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Sample records for genital chlamydia infection

  1. Female Reproductive Hormones and Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Genital Chlamydia Infection in Tubal Factor Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Nsonwu-Anyanwu, Augusta Chinyere; Charles-Davies, Mabel Ayebantoyo; Taiwo, Victor Olusegun; Li, Bin; Oni, Anthony Alabar; Bello, Folashade Adenike

    2015-01-01

    Background Genital Chlamydia infection (GCI) and the associated pathologies have been implicated in tubal infertility. Though the actual pathologic mechanisms are still uncertain, oxidative stress and other factors have been implicated. The purpose of the study was to determine the possible contribution of female reproductive hormones and biomarkers of oxidative stress in genital Chlamydial infection to tubal occlusion. Methods This prospective case control study was carried out by recruiting 150 age matched women grouped into infertile Chlamydia positive women (n = 50), fertile Chlamydia positive women (n = 50) and fertile Chlamydia negative women as controls (n = 50). High vaginal swabs and endocervical swabs were collected for screening Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Treponema pallidum, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. Sera were collected for estimation of Chlamydia trachomatis antibody, female reproductive hormones [Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Luteinizing Hormone (LH), Oestradiol (E2), Progesterone (P4), Prolactin (PRL)] and biomarkers of oxidative stress [Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) and 8-hydroxyl-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)] by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Data were analyzed using chi square, analysis of variance and LSD Post hoc to determine mean differences at p = 0.05. Results Among women with GCI, higher levels of LH and 8-OHdG were observed in infertile Chlamydia positive women compared to fertile Chlamydia positive women (p < 0.05). Higher levels of LH and 8-OHdG and lower TAC levels were observed in infertile Chlamydia positive women compared to fertile Chlamydia negative controls (p < 0.05). Conclusion Mechanisms including oxidative DNA damage and reduced antioxidant capacity may be involved in the pathology of Chlamydia induced tubal damage. PMID:25927024

  2. Chlamydia Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... chlamydia can infect the urinary tract. In women, infection of the reproductive system can lead to pelvic ... Babies born to infected mothers can get eye infections and pneumonia from chlamydia. In men, chlamydia can ...

  3. Blockade of epithelial membrane protein 2 (EMP2) abrogates infection of Chlamydia muridarum murine genital infection model.

    PubMed

    Shimazaki, Kaori; Chan, Ann M; Moniz, Raymond J; Wadehra, Madhuri; Nagy, Agnes; Coulam, Catherine P; Mareninov, Sergey; Lepin, Eric M; Wu, Anna M; Kelly, Kathleen A; Braun, Jonathan; Gordon, Lynn K

    2009-03-01

    New methods are needed to eradicate or prevent Chlamydia trachomatis infections. Blockade of epithelial membrane protein 2 (EMP2) by genetic silencing or neutralizing polyclonal antibody reduced chlamydial infectivity in vitro. This study tests the prediction that recombinant anti-EMP2 diabody could reduce early chlamydial infection of the genital tract in vivo. In a murine infection model, pretreatment with anti-EMP2 diabody, as compared with control diabody, significantly reduced bacterial load, tissue production of inflammatory cytokines, recruitment of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and local tissue inflammation. These findings support EMP2 as a potential preventative and therapeutic target for genital chlamydial infection. PMID:19159428

  4. Chlamydia trachomatis in women attending a gynaecological outpatient clinic with lower genital tract infection.

    PubMed

    Svensson, L; Weström, L; Mårdh, P A

    1981-08-01

    In a study of 3794 consecutive women attending a gynaecological outpatient clinic with symptoms of lower genital tract infection (LGTI) 350 (9.2%) harboured Chlamydia trachomatis and 83 (2.2%) Neisseria gonorrhoeae. One hundred and ninety-five patients who were later found to have acute salpingitis and 109 other women in whom the chlamydial cultures were spoiled were excluded from the series. Of the remaining 3490 women, 281 were infected with C trachomatis, 42 with N gonorrhoeae, and 17 with both. Of the 3150 women who were infected with neither organism, 146 were randomly selected as controls. The chlamydia-positive patients were younger (P less than 0.001), did not complain of pelvic discomfort or pain (P less than 0.01), and used oral contraceptives (P less than 0.001) more frequently than did the controls; intrauterine devices were used more often (P less than 0.01) by the controls. Increased vaginal discharge was reported significantly more often in chlamydia-positive patients than in the controls (P less than 0.05). Of 266 women harbouring C trachomatis the organism was still present in 22 (8.3%) when they were followed up from two to more than eight weeks after finishing treatment with doxycycline. Of 91 male consorts of chlamydia-positive women, 53 (58.2%) were infected with C trachomatis. PMID:6791761

  5. Chlamydia trachomatis in women attending a gynaecological outpatient clinic with lower genital tract infection.

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, L; Weström, L; Mårdh, P A

    1981-01-01

    In a study of 3794 consecutive women attending a gynaecological outpatient clinic with symptoms of lower genital tract infection (LGTI) 350 (9.2%) harboured Chlamydia trachomatis and 83 (2.2%) Neisseria gonorrhoeae. One hundred and ninety-five patients who were later found to have acute salpingitis and 109 other women in whom the chlamydial cultures were spoiled were excluded from the series. Of the remaining 3490 women, 281 were infected with C trachomatis, 42 with N gonorrhoeae, and 17 with both. Of the 3150 women who were infected with neither organism, 146 were randomly selected as controls. The chlamydia-positive patients were younger (P less than 0.001), did not complain of pelvic discomfort or pain (P less than 0.01), and used oral contraceptives (P less than 0.001) more frequently than did the controls; intrauterine devices were used more often (P less than 0.01) by the controls. Increased vaginal discharge was reported significantly more often in chlamydia-positive patients than in the controls (P less than 0.05). Of 266 women harbouring C trachomatis the organism was still present in 22 (8.3%) when they were followed up from two to more than eight weeks after finishing treatment with doxycycline. Of 91 male consorts of chlamydia-positive women, 53 (58.2%) were infected with C trachomatis. PMID:6791761

  6. Chemokine Expression Patterns Differ within Anatomically Distinct Regions of the Genital Tract during Chlamydia trachomatis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Maxion, Heather K.; Kelly, Kathleen A.

    2002-01-01

    Untreated infections with Chlamydia trachomatis commonly result in ascending infection to fallopian tubes and subsequent immune-mediated tubal pathology in females. The proposed immune-mediated injury may be associated with the increased recruitment of CD4 cells to the upper genital tract (GT) (oviducts) in comparison to the lower GT (cervix) during infection, as shown in animal models. To understand the mechanisms responsible for this biased recruitment of CD4 cells within the GT, we characterized chemokine expression patterns in the upper and lower GTs in mice during infection with the murine pneumonitis biovar of Chlamydia trachomatis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of supernatants from GT homogenates revealed that the levels of the Th1-associated chemokines CXCL9 (monokine induced by gamma interferon), CXCL10 (interferon-inducible protein 10), and CCL5 (RANTES) were significantly higher in the upper GT than in the lower GT after infection, while the CCL3 (macrophage inflammatory protein 1α) level was not increased. In contrast, the level of chemokine CCL11 (eotaxin) was significantly elevated in the lower GT later in the course of infection. Increased levels of mRNA confirmed the selective differences in chemokine expression within the upper and lower GTs. The increased levels of Th1-inducible chemokines in the upper GT were not due to differences in the magnitude of infection or progesterone pretreatment. These data demonstrate that the upper and lower regions of the GT respond differently to Chlamydia infection. PMID:11854242

  7. Chlamydia trachomatis and genital human papillomavirus infections in female university students in Honduras.

    PubMed

    Tbora, Nelba; Zelaya, Arnoldo; Bakkers, Judith; Melchers, Willem J G; Ferrera, Annabelle

    2005-07-01

    Sexually transmitted infections are a serious health problem in Honduras. Human papillomavirus (HPV) and Chlamydia trachomatis are major causes of sexually transmitted diseases. To determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis and HPV in young women, 100 female university students in Honduras were assayed for the presence of these pathogens. Twenty-eight percent were positive for HPV and 6% were positive for C. trachomatis. These results show that genital HPV and C. trachomatis infections are very common among sexually active young women in Honduras. It is vital to promote extensive public awareness campaigns among sexually active women concerning preventive measures of these diseases. PMID:16014831

  8. Influence of the tryptophan-indole-IFNγ axis on human genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection: role of vaginal co-infections

    PubMed Central

    Aiyar, Ashok; Quayle, Alison J.; Buckner, Lyndsey R.; Sherchand, Shardulendra P.; Chang, Theresa L.; Zea, Arnold H.; Martin, David H.; Belland, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The natural history of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections can vary widely; infections can spontaneously resolve but can also last from months to years, potentially progressing to cause significant pathology. The host and bacterial factors underlying this wide variation are not completely understood, but emphasize the bacterium's capacity to evade/adapt to the genital immune response, and/or exploit local environmental conditions to survive this immune response. IFNγ is considered to be a primary host protective cytokine against endocervical C. trachomatis infections. IFNγ acts by inducing the host enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxgenase, which catabolizes tryptophan, thereby depriving the bacterium of this essential amino acid. In vitro studies have revealed that tryptophan deprivation causes Chlamydia to enter a viable but non-infectious growth pattern that is termed a persistent growth form, characterized by a unique morphology and gene expression pattern. Provision of tryptophan can reactivate the bacterium to the normal developmental cycle. There is a significant difference in the capacity of ocular and genital C. trachomatis serovars to counter tryptophan deprivation. The latter uniquely encode a functional tryptophan synthase to synthesize tryptophan via indole salvage, should indole be available in the infection microenvironment. In vitro studies have confirmed the capacity of indole to mitigate the effects of IFNγ; it has been suggested that a perturbed vaginal microbiome may provide a source of indole in vivo. Consistent with this hypothesis, the microbiome associated with bacterial vaginosis includes species that encode a tryptophanase to produce indole. In this review, we discuss the natural history of genital chlamydial infections, morphological and molecular changes imposed by IFNγ on Chlamydia, and finally, the microenvironmental conditions associated with vaginal co-infections that can ameliorate the effects of IFNγ on C. trachomatis. PMID:24918090

  9. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis: an update.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Meenakshi; Sood, Seema; Mukherjee, Anjan; Muralidhar, Sumathi; Bala, Manju

    2013-09-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of curable bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide. It manifests primarily as urethritis in males and endocervicitis in females. Untreated chlamydial infection in man can cause epididymitis and proctitis. Though most women with Chlamydia infection are asymptomatic or have minimal symptoms, some develop salpingitis, endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy and tubal factor infertility. It is associated with an increased risk for the transmission or acquisition of HIV and is also attributed to be a risk factor for the development of cervical carcinoma. Early diagnosis and treatment of infected individuals is required to prevent the spread of the disease and severe sequelae. Traditionally, tissue culture was considered the gold standard for the diagnosis. However, with the availability of newer diagnostic techniques particularly molecular methods which are not only highly sensitive and specific but are cost-effective also, the diagnosis has became fast and easy. The purpose of this review is to study the various aspects of genital C. trachomatis infection. Also the advances related to the clinical picture, various diagnostic modalities, prevention, treatment, drug resistance and control measures will be dealt with. PMID:24135174

  10. Seroprevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women of reproductive age.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, N U; Hossain, M A; Nahar, K; Mahmud, C; Paul, S K; Ahmed, S; Haque, N; Kalam, A; Parveen, U S

    2011-04-01

    The genital chlamydial infection is the most common sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and major cause of infertility and ectopic pregnancy for millions of women in the world particularly in developing countries. This study was performed to find out the seroprevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) genital infection in women of reproductive age attending the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital (MMCH) during the period from January 2009 to December 2009 through a cross sectional study. A total of 108 serum samples from symptomatic and asymptomatic pregnant and non-pregnant women were tested for CT specific IgG antibody by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). A total of 31(28.7%) patients were found to have antibody of which 44% (26/59) were from pregnant group and 10.2% (5/49) from non-pregnant group. The seropositivity was 21.6% (16/74) in symptomatic cases and 44.1% (15/34) in asymptomatic cases. The study shows high prevalence of Chlamydial antibody which is common in pregnant and non-pregnant, symptomatic and asymptomatic adult women in Bangladesh. So, screening for chlamydial infection should be done routinely by suitable tests in sexually active symptomatic and asymptomatic women including pregnant women to prevent serious complications. PMID:21522085

  11. Immunization against chlamydial genital infection in guinea pigs with UV-inactivated and viable chlamydiae administered by different routes

    SciTech Connect

    Rank, R.G.; Batteiger, B.E.; Soderberg, L.S. )

    1990-08-01

    Female guinea pigs were immunized with viable or UV light-inactivated chlamydiae, belonging to the species Chlamydia psittaci, by intravenous, subcutaneous, oral, or ocular routes. All animals were then inoculated vaginally with viable chlamydiae to determine the extent of protection against challenge infection induced by the various regimens. The course of genital infection was significantly reduced in intensity in all groups of animals except the unimmunized controls and those animals immunized orally with inactivated antigen. Guinea pigs immunized with viable antigen were more likely to develop resistance to challenge infection and, in general, had a significantly greater degree of protection than animals immunized with inactivated antigen. No one route seemed superior in producing a protective response. Animals in all groups demonstrating protection developed serum and secretion immunoglobulin G antibody responses to chlamydiae. Lymphocyte proliferative reactions to chlamydial antigen were variable among groups. Immunoblot analysis of serum and secretions indicated a wide range of antibody specificities, but most protected animals produced antibodies to the major outer membrane protein, lipopolysaccharide, and the 61-kilodalton protein. No definitive associations could be made between the increased ability of immunization with viable organisms to produce resistance to challenge infection and a particular immune parameter. These data indicate that viable chlamydiae given by various routes are able to induce a strong immune response which can provide resistance against reinfection in some cases or at least reduce the degree of infection to a greater degree than inactivated antigen. However, complete resistance to genital tract infection may be difficult to obtain and alternate immunizations strategies may have to be developed.

  12. Identification of Antigen-Specific Antibody Responses Associated with Upper Genital Tract Pathology in Mice Infected with Chlamydia muridarum

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Hao; Gong, Siqi; Hou, Shuping; Zou, Quanming

    2012-01-01

    Urogenital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in some women can lead to upper genital tract pathologies, such as hydrosalpinx, potentially affecting fertility. In the current study, 27 of 40 mice intravaginally infected with Chlamydia muridarum developed visible hydrosalpinges in the oviduct while the remaining 13 did not, although all infected mice displayed similar infection time courses. Antisera from the 40 mice recognized 130 out of 257 C. muridarum proteins as antigens and 17 as immunodominant antigens. Importantly, the 27 mice with hydrosalpinges preferentially recognized two C. muridarum proteins (TC0582 and TC0912, designated pathology-associated antigens) while the 13 mice with no hydrosalpinx preferentially recognized 10 proteins (TC0047, TC0117, TC0190, TC0197, TC0257, TC0279, TC0326, TC0630, TC0689, and TC0816, designated nonpathology antigens). The preferential recognition was validated by absorption and independently confirmed in Western blots. The C. trachomatis homolog of TC0912 is encoded by a highly polymorphic gene that is associated with ocular pathogenesis. A fragment of TC0912 was found to improve the differentiation of hydrosalpinx from nonhydrosalpinx mice. TC0582 is a highly conserved ATP synthase, and it may contribute to chlamydial pathogenesis via mechanisms similar to those hypothesized for the highly conserved HSP60. Thus, we have identified chlamydial antigens and epitopes that are associated with either susceptibility or resistance to upper genital tract pathology, which will help us to further understand chlamydial pathogenesis and to develop anti-Chlamydia subunit vaccines. PMID:22158739

  13. The Role of the Immune Response in Chlamydia trachomatis Infection of the Male Genital Tract: A Double-Edged Sword

    PubMed Central

    Redgrove, Kate A.; McLaughlin, Eileen A.

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infection in the world, with more than 100 million cases reported annually. While there have been extensive studies into the adverse effects that CT infection has on the female genital tract, and on the subsequent ability of these women to conceive, studies into the consequences on male fertility have been limited and controversial. This is in part due to the asymptomatic nature of the infection, where it is estimated that 50% of men with Chlamydia fail to show any symptoms. It is accepted, however, that acute and/or persistent CT infection is the causative agent for conditions such as urethritis, epididymitis, epididymo-orchitis, and potentially prostatitis. As with most infections, the immune system plays a fundamental role in the body’s attempts to eradicate the infection. The first and most important immune response to Chlamydia infection is a local one, whereby immune cells such as leukocytes are recruited to the site of infections, and subsequently secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines such as interferon gamma. Immune cells also work to initiate and potentiate chronic inflammation through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the release of molecules with degradative properties including defensins, elastase, collagenase, cathespins, and lysozyme. This long-term inflammation can lead to cell proliferation (a possible precursor to cancer), tissue remodeling, and scarring, as well as being linked to the onset of autoimmune responses in genetically disposed individuals. This review will focus on the ability of the immune system to recognize and clear acute and persistent chlamydial infections in the male genital tract, and on the paradoxical damage that chronic inflammation resulting from the infection can cause on the reproductive health of the individual. PMID:25386180

  14. Intramuscular Priming and Intranasal Boosting Induce Strong Genital Immunity Through Secretory IgA in Minipigs Infected with Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Bøje, Sarah; Erneholm, Karin; Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Jungersen, Gregers; Andersen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    International efforts in developing a vaccine against Chlamydia trachomatis have highlighted the need for novel immunization strategies for the induction of genital immunity. In this study, we evaluated an intramuscular (IM) prime/intranasal boost vaccination strategy in a Göttingen Minipig model with a reproductive system very similar to humans. The vaccine was composed of C. trachomatis subunit antigens formulated in the Th1/Th17 promoting CAF01 adjuvant. IM priming immunizations with CAF01 induced a significant cell-mediated interferon gamma and interleukin 17A response and a significant systemic high-titered neutralizing IgG response. Following genital challenge, intranasally boosted groups mounted an accelerated, highly significant genital IgA response that correlated with enhanced bacterial clearance on day 3 post infection. By detecting antigen-specific secretory component (SC), we showed that the genital IgA was locally produced in the genital mucosa. The highly significant inverse correlation between the vaginal IgA SC response and the chlamydial load suggests that IgA in the minipig model is involved in protection against C. trachomatis. This is important both for our understanding of protective immunity and future vaccination strategies against C. trachomatis and genital pathogens in general. PMID:26734002

  15. Intramuscular Priming and Intranasal Boosting Induce Strong Genital Immunity Through Secretory IgA in Minipigs Infected with Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Bje, Sarah; Erneholm, Karin; Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Agerholm, Jrgen Steen; Jungersen, Gregers; Andersen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    International efforts in developing a vaccine against Chlamydia trachomatis have highlighted the need for novel immunization strategies for the induction of genital immunity. In this study, we evaluated an intramuscular (IM) prime/intranasal boost vaccination strategy in a Gttingen Minipig model with a reproductive system very similar to humans. The vaccine was composed of C. trachomatis subunit antigens formulated in the Th1/Th17 promoting CAF01 adjuvant. IM priming immunizations with CAF01 induced a significant cell-mediated interferon gamma and interleukin 17A response and a significant systemic high-titered neutralizing IgG response. Following genital challenge, intranasally boosted groups mounted an accelerated, highly significant genital IgA response that correlated with enhanced bacterial clearance on day 3 post infection. By detecting antigen-specific secretory component (SC), we showed that the genital IgA was locally produced in the genital mucosa. The highly significant inverse correlation between the vaginal IgA SC response and the chlamydial load suggests that IgA in the minipig model is involved in protection against C. trachomatis. This is important both for our understanding of protective immunity and future vaccination strategies against C. trachomatis and genital pathogens in general. PMID:26734002

  16. Incidence and persistence of carcinogenic genital human papillomavirus infections in young women with or without Chlamydia trachomatis co-infection.

    PubMed

    Vriend, Henrike J; Bogaards, Johannes A; van Bergen, Jan E A M; Brink, Antoinette A T P; van den Broek, Ingrid V F; Hoebe, Christian J P A; King, Audrey J; van der Sande, Marianne A B; Wolffs, Petra F G; de Melker, Hester E

    2015-10-01

    We assessed whether infection with chlamydia increases the incidence of carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and if HPV persistence is affected by chlamydia co-infection. For 1982 women (16-29 years-old) participating in two consecutive rounds of a chlamydia screening implementation trial, swabs were polymerase chain reaction tested to detect chlamydia and 14 carcinogenic HPV genotypes. HPV type-specific incidence and persistence rates were stratified for chlamydia positivity at follow-up. Associations were assessed by multilevel logistic regression analyses with correction for sexual risk factors. HPV type-specific incidence ranged from 1.4% to 8.9% and persistence from 22.7% to 59.4% after a median follow-up of 11 months (interquartile range: 11-12). Differences in 1-year HPV persistence rates between chlamydia -infected and noninfected women were less distinct than differences in HPV incidence rates (pooled adjusted odds ratios of 1.17 [95% CI: 0.69-1.96] and 1.84 [95% CI: 1.36-2.47], respectively). The effect of chlamydia co-infection on HPV-infection risk did not significantly differ by HPV genotype. In conclusion, infection with chlamydia increases the risk of infection by carcinogenic HPV types and may enhance persistence of some HPV types. Although these findings could reflect residual confounding through unobserved risk factors, our results do give reason to explore more fully the association between chlamydia and HPV type-specific acquisition and persistence. PMID:26194784

  17. Incidence and persistence of carcinogenic genital human papillomavirus infections in young women with or without Chlamydia trachomatis co-infection

    PubMed Central

    Vriend, Henrike J; Bogaards, Johannes A; van Bergen, Jan E A M; Brink, Antoinette A T P; van den Broek, Ingrid V F; Hoebe, Christian J P A; King, Audrey J; van der Sande, Marianne A B; Wolffs, Petra F G; de Melker, Hester E

    2015-01-01

    We assessed whether infection with chlamydia increases the incidence of carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and if HPV persistence is affected by chlamydia co-infection. For 1982 women (1629years-old) participating in two consecutive rounds of a chlamydia screening implementation trial, swabs were polymerase chain reaction tested to detect chlamydia and 14 carcinogenic HPV genotypes. HPV type-specific incidence and persistence rates were stratified for chlamydia positivity at follow-up. Associations were assessed by multilevel logistic regression analyses with correction for sexual risk factors. HPV type-specific incidence ranged from 1.4% to 8.9% and persistence from 22.7% to 59.4% after a median follow-up of 11months (interquartile range: 1112). Differences in 1-year HPV persistence rates between chlamydia -infected and noninfected women were less distinct than differences in HPV incidence rates (pooled adjusted odds ratios of 1.17 [95% CI: 0.691.96] and 1.84 [95% CI: 1.362.47], respectively). The effect of chlamydia co-infection on HPV-infection risk did not significantly differ by HPV genotype. In conclusion, infection with chlamydia increases the risk of infection by carcinogenic HPV types and may enhance persistence of some HPV types. Although these findings could reflect residual confounding through unobserved risk factors, our results do give reason to explore more fully the association between chlamydia and HPV type-specific acquisition and persistence. PMID:26194784

  18. Transmission of Chlamydia and genital warts during sleepwalking.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Kailash

    2008-02-01

    A boy aged 15 years infected a girl of 13 years with Chlamydia and genital warts. The boy has been engaged in sexual activities for the last four years. There was no dispute that the boy had had sex with the girl. He was prosecuted but acquitted by the Court on the ground of 'defence of sleepwalking'. This is the first case where sexually transmitted infections like Chlamydia and genital warts have been transmitted sexually through sleepwalking. This case also raises the issues of underage sex and issues of confidentiality. PMID:18334071

  19. Evaluation and comparison of tests to diagnose Chlamydia trachomatis genital infections.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Robinson, D

    1997-11-01

    Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis results in intracytoplasmic inclusions and the generation of infectious elementary bodies (EBs). These can be detected by various procedures. Staining of epithelial cells with vital dyes was first used to detect inclusions, but is insensitive. Thus, Papanicolaou-stained cervical smears cannot be recommended. The advent of the ability to grow chlamydiae in cultured cells over 30 years ago had a major impact on chlamydial research and on detection. However, this procedure is probably <70% sensitive for cervical infection and less for urethral infection in men and is now practised infrequently following the advent of other, mostly less laborious and often equally, or more sensitive detection systems. Thus, staining a smear with a specific fluorescent monoclonal antibody to detect EBs is simple and the direct fluorescent antibody tests became a commercial proposition in the early to mid-1980s. Nevertheless, although highly sensitive and specific in competent hands, technical expertise is crucial and even the most experienced may be unable to read a large number of stained smears on slides quickly. In view of this, it is understandable that enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) gained popularity from the mid-1980s onwards, for they are not very labour intensive and their reading is neither subjective nor tedious. Unfortunately, these aspects outweighed the fact that the ELISAs lack sensitivity, some being very insensitive. The situation has been rescued, however, by the advent in the early 1990s of methods that amplify chlamydial DNA, making it easily detectable by relatively simple procedures. The polymerase chain reaction is such a method and has high specificity and sensitivity, although commercial development has so far not met the high standard expected of it in terms of sensitivity. The ligase chain reaction does not invoke such criticism, and high values for both sensitivity and specificity may be expected, even on urine samples. This augers well for diagnosing an infected individual patient and for effective screening programmes. Antibody tests have no place in a screening programme and are of debatable value in diagnosis. PMID:9433967

  20. Evaluation of a multisubunit recombinant polymorphic membrane protein and major outer membrane protein T cell vaccine against Chlamydia muridarum genital infection in three strains of mice1

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hong; Karunakaran, Karuna P.; Jiang, Xiaozhou; Brunham, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    An efficacious vaccine is needed to control Chlamydia trachomatis infection. In the murine model of C. muridarum genital infection, multifunctional mucosal CD4 T cells are the foundation for protective immunity, with antibody playing a secondary role. We previously identified four Chlamydia outer membrane proteins (PmpE, PmpF, PmpG and PmpH) as CD4 T cell vaccine candidates using a dendritic cell-based immunoproteomic approach. We also demonstrated that these four polymorphic membrane proteins (Pmps) individually conferred protection as measured by accelerated clearance of Chlamydia infection in the C57BL/6 murine genital tract model. The major outer membrane protein, MOMP is also a well-studied protective vaccine antigen in this system. In the current study, we tested immunogenicity and protection of a multisubunit recombinant protein vaccine consisting of the four Pmps (PmpEFGH) with or without the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) formulated with a Th1 polarizing adjuvant in C57BL/6, Balb/c and C3H mice. We found that C57BL/6 mice vaccinated with PmpEFGH+MOMP elicited more robust cellular immune responses than mice immunized with individual protein antigens. Pmps elicited more variable cellular immune responses than MOMP among the three strains of mice. The combination vaccine accelerated clearance in the three strains of mice although at different rates. We conclude that the recombinant outer membrane protein combination constitutes a promising first generation Chlamydia vaccine construct that should provide broad immunogenicity in an outbred population. PMID:24992718

  1. Randomized, Double-Blind, Multicenter Safety and Efficacy Study of Rifalazil Compared with Azithromycin for Treatment of Uncomplicated Genital Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Women

    PubMed Central

    Geisler, William M.; Pascual, Maria Luz G.; Mathew, Judy; Koltun, William D.; Morgan, Franklin; Batteiger, Byron E.; Mayes, Annette; Tao, Sijia; Hurwitz, Selwyn J.; Sayada, Chalom

    2014-01-01

    A randomized, double-blind study comparing single-dose chlamydia therapies of oral rifalazil (25 mg) and azithromycin (1 g) was conducted in 82 women with uncomplicated genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection. The microbiologic cure rate of C. trachomatis with rifalazil (n = 33) was 84.8% at the visit on day 22 to 26 (test-of-cure visit), versus 92.1% with azithromycin (n = 38), and the number of treatment failures in each group was 5 and 3, respectively. The difference in cure rate was ?7.3%, with a lower limit of the 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of ?22.5, and thus, noninferiority was not established at the prespecified margin (lower limit of CI of ?15%). The overall treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE) and treatment-related TEAE rates were lower in the rifalazil group (68% and 55%) than in the azithromycin group (71% and 62%), respectively. Subjects classified as treatment failures at day 22 to 26 had a lower mean plasma concentration of rifalazil at the visit on day 8 to 12 than those classified as treatment cures, but this difference was not significant; however, the levels were similar for both groups at the visit on day 22 to 26. A single 25-mg dose of rifalazil was well tolerated and eradicated C. trachomatis in most of these women with uncomplicated genital C. trachomatis infection. (The study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov under registration no. NCT01631201). PMID:24798277

  2. Penicillin Kills Chlamydia following the Fusion of Bacteria with Lysosomes and Prevents Genital Inflammatory Lesions in C. muridarum-Infected Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dumoux, Maud; Le Gall, Sylvain M.; Habbeddine, Mohamed; Delarbre, Christiane; Hayward, Richard D.; Kanellopoulos-Langevin, Colette; Verbeke, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia exists as two distinct forms. Elementary bodies (EBs) are infectious and extra-cellular, whereas reticulate bodies (RBs) replicate within a specialized intracellular compartment termed an inclusion. Alternative persistent intra-cellular forms can be induced in culture by diverse stimuli such as IFN? or adenosine/EHNA. They do not grow or divide but revive upon withdrawal of the stimulus and are implicated in several widespread human diseases through ill-defined in vivo mechanisms. ?-lactam antibiotics have also been claimed to induce persistence in vitro. The present report shows that upon penicillin G (pG) treatment, inclusions grow as fast as those in infected control cells. After removal of pG, Chlamydia do not revert to RBs. These effects are independent of host cell type, serovar, biovar and species of Chlamydia. Time-course experiments demonstrated that only RBs were susceptible to pG. pG-treated bacteria lost their control over host cell apoptotic pathways and no longer expressed pre-16S rRNA, in contrast to persistent bacteria induced with adenosine/EHNA. Confocal and live-video microscopy showed that bacteria within the inclusion fused with lysosomal compartments in pG-treated cells. That leads to recruitment of cathepsin D as early as 3 h post pG treatment, an event preceding bacterial death by several hours. These data demonstrate that pG treatment of cultured cells infected with Chlamydia results in the degradation of the bacteria. In addition we show that pG is significantly more efficient than doxycycline at preventing genital inflammatory lesions in C. muridarum-C57Bl/6 infected mice. These in vivo results support the physiological relevance of our findings and their potential therapeutic applications. PMID:24376710

  3. Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Listen Text Size Email Print Share Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infections Page Content Article Body When you hear the word chlamydia, you might think of the sexually transmitted disease (STD) by that name. The STD is caused ... illnesses. These lung infections are spread in the same way as many ...

  4. CD43-, but not CD43+, IL-10-producing CD1dhiCD5+ B cells suppress type 1 immune responses during Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infection.

    PubMed

    Moore-Connors, J M; Kim, H S; Marshall, J S; Stadnyk, A W; Halperin, S A; Wang, J

    2015-01-01

    Regulatory B (Breg) cells are known to modulate immune responses through predominantly interleukin-10 (IL-10)-dependent mechanisms and can be hypothetically divided into innate and adaptive subsets based on the nature of their activating signals. However, the specific role of different Breg subsets in modulating immune responses remains ambiguous. Here we have shown that Chlamydia induces IL-10-producing splenic B-cell populations consisting of CD43(+) and CD43(-) subsets of IgM(hi)IgD(lo) innate-like B (ILB) cells in vitro. While CD43(+)IL-10-producing B cells displayed innate type features and were readily induced by Chlamydia via Toll-like-receptor (TLR) signaling, CD43(-)IL-10-producing B cells required additional B-cell activating factor (BAFF)-mediated signals from dendritic cells (DCs) for their differentiation and activation, thereby classifying them as adaptive type Bregs. Importantly, CD43(-), but not CD43(+), IL-10-producing ILB cells displayed bona fide Breg activity by potently suppressing interferon-? (IFN-?) production in vitro in an IL-10-dependent manner. Furthermore, a novel CD43(-)CD1d(hi)CD5(+) IL-10-producing Breg population was predominantly induced by Chlamydia genital infection in vivo. Correspondingly, mixed bone marrow chimeric mice with B-cell-specific IL-10 deficiency exhibited significantly increased type 1 immune responses, decreased bacterial burden, and reduced oviduct pathology upon infection. Our data demonstrate for the first time a distinct role for CD43(-)CD1d(hi)CD5(+)-adaptive Bregs over CD43(+) innate counterparts in controlling mucosal responses against intracellular bacterial infection. PMID:24938746

  5. Intranasal vaccination with a secreted chlamydial protein enhances resolution of genital Chlamydia muridarum infection, protects against oviduct pathology, and is highly dependent upon endogenous gamma interferon production.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Ashlesh K; Chambers, James P; Meier, Patricia A; Zhong, Guangming; Arulanandam, Bernard P

    2007-02-01

    There is currently no licensed vaccine against Chlamydia trachomatis, the leading cause of sexually transmitted bacterial disease worldwide. Conventional vaccination attempts using surface-exposed chlamydial antigens have achieved only partial success. We have employed a novel vaccination strategy using a secreted protein, chlamydial protease-like activity factor (CPAF), which has been shown to degrade host major histocompatibility complex transcription factors and keratin-8 and therefore may allow immune evasion and establishment of a productive infection. Intranasal immunization using recombinant CPAF (rCPAF) plus interleukin-12 (IL-12) (rCPAF+IL-12 immunization) was used to assess the protective immunity against genital Chlamydia muridarum infection in BALB/c mice. rCPAF+IL-12 immunization induced robust gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) production and minimal IL-4 production by splenocytes upon in vitro recall with rCPAF. The total and immunoglobulin G2a (IgG2a) anti-rCPAF antibody levels in serum were significantly elevated after rCPAF+IL-12 vaccination, as were the total antibody, IgG2a, and IgA levels in bronchoalveolar lavage and vaginal fluids when the animals were compared to animals that received rCPAF alone. rCPAF+IL-12-vaccinated mice displayed significantly reduced bacterial shedding upon chlamydial challenge and accelerated resolution of infection compared to mock-immunized (phosphate-buffered saline) animals. Moreover, rCPAF+IL-12-immunized animals exhibited protection against pathological consequences of chlamydial infection, including the development of hydrosalpinx and oviduct dilatation. This vaccination regimen also reduced the development of fibrosis and the influx of neutrophils into the upper genital tract when the animals were compared to mock-immunized (phosphate-buffered saline) animals after bacterial challenge. rCPAF+IL-12-mediated resolution of the bacterial infection and protection against Chlamydia-induced inflammatory disease were highly dependent on endogenous IFN-gamma production. Together, these results demonstrate that secreted chlamydial antigens may be novel vaccine candidates to induce protective immunity. PMID:17118987

  6. In Vitro Passage Selects for Chlamydia muridarum with Enhanced Infectivity in Cultured Cells but Attenuated Pathogenicity in Mouse Upper Genital Tract

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chaoqun; Zhou, Zhou; Conrad, Turner; Yang, Zhangsheng; Dai, Jin; Li, Zhongyu

    2015-01-01

    Although modern Chlamydia muridarum has been passaged for decades, there are no reports on the consequences of serial passage with strong selection pressure on its fitness. In order to explore the potential for Pasteurian selection to induce genomic and phenotypic perturbations to C. muridarum, a starter population was passaged in cultured cells for 28 generations without standard infection assistance. The resultant population, designated CMG28, displays markedly reduced in vitro dependence on centrifugation for infection and low incidence and severity of upper genital tract pathology following intravaginal inoculation into mice compared to the parental C. muridarum population, CMG0. Deep sequencing of CMG0 and CMG28 revealed novel protein variants in the hypothetical genes TC0237 (Q117E) and TC0668 (G322R). In vitro attachment assays of isogenic plaque clone pairs with mutations in either TC0237 and TC0668 or only TC0237 reveal that TC0237(Q117E) is solely responsible for enhanced adherence to host cells. Paradoxically, double mutants, but not TC0237(Q117E) single mutants, display severely attenuated in vivo pathogenicity. These findings implicate TC0237 and TC0668 as novel genetic factors involved in chlamydial attachment and pathogenicity, respectively, and show that serial passage under selection pressure remains an effective tool for studying Chlamydia pathogenicity. PMID:25712926

  7. Hepatitis B virus core antigen as a carrier for Chlamydia trachomatis MOMP multi-epitope peptide enhances protection against genital chlamydial infection.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Pengfei; Du, Wangqi; Xiong, Yirong; Lv, Yan; Feng, Juan; Zhu, Shanli; Xue, Xiangyang; Chen, Shao; Zhang, Lifang

    2015-12-22

    Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) is the leading cause of sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. There is no safe and effective vaccine to control the spread of Ct. In development of Ct vaccine, selection of appropriate candidate antigens and an effective delivery system may be the main challenges. Multi-epitope of major outer membrane protein (MOMPm) is the most suitable candidate for a Ct vaccine, while hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg) has unique advantages as vaccine delivery system. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity and protective immune response of a novel candidate vaccine in a murine model of chlamydial genital infection. This candidate vaccine comprises MOMPm peptide delivered with HBcAg. Our results of Ct-specific serum IgG and secretory IgA assay, cytokine assay, and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte assay revealed that immunogenicity of the candidate vaccine was much better than that of the corresponding synthetic MOMPm peptide. Furthermore, the protective effect of the candidate vaccine was also shown much better than that of the synthetic peptide by calculating the isolation of Chlamydia from vaginal swabs and histopathological analysis. Taken together, our results indicate that HBcAg carrying Ct MOMPm could be an effective immune prophylactic for chlamydial infection. PMID:26657117

  8. Hepatitis B virus core antigen as a carrier for Chlamydia trachomatis MOMP multi-epitope peptide enhances protection against genital chlamydial infection

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Yirong; Lv, Yan; Feng, Juan; Zhu, Shanli; Xue, Xiangyang; Chen, Shao; Zhang, Lifang

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) is the leading cause of sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. There is no safe and effective vaccine to control the spread of Ct. In development of Ct vaccine, selection of appropriate candidate antigens and an effective delivery system may be the main challenges. Multi-epitope of major outer membrane protein (MOMPm) is the most suitable candidate for a Ct vaccine, while hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg) has unique advantages as vaccine delivery system. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity and protective immune response of a novel candidate vaccine in a murine model of chlamydial genital infection. This candidate vaccine comprises MOMPm peptide delivered with HBcAg. Our results of Ct-specific serum IgG and secretory IgA assay, cytokine assay, and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte assay revealed that immunogenicity of the candidate vaccine was much better than that of the corresponding synthetic MOMPm peptide. Furthermore, the protective effect of the candidate vaccine was also shown much better than that of the synthetic peptide by calculating the isolation of Chlamydia from vaginal swabs and histopathological analysis. Taken together, our results indicate that HBcAg carrying Ct MOMPm could be an effective immune prophylactic for chlamydial infection. PMID:26657117

  9. Major outer membrane protein variants of Chlamydia trachomatis are associated with severe upper genital tract infections and histopathology in San Francisco.

    PubMed

    Dean, D; Oudens, E; Bolan, G; Padian, N; Schachter, J

    1995-10-01

    Cervical and endometrial samples from 33 women with lower genital tract infection (LGTI) or pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) were evaluated for Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein gene (omp1) polymorphism. Polymorphism was correlated with symptoms, clinical findings, and histopathology. F, E, I, D, H, K, and G genotypes were represented. Thirty-seven genotyped samples (66%) displayed omp1 mutations compared with prototype sequences. Significantly, 7 of 7 women with variant F infections had PID compared with 6 non-variant F infections in women with LGTI (P = .003). PID was defined by clinical findings or plasma cells on endometrial biopsy. Of interest, F variants were associated with histopathology. Eleven women (92%) with E genotypes were asymptomatic. Our data suggest that F variants are associated with symptomatic, severe endometrial disease, whereas E genotypes are associated with asymptomatic, milder infections. Detection of virulent genotypes may provide a prognostic indicator for serious sequelae. Larger studies are required to evaluate the molecular, immunologic, and epidemiologic basis for these findings. PMID:7561174

  10. Comparable Genital Tract Infection, Pathology, and Immunity in Rhesus Macaques Inoculated with Wild-Type or Plasmid-Deficient Chlamydia trachomatis Serovar D.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yanyan; Frazer, Lauren C; O'Connell, Catherine M; Tarantal, Alice F; Andrews, Charles W; O'Connor, Shelby L; Russell, Ali N; Sullivan, Jeanne E; Poston, Taylor B; Vallejo, Abbe N; Darville, Toni

    2015-10-01

    Rhesus macaques were studied to directly address the potential for plasmid-deficient Chlamydia trachomatis to serve as a live attenuated vaccine in the genital tract. Five repeated cervical inoculations of rhesus macaques with wild-type serovar D strain D/UW-3/Cx or a plasmid-deficient derivative of this strain, CTD153, resulted in infections with similar kinetics and induced comparable levels of protective immunity. After all animals received five challenges with D/UW-3/Cx, levels of inflammation observed grossly and histologically were similar between the groups. Animals in both groups developed evidence of oviduct dilatation; however, reduced oviduct dilatation was observed for "controllers," i.e., animals without detectable chlamydial DNA in the fimbriae at weeks 5 and 12. Grouping animals into "ascenders" and "controllers" revealed that elevated early T cell responses were associated with protection, whereas higher antibody responses were associated with ascension. Protected animals shared common major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alleles. Overall, genetic differences of individual animals, rather than the presence or absence of the chlamydial plasmid in the primary infecting strain, appeared to play a role in determining the outcome of infection. PMID:26216426

  11. Evaluation of the Versant CT/GC DNA 1.0 Assay (kPCR) for the Detection of Extra-Genital Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae Infections

    PubMed Central

    Marangoni, Antonella; Foschi, Claudio; Nardini, Paola; Compri, Monica; Cevenini, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Screening for extra-genital Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections is a crucial component for sexually transmitted diseases management, even if at present days no commercial methods have been approved for use on pharyngeal and rectal specimens by the US FDA or have received the conformity CE marking. Here we report the analytical sensitivities of the Versant CT/GC 1.0 assay (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, Tarrytown, NY, USA) on rectal and pharyngeal swabs, and an evaluation about the suitability for this assay with two widely used swab collection devices (E-Swab and eNAT, Copan, Brescia, Italy). The limits of detection for rectal and pharyngeal specimens with the Versant assay were 10 copies/ml and 1.0 copies/ml, for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae, respectively. False positive results due to the presence of non-gonococcal Neisseria species were excluded when clinical rectal and pharyngeal samples containing organisms identified as N. meningitidis, N. sicca, N. flavescens and N. subflava were tested. Due to its sensitivity and specificity, the Versant assay represents a good choice for the diagnosis of chlamydial and/or gonococcal infections not only in genito-urinary samples, but also on rectal and pharyngeal swabs. PMID:25799263

  12. Evaluation of the Versant CT/GC DNA 1.0 assay (kPCR) for the detection of extra-genital Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections.

    PubMed

    Marangoni, Antonella; Foschi, Claudio; Nardini, Paola; Compri, Monica; Cevenini, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Screening for extra-genital Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections is a crucial component for sexually transmitted diseases management, even if at present days no commercial methods have been approved for use on pharyngeal and rectal specimens by the US FDA or have received the conformity CE marking. Here we report the analytical sensitivities of the Versant CT/GC 1.0 assay (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, Tarrytown, NY, USA) on rectal and pharyngeal swabs, and an evaluation about the suitability for this assay with two widely used swab collection devices (E-Swab and eNAT, Copan, Brescia, Italy). The limits of detection for rectal and pharyngeal specimens with the Versant assay were 10 copies/ml and 1.0 copies/ml, for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae, respectively. False positive results due to the presence of non-gonococcal Neisseria species were excluded when clinical rectal and pharyngeal samples containing organisms identified as N. meningitidis, N. sicca, N. flavescens and N. subflava were tested. Due to its sensitivity and specificity, the Versant assay represents a good choice for the diagnosis of chlamydial and/or gonococcal infections not only in genito-urinary samples, but also on rectal and pharyngeal swabs. PMID:25799263

  13. Chlamydia trachomatis and Genital Mycoplasmas: Pathogens with an Impact on Human Reproductive Health

    PubMed Central

    Ljubin-Sternak, Sun?anica; Metrovi?, Tomislav

    2014-01-01

    The most prevalent, curable sexually important diseases are those caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) and genital mycoplasmas. An important characteristic of these infections is their ability to cause long-term sequels in upper genital tract, thus potentially affecting the reproductive health in both sexes. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), tubal factor infertility (TFI), and ectopic pregnancy (EP) are well documented complications of C. trachomatis infection in women. The role of genital mycoplasmas in development of PID, TFI, and EP requires further evaluation, but growing evidence supports a significant role for these in the pathogenesis of chorioamnionitis, premature membrane rupture, and preterm labor in pregnant woman. Both C. trachomatis and genital mycoplasmas can affect the quality of sperm and possibly influence the fertility of men. For the purpose of this paper, basic, epidemiologic, clinical, therapeutic, and public health issue of these infections were reviewed and discussed, focusing on their impact on human reproductive health. PMID:25614838

  14. Prevalence of chlamydiae in semen and genital tracts of bulls, rams and bucks.

    PubMed

    Teankum, K; Pospischil, A; Janett, F; Brugnera, E; Hoelzle, L E; Hoelzle, K; Weilenmann, R; Zimmermann, D R; Gerber, A; Polkinghorne, A; Borel, N

    2007-01-15

    Chlamydiae infect male genital organs of ruminants. However, little is known about their prevalence. Hence, we investigated fresh and cryopreserved semen (bulls: n=304; rams: n=78; bucks: n=44) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), as well as genital organs (bulls: n=13; rams: n=10; bucks: n=6) by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and PCR. Sera from bulls (n=104) and small ruminants (n=61) were tested by LPS and rMOMP (recombinant major outer membrane protein) ELISA and competitive ELISA (cELISA), respectively. Three PCR assays were compared in this study for detection of chlamydial DNA in semen: 16S rRNA, IGS-S (intergenic spacer 16S/23S-short), and IGS-L (intergenic spacer 16S/23S-long) PCRs. PCR sensitivity and inhibitory effects were determined by spiking semen with Chlamydophila (Cp.) abortus DNA. In bull semen, detection limits of the 16S, IGS-S and IGS-L PCRs were 10, 10, 100 templates, respectively. However, PCR sensitivity was reduced in ram and buck semen suggesting the presence of potential PCR inhibitors. Of 304 bull semen samples, the 16S PCR revealed DNA of chlamydiae in 20 samples (6.6%), including Cp. abortus (n=2), Cp. psittaci (n=1), Chlamydia suis (n=2), and Chlamydia-like organisms (n=15). In rams, one semen sample was positive for Chlamydia-like organism. All investigated male genital organs were negative for Chlamydia. Serology revealed 47.1% (49/104) positive bulls by LPS ELISA. Of these, 30 samples were positive by rMOMP ELISA, predominantly for Cp. pecorum. In small ruminants, cELISA displayed 34.8% (16/46) and 60% (9/15) positivity for Cp. abortus in rams and bucks, respectively. There was no correlation between serology and PCR of semen. The presence of chlamydiae in semen suggests the possibility of venereal transmission, although risk may be low in Switzerland. PMID:16935325

  15. Intranasal Vaccination with Chlamydia pneumoniae Induces Cross-Species Immunity against Genital Chlamydia muridarum Challenge in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Evani, Shankar Jaikishan; Zafiratos, Mark T.; Ramasubramanian, Anand K.; Arulanandam, Bernard P.; Murthy, Ashlesh K.

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the world and specifically in the United States, with the highest incidence in age-groups 14–19 years. In a subset of females, the C. trachomatis genital infection leads to serious pathological sequelae including pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility. Chlamydia pneumoniae, another member of the same genus, is a common cause of community acquired respiratory infection with significant number of children aged 5–14 yr displaying sero-conversion. Since these bacteriae share several antigenic determinants, we evaluated whether intranasal immunization with live C. pneumoniae (1×106 inclusion forming units; IFU) in 5 week old female C57BL/6 mice would induce cross-species protection against subsequent intravaginal challenge with Chlamydia muridarum (5×104 IFU), which causes a similar genital infection and pathology in mice as C. trachomatis in humans. Mice vaccinated intranasally with live C. pneumoniae, but not mock (PBS) immunized animals, displayed high levels of splenic cellular antigen-specific IFN-γ production and serum antibody response against C. muridarum and C. trachomatis. Mice vaccinated with C. pneumoniae displayed a significant reduction in the vaginal C. muridarum shedding as early as day 12 after secondary i.vag. challenge compared to PBS (mock) immunized mice. At day 19 after C. muridarum challenge, 100% of C. pneumoniae vaccinated mice had cleared the infection compared to none (0%) of the mock immunized mice, which cleared the infection by day 27. At day 80 after C. muridarum challenge, C. pneumoniae vaccinated mice displayed a significant reduction in the incidence (50%) and degree of hydrosalpinx compared to mock immunized animals (100%). These results suggest that respiratory C. pneumoniae infection induces accelerated chlamydial clearance and reduction of oviduct pathology following genital C. muridarum challenge, and may have important implications to the C. trachomatis-induced reproductive disease in humans. PMID:23741420

  16. Intranasal vaccination with Chlamydia pneumoniae induces cross-species immunity against genital Chlamydia muridarum challenge in mice.

    PubMed

    Manam, Srikanth; Chaganty, Bharat K R; Evani, Shankar Jaikishan; Zafiratos, Mark T; Ramasubramanian, Anand K; Arulanandam, Bernard P; Murthy, Ashlesh K

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the world and specifically in the United States, with the highest incidence in age-groups 14-19 years. In a subset of females, the C. trachomatis genital infection leads to serious pathological sequelae including pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility. Chlamydia pneumoniae, another member of the same genus, is a common cause of community acquired respiratory infection with significant number of children aged 5-14 yr displaying sero-conversion. Since these bacteriae share several antigenic determinants, we evaluated whether intranasal immunization with live C. pneumoniae (1×10(6) inclusion forming units; IFU) in 5 week old female C57BL/6 mice would induce cross-species protection against subsequent intravaginal challenge with Chlamydia muridarum (5×10(4) IFU), which causes a similar genital infection and pathology in mice as C. trachomatis in humans. Mice vaccinated intranasally with live C. pneumoniae, but not mock (PBS) immunized animals, displayed high levels of splenic cellular antigen-specific IFN-γ production and serum antibody response against C. muridarum and C. trachomatis. Mice vaccinated with C. pneumoniae displayed a significant reduction in the vaginal C. muridarum shedding as early as day 12 after secondary i.vag. challenge compared to PBS (mock) immunized mice. At day 19 after C. muridarum challenge, 100% of C. pneumoniae vaccinated mice had cleared the infection compared to none (0%) of the mock immunized mice, which cleared the infection by day 27. At day 80 after C. muridarum challenge, C. pneumoniae vaccinated mice displayed a significant reduction in the incidence (50%) and degree of hydrosalpinx compared to mock immunized animals (100%). These results suggest that respiratory C. pneumoniae infection induces accelerated chlamydial clearance and reduction of oviduct pathology following genital C. muridarum challenge, and may have important implications to the C. trachomatis-induced reproductive disease in humans. PMID:23741420

  17. Polymorphisms in Chlamydia trachomatis tryptophan synthase genes differentiate between genital and ocular isolates

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Harlan D.; Wood, Heidi; Crane, Debbie; Bailey, Robin; Jones, Robert B.; Mabey, David; Maclean, Ian; Mohammed, Zeena; Peeling, Rosanna; Roshick, Christine; Schachter, Julius; Solomon, Anthony W.; Stamm, Walter E.; Suchland, Robert J.; Taylor, Lacey; West, Sheila K.; Quinn, Tom C.; Belland, Robert J.; McClarty, Grant

    2003-01-01

    We previously reported that laboratory reference strains of Chlamydia trachomatis differing in infection organotropism correlated with inactivating mutations in the pathogens tryptophan synthase (trpBA) genes. Here, we have applied functional genomics to extend this work and find that the paradigm established for reference serovars also applies to clinical isolates specifically, all ocular trachoma isolates tested have inactivating mutations in the synthase, whereas all genital isolates encode a functional enzyme. Moreover, functional enzyme activity was directly correlated to IFN-? resistance through an indole rescue mechanism. Hence, a strong selective pressure exists for genital strains to maintain a functional synthase capable of using indole for tryptophan biosynthesis. The fact that ocular serovars (serovar B) isolated from the genital tract were found to possess a functional synthase provided further persuasive evidence of this association. These results argue that there is an important host-parasite relationship between chlamydial genital strains and the human host that determines organotropism of infection and the pathophysiology of disease. We speculate that this relationship involves the production of indole by components of the vaginal microbial flora, allowing chlamydiae to escape IFN-?mediated eradication and thus establish persistent infection. PMID:12782678

  18. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis: Understanding the Roles of Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Vaccine Research

    PubMed Central

    Vasilevsky, Sam; Greub, Gilbert; Nardelli-Haefliger, Denise

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted disease worldwide, and despite significant advances in chlamydial research, a prophylactic vaccine has yet to be developed. This Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium, which often causes asymptomatic infection, may cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancies, scarring of the fallopian tubes, miscarriage, and infertility when left untreated. In the genital tract, Chlamydia trachomatis infects primarily epithelial cells and requires Th1 immunity for optimal clearance. This review first focuses on the immune cells important in a chlamydial infection. Second, we summarize the research and challenges associated with developing a chlamydial vaccine that elicits a protective Th1-mediated immune response without inducing adverse immunopathologies. PMID:24696438

  19. A multi-subunit Chlamydia vaccine inducing neutralizing antibodies and strong IFN-γ+ CMI responses protects against a genital infection in minipigs

    PubMed Central

    Bøje, Sarah; Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Erneholm, Karin; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Jungersen, Gregers; Andersen, Peter; Follmann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia is the most widespread sexually transmitted bacterial disease and a prophylactic vaccine is highly needed. Ideally, this vaccine is required to induce a combined response of Th1 cell-mediated immune (CMI) response in concert with neutralizing antibodies. Using a novel Göttingen minipig animal model, we evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of a multi-subunit vaccine formulated in the strong Th1-inducing adjuvant CAF01. We evaluated a mixture of two fusion proteins (Hirep1 and CTH93) designed to promote either neutralizing antibodies or cell-mediated immunity, respectively. Hirep1 is a novel immunogen based on the variant domain (VD) 4 region from major outer membrane protein (MOMP) serovar (Sv) D, SvE and SvF, and CTH93 is a fusion molecule of three antigens (CT043, CT414 and MOMP). Pigs were immunized twice intramuscularly with either Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01, UV-inactivated Chlamydia trachomatis SvD bacteria (UV-SvD/CAF01) or CAF01. The Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 vaccine induced a strong CMI response against the vaccine antigens and high titers of antibodies, particularly against the VD4 region of MOMP. Sera from Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 immunized pigs neutralized C. trachomatis SvD and SvF infectivity in vitro. Both Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 and UV-SvD/CAF01 vaccination protected pigs against a vaginal C. trachomatis SvD infection. In conclusion, the Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 vaccine proved highly immunogenic and equally protective as UV-SvD/CAF01 showing promise for the development of a subunit vaccine against Chlamydia. PMID:26268662

  20. A multi-subunit Chlamydia vaccine inducing neutralizing antibodies and strong IFN-γ(+) CMI responses protects against a genital infection in minipigs.

    PubMed

    Bøje, Sarah; Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Erneholm, Karin; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Jungersen, Gregers; Andersen, Peter; Follmann, Frank

    2016-02-01

    Chlamydia is the most widespread sexually transmitted bacterial disease and a prophylactic vaccine is highly needed. Ideally, this vaccine is required to induce a combined response of Th1 cell-mediated immune (CMI) response in concert with neutralizing antibodies. Using a novel Göttingen minipig animal model, we evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of a multi-subunit vaccine formulated in the strong Th1-inducing adjuvant CAF01. We evaluated a mixture of two fusion proteins (Hirep1 and CTH93) designed to promote either neutralizing antibodies or cell-mediated immunity, respectively. Hirep1 is a novel immunogen based on the variant domain (VD) 4 region from major outer membrane protein (MOMP) serovar (Sv) D, SvE and SvF, and CTH93 is a fusion molecule of three antigens (CT043, CT414 and MOMP). Pigs were immunized twice intramuscularly with either Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01, UV-inactivated Chlamydia trachomatis SvD bacteria (UV-SvD/CAF01) or CAF01. The Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 vaccine induced a strong CMI response against the vaccine antigens and high titers of antibodies, particularly against the VD4 region of MOMP. Sera from Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 immunized pigs neutralized C. trachomatis SvD and SvF infectivity in vitro. Both Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 and UV-SvD/CAF01 vaccination protected pigs against a vaginal C. trachomatis SvD infection. In conclusion, the Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 vaccine proved highly immunogenic and equally protective as UV-SvD/CAF01 showing promise for the development of a subunit vaccine against Chlamydia. PMID:26268662

  1. Chlamydia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... can move from one person to another through sexual intercourse, and possibly through oral-genital contact. If someone ... have pain in their lower abdomens, pain during sexual intercourse, or bleeding between menstrual periods. Sometimes a chlamydia ...

  2. Chlamydia infections in women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... past, testing required a pelvic exam by a health care provider. Today, very accurate tests can be done on urine samples or on ... take 1 - 2 days to come back. Your health care provider may also ... may need a chlamydia test if you: Are 25 years old or younger ...

  3. Genital infection in males with idiopathic infertility.

    PubMed

    Mosli, H A; Gazzaz, F S; Farsi, H M; Abduljabar, H S

    1996-01-01

    We investigated a group of male patients with idiopathic infertility to determine the presence of genital infection and to identify the pattern of this infection using a specially designed protocol. A prospective study was carried out on 63 patients and 23 controls. We cultured the first voided urine, semen and swabs taken from the anterior urethra of these patients and controls for bacteria, chlamydia. Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis. Two techniques were used for chlamydial isolation and identification. These involved the use of chlamydial culture on McCoy cells with culture confirmation test and the direct fluorescent identification of Chlamydiatrachomatis. The all-liquid media (MYCOFAST ALL-IN) kits were used for the identification of mycoplasma. Our results indicate that there is a significantly higher incidence of genital infection among male patients with idiopathic infertility than in normal fertile controls (P=0.0004). Extensive microbial investigations are indicated when genital infection is suspected to be the cause of the fertile state or cannot be ruled out as a possible cause in case of idiopathic infertility. PMID:17372403

  4. Chlamydia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... since chlamydia can be spread through oral and anal sex. Have an honest and open talk with your ... chlamydia in their rectum, either by having receptive anal sex, or by spread from another infected site (such ...

  5. Plasmid-Cured Chlamydia caviae Activates TLR2-Dependent Signaling and Retains Virulence in the Guinea Pig Model of Genital Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Frazer, Lauren C.; Darville, Toni; Chandra-Kuntal, Kumar; Andrews, Charles W.; Zurenski, Matthew; Mintus, Margaret; AbdelRahman, Yasser M.; Belland, Robert J.; Ingalls, Robin R.; O'Connell, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Loss of the conserved “cryptic” plasmid from C. trachomatis and C. muridarum is pleiotropic, resulting in reduced innate inflammatory activation via TLR2, glycogen accumulation and infectivity. The more genetically distant C. caviae GPIC is a natural pathogen of guinea pigs and induces upper genital tract pathology when inoculated intravaginally, modeling human disease. To examine the contribution of pCpGP1 to C. caviae pathogenesis, a cured derivative of GPIC, strain CC13, was derived and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Transcriptional profiling of CC13 revealed only partial conservation of previously identified plasmid-responsive chromosomal loci (PRCL) in C. caviae. However, 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) treatment of GPIC and CC13 resulted in reduced transcription of all identified PRCL, including glgA, indicating the presence of a plasmid-independent glucose response in this species. In contrast to plasmid-cured C. muridarum and C. trachomatis, plasmid-cured C. caviae strain CC13 signaled via TLR2 in vitro and elicited cytokine production in vivo similar to wild-type C. caviae. Furthermore, inflammatory pathology induced by infection of guinea pigs with CC13 was similar to that induced by GPIC, although we observed more rapid resolution of CC13 infection in estrogen-treated guinea pigs. These data indicate that either the plasmid is not involved in expression or regulation of virulence in C. caviae or that redundant effectors prevent these phenotypic changes from being observed in C. caviae plasmid-cured strains. PMID:22292031

  6. Microbiological Characteristics of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae Infections in South African Women.

    PubMed

    Dubbink, Jan Henk; de Waaij, Dewi J; Bos, Myrte; van der Eem, Lisette; Bbar, Ccile; Mbambazela, Nontembeko; Ouburg, Sander; Peters, Remco P H; Morr, Servaas A

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed data of 263 women with at least one genital or anorectal sexually transmitted infection from a cross-sectional study conducted in rural South Africa. We provide new insights concerning the concurrence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, and Trichomonas vaginalis infections as well as the characteristics of bacterial loads. PMID:26511740

  7. Pathogenesis of genital HPV infection.

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, A

    1993-01-01

    Clinical, subclinical, and latent human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are distinguished from HPV-associated neoplasia. Besides HPV additional cofactors are necessary to transform HPV infected tissue to intraepithelial or invasive neoplasia. Risk factors for the presence of HPV are high number of sexual partners, early cohabitarche, young age at first delivery, suppression and alteration of immune status, young age and hormonal influences. While the fact of a high number of sexual partners exclusively increases the risk of HPV infection, it is not known whether the other factors lead to either an increased risk for HPV infection and/or to HPV-associated neoplasia. Subclinical and latent genital HPV infections are highly prevalent. The prevalence rate depends on the sensitivity of the HPV detection system used, on age and sexual activity of the population screened, and on the number of subsequent examinations performed for each subject. Sexual transmission is the main pathway for genital HPV's, however, vertical, peripartal, and oral transmission are also possible. Seroreactivity against genital HPV may be due to an active infection or the result of contact with HPV earlier in life. Antibodies against the HPV 16 E7 protein indicate an increased risk for cervical cancer. Compared with humoral response cellular immune response is probably more important for regression of genital HPV infection: impaired cellular response is characterized by depletion of T helper/inducer cells and/or Langerhans cells and impaired function of natural killer cells and/or the infected keratinocyte. In condylomata replication and transcription of viral nucleic acids and antigen production coincide with cellular differentiation. However, the interaction between HPV and the keratinocyte on a molecular level in subclinical and latent disease is not well understood. Regression or persistence of subclinical and latent genital HPV infections as observed in longitudinal investigations show a constant come-and-go of HPV presence. Subclinical or latent cervical infections with high-risk HPV types (such as HPV 16 and 18) have an increased risk for the development of HPV-associated neoplasia. PMID:8392965

  8. [Chlamydia trachomatis infections in teenagers].

    PubMed

    Gille, G; Klapp, C

    2007-01-01

    Adolescents enter puberty early and many have sexual intercourse at a young age. That sexual intercourse can have side effects with life-long consequences is still a taboo field. In Germany, we do not have figures about the prevalence of the most frequently occurring sexually transmitted diseases in young people. Therefore the Medical Association for the Promotion of Women's Health (AGGF) initiated a prevalence study on infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) in girls younger than 18 years in Berlin (n=266). After informed consent, information was given in 92 school classes. Thereafter in 30 offices of gynecologists the girls were offered a PCR test for the detection of CT free of charge. The results--10% of the 17-year-old girls had an acute chlamydial infection after an average of 19 months of sexual activity--suggest that in Germany there is a hidden epidemic among adolescents. Adolescents are not adequately informed about the risks of CT infection; medical counseling is both desired and effective. PMID:17165068

  9. Chlamydia Infections - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Chlamydia English ????? - ???? (Chinese - Simplified) PDF Chinese Community Health Resource Center Chinese - Traditional (????) Chlamydia English ????? - ???? (Chinese - Traditional) PDF Chinese Community Health Resource Center Oromo (Afaan Oromo) Chlamydia English Dhukkuba ...

  10. Chlamydia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from Nemours for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs Drugs & Alcohol Staying Safe Recipes En Espaol Making a Change Your Personal Plan Hot ... > Chlamydia Print A A A Text Size What's ...

  11. Chlamydia trachomatis Infection: Screening and Management

    PubMed Central

    Keegan, Mary B.; Diedrich, Justin T.; Peipert, Jeffrey F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review current criteria and rationale for Chlamydia trachomatis screening, testing methods, and treatment of infection. Methods Review of the literature. Results C. trachomatis urogenital infections are an important public health problem. Screening for C. trachomatis in women age 25 and younger and men and women of any age at increased risk allows for the early treatment of disease, avoiding morbidity such as pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain, and reducing health care costs. Conclusion Current screening recommendations are not being implemented satisfactorily. Home-based methods of screening are acceptable and may improve universal screening rates. PMID:25554725

  12. [Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and cardiac ischemic syndromes].

