xiangyang; Chen, Shao; Li, Wenshu; Zhu, Guanbao; Zhang, Lifang

2014-05-01

276

Genital herpes complicating pregnancy.  

PubMed

Approximately 22% of pregnant women are infected with herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2, and 2% of women will acquire HSV during pregnancy. Remarkably, up to 90% of these women are undiagnosed because they are asymptomatic or have subtle symptoms attributed to other vulvovaginal disorders. Diagnosis of genital herpes relies on laboratory confirmation with culture or polymerase chain reaction assay of genital lesions and type-specific glycoprotein G-based serologic testing. Neonatal herpes is the most severe complication of genital HSV infection and is caused by contact with infected genital secretions at the time of labor. Maternal acquisition of HSV in the third trimester of pregnancy carries the highest risk of neonatal transmission. Despite advances in the diagnosis and treatment of neonatal herpes, little change in the incidence or serious sequelae from this infection has occurred. As such, prevention of the initial neonatal infection is critically important. Obstetricians are in a unique position to prevent vertical HSV transmission by identifying women with genital lesions at the time of labor for cesarean delivery, prescribing antiviral suppressive therapy as appropriate, and avoiding unnecessary invasive intrapartum procedures in women with genital herpes. Enhanced prevention strategies include identification of women at risk for HSV acquisition during pregnancy by testing women and possibly their partners for HSV antibodies and providing counseling to prevent transmission to women in late pregnancy. PMID:16199646

Brown, Zane A; Gardella, Carolyn; Wald, Anna; Morrow, Rhoda Ashley; Corey, Lawrence

2005-10-01

277

Impact of Mucosal Inflammation on Cervical Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1)-Specific CD8 T-Cell Responses in the Female Genital Tract during Chronic HIV Infection?  

PubMed Central

The female genital tract is the major route of heterosexual human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition and transmission. Here, we investigated whether HIV-specific CD8 T-cell-mediated immune responses could be detected in the genital mucosa of chronically HIV-infected women and whether these were associated with either local mucosal HIV shedding or local immune factors. We found that CD8+ T-cell gamma interferon responses to Gag were detectable at the cervix of HIV-infected women but that the magnitude of genital responses did not correlate with those similarly detected in blood. This indicates that ex vivo HIV responses in one compartment may not be predictive of those in the other. We found that increased genital tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels correlated significantly with levels of Gag-specific CD8+ T cells at the cervix. Women who were detectably shedding virus in the genital tract had significantly increased cervical levels of TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6, and IL-8 compared to women who were not detectably shedding virus. We were, however, unable to detect any association between the magnitude of cervical HIV-specific responses and mucosal HIV shedding. Our results support the hypothesis that proinflammatory cytokines in the female genital tract may promote HIV replication and shedding. In addition, we further show that inflammatory cytokines are associated with increased levels of HIV-specific CD8 effector cells at the genital mucosa but that these were not able to control genital HIV shedding. PMID:18562528

Gumbi, Pamela P.; Nkwanyana, Nonhlanhla N.; Bere, Alfred; Burgers, Wendy A.; Gray, Clive M.; Williamson, Anna-Lise; Hoffman, Margaret; Coetzee, David; Denny, Lynette; Passmore, Jo-Ann S.

2008-01-01

278

Infections, Immunity, and Atherosclerosis Associations of Antibodies to Chlamydia pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori, and Cytomegalovirus With Immune Reactions to Heat-Shock Protein 60 and Carotid or Femoral Atherosclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Atherogenesis involves inflammatory processes in which infections are incriminated as possible contributors. Methods and Results—We evaluated cardiovascular risk factors as well as seropositivity to Chlamydia pneumoniae , Helicobacter pylori, and cytomegalovirus in a population-based study. A significant association between prevalence and severity of atherosclerosis in carotid and femoral arteries and IgA antibodies to C pneumoniae was demonstrated that was not

Manuel Mayr; Stefan Kiechl; Johann Willeit; Georg Wick; Qingbo Xu

279

Chlamydia trachomatis-Infected Patients Display Variable Antibody Profiles against the Nine-Member Polymorphic Membrane Protein Family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genomic analysis of the Chlamydiaceae has revealed a multigene family encoding large, putatively auto- transported polymorphic membrane proteins (Pmps) with nine members in the sexually transmitted pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis. While various pathogenesis-related functions are emerging for the Pmps, observed genotypic and phenotypic variation among several chlamydial Pmps in various Chlamydia species has led us to hypothesize that the pmp gene

Chun Tan; Ru-ching Hsia; Huizhong Shou; Catherine L. Haggerty; Roberta B. Ness; Charlotte A. Gaydos; Deborah Dean; Amy M. Scurlock; David P. Wilson; Patrik M. Bavoil

2009-01-01

280

Herpes Simplex Virus-2 Genital Tract Shedding Is Not Predictable over Months or Years in Infected Persons.  

PubMed

Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) is a chronic reactivating infection that leads to recurrent shedding episodes in the genital tract. A minority of episodes are prolonged, and associated with development of painful ulcers. However, currently, available tools poorly predict viral trajectories and timing of reactivations in infected individuals. We employed principal components analysis (PCA) and singular value decomposition (SVD) to interpret HSV-2 genital tract shedding time series data, as well as simulation output from a stochastic spatial mathematical model. Empirical and model-derived, time-series data gathered over >30 days consists of multiple complex episodes that could not be reduced to a manageable number of descriptive features with PCA and SVD. However, single HSV-2 shedding episodes, even those with prolonged duration and complex morphologies consisting of multiple erratic peaks, were consistently described using a maximum of four dominant features. Modeled and clinical episodes had equivalent distributions of dominant features, implying similar dynamics in real and simulated episodes. We applied linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to simulation output and identified that local immune cell density at the viral reactivation site had a predictive effect on episode duration, though longer term shedding suggested chaotic dynamics and could not be predicted based on spatial patterns of immune cell density. These findings suggest that HSV-2 shedding patterns within an individual are impossible to predict over weeks or months, and that even highly complex single HSV-2 episodes can only be partially predicted based on spatial distribution of immune cell density. PMID:25375183

Dhankani, Varsha; Kutz, J Nathan; Schiffer, Joshua T

2014-11-01

281

Herpes Simplex Virus-2 Genital Tract Shedding Is Not Predictable over Months or Years in Infected Persons  

PubMed Central

Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) is a chronic reactivating infection that leads to recurrent shedding episodes in the genital tract. A minority of episodes are prolonged, and associated with development of painful ulcers. However, currently, available tools poorly predict viral trajectories and timing of reactivations in infected individuals. We employed principal components analysis (PCA) and singular value decomposition (SVD) to interpret HSV-2 genital tract shedding time series data, as well as simulation output from a stochastic spatial mathematical model. Empirical and model-derived, time-series data gathered over >30 days consists of multiple complex episodes that could not be reduced to a manageable number of descriptive features with PCA and SVD. However, single HSV-2 shedding episodes, even those with prolonged duration and complex morphologies consisting of multiple erratic peaks, were consistently described using a maximum of four dominant features. Modeled and clinical episodes had equivalent distributions of dominant features, implying similar dynamics in real and simulated episodes. We applied linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to simulation output and identified that local immune cell density at the viral reactivation site had a predictive effect on episode duration, though longer term shedding suggested chaotic dynamics and could not be predicted based on spatial patterns of immune cell density. These findings suggest that HSV-2 shedding patterns within an individual are impossible to predict over weeks or months, and that even highly complex single HSV-2 episodes can only be partially predicted based on spatial distribution of immune cell density. PMID:25375183

Dhankani, Varsha; Kutz, J. Nathan; Schiffer, Joshua T.

2014-01-01

282

Differential Susceptibilities to Azithromycin Treatment of Chlamydial Infection in the Gastrointestinal Tract and Cervix  

PubMed Central

Evidence from animal studies suggests that chlamydiae may persist in the gastrointestinal tract (GI) and be a reservoir for reinfection of the genital tract. We hypothesize that there may be a differential susceptibility of organisms in the GI and genital tracts. To determine the effect of azithromycin on persistent chlamydial gut infection, C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice were infected orally and genitally and treated with azithromycin (Az) orally (20, 40, or 80 mg/kg of body weight), and the numbers of chlamydiae were determined from cervix and cecal tissues. The Az concentration in the cecum and cervix was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). Az treatment cleared genital infection in both C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice; however, GI infection was not cleared with the same doses. HPLC data showed the presence of Az at both sites of infection, and significant amounts of Az were measured in treatment groups. However, no significant difference in Az levels between the cecum and the cervix was observed, indicating similar levels of Az reaching both sites of infection. These data indicate that antibiotic levels that are sufficient to cure genital infection are ineffectual against GI infection. The results suggest a reevaluation of antibiotic therapy for chlamydial infection. PMID:24100498

Melnyk, Stepan; Spencer, Nicole; Bowlin, Anne; Rank, Roger G.

2013-01-01

283

Multilocus Sequence Analysis Provides Insights into Molecular Epidemiology of Chlamydia pecorum Infections in Australian Sheep, Cattle, and Koalas  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia pecorum is a significant pathogen of domestic livestock and wildlife. We have developed a C. pecorum-specific multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) scheme to examine the genetic diversity of and relationships between Australian sheep, cattle, and koala isolates. An MLSA of seven concatenated housekeeping gene fragments was performed using 35 isolates, including 18 livestock isolates (11 Australian sheep, one Australian cow, and six U.S. livestock isolates) and 17 Australian koala isolates. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the koala isolates formed a distinct clade, with limited clustering with C. pecorum isolates from Australian sheep. We identified 11 MLSA sequence types (STs) among Australian C. pecorum isolates, 10 of them novel, with koala and sheep sharing at least one identical ST (designated ST2013Aa). ST23, previously identified in global C. pecorum livestock isolates, was observed here in a subset of Australian bovine and sheep isolates. Most notably, ST23 was found in association with multiple disease states and hosts, providing insights into the transmission of this pathogen between livestock hosts. The complexity of the epidemiology of this disease was further highlighted by the observation that at least two examples of sheep were infected with different C. pecorum STs in the eyes and gastrointestinal tract. We have demonstrated the feasibility of our MLSA scheme for understanding the host relationship that exists between Australian C. pecorum strains and provide the first molecular epidemiological data on infections in Australian livestock hosts. PMID:23740730

Jelocnik, Martina; Frentiu, Francesca D.; Timms, Peter

2013-01-01

284

Neonatal case of herpes simplex virus encephalitis after delivery from a woman whose genital herpes simplex virus infection had been treated with acyclovir.  

PubMed

A case of herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis in a neonate after delivery from a woman whose genital HSV infection had been treated with acyclovir is reported. The main approach to prevent genital HSV infection in the neonate is interruption of transmission at the time of delivery. Guidelines for prophylactic therapy with acyclovir have been established, but the risk of neonatal infection remains. A fever began to develop in a male neonate delivered vaginally from a 35-year-old woman. Treatment with intravenous acyclovir was started on the basis of a diagnosis of HSV encephalitis, because polymerase chain reaction was positive for HSV in the cerebrospinal fluid. The mother had had a first genital HSV infection during the second trimester, but treatment with injected acyclovir had caused the blisters and erosion to resolve by the time of delivery. Important steps for preventing neonatal HSV infection are the appropriate treatment of mothers with a history of genital HSV infection, the assessment of delivery methods, and the appropriate treatment of neonates. PMID:24419718

Kumasaka, Sakae; Takagi, Atsushi; Kuwabara, Kentaro; Migita, Makoto

2013-01-01

285

Genital herpes  

MedlinePLUS

... spread from the mouth to the genitals during oral sex. HSV-2 most often causes genital herpes. HSV- ... herpes is to avoid all sexual contact, including oral sex. Being in a long-term, mutually monogamous relationship ...

286

Genital Herpes  

MedlinePLUS

... around the mouth) can transmit the virus through oral sex to another person's genitals. Genital herpes is a ... intercourse (vaginal, oral, or anal sex). Girls receiving oral sex should have their partners use dental dams as ...

287

Genital Herpes  

MedlinePLUS

... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Understanding Genital Herpes Cause Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Prevention Complications Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease. According to the Centers for Disease Control and ...

288

Genital Herpes  

MedlinePLUS

... Herpes - CDC Fact Sheet Herpes is a common sexually transmitted disease (STD) that any sexually active person can get. ... plain language for individuals with general questions about sexually transmitted diseases. What is genital herpes? Genital herpes is an ...

289

Profiling Antibody Responses to Infections by Chlamydia abortus Enables Identification of Potential Virulence Factors and Candidates for Serodiagnosis  

PubMed Central

Enzootic abortion of ewes (EAE) due to infection with the obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia (C.) abortus is an important zoonosis leading to considerable economic loss to agriculture worldwide. The pathogen can be transmitted to humans and may lead to serious infection in pregnant women. Knowledge about epidemiology, clinical course and transmission to humans is hampered by the lack of reliable diagnostic tools. Immunoreactive proteins, which are expressed in infected animals and humans, may serve as novel candidates for diagnostic marker proteins and represent putative virulence factors. In order to broaden the spectrum of immunogenic C. abortus proteins we applied 2D immunoblot analysis and screening of an expression library using human and animal sera. We have identified 48 immunoreactive proteins representing potential diagnostic markers and also putative virulence factors, such as CAB080 (homologue of the “macrophage infectivity potentiator”, MIP), CAB167 (homologue of the “translocated actin recruitment protein”, TARP), CAB712 (homologue of the “chlamydial protease-like activity factor”, CPAF), CAB776 (homologue of the “Polymorphic membrane protein D”, PmpD), and the “hypothetical proteins” CAB063, CAB408 and CAB821, which are predicted to be type III secreted. We selected two putative virulence factors for further characterization, i.e. CAB080 (cMIP) and CAB063, and studied their expression profiles at transcript and protein levels. Analysis of the subcellular localization of both proteins throughout the developmental cycle revealed CAB063 being the first C. abortus protein shown to be translocated to the host cell nucleus. PMID:24260366

Forsbach-Birk, Vera; Foddis, Corinna; Simnacher, Ulrike; Wilkat, Max; Longbottom, David; Walder, Gernot; Benesch, Christiane; Ganter, Martin; Sachse, Konrad; Essig, Andreas

2013-01-01

290

Consistent Condom Use Reduces the Genital Human Papillomavirus Burden Among High-Risk Men: The HPV Infection in Men Study  

PubMed Central

Background.?Data supporting the efficacy of condoms against human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in males are limited. Therefore, we examined the effect of consistent condom use on genital HPV acquisition and duration of infection. Methods.?A prospective analysis was conducted within the HPV Infection in Men Study, a multinational HPV cohort study. Men who were recently sexually active (n = 3323) were stratified on the basis of sexual risk behaviors and partnerships. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, type-specific incidence of HPV infection and clearance were modeled for each risk group to assess independent associations with condom use. Results.?The risk of HPV acquisition was 2-fold lower among men with no steady sex partner who always used condoms, compared with those who never used condoms (hazard ratio, 0.54), after adjustment for country, age, race, education duration, smoking, alcohol, and number of recent sex partners. The probability of clearing an oncogenic HPV infection was 30% higher among nonmonogamous men who always used condoms with nonsteady sex partners, compared with men who never used condoms (hazard ratio, 1.29), after adjustment for country, age, race, education duration, marital status, smoking, alcohol, and number of recent sex partners. No protective effects of condom use were observed among monogamous men. Conclusions.?Condoms should be promoted in combination with HPV vaccination to prevent HPV infection in men. PMID:23644283

Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William; Papenfuss, Mary R.; Salmeron, Jorge J.; Quiterio, Manuel M.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Villa, Luisa L.; Giuliano, Anna R.