    PubMed

    Varveri, A; Sgorbini, L; Romano, S; Aurigemma, G; Dagianti, A; Sessa, R; Di Pietro, M; Del Piano, M; Dagianti, A; Penco, M

    1998-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the presence of Chlamydia pneumoniae antibodies in patients with angiographically verified atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. A total of 114 consecutive patients were investigated between April 1995 and June 1996. Patients were divided into two groups: 72 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI; 53 men, 19 women, mean age 62.27 +/- 10.1 years), and 42 patients with chronic ischemic heart disease (CAD; 37 men, 5 women, mean age 62.75 +/- 9.2 years). A control group of 50 normal subjects matched for age (mean 62 +/- 9 years), sex, social status and geographical area was used. Identification of Chlamydia pneumoniae was carried out with the microimmunofluorescence method, on two serum samples taken from patients on admission and after 15 days. The IgM, IgG and IgA anti-Chlamydia pneumoniae titers were assessed, values > or = 1:16, > or = 1:32 and > or = 1:8 being respectively considered positive. Acute (IgM > or = 16 or four fold rise of IgG titer) and chronic (IgG > or = 128 e IgA > or = 32 or only elevated IgA titer) infections were analyzed. IgM antibodies were not found in AMI, CAD and control groups. IgG positivity (IgG > or = 32) was found in 38% of the control group, in 58.3% of the AMI group (p < 0.05) and 42.8% of the CAD group (p < 0.01). IgA positivity > or = 8) was found in 22% of the control group, in 31.9% of the AMI group (NS) and in 33.3% of the CAD group (p < or = 0.05). Acute infection was observed in 5.5% of AMI patients and in 12% of CAD patients (NS), whereas no subject of the control group showed these values. Chronic infection was observed in 9.7% of AMI patients and in 16.6% of CAD patients (NS) whereas nobody of the control group showed these values. In conclusion, our results suggest that Chlamydia pneumoniae infection is present only in the AMI and CAD groups. It is possible to suppose that this infection may be linked to atherosclerosis through an endothelial damage or a systemic endogenous procoagulant and inflammatory activity. PMID:9922569

  13. Should we screen heterosexuals for extra-genital chlamydial and gonococcal infections?

    PubMed

    Garner, Anna L; Schembri, Gabriel; Cullen, Thomas; Lee, Vincent

    2015-06-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) are two of the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infections in the UK. Although the high burden of extra-genital infections with GC and CT in men who have sex with men has been well established, a significant number of extra-genital site infections with CT and GC could similarly be present in heterosexual women. For this reason we started to routinely offer extra-genital site testing for GC and CT in all patients attending our sexual health clinic who reported having had receptive anal sex and/or giving oral sex. This followed a review of current evidence by the clinical team and a change in local testing policy. This study not only confirmed a large reservoir of extra-genital infection amongst men who have sex with men, but also demonstrates that a comparable reservoir of extra-genital infection is present amongst heterosexual women. Our study adds to the mounting evidence that extra-genital site testing in heterosexual women should occur when oral or anal sexual activity is reported. PMID:25013220

  14. Modern diagnostics of Chlamydia trachomatis infections.

    PubMed

    Sta?czak, Janusz J; Majchrzak, Micha? J; Sta?czak, Grzegorz P

    2005-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) is the most common agent of sexually transmitted infections. The clinical spectrum of the disease ranges from urethritis to infertility in women and to trachoma. Intracellular localisation of the pathogen creates a challenge for routine diagnostics. In this review possible diagnostic tests have been presented, varying from classic cell culture analysis and serodiagnostics (Enzyme-linked Immunoassays, Indirect Immunofluorescence) to the most sophisticated nucleic acid analyses (hybridisation, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Transcription Mediated Amplification, Ligase Chain Reaction), Advantages and disadvantages of the leading tests are discussed. Possible reasons of false positive as well as false negative results of genetic testing are presented. PMID:16082060

  15. 2015 UK national guideline for the management of infection with Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Nwokolo, Nneka C; Dragovic, Bojana; Patel, Sheel; Tong, Cy William; Barker, Gary; Radcliffe, Keith

    2016-03-01

    This guideline offers recommendations on the diagnostic tests, treatment regimens and health promotion principles needed for the effective management of Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection. It covers the management of the initial presentation, as well the prevention of transmission and future infection. The guideline is aimed at individuals aged 16 years and older presenting to healthcare professionals working in departments offering Level 3 care in sexually transmitted infections management within the UK. However, the principles of the recommendations should be adopted across all levels, using local care pathways where appropriate. PMID:26538553

  16. Polymicrobial infections of the female low genital tract.

    PubMed

    Herman, A; Bukovsky, I; Samra, Z; Roash, Z; Caspi, E

    1990-06-01

    A complete microbiologic analysis of nine infectious agents causing low genital tract infection (LGTI) was obtained in 240 young women, of whom 193 were symptomatic for LGTI and 47 were asymptomatic (control group). The polymicrobial nature of LGTI was demonstrated by both the increased frequency of different microorganisms (1.77 +/- 1.09 SD in symptomatic vs. 1.08 +/- 0.98 in asymptomatic patients) and the increased total number of agents (0 agents 8.3 and 36.2%, 1-2 agents 67.4 and 55.3%, greater than or equal to 3 agents 24.3 and 8.5%, in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients respectively). There was a mutual association between Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis, where the presence of one nearly doubled the frequency of the other. Of 74 symptomatic patients with a single infectious agent, Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated most frequently, suggesting an important role of this agent in infections of the female low genital tract. PMID:2380032

  17. Interleukin-10 modulates antigen presentation by dendritic cells through regulation of NLRP3 inflammasome assembly during Chlamydia infection.

    PubMed

    Omosun, Yusuf; McKeithen, Danielle; Ryans, Khamia; Kibakaya, Caroline; Blas-Machado, Uriel; Li, Duo; Singh, Rajesh; Inoue, Koichi; Xiong, Zhi-Gang; Eko, Francis; Black, Carolyn; Igietseme, Joseph; He, Qing

    2015-12-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) has been implicated in susceptibility to genital chlamydial infection and the development of tubal pathologies. IL-10 limitation also resulted in the rapid elicitation of immune responses against Chlamydia, and decreased levels of IL-10 correlated with protective anti-Chlamydia immunity. To investigate the molecular basis for these effects, we compared the reproductive pathologies and fertility rates in Chlamydia-infected wild-type (WT) and IL-10-knockout (IL-10(-/-)) mice; we also analyzed the expression of the Toll-like receptor (TLR)/interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) superfamily, IL-1? production, NLRP3 inflammasome assembly and activation, and the immunostimulatory capacity and apoptotic predilection of Chlamydia-exposed dendritic cells (DCs) from WT and IL-10(-/-) mice. Our results revealed that, in addition to the rapid clearance of infection, genitally infected IL-10(-/-) mice were protected from tubal pathologies and infertility, whereas WT (IL-10(+/+)) mice were not. Chlamydia-pulsed IL-10(-/-) DCs expressed larger numbers of TLR4/IL-1R molecules and had enhanced IL-1? production. In addition, NLRP3 inflammasome assembly was suppressed in IL-10(-/-) DCs through the inhibition of the P2X purinoceptor 7 (P2X7) receptor (P2X7R), an ATP-gated ion channel, and a decrease in intracellular Ca(2+) levels, which inhibited DC apoptosis. Thus, the potent immunostimulatory capacity of IL-10-deficient DCs is due, at least in part, to the suppression of the intracellular inflammasome assembly, which prevents DC apoptosis, allowing efficient antigen presentation. The results indicate that IL-10 deficiency enables efficient antigen presentation by DCs for rapid and enhanced immune activation against Chlamydia, which results in rapid microbial clearance, which prevents tubal pathologies during infection. Our finding has important implications for the induction of protective immunity against Chlamydia and other infectious and noninfectious diseases by vaccines. PMID:26371131

  18. Effects of vaginal lactobacilli in Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    PubMed

    Mastromarino, Paola; Di Pietro, Marisa; Schiavoni, Giovanna; Nardis, Chiara; Gentile, Massimo; Sessa, Rosa

    2014-07-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that abnormal vaginal flora lacking lactobacilli facilitates the acquisition of several sexually transmitted diseases including Chlamydia trachomatis. C. trachomatis, the most common bacterial agent of genital infections worldwide, can progress from the lower to upper reproductive tract and induce severe sequelae. The ability of C. trachomatis to develop into a persistent form has been suggested as key pathogenetic mechanism underlying chronic infections and sequelae. The aim of our study was to investigate the C. trachomatis interaction with vaginal microbiota analyzing the effects of Lactobacillus strains (L. brevis and L. salivarius) on the different phases of C. trachomatis developmental cycle. In addition, the effect of lactobacilli on persistent chlamydial forms induced by HSV-2 coinfection has also been evaluated. Our results demonstrated significant inhibition of C. trachomatis multiplication by vaginal lactobacilli. L. brevis was significantly more effective than L. salivarius (p<0.05) on all the steps of chlamydial infection cycle suggesting that the ability of lactobacilli to protect from infection is strain-dependent. Lactobacilli had an adverse effect on elementary chlamydial bodies (p<0.05), on chlamydial adsorption to epithelial cells (p<0.001) and on intracellular phases of chlamydial replication (p<0.0001). Our study also demonstrated a protective effect of lactobacilli toward persistent C. trachomatis forms induced by HSV-2 coinfection. A significant increase in the production of C. trachomatis infectious progeny was observed in C. trachomatis/HSV-2 coinfection in the presence of L. brevis (p=0.01) despite a significant inhibition of C. trachomatis multiplication (p=0.028). Our data suggest that a healthy vaginal microbiota can reduce the risk of acquiring C. trachomatis infection and counteract the development of persistent chlamydial forms. PMID:24875405

  19. Chlamydia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... women who have sex with women get chlamydia? Yes. It is possible to get chlamydia, or any other STI, if you are a woman who ... STI test if you are at risk. 6 Yes. It is possible to get chlamydia, or any other STI, if you are a woman who ...

  20. A model for the development of evidence-based clinical guidelines at local level--the Leicestershire Genital Chlamydia Guidelines Project.

    PubMed

    Stokes, T; Shukla, R; Schober, P; Baker, R

    1998-11-01

    Clinical guidelines can be effective in achieving health gain when they are validly developed, disseminated and implemented appropriately. There is, however, a potential conflict between the need for validity through use of expert resources available at a national level, and implementation, which is undertaken at local level and depends on the local relevance of the guideline. This paper presents a model by which valid guidelines for the management of a given disease (genital chlamydial infection) by general practitioners can be developed at local level using the resources available to a district health authority department of public health. The model has three elements. First, a district-wide postal questionnaire survey was used to document current clinical practice. Secondly, a critical review of the evidence relating to the management of genital chlamydial infection as it relates to British general practice was performed. Thirdly, the information gained from the critical review and survey was used by a multidisciplinary group to develop evidence-based guideline recommendations. It is argued that the Leicestershire Genital Chlamydia Guidelines compare favourably with other recently published national guidelines in terms of their development and content. Local guideline development of guidelines for selected topics can be practical and appropriate. PMID:9927248

  1. The Prevalence of Endocervical Chlamydia trachomatis Infection Among Young Females in Kashan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Afrasiabi, Shima; Moniri, Rezvan; Samimi, Mansoreh; Khorshidi, Ahmad; Mousavi, Seyyed Gholam Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the major bacterial agents of the sexually transmitted diseases worldwide, especially among young females. There is no data regarding the prevalence of genital Chlamydia infection among young females in Kashan, Iran. Objectives: The current study aimed to determine the prevalence of endocervical C. trachomatis infection among females aged 17 - 35 years in Kashan, Iran. Patients and Methods: In the current descriptive study, 255 endocervical swab samples were collected from the obstetrics and gynecology clinics of Kashan, Iran from December 2012 to July 2013. Cervical swabs were placed in transport media and sent to the laboratory. To identify C. trachomatis in the samples Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was performed to amplify a sequence in the cryptic plasmid, generating a fragment of about 512base pair. Demographic data was collected considering the relevant risk factors by a standard questionnaire. Results: A total of 255 females were tested. The prevalence of genital C. trachomatis was 2.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.54% - 4.26%); 3.2% of the females in the ? 25-year-old group were positive versus 1.8% in the 26 - 35-year-old group. The most general presented symptoms of genital C. trachomatis infection were vaginal discharge (66.6%) and lumbar pain (50%). No significant relationships were found between C. trachomatis infection and the risk factors. Conclusions: To the authors knowledge this is the first study to describe endocervical C. trachomatis infection in this area. The obtained results also emphasized the importance of routine diagnosis of C. trachomatis to control of the infection. PMID:26034530

  2. Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infections and Sudden Unexpected Deaths in Denmark.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannsen, Finn

    1993-01-01

    Blood samples from 38 runners on the Danish national orienteering team revealed no ongoing chlamydia pneumoniae, although 42% had an earlier infection, similar to the incidence in the general population. However, over 2% had an ongoing lyme borreliosis infection, and 18% had an earlier infection, which is a higher incidence than in the general

  3. Chlamydia caviae infection alters abundance but not composition of the guinea pig vaginal microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Neuendorf, Elizabeth; Gajer, Pawel; Bowlin, Anne K.; Marques, Patricia X.; Ma, Bing; Yang, Hongqiu; Fu, Li; Humphrys, Michael S.; Forney, Larry J.; Myers, Garry S.A.; Bavoil, Patrik M.; Rank, Roger G.; Ravel, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    In humans, the vaginal microbiota is thought to be the first line of defense again pathogens including Chlamydia trachomatis. The guinea pig has been extensively used as a model to study chlamydial infection because it shares anatomical and physiological similarities with humans, such as a squamous vaginal epithelium as well as some of the long-term outcomes caused by chlamydial infection. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the guinea pig-C. caviae model of genital infection as a surrogate for studying the role of the vaginal microbiota in the early steps of C. trachomatis infection in humans. We used culture-independent molecular methods to characterize the relative and absolute abundance of bacterial phylotypes in the guinea pig vaginal microbiota in animals non-infected, mock-infected or infected by C. caviae. We showed that the guinea pig and human vaginal microbiotas are of different bacterial composition and abundance. Chlamydia caviae infection had a profound effect on the absolute abundance of bacterial phylotypes but not on the composition of the guinea pig vaginal microbiota. Our findings compromise the validity of the guinea pig-C. caviae model to study the role of the vaginal microbiota during the early steps of sexually transmitted infection. PMID:25761873

  4. Syphilis, gonorrhoea and genital chlamydial infection in a Somali village.

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, S O; Ahmed, H J; Jama, M A; Omer, K; Omer, F M; Brundin, M; Olofsson, M B; Grillner, L; Bygdeman, S

    1990-01-01

    A total of 767 sera were collected from 187 men, 200 women and 380 children in a Somali village, Jambaluul. All sera were tested for syphilis serological markers by Venereal Diseases Research Laboratory (VDRL) and Treponema pallidum Haemagglutination Assay (TPHA). Sera positive for both or either of these tests were further analysed for the presence of specific IgM antibodies by Solid Phase Haemadsorption Assay (SPHA). A high and almost equal prevalence of TPHA positivity was found in men and women; 24% and 22.5%, respectively, and IgM antibodies were found in 3% and 4%, respectively. TPHA positivity significantly increased with age. Thus more than half of the villagers at the age of 45 years or more were TPHA positive. One percent of the children were TPHA positive. From all adults aged 15 years and above urogenital specimens were also taken for Chlamydia trachomatis antigen detection with an enzyme-amplified immunoassay (IDEIA) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae culture. Chlamydial genital infection was found in 6% of the men and 18% of the women. All gonococcal cultures were negative. PMID:2187793

  5. Relationship between female genital tract infections, mucosal interleukin-17 production and local T helper type 17 cells.

    PubMed

    Masson, Lindi; Salkinder, Amy L; Olivier, Abraham Jacobus; McKinnon, Lyle R; Gamieldien, Hoyam; Mlisana, Koleka; Scriba, Thomas J; Lewis, David A; Little, Francesca; Jaspan, Heather B; Ronacher, Katharina; Denny, Lynette; Abdool Karim, Salim S; Passmore, Jo-Ann S

    2015-12-01

    T helper type 17 (Th17) cells play an important role in immunity to fungal and bacterial pathogens, although their role in the female genital tract, where exposure to these pathogens is common, is not well understood. We investigated the relationship between female genital tract infections, cervicovaginal interleukin-17 (IL-17) concentrations and Th17 cell frequencies. Forty-two cytokines were measured in cervicovaginal lavages from HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected women. Frequencies of Th17 cells (CD3(+) CD4(+) IL-17a(+) ) were evaluated in cervical cytobrushes and blood by flow cytometry. Women were screened for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis and herpes simplex virus 2 by PCR, and candidal infections and bacterial vaginosis by Gram stain. Women with bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs), specifically chlamydia and gonorrhoea, had higher genital IL-17 concentrations than women with no STI, whereas women with candidal pseudohyphae/spores had lower IL-17 concentrations compared with women without candidal infections. Viral STIs (herpes simplex virus 2 and HIV) were not associated with significant changes in genital IL-17 concentrations. Genital IL-17 concentrations correlated strongly with other inflammatory cytokines and growth factors. Although Th17 cells were depleted from blood during HIV infection, cervical Th17 cell frequencies were similar in HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected women. Cervical Th17 cell frequencies were also not associated with STIs or candida, although few women had a STI. These findings suggest that IL-17 production in the female genital tract is induced in response to bacterial but not viral STIs. Decreased IL-17 associated with candidal infections suggests that candida may actively suppress IL-17 production or women with dampened IL-17 responses may be more susceptible to candidal outgrowth. PMID:26302175

  6. Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection Differentially Modulates Human Dendritic Cell Line (MUTZ) Differentiation and Activation.

    PubMed

    Armitage, C W; O'Meara, C P; Beagley, K W

    2015-07-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae are important human pathogens that infect the urogenital/anorectal and respiratory tracts, respectively. Whilst the ability of these bacteria to infect epithelia is well defined, there is also considerable evidence of infection of leucocytes, including dendritic cells (DCs). Using a human dendritic cell line (MUTZ), we demonstrate that the infection and replication of chlamydiae inside DCs is species and serovar specific and that live infection with C. pneumoniae is required to upregulate costimulatory markers CD80, CD83 and human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DR on MUTZ cells, as well as induce secretion of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12 (p70), interferon-gamma and tumour necrosis factor-alpha Conversely, C. trachomatis serovar D failed to upregulate DC costimulatory markers, but did induce secretion of high concentrations of IL-8. Interestingly, we also observed that infection of MUTZ cells with C. pneumoniae or C. trachomatis serovar L2, whilst not replicative, remained infectious and upregulated lymph node migratory marker CCR7 mRNA. Taken together, these data confirm the findings of other groups using primary DCs and demonstrate the utility of MUTZ cells for further studies of chlamydial infection. PMID:25833314

  7. Infection of Human Retinal Pigment Epithelium with Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Boiko, Ernest; Maltsev, Dmitrii; Savicheva, Alevtina; Shalepo, Kira; Khusnutdinova, Tatyana; Pozniak, Alexei; Kvetnoi, Igor; Polyakova, Viktoria; Suetov, Alexei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Little is known about the susceptibility of posterior segment tissues, particularly the human retinal pigment epithelium (hRPE), to Chlamydia trachomatis. The purpose of the study was to investigate the possibility of infecting the hRPE with Chlamydia trachomatis, and to examine the infectivity of different Chlamydia trachomatis clinical isolates for hRPE cells and the hRPE cell response to the infection. Methods Cultured hRPE and McCoy cells were inoculated with eight Chlamydia trachomatis (serovar E) clinical isolates at multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 2.0 or 0.3. To detect Chlamydia trachomatis, samples were stained immunohistochemically with anti-major outer membrane protein antibodies at 24h, 48h, and 72h postinoculation (PI). The changes in the expression of signaling molecules and proteins of cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix in hRPE cells were examined immunohistochemically. Results All eight clinical isolates demonstrated ability to infect hRPE cells. At equal MOI of 0.3, the infectivity of Chlamydia trachomatis clinical isolates for RPE culture was found to be at least as high as that for McCoy cell culture. At 24h PI, the percentage of inclusion-containing cells varied from 1.5 ± 0.52 to 14.6 ± 3.3% in hRPE cell culture infected at MOI of 2.0 against 0.37 ± 0.34 to 8.9 ± 0.2% in McCoy cell culture infected at MOI of 0.3. Collagen type I, collagen type IV, basic fibroblast growth factor, transforming growth factor-beta and interleukin–8 expression at 48h PI were maximally increased, by 2.1-, 1.3-, 1.5-, 1.5- and 1.6-fold, respectively, in the Chlamydia trachomatis-infected compared with control hRPE cell culture specimens (P < 0.05). Conclusions This study, for the first time, proved the possibility of infecting hRPE cultured cells with Chlamydia trachomatis, which leads to proproliferative and proinflammatory changes in the expression of signaling molecules and extracellular matrix components. PMID:26536616

  8. Current Concepts for Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection: Diagnostics and Pathogenesis of Genital Tract Shedding.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Christine; Corey, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARYHerpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a DNA virus that is efficiently transmitted through intimate genital tract contact and causes persistent infection that cannot be eliminated. HSV-2 may cause frequent, symptomatic self-limited genital ulcers, but in most persons infection is subclinical. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the virus is frequently shed from genital surfaces even in the absence of signs or symptoms of clinical disease and that the virus can be transmitted during these periods of shedding. Furthermore, HSV-2 shedding is detected throughout the genital tract and may be associated with genital tract inflammation, which likely contributes to increased risk of HIV acquisition. This review focuses on HSV diagnostics, as well as what we have learned about the importance of frequent genital HSV shedding for (i) HSV transmission and (ii) genital tract inflammation, as well as (iii) the impact of HSV-2 infection on HIV acquisition and transmission. We conclude with discussion of future areas of research to push the field forward. PMID:26561565

  9. The microbicidal agent C31G inhibits Chlamydia trachomatis infectivity in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Wyrick, P B; Knight, S T; Gerbig, D G; Raulston, J E; Davis, C H; Paul, T R; Malamud, D

    1997-01-01

    Safe and effective vaginal microbicidal compounds are being sought to offer women an independent method for protection against transmission of sexually acquired pathogens. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of two formulations of one such compound, C31G, against Chlamydia trachomatis serovar E alone, its host epithelial cell (HEC-1B) alone, and against chlamydiae-infected HEC-1B cells. Preexposure of isolated, purified infectious chlamydial elementary bodies (EB) to C31G, at pHs 7.2 and 5.7, for 1 h at 4 degrees C resulted in reduced infectivity of EB for HEC-1B cells. Examination of the C31G-exposed 35S-EB on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis autoradiographs and by Western blotting revealed a C31G concentration-dependent and pH-dependent destabilization of the chlamydial envelope, resulting in the release of chlamydial lipopolysaccharide and proteins. Interestingly, when the host human genital columnar epithelial cells were infected with chlamydiae and then exposed to dilute concentrations of C31G which did not alter epithelial cell viability, chlamydial infectivity was also markedly reduced. C31G gained access to the developing chlamydial inclusion causing damage to or destruction of metabolically active reticulate bodies as well as apparent alteration of the inclusion membrane, which resulted in premature escape of chlamydial antigen to the infected epithelial surface. These studies show that the broad-spectrum antiviral and antibacterial microbicide C31G also has antichlamydial activity. PMID:9174195

  10. 2015 European guideline on the management of Chlamydia trachomatis infections.

    PubMed

    Lanjouw, E; Ouburg, S; de Vries, H J; Stary, A; Radcliffe, K; Unemo, M

    2016-04-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infections, which most frequently are asymptomatic, are major public health concerns globally. The 2015 European C. trachomatis guideline provides: up-to-date guidance regarding broader indications for testing and treatment of C. trachomatis infections; a clearer recommendation of using exclusively-validated nucleic acid amplification tests for diagnosis; advice on (repeated) C. trachomatis testing; the recommendation of increased testing to reduce the incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease and prevent exposure to infection; and recommendations to identify, verify and report C. trachomatis variants. Improvement of access to testing, test performance, diagnostics, antimicrobial treatment and follow-up of C. trachomatis patients are crucial to control its spread. For detailed background, evidence base and discussions, see the background review for the present 2015 European guideline on the management of Chlamydia trachomatis infections (Lanjouw E, et al. Int J STD AIDS. 2015). PMID:26608577

  11. Chlamydia trachomatis Infection Leads to Defined Alterations to the Lipid Droplet Proteome in Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Saka, Hector Alex; Thompson, J. Will; Chen, Yi-Shan; Dubois, Laura G.; Haas, Joel T.; Moseley, Arthur; Valdivia, Raphael H.

    2015-01-01

    The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis is a major human pathogen and a main cause of genital and ocular diseases. During its intracellular cycle, C. trachomatis replicates inside a membrane-bound vacuole termed an “inclusion”. Acquisition of lipids (and other nutrients) from the host cell is a critical step in chlamydial replication. Lipid droplets (LD) are ubiquitous, ER-derived neutral lipid-rich storage organelles surrounded by a phospholipids monolayer and associated proteins. Previous studies have shown that LDs accumulate at the periphery of, and eventually translocate into, the chlamydial inclusion. These observations point out to Chlamydia-mediated manipulation of LDs in infected cells, which may impact the function and thereby the protein composition of these organelles. By means of a label-free quantitative mass spectrometry approach we found that the LD proteome is modified in the context of C. trachomatis infection. We determined that LDs isolated from C. trachomatis-infected cells were enriched in proteins related to lipid metabolism, biosynthesis and LD-specific functions. Interestingly, consistent with the observation that LDs intimately associate with the inclusion, a subset of inclusion membrane proteins co-purified with LD protein extracts. Finally, genetic ablation of LDs negatively affected generation of C. trachomatis infectious progeny, consistent with a role for LD biogenesis in optimal chlamydial growth. PMID:25909443

  12. Lipid Acquisition by Intracellular Chlamydiae

    PubMed Central

    Elwell, Cherilyn A.; Engel, Joanne N.

    2012-01-01

    Chlamydia species are obligate intracellular pathogens that are important causes of human genital tract, ocular, and respiratory infections. The bacteria replicate within a specialized membrane-bound compartment termed the inclusion and require host-derived lipids for intracellular growth and development. Emerging evidence indicates that Chlamydia has evolved clever strategies to fulfill its lipid needs by interacting with multiple host cell compartments and redirecting trafficking pathways to its intracellular niche. In this review, we highlight recent findings that have significantly expanded our understanding of how Chlamydia exploit lipid trafficking pathways to ensure the survival of this important human pathogen. PMID:22452394

  13. Reactivation of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in mice by cortisone treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Laitinen, K; Laurila, A L; Leinonen, M; Saikku, P

    1996-01-01

    Reactivation of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection was studied by inducing immunosuppression by cortisone acetate treatment given every other day for 14 days in intranasally infected NIH/s mice. The treatment started 2 or 4 weeks after primary infection, when no C. pneumoniae was detected. C. pneumoniae could be recovered from the lung cultures on days 7 and 9 in 10 and 60% of the mice, respectively, when cortisone treatment was begun 30 days after infection. These results confirm the persistent nature of C. pneumoniae infection. PMID:8606126

  14. Immunity to infections in the lower genital tract of bulls.

    PubMed

    Cobo, Eduardo R; Corbeil, Lynette B; BonDurant, Robert H

    2011-04-01

    The mucosa of the bovine prepuce has unique immunological characteristics critical to defense against sexually transmitted diseases. Tritrichomonas foetus and Campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis persistently colonize the lower genital tract of bulls but usually do not cause either major clinical signs or inflammation. These microbes may be sexually transmitted to female cattle to cause reproductive failure. Although the male genital immune responses to T. foetus and C. fetus subspecies venerealis are inefficient in clearing infection, systemic immunization with T. foetus and C. fetus subspecies venerealis antigens does prevent or eliminate these infections with induction of IgG antibodies in genital secretions and serum. PMID:21474188

  15. Chlamydia trachomatis Infection of Endocervical Epithelial Cells Enhances Early HIV Transmission Events

    PubMed Central

    Buckner, Lyndsey R.; Amedee, Angela M.; Albritton, Hannah L.; Kozlowski, Pamela A.; Lacour, Nedra; McGowin, Chris L.; Schust, Danny J.; Quayle, Alison J.

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis causes a predominantly asymptomatic, but generally inflammatory, genital infection that is associated with an increased risk for HIV acquisition. Endocervical epithelial cells provide the major niche for this obligate intracellular bacterium in women, and the endocervix is also a tissue in which HIV transmission can occur. The mechanism by which CT infection enhances HIV susceptibility at this site, however, is not well understood. Utilizing the A2EN immortalized endocervical epithelial cell line grown on cell culture inserts, we evaluated the direct role that CT-infected epithelial cells play in facilitating HIV transmission events. We determined that CT infection significantly enhanced the apical-to-basolateral migration of cell-associated, but not cell-free, HIVBaL, a CCR5-tropic strain of virus, across the endocervical epithelial barrier. We also established that basolateral supernatants from CT-infected A2EN cells significantly enhanced HIV replication in peripheral mononuclear cells and a CCR5+ T cell line. These results suggest that CT infection of endocervical epithelial cells could facilitate both HIV crossing the mucosal barrier and subsequent infection or replication in underlying target cells. Our studies provide a mechanism by which this common STI could potentially promote the establishment of founder virus populations and the maintenance of local HIV reservoirs in the endocervix. Development of an HIV/STI co-infection model also provides a tool to further explore the role of other sexually transmitted infections in enhancing HIV acquisition. PMID:26730599

  16. Chlamydia infection status, genotype, and age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Khandhadia, Sam; Foster, Sebastian; Cree, Angela; Griffiths, Helen; Osmond, Clive; Goverdhan, Srinivas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate whether Chlamydia (C.) infections are associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and to assess if this association is influenced by the complement factor H (CFH) Y402H or the high temperature requirement A serine peptidase 1 (HTRA1) rs11200638 risk genotypes. Methods One hundred ninety-nine AMD patients with early and late forms of the disease and 100 unaffected controls, at least 50 years old were included in the study. Patients in the AMD and control groups were selected based on known CFH Y402H variant genotype status (one third homozygous CC, one third heterozygous CT, and one third wild-type TT). Plasma from all patients and controls was tested for C. pneumoniae, C. trachomatis, and C. psittaci IgG seropositivity using a micro-immunofluorescent assay to establish previous infection status. Assays were conducted blind to risk genotypes and the results analyzed using univariate and multivariate (logistic regression) analysis. Results IgG seropositivity to C. pneumoniae was most prevalent (69.2%, n=207), followed by C. trachomatis (7.4%, n=22) and C. psittaci (3.3%, n=10). No association was found between each of the three Chlamydia species IgG seropositivity and AMD status or severity (early/late). There was also no significant association between Chlamydia species IgG seropositivity and AMD status or severity, in patients carrying at least one CFH Y402H risk allele (C) or HTRA1 rs11200638 risk allele (A), with univariate or logistic regression analysis. Conclusions Chlamydia infection status does not appear to be associated with AMD status or severity. The presence of CFH Y402H and HTRA1 rs11200638 risk genotypes does not alter this negative association. PMID:22259222

  17. Genital Cytomegalovirus Replication Predicts Syphilis Acquisition among HIV-1 Infected Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Gianella, Sara; Smith, Davey M.; Daar, Eric S.; Dube, Michael P.; Lisco, Andrea; Vanpouille, Christophe; Margolis, Leonid; Haubrich, Richard H.; Morris, Sheldon R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Sexually transmitted infections (STI) are common among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). While behavioral factors are important in STI acquisition, other biological factors such as immune modulation due to chronic viral infection may further predispose to STI acquisition. Design Post Hoc analysis including data collected over 12 months of follow-up from 131 HIV-infected MSM receiving antiretroviral therapy and screened for incident bacterial STI every 3 months. Methods Genital secretions collected at baseline were used to measure herpesvirus replication and inflammatory cytokines. Baseline predictors of STI were determined using survival analysis of time to incident STI. Results All participants were seropositive for cytomegalovirus (CMV), and 52% had detectable genital CMV at baseline. Thirty-five individuals acquired STI during follow-up, sometimes with multiple pathogen (17 syphilis, 21 gonorrhea, 14 chlamydia). Syphilis acquisition was associated with genital CMV replication at baseline (19.1% CMV-shedders versus 4.8% non-shedders, p=0.03) and younger age (p=0.02). Lower seminal MCP-1 was associated with higher seminal CMV levels and with syphilis acquisition (p<0.01). For syphilis acquisition, in multivariable Cox-Proportional Hazard model adjusted hazard rates were 3.56 (95%CI:1.00–12.73) for baseline CMV replication and 2.50 (0.92–6.77) for younger age. Conclusions This post hoc analysis suggest that CMV-associated decrease in seminal MCP-1 levels might predispose HIV-infected MSM to syphilis acquisition, but not other STI. Future studies should determine underlying mechanisms and if a causal association exists. PMID:26061824

  18. Resolution of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection Is Associated with a Distinct T Cell Response Profile.

    PubMed

    Picard, Michele D; Bodmer, Jean-Luc; Gierahn, Todd M; Lee, Alexander; Price, Jessica; Cohane, Kenya; Clemens, Veronica; DeVault, Victoria L; Gurok, Galina; Kohberger, Robert; Higgins, Darren E; Siber, George R; Flechtner, Jessica Baker; Geisler, William M

    2015-11-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the causative agent of the most frequently reported bacterial sexually transmitted infection, the total burden of which is underestimated due to the asymptomatic nature of the infection. Untreated C. trachomatis infections can cause significant morbidities, including pelvic inflammatory disease and tubal factor infertility (TFI). The human immune response against C. trachomatis, an obligate intracellular bacterium, is poorly characterized but is thought to rely on cell-mediated immunity, with CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells implicated in protection. In this report, we present immune profiling data of subjects enrolled in a multicenter study of C. trachomatis genital infection. CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells from subjects grouped into disease-specific cohorts were screened using a C. trachomatis proteomic library to identify the antigen specificities of recall T cell responses after natural exposure by measuring interferon gamma (IFN-?) levels. We identified specific T cell responses associated with the resolution of infection, including unique antigens identified in subjects who spontaneously cleared infection and different antigens associated with C. trachomatis-related sequelae, such as TFI. These data suggest that novel and unique C. trachomatis T cell antigens identified in individuals with effective immune responses can be considered as targets for vaccine development, and by excluding antigens associated with deleterious sequelae, immune-mediated pathologies may be circumvented. PMID:26446421

  19. Current Chlamydia trachomatis Infection, A Major Cause of Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Mania-Pramanik, Jayanti; Kerkar, Shilpa; Sonawane, Shobha; Mehta, Pratibha; Salvi, Vinita

    2012-01-01

    Background In India, the impact of current Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) in reproductive health remains a neglected area of investigation. The present study evaluates if current Chlamydia infection is associated with any clinical complication that needs the attention of clinical investigators. Methods In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 896 women attending the Gynecology Out Patient for the detection of C. trachomatis infection. Polymerase chain reaction was used to diagnose current C. trachomatis infection and ELISA for past infections. Bacterial vaginosis, Candida and Trichomonas were screened. The results of symptomatic and asymptomatic groups were compared. The data was analyzed using Epi Info version 6 and “Z” test. A probability value of p≤0.05 was considered as significant.. Results Statistical analysis revealed significant association between current C. trachomatis infection with infertility when comparing infected fertile (18.6% vs. 9.4%, odds ratio: 2.19, p<0.0005) and uninfected infertile women (45.6% vs. 27.3%, odds ratio: 2.24, p<0.0001). Average infection rate was 12.1%, highest in women with infertility (18.6%) or with ectopic pregnancy (25%). Significant proportions of infected women with infertility (p<0.01) or with recent pregnancy (p<0.001) were asymptomatic. Follow up of infected women who became negative after treatment [28 women from infertility group and 9 women with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA)] revealed live birth in 8 (21.6%) women within one year, 4 with infertility and 4 with RSA. Conclusion Study findings suggest association between current C. trachomatis infection and infertility. Absence of signs and symptoms associated with this infection highlights its diagnosis in women with a history of infertility and RSA for their better management, as revealed by live births with one year of follow up. PMID:23926547

  20. In Vivo and Ex Vivo Imaging Reveals a Long-Lasting Chlamydial Infection in the Mouse Gastrointestinal Tract following Genital Tract Inoculation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qi; Huang, Yumeng; Gong, Siqi; Yang, Zhangsheng; Sun, Xin; Schenken, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Intravaginal infection with Chlamydia muridarum in mice can ascend to the upper genital tract, resulting in hydrosalpinx, a pathological hallmark for tubal infertility in women infected with C. trachomatis. Here, we utilized in vivo imaging of C. muridarum infection in mice following an intravaginal inoculation and confirmed the rapid ascent of the chlamydial organisms from the lower to upper genital tracts. Unexpectedly, the C. muridarum-derived signal was still detectable in the abdominal area 100 days after inoculation. Ex vivo imaging of the mouse organs revealed that the long-lasting presence of the chlamydial signal was restricted to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which was validated by directly measuring the chlamydial live organisms and genomes in the same organs. The C. muridarum organisms spreading from the genital to the GI tracts were detected in different mouse strains and appeared to be independent of oral or rectal routes. Mice prevented from orally taking up excretions also developed the long-lasting GI tract infection. Inoculation of C. muridarum directly into the upper genital tract, which resulted in a delayed vaginal shedding of live organisms, accelerated the chlamydial spreading to the GI tract. Thus, we have demonstrated that the genital tract chlamydial organisms may use a systemic route to spread to and establish a long-lasting infection in the GI tract. The significance of the chlamydial spreading from the genital to GI tracts is discussed. PMID:26099591

  1. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia Infection in Domestic Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in China

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Xiaoting; Qin, Siyuan; Lou, Zhilong; Ning, Hongrui; Sun, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria distributed all over the world, known to cause various forms of diseases in animals and humans. In the present study, a serological survey was conducted to detect the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with rabbit chlamydiosis in northeast China, including Liaoning province, Jilin province, Heilongjiang province, and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Antibodies to Chlamydia were determined by indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 17.88% in total of 800 blood samples. The Chlamydia seroprevalence varied in domestic rabbits from different factors, and genders of domestic rabbits were considered as major risk factors associated with Chlamydia infection. Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in northeast China, with higher exposure risk in female domestic rabbits. These findings suggested the potential importance of domestic rabbits in the transmission of zoonotic Chlamydia infection, and thus Chlamydia should be taken into consideration in diagnosing rabbit diseases. To our knowledge, there is no report of Chlamydia infection in domestic rabbits in China and the results extend the host range for Chlamydia, which has important implications for public health and the local economy. PMID:25945336

  2. Immunization with Live and Dead Chlamydia muridarum Induces Different Levels of Protective Immunity in a Murine Genital Tract Model: Correlation with MHC Class II Peptide Presentation and Multifunctional Th1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hong; Karunakaran, Karuna P.; Kelly, Isabelle; Shen, Caixia; Jiang, Xiaozhou; Foster, Leonard J.; Brunham, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    Mice that were intranasally vaccinated with live or dead Chlamydia muridarum with or without CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotide 1862 elicited widely disparate levels of protective immunity to genital tract challenge. We found that the frequency of multifunctional T cells coexpressing IFN-? and TNF-? with or without IL-2 induced by live C. muridarum most accurately correlated with the pattern of protection against C. muridarum genital tract infection, suggesting that IFN-?+producing CD4+ T cells that highly coexpress TNF-? may be the optimal effector cells for protective immunity. We also used an immunoproteomic approach to analyze MHC class II-bound peptides eluted from dendritic cells (DCs) that were pulsed with live or dead C. muridarum elementary bodies (EBs). We found that DCs pulsed with live EBs presented 45 MHC class II C. muridarum peptides mapping to 13 proteins. In contrast, DCs pulsed with dead EBs presented only six MHC class II C. muridarum peptides mapping to three proteins. Only two epitopes were shared in common between the live and dead EB-pulsed groups. This study provides insights into the role of Ag presentation and cytokine secretion patterns of CD4+ T effector cells that correlate with protective immunity elicited by live and dead C. muridarum. These insights should prove useful for improving vaccine design for Chlamydia trachomatis. PMID:21296978

  3. [Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and factors with the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections in college students].

    PubMed

    Occhionero, Marcelo; Paniccia, Laura; Pedersen, Dina; Rossi, Gabriela; Mazzucchini, Hctor; Entrocassi, Andrea; Gallo Vaulet, Lucia; Gualtieri, Valeria; Rodrguez Fermepin, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection is nowadays considered one of the most frequent causes of sexually transmitted infections (STI) in the world, mainly affecting the group of young people under 25 years old. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis infection in newly admitted students to Universidad Nacional del Sur, Baha Blanca, Argentina, and to evaluate the risk factors to acquire STI. For that purpose, 204 young college students with a mean age of 19 were involved in this study. Each participant delivered a sample of first-void urine and completed a questionnaire which was then submitted anonymously. The research for C. trachomatis was done on 114 valid samples through a technique of DNA amplification, whose molecular target was the gene ompA. Four cases of infection by C. trachomatis were detected with a prevalence of 3.5%. The risks factors associated to the infection were a history of 7 or more partners since the start of sexual activity and contact with a new sexual partner in the last 4 months. The prevalence of such infection reflects a moderate circulation of this microorganism in the studied population. This fact, along with some aspects shown by the questionnaire results, would characterize a population having a low risk profile for acquiring STIs. However, some other information obtained from the questionnaires gave some opposite evidence, which would alert us on the need of keeping watch, raising awareness and implementing preventive actions in this population. PMID:25683522

  4. Genital ulcers associated with acute Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    PubMed

    Taylor, S; Drake, S M; Dedicoat, M; Wood, M J

    1998-08-01

    To date there have been only five reported cases of females with genital ulceration associated with primary Epstein-Barr virus infection. We describe two further patients and review the clinical features of all seven cases, noting the typical features, particularly purple ulcer margins and systemic symptoms, which should alert the physician to consider this diagnosis. PMID:9924475

  5. Genital ulcers associated with acute Epstein-Barr virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, S.; Drake, S. M.; Dedicoat, M.; Wood, M. J.

    1998-01-01

    To date there have been only five reported cases of females with genital ulceration associated with primary Epstein-Barr virus infection. We describe two further patients and review the clinical features of all seven cases, noting the typical features, particularly purple ulcer margins and systemic symptoms, which should alert the physician to consider this diagnosis. ??? PMID:9924475

  6. Genital Herpetic Infection: A Family Practice Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Lawee, David

    1982-01-01

    Several major breakthroughs have occurred in our understanding of the epidemiology, immunology and biological behavior of the human herpes virus I and II. The family physician, however, is still confronted with four basic clinical situations: patients who present with a genital erosion or ulcer, affected patients in the reproductive age group, patients who ask if herpes causes cervical cancer, and patients who are very troubled by endless recurrences. As syphilitic chancre is becoming rare, the family physician has to recognize the increasing importance of herpes viruses in the etiology of the genital erosion-ulcer syndrome to acquire the clinical and laboratory skills to make that distinction. The prevention of neonatal disease is now possible in the majority of cases provided that pregnancies at risk are identified. Adequate virological surveillance should make it possible to virtually eliminate the disease. The evidence for the oncogenecity is circumstantial. Potential intra- and interpersonal effects of the disease are outlined. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 3 PMID:21286567

  7. Chlamydia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... low back pain, nausea, fever, or pain with sexual intercourse. Men with infection may have pus or fluid ... is common. Persons with infection should not have sexual intercourse until 1 week after treatment is finished in ...

  8. Differences in clinical manifestations of genital chlamydial infections related to serovars.

    PubMed Central

    van de Laar, M J; van Duynhoven, Y T; Fennema, J S; Ossewaarde, J M; van den Brule, A J; van Doornum, G J; Coutinho, R A; van den Hoek, J A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the association of serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis with clinical manifestations of genital tract infection and socio-demographic characteristics. METHODS: In 1986-88 the C trachomatis isolates from 159 heterosexual men and 116 women attending a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic were collected and typed accordingly. A medical history was recorded, a physical examination took place and samples were taken for laboratory diagnostics. RESULTS: Serovars E, F and D were the most common for both men (75%) and women (67%). Men infected with serovars of the C-complex had more often a history of STD (p = 0.06). The opposite was demonstrated in women (p = 0.07). In addition, women younger than 18 years at first intercourse were more often infected with C-complex serovars (p = 0.05). For men, the serovars F/G less often produced symptoms of urethral discharge (p = 0.01) than the serovars of the B-complex and C-complex and were less often associated with the presence of 10 or more leukocytes in a Gram-stained smear (p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, infections with serovars F and G caused less obvious symptoms and signs of inflammation in men; in women no differences were found in the clinical manifestation of infections with different serovars. PMID:8976830

  9. Waddlia chondrophila induces systemic infection, organ pathology, and elicits Th1-associated humoral immunity in a murine model of genital infection

    PubMed Central

    Vasilevsky, Sam; Gyger, Joel; Piersigilli, Alessandra; Pilloux, Ludovic; Greub, Gilbert; Stojanov, Milos; Baud, David

    2015-01-01

    Waddlia chondrophila is a known bovine abortigenic Chlamydia-related bacterium that has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes in human. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding how W. chondrophila infection spreads, its ability to elicit an immune response and induce pathology. A murine model of genital infection was developed to investigate the pathogenicity and immune response associated with a W. chondrophila infection. Genital inoculation of the bacterial agent resulted in a dose-dependent infection that spread to lumbar lymph nodes and successively to spleen and liver. Bacterial-induced pathology peaked on day 14, characterized by leukocyte infiltration (uterine horn, liver, and spleen), necrosis (liver) and extramedullary hematopoiesis (spleen). Immunohistochemistry demonstrated the presence of a large number of W. chondrophila in the spleen on day 14. Robust IgG titers were detected by day 14 and remained high until day 52. IgG isotypes consisted of high IgG2a, moderate IgG3 and no detectable IgG1, indicating a Th1-associated immune response. This study provides the first evidence that W. chondrophila genital infection is capable of inducing a systemic infection that spreads to major organs, induces uterus, spleen, and liver pathology and elicits a Th1-skewed humoral response. This new animal model will help our understanding of the mechanisms related to intracellular bacteria-induced miscarriages, the most frequent complication of pregnancy that affects one in four women. PMID:26583077

  10. Thiazolino 2-Pyridone Amide Inhibitors of Chlamydia trachomatis Infectivity.

    PubMed

    Good, James A D; Silver, Jim; Núñez-Otero, Carlos; Bahnan, Wael; Krishnan, K Syam; Salin, Olli; Engström, Patrik; Svensson, Richard; Artursson, Per; Gylfe, Åsa; Bergström, Sven; Almqvist, Fredrik

    2016-03-10

    The bacterial pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis is a global health burden currently treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics which disrupt commensal bacteria. We recently identified a compound through phenotypic screening that blocked infectivity of this intracellular pathogen without host cell toxicity (compound 1, KSK 120). Herein, we present the optimization of 1 to a class of thiazolino 2-pyridone amides that are highly efficacious (EC50 ≤ 100 nM) in attenuating infectivity across multiple serovars of C. trachomatis without host cell toxicity. The lead compound 21a exhibits reduced lipophilicity versus 1 and did not affect the growth or viability of representative commensal flora at 50 μM. In microscopy studies, a highly active fluorescent analogue 37 localized inside the parasitiphorous inclusion, indicative of a specific targeting of bacterial components. In summary, we present a class of small molecules to enable the development of specific treatments for C. trachomatis. PMID:26849778

  11. Cytotoxic cells induced after Chlamydia psittaci infection in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Lammert, J K

    1982-01-01

    The ability of spleen cells from Chlamydia psittaci-infected mice to lyse C. psittaci-infected and uninfected target cell monolayers was studied. The cytotoxicity assay used was a terminal label method in which the number of adherent target cells surviving the interaction with effector cells was determined by measuring the uptake of [3H]uridine by such cells. It was observed that in the first few days postinfection (3 to 5), spleens contained cells that lysed infected and uninfected targets with equal efficiency. Subsequently, infected targets were killed primarily. The activity of effector spleen cells for infected targets continued, although at a reduced level, beyond 21 days postinfection. Intact effector cells were required since a disruption by sonication resulted in a loss of cytotoxicity. The enhanced killing observed with infected targets was also observed when target cells were sensitized with heat- or UV-inactivated C. psittaci. This study suggests that the induction of cytotoxic cells after C. psittaci infection may contribute to the ability of the host to control multiplication of the microorganism. PMID:7068208

  12. Steroids Alone or as Adjunctive Therapy with Doxycycline Fail To Improve Oviduct Damage in Mice Infected with Chlamydia muridarum

    PubMed Central

    Corr, Tammy E.; Sullivan, Jeanne; Frazer, Lauren C.; Andrews, Charles W.; O'Connell, Catherine M.

    2014-01-01

    In women, Chlamydia trachomatis can ascend from the cervix to the fallopian tubes, where an overly aggressive host inflammatory response can cause scarring that leads to chronic pelvic pain, infertility, or ectopic pregnancy. Although screening and treatment programs for women have resulted in decreased rates of sequelae, morbidities associated with oviduct scarring continue to occur. Since corticosteroids have anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects, we tested the ability of dexamethasone to inhibit inflammation and prevent oviduct scarring in mice genitally infected with Chlamydia muridarum. The administration of 1 or 2.5 mg/kg of body weight of dexamethasone on days 7 to 21 of infection resulted in reduced accumulation of inflammatory cells in the oviducts compared to that in controls. However, a concomitant increase in bacterial burden was observed, and chronic oviduct disease was not reduced. Adjunctive administration of a prolonged (21-day) or short (3-day) course of dexamethasone in combination with the antibiotic doxycycline also failed to reduce chronic oviduct pathology compared to antibiotic treatment alone. Steroids administered alone or adjunctively with antibiotics failed to prevent oviduct damage in this murine model of C. trachomatis infection. PMID:24695778

  13. Steroids alone or as adjunctive therapy with doxycycline fail to improve oviduct damage in mice infected with Chlamydia muridarum.

    PubMed

    Corr, Tammy E; Sullivan, Jeanne; Frazer, Lauren C; Andrews, Charles W; O'Connell, Catherine M; Darville, Toni

    2014-06-01

    In women, Chlamydia trachomatis can ascend from the cervix to the fallopian tubes, where an overly aggressive host inflammatory response can cause scarring that leads to chronic pelvic pain, infertility, or ectopic pregnancy. Although screening and treatment programs for women have resulted in decreased rates of sequelae, morbidities associated with oviduct scarring continue to occur. Since corticosteroids have anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects, we tested the ability of dexamethasone to inhibit inflammation and prevent oviduct scarring in mice genitally infected with Chlamydia muridarum. The administration of 1 or 2.5 mg/kg of body weight of dexamethasone on days 7 to 21 of infection resulted in reduced accumulation of inflammatory cells in the oviducts compared to that in controls. However, a concomitant increase in bacterial burden was observed, and chronic oviduct disease was not reduced. Adjunctive administration of a prolonged (21-day) or short (3-day) course of dexamethasone in combination with the antibiotic doxycycline also failed to reduce chronic oviduct pathology compared to antibiotic treatment alone. Steroids administered alone or adjunctively with antibiotics failed to prevent oviduct damage in this murine model of C. trachomatis infection. PMID:24695778

  14. Current methods of laboratory diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infections.

    PubMed Central

    Black, C M

    1997-01-01

    Infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis are probably the most common sexually transmitted diseases in the United States. Commonly unrecognized and often inadequately treated, chlamydial infections can ascend the reproductive tract and cause pelvic inflammatory disease, which often results in the devastating consequences of infertility, ectopic pregnancy, or chronic pelvic pain. C. trachomatis infections are also known to increase the risk for human immunodeficiency virus infection. The obligate intracellular life cycle of C. trachomatis has traditionally required laboratory diagnostic tests that are technically demanding, labor-intensive, expensive, and difficult to access. In spite of these historical challenges, however, laboratory diagnosis of C. trachomatis has been a rapidly advancing area in which there is presently a wide array of commercial diagnostic technologies, costs, manufacturers. This review describes and compares the diagnostic methods for C. trachomatis infection that are currently approved for use in the United States, including the newest DNA amplification technologies which are yet to be licensed for commercial use. Issues to consider in selecting a test for purposes of screening versus diagnosis based on prevalence, performance, legal, social, and cost issues are also discussed. PMID:8993862

  15. The prevalence and clinical significance of Chlamydia infection in island and mainland populations of Victorian koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    PubMed

    Patterson, Jade L S; Lynch, Michael; Anderson, Garry A; Noormohammadi, Amir H; Legione, Alistair; Gilkerson, James R; Devlin, Joanne M

    2015-04-01

    Chlamydia infection is known to impact the health of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, but the clinical significance of Chlamydia infections in Victorian koalas is not well described. We examined the prevalence of Chlamydia infection and assessed associated health parameters in two Victorian koala populations known to be Chlamydia positive. The same testing regimen was applied to a third Victorian population in which Chlamydia had not been detected. We examined 288 koalas and collected samples from the urogenital sinus and conjunctival sacs. Detection and differentiation of Chlamydia species utilized real-time PCR and high-resolution melting curve analysis. Chlamydia pecorum was detected in two populations (prevalences: 25% and 41%, respectively) but only from urogenital sinus swabs. Chlamydia was not detected in the third population. Chlamydia pneumoniae was not detected. Chlamydia pecorum infection was positively associated with wet bottom (indicating chronic urinary tract disease) in one Chlamydia-positive population and with abnormal urogenital ultrasound findings in the other Chlamydia-positive population. The prevalence of wet bottom was similar in all populations (including the Chlamydia-free population), suggesting there is another significant cause (or causes) of wet bottom in Victorian koalas. Ocular disease was not observed. This is the largest study of Chlamydia infection in Victorian koalas, and the results suggest the potential for epidemiologic differences related to Chlamydia infections between Victorian koalas and koalas in Queensland and NSW and also between geographically distinct Victorian populations. Further studies to investigate the genotypes of C. pecorum present in Victorian koalas and to identify additional causes of wet bottom in koalas are indicated. PMID:25588005

  16. Trichomonas vaginalis Genital Infections: Progress and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, Marcia M.; Sea, Arlene C.; Sobel, Jack D.; Schwebke, Jane R.; Krieger, John N.; McClelland, R. Scott; Workowski, Kimberly A.

    2011-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) infection is the most prevalent curable sexually transmitted infection in the United States and worldwide. Most TV infections are asymptomatic, and the accurate diagnosis of this infection has been limited by lack of sufficiently sensitive and specific diagnostic tests, particularly for men. To provide updates for the 2010 Centers for Disease Control and Preventions Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, a PubMed search was conducted of all TV literature published from 9 January 2004 through 24 September 2008. Approximately 175 pertinent abstracts and articles were reviewed and discussed with national experts. This article describes advances in TV diagnostics which have led to an improved understanding of the epidemiology of this pathogen, as well as potential biologic and epidemiological interactions between TV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). New data on treatment outcomes, metronidazole-resistant TV, management of nitroimidazole-allergic patients, frequency of recurrent TV infection following treatment, and screening considerations for TV in certain populations are also presented. PMID:22080269

  17. Genital Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection in Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... treated until they are gone. Using condoms during sexual intercourse and dental dams during oral sex may also help to reduce the spread of infection. However, condoms or dams may not ... current (and past) sexual partner(s), so that they can be examined and ...

  18. Chlamydia Infection Across Host Species Boundaries Promotes Distinct Sets of Transcribed Anti-Apoptotic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Messinger, Joshua E.; Nelton, Emmalin; Feeney, Colleen; Gondek, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydiae, obligate intracellular bacteria, cause significant human and veterinary associated diseases. Having emerged an estimated 700-million years ago, these bacteria have twice adapted to humans as a host species, causing sexually transmitted infection (C. trachomatis) and respiratory associated disease (C. pneumoniae). The principle mechanism of host cell defense against these intracellular bacteria is the induction of cell death via apoptosis. However, in the “arms race” of co-evolution, Chlamydiae have developed mechanisms to promote cell viability and inhibit cell death. Herein we examine the impact of Chlamydiae infection across multiple host species on transcription of anti-apoptotic genes. We found mostly distinct patterns of gene expression (Mcl1 and cIAPs) elicited by each pathogen-host pair indicating Chlamydiae infection across host species boundaries does not induce a universally shared host response. Understanding species specific host-pathogen interactions is paramount to deciphering how potential pathogens become emerging diseases. PMID:26779446

  19. Reactivation of Chlamydia trachomatis lung infection in mice by cortisone.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Y S; Kuo, C C; Chen, W J

    1983-01-01

    To study the latency, chronicity, and recurrent nature of chlamydial infection, we attempted to reactivate Chlamydia trachomatis lung infection in mice by immunosuppressive therapy with cortisone. Mice were treated with subcutaneous injections of cortisone acetate (125 mg/kg) every other day, starting on day 14 after intranasal inoculation of C. trachomatis serotype B (TW-5). C. trachomatis was recovered from the lungs beginning day 6 after the start of cortisone treatment until the end of the observation period on day 12 of treatment. Overall, the reactivation was successful in 8 of 55 mice treated with cortisone, in contrast to 0 of 41 inoculated, untreated mice (P = 0.009) and 0 of 35 uninoculated, treated mice. Cortisone treatment affected the ability of peritoneal exudate cells to respond to migratory inhibition after exposure to purified whole organisms of C. trachomatis serotype B (TW-5) but had little effect on serum antibody titers, indicating a possible role for cellular immunity in resistance against C. trachomatis infection in the lung. PMID:6832814

  20. Plasmid CDS5 Influences Infectivity and Virulence in a Mouse Model of Chlamydia trachomatis Urogenital Infection

    PubMed Central

    Schripsema, J. H.; Smith, B. J.; Wang, Y.; Jham, B. C.; O'Hagan, K. P.; Thomson, N. R.; Murthy, A. K.; Skilton, R. J.; Chu, P.; Clarke, I. N.

    2014-01-01

    The native plasmid of both Chlamydia muridarum and Chlamydia trachomatis has been shown to control virulence and infectivity in mice and in lower primates. We recently described the development of a plasmid-based genetic transformation protocol for Chlamydia trachomatis that for the first time provides a platform for the molecular dissection of the function of the chlamydial plasmid and its individual genes or coding sequences (CDS). In the present study, we transformed a plasmid-free lymphogranuloma venereum isolate of C. trachomatis, serovar L2, with either the original shuttle vector (pGFP::SW2) or a derivative of pGFP::SW2 carrying a deletion of the plasmid CDS5 gene (pCDS5KO). Female mice were inoculated with these strains either intravaginally or transcervically. We found that transformation of the plasmid-free isolate with the intact pGFP::SW2 vector significantly enhanced infectivity and induction of host inflammatory responses compared to the plasmid-free parental isolate. Transformation with pCDS5KO resulted in infection courses and inflammatory responses not significantly different from those observed in mice infected with the plasmid-free isolate. These results indicate a critical role of plasmid CDS5 in in vivo fitness and in induction of inflammatory responses. To our knowledge, these are the first in vivo observations ascribing infectivity and virulence to a specific plasmid gene. PMID:24866804

  1. Serological studies in Chlamydia trachomatis associated pneumonia of infants.

    PubMed

    Marton, A; Szirmai, Z; Szever, Z; Lszl, V

    1986-01-01

    Serological results provided evidence for the clinical diagnosis of chlamydial pneumonia in 8 out of 51 cases. Elevated chlamydia-specific IgM titres (128-2048) and IgG titres (128-2048) were recorded in 5 and 8 infants, respectively. High titres of chlamydial antibodies (512-8192) in the sera of mothers of seropositive children proved genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection. PMID:3529795

  2. Immunity against a Chlamydia infection and disease may be determined by a balance of IL-17 signaling.

    PubMed

    O'Meara, Connor P; Armitage, Charles W; Harvie, Marina C G; Andrew, Dean W; Timms, Peter; Lycke, Nils Y; Beagley, Kenneth W

    2014-03-01

    Most vaccines developed against Chlamydia using animal models provide partial protection against a genital tract infection. However, protection against the oviduct pathology associated with infertility is highly variable and often has no defining immunological correlate. When comparing two adjuvants (CTA1-DD and a combination of Cholera toxin plus CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide-CT/CpG) combined with the chlamydial major outer membrane protein (MOMP) antigen and delivered via the intranasal (IN), sublingual (SL) or transcutaneous (TC) routes, we identified two vaccine groups with contrasting outcomes following infection. SL immunization with MOMP/CTA1-DD induced a 70% reduction in the incidence of oviduct pathology, without significantly altering the course of infection. Conversely, IN immunization with MOMP/CT/CpG prevented an ascending infection, but not the oviduct pathology. This anomaly presented a unique opportunity to study the mechanisms by which vaccines can prevent oviduct pathology, other than by controlling the infection. The IL-17 signaling in the oviducts was found to associate with both the enhancement of immunity to infection and the development of oviduct pathology. This conflicting role of IL-17 may provide some explanation for the discordance in protection between infection and disease and suggests that controlling immunopathology, as opposed to the rapid eradication of the infection, may be essential for an effective human chlamydial vaccine that prevents infertility. PMID:24366518

  3. Mutational Analysis of the Chlamydia muridarum Plasticity Zone

    PubMed Central

    Rajaram, Krithika; Giebel, Amanda M.; Toh, Evelyn; Hu, Shuai; Newman, Jasmine H.; Morrison, Sandra G.; Kari, Laszlo; Morrison, Richard P.

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenically diverse Chlamydia spp. can have surprisingly similar genomes. Chlamydia trachomatis isolates that cause trachoma, sexually transmitted genital tract infections (chlamydia), and invasive lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) and the murine strain Chlamydia muridarum share 99% of their gene content. A region of high genomic diversity between Chlamydia spp. termed the plasticity zone (PZ) may encode niche-specific virulence determinants that dictate pathogenic diversity. We hypothesized that PZ genes might mediate the greater virulence and gamma interferon (IFN-?) resistance of C. muridarum compared to C. trachomatis in the murine genital tract. To test this hypothesis, we isolated and characterized a series of C. muridarum PZ nonsense mutants. Strains with nonsense mutations in chlamydial cytotoxins, guaBA-add, and a phospholipase D homolog developed normally in cell culture. Two of the cytotoxin mutants were less cytotoxic than the wild type, suggesting that the cytotoxins may be functional. However, none of the PZ nonsense mutants exhibited increased IFN-? sensitivity in cell culture or were profoundly attenuated in a murine genital tract infection model. Our results suggest that C. muridarum PZ genes are transcribedand some may produce functional proteinsbut are dispensable for infection of the murine genital tract. PMID:25939505

  4. Molecular epidemiology of genital human papillomavirus and Chlamydia trachomatis among patients attending a genitourinary medicine clinic - will vaccines protect?

    PubMed

    Jalal, H; Stephen, H; Bibby, D F; Sonnex, C; Carne, C A

    2007-09-01

    High-risk subtypes of human papillomavirus (HPV) are the main causative agents of cervical cancer, for which Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) may sometimes be a co-factor. Vaccines have been developed against some subtypes of human papillomavirus and a vaccine against CT is in development. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of the subtypes of HPV and CT in genitourinary (GU) medicine clinic attenders. In total, 1000 consecutive patients attending the GU clinic participated in this anonymized point-prevalence study. Urethral swabs from 437 men and urethral plus cervical swabs as a single specimen from 563 women were tested for the subtypes of both organisms. Nested major outer membrane protein (MOMP) polymerase chain reaction detected CT chromosomal DNA in 44/437 (10%) of the men and 73/563 (13%) of the women. Genotypes E, F, and D were the most common. In all, 55/437 (13%) of men and 244/563 (43%) of women were infected with at least one high-risk HPV type. In conclusion, the new HPV vaccines, Gardasil and Cervarix, would have protected against 58% and 45%, respectively, of the high-risk subtypes found in women in this population. The rate of high-risk HPV infection (43%) found in women in this study raises concern. PMID:17785006

  5. Chlamydia pneumoniae Hides inside Apoptotic Neutrophils to Silently Infect and Propagate in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Rupp, Jan; Pfleiderer, Lisa; Jugert, Christiane; Moeller, Sonja; Klinger, Matthias; Dalhoff, Klaus; Solbach, Werner; Stenger, Steffen; Laskay, Tamas; van Zandbergen, Ger

    2009-01-01

    Background Intracellular pathogens have developed elaborate strategies for silent infection of preferred host cells. Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common pathogen in acute infections of the respiratory tract (e.g. pneumonia) and associated with chronic lung sequelae in adults and children. Within the lung, alveolar macrophages and polymorph nuclear neutrophils (PMN) are the first line of defense against bacteria, but also preferred host phagocytes of chlamydiae. Methodology/Principal Findings We could show that C. pneumoniae easily infect and hide inside neutrophil granulocytes until these cells become apoptotic and are subsequently taken up by macrophages. C. pneumoniae infection of macrophages via apoptotic PMN results in enhanced replicative activity of chlamydiae when compared to direct infection of macrophages, which results in persistence of the pathogen. Inhibition of the apoptotic recognition of C. pneumoniae infected PMN using PS- masking Annexin A5 significantly lowered the transmission of chlamydial infection to macrophages. Transfer of apoptotic C. pneumoniae infected PMN to macrophages resulted in an increased TGF- production, whereas direct infection of macrophages with chlamydiae was characterized by an enhanced TNF-? response. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, our data suggest that C. pneumoniae uses neutrophil granulocytes to be silently taken up by long-lived macrophages, which allows for efficient propagation and immune protection within the human host. PMID:19547701

  6. Human papillomavirus infection with particular reference to genital disease.

    PubMed Central

    Sonnex, C

    1998-01-01

    HPV is the commonest sexually transmitted viral infection in the United Kingdom and as such poses a major public health problem. In addition to the potential physical morbidity associated with genital warts, abnormal cervical cytology, and anogenital dysplasia and neoplasia, the associated psychological morbidity should not be forgotten. Although our knowledge of viral function and disease pathogenesis has advanced appreciably in recent years, we are still some way from developing an in vitro method of viral propagation. Vaccination against HPV infection will hopefully be achieved within the next 10 years, but a prevention and treatment strategy which is appropriate for both developed and developing nations must be our major long term goal. PMID:9930065

  7. Chlamydia (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Impetigo Head Lice Vomiting Chickenpox Helping ... With Bullies Pregnant? What to Expect Chlamydia KidsHealth > Parents > Infections > Bacterial & Viral Infections > Chlamydia Print A A ...