2013-01-01

291

Genital Herpes  

MedlinePLUS

... two types of viruses. The viruses are called herpes simplex type 1 and herpes simplex type 2. How common is genital herpes? Genital ... herpes). It is important that you avoid getting herpes during pregnancy. If you are pregnant and have genital herpes, ...

292

Health-related quality of life in Indian patients with three viral sexually transmitted infections: herpes simplex virus-2, genital human papilloma virus and HIV  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundHealth-related quality of life (HRQOL) has not been studied in Indian patients with viral sexually transmitted infections (STIs): herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) and genital human papilloma virus (HPV) infections. Furthermore, there is no reported study that compares HRQOL among these two viral STIs and HIV.MethodsAll consenting adults with any of the three viral infections attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic

Rama Raj; Vishnubhatla Sreenivas; Manju Mehta; Somesh Gupta

2011-01-01

293

Field Evaluation of the Cepheid GeneXpert Chlamydia trachomatis Assay for Detection of Infection in a Trachoma Endemic Community in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the sensitivity, specificity, and field utility of the Cepheid GeneXpert Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) Assay (GeneXpert) for ocular chlamydia infection compared to Roche Amplicor CT assay (Amplicor). Methods In a trachoma-endemic community in Kongwa Tanzania, 144 children ages 0 to 9 were surveyed to assess clinical trachoma and had two ocular swabs taken. One swab was processed at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore MD, using Amplicor, (Roche Molecular Diagnostics) and the other swab was processed at a field station in Kongwa using the GeneXpert Chlamydia trachomatis/Neisseria gonorrhoeae assay (Cepheid). The sensitivity and specificity of GeneXpert was compared to the Amplicor assay. Results Of the 144 swabs taken the prevalence of follicular trachoma by clinical exam was 43.7%, and by evidence of infection according to Amplicor was 28.5%. A total of 17 specimens (11.8%) could not be processed by GeneXpert in the field due to lack of sample volume, other specimen issues or electricity failure. The sensitivity of GeneXpert when compared to Amplicor was 100% and the specificity was 95%. The GeneXpert test identified more positives in individuals with clinical trachoma than Amplicor, 55% versus 52%. Conclusion The GeneXpert test for C. trachomatis performed with high sensitivity and specificity and demonstrated excellent promise as a field test for trachoma control. PMID:23861986

Jenson, Alexander; Dize, Laura; Mkocha, Harran; Munoz, Beatriz; Lee, Jennifer; Gaydos, Charlotte; Quinn, Thomas; West, Sheila K.

2013-01-01

294

Infection of female primary lower genital tract epithelial cells after natural pseudotyping of HIV-1: possible implications for sexual transmission of HIV-1.  

PubMed

The global AIDS pandemic continues to expand and in some regions of the world, such as southern Africa, the prevalence of HIV-1 infection exceeds 20%. The devastating spread of the virus in young women in these countries appears disproportional to overall risk of infection. Regions with high prevalence of HIV-1 are often also highly endemic for other pathogenic viruses including HSV, CMV and HTLV. We propose that acquisition by HIV-1 of the envelope glycoproteins of other viruses, in a process we call "natural pseudotyping," expands the cellular tropism of HIV-1, enabling it to infect female genital epithelial cells directly and thereby dramatically increasing risk of infection during sexual intercourse. In this proof-of-concept study, we demonstrate that when HIV-1 co-infects T cells along with the gammaretrovirus xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV), progeny HIV-1 particles are produced capable of infecting primary vaginal, ectocervical and endocervical epithelial cells. These cell types are normally resistant to HIV-1 infection. Infection of primary genital cells was neutralized by antisera against the XMRV glycoprotein, confirming that infection was mediated by the XMRV glycoprotein acquired through pseudotyping of HIV. Inhibition by AZT showed that active replication of HIV-1 occurred in these cells and ruled out non-specific endocytic uptake of the virus. These results demonstrate that natural pseudotyping can expand the tropism of HIV-1 to include genital epithelial cells and have potential implications for sexual transmission of the virus. PMID:25010677

Tang, Yuyang; George, Alvin; Nouvet, Franklin; Sweet, Stephanie; Emeagwali, Nkiruka; Taylor, Harry E; Simmons, Glenn; Hildreth, James E K

2014-01-01

295

Prevalence of genital Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma, Gardnerella , and human papillomavirus in Japanese men with urethritis, and risk factors for detection of urethral human papillomavirus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

To analyze the risk factors for HPV infection in the urethra, we examined the prevalence of various microorganisms, for example\\u000a Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Ureaplasma parvum, Gardnerella vaginalis, and human papillomavirus (HPV) in Japanese male patients with urethritis, and investigated their sexual backgrounds. Rubbed\\u000a samples obtained from the distal urethra and questionnaires regarding sexual

Shohei Kawaguchi; Toshiyuki Sasagawa; Keiichi Furubayashi; Masayoshi Shimamura; Yuji Maeda; Hiroyuki Konaka; Atsushi Mizokami; Eitetsu Koh; Mikio Namiki

296

The use of molecular techniques for the diagnosis and epidemiologic study of sexually transmitted infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular diagnostic tests are more sensitive and, in many cases, more specific than conventional laboratory methods for the\\u000a detection of sexually transmitted infections. Here, we review recently developed molecular methods for the diagnosis and subtyping\\u000a of the most common sexually transmitted infections: infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, human papillomavirus, Trichomonas vaginalis, and the agents of genital ulcer disease

Carolyn M. Black; Stephen A. Morse

2000-01-01

297

Clinical conditions associated with positive complement fixation serology for Chlamydiae.  

PubMed Central

The hospital records of 242 patients with diagnostic chlamydial complement fixation (CF) titres (seroconversion and/or titre greater than or equal to 64) found among 60,000 patients screened for suspected viral illnesses were reviewed to study the clinical conditions associated with positive CF serology for Chlamydiae. After excluding typical genital C. trachomatis infections, the majority of the remainder were considered to represent C. psittaci infections. Respiratory symptoms were the most common clinical manifestations of chlamydial infections detectable by CF, but the majority (58%) of the patients did not have pneumonia. Abdominal, neurological as well as urinary tract symptoms were common. Cutaneous, joint, cardiac, genital and ocular manifestations were also noted. Fever (greater than or equal to 38.5 degrees C) was present in 62% of the patients. The ESR was raised (greater than or equal to 20 mm/h) in the majority of the patients (83%), but the leucocyte count was usually (86%) within normal limits. Because the clinical spectrum of C. psittaci infections is apparently broad, serological tests for detecting antibodies to C. psittaci (e.g. CF) should be used widely in various clinical conditions and not for patients with pneumonia alone. PMID:3556433

Puolakkainen, M.; Kousa, M.; Saikku, P.

1987-01-01

298

478?HPV, HSV2, HIV AND Chlamydia Trachomatis Infections as a Potential Accompanying Factor for Immunodeficiency and Development of Allergic Processes. Final Results  

PubMed Central

Background Infections caused by various microbes may induce immunodeficiency and allergies. Methods Tests were conducted on 579 potentially healthy people (172 women and 407 men, between 25 and 30 years), performed twice: in a diagnosis and after 6 to 12 months. Lymphocytes and NK cells from peripheral blood were assessed using cytometry. G, A, M immunoglobulin concentrations were determined by the turbidimetry. IgE concentration was measured by ELFA. HSV2, HIV and Chlamydia trachomatis infections were detected on the basis of presence of IgM and IgG antibodies tested by ELISA. For the assessment of HPV infections, DNA from the urinary-tract, squamous, epithelial cells were tested through PCR. The statistical analysis was undertaken using regression analyses. Results In 579 people in the case of 65 people HPV infections were confirmed 10% men, 14.8% women. In 65 patients, in 1 case concentration of IgA was decreased, in 7 cases IgM. In 21 cases, there was higher concentration of IgE. During the cytometric analyses a decreased number of T CD3+ was found in 3 cases, BCD19+ in 5, TCD4+ in 5, T CD8+ in 4, and NK cells in 8 cases. The check for HSV2 was positive for 17 people: 1.5% men, 6.4% women. In this group, in 3 cases the concentration of IgA was decreased, in 2 cases IgM was lowered, in 4 cases there were higher concentrations of IgE. Decreased number of lymphocytes CD19+ was observed for 1 person and for 1 person NK cells. Chlamydia trachomatis infections were positive in 10 cases: 1.5% men, 2.3% women, in this group 1 person had lower IgA and 2 persons had increased concentrations of IgE. HIV infection was negative for all the groups. The examination was repeated for 171 out of 579 people after 6 months. HPV infections were positive in 12.9% cases: 14.9% men, 10.8% women; HSV2 in 11 persons: 2.3% men, 10.7% women; Chlamydia trachomatis in 4 cases: 2.3% men 2.4% women. Conclusions No significant correlation was observed between HPV, HSV2, HIV and Chlamydia trachomatis infections and a relevant deviation from the norm of the investigated immunological parameters.

Go??biowska-Wawrzyniak, Maria; Markiewicz, Katarzyna; Jakimiuk, Artur; Tomasz, Maciejewski; Kozarc, Agata; Rytwi?ski, Krzysztof; Wawrzyniak, Zbigniew

2012-01-01

299

Recruitment of BAD by the Chlamydia trachomatis Vacuole  

E-print Network

is accompanied by mitochondrial cytochrome c release. 14-3-3b does not associate with the Chlamydia pneumoniae responsible for ocular infections lead to blindness, while Chlamydia pneumoniae causes pneumonia in humansRecruitment of BAD by the Chlamydia trachomatis Vacuole Correlates with Host-Cell Survival Philippe

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

300

The Chlamydia Cascade: Enhanced STD Prevention Strategies for Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rising trends in Chlamydia, the prevalence in the adolescent female population, and the relevance of the sexually transmitted disease (STD) continue to be a burden in the United States. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the most common cause of STDs is Chlamydia trachomatis, the infecting pathogen for Chlamydia, making this a worldwide health concern. The WHO also

Catherine Chiaradonna

2008-01-01

301

Acyclovir vs isoprinosine (immunovir) for suppression of recurrent genital herpes simplex infection.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To compare the efficacy and safety of oral acyclovir (400 mg twice daily) with oral isoprinosine (500 mg twice daily) in the suppression of recurrent genital herpes. DESIGN--Double-blind, double-dummy, randomised, controlled, parallel group trial. SETTING--13 centres in UK, Belgium and Germany. SUBJECTS--127 immunocompetent patients with frequently recurring genital herpes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Proportions of patients reporting recurrences, recurrence frequency, and mean duration of lesions during breakthrough recurrences in each treatment group during a 6 month treatment period; time to first recurrence during treatment and follow-up after treatment cessation. RESULTS--During treatment, acyclovir recipients showed significant differences (p < 0.05) when compared with isoprinosine recipients in terms of a lower proportion reporting recurrences (31% vs 96%), a reduced mean number of reported recurrences per patient (0.6 vs 3.6), a shorter mean duration of breakthrough lesions (6.4 days vs 8.2 days), and a longer mean time (standard error) to first recurrence (143.7 (9.1) days vs 40.5 (5.4) days. The mean time to first recurrence after treatment cessation did not differ between the two groups. As compared with placebo recipients, isoprinosine treated patients had an increased recurrence frequency (3.6 vs 2.5) during treatment, and a shorter time to first recurrence after treatment cessation. All treatments were well tolerated without serious adverse events or toxicity. CONCLUSIONS--Acyclovir is very effective in suppressing recurrent genital herpes and is clearly superior to isoprinosine which is not clinically useful in the dosage studied. PMID:1385295

Kinghorn, G R; Woolley, P D; Thin, R N; De Maubeuge, J; Foidart, J M; Engst, R

1992-01-01

302

Comparison of Different Forms of Herpes Simplex Replication-Defective Mutant Viruses as Vaccines in a Mouse Model of HSV2 Genital Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some subunit vaccines composed of herpes simplex virus (HSV) glycoproteins have been shown to protect guinea pigs against primary and recurrent genital infection by HSV-2. However, these vaccines were ineffective or only marginally effective in clinical trials. To attempt to define an animal model that would better discriminate the protective capacity of different vaccine formulations, we have examined the requirements

Xavier J. Da Costa; Lynda A. Morrison; David M. Knipe

2001-01-01

303

Nearly 5 Percent of Young U.S. Women Have Chlamydia: CDC  

MedlinePLUS

... September 25, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Chlamydia Infections Health Disparities Women's Health THURSDAY, Sept. 25, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- ... rights reserved. More Health News on: Chlamydia Infections Health Disparities Women's Health Recent Health News Page last updated ...

304

Genital lesions in male red fronted gazelles ( Gazella rufifrons) experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei and the effect of melarsamine hydrochloride (Cymelarsan ®) and diminazene aceturate (Berenil ®) in its treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty red fronted gazelles (Gazella rufifrons) were used to assess the genital lesions associated with trypanosomosis and the efficacy of melarsamine hydrochloride (Cymelarsan®) and diminazene aceturate (Berenil®) in the treatment of the condition. The animals were divided into 6 equal groups (A–F). Animals in groups A–E were infected with Trypanosoma brucei, and later treated on day 8 post infection (p.i.)

A. W. Mbaya; C. O. Nwosu; H. A. Kumshe

2011-01-01

305

Chlamydia Test  

MedlinePLUS

... or multiple sex partners Use condoms inconsistently Do commercial sex work Use illegal drugs Started sexual relationships early in adolescence Live in a detention facility Are a man who has had sex with men For pregnant women, the CDC recommends screening for chlamydia during the ...

306

A new role of the complement system: C3 provides protection in a mouse model of lung infection with intracellular Chlamydia psittaci.  

PubMed

The complement system modulates the intensity of innate and specific immunity. While it protects against infections by extracellular bacteria its role in infection with obligate intracellular bacteria, such as the avian and human pathogen Chlamydia (C.) psittaci, is still unknown. In the present study, knockout mice lacking C3 and thus all main complement effector functions were intranasally infected with C. psittaci strain DC15. Clinical parameters, lung histology, and cytokine levels were determined. A subset of infections was additionally performed with mice lacking C5 or C5a receptors. Complement activation occurred before symptoms of pneumonia appeared. Mice lacking C3 were ?100 times more susceptible to the intracellular bacteria compared to wild-type mice, with all C3(-/-) mice succumbing to infection after day 9. At a low infective dose, C3(-/-) mice became severely ill after an even longer delay, the kinetics suggesting a so far unknown link of complement to the adaptive, protective immune response against chlamydiae. The lethal phenotype of C3(-/-) mice is not based on differences in the anti-chlamydial IgG response (which is slightly delayed) as demonstrated by serum transfer experiments. In addition, during the first week of infection, the absence of C3 was associated with partial protection characterized by reduced weight loss, better clinical score and lower bacterial burden, which might be explained by a different mechanism. Lack of complement functions downstream of C5 had little effect. This study demonstrates for the first time a strong and complex influence of complement effector functions, downstream of C3 and upstream of C5, on the outcome of an infection with intracellular bacteria, such as C. psittaci. PMID:23189195

Bode, Jenny; Dutow, Pavel; Sommer, Kirsten; Janik, Katrin; Glage, Silke; Tümmler, Burkhard; Munder, Antje; Laudeley, Robert; Sachse, Konrad W; Klos, Andreas

2012-01-01

307

TRAIL-R1 Is a Negative Regulator of Pro-Inflammatory Responses and Modulates Long-Term Sequelae Resulting from Chlamydia trachomatis Infections in Humans  

PubMed Central

The immune system eliminates Chlamydia trachomatis infection through inflammation. However, uncontrolled inflammation can enhance pathology. In mice, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor (TRAIL-R), known for its effects on apoptosis, also regulates inflammation. In humans, the four homologues of TRAIL-R had never been investigated for effects on inflammation. Here, we examined whether TRAIL-R regulates inflammation during chlamydial infection. We examined TRAIL-R1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in an Ecuadorian cohort with and without C. trachomatis infections. There was a highly significant association for the TRAIL+626 homozygous mutant GG for infection vs no infection in this population. To confirm the results observed in the human population, primary lung fibroblasts and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) were isolated from wildtype (WT) and TRAIL-R-deficient mice, and TRAIL-R1 levels in human cervical epithelial cells were depleted by RNA interference. Infection of BMDMs and primary lung fibroblasts with C. trachomatis strain L2, or the murine pathogen C. muridarum, led to higher levels of MIP2 mRNA expression or IL-1? secretion from TRAIL-R-deficient cells than WT cells. Similarly, depletion of TRAIL-R1 expression in human epithelial cells resulted in a higher level of IL-8 mRNA expression and protein secretion during C. trachomatis infection. We conclude that human TRAIL-R1 SNPs and murine TRAIL-R modulate the innate immune response against chlamydial infection. This is the first evidence that human TRAIL-R1 is a negative regulator of inflammation and plays a role in modulating Chlamydia pathogenesis. PMID:24695582

Al-Kuhlani, Mufadhal; Rothchild, James; Pal, Sukumar; Ouburg, Sander

2014-01-01

308

Bactericidal activity of first-choice antibiotics against gamma interferon-induced persistent infection of human epithelial cells by Chlamydia trachomatis.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis is responsible for clinically important chronic inflammatory diseases of humans, including trachoma and pelvic inflammatory disease. Persistent infection of mucosal sites may contribute to the development of these chronic inflammatory diseases. Standard clinical therapy results in satisfactory cure rates of acute infections; however, chronic infection associated with persistence has been suggested to be less responsive to antibiotic therapy. We report the efficiency of two first-line chlamydial antibiotics, azithromycin and doxycycline, under conditions of eradication of C. trachomatis persistent infection using the in vitro model of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-mediated persistence and reactivation from persistence. Doxycycline was superior in eradicating acute (minimal bactericidal concentration [MBC](100) = 2.5 to 5.0 microg/ml) compared to persistent (MBC(100) = 10 to 50 mirog/ml) infection. In contrast, azithromycin was significantly more effective in eradicating persistent infection (MBC(100) = 2.5 to 5.0 microg/ml) than acute infection (MBC(100) = 10 to 50 microg/ml). The superior bactericidal effect of azithromycin against persistent infection was found to correlate with the enhanced uptake of the drug by IFN-gamma-treated infected epithelial cells. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that azithromycin should be a particularly efficacious anti-infective agent for the eradication of IFN-gamma-induced chlamydial persistent infection in vivo. PMID:15855497

Reveneau, Nathalie; Crane, Deborah D; Fischer, Elizabeth; Caldwell, Harlan D

2005-05-01

309

High prevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in cyclosporin A-induced post-transplant gingival overgrowth tissue and evidence for the possibility of persistent infection despite short-term treatment with azithromycin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Cyclosporin A (CsA) induces gingival overgrowth (GO) in up to a quarter of CsA-treated renal transplant recipients. A short-term therapy with azithromycin effectively reduces GO, indicating a possible involvement of microorganisms in the patho- genesis of CsA-induced GO. We aimed to determine if there could be any relationship between infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae and GO pathogenesis. In addition, we

Harald C. Worm; Gerhard H. Wirnsberger; Astrid Mauric; Herwig Holzer

2004-01-01

310

Epidemiologic and Clinical Factors of Chlamydia trachomatis in Black, Hispanic and White Female Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Rates of genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Trichomonas vaginalis were determined prospectively in 396 sexually active female adolescents from three ethnically different urban teen clinics. The organisms were identified respectively in cultures of specimens from 21%, 7% and 6% of all adolescents; 28%, 16% and 20% of blacks; 23%, 4% and 2% of Hispanics, and 14%, 2% and 1% of whites. C trachomatis was identified in specimens from 27% of pregnant adolescents and from 42% of adolescents who had gonorrhea or trichomoniasis. Of 85 Chlamydia-positive adolescents, 47 (55%) were asymptomatic. Physical findings significantly associated (P <.001) with chlamydial infection were vaginal discharge, cervical inflammation and mucopurulent endocervical discharge. Not significantly associated (P >.05) with Chlamydia were the use of oral contraception or symptoms of lower abdominal pain, vaginal discharge or dysuria. Because in sexually active female adolescents C trachomatis is three times more common than N gonorrhoeae, care givers need to consider routine screening or epidemiologic treatment (or both) for both pathogens. PMID:4036112

Davidson, Arthur J.; Judson, Franklyn N.; Eagar, Ronald M.; Beach, Roberta K.

1985-01-01

311

A Bovine Model of Respiratory Chlamydia psittaci Infection: Challenge Dose Titration  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to establish and evaluate a bovine respiratory model of experimentally induced acute C. psittaci infection. Calves are natural hosts and pathogenesis may resemble the situation in humans. Intrabronchial inoculation of C. psittaci strain DC15 was performed in calves aged 2–3 months via bronchoscope at four different challenge doses from 106 to 109 inclusion-forming units (ifu) per animal. Control groups received either UV-inactivated C. psittaci or cell culture medium. While 106 ifu/calf resulted in a mild respiratory infection only, the doses of 107 and 108 induced fever, tachypnea, dry cough, and tachycardia that became apparent 2–3 days post inoculation (dpi) and lasted for about one week. In calves exposed to 109 ifu C. psittaci, the respiratory disease was accompanied by severe systemic illness (apathy, tremor, markedly reduced appetite). At the time point of most pronounced clinical signs (3 dpi) the extent of lung lesions was below 10% of pulmonary tissue in calves inoculated with 106 and 107 ifu, about 15% in calves inoculated with 108 and more than 30% in calves inoculated with 109 ifu C. psittaci. Beside clinical signs and pathologic lesions, the bacterial load of lung tissue and markers of pulmonary inflammation (i.e., cell counts, concentration of proteins and eicosanoids in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid) were positively associated with ifu of viable C. psittaci. While any effect of endotoxin has been ruled out, all effects could be attributed to infection by the replicating bacteria. In conclusion, the calf represents a suitable model of respiratory chlamydial infection. Dose titration revealed that both clinically latent and clinically manifest infection can be reproduced experimentally by either 106 or 108 ifu/calf of C. psittaci DC15 while doses above 108 ifu C. psittaci cannot be recommended for further studies for ethical reasons. This defined model of different clinical expressions of chlamydial infection allows studying host-pathogen interactions. PMID:22299031

Reinhold, Petra; Ostermann, Carola; Liebler-Tenorio, Elisabeth; Berndt, Angela; Vogel, Anette; Lambertz, Jacqueline; Rothe, Michael; Ruttger, Anke; Schubert, Evelyn; Sachse, Konrad

2012-01-01

312

Genital injury  

MedlinePLUS

Genital injury in young girls may be caused by placing items into the vagina. Young girls (usually less than 4 years of age) may ... assault. The health care provider should ask the girl how the ... In young boys, common causes of genital injury include: Having ...

313

Abnormalities of cornified cell envelopes isolated from human papillomavirus type 11-infected genital epithelium.  

PubMed

Keratinocytes are the predominant cells in human skin. As keratinocytes differentiate, the nuclei are lost and the cornified cell envelope (CCE) develops, forming a covalently cross-linked, insoluble structure under the cell membrane. Layers of anuclear CCEs in the stratum corneum provide a barrier against water loss and mechanical damage and are a first line of immunologic defense. Infection of keratinocytes with human papillomaviruses (HPVs) induces proliferation and abnormalities including retention of nuclei in the stratum corneum and perinuclear halo formation. For effective transmission, HPV virions must be released from the CCE, a normally very durable structure. Therefore, it is likely that HPV infection affects the CCE in a manner that would facilitate virion release. To investigate the effects of HPV 11 infection on morphology and fragility, CCEs were purified from infected and uninfected epithelium. CCEs isolated from uninfected epithelium were smooth, cuboidal, and sonicated into long coiled structures. In contrast, CCEs from HPV 11-infected epithelium were irregular in size and shape, with rough edges, and sonicated into small fragments. In addition, the thickness of CCEs from HPV 11-infected tissue was 65% that of uninfected epithelium. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that in contrast to uninfected epithelium, loricrin, the major component of the CCE, was abnormally distributed in the differentiated layers of HPV 11-infected epithelium. We conclude that in addition to the previously described epithelial abnormalities induced by HPV, the CCE is also affected by infection in ways that may facilitate transmission of virus from person to person. PMID:10814571

Brown, D R; Bryan, J T

2000-05-25

314

Detection of viral, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections in exacerbations of asthma in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A high frequency of virus infections has been recently pointed out in the exacerbations of asthma in children. Objectives: To confirm this, using conventional and molecular detection methods, and expanding the study to younger children.Study design: One hundred and thirty-two nasal aspirates from 75 children hospitalized for a severe attack of asthma were studied (32 infants, mean age 9.1

François Freymuth; Astrid Vabret; Jacques Brouard; Fabienne Toutain; Renaud Verdon; Joelle Petitjean; Stéphanie Gouarin; Jean-François Duhamel; Bernard Guillois

1999-01-01

315

Evaluation of the Abbott LCx Ligase Chain Reaction Assay for Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Urine and Genital Swab Specimens from a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Abbott LCx ligase chain reaction (LCR) assay for the simultaneous detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae was evaluated by using swab and urine specimens from 562 patients. C. trachomatis results by LCR were compared to those by the Gen-Probe PACE 2 assay, whereas N. gonorrhoeae results by LCR were compared to those by culture. The Gen-Probe and LCR

KAREN C. CARROLL; WILLIAM E. ALDEEN; MICHAEL MORRISON; ROBERTA ANDERSON; DEBORAH LEE; SUSAN MOTTICE

1998-01-01

316

Imaging of Chlamydia and host cell metabolism.  

PubMed

Chlamydial infections cause a wide range of acute and chronic diseases. Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterium while Chlamydia pneumoniae causes infections of the upper and lower respiratory tract. Chlamydia are obligate, intracellular bacteria with a biphasic developmental cycle that involves unique metabolic changes. Aside from entering an actively replicating state, Chlamydia may also implement persistent infections depending on different microenvironmental factors. In addition, changes in local oxygen availability and the composition of surrounding host microbiota are suggested to affect chlamydial growth and metabolism. Both bacteria and host cells endure characteristic metabolic changes during infection. Technical developments in recent years enable us to separately characterize chlamydial and host cell metabolism in living cells. This article focuses on novel approaches to analyze chlamydial metabolism such as NAD(P)H fluorescence lifetime imaging by two-photon microscopy. In addition, we provide an overview regarding promising future possibilities to further elucidate host-pathogen metabolic interactions. PMID:24810350

Käding, Nadja; Szaszák, Márta; Rupp, Jan

2014-04-01

317

Lactobacilli Inactivate Chlamydia trachomatis through Lactic Acid but Not H2O2  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus species dominate the microbiome in the lower genital tract of most reproductive-age women. Producing lactic acid and H2O2, lactobacilli are believed to play an important role in prevention of colonization by and growth of pathogens. However, to date, there have been no reported studies characterizing how lactobacilli interact with Chlamydia trachomatis, a leading sexually transmitted bacterium. In this report, we demonstrate inactivation of C. trachomatis infectivity by culture media conditioned by Lactobacillus crispatus, L. gasseri and L. jensenii, known to be dominating organisms in the human vaginal microbiome. Lactobacillus still cultures produced lactic acid, leading to time- and concentration-dependent killing of C. trachomatis. Neutralization of the acidic media completely reversed chlamydia killing. Addition of lactic acid into Lactobacillus-unconditioned growth medium recapitulated the chlamydiacidal activity of conditioned media. The H2O2 concentrations in the still cultures were found to be comparable to those reported for the cervicovaginal fluid, but insufficient to inactivate chlamydiae. Aeration of Lactobacillus cultures by shaking markedly induced H2O2 production, but strongly inhibited Lactobacillus growth and lactic acid production, and thus severely affected acidification, leading to significantly reduced chlamydiacidal efficiency. These observations indicate lactobacilli inactivate chlamydiae primarily through maintaining acidity in a relatively hypoxic environment in the vaginal lumen with limited H2O2, which is consistent with the notion that women with higher vaginal pH are more prone to sexually transmitted C. trachomatis infection. In addition to lactic acid, formic acid and acetic acid also exhibited potent chlamydiacidal activities. Taken together, our findings imply that lowering the vaginal pH through engineering of the vaginal microbiome and other means will make women less susceptible to C. trachomatis infection. PMID:25215504

Gong, Zheng; Luna, Yesmin; Yu, Ping; Fan, Huizhou

2014-01-01

318

Genital herpes - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

... 2010 Dec17;59(RR-12):1-110. Lentz GM, Eckert LO. Infections of the lower genital tracts: ... toxic shock syndrome, endometritis, and salpingitis. In: Lentz GM, Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, Katz VL, eds. Comprehensive ...