  8. Incidence of severe reproductive tract complications associated with diagnosed genital chlamydial infection: the Uppsala Women's Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Low, N; Egger, M; Sterne, J A C; Harbord, R M; Ibrahim, F; Lindblom, B; Herrmann, B

    2006-01-01

    Objective To estimate the cumulative incidence of severe complications associated with genital chlamydia infection in the general female population. Methods The Uppsala Women's Cohort Study was a retrospective population based cohort study in Sweden, linking laboratory, hospital, and population registers. We estimated the cumulative incidence of hospital diagnosed pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility, and used multivariable regression models to estimate hazard ratios according to screening status. Results We analysed complete data from 43?715 women in Uppsala aged 1524?years between January 1985 and December 1989. Follow up until the end of 1999 included 709?000 woman years and 3025 events. The cumulative incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease by age 35?years was 3.9% (95% CI 3.7% to 4.0%) overall: 5.6% (4.7% to 6.7%) in women who ever tested positive for chlamydia, 4.0% (3.7% to 4.4%) in those with negative tests, and 2.9% (2.7% to 3.2%) in those who were never screened. The corresponding figures were: for ectopic pregnancy, 2.3% (2.2% to 2.5%) overall, 2.7% (2.1% to 3.5%), 2.0% (1.8% to 2.3%), and 1.9% (1.7% to 2.1%); and for infertility, 4.1% (3.9% to 4.3%) overall, 6.7% (5.7% to 7.9%), 4.7% (4.4% to 5.1%), and 3.1% (2.8% to 3.3%). Low educational attainment was strongly associated with the development of all outcomes. Conclusions The incidence of severe chlamydia associated complications estimated from ours, and other population based studies, was lower than expected. Studies that incorporate data about pelvic inflammatory disease diagnosed in primary care and behavioural risk factors would further improve our understanding of the natural history of chlamydia. Our results provide reassurance for patients, but mean that the benefits of chlamydia screening programmes might have been overestimated. PMID:16731670

  9. Pathogenic Potential of Novel Chlamydiae and Diagnostic Approaches to Infections Due to These Obligate Intracellular Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Corsaro, Daniele; Greub, Gilbert

    2006-01-01

    Novel chlamydiae are newly recognized members of the phylum Chlamydiales that are only distantly related to the classic Chlamydiaceae, i.e., Chlamydia and Chlamydophila species. They also exibit an obligate biphasic intracellular life cycle within eukaryote host cells. Some of these new chlamydiae are currently considered potential emerging human and/or animal pathogens. Parachlamydia acanthamoebae and Simkania negevensis are both emerging respiratory human pathogens, Waddlia chondrophila could be a novel abortigenic bovine agent, and Piscichlamydia salmonis has recently been identified as an agent of the gill epitheliocystis in the Atlantic salmon. Fritschea spp. and Rhabdochlamydia spp. seem to be confined to arthropods, but some evidence for human exposure exists. In this review, we first summarize the data supporting a pathogenic potential of the novel chlamydiae for humans and other vertebrates and the interactions that most of these chlamydiae have with free-living amoebae. We then review the diagnostic approaches to infections potentially due to the novel chlamydiae, especially focusing on the currently available PCR-based protocols, mammalian cell culture, the amoebal coculture system, and serology. PMID:16614250

  10. Potential protective effect of a G>A SNP in the 3'UTR of HLA-A for Chlamydia trachomatis symptomatology and severity of infection.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Marleen E; Brankovi?, Ivan; Spaargaren, Joke; Ouburg, Sander; Morr, Servaas A

    2016-03-01

    The interindividual differences in response to Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infections are for an important part based on the differences in our host genetic make-up. In the past, several genes and pathways have been identified and linked to protection against or risk for CT infection (i.e. susceptibility), and/or the severity of infection, with a major emphasis on the development of tubal pathology, one of the main causes of female infertility. In the current study, we analyzed in Dutch Caucasian women whether the carriage of HLA-A G>A SNP (rs1655900) was related to the susceptibility of CT infection in a STD cohort (n = 329) and to the severity of infection in a subfertility cohort (n = 482). We also investigated if this A-allele was linked to increase in severity of symptoms, from mild symptoms (lower genital infection) to lower abdominal pain (upper genital tract infection) to the most severe late complication of tubal pathology, including double-sided tubal pathology. We showed that the carriage of HLA-A SNP rs1655900 studied is not associated with the susceptibility to CT infection based on the data from the STD cohort, but might be protective to the development of late complications (p = 0.0349), especially tubal pathology could be relevant. PMID:26656886

  11. Genital sores - male

    MedlinePLUS

    Sores - male genitals; Ulcers - male genitals ... A common cause of male genital sores are infections that are spread through sexual contact, such as: Genital herpes (small, painful blisters filled with clear ...

  12. The DNA sensor, cyclic GMP-AMP synthase, is essential for induction of IFN-? during Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yugen; Yeruva, Laxmi; Marinov, Anthony; Prantner, Daniel; Wyrick, Priscilla B; Lupashin, Vladimir; Nagarajan, Uma M

    2014-09-01

    IFN-? has been implicated as an effector of oviduct pathology resulting from genital chlamydial infection in the mouse model. In this study, we investigated the role of cytosolic DNA and engagement of DNA sensors in IFN-? expression during chlamydial infection. We determined that three-prime repair exonuclease-1, a host 3' to 5' exonuclease, reduced IFN-? expression significantly during chlamydial infection using small interfering RNA and gene knockout fibroblasts, implicating cytosolic DNA as a ligand for this response. The DNA sensor cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) has been shown to bind cytosolic DNA to generate cyclic GMP-AMP, which binds to the signaling adaptor stimulator of IFN genes (STING) to induce IFN-? expression. We determined that cGAS is required for IFN-? expression during chlamydial infection in multiple cell types. Interestingly, although infected cells deficient for STING or cGAS alone failed to induce IFN-?, coculture of cells depleted for either STING or cGAS rescued IFN-? expression. These data demonstrate that cyclic GMP-AMP produced in infected cGAS(+)STING(-) cells can migrate into adjacent cells via gap junctions to function in trans in cGAS(-)STING(+) cells. Furthermore, we observed cGAS localized in punctate regions on the cytosolic side of the chlamydial inclusion membrane in association with STING, indicating that chlamydial DNA is most likely recognized outside the inclusion as infection progresses. These novel findings provide evidence that cGAS-mediated DNA sensing directs IFN-? expression during Chlamydia trachomatis infection and suggest that effectors from infected cells can directly upregulate IFN-? expression in adjacent uninfected cells during in vivo infection, contributing to pathogenesis. PMID:25070851

  13. Human papillomavirus and other genital infections in indigenous women from Paraguay: a cross-sectional analytical study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of cervical cancer in Paraguay is among the highest in the world, with the human papillomavirus (HPV) being a necessary factor for cervical cancer. Knowledge about HPV infection among indigenous women is limited. This cross-sectional study analyzed the frequency of HPV and other genital infections in indigenous Paraguayan women of the Department of Presidente Hayes. Methods This study included 181 sexually active women without cervical lesions. They belonged to the following ethnicities: Mak (n?=?40); Nivacl (n?=?23); Sanapan (n?=?33); Enxet Sur (n?=?51) and Toba-Qom (n?=?34). The detection of HPV and other gynecological infectious microorganisms was performed by either molecular methods (for Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Chlamydia trachomatis), gram staining and/or culture (for Gardnerella vaginalis, Candida sp, Trichomonas vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae), serological methods (for Treponema pallidum, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]) or cytology (cervical inflammation). Results A high prevalence (41.4%) of women positive for at least one sexually transmitted infection (STI) was found (23.2% any-type HPV, 11.6%T pallidum, 10.5%T vaginalis, 9.9% C trachomatis and 0.6% HIV) with 12.2% having more than one STI. HPV infection was the most frequent, with 16.1% of women positive for high-risk HPV types. There was a statistically significant association observed between any-type HPV and C trachomatis (p?=?0.004), which indicates that the detection of one of these agents should suggest the presence of the other. There was no association between any-type HPV and other genital infections or cervical inflammation, suggesting that other mechanism could exist to favor infection with the virus. Conclusion This multidisciplinary work suggests that STIs are frequent, making it necessary to implement control measures and improve diagnosis in order to increase the number of cases detected, especially in populations with poor access to health centers. PMID:24206645

  14. Genital Chlamydia Prevalence in Europe and Non-European High Income Countries: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Redmond, Shelagh M.; Alexander-Kisslig, Karin; Woodhall, Sarah C.; van den Broek, Ingrid V. F.; van Bergen, Jan; Ward, Helen; Uusküla, Anneli; Herrmann, Björn; Andersen, Berit; Götz, Hannelore M.; Sfetcu, Otilia; Low, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Background Accurate information about the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis is needed to assess national prevention and control measures. Methods We systematically reviewed population-based cross-sectional studies that estimated chlamydia prevalence in European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) Member States and non-European high income countries from January 1990 to August 2012. We examined results in forest plots, explored heterogeneity using the I2 statistic, and conducted random effects meta-analysis if appropriate. Meta-regression was used to examine the relationship between study characteristics and chlamydia prevalence estimates. Results We included 25 population-based studies from 11 EU/EEA countries and 14 studies from five other high income countries. Four EU/EEA Member States reported on nationally representative surveys of sexually experienced adults aged 18–26 years (response rates 52–71%). In women, chlamydia point prevalence estimates ranged from 3.0–5.3%; the pooled average of these estimates was 3.6% (95% CI 2.4, 4.8, I2 0%). In men, estimates ranged from 2.4–7.3% (pooled average 3.5%; 95% CI 1.9, 5.2, I2 27%). Estimates in EU/EEA Member States were statistically consistent with those in other high income countries (I2 0% for women, 6% for men). There was statistical evidence of an association between survey response rate and estimated chlamydia prevalence; estimates were higher in surveys with lower response rates, (p = 0.003 in women, 0.018 in men). Conclusions Population-based surveys that estimate chlamydia prevalence are at risk of participation bias owing to low response rates. Estimates obtained in nationally representative samples of the general population of EU/EEA Member States are similar to estimates from other high income countries. PMID:25615574

  15. Orchitis and Epididymitis in Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) Infected With Chlamydia pecorum.

    PubMed

    Johnston, S D; Deif, H H; McKinnon, A; Theilemann, P; Griffith, J E; Higgins, D P

    2015-11-01

    Although Chlamydia causes disease of the urethra and prostate of male koalas, its impact on the testis and epididymis has not been examined. This study describes chronic-active and granulomatous orchitis and epididymitis with interstitial fibrosis associated with infection by Chlamydia pecorum in 2 of 18 adult male koalas being euthanized at a koala hospital, 8 of which also had chlamydial prostatitis. By immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy, chlamydial inclusions were demonstrated within Sertoli cells directly associated with mild inflammation surrounding intact seminiferous and epididymal tubules, marked pyogranulomatous inflammation around disrupted tubules, replacement of tubules by interstitial fibrosis, and aspermia. The presence of C. pecorum but not Chlamydia pneumoniae was detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction of formalin-fixed tissues of the left and right testes and right epididymis in 1 animal. This is the first report of orchitis and epididymitis in a koala infected with C. pecorum. PMID:25637084

  16. Comparison of Sperm Parameters in Patients with Infertility Induced by Genital Infection versus Varicocele

    PubMed Central

    Pajovic, Bogdan; Dimitrovski, Antonio; Radojevic, Nemanja; Vukovic, Marko

    2015-01-01

    Background: Male infertility is a common and complex problem and, despite much research in this field, the major cause of infertility unfortunately remains unknown. Genital infection and varicocele are important causes of infertility. Aims: To compare the influence of genital infection and varicocele individually on male infertility based on semen analysis. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: The study included 120 infertile patients divided into two groups according to the presence of genital infection or varicocele. The first group included 60 examinees with proven genital infection, but without varicocele formation. The second included 60 patients with varicocele, regardless of the varicocele grade, but without genital infection. The fertile parameters were compared and an assessment was performed on the impact on quality of spermatogenesis due to infection and varicocele. Results: There is a statistically significant difference regarding abnormal forms of spermatozoids (45.949.79 vs. 25.276.54) and progressive motility (8.151.24 vs. 24.957.2), between two groups of patients. However, acidity of ejaculates, minimum sperm concentration, total spermatozoid motility and ejaculate volume showed no statistically significant difference. Conclusion: The study showed a stronger negative influence of genital infection on fertile parameters over varicocele. The significance of our study is the lack of contemporary researches comparing varicocele and genital infection influence on male infertility individually. PMID:26185712

  17. [The specifities of the HPV-genital infections in males].

    PubMed

    Skerlev, Mihael; Ljubojevic, Suzana

    2010-08-01

    Anogenital infections caused by Human papillomavirus (HPV) are the most frequently diagnosed sexually transmitted infections of viral origin and up to 150 HPV DNA types have been recognized so far. Anogenital warts (condylomata acuminata) are the most common lesions presented in men, however, during the last decade the other HPV-associated exaggerated lesions such as condylomata plana, penile, scrotal, and anal intraepithelial neoplasias, as well as the penile, urine bladder and prostate cancer have been studied somewhat more extensively. The clinical variations might range from clinically invisible, asymptomatic lesions to the bizarre forms of giant condyloma of Buschke-Lwenstein type, including Bowenoid papulosis, Mb. Bowen, different kinds of eryhtroplasia both in men and women and a large spectrum of HPV-induced dermatovenereological entities in genital region including high-grade intraepithelial genital neoplasias, such as penile, anal, scrotal, vulvar, vaginal etc. (thus not only cervical), and, last but not least - the anogenital warts. A prophylactic vaccine that targets these types should thus substantially reduce the burden of HPV-associated clinical diseases. Ultimately, within the spectrum of therapeutic options for condylomata, no method is really superior to others; recurrences occurred in 30-70% of cases. We definitely need the HPV vaccination programme to eliminate one of the oldest and up to now unsolved problems of the mankind. Since HPV is transmitted by sexual intercourse, treatment of both partners is necessary in order to eliminate the virus from the population. Approaches to this include prophylactic vaccines such as quadrivalent HPV vaccine for both men and women. PMID:21258302

  18. Host-pathogen interactions in specific pathogen-free chickens following aerogenous infection with Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia abortus.

    PubMed

    Kalmar, Isabelle; Berndt, Angela; Yin, Lizi; Chiers, Koen; Sachse, Konrad; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2015-03-15

    Although Chlamydia (C.) psittaci infections are recognized as an important factor causing economic losses and impairing animal welfare in poultry production, the specific mechanisms leading to severe clinical outcomes are poorly understood. In the present study, we comparatively investigated pathology and host immune response, as well as systemic dissemination and expression of essential chlamydial genes in the course of experimental aerogeneous infection with C. psittaci and the closely related C. abortus, respectively, in specific pathogen-free chicks. Clinical signs appeared sooner and were more severe in the C. psittaci-infected group. Compared to C. abortus infection, more intense systemic dissemination of C. psittaci correlated with higher and faster infiltration of immune cells, as well as more macroscopic lesions and epithelial pathology, such as hyperplasia and erosion. In thoracic air sac tissue, mRNA expression of immunologically relevant factors, such as IFN-?, IL-1?, IL-6, IL-17, IL-22, LITAF and iNOS was significantly stronger up-regulated in C. psittaci- than in C. abortus-infected birds between 3 and 14 days post-infection. Likewise, transcription rates of the chlamydial genes groEL, cpaf and ftsW were consistently higher in C. psittaci during the acute phase. These findings illustrate that the stronger replication of C. psittaci in its natural host also evoked a more intense immune response than in the case of C. abortus infection. PMID:25638671

  19. Cervical Infection with Herpes simplex Virus, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae among Symptomatic Women, Dubai, UAE: A Molecular Approach

    PubMed Central

    Behzadi, Mohammad Amin; Azizi, Saeed; Payombarnia, Hamid; Vahdani, Ali; Namayandeh, Mandana; Ziyaeyan, Mazyar

    2014-01-01

    Tragically, genital tract infections are still a major public health problem in many regions. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of cervical infection with Herpes simplex virus (HSV), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) among married women referring to Iranian Hospital, Dubai, UAE. In a retrospective cross-sectional survey, 201 female patients aged 1680 years who referred to the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Iranian Hospital, Dubai, UAE, in 2010 were enrolled. The patients were categorized into three age groups: 1530 (group I), 3140 (group II), and ?41 years old (group III). A cervical swab sample was collected from each woman and the prevalence of cervical infection with HSV, CT, and NG was determined by PCR method. HSV, CT, and NG were detected in 6.5%, 10.4%, and 5.5% of swab samples, respectively. Regarding age, a significant difference was noticed for prevalence of NG and HSV between groups I and III. Because of public health importance of sexual transmitted diseases (STDs), their long-lasting impact on quality of life, and their economic burden, preventing measures and education of women seem necessary. PMID:24982675

  20. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Chlamydia infection in dogs in Southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yi-Ming; Cao, Jing-Feng; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zou, Feng-Cai; Miao, Qiang; Liu, Zi-Li; Li, Bi-Feng; Lv, Rui-Qing; Du, Xiao-Peng; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-02-01

    Chlamydia spp. are obligate intracellular bacteria distributed globally, known to cause various forms of diseases in animals and humans. To date, there is limited information about the seroprevalence of Chlamydia and the risk factors associated with Chlamydia infection in dogs in the world. In the present study, a serological survey was undertaken to examine the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with dog chlamydiosis in Yunnan Province, southwestern China. A total of 591 dogs were sampled, antibodies to Chlamydia were determined by indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 17.6%. The risk factors associated with seroprevalence were determined by a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Gender and age of dogs were not significant in the logistic regression analysis (P>0.05) and left out of the final model. Type and geographical origin of dogs were considered as main risk factors associated with Chlamydia infection, stray dogs (31.37%) were more than 16 times (OR=16.167, 95% CI=6.283-41.599, P<0.01) at risk of acquiring the infection compared to the police dogs (7.62%), while pet dogs (14.41%) had a 3 times (OR=2.968, 95% CI=1.349-6.529, P=0.007) higher risk. Positive dogs were found in 5 districts of Yunnan Province with prevalence ranging from 2.56% to 31.67% except Diqing (0/56). Dogs in Kunming (20.21%) had a 9 times higher risk of being seropositive compared to dogs in Lijiang (2.56%) (OR=9.057, 95% CI=1.211-67.714, P=0.032), although no regional differences were found in other 4 administrative divisions compared to Lijiang (P>0.05). Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of Chlamydia infection in dogs in Yunnan Province, southwestern China, with higher exposure risk in stray dogs and distinct geographical distribution. These findings suggest the potential importance of dogs in the transmission of zoonotic Chlamydia infection, and thus Chlamydia should be taken into consideration in diagnosing dog diseases. PMID:24141059

  1. Genital infections and syndromic diagnosis among HIV-infected women in HIV care programs in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Djomand, Gaston; Gao, Hongjiang; Singa, Benson; Hornston, Sureyya; Bennett, Eddas; Odek, James; McClelland, R. Scott; John-Stewart, Grace; Bock, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Background Control of genital infections remains challenging in most regions. Despite advocacy by the World Health Organization (WHO) for syndromic case management, there are limited data on the syndromic approach, especially in HIV care settings. This study compared the syndromic approach against laboratory diagnosis among women in HIV care in Kenya. Methods A mobile team visited 39 large HIV care programs in Kenya and enrolled participants using population-proportionate sampling. Participants provided behavioral and clinical data with genital and blood specimens for lab testing. Results Among 1,063 women, 68.4% had been on antiretroviral therapy >1 year; 58.9% were using cotrimoxazole prophylaxis; 51 % had CD4+T-lymphocytes < 350 cells/mL. Most women (63.1%) reported at least one genital symptom. Clinical signs were found in 63% of women; and 30.8% had an etiological diagnosis. Bacterial vaginosis (17.4%), vaginal candidiasis (10.6%) and trichomoniasis (10.5%) were the most common diagnoses. Using laboratory diagnoses as gold standard, sensitivity and positive predictive value of the syndromic diagnosis for vaginal discharge were 47.6% and 52.7%, respectively, indicating a substantial amount of overtreatment. A systematic physical examination increased by 9.3% the positive predictive value for genital ulcer disease. Conclusions Women attending HIV care programs in Kenya have high rates of vaginal infections. Syndromic diagnosis was a poor predictor of those infections. PMID:25614522

  2. Genital infections and syndromic diagnosis among HIV-infected women in HIV care programmes in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Djomand, Gaston; Gao, Hongjiang; Singa, Benson; Hornston, Sureyya; Bennett, Eddas; Odek, James; McClelland, R Scott; John-Stewart, Grace; Bock, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    Control of genital infections remains challenging in most regions. Despite advocacy by the World Health Organization for syndromic case management, there are limited data on the syndromic approach, especially in HIV care settings. This study compared the syndromic approach with laboratory diagnosis among women in HIV care in Kenya. A mobile team visited 39 large HIV care programmes in Kenya and enrolled participants using population-proportionate sampling. Participants provided behavioural and clinical data with genital and blood specimens for lab testing. Among 1063 women, 68.4% had been on antiretroviral therapy >1 year; 58.9% were using cotrimoxazole prophylaxis; 51 % had CD4+T-lymphocytes?genital symptom. Clinical signs were found in 63% of women; and 30.8% had an aetiological diagnosis. Bacterial vaginosis (17.4%), vaginal candidiasis (10.6%) and trichomoniasis (10.5%) were the most common diagnoses. Using laboratory diagnoses as gold standard, sensitivity and positive predictive value of the syndromic diagnosis for vaginal discharge were 47.6% and 52.7%, respectively, indicating a substantial amount of overtreatment. A systematic physical examination increased by 9.3% the positive predictive value for genital ulcer disease. Women attending HIV care programmes in Kenya have high rates of vaginal infections. Syndromic diagnosis was a poor predictor of those infections. PMID:25614522

  3. Risk Factors for "Chlamydia Trachomatis" Infection in a California Collegiate Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipkin, Diane L.; Gillam, Alix; Grady, Laurie Bisset

    2003-01-01

    "Chlamydia trachomatis" infection in college students has not undergone a detailed large-scale evaluation. The authors undertook a cross-sectional study of 4,086 students enrolled on the campuses of California State University, Sacramento, and 3 local community colleges from fall 2000 through spring 2002. They used an outreach screening model to

  4. Should screening of genital infections be part of antenatal care in areas of high HIV prevalence? A prospective cohort study from Kigali, Rwanda, 1992-1993. The Pregnancy and HIV (EGE) Group.

    PubMed Central

    Leroy, V; De Clercq, A; Ladner, J; Bogaerts, J; Van de Perre, P; Dabis, F

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To study the prevalence and incidence of genital infections and their association with HIV-1 infection among pregnant women in Kigali, Rwanda. SUBJECTS AND METHODS--HIV+ and HIV- pregnant women were followed prospectively during the last three months of pregnancy. At enrolment, syphilis test (RPR) on blood sample, Chlamydiae trachomatis ELISA test on cervical smear, laboratory gonococcal culture, trichomonas and candida direct examination, CD4 lymphocyte count were performed. At each monthly follow-up clinic visit until delivery, genital infections were screened in the presence of clinical signs and symptoms. RESULTS--The HIV seroprevalence rate was 34.4% (N = 1233), 384 HIV+ women and 381 HIV- women of same parity and age were enrolled. Prevalence of genital infections at enrolment was generally higher in HIV+ women than in HIV- women: syphilis, 6.3% versus 3.7% (p = 0.13); Neisseria gonorrhoea, 7.0% versus 2.4% (p = 0.005); Trichomonas vaginalis, 20.2% versus 10.9% (p = 0.0007); Chlamydia trachomatis, 3.4% versus 5.5% (p = 0.21); Candida vaginalis, 22.3% versus 20.1% (p = 0.49). Until delivery, the relative risk of acquiring genital infections was also higher in HIV+ women than in HIV- women: 1.0 for syphilis (95% CI: 0.5-2.2), 3.7 for Neisseria gonorrhoea (1.0-13.3), 2.6 for Trichomonas vaginalis (1.5-4.6) and 1.6 for Candida vaginalis (1.1-2.4). CONCLUSION--In the context of high HIV-1 seroprevalence among pregnant women, prenatal care should include at least once screening for genital infections by clinical examination with speculum and a syphilis testing in Africa. PMID:7590709

  5. Immune dot blot technique for diagnosing infection with Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed Central

    Storey, C C; Mearns, G; Richmond, S J

    1987-01-01

    An immune dot blot test (IDBT) to detect the genus specific lipopolysaccharide chlamydial antigen is described, in which the antigen is trapped on nitrocellulose membrane and then detected with a monoclonal antibody labelled with 125iodine. A preliminary comparison of 270 specimens obtained from the endocervix or male urethra showed that the IDBT was more sensitive (sensitivity 90%) than a commercial amplified enzyme immunoassay named IDEIA (sensitivity (60%) for detecting specimens that yielded Chlamydia trachomatis on culture. Subsequent assessment of 950 urogenital tract specimens in the IDBT and by culture confirmed the sensitivity (92%) and specificity (95%) of the IDBT. At least one of 56 specimens obtained from the eye, however, gave a false positive result, which was probably due to staphylococcal protein A in the specimen. The IDBT provides the basis for a novel simple test for detecting the genus Chlamydia. Images PMID:3428894

  6. NOD1 in contrast to NOD2 functional polymorphism influence Chlamydia trachomatis infection and the risk of tubal factor infertility.

    PubMed

    Brankovi?, Ivan; van Ess, Eleanne F; Noz, Marlies P; Wiericx, Wilhelmina Anke J; Spaargaren, Joke; Morr, Servaas A; Ouburg, Sander

    2015-02-01

    Intracellular pattern-recognition receptors NOD1 and NOD2 are capable of sensing common structural units of bacterial walls. Recognition triggers specific immune signalling pathways and leads to pro-inflammatory cytokine upregulation and adequate immune response. We investigated whether two functional polymorphisms in NOD1 and NOD2 exert an effect on susceptibility to (STD patients) and severity of (female patients visiting the fertility clinic) Chlamydia trachomatis infection in 807 Dutch Caucasian women. A significant association of the NOD1 +32656 GG insertion variant with protection against infection with C. trachomatis has been detected [p: 0.0057; OR: 0.52]. When comparing C. trachomatis-positive women without symptoms to C. trachomatis-positive women with symptoms, and to C. trachomatis-positive women with TFI, we observed an increasing trend in carriage of the GG allele [Ptrend: 0.0003]. NOD2 1007fs failed to reveal an association. We hypothesize that the underlying mechanism might be a functional effect of the GG insertion on IFN-beta-dependent regulation of immune response in the genital tract. The research is part of an ongoing effort of identifying key polymorphisms that determine the risk of TFI and effectively translating them into the clinical setting for the purpose of optimizing diagnostic management of women at risk for developing TFI. PMID:25854006

  7. NOD1 in contrast to NOD2 functional polymorphism influence Chlamydia trachomatis infection and the risk of tubal factor infertility

    PubMed Central

    Brankovi?, Ivan; van Ess, Eleanne F.; Noz, Marlies P.; Wiericx, Wilhelmina (Anke) J.; Spaargaren, Joke; Morr, Servaas A.; Ouburg, Sander

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular pattern-recognition receptors NOD1 and NOD2 are capable of sensing common structural units of bacterial walls. Recognition triggers specific immune signalling pathways and leads to pro-inflammatory cytokine upregulation and adequate immune response. We investigated whether two functional polymorphisms in NOD1 and NOD2 exert an effect on susceptibility to (STD patients) and severity of (female patients visiting the fertility clinic) Chlamydia trachomatis infection in 807 Dutch Caucasian women. A significant association of the NOD1 +32656 GG insertion variant with protection against infection with C. trachomatis has been detected [p: 0.0057; OR: 0.52]. When comparing C. trachomatis-positive women without symptoms to C. trachomatis-positive women with symptoms, and to C. trachomatis-positive women with TFI, we observed an increasing trend in carriage of the GG allele [Ptrend: 0.0003]. NOD2 1007fs failed to reveal an association. We hypothesize that the underlying mechanism might be a functional effect of the GG insertion on IFN-beta-dependent regulation of immune response in the genital tract. The research is part of an ongoing effort of identifying key polymorphisms that determine the risk of TFI and effectively translating them into the clinical setting for the purpose of optimizing diagnostic management of women at risk for developing TFI. PMID:25854006

  8. Sexually transmitted infections, pregnancy, and breastfeeding

    MedlinePLUS

    ... possible. Related information Breastfeeding Chlamydia fact sheet Genital herpes fact sheet Genital warts fact sheet Gonorrhea fact ... or STDs. STIs include chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, genital herpes, genital warts, HIV, and syphilis. Some STIs can ...

  9. STING-Dependent Recognition of Cyclic di-AMP Mediates Type I Interferon Responses during Chlamydia trachomatis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Jeffrey R.; Koestler, Benjamin J.; Carpenter, Victoria K.; Burdette, Dara L.; Waters, Christopher M.; Vance, Russell E.; Valdivia, Raphael H.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT STING (stimulator of interferon [IFN] genes) initiates type I IFN responses in mammalian cells through the detection of microbial nucleic acids. The membrane-bound obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis induces a STING-dependent type I IFN response in infected cells, yet the IFN-inducing ligand remains unknown. In this report, we provide evidence that Chlamydia synthesizes cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP), a nucleic acid metabolite not previously identified in Gram-negative bacteria, and that this metabolite is a prominent ligand for STING-mediated activation of IFN responses during infection. We used primary mouse lung fibroblasts and HEK293T cells to compare IFN-β responses to Chlamydia infection, c-di-AMP, and other type I IFN-inducing stimuli. Chlamydia infection and c-di-AMP treatment induced type I IFN responses in cells expressing STING but not in cells expressing STING variants that cannot sense cyclic dinucleotides but still respond to cytoplasmic DNA. The failure to induce a type I IFN response to Chlamydia and c-di-AMP correlated with the inability of STING to relocalize from the endoplasmic reticulum to cytoplasmic punctate signaling complexes required for IFN activation. We conclude that Chlamydia induces STING-mediated IFN responses through the detection of c-di-AMP in the host cell cytosol and propose that c-di-AMP is the ligand predominantly responsible for inducing such a response in Chlamydia-infected cells. PMID:23631912

  10. Chlamydia-infected cells shed Gp96 to prevent chlamydial re-infection.

    PubMed

    Karunakaran, Karthika; Subbarayal, Prema; Vollmuth, Nadine; Rudel, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular human pathogen with a biphasic developmental life cycle. The infectious elementary bodies (EBs) enter a host cell where they transform into reticulate bodies (RBs) that use cellular metabolites to multiply. Re-infection of an infected cell during the replicative phase of chlamydial development may prevent formation of infectious EBs, interrupting the infectious cycle. Here, we report that Glucose Regulated Protein 96 (Gp96), a chaperone for cell surface receptors, binds to and facilitates adherence and entry of C.?trachomatis. Gp96 expression was increased early in infection in a MAP kinase-dependent way, thereby increasing chlamydial adherence and invasion. Gp96 co-precipitated with Protein Disulphide Isomerase (PDI), known to be involved in chlamydial host cell entry. During the replicative phase, Gp96 was depleted from infected cells and shed into the supernatant by activation of metalloproteinase TACE (ADAM17). Loss of Gp96 also reduced the activity of PDI on the cell surface. Reduced surface display of Gp96 prevented chlamydial re-infection in a TACE-dependent manner in cell lines but also in primary cells derived from human fimbriae, the natural site of chlamydial infection. Our data suggest a role of infection-induced Gp96 shedding in the protection of the chlamydial replicative niche. PMID:26235316

  11. Serological and nested PCR survey to determine the occurrence of Chlamydia infections in the Polish cattle population.

    PubMed

    Szyma?ska-Czerwi?ska, Monika; Niemczuk, Krzysztof; Gali?ska, El?bieta Monika

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia spp. is an obligate intracellular agent that causes chlamydiosis in animals and humans. The aim of the presented study was to investigate the prevalence of Chlamydia infection in the Polish cattle population, both asymptomatic and having reproductive disorders. The study was performed on 4,475 serum samples collected from 16 Polish provinces at the turn of 2009-2011. The samples (3,419 from asymptomatic cattle and 1,056 from cattle with reproductive disorders) were tested by complement fixation test (CFT). Moreover, 160 and 201 samples of biological materials from both groups of cattle, respectively, were tested by nested PCR. The results obtained for two tested groups were compared by ?2 (ch-squared) test, both individually for each region (province), and generally for the whole country. The CFT results showed that the seroprevalence of Chlamydia spp. infections in the asymptomatic cattle population was 4.15%, while in the cattle with reproductive disorders--7.20%. There was a significant statistical difference between compared groups for whole country, but there were no significant differences for individual provinces. The results of PCR showed that Chlamydia spp. was present in both asymptomatic cattle and cattle having reproductive disorders. The nested PCR study confirmed the presence of Chlamydia abortus and Chlamydia suis in the tested samples. The presented study indicates that infections with Chlamydia spp. are present among Polish cattle, but the percentage of infected animals is not high. PMID:24364434

  12. Applications and Therapeutic Actions of Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Women with Genital Infection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chenfang; Zhang, Yuehui; Yu, Yang; Han, Fengjuan

    2014-01-01

    Genital infection is a common worldwide disease among females with clinical features such as bilateral lower abdominal tenderness, abnormal vaginal or cervical discharge, fever, abnormal vaginal bleeding, dyspareunia, vaginal itching, and adnexal tenderness, which can significantly impair women's health and quality of life. Genital infection is commonly treated with antibiotics, leading to an imbalance in gut flora due to prolonged use of antibiotics. Therefore, it is necessary to discover safe and efficacious alternative treatment strategies for patients with genital infection. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is becoming increasingly prevalent among women with genital infection. CAM has interested the western mainstream medical community because of its less invasive, safe, effective, economical, and convenient therapies. CAM focuses on the prevention and treatment of disease and has become an important force in treating chronic disease. During the last few decades, the popularity of CAM has gradually increased. To further understand the efficacy of CAM in treating genital infection, our paper will review the current progress of treating genital infection including vulvitis, vaginitis, cervicitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) with CAM therapies. Several CAM strategies including traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), acupuncture, Psychology interference, and physical therapy are introduced in this review. PMID:24648850

  13. Targeted interventions required against genital ulcers in African countries worst affected by HIV infection.

    PubMed Central

    O'Farrell, N.

    2001-01-01

    It remains unclear why there is such marked variation in the severity of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic between African countries. The prevalence of HIV infection has reached high levels in many parts of southern Africa but in most countries of West Africa the levels are much lower. Although there is good evidence that sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and genital ulcers in particular facilitate heterosexual transmission of HIV, there is little comparative STI data from the African countries worst affected by HIV infection. A MEDLINE search covering the period 1966 to August 2000 using the keywords "sexually transmitted diseases", "genital ulcers" and "Africa" was performed to identify factors that might be relevant to the spread of HIV infection in countries with the highest prevalences of the virus. In the countries worst affected by HIV infection, the proportions of men and women with STI who had genital ulcers lay in the ranges 45-68% and 13-68%, respectively. The proportions were much lower in countries of West Africa than in those of southern Africa. The African countries worst affected by HIV infection should adopt a more specialized approach to STI control than hitherto and specifically target the high incidence of genital ulceration. Locally, technical STI committees should draw up country-specific guidelines taking into account the prevalence of the various causes of genital ulceration. In these countries, national AIDS control programmes and donor agencies should develop a specific focus for decreasing the incidence of genital ulcer disease. PMID:11436480

  14. Chlamydia trachomatis in pelvic inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Shrikhande, S N; Joshi, S G; Zodpey, S P; Saoji, A M

    1995-04-01

    The prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection and some epidemiologic factors associated with it were studied in 273 pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) patients attending Gynaecologic clinic, Government Medical College, Nagpur. For detection of chlamydial antigen Pharmacia Diagnostics Chlamydia EIA test was used. This study revealed an overall positivity rate of 33% for C. trachomatis infection in PID patients. Of the hypothesised risk factors low socioeconomic status, history of sexual contacts with multiple partners and use of intrauterine devices (IUD) were significantly associated with C. trachomatis infections. However, use of oral contraceptives, barrier contraceptives and increasing age were found to be protective factors for C. trachomatis infection. Thus considering the significant contribution of C. trachomatis in etiology of PID and its independent association with some epidemiologic risk factors, extensive epidemiologic measures are recommended for prevention of these infections. PMID:8919106

  15. Lactobacillus crispatus mediates anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 induction in response to Chlamydia trachomatis infection in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Antonietta; Fiorentino, Margherita; Buommino, Elisabetta; Donnarumma, Giovanna; Losacco, Antonio; Bevilacqua, Nazario

    2015-12-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis, a human pathogen, is a Gram-negative bacillus and a compulsory intracellular parasite. It is the most common cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infections in both industrialized and developing countries. In women, untreated genital infections can result in devastating consequences such as pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and even infertility. Lactobacillus crispatus is an important urogenital species that is routinely found in the vagina of healthy women. Lactobacilli are involved in the maintenance of the normal vaginal microbiota and their dominance in the vagina suggests that they play a crucial role in protecting the genitourinary tract against pathological conditions. Lactobacilli can act through the activation of the immune system, but C. trachomatis is able to effectively evade immune surveillance in some individuals. The aim of our study was to investigate the immunomodulatory efficacy of the potential probiotic strain L. crispatus in HeLa and J774 cells subjected to C. trachomatis infection by studying the expression of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8, TNF-? and IL-10. Our results demonstrated, firstly, the lack of any cytotoxic effect on the epithelial cells and macrophages when treated with L. crispatus and its supernatant; in addition, L. crispatus and its supernatant inhibited C. trachomatis adhesion and infectivity in human epithelial cells and macrophages. Our study then showed that L. crispatus and its supernatant reduced IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-? production in C. trachomatis-infected HeLa and J774 cells. In contrast, a significant upregulation of the IL-10 expression in HeLa and J774 cells by L. crispatus and supernatant was also demonstrated. Our data indicate that L. crispatus specifically enhances the production of the IL-10 anti-inflammatory cytokine in contrast to the inhibitory effect of L. crispatus on the pro-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:26372530

  16. Induction and inhibition of CPAF activity during analysis of Chlamydia-infected cells.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kirsten A; Lee, Jennifer K; Chen, Allan L; Tan, Ming; Stterlin, Christine

    2015-02-01

    Studies of the chlamydial protease CPAF have been complicated by difficulties in distinguishing bona fide intracellular proteolysis from in vitro proteolysis. This confounding issue has been attributed to CPAF activity in lysates from Chlamydia-infected cells. We compared three methods that have been used to inhibit in vitro CPAF-mediated proteolysis: (1) pre-treatment of infected cells with the inhibitor clasto-lactacystin, (2) direct cell lysis in 8 M urea and (3) direct lysis in hot 1% SDS buffer. We identified a number of experimental conditions that reduce the effectiveness of each method in preventing CPAF activity during lysate preparation. The amount of in vitro proteolysis in a lysate was variable and depended on factors such as the specific substrate and the time in the intracellular infection. Additionally, we demonstrated for the first time that artifactual CPAF activity is induced before cell lysis by standard cell detachment methods, including trypsinization. Protein analysis of Chlamydia-infected cells therefore requires precautions to inhibit CPAF activity during both cell detachment and lysate preparation, followed by verification that the cell lysates do not contain residual CPAF activity. These concerns about artifactual proteolysis extend beyond studies of CPAF function because they have the potential to affect the analyses of host and chlamydial proteins from Chlamydia-infected cells. PMID:25663342

  17. Prevalence and Determinants of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Infection in Male Genital Warts

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Jin; Seo, Juhyung; Ha, Seong-Heon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the prevalence and type distribution of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in genital warts of Korean men, and for the first time, to describe the risk factors associated with high-risk HPV infection in male genital warts. Materials and Methods In a single private clinic, 150 consecutive male patients with histopathologic-confirmed genital warts who underwent HPV genotyping by use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were included in this study. We detected HPV DNA in male genital warts and evaluated HPV type distribution, especially high-risk HPV types, by use of PCR. The associations between HPV prevalence and various characteristics, such as age, circumcision status, type of genital warts diagnosis (new vs. recurrent), number of lesions, site of lesions, and gross morphology, were assessed by use of unconditional multiple logistic regression. Results High-risk HPV types were detected in 31 cases (23.5%), and of these, 27 cases (20.5%) contained both high-risk and low-risk HPV types. The most frequently detected high-risk HPV types were HPV16 (6.8%), HPV33 (4.5%), HPV18 (2.3%), and HPV68 (2.3%). In particular, the prevalence of infection with HPV16 and/or HPV18 was 8.3% (11 of 132). In the multivariate analysis, lesions located at sites including the base of the penis or the pubic area, papular or mixed genital warts, and lack of circumcision significantly increased the association with high-risk HPV infection in male genital warts. Conclusions The prevalence of high-risk HPV infection was substantial in male genital warts. The site and morphology of lesions and circumcision status were significantly associated with the prevalence of high-risk HPV infection. PMID:24648877

  18. Characterisation of Chlamydia pneumoniae and other novel chlamydial infections in captive snakes.

    PubMed

    Taylor-Brown, Alyce; Regg, Simon; Polkinghorne, Adam; Borel, Nicole

    2015-07-01

    Chlamydiosis has been described in both free-ranging and captive reptiles. The infection usually manifests as granulomatous inflammation in inner organs such as spleen, heart, lung and liver but might also occur in asymptomatic reptiles. The aim of this study was to investigate and characterise Chlamydia pneumoniae and potential other novel chlamydial infections in the choana and cloaca samples of 137 clinically healthy captive snakes from six private collections. Forty eight samples from 29 animals were found to be positive by a Chlamydiaceae family-specific qPCR. By Chlamydia species-specific ArrayTube Microarray, 43 samples were positive, with 36 of these being identified as C. pneumoniae. The prevalence of Chlamydia ranged from 5 to 33%. PCR and sequencing of the Chlamydiales 16S rRNA signature sequence of 21 Chlamydia positive samples revealed the presence of seven novel 16S rRNA genotypes. BLAST-n and phylogenetic analysis of the near-full length 16S rRNA gene sequence of each of these novel 16S rRNA sequences revealed that five genotypes share closest sequence identity to 16S rRNA sequences from C. pneumoniae (98.6-99.2%), suggesting that these sequences are novel C. pneumoniae strains. One genotype is 96.9% similar to C. pneumoniae strains suggesting it may originate from a yet undescribed chlamydial species within the genus Chlamydia. This study further highlights the broad host range for C. pneumoniae and suggests that reptiles may still contain a significant and largely uncharacterised level of chlamydial genetic diversity that requires further investigation. PMID:25944652

  19. Identification of Chlamydiae and Mycoplasma species in ruminants with ocular infections.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S; Chahota, R; Bhardwaj, B; Malik, P; Verma, S; Sharma, M

    2015-02-01

    Infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) is a highly contagious ocular inflammatory condition, which is often reported in domestic small and large ruminants. Multiple infectious aetiologies are reported to be involved, but information about the role of certain fastidious bacterial pathogens such as chlamydiae and mycoplasmas is limited in India. Hence, this study was performed to determine the role of these pathogens and their identification by molecular approach. A total of 53 samples from 31 ovine, 14 caprine and eight bovine having clinical symptoms were collected and tested using species-specific PCR tests for chlamydiae and mycoplasmas followed by nucleotide sequence analysis. The results showed 77.41, 14.29 and 25% samples were chlamydiae positive in ovine, caprine and bovine, respectively, whereas 41.93, 14.29 and 37.5% prevalence of mycoplasma infection was detected in ovine, caprine and bovines, respectively. Chlamydophila abortus, Chlamydophila psittaci, Mycoplasma arginini and Mycoplasma hyorhinis were detected from tested samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time these species are identified in IKC cases from India. Coinfection of both chlamydial and mycoplasmal species was detected in eight IKC cases of ovine which suggest synergistic roles played by both chlamydiae and mycoplasma in IKC samples. PMID:25421836

  20. Transcriptional regulation of the Chlamydia heat shock stress response in an intracellular infection.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Brett R; Tan, Ming

    2015-09-01

    Bacteria encode heat shock proteins that aid in survival during stressful growth conditions. In addition, the major heat shock proteins of the intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis have been associated with immune pathology and disease. We developed a ChIP-qPCR method to study the regulation of chlamydial heat shock gene regulation during an intracellular infection. This approach allowed us to show that chlamydial heat shock genes are regulated by the transcription factor HrcA within an infected cell, providing validation for previous in vitro findings. Induction of chlamydial heat shock gene expression by elevated temperature was due to loss of HrcA binding to heat shock promoters, supporting a mechanism of derepression. This heat shock response was rapid, whereas recovery of HrcA binding and return to non-stress transcript levels occurred more slowly. We also found that control of heat shock gene expression was differentially regulated over the course of the intracellular Chlamydia infection. There was evidence of HrcA-mediated regulation of heat shock genes throughout the chlamydial developmental cycle, but the level of repression was lower at early times. This is the first study of Chlamydia-infected cells showing the effect of an environmental signal on transcription factor-DNA binding and target gene expression in the bacterium. PMID:26075961

  1. [Genitourethral infections caused by D-K serotypes of Chlamydia trachomatis].

    PubMed

    Holló, Péter; Jókai, Hajnalka; Herszényi, Krisztina; Kárpáti, Sarolta

    2015-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections of the urogenital tract are most commonly caused by the intracellular bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis worldwide, resulting the clinical picture of acute urethritis in men as well as urethritis and endocervicitis in women. As women often present with few symptoms only or a completely symptom-free disease course, one of the most important long-term complications is chronic pelvic inflammatory disease often followed by the development of infertility caused by chronic scar formation. Well-organized screening programs are considered to have a leading role in the prevention of disease spreading and long lasting unwanted complications. Antibiotic treatment options are often influenced by special circumstances, such as pregnancy and several complicated clinical forms. The aims of the authors are to give a concise review on the current knowledge regarding Chlamydia trachomatis infections and summarize typical clinical signs, modern diagnostic techniques as well as accepted treatment protocols and basic aspects of screening. PMID:25544050

  2. Acute Glomerulonephritis in a Child with Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Falsaperla, Raffaele; Giunta, Leandra; Spataro, Giuseppina; Rapisarda, Venerando; Velardita, Mario; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Pavone, Piero

    2013-01-01

    Background. Infectious diseases seem to be an important and independent risk factor for renal failure, but the underlying mechanism of renal involvement during some kinds of infectious diseases is still unclear, even if the literature data report immunomediated and/or autoimmune mechanisms to explain the pathogenic relationship between the two diseases. In paediatric patients, Chlamydia pneumoniae is a rare cause of renal complications and it may manifest in several ways, mainly involving the respiratory system, even if also renal and glomerulalr complications, have been described. Case Diagnosis/Treatment. Herein we report a case of a 3-year-old child who developed an acute glomerulonephritis that was chronologically, clinically, and biologically related to a previous Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. On our knowledge, in the literature it is the youngest patient with renal involvement during course of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection ever reported. Conclusions. The present case supports the hypothesis of a rather close causal relationship between this infective agent and renal and glomerular symptoms occurred in this child, during an acute episode of respiratory disease. PMID:23970901

  3. Asymptomatic Endemic Chlamydia pecorum Infections Reduce Growth Rates in Calves by up to 48 Percent

    PubMed Central

    Poudel, Anil; Elsasser, Theodore H.; Rahman, Kh. Shamsur; Chowdhury, Erfan U.; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Intracellular Chlamydia (C.) bacteria cause in cattle some acute but rare diseases such as abortion, sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis, kerato-conjunctivitis, pneumonia, enteritis and polyarthritis. More frequent, essentially ubiquitous worldwide, are low-level, asymptomatic chlamydial infections in cattle. We investigated the impact of these naturally acquired infections in a cohort of 51 female Holstein and Jersey calves from birth to 15 weeks of age. In biweekly sampling, we measured blood/plasma markers of health and infection and analyzed their association with clinical appearance and growth in dependence of chlamydial infection intensity as determined by mucosal chlamydial burden or contemporaneous anti-chlamydial plasma IgM. Chlamydia 23S rRNA gene PCR and ompA genotyping identified only C. pecorum (strains 1710S, Maeda, and novel strain Smith3v8) in conjunctival and vaginal swabs. All calves acquired the infection but remained clinically asymptomatic. High chlamydial infection associated with reduction of body weight gains by up to 48% and increased conjunctival reddening (P<10−4). Simultaneously decreased plasma albumin and increased globulin (P<10−4) suggested liver injury by inflammatory mediators as mechanisms for the growth inhibition. This was confirmed by the reduction of plasma insulin like growth factor-1 at high chlamydial infection intensity (P<10−4). High anti-C. pecorum IgM associated eight weeks later with 66% increased growth (P = 0.027), indicating a potential for immune protection from C. pecorum-mediated growth depression. The worldwide prevalence of chlamydiae in livestock and their high susceptibility to common feed-additive antibiotics suggests the possibility that suppression of chlamydial infections may be a major contributor to the growth promoting effect of feed-additive antibiotics. PMID:23024776

  4. Effect of methylamine and monodansylcadaverine on the susceptibility of McCoy cells to Chlamydia trachomatis infection.

    PubMed Central

    Sderlund, G; Kihlstrm, E

    1983-01-01

    We used inhibitors of receptor-mediated endocytosis to study the mechanisms of infectivity, especially the uptake mechanism, of Chlamydia trachomatis for cultured cells. The effect of methylamine and monodansylcadaverine on the different stages of the chlamydial growth cycle in McCoy cells was examined. There was a dose-related decrease in the number of chlamydial inclusions in the presence of these agents. Monodansylcadaverine also decreased the chlamydia-dependent uptake of radioactive amino acids. The agents did not affect the attachment of chlamydiae to the cells, but they increased the protease-removable fraction of cell-bound chlamydiae. The amines reduced the number of inclusions when added at different times during the first 24 h of infection. However, this effect was influenced by host cell density, so that the effect of the amines at the early infectious phase was nullified in confluent monolayers, whereas, during later phases, the effect was comparatively independent of host cell density. This indicates that the amines have different modes of action at different infectious stages. The effect of the amines was reversible, and they had no effect on the infectivity of pretreated chlamydial elementary bodies. These experiments suggest that methylamine and monodansylcadaverine inhibit both the internalization of chlamydiae into McCoy cells and their intracellular development. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that chlamydiae utilize a constitutive cellular process, such as receptor-mediated endocytosis, to enter cells. PMID:6840850

  5. Proceedings From the First Asia-Oceania Research Organisation on Genital Infections and Neoplasia (AOGIN) Meeting

    PubMed Central

    Faro, Edited by Sebastian

    2006-01-01

    The First Asia-Oceania Research Organisation on Genital Infections and Neoplasia (AOGIN) Meeting was held in Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia, in July 2005. The conference covered regional issues relating to infection with the human papillomavirus—epidemiology, virology, and immunology, testing, screening, and prevention strategies—as well as cervical cancer screening and its management.

  6. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia spp. Infection in Community-Acquired Pneumonia, Germany, 20112012

    PubMed Central

    Dumke, Roger; Schnee, Christiane; Pletz, Mathias W.; Rupp, Jan; Jacobs, Enno; Sachse, Konrad; Group, CAPNETZ Study

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia spp., which are associated with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), are difficult to propagate, and can cause clinically indistinguishable disease patterns. During 20112012, we used molecular methods to test adult patients in Germany with confirmed CAP for infection with these 2 pathogens. Overall, 12.3% (96/783) of samples were positive for M. pneumoniae and 3.9% (31/794) were positive for Chlamydia spp.; C. psittaci (2.1%) was detected more frequently than C. pneumoniae (1.4%). M. pneumoniae P1 type 1 predominated, and levels of macrolide resistance were low (3.1%). Quarterly rates of M. pneumoniaepositive samples ranged from 1.5% to 27.3%, showing a strong epidemic peak for these infections, but of Chlamydia spp. detection was consistent throughout the year. M. pneumoniaepositive patients were younger and more frequently female, had fewer co-occurring conditions, and experienced milder disease than did patients who tested negative. Clinicians should be aware of the epidemiology of these pathogens in CAP. PMID:25693633

  7. Specific polymorphisms in the vitamin D metabolism pathway are not associated with susceptibility to Chlamydia trachomatis infection in humans.

    PubMed

    Lanjouw, Esmée; Branković, Ivan; Pleijster, Jolein; Spaargaren, Joke; Hoebe, Christian J P A; van Kranen, Henk J; Ouburg, Sander; Morré, Servaas A

    2016-04-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterium worldwide. Its often asymptomatic course of infection increases chances of transmission, and increases risk of late complications. Genetic variations in the host immune system are known to impact the course of infections. Recent studies have shown a positive impact of vitamin D on the regulation of the immune system. This study assesses the impact of eight polymorphisms in five genes [VDR (rs1544410 G > A, rs2228570 C > T), CYP27B1 (rs10877012 G > T), DHCR7 (rs7944926 G > A, rs3829251 G > A), GC (rs3755967) and CYP2R1 (rs10741657 G > A, rs2060793 G > A)] on susceptibility to Chlamydia infections in humans. These polymorphisms could influence protein expression or function, and thus influence the immune system. Samples of women visiting the STD outpatient clinic in South Limburg were genotyped using the Roche Lightcycler 480. In this study, we did not observe statistically significant differences between the genotype distributions of these polymorphisms in women with or without a Chlamydia infection. This suggests that VDR, CYP27B1, DHCR7, GC and CYP2R1 do not affect the susceptibility to Chlamydia infections. However, due to its pleiotropic nature in the immune system a role for the vitamin D pathway may not be excluded from the whole clinical course of Chlamydia infections (e.g. late complications), and further research is required. PMID:26867646

  8. History of Assisted Reproductive Technology and Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Masahiko; Suzuki, Shunji

    2016-01-01

    Background and Methods To identify whether or not a history of assisted reproductive technology (ART) is associated with the low incidence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection in pregnant women, we reviewed the obstetric records of the Japanese women aged 35 - 42 years. Results The prevalence of CT in the pregnancies without ART was 1.1% (28/2,632) using nucleic acid amplification tests, while it was zero in the pregnancies conceived by ART (0/364, P = 0.049 by the X2 test). Conclusions A history of ART seemed to be a negative risk factor for CT infection in pregnant women. PMID:26858799

  9. Acceptance of Home-Based Chlamydia Genital and Anorectal Testing Using Short Message Service (SMS) in Previously Tested Young People and Their Social and Sexual Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wolffs, Petra T.; Kok, Gerjo; Hoebe, Christian J. P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Control strategies for Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) are most effective when targeting people at highest risk. We assessed test acceptance of home-collection test kits offered by short messaging services (SMS) texts, in high-risk young people, i.e. those who had previously tested CT positive (positive indices), or negative reporting more than 3 sex partners (negative indices), and their sexual and social networks. Methods Young (16 to 25 years old) heterosexuals who previously tested positive (n=536) or negative (n=536) in our STI clinic received, 3 to 20 months after their initial screening, an SMS inviting them to re-test. They were offered a free home-collection test kit including a genital (men and women) and anorectal (women only) test, and a test kit to pass on to a friend or sex partner (peer). SMS reminders were sent in case of non-response. We assessed proportions of tests requested and returned, peers tested, and positivity. Associations with the individuals initial screening result and other factors were explored using logistic regression. Results Of 1072 people invited to retest, 34.4% (n=369) requested a test. Of these, 55.8% (n=206) retested. Overall, retest participation was higher in positive (22%) than in negative indices (16%) (p<0.001); it was also higher in women and in those aged >22 years. Positivity was 13% and 7% in positive and negative indices, respectively. One in 3 retesters also had a peer tested. Of tested peers (n=87), 84% were friends, 31% were first-time testers, and 7% tested positive. Conclusion Acceptance of a relatively low-cost strategy for genital and anorectal testing, i.e. using SMS and home-collection test kits, was highest in individuals who previously tested CT positive suggesting that implementation for this group may be considered. By further including a peer-led testing component, undetected CT positives can be identified in the social networks surrounding a high-risk individual. PMID:26230085

  10. Differential Expression of mRNA Encoding Cytokines and Chemokines in the Reproductive Tract after Infection of Mice with Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Cerny, Katheryn L.; Van Fleet, Maranda; Slepenkin, Anatoly; Peterson, Ellena M.; Bridges, Phillip J.

    2015-01-01

    Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis targets epithelial cells within the genital tract which respond by secreting chemokines and cytokines. Persistent inflammation can lead to fibrosis, tubal infertility and/or ectopic pregnancy; many infections are asymptomatic. Most studies have investigated the inflammatory response in the initial stages of infection, less is known about the later stages of infection, especially with a low, potentially asymptomatic, bacterial load. Our objective was to determine the inflammatory mediators involved in clearance of low-grade infection and the potential involvement in chronic inflammation. Six to eight week old C3H/HeJ mice were pretreated with 2.5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate on day -10 and -3 before infection. Mice (n=3 for 28 d, n=3 for 35 d) were infected with 5 102 inclusion-forming units of C. trachomatis, serovar D; vaginal cultures were obtained weekly to monitor infection. Control mice (n=3 for 28 d, n=3 for 35 d) were sham infected. Mice were killed on day 28 (experiment 1) and day 35 (experiment 2) post-infection and vaginal tissue, uterine horns and oviducts collected for analysis of mRNAs encoding inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Total RNA was isolated and a superarray analysis performed using mouse Cytokines and Chemokines PCR arrays (Qiagen, Valencia, CA). Statistical differences in gene expression were determined using a paired Students t-test. At 28 days after infection, the expression of mRNA encoding 6, 35 and 3 inflammatory genes differed from controls in vaginal, uterine and oviductal tissues, respectively (P<0.05). At 35 days after infection, the expression of mRNA encoding 16, 38 and 14 inflammatory genes differed from controls in vaginal, uterine and oviductal tissues, respectively (P<0.05). Understanding the mechanisms involved in the inflammatory response at later stages of infection should aid in the development of treatment options that minimize the development of asymptomatic, chronic inflammation-induced infertility.

  11. Developing and testing accelerated partner therapy for partner notification for people with genital Chlamydia trachomatis diagnosed in primary care: a pilot randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Estcourt, Claudia S; Sutcliffe, Lorna J; Copas, Andrew; Mercer, Catherine H; Roberts, Tracy E; Jackson, Louise J; Symonds, Merle; Tickle, Laura; Muniina, Pamela; Rait, Greta; Johnson, Anne M; Aderogba, Kazeem; Creighton, Sarah; Cassell, Jackie A

    2015-01-01

    Background Accelerated partner therapy (APT) is a promising partner notification (PN) intervention in specialist sexual health clinic attenders. To address its applicability in primary care, we undertook a pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) of two APT models in community settings. Methods Three-arm pilot RCT of two adjunct APT interventions: APTHotline (telephone assessment of partner(s) plus standard PN) and APTPharmacy (community pharmacist assessment of partner(s) plus routine PN), versus standard PN alone (patient referral). Index patients were women diagnosed with genital chlamydia in 12 general practices and three community contraception and sexual health (CASH) services in London and south coast of England, randomised between 1 September 2011 and 31 July 2013. Results 199 women described 339 male partners, of whom 313 were reported by the index as contactable. The proportions of contactable partners considered treated within 6?weeks of index diagnosis were APTHotline 39/111 (35%), APTPharmacy 46/100 (46%), standard patient referral 46/102 (45%). Among treated partners, 8/39 (21%) in APTHotline arm were treated via hotline and 14/46 (30%) in APTPharmacy arm were treated via pharmacy. Conclusions The two novel primary care APT models were acceptable, feasible, compliant with regulations and capable of achieving acceptable outcomes within a pilot RCT but intervention uptake was low. Although addition of these interventions to standard PN did not result in a difference between arms, overall PN uptake was higher than previously reported in similar settings, probably as a result of introducing a formal evaluation. Recruitment to an individually randomised trial proved challenging and full evaluation will likely require service-level randomisation. Trial registration number Registered UK Clinical Research Network Study Portfolio id number 10123. PMID:26019232

  12. Intratracheal infection as an efficient route for testing vaccines against Chlamydia abortus in sheep.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, D; Salinas, J; Buendía, A J; Ortega, N; del Río, L; Sánchez, J; Navarro, J A; Gallego, M C; Murcia-Belmonte, A; Cuello, F; Caro, M R

    2015-09-01

    Pregnant ewes have been widely used to test vaccines against Chlamydia abortus. However, this model entails many disadvantages such as high economic costs and long periods of pregnancy. The murine model is very useful for specific studies but cannot replace the natural host for the later stages of vaccine evaluation. Therefore, a non-pregnant model of the natural host might be useful for a vaccine trial to select the best vaccine candidates prior to use of the pregnant model. With this aim, two routes of infection were assessed in young non-pregnant sheep, namely, intranasal (IN) and intratracheal (IT). In addition, groups of non-vaccinated sheep and sheep immunised with an inactivated vaccine were established to investigate the suitability of the model for testing vaccines. After the experimental infection, isolation of the microorganism in several organs, with pathological and immunohistochemical analyses, antibody production assessment and investigation by PCR of the presence of chlamydia in the vagina or rectum were carried out. Experimental IT inoculation of C. abortus induced pneumonia in sheep during the first few days post-infection, confirming the suitability of the IT route for testing vaccines in the natural host. The course of infection and the resulting pathological signs were less severe in vaccinated sheep compared with non-vaccinated animals, demonstrating the success of vaccination. IN infection did not produce evident lesions or demonstrate the presence of chlamydial antigen in the lungs and cannot be considered an appropriate model for testing vaccines. PMID:26095034

  13. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae infections in children with pneumonia. Mowgli Study Group.