319

Direct detection of Chlamydia pneumoniae and cytomegalovirus in atherosclerotic tissue by immunohistochemistry and evaluation of serological response to these infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Atherosclerosis is recognized as an inflammatory disease on a world scale. The chronic process of inflammation may be promoted by microorganisms. Many pathogens have been investigated on their etiopathogenetical role in the atherosclerotic process, but the strongest association has been found for Chlamydia pneumoniae and cytomegalo- virus. Materials and methods: We investigated 57 specimens of carotid, iliac, femoral and

Silvija Jankauskienë-Kiverytë; Zita Kuèinskienë; Edvardas Þurauskas; Irena Bogušienë; Aida Laurinavièienë; Arvydas Laurinavièius

320

The biology and significance of human papillomavirus infections in the genital tract.  

PubMed Central

A variety of human papillomavirus (HPV) types infect the anogenital mucosa, giving rise to lesions that differ in clinical appearance, histology, and risk of malignant progression. Certain high-risk types (HPVs 16, 18, 31, 33, 35 and 39) have a strong association with high-grade epithelial neoplasia and invasive carcinomas of the anogenital tract. Cancer appears to have a multifactorial etiology, and HPV infection alone is probably insufficient for malignant transformation. The consistent association between HPV infection and anogenital cancers emphasizes, however, that the sexually transmitted papillomaviruses may have a necessary role in carcinogenesis. Hence, there is a prospect that vaccination programs may one day allow public health control of HPV infection, thereby eliminating an important risk factor. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 PMID:2847433

Reid, R.; Campion, M. J.

1988-01-01

321

A T cell epitope-based vaccine protects against chlamydial infection in HLA-DR4 transgenic mice.  

PubMed

Vaccination with recombinant chlamydial protease-like activity factor (rCPAF) has been shown to provide robust protection against genital Chlamydia infection. Adoptive transfer of IFN-? competent CPAF-specific CD4? T cells was sufficient to induce early resolution of chlamydial infection and reduction of subsequent pathology in recipient IFN-?-deficient mice indicating the importance of IFN-? secreting CD4? T cells in host defense against Chlamydia. In this study, we identify CD4? T cell reactive CPAF epitopes and characterize the activation of epitope-specific CD4? T cells following antigen immunization or Chlamydia challenge. Using the HLA-DR4 (HLA-DRB1*0401) transgenic mouse for screening overlapping peptides that induced T cell IFN-? production, we identified at least 5 CPAF T cell epitopes presented by the HLA-DR4 complex. Immunization of HLA-DR4 transgenic mice with a rCPAFep fusion protein containing these 5 epitopes induced a robust cell-mediated immune response and significantly accelerated the resolution of genital and pulmonary Chlamydia infection. rCPAFep vaccination induced CPAF-specific CD4? T cells in the spleen were detected using HLA-DR4/CPAF-epitope tetramers. Additionally, CPAF-specific CD4? clones could be detected in the mouse spleen following Chlamydia muridarum and a human Chlamydia trachomatis strain challenge using these novel tetramers. These results provide the first direct evidence that a novel CPAF epitope vaccine can provide protection and that HLA-DR4/CPAF-epitope tetramers can detect CPAF epitope-specific CD4? T cells in HLA-DR4 mice following C. muridarum or C. trachomatis infection. Such tetramers could be a useful tool for monitoring CD4? T cells in immunity to Chlamydia infection and in developing epitope-based human vaccines using the murine model. PMID:24096029

Li, Weidang; Murthy, Ashlesh K; Lanka, Gopala Krishna; Chetty, Senthilnath L; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Chambers, James P; Zhong, Guangming; Forsthuber, Thomas G; Guentzel, M Neal; Arulanandam, Bernard P

2013-11-19

322

Chlamydiae as etiologic agents in chronic undifferentiated spondylarthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The majority of patients with Chlamydia-induced reactive arthritis do not present with the classic triad of arthritis, conjunctivitis\\/iritis, and urethritis. Moreover, acute chlamydial infections are often asymptomatic. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of synovial Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae infections in patients with chronic undifferentiated spondylarthritis (uSpA). Methods. Study patients met the European

John D. Carter; Hervé C. Gérard; Luis R. Espinoza; Louis R. Ricca; Joanne Valeriano; Jessica Snelgrove; Cynthia Oszust; Frank B. Vasey; Alan P. Hudson

2009-01-01

323

An overview of genital warts.  

PubMed

Genital warts are a common sexually transmitted infection that is particularly prevalent in young people. Although the warts are usually painless and rarely cause any long-term health problems, they can cause significant psychological distress and relationship problems for those affected. This article provides an overview of genital warts to enable nurses to guide people in the prevention and treatment of the infection. PMID:24517695

Richards, Sara

324

Nonspecific genital ulcers.  

PubMed

Recent intervention of nonspecific genital ulcers has added refreshing dimensions to genital ulcer disease. It was considered pertinent to dwell on diverse clinical presentation and diagnostic strategies. It seems to possess spectrum. It includes infective causes, Epstein Bar Virus, tuberculosis, Leishmaniasis, HIV/AIDS related ulcers and amoebiasis. Noninfective causes are immunobullous disorders, aphthosis, Behcet's disease (BD), inflammatory bowel disease, lichen planus and lichen sclerosis et atrophicus, drug reactions, premalignant and malignant conditions, pyoderma gangrenosum, and hidradenitis suppurativa. The diagnostic features and treatment option of each disorder are succinctly outlined for ready reference. PMID:24559562

Sehgal, Virendra N; Pandhi, Deepika; Khurana, Ananta

2014-01-01

325

Vulvovaginal candida in a young sexually active population: prevalence and association with oro-genital sex and frequent pain at intercourse  

PubMed Central

Objective: To study the prevalence of vulvovaginal candida among sexually active adolescents. To determine past and present symptoms, including pain at intercourse and potential behavioural risk factors associated with vulvovaginal candidiasis. Methods: At an adolescent centre, 219 sexually active women who underwent genital examination, also completed a questionnaire on a history of genital symptoms and infections, sexual and hygiene habits, and the use of contraceptives. Symptoms and clinical signs were registered. Vaginal samples were analysed for candida species and urine for Chlamydia trachomatis. Results: Candida culture was positive in 42% of the women and only 15% were asymptomatic. A history of recurrent candidiasis was given by 22%. Frequent pain at intercourse was reported by 24% and frequent oro-genital sex by 42% of the women. Frequent pain at intercourse was significantly associated with both the growth of candida and a history of recurrent candidiasis. Oro-genital sex was an independent risk factor for the growth of candida. Conclusion: In sexually active adolescents, who underwent genital examination, candida cultures were positive in 42%. The habit of frequent oro-genital sex was associated with the growth of candida. Pain at intercourse was associated with the growth of candida and recurrent candidiasis. PMID:14755037

Rylander, E; Berglund, A; Krassny, C; Petrini, B

2004-01-01

326

Implementing chlamydia screening: what do women think? A systematic review of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Chlamydia trachomatis is a common sexually transmitted infection that can have serious consequences. It is universally agreed that screening for chlamydia infection should be offered to sexually active young women. We undertook a literature review to document the views, attitudes and opinions of women about being screened, tested and diagnosed with Chlamydia trachomatis. METHODS: Online databases (MEDLINE, Meditext, PsycINFO,

Natasha L Pavlin; Jane M Gunn; Rhian Parker; Christopher K Fairley; Jane Hocking

2006-01-01

327

Female genital mutilation.  

PubMed

Female genital mutilation, also misleadingly known as female circumcision, is usually performed on girls ranging in from 1 week to puberty. Immediate physical complications include severe pain, shock, infection, bleeding, acute urinary infection, tetanus, and death. Longterm problems include chronic pain, difficulties with micturition and menstruation, pelvic infection leading to infertility, and prolonged and obstructed labor during childbirth. An estimated 80 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation. In Britain alone an estimated 10,000 girls are currently at risk. Religious, cultural, medical, and moral grounds rationalize the custom which is practiced primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab world, Malaysia, Indonesia, and among migrant populations in Western countries. According to WHO it is correlated with poverty, illiteracy, and the low status of women. Women who escape mutilation are not sought in marriage. WHO, the UN Population Fund, the UN Children's Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child have issued declarations on the eradication of female genital mutilation. In Britain, local authorities have intervened to prevent parents from mutilating their daughters. In 1984, the Inter-African Committee Against Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting Women and Children was established to work toward eliminating female genital mutilation and other damaging customs. National committees in 26 African countries coordinate projects run by local people using theater, dance, music, and storytelling for communication. In Australia, Canada, Europe, and the US women have organized to prevent the practice among vulnerable migrants and refugees. PMID:8400925

Ladjali, M; Rattray, T W; Walder, R J

1993-08-21

328

Host Organelle Hijackers: A similar modus operandi for Toxoplasma gondii and Chlamydia trachomatis - Co-infection model as a tool to investigate pathogenesis -  

PubMed Central

The bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis and the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii are the causative agents of chlamydiosis and toxoplasmosis in humans, respectively. Both micro-organisms are obligate intracellular pathogens and notorious for extensively modifying the cytoskeletal architecture and the endomembrane system of their host cells to establish productive infections. This review highlights the similar tactics developed by these two pathogens to manipulate their host cell despite their genetic unrelatedness. By using an in vitro cell culture model whereby single fibroblasts are infected by C. trachomatis and T. gondii simultaneously, thus setting up an intracellular competition, we demonstrate that the solutions to the problem of intracellular survival deployed by the parasite and the bacterium may represent an example of convergent evolution, driven by the necessity to acquire nutrients in a hostile environment. PMID:23821471

Romano, Julia D.; Coppens, Isabelle

2013-01-01

329

Chlamydia pneumoniae infection of lungs and macrophages indirectly stimulates the phenotypic conversion of smooth muscle cells and mesenchymal stem cells: potential roles in vascular calcification and fibrosis.  

PubMed

Two hallmarks of advanced atherosclerosis are calcification and fibrosis. We hypothesized that Chlamydia pneumoniae infection may contribute to atherosclerosis by inducing the conversion of vascular smooth muscle cells to calcifying cells or by converting mesenchymal stem cells to osteochondrocytic or fibroblastic phenotypes. In this study, direct infection of bovine aortic smooth muscle cells (BSMCs) did not induce the expression of alkaline phosphatase or the deposition of extracellular calcium phosphate. However, conditioned media from C. pneumoniae-infected macrophages accelerated conversion of BSMCs to a calcifying phenotype. Treatment of the conditioned media with an anti-TNF-alpha blocking antibody abrogated this stimulatory effect. Treatment of perivascular Sca-1+, CD31-, CD45- cells from apoE-/- mouse aortas with the conditioned media from infected macrophages induced the Sca-1+ cells to produce collagen II, an additional marker of an osteochondrocytic phenotype. Treatment of mouse coronary perivascular Sca-1+, CD31-, CD45- cells with the supernatant from homogenates of C. pneumoniae-infected mouse lungs as compared to noninfected lungs induced expression of the Collagen 1?1 gene and deposition of collagen. Therefore, an increase in plasma cytokines or other factors in response to respiratory infection with C. pneumoniae or infection of macrophages within the blood vessel could contribute to both calcification and fibrosis of advanced atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:24833344

Cabbage, Sarah; Ieronimakis, Nicholas; Preusch, Michael; Lee, Amy; Ricks, Jerry; Janebodin, Kajohnkiart; Hays, Aislinn; Wijelath, Errol S; Reyes, Morayma; Campbell, Lee Ann; Rosenfeld, Michael E

2014-10-01

330

Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection among Women in Bangladesh: Findings from a Population-Based Survey  

PubMed Central

Background There has been no population-based study on human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence or its genotypes in Bangladesh; a country eligible for GAVI funding for HPV vaccine. Methods We used baseline survey data of a prospective cohort study that was conducted in one urban and one rural area of Bangladesh. A total of 997 urban and 905 rural married women, aged 13 to 64 years, were enrolled in the baseline during July-December, 2011. Information was collected on socio-demographic characteristics and potential risk factors for HPV infection followed by gynecological examination and collection of endocervical samples using the cervical cytobrush (Digene cervical sampler). HPV DNA testing was done by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) using a consensus primer set. Results Prevalence of any HPV infection was 7.7% with no significant difference between urban and rural women. Most common high-risk genotypes were HPV16, HPV66, HPV18, HPV45, HPV31 and HPV53. Urban women working as housemaids or garment workers were at higher risk of any HPV infection (OR?=?2.15, 95% CI: 1.13–4.11) compared to housewives. Rural women whose husband lived overseas were almost two times more likely to have any HPV infection (OR?=?1.93; 95% CI 1.05–3.55) compared to women whose husbands lived with them. Conclusion The prevalence of HPV infection among Bangladeshi women is similar to other regions of Asia. However, type-specific patterns are different. The study findings will inform the formulation of HPV vaccination policies in Bangladesh, monitoring the impact of vaccination programmes, and the identification of target populations for screening. PMID:25271836

Nahar, Quamrun; Sultana, Farhana; Alam, Anadil; Islam, Jessica Yasmine; Rahman, Mustafizur; Khatun, Fatema; Alam, Nazmul; Dasgupta, Sushil Kanta; Marions, Lena; Ashrafunnessa; Kamal, Mohammed; Cravioto, Alejandro; Reichenbach, Laura

2014-01-01

331

Immunization with a MOMP-based vaccine protects mice against a pulmonary Chlamydia challenge and identifies a disconnection between infection and pathology.  

PubMed

Chlamydia pneumoniae is responsible for up to 20% of community acquired pneumonia and can exacerbate chronic inflammatory diseases. As the majority of infections are either mild or asymptomatic, a vaccine is recognized to have the greatest potential to reduce infection and disease prevalence. Using the C. muridarum mouse model of infection, we immunized animals via the intranasal (IN), sublingual (SL) or transcutaneous (TC) routes, with recombinant chlamydial major outer membrane protein (MOMP) combined with adjuvants CTA1-DD or a combination of cholera toxin/CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide (CT/CpG). Vaccinated animals were challenged IN with C. muridarum and protection against infection and pathology was assessed. SL and TC immunization with MOMP and CT/CpG was the most protective, significantly reducing chlamydial burden in the lungs and preventing weight loss, which was similar to the protection induced by a previous live infection. Unlike a previous infection however, these vaccinations also provided almost complete protection against fibrotic scarring in the lungs. Protection against infection was associated with antigen-specific production of IFN?, TNF? and IL-17 by splenocytes, however, protection against both infection and pathology required the induction of a similar pro-inflammatory response in the respiratory tract draining lymph nodes. Interestingly, we also identified two contrasting vaccinations capable of preventing infection or pathology individually. Animals IN immunized with MOMP and either adjuvant were protected from infection, but not the pathology. Conversely, animals TC immunized with MOMP and CTA1-DD were protected from pathology, even though the chlamydial burden in this group was equivalent to the unimmunized controls. This suggests that the development of pathology following an IN infection of vaccinated animals was independent of bacterial load and may have been driven instead by the adaptive immune response generated following immunization. This identifies a disconnection between the control of infection and the development of pathology, which may influence the design of future vaccines. PMID:23613984

O'Meara, Connor P; Armitage, Charles W; Harvie, Marina C G; Timms, Peter; Lycke, Nils Y; Beagley, Kenneth W

2013-01-01

332

Presence of papillomavirus infections in genital lesions of women in Romania.  