    PubMed

    Esposito, S; Blasi, F; Bellini, F; Allegra, L; Principi, N

    2001-02-01

    The most common clinical signs, host responses and radiographic patterns were studied in 203 Italian children hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia in order to clarify the role of clinical and radiological characteristics in the diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and/or Chlamydia pneumoniae infections. Antibody measurements in paired sera and polymerase chain reaction on nasopharyngeal aspirates were used to establish the diagnoses of acute M. pneumoniae and C. pneumoniae infection, and the aetiologic data were correlated with the clinical, laboratory and radiographic data obtained on admission. No significant association was observed between evidence of M. pneumoniae and/or C. pneumoniae infection and periods of episode during the year, mean age of the study subjects, individual symptoms, physical findings or laboratory test results. Furthermore, no significant correlation was observed in relation to the radiological findings and M. pneumoniae and/or C. pneumoniae infection. This study shows that neither clinical findings nor laboratory parameters distinguished Mycoplasma pneumoniae and/or Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in children with pneumonia. Radiological findings also have a limited capacity to differentiate aetiologic agents. The priorities for future research include the development of rapid, easily accessible and cost-effective diagnostic tests useful for each episode of pneumonia in children. PMID:11334126

  14. Human enteroendocrine cell responses to infection with Chlamydia trachomatis: a microarray study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Enteroendocrine cells (EEC) are highly specialized cells producing signalling molecules vital to the normal functions of the gut. Recently, we showed altered protein distribution in Chlamydia infected EEC in vitro. The aim of this study was to perform a microarray analysis of the response pattern of EEC from both large and small bowel to infection in vitro, using Chlamydia trachomatis infection as a model. Methods Two human EEC lines: LCC-18, derived from a neuroendocrine colonic tumour, and CNDT-2, derived from a small intestinal carcinoid, were infected using cultured C. trachomatis serovar LGV II strain 434 (ATCC VR-902B). Penicillin G was used to induce persistent infection. We used microarray analysis (Affymetrix GeneChip) for studying changes in gene expression at different stages of infection. Results Twenty-four hours after active and persistent infection, 66 and 411 genes in LCC-18 and 68 and 170 genes in CNDT-2 cells, respectively showed mean expression ratios >2-fold compared to non-infected cells. These genes encoded factors regulating apoptosis, cell differentiation, transcription regulation, cytokine activity, amine biosynthesis and vesicular transport. We found significant differences in gene transcription levels between persistently infected and non-infected cells in 10 genes coding for different solute carrier transporters (SLC) and in 5 genes related to endocrine function (GABARAPL1, GRIP1, DRD2, SYT5 and SYT7). Conclusions Infected EEC cells exhibit cell-type specific patterns related to vesicular transport, secretion and neurotransmitters. EEC play a pivotal role in regulation of gut motility and an impairment of enteroendocrine function can contribute to motility disorders. PMID:24959205

  15. Chlamydia psittaci Infection in nongastrointestinal extranodal MALT lymphomas and their precursor lesions.

    PubMed

    Aigelsreiter, Ariane; Gerlza, Tanja; Deutsch, Alexander J A; Leitner, Eva; Beham-Schmid, Christine; Beham, Alfred; Popper, Helmut; Borel, Nicole; Pospischil, Andreas; Raderer, Markus; Kessler, Harald H; Neumeister, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Extranodal marginal zone lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) are associated with various infectious pathogens. We analyzed the presence of Chlamydia psittaci, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and Chlamydia trachomatis DNA in 47 nongastrointestinal and 14 gastrointestinal MALT lymphomas, 37 nonmalignant control samples, and 27 autoimmune precursor lesions by polymerase chain reaction amplification and direct sequencing. In 47 nongastrointestinal MALT lymphomas, 13 (28%) were positive for C psittaci DNA compared with 4 (11%) of 37 nonmalignant control samples (P = .09). C psittaci was detected at variable frequencies in MALT lymphomas of different sites: lung, 100% (5/5; P < .01); thyroid gland, 30% (3/10; P > .05); salivary gland, 13% (2/15; P > .05); ocular adnexa, 15% (2/13); and skin, 25% (1/4). Of 27 autoimmune precursor lesions (11 Hashimoto thyroiditis and 16 Sjgren syndrome), 11 (41%) contained C psittaci DNA. Only 1 (7%) of 14 gastrointestinal MALT lymphomas was positive for C psittaci. All specimens were negative for C trachomatis and C pneumoniae. Besides ocular adnexal lymphomas, C psittaci infection is associated with nongastrointestinal MALT lymphomas and autoimmune precursor lesions, suggesting possible involvement of C psittaci-induced antigenic-driven MALT lymphomagenesis. PMID:21173126

  16. Metabolic Features of Protochlamydia amoebophila Elementary Bodies – A Link between Activity and Infectivity in Chlamydiae

    PubMed Central

    Watzka, Margarete; Wultsch, Anna; Tziotis, Dimitrios; Montanaro, Jacqueline; Richter, Andreas; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Horn, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The Chlamydiae are a highly successful group of obligate intracellular bacteria, whose members are remarkably diverse, ranging from major pathogens of humans and animals to symbionts of ubiquitous protozoa. While their infective developmental stage, the elementary body (EB), has long been accepted to be completely metabolically inert, it has recently been shown to sustain some activities, including uptake of amino acids and protein biosynthesis. In the current study, we performed an in-depth characterization of the metabolic capabilities of EBs of the amoeba symbiont Protochlamydia amoebophila. A combined metabolomics approach, including fluorescence microscopy-based assays, isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), ion cyclotron resonance Fourier transform mass spectrometry (ICR/FT-MS), and ultra-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) was conducted, with a particular focus on the central carbon metabolism. In addition, the effect of nutrient deprivation on chlamydial infectivity was analyzed. Our investigations revealed that host-free P. amoebophila EBs maintain respiratory activity and metabolize D-glucose, including substrate uptake as well as host-free synthesis of labeled metabolites and release of labeled CO2 from 13C-labeled D-glucose. The pentose phosphate pathway was identified as major route of D-glucose catabolism and host-independent activity of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was observed. Our data strongly suggest anabolic reactions in P. amoebophila EBs and demonstrate that under the applied conditions D-glucose availability is essential to sustain metabolic activity. Replacement of this substrate by L-glucose, a non-metabolizable sugar, led to a rapid decline in the number of infectious particles. Likewise, infectivity of Chlamydia trachomatis, a major human pathogen, also declined more rapidly in the absence of nutrients. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that D-glucose is utilized by P. amoebophila EBs and provide evidence that metabolic activity in the extracellular stage of chlamydiae is of major biological relevance as it is a critical factor affecting maintenance of infectivity. PMID:23950718

  17. Chlamydia trachomatis infection among female inmates at Briman prison in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the western countries; its prevalence in the conservative Muslim population of Saudi Arabia is not known, but it is generally believed to be low. This study is the first to investigate the prevalence of and risk factors for C. trachomatis infection in the high-risk group of female inmates at Briman Prison in Jeddah. Methods The inmates were interviewed using a pre-designed questionnaire, and their urine samples were tested for C. trachomatis infection by real-time PCR assay. Results The overall prevalence of C. trachomatis infection was 8.7% in the study population. The ≤25 age group was predominantly affected, with an average prevalence of 16.6%. Two out of five (2/5, 40%) Yamani, (4/33 12.1%) Indonesian, (3/33, 9.1%) Somalian and (2/26, 7.7%) Ethiopian inmates were positive for infection. None of the Saudi inmates (0/14) were positive for infection. Among the studied variables, only age was significantly associated with the infection rate. The other variables (marital status, nationality, religion, employment status, education level, nature of the offense committed, knowledge about protection from STIs, and knowledge about condom use and the purpose of condom use) did not show a significant correlation with Chlamydia infection. Conclusions The overall prevalence of C. trachomatis infection was within the range published by other reports in similar prison settings in developed countries. The results indicate the need for a countrywide screening and treatment program for all inmates at the time of entry into prison. PMID:24649964

  18. Prevalence of lower genital tract infection among women attending maternal and child health and family planning clinics in Hanoi, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Anh, Phan Kim; Khanh, Nguyen Thi Ngoc; Ha, Dinh Thu; Chien, Do Thi; Thuc, Pham Thi; Luong, Pham Hien; Kilmarx, Peter H; Wongchotigul, Varee; Kitayaporn, Dwip; Rowe, Patrick J

    2003-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of lower genital tract infection (LGTI) with Candida spp, Trichomonas vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and bacterial vaginosis among symptomatic and asymptomatic women attending maternal and child health and family planning (MCH/FP) clinics in Hanoi, Vietnam. A multi-centered, cross-sectional descriptive study stratified by reported symptoms of vaginal discharge was carried out in three MCH/FP clinics among 1,000 women aged 18-44 years in 1998. Of these, 89.1% lived in Hanoi, 97.6% were currently married, and 99.2% had only one sexual partner in the past 12 months. Regarding their contraceptive use, 28.2% did not use any contraception, 25.6% used an intrauterine device (IUD), 22.8% used condoms, and 23.4% used other methods. The overall prevalence of Candida spp was 11.1% (95% CI = 9.1-13.1%); T. vaginalis, 1.3% (95% CI = 0.6-2.0%); no gonococcal infection was found; the prevalence of C. trachomatis was 4.4% (95% CI = 3.1-5.7%); and of bacterial vaginosis, 3.5% (95% CI = 2.4-4.6%). The presence of LGTI was not associated with reported symptom of vaginal discharge. LGTI was common among married and monogamous women attending MCH/FP clinics in Hanoi, of whom many used IUDs and may have an increased risk of complications in the presence of LGTI. The lack of association between symptoms and laboratory-confirmed infection underscores the challenge of diagnosing LGTI when laboratory testing is not available. PMID:12971565

  19. Lymphocyte-derived chemotactic factor synthesis in initial genital herpesvirus infection: correlation with lymphocyte transformation.

    PubMed Central

    Rattray, M C; Peterman, G M; Altman, L C; Corey, L; Holmes, K K

    1980-01-01

    Lymphocyte transformation and production of lymphocyte-derived chemotactic factor in response to herpes simplex virus antigen were studied in 15 patients with initial genital herpes and 10 controls. The patients underwent frequent genital examinations, viral cultures, and weekly immunological studies for a period of 11 weeks. The production of lymphocyte-derived chemotactic factor was maximal in week 1 of the disease and declined to control levels by week 6. In contrast, lymphocyte transformation was lowest in week 1, reached a maximum by week 4, and declined to control levels by week 11. Production of lymphocyte-derived chemotactic factor in week 1 was significantly lower in nine patients who developed signs or symptoms of systemic herpes infection than in six who had localized disease. In addition, a marked but transient decline in the production of this lymphokine was observed in patients at the time of clinical recurrence. Virus-specific lymphocyte transformation correlated inversely with the duration of genital pain and lesions and did not correlate with the presence of systemic signs or symptoms. These findings indicate that during initial genital herpes infection the dynamics of lymphocyte transformation and those of lymphocyte-derived chemotactic factor production are different, and that the generation of this lymphokine is an early component of the cellular immune response in this disease. Furthermore, adequate produce of lymphocyte-derived chemotactic factor may be important in restricting herpes simplex virus to the genital area and preventing disease recurrence. PMID:6254875

  20. Guanylate binding proteins enable rapid activation of canonical and noncanonical inflammasomes in Chlamydia-infected macrophages.

    PubMed

    Finethy, Ryan; Jorgensen, Ine; Haldar, Arun K; de Zoete, Marcel R; Strowig, Till; Flavell, Richard A; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Nagarajan, Uma M; Miao, Edward A; Coers, Jörn

    2015-12-01

    Interferon (IFN)-inducible guanylate binding proteins (GBPs) mediate cell-autonomous host resistance to bacterial pathogens and promote inflammasome activation. The prevailing model postulates that these two GBP-controlled activities are directly linked through GBP-dependent vacuolar lysis. It was proposed that the rupture of pathogen-containing vacuoles (PVs) by GBPs destroyed the microbial refuge and simultaneously contaminated the host cell cytosol with microbial activators of inflammasomes. Here, we demonstrate that GBP-mediated host resistance and GBP-mediated inflammatory responses can be uncoupled. We show that PVs formed by the rodent pathogen Chlamydia muridarum, so-called inclusions, remain free of GBPs and that C. muridarum is impervious to GBP-mediated restrictions on bacterial growth. Although GBPs neither bind to C. muridarum inclusions nor restrict C. muridarum growth, we find that GBPs promote inflammasome activation in C. muridarum-infected macrophages. We demonstrate that C. muridarum infections induce GBP-dependent pyroptosis through both caspase-11-dependent noncanonical and caspase-1-dependent canonical inflammasomes. Among canonical inflammasomes, we find that C. muridarum and the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis activate not only NLRP3 but also AIM2. Our data show that GBPs support fast-kinetics processing and secretion of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18 by the NLRP3 inflammasome but are dispensable for the secretion of the same cytokines at later times postinfection. Because IFN-γ fails to induce IL-1β transcription, GBP-dependent fast-kinetics inflammasome activation can drive the preferential processing of constitutively expressed IL-18 in IFN-γ-primed macrophages in the absence of prior Toll-like receptor stimulation. Together, our results reveal that GBPs control the kinetics of inflammasome activation and thereby shape macrophage responses to Chlamydia infections. PMID:26416908

  1. Impact of genital hygiene and sexual activity on urinary tract infection during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Badran, Yaser Ali; El-Kashef, Tarek Ahmed; Abdelaziz, Alsayed Saad; Ali, Mahmoud Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a bacterial infection commonly occurring during pregnancy. The incidence of UTI in pregnant women depends on parity, race, and socioeconomic status and can be as high as 8%. Objective: The objective was to determine the association of UTI with genital hygiene practices and sexual activity in pregnant women. Patients and Methods: From January 2011 to June 2014, a total of 200 pregnant women attending prenatal clinics in Al-Zahra Hospital and King Khalid Hospital in Saudia Arabia Kingdom were selected. Eighty pregnant women, who had positive urine cultures (cases), were compared with the remaining 120 healthy pregnant women matched for age, social, economic and education status, and parity (controls). Results: In the present work, Escherichia coli were the infecting organism in 83% of cases. Factors associated with UTI included sexual intercourse ? 3 times/week (odds ratio [OR] =5.62), recent UTI (OR = 3.27), not washing genitals precoitus (OR = 2.16), not washing genitals postcoitus (OR = 2.89), not voiding urine postcoitus (OR = 8.62) and washing genitals from back to front (OR = 2.96) [OR = odds ratio]. Conclusion: Urinary tract infection in pregnant women was primarily caused by bacteria from the stool (E. coli) and that hygiene habits, and sexual behavior may play a role in UTI in pregnant women. PMID:26692669

  2. The molecular basis for disease phenotype in chronic Chlamydia-induced arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Carter, John D; Gerard, Herve C; Whittum-Hudson, Judith A; Hudson, Alan P

    2013-01-01

    Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections can elicit an inflammatory arthritis in some individuals, and recent surprising studies have demonstrated that only ocular (trachoma) strains, not genital strains, of the organism are present in the synovial tissues of patients with the disease. This observation suggests an explanation for the small proportion of genitally-infected patients who develop Chlamydia-induced arthritis. Other recent studies have begun to identify the specific chlamydial gene products that elicit the synovial inflammatory response during both active and quiescent disease, although much more study will be required to complete the understanding of that complex process of host–pathogen interaction. Several newly developed experimental methods and approaches for study of the process will enable identification of new therapeutic targets, and possibly strategies for prevention of the disease altogether. PMID:23440251

  3. Conjunctival infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in sexual partners of patients with adult inclusion conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Mohamed-Noriega, Karim; Mohamed-Noriega, Jibran; Valds-Navarro, Manuel A; Cuervo-Lozano, Edgar Eliezar; Fernndez-Espinosa, Martn Cesar; Mohamed-Hamsho, Jess

    2015-04-01

    To compare the incidence of conjunctival infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in sexual partners of patients with newly diagnosed adult inclusion conjunctivitis (AIC) and a control group with healthy eyes. We also compare the observed signs and symptoms of conjunctival infection in patients with newly diagnosed AIC and their sexual partners. We performed a prospective comparative case-control study between patients with newly diagnosed AIC confirmed with direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) (n=11), their sexual partners (n=11), and a control group of healthy subjects (n=11). Clinical history, physical examination, and a DFA test for C. trachomatis of a conjunctival scrapping from the tarsal conjunctiva were performed in all patients. A significantly higher frequency of positive DFA tests for C. trachomatis was observed in the sexual partner group (n=8, 73%) compared with the healthy control group (n=2, 18.2%) (P=0.03). Ocular symptoms and signs were observed significantly more often in patients from the confirmed clinically active AIC group (n=11, 100%) than in their sexual partners (n=2, 12.5%). Sexual partners of patients with AIC are at greater risk of having an asymptomatic conjunctival infection with C. trachomatis than healthy subjects. Sexual partners might be considered a bacterial reservoir and a possible source for chlamydia reinfection. Not treating sexual partners might increase the probability of reinfection. More extended studies with a greater sample size should be done. PMID:24643518

  4. Inhibition of apoptosis in neuronal cells infected with Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Appelt, Denah M; Roupas, Maria R; Way, Deana S; Bell, Marcus G; Albert, Elizabeth V; Hammond, Christine J; Balin, Brian J

    2008-01-01

    Background Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae is an intracellular bacterium that has been identified within cells in areas of neuropathology found in Alzheimer disease (AD), including endothelia, glia, and neurons. Depending on the cell type of the host, infection by C. pneumoniae has been shown to influence apoptotic pathways in both pro- and anti-apoptotic fashions. We have hypothesized that persistent chlamydial infection of neurons may be an important mediator of the characteristic neuropathology observed in AD brains. Chronic and/or persistent infection of neuronal cells with C. pneumoniae in the AD brain may affect apoptosis in cells containing chlamydial inclusions. Results SK-N-MC neuroblastoma cells were infected with the respiratory strain of C. pneumoniae, AR39 at an MOI of 1. Following infection, the cells were either untreated or treated with staurosporine and then examined for apoptosis by labeling for nuclear fragmentation, caspase activity, and membrane inversion as indicated by annexin V staining. C. pneumoniae infection was maintained through 10 days post-infection. At 3 and 10 days post-infection, the infected cell cultures appeared to inhibit or were resistant to the apoptotic process when induced by staurosporine. This inhibition was demonstrated quantitatively by nuclear profile counts and caspase 3/7 activity measurements. Conclusion These data suggest that C. pneumoniae can sustain a chronic infection in neuronal cells by interfering with apoptosis, which may contribute to chronic inflammation in the AD brain. PMID:18218130

  5. Concordant Oral-Genital HPV Infection in South Africa Couples: Evidence for Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Samantha L.; Gravitt, Patti E.; Martinson, Neil A.; Hoffmann, Jennifer; DSouza, Gypsyamber

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer mortality in South Africa. However, little is known about oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence settings. Method: Thirty-four adult heterosexual couples attending an HIV testing center in Soweto, South Africa were enrolled. Each participant provided an oral rinse sample and genital swab, which were tested for 37 types of HPV DNA, and completed a risk behavior survey. Results: Median age was 31?years and 9% (3/34) of men and 29% (10/34) of women enrolled tested HIV-positive; median CD4 count was 437?cells/mm3. Oral HPV prevalence was similar in women and men (12 vs. 18%, p?=?0.48), and was non-significantly higher in HIV-infected vs. HIV-uninfected (23 vs. 13%, p?=?0.34) subjects. Most men (82%) and women (84%) reported ever performing oral sex. Median number of lifetime sexual partners was 25 while median number of lifetime oral sex partners was 1. Oncogenic HPV subtypes were detected in 4% of oral, 26% of penile, and 74% of vaginal samples, including HPV16 in 1, 12, and 21% of these samples respectively. Genital HPV prevalence was significantly higher than oral HPV prevalence (75 vs. 15%, p???0.001). Thirty-five percent of couples (12/34) had at least one type-specific concordant vaginal-penile HPV infection but only one of nine couples with oral HPV had concordant oraloral infection. However, 67% (4/6) of men and 25% (1/4) of women with oral HPV infection had partners with concordant genital HPV infection. Implications and Impact: Oraloral HPV concordance between couples is low, but oral-genital and genitalgenital HPV concordance is higher, including concordance of male oral HPV infection with their partners vaginal HPV infection. This data is consistent with possible transmission of vaginal HPV infection to the oral cavity of sexual partners performing oral sex. PMID:24377087

  6. Emerging role of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae in paediatric respiratory-tract infections.

    PubMed

    Principi, N; Esposito, S

    2001-12-01

    Increased use of specialised diagnostic techniques over the past 10 years has allowed considerable new information to be obtained concerning Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae infections. In children, these pathogens seem to have a more important role in causing respiratory-tract infections than previously thought; they have been associated with wheezing, and they are also frequent in children aged under 5 years. Contrary to original belief, no clinical, laboratory, or radiological findings seem to be unique to M. pneumoniae or C. pneumoniae; furthermore, there is no rapid and cost-effective diagnostic test capable of identifying these pathogens. Appropriate antimicrobial treatment of the infections they cause is needed to reduce the recurrent episodes of wheezing and other respiratory symptoms, to decrease morbidity, and to avoid the spread of the pathogens. However, a number of therapeutic issues remain unsolved. PMID:11871806

  7. Chlamydia psittaci in Swedish wetland birds: a risk to zoonotic infection?

    PubMed

    Blomqvist, Maria; Christerson, Linus; Waldenstrm, Jonas; Herrmann, Bjrn; Olsen, Bjrn

    2012-12-01

    Chlamydia psittaci in birds may be transmitted to humans and cause respiratory infections, sometimes as severe disease. Our study investigated the C. psittaci prevalence in migratory birds in Sweden by real-time PCR. Fecal specimens or cloacal swabs were collected from 497 birds from 22 different species, mainly mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), at two bird observatories in Sweden. DNA from C psittaci was found in six (1.2%) birds from three different species. Five of the positive specimens were infected with four novel strains of C. psittaci, based on sequencing of partial 16S rRNA gene and ompA gene, and the sixth was indentified as a recently described Chlamydiaceae-like bacterium. Considering exposure to humans it is concluded that the risk of zoonotic infection is low. PMID:23397847

  8. The Incidence and Correlates of Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae Infections in Selected Populations in Five Countries

    PubMed Central

    Detels, Roger; Green, Annette M.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Katzenstein, David; Gaydos, Charlotte; Handsfield, H. Hunter; Pequegnat, Willo; Mayer, Kenneth; Hartwell, Tyler D.; Quinn, Thomas C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonorrhea) infections pose diagnostic and control problems in developing countries. Methods Participants in China, India, Peru, Russia, and Zimbabwe were screened for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae infections and symptoms. Results A total of 18,014 participants were evaluated at baseline, 15,054 at 12 months, and 14,243 at 24 months. The incidence of chlamydia in men was 2.0 per 100 person years both from baseline to 12 months and from 12 to 24 months, and in women, 4.6 from baseline to 12 months and 3.6 from 12 to 24 months; a range of 31.2% to 100% reported no symptoms across the 5 countries. The incidence of gonorrhea in men was 0.3 per 100 person years both from baseline to 12 months and from 12 to 24 months, and in women, 1.4 from baseline to 12 months and 1.1 from 12 to 24 months; a range of 66.7% to 100% reported no symptoms. Being female, aged 18 to 24 years, and having more than 1 partner were associated with both the infections. In addition, being divorced, separated, or widowed was associated with gonorrhea. Being male, having 6+ years of education, and reporting only 1 partner were associated with having no symptoms among those infected with chlamydia. No variables correlated with asymptomatic gonorrhea among those infected. Conclusion A high prevalence and incidence of asymptomatic sexually transmitted infections was identified among men and women in a wide variety of settings. More effective programs are needed to identify and treat chlamydia and gonorrhea infections, especially among women, young adults, those with multiple partners, those repeatedly infected, and particularly those at risk without symptoms. The risk of transmission from persons with no symptoms requires further study. PMID:22256336

  9. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePLUS

    Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by a herpes simplex virus (HSV). It can cause sores on ... also infect their babies during childbirth. Symptoms of herpes are called outbreaks. You usually get sores near ...

  10. Genital Warts (HPV)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Genital Warts (HPV) KidsHealth > For Teens > Genital Warts (HPV) Print A ... HPV infection. How Do People Know They Have HPV? Most HPV infections have no signs or symptoms. ...

  11. Sudden psychotic episode probably due to meningoencephalitis and Chlamydia pneumoniae acute infection

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Background Since 9% to 20% of all cases of acute psychosis presenting to an Emergency Department (ED) are due to a general medical condition, cautious medical workup should be mandatory in such patients. Differential diagnosis must consider conditions as diverse as renal failure or CNS infection. Acute Chlamydia pneumoniae infection usually causes a self-limited respiratory syndrome. Rarely, acute neurological complications occur, with acute meningoencephalitis most frequently reported. Diagnosis requires a high level of suspicion and is difficult to confirm. Case report We describe a 22 year-old female Caucasian who, three days after a mild pharingitis, developed an acute psychosis with exuberant symptoms interspersed with periods of lucidity, in a background of normal consciousness and orientation. Initial medical and imagiological workup were inconclusive. After 20 days of unsuccessful treatment with antipsychotics she developed a high fever and was re-evaluated medically. Lumbar puncture revealed an inflammatory cerebrospinal fluid. MRI showed irregular thickening and nodularity of the lateral ventricles' lining. An anti-Chlamydia pneumoniae IgM antibody titter of 85 IU/ml was detected. All symptoms cleared after treatment with antibiotics and corticosteroids. Conclusion This is, to our knowledge, the first reported case of acute CP-associated meningoencephalitis manifesting as an acute psychotic episode. It illustrates the principle that non-organic psychiatric syndromes must remain a diagnosis of exclusion in first-time acute psychosis. PMID:16164756

  12. Conjunctival fibrosis and the innate barriers to Chlamydia trachomatis intracellular infection: a genome wide association study

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Chrissy h.; Franklin, Christopher S.; Makalo, Pateh; Joof, Hassan; Sarr, Isatou; Mahdi, Olaimatu S.; Sillah, Ansumana; Bah, Momodou; Payne, Felicity; Jeffreys, Anna E.; Bottomley, William; Natividad, Angels; Molina-Gonzalez, Sandra; Burr, Sarah E.; Preston, Mark; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Rockett, Kirk A.; Clark, Taane G.; Burton, Matthew J.; Mabey, David C. W.; Bailey, Robin; Barroso, Ins; Holland, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis causes both trachoma and sexually transmitted infections. These diseases have similar pathology and potentially similar genetic predisposing factors. We aimed to identify polymorphisms and pathways associated with pathological sequelae of ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infections in The Gambia. We report a discovery phase genome-wide association study (GWAS) of scarring trachoma (1090 cases, 1531 controls) that identified 27 SNPs with strong, but not genome-wide significant, association with disease (5??10?6?>?P?>?5??10?8). The most strongly associated SNP (rs111513399, P?=?5.38??10?7) fell within a gene (PREX2) with homology to factors known to facilitate chlamydial entry to the host cell. Pathway analysis of GWAS data was significantly enriched for mitotic cell cycle processes (P?=?0.001), the immune response (P?=?0.00001) and for multiple cell surface receptor signalling pathways. New analyses of published transcriptome data sets from Gambia, Tanzania and Ethiopia also revealed that the same cell cycle and immune response pathways were enriched at the transcriptional level in various disease states. Although unconfirmed, the data suggest that genetic associations with chlamydial scarring disease may be focussed on processes relating to the immune response, the host cell cycle and cell surface receptor signalling. PMID:26616738

  13. Conjunctival fibrosis and the innate barriers to Chlamydia trachomatis intracellular infection: a genome wide association study.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Chrissy H; Franklin, Christopher S; Makalo, Pateh; Joof, Hassan; Sarr, Isatou; Mahdi, Olaimatu S; Sillah, Ansumana; Bah, Momodou; Payne, Felicity; Jeffreys, Anna E; Bottomley, William; Natividad, Angels; Molina-Gonzalez, Sandra; Burr, Sarah E; Preston, Mark; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Rockett, Kirk A; Clark, Taane G; Burton, Matthew J; Mabey, David C W; Bailey, Robin; Barroso, Ins; Holland, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis causes both trachoma and sexually transmitted infections. These diseases have similar pathology and potentially similar genetic predisposing factors. We aimed to identify polymorphisms and pathways associated with pathological sequelae of ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infections in The Gambia. We report a discovery phase genome-wide association study (GWAS) of scarring trachoma (1090 cases, 1531 controls) that identified 27 SNPs with strong, but not genome-wide significant, association with disease (5??10(-6)?>?P?>?5??10(-8)). The most strongly associated SNP (rs111513399, P?=?5.38??10(-7)) fell within a gene (PREX2) with homology to factors known to facilitate chlamydial entry to the host cell. Pathway analysis of GWAS data was significantly enriched for mitotic cell cycle processes (P?=?0.001), the immune response (P?=?0.00001) and for multiple cell surface receptor signalling pathways. New analyses of published transcriptome data sets from Gambia, Tanzania and Ethiopia also revealed that the same cell cycle and immune response pathways were enriched at the transcriptional level in various disease states. Although unconfirmed, the data suggest that genetic associations with chlamydial scarring disease may be focussed on processes relating to the immune response, the host cell cycle and cell surface receptor signalling. PMID:26616738

  14. Distinct intensity of host-pathogen interactions in Chlamydia psittaci- and Chlamydia abortus-infected chicken embryos.

    PubMed

    Braukmann, Maria; Sachse, Konrad; Jacobsen, Ilse D; Westermann, Martin; Menge, Christian; Saluz, Hans-Peter; Berndt, Angela

    2012-09-01

    Factors and mechanisms determining the differences in virulence and host specificity between the zoonotic agents Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia abortus are still largely unknown. In the present study, two strains were compared for their invasiveness, virulence, and capability of eliciting an immune response in chicken embryos. On breeding day 10, embryonated chicken eggs were inoculated with 5 10(4) inclusion-forming units. As shown by immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR, C. psittaci displayed a significantly better capability of disseminating in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and internal organs than C. abortus. The higher infectious potential of C. psittaci in birds was underlined by significantly higher mRNA expression rates of essential chlamydial genes, such as incA, groEL (in CAM, liver, and spleen), cpaf, and ftsW (in CAM). Although the immune responses to both pathogens were similar, C. psittaci elicited higher macrophage numbers and a stronger expression of a subset of immune-related proteins. The data imply that invasiveness of Chlamydia spp. and propagation in the host are not solely dependent on the level of host immune response but, even to a greater extent, on the expression of bacterial factors related to virulence. The fact that C. psittaci has coped far better than C. abortus with the avian embryo's response by upregulating essential genes may be a key to understanding the mechanisms underlying host adaptation and etiopathology. PMID:22689815

  15. Multiple Human Papillomavirus Infection Is Associated with High-Risk Infection in Male Genital Warts in Ulsan, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Kyung Hyun; Yang, Sung-Hak; Roh, Min Cheol; Lee, Sang Hoon; Kim, Je Won; Kim, In Kyu; Roh, Kyoung Ho

    2016-01-01

    Further understanding of male human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is necessary to prevent infection in men, as well as transmission to women. In our current study, we investigated patterns of HPV infection and genotype distributions in male genital warts using the Anyplex II HPV28 Detection kit. We reviewed the medical records of 80 male patients who presented to 5 neighborhood clinics in Ulsan, Korea, for the treatment of genital warts between April 2014 and January 2015. All patients underwent HPV genotyping. The prevalence and characteristics of HPV infection were analyzed, and the patterns of HPV infection according to age were assessed. Among the study patients, 13 (16.3%) were negative for HPV infection, 46 (57.3%) were infected with low-risk HPV, and 21 (26.3%) were infected with high-risk HPV. Patients with multiple HPV infection were more likely to have high-risk HPV infection (P = 0.001). The prevalence of HPV infection was much higher in samples obtained by tissue excision due to a definite lesion (P = 0.001). There were no differences in high-risk HPV infection (P = 0.459), multiple HPV infection (P = 0.185), and recurrence at diagnosis (P = 0.178) according to age. HPV-6 and HPV-11 were the most common type overall (39.7% and 13.8%, respectively). HPV-16 and HPV-18 were the most common high-risk infections (both 3.4%). HPV infection is not only commonly encountered in male genital warts, but is also accompanied by high-risk HPV and multiple infections. PMID:26955236

  16. Immunization against Genital Herpes with a Vaccine Virus That has Defects in Productive and Latent Infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, Xavier J.; Jones, Cheryl A.; Knipe, David M.

    1999-06-01

    An effective vaccine for genital herpes has been difficult to achieve because of the limited efficacy of subunit vaccines and the safety concerns about live viruses. As an alternative approach, mutant herpes simplex virus strains that are replication-defective can induce protective immunity. To increase the level of safety and to prove that replication was not needed for immunization, we constructed a mutant herpes simplex virus 2 strain containing two deletion mutations, each of which eliminated viral replication. The double-mutant virus induces protective immunity that can reduce acute viral shedding and latent infection in a mouse genital model, but importantly, the double-mutant virus shows a phenotypic defect in latent infection. This herpes vaccine strain, which is immunogenic but has defects in both productive and latent infection, provides a paradigm for the design of vaccines and vaccine vectors for other sexually transmitted diseases, such as AIDS.

  17. Benefits of Rapid Molecular Diagnosis of Chlamydia Trachomatis and Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Infections in Women Attending Family Planning Clinics.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois-Nicolaos, Nadège; Jaureguy, Françoise; Pozzi-Gaudin, Stéphanie; Masson, Claire; Guillet-Caruba, Christelle; Lavisse, Frédérique; Larmignat, Philippe; Benachi, Alexandra; Picard, Bertrand; Doucet-Populaire, Florence

    2015-11-01

    We evaluated the benefits of on-demand systematic screening for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae using the Xpert CT/NG assay in 589 women attending family planning clinics. The sexually transmitted infection prevalence was 16.5% with 15.1% C. trachomatis and 3.1% N. gonorrhoeae infections. The on-demand test allowed for a quicker management of patients at high risk for sexually transmitted infections. PMID:26462191

  18. High prevalence of hpv multiple genotypes in women with persistent chlamydia trachomatis infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chlamydia trachomatis interaction with HR-HPV types has highlighted a central role in cervical cancer development. The aim of this study was to investigate HPV prevalence and genotypes distribution in women at risk for C. trachomatis infection and negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy. Methods 1071 cervical swabs were tested for C. trachomatis by Real Time PCR and genotyping by ompA gene sequencing. Additionally, a quantitative Real time-PCR was performed to assess the expression of the C. trachomatis Hsp60–encoding gene (Ct604 portion), linked to a persistent status of infection. HPV infection and genotypes was investigated in C. trachomatis positive women using Luminex technology. Results C. trachomatis infection was detected in 53 out of 1071 (4.5%) samples, of which the 53% resulted positive for Hsp60 gene expression. The overall prevalence of HPV infection in C. trachomatis positive samples was of 60.4% (32/53): in 37.5% of samples was present a single genotype, while multiple genotypes infections were found in the 62.5% of them. Among women with a C. trachomatis chronic infection, 68% were HPV co-infected and the 79% showed multiple genotypes. Should be noted that levels of C. trachomatis Hsp60 expression in HPV co-infected women were significantly lower compared to women infected only with C. trachomatis. The C. trachomatis serotype F was found in the majority of samples, independently of HPV infection. Conclusions A high prevalence of HPV multiple infections have been found in young women affected with a C. trachomatis chronic infection. These observations suggested that the expression of CHSP60-1, interfering with both apoptotic and cellular senescence pathways, may promote a favourable local microenvironment for HPV infection. PMID:25621003

  19. The Relationship between Ethnic Identity and Chlamydia and Gonorrhea Infections among Low Income Detained African American Adolescent Females

    PubMed Central

    Voisin, Dexter R.; Salazar, Laura F.; Crosby, Richard; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between ethnic identity and Chlamydia and Gonorrhea infections among detained African American female adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 123 African American female adolescents within eight detention facilities in Georgia. Using A-CASI technology, data were collected on demographics, ethnic identity, laboratory confirmed Chlamydia and Gonorrhea, and other known correlates for STIs, such as socioeconomic status, parental monitoring and risky sexual behaviors. Rates of Chlamydia and Gonorrhea testing yielded incidence rates of 25.6% and 5.6% respectfully. Findings indicated that controlling for STI correlates, participants who indicated high ethnic identity were 4.3 times more likely to test positive for an STI compared to those scoring low on the measure of ethnic identity. PMID:23075205

  20. Biophysical regulation of Chlamydia pneumoniae-infected monocyte recruitment to atherosclerotic foci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evani, Shankar J.; Ramasubramanian, Anand K.

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae infection is implicated in atherosclerosis although the contributory mechanisms are poorly understood. We hypothesize that C. pneumoniae infection favors the recruitment of monocytes to atherosclerotic foci by altering monocyte biophysics. Primary, fresh human monocytes were infected with C. pneumoniae for 8 h, and the interactions between monocytes and E-selectin or aortic endothelium under flow were characterized by video microscopy and image analysis. The distribution of membrane lipid rafts and adhesion receptors were analyzed by imaging flow cytometry. Infected cells rolled on E-selectin and endothelial surfaces, and this rolling was slower, steady and uniform compared to uninfected cells. Infection decreases cholesterol levels, increases membrane fluidity, disrupts lipid rafts, and redistributes CD44, which is the primary mediator of rolling interactions. Together, these changes translate to higher firm adhesion of infected monocytes on endothelium, which is enhanced in the presence of LDL. Uninfected monocytes treated with LDL or left untreated were used as baseline control. Our results demonstrate that the membrane biophysical changes due to infection and hyperlipidemia are one of the key mechanisms by which C. pneumoniae can exacerbate atherosclerotic pathology. These findings provide a framework to characterize the role of ‘infectious burden’ in the development and progression of atherosclerosis.

  1. Biophysical regulation of Chlamydia pneumoniae-infected monocyte recruitment to atherosclerotic foci

    PubMed Central

    Evani, Shankar J.; Ramasubramanian, Anand K.

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae infection is implicated in atherosclerosis although the contributory mechanisms are poorly understood. We hypothesize that C. pneumoniae infection favors the recruitment of monocytes to atherosclerotic foci by altering monocyte biophysics. Primary, fresh human monocytes were infected with C. pneumoniae for 8 h, and the interactions between monocytes and E-selectin or aortic endothelium under flow were characterized by video microscopy and image analysis. The distribution of membrane lipid rafts and adhesion receptors were analyzed by imaging flow cytometry. Infected cells rolled on E-selectin and endothelial surfaces, and this rolling was slower, steady and uniform compared to uninfected cells. Infection decreases cholesterol levels, increases membrane fluidity, disrupts lipid rafts, and redistributes CD44, which is the primary mediator of rolling interactions. Together, these changes translate to higher firm adhesion of infected monocytes on endothelium, which is enhanced in the presence of LDL. Uninfected monocytes treated with LDL or left untreated were used as baseline control. Our results demonstrate that the membrane biophysical changes due to infection and hyperlipidemia are one of the key mechanisms by which C. pneumoniae can exacerbate atherosclerotic pathology. These findings provide a framework to characterize the role of ‘infectious burden’ in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:26785849

  2. Biophysical regulation of Chlamydia pneumoniae-infected monocyte recruitment to atherosclerotic foci.

    PubMed

    Evani, Shankar J; Ramasubramanian, Anand K

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae infection is implicated in atherosclerosis although the contributory mechanisms are poorly understood. We hypothesize that C. pneumoniae infection favors the recruitment of monocytes to atherosclerotic foci by altering monocyte biophysics. Primary, fresh human monocytes were infected with C. pneumoniae for 8 h, and the interactions between monocytes and E-selectin or aortic endothelium under flow were characterized by video microscopy and image analysis. The distribution of membrane lipid rafts and adhesion receptors were analyzed by imaging flow cytometry. Infected cells rolled on E-selectin and endothelial surfaces, and this rolling was slower, steady and uniform compared to uninfected cells. Infection decreases cholesterol levels, increases membrane fluidity, disrupts lipid rafts, and redistributes CD44, which is the primary mediator of rolling interactions. Together, these changes translate to higher firm adhesion of infected monocytes on endothelium, which is enhanced in the presence of LDL. Uninfected monocytes treated with LDL or left untreated were used as baseline control. Our results demonstrate that the membrane biophysical changes due to infection and hyperlipidemia are one of the key mechanisms by which C. pneumoniae can exacerbate atherosclerotic pathology. These findings provide a framework to characterize the role of 'infectious burden' in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:26785849

  3. Shear Stress Enhances Chemokine Secretion from Chlamydia pneumoniae-infected Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Evani, Shankar J.; Dallo, Shatha F.; Murthy, Ashlesh K.; Ramasubramanian, Anand K.

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common respiratory pathogen that is considered a highly likely risk factor for atherosclerosis. C. pneumoniae is disseminated from the lung into systemic circulation via infected monocytes and lodges at the atherosclerotic sites. During transit, C. pneumoniae-infected monocytes in circulation are subjected to shear stress due to blood flow. The effect of mechanical stimuli on infected monocytes is largely understudied in the context of C. pneumoniae infection and inflammation. We hypothesized that fluid shear stress alters the inflammatory response of C. pneumoniae-infected monocytes and contributes to immune cell recruitment to the site of tissue damage. Using an in vitro model of blood flow, we determined that a physiological shear stress of 7.5 dyn/cm2 for 1 h on C. pneumoniae-infected monocytes enhances the production of several chemokines, which in turn is correlated with the recruitment of significantly large number of monocytes. Taken together, these results suggest synergistic interaction between mechanical and chemical factors in C. pneumoniae infection and associated inflammation. PMID:24505240

  4. Shear Stress Enhances Chemokine Secretion from Chlamydia pneumoniae-infected Monocytes.

    PubMed

    Evani, Shankar J; Dallo, Shatha F; Murthy, Ashlesh K; Ramasubramanian, Anand K

    2013-09-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common respiratory pathogen that is considered a highly likely risk factor for atherosclerosis. C. pneumoniae is disseminated from the lung into systemic circulation via infected monocytes and lodges at the atherosclerotic sites. During transit, C. pneumoniae-infected monocytes in circulation are subjected to shear stress due to blood flow. The effect of mechanical stimuli on infected monocytes is largely understudied in the context of C. pneumoniae infection and inflammation. We hypothesized that fluid shear stress alters the inflammatory response of C. pneumoniae-infected monocytes and contributes to immune cell recruitment to the site of tissue damage. Using an in vitro model of blood flow, we determined that a physiological shear stress of 7.5 dyn/cm(2) for 1 h on C. pneumoniae-infected monocytes enhances the production of several chemokines, which in turn is correlated with the recruitment of significantly large number of monocytes. Taken together, these results suggest synergistic interaction between mechanical and chemical factors in C. pneumoniae infection and associated inflammation. PMID:24505240

  5. Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infection in HIV-1-infected women taking antiretroviral therapy: a prospective cohort study from Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Low, Andrea J; Konate, Issouf; Nagot, Nicolas; Weiss, Helen A; Mabey, David; Segondy, Michel; Vickerman, Peter; Meda, Nicolas; van de Perre, Philippe; Mayaud, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) are common sexually transmitted infections (STI). We assessed the cumulative risk of NG and CT in a cohort of HIV-1-infected high-risk women taking antiretrovirals over 4 years in Burkina Faso. Methods Between March 2007 and February 2011, participants were followed every 3–6 months. At each visit, participants underwent a gynaecological examination with collection of cervical and vaginal swabs. Random-effects logistic regression models were used to analyse associations of NG and CT infection with behavioural and biological factors. Results 172 women had samples tested for NG and CT during the study period, in a total of 1135 visits. NG was detected in 6.4% of women (11/172, 95% CI 2.7 to 10.1) at a rate of 2.76 cases (95% CI 1.53 to 4.99) per 100 person-years. CT was detected in 1.7% (3/172, 95% CI 0 to 3.7) of women at a rate of 0.75 cases (95% CI 0.24 to 2.34) per 100 person-years. The majority of women were asymptomatic (9/14). In the multivariable model, the presence of NG or CT was associated with tobacco use (aOR=11.85, 95% CI 1.13 to 124.17), and concurrent genital HIV-1 RNA shedding (aOR=4.78, 95% CI 1.17 to 19.46). Higher levels of education (aOR=0.17, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.92), and age greater than 35 years (aOR=0.07, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.92) were associated with lower odds of infection. Conclusions The risk of NG or CT infection remains low among high-risk women in Bobo-Dioulasso. This provides some evidence that antiretroviral use does not contribute to behavioural disinhibition. The asymptomatic nature of most infections underscores the need for regular screening and treatment of STIs in core groups. PMID:24337732

  6. Male circumcision and prevalence of genital human papillomavirus infection in men: a multinational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Accumulated evidence from epidemiological studies and more recently from randomized controlled trials suggests that male circumcision (MC) may substantially protect against genital HPV infection in men. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between MC and genital HPV infection in men in a large multinational study. Methods A total of 4072 healthy men ages 1870?years were enrolled in a study conducted in Brazil, Mexico, and the United States. Enrollment samples combining exfoliated cells from the coronal sulcus, glans penis, shaft, and scrotum were analyzed for the presence and genotyping of HPV DNA by PCR and linear array methods. Prevalence ratios (PR) were used to estimate associations between MC and HPV detection adjusting for potential confounders. Results MC was not associated with overall prevalence of any HPV, oncogenic HPV types or unclassified HPV types. However, MC was negatively associated with non-oncogenic HPV infections (PR 0.85, 95% confident interval: 0.76-0.95), in particular for HPV types 11, 40, 61, 71, and 81. HPV 16, 51, 62, and 84 were the most frequently identified genotypes regardless of MC status. Conclusions This study shows no overall association between MC and genital HPV infections in men, except for certain non-oncogenic HPV types for which a weak association was found. However, the lack of association with MC might be due to the lack of anatomic site specific HPV data, for example the glans penis, the area expected to be most likely protected by MC. PMID:23327450

  7. The prevalences of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis infections among female sex workers in China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have become a major public health problem among female sex workers (FSWs) in China. There have been many studies on prevalences of HIV and syphilis but the data about Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infections are limited in this population in China. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed among FSWs recruited from different types of venues in 8 cities in China. An interview with questionnaire was conducted, followed by collection of a blood and cervical swab specimens for tests of HIV, syphilis, NG and CT infections. Results A total of 3,099 FSWs were included in the study. The overall prevalence rates of HIV, syphilis, NG and CT were 0.26%, 6.45%, 5.91% and 17.30%, respectively. Being a FSW from low-tier venue (adjusted odds ratios [AOR]=1.39) had higher risk and being age of ≥ 21 years (AOR=0.60 for 21–25 years; AOR=0.29 for 26–30 years; AOR=0.35 for 31 years or above) had lower risk for CT infection; and having CT infection was significantly associated with NG infection. Conclusions The high STI prevalence rates found among FSWs, especially among FSWs in low-tier sex work venues, suggest that the comprehensive prevention and control programs including not only behavioral interventions but also screening and medical care are needed to meet the needs of this population. PMID:23390952

  8. IFN-? expression in placenta is associated to resistance to Chlamydia abortus after intragastric infection.

    PubMed

    del Rio, L; Barber-Cremades, M; Navarro, J A; Buenda, A J; Cuello, F; Ortega, N; Gallego, M C; Salinas, J; Caro, M R

    2013-03-01

    Intragastric infection mimics the natural route of infection of Chlamydia abortus (etiological agent of ovine enzootic abortion). In the mouse model, intragastric experimental infection induces very mild signs of infection followed by late term abortions, as it is shown by the natural ovine host. In order to evaluate the immune mechanisms associated to the dissemination of the pathogen from the gastrointestinal tract, we have administered an intragastric dose of C.abortus to pregnant mice. Systemic and local expression of cytokines, tissue colonization and excretion of bacteria after parturition were monitored during pregnancy. Susceptible CBA/J mice showed a higher bacterial colonization of the placenta and excretion of live bacteria after parturition that were related to a higher local IL-10 expression. By contrast, resistant C57BL/6 mouse strain had higher local IFN-? mRNA expression in the placenta just before parturition and a transient bacterial colonization of the reproductive tract, with no excretion of C.abortus after parturition. In summary, intragastric infection not only mimics the natural route of infection of C.abortus, but can also be useful in order to understand the immunopathogenesis of chlamydial abortion in the mouse. PMID:23287018

  9. Chlamydia trachomatis Antigens Recognized by Women With Tubal Factor Infertility, Normal Fertility, and Acute Infection

    PubMed Central

    Budrys, Nicole M.; Gong, Siqi; Rodgers, Allison K.; Wang, Jie; Louden, Christopher; Shain, Rochelle; Schenken, Robert S.; Zhong, Guangming

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify Chlamydia trachomatis antigens associated with tubal factor infertility and acute infection. Methods A C. trachomatis proteome array was used to compare antibody profiles among women with tubal factor infertility, normal fertility, and acute C. trachomatis infection. Results Thirteen immunodominant antigens reacted with 50% or more sera from all women (N=73). Six C. trachomatis antigens were uniquely recognized by women diagnosed with tubal factor infertility. Combining fragmentation of the six antigens with serum sample dilution, chlamydial antigens HSP60, CT376, CT557, and CT443 could discriminate between women with tubal factor infertility and women with normal fertility with a sensitivity of 63% (95% CI: 0.410.77) and specificity of 100% (95% CI: 0.911), respectively. These antigens were designated as tubal factor infertility-associated antigens. However, these tubal factor antigens were unable to distinguish tubal factor infertility patients from those with acute infection. A combination of CT875 and CT147 distinguished women with acute infection from all other C. trachomatis-exposed women with a detection sensitivity of 63% (95% CI: 0.410.77) and specificity of 100% (95% CI: 0.951), respectively. Thus, CT875 and CT147 were designated as acute infection-associated antigens. Conclusion A sequential screening of antibodies against panels of C. trachomatis antigens can be used to identify women with tubal factor infertility and acute C. trachomatis infection. PMID:22525912

  10. Intra-articular co-infection by Borrelia burgdorferi and Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Putschky, N; Schnarr, S; Wollenhaupt, J; Zeidler, H; Kuipers, J

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Chlamydia trachomatis and Borrelia burgdorferi infections are frequently the cause of unexplained oligoarthritis, as shown by identification of bacteria specific DNA in joint material from patients with reactive arthritis, Lyme arthritis, and undifferentiated oligoarthritis. The aim of this study was to determine whether the two organisms occur simultaneously in joint material from patients with arthritis.
METHODS—Seventy six patients with unexplained arthritis were prospectively studied. Synovial fluid was obtained from all patients and examined for DNA from C trachomatis and B burgdorferi using specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocols. Data concerning prior genitourinary infection or a history of tick bite were recorded and serum antibodies to C trachomatis and B burgdorferi were determined.
RESULTS—Six patients (8%) had DNA from both C trachomatis and B burgdorferi in the same synovial fluid specimen (mean leucocyte count 11.925/mm3, 65% granulocytes). These patients (four men, two women; mean age 33.7 years) all had oligoarthritis of the knee, ankle, or both (mean disease duration 11.3 months). From the history and serological examination, four patients had some evidence of actual or previous infection with one or other of the bacteria, while the other two patients had a positive serological test for Chlamydia only.
CONCLUSIONS—DNA from two different microorganisms which are known to be triggering agents for arthritis may be present simultaneously in joint material from patients with unexplained oligoarthritis. This finding raises the question as to whether, in such cases, one or both bacteria contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease or whether they are only innocent bystanders.

 PMID:11350854

  11. Chlamydia trachomatis infection among Hispanic women in the California-Mexico border area, 1993: establishing screening criteria in a primary care setting.

    PubMed

    Gunn, R A; Hillis, S D; Shirey, P; Waterman, S H; Greenspan, J R

    1995-01-01

    During January 1-October 15, 1993, three clinics in Imperial County, California, located east of the coastal mountain range which borders Baja California; a large community health center in San Diego County, California; and a public health/family planning clinic in Tijuana in Baja California, Mexico, successfully screened 2378 Hispanic women for Chlamydia trachomatis. The overall chlamydia prevalence was 3.2% (2.1% in Tijuana; 3.3% in California). Chlamydia was more common among the prenatal clients than family planning clients (4.7% vs. 2.6%; p 0.02). Adolescents had the highest chlamydia infection rate (7.5%). Women born in Mexico or those who visited Mexico for at least one week during the last three months had a similar chlamydia prevalence rate as those born in the US or those who had not visited Mexico recently. The multivariate analysis revealed that significant independent predictors of chlamydia infection included young age (25 years) (prevalence ratio [PR] = 4.5 for 20 years and 2.5 for 20-24 years), unmarried status (PR = 2), high risk sex behavior (PR = 1.1), exposure to a sexually transmitted disease (PR = 2.6), discharge/bleeding (PR = 1.4), vaginosis (PR = 3.6), and cervicitis (i.e., chlamydia syndrome) (PR = 6). If the clinics had applied the minimum screening criteria recommended by the US Centers for Disease Control, less than 50% of the clients would have been screened. Yet it would have identified only 69% of chlamydia infections. If clinics would apply the criteria identified in this survey, they would need to screen 64% of their clients, which would identify 92% of clients infected with chlamydia. These findings indicate that, in the California-Mexico border region, chlamydia prevalence among Hispanic women seeking reproductive health care was comparable. They also show that clinics can implement an effective selective screening strategy. PMID:8578402

  12. Intrauterine Infection with Plasmid-Free Chlamydia muridarum Reveals a Critical Role of the Plasmid in Chlamydial Ascension and Establishes a Model for Evaluating Plasmid-Independent Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jianlin; Yang, Zhangsheng; Sun, Xin; Tang, Lingli; Ding, Yiling; Xue, Min; Zhou, Zhiguang; Baseman, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Intravaginal infection with plasmid-competent but not plasmid-free Chlamydia muridarum induces hydrosalpinx in mouse upper genital tract, indicating a critical role of the plasmid in chlamydial pathogenicity. To evaluate the contribution of the plasmid to chlamydial ascension and activation of tubal inflammation, we delivered plasmid-free C. muridarum directly into the endometrium by intrauterine inoculation. We found that three of the six mouse strains tested, including CBA/J, C3H/HeJ, and C57BL/6J, developed significant hydrosalpinges when 1 107 inclusion-forming units (IFU) of plasmid-free C. muridarum were intrauterinally inoculated. Even when the inoculum was reduced to 1 104 IFU, the CBA/J mice still developed robust hydrosalpinx. The hydrosalpinx development in CBA/J mice correlated with increased organism ascension to the oviduct following the intrauterine inoculation. The CBA/J mice intravaginally infected with the same plasmid-free C. muridarum strain displayed reduced ascending infection and failed to develop hydrosalpinx. These observations have demonstrated a critical role of the plasmid in chlamydial ascending infection. The intrauterine inoculation of the CBA/J mice with plasmid-free C. muridarum not only resulted in more infection in the oviduct but also stimulated more inflammatory infiltration and cytokine production in the oviduct than the intravaginal inoculation, suggesting that the oviduct inflammation can be induced by plasmid-independent factors, which makes the hydrosalpinx induction in CBA/J mice by intrauterine infection with plasmid-free C. muridarum a suitable model for investigating plasmid-independent pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:25870225

  13. Increased Risk of Endometriosis in Patients With Lower Genital Tract Infection: A Nationwide Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wu-Chou; Chang, Cherry Yin-Yi; Hsu, Yu-An; Chiang, Jen-Huai; Wan, Lei

    2016-03-01

    Endometriosis results from the ectopic invasion of endometrial glands and stroma in the peritoneal cavity. The exact etiology of endometriosis is still unknown. It has, however, been shown that there are higher numbers of Escherichia coli in menstrual blood, and higher endotoxin levels in menstrual fluid, as well as, in the peritoneal fluid of patients with endometriosis. In this study, we aimed to determine whether lower genital tract infections could increase the risk of endometriosis.We used the Taiwan National Health Insurance database to conduct a population-based cohort study. We included patients diagnosed with inflammatory diseases of the cervix, vagina, and vulva, and a control group comprising patients matched by age, sex, and comorbidities but without inflammatory diseases of the cervix, vagina, or vulva.A total of 79,512 patients were included in the inflammatory disease group and an equal number of control individuals were selected. The incidence of endometriosis (hazard ratio, 2.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.91-2.12; P < 0.001) was higher among patients than controls. Cox proportional hazards models showed that irrespective of comorbidities, lower genital tract infection was an independent risk factor for endometriosis.Patients with lower genital tract infections exhibit a substantially higher risk for developing endometriosis. PMID:26962775

  14. Chlamydia trachomatis Frequency in a Cohort of HPV-Infected Colombian Women

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, Juan David; Soto-De León, Sara Cecilia; Camargo, Milena; Del Río-Ospina, Luisa; Sánchez, Ricardo; Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin; Patarroyo, Manuel Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Background Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis), an obligate intracellular bacterium, is the commonest infectious bacterial agent of sexual transmission throughout the world. It has been shown that the presence of this bacteria in the cervix represents a risk regarding HPV persistence and, thereafter, in developing cervical cancer (CC). Prevalence rates may vary from 2% to 17% in asymptomatic females, depending on the population being analysed. This study reports the identification of C. trachomatis in a cohort of 219 HPV-infected Colombian females. Methods C. trachomatis infection frequency was determined during each of the study’s follow-up visits; it was detected by amplifying the cryptic plasmid sequence by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using two sets of primers: KL5/KL6 and KL1/KL2. Infection was defined as a positive PCR result using either set of primers at any time during the study. Cox proportional risk models were used for evaluating the association between the appearance of infection and a group of independent variables. Results Base line C. trachomatis infection frequency was 28% (n = 61). Most females infected by C. trachomatis were infected by multiple types of HPV (77.42%), greater prevalence occurring in females infected with HPV-16 (19.18%), followed by HPV-58 (17.81%). It was observed that females having had the most sexual partners (HR = 6.44: 1.59–26.05 95%CI) or infection with multiple types of HPV (HR = 2.85: 1.22–6.63 95%CI) had the greatest risk of developing C. trachomatis. Conclusions The study provides data regarding the epidemiology of C. trachomatis /HPV coinfection in different population groups of Colombian females and contributes towards understanding the natural history of C. trachomatis infection. PMID:26807957

  15. Chlamydia trachomatis cervicitis in gynecologic outpatients.

    PubMed

    Ripa, K T; Svensson, L; Mårdh, P A; Weström, L

    1978-12-01

    Symptoms suggestive of a lower genital tract infection (LGTI) are common complaints in women who consult gynecologists. Sexually transmitted microorganisms, such as Chlamydia trachomatis. Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis, are responsible for a substantial proportion of LGTI. This study was performed to establish the frequency of LGTI caused by C trachomatis in women attending a gynecologic outpatient clinic. Of 170 women with LGTI, 32.9% harbored one or more of these organisms: C trachomatis was found in 19.3%, N gonorrhoeae in 4.7%, and T vaginalis in 25.9%. The results of the isolation studies were correlated with clinical signs and symptoms. In women under 25 years of age, chlamydial cervicitis was found significantly more often in users of oral contraceptives than in nonusers. In women not taking such drugs, cervical erosion was found more often in Chlamydia-positive than Chlamydia-negative women. Since clinical examination failed to reveal any characteristic signs in cases of chlamydial infection, it was not possible to distinguish a chlamydial from a gonococcal infection. This study also reports the successful treatment of 15 women affected by chlamydial cervicitis with doxycycline or trimethoprim sulphamethoxazole. PMID:104212

  16. Proteomic Analysis of Differentially Expressed Chlamydia pneumoniae Genes during Persistent Infection of HEp-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Molestina, Robert E.; Klein, Jon B.; Miller, Richard D.; Pierce, William H.; Ramirez, Julio A.; Summersgill, James T.

    2002-01-01

    Recent data have shown that the respiratory pathogen Chlamydia pneumoniae expresses an altered gene transcription profile during gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-induced persistent infection in vitro. In the present study, we examined, by proteomics, expression of C. pneumoniae proteins labeled intracellularly with [35S]methionine/cysteine under normal conditions or IFN-γ-mediated persistence. The identity of differentially expressed proteins during persistent infection was determined by matching spots to those of proteins identified in C. pneumoniae elementary bodies by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry. Upon treatment with 50 U of IFN-γ per ml, a marked upregulation of major outer membrane protein (MOMP), heat shock protein 60 (Hsp-60/GroEL), and proteins with functions in DNA replication (GyrA), transcription (RpoA, PnP), translation (Rrf), glycolysis (PgK, GlgP), and type III secretion (SctN) was observed at 24 h of infection. In contrast, no significant decreases in bacterial protein expression were found in C. pneumoniae-infected cells due to IFN-γ treatment. Upregulation of C. pneumoniae proteins involved in diverse functions during persistent infection may allow the organism to resist the inhibitory effects of IFN-γ while retaining basic functions. Future studies should examine the differential expression of chlamydial proteins during the developmental cycle under IFN-γ pressure to obtain a finer representation of the gene products involved in establishing persistence. PMID:12010987

  17. Intranasal Infection with Chlamydia abortus Induces Dose-Dependent Latency and Abortion in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Longbottom, David; Livingstone, Morag; Maley, Stephen; van der Zon, Arjan; Rocchi, Mara; Wilson, Kim; Wheelhouse, Nicholas; Dagleish, Mark; Aitchison, Kevin; Wattegedera, Sean; Nath, Mintu; Entrican, Gary; Buxton, David

    2013-01-01

    Background Latency is a key feature of the animal pathogen Chlamydia abortus, where infection remains inapparent in the non-pregnant animal and only becomes evident during a subsequent pregnancy. Often the first sign that an animal is infected is abortion occurring late in gestation. Despite this, little is understood of the underlying mechanisms that control latency or the recrudescence of infection that occurs during subsequent pregnancy. The aim of this study was to develop an experimental model of latency by mimicking the natural route of infection through the intranasal inoculation of non-pregnant sheep with C. abortus. Methodology/Principal Findings Three groups of sheep (groups 1, 2 and 3) were experimentally infected with different doses of C. abortus (5103, 5105 and 5107 inclusion forming units (IFU), respectively) prior to mating and monitored over 2 breeding cycles for clinical, microbiological, pathological, immunological and serological outcomes. Two further groups received either negative control inoculum (group 4a,b) or were inoculated subcutaneously on day 70 of gestation with 2106 IFU C. abortus (group 5). Animals in groups 1, 2 and 5 experienced an abortion rate of 5067%, while only one animal aborted in group 3 and none in group 4a,b. Pathological, microbiological, immunological and serological analyses support the view that the maternal protective immune response is influenced by initial exposure to the bacterium. Conclusions/Significance The results show that intranasal administration of non-pregnant sheep with a low/medium dose of C. abortus results in a latent infection that leads in a subsequent pregnancy to infection of the placenta and abortion. In contrast a high dose stimulates protective immunity, resulting in a much lower abortion rate. This model will be useful in understanding the mechanisms of infection underlying latency and onset of disease, as well as in the development of novel therapeutics and vaccines for controlling infection. PMID:23469113

  18. Surgical Site Infections in Genital Reconstruction Surgery for Gender Reassignment, Detroit: 19842008

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jing J.; Palla, Mohan B.; Bogan, Christopher W.; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Tansek, Ryan; Moshos, Judy; Muthusamy, Arunkumar; Kotra, Harikrishna; Lephart, Paul R.; Wilson, Alan N.; Kaye, Keith S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Gender reassignment surgery (i.e., male-to-female or female-to-male) entails a series of complex surgical procedures. We conducted a study to explore epidemiologic characteristics of patients who underwent genital reconstruction operations as components of gender reassignment and to analyze risk factors for surgical-site infections (SSIs) following these operations. Methods: The study was a retrospective cohort study conducted from 19842008 at Harper University Hospital, a tertiary hospital with 625 beds in Detroit, Michigan. Surgical site infection was defined according to established criteria. Results: Records were available for 82 patients who underwent a total of 1,383 operations as part of genital-reconstruction processes. Thirty-nine (47.6%) of the patients underwent female-to-male reassignment (FTM) and 43 (52.4%) underwent male-to-female reassignment (MTF). The average age of the study cohort was 39.59.8?y. Of the patients in the cohort, 56 (68.3%) were Caucasian and 67 (81.7%) were single. The average number of operative encounters per patient was 11.84.6 for FTM and 4.92.4 for MTF. Forty-three (52.4%) patients developed an SSI at least once during their genital reconstruction process, of whom 34 (87%) were in the FTM group and nine (21%) in the MTF group (p<0.001). Staphylococci were the most common pathogens (61%) isolated in these infections, followed by Enterobacteriaceae (50%), Enterococcus (39%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (33.3%). Surgical site infection was associated independently with an increased frequency of operative procedures and operating room encounters. Conclusions: More than 50% of patients who underwent genital reconstruction operations developed an SSI at some point during the genital reconstruction process. Surgical site infections are more common in FTM than in MTF reconstruction operations, and for both FTM and MTF, SSIs are associated independently with an increased frequency of total operative procedures and encounters. PMID:24180342

  19. Improving the molecular diagnosis of Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia abortus infection with a species-specific duplex real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Opota, Onya; Jaton, Katia; Branley, James; Vanrompay, Daisy; Erard, Veronique; Borel, Nicole; Longbottom, David; Greub, Gilbert

    2015-10-01

    Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia abortus are closely related intracellular bacteria exhibiting different tissue tropism that may cause severe but distinct infection in humans. C. psittaci causes psittacosis, a respiratory zoonotic infection transmitted by birds. C. abortus is an abortigenic agent in small ruminants, which can also colonize the human placenta and lead to foetal death and miscarriage. Infections caused by C. psittaci and C. abortus are underestimated mainly due to diagnosis difficulties resulting from their strict intracellular growth. We developed a duplex real-time PCR to detect and distinguish these two bacteria in clinical samples. The first PCR (PCR1) targeted a sequence of the 16S-23S rRNA operon allowing the detection of both C. psittaci and C. abortus. The second PCR (PCR2) targeted the coding DNA sequence CPSIT_0607 unique to C. psittaci. The two PCRs showed 100?% detection for ??10 DNA copies per reaction (1000 copies ml(-?1)). Using a set of 120 samples, including bacterial reference strains, clinical specimens and infected cell culture material, we monitored 100?% sensitivity and 100?% specificity for the detection of C. psittaci and C. abortus for PCR1. When PCR1 was positive, PCR2 could discriminate C. psittaci from C. abortus with a positive predictive value of 100?% and a negative predictive value of 88?%. In conclusion, this new duplex PCR represents a low-cost and time-saving method with high-throughput potential, expected to improve the routine diagnosis of psittacosis and pregnancy complication in large-scale screening programs and also during outbreaks. PMID:26297212

  20. Suppression of recurrent genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection by Rhus javanica in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Nakano, M; Kurokawa, M; Hozumi, T; Saito, A; Ida, M; Morohashi, M; Namba, T; Kawana, T; Shiraki, K

    1998-07-01

    Rhus javanica has been shown to exhibit anti-herpes simplex virus (HSV) activity and potentiate the anti-HSV activity of acyclovir in vitro and in vivo. This extract was examined for its suppressive efficacy on recurrent genital infection in guinea pigs. Guinea pigs were primarily infected intravaginally with HSV type 2 (HSV-2). Prophylactic oral administration, at the dose corresponding to human use, of R. javanica significantly reduced the incidence, severity and/or frequency of spontaneous and severe skin lesions as compared with latently infected guinea pigs administered with water. This prophylactic efficacy was confirmed by the crossover administration, for more than 2 months, of R. javanica and water to the infected guinea pigs. Toxicity, such as weight loss, from R. javanica administration was not observed in the guinea pigs. When recurrent HSV-2 disease was induced by ultraviolet irradiation 3 months after primary infection, the prophylaxis with R. javanica was also significantly effective in reducing the severity of ultraviolet-induced skin lesions. Thus, prophylaxis of recurrent genital HSV-2 infection with R. javanica may preserve the efficacy of acyclovir by reducing both the use of acyclovir and the appearance of acyclovir-resistant viruses. PMID:9754947

  1. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Chlamydia abortus infection in Tibetan sheep in Gansu province, northwest China.

    PubMed

    Qin, Si-Yuan; Yin, Ming-Yang; Cong, Wei; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Zhao, Quan; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Zhou, Ji-Zhang; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia abortus, an important pathogen in a variety of animals, is associated with abortion in sheep. In the present study, 1732 blood samples, collected from Tibetan sheep between June 2013 and April 2014, were examined by the indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test, aiming to evaluate the seroprevalence and risk factors of C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. 323 of 1732 (18.65%) samples were seropositive for C. abortus antibodies at the cut-off of 1:16. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk factors associated with seroprevalence, which could provide foundation to prevent and control C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. Gender of Tibetan sheep was left out of the final model because it is not significant in the logistic regression analysis (P > 0.05). Region, season, and age were considered as major risk factors associated with C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep in Gansu province, northwest China, with higher exposure risk in different seasons and ages and distinct geographical distribution. PMID:25401129

  2. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Chlamydia abortus Infection in Tibetan Sheep in Gansu Province, Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Si-Yuan; Yin, Ming-Yang; Cong, Wei; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Zhao, Quan; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Zhou, Ji-Zhang; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia abortus, an important pathogen in a variety of animals, is associated with abortion in sheep. In the present study, 1732 blood samples, collected from Tibetan sheep between June 2013 and April 2014, were examined by the indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test, aiming to evaluate the seroprevalence and risk factors of C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. 323 of 1732 (18.65%) samples were seropositive for C. abortus antibodies at the cut-off of 1 : 16. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the risk factors associated with seroprevalence, which could provide foundation to prevent and control C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. Gender of Tibetan sheep was left out of the final model because it is not significant in the logistic regression analysis (P > 0.05). Region, season, and age were considered as major risk factors associated with C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep. Our study revealed a widespread and high prevalence of C. abortus infection in Tibetan sheep in Gansu province, northwest China, with higher exposure risk in different seasons and ages and distinct geographical distribution. PMID:25401129

  3. Shear stress upregulates IL-1β secretion by Chlamydia pneumoniae- infected monocytes.

    PubMed

    Cheeniyil, Aswathi; Evani, Shankar J; Dallo, Shatha F; Ramasubramanian, Anand K

    2015-04-01

    Infectious agents are increasingly implicated in the development and progression of chronic inflammatory diseases. Several lines of evidence suggest that the common intracellular respiratory pathogen, Chlamydia pneumoniae contributes to the well-established risk factors of atherosclerosis but the exact mechanism is not well understood. It is believed that C. pneumoniae-infected monocytes travel from the lung to the atherosclerotic foci, during which the cells experience mechanical stimuli due to blood flow. In this work, we characterized the effect of physiological levels of shear stress on C. pneumoniae-infected human monocytes in an in vitro flow model. We found that a shear stress of 5 dyn/cm(2) enhanced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β only in infected, but not in uninfected, monocytes. We also found that this enhancement is due to the upregulation of IL-1β gene expression due to shear stress. Our results demonstrate that mechanotransduction is an important, heretofore unaddressed, determinant of inflammatory response to an infection. PMID:25336058

  4. Genital Warts (HPV)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... touching someone's genitals or having vaginal, oral, or anal sex). In some rare cases, genital warts are transmitted ... abstinence ). That means not having vaginal, oral, or anal sex. Preventing HPV infection also means not touching the ...

  5. Chlamydia muridarum infection of macrophages elicits bactericidal nitric oxide production via reactive oxygen species and cathepsin B.

    PubMed

    Rajaram, Krithika; Nelson, David E

    2015-08-01

    The ability of certain species of Chlamydia to inhibit the biogenesis of phagolysosomes permits their survival and replication within macrophages. The survival of macrophage-adapted chlamydiae correlates with the multiplicity of infection (MOI), and optimal chlamydial growth occurs in macrophages infected at an MOI of ?1. In this study, we examined the replicative capacity of Chlamydia muridarum in the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line at different MOIs. C. muridarum productively infected these macrophages at low MOIs but yielded few viable elementary bodies (EBs) when macrophages were infected at a moderate (10) or high (100) MOI. While high MOIs caused cytotoxicity and irreversible host cell death, macrophages infected at a moderate MOI did not show signs of cytotoxicity until late in the infectious cycle. Inhibition of host protein synthesis rescued C. muridarum in macrophages infected at a moderate MOI, implying that chlamydial growth was blocked by activated defense mechanisms. Conditioned medium from these macrophages was antichlamydial and contained elevated levels of interleukin 1? (IL-1?), IL-6, IL-10, and beta interferon (IFN-?). Macrophage activation depended on Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) signaling, and cytokine production required live, transcriptionally active chlamydiae. A hydroxyl radical scavenger and inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cathepsin B also reversed chlamydial killing. High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) led to an increase in cathepsin B activity, and pharmacological inhibition of ROS and cathepsin B reduced iNOS expression. Our data demonstrate that MOI-dependent TLR2 activation of macrophages results in iNOS induction via a novel ROS- and cathepsin-dependent mechanism to facilitate C. muridarum clearance. PMID:26015483

  6. Chlamydia muridarum Infection of Macrophages Elicits Bactericidal Nitric Oxide Production via Reactive Oxygen Species and Cathepsin B

    PubMed Central

    Rajaram, Krithika

    2015-01-01

    The ability of certain species of Chlamydia to inhibit the biogenesis of phagolysosomes permits their survival and replication within macrophages. The survival of macrophage-adapted chlamydiae correlates with the multiplicity of infection (MOI), and optimal chlamydial growth occurs in macrophages infected at an MOI of ≤1. In this study, we examined the replicative capacity of Chlamydia muridarum in the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line at different MOIs. C. muridarum productively infected these macrophages at low MOIs but yielded few viable elementary bodies (EBs) when macrophages were infected at a moderate (10) or high (100) MOI. While high MOIs caused cytotoxicity and irreversible host cell death, macrophages infected at a moderate MOI did not show signs of cytotoxicity until late in the infectious cycle. Inhibition of host protein synthesis rescued C. muridarum in macrophages infected at a moderate MOI, implying that chlamydial growth was blocked by activated defense mechanisms. Conditioned medium from these macrophages was antichlamydial and contained elevated levels of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-10, and beta interferon (IFN-β). Macrophage activation depended on Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) signaling, and cytokine production required live, transcriptionally active chlamydiae. A hydroxyl radical scavenger and inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cathepsin B also reversed chlamydial killing. High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) led to an increase in cathepsin B activity, and pharmacological inhibition of ROS and cathepsin B reduced iNOS expression. Our data demonstrate that MOI-dependent TLR2 activation of macrophages results in iNOS induction via a novel ROS- and cathepsin-dependent mechanism to facilitate C. muridarum clearance. PMID:26015483

  7. Second European multi-disciplinary conference of national strategies for Chlamydia trach. and human papillomavirus NSCP conf. in Berlin, 2013 enhanced detection, management and surveillance of sexually transmitted infections in Europe are essential!

    PubMed

    Ozolins, D; D' Elios, M M; Ripa, T; Bailey, R; Timms, P; Spiteri, G; Haar, K; Unemo, M

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for updated guidance on detection, management and surveillance of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilisreporting needs to be mandatory in more European countries to aid collection of data. More widespread Chlamydia screening is needed in many countries as this is the only way to reduce complications. The role of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) screening in a situation where the prevalence of HPV infection has dropped significantly was also discussed in the context of the high cost of screening, the need for a relatively complex infrastructure, particularly in developing countries, and falling vaccination costs. An integrated HPV vaccination and screening policy could be the most appropriate with vaccination at 9-13 years as recommended by WHO and a single HPV screen at 35-39 years, possibly repeated thereafter every 10 years. Female and male HPV vaccination programmes could lead to near elimination of genital warts in both females and males. Surveillance of STIsshould be intensified where needed; additional or better quality data should be collected including reasons for testing, denominator data to estimate positivity rates, diagnostic methods, concurrent STIs, sexual orientation and country of acquisition; more analytical rather than descriptive epidemiology is needed. PMID:24355218

  8. Novel rat models to study primary genital herpes simplex virus-2 infection.

    PubMed

    nnheim, Karin; Ekblad, Maria; Grander, Staffan; Lange, Stefan; Jennische, Eva; Bergstrm, Tomas; Wildt, Sheryl; Liljeqvist, Jan-ke

    2015-05-01

    In this study we describe that six rat models (SD, WIST, LEW, BN, F344 and DA) are susceptible to intravaginal herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) infection after pre-treatment with progesterone. At a virus dose of 5נ10(6) PFU of HSV-2, all rat models were infected presenting anti-HSV-2 antibodies, infectious virus in vaginal washes, and HSV-2 DNA genome copies in lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia and the spinal cord. Most of the LEW, BN, F344, and DA rats succumbed in systemic progressive symptoms at day 8-14 post infection, but presented no or mild genital inflammation while SD and WIST rats were mostly infected asymptomatically. Infected SD rats did not reactivate HSV-2 spontaneously or after cortisone treatment. In an HSV-2 virus dose reduction study, F344 rats were shown to be most susceptible. We also investigated whether an attenuated HSV-1 strain (KOS321) given intravaginally, could protect from a subsequent HSV-2 infection. All LEW, BN, and F344 rats survived a primary HSV-1 infection and no neuronal infection was established. In BN and F344 rats, anti-HSV-1 antibodies were readily detected while LEW rats were seronegative. In contrast to nave LEW, BN, and F344 rats where only 3 of 18 animals survived 5נ10(6) PFU of HSV-2, 23 of 25 previously HSV-1 infected rats survived a challenge with HSV-2. The described models provide a new approach to investigate protective effects of anti-viral microbicides and vaccine candidates, as well as to study asymptomatic primary genital HSV-2 infection. PMID:25701211

  9. Prevalence and risk factors for trachoma and ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Niger

    PubMed Central

    Abdou, A; Nassirou, B; Kadri, B; Moussa, F; Munoz, B E; Opong, E; West, S K

    2007-01-01

    Aims To determine the association of personal and household risk factors for trachoma and ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Niger. Methods 12 villages were randomly selected. A census of all households was carried out, and 651 children aged 1–5 years were randomly selected and examined. Household and personal characteristics were determined, trachoma was clinically assessed and a swab for ocular C trachomatis infection was taken. Results The prevalence of trachoma was 43% (95% confidence interval (CI) 39% to 47%) and of infection was 21% (95% CI 18% to 24%). Children aged 3–5 years had a stronger association of clinical signs with infection, compared with those aged 1–2 years. Those with unclean faces were three times more likely to have clinical trachoma or ocular C trachomatis infection, compared with those with clean faces (OR 3.1 (95% CI 1.6 to 6.2) and 3.0 (95% CI 1.4 to 6.3), respectively). 75% of compounds were within 30 min of a water source. Flies on the face were a risk factor for trachoma but not for C trachomatis infection. Conclusions The different association of clinical signs with infection in younger versus older children may be an age‐dependent difference in the duration of clinical disease. In Niger, unclean faces are a major risk factor for trachoma. The ready availability of water for washing suggests that further research on the effect of a strong health education campaign promoting clean children is warranted in this area. PMID:16899525

  10. Detection of Chlamydia infection in Peromyscus species rodents from sylvatic and laboratory sources.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Kyle H; Sigar, Ira M; Schripsema, Justin H; Townsend, Kathryn E; Barry, Randall J; Peters, Jan; Platt, Kenneth B

    2016-04-01

    To determine if Chlamydia muridarum, or other chlamydiae, are enzootic in rodents, we probed a serum bank of wild Peromyscus spp. mice for immunoglobulin G-antibody reactivity to ultraviolet light-inactivated C. muridarum elementary bodies (EBs) using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Applying a cut-off for a positive reaction of OD405 nm = 0.1 at a 1:20 dilution, we found titratable antibody reactivity in 190 of 247 specimens surveyed (77%, mean OD405 = 0.33 ± 0.26, range = 0.11-1.81, median = 0.25). In addition, serum samples were obtained from a colony of specific pathogen-free Peromyscus spp. maintained at the University of South Carolina and six of 12 samples were reactive (50%, mean OD405 = 0.19 +/- 0.08, range = 0.1-0.32, median = 0.18). Lastly, 40 additional wild Peromyscus spp. were captured in a disparate region of Midwestern USA and 22 serum specimens were reactive (55%, mean OD405 = 0.22 +/- 0.11, range = 0.1-0.48, median = 0.2). Specificity of selected reactive sera for chlamydial antigen was confirmed on Western blot using resolved purified EBs as the detecting antigen. From tissues removed from several mice at necropsy, the gene for chlamydial 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Positive samples of 16S rRNA were subjected to additional PCR for the major outer membrane protein gene (ompA). The amplicons of three select ompA positive samples were sequenced with ≥99% homology with C. muridarum. Our findings indicate that chlamydial infection is enzootic for Peromyscus spp., and that C. muridarum, or a closely related species or strain, is likely the agent in the tested rodent species. PMID:26733499

  11. [Infective endocarditis caused by Chlamydia pneumoniae after liver transplantation. Case report].

    PubMed

    P Szab, Rka; Kertsz, Attila; Szerafin, Tams; Fehrvri, Imre; Zsom, Lajos; Balla, Jzsef; Nemes, Balzs

    2015-05-31

    The incidence of infective endocarditis is underestimated in solid organ transplant recipients. The spectrum of pathogens is different from the general population. The authors report the successful treatment of a 58-year-old woman with infective endocarditis caused by atypical microorganism and presented with atypical manifestations. Past history of the patient included alcoholic liver cirrhosis and cadaver liver transplantation in February 2000. One year after liver transplantation hepatitis B virus infection was diagnosed and treated with antiviral agents. In July 2007 hemodialysis was started due to progressive chronic kidney disease caused by calcineurin toxicity. In November 2013 the patient presented with transient aphasia. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed vegetation in the aortic valve and brain embolization was identified on magnetic resonance images. Initial treatment consisted of a 4-week regimen with ceftriaxone (2 g daily) and gentamycin (60 mg after hemodialysis). Blood cultures were all negative while serology revealed high titre of antibodies against Chlamydia pneumoniae. Moxifloxacin was added as an anti-chlamydial agent, but neurologic symptoms returned. After coronarography, valvular surgery and coronary artery bypass surgery were performed which resulted in full clinical recovery of the patient. PMID:26004549

  12. Chlamydia trachomatis Co-opts the FGF2 Signaling Pathway to Enhance Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Hwa; Jiang, Shaobo; Elwell, Cherilyn A.; Engel, Joanne N.

    2011-01-01

    The molecular details of Chlamydia trachomatis binding, entry, and spread are incompletely understood, but heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) play a role in the initial binding steps. As cell surface HSPGs facilitate the interactions of many growth factors with their receptors, we investigated the role of HSPG-dependent growth factors in C. trachomatis infection. Here, we report a novel finding that Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 (FGF2) is necessary and sufficient to enhance C. trachomatis binding to host cells in an HSPG-dependent manner. FGF2 binds directly to elementary bodies (EBs) where it may function as a bridging molecule to facilitate interactions of EBs with the FGF receptor (FGFR) on the cell surface. Upon EB binding, FGFR is activated locally and contributes to bacterial uptake into non-phagocytic cells. We further show that C. trachomatis infection stimulates fgf2 transcription and enhances production and release of FGF2 through a pathway that requires bacterial protein synthesis and activation of the Erk1/2 signaling pathway but that is independent of FGFR activation. Intracellular replication of the bacteria results in host proteosome-mediated degradation of the high molecular weight (HMW) isoforms of FGF2 and increased amounts of the low molecular weight (LMW) isoforms, which are released upon host cell death. Finally, we demonstrate the in vivo relevance of these findings by showing that conditioned medium from C. trachomatis infected cells is enriched for LMW FGF2, accounting for its ability to enhance C. trachomatis infectivity in additional rounds of infection. Together, these results demonstrate that C. trachomatis utilizes multiple mechanisms to co-opt the host cell FGF2 pathway to enhance bacterial infection and spread. PMID:21998584

  13. Genital self-mutilation in a suicide attempt: a rare sequela of a hypochondriacal delusion of infection with HIV.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Kshirod K; Reddy, Srikanth; Khairkar, Praveen

    2014-03-01

    Genital self-mutilation is mostly seen among psychotic, affective and gender identity disorder(s). We present here a rare case report of such genital self-mutilation in a person with a hypochondriacal delusion of infection with HIV precipitated by erroneous and anxiety-provoking miscommunication during HIV testing. Such cases remind us of the need for systematic and appropriate pre-test and post-test HIV counseling, to help prevent such outcomes. PMID:24021211

  14. Twelve-Month Antiretroviral Therapy Suppresses Plasma and Genital Viral Loads but Fails to Alter Genital Levels of Cytokines, in a Cohort of HIV-Infected Rwandan Women

    PubMed Central

    Ondoa, Pascale; Gautam, Raju; Rusine, John; Lutter, Rene; Jurriaans, Suzanne; Kootstra, Neeltje; Karita, Etienne; van de Wijgert, Janneke

    2015-01-01

    Background Genital viral load (GVL) is the main determinant of sexual transmission of human immune-deficiency virus (HIV). The effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on local cervico-vaginal immunological factors associated with GVL is poorly described. We aimed to identify the risk factors of detectable GVL, and the impact of ART on HIV genital shedding and its correlates in a cohort of HIV-infected women, attending HIV care in Kigali, Rwanda. Materials and Methods All participants were evaluated for GVL, plasma viral load (PVL), CD4 count, various sexually-transmitted infections (STIs) at baseline and at month 12. Genital concentration of 19 cytokines and mRNA expression of APOBEC3G and BST2, two host HIV restriction factors, were evaluated at baseline in all participants. Cytokine levels were re-assessed at month 12 only in participants eligible for ART at baseline. Risk factors of GVL ≥40copies/mL at baseline and month 12 were assessed using logistic regression. Effect of 12-month ART on various local and systemic immunological parameters was examined using a paired t-test and McNemar as appropriate. Results 96 of the 247 women enrolled in the study were eligible for ART. After 12 months of ART, PVL and GVL decreased to undetectable level in respectively 74 and 88% of treated participants. ART did not affect cytokine levels. HIV genital shedding occurred only when PVL was detectable. At baseline, GVL was independently associated with IL-1β after controlling for PVL, age and N. gonorrhea infection (95% CI 1.32-2.15) and at month 12 with MIP-1β (95% CI 0.96-21.32) after controlling for baseline GVL, PVL and month 12 IL-8. Conclusion Suppressive ART does not necessarily reduce genital level of immune activation. Minimizing all conditions favoring genital inflammation, including active detection and treatment of STIs, might reduce the risk of HIV transmission as supplement to the provision of potent ART. PMID:26010956

  15. Chlamydia pneumoniae CopD Translocator Protein Plays a Critical Role in Type III Secretion (T3S) and Infection

    PubMed Central

    Bulir, David C.; Waltho, Daniel A.; Stone, Christopher B.; Mwawasi, Kenneth A.; Nelson, Jordan C.; Mahony, James B.

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria use type III secretion (T3S) to inject effector proteins into the host cell to create appropriate conditions for infection and intracellular replication. Chlamydia spp. are believed to use T3S to infect their host cell, and the translocator proteins are an essential component of this system. Chlamydia pneumoniae contains genes encoding two sets of translocator proteins; CopB and CopD, and CopB2 and CopD2. In this study, we identified novel interactions between CopD and three type III secretion proteins; namely, CopN, CdsN, and CdsF. We identified a CopD putative chaperone binding motif, PxLxxP, within the N-terminal region (CopD amino acids 120125), which was necessary for interaction with its putative chaperone LcrH_1. Using size exclusion chromatography, we showed that CopD and LcrH_1 formed higher order structures in solution with CopD and LcrH_1 binding in a ratio of 1?1, which is unique for T3SS translocator proteins. Lastly, we showed that antibodies to CopD reduced C. pneumoniae infectivity by >95%. Collectively, this data suggests that CopD plays a critical role in pathogenesis and likely functions as a hydrophobic translocator of the type III secretion system in Chlamydia pneumoniae. PMID:24959658

  16. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Genital Herpes Home For Patients Search FAQs Genital Herpes Page ... Genital Herpes FAQ054, May 2011 PDF Format Genital Herpes Gynecologic Problems What is genital herpes? How does ...

  17. Induction of Protective Immunity against Chlamydia muridarum Intravaginal Infection with a Chlamydial Glycogen Phosphorylase

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Bo; Zeng, Hao; Zhou, Zhiguan; Wu, Yimou; Zhong, Guangming

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated 7 C. muridarum ORFs for their ability to induce protection against chlamydial infection in a mouse intravaginal infection model. These antigens, although encoded in C. muridarum genome, are transcriptionally regulated by a cryptic plasmid that is known to contribute to C. muridarum pathogenesis. Of the 7 plasmid-regulated ORFs, the chlamydial glycogen phosphorylase or GlgP, when delivered into mice intramuscularly, induced the most pronounced protective immunity against C. muridarum intravaginal infection. The GlgP-immunized mice displayed a significant reduction in vaginal shedding of live organisms on day 14 after infection. The protection correlated well with a robust C. muridarum-specific antibody and a Th1-dominant T cell responses, which significantly reduced the severity but not overall incidence of hydrosalpinx. The GlgP-induced partial protection against upper genital tract pathology suggests that GlgP may be considered a component for a multi-subunit vaccine. These results have demonstrated that intramuscular immunization of mice with purified proteins can be used to identify vaccine antigens for preventing intravaginal infection with C. trachomatis in humans. PMID:22427926

  18. Persistently elevated level of IL-8 in Chlamydia trachomatis infected HeLa 229 cells is dependent on intracellular available iron.

    PubMed

    Vardhan, Harsh; Dutta, Raini; Vats, Vikas; Gupta, Rishein; Jha, Rajneesh; Jha, Hem Chandra; Srivastava, Pragya; Bhengraj, Apurb Rashmi; Singh Mittal, Aruna

    2009-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a leading cause of sexually transmitted infection worldwide and responsible for myriad of immunopathological changes associated with reproductive health. Delayed secretion of proinflammatory chemokine interleukin (IL)-8 is a hallmark of chlamydial infection and is dependent on chlamydial growth. We examined the effect of iron chelators on IL-8 production in HeLa 229 (cervix epitheloid cell, CCL2) cells infected with C. trachomatis. IL-8 production was induced by Iron chelator DFO and Mimosine, however, synergy with chlamydial infection was obtained with DFO only. Temporal expression of proinflammatory secreted cytokines IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IL-8 did not show synchrony in Chlamydia trachomatis infected cells. Secretion of IL-8 from Hela cells infected with C. trachomatis was not dependent on IL-1 beta and TNF- alpha induction. These results indicate towards involvement of iron in chlamydia induced IL-8 production. PMID:19503841

  19. The Gonococcal Transcriptome during Infection of the Lower Genital Tract in Women

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Ryan; Nudel, Kathleen; Massari, Paola; Tjaden, Brian; Su, Xiaohong; Rice, Peter A.; Genco, Caroline A.

    2015-01-01

    Gonorrhea is a highly prevalent disease resulting in significant morbidity worldwide, with an estimated 106 cases reported annually. Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of gonorrhea, colonizes and infects the human genital tract and often evades host immune mechanisms until successful antibiotic treatment is used. The alarming increase in antibiotic-resistant strains of N. gonorrhoeae, the often asymptomatic nature of this disease in women and the lack of a vaccine directed at crucial virulence determinants have prompted us to perform transcriptome analysis to understand gonococcal gene expression patterns during natural infection. We sequenced RNA extracted from cervico-vaginal lavage samples collected from women recently exposed to infected male partners and determined the complete N. gonorrhoeae transcriptome during infection of the lower genital tract in women. On average, 3.19% of total RNA isolated from female samples aligned to the N. gonorrhoeae NCCP11945 genome and 1750 gonococcal ORFs (65% of all protein-coding genes) were transcribed. High expression in vivo was observed in genes encoding antimicrobial efflux pumps, iron response, phage production, pilin structure, outer membrane structures and hypothetical proteins. A parallel analysis was performed using the same strains grown in vitro in a chemically defined media (CDM). A total of 140 genes were increased in expression during natural infection compared to growth in CDM, and 165 genes were decreased in expression. Large differences were found in gene expression profiles under each condition, particularly with genes involved in DNA and RNA processing, iron, transposase, pilin and lipoproteins. We specifically interrogated genes encoding DNA binding regulators and iron-scavenging proteins, and identified increased expression of several iron-regulated genes, including tbpAB and fbpAB, during infection in women as compared to growth in vitro, suggesting that during infection of the genital tract in women, the gonococcus is exposed to an iron deplete environment. Collectively, we demonstrate that a large portion of the gonococcal genome is expressed and regulated during mucosal infection including genes involved in regulatory functions and iron scavenging. PMID:26244506

  20. The Gonococcal Transcriptome during Infection of the Lower Genital Tract in Women.

    PubMed

    McClure, Ryan; Nudel, Kathleen; Massari, Paola; Tjaden, Brian; Su, Xiaohong; Rice, Peter A; Genco, Caroline A

    2015-01-01

    Gonorrhea is a highly prevalent disease resulting in significant morbidity worldwide, with an estimated 106 cases reported annually. Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of gonorrhea, colonizes and infects the human genital tract and often evades host immune mechanisms until successful antibiotic treatment is used. The alarming increase in antibiotic-resistant strains of N. gonorrhoeae, the often asymptomatic nature of this disease in women and the lack of a vaccine directed at crucial virulence determinants have prompted us to perform transcriptome analysis to understand gonococcal gene expression patterns during natural infection. We sequenced RNA extracted from cervico-vaginal lavage samples collected from women recently exposed to infected male partners and determined the complete N. gonorrhoeae transcriptome during infection of the lower genital tract in women. On average, 3.19% of total RNA isolated from female samples aligned to the N. gonorrhoeae NCCP11945 genome and 1750 gonococcal ORFs (65% of all protein-coding genes) were transcribed. High expression in vivo was observed in genes encoding antimicrobial efflux pumps, iron response, phage production, pilin structure, outer membrane structures and hypothetical proteins. A parallel analysis was performed using the same strains grown in vitro in a chemically defined media (CDM). A total of 140 genes were increased in expression during natural infection compared to growth in CDM, and 165 genes were decreased in expression. Large differences were found in gene expression profiles under each condition, particularly with genes involved in DNA and RNA processing, iron, transposase, pilin and lipoproteins. We specifically interrogated genes encoding DNA binding regulators and iron-scavenging proteins, and identified increased expression of several iron-regulated genes, including tbpAB and fbpAB, during infection in women as compared to growth in vitro, suggesting that during infection of the genital tract in women, the gonococcus is exposed to an iron deplete environment. Collectively, we demonstrate that a large portion of the gonococcal genome is expressed and regulated during mucosal infection including genes involved in regulatory functions and iron scavenging. PMID:26244506

  1. Genital Infection with Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 in Women from Natal, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Cleine Aglacy Nunes; Lima, rika Galvo; de Lima, Diego Breno Soares; Cobucci, Ricardo Ney Oliveira; Cornetta, Maria da Conceio de Mesquita; Fernandes, Thales Allyrio Arajo de Medeiros; de Azevedo, Paulo Roberto Medeiros; de Azevedo, Jenner Chrystian Verssimo; de Arajo, Joslio Maria Galvo; Fernandes, Jos Verssimo

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the prevalence of HSV-1 and HSV-2 in pregnant and nonpregnant women, testing the correlation between DNA of the viruses with colposcopic and/or cytological changes, and evaluate association with sociodemographic characteristics and sexual activity. Methods. Included in this study were 106 pregnant and 130 nonpregnant women treated at primary health care units of Natal, Brazil, in the period 2010-2011. The patients were examined by colposcopy, and two cervical specimens were collected: one for cytology examination and another for analysis by PCR for detection of HSV-1 and HSV-2. Results. HSV-1 alone was detected in 16.0% of pregnant and 30.0% of nonpregnant women. For HSV-2, these rates were 12.3% and 15.5%, respectively. HSV-2 had a higher correlation with cytology and/or colposcopy changes than HSV-1 did. Genital HSV-1 infection was not associated with any of the variables tested, whereas HSV-2 infection was associated with ethnicity, marital status, and number of sexual partners. Conclusions. The prevalence of HSV-1 was higher than that observed for HSV-2 in both pregnant and nonpregnant women. The genital infection by HSV-2 was higher in women with changed colposcopy and/or cytology, and it was associated with ethnicity, marital status, and number of sexual partners. PMID:25006480

  2. Correlates of Chlamydia and Gonorrhea Infection among Female Sex Workers: The Untold Story of Jiangsu, China

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ning; Hu, Hai-Yang; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Yin, Yue-Ping; Mahapatra, Sanchita; Wang, Xiao-Liang; Chen, Xiang-Sheng; Lin, Nan; Zhang, Xun; Huan, Xi-Ping; Yang, Hai-Tao; Fu, Geng-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s) To estimate the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers (FSWs) in the Jiangsu Province, China and measure the association of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infections with their potential correlates. Design A cross-sectional study on a representative sample of FSWs in Yangzhou and Changzhou cities of Jiangsu was conducted. Methods 185 sex-work venues in Yangzhou and 174 in Changzhou were selected by stratified random sampling. 2972 FSWs (1108 in Yangzhou and 1864 in Changzhou), aged 15 years or more, who agreed to participate and provided blood sample for HIV and syphilis testing were interviewed in these venues. Cervical specimens from 849 randomly chosen participants were then tested for CT and NG. Results Proportions of young, school-educated, currently married FSWs who were living alone, migrated from other provinces and engaged in unprotected vaginal intercourse in past 3 months (UVI) were relatively high. Prevalence of HIV, syphilis, CT and NG were 0.20%, 4.88%, 14.61% and 5.42% respectively. Younger age, living alone or with persons other than partners/family members, engaging in UVI and having other STIs seemed to be associated with higher risk of CT or NG infection. Being divorced/widowed and working in middle/low-level venues were identified as additional risk factors for NG. Conclusions Based on a representative sample, this initial effort to identify the correlates of CT/NG infections among FSWs of Jiangsu revealed that focused interventions targeting high-risk FSWs are urgently required for controlling STI epidemics in Yangzhou and Changzhou where substantial number of STI cases were identified. PMID:24454950

  3. Comparison of nine antigen detection kits for diagnosis of urogenital infections due to Chlamydia psittaci in koalas.

    PubMed Central

    Wood, M M; Timms, P

    1992-01-01

    Chlamydia psittaci is the major cause of infectious disease in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). It causes four disease syndromes in the koala, namely, conjunctivitis, rhinitis, cystitis, and infertility (females only). Diagnosis of chlamydial infections in koalas relies primarily on isolation of the organism in cell culture. Serology has generally not been useful, and little use has previously been made of the commercially available antigen detection kits. We examined the sensitivity, specificity, and usefulness of three direct fluorescent-antibody kits (Vet-IF [Cell Labs], IMAGEN [Celltech], Chlamydia-Direct IF [Bio Merieux]) and six antigen detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits (Clearview [Unipath], Surecell [Kodak], Pathfinder [Kallestad], Chlamydia-EIA [Pharmacia], Chlamydiazyme [Abbott], IDEIA [Celltech]) for the detection of urogenital infections in koalas. Laboratory studies showed that the direct fluorescent-antibody kits were the least sensitive in this case and did not detect fewer than 10(4) elementary bodies per ml, while most ELISA kits detected between 130 and 600 elementary bodies per ml. Field study results showed that the Clearview kit was the most sensitive (91%) compared with the IDEIA (88%) and the Surecell (73%) kits. All three kits were more sensitive than cell culture (36%), highlighting viability loss problems that occur during transport. This study showed that the Clearview kit is sensitive, specific, and easy to use for the detection of type II (urogenital) C. psittaci from koalas in the field and warrants further evaluation. PMID:1452703

  4. Comparison of nine antigen detection kits for diagnosis of urogenital infections due to Chlamydia psittaci in koalas.

    PubMed

    Wood, M M; Timms, P

    1992-12-01

    Chlamydia psittaci is the major cause of infectious disease in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). It causes four disease syndromes in the koala, namely, conjunctivitis, rhinitis, cystitis, and infertility (females only). Diagnosis of chlamydial infections in koalas relies primarily on isolation of the organism in cell culture. Serology has generally not been useful, and little use has previously been made of the commercially available antigen detection kits. We examined the sensitivity, specificity, and usefulness of three direct fluorescent-antibody kits (Vet-IF [Cell Labs], IMAGEN [Celltech], Chlamydia-Direct IF [Bio Merieux]) and six antigen detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits (Clearview [Unipath], Surecell [Kodak], Pathfinder [Kallestad], Chlamydia-EIA [Pharmacia], Chlamydiazyme [Abbott], IDEIA [Celltech]) for the detection of urogenital infections in koalas. Laboratory studies showed that the direct fluorescent-antibody kits were the least sensitive in this case and did not detect fewer than 10(4) elementary bodies per ml, while most ELISA kits detected between 130 and 600 elementary bodies per ml. Field study results showed that the Clearview kit was the most sensitive (91%) compared with the IDEIA (88%) and the Surecell (73%) kits. All three kits were more sensitive than cell culture (36%), highlighting viability loss problems that occur during transport. This study showed that the Clearview kit is sensitive, specific, and easy to use for the detection of type II (urogenital) C. psittaci from koalas in the field and warrants further evaluation. PMID:1452703

  5. Maternal Chlamydia trachomatis Infections and Preterm Births in a University Hospital in Vitoria, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Renylena; Muniz, Renan Rosetti; Cola, Elizandra; Stauffert, Dulce; Silveira, Mariangela Freitas; Miranda, Angelica E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Preterm birth (PTB) is a major determinant of neonatal morbimortality with adverse consequences for health. The causes are multifactorial, with intrauterine infection probably explaining most of these outcomes. It is believed that infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is also involved in PTB and premature rupture of membranes. Objetives To evaluate the prevalence of and associated factors for CT among cases of PTB attended at a University Hospital in Vitoria, Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study performed among parturient who had preterm birth from June 2012 to August 2013 in Vitoria, Brazil. Participants answered a questionnaire including demographic, behavioral, and clinical data. A sample of urine was collected and screened for CT using polymerase chain reaction. Chi-square tests were used for proportion differences and Student’s-t tests and variance analysis were used for testing differences between mean values. Odds ratio was used as a measure of association with a 95% confidence interval. Results The prevalence of PTB during the period of the study was 26% and the prevalence of CT among them was 13.9%. A total of 31.6% pregnant women were younger than 25 years old and women infected by CT were even younger than women not infected by CT (p = 0.022). Most of them (76.2%) were married or had a living partner, and CT infection was more frequent among the single ones (p = 0.018); 16.7% of women reported their first sexual intercourse under 14 years old. The causes of prematurity were maternal-fetal in 40.9%; rupture of the membranes in 29.7% and premature labor in 29.4%. In multivariate analysis, being married was a protective factor for infection [OR = 0.48 (95%CI:0.24–0.97)]. None of the other characteristics were associated with CT infection. Conclusions This study shows a high prevalence of CT infection among parturient who have preterm birth. This high prevalence highlight the need for defining screening strategies focused on young pregnant women in Brazil. PMID:26505892

  6. Chlamydiae in oviducts and uteri of repeat breeder pigs.

    PubMed

    Kauffold, Johannes; Melzer, Falk; Berndt, Angela; Hoffmann, Grit; Hotzel, Helmut; Sachse, Konrad

    2006-11-01

    Chlamydial infections of the genital organs cause reproductive failure in female pigs, and the uterus is recognized a target tissue for an infection. In contrast, information on the effect of chlamydiae on the porcine oviduct is patchily and inconclusive, although the bacteria are known to cause severe tubal defects in humans and laboratory animals. The aim of this study was to examine the segments ampulla (A), isthmus (I) and utero-tubal junction of the left (n=20) or both (n=22) oviducts, and uteri (U) from 42 culled repeat breeder pigs for chlamydiae using ompA-PCR, partial ompA gene sequencing, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and microscopy of tissue specimens for histopathology. As revealed by PCR, among a total of 26 chlamydia-positive females, 19 were tested positive in one or more segments of one or both oviducts, 14 were found positive in the uterus, and concomitant infections of both organs were observed in 7 of them. Sequencing of 33 PCR products revealed the following chlamydial species: Chlamydophila (Cp.) psittaci (n=18), Cp. abortus (n=2), Chlamydia (C.) suis (n=10), and C. trachomatis (n=3). Immunopositive staining was observed within the surface epithelium (in A, I, U), stromal tissue (in I, U) and muscular layer (in A, I, U). A total of 24 females had inflamed oviductal segments (in A and/or I) and 36 inflamed uteri. However, there was no relationship between histopathology and results of PCR or IHC. In conclusion, chlamydiae were found to infect oviducts and uteri of pigs. Further studies are required to clarify whether chlamydial infection causes specific histopathology and alters tubal function. PMID:16837032

  7. Chlamydiaceae Genomics Reveals Interspecies Admixture and the Recent Evolution of Chlamydia abortus Infecting Lower Mammalian Species and Humans.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Sandeep J; Marti, Hanna; Didelot, Xavier; Castillo-Ramirez, Santiago; Read, Timothy D; Dean, Deborah

    2015-11-01

    Chlamydiaceae are obligate intracellular bacteria that cause a diversity of severe infections among humans and livestock on a global scale. Identification of new species since 1989 and emergence of zoonotic infections, including abortion in women, underscore the need for genome sequencing of multiple strains of each species to advance our knowledge of evolutionary dynamics across Chlamydiaceae. Here, we genome sequenced isolates from avian, lower mammalian and human hosts. Based on core gene phylogeny, five isolates previously classified as Chlamydia abortus were identified as members of Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia pecorum. Chlamydia abortus is the most recently emerged species and is a highly monomorphic group that lacks the conserved virulence-associated plasmid. Low-level recombination and evidence for adaptation to the placenta echo evolutionary processes seen in recently emerged, highly virulent niche-restricted pathogens, such as Bacillus anthracis. In contrast, gene flow occurred within C. psittaci and other Chlamydiaceae species. The C. psittaci strain RTH, isolated from a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), is an outlying strain with admixture of C. abortus, C. psittaci, and its own population markers. An average nucleotide identity of less than 94% compared with other Chlamydiaceae species suggests that RTH belongs to a new species intermediary between C. psittaci and C. abortus. Hawks, as scavengers and predators, have extensive opportunities to acquire multiple species in their intestinal tract. This could facilitate transformation and homologous recombination with the potential for new species emergence. Our findings indicate that incubator hosts such as birds-of-prey likely promote Chlamydiaceae evolution resulting in novel pathogenic lineages. PMID:26507799

  8. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from Nemours for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & ... surefire way to prevent genital herpes is abstinence. Teens who do have sex must properly use a latex condom every time ...

  9. Autoimmunity to human heat shock protein 60, Chlamydia pneumoniae infection, and inflammation in predicting coronary risk.

    PubMed

    Huittinen, Tiina; Leinonen, Maija; Tenkanen, Leena; Mänttäri, Matti; Virkkunen, Hanna; Pitkänen, Taina; Wahlström, Eva; Palosuo, Timo; Manninen, Vesa; Saikku, Pekka

    2002-03-01

    Heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60) and Chlamydia pneumoniae infection have both been associated with cardiovascular diseases. Our aim was to study the role of Hsp60 antibodies as coronary risk predictors and their association with C pneumoniae infection and inflammation. This was a prospective, nested, case-control study. The cases consisted of 239 middle-aged Finnish men who developed myocardial infarction or coronary death during the follow-up. Baseline levels of IgA and IgG antibodies to human-specific and C pneumoniae-specific Hsp60 were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Human Hsp60 IgA, but not IgG or C pneumoniae Hsp60, antibodies were a significant risk factor for coronary events (odds ratio 2.0, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.6, when the fourth and first quartiles are compared). When an elevated human Hsp60 IgA antibody level (above the second quartile) was present simultaneously with a high C pneumoniae IgA antibody level (the third quartile) and an elevated C-reactive protein level (the second quartile), compared with all factors at low levels, the risk was 7.0 (95% CI 2.6 to 19.1) without adjustment and 5.0 (95% CI 1.8 to 14.2) when adjustment was made for age and smoking. In conclusion, an elevated human Hsp60 IgA antibody level was a risk factor for coronary events, especially when it was present together with C pneumoniae infection and inflammation. PMID:11884286

  10. High Prevalence of Rectal Gonorrhea and Chlamydia Infection in Women Attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Reese, Patricia Carr; Esber, Allahna; Lahey, Samantha; Ervin, Melissa; Davis, John A.; Fields, Karen; Turner, Abigail Norris

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Testing women for urogenital Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is common in sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics. However, women may not be routinely tested for rectal GC/CT. This may lead to missed infections in women reporting anal intercourse (AI). Methods: This was a retrospective review of all women who underwent rectal GC/CT testing from August 2012 to June 2013 at an STD clinic in Columbus, Ohio. All women who reported AI in the last year had a rectal swab collected for GC/CT nucleic acid amplification testing (n=331). Using log-binomial regression models, we computed unadjusted and adjusted associations for demographic and behavioral factors associated with rectal GC/CT infection. Results: Participants (n=331) were 47% African-American, with median age of 29 years. Prevalence of rectal GC was 6%, rectal CT was 13%, and either rectal infection was 19%. Prevalence of urogenital GC and CT was 7% and 13% respectively. Among women with rectal GC, 14% tested negative for urogenital GC. Similarly, 14% of women with rectal CT tested negative for urogenital CT. In unadjusted analyses, there was increased rectal GC prevalence among women reporting sex in the last year with an injection drug user, with a person exchanging sex for drugs or money, with anonymous partners, and while intoxicated/high on alcohol or illicit drugs. After multivariable adjustment, no significant associations persisted, but a trend of increased rectal GC prevalence was observed for women <26 years of age (p=0.06) and those reporting sex while intoxicated/high on alcohol or drugs (p=0.05). For rectal CT, only age <26 years was associated with prevalent infection in unadjusted models; this association strengthened after multivariable adjustment (prevalence ratio: 6.03; 95% confidence interval: 2.2915.90). Conclusion: Nearly one in five women who reported AI in the last year had rectal GC or CT infection. Urogenital testing alone would have missed 14% of rectal infections. Standardized guidelines would increase rectal GC/CT testing in women and help detect missed infections. PMID:25692800

  11. Protection from genital herpes disease, seroconversion and latent infection in a non-lethal murine genital infection model by immunization with an HSV-2 replication-defective mutant virus.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Fernando M; Knipe, David M

    2016-01-15

    Viral vaccines have traditionally protected against disease, but for viruses that establish latent infection, it is desirable for the vaccine to reduce infection to reduce latent infection and reactivation. While seroconversion has been used in clinical trials of herpes simplex virus (HSV) vaccines to measure protection from infection, this has not been modeled in animal infection systems. To measure the ability of a genital herpes vaccine candidate to protect against various aspects of infection, we established a non-lethal murine model of genital HSV-2 infection, an ELISA assay to measure antibodies specific for infected cell protein 8 (ICP8), and a very sensitive qPCR assay. Using these assays, we observed that immunization with HSV-2 dl5-29 virus reduced disease, viral shedding, seroconversion, and latent infection by the HSV-2 challenge virus. Therefore, it may be feasible to obtain protection against genital disease, seroconversion and latent infection by immunization, even if sterilizing immunity is not achieved. PMID:26609935

  12. Direct Amplification, Sequencing and Profiling of Chlamydia trachomatis Strains in Single and Mixed Infection Clinical Samples

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Sandeep J.; Li, Ben; Ghonasgi, Tanvi; Haase, Chad P.; Qin, Zhaohui S.; Dean, Deborah; Read, Timothy D.

    2014-01-01

    Sequencing bacterial genomes from DNA isolated directly from clinical samples offers the promise of rapid and precise acquisition of informative genetic information. In the case of Chlamydia trachomatis, direct sequencing is particularly desirable because it obviates the requirement for culture in mammalian cells, saving time, cost and the possibility of missing low abundance strains. In this proof of concept study, we developed methodology that would allow genome-scale direct sequencing, using a multiplexed microdroplet PCR enrichment technology to amplify a 100 kb region of the C. trachomatis genome with 500 1.11.3 kb overlapping amplicons (5-fold amplicon redundancy). We integrated comparative genomic data into a pipeline to preferentially select conserved sites for amplicon design. The 100 kb target region could be amplified from clinical samples, including remnants from diagnostics tests, originating from the cervix, urethra and urine, For rapid analysis of these data, we developed a framework for whole-genome based genotyping called binstrain. We used binstrain to estimate the proportion of SNPs originating from 14 C. trachomatis reference serotype genomes in each sample. Direct DNA sequencing methods such as the one described here may have an important role in understanding the biology of C. trachomatis mixed infections and the natural genetic variation of the species within clinically relevant ecological niches. PMID:24971628

  13. Mapping immunodominant antigens and H-2-linked antibody responses in mice urogenitally infected with Chlamydia muridarum

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Hao; Hou, Shuping; Gong, Siqi; Dong, Xiaohua; Zou, Quanming; Zhong, Guangming

    2012-01-01

    To identify immunodominant antigens and MHC-restricted antibody responses, seven different strains of mice were intravaginally infected with Chlamydia muridarum and compared for antibody responses to 257 C. muridarum proteins. The 7 strains of mice recognized a total of 109 proteins as antigens, of which, 5 antigens (TC0660, TC0727, TC0828, TC0726 & TC0268) were each recognized by 60% or more mice from each mouse strain and thus designated as immunodominant antigens. Furthermore, antibody responses to 19 other antigens displayed strong associations with mouse H-2 haplotypes, including 6 antigens (TC0480, TC0912, TC0229, TCA04, TC0289 & TC0892) whose antibody responses were linked to H-2b, 8 (TC0035, TC0387, TC0052, TC0781, TC0373, TC0117, TC0066 & TC0396) to H-2d and 5 (TC0512, TC0177, TC0589, TC0794 & TC0596) to H-2k haplotypes respectively. Interestingly, H-2b was negatively associated with antibody responses to most of the antigens that were positively linked to H-2d or H-2k haplotypes. These results by mapping C. trachomatis antigens commonly recognized by mice with different strain background and H-2 genes and revealing antigen association with H-2 haplotypes have provided important information for developing chlamydial subunit vaccines and understanding chlamydial pathogenesis. PMID:22421110

  14. Modulation of the host immune response as a result of Chlamydia psittaci infection.

    PubMed Central

    Lammert, J K; Wyrick, P B

    1982-01-01

    After intraperitoneal injection of mice with infectious, inactivated, or envelope preparations of the elementary body of Chlamydia psittaci, lymphocyte transformation of spleen cells to the mitogens concanavalin A, phytohemagglutinin, and lipopolysaccharide was significantly reduced 1 and 2 weeks postinjection. Lymphocyte response returned to the control values by 4 weeks. Similarly, transformation of cells by chlamydial antigen was not detected until 4 weeks postinjection. Injection of the noninfectious intracellular reticulate body, in contrast, had little effect on transformation of cells to concanavalin A. When control spleen cells were incubated with infectious or inactivated elementary bodies in vitro, response to all three mitogens was also reduced. The sooner the organisms were added after the addition of mitogen, the greater the reduction in transformation. Incubation with elementary body envelopes and reticulate bodies had no effect on lymphocyte transformation of the spleen cells to concanavalin A. The relationship between the observed ability to reduce the response in the in vitro assay of lymphocyte transformation and the actual in vivo establishment of infection is discussed. PMID:7056575

  15. Reversible Inhibition of Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Epithelial Cells Due to Stimulation of P2X4 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Pettengill, Matthew A.; Marques-da-Silva, Camila; Avila, Maria Luisa; d'Arc dos Santos Oliveira, Suellen; Lam, Verissa W.; Ollawa, Ikechukwu; Abdul Sater, Ali A.; Coutinho-Silva, Robson; Häcker, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial infections of the mucosal epithelium are a major cause of human disease. The prolonged presence of microbial pathogens stimulates inflammation of the local tissues, which leads to changes in the molecular composition of the extracellular milieu. A well-characterized molecule that is released to the extracellular milieu by stressed or infected cells is extracellular ATP and its ecto-enzymatic degradation products, which function as signaling molecules through ligation of purinergic receptors. There has been little information, however, on the effects of the extracellular metabolites on bacterial growth in inflamed tissues. Millimolar concentrations of ATP have been previously shown to inhibit irreversibly bacterial infection through ligation of P2X7 receptors. We show here that the proinflammatory mediator, ATP, is released from Chlamydia trachomatis-infected epithelial cells. Moreover, further stimulation of the infected cells with micromolar extracellular ADP or ATP significantly impairs the growth of the bacteria, with a profile characteristic of the involvement of P2X4 receptors. A specific role for P2X4 was confirmed using cells overexpressing P2X4. The chlamydiae remain viable and return to normal growth kinetics after removal of the extracellular stimulus, similar to responses previously described for persistence of chlamydial infection. PMID:22988022

  16. Asymptomatic natural Chlamydia pecorum infection reduces growth rates in calves by up to 48 percent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intracellular Chlamydia (C.) bacteria cause in cattle some acute but rare diseases such as abortion, sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis, kerato-conjunctivitis, pneumonia, enteritis and polyarthritis. Much more frequent, essentially ubiquitous worldwide, are low-level, asymptomatic chlamydial infecti...

  17. Persistent Chlamydia trachomatis infection of HeLa cells mediates apoptosis resistance through a Chlamydia protease-like activity factor-independent mechanism and induces high mobility group box 1 release.

    PubMed

    Rdel, Jrgen; Grosse, Christina; Yu, Hangxing; Wolf, Katharina; Otto, Gordon P; Liebler-Tenorio, Elisabeth; Forsbach-Birk, Vera; Straube, Eberhard

    2012-01-01

    Intracellular persistence of Chlamydia trachomatis has been implicated in the development of chronic infection that can result in pelvic inflammatory disease and tubal sterility. By inhibition of host cell apoptosis, chlamydiae have evolved a strategy to maintain the intracellular environment for replication and persistence. Both antiapoptotic host cell-derived factors and the chlamydial protease-like activity factor (CPAF) are involved in Chlamydia-mediated apoptosis resistance. Here, we show that in HeLa cells infected with gamma interferon (IFN-?)-induced persistent C. trachomatis serovar D, the expression of CPAF is downregulated, and proapoptotic protease substrates are not cleaved. Persistent infection protected HeLa cells from apoptosis when they were exposed to staurosporine. Small-interfering RNA-mediated inhibition of myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1) protein upregulation sensitized persistently infected cells for apoptosis. The inhibitor of apoptosis protein 2 (IAP-2) seems not to be relevant in this context because IAP-2 protein was not induced in response to IFN-? treatment. Although apoptosis was inhibited, persistent infection caused cell membrane disintegration, as measured by the increased release of cytokeratin 18 from HeLa cells. Moreover, persistently infected cells released significantly increased amounts of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein which represents a proinflammatory damage-associated pattern molecule. The data of this study suggest that cells infected with persistent C. trachomatis are protected from apoptosis independently of CPAF but may promote chronic inflammation through HMGB1 release. PMID:22025513

  18. Chlamydia trachomatis infection and distribution of serovars in the Eastern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Suarkia, Dagwin L; Mgone, Charles S; Lehmann, Deborah; Passey, Megan E; Lupiwa, Tony; Paniu, Michael M; Kono, Jacinta; Kakazo, Mexy; Yeka, William; Alpers, Michael P

    2007-01-01

    We have used nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the PCR-based endonuclease digestion method to genotype Chlamydia trachomatis serovars in 460 infected individuals from the Eastern Highlands Province of Papua New Guinea. Our study groups comprised women who presented in labour to the Goroka Base Hospital, their newborn infants, symptomatic children who presented to the hospital's Outpatients Department and men and women from 15 randomly selected villages in the Asaro Valley. In this analysis, the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) gene, omp1, of C. trachomatis was amplified using DNA obtained from the endocervix of women, urine from men, and both the eye and nasopharynx of children. Amplified DNAs were digested concurrently using Alul and a combination of EcoRI, Hinl and Hpall restriction enzymes. The mixtures were separated on electrophoretic gels and the respective serovars designated on the basis of resolved digested DNA patterns. Our results, which were confirmed also by omp1 sequence data, show serovars D, E, F, G, H and L3 to be present in the studied communities. The overall relative frequencies of these serovars were 30%, 21%, 25%, 1%, 20% and 2% respectively, with serovars D, E, F and H accounting for 97% of these infections. Double infections among these principal serovars were also detected in all our study groups but at a low overall frequency of 3%. Serovar D was the major agent involved in the aetiology of chlamydial infection in both children and adults though serovar F was the most frequent in newborn infants. Serovar H was relatively less frequent in symptomatic children. No trachoma-related serovars were detected, confirming the rarity of this disease in Papua New Guinea. In contrast, although clinical cases of lymphogranuloma venereum have not been described in the country, the detection of serovar L3 in this study suggests that it may occur. However, the association of L3 also with childhood infection indicates that it may be causing the same pathology as the serovars D-K that are associated with non-ulcerative sexually transmitted infections. PMID:19583096

  19. Chlamydia trachomatis-infected epithelial cells and fibroblasts retain the ability to express surface-presented major histocompatibility complex class I molecules.

    PubMed

    Kgebein, Danny; Gutjahr, Melanie; Groe, Christina; Vogel, Annette B; Rdel, Jrgen; Knittler, Michael R

    2014-03-01

    The obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis is the causative agent of a variety of infectious diseases such as trachoma and sexually transmitted diseases. In infected target cells, C. trachomatis replicates within parasitophorous vacuoles and expresses the protease-like activity factor CPAF. Previous studies have suggested that CPAF degrades the host transcription factors RFX5 and NF-?B p65, which are involved in the regulation of constitutive and inducible expression of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I). It was speculated that Chlamydia suppresses the surface presentation of MHC I in order to evade an effective immune response. Nevertheless, a recent study suggested that RFX5 and NF-?B p65 may not serve as target substrates for CPAF-mediated degradation, raising concerns about the proposed MHC I subversion by Chlamydia. Hence, we investigated the direct influence of Chlamydia on MHC I expression and surface presentation in infected host cells. By using nine different human cells and cell lines infected with C. trachomatis (serovar D or LGV2), we demonstrate that chlamydial infection does not interfere with expression, maturation, transport, and surface presentation of MHC I, suggesting functional antigen processing in bacterium-infected cells. Our findings provide novel insights into the interaction of chlamydiae with their host cells and should be taken into consideration for the design of future therapies and vaccines. PMID:24343651

  20. Chlamydia trachomatis-Infected Epithelial Cells and Fibroblasts Retain the Ability To Express Surface-Presented Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Kgebein, Danny; Gutjahr, Melanie; Groe, Christina; Vogel, Annette B.; Rdel, Jrgen

    2014-01-01

    The obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis is the causative agent of a variety of infectious diseases such as trachoma and sexually transmitted diseases. In infected target cells, C. trachomatis replicates within parasitophorous vacuoles and expresses the protease-like activity factor CPAF. Previous studies have suggested that CPAF degrades the host transcription factors RFX5 and NF-?B p65, which are involved in the regulation of constitutive and inducible expression of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I). It was speculated that Chlamydia suppresses the surface presentation of MHC I in order to evade an effective immune response. Nevertheless, a recent study suggested that RFX5 and NF-?B p65 may not serve as target substrates for CPAF-mediated degradation, raising concerns about the proposed MHC I subversion by Chlamydia. Hence, we investigated the direct influence of Chlamydia on MHC I expression and surface presentation in infected host cells. By using nine different human cells and cell lines infected with C. trachomatis (serovar D or LGV2), we demonstrate that chlamydial infection does not interfere with expression, maturation, transport, and surface presentation of MHC I, suggesting functional antigen processing in bacterium-infected cells. Our findings provide novel insights into the interaction of chlamydiae with their host cells and should be taken into consideration for the design of future therapies and vaccines. PMID:24343651

  1. The IL-6 response to Chlamydia from primary reproductive epithelial cells is highly variable and may be involved in differential susceptibility to the immunopathological consequences of chlamydial infection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chlamydia trachomatis infection results in reproductive damage in some women. The process and factors involved in this immunopathology are not well understood. This study aimed to investigate the role of primary human cellular responses to chlamydial stress response proteases and chlamydial infection to further identify the immune processes involved in serious disease sequelae. Results Laboratory cell cultures and primary human reproductive epithelial cultures produced IL-6 in response to chlamydial stress response proteases (CtHtrA and CtTsp), UV inactivated Chlamydia, and live Chlamydia. The magnitude of the IL-6 response varied considerably (up to 1000pgml-1) across different primary human reproductive cultures. Thus different levels of IL-6 production by reproductive epithelia may be a determinant in disease outcome. Interestingly, co-culture models with either THP-1 cells or autologous primary human PBMC generally resulted in increased levels of IL-6, except in the case of live Chlamydia where the level of IL-6 was decreased compared to the epithelial cell culture only, suggesting this pathway may be able to be modulated by live Chlamydia. PBMC responses to the stress response proteases (CtTsp and CtHtrA) did not significantly vary for the different participant cohorts. Therefore, these proteases may possess conserved innate PAMPs. MAP kinases appeared to be involved in this IL-6 induction from human cells. Finally, we also demonstrated that IL-6 was induced by these proteins and Chlamydia from mouse primary reproductive cell cultures (BALB/C mice) and mouse laboratory cell models. Conclusions We have demonstrated that IL-6 may be a key factor for the chlamydial disease outcome in humans, given that primary human reproductive epithelial cell culture showed considerable variation in IL-6 response to Chlamydia or chlamydial proteins, and that the presence of live Chlamydia (but not UV killed) during co-culture resulted in a reduced IL-6 response suggesting this response may be moderated by the presence of the organism. PMID:24238294

  2. Genital Warts

    PubMed Central

    Yanofsky, Valerie R.; Patel, Rita V.

    2012-01-01

    External genital warts, also known as condylomata acuminata, are extremely common, with between 500,000 to one million new cases diagnosed each year in the United States alone. To date, more than 120 distinct subtypes of human papillomavirus have been identified. Human papillomavirus types 6 and 11 rarely give rise to cervical cancers, but are responsible for 90 percent of the cases of genital warts. The current treatment options are largely centered upon removal of the warts rather than elimination of the underlying viral infection. A wide range of therapies are presently in use, which are highly variable and can differ dramatically with respect to cost, side-effect profiles, dosing schedules, duration of treatment, and overall effectiveness. As of yet, no definitive therapy has emerged as the ideal standard of care in the treatment of genital warts, and therapy selection generally occurs in a patient-specific manner. PMID:22768354

  3. Biological and Behavioral Risks for Incident Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in a Prospective Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Loris Y.; Ma, Yifei; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify biological and behavioral risks for incident Chlamydia trachomatis among a prospective cohort of young women followed frequently. Methods Our cohort of 629 women from two outpatient sites was seen every 4 months (October 2000 through April 2012) for behavioral interviews and infection testing. C trachomatis was tested annually, and anytime patients reported symptoms or possible exposure using commercial nucleic acid amplification tests. Analyses excluded baseline prevalent C trachomatis infections. Risk factors for incident C trachomatis were assessed using Cox proportional hazards models. Significant risks (p<0.10) from bivariate models were entered in a multivariate model, adjusted for four covariates chosen a priori (age, race or ethnicity, condom use, study site). Backwards step-wise elimination produced a final parsimonious model retaining significant variables (p<0.05) and the four adjustment variables. Results The 629 women attended 9,594 total visits. Median follow-up time was 6.9 years (interquartile range 3.2-9.8), during which 97 (15%) women had incident C trachomatis . In the final multivariate model, incident C trachomatis was independently associated with HPV at the preceding visit (p<0.01), smoking (p=0.02), and weekly use of substances besides alcohol and marijuana (p<0.01) since prior visit. Among 207 women with available colpophotographs (1,742 visits), cervical ectopy was not a significant risk factor (p range=0.16-0.39 for ectopy as continuous and ordinal variables). Conclusion Novel risks for C trachomatis include preceding HPV, smoking, and substance use, which may reflect both biological and behavioral mechanisms of risk, such as immune modulation, higher-risk sexual networks, or both. Improved understanding of the biological bases for C trachomatis risk would inform our strategies for C trachomatis control. PMID:25437724

  4. Alarming incidence of genital mycoplasmas among HIV-1-infected MSM in Jiangsu, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, J-R; Wang, B; Chen, L-S; Yang, T; Zhou, L-J; Xie, Y-X; Xu, J-S; Guo, H-X; Huan, X-P

    2014-02-01

    Males who have sex with men (MSM) are considered at high risk of blood-borne and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), mainly due to the practice of unsafe sex, often combined with drug use and needle-sharing. A cross-sectional study was designed for the detection of genital mycoplasmas during the period from March 2009 to May 2010 in Jiangsu province. This work was approved by the Research ethics Committee of Jiangsu Centers for Diseases Prevention and Control (CDC), and written consent was obtained from all participants. In total, 243 human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1)-infected MSM were screened in this study. Over half of them reported a history of sexual activity with females (65.0 %), and 26.3 % reported a history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) other than HIV. 44.0 % of patients were in the first 2 years of their HIV infection, and 72.4 % were still in HIV progression. Of the 243 analyzed samples, all were positive for at least one kind of mycoplasma. The infection rates of Mycoplasma genitalium, M. fermentans, M. penetrans, and M. pirum were 25.5, 9.9, 2.5, and 18.5 %, respectively. The M. genitalium infection was associated with a history of sexual activity with females, and those who had sex with females showed higher infection rates. Six ?M. penetrans-positive patients were still in HIV infection progression and did not receive highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Men who perform this particular behavior are at higher risk of Mycoplasma infections. Further molecular and epidemiological cohort studies with larger populations are needed in order to identify the role of Mycoplasma infections in HIV-1-infected MSM. PMID:23949791

  5. Epidemiology and therapy of chronic herpes virus infection with genital herpes manifestations.

    PubMed

    Mokeeva, M V

    2009-08-01

    Anaferon-supplemented complex therapy of chronic recurrent genital herpes reduced clinical symptoms of the disease and normalized the content of immunocompetent cells. Changes in the level of immunocompetent cells depended on the severity of genital herpes. PMID:20027353

  6. The Association between Female Genital Cutting and Spousal HCV Infection in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, Chris R.; Colebunders, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To identify the risk factors for HCV infection within married couples in Egypt. Methods. In 2008 Egypt conducted its first nationally representative survey of HCV prevalence. 11126 of the 12780 individuals aged 1559 year who were sampled agreed to participate and provided information via a questionnaire about demographic and behavioural characteristics and blood for HCV antibody and RNA analysis. We assessed the risk factors for HCV infection in a subsample of 5182 married individuals via multivariate logistic regression. Results. Overall HCV antibody prevalence in the married couples was 18.2% (95% CI, 16.819.6). HCV antibody prevalence was higher in the husbands (23.7%) than the wives (12.1%; P < 0.001). Having a spouse who was infected with HCV was an independent risk factor for HCV infection with odds ratios of 2.1 (95% CI, 1.62.9) and 2.2 (95% CI, 1.63.1) for women and men, respectively. Husbands whose wives had experienced female genital cutting (FGC) had a higher prevalence of HCV and this relationship was driven by a strong association in urban areas. Amongst the women there was no association between FGC and HCV overall but in urban areas only women who had experienced FGC were HCV infected. Conclusions. This study provides additional evidence of the importance of intrafamilial transmission of HCV in Egypt. PMID:24778883

  7. Temperature and host cell-dependent changes in virulence of Chlamydia pneumoniae CWL029 in an optimized mouse infection model.