PubMed

This study is aimed at establishing the presence of HPV infection in Romania, in women with various benign or malignant anogenital lesions. A number of 76 tissue samples were investigated by nucleic acid hybridization in the dot-blot techniques for identifying the HPVs presence and their serotypes and 35 sera were tested by the immunodot-blot technique in order to detect the presence of antiHPV16 E6 and E7 proteins antibodies. The results obtained suggest the incidence of HPV16 infection is high not only in persons with different tumours or other anogenital lesions (approximately 585), but also in apparently healthy women (3 of 4 cases). PMID:9106400

Stoian, M; Anton, G; Achim, R; Repanovici, R

1995-01-01

333

Local Risk Factors in Genital Human Papilloma Virus Infection in Cervical Smears  

PubMed Central

Background: Infection with human papilloma virus (HPV) is the main cause of cervical cancer, but the local risk factors have not been sufficiently assessed. Aim: The study is aimed at determining the prevalence and to evaluate the local risk factors of HPV infection in cervical smears at the Imo State University Teaching Hospital, Orlu, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: The participants involved 445 randomly selected sexually active women attending the antenatal, postnatal, gynecology and family planning clinics in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the university between April 2004 and May 2012. A questionnaire assessing various socio-demographic characteristics of the participants was administered. The pap smears of the participants were examined microscopically for evidence of HPV infection. The SPSS version 17.0 (Chicago, Illinois, USA) was used to compute and analyze the results. The results were presented in tables as simple percentages. Tests of significance using the Chi-square and fisher exact tests were applied where appropriate. Results: The prevalence rate of HPV was 10.3%. The peak age-specific prevalence of 11.7% occurred in the 15-19 years age group. There were significant associations between the occurrence of HPV and multiple sexual partners, coital frequency, multiparity, contraceptive use, marital status, low socio-economic status, abnormal vaginal discharge, irregular menstruation, post-coital and post-menopausal bleeding, (P < 0.05). Conclusion: All sexually active women including teenagers should be screened for cervical HPV infection in an organized systematic program equipped with a good call and recall system. There is, therefore, a need to move emphasis from the current practice of opportunistic screening to a systematic screening of the whole population at risk despite cost implications. PMID:24380003

Ojiyi, EC; Dike, IE; Okeudo, C; Ejikem, C; Nzewuihe, AC; Agbata, A

2013-01-01

334

Effect of concurrent lower genital tract infections on cervical cancer screening.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although women attending STD clinics are at high risk for cervical cancer, most STD programmes do not include Papanicolaou (Pap) smears in their routine screening procedures. Concerns regarding reliability of this test in a population with a high rate of active infection are often raised. The objective of this study was to analyse the associations between STD diagnosis/clinical syndromes and unsatisfactory and abnormal Pap smears. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of Pap results and medical records from women attending an inner city STD programme. RESULTS: Of the 1202 patients analysed, 3.2% had squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) and 3.5% had smears which were unsatisfactory because of the thickness of the specimen. There were no associations between STD diagnoses and SIL; however, the presence of cervical inflammation was significantly associated with SIL. Pap smears which were unsatisfactory because they were too thick were also associated with the clinical finding of cervical inflammation. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of active infection did not preclude the detection of SIL on Pap smears. The percentage of unsatisfactory smears resulting from inflammation was low. PMID:9534749

Schwebke, J R; Zajackowski, M E

1997-01-01

335

Jurkat cell proliferation is suppressed by Chlamydia (Chlamydophila) pneumoniae infection accompanied with attenuation of phosphorylation at Thr389 of host cellular p70S6K.  

PubMed

Chlamydia (Chlamydophila) pneumoniae infects T lymphocytes and multiplies within them. Our previous studies have indicated that C. pneumoniae infection suppresses proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated with Staphylococcus-enterotoxin B; however, the mechanism of suppression was unclear. In this study, we explored the molecular mechanism involved in C. pneumoniae infection by using human acute T cell leukemia cell line, Jurkat E6-1. Proliferation of Jurkat cells was suppressed in an m.o.i.-dependent manner by C. pneumoniae infection. The suppression by the infection was particularly evident during the initial 24h of the infection, and down modulation of cyclin D3 protein levels were observed at the same time period by immunoblot analysis. The suppression of the Jurkat cell proliferation and the down modulation of cyclin D3 protein level were only induced by viable C. pneumoniae infection, not by exposure to UV-killed or heat-killed C. pneumoniae. Phosphorylations at Thr308 and Ser473 of AKT were induced by C. pneumoniae infection; however, phosphorylation at Thr389 of the downstream kinase, p70S6K was inhibited by unidentified mechanism associated with C. pneumoniae infection. Taking into account that G1 arrest of the C. pneumoniae infected Jurkat cells were not observed and that p70S6K is one of the most important regulators of protein synthesis, it was suggested that the suppression of Jurkat cell proliferation by C. pneumoniae was at least in part mediated by down modulation of protein synthesis through attenuation of Thr389 phosphorylation of p70S6K. PMID:22795649

Hirai, Itaru; Ebara, Megumi; Nakanishi, Shoko; Yamamoto, Chihiro; Sasaki, Tadahiro; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa

2013-04-01

336

Reduced levels of gamma-interferon secretion in response to chlamydial 60 kDa heat shock protein amongst women with pelvic inflammatory disease and a history of repeated Chlamydia trachomatis infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peripheral lymphocytes in uninfected fertile controls, women with various histories of Chlamydia trachomatis infection, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and infertility not due to C. trachomatis infection (endometriosis) were cultured overnight with PHA mitogen and the 60 kDa chlamydial heat shock protein. Plasma samples were then assayed for levels of gamma-interferon and IL-10 using a commercial ELISA system. Women with PID

J Debattista; P Timms; J Allan

2002-01-01

337

Signaling via tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 but not Toll-like receptor 2 contributes significantly to hydrosalpinx development following Chlamydia muridarum infection.  

PubMed

Chlamydial infection in the lower genital tract can lead to hydrosalpinx, which is accompanied by activation of both pattern recognition receptor TLR2- and inflammatory cytokine receptor TNFR1-mediated signaling pathways. In the current study, we compared the relative contributions of these two receptors to chlamydial induction of hydrosalpinx in mice. We found that mice with or without deficiencies in TLR2 or TNFR1 displayed similar time courses of live organism shedding from vaginal swabs, suggesting that these receptor-mediated signaling pathways are not required for controlling chlamydial lower genital infection. However, mice deficient in TNFR1 but not TLR2 developed significantly reduced hydrosalpinx. The decreased pathogenicity correlated with a significant reduction in interleukin-17 by in vitro-restimulated splenocytes of TNFR1-deficient mice. Although TLR2-deficient mice developed hydrosalpinx as severe as that of wild-type mice, peritoneal macrophages from mice deficient in TLR2 but not TNFR1 produced significantly reduced cytokines upon chlamydial stimulation, suggesting that reduced macrophage responses to chlamydial infection do not always lead to a reduction in hydrosalpinx. Thus, we have demonstrated that the signaling pathways triggered by the cytokine receptor TNFR1 play a more significant role in chlamydial induction of hydrosalpinx than those mediated by the pattern recognition receptor TLR2, which has laid a foundation for further revealing the chlamydial pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:24549331

Dong, Xiaohua; Liu, Yuanjun; Chang, Xiaotong; Lei, Lei; Zhong, Guangming

2014-05-01

338

Clearance of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in H-2 class I human leucocyte antigen-A2.1 monochain transgenic mice.  

PubMed

CD8+ T cells have been suggested to play an important role in protective immunity against pulmonary Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in mice. Moreover, several classical major histocompatibility complex class I - restricted cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocytes (CTL) specific for C. pneumoniae- derived peptides have been identified. Here, we studied the outcome of C. pneumoniae infection in human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-A2.1 transgenic mice (HHD mice) that are only able to express a classical human class I molecule (HLA-A2.1). C. pneumoniae infection was self-restricted in HHD mice which were able to develop specific immune responses and a protective immunity against a subsequent rechallenge in a manner comparable to wildtype mice. Furthermore, accumulation of functional and C. pneumoniae-specific T cells to the site of infection was detected after challenge. Antigen processing and HLA-A2.1-dependent presentation was studied by immunizing the HHD mice with chlamydial outer protein N (CopN). Isolation of a peptide-specific CTL line from the CopN-immunized mice suggests that the HLA-A2.1 molecule can support the development of CTL response against a chlamydial protein in mice. These findings suggest that the transgenic mouse model can be used for further characterization of the HLA-A2.1-restricted CD8+ T-cell response during C. pneumoniae infection and for identification of CD8 epitopes from chlamydial antigens. PMID:16101819

Tammiruusu, A; Haveri, A; Pascolo, S; Lahesmaa, R; Stevanovic, S; Rammensee, H-G; Sarvas, M; Puolakkainen, M; Vuola, J M

2005-08-01

339

Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... in Wake of School Shooting Infant CPR Anytime® (English/Spanish) First Aid for Families (PedFACTs) Nutrition: What ... Needs to Know Infant CPR Anytime® Dark Skin (English/Spanish) HealthyChildren.org Post-it Notes Health Issues ...

340

Male circumcision and the incidence and clearance of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men: the HPV Infection in men (HIM) cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Reported associations of male circumcision (MC) with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men have been inconsistent. Methods 4,033 healthy men were examined every six months for a median of 17.5 months. In each study visit, exfoliated cell specimens from the coronal sulcus/glans penis, penile shaft, and scrotum were collected and combined into one sample per person for HPV DNA detection. Samples were tested for 37 HPV types. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the association between MC and the incidence and clearance of HPV infections and specific genotypes. Results The overall incidence of new HPV infections did not differ by MC status (for any HPV, adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91-1.27). However, incidence was significantly lower among circumcised versus uncircumcised men for HPV types 58 (p?=?0.01), 68 (p?genital HPV detection, except for certain HPV types. The use of a single combined sample from the penis and scrotum for HPV DNA detection likely limited our ability to identify a true effect of MC at the distal penis. PMID:24517172

2014-01-01

341

Oestradiol-induced infection of the genital tract of female mice by Mycoplasma hominis.  

PubMed

Treatment of female BALB/c mice with oestradiol rendered them susceptible to vaginal colonization by three of four different strains of Mycoplasma hominis. Overall, the organisms were recovered persistently from the vagina of 68 (87%) of 78 of these mice. Strain TO mice given one of the strains were at least susceptible, all of ten becoming colonized and larger numbers of organisms being recovered. The hormone arrested the reproductive cycle in the oestrous phase, characterized by non-nucleated, cornified vaginal epithelial cells. In contrast, M. hominis organisms were isolated transiently from only seven (10.5%) of 66 BALB/c mice not treated with oestradiol, after intravaginal inoculation; treatment with progesterone, which induced the dioestrous phase of the cycle, did not render any of 10 BALB/c mice susceptible to vaginal colonization. The minimum number of organisms (2.5 x 10(5)) of one strain of M. hominis and the minimum dose of oestradiol (0.05 mg) required to induce persistent colonization were established. Vaginal colonization persisted for more than 200 d in some mice, the numbers of organisms recovered ranging between 10(1) and 10(8). At autopsy there was evidence of spread to the uterine horns and ovaries, and also to the oropharynx, of some animals but not to other organs. Infection was not associated with a polymorphonuclear leucocyte response in the vagina or elsewhere, but a fourfold serum antibody response to M. hominis, measured by the metabolism-inhibition technique, was detected in almost half of the mice tested. PMID:2632670

Furr, P M; Taylor-Robinson, D

1989-10-01

342

Chlamydiaceae infections in pig  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria. They are responsible for a broad range of diseases in animals and humans. In pigs, Chlamydia suis, Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia psittaci have been isolated. Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs are associated with different pathologies such as conjunctivitis, pneumonia, pericarditis, polyarthritis, polyserositis, pseudo-membranous or necrotizing enteritis, periparturient dysgalactiae syndrome, vaginal discharge, return to

Katelijn Schautteet; Daisy Vanrompay

2011-01-01

343

Genital Herpes  

PubMed Central

The author reviews the prevalence of genital herpes, outlines the typical clinical courses of the disease in its primary and recurrent forms. He discusses the physical, psychological and social effects of this sexually transmitted disease and provides three protocols for the use of oral acyclovir in its treatment. PMID:21263803

Scappatura, F. Philip

1987-01-01

344

Genital Herpes  

MedlinePLUS

... a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by a herpes simplex virus (HSV). It can cause sores on your genital or rectal area, buttocks, and thighs. You can get it from having sex, even oral sex. ... of herpes are called outbreaks. You usually get sores near ...

345

The genital herpes problem in pregnancy.  

PubMed

Genital herpes is a common sexually transmitted infection. In reproductive age it involves the additional risk of vertical transmission to the neonate. Rates of transmission are affected by the viral type and whether the infection around delivery is primary or recurrent. Neonatal herpes is a rare but very severe complication of genital herpes infection and is caused by contact with infected genital secretions at the time of labor. Maternal acquisition of herpes simplex virus (HSV) in the third trimester of pregnancy carries the highest risk of neonatal transmission. Prevention of neonatal herpes depends on preventing acquisition of genital HSV infection during late pregnancy and avoiding exposure of the infant to herpetic lesions during delivery. Uninfected woman should be counselled about the need of avoiding sexual contact during the third trimester. Elective caesarean section before the onset of labor is the choice mode of delivery for women with genital lesions or with prodromal symptoms near the term, even if it offers only a partial protection against neonatal infection. Antiviral suppressive therapy is used from 36 weeks of gestation until delivery in pregnant women with recurrences to prevent genital lesions at the time of labor so reducing the need of caesarean sections. Currently, routine maternal serologic screening is not yet recommended. Because most mothers of infants who acquire neonatal herpes lack histories of clinically evident genital herpes, researchers should focus on the recognition of asymptomatic primary genital HSV infections. PMID:23007251

Guerra, B; Puccetti, C; Cervi, F

2012-10-01

346

Clueing in on Chlamydia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chlamydia's role in female infertility is discussed. The relationship of this organism to other diseases such as leprosy and tuberculosis is explained. Conditions caused by Chlamydia such as Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) are described. (KR)

Gibbons, Wendy

1991-01-01

347

Pregnancy Complications: Chlamydia  

MedlinePLUS

... in the community. Home > Pregnancy > Pregnancy Complications > Chlamydia Pregnancy complications Pregnancy complications may need special medical care. ... younger than 25. Can chlamydia cause problems during pregnancy? Yes. If you get it before or during ...

348

Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and Syphilis  

MedlinePLUS

... chlamydia, and syphilis? Gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis are sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) . These three STDs can cause serious, long- ... the uterus, fallopian tubes, and nearby pelvic structures. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs): Diseases that are spread by sexual contact. ...