    PubMed

    Janik, Katrin; Bode, Jenny; Dutow, Pavel; Laudeley, Robert; Geffers, Robert; Sommer, Kirsten; Glage, Silke; Klos, Andreas

    2015-02-01

    The obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia (C.) pneumoniae causes respiratory infections and is associated with vascular diseases. To elucidate how temperature and host cells used for propagation alter chlamydial virulence, C. pneumoniae CWL0129 (Cpn) was cultured at 35 or 37C in two different cell lines and then applied to mice. These mice infected with differentially propagated chlamydiae showed differences in clinical score, body weight and inflammatory cytokines in the lung. Our study demonstrates that Cpn cultured at 37C in hamster fibroblast BHK-21 are able to colonize the mouse lung faster and better, and induce stronger symptoms and cytokine induction than bacteria cultured at 35C. The temperature-triggered virulence alteration could not be observed for Cpn propagated in HeLa cells and was independent of host cell protein synthesis. Transcriptome analysis did not reveal temperature-induced effects on chlamydial gene expression, suggesting that the observed virulence changes are regulated on a different, so far unknown level. Preculture close to the central body temperature of its warm-blooded human or murine host might 'prepare' Cpn for subsequent in vivo infection. Our identification of culture-dependent virulence alteration helps to establish an optimized mouse lung infection model for Cpn and provides the basis to further unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying chlamydial pathogenicity. PMID:25853997

  8. A single infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae is sufficient to exacerbate atherosclerosis in ApoE deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Sorrentino, Rosalinda; Yilmaz, Atilla; Schubert, Katja; Crother, Timothy R; Pinto, Aldo; Shimada, Kenichi; Arditi, Moshe; Chen, Shuang

    2015-03-01

    Several studies have demonstrated a strong link between Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cp) infection and atherosclerosis progression/exacerbation. Here, we try to understand whether a single administration of Cp could exacerbate atherosclerosis. Apoe(-/-) mice were intranasally infected with Cp followed by a high fat diet. Mice were sacrificed at different time points after Cp infection to monitor the development of the atheroma. Cp infection increased lipid content in the aortic sinus of Apoe(-/-) mice starting from 8 weeks. This was associated with increased numbers of active myeloid dendritic cells and plasmacytoid DCs which were co-localized with T-cells in the atherosclerotic plaque. The serum levels of IFN-? showed a Th1-like environment typical of atherosclerosis. In conclusion, we demonstrate that one dose of Cp could exacerbate atherosclerotic lesion development, triggering innate immune cell accumulation early on that allowed the involvement of Th1-like cells in the exacerbation of the atherosclerotic plaque at later time points. PMID:25666507

  9. A single infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae is sufficient to exacerbate atherosclerosis in ApoE deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Sorrentino, Rosalinda; Yilmaz, Atilla; Schubert, Katja; Crother, Timothy R.; Pinto, Aldo; Shimada, Kenichi; Arditi, Moshe; Chen, Shuang

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated a strong link between Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cp) infection and atherosclerosis progression/exacerbation. Here, we try to understand whether a single administration of Cp could exacerbate atherosclerosis. Apoe?/? mice were intranasally infected with Cp followed by a high fat diet. Mice were sacrificed at different time points after Cp infection to monitor the development of the atheroma. Cp infection increased lipid content in the aortic sinus of Apoe?/? mice starting from 8 weeks. This was associated with increased numbers of active myeloid Dendritic cells and plasmacytoid DCs which were co-localized with T-cells in the atherosclerotic plaque. The serum levels of IFN-? showed a Th1-like environment typical of atherosclerosis. In conclusion, we demonstrate that one dose of Cp. could exacerbate atherosclerotic lesion development, triggering innate immune cell accumulation early on that allowed the involvement of Th1-like cells in the exacerbation of the atherosclerotic plaque at later time points. PMID:25666507

  10. Epidemiology of Chlamydia psittaci Infection in Racing Pigeons and Pigeon Fanciers in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Ling, Y; Chen, H; Chen, X; Yang, X; Yang, J; Bavoil, P M; He, C

    2015-08-01

    Over 3 million racing pigeons (Columba livia) are registered in Beijing City Center for gambling purposes. During 2008-2010, we evaluated the occurrence and prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci in racing pigeons as well as the possible zoonotic transmission to pigeon fanciers in six districts of Beijing where pigeon races are particularly popular. C. psittaci-specific serum antibody titres were obtained from 370 pigeons and 79 fanciers using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, 206 and 67 throat swabs were, respectively, collected from pigeons and fanciers and tested for the presence of chlamydial antigen using immunofluorescence. C. psittaci-specific serum antibody was detected in 37 of 370 pigeons and 19 of 79 fanciers. Of 206 pigeon clinical specimens, 55 were positive for C. psittaci antigen, while 16 of 67 swabs from the pigeon fanciers were positive. Based on ompA sequence analysis, the genotype of several avian and human isolates was genotype B. Thus, both high-titre C. psittaci-specific antibody and C. psittaci-specific antigen were found with relatively high frequency in the pigeon flocks as well as in the pigeon fanciers. Our study suggests that C. psittaci infection is prevalent among the racing pigeon population in Beijing. Moreover, detection of serum antibodies and antigen in pigeon fanciers suggests that exposure and possible zoonotic transmission of C. psittaci from racing pigeons to humans does occur. In view of the life-threatening respiratory illness C. psittaci may cause in humans, regulatory public health measures, to prevent further spread of the pathogen in avian populations and possible transmission to exposed humans, are urgently needed. PMID:25244602

  11. Molecular Characterization and Subcellular Localization of Macrophage Infectivity Potentiator, a Chlamydia trachomatis Lipoprotein▿

    PubMed Central

    Neff, Laurence; Daher, Sawsan; Muzzin, Patrick; Spenato, Ursula; Gülaçar, Fazil; Gabay, Cem; Bas, Sylvette

    2007-01-01

    Macrophage infectivity potentiator (MIP) was originally reported to be a chlamydial lipoprotein from experiments showing incorporation of radiolabeled palmitic acid into native and recombinant MIP; inhibition of posttranslational processing of recombinant MIP by globomycin, known to inhibit signal peptidase II; and solubility of native MIP in Triton X-114. However, the detailed structural characterization of the lipid moiety on MIP has never been fully elucidated. In this study, bioinformatics and mass spectrometry analysis, as well as radiolabeling and immunochemical experiments, were conducted to further characterize MIP structure and subcellular localization. In silico analysis showed that the amino acid sequence of MIP is conserved across chlamydial species. A potential signal sequence with a contained lipobox was identified, and a recombinant C20A variant was prepared by replacing the probable lipobox cysteine with an alanine. Both incorporation of U-14C-esterified glycerol and [U-14C]palmitic acid and posttranslational processing that was inhibitable by globomycin were observed for recombinant wild-type MIP but not for the recombinant C20A MIP variant. The fatty acid contents of native and recombinant MIP were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the presence of amide-linked fatty acids in recombinant MIP was investigated by alkaline methanolysis. These results demonstrated a lipid modification in MIP similar to that of other prokaryotic lipoproteins. In addition, MIP was detected in an outer membrane preparation of Chlamydia trachomatis elementary bodies and was shown to be present at the surfaces of elementary bodies by surface biotinylation and surface immunoprecipitation experiments. PMID:17449608

  12. Autophagy and female genital tract infections: new insights and research directions.

    PubMed

    Jayaram, A; Orfanelli, T; Doulaveris, G; Linhares, I M; Ledger, W J; Witkin, S S

    2014-06-01

    Autophagy is a highly conserved process by which defective organelles, non-functional proteins, and intracellular microorganisms become sequestered within structures called autophagosomes, which fuse with lysosomes and the engulfed components are degraded by lysosomal enzymes. In microbial autophagy degraded peptides are used to induce antigen-specific acquired immunity. Viruses, bacteria, fungi, and protozoa have developed strategies to subvert autophagy and/or to use this process to promote their replication and persistence. This review details the mechanisms by which microorganisms that infect the female genital tract and/or are detrimental to pregnancy interact with this host defence mechanism. Based on an understanding of autophagy-related pathological mechanisms, we propose new avenues for research to more effectively prevent and/or treat these infectious diseases. PMID:24506514

  13. Sexual behaviour, sexually transmitted infections and attitudes to chlamydia testing among a unique national sample of young Australians: baseline data from a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chlamydia infection is the most common notifiable sexually transmitted infection (STI) in Australia and mostly affects young people (15 25 years). This paper presents baseline data from a randomised controlled trial that aimed to increase chlamydia testing among sexually active young people. The objectives were to identify associations between sexual behaviour, substance use and STI history and explore attitudes to chlamydia testing. Methods This study was conducted in cyberspace. Study recruitment, allocation, delivery of interventions and baseline and follow up data collection all took place online. Participants were 16 25 years old and resided in Australia. Substance use correlates of sexual activity; predictors of history of STIs; barriers to and facilitators of chlamydia testing were analysed. Results Of 856 participants (79.1% female), 704 had experienced penetrative intercourse. Sexually active participants were more likely to smoke regularly or daily, to drink alcohol, or to have binge drunk or used marijuana or other illicit substances recently. Risk factors for having a history of any STI were 3 or more sexual partners ever, 6 or more partners in the past 12 months, condom non-use and being 20 years or older. Almost all sexually active participants said that they would have a chlamydia test if their doctor recommended it. Conclusions Sexually active young people are at risk of STIs and may engage in substance use risk behaviours. Where one health risk behaviour is identified, it is important to seek information about others. Chlamydia testing can be facilitated by doctors and nurses recommending it. Primary care providers have a useful role in chlamydia control. Trial Registration Australian and New Zealand Trials Registry ACTRN12607000582459 PMID:24400743

  14. Sexually transmitted infections in U.S. Air Force recruits in basic military training.

    PubMed

    Webber, Bryant J; Pawlak, Mary T; Jones, Nathan M; Tchandja, Juste N; Foster, Gwendolyn A

    2016-02-01

    This study reports the counts, prevalence, and trends of five common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among U.S. Air Force recruits during 2012-2014. Chlamydia and genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) were the most commonly identified STIs in females, with a prevalence of 4,841.2 and 432.3 per 100,000, respectively. Genital HSV was the most commonly identified STI in males at 133.4 per 100,000. There were 13 cases of chlamydia and gonorrhea co-infection among females and none among males. STI prevalence was lower than in a similarly aged U.S. civilian population. PMID:26930147

  15. Test Positivity for Chlamydia, Gonorrhea and Syphilis Infection Among a Cohort of Individuals Released from Jail in Marion County, Indiana

    PubMed Central

    Wiehe, Sarah E.; Barai, Nikita; Rosenman, Marc B.; Aalsma, Matthew C.; Scanlon, Michael L.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Background Individuals entering jails have high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STI) but there are few data on STI in the post-incarceration period. This study aimed to describe rates of chlamydia, gonorrhea and syphilis infection among individuals released from Marion County (Indianapolis), Indiana jails. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of individuals incarcerated in Marion County, Indiana jails from 20032008 (N=118,670). We linked county jail and public health data to identify individuals with positive STI test results in the one-year following release from jail. Rates per 100,000 individuals and cox proportional hazard analyses were performed for each STI, stratified by demographic, STI and jail characteristics. Results We found significantly higher rates of STI in this cohort than in the general population, with rates in the one-year following release being 2 to 7 times higher for chlamydia, 5 to 24 times higher for gonorrhea, and 19 to 32 times higher for syphilis compared to rates in the general population. Characteristics most associated with increased risk of a positive STI test among this cohort were younger age for chlamydia and gonorrhea, older age for syphilis, black race for men, being jailed for prostitution for women, history of STI, and history of prior incarceration. Conclusions This study found high rates of STIs among a cohort of individuals recently released from jail and identified a number of risk factors. Further study is needed to improve targeted STI testing and treatment among this high-risk population. PMID:25504298

  16. Roles of bovine Waddlia chondrophila and Chlamydia trachomatis in human preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Baud, D.; Goy, G.; Vasilevsky, S.; Osterheld, M.-C.; Roth-Kleiner, M.; Croxatto, A.; Greub, G.

    2014-01-01

    Waddlia chondrophila and Chlamydia trachomatis are intracellular bacteria associated with human miscarriage. We investigated their role in human preterm birth. Whereas presence of Chlamydia trachomatis DNA in genital tract was associated with human preterm birth, Waddlia was not, despite being present in women's genital tracts. PMID:25755892

  17. Prevalence, clinical features and quantification of genital non-viral infections.

    PubMed

    Carne, C A; Gibbs, J; Delaney, A; Sonnex, C; Verlander, N Q; Smielewska, A; Skeggs, E; Bentley, N; Jalal, H

    2013-04-01

    We conducted a study of the prevalence, clinical features and microscopy findings, by retrospective case-notes survey, of six non-viral organisms, among 1718 attendees at a genitourinary (GU) medicine clinic in England. An in-house assay for six non-viral infections was used and quantitation of ureaplasmas performed. The prevalences of the six organisms were: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), 7.1%; Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), 0.6%; Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), 1.0%; Trichomonas vaginalis, 0.2%; Ureaplasma urealyticum, 16.1%; Ureaplasma parvum, 35.6%. Among men (but not women) there were significantly raised odds ratios compared with that for U. parvum, for the symptom of discharge with CT, 7.30; MG, 6.43; NG 19.29; dysuria with CT, 5.89 and MG, 5.95; and the microscopy finding of >4 pus cells per high power field with: CT, 7.22; MG, 4.58 and NG 22.31. Evaluation of a possible link between quantitation of U. urealyticum and urethritis did not confirm research findings elsewhere. PMID:23970658

  18. [Clinical studies of rokitamycin dry syrup on Chlamydia trachomatis infections in the neonate and infant].

    PubMed

    Motohiro, T; Aramaki, M; Oda, K; Kawakami, A; Tanaka, K; Koga, T; Shimada, Y; Tomita, S; Koga, M; Sakata, Y

    1988-10-01

    A dry syrup preparation for infants and children of a newly developed 16-membered macrolide antibiotic, rokitamycin, was administered to 5 neonates and low birth weight infants of 6 to 25 days after births at a dose level of 10 mg/kg on an empty stomach then plasma drug levels were determined. The dry syrup preparation was also given to a total of 19 Chlamydia trachomatis infection cases of 7 days to 8 months old neonates, low birth weight infants and infants including 12 cases of pneumonia, 2 cases of conjunctivitis and 5 non-symptomatic carriers at an average daily dose level of 48.1 mg/kg in 2 to 4 doses for an average of 19 days and its clinical effects, bacteriological effectiveness, side effects and effects on laboratory test values were examined. The obtained results are summarized as follows. 1. Because the test subjects were neonates and premature infants, obtainable amounts of blood samples were limited, thus it was not possible to determine time courses of plasma drug levels to reach their peaks. Peak plasma levels, however, were speculated to be similar to those in children. Plasma half-lives of the drug were also not determinable, but they seemed to be somewhat longer than those in children. 2. Clinical efficacies were determinable in the 2 cases of conjunctivitis and 10 of the 12 cases of pneumonia, with excellent or good results in both cases of the former and with excellent or good results in 9 of the 10 determinable cases of the latter. Thus, the overall efficacy rate was high, 91.7%. 3. Bacteriological efficacies were determinable in 18 cases including non-symptomatic carriers. C. trachomatis was eradicated in 16 of the cases with an overall efficacy rate of 88.9%. 4. Diarrhea was observed in 2 cases, which were suspected as side effects of the drug. 5. No abnormalities were observed in the laboratory test results. Judging from the above results, this drug appears to be useful for the treatment of C. trachomatis infections of neonates, low birth weight infants and infants. PMID:3204656

  19. Mucosal Herpes Immunity and Immunopathology to Ocular and Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Chentoufi, Aziz Alami; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2012-01-01

    Herpes simplex viruses type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are amongst the most common human infectious viral pathogens capable of causing serious clinical diseases at every stage of life, from fatal disseminated disease in newborns to cold sores genital ulcerations and blinding eye disease. Primary mucocutaneous infection with HSV-1 & HSV-2 is followed by a lifelong viral latency in the sensory ganglia. In the majority of cases, herpes infections are clinically asymptomatic. However, in symptomatic individuals, the latent HSV can spontaneously and frequently reactivate, reinfecting the muco-cutaneous surfaces and causing painful recurrent diseases. The innate and adaptive mucosal immunities to herpes infections and disease remain to be fully characterized. The understanding of innate and adaptive immune mechanisms operating at muco-cutaneous surfaces is fundamental to the design of next-generation herpes vaccines. In this paper, the phenotypic and functional properties of innate and adaptive mucosal immune cells, their role in antiherpes immunity, and immunopathology are reviewed. The progress and limitations in developing a safe and efficient mucosal herpes vaccine are discussed. PMID:23320014

  20. Analysis of the immune response in mice following intrauterine infection with the Chlamydia trachomatis mouse pneumonitis biovar.

    PubMed Central

    Pal, S; Fielder, T J; Peterson, E M; de la Maza, L M

    1993-01-01

    A Swiss Webster white mouse model of salpingitis was used to characterize the immune response following an intrauterine infection with the Chlamydia trachomatis mouse pneumonitis biovar. Western blot (immunoblot) analyses of the serum samples showed that the immunodominant bands corresponded to molecular masses of 72, 60, 42, and 28 kDa and to the lipopolysaccharide. Antibodies to the 60-kDa heat shock protein and to the 60-kDa cysteine-rich protein were detected at 2 and 3 weeks postinfection, respectively. Neutralization was observed in an in vitro assay with serum samples as early as the 3rd day postinfection and remained high for the 7 weeks of observation. The mice were mated in the 7th week following infection. Of the infected experimental mice, 71.4% were found to be either unilaterally or bilaterally infertile, whereas only 27.4% of the noninfected control mice were found to be infertile. Images PMID:8423104

  1. PD-L1 limits the mucosal CD8+ T cell response to Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Fankhauser, Sarah C.; Starnbach, Michael N.

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the United States. Repeated infections with C. trachomatis lead to serious sequelae such as infertility. It is unclear why the adaptive immune system, specifically the CD8+ T cell response, is unable to protect against subsequent C. trachomatis infections. In this article we characterize the mucosal CD8+ T cell response to C. trachomatis in the murine genital tract. We demonstrate that the immunoinhibitory ligand, PD-L1, contributes to the defective CD8+ T cell response. Deletion or inhibition of PD-L1 restores the CD8+ T cell response and enhances C. trachomatis clearance. PMID:24353266

  2. Plasmid Copy Number and Disease Severity in Naturally Occurring Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Chrissy h.; Cassama, Eunice; Nabicassa, Meno; Molina-Gonzalez, Sandra; Burr, Sarah E.; Mabey, David C. W.; Bailey, Robin L.; Holland, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    The Chlamydia trachomatis plasmid is a virulence factor. Plasmid copy number, C. trachomatis load and disease severity were assessed in a treatment-naive population where trachoma is hyperendemic. By using droplet digital PCR, plasmid copy number was found to be stable (median, 5.34 [range, 1 to 18]) and there were no associations with C. trachomatis load or disease severity. PMID:24197878

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular typing of multiple Chlamydiaceae species isolated from genital infection of women in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Osman, Kamelia M; Ali, Hadia A; Eljakee, Jakeen A; Gaafar, Maha M; Galal, Hussein M

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the existence of vaginal Chlamydia infection and the prevalence of the disease in symptomatic gynecologically diseased women in Egypt. In addition, the antibiotics penicillin, tetracycline, and erythromycin were evaluated for their in vitro antichlamydial activity of the isolated strains. Vaginal swabs (n=160) were collected from females gynecologically diseased using cotton swabs. Samples were tested for Chlamydia by Vero cells tissue culture, chicken embryo, Gimenez staining, direct fluorescein-conjugated monoclonal antibody staining, and immunoperoxidase. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses conducted for the presence of chlamydial DNA was used to detect its specific DNA by the omp2 gene. PCR analyses conducted for the presence of chlamydial DNA revealed that 112/160 (70%) were positive for Chlamydiaceae. The specific DNA defined by the omp2 gene identified them as Chlamydia trachomatis (17/112, 15.2%), Chlamydophila psittaci (56/112, 50.0%), and Chlamydophila abortus (40/112, 35.7%). The antibiotics penicillin, tetracycline, and erythromycin at different concentrations were effective in inactivating the viability of Chlamydiaceae isolates. PMID:22455539

  4. Sites of persistence of lumpy skin disease virus in the genital tract of experimentally infected bulls.

    PubMed

    Annandale, C H; Irons, P C; Bagla, V P; Osuagwuh, U I; Venter, E H

    2010-04-01

    The objectives of this work were to determine the site of persistence of lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) in bulls shedding the virus in semen for a period longer than 28 days, to determine if the virus is present in all fractions of semen and to study lesions that developed in the genital tract. Six serologically negative postpubertal bulls were experimentally infected with a virulent field isolate of LSDV. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on sheath washes, vesicular fluid, supernatant and cell-rich fractions of semen from day 10 to day 26 postinfection (p.i.). Bulls that were positive by PCR on the whole semen sample collected on day 28 p.i. were slaughtered and tissue samples from their genital tracts submitted for histopathological evaluation, immunoperoxidase staining, virus isolation and PCR. Two of the bulls developed severe lumpy skin disease (LSD) and were found to be shedding viral DNA in their semen on day 28 p.i. Viral DNA was identified in all semen fractions from all bulls, but mostly from the cell-rich fraction and from the severely affected bulls. The PCR assay was positive on postmortem samples of testes and epididymides from the two severely affected bulls. Virus could be recovered from the testes of these two bulls and from the epididymis of one of them. Immunoperoxidase staining was positive for LSDV staining in sections of testes and epididymides exhibiting necrosis. This study suggests that the testis and epididymis are sites of persistence of LSDV in bulls shedding virus in semen for prolonged periods and revealed that viral DNA is present in all fractions of the ejaculate. PMID:19055553

  5. Concurrence of oral and genital human papillomavirus infection in healthy men: a population-based cross-sectional study in rural China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fangfang; Hang, Dong; Deng, Qiuju; Liu, Mengfei; Xi, Longfu; He, Zhonghu; Zhang, Chaoting; Sun, Min; Liu, Ying; Li, Jingjing; Pan, Yaqi; Ning, Tao; Guo, Chuanhai; Liang, Yongmei; Xu, Ruiping; Zhang, Lixin; Cai, Hong; Ke, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, a primary cause of genital cancer, is also related to the increasing incidence of oropharyngeal cancer among young men. Relatively little is known about the concurrence of oral and genital infection among healthy individuals. Oral and genital swab exfoliated cells were collected simultaneously from 2566 men in rural China. Using general primer-mediated (SPF1/GP6+) PCR and sequencing, HPV testing results were obtained from 2228 men with both valid oral and genital specimens (?-globin-positive). The prevalence of HPV infection was 6.7% in the oral cavity and 16.9% for the external genitalia. Among 43 men (1.9%, 43/2228) with oral-genital coinfection, 60.5% (26/43) harbored an identical HPV type at both sites. The risk of oral HPV infection was higher among men with genital infection than among uninfected men (11.4% vs. 5.7%, Adjusted OR?=?2.3, 95% CI: 1.6-3.4). In addition, having multiple lifetime sexual partners was a significant risk for oral-genital HPV coinfection (Adjusted OR?=?2.6, 95% CI: 1.0-7.0; 2 partners vs. 1 partner). These findings provide a basis for further understanding the natural history and transmission dynamics of oral HPV infection. PMID:26503510

  6. Concurrence of oral and genital human papillomavirus infection in healthy men: a population-based cross-sectional study in rural China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fangfang; Hang, Dong; Deng, Qiuju; Liu, Mengfei; Xi, Longfu; He, Zhonghu; Zhang, Chaoting; Sun, Min; Liu, Ying; Li, Jingjing; Pan, Yaqi; Ning, Tao; Guo, Chuanhai; Liang, Yongmei; Xu, Ruiping; Zhang, Lixin; Cai, Hong; Ke, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, a primary cause of genital cancer, is also related to the increasing incidence of oropharyngeal cancer among young men. Relatively little is known about the concurrence of oral and genital infection among healthy individuals. Oral and genital swab exfoliated cells were collected simultaneously from 2566 men in rural China. Using general primer-mediated (SPF1/GP6+) PCR and sequencing, HPV testing results were obtained from 2228 men with both valid oral and genital specimens (β-globin-positive). The prevalence of HPV infection was 6.7% in the oral cavity and 16.9% for the external genitalia. Among 43 men (1.9%, 43/2228) with oral-genital coinfection, 60.5% (26/43) harbored an identical HPV type at both sites. The risk of oral HPV infection was higher among men with genital infection than among uninfected men (11.4% vs. 5.7%, Adjusted OR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.6–3.4). In addition, having multiple lifetime sexual partners was a significant risk for oral-genital HPV coinfection (Adjusted OR = 2.6, 95% CI: 1.0–7.0; 2 partners vs. 1 partner). These findings provide a basis for further understanding the natural history and transmission dynamics of oral HPV infection. PMID:26503510

  7. Prevalence of the genital tract bacterial infections after vaginal reconstructive surgery.

    PubMed

    Maghsoudi, Reza; Danesh, Azar; Kabiri, Najmeh; Setorki, Mahbubeh; Doudi, Monir

    2014-09-01

    Due to frequent childbirth, heavy lifting and the structure of the lives of rural women in Shahrekord region, Iran, cystocele and rectocele are of the main medical problems of the women in this area and for its correction, vaginal reconstructive surgery is needed which causes infection. The purpose of this study was to identify the bacteria causing infection after vaginal reconstructive surgery and performing antibiogram to help these patients for faster recovery. Patients enrolled this study were 92 who had undergone previous vaginal reconstructive surgery and now had infection. After examination, the group of patients taking antibiotics (n = 26) were excluded and the remaining 66 completed the study questionnaire. A gynecologist performed sampling; related tests (aerobic and anaerobic culture using an anaerobic culture gas pack jar and type A which provides absolute anaerobic conditions) were performed; antimicrobial susceptibility testing using Disk Diffusion Method was carried out; and the results were recorded. All the positive samples were polymicrobial. Gardnerella vaginalis in 20 cases (31%), peptostreptococci and anaerobic cocci in 9 cases (13.6%), staphylococcus aureus in 8 cases (9.1%), bacteroides and fusobacterium in 7 cases (10.6%), streptococcus group B in 4 cases (6%), yeast cells in 11 cases (16.6%) and Trichomonas vaginalis in wet mount of 4 (6%) existed. Anaerobic bacteria showed 85% sensitivity to clindamycin, 82% to chloramphenicol, 85% sensitivity to ceftizoxime and 45% to penicillin. Facultative anaerobic bacteria showed a sensitivity rate of 90% to ceftizoxime, chloramphenicol and cephalothin. According to our findings, the rate of vaginal bacterial infection in women with vaginal reconstructive surgery has increased; from which, infections with anaerobic bacteria origins have increased dramatically. We recommend antibiotic prophylaxis prior to genital reconstructive surgeries. PMID:26031026

  8. Chlamydia muridarum T-Cell Antigens Formulated with the Adjuvant DDA/TDB Induce Immunity against Infection That Correlates with a High Frequency of Gamma Interferon (IFN-?)/Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and IFN-?/Interleukin-17 Double-Positive CD4+ T Cells?

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hong; Jiang, Xiaozhou; Shen, Caixia; Karunakaran, Karuna P.; Jiang, Janina; Rosin, Nicole L.; Brunham, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    Major impediments to developing a Chlamydia vaccine lie in identifying immunologically relevant T-cell antigens and delivery in a manner to stimulate protective immunity. Using an immunoproteomic approach, we previously identified three immunodominant Chlamydia T-cell antigens (PmpG-1, PmpE/F-2, and RplF). Because RplF has high homology to a human ortholog, it may not be suitable for human vaccine development. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated protection against Chlamydia infection in the genital tract in C57BL/6 mice immunized with Chlamydia-specific membrane proteins PmpG-1, PmpE/F-2, and major outer membrane protein (MOMP; as a reference) or a combination of them formulated with one of three adjuvants, CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG-ODN), AbISCO-100 (AbISCO), or DDA/TDB (dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide/d-(+)-trehalose 6,6?-dibehenate). The results show that immunization with the CpG-ODN formulation failed to provide protection against Chlamydia infection; the AbISCO formulation conferred moderate protection, and the DDA/TDB formulation showed the highest degree of protective efficacy. The combination of PmpG-1, PmpE/F-2, and MOMP proteins formulated with DDA/TDB exhibited the greatest degree of protection among all vaccine groups studied. Moreover, this vaccine combination also engendered significant protection in BALB/c mice, which have a different major histocompatibility complex (MHC) background. We measured cell-mediated immune cytokine responses in mice immunized with PmpG-1 mixed with each of the three adjuvants. The results demonstrate that mice immunized with the DDA/TDB formulation induced the strongest gamma interferon (IFN-?) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) responses, characterized by the highest frequency of IFN-?/tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and IFN-?/IL-17 double-positive CD4+ T cells. In conclusion, a Chlamydia vaccine based on the recombinant proteins PmpG-1, PmpE/F-2, and MOMP delivered in a DDA/TDB adjuvant conferred protection against infection that correlated with IFN-?/TNF-? and IFN-?/IL-17 double-positive CD4+ T cells. PMID:20231405

  9. Sexually Transmitted Infections and Male Circumcision: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Van Howe, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    The claim that circumcision reduces the risk of sexually transmitted infections has been repeated so frequently that many believe it is true. A systematic review and meta-analyses were performed on studies of genital discharge syndrome versus genital ulcerative disease, genital discharge syndrome, nonspecific urethritis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, genital ulcerative disease, chancroid, syphilis, herpes simplex virus, human papillomavirus, and contracting a sexually transmitted infection of any type. Chlamydia, gonorrhea, genital herpes, and human papillomavirus are not significantly impacted by circumcision. Syphilis showed mixed results with studies of prevalence suggesting intact men were at great risk and studies of incidence suggesting the opposite. Intact men appear to be of greater risk for genital ulcerative disease while at lower risk for genital discharge syndrome, nonspecific urethritis, genital warts, and the overall risk of any sexually transmitted infection. In studies of general populations, there is no clear or consistent positive impact of circumcision on the risk of individual sexually transmitted infections. Consequently, the prevention of sexually transmitted infections cannot rationally be interpreted as a benefit of circumcision, and any policy of circumcision for the general population to prevent sexually transmitted infections is not supported by the evidence in the medical literature. PMID:23710368

  10. Kinetics of Local and Systemic Leucocyte and Cytokine Reaction of Calves to Intrabronchial Infection with Chlamydia psittaci

    PubMed Central

    Prohl, Annette; Wolf, Katharina; Weber, Corinna; Müller, Kerstin E.; Menge, Christian; Sachse, Konrad; Rödel, Jürgen; Reinhold, Petra; Berndt, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Infection of cattle with chlamydiae is ubiquitous and, even in the absence of clinical sequeleae, has a quantifiable negative impact on livestock productivity. Despite recent progress, our knowledge about immune response mechanisms capable of counteracting the infection and preventing its detrimental effects is still limited. A well-established model of bovine acute respiratory Chlamydia (C.) psittaci infection was used here to characterize the kinetics of the local and systemic immune reactions in calves. In the course of two weeks following inoculation, leukocyte surface marker expression was monitored by flow cytometry in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Immune-related protein and receptor transcription were determined by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR in blood, BALF and lung tissue. An early increase of IL2RA, IL10 and HSPA1A mRNA expressions was followed by a rise of lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes exhibiting activated phenotypes in blood. Monocytes showed elevated expression rates of CD11b, CD14 and MHC class II. The rates of CD62L expression on CD8hi T cells in blood and on CD4+ T cells in BALF were also augmented and peaked between 2 and 4 dpi. Notably, CD25 antigen expression was significantly elevated, not only on CD8dim/CD62L+ and CD8-/CD62L+ cells in blood, but also on granulocytes in blood and BALF between 2–3 dpi. From 4 dpi onwards, changes declined and the calves recovered from the infection until 10 dpi. The findings highlight the effectiveness of rapid local and systemic immune reaction and indicate activated T cells, monocytes and granulocytes being essential for rapid eradication of the C. psittaci infection. PMID:26252769

  11. Epidemiology of Chlamydia trachomatis endocervical infection in a previously unscreened population in Rome, Italy, 2000 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Marcone, V; Recine, N; Gallinelli, C; Nicosia, R; Lichtner, M; Degener, A M; Chiarini, F; Calzolari, E; Vullo, V

    2012-01-01

    As reliable data on Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Italy are lacking and as there is no Italian screening policy, epidemiological analyses are needed to optimise effective strategies for surveillance of the infection in the country. We collected data from 6,969 sexually active women aged 15 to 55 years who underwent testing for endocervical C. trachomatis infection at the Cervico-Vaginal Pathology Unit in the Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics of Sapienza University in Rome between 2000 and 2009. The mean prevalence of C. trachomatis endocervical infection during this period was 5.2%. Prevalence over time did not show a linear trend. Univariate analysis demonstrated a significant association of infection with multiple lifetime sexual partners, younger age (<40 years), never having been pregnant, smoking, use of oral contraceptives, and human papillomavirus and Trichomonas vaginalis infections. Multivariate stepwise logistic regression showed that T. vaginalis infection, age under 20 years and more than one lifetime sexual partner remained significantly associated with C. trachomatis infection in the final model. Prevalence of C. trachomatis in this study was high, even among women aged 25–39 years (5.1%): our data would suggest that a C. trachomatis screening policy in Italy is warranted, which could lead to a more extensive testing strategy. PMID:22748006

  12. Virus-specific antibodies in sera from patients with genital herpes simplex virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Zweerink, H J; Corey, L

    1982-01-01

    Virus-specific antibodies against a number of herpes simplex virus type 2 antigens were determined by radioimmunoprecipitation assays in sequential serum samples obtained from 12 patients with initial genital herpes simplex virus infection. The progressive appearance of antibodies to virus-specific antigens was observed; antibodies against a 130,000-molecular-weight glycoprotein complex appeared first, followed by antibodies against the major nucleocapsid polypeptide and then antibodies against a number of other viral antigens, including a polypeptide with a molecular weight of 62,000. Patients who developed a wide variety of antibodies to viral polypeptides shortly after resolution of their initial episode seemed to experience more severe initial infections and more recurrences than did those who reacted poorly with these virus-specific antigens. This was most apparent with respect to antibodies to virus-specific polypeptides with molecular weights between 30,000 and 43,000. Antibody specificity did not change during the course of follow-up regardless of whether serum samples were taken shortly before, during, or after recurrent episodes. Glycoprotein-specific antibodies were quantitated with the purified 130,000-molecular-weight glycoprotein material. No significant fluctuations in these antibody titers were observed before or after recurrences of the disease. Images PMID:7118244

  13. Genital Antibody Responses in Mice after Intranasal Infection with an Attenuated Candidate Vector Strain of Bordetella pertussis

    PubMed Central

    Mielcarek, Nathalie; Nordström, Inger; Menozzi, Franco D.; Locht, Camille; Holmgren, Jan

    2000-01-01

    Intranasal administration of live attenuated Bordetella pertussis, from which the pertussis toxin gene has been deleted, has previously been shown to give rise to high levels of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against both the protective antigen filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) and heterologous antigens genetically fused to FHA. Here, we extend these results by demonstrating that anti-FHA IgA and IgG antibodies are also produced in the genital tract of mice, both in the vagina and in the uterus, after a single intranasal administration of B. pertussis. By comparing the immune responses induced after infection with wild-type virulent B. pertussis with that induced by infection with an attenuated pertussis toxin-deficient strain, we conclude that pertussis toxin produced by the virulent bacteria does not modify antibody production to FHA in the genital tract of B. pertussis-infected mice. The intranasal infection with either the attenuated or the virulent B. pertussis strain also led to the development of immunologic memory that could be efficiently boosted with purified FHA administered either intranasally or intravaginally to give rise to a significant increase in the levels of specific IgA and IgG produced locally in the genital tract, as well as of specific antibodies in the serum. These observations suggest that attenuated B. pertussis could be a promising vector for intranasal administration to induce antibody responses against antigens from sexually transmitted pathogens fused to FHA. PMID:10639408

  14. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... News & Events Volunteer NIAID > Health & Research Topics > Genital Herpes Genital Herpes Research Skip Website Tools Website Tools Print this ... Studies Help people who are suffering from genital herpes by volunteering for NIAID clinical studies on ClinicalTrials. ...

  15. OASL1 deficiency promotes antiviral protection against genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection by enhancing type I interferon production

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Ji Eun; Lee, Myeong Sup; Kim, Young-Joon; Lee, Heung Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Type I interferon (IFN) interferes with virus replication, promotes antiviral responses, and controls innate and adaptive immune responses to certain viruses. Recently, we reported that 2’–5’ oligoadenylate synthetase-like 1 (OASL1) negatively regulates type I IFN production by inhibiting the translation of the type I IFN-regulating master transcription factor, IRF7. Notably, while OASL1-deficient mice induce robust production of type I IFN and are resistant to systemic viral infection, the effects of OASL1 during localized viral infection has not been studied. To this end, we investigated the role of OASL1 during mucosal HSV-2 infection of the genital tract. Oasl1−/− mice exhibited better survival rates than wild type (WT) mice following intravaginal HSV-2 infection, and suppressed virus replication more efficiently despite comparable recruitment of effector immune cells. Moreover, Ly6Chigh monocytes, and not pDCs or other cell types, displayed enhanced production of type I IFNs in Oasl1−/− mice in response to HSV-2 infection. Furthermore, cytotoxic T cell responses including IFN-γ production were accelerated in Oasl1−/− mice after mucosal HSV-2 infection. Collectively, these results demonstrate that OASL1 deficiency promotes antiviral immunity against local mucosal viral infection and suggest that OASL1 could be a therapeutic target for treatment of HSV-2 infection of the genital mucosa. PMID:26750802

  16. OASL1 deficiency promotes antiviral protection against genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection by enhancing type I interferon production.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ji Eun; Lee, Myeong Sup; Kim, Young-Joon; Lee, Heung Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Type I interferon (IFN) interferes with virus replication, promotes antiviral responses, and controls innate and adaptive immune responses to certain viruses. Recently, we reported that 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase-like 1 (OASL1) negatively regulates type I IFN production by inhibiting the translation of the type I IFN-regulating master transcription factor, IRF7. Notably, while OASL1-deficient mice induce robust production of type I IFN and are resistant to systemic viral infection, the effects of OASL1 during localized viral infection has not been studied. To this end, we investigated the role of OASL1 during mucosal HSV-2 infection of the genital tract. Oasl1(-/-) mice exhibited better survival rates than wild type (WT) mice following intravaginal HSV-2 infection, and suppressed virus replication more efficiently despite comparable recruitment of effector immune cells. Moreover, Ly6C(high) monocytes, and not pDCs or other cell types, displayed enhanced production of type I IFNs in Oasl1(-/-) mice in response to HSV-2 infection. Furthermore, cytotoxic T cell responses including IFN-? production were accelerated in Oasl1(-/-) mice after mucosal HSV-2 infection. Collectively, these results demonstrate that OASL1 deficiency promotes antiviral immunity against local mucosal viral infection and suggest that OASL1 could be a therapeutic target for treatment of HSV-2 infection of the genital mucosa. PMID:26750802

  17. Comparison of Lower Genital Tract Microbiota in HIV-Infected and Uninfected Women from Rwanda and the US

    PubMed Central

    Benning, Lorie; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Anastos, Kathryn; French, Audrey L.; Cohen, Mardge; Gilbert, Douglas; Gillevet, Patrick; Munyazesa, Elisaphane; Landay, Alan L.; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Spear, Gregory T.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have shown that alterations of the bacterial microbiota in the lower female genital tract influence susceptibility to HIV infection and shedding. We assessed geographic differences in types of genital microbiota between HIV-infected and uninfected women from Rwanda and the United States. Methods Genera of lower genital tract bacterial microbiota were identified by high-throughput pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene from 46 US women (36 HIV-infected, 10 HIV-uninfected) and 40 Rwandan women (18 HIV-infected, 22 HIV-uninfected) with similar proportions of low (03) Nugent scores. Species of Lactobacillus were identified by assembling sequences along with reference sequences into phylogenetic trees. Prevalence of genera and Lactobacillus species were compared using Fisher's exact tests. Results Overall the seven most prevalent genera were Lactobacillus (74%), Prevotella (56%), Gardnerella (55%), Atopobium (42%), Sneathia (37%), Megasphaera (30%), and Parvimonas (26%), observed at similar prevalences comparing Rwandan to US women, except for Megasphaera (20% vs. 39%, p?=?0.06). Additionally, Rwandan women had higher frequencies of Mycoplasma (23% vs. 7%, p?=?0.06) and Eggerthella (13% vs. 0%, p?=?0.02), and lower frequencies of Lachnobacterium (8% vs. 35%, p<0.01) and Allisonella (5% vs. 30%, p<0.01), compared with US women. The prevalence of Mycoplasma was highest (p<0.05) in HIV-infected Rwandan women (39%), compared to HIV-infected US women (6%), HIV-uninfected Rwandan (9%) and US (10%) women. The most prevalent lactobacillus species in both Rwandan and US women was L. iners (58% vs. 76%, p?=?0.11), followed by L. crispatus (28% vs. 30%, p?=?0.82), L. jensenii (20% vs. 24%, p?=?0.80), L. gasseri (20% vs. 11%, p?=?0.37) and L. vaginalis (20% vs. 7%, p?=?0.10). Discussion We found similar prevalence of most major bacterial genera and Lactobacillus species in Rwandan and US women. Further work will be needed to establish whether observed differences differentially impact lower genital tract health or susceptibility to genital infections. PMID:24817204

  18. Infection, Disease, and Transmission Dynamics in Calves after Experimental and Natural Challenge with a Bovine Chlamydia psittaci Isolate

    PubMed Central

    Ostermann, Carola; Rttger, Anke; Schubert, Evelyn; Schrdl, Wieland; Sachse, Konrad; Reinhold, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia (C.) psittaci is the causative agent of psittacosis, a zoonotic disease in birds and man. In addition, C. psittaci has been repeatedly found in domestic animals and is, at least in calves, also able to induce respiratory disease. Knowledge about transmission routes in cattle herds is still deficient, and nothing is known about differences in host response after either experimental or natural exposure to C. psittaci. Therefore, our recently developed respiratory infection model was exploited to evaluate (i) the presence of the pathogen in blood, excretions and air, (ii) the possibility of transmission and (iii) clinical symptoms, acute phase and immune response until 5 weeks after exposure. In this prospective study, intrabronchial inoculation of 108 inclusion-forming units of C. psittaci (n?=?21 calves) led to reproducible acute respiratory illness (of approximately one week), accompanied by a systemic inflammatory reaction with an innate immune response dominated by neutrophils. Excretion and/or exhalation of the pathogen was sufficient to transmit the infection to nave sentinel calves (n?=?3) co-housed with the infected animals. Sentinel calves developed mild to subclinical infections only. Notably, excretion of the pathogen, predominantly via feces, occurred more frequently in animals naturally exposed to C. psittaci (i.e. sentinels) as compared to experimentally-inoculated calves. The humoral immune response was generally weak, and did not emerge regularly following experimental infection; however, it was largely absent after naturally acquired infection. PMID:23691148

  19. Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection Promotes Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Migration through a Toll-Like Receptor 2-Related Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Beibei; Zhang, Tengteng; Wang, Haiwei; Zhang, Junxia; Wei, Junyan; Shen, Bingling; Liu, Xin; Xu, Zhelong; Zhang, Lijun

    2013-01-01

    The migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from the media to the intima is proposed to be a key event in the development of atherosclerosis. Recently, we reported that Chlamydia pneumoniae infection is involved in VSMC migration. However, the exact mechanisms for C. pneumoniae infection-induced VSMC migration are not yet well elucidated. In this study, we examined the role of the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) activation-related signaling pathway in VSMC migration induced by C. pneumoniae infection. An Affymetrix-based gene expression array was conducted to identify the changes of gene expression in rat primary VSMCs (rVSMCs) infected with C. pneumoniae. Both the microarray analysis and quantitative real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR revealed that TLR2 mRNA expression was strongly upregulated 12 h after C. pneumoniae infection. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis further showed that the expression levels of TLR2 mRNA and protein significantly increased at the different time points after infection. Immunocytochemical analysis suggested a TLR2 recruitment to the vicinity of C. pneumoniae inclusions. Cell migration assays showed that the TLR2-neutralizing antibody could significantly inhibit C. pneumoniae infection-induced rVSMC migration. In addition, C. pneumoniae infection stimulated Akt phosphorylation at Ser 473, which was obviously suppressed by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002, thereby inhibiting rVSMC migration caused by C. pneumoniae infection. Furthermore, both the infection-induced Akt phosphorylation and rVSMC migration were suppressed by the TLR2-neutralizing antibody. Taken together, these data suggest that C. pneumoniae infection can promote VSMC migration possibly through the TLR2-related signaling pathway. PMID:24082081

  20. Association of CCR5, TLR2, TLR4 and MBL genetic variations with genital tract infections and tubal factor infertility.

    PubMed

    Laisk, Triin; Peters, Maire; Saare, Merli; Haller-Kikkatalo, Kadri; Karro, Helle; Salumets, Andres

    2010-12-01

    Upper genital tract infections can inflict inadequate immune response and cause Fallopian tube damage and concomitant female infertility. However, the exact role of host genetic variation in the development of tubal factor infertility remains unclear. We selected nine genetic variations in four genes involved in immune response modulation (CCR5, TLR2, TLR4 and MBL2) and assessed their association with tubal factor infertility by comparing genotype frequencies among 163 women with tubal factor infertility and 400 control individuals. The CCR5, TLR2 and TLR4 genotypes were not associated with tubal factor infertility, although the TLR4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile heterozygosity was associated with a decreased incidence of pathogens associated with genital tract infections in tubal factor infertility patients. In contrast, MBL2 low-producing genotypes were associated with an increased incidence of such pathogens. In addition, hyper-producing MBL2 genotype HYA/HYA and low-producing MBL2 genotypes were associated with susceptibility to tubal factor infertility, while a protective effect was associated with the high-producing MBL2 genotype HYA/LYA. Overall, these data suggest that polymorphisms in TLR4 and MBL2 play a role in receptiveness to pathogens causing genital tract infections, while MBL2 genotypes contribute to susceptibility to tubal factor infertility. PMID:20598754

  1. Longitudinal monitoring for respiratory pathogens in broiler chickens reveals co-infection of Chlamydia psittaci and Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale.

    PubMed

    De Boeck, Cindy; Kalmar, Isabelle; Dumont, Annelien; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2015-05-01

    Chlamydia psittaci is prevalent in broiler chicken production. However, the role of C. psittaci in the respiratory disease complex needs to be clarified. Our aim was to identify the time point when a C. psittaci infection appeared on a broiler farm and to examine the presence of other respiratory pathogens at that time. We focused on the 'major' respiratory pathogens occurring in Belgian broilers, namely infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale, Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae, and examined their co-occurrence with C. psittaci on three commercial broiler farms. For all farms, 1-day-old broilers showed high maternal antibody titres against C. psittaci in the presence of viable C. psittaci. Maternal antibodies seemed to protect against respiratory signs. Maternal antibodies declined and clinical outbreaks could be identified serologically even before maternal antibodies completely disappeared. Mixed infections with genotypes B/C and B/C/D were observed. Broilers with C. psittaci antibody increases showed conjunctivitis, signs of upper respiratory disease and dyspnoea. C. psittaci always preceded an O. rhinotracheale infection. Infections with aMPV, IBV or Mycoplasma spp. were not observed. Evidence was provided that C. psittaci could occur at an early age in broilers without a predisposing respiratory infection. Both C. psittaci and O. rhinotracheale should be considered when developing prevention strategies for respiratory disease in broilers. PMID:25724936

  2. Diagnostic efficacy of a real time-PCR assay for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in infertile women in north India

    PubMed Central

    Dhawan, Benu; Rawre, Jyoti; Ghosh, Arnab; Malhotra, Neena; Ahmed, Mir Muneer; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Chaudhry, Rama

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Little is known about the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Indian women with infertility. To improve the diagnosis of C. trachomatis infection in developing countries, there is an urgent need to establish cost-effective molecular test with high sensitivity and specificity. This study was conducted to determine the diagnostic utility of a real time-PCR assay for detention of C. trachomatis infection in infertile women attending an infertility clinic in north India. The in house real time-PCR assay was also compared with a commercial real-time PCR based detection system. Method: Endocervical swabs, collected from 200 infertile women were tested for C. trachomatis by three different PCR assays viz. in-house real time-PCR targeting the cryptic plasmid using published primers, along with omp1 gene and cryptic plasmid based conventional PCR assays. Specimens were also subjected to direct fluorescence assay (DFA) and enzyme immunoassay (EIA) Performance of in-house real time-PCR was compared with that of COBAS Taqman C. trachomatis Test, version 2.0 on all in-house real time-PCR positive sample and 30 consecutive negative samples. Results: C. trachomatis infection was found in 13.5 per cent (27/200) infertile women by in-house real time-PCR, 11.5 per cent (23/200) by cryptic plasmid and/or omp1 gene based conventional PCR, 9 per cent (18/200) by DFA and 6.5 per cent (7/200) by EIA. The in-house real time-PCR exhibited a sensitivity and specificity of 100 per cent, considering COBAS Taqman CT Test as the gold standard. The negative and positive predictive values of the in-house real time-PCR were 100 per cent. The in-house real time-PCR could detect as low as 10 copies of C. trachomatis DNA per reaction. Interpretation & conclusions: In-house real time-PCR targeting the cryptic plasmid of C. trachomatis exhibited an excellent sensitivity and specificity similar to that of COBAS Taqman CT Test, v2.0 for detection of C. trachomatis infection in women attending an infertility clinic. In an effort to prevent Chlamydia infection associated infertility, we recommend screening of women with infertility due to C. trachomatis infection by in-house molecular method as a cost-effective solution in resource limited settings. PMID:25297359

  3. A case of acute myocarditis associated with Chlamydia trachomatis infection: role of cardiac MRI in the clinical management.

    PubMed

    Dellegrottaglie, S; Russo, G; Damiano, M; Pagliano, P; Ferrara, L; De Simone, C; Guarini, P

    2014-10-01

    We report the case of a 32-year-old male with Chlamydia trachomatis infection and admitted with chest pain, signs of myocardial damage and coronary arteries free from significant atherosclerotic disease. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) documented imaging patterns of myocardial involvement suggestive of acute myocarditis, and repeated cardiac MRI examinations were used to define appropriate clinical management of the patient. In particular, the decision to submit the patient to an additional antibiotic course was based on evidence of persisting myocardial edema, while no further treatments were prescribed once these imaging findings disappeared. The case emphasizes the potential value of cardiac MRI as the only non-invasive modality currently available for evaluating the temporal evolution of myocardial involvement after acute myocarditis. PMID:24878744

  4. A cross-sectional study on the relationship of age, gestational age and HIV infection to bacterial vaginosis and genital mycoplasma infection

    PubMed Central

    Redelinghuys, Mathys J; Ehlers, Marthie M; Dreyer, Andries W; Lombaard, Hennie; Olorunju, Steve A S; Kock, Marleen M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Pregnant women are especially at risk of developing complications when infected with reproductive tract infections (RTIs). The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and genital mycoplasmas in pregnant women and investigate the associations between BV, genital mycoplasmas, HIV infection, age and gestational age. Design Cross-sectional study with descriptive and analytical components. Setting Antenatal clinic of a tertiary academic hospital in South Africa. Participants 220 pregnant women older than 18 were included in the study and provided self-collected vaginal swabs. Primary and secondary outcomes BV and genital mycoplasma colonisation and/or infection in women of differing age, gestational period and HIV status. Results The prevalence of BV was 17.7% (39/220) (95% CI 12.9 to 23.4), intermediate vaginal flora (IVF) 15% (33/220) (95% CI 10.56 to 20.42), and the overall prevalence of genital mycoplasmas was 84% (185/220) (95% CI 78.47 to 88.58). BV was significantly associated with HIV infection with an OR of 2.84 (95% CI 1.08 to 7.46 and p value=0.034). However, BV was inversely associated with gestational age with an OR of 0.08 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.42 and p value=0.003) for second trimester pregnancies and an OR of 0.03 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.17 and p value<0.001) for third trimester pregnancies using the first trimester as reference. IVF was significantly associated with HIV infection with an OR of 2.7 (95% CI 1.07 to 6.79 and p value=0.035) but not with age or gestational age. Genital mycoplasmas were not significantly associated with age, gestational age, HIV status, BV flora or IVF. Conclusions The high infection rate of genital mycoplasmas and the association of BV with HIV found in this study reiterate the importance of screening for these RTIs in high-risk groups such as pregnant women. PMID:26482771

  5. Effects of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Glycoprotein Vaccines and CLDC Adjuvant on Genital Herpes Infection in the Guinea Pig

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, David I; Earwood, Julie D.; Bravo, Fernando J.; Cohen, Gary H; Eisenberg, Roselyn J; Clark, Jennifer R.; Fairman, Jeffrey; Cardin, Rhonda D.

    2011-01-01

    Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are common but results from vaccine trials with HSV-2 glycoprotein D (gD) have been disappointing. We therefore compared a similar HSV gD2 vaccine, to a further truncated gD2 vaccine, to a vaccine with gD2 plus gB2 and gH2/gL2 and to a vaccine with only gB2 and gH2/gL2 in a guinea pig model of genital herpes. All vaccines were administered with cationic liposome-DNA complexes (CLDC) as an adjuvant. All vaccines significantly decreased the severity of acute genital disease and vaginal virus replication compared to the placebo group. The majority of animals in all groups developed at least one episode of recurrent disease but the frequency of recurrent disease was significantly reduced by each vaccine compared to placebo. No vaccine was significantly more protective than gD2 alone for any of the parameters described above. No vaccine decreased recurrent virus shedding. When protection against acute infection of dorsal root ganglia and the spinal cord was evaluated all vaccines decreased the per cent of animal with detectable virus and the quantity of virus but again no vaccine was significantly more protective than another. Improvements in HSV-2 vaccines may require inclusion of more T cell targets, more potent adjuvants or live virus vaccines. PMID:21238569

  6. Effects of herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein vaccines and CLDC adjuvant on genital herpes infection in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, David I; Earwood, Julie D; Bravo, Fernando J; Cohen, Gary H; Eisenberg, Roselyn J; Clark, Jennifer R; Fairman, Jeffrey; Cardin, Rhonda D

    2011-03-01

    Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are common but results from vaccine trials with HSV-2 glycoprotein D (gD) have been disappointing. We therefore compared a similar HSV gD2 vaccine, to a further truncated gD2 vaccine, to a vaccine with gD2 plus gB2 and gH2/gL2 and to a vaccine with only gB2 and gH2/gL2 in a guinea pig model of genital herpes. All vaccines were administered with cationic liposome-DNA complexes (CLDC) as an adjuvant. All vaccines significantly decreased the severity of acute genital disease and vaginal virus replication compared to the placebo group. The majority of animals in all groups developed at least one episode of recurrent disease but the frequency of recurrent disease was significantly reduced by each vaccine compared to placebo. No vaccine was significantly more protective than gD2 alone for any of the parameters described above. No vaccine decreased recurrent virus shedding. When protection against acute infection of dorsal root ganglia and the spinal cord was evaluated all vaccines decreased the per cent of animal with detectable virus and the quantity of virus but again no vaccine was significantly more protective than another. Improvements in HSV-2 vaccines may require inclusion of more T cell targets, more potent adjuvants or live virus vaccines. PMID:21238569

  7. Interferon-gamma gene polymorphism influences the frequency of a Chlamydia trachomatis cervical infection in young women.

    PubMed

    Eleutrio, Jos; Teles, Rosiane A; Linhares, Iara M; Normand, Neil; Witkin, Steven S

    2015-11-01

    Cervicitis associated with Chlamydia trachomatis is frequent worldwide, but the factors determining susceptibility to infection remain incompletely determined. We evaluated whether a functional single nucleotide polymorphism at position +874 in the gene coding for interferon gamma (rs2430561) influenced the likelihood of having a cervical C. trachomatis infection. This was a cross-sectional study of 142 sexually-active women attending a general gynaecology service on the outskirts of the city of Fortaleza in northeastern Brazil between August 2011 and August 2012. Endocervical swabs were evaluated for C. trachomatis DNA using hybrid capture. DNA from buccal swabs was utilised for detection of the interferon gamma 874 T/A single nucleotide polymorphism by gene amplification, endonuclease digestion and gel electrophoresis. Nineteen women (13.4%) were positive for C. trachomatis in their cervix. Positivity was 21.7% in women with the A,A genotype versus 7.0% in women with one or two T alleles (p?=?0.0227). The variant T allele frequency, associated with elevated interferon gamma production, was 36.2% in women who were negative for C. trachomatis as opposed to 18.4% in women who were positive for a cervical infection with this organism (p?=?0.0415). Possession of the T allele at position +874 in the gene coding for interferon gamma is associated with a reduced likelihood of a C. trachomatis cervical infection. PMID:25505046

  8. Profiling antibody responses to infections by Chlamydia abortus enables identification of potential virulence factors and candidates for serodiagnosis.

    PubMed

    Forsbach-Birk, Vera; Foddis, Corinna; Simnacher, Ulrike; Wilkat, Max; Longbottom, David; Walder, Gernot; Benesch, Christiane; Ganter, Martin; Sachse, Konrad; Essig, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Enzootic abortion of ewes (EAE) due to infection with the obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia (C.) abortus is an important zoonosis leading to considerable economic loss to agriculture worldwide. The pathogen can be transmitted to humans and may lead to serious infection in pregnant women. Knowledge about epidemiology, clinical course and transmission to humans is hampered by the lack of reliable diagnostic tools. Immunoreactive proteins, which are expressed in infected animals and humans, may serve as novel candidates for diagnostic marker proteins and represent putative virulence factors. In order to broaden the spectrum of immunogenic C. abortus proteins we applied 2D immunoblot analysis and screening of an expression library using human and animal sera. We have identified 48 immunoreactive proteins representing potential diagnostic markers and also putative virulence factors, such as CAB080 (homologue of the "macrophage infectivity potentiator", MIP), CAB167 (homologue of the "translocated actin recruitment protein", TARP), CAB712 (homologue of the "chlamydial protease-like activity factor", CPAF), CAB776 (homologue of the "Polymorphic membrane protein D", PmpD), and the "hypothetical proteins" CAB063, CAB408 and CAB821, which are predicted to be type III secreted. We selected two putative virulence factors for further characterization, i.e. CAB080 (cMIP) and CAB063, and studied their expression profiles at transcript and protein levels. Analysis of the subcellular localization of both proteins throughout the developmental cycle revealed CAB063 being the first C. abortus protein shown to be translocated to the host cell nucleus. PMID:24260366

  9. Late production of CXCL8 in ruminant oro-nasal turbinate cells in response to Chlamydia abortus infection.

    PubMed

    Doull, L; Wattegedera, S R; Longbottom, D; Mwangi, D; Nath, M; Glass, E J; Entrican, G

    2015-11-15

    Chlamydia abortus is an obligate intracellular bacterium that is an important cause of ovine abortion worldwide. There are reports of abortions in cattle, but these are very rare compared to the reported incidence in sheep. The bacterium is transmitted oro-nasally and can establish a sub-clinical infection until pregnancy, when it can invade the placenta and induce an inflammatory cascade leading to placentitis and abortion. Early host-pathogen interactions could explain differential pathogenesis and subsequent disease outcome in ruminant species. In this study, we assessed the ability of sheep and cattle oro-nasal turbinate cells to sense and respond to C. abortus infection. The cells expressed toll like receptor (TLR) 2, TLR4, nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD) 1 and NOD-like receptor pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) mRNA. In response to C. abortus infection, both ovine and bovine turbinate cells produce CXCL8 mRNA and protein late in the bacterial developmental cycle, but do not produce IL-1β or TNF-α. The UV-inactivated bacteria did not elicit a CXCL8 response, suggesting that intracellular multiplication of the bacteria is important for activating the signalling pathways. The production of innate immune cytokines from cattle and sheep turbinate cells in response to C. abortus infection was found to be largely similar. PMID:26342452

  10. Risk of Infection with Chlamydia trachomatis from Migrants to Communities Undergoing Mass Drug Administration for Trachoma Control

    PubMed Central

    West, Sheila K; Munoz, Beatriz; Mkocha, Harran; Gaydos, Charlotte; Quinn, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine the risk of infection with Chlamydia trachomatis in children who are migrants to communities who are undergoing mass drug administration (MDA), and if their neighborhoods have higher rates of infection over time. Methods In 4 communities in Kongwa, Tanzania, all children were enrolled in a longitudinal study of infection and trachoma. New children were identified at census updates as having not been in the community at the previous census. Within communities, neighborhoods were defined as spatially close groups of households, or balozi. All children in the communities were invited to be examined for trachoma, and have ocular swabs taken for evidence of infection. Trachoma was graded using the World Health Organization simplified grading scheme, and swabs were processed using Amplicor. Results Children who were migrants were more likely to be infected and to have trachoma than children who were resident in the community, which was significant by the time of the survey following the third year of MDA (odds ratio, OR, 2.49, 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.036.05). The neighborhoods where newcomers resided were more likely to have infection a year later than neighborhoods with no migrants, which was most pronounced following the third year of MDA (OR 2.86, 95% CI 1.077.65) Conclusion Migrants to communities may be an important source of re-emergent infection, especially as MDA lowers infection among residents. Highly migrant populations may need a special surveillance and treatment program to avoid slowing progress in communities under MDA. PMID:26158574

  11. Diversity of cervicovaginal microbiota associated with female lower genital tract infections.

    PubMed

    Ling, Zongxin; Liu, Xia; Chen, Xiaoyi; Zhu, Haibin; Nelson, Karen E; Xia, Yaxian; Li, Lanjuan; Xiang, Charlie

    2011-04-01

    The female genital tract (FGT) harbors very large numbers of bacterial species that are known to play an important role on vaginal health. Previous studies have focused on bacterial diversity in the vagina, but little is known about the ectocervical microbiota associated with FGT infections. In our study, vaginal swabs and ectocervical swabs were collected from 100 participants in China, including 30 women with bacterial vaginosis (BV; BV group), 22 women with cervicitis (Cer group), 18 women with BV in combination with cervicitis (BC group) and 30 healthy control women (CN group). The diversity and richness of cervicovaginal microbiota were investigated with culture-independent polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) targeting 11 microorganisms that have been associated with FGT infections. Despite significant interpersonal variations, the PCR-DGGE profiles revealed that vaginal microbiota and ectocervical microbiota were clearly much more complex in the BV group, while the ectocervical microbiota showed no significant difference between healthy and diseased participants. Using species-specific qPCR, BV and cervicitis were significantly associated with a dramatic decrease in Lactobacillus species (p??0.05) in ectocervical microbiota. The total numbers of bacteria were significantly lower in the ectocervix as compared in the vagina (p?infections. The predominant bacteria of the cervicovaginal communities were clearly associated with BV; however, there was not sufficient evidence that the ectocervical microbiota is directly involved in the development of cervicitis. PMID:21287345

  12. An optimized, fast-to-perform mouse lung infection model with the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis for in vivo screening of antibiotics, vaccine candidates and modified host-pathogen interactions.

    PubMed

    Dutow, Pavel; Wask, Lea; Bothe, Miriam; Fehlhaber, Beate; Laudeley, Robert; Rheinheimer, Claudia; Yang, Zhangsheng; Zhong, Guangming; Glage, Silke; Klos, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis causes sexually transmitted diseases with infertility, pelvic inflammatory disease and neonatal pneumonia as complications. The duration of urogenital mouse models with the strict mouse pathogen C. muridarum addressing vaginal shedding, pathological changes of the upper genital tract or infertility is rather long. Moreover, vaginal C. trachomatis application usually does not lead to the complications feared in women. A fast-to-perform mouse model is urgently needed to analyze new antibiotics, vaccine candidates, immune responses (in gene knockout animals) or mutants of C. trachomatis. To complement the valuable urogenital model with a much faster and quantifiable screening method, we established an optimized lung infection model for the human intracellular bacterium C. trachomatis serovar D (and L2) in immunocompetent C57BL/6J mice. We demonstrated its usefulness by sensitive determination of antibiotic effects characterizing advantages and limitations achievable by early or delayed short tetracycline treatment and single-dose azithromycin application. Moreover, we achieved partial acquired protection in reinfection with serovar D indicating usability for vaccine studies, and showed a different course of disease in absence of complement factor C3. Sensitive monitoring parameters were survival rate, body weight, clinical score, bacterial load, histological score, the granulocyte marker myeloperoxidase, IFN-γ, TNF-α, MCP-1 and IL-6. PMID:26676260

  13. Infection and Cardiovascular Disease

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-17

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Heart Diseases; Myocardial Infarction; Infection; Chlamydia Infections; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Helicobacter Infections; Atherosclerosis

  14. Sexually Transmitted Infections

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bacterial vaginosis fact sheet Chlamydia fact sheet Genital herpes fact sheet Genital warts fact sheet Gonorrhea fact ... to get some STIs, such as syphilis and herpes, without having sex. Through sexual contact between women ...

  15. Aberrant chlamydial developmental forms in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs spontaneously and experimentally infected with Chlamydia suis.

    PubMed

    Pospischil, Andreas; Borel, Nicole; Chowdhury, Emdad H; Guscetti, Franco

    2009-03-16

    The phenomenon of persistence is well known from in vitro studies, where it is associated with the production of aberrant bodies, but its occurrence in vivo is less well documented. The objective of this study was to search for aberrant bodies in intestinal tissues from pigs, describe their ultrastructure, and investigate the suitability of immunohistochemical staining for chlamydial heat shock protein 60 (cHSP60) to detect such forms. Intestinal tissues derived from pigs naturally and experimentally infected with Chlamydia (C.) suis were examined by immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy and immunogold electron microscopy. The chlamydial species involved in the natural infection were determined using an Array Tube Microarray to C. suis and Chlamydophila abortus. Ultrastructurally, aberrant bodies were detected in the gut of both naturally and experimentally infected pigs. Immunogold electron microscopy showed that the aberrant bodies were labeled less strongly than the normal forms by antibodies against LPS and cHSP60 respectively. It was concluded that aberrant bodies occur in vivo in pigs and that the gnotobiotic pig model might be suitable for the study of chlamydial persistence in vivo. The antibody against cHSP60 does not appear to be suitable to specifically detect such forms. PMID:18950970

  16. Risk factors for genital ulcerations in Kenyan sex workers. The role of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection.

    PubMed

    Kaul, R; Kimani, J; Nagelkerke, N J; Plummer, F A; Bwayo, J J; Brunham, R C; Ngugi, E N; Ronald, A

    1997-08-01

    Both cross-sectional and prospective studies in Africa have revealed an association between genital ulcer disease (GUD) and HIV-1; it is unclear, however, which of these infections facilitates the other. The epidemiology of GUD was investigated in a prospective cohort study of 302 female sex workers from a slum area in Nairobi, Kenya. At study intake in 1985, 157 women (52%) were HIV-1 seropositive. After a mean follow-up duration of 27.2 months, 36 (25%) initially HIV-negative women seroconverted. 189 women (62.5%) had at least 1 incident ulcer in the follow-up period and a total of 541 new cases were diagnosed. GUD incidence was significantly higher in HIV-positive women (82%) than initially seronegative women (48%). The mean number of new genital ulcerations recorded during the follow-up period was 1.8 (2.7 in initially seropositive women and 1.0 in initially seronegative women). The only significant risk factors for GUD incidence in the regression analyses were HIV-1 seropositivity (odds ratio (OR), 3.42), a CD4 count under 200/ml (OR, 1.94), and oral contraceptive use (OR, 1.35). The significant increase in GUD incidence observed relatively soon after primary HIV infection among the 36 seroconverters strongly suggests that HIV-1 itself plays a causal role in the etiology of genital ulcers. Moreover, the finding that the duration of prostitution was negatively associated with the incidence of ulcers in HIV-negative but not HIV-positive women implies that HIV-1 infection may attenuate the acquisition or retention of effective immune responses against the etiologic agents of GUD. PMID:9263358

  17. Cutaneous human papillomavirus types detected on the surface of male external genital lesions: A case series within the HPV Infection in Men Study

    PubMed Central

    Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Messina, Jane L.; Stoler, Mark H.; Jukic, Drazen M.; Tommasino, Massimo; Gheit, Tarik; Rollison, Dana E.; Sichero, Laura; Sirak, Bradley A.; Ingles, Donna J.; Abrahamsen, Martha; Lu, Beibei; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPVs) may be associated with cutaneous epithelial lesions and non-melanoma skin cancers. No study has systematically evaluated the presence of genus beta [?]-HPV in male genital skin or external genital lesions (EGLs). Objectives To examine cutaneous ?-HPV types detected on the surface of EGLs in men and describe their presence prior to EGL development. Study design A retrospective case series was conducted among 69 men with pathologically confirmed EGLs (n=72) who participated in the HPV Infection in Men Study. Archived exfoliated cells collected from the surface of each EGL and normal genital skin specimens 612 months preceding EGL development were tested for ?-HPV DNA using a type-specific multiplex genotyping assay. Results ?-HPV DNA was detected on 61.1% of all EGLs, with types 38 (16.7%), 5 (15.3%), and 12 (12.5%) most commonly identified. HPV prevalence differed across pathological diagnoses, with the largest number of ?-HPV types detected on condylomas. Most ?-HPV types were detected on normal genital skin prior to EGL development, though the prevalence was lower on EGLs compared to preceding normal genital skin. Conclusions EGLs and the normal genital skin of men harbor a large number of ?-HPV types; however, it appears that ?-HPVs are unrelated to EGL development in men. Despite evidence to support a causal role in skin carcinogenesis at UVR-exposed sites, cutaneous HPV appears unlikely to cause disease at the UVR-unexposed genitals. PMID:24210970

  18. Epidemiology of urogenital infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and outline of characteristic features of patients at risk.

    PubMed

    Sessa, R; Latino, M A; Magliano, E M; Nicosia, R; Pustorino, R; Santino, I; Gordini, C; Clerici, P; Colombo, R; Del Piano, M

    1994-09-01

    A study of Chlamydia trachomatis infection was conducted in two stages on 15,656 subjects at urogenital clinics of the Faculty of Medicine and Surgery at La Sapienza University in Rome, the S. Anna Hospital in Turin, and the Niguarda Hospital in Milan. The overall incidence of the disease was 6.4% in patients examined throughout the whole study period. The rate of positive cases was 5.8% for the 5270 patients examined up to 1990, and 6.7% for the 10,386 patients examined from 1990 to 1992, showing an increasing trend. There was a much higher positivity rate in men (9.8%) than in women (6.0%); the difference was statistically significant. Of all patients, 60%, were asymptomatic. In symptomatic patients, C. trachomatis was present in 18.5% of cases of non-gonococcal urethritis and in 12.8% of cases of salpingitis. The highest incidence of C. trachomatis infection was in women who had begun sexual activity at an early age, (under 25 years in age), had several sexual partners and used intra-uterine contraceptive devices or spermicides or both. PMID:8064835

  19. SINC, a type III secreted protein of Chlamydia psittaci, targets the inner nuclear membrane of infected cells and uninfected neighbors.

    PubMed

    Mojica, Sergio A; Hovis, Kelley M; Frieman, Matthew B; Tran, Bao; Hsia, Ru-ching; Ravel, Jacques; Jenkins-Houk, Clifton; Wilson, Katherine L; Bavoil, Patrik M

    2015-05-15

    SINC, a new type III secreted protein of the avian and human pathogen Chlamydia psittaci, uniquely targets the nuclear envelope of C. psittaci-infected cells and uninfected neighboring cells. Digitonin-permeabilization studies of SINC-GFP-transfected HeLa cells indicate that SINC targets the inner nuclear membrane. SINC localization at the nuclear envelope was blocked by importazole, confirming SINC import into the nucleus. Candidate partners were identified by proximity to biotin ligase-fused SINC in HEK293 cells and mass spectrometry (BioID). This strategy identified 22 candidates with high confidence, including the nucleoporin ELYS, lamin B1, and four proteins (emerin, MAN1, LAP1, and LBR) of the inner nuclear membrane, suggesting that SINC interacts with host proteins that control nuclear structure, signaling, chromatin organization, and gene silencing. GFP-SINC association with the native LEM-domain protein emerin, a conserved component of nuclear "lamina" structure, or with a complex containing emerin was confirmed by GFP pull down. Our findings identify SINC as a novel bacterial protein that targets the nuclear envelope with the capability of globally altering nuclear envelope functions in the infected host cell and neighboring uninfected cells. These properties may contribute to the aggressive virulence of C. psittaci. PMID:25788290

  20. Multilocus Sequence Analysis Provides Insights into Molecular Epidemiology of Chlamydia pecorum Infections in Australian Sheep, Cattle, and Koalas

    PubMed Central

    Jelocnik, Martina; Frentiu, Francesca D.; Timms, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia pecorum is a significant pathogen of domestic livestock and wildlife. We have developed a C. pecorum-specific multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) scheme to examine the genetic diversity of and relationships between Australian sheep, cattle, and koala isolates. An MLSA of seven concatenated housekeeping gene fragments was performed using 35 isolates, including 18 livestock isolates (11 Australian sheep, one Australian cow, and six U.S. livestock isolates) and 17 Australian koala isolates. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the koala isolates formed a distinct clade, with limited clustering with C. pecorum isolates from Australian sheep. We identified 11 MLSA sequence types (STs) among Australian C. pecorum isolates, 10 of them novel, with koala and sheep sharing at least one identical ST (designated ST2013Aa). ST23, previously identified in global C. pecorum livestock isolates, was observed here in a subset of Australian bovine and sheep isolates. Most notably, ST23 was found in association with multiple disease states and hosts, providing insights into the transmission of this pathogen between livestock hosts. The complexity of the epidemiology of this disease was further highlighted by the observation that at least two examples of sheep were infected with different C. pecorum STs in the eyes and gastrointestinal tract. We have demonstrated the feasibility of our MLSA scheme for understanding the host relationship that exists between Australian C. pecorum strains and provide the first molecular epidemiological data on infections in Australian livestock hosts. PMID:23740730

  1. SINC, a type III secreted protein of Chlamydia psittaci, targets the inner nuclear membrane of infected cells and uninfected neighbors

    PubMed Central

    Mojica, Sergio A.; Hovis, Kelley M.; Frieman, Matthew B.; Tran, Bao; Hsia, Ru-ching; Ravel, Jacques; Jenkins-Houk, Clifton; Wilson, Katherine L.; Bavoil, Patrik M.

    2015-01-01

    SINC, a new type III secreted protein of the avian and human pathogen Chlamydia psittaci, uniquely targets the nuclear envelope of C. psittaciinfected cells and uninfected neighboring cells. Digitonin-permeabilization studies of SINC-GFPtransfected HeLa cells indicate that SINC targets the inner nuclear membrane. SINC localization at the nuclear envelope was blocked by importazole, confirming SINC import into the nucleus. Candidate partners were identified by proximity to biotin ligase-fused SINC in HEK293 cells and mass spectrometry (BioID). This strategy identified 22 candidates with high confidence, including the nucleoporin ELYS, lamin B1, and four proteins (emerin, MAN1, LAP1, and LBR) of the inner nuclear membrane, suggesting that SINC interacts with host proteins that control nuclear structure, signaling, chromatin organization, and gene silencing. GFP-SINC association with the native LEM-domain protein emerin, a conserved component of nuclear lamina structure, or with a complex containing emerin was confirmed by GFP pull down. Our findings identify SINC as a novel bacterial protein that targets the nuclear envelope with the capability of globally altering nuclear envelope functions in the infected host cell and neighboring uninfected cells. These properties may contribute to the aggressive virulence of C. psittaci. PMID:25788290

  2. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Genital Herpes Information for adults A A A This image ... blisters on the buttocks in a patient with herpes simplex. Overview Genital herpes is a recurrent, lifelong ...

  3. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) genital shedding in HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women receiving effective combination antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Pr, Hlne; Rascanu, Aida; LeGoff, Jrome; Matta, Mathieu; Bois, Frdric; Lortholary, Olivier; Leroy, Valriane; Launay, Odile; Blec, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of genital shedding of HSV-2 DNA was assessed in HIV-1-infected women taking combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA and HSV DNA loads were measured during 12-18 months using frozen plasma, PBMC and cervicovaginal lavage samples from 22 HIV-1-infected women, including 17 women naive for antiretroviral therapy initiating cART and 5 women with virological failure switching to a new regimen. Nineteen (86%) women were HSV-2-seropositive. Among HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women, HIV-1 RNA loads showed a rapid fall from baseline after one month of cART, in parallel in paired plasma and cervicovaginal secretions. In contrast, HIV-1 DNA loads did not show significant variations from baseline up to 18 months of treatment in both systemic and genital compartments. HSV DNA was detected at least once in 12 (63%) of 19 women during follow up: HSV-2 shedding in the genital compartment was observed in 11% of cervicovaginal samples at baseline and in 16% after initiating or switching cART. Cervicovaginal HIV-1 RNA loads were strongly associated with plasma HIV-1 RNA loads over time, but not with cervicovaginal HSV DNA loads. Reactivation of genital HSV-2 replication frequently occurred despite effective cART in HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women. Genital HSV-2 replication under cART does not influence cervicovaginal HIV-1 RNA or DNA shedding. PMID:25769886

  4. Mast cells play an important role in chlamydia pneumoniae lung infection by facilitating immune cell recruitment into the airway.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Norika; Shimada, Kenichi; Chen, Shuang; Jones, Heather D; Alsabeh, Randa; Slepenkin, Anatoly V; Peterson, Ellena; Crother, Timothy R; Arditi, Moshe

    2015-04-15

    Mast cells are known as central players in allergy and anaphylaxis, and they play a pivotal role in host defense against certain pathogens. Chlamydia pneumoniae is an important human pathogen, but it is unclear what role mast cells play during C. pneumoniae infection. We infected C57BL/6 (wild-type [WT]) and mast cell-deficient mice (Kit(W-sh/W-sh) [Wsh]) with C. pneumoniae. Wsh mice showed improved survival compared with WT mice, with fewer cells in Wsh bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), despite similar levels of cytokines and chemokines. We also found a more rapid clearance of bacteria from the lungs of Wsh mice compared with WT mice. Cromolyn, a mast cell stabilizer, reduced BALF cells and bacterial burden similar to the levels seen in Wsh mice; conversely, Compound 48/80, a mast cell degranulator, increased the number of BALF cells and bacterial burden. Histology showed that WT lungs had diffuse inflammation, whereas Wsh mice had patchy accumulations of neutrophils and perivascular accumulations of lymphocytes. Infected Wsh mice had reduced amounts of matrix metalloprotease-9 in BALF and were resistant to epithelial integral membrane protein degradation, suggesting that barrier integrity remains intact in Wsh mice. Mast cell reconstitution in Wsh mice led to enhanced bacterial growth and normal epithelial integral membrane protein degradation, highlighting the specific role of mast cells in this model. These data suggest that mast cells play a detrimental role during C. pneumoniae infection by facilitating immune cell infiltration into the airspace and providing a more favorable replicative environment for C. pneumoniae. PMID:25754739

  5. Association of Carotid Plaque Lp-PLA2 with Macrophages and Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection among Patients at Risk for Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Atik, Berna; Johnston, S. Claiborne; Dean, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Background We previously showed that the burden of Chlamydia pneumoniae in carotid plaques was significantly associated with plaque interleukin (IL)-6, and serum IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP), suggesting that infected plaques contribute to systemic inflammatory markers in patients with stroke risk. Since lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) mediates inflammation in atherosclerosis, we hypothesized that serum Lp-PLA2 mass and activity levels and plaque Lp-PLA2 may be influenced by plaque C. pneumoniae infection. Methodology/Principal Findings Forty-two patients underwent elective carotid endarterectomy. Tissue obtained at surgery was stained by immunohistochemistry for Lp-PLA2 grade, macrophages, IL-6, C. pneumoniae and CD4+ and CD8+ cells. Serum Lp-PLA2 activity and mass were measured using the colorimetric activity method (CAM) and ELISA, respectively. Serum homocysteine levels were measured by HPLC. Eleven (26.2%) patients were symptomatic with transient ischemic attacks. There was no correlation between patient risk factors (smoking, coronary artery disease, elevated cholesterol, diabetes, obesity, hypertension and family history of genetic disorders) for atherosclerosis and serum levels or plaque grade for Lp-PLA2. Plaque Lp-PLA2 correlated with serum homocysteine levels (p?=?0.013), plaque macrophages (p<0.01), and plaque C. pneumoniae (p<0.001), which predominantly infected macrophages, co-localizing with Lp-PLA2. Conclusions The significant association of plaque Lp-PLA2 with plaque macrophages and C. pneumoniae suggests an interactive role in accelerating inflammation in atherosclerosis. A possible mechanism for C. pneumoniae in the atherogenic process may involve infection of macrophages that induce Lp-PLA2 production leading to upregulation of inflammatory mediators in plaque tissue. Additional in vitro and in vivo research will be needed to advance our understanding of specific C. pneumoniae and Lp-PLA2 interactions in atherosclerosis. PMID:20543948

  6. Chlamydia pneumoniae GroEL1 Protein Is Cell Surface Associated and Required for Infection of HEp-2 Cells?

    PubMed Central

    Wuppermann, Frederik N.; Mlleken, Katja; Julien, Marion; Jantos, Christian A.; Hegemann, Johannes H.

    2008-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is an important obligate intracellular pathogen that replicates within an inclusion in the eukaryotic cell. The initial event of a chlamydial infection is the adherence to and subsequent uptake of the infectious elementary bodies (EBs) by the human cell. These processes require yet-unidentified bacterial and eukaryotic surface proteins. The GroEL1 protein, which exhibits a very strong antigenicity and in vitro can activate various eukaryotic cells, is a potential pathogenicity factor. We localized the protein during the infection process and found it in the inclusion but outside the chlamydial particles. GroEL1 was also localized on the surface of EBs, and the protein could be washed off the EBs. Latex beads coated with recombinantly produced GroEL1 (rGroEL1) bound in a dose-dependent manner to HEp-2 cells. Likewise, GroEL1, when expressed and displayed on the yeast cell surface, mediated adhesion to HEp-2 cells. Interestingly, the homologous GroEL2 and GroEL3 proteins showed no adhesive properties. Incubation of primary umbilical vein endothelial cells with soluble GroEL1 and GroEL1-coated latex beads activated the translocation of the general transcription factor NF-?B into the nucleus. Finally, preincubation of HEp-2 cells with rGroEL1 significantly reduced subsequent infection with C. pneumoniae, although adhesion of infectious bacteria to eukaryotic cells was not affected. Taken together, these data support a role for extracellular GroEL1 in the establishment of the chlamydial infection. PMID:18310329

  7. Development and Evaluation of a Next-Generation Digital PCR Diagnostic Assay for Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis Infections

    PubMed Central

    Last, Anna; Molina-Gonzalez, Sandra; Cassama, Eunice; Butcher, Robert; Nabicassa, Meno; McCarthy, Elizabeth; Burr, Sarah E.; Mabey, David C.; Bailey, Robin L.; Holland, Martin J.

    2013-01-01

    Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) is an emulsion PCR process that performs absolute quantitation of nucleic acids. We developed a ddPCR assay for Chlamydia trachomatis infections and found it to be accurate and precise. Using PCR mixtures containing plasmids engineered to include the PCR target sequences, we were able to quantify with a dynamic range between 0.07 and 3,160 targets/μl (r2 = 0.9927) with >95% confidence. Using 1,509 clinical conjunctival swab samples from a population in which trachoma is endemic in Guinea Bissau, we evaluated the specificity and sensitivity of the quantitative ddPCR assay in diagnosing ocular C. trachomatis infections by comparing the performances of ddPCR and the Roche Amplicor CT/NG test. We defined ddPCR tests as positive when we had ≥95% confidence in a nonzero estimate of target load. The sensitivity of ddPCR against Amplicor was 73.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 67.9 to 78.7%), and specificity was 99.1% (95% CI, 98.6 to 99.6%). Negative and positive predictive values were 94.6% (95% CI, 93.4 to 95.8%) and 94.5% (95% CI, 91.3 to 97.7%), respectively. Based on Amplicor CT/NG testing, the estimated population prevalence of C. trachomatis ocular infection was ∼17.5%. Receiver-operator curve analysis was used to select critical cutoff values for use in clinical settings in which a balance between higher sensitivity and specificity is required. We concluded that ddPCR is an effective diagnostic technology suitable for both research and clinical use in diagnosing ocular C. trachomatis infections. PMID:23637300

  8. Profiling Antibody Responses to Infections by Chlamydiaabortus Enables Identification of Potential Virulence Factors and Candidates for Serodiagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Forsbach-Birk, Vera; Foddis, Corinna; Simnacher, Ulrike; Wilkat, Max; Longbottom, David; Walder, Gernot; Benesch, Christiane; Ganter, Martin; Sachse, Konrad; Essig, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Enzootic abortion of ewes (EAE) due to infection with the obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia (C.) abortus is an important zoonosis leading to considerable economic loss to agriculture worldwide. The pathogen can be transmitted to humans and may lead to serious infection in pregnant women. Knowledge about epidemiology, clinical course and transmission to humans is hampered by the lack of reliable diagnostic tools. Immunoreactive proteins, which are expressed in infected animals and humans, may serve as novel candidates for diagnostic marker proteins and represent putative virulence factors. In order to broaden the spectrum of immunogenic C.abortus proteins we applied 2D immunoblot analysis and screening of an expression library using human and animal sera. We have identified 48 immunoreactive proteins representing potential diagnostic markers and also putative virulence factors, such as CAB080 (homologue of the macrophage infectivity potentiator, MIP), CAB167 (homologue of the translocated actin recruitment protein, TARP), CAB712 (homologue of the chlamydial protease-like activity factor, CPAF), CAB776 (homologue of the Polymorphic membrane protein D, PmpD), and the hypothetical proteins CAB063, CAB408 and CAB821, which are predicted to be typeIII secreted. We selected two putative virulence factors for further characterization, i.e. CAB080 (cMIP) and CAB063, and studied their expression profiles at transcript and protein levels. Analysis of the subcellular localization of both proteins throughout the developmental cycle revealed CAB063 being the first C.abortus protein shown to be translocated to the host cell nucleus. PMID:24260366

  9. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Genital Herpes KidsHealth > For Teens > Genital Herpes Print A A A Text Size What's in ... How Is It Treated? What Is It? Genital herpes is caused by a virus called herpes simplex ( ...

  10. Chlamydia pecorum infections in sheep and cattle: A common and under-recognised infectious disease with significant impact on animal health.

    PubMed

    Walker, Evelyn; Lee, Effie J; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing recognition that infections of livestock by the obligate intracellular bacterium, Chlamydia pecorum, are more widespread than was previously thought. A range of diseases have been associated with this pathogen, with the most important manifestations including infectious arthritis, infertility, enteritis, reduced growth rates, mastitis, and pneumonia. C. pecorum infections have also been associated with sub-clinical disease, highlighting our lack of knowledge about its true economic impact on livestock producers. Diagnosis of C. pecorum infection is based on clinical findings, serology and histopathology, which are not necessarily implemented in subclinical or early stages of infection, thus potentially contributing to under-diagnosis and under-reporting of infections associated with this bacterium. Recent molecular epidemiology studies have revealed that C. pecorum is genetically diverse and that there may be an association between certain strains and disease in sheep and cattle. Antimicrobial treatment of affected animals has questionable efficacy, justifying development of chlamydia vaccines for livestock. This review summarises current knowledge of the prevalence and impact of C. pecorum infections in sheep and cattle and provides an update on attempts to improve detection, management and treatment of infections by this important obligate intracellular pathogen. PMID:26586214

  11. Noninfectious genital ulcers.

    PubMed

    Kirshen, Carly; Edwards, Libby

    2015-12-01

    Noninfectious genital ulcers are much more common than ulcers arising from infections. Still, it is important to take a thorough history of sexual activity and a sexual abuse screen. A physical exam should include skin, oral mucosa, nails, hair, vulva, and vaginal mucosa if needed. The differential diagnosis of noninfectious genital ulcers includes: lipschütz ulcers, complex aphthosis, Behçet's syndrome, vulvar metastatic Crohn's disease, hidradenitis suppurativa, pyoderma gangrenosum, pressure ulcers, and malignancies. It is important to come to the correct diagnosis to avoid undue testing, stress, and anxiety in patients experiencing genital ulcerations. PMID:26650697

  12. Genital herpes simplex.

    PubMed Central

    Tummon, I. S.; Dudley, D. K.; Walters, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the herpes simplex virus. Following the initial infection the virus becomes latent in the sacral ganglia. Approximately 80% of patients are then subject to milder but unpredictable recurrences and may shed the virus even when they are asymptomatic. The disorder causes concern because genital herpes in the mother can result in rare but catastrophic neonatal infection and because of a possible association between genital herpes and cancer of the cervix. No effective treatment is as yet available. Weekly monitoring for virus by cervical culture from 32 weeks' gestation is recommended for women with a history of genital herpes and for those whose sexual partner has such a history. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 PMID:7020907

  13. Selection for a CEACAM Receptor-Specific Binding Phenotype during Neisseria gonorrhoeae Infection of the Human Genital Tract

    PubMed Central

    Sintsova, Anna; Wong, Henry; MacDonald, Kelly S.; Kaul, Rupert; Virji, Mumtaz

    2015-01-01

    Infections by Neisseria gonorrhoeae are increasingly common, are often caused by antibiotic-resistant strains, and can result in serious and lasting sequelae, prompting the reemergence of gonococcal disease as a leading global health concern. N. gonorrhoeae is a human-restricted pathogen that primarily colonizes urogenital mucosal surfaces. Disease progression varies greatly between the sexes: men usually present with symptomatic infection characterized by a painful purulent urethral discharge, while in women, the infection is often asymptomatic, with the most severe pathology occurring when the bacteria ascend from the lower genital tract into the uterus and fallopian tubes. Classical clinical studies demonstrated that clinically infectious strains uniformly express Opa adhesins; however, their specificities were unknown at the time. While in vitro studies have since identified CEACAM proteins as the primary target of Opa proteins, the gonococcal specificity for this human family of receptors has not been addressed in the context of natural infection. In this study, we characterize a collection of low-passage-number clinical-specimen-derived N. gonorrhoeae isolates for Opa expression and assess their CEACAM-binding profiles. We report marked in vivo selection for expression of phase-variable Opa proteins that bind CEACAM1 and CEACAM5 but selection against expression of Opa variants that bind to the neutrophil-restricted decoy receptor CEACAM3. This is the first study showing phenotypic selection for distinct CEACAM-binding phenotypes in vivo, and it supports the opposing functions of CEACAMs that facilitate infection versus driving inflammation within the genital tract. PMID:25605771

  14. Herpes Simplex Virus-2 Genital Tract Shedding Is Not Predictable over Months or Years in Infected Persons

    PubMed Central

    Dhankani, Varsha; Kutz, J. Nathan; Schiffer, Joshua T.

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) is a chronic reactivating infection that leads to recurrent shedding episodes in the genital tract. A minority of episodes are prolonged, and associated with development of painful ulcers. However, currently, available tools poorly predict viral trajectories and timing of reactivations in infected individuals. We employed principal components analysis (PCA) and singular value decomposition (SVD) to interpret HSV-2 genital tract shedding time series data, as well as simulation output from a stochastic spatial mathematical model. Empirical and model-derived, time-series data gathered over >30 days consists of multiple complex episodes that could not be reduced to a manageable number of descriptive features with PCA and SVD. However, single HSV-2 shedding episodes, even those with prolonged duration and complex morphologies consisting of multiple erratic peaks, were consistently described using a maximum of four dominant features. Modeled and clinical episodes had equivalent distributions of dominant features, implying similar dynamics in real and simulated episodes. We applied linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to simulation output and identified that local immune cell density at the viral reactivation site had a predictive effect on episode duration, though longer term shedding suggested chaotic dynamics and could not be predicted based on spatial patterns of immune cell density. These findings suggest that HSV-2 shedding patterns within an individual are impossible to predict over weeks or months, and that even highly complex single HSV-2 episodes can only be partially predicted based on spatial distribution of immune cell density. PMID:25375183

  15. Herpes simplex virus-2 genital tract shedding is not predictable over months or years in infected persons.

    PubMed

    Dhankani, Varsha; Kutz, J Nathan; Schiffer, Joshua T

    2014-11-01

    Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) is a chronic reactivating infection that leads to recurrent shedding episodes in the genital tract. A minority of episodes are prolonged, and associated with development of painful ulcers. However, currently, available tools poorly predict viral trajectories and timing of reactivations in infected individuals. We employed principal components analysis (PCA) and singular value decomposition (SVD) to interpret HSV-2 genital tract shedding time series data, as well as simulation output from a stochastic spatial mathematical model. Empirical and model-derived, time-series data gathered over >30 days consists of multiple complex episodes that could not be reduced to a manageable number of descriptive features with PCA and SVD. However, single HSV-2 shedding episodes, even those with prolonged duration and complex morphologies consisting of multiple erratic peaks, were consistently described using a maximum of four dominant features. Modeled and clinical episodes had equivalent distributions of dominant features, implying similar dynamics in real and simulated episodes. We applied linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to simulation output and identified that local immune cell density at the viral reactivation site had a predictive effect on episode duration, though longer term shedding suggested chaotic dynamics and could not be predicted based on spatial patterns of immune cell density. These findings suggest that HSV-2 shedding patterns within an individual are impossible to predict over weeks or months, and that even highly complex single HSV-2 episodes can only be partially predicted based on spatial distribution of immune cell density. PMID:25375183

  16. Deficient human β-defensin 1 underlies male infertility associated with poor sperm motility and genital tract infection.

    PubMed

    Diao, Ruiying; Fok, Kin Lam; Chen, Hao; Yu, Mei Kuen; Duan, Yonggang; Chung, Chin Man; Li, Zhao; Wu, Hanwei; Li, Zesong; Zhang, Hu; Ji, Ziliang; Zhen, Wanhua; Ng, Chi Fai; Gui, Yaoting; Cai, Zhiming; Chan, Hsiao Chang

    2014-08-13

    Genital tract infection and reduced sperm motility are considered two pivotal etiological factors for male infertility associated with leukocytospermia and asthenozoospermia, respectively. We demonstrate that the amount of human β-defensin 1 (DEFB1) in sperm from infertile men exhibiting either leukocytospermia or asthenozoospermia, both of which are associated with reduced motility and reduced bactericidal activity in sperm, is much lower compared to that in normal fertile sperm. Interference with DEFB1 function also decreases both motility and bactericidal activity in normal sperm, whereas treatment with recombinant DEFB1 markedly restores DEFB1 expression, bactericidal activity, sperm quality, and egg-penetrating ability in sperm from both asthenozoospermia and leukocytospermia patients. DEFB1 interacts with chemokine receptor type 6 (CCR6) in sperm and triggers Ca(2+) mobilization, which is important for sperm motility. Interference with CCR6 function also reduces motility and bactericidal activity of normal sperm. The present finding explains a common defect in male infertility associated with both asthenozoospermia and leukocytospermia, indicating a dual role of DEFB1 in defending male fertility. These results also suggest that the expression of DEFB1 and CCR6 may have diagnostic potential and that treatment of defective sperm with recombinant DEFB1 protein may be a feasible therapeutic approach for male infertility associated with poor sperm motility and genital tract infection. PMID:25122636

  17. TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 genotypes and haplotypes in the susceptibility to and clinical course of Chlamydia trachomatis infections in Dutch women.

    PubMed

    Verweij, Stephan P; Karimi, Ouafae; Pleijster, Jolein; Lyons, Joseph M; de Vries, Henry J C; Land, Jolande A; Morr, Servaas A; Ouburg, Sander

    2016-02-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infections demonstrate remarkable differences in clinical course that are approximately 40% based on host genetic variation. Here, we study the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and their haplotypes in TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 (TLR2 +2477G>A; TLR2 -16934T>A; TLR4+896A>G; TLR9 -1237T>C and TLR9 +2848G>A) in relation to the susceptibility to, and severity of C. trachomatis infections. We analysed the five SNPs in a cohort of 770 Dutch Caucasian women either attending a sexually transmitted diseases outpatient clinic (n = 731) or having complaints of subfertility (n = 39). Haplotype analyses showed a trend for TLR2 haplotype I (-16934T/+2477G) to protect against the development of symptoms and tubal pathology (Ptrend = 0.03) after Chlamydia infection. In the susceptibility cohort, TLR9 haplotype III (-1237C/+2848A) showed a significant decreasing trend in the development of symptoms after C. trachomatis infection (P = 0.02, OR: 0.55, 95%CI: 0.33-0.91). Logistic regression of the TLR2 haplotypes, TLR4+896A>G, and TLR9 haplotypes showed that the TLR2 haplotype combinations AG-TA and AG-TG confer risk (OR 3.4 (P = 0.01) and 1.6 (P = 0.03)), while the TLR9 haplotype combination TG-TA protects against C. trachomatis infections (OR: 0.4, P = 0.004). Our study shows that both TLR2 and TLR9 genes and SNP combinations do influence the clinical course of Chlamydia infections. PMID:26568059

  18. Role of Epithelial-Mesenchyme Transition in Chlamydia Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Igietseme, Joseph U.; Omosun, Yusuf; Stuchlik, Olga; Reed, Matthew S.; Partin, James; He, Qing; Joseph, Kahaliah; Ellerson, Debra; Bollweg, Brigid; George, Zenas; Eko, Francis O.; Bandea, Claudiu; Liu, Hsi; Yang, Genyan; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Pohl, Jan; Karem, Kevin; Black, Carolyn M.

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection in women causes serious adverse reproductive complications, and is a strong co-factor for human papilloma virus (HPV)-associated cervical epithelial carcinoma. We tested the hypothesis that Chlamydia induces epithelial-mesenchyme transition (EMT) involving T cell-derived TNF-alpha signaling, caspase activation, cleavage inactivation of dicer and dysregulation of micro-RNA (miRNA) in the reproductive epithelium; the pathologic process of EMT causes fibrosis and fertility-related epithelial dysfunction, and also provides the co-factor function for HPV-related cervical epithelial carcinoma. Using a combination of microarrays, immunohistochemistry and proteomics, we showed that chlamydia altered the expression of crucial miRNAs that control EMT, fibrosis and tumorigenesis; specifically, miR-15a, miR-29b, miR-382 and MiR-429 that maintain epithelial integrity were down-regulated, while miR-9, mi-R-19a, miR-22 and miR-205 that promote EMT, fibrosis and tumorigenesis were up-regulated. Chlamydia induced EMT in vitro and in vivo, marked by the suppression of normal epithelial cell markers especially E-cadherin but up-regulation of mesenchymal markers of pathological EMT, including T-cadherin, MMP9, and fibronectin. Also, Chlamydia upregulated pro-EMT regulators, including the zinc finger E-box binding homeobox protein, ZEB1, Snail1/2, and thrombospondin1 (Thbs1), but down-regulated anti-EMT and fertility promoting proteins (i.e., the major gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43), Mets1, Add1Scarb1 and MARCKSL1). T cell-derived TNF-alpha signaling was required for chlamydial-induced infertility and caspase inhibitors prevented both infertility and EMT. Thus, chlamydial-induced T cell-derived TNF-alpha activated caspases that inactivated dicer, causing alteration in the expression of reproductive epithelial miRNAs and induction of EMT. EMT causes epithelial malfunction, fibrosis, infertility, and the enhancement of tumorigenesis of HPV oncogene-transformed epithelial cells. These findings provide a novel understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of chlamydia-associated diseases, which may guide a rational prevention strategy. PMID:26681200

  19. Differential Susceptibilities to Azithromycin Treatment of Chlamydial Infection in the Gastrointestinal Tract and Cervix

    PubMed Central

    Melnyk, Stepan; Spencer, Nicole; Bowlin, Anne; Rank, Roger G.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence from animal studies suggests that chlamydiae may persist in the gastrointestinal tract (GI) and be a reservoir for reinfection of the genital tract. We hypothesize that there may be a differential susceptibility of organisms in the GI and genital tracts. To determine the effect of azithromycin on persistent chlamydial gut infection, C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice were infected orally and genitally and treated with azithromycin (Az) orally (20, 40, or 80 mg/kg of body weight), and the numbers of chlamydiae were determined from cervix and cecal tissues. The Az concentration in the cecum and cervix was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). Az treatment cleared genital infection in both C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice; however, GI infection was not cleared with the same doses. HPLC data showed the presence of Az at both sites of infection, and significant amounts of Az were measured in treatment groups. However, no significant difference in Az levels between the cecum and the cervix was observed, indicating similar levels of Az reaching both sites of infection. These data indicate that antibiotic levels that are sufficient to cure genital infection are ineffectual against GI infection. The results suggest a reevaluation of antibiotic therapy for chlamydial infection. PMID:24100498

  20. Culture-Independent Genome Sequencing of Clinical Samples Reveals an Unexpected Heterogeneity of Infections by Chlamydia pecorum

    PubMed Central

    Bachmann, Nathan L.; Sullivan, Mitchell J.; Jelocnik, Martina; Myers, Garry S. A.; Timms, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia pecorum is an important global pathogen of livestock, and it is also a significant threat to the long-term survival of Australia's koala populations. This study employed a culture-independent DNA capture approach to sequence C. pecorum genomes directly from clinical swab samples collected from koalas with chlamydial disease as well as from sheep with arthritis and conjunctivitis. Investigations into single-nucleotide polymorphisms within each of the swab samples revealed that a portion of the reads in each sample belonged to separate C. pecorum strains, suggesting that all of the clinical samples analyzed contained mixed populations of genetically distinct C. pecorum isolates. This observation was independent of the anatomical site sampled and the host species. Using the genomes of strains identified in each of these samples, whole-genome phylogenetic analysis revealed that a clade containing a bovine and a koala isolate is distinct from other clades comprised of livestock or koala C. pecorum strains. Providing additional evidence to support exposure of koalas to Australian livestock strains, two minor strains assembled from the koala swab samples clustered with livestock strains rather than koala strains. Culture-independent probe-based genome capture and sequencing of clinical samples provides the strongest evidence yet to suggest that naturally occurring chlamydial infections are comprised of multiple genetically distinct strains. PMID:25740768

  1. Patient-Delivered Partner Treatment for Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, and Trichomonas Infection Among Pregnant and Postpartum Women in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Unger, Jennifer A.; Matemo, Daniel; Pintye, Jillian; Drake, Alison; Kinuthia, John; McClelland, R. Scott; John-Stewart, Grace

    2016-01-01

    Background Patient-delivered partner treatment (PDPT) for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) increases rates of partner treatment and decreases reinfection, but has not been evaluated during pregnancy. Methods This prospective cohort was nested within a larger study of peripartum HIV acquisition. Participants with microbiologic diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and/or Trichomonas vaginalis were screened for participation. Questionnaires were administered to determine PDPT acceptability and barriers. Women were reassessed at least 30 days to determine partner treatment and reinfection. Women whose partners did or did not receive PDPT were compared. Results One hundred twelve (22.2%) women in the parent cohort had a treatable STI; 78 within the PDPT study period, of whom 66 were eligible and 59 (89.3%) accepted PDPT. Fifty-one women had PDPT outcome data, 37 (73%) of whom reported partners treated with PDPT. Fourteen women (27%) refused or did not deliver partner treatment. Median age was 22 years (interquartile range, 20–26 years) and 88% were married. Compared with women who delivered PDPT, those who did not were more likely to have a partner living far away (23% vs. 0%, P = 0.004) and to report current intimate partner violence (14% vs. 0%, P = 0.02). Reported PDPT barriers included fear of partner’s anger/abuse (5%) and accusations of being STI source (5%). Conclusion Patient-delivered partner treatment was acceptable and feasible for pregnant/postpartum Kenyan women and may reduce recurrent STIs in pregnancy. PMID:26462189

  2. Human Chlamydia pneumoniae isolates demonstrate ability to recover infectivity following penicillin treatment whereas animal isolates do not.

    PubMed

    Chacko, Anu; Beagley, Kenneth W; Timms, Peter; Huston, Wilhelmina M

    2015-03-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae strains have recently been demonstrated to have substantially different capacities to enter and recover from IFN-γ-induced persistence, depending on whether they are from human or animal host sources. Here, we examined the ability of two human and two animal strains to enter and be rescued from penicillin-induced persistence. The ability to form inclusions after the addition of penicillin was much reduced in the two animal isolates (koala LPCoLN, bandicoot B21) compared to the two human isolates (respiratory AR39 and heart A03). The penicillin treatment resulted in a dose-dependent loss of infectious progeny for all isolates, with the human strains failing to produce infectious progeny at lower doses of penicillin than the animal strains. The most remarkable finding however was the contrasting ability of the isolates to recover infectious progeny production after rescue by removal of the penicillin (at 72 h) and continued culture. The animal isolates both showed virtually no recovery from the penicillin treatment conditions. In contrast, the human isolates showed a significant ability to recovery infectivity, with the heart isolate (A03) showing the most marked recovery. Combined, these data further support the hypothesis that the ability to establish and recover from persistence appears to be enhanced in human C. pneumoniae strains compared to animal strains. PMID:25663156

  3. Culture-independent genome sequencing of clinical samples reveals an unexpected heterogeneity of infections by Chlamydia pecorum.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Nathan L; Sullivan, Mitchell J; Jelocnik, Martina; Myers, Garry S A; Timms, Peter; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2015-05-01

    Chlamydia pecorum is an important global pathogen of livestock, and it is also a significant threat to the long-term survival of Australia's koala populations. This study employed a culture-independent DNA capture approach to sequence C. pecorum genomes directly from clinical swab samples collected from koalas with chlamydial disease as well as from sheep with arthritis and conjunctivitis. Investigations into single-nucleotide polymorphisms within each of the swab samples revealed that a portion of the reads in each sample belonged to separate C. pecorum strains, suggesting that all of the clinical samples analyzed contained mixed populations of genetically distinct C. pecorum isolates. This observation was independent of the anatomical site sampled and the host species. Using the genomes of strains identified in each of these samples, whole-genome phylogenetic analysis revealed that a clade containing a bovine and a koala isolate is distinct from other clades comprised of livestock or koala C. pecorum strains. Providing additional evidence to support exposure of koalas to Australian livestock strains, two minor strains assembled from the koala swab samples clustered with livestock strains rather than koala strains. Culture-independent probe-based genome capture and sequencing of clinical samples provides the strongest evidence yet to suggest that naturally occurring chlamydial infections are comprised of multiple genetically distinct strains. PMID:25740768

  4. Screening to detect asymptomatic shedding of herpes simplex virus (HSV) in women with recurrent genital HSV infection.

    PubMed Central

    Barton, S E; Wright, L K; Link, C M; Munday, P E

    1986-01-01

    To investigate the asymptomatic shedding of herpes simplex virus (HSV) from women with recurrent genital herpes infection, and to assess whether inapparent shedding could occur, eight such women were examined thrice weekly for one month. At each visit colposcopy was performed and multiple sites sampled for HSV. During the study four women had no recurrence of HSV infection, but four had at least one positive viral culture. One of these patients was asymptomatically shedding HSV on nine of her 11 clinic visits. Two episodes of urethral shedding were detected. In this group of patients the presence of inguinal lymphadenopathy was appreciably associated with the isolation of HSV from the urogenital tract. Images PMID:3015773

  5. Chlamydial Pre-Infection Protects from Subsequent Herpes Simplex Virus-2 Challenge in a Murine Vaginal Super-Infection Model

    PubMed Central

    Slade, Jessica; Hall, Jennifer V.; Kintner, Jennifer; Schoborg, Robert V.

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis and Herpes Simplex Virus-2 (HSV-2) genital tract co-infections have been reported in humans and studied in vitro but the clinical consequences are unknown. Limited epidemiologic evidence suggests that these co-infections could be more severe than single infections of either pathogen, but the host-pathogen interactions during co-infection remain uncharacterized. To determine whether disease progression and/or pathogen shedding differs between singly-infected and super-infected animals, we developed an in vivo super-infection model in which female BALB/c mice were vaginally infected with Chlamydia muridarum (Cm) followed later by HSV-2. Pre-infection with Chlamydia 3 or 9 days prior to HSV-2 super-infection conferred significant protection from HSV-2-induced neurologic disease and significantly reduced viral recovery compared to HSV-2 singly-infected controls. Neither protection from mortality nor reduced viral recovery were observed when mice were i) super-infected with HSV-2 on day 27 post Cm; ii) infected with UV-irradiated Cm and super-infected with HSV-2; or iii) azithromycin-treated prior to HSV-2 super-infection. Therefore, protection from HSV-2-induced disease requires active infection with viable chlamydiae and is not observed after chlamydial shedding ceases, either naturally or due to antibiotic treatment. Thus, Chlamydia-induced protection is transient and requires the continued presence of chlamydiae or their components. These data demonstrate that chlamydial pre-infection can alter progression of subsequent HSV-2 infection, with implications for HSV-2 transmission from co-infected humans. PMID:26726882

  6. Chlamydial Pre-Infection Protects from Subsequent Herpes Simplex Virus-2 Challenge in a Murine Vaginal Super-Infection Model.

    PubMed

    Slade, Jessica; Hall, Jennifer V; Kintner, Jennifer; Schoborg, Robert V

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis and Herpes Simplex Virus-2 (HSV-2) genital tract co-infections have been reported in humans and studied in vitro but the clinical consequences are unknown. Limited epidemiologic evidence suggests that these co-infections could be more severe than single infections of either pathogen, but the host-pathogen interactions during co-infection remain uncharacterized. To determine whether disease progression and/or pathogen shedding differs between singly-infected and super-infected animals, we developed an in vivo super-infection model in which female BALB/c mice were vaginally infected with Chlamydia muridarum (Cm) followed later by HSV-2. Pre-infection with Chlamydia 3 or 9 days prior to HSV-2 super-infection conferred significant protection from HSV-2-induced neurologic disease and significantly reduced viral recovery compared to HSV-2 singly-infected controls. Neither protection from mortality nor reduced viral recovery were observed when mice were i) super-infected with HSV-2 on day 27 post Cm; ii) infected with UV-irradiated Cm and super-infected with HSV-2; or iii) azithromycin-treated prior to HSV-2 super-infection. Therefore, protection from HSV-2-induced disease requires active infection with viable chlamydiae and is not observed after chlamydial shedding ceases, either naturally or due to antibiotic treatment. Thus, Chlamydia-induced protection is transient and requires the continued presence of chlamydiae or their components. These data demonstrate that chlamydial pre-infection can alter progression of subsequent HSV-2 infection, with implications for HSV-2 transmission from co-infected humans. PMID:26726882

  7. Genital Warts and Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia: Natural History and Effects of Treatment and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Massad, L. Stewart; Xie, Xianhong; Darragh, Teresa; Minkoff, Howard; Levine, Alexandra M.; Watts, D. Heather; Wright, Rodney L.; DSouza, Gypsyamber; Colie, Christine; Strickler, Howard D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe the natural history of genital warts and vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) in women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Methods A cohort of 2,791 HIV infected and 953 uninfected women followed for up to 13 years had genital examinations at 6-month intervals, with biopsy for lesions suspicious for VIN. Results The prevalence of warts was 4.4% (5.3% for HIV seropositive women and 1.9% for seronegative women, P < 0.0001). The cumulative incidence of warts was 33% (95% C.I. 30, 36%) in HIV seropositive and 9% (95% C.I. 6, 12%) in seronegative women (P < 0.0001). In multivariable analysis, lower CD4 lymphocyte count, younger age, and current smoking were strongly associated with risk for incident warts. Among 501 HIV seropositive and 43 seronegative women, warts regressed in 410 (82%) seropositive and 41 (95%) seronegative women (P = 0.02), most in the first year after diagnosis. In multivariable analysis, regression was negatively associated with HIV status and lower CD4 count as well as older age. Incident VIN of any grade occurred more frequently among HIV seropositive than seronegative women: 0.42 (0.33 0.53) vs 0.07 (0.02 0.18)/100 person-years (P < 0.0001). VIN2+ was found in 58 women (55 with and 3 without HIV, P < 0.001). Two women with HIV developed stage IB squamous cell vulvar cancers. Conclusion While genital warts and VIN are more common among HIV seropositive than seronegative women, wart regression is common even in women with HIV, and cancers are infrequent. PMID:21934446

  8. Increasing relative prevalence of HSV-2 infection among men with genital ulcers from a mining community in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Lai, W; Chen, C; Morse, S; Htun, Y.; Fehler, H; Liu, H; Ballard, R

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the aetiology of genital ulcer disease (GUD) and its association with HIV infection in the mining community of Carletonville, South Africa, from two cross sectional surveys of consecutive men presenting with genital lesions during October 1993 to January 1994 and July to November 1998. Methods: A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) assay combined with amplicon detection was used to identify DNA specific sequences of Treponema pallidum, herpes simplex virus (HSV), and Haemophilus ducreyi. A real time PCR assay was used to differentiate between HSV-1 and HSV-2. Results: M-PCR detected T pallidum, HSV, and H ducreyi in 10.3%, 17.2%, and 69.4% of 232 GUD patients during 19934 and in 12.4%, 36.0%, and 50.5% of 186 GUD patients in 1998. The proportion of patients with more than one agent increased significantly from 7.3% (17/232) in 19934 to 16.7% (31/186) in 1998 (p <0.01). HSV-2 was detected in a higher proportion of ulcer specimens from HIV infected patients than in specimens from HIV uninfected patients during both time periods (19934: 26.2% v 6.7%, p <0.001; 1998: 42.1% v 29.6%, p >0.09). Conclusions: Based on two cross sectional surveys, 4 years apart, chancroid remained the leading cause of GUD in men who presented at the STD clinic with genital ulcers in the mining community of Carletonville, South Africa. The relative prevalence of primary syphilis has remained low. However, HSV-2 has emerged as a more significant cause of GUD and the proportion of GUD patients infected with more than one agent also increased significantly. HSV-2 DNA was detected in a significantly higher proportion of ulcer specimens from HIV positive patients than from HIV negative patients. No association was found between HIV infection status and the relative prevalence of chancroid or syphilis. PMID:12794202

  9. Quantitative In Vivo Detection of Chlamydia muridarum Associated Inflammation in a Mouse Model Using Optical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Manishkumar; Boddicker, Melissa A.; DeMaula, Christopher; Connolly, Brett; Bednar, Bohumil; Heinrichs, Jon H.; Smith, Jeffrey G.

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a bacterial sexually transmitted disease with over 1.3 million cases reported to the CDC in 2010. While Chlamydia infection is easily treated with antibiotics, up to 70% of infections are asymptomatic and go untreated. The current mouse model relies on invasive upper genital tract gross pathology readouts at ~6080 days postinfection. High throughput optical imaging through the use of biomarkers has been successfully used to quickly evaluate several disease processes. Here we evaluate Neutrophil Elastase 680 (Elastase680) for its ability to measure Chlamydia muridarum associated inflammation in live mice using fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) and In Vivo Imaging System (IVIS). Optical imaging was able to distinguish with statistical significance between vaccinated and nonvaccinated mice as well as mock-challenged and challenged mice 2 weeks after challenge which was 9 weeks sooner than typical gross pathological assessment. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of neutrophils and correlated well with both in vivo and ex vivo imaging. In this report we demonstrate that Elastase680 can be used as a molecular imaging biomarker for inflammation associated with chlamydial infection in a mouse model and that these biomarkers can significantly decrease the time for pathology evaluation and thus increase the rate of therapeutics discovery. PMID:26663988

  10. Chlamydia-secreted protease CPAF degrades host antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lingli; Chen, Jianlin; Zhou, Zhiguang; Yu, Ping; Yang, Zhangsheng; Zhong, Guangming

    2015-06-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection in the lower genital tract, if untreated, can ascend to the upper genital tract, potentially leading to complications such as tubal factor infertility. The ascension involves cell-to-cell spreading, which may require C. trachomatis organisms to overcome mucosal extracellular effectors such as antimicrobial peptides. We found that among the 8 antimicrobial peptides tested, the cathelicidin LL-37 that is produced by both urogenital epithelial cells and the recruited neutrophils possessed a most potent antichlamydial activity. Interestingly, this antichlamydial activity was completely inhibited by CPAF, a C. trachomatis-secreted serine protease. The inhibition was dependent on CPAF's proteolytic activity. CPAF selectively degraded LL-37 and other antimicrobial peptides with an antichlamydial activity. CPAF is known to secrete into and accumulate in the infected host cell cytoplasm at the late stage of chlamydial intracellular growth and may be released to confront the extracellular antimicrobial peptides before the intra-inclusion organisms are exposed to extracellular environments during host cell lysis and chlamydial spreading. Thus, the finding that CPAF selectively targets host antimicrobial peptides that possess antichlamydial activities for proteolysis suggests that CPAF may contribute to C. trachomatis pathogenicity by aiding in ascending infection. PMID:25752416

  11. Molecular epidemiology of selected sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Hamid; Delaney, Andrew; Bentley, Neil; Sonnex, Christopher; Carne, Christopher A

    2013-01-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) are established pathogens for human genital tract. However, the role of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) and Ureaplasma parvum (UP) in genital pathology is poorly unerstood. A prospective study to investigate the prevalence of above infections was performed on a cohort of 1,718 consecutive patients attending a Genitourinary Medicine (GUM) clinic. A previously published in-house real-time PCR assay, for the detection of CT DNA in genital swabs, was modified for this study. Two amplification reactions detected the DNAs of TV, NG, MG, CT, UU and UP in genital swabs from 4 (0.2%), 11 (0.6%), 17 (1%), 129 (8%), 282 (16%) and 636 (37%) patients, respectively. 594 (70%) of 848 women and 333 (38%) of 870 men were infected with at least one type of microorganism. Among 594 infected females, 485 (82%) had a single infection, 97 (16%) had a double infection, and 12 (2%) had a triple infection. Of the 333 infected men, 304 (91%) had a single infection, 27 (8%) had a double infection, and 2 (1%) had a triple infection. The prevalence of infection in both genders decreased with increasing age. The prevalence proportion of UP was significantly higher in women (54%) compared with men (18%). The high prevalence of UU and UP suggests that these bacteria are commensals of genital tract. PMID:24046809

  12. Bacterial vaginosis: a synthesis of the literature on etiology, prevalence, risk factors, and relationship with chlamydia and gonorrhea infections.

    PubMed

    Bautista, Christian T; Wurapa, Eyako; Sateren, Warren B; Morris, Sara; Hollingsworth, Bruce; Sanchez, Jose L

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common vaginal disorder in women of reproductive age. Since the initial work of Leopoldo in 1953 and Gardner and Dukes in 1955, researchers have not been able to identify the causative etiologic agent of BV. There is increasing evidence, however, that BV occurs when Lactobacillus spp., the predominant species in healthy vaginal flora, are replaced by anaerobic bacteria, such as Gardenella vaginalis, Mobiluncus curtisii, M. mulieris, other anaerobic bacteria and/or Mycoplasma hominis. Worldwide, it estimated that 20-30% of women of reproductive age attending sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics suffer from BV, and that its prevalence can be as high as 50-60% in high-risk populations (e.g., those who practice commercial sex work (CSW). Epidemiological data show that women are more likely to report BV if they: 1) have had a higher number of lifetime sexual partners; 2) are unmarried; 3) have engaged in their first intercourse at a younger age; 4) have engaged in CSW, and 5) practice regular douching. In the past decade, several studies have provided evidence on the contribution of sexual activity to BV. However, it is difficult to state that BV is a STI without being able to identify the etiologic agent. BV has also emerged as a public health problem due to its association with other STIs, including: human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG). The most recent evidence on the association between BV and CT/NG infection comes from two secondary analyses of cohort data conducted among women attending STI clinics. Based on these studies, women with BV had a 1.8 and 1.9-fold increased risk for NG and CT infection, respectively. Taken together, BV is likely a risk factor or at least an important contributor to subsequent NG or CT infection in high-risk women. Additional research is required to determine whether this association is also present in other low-risk sexually active populations, such as among women in the US military. It is essential to conduct large scale cross-sectional or population-based case-control studies to investigate the role of BV as a risk factor for CT/NG infections. These studies could lead to the development of interventions aimed at reducing the burden associated with bacterial STIs worldwide. PMID:26877884

  13. Seminal Levels of Pro-inflammatory (CXCL1, CXCL9, CXCL10) and Homeostatic (CXCL12) Chemokines in Men With Asymptomatic Chlamydia trachomatis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hakimi, Hamid; Zainodini, Nahid; Khorramdelazad, Hossein; Kazemi Arababadi, Mohammad; Hassanshahi, Gholamhossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chemokines play important roles in immune system activation against microbial infections. Objectives: The current study aimed to evaluate seminal levels of CXC chemokines CXCL1, CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL12 in Chlamydia trachomatis infected patients. Materials and Methods: The C. trachomatis infection was determined employing Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-based methods. Seminal concentrations of CXCL1, CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL12 were measured by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Results: The current study results demonstrated that the semen levels of CXCL1 and CXCL9, but not CXCL10 and CXCL12, significantly increased in C. trachomatis infected patients compared to the healthy controls. Conclusions: Based on the current study results, it may be concluded that both CXCL1 and CXCL9 play more important roles than CXCL10 and CXCL12 in induction of immune responses against C. trachomatis and could possibly be considered as future targets for immunotherapy of C. trachomatis infection. PMID:25741424

  14. Acyclovir vs isoprinosine (immunovir) for suppression of recurrent genital herpes simplex infection.

    PubMed Central

    Kinghorn, G R; Woolley, P D; Thin, R N; De Maubeuge, J; Foidart, J M; Engst, R

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare the efficacy and safety of oral acyclovir (400 mg twice daily) with oral isoprinosine (500 mg twice daily) in the suppression of recurrent genital herpes. DESIGN--Double-blind, double-dummy, randomised, controlled, parallel group trial. SETTING--13 centres in UK, Belgium and Germany. SUBJECTS--127 immunocompetent patients with frequently recurring genital herpes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Proportions of patients reporting recurrences, recurrence frequency, and mean duration of lesions during breakthrough recurrences in each treatment group during a 6 month treatment period; time to first recurrence during treatment and follow-up after treatment cessation. RESULTS--During treatment, acyclovir recipients showed significant differences (p < 0.05) when compared with isoprinosine recipients in terms of a lower proportion reporting recurrences (31% vs 96%), a reduced mean number of reported recurrences per patient (0.6 vs 3.6), a shorter mean duration of breakthrough lesions (6.4 days vs 8.2 days), and a longer mean time (standard error) to first recurrence (143.7 (9.1) days vs 40.5 (5.4) days. The mean time to first recurrence after treatment cessation did not differ between the two groups. As compared with placebo recipients, isoprinosine treated patients had an increased recurrence frequency (3.6 vs 2.5) during treatment, and a shorter time to first recurrence after treatment cessation. All treatments were well tolerated without serious adverse events or toxicity. CONCLUSIONS--Acyclovir is very effective in suppressing recurrent genital herpes and is clearly superior to isoprinosine which is not clinically useful in the dosage studied. PMID:1385295

  15. Diagnosis by AMPLICOR PCR of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in urine samples from women and men attending sexually transmitted disease clinics.

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, T C; Welsh, L; Lentz, A; Crotchfelt, K; Zenilman, J; Newhall, J; Gaydos, C

    1996-01-01

    Screening of urine specimens from men for Chlamydia trachomatis infection by a commercial PCR assay (AMPLICOR C. trachomatis Test; Roche Diagnostic Systems, Inc., Branchburg, N.J.) is a sensitive and specific noninvasive diagnostic assay. Since screening of women for C. trachomatis infection with the AMPLICOR C. trachomatis Test has been limited to use with endocervical swab specimens, we conducted an evaluation of the AMPLICOR C. trachomatis Test for the detection of C. trachomatis using female urine samples and compared the results of those obtained by in vitro culture and PCR of endocervical swab specimens. For 713 men we compared the performance of AMPLICOR C. trachomatis Test with urine specimens with that of culture of urethral specimens. For specimens that were PCR positive and culture negative, two additional tests were used to resolve the discrepancies: direct fluorescent-antibody assay (DFA) of sediment from a spun endocervical specimen culture vial and major outer membrane protein-based PCR of the sediment from the endocervical specimen culture vial. Of 525 urine specimens from females, 67 (12.8%) were PCR positive, and 41 (7.8%) endocervical specimens from the 525 women were culture positive. After resolution of the discrepancies, the resolved sensitivity of the urine PCR was 93.3%, whereas the sensitivity of endocervical swab specimen culture was 67.3%. Of 468 female endocervical swab specimens, 47 (10.0%) had a positive PCR result and 33 (7.0%) were culture positive. The resolved sensitivity of the endocervical swab specimen PCR was 86%. Of 415 matched female urine and endocervical swab specimens, there were 49 confirmed infections; 30 (61.2%) specimens were positive by culture of the endocervical swab specimen, 40 (81.6%) were positive by confirmed endocervical swab specimen PCR, 43 (87.8%) were positive by confirmed urine PCR, and all 49 (100%) were positive by either endocervical swab specimen PCR or urine PCR. For men, the resolved sensitivity of the urine PCR was 88%, and the sensitivity of culture was only 50.7%. These results indicate that urine PCR is highly sensitive for the detection of C. trachomatis in both women and men and provides a noninvasive technique for routine screening for chlamydial infection. PMID:8735088

  16. Impact of Chlamydia trachomatis in the reproductive setting: British Fertility Society Guidelines for Practice

    PubMed Central

    Akande, Valentine; Turner, Cathy; Horner, Paddy; Horne, Andrew; Pacey, Allan

    2010-01-01

    C. trachomatis infection of the genital tract is the most common sexually transmitted infection and has a worldwide distribution. The consequences of infection have an adverse effect on the reproductive health of women and are a common cause of infertility. Recent evidence also suggests an adverse effect on male reproduction. There is a need to standardise the approach to managing the impact of C. trachomatis infection on reproductive health. We have surveyed current UK practice towards screening and management of Chlamydia infections in the fertility setting. We found that at least 90% of clinicians surveyed offered screening. The literature on this topic was examined and revealed a paucity of solid evidence for estimating the risks of long-term reproductive sequelae following lower genital tract infection with C. trachomatis. The mechanism for the damage that occurs following Chlamydial infections is uncertain. However, instrumentation of the uterus in women with C. trachomatis infection is associated with a high risk of pelvic inflammatory disease, which can be prevented by appropriate antibiotic treatment andmay prevent infected women from being at increased risk of the adverse sequelae such as ectopic pregnancy and tubal factor infertility. Recommendations for practice have been proposed and the need for further studies identified. PMID:20849196

  17. Electron tomography and cryo-SEM characterization reveals novel ultrastructural features of host-parasite interaction during Chlamydia abortus infection.