349

Severity of Allergic Airway Disease Due to House Dust Mite Allergen Is Not Increased after Clinical Recovery of Lung Infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae in Mice  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia pneumoniae is associated with chronic inflammatory lung diseases like bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The existence of a causal link between allergic airway disease and C. pneumoniae is controversial. A mouse model was used to address the question of whether preceding C. pneumoniae lung infection and recovery modifies the outcome of experimental allergic asthma after subsequent sensitization with house dust mite (HDM) allergen. After intranasal infection, BALB/c mice suffered from pneumonia characterized by an increased clinical score, reduction of body weight, histopathology, and a bacterial load in the lungs. After 4 weeks, when infection had almost resolved clinically, HDM allergen sensitization was performed for another 4 weeks. Subsequently, mice were subjected to a methacholine hyperresponsiveness test and sacrificed for further analyses. As expected, after 8 weeks, C. pneumoniae-specific antibodies were detectable only in infected mice and the titer was significantly higher in the C. pneumoniae/HDM allergen-treated group than in the C. pneumoniae/NaCl group. Intriguingly, airway hyperresponsiveness and eosinophilia in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were significantly lower in the C. pneumoniae/HDM allergen-treated group than in the mock/HDM allergen-treated group. We did observe a relationship between experimental asthma and chlamydial infection. Our results demonstrate an influence of sensitization to HDM allergen on the development of a humoral antibacterial response. However, our model demonstrates no increase in the severity of experimental asthma to HDM allergen as a physiological allergen after clinically resolved severe chlamydial lung infection. Our results rather suggest that allergic airway disease and concomitant cellular changes in mice are decreased following C. pneumoniae lung infection in this setting. PMID:23817611

Dutow, Pavel; Lingner, Sandra; Laudeley, Robert; Glage, Silke; Hoymann, Heinz-Gerd; Dittrich, Anna-Maria; Fehlhaber, Beate; Müller, Meike; Braun, Armin

2013-01-01

350

Severity of allergic airway disease due to house dust mite allergen is not increased after clinical recovery of lung infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae in mice.  

PubMed

Chlamydia pneumoniae is associated with chronic inflammatory lung diseases like bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The existence of a causal link between allergic airway disease and C. pneumoniae is controversial. A mouse model was used to address the question of whether preceding C. pneumoniae lung infection and recovery modifies the outcome of experimental allergic asthma after subsequent sensitization with house dust mite (HDM) allergen. After intranasal infection, BALB/c mice suffered from pneumonia characterized by an increased clinical score, reduction of body weight, histopathology, and a bacterial load in the lungs. After 4 weeks, when infection had almost resolved clinically, HDM allergen sensitization was performed for another 4 weeks. Subsequently, mice were subjected to a methacholine hyperresponsiveness test and sacrificed for further analyses. As expected, after 8 weeks, C. pneumoniae-specific antibodies were detectable only in infected mice and the titer was significantly higher in the C. pneumoniae/HDM allergen-treated group than in the C. pneumoniae/NaCl group. Intriguingly, airway hyperresponsiveness and eosinophilia in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were significantly lower in the C. pneumoniae/HDM allergen-treated group than in the mock/HDM allergen-treated group. We did observe a relationship between experimental asthma and chlamydial infection. Our results demonstrate an influence of sensitization to HDM allergen on the development of a humoral antibacterial response. However, our model demonstrates no increase in the severity of experimental asthma to HDM allergen as a physiological allergen after clinically resolved severe chlamydial lung infection. Our results rather suggest that allergic airway disease and concomitant cellular changes in mice are decreased following C. pneumoniae lung infection in this setting. PMID:23817611

Dutow, Pavel; Lingner, Sandra; Laudeley, Robert; Glage, Silke; Hoymann, Heinz-Gerd; Dittrich, Anna-Maria; Fehlhaber, Beate; Müller, Meike; Braun, Armin; Klos, Andreas

2013-09-01

351

A Lentiviral Vector-Based, Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) Glycoprotein B Vaccine Affords Cross-Protection against HSV-1 and HSV-2 Genital Infections  

PubMed Central

Genital herpes is caused by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2, and its incidence is constantly increasing in the human population. Regardless of the clinical manifestation, HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections are highly transmissible to sexual partners and enhance susceptibility to other sexually transmitted infections. An effective vaccine is not yet available. Here, HSV-1 glycoprotein B (gB1) was delivered by a feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) vector and tested against HSV-1 and HSV-2 vaginal challenges in C57BL/6 mice. The gB1 vaccine elicited cross-neutralizing antibodies and cell-mediated responses that protected 100 and 75% animals from HSV-1- and HSV-2-associated severe disease, respectively. Two of the eight fully protected vaccinees underwent subclinical HSV-2 infection, as demonstrated by deep immunosuppression and other analyses. Finally, vaccination prevented death in 83% of the animals challenged with a HSV-2 dose that killed 78 and 100% naive and mock-vaccinated controls, respectively. Since this FIV vector can accommodate two or more HSV immunogens, this vaccine has ample potential for improvement and may become a candidate for the development of a truly effective vaccine against genital herpes. PMID:22491465

Chiuppesi, Flavia; Vannucci, Laura; De Luca, Anna; Lai, Michele; Matteoli, Barbara; Freer, Giulia; Manservigi, Roberto; Ceccherini-Nelli, Luca; Maggi, Fabrizio; Bendinelli, Mauro

2012-01-01

352

Risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in adolescents: results from a representative population-based survey in Germany, 2003-2006.  

PubMed

Infections with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) can lead to severe sequelae; however, they are not notifiable in Germany. We tested urine samples from participants of KiGGS (German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents) for CT infections and linked the results to demographic and behavioural data from 1,925 participants (girls aged 15-17 years and boys aged 16-17 years) to determine a representative prevalence of CT infection in adolescents in Germany and to assess associated risk factors. Prevalence of CT infection was 2.2% (95% CI: 1.4-3.5) in girls and 0.2% (95% CI: 0.1-0.7) in boys. CT infection in girls was associated with higher use of alcohol, marijuana and cigarettes, lower social status, oral contraceptive use, pregnancy, repeated lower abdominal pain and higher rates of doctors' consultations within the preceding three months and consultation of gynaecologists within the last 12 months. In multiple logistic regression, we identified two predictors for CT infection: marijuana consumption often or several times within the last 12 months (F(1,164)=7.56; p<0.05) and general health status less than 'very good' (F(1,164)=3.83; p=0.052). Given our findings, we recommend enhancing sex education before sexual debut and promoting safe sex practices regardless of the contraceptive method used. Well-informed consumption of alcohol should be promoted, the risky behaviour of people intoxicated through consumption of marijuana highlighted and doctors' awareness of CT screening enhanced. PMID:23987832

Haar, K; Bremer, V; Houareau, C; Meyer, T; Desai, S; Thamm, M; Hamouda, O

2013-01-01

353

Risk Factors for Active Trachoma and Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Treatment-Na?ve Trachoma-Hyperendemic Communities of the Bijag?s Archipelago, Guinea Bissau  

PubMed Central

Background Trachoma, caused by ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, is hyperendemic on the Bijagós Archipelago of Guinea Bissau. An understanding of the risk factors associated with active trachoma and infection on these remote and isolated islands, which are atypical of trachoma-endemic environments described elsewhere, is crucial to the implementation of trachoma elimination strategies. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional population-based trachoma prevalence survey was conducted on four islands. We conducted a questionnaire-based risk factor survey, examined participants for trachoma using the World Health Organization (WHO) simplified grading system and collected conjunctival swab samples for 1507 participants from 293 randomly selected households. DNA extracted from conjunctival swabs was tested using the Roche Amplicor CT/NG PCR assay. The prevalence of active (follicular and/or inflammatory) trachoma was 11% (167/1508) overall and 22% (136/618) in 1–9 year olds. The prevalence of C. trachomatis infection was 18% overall and 25% in 1–9 year olds. There were strong independent associations of active trachoma with ocular and nasal discharge, C. trachomatis infection, young age, male gender and type of household water source. C. trachomatis infection was independently associated with young age, ocular discharge, type of household water source and the presence of flies around a latrine. Conclusions/Significance In this remote island environment, household-level risk factors relating to fly populations, hygiene behaviours and water usage are likely to be important in the transmission of ocular C. trachomatis infection and the prevalence of active trachoma. This may be important in the implementation of environmental measures in trachoma control. PMID:24967629

Last, Anna R.; Burr, Sarah E.; Weiss, Helen A.; Harding-Esch, Emma M.; Cassama, Eunice; Nabicassa, Meno; Mabey, David C.; Holland, Martin J.; Bailey, Robin L.

2014-01-01

354

Generating protective immunity against genital herpes.  

PubMed

Genital herpes is an incurable, chronic disease that affects millions of people worldwide. Not only does genital herpes cause painful, recurrent symptoms, it is also a significant risk factor for the acquisition of other sexually transmitted infections such as HIV-1. Antiviral drugs are used to treat herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection, but they cannot stop viral shedding and transmission. Thus, developing a vaccine that can prevent or clear infection will be crucial in limiting the spread of disease. In this review we outline recent studies that improve our understanding of host responses against HSV infection, discuss past clinical vaccine trials, and highlight new strategies for vaccine design against genital herpes. PMID:24012144

Shin, Haina; Iwasaki, Akiko

2013-10-01

355

Generating protective immunity against genital herpes  

PubMed Central

Genital herpes is an incurable, chronic disease that affects millions of people worldwide. Not only does genital herpes cause painful, recurrent symptoms, it is also a significant risk factor for the acquisition of other sexually transmitted infections such as HIV-1. Antiviral drugs are used to treat herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection, but they cannot stop viral shedding and transmission. Thus, developing a vaccine that can prevent or clear infection will be critical in limiting the spread of disease. In this review, we outline recent studies that improve our understanding of host responses against HSV infection, discuss past clinical vaccine trials and highlight new strategies for vaccine design against genital herpes. PMID:24012144

Shin, Haina; Iwasaki, Akiko

2013-01-01

356

The Chlamydia Cascade: Enhanced STD Prevention Strategies for Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rising trends in Chlamydia, the prevalence in the adolescent female population, and the relevance of the sexually transmitted disease (STD) continue to be a bur- den in the United States. According to the World Health Or- ganization (WHO), the most common cause of STDs is Chlamydia trachomatis, the infecting pathogen for Chla- mydia, making this a worldwide health concern.

Catherine Chiaradonna

2008-01-01

357

Building a web-based tool to support clinical decisions in the control of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) are the agents of two common, sexually transmitted diseases afflicting women in the United States (http://www.cdc.gov). We designed a novel web-based application that offers simple recommendations to help optimize medical outcomes with CT and GC prevention and control programs. This application takes population groups, prevalence rates, parameters for available screening assays and treatment regimens (costs, sensitivity, and specificity), as well as budget limits as inputs. Its output suggests optimal screening and treatment strategies for selected at-risk groups, commensurate with the clinic's budget allocation. Development of this tool illustrates how a clinical informatics application based on rigorous mathematics might have a significant impact on real-world clinical issues. PMID:24564848

2013-01-01

358

Does population screening for Chlamydia trachomatis raise anxiety among those tested? Findings from a population based chlamydia screening study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The advent of urine testing for Chlamydia trachomatis has raised the possibility of large-scale screening for this sexually transmitted infection, which is now the most common in the United Kingdom. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an invitation to be screened for chlamydia and of receiving a negative result on levels of anxiety, depression

Rona Campbell; Nicola Mills; Emma Sanford; Anna Graham; Nicola Low; Tim J Peters

2006-01-01

359

Host Cell Responses to Chlamydia pneumoniae in Gamma Interferon-Induced Persistence Overlap Those of Productive Infection and Are Linked to Genes Involved in Apoptosis, Cell Cycle, and Metabolism? †  

PubMed Central

The respiratory pathogen Chlamydia (Chlamydophila) pneumoniae is associated with chronic diseases, including atherosclerosis and giant-cell arteritis, which are accompanied by the occurrence of these obligate intracellular bacteria in blood vessels. There, C. pneumoniae seems to be present in a persistent state. Persistence is characterized by modified bacterial metabolism and morphology, as well as a reversible arrest of chlamydial development. In cell culture, this persistent state can be induced by gamma interferon (IFN-?). To elucidate this long-term interaction between chlamydiae and their host cells, microarray screening on epithelial HeLa cells was performed. Transcription of persistently (and productively) infected cells was compared with that of mock-infected cells. Sixty-six host cell genes were regulated at 24 h and/or 96 h of IFN-?-induced persistence. Subsequently, a set of 17 human host cell genes related to apoptosis, cell cycle, or metabolism was identified as permanently up- or down-regulated by real-time PCR. Some of these chlamydia-dependent host cell responses were diminished or even absent in the presence of rifampin. However, other expression patterns were not altered by the inhibition of bacterial RNA polymerase, suggesting two different modes of host cell activation. Thus, in the IFN-? model, the persisting bacteria cause long-lasting changes in the expression of genes coding for functionally important proteins. They might be potential drug targets for the treatment of persistent C. pneumoniae infections. PMID:17353287

Eickhoff, Meike; Thalmann, Jessica; Hess, Simone; Martin, Myriam; Laue, Thomas; Kruppa, Joachim; Brandes, Gudrun; Klos, Andreas

2007-01-01

360

Genetic variation in Chlamydia trachomatis and their hosts: impact on disease severity and tissue tropism  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia trachomatis infections are a global health problem. This obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen comprises lymphogranuloma venereum (L1–L3), ocular (A–C) and genital (D–K) serovars. Although genetically similar, each serovar group differs in disease severity and tissue tropism through mechanisms that are not well understood. It is clear that host genetic differences also play a role in chlamydial disease outcome and key host polymorphisms are beginning to emerge from both human and experimental animal studies. In this review, we will highlight pathogen and host genes that link genetic diversity, disease severity and tissue tropism. We will also use this information to provide new insights that may be helpful in developing improved management strategies for these important pathogens. PMID:24020741

Byrne, Gerald I

2014-01-01

361

Pregnancy Complications: Genital Herpes  

MedlinePLUS

... Home > Pregnancy > Pregnancy Complications > Genital herpes and pregnancy Pregnancy complications Pregnancy complications may need special medical care. ... been added to your dashboard . Genital herpes and pregnancy Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (also ...

362

Multiplex polymerase chain reaction-based reverse line blot hybridization assay to detect common genital pathogens.  

PubMed

The objective of the present paper is to develop and apply a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) based reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay to facilitate the diagnosis of genital infections by detection of seven recognized or putative genital pathogens (Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Ureaplasma parvum, Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis and Trichomonas vaginalis). Species-specific biotin-labelled primer pairs were used in a single mPCR to amplify target regions in each of seven pathogens. The amplified biotin-labelled PCR products were hybridized with membrane-bound-specific oligonucleotide probes and were detected by chemiluminescence. Two hundred and eleven specimens (104 male urethral and 107 female vaginal swabs), collected from patients with suspected genital infections attending the Wuhan First Hospital Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) clinic, were tested by mPCR/RLB and results were confirmed by single PCR using different species-specific targets. The sensitivity of the assay was assessed using dilutions of positive DNA controls with known copy numbers, for each target. The assay correctly identified all reference strains and detected potential pathogens in a high proportion of clinical specimens. There was no cross-reaction between the seven pathogens. The mPCR/RLB can detect genital pathogens in clinical specimens. PMID:20498099

Wang, H; Kong, F; Wang, B; Mckechnie, M L; Gilbert, G L

2010-05-01

363

Anti-inflammatory effects of silver-polyvinyl pyrrolidone (Ag-PVP) nanoparticles in mouse macrophages infected with live Chlamydia trachomatis  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia trachomatis is a very common sexually transmissible infection in both developing and developed countries. A hallmark of C. trachomatis infection is the induction of severe inflammatory responses which play critical roles in its pathogenesis. Antibiotics are the only treatment option currently available for controlling C. trachomatis infection; however, they are efficacious only when administered early after an infection. The objectives of this study are to explore alternative strategies in the control and regulation of inflammatory responses triggered by a C. trachomatis infection. We employed silver-polyvinyl pyrrolidone (Ag-PVP) nanoparticles, which have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties, as our target and the in vitro mouse J774 macrophage model of C. trachomatis infection. Our hypothesis is that small sizes of Ag-PVP nanoparticles will control inflammatory mediators triggered by a C. trachomatis infection. Cytotoxicity studies using Ag-PVP nanoparticles of 10, 20, and 80 nm sizes revealed >80% macrophage viability up to a concentration of 6.25 ?g/mL, with the 10 nm size being the least toxic. All sizes of Ag-PVP nanoparticles, especially the 10 nm size, reduced the levels of the prototypic cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin (IL)-6, as elicited from C. trachomatis infected macrophages. Additionally, Ag-PVP nanoparticles (10 nm) selectively inhibited a broad spectrum of other cytokines and chemokines produced by infected macrophages. Of significance, Ag-PVP nanoparticles (10 nm) caused perturbations in a variety of upstream (toll like receptor 2 [TLR2], nucleotide-binding oligomerization-protein 2 [NOD2], cluster of differentiation [CD]40, CD80, and CD86) and downstream (IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 3 [IRAK3] and matrix metallopeptidase 9 [MMP9]) inflammatory signaling pathways by downregulating their messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) gene transcript expressions as induced by C. trachomatis in macrophages. Collectively, our data provides further evidence for the anti-inflammatory properties of Ag-PVP nanoparticles, and opens new possibilities for smaller sizes of Ag-PVP nanoparticles to be employed as regulators of inflammatory responses induced by C. trachomatis. PMID:23882139

Yilma, Abebayehu N; Singh, Shree R; Dixit, Saurabh; Dennis, Vida A

2013-01-01

364

Membrane vesicle production by Chlamydia trachomatis as an adaptive response  

PubMed Central

Bacteria have evolved specific adaptive responses to cope with changing environments. These adaptations include stress response phenotypes with dynamic modifications of the bacterial cell envelope and generation of membrane vesicles (MVs). The obligate intracellular bacterium, Chlamydia trachomatis, typically has a biphasic lifestyle, but can enter into an altered growth state typified by morphologically aberrant chlamydial forms, termed persistent growth forms, when induced by stress in vitro. How C. trachomatis can adapt to a persistent growth state in host epithelial cells in vivo is not well understood, but is an important question, since it extends the host-bacterial relationship in vitro and has thus been indicated as a survival mechanism in chronic chlamydial infections. Here, we review recent findings on the mechanistic aspects of bacterial adaptation to stress with a focus on how C. trachomatis remodels its envelope, produces MVs, and the potential important consequences of MV production with respect to host-pathogen interactions. Emerging data suggest that the generation of MVs may be an important mechanism for C. trachomatis intracellular survival of stress, and thus may aid in the establishment of a chronic infection in human genital epithelial cells. PMID:24959424

Frohlich, Kyla M.; Hua, Ziyu; Quayle, Alison J.; Wang, Jin; Lewis, Maria E.; Chou, Chau-wen; Luo, Miao; Buckner, Lyndsey R.; Shen, Li

2014-01-01

365

Chlamydia pneumoniae--a new causative agent of reactive arthritis and undifferentiated oligoarthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To examine whether reactive arthritis (ReA) known to occur after a urogenital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis can also follow an infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae, a recently described species of Chlamydiae that is a common cause of respiratory tract infections. METHODS--Specific antibodies (microimmunofluorescence test) and lymphocyte proliferation to C trachomatis and C pneumoniae in paired samples of peripheral blood and synovial

J Braun; S Laitko; J Treharne; U Eggens; P Wu; A Distler; J Sieper

1994-01-01

366

Differences in Chlamydia trachomatis Serovar E Growth Rate in Polarized Endometrial and Endocervical Epithelial Cells Grown in Three-Dimensional Culture?  

PubMed Central

In vitro studies of obligate intracellular chlamydia biology and pathogenesis are highly dependent on the use of experimental models and growth conditions that mimic the mucosal architecture and environment these pathogens encounter during natural infections. In this study, the growth of Chlamydia trachomatis genital serovar E was monitored in mouse fibroblast McCoy cells and compared to more relevant host human epithelial endometrium-derived HEC-1B and cervix-derived HeLa cells, seeded and polarized on collagen-coated microcarrier beads, using a three-dimensional culture system. Microscopy analysis of these cell lines prior to infection revealed morphological differences reminiscent of their in vivo architecture. Upon infection, early chlamydial inclusion distribution was uniform in McCoy cells but patchy in both epithelial cell lines. Although no difference in chlamydial attachment to or entry into the two genital epithelial cell lines was noted, active bacterial genome replication and transcription, as well as initial transformation of elementary bodies to reticulate bodies, were detected earlier in HEC-1B than in HeLa cells, suggesting a faster growth, which led to higher progeny counts and titers in HEC-1B cells upon completion of the developmental cycle. Chlamydial development in the less relevant McCoy cells was very similar to that in HeLa cells, although higher progeny counts were obtained. In conclusion, this three-dimensional bead culture system represents an improved model for harvesting large quantities of infectious chlamydia progeny from their more natural polarized epithelial host cells. PMID:17088348

Guseva, Natalia V.; Dessus-Babus, Sophie; Moore, Cheryl G.; Whittimore, Judy D.; Wyrick, Priscilla B.

2007-01-01

367

Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis endocervical infection in systemic lupus erythematosus patients and evaluation of the risk for HPV-induced lesions.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the most common bacterial cause of sexually transmitted disease. It has been associated with arthritis and it is a risk factor for human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced lesions. There are few studies on the frequency of CT infection among systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of endocervical CT infection among SLE patients and evaluate whether or not CT infection is a risk factor for HPV-induced lesions. A cross-sectional study included a group of patients who fulfilled the American College Rheumatology criteria for a definite diagnosis of SLE and a control group of non-SLE female individuals from Bahia, Brazil. Polymerase chain reaction was used on endocervical swab specimens to test for CT; a gynecological examination including a cervical cytology and biopsy was done for the identification of HPV lesions. A total of 105 SLE patients were studied, and the control group was composed of 104 age-matched apparently normal women. The prevalence of CT endocervical infection was 3.0 % [confidence interval (CI) 95 % = 0.6-8.0 %] in the SLE group and 5.0 % (95 % CI = 2.0-11.0 %) in the control group; the prevalence ratio was 0.60 (95 % CI = 0.1-2.5). The prevalence of vulvar condyloma was higher among SLE patients (11.0 vs. 1.0 %, p < 0.001), as were the prevalences of low-grade lesion (12.0 vs. 1.0 %, p < 0.001) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1 (9.0 vs. 1.0 %, p = 0.02). There was no association between the presence of HPV lesions and CT infections. However, the small number of patients with CT prevents a definite conclusion from being drawn. The prevalence of endocervical CT infection in women with SLE is low and similar to that of the normal population. This suggests that this infection has no role in the pathogenesis of SLE or the development of HPV-induced lesions. PMID:22484838

CostaPinto, Licia; Olavarria, Viviana Gallazzi; Grassi, Maria Fernanda Rios; Lyrio, Leomar D' Cirqueira; Oliveira, Rone Peterson Cerqueira; Santana, Iuri Usêda; Cruz, Cristiane Bahiana; Santiago, Mittermayer Barreto

2013-03-01

368

Prevalence and risk factors for Chlamydia trachomatis infection among cross-border truck drivers in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:To determine the prevalence and risk factors for chlamydial infection in cross-border truck drivers.Methods:225 Hong Kong-based cross-border truck drivers were screened for chlamydial infection. Associations between infection and potential risk factors were determined by questionnaire.Results:8.5% of drivers were positive for chlamydial infection. Of 62% of drivers reporting recent sex with commercial sex workers (CSW), 39% had not used condoms. 75%

P H M Leung; M V Boost; J T F Lau; A T Y Wong; M Pang; T K Ng; E T F Tong

2009-01-01

369

Transmission of Chlamydiae from grackles to turkeys.  

PubMed

Two female common grackles (Quiscalus quiscula) were inoculated intratracheally with 1.6 X 10(8) chick embryo lethal doses50 of a chlamydial organism isolated from turkeys. Eight female grackles were kept as uninoculated contacts. Six days later, two 12-week-old Broad-Breasted White turkeys (1 male and 1 female) were placed in the pen with the grackles. Chlamydiae were isolated in mice from cloacal swabs taken 14 days postinoculation from the infected grackles. Swabs from the contact grackles did not yield chlamydiae, nor did swabs taken 7 days later from all birds. Twenty-one days after being placed with the grackles, the turkeys developed signs of chlamydiosis. Cloacal swabs taken at 24 days yielded chlamydiae from only the female. Visceral organ tissues collected at 28 days from the male yielded chlamydiae. The only lesions in the turkeys at necropsy were enlarged spleens. The turkeys were serologically negative for chlamydial antibody both when placed and 15 days later, but were positive at days 24 and 28. These results indicate contact transmission of chlamydiae from infected grackles to turkeys. PMID:678235

Grimes, J E

1978-01-01

370

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Genital Warts: Diagnosis  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Genital Warts Skip Content Marketing Share this: ... warts, you also should be examined for possible HPV infection of the cervix. Your healthcare provider can ...

371

Evaluation of a broadly protective Chlamydia-cholera combination vaccine candidate  

PubMed Central

The need to simultaneously target infections with epidemiological overlap in the population with a single vaccine provides the basis for developing combination vaccines. Vibrio cholerae ghosts (rVCG) offer an attractive approach for developing vaccines against a number of human and animal pathogens. In this study, we constructed a multisubunit vaccine candidate co-expressing the serovar D-derived Porin B and polymorphic membrane protein-D proteins of Chlamydia trachomatis and evaluated its ability to simultaneously induce broad-based chlamydial immunity and elicit a vibriocidal antibody response to the Vibrio carrier envelope. Intramuscular (IM) immunization with the vaccine candidate elicited high levels of antigen-specific genital mucosal and systemic Th1 cell-mediated and humoral immune responses against heterologous serovars and strains, including serovars E, F, G, H and L. Also, in addition to the multisubunit vaccine, the single subunit constructs conferred significant cross protection against the heterologous mouse strain, C. muridarum. Furthermore, all mice immunized with rVCG vaccine constructs responded with a significant rise in vibriocidal antibody titer, the surrogate marker for protection in cholera.These findings demonstrate the ability of the multisubunit vaccine to inducecross protectivechlamydial as well asvibriocidal immunityand establish the possibility of developing a broadly efficacious Chlamydia-cholera combination vaccine. PMID:21421002

Eko, F. O.; Okenu, D. N.; Singh, U.; He, Q.; Black, C.; Igietseme, J. U.

2011-01-01

372

Chlamydia pneumoniae induces aponecrosis in human aortic smooth muscle cells  

PubMed Central

Background The intracellular bacterium Chlamydia pneumoniae is suspected to play a role in formation and progression of atherosclerosis. Many studies investigated cell death initiation versus inhibition by Chlamydia pneumoniae in established cell lines but nothing is known in primary human aortic smooth muscle cells, a cell type among others known to be involved in the formation of the atherosclerotic plaque. Type of cell death was analyzed by various methods in primary aortic smooth muscle cells after infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae to investigate a possible pathogenic link in atherosclerosis. Results Chlamydiae were found to be localized up to 72 h post infection in aortic smooth muscle cells either as single bacteria or inside of large inclusions. Quantification of host cell death by lactate dehydrogenase release assay revealed strictly dose and time dependent lysis for all tested isolates of Chlamydia pneumoniae. Phosphatidylserine exposure was detected by flow cytometry in Chlamydia pneumoniae infected cells. Ultrastructure of Chlamydia pneumoniae infected human aortic smooth muscle cells showed extensive membrane- and organelle damage, chromatin condensation but no nuclear fragmentation. DNA fragmentation as well as cell membrane permeability was analyzed by TUNEL and NHS-biotin staining and occurred exclusively in cells carrying Chlamydia pneumoniae spots but not in smooth muscle cells with inclusions. These morphological features of cell death were not accompanied by an activation of caspase-3 as revealed by analysis of enzyme activity but involved mitochondrial membrane depolarization as shown by TMRE uptake and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. Conclusion This study provides evidence that Chlamydia pneumoniae induce a spot like infection in human aortic smooth muscle cells, which results in a chimeric cell death with both apoptotic and necrotic characteristics. This aponecrotic cell death may assist chronic inflammation in atherosclerotic blood vessels. PMID:15663783

Dumrese, Claudia; Maurus, Christine F; Gygi, Daniel; Schneider, Marten KJ; Walch, Michael; Groscurth, Peter; Ziegler, Urs

2005-01-01

373

Epidemiology of Chlamydia pneumoniae.  

PubMed

Chlamydia pneumoniae is the most commonly occurring intracellular bacterial pathogen. It is frequently involved in respiratory tract infections and to a lesser degree in extrapulmonary diseases. According to seroepidemiologic surveys, C. pneumoniae infection seems to be both endemic and epidemic. Such studies indicate that C. pneumoniae infection is widespread, with frequent reinfection during a lifetime. In Western countries the highest rate of new infections occurs between the ages of 5 and 15. The antibody prevalence worldwide is higher in adult males than in females. Currently available data suggest that C. pneumoniae is primarily transmitted from human to human without any animal reservoir. Transmission seems to be inefficient, although household outbreaks with high transmission rates are reported. Most reports rank C. pneumoniae among the three most common etiologic agents of community-acquired pneumonia, with an incidence ranging from 6% to 25%, and generally presenting a mild and, in some cases, self-limiting clinical course. Recent reports also indicate a possible role for C. pneumoniae in severe forms of community-acquired pneumonia and in respiratory infections in immunocompromised patients. C. pneumoniae infection has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma in both adults and children. The hypothesis that C. pneumoniae infection could lead to asthma is based on clinical studies and on the evidence of specific IgE production, direct epithelial damage, induction of T-cell immunopathologic diseases, and vascular smooth cell infection. Chronic C. pneumoniae infection seems to be common in patients with chronic bronchitis whether exacerbated or not, and is characterized by a strong humoral immune response to this intracellular microorganism, which is present in the majority of patients with severe chronic bronchitis. More than 60% of subjects with chronic bronchitis have specific C. pneumoniae antibody titers, and the microorganism may be identified by culture or PCR in almost 40% of these patients. This pathogen has also been recently associated with atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD). Seroepidemiological evidence indicates that the majority of patients with CHD present an anti-C. pneumoniae antibody pattern consistent with chronic infection. Furthermore, C. pneumoniae has been detected in atherosclerotic coronary plaques by several methods, including immunocytochemistry, transmission electron microscopy and molecular biology techniques. Recently, we detected C. pneumoniae DNA in a high percentage (51%) of aortic aneurysm plaques. Moreover, our serologic data support the hypothesis that a chronic C. pneumoniae antibody pattern may be a possible risk marker for atherosclerosis. Recently, C. pneumoniae has been isolated by culture from the coronary artery of a patient with coronary atherosclerosis, providing direct evidence of the presence of viable organisms in atheromatous lesions. Moreover, we recently demonstrated an association between C. pneumoniae reinfection and acute myocardial infarction. PMID:11869264

Blasi, F.; Tarsia, P.; Arosio, C.; Fagetti, L.; Allegra, L.

1998-01-01

374

Chlamydiaceae and Chlamydia-like organisms in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus)--organ distribution and histopathological findings.  

PubMed

Chlamydial infections in koalas can cause life-threatening diseases leading to blindness and sterility. However, little is known about the systemic spread of chlamydiae in the inner organs of the koala, and data concerning related pathological organ lesions are limited. The aim of this study was to perform a thorough investigation of organs from 23 koalas and to correlate their histopathological lesions to molecular chlamydial detection. To reach this goal, 246 formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded organ samples from 23 koalas were investigated by histopathology, Chlamydiaceae real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, ArrayTube Microarray for Chlamydiaceae species identification as well as Chlamydiales real-time PCR and sequencing. By PCR, two koalas were positive for Chlamydia pecorum whereas immunohistochemical labelling for Chlamydiaceae was detected in 10 tissues out of nine koalas. The majority of these (n=6) had positive labelling in the urogenital tract related to histopathological lesions such as cystitis, endometritis, pyelonephritis and prostatitis. Somehow unexpected was the positive labelling in the gastrointestinal tract including the cloaca as well as in lung and spleen indicating systemic spread of infection. Uncultured Chlamydiales were detected in several organs of seven koalas by PCR, and four of these suffered from plasmacytic enteritis of unknown aetiology. Whether the finding of Chlamydia-like organisms in the gastrointestinal tract is linked to plasmacytic enteritis is unclear and remains speculative. However, as recently shown in a mouse model, the gastrointestinal tract might play a role being the site for persistent chlamydial infections and being a source for reinfection of the genital tract. PMID:24888862

Burach, Fabienne; Pospischil, Andreas; Hanger, Jon; Loader, Jo; Pillonel, Trestan; Greub, Gilbert; Borel, Nicole

2014-08-01

375

Pharmacokinetic Modelling of Efavirenz, Atazanavir, Lamivudine and Tenofovir in the Female Genital Tract of HIV-Infected Pre-Menopausal Women  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives A previously published study of antiretroviral pharmacokinetics in the female genital tract of HIV-infected women demonstrated differing degrees of female genital tract penetration among antiretrovirals. These blood plasma (BP) and cervicovaginal fluid (CVF) data were co-modelled for four antiretrovirals with varying CVF exposures. Methods Six paired BP and CVF samples were collected over 24 h, and antiretroviral concentrations determined using validated liquid chromatography (LC) with UV detection or LC-mass spectrometry analytical methods. For each antiretroviral, a BP model was fit using Bayesian estimation (ADAPT5), followed by addition of a CVF model. The final model was chosen based on graphical and statistical output, and then non-linear mixed-effects modelling using S-ADAPT was performed. Population mean parameters and their variability are reported. Model-predicated area under the concentration-time curve during the dosing interval (AUC?) and exposure ratios of CVF AUC?:BP AUC? were calculated for each drug. Results The base model uses first-order absorption with a lag time, a two-compartment model, and a series of transit compartments that transfer the drug from BP to CVF. Protein-unbound drug transfers into CVF for efavirenz and atazanavir; total drug transfers for lamivudine and tenofovir. CVF follows a one-compartment model for efavirenz and atazanavir, and a two-compartment model for lamivudine and tenofovir. As expected, inter-individual variability was high. Model-predicted CVF AUC?:BP AUC? ratios are consistent with published results. Conclusions This is the first pharmacokinetic modelling of antiretroviral disposition in BP and CVF. These models will be further refined with tissue data, and used in clinical trials simulations to inform future studies of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis in women. PMID:23044523

Dumond, Julie B.; Nicol, Melanie R.; Kendrick, Racheal N.; Garonzik, Samira M.; Patterson, Kristine B.; Cohen, Myron S.; Forrest, Alan; Kashuba, Angela D.M.

2012-01-01

376

Interaction of chlamydiae and host cells in vitro.  

PubMed Central

The obligately intracellular bacteria of the genus Chlamydia, which is only remotely related to other eubacterial genera, cause many diseases of humans, nonhuman mammals, and birds. Interaction of chlamydiae with host cells in vitro has been studied as a model of infection in natural hosts and as an example of the adaptation of an organism to an unusual environment, the inside of another living cell. Among the novel adaptations made by chlamydiae have been the substitution of disulfide-bond-cross-linked polypeptides for peptidoglycans and the use of host-generated nucleotide triphosphates as sources of metabolic energy. The effect of contact between chlamydiae and host cells in culture varies from no effect at all to rapid destruction of either chlamydiae or host cells. When successful infection occurs, it is usually followed by production of large numbers of progeny and destruction of host cells. However, host cells containing chlamydiae sometimes continue to divide, with or without overt signs of infection, and chlamydiae may persist indefinitely in cell cultures. Some of the many factors that influence the outcome of chlamydia-host cell interaction are kind of chlamydiae, kind of host cells, mode of chlamydial entry, nutritional adequacy of the culture medium, presence of antimicrobial agents, and presence of immune cells and soluble immune factors. General characteristics of chlamydial multiplication in cells of their natural hosts are reproduced in established cell lines, but reproduction in vitro of the subtle differences in chlamydial behavior responsible for the individuality of the different chlamydial diseases will require better in vitro models. PMID:2030670

Moulder, J W

1991-01-01

377

Full genome sequences of all nine Chlamydia psittaci genotype reference strains.  

PubMed

Chlamydia psittaci primarily infects birds, but zoonotic transmission occurs in people in close contact with infected birds. The clinical outcome ranges from inapparent disease to pneumonia. Here we report the genome sequences of all 9 Chlamydia psittaci genotype reference strains. PMID:23209198

Van Lent, Sarah; Piet, Jurgen R; Beeckman, Delphine; van der Ende, Arie; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Bavoil, Patrik; Myers, Garry; Vanrompay, Daisy; Pannekoek, Yvonne

2012-12-01

378

Full Genome Sequences of All Nine Chlamydia psittaci Genotype Reference Strains  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia psittaci primarily infects birds, but zoonotic transmission occurs in people in close contact with infected birds. The clinical outcome ranges from inapparent disease to pneumonia. Here we report the genome sequences of all 9 Chlamydia psittaci genotype reference strains. PMID:23209198

Van Lent, Sarah; Piet, Jurgen R.; Beeckman, Delphine; van der Ende, Arie; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Bavoil, Patrik; Myers, Garry; Vanrompay, Daisy

2012-01-01

379

Genital warts  

MedlinePLUS

Condylomata acuminata; Penile warts; Human papilloma virus (HPV); Venereal warts; Condyloma; HPV DNA test; Sexually transmitted disease (STD) - warts; Sexually transmitted infection (STI) - warts; LSIL-HPV; Low-grade dysplasia-HPV; HSIL- ...

380

Human immunodeficiency virus acquisition associated with genital ulcer disease and herpes simplex virus type 2 infection: a nested case-control study in Rakai, Uganda.  

PubMed

To assess the timing of symptomatic genital ulcer disease (GUD) relative to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroconversion, we studied 248 case subjects who underwent HIV seroconversion and 496 HIV-negative control subjects, at 3 interview visits conducted at 10-month intervals: visit 1, before HIV acquisition; visit 2, after seroconversion; and visit 3, 10 months after detection of seroconversion. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), for HIV acquisition, were estimated by logistic regression. HIV load was measured by RNA-polymerase chain reaction, and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) serologic testing used HerpeSelect EIA with Western blot confirmation. The OR of HSV-2 seropositivity associated with HIV acquisition was 1.7 (95% CI, 1.2-2.4). Prevalence of GUD was increased among case subjects, at visits 2 (OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.9-5.3) and 3 (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.1-3.9). HIV load was increased in HSV-2-seropositive case subjects, compared with that in HSV-2-seronegative subjects, at 5 (P=.04) and 15 (P=.02) months after seroconversion. HIV acquisition is associated with HSV-2 seropositivity, and GUD is increased after seroconversion. HIV load is increased in HSV-2-positive subjects who seroconverted, suggesting a role for treatment of HSV-2 infection in HSV-2-seropositive, dually infected individuals. PMID:14624374

Serwadda, David; Gray, Ronald H; Sewankambo, Nelson K; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Chen, Michael Z; Quinn, Thomas C; Lutalo, Tom; Kiwanuka, Noah; Kigozi, Godfrey; Nalugoda, Fred; Meehan, Mary P; Ashley Morrow, Rhoda; Wawer, Maria J

2003-11-15

381

The interplay of host and organism factors in infection of the mouse genital tract by Mycoplasma pulmonis.  

PubMed

Mice of strain TO, in groups of ten, were inoculated intravaginally with Mycoplasma pulmonis organisms. Seven mice became infected after inoculation of organisms with strong haemadsorptive capacity, four after inoculation of organisms with diminished adsorptive capacity following ten passes in medium, and none after inoculation of apparently non-adsorbing organisms which had been passed 50 times. There appeared to be a correlation, therefore, between the ability to infect and the cytadsorptive capacity of the organisms. There was only a minimal vaginal polymorphonuclear leucocyte (PMNL) response in the infected mice and most of them had ceased to be infected by 35-42 days. In contrast, mice treated with progesterone had enhanced infections; all those given strongly haemadsorbing organisms, and organisms passed ten times, became infected and remained so for at least 42 days. Furthermore, at least ten fold more organisms were recovered from progesterone-treated than from untreated mice, and the PMNL response was much greater. Most of the progesterone-treated mice given organisms passed 50 times did not become infected, but some did, and the organisms recovered from them were fully cytadsorptive. It is postulated that a few cytadsorbing organisms in this inoculum were induced to infect under the enhancing effect of progesterone. PMID:4020113

Taylor-Robinson, D; Furr, P M

1985-08-01

382

Genital white piedra: epidemiology, microbiology, and therapy.  

PubMed

The epidemiology of genital white piedra was investigated in 166 young men with a variety of genital complaints. Trichosporon beigelii was isolated from sixty-six (40%) of the cultured scrotal hairs. Infection was more common among black patients--54% of those examined, compared to 16% of white patients and 30% of "others" (p less than 0.001). There was no relationship between infection and foreign travel. White piedra was also found in young women, but less frequently than in young men (14% vs 40%, respectively). Transmission rarely occurred from person to person. Occasionally multiple body sites were simultaneously infected. A relationship may exist between T. beigelii and Corynebacterium concurrently infecting genital hair shafts. Eradication of infection was extremely difficult, despite in vitro sensitivity to antifungal agents. Spontaneous remissions occurred, however, in some patients. PMID:3722493

Kalter, D C; Tschen, J A; Cernoch, P L; McBride, M E; Sperber, J; Bruce, S; Wolf, J E

1986-06-01

383

Ribosomal RNA Evidence of Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis Infection Following 3 Annual Mass Azithromycin Distributions in Communities With Highly Prevalent Trachoma  

PubMed Central

Twelve trachoma-hyperendemic communities were treated with 3 annual mass azithromycin distributions. Children aged 0–9 years were monitored 1 year following the third treatment. An RNA-based test detected ocular chlamydial infection in more children than did a DNA-based test (6.9% vs 4.2%), and in a larger number of communities (8 vs 7). PMID:22095569

Ayele, Berhan; Gebre, Teshome; Moncada, Jeanne; Stoller, Nicole E.; Zhou, Zhaoxia; Porco, Travis C.; McCulloch, Charles E.; Gaynor, Bruce D.; Emerson, Paul M.; Schachter, Julius; Lietman, Thomas M.

2012-01-01

384

Antibiotic resistance in Chlamydiae  

PubMed Central

There are few documented reports of antibiotic resistance in Chlamydia and no examples of natural and stable antibiotic resistance in strains collected from humans. While there are several reports of clinical isolates exhibiting resistance to antibiotics, these strains either lost their resistance phenotype in vitro, or lost viability altogether. Differences in procedures for chlamydial culture in the laboratory, low recovery rates of clinical isolates and the unknown significance of heterotypic resistance observed in culture may interfere with the recognition and interpretation of antibiotic resistance. Although antibiotic resistance has not emerged in chlamydiae pathogenic to humans, several lines of evidence suggest they are capable of expressing significant resistant phenotypes. The adept ability of chlamydiae to evolve to antibiotic resistance in vitro is demonstrated by contemporary examples of mutagenesis, recombination and genetic transformation. The isolation of tetracycline-resistant Chlamydia suis strains from pigs also emphasizes their adaptive ability to acquire antibiotic resistance genes when exposed to significant selective pressure. PMID:20860486

Sandoz, Kelsi M; Rockey, Daniel D

2011-01-01

385

Genotyping Chlamydia trachomatis by PCR.  

PubMed

Strain identification of Chlamydia trachomatis has historically been accomplished using serotyping as a phenotypic marker to differentiate chlamydial isolates (1). The target for serotyping is the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) which is the most antigenically diverse and abundant surface protein of the organism. Polyclonal antibodies (PAbs) were initially used for typing and were able to identify serovars D through K and LI, L2, and L3 as primarily genital pathogens, and serovars A, B, Ba, and C as trachoma pathogens. However, these groupings are somewhat imprecise. As immunotyping methods evolved, MOMP-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were produced that were able to detect additional serovars of the organism (2,3). These include Da, la, and L2a (2). MAbs recognize serovar-, subspecies-, and species-specific epitopes (4,5) that reflect many of the amino acid variations found among the 18 known serovars of C. trachomatis, and are located within three of the four variable sequence regions of MOMP, termed variable segments (VS) 1,2, 3, and 4. Sequence analysis of the MOMP g