    PubMed

    Wilkat, M; Herdoiza, E; Forsbach-Birk, V; Walther, P; Essig, A

    2014-08-01

    Chlamydia (C.) abortus is a widely spread pathogen among ruminants that can be transmitted to women during pregnancy leading to severe systemic infection with consecutive abortion. As a member of the Chlamydiaceae, C. abortus shares the characteristic feature of an obligate intracellular biphasic developmental cycle with two morphological forms including elementary bodies (EBs) and reticulate bodies (RBs). In contrast to other chlamydial species, C. abortus ultrastructure has not been investigated yet. To do so, samples were fixed by high-pressure freezing and processed by different electron microscopic methods. Freeze-substituted samples were analysed by transmission electron microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopical tomography and immuno-electron microscopy, and freeze-fractured samples were analysed by cryo-scanning electron microscopy. Here, we present three ultrastructural features of C. abortus that have not been reported up to now. Firstly, the morphological evidence that C. abortus is equipped with the type three secretion system. Secondly, the accumulation and even coating of whole inclusion bodies by membrane complexes consisting of multiple closely adjacent membranes which seems to be a C. abortus specific feature. Thirdly, the formation of small vesicles in the periplasmic space of RBs in the second half of the developmental cycle. Concerning the time point of their formation and the fact that they harbour chlamydial components, these vesicles might be morphological correlates of an intermediate step during the process of redifferentiation of RBs into EBs. As this feature has also been shown for C. trachomatis and C. pneumoniae, it might be a common characteristic of the family of Chlamydiaceae. PMID:24522393

  18. Evaluation of pulmonary dysfunctions and acid–base imbalances induced by Chlamydia psittaci in a bovine model of respiratory infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chlamydia psittaci (Cp) is a respiratory pathogen capable of inducing acute pulmonary zoonotic disease (psittacosis) or persistent infection. To elucidate the pathogenesis of this infection, a translational large animal model was recently introduced by our group. This study aims at quantifying and differentiating pulmonary dysfunction and acid–base imbalances induced by Cp. Methods Forty-two calves were grouped in (i) animals inoculated with Cp (n = 21) and (ii) controls sham-inoculated with uninfected cell culture (n = 21). For pulmonary function testing, impulse oscillometry, capnography, and FRC (functional residual capacity) measurement were applied to spontaneously breathing animals. Variables of acid–base status were assessed in venous blood using both (i) traditional Henderson-Hasselbalch and (ii) strong ion approach. Results Both obstructive and restrictive pulmonary disorders were induced in calves experimentally inoculated with Cp. Although disorders in respiratory mechanics lasted for 8–11 days, the pattern of spontaneous breathing was mainly altered in the period of acute illness (until 4 days post inoculation, dpi). Expiration was more impaired than inspiration, resulting in elevated FRC. Ventilation was characterised by a reduction in tidal volume (−25%) combined with an increased percentage of dead space volume and a significant reduction of alveolar volume by 10%. Minute ventilation increased significantly (+50%) due to a compensatory doubling of respiratory rate. Hyperventilatory hypocapnia at 2–3 dpi resulted in slightly increased blood pH at 2 dpi. However, the acid–base equilibrium was additionally influenced by metabolic components, i.e. the systemic inflammatory response, all of which were detected with help of the strong ion theory. Decreased concentrations of albumin (2–10 dpi), a negative acute-phase marker, resulted in a decrease in the sum of non-volatile weak acids (Atot), revealing an alkalotic effect. This was counterbalanced by acidic effects of decreased strong ion difference (SID), mediated by the interplay between hypochloraemia (alkalotic effect) and hyponatraemia (acidic effect). Conclusions This bovine model was found to be suitable for studying pathophysiology of respiratory Cp infection and may help elucidating functional host-pathogen interactions in the mammalian lung. PMID:24517577

  19. Diagnosis of Legionella pneumophila, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, or Chlamydia pneumoniae lower respiratory infection using the polymerase chain reaction on a single throat swab specimen.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, J A; Ahkee, S; Tolentino, A; Miller, R D; Summersgill, J T

    1996-01-01

    Diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae lower respiratory infections using DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on throat swab specimens has been reported. In this study we determined the sensitivity of the detection of Legionella pneumophila in simulated throat swab specimens by PCR. Next, we compared the sensitivity and specificity of a single throat swab PCR with the current tests for diagnosis of Legionella spp., M. pneumoniae, and C. pneumoniae in patients with lower respiratory tract infections. Patients' work-up included: (a) throat swab specimen for Legionella spp., M. pneumoniae, and C. pneumoniae PCR; (b) throat swab specimen for C. pneumoniae culture; (c) sputum specimen for L. pneumophila direct fluorescent antibody and culture; (d) urine specimen for L. pneumophila serogroup 1 antigen detection; and (e) serum specimen for L. pneumophila, M. pneumoniae, and C. pneumoniae acute and convalescent antibody titers. A total of 155 patients with lower respiratory infection were enrolled in this prospective study. Throat swab PCR was positive for Legionella spp. in five of the six patients with legionellosis, indicating the presence of this organism in the oropharynx of patients with Legionnaires disease. Mycoplasma pneumoniae PCR was positive in eight of the nine patients with mycoplasma infection. Chlamydia pneumoniae PCR was positive in the two patients with C. pneumoniae infection. None of the other 138 patients with negative PCR had other positive confirmatory tests for respiratory infection by these three organisms (100% specificity). PCR was able to detect 15 of the 17 infected (88.2%). Results of this investigation indicate that PCR on a single throat swab specimen is a rapid, sensitive, and specific test that may greatly simplify the diagnosis of lower respiratory infection caused by Legionella spp., Mycoplasma pneumoniae, or C. pneumoniae. PMID:8988757

  20. Antimicrobials in urogenital infections.

    PubMed

    Wagenlehner, Florian M E; Wullt, Björn; Perletti, Gianpaolo

    2011-12-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) and male genital infections are amongst the most prevalent infections. A prudent antibiotic policy therefore has a large impact on society. The clinical classification in uncomplicated cystitis, uncomplicated pyelonephritis, complicated UTI and genital infections is useful, also for the right choice of antibiotic treatment. In this regard pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects have to be considered. Nowadays in uncomplicated cystitis antibiotics exclusively reserved for this indication are preferred, such as fosfomycin trometamol, nitrofurantoin and pivmecillinam, in order to reduce antibiotic pressure in this extremely frequent entity. In complicated UTI a broad bacterial spectrum has to be considered. Different antibiotic substances should be used for treatment, such as penicillins, with β-lactamase inhibitors, cephalosporins or carbapenems, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides or cotrimoxazole, if tested susceptible. For genital infections the pharmacokinetic properties of the antibiotics should especially be considered, such as in prostatitis, where mainly fluoroquinolones and macrolides show sufficient pharmacokinetic parameters for treatment of bacterial infections. Furthermore in genital infections fastidious organisms, such as Chlamydia or Mycoplasma spp. have to be considered with respect to their antimicrobial susceptibility. PMID:22019184

  1. Pregnancy Complications: Genital Herpes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Loss > Pregnancy complications > Genital herpes and pregnancy Genital herpes and pregnancy Now playing: E-mail to a ... the United States has genital herpes. Can genital herpes cause complications during pregnancy? Yes. Genital herpes can ...

  2. Uptake and intra-inclusion accumulation of exogenous immunoglobulin by Chlamydia-infected cells

    PubMed Central

    Pollack, David V; Croteau, Nancy L; Stuart, Elizabeth S

    2008-01-01

    Background Obligate intracellular pathogens belonging to the Chlamydiaceae family possess a number of mechanisms by which to manipulate the host cell and surrounding environment. Such capabilities include the inhibition of apoptosis, down-regulation of major histocompatability complex (MHC) and CD1/d gene expression, and the acquisition of host-synthesized nutrients. It is also documented that a limited number of host-derived macromolecules such as ?-catenin and sphingomyelin accumulate within the inclusion. Results This report provides evidence that immunoglobulin, inherently present in the extracellular environment in vivo and in vitro, enters infected cells and accumulates within the chlamydial inclusion. Using epi-fluorescent and confocal microscopy, this selective uptake of Ig is shown to occur among human leukocytes in vivo as well as cells cultured in vitro. These findings were confirmed by detection of IgG in the lysate of infected cells by western blot hybridization. Sequestered antibodies appear to be present during the entire course of the chlamydial developmental cycle and are distributed throughout this compartment. IgG pre-labeled with fluorescein, when added to the supernatant of infected cell cultures, was also imported and readily visualized. Accumulation of these molecules within the inclusion and the failure of bovine serum albumin or F(ab')2 fragments to accumulate in a similar manner suggests the process of entry is specific for intact IgG molecules and not a result of pinocytosis, diffusion, or any other mass endocytic event. Conclusion Sequestration of a host cell-derived protein within the chlamydial inclusion, although unexpected, is not an unprecedented occurrence. However, selective accumulation of an exogenous host protein, such as extracellular IgG, has not been previously reported in connection with chlamydial infections. The selectivity of this process may indicate that this uptake plays an important role in pathogen physiology or virulence during infection and the phenomenon itself may give rise to novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. PMID:19061499

  3. Transmission of genital human papillomavirus infection in couples: a population-based cohort study in rural China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mengfei; He, Zhonghu; Zhang, Chanyuan; Liu, Fangfang; Liu, Ying; Li, Jingjing; Xu, Zhongyao; Wang, Qiyan; Hang, Dong; Shen, Na; Pan, Yaqi; Guo, Chuanhai; Cai, Hong; Ke, Yang

    2015-01-01

    HPV transmission dynamics have rarely been studied in the general population, especially in China. We followed the genital HPV infection status of both partners in 874 couples aged 25-65 years from rural China for up to 7 bi-annual visits during 2009-2013. The positive HPV concordance and transmission rate for partners in a couple were evaluated and relevant risk factors were assessed. The concordance of any, oncogenic, and non-oncogenic HPV was 15.52%, 16.18% and 10.41%, respectively. Male-to-female transmission rate was 7.11, 12.13 and 4.77/1000 person months for any, oncogenic and non-oncogenic HPV respectively. The female-to-male transmission rate was 5.56, 2.37, and 17.01/1000 person months for any, oncogenic and non-oncogenic HPV respectively. The risk of male-to-female transmission was significantly higher than that of female-to-male transmission for oncogenic types. However, for non-oncogenic types, the risk of male-to-female transmission was significantly lower than that of female-to-male transmission. Younger couples, persistent infection with HPV, higher numbers of sexual partners and higher frequency of sexual intercourse were positively associated with HPV transmission in couples. Our results indicate that men in rural China play a more important role than men in western populations as a source of cervical oncogenic HPV infection in women. PMID:26204471

  4. Quantitative analysis of hormones and inflammatory cytokines in Chlamydia trachomatis-infected women with tubal ectopic pregnancy and early intrauterine pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Shao, Ruijin; Feng, Yi; Zou, Shien; Li, Xin; Cui, Peng; Billig, Håkan

    2016-03-01

    In this data, non-pregnant women during the menstrual cycle, women with normal intrauterine pregnancy (IUP), and women with tubal ectopic pregnancy (EP) after informed consent were included. The serum levels of 17β-estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, beta-human chorionic gonadotropin, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), epidermal growth factor, the Chlamydia (C.) trachomatis IgG and HSP60 were analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to assess the diagnostic discrimination of tubal EP and gestational age-matched IUP. Our data show that C. trachomatis infection is associated with IL-8 levels, which had excellent discriminative validity in positively identifying tubal EP (concomitant with C. trachomatis infection) from IUP and non-pregnant conditions regardless of C. trachomatis infection. PMID:26858978

  5. Quantitative analysis of hormones and inflammatory cytokines in Chlamydia trachomatis-infected women with tubal ectopic pregnancy and early intrauterine pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Ruijin; Feng, Yi; Zou, Shien; Li, Xin; Cui, Peng; Billig, Hkan

    2015-01-01

    In this data, non-pregnant women during the menstrual cycle, women with normal intrauterine pregnancy (IUP), and women with tubal ectopic pregnancy (EP) after informed consent were included. The serum levels of 17?-estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, beta-human chorionic gonadotropin, interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?), and interferon-? (IFN-?), epidermal growth factor, the Chlamydia (C.) trachomatis IgG and HSP60 were analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to assess the diagnostic discrimination of tubal EP and gestational age-matched IUP. Our data show that C. trachomatis infection is associated with IL-8 levels, which had excellent discriminative validity in positively identifying tubal EP (concomitant with C. trachomatis infection) from IUP and non-pregnant conditions regardless of C. trachomatis infection. PMID:26858978

  6. Lactobacilli Inactivate Chlamydia trachomatis through Lactic Acid but Not H2O2

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Zheng; Luna, Yesmin; Yu, Ping; Fan, Huizhou

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus species dominate the microbiome in the lower genital tract of most reproductive-age women. Producing lactic acid and H2O2, lactobacilli are believed to play an important role in prevention of colonization by and growth of pathogens. However, to date, there have been no reported studies characterizing how lactobacilli interact with Chlamydia trachomatis, a leading sexually transmitted bacterium. In this report, we demonstrate inactivation of C. trachomatis infectivity by culture media conditioned by Lactobacillus crispatus, L. gasseri and L. jensenii, known to be dominating organisms in the human vaginal microbiome. Lactobacillus still cultures produced lactic acid, leading to time- and concentration-dependent killing of C. trachomatis. Neutralization of the acidic media completely reversed chlamydia killing. Addition of lactic acid into Lactobacillus-unconditioned growth medium recapitulated the chlamydiacidal activity of conditioned media. The H2O2 concentrations in the still cultures were found to be comparable to those reported for the cervicovaginal fluid, but insufficient to inactivate chlamydiae. Aeration of Lactobacillus cultures by shaking markedly induced H2O2 production, but strongly inhibited Lactobacillus growth and lactic acid production, and thus severely affected acidification, leading to significantly reduced chlamydiacidal efficiency. These observations indicate lactobacilli inactivate chlamydiae primarily through maintaining acidity in a relatively hypoxic environment in the vaginal lumen with limited H2O2, which is consistent with the notion that women with higher vaginal pH are more prone to sexually transmitted C. trachomatis infection. In addition to lactic acid, formic acid and acetic acid also exhibited potent chlamydiacidal activities. Taken together, our findings imply that lowering the vaginal pH through engineering of the vaginal microbiome and other means will make women less susceptible to C. trachomatis infection. PMID:25215504

  7. Novel sequence types of Chlamydia pecorum infect free-ranging Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) and red deer (Cervus elaphus) in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Jelocnik, Martina; Self, Rachel; Timms, Peter; Borel, Nicole; Polkinghorne, Adam

    2015-04-01

    Chlamydia pecorum, a recognized pathogen of domesticated ruminants and koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), has been recently reported in a broad range of other wildlife species including water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), ibex (Capra ibex), chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), red deer (Cervus elaphus), and birds. This identification raises questions as to whether cross-host transmission may be a factor in the epidemiology of infections in these species. To begin to address this question, we employed a C. pecorum species-specific multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) scheme to characterize a small collection of C. pecorum-positive samples from wild, free-range ibex, a chamois, and a red deer from Grison, Switzerland, a canton where domesticated and wild ruminants graze in close proximity during the summer. Screening by PCR confirmed low to moderate levels of Chlamydia pecorum DNA in the eyes of healthy ibex (n?=?4) and in the deer fecal sample (n?=?1). The MLST analysis revealed three novel sequence types (STs; 88, 90, and 89) in these samples. On phylogenetic analysis, the ibex and deer sequences clustered by host species in their own well-supported clades and away from C. pecorum STs found in other hosts. Even though the analyzed sample size was small, the identification of unique C. pecorum STs infecting free-ranging Alpine ibex and red deer provides useful information for further C. pecorum epidemiologic studies. PMID:25647593

  8. Genital Tract Infections, Bacterial Vaginosis, HIV, and Reproductive Health Issues among Lima-Based Clandestine Female Sex Workers

    PubMed Central

    Perla, M. E.; Ghee, Annette E.; Sánchez, Sixto; McClelland, R. Scott; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.; Suárez-Ognio, Luis; Lama, Javier R.; Sánchez, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics of 212 Peruvian female sex workers (FSWs) were analyzed. The association between genital tract infections (GTIs) and risk factors by multivariate analysis was evaluated. Eighty-eight percent of FSWs were diagnosed with at least one GTI (HSV-2 80.1%, BV 44.8%, candidiasis 9.9%, syphilis seropositivity 9.4%, Trichomonas vaginalis 2.4%, HIV seropositivity 2.4%). Reported condom use with clients was nearly universal (98.3%), but infrequent with husband/regular partners (7.3%). In multivariate analysis BV was negatively associated with more consistent condom use (PRR = 0.63, 95% CI, 0.42–0.96). Many had not visited a Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) clinic or been tested for HIV in the past year (40.6%, 47.1%, resp.). Nonclient contraceptive use was low (57%) and induced abortion was common (68%). High GTI burden and abortions suggest that a services-access gap persists among marginalized FSWs. Continued health outreach programs and integrating family planning and reproductive health services into existing STI clinic services are recommended. PMID:22811592

  9. Phosphoethanolamine Decoration of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Lipid A Plays a Dual Immunostimulatory and Protective Role during Experimental Genital Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Packiam, Mathanraj; Yedery, Roshan D.; Begum, Afrin A.; Carlson, Russell W.; Ganguly, Jhuma; Sempowski, Gregory D.; Ventevogel, Melissa S.; Shafer, William M.

    2014-01-01

    The induction of an intense inflammatory response by Neisseria gonorrhoeae and the persistence of this pathogen in the presence of innate effectors is a fascinating aspect of gonorrhea. Phosphoethanolamine (PEA) decoration of lipid A increases gonococcal resistance to complement-mediated bacteriolysis and cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs), and recently we reported that wild-type N. gonorrhoeae strain FA1090 has a survival advantage relative to a PEA transferase A (lptA) mutant in the human urethral-challenge and murine lower genital tract infection models. Here we tested the immunostimulatory role of this lipid A modification. Purified lipooligosaccharide (LOS) containing lipid A devoid of the PEA modification and an lptA mutant of strain FA19 induced significantly lower levels of NF-?B in human embryonic kidney Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) cells and murine embryonic fibroblasts than wild-type LOS of the parent strain. Moreover, vaginal proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines were not elevated in female mice infected with the isogenic lptA mutant, in contrast to mice infected with the wild-type and complemented lptA mutant bacteria. We also demonstrated that lptA mutant bacteria were more susceptible to human and murine cathelicidins due to increased binding by these peptides and that the differential induction of NF-?B by wild-type and unmodified lipid A was more pronounced in the presence of CAMPs. This work demonstrates that PEA decoration of lipid A plays both protective and immunostimulatory roles and that host-derived CAMPs may further reduce the capacity of PEA-deficient lipid A to interact with TLR4 during infection. PMID:24686069

  10. Sexually Transmitted Infections and Risk Factors for Gonorrhea and Chlamydia in Female Sex Workers in Soc Trang, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    NGUYEN, THUONG VU; VAN KHUU, NGHIA; LE, TRUC THANH THI; NGUYEN, ANH PHUONG; CAO, VAN; THAM, DUNG CHI; DETELS, ROGER

    2010-01-01

    Goal To determine the prevalence of selected STIs and correlates of chlamydia (CT) and gonorrhea (GC) infection among (FSWs) in Soc Trang province, Vietnam. Study Design Four hundred and six FSWs in Soc Trang province participated in a cross-sectional study between May and August, 2003. The study subjects were interviewed to obtain information about socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics and gynecologic and STI history, using a standardized interview. They underwent a physical examination during which cervical swabs were collected for GC and CT testing by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Vaginal wet mount microscopy was performed to detect candidiasis and trichomoniasis (TV), and blood was drawn for testing for syphilis using rapid plasma reagin (RPR)+ Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay (TPHA). Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the associations of GC, CT, and GC/CT with selected variables. Results Prevalences were 14.9% for GC, 48.4% for CT, 54.9% for GC/CT, 3.8% for syphilis, 8.9% for trichomoniasis, and 12.2% for candidiasis. Increased risk for CT was associated with sex work for more than 6 months (aOR = 2.40, 95% CI: 0.99–5.82), receiving $4 US or less per sexual transaction (aOR = 1.91, 95% CI 1.13–3.23), and ever having terminated a pregnancy (aOR = 1.68, 95% CI 1.00–2.82). Reduced likelihood of CT was associated with older age (aOR = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.93–1.00) and ever having douched in the past month (aOR = 0.60, 95% CI 0.36–1.00). Only ever douching in the past month was associated with decreased risk for GC (aOR = 0.47, 95% CI 0.25–0.87). Higher likelihood of GC/CT was associated with having more than 4 clients per month (OR = 2.35, 95% CI 1.02–5.41) and receiving $4 US or less per sexual transaction (aOR = 1.74, 95% CI 1.04–2.93). Conclusions The prevalence of GC/CT is high amongst FSWs in Soc Trang. Therefore, periodic presumptive treatment (PPT) for cervicitis, together with World Health Organization-recommended periodic syndromic sexually transmitted disease management, for FSWs and further interventions should be considered, and a 100% condom use program should be promptly implemented. The existing STI health education program for FSWs should be strengthened, with special consideration of the correlates observed in this study. PMID:18685547

  11. Bilateral Conjunctivitis Due to Trichomonas vaginalis without Genital Infection: an Unusual Presentation in an Adult Man

    PubMed Central

    Croucher, Adam; Roushan, Azita; Gaydos, Charlotte A.

    2013-01-01

    We report an unusual case of extragenital infection with Trichomonas vaginalis of the conjunctiva of a 32-year-old man. Only one other similar case has been reported in the English language literature. The present report reinforces the widening pathologic spectrum of trichomonads in humans, especially in the context of emerging extragenital infections. PMID:23843487

  12. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection of lungs and macrophages indirectly stimulates the phenotypic conversion of smooth muscle cells and mesenchymal stem cells: potential roles in vascular calcification and fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Cabbage, Sarah; Ieronimakis, Nicholas; Preusch, Michael; Lee, Amy; Ricks, Jerry; Janebodin, Kajohnkiart; Hays, Aislinn; Wijelath, Errol S; Reyes, Morayma; Campbell, Lee Ann; Rosenfeld, Michael E

    2014-10-01

    Two hallmarks of advanced atherosclerosis are calcification and fibrosis. We hypothesized that Chlamydia pneumoniae infection may contribute to atherosclerosis by inducing the conversion of vascular smooth muscle cells to calcifying cells or by converting mesenchymal stem cells to osteochondrocytic or fibroblastic phenotypes. In this study, direct infection of bovine aortic smooth muscle cells (BSMCs) did not induce the expression of alkaline phosphatase or the deposition of extracellular calcium phosphate. However, conditioned media from C.pneumoniae-infected macrophages accelerated conversion of BSMCs to a calcifying phenotype. Treatment of the conditioned media with an anti-TNF-alpha blocking antibody abrogated this stimulatory effect. Treatment of perivascular Sca-1+, CD31-, CD45- cells from apoE-/- mouse aortas with the conditioned media from infected macrophages induced the Sca-1+ cells to produce collagen II, an additional marker of an osteochondrocytic phenotype. Treatment of mouse coronary perivascular Sca-1+, CD31-, CD45- cells with the supernatant from homogenates of C.pneumoniae-infected mouse lungs as compared to noninfected lungs induced expression of the Collagen 1?1 gene and deposition of collagen. Therefore, an increase in plasma cytokines or other factors in response to respiratory infection with C.pneumoniae or infection of macrophages within the blood vessel could contribute to both calcification and fibrosis of advanced atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:24833344

  13. Female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Ladjali, M; Rattray, T W; Walder, R J

    1993-08-21

    Female genital mutilation, also misleadingly known as female circumcision, is usually performed on girls ranging in from 1 week to puberty. Immediate physical complications include severe pain, shock, infection, bleeding, acute urinary infection, tetanus, and death. Longterm problems include chronic pain, difficulties with micturition and menstruation, pelvic infection leading to infertility, and prolonged and obstructed labor during childbirth. An estimated 80 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation. In Britain alone an estimated 10,000 girls are currently at risk. Religious, cultural, medical, and moral grounds rationalize the custom which is practiced primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab world, Malaysia, Indonesia, and among migrant populations in Western countries. According to WHO it is correlated with poverty, illiteracy, and the low status of women. Women who escape mutilation are not sought in marriage. WHO, the UN Population Fund, the UN Children's Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child have issued declarations on the eradication of female genital mutilation. In Britain, local authorities have intervened to prevent parents from mutilating their daughters. In 1984, the Inter-African Committee Against Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting Women and Children was established to work toward eliminating female genital mutilation and other damaging customs. National committees in 26 African countries coordinate projects run by local people using theater, dance, music, and storytelling for communication. In Australia, Canada, Europe, and the US women have organized to prevent the practice among vulnerable migrants and refugees. PMID:8400925

  14. Immunization with a MOMP-Based Vaccine Protects Mice against a Pulmonary Chlamydia Challenge and Identifies a Disconnection between Infection and Pathology

    PubMed Central

    OMeara, Connor P.; Armitage, Charles W.; Harvie, Marina C. G.; Timms, Peter; Lycke, Nils Y.; Beagley, Kenneth W.

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is responsible for up to 20% of community acquired pneumonia and can exacerbate chronic inflammatory diseases. As the majority of infections are either mild or asymptomatic, a vaccine is recognized to have the greatest potential to reduce infection and disease prevalence. Using the C. muridarum mouse model of infection, we immunized animals via the intranasal (IN), sublingual (SL) or transcutaneous (TC) routes, with recombinant chlamydial major outer membrane protein (MOMP) combined with adjuvants CTA1-DD or a combination of cholera toxin/CpG-oligodeoxynucleotide (CT/CpG). Vaccinated animals were challenged IN with C. muridarum and protection against infection and pathology was assessed. SL and TC immunization with MOMP and CT/CpG was the most protective, significantly reducing chlamydial burden in the lungs and preventing weight loss, which was similar to the protection induced by a previous live infection. Unlike a previous infection however, these vaccinations also provided almost complete protection against fibrotic scarring in the lungs. Protection against infection was associated with antigen-specific production of IFN?, TNF? and IL-17 by splenocytes, however, protection against both infection and pathology required the induction of a similar pro-inflammatory response in the respiratory tract draining lymph nodes. Interestingly, we also identified two contrasting vaccinations capable of preventing infection or pathology individually. Animals IN immunized with MOMP and either adjuvant were protected from infection, but not the pathology. Conversely, animals TC immunized with MOMP and CTA1-DD were protected from pathology, even though the chlamydial burden in this group was equivalent to the unimmunized controls. This suggests that the development of pathology following an IN infection of vaccinated animals was independent of bacterial load and may have been driven instead by the adaptive immune response generated following immunization. This identifies a disconnection between the control of infection and the development of pathology, which may influence the design of future vaccines. PMID:23613984

  15. Identification of a Dendrimeric Heparan Sulfate-Binding Peptide That Inhibits Infectivity of Genital Types of Human Papillomaviruses?

    PubMed Central

    Donalisio, Manuela; Rusnati, Marco; Civra, Andrea; Bugatti, Antonella; Allemand, Donatella; Pirri, Giovanna; Giuliani, Andrea; Landolfo, Santo; Lembo, David

    2010-01-01

    Peptide dendrimers consist of a peptidyl branching core and/or covalently attached surface functional units. They show a variety of biological properties, including antiviral activity. In this study, a minilibrary of linear, dimeric, and dendrimeric peptides containing clusters of basic amino acids was evaluated for in vitro activity against human papillomaviruses (HPVs). The peptide dendrimer SB105-A10 was found to be a potent inhibitor of genital HPV types (i.e., types 16, 18, and 6) in pseudovirus-based neutralization assays. The 50% inhibitory concentration was between 2.8 and 4.2 ?g/ml (0.59 and 0.88 ?M), and no evidence of cytotoxicity was observed. SB105-A10 interacts with immobilized heparin and with heparan sulfates exposed on the cell surface, most likely preventing virus attachment. The findings from this study indicate SB105-A10 to be a leading candidate compound for further development as an active ingredient of a topical microbicide against HPV and other sexually transmitted viral infections. PMID:20643894

  16. Invariant Natural Killer T Cells Promote T Cell Immunity by Modulating the Function of Lung Dendritic Cells during Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection.

    PubMed

    Shekhar, Sudhanshu; Joyee, Antony George; Gao, Xiaoling; Peng, Ying; Wang, Shuhe; Yang, Jie; Yang, Xi

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells on the function of lung dendritic cells (LDCs) in eliciting protective immunity against Chlamydia pneumoniae (Cpn) lung infection. We employed a combination of approaches including the use of iNKT cell-deficient, J?18-knockout (KO) mice and LDC adoptive transfer. We found that iNKT cells significantly altered the number, phenotype and cytokine profile of LDCs following infection. Furthermore, coculture of T cells with LDCs from Cpn-infected wild-type (WT) and KO mice induced type-1 and type-2 responses, respectively. More importantly, upon adoptive transfer, LDCs from Cpn-infected WT mice (WT-LDCs) conferred protective immunity, whereas LDCs from KO mice (KO-LDCs) increased the severity of disease after challenge infection. Further cytokine analyses of the lung tissues and lung-draining lymph node cells showed that KO-LDC-recipient mice exhibited a type-2 cytokine production pattern, while WT-LDC recipients exhibited a type-1 cytokine profile. Taken together, our results provide in vivo evidence that iNKT cells play a critical role in modulating LDC function to generate protective T-cell immunity, particularly in a clinically relevant intracellular bacterial infection. PMID:25531453

  17. Clueing in on Chlamydia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Wendy

    1991-01-01

    Chlamydia's role in female infertility is discussed. The relationship of this organism to other diseases such as leprosy and tuberculosis is explained. Conditions caused by Chlamydia such as Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) are described. (KR)

  18. Berberine inhibits Chlamydia pneumoniae infection-induced vascular smooth muscle cell migration through downregulating MMP3 and MMP9 via PI3K.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lu; Zhang, Lijun; Wang, Beibei; Wei, Junyan; Liu, Jingya; Zhang, Lijun

    2015-05-15

    The mechanisms by which Chlamydia pneumoniae infection promote vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration required in the development of atherosclerosis have not yet been fully clarified. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have important roles in VSMC migration. However, it is still unknown whether MMPs are involved in C. pneumoniae infection-induced VSMC migration. In addition, whether berberine can exert its inhibitory effects on the infection-induced VSMC migration also remains unclear. Accordingly, we investigated the effects of berberine on C. pneumoniae infection-induced VSMC migration and explored the possible mechanisms involved in this process. Herein, we found that C. pneumoniae infection could induce VSMC migration through Matrigel-coated membrane (P<0.05), which can be significantly inhibited by the broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor GM6001 (P<0.05). Our results also showed that C. pneumoniae infection upregulated both mRNA and protein expressions of MMP3 and MMP9 (P<0.05). The specific phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002 significantly suppressed the increases in MMP3 and MMP9 protein expressions induced by C. pneumoniae infection (P<0.05). Further experiments showed that berberine significantly attenuated C. pneumoniae infection-induced VSMC migration (P<0.05). Moreover, berberine suppressed the protein expressions of MMP3 and MMP9 caused by C. pneumoniae infection in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). C. pneumoniae infection-induced increase in the phosphorylation level of Akt at Ser473 was inhibited by the treatment with berberine (P<0.05). Taken together, our data suggest that berberine inhibits C. pneumoniae infection-induced VSMC migration by downregulating the expressions of MMP3 and MMP9 via PI3K. PMID:25746423

  19. Relationship Between Genital Drug Concentrations and Cervical Cellular Immune Activation and Reconstitution in HIV-1-Infected Women on a Raltegravir Versus a Boosted Atazanavir Regimen.

    PubMed

    Meditz, Amie L; Palmer, Claire; Predhomme, Julie; Searls, Kristina; Kerr, Becky; Seifert, Sharon; Caraway, Patricia; Gardner, Edward M; MaWhinney, Samantha; Anderson, Peter L

    2015-10-01

    Determinants of HIV-infected women's genital tract mucosal immune health are not well understood. Because raltegravir (RAL) achieves relatively higher genital tract concentrations than ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV), we examined whether an RAL-based regimen is associated with improved cervical immune reconstitution and less activation in HIV(+) women compared to an ATV-based regimen. Peripheral blood, cervical brushings, cervical-vaginal lavage (CVL), and cervical biopsies were collected from HIV(+) women on tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) and either RAL (n=14) or ATV (n=19) with CD4(+) T cells>300 cells/mm(3) and HIV RNA<48 copies/ml. HLA-DR(+)CD38(+) T cells were measured in blood and cervical cells using flow cytometry, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were quantified in cervical biopsies by immunofluorescent analysis, and HIV RNA (VL), ATV, and RAL concentrations were measured in CVL. In a linear regression model of log(CVL concentration) versus both log(plasma concentration) and treatment group, the RAL CVL level was 519% (95% CI: 133, 1,525%) higher than for ATV (p<0.001). Genital tract VL was undetectable in 90% of subjects and did not differ by regimen. There were no significant differences between groups in terms of cervical %HLA-DR(+)CD38(+)CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells, CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells/mm(2), or CD4:CD8 ratio. After adjusting for treatment time and group, the CVL:plasma drug ratio was not associated with the cervical CD4:CD8 ratio or immune activation (p>0.6). Despite significantly higher genital tract penetration of RAL compared to ATV, there were no significant differences in cervical immune activation or reconstitution between women on these regimens, suggesting both drug regimens achieve adequate genital tract levels to suppress virus replication. PMID:26059647

  20. The Contribution of Cervicovaginal Infections to the Immunomodulatory Effects of Hormonal Contraception

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pai-Lien; Morrison, Charles S.; Doncel, Gustavo F.; Mendonca, Kevin; Kwok, Cynthia; Chipato, Tsungai; Salata, Robert; Mauck, Christine

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Particular types of hormonal contraceptives (HCs) and genital tract infections have been independently associated with risk of HIV-1 acquisition. We examined whether immunity in women using injectable depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), combined oral contraceptives (COC), or no HCs differs by the presence of cervicovaginal infections. Immune mediators were quantified in cervical swabs from 832 HIV-uninfected reproductive-age Ugandans and Zimbabweans. Bacterial infections and HIV were diagnosed by PCR, genital herpes serostatus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), altered microflora by Nugent score, and Trichomonas vaginalis and Candida albicans infection by wet mount. Generalized linear models utilizing Box-Cox-Power transformation examined associations between levels of mediators, infection status, and HCs. In no-HC users, T. vaginalis was associated with broadest spectrum of aberrant immunity (higher interleukin 1β [IL-1β], IL-8, macrophage inflammatory protein 3α [MIP-3α], β-defensin 2 [BD2], and IL-1 receptor antigen [IL-1RA]). In women with a normal Nugent score and no genital infection, compared to the no-HC group, COC users showed higher levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-1RA, while DMPA users showed higher levels of RANTES and lower levels of BD2, both associated with HIV seroconversion. These effects of COC were blunted in the presence of gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, candidiasis, and an abnormal Nugent score; however, RANTES was increased among COC users with herpes, chlamydia, and abnormal Nugent scores. The effect of DMPA was exacerbated by lower levels of IL-1RA in gonorrhea, chlamydia, or herpes, SLPI in gonorrhea, and IL-1β, MIP-3α, and IL-1RA/IL1β ratio in trichomoniasis. Thus, the effects of HC on cervical immunity depend on the genital tract microenvironment, and a weakened mucosal barrier against HIV may be a combined resultant of genital tract infections and HC use. PMID:26330510

  1. Integrative approach to diagnosis of genital human papillomaviruses (HPV) infection of female.

    PubMed

    Dunjic, Momir; Stanisic, Slavisa; Krstic, Dejan; Stanisic, Miodrag; Ignjatic, Z Jovanovic; Dunjic, Marija

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a virus from the papillomavirus family that is capable of infecting humans. Some types of HPVs cause warts, while others can lead to cancers of the cervix, vulva, vagina, penis, oropharynx and anus. High-risk human papillomavirus (hr HPV) has been detected in almost all cervical squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas. All patients examined by colposcopy. Cervical swab is routinely done and patients are screened with both HPV DNA by Real Time Polimerase Chain Reaction (RT PCR) testing and Pap testing. Pictures obtained by colposcopy were examined by indirect Bi-Digital O-Ring Test (BDORT) by using reference control substance (RCS): HPV 16, HPV 18, and Integrin ?5 ?1. BDORT was developed by Prof. Omura Y. of New York and received U.S. patent in 1993. For detection of HPV DNA we used RT PCR and standard Qiagen method which detect 18 types (16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 68, 6, 11, 42, 43, 44) of HPV from smear. From 63 patients where is BDORT indicated presence of HPV, in 49 patients (77.8%) RT PCR confirmed presence of HPV. From 63 patients in 54 patients (85.7%), we detected, by colposcopic exam, some kind of lesions associated with HPV infection. Results obtained by RT PCR: one type (1/18) of DNA HPV in 25 patients (51.02%), 2 types (2/18) in 15 patients (30.61%) and 3 types (3/18) in 9 patients (18.37%). Although BDORT results usually have higher sensitivity and detection rate is much higher, it can be used together with RT PCR in detection of HPV and cervical lesions associated with HPV infection. PMID:25693306

  2. Identification of rhesus macaque genital microbiota by 16S pyrosequencing shows similarities to human bacterial vaginosis: implications for use as an animal model for HIV vaginal infection.

    PubMed

    Spear, Gregory T; Gilbert, Douglas; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Doyle, Lara; Green, Linda; Gillevet, Patrick M; Landay, Alan L; Veazey, Ronald S

    2010-02-01

    The composition of the lower genital tract microbiota in women is believed to affect the risk of sexually acquiring HIV. Since macaque genital microbiota could similarly impact vaginal infection with SIV we identified microbiota in 11 rhesus macaques using multitag pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The microbiota was polymicrobial with a median of nine distinct bacterial taxa per macaque (range 3-16 taxa, each constituting 1% or more of the sequences). Taxa frequently found included Peptoniphilus, Sneathia, Porphyromonas, Mobiluncus, Atopobacter, Dialister, Thioreductor, Prevotella, and Streptococcus, many of which are also frequently found in women with bacterial vaginosis. Lactobacillus sequences (mostly L. johnsonii) were found in only four macaques but were not predominant in any (median of 0% of sequences, range 0-39%). All macaques were resampled 6 months after the first time point to determine the stability of the microbiota. The microbiota remained polymicrobial with a median of 10 taxa (range 6-18). Microbial patterns remained similar for six of the macaques, changed substantially in two, and had a mixed pattern in three. Significant sialidase enzyme activity, a marker of bacteria vaginosis in women, was detected in genital fluid from 9/11 and 8/11 macaques from the first and second time points, respectively. These results show that the macaque lower genital microbiota resembled a bacteria vaginosis-type microbiota in women and suggest that the microbiota of macaques in captivity promote rather than protect against vaginal infection with SIV. These results also suggest macaques could be used as an animal model to study some aspects of bacterial vaginosis. PMID:20156101

  3. Genital Herpes

    PubMed Central

    Scappatura, F. Philip

    1987-01-01

    The author reviews the prevalence of genital herpes, outlines the typical clinical courses of the disease in its primary and recurrent forms. He discusses the physical, psychological and social effects of this sexually transmitted disease and provides three protocols for the use of oral acyclovir in its treatment. PMID:21263803

  4. Humoral immune responses in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) either naturally infected with Chlamydia pecorum or following administration of a recombinant chlamydial major outer membrane protein vaccine.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Polkinghorne, Adam; Waugh, Courtney; Hanger, Jon; Loader, Jo; Beagley, Kenneth; Timms, Peter

    2016-02-01

    The development of a vaccine is a key strategy to combat the widespread and debilitating effects of chlamydial infection in koalas. One such vaccine in development uses recombinant chlamydial major outer membrane protein (rMOMP) as an antigen and has shown promising results in several koala trials. Previous chlamydial vaccine studies, primarily in the mouse model, suggest that both cell-mediated and antibody responses will be required for adequate protection. Recently, the important protective role of antibodies has been highlighted. In our current study, we conducted a detailed analysis of the antibody-mediated immune response in koalas that are either (a) naturally-infected, and/or (b) had received an rMOMP vaccine. Firstly, we observed that naturally-infected koalas had very low levels of Chlamydia pecorum-specific neutralising antibodies. A strong correlation between low IgG total titers/neutralising antibody levels, and higher C. pecorum infection load was also observed in these naturally-infected animals. In vaccinated koalas, we showed that the vaccine was able to boost the humoral immune response by inducing strong levels of C. pecorum-specific neutralising antibodies. A detailed characterisation of the MOMP epitope response was also performed in naturally-infected and vaccinated koalas using a PepScan epitope approach. This analysis identified unique sets of MOMP epitope antibodies between naturally-infected non-protected and diseased koalas, versus vaccinated koalas, with the latter group of animals producing a unique set of specific epitope-directed antibodies that we demonstrated were responsible for the in vitro neutralisation activity. Together, these results show the importance of antibodies in chlamydial infection and immunity following vaccination in the koala. PMID:26747718

  5. Genetic Passive Immunization with Adenoviral Vector Expressing Chimeric Nanobody-Fc Molecules as Therapy for Genital Infection Caused by Mycoplasma hominis

    PubMed Central

    Dolzhikova, Inna V.; Shcherbinin, Dmitry N.; Zubkova, Olga V.; Ivanova, Tatiana I.; Tukhvatulin, Amir I.; Shmarov, Maxim M.; Logunov, Denis Y.; Naroditsky, Boris S.; Gintsburg, Aleksandr L.

    2016-01-01

    Developing pathogen-specific recombinant antibody fragments (especially nanobodies) is a very promising strategy for the treatment of infectious disease. Nanobodies have great potential for gene therapy application due to their single-gene nature. Historically, Mycoplasma hominis has not been considered pathogenic bacteria due to the lack of acute infection and partially due to multiple studies demonstrating high frequency of isolation of M. hominis samples from asymptomatic patients. However, recent studies on the role of latent M. hominis infection in oncologic transformation, especially prostate cancer, and reports that M. hominis infects Trichomonas and confers antibiotic resistance to Trichomonas, have generated new interest in this field. In the present study we have generated specific nanobody against M. hominis (aMh), for which the identified target is the ABC-transporter substrate-binding protein. aMh exhibits specific antibacterial action against M. hominis. In an attempt to improve the therapeutic properties, we have developed the adenoviral vector-based gene therapy approach for passive immunization with nanobodies against M. hominis. For better penetration into the mucous layer of the genital tract, we fused aMh with the Fc-fragment of IgG. Application of this comprehensive approach with a single systemic administration of recombinant adenovirus expressing aMh-Fc demonstrated both prophylactic and therapeutic effects in a mouse model of genital M. hominis infection. PMID:26962869

  6. Genetic Passive Immunization with Adenoviral Vector Expressing Chimeric Nanobody-Fc Molecules as Therapy for Genital Infection Caused by Mycoplasma hominis.

    PubMed

    Burmistrova, Daria A; Tillib, Sergey V; Shcheblyakov, Dmitry V; Dolzhikova, Inna V; Shcherbinin, Dmitry N; Zubkova, Olga V; Ivanova, Tatiana I; Tukhvatulin, Amir I; Shmarov, Maxim M; Logunov, Denis Y; Naroditsky, Boris S; Gintsburg, Aleksandr L

    2016-01-01

    Developing pathogen-specific recombinant antibody fragments (especially nanobodies) is a very promising strategy for the treatment of infectious disease. Nanobodies have great potential for gene therapy application due to their single-gene nature. Historically, Mycoplasma hominis has not been considered pathogenic bacteria due to the lack of acute infection and partially due to multiple studies demonstrating high frequency of isolation of M. hominis samples from asymptomatic patients. However, recent studies on the role of latent M. hominis infection in oncologic transformation, especially prostate cancer, and reports that M. hominis infects Trichomonas and confers antibiotic resistance to Trichomonas, have generated new interest in this field. In the present study we have generated specific nanobody against M. hominis (aMh), for which the identified target is the ABC-transporter substrate-binding protein. aMh exhibits specific antibacterial action against M. hominis. In an attempt to improve the therapeutic properties, we have developed the adenoviral vector-based gene therapy approach for passive immunization with nanobodies against M. hominis. For better penetration into the mucous layer of the genital tract, we fused aMh with the Fc-fragment of IgG. Application of this comprehensive approach with a single systemic administration of recombinant adenovirus expressing aMh-Fc demonstrated both prophylactic and therapeutic effects in a mouse model of genital M. hominis infection. PMID:26962869

  7. Genital herpes: a review.

    PubMed

    Beauman, John G

    2005-10-15

    Genital herpes simplex virus infection is a recurrent, lifelong disease with no cure. The strongest predictor for infection is a person's number of lifetime sex partners. The natural history includes first-episode mucocutaneous infection, establishment of latency in the dorsal root ganglion, and subsequent reactivation. Most infections are transmitted via asymptomatic viral shedding. Classic outbreaks consist of a skin prodrome and possible constitutional symptoms such as headache, fever, and inguinal lymphadenopathy. As the infection progresses, papules, vesicles on an erythematous base, and erosions appear over hours to days. These lesions usually crust, re-epithelialize, and heal without scarring. First-episode infections are more extensive: primary lesions last two to six weeks versus approximately one week for lesions in recurrent disease. Atypical manifestations are common. Infected persons experience a median of four recurrences per year after their first episode, but rates vary greatly. Genital herpes simplex virus type 2 recurs six times more frequently than type 1. Viral culture is preferred over polymerase chain reaction testing for diagnosis. Serologic testing can be useful in persons with a questionable history. Effective oral antiviral medications are available for initial, episodic, and suppressive therapy but are not a cure. There is some evidence that alternative therapies such as L-lysine, zinc, and some herbal preparations may offer some benefit. Counseling patients about the risk of transmission is crucial and helps prevent the spread of disease and neonatal complications. PMID:16273819

  8. Male circumcision and the incidence and clearance of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men: the HPV Infection in men (HIM) cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Reported associations of male circumcision (MC) with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men have been inconsistent. Methods 4,033 healthy men were examined every six months for a median of 17.5months. In each study visit, exfoliated cell specimens from the coronal sulcus/glans penis, penile shaft, and scrotum were collected and combined into one sample per person for HPV DNA detection. Samples were tested for 37 HPV types. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the association between MC and the incidence and clearance of HPV infections and specific genotypes. Results The overall incidence of new HPV infections did not differ by MC status (for any HPV, adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91-1.27). However, incidence was significantly lower among circumcised versus uncircumcised men for HPV types 58 (p?=?0.01), 68 (p?genital HPV detection, except for certain HPV types. The use of a single combined sample from the penis and scrotum for HPV DNA detection likely limited our ability to identify a true effect of MC at the distal penis. PMID:24517172

  9. Catch-and-release probes applied to semi-intact cells reveal ubiquitin-specific protease expression in Chlamydia trachomatis infection

    PubMed Central

    Yoder, Nicholas C.; Zhu, Angela Y.; Spooner, Eric; Ploegh, Hidde L.

    2013-01-01

    Protein ubiquitylation controls many cellular pathways, and timely removal of ubiquitin by de-ubiquitylating enzymes (DUBs) is essential to govern these different functions. To map endogenous expression of individual DUBs as well as that of any interacting proteins, we developed a catch-and-release ubiquitin (Ub) probe. Ub was equipped with an activity-based warhead and a cleavable linker attached to a biotin affinity-handle through tandem site-specific modification, in which we combined intein chemistry with sortase-mediated ligation. The resulting probe is cell-impermeable and was therefore delivered to the cytosol of Perfringolysin-O (PFO) permeabilized cells. This allowed us to retrieve and identify 34 DUBs and their interacting partners. Upon infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, we noted the expression of two additional host DUBs. Furthermore, we retrieved and identified Chlamydial DUB1 (ChlaDUB1) and DUB2 (ChlaDUB2), demonstrating by experiment that ChlaDUB2, the presence and activity of which had not been detected in infected cells, is in fact expressed in the course of infection. PMID:23335262

  10. [Chlamydia pneumoniae and acute respiratory tract infections in breast-feeding infants: simultaneous mother-child serological study in Niamey (Niger)].

    PubMed

    Cénac, Arnaud; Djibo, Ali; Chaigneau, Christine; Degbey, Herbert; Sueur, Jean-Marie; Orfila, Jeanne

    2002-01-01

    The age and the origin of Chlamydia pneumoniae primary infection in Sahelian areas are unknown. To evaluate the prevalence of C. pneumoniae antibodies, the authors studied the serological status of C. pneumoniae-, C. psittaci- and C. trachomatis-specific antibodies of 50 mother-child couples using the microimmunofluorescence technique. Children were 10 to 34 month-old (18,1 6,2, mean SD), breast-fed and hospitalized with acute respiratory tract infections in Niamey (republic of Niger). Specific C. pneumoniae IgG antibodies were present in 46/48 (95.8%) children, IgA in 32/48 (66.6%). In the mothers, specific C. pneumoniae IgG antibodies were present in 40/48 (83.3%), IgA in 31/48 (64.6%). The specific IgM antibodies were steadily absent in mothers and children. In the mother-child couples, 38/46 (79.2%) had specific C. pneumoniae IgG antibodies and 23/47 (48.9%) had IgA. The prevalence of specific C. pneumoniae IgG and IgA antibodies is very high in this population. These results point out that C. pneumoniae primary infection is very precocious in this paediatric population and is very different from American, Asian and European reports. A mother-child direct contamination during the first months of life in this breast-feeding pediatric population is discussed. PMID:12196294

  11. Risk Factors for Active Trachoma and Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Treatment-Nave Trachoma-Hyperendemic Communities of the Bijags Archipelago, Guinea Bissau

    PubMed Central

    Last, Anna R.; Burr, Sarah E.; Weiss, Helen A.; Harding-Esch, Emma M.; Cassama, Eunice; Nabicassa, Meno; Mabey, David C.; Holland, Martin J.; Bailey, Robin L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Trachoma, caused by ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, is hyperendemic on the Bijags Archipelago of Guinea Bissau. An understanding of the risk factors associated with active trachoma and infection on these remote and isolated islands, which are atypical of trachoma-endemic environments described elsewhere, is crucial to the implementation of trachoma elimination strategies. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional population-based trachoma prevalence survey was conducted on four islands. We conducted a questionnaire-based risk factor survey, examined participants for trachoma using the World Health Organization (WHO) simplified grading system and collected conjunctival swab samples for 1507 participants from 293 randomly selected households. DNA extracted from conjunctival swabs was tested using the Roche Amplicor CT/NG PCR assay. The prevalence of active (follicular and/or inflammatory) trachoma was 11% (167/1508) overall and 22% (136/618) in 19 year olds. The prevalence of C. trachomatis infection was 18% overall and 25% in 19 year olds. There were strong independent associations of active trachoma with ocular and nasal discharge, C. trachomatis infection, young age, male gender and type of household water source. C. trachomatis infection was independently associated with young age, ocular discharge, type of household water source and the presence of flies around a latrine. Conclusions/Significance In this remote island environment, household-level risk factors relating to fly populations, hygiene behaviours and water usage are likely to be important in the transmission of ocular C. trachomatis infection and the prevalence of active trachoma. This may be important in the implementation of environmental measures in trachoma control. PMID:24967629

  12. Chlamydia trachomatis Pgp3 Antibody Persists and Correlates with Self-Reported Infection and Behavioural Risks in a Blinded Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Righarts, Antoinette; Vieira, Sueli; Kounali, Daphne; Samuel, Dhanraj; Winston, Alan; Muir, David; Dickson, Nigel P.; McClure, Myra O.

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) serological studies in populations could help monitor changes in lifetime cumulative risk of infection. We developed a double-antigen sandwich ELISA based on the Ct-specific Pgp3 antigen, then tested blind stored sera from over 800 participants in a New Zealand birth cohort from Dunedin at ages 26, 32 and 38. The double-antigen sandwich ELISA was more sensitive than our previously characterised indirect Pgp3 ELISA. Pgp3 antibody was detected more often in women compared to men and correlated with increasing numbers of sexual partners, self-reported Ct, and younger age at sexual debut in both women and men. At age 26, 24.1% (99/411) of women were Pgp3 seropositive, as were 79.5% (35/44) of those reporting Ct infection; Pgp3 antibody persisted to age 38 in 96.5% (83/86). In men at age 26, the figures were 10.7% (47/442) and 25.0% (6/24), respectively, with high (83.9%) antibody persistence to age 38. At age 38, among those Pgp3 seropositive, 63.3% of women and 83.1% of men had not reported Ct infection. Thus, Ct-specific Pgp3 antibody was detected in most women reporting Ct infection and correlated with risk of infection in those who did not, with most infections remaining undetected. As this antibody persisted for at least twelve years in 96% of these women, serology could be used to evaluate Ct prevention programmes among women. PMID:26974653

  13. Exposure to cigarette smoke and Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in mice: Effect on infectious burden, systemic dissemination and cytokine responses: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Swati; Smith-Norowitz, Tamar A; Kohlhoff, Stephan; Apfalter, Petra; Roblin, Patricia; Kutlin, Andrei; Harkema, Jack; Ng, Sheung P; Doherty-Lyons, Shannon; Zelikoff, Judith T; Hammerschlag, Margaret R

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoke exposure has been considered a risk factor for infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae. C. pneumoniae infection is associated with respiratory tract infection and chronic respiratory disease, which is a serious public health concern. To determine whether prior exposure to cigarette smoke worsens C. pneumoniae infection (specifically, increases infectious burden and systemic dissemination) as well as alters cytokine responses in mice, adult female C57BL/6 mice were exposed to either filtered air (FA) or mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS) (15?mg/m(3), total suspended particulates) for 5 days/week for 2 weeks and then infected with C. pneumoniae (10(5) IFU) via intratracheal instillation. Mice were euthanized on Days 7, 14 or 26 post-infection (p.i.). Chlamydial burdens in the lungs and spleen were quantified by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and histologic analyses were performed; cytokine levels (TNF?, IL-4, IFN?) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results indicated that: (1) mice exposed to either FA or MCS had similar chlamydial burdens in the lungs and spleen on Days 14 and 26?p.i.; (2) proximal and distal airway inflammation was observed on Day 14?p.i. in both FA and MCS mice, but persisted in MCS mice until Day 26?p.i.; FA exposed mice demonstrated resolution of distal airway inflammation; and (3) MCS mice displayed higher serum levels of IFN? and IL-4 on Day 26?p.i. These findings indicate that exposure of mice to MCS (at a concentration equivalent to smoking?

  14. Clinical protection against caprine herpesvirus 1 genital infection by intranasal administration of a live attenuated glycoprotein E negative bovine herpesvirus 1 vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Thiry, Julien; Tempesta, Maria; Camero, Michele; Tarsitano, Elvira; Muylkens, Benot; Meurens, Franois; Thiry, Etienne; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2007-01-01

    Background Caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) is responsible of systemic diseases in kids and genital diseases leading to abortions in goats. CpHV-1 is widespread and especially in Mediterranean countries as Greece, Italy and Spain. CpHV-1 is antigenically and genetically closely related to bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1). Taking into account the biological properties shared by these two viruses, we decided in the current study to assess the protection of a live attenuated glycoprotein E (gE) negative BoHV-1 vaccine against a genital CpHV-1 infection in goats. Results The vaccine was inoculated intranasally twice three weeks apart followed by a subsequent CpHV-1 intravaginal challenge which is the natural route of infection in three goats. To analyse the safety and the efficacy of this marker vaccine, two groups of three goats served as controls: one immunised with a virulent CpHV-1 and one uninoculated until the challenge. Goats were clinically monitored and all sampling procedures were carried out in a blind manner. The vaccine did not induce any undesirable local or systemic reaction and goats did not excrete gE-negative BoHV-1. After challenge, a significant reduction in disease severity was observed in immunised goats. Moreover, goats immunised with either gE-negative BoHV-1 or CpHV-1 exhibited a significant reduction in the length and the peak of viral excretion. Antibodies neutralising both BoHV-1 and CpHV-1 were raised in immunised goats. Conclusion Intranasal application of a live attenuated gE-negative BoHV-1 vaccine is able to afford a clinical protection and a reduction of virus excretion in goats challenged by a CpHV-1 genital infection. PMID:18053233

  15. The DNA sensor, cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) is essential for induction of IFN beta during Chlamydia trachomatis infection1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yugen; Yeruva, Laxmi; Marinov, Anthony; Prantner, Daniel; Wyrick, Priscilla; Lupashin, Vladimir; Nagarajan, Uma M.

    2014-01-01

    IFNβ has been implicated as an effector of oviduct pathology resulting from genital chlamydial infection in the mouse model. In this study, we investigated the role of cytosolic DNA and engagement of DNA sensors in IFNβ expression during chlamydial infection. We determined that TREX-1, a host 3’to 5’ exonuclease, reduced IFNβ expression significantly during chlamydial infection using siRNA and gene knock out fibroblasts, implicating cytosolic DNA as a ligand for this response. The DNA sensor cGAS has been shown to bind cytosolic DNA to generate cGAMP, which binds to the signaling adaptor STING to induce IFNβ expression. We determined that cGAS is required for IFNβ expression during chlamydial infection in multiple cell types. Interestingly, although infected cells deficient for STING or cGAS alone failed to induce IFNβ, co-culture of cells depleted for either STING or cGAS rescued IFNβ expression. These data demonstrate that cGAMP produced in infected cGAS+STING− cells can migrate into adjacent cells via gap junctions to function in trans in cGAS−STING+ cells. Further, we observed cGAS localized in punctate regions on the cytosolic side of the chlamydial inclusion membrane in association with STING, indicating that chlamydial DNA is likely recognized outside the inclusion as infection progresses. These novel findings provide evidence that cGAS-mediated-DNA sensing directs IFNβ expression during C.trachomatis infection and suggests that effectors from infected cells can directly upregulate IFNβ expression in adjacent uninfected cells during in vivo infection, contributing to pathogenesis. PMID:25070851

  16. Building a web-based tool to support clinical decisions in the control of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) are the agents of two common, sexually transmitted diseases afflicting women in the United States (http://www.cdc.gov). We designed a novel web-based application that offers simple recommendations to help optimize medical outcomes with CT and GC prevention and control programs. This application takes population groups, prevalence rates, parameters for available screening assays and treatment regimens (costs, sensitivity, and specificity), as well as budget limits as inputs. Its output suggests optimal screening and treatment strategies for selected at-risk groups, commensurate with the clinic's budget allocation. Development of this tool illustrates how a clinical informatics application based on rigorous mathematics might have a significant impact on real-world clinical issues. PMID:24564848

  17. Molecular Diagnosis of Sexually Transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Harkins, April L.; Munson, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydia, with its Chlamydia trachomatis etiology, is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection in the United States and is often transmitted via asymptomatic individuals. This review summarizes traditional and molecular-based diagnostic modalities specific to C. trachomatis. Several commercially available, FDA-approved molecular methods to diagnose urogenital C. trachomatis infection include nucleic acid hybridization, signal amplification, polymerase chain reaction, strand displacement amplification, and transcription-mediated amplification. Molecular-based methods are rapid and reliable genital specimen screening measures, especially when applied to areas of high disease prevalence. However, clinical and analytical sensitivity for some commercial systems decreases dramatically when testing urine samples. In vitro experiments and clinical data suggest that transcription-mediated amplification has greater analytical sensitivity than the other molecular-based methods currently available. This difference may be further exhibited in testing of extragenital specimens from at-risk patient demographics. The development of future molecular testing could address conundrums associated with confirmatory testing, medicolegal testing, and test of cure. PMID:21822498

  18. A Lentiviral Vector-Based, Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) Glycoprotein B Vaccine Affords Cross-Protection against HSV-1 and HSV-2 Genital Infections

    PubMed Central

    Chiuppesi, Flavia; Vannucci, Laura; De Luca, Anna; Lai, Michele; Matteoli, Barbara; Freer, Giulia; Manservigi, Roberto; Ceccherini-Nelli, Luca; Maggi, Fabrizio; Bendinelli, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    Genital herpes is caused by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2, and its incidence is constantly increasing in the human population. Regardless of the clinical manifestation, HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections are highly transmissible to sexual partners and enhance susceptibility to other sexually transmitted infections. An effective vaccine is not yet available. Here, HSV-1 glycoprotein B (gB1) was delivered by a feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) vector and tested against HSV-1 and HSV-2 vaginal challenges in C57BL/6 mice. The gB1 vaccine elicited cross-neutralizing antibodies and cell-mediated responses that protected 100 and 75% animals from HSV-1- and HSV-2-associated severe disease, respectively. Two of the eight fully protected vaccinees underwent subclinical HSV-2 infection, as demonstrated by deep immunosuppression and other analyses. Finally, vaccination prevented death in 83% of the animals challenged with a HSV-2 dose that killed 78 and 100% naive and mock-vaccinated controls, respectively. Since this FIV vector can accommodate two or more HSV immunogens, this vaccine has ample potential for improvement and may become a candidate for the development of a truly effective vaccine against genital herpes. PMID:22491465

  19. Comparison of viral isolation, direct immunofluorescence, and indirect immunoperoxidase techniques for detection of genital herpes simplex virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Moseley, R C; Corey, L; Benjamin, D; Winter, C; Remington, M L

    1981-01-01

    Seventy-six consecutive patients presenting to a genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) clinic were enrolled in a study comparing viral isolation (VI), indirect immunoperoxidase (indirect IP), and direct immunofluorescence (direct FA) techniques for the detection of HSV antigen. Of the 76 patients, 61 (80%) demonstrated HSV by VI, compared with 66% by indirect IP and 55% by direct FA (P less than 0.05). Genital lesions from nine patients demonstrated HSV antigen by direct FA or indirect IP but were VI negative; eight of nine patients had subsequent episodes of genital HSV confirmed by VI. During the vesicular-pustular stage of the disease, VI was positive in 90%, indirect IP was positive in 76%, and direct FA was positive in 71% of the lesions, whereas with ulcerative lesions, VI was positive in 72%, indirect IP was positive in 55%, and direct FA was positive in 38%. These commercially available rapid viral diagnostic techniques are specific and useful, if adequate specimens are obtained from early genital lesions. PMID:6263945

  20. Extragenital Gonorrhea and Chlamydia Testing and Infection Among Men Who Have Sex With Men—STD Surveillance Network, United States, 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Patton, Monica E.; Kidd, Sarah; Llata, Eloisa; Stenger, Mark; Braxton, Jim; Asbel, Lenore; Bernstein, Kyle; Gratzer, Beau; Jespersen, Megan; Kerani, Roxanne; Mettenbrink, Christie; Mohamed, Mukhtar; Pathela, Preeti; Schumacher, Christina; Stirland, Ali; Stover, Jeff; Tabidze, Irina; Kirkcaldy, Robert D.; Weinstock, Hillard

    2015-01-01

    Background Gonorrhea (GC) and chlamydia (CT) are the most commonly reported notifiable diseases in the United States. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that men who have sex with men (MSM) be screened for urogenital GC/CT, rectal GC/CT, and pharyngeal GC. We describe extragenital GC/CT testing and infections among MSM attending sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics. Methods The STD Surveillance Network collects patient data from 42 STD clinics. We assessed the proportion of MSM attending these clinics during July 2011–June 2012 who were tested and positive for extragenital GC/CT at their most recent visit or in the preceding 12 months and the number of extragenital infections that would have remained undetected with urethral screening alone. Results Of 21 994 MSM, 83.9% were tested for urogenital GC, 65.9% for pharyngeal GC, 50.4% for rectal GC, 81.4% for urogenital CT, 31.7% for pharyngeal CT, and 45.9% for rectal CT. Of MSM tested, 11.1% tested positive for urogenital GC, 7.9% for pharyngeal GC, 10.2% for rectal GC, 8.4% for urogenital CT, 2.9% for pharyngeal CT, and 14.1% for rectal CT. More than 70% of extragenital GC infections and 85% of extragenital CT infections were associated with negative urethral tests at the same visit and would not have been detected with urethral screening alone. Conclusions Extragenital GC/CT was common among MSM attending STD clinics, but many MSM were not tested. Most extragenital infections would not have been identified, and likely would have remained untreated, with urethral screening alone. Efforts are needed to facilitate implementation of extragenital GC/CT screening recommendations for MSM. PMID:24647015

  1. Membrane vesicle production by Chlamydia trachomatis as an adaptive response

    PubMed Central

    Frohlich, Kyla M.; Hua, Ziyu; Quayle, Alison J.; Wang, Jin; Lewis, Maria E.; Chou, Chau-wen; Luo, Miao; Buckner, Lyndsey R.; Shen, Li

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria have evolved specific adaptive responses to cope with changing environments. These adaptations include stress response phenotypes with dynamic modifications of the bacterial cell envelope and generation of membrane vesicles (MVs). The obligate intracellular bacterium, Chlamydia trachomatis, typically has a biphasic lifestyle, but can enter into an altered growth state typified by morphologically aberrant chlamydial forms, termed persistent growth forms, when induced by stress in vitro. How C. trachomatis can adapt to a persistent growth state in host epithelial cells in vivo is not well understood, but is an important question, since it extends the host-bacterial relationship in vitro and has thus been indicated as a survival mechanism in chronic chlamydial infections. Here, we review recent findings on the mechanistic aspects of bacterial adaptation to stress with a focus on how C. trachomatis remodels its envelope, produces MVs, and the potential important consequences of MV production with respect to host-pathogen interactions. Emerging data suggest that the generation of MVs may be an important mechanism for C. trachomatis intracellular survival of stress, and thus may aid in the establishment of a chronic infection in human genital epithelial cells. PMID:24959424

  2. Directional evolution of Chlamydia trachomatis towards niche-specific adaptation.

    PubMed

    Borges, Vítor; Nunes, Alexandra; Ferreira, Rita; Borrego, Maria J; Gomes, João P

    2012-11-01

    On behalf of the host-pathogen "arms race," a cutting-edge approach for elucidating genotype-phenotype relationships relies on the identification of positively selected loci involved in pathoadaptation. We studied the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis, for which same-species strains display a nearly identical core and pan genome, while presenting a wide range of tissue tropism and ecological success. We sought to evaluate the evolutionary patterns underlying species separation (divergence) and C. trachomatis serovar radiation (polymorphism) and to establish genotype-phenotype associations. By analyzing 60 Chlamydia strains, we detected traces of Muller's ratchet as a result of speciation and identified positively selected genes and codons hypothetically involved in the infection of different human cell types (e.g., columnar epithelial cells of ocular or genital mucosae and mononuclear phagocytes) and also events likely driving pathogenic and ecological success dissimilarities. In general, these genes code for proteins involved in immune response elicitation, proteolysis, and the subversion of host-cell functions, and also for proteins with unknown function(s). Several genes are potentially involved in more than one adaptive process, suggesting multiple functions or a distinct modus operandi for a specific function, and thus should be considered as crucial research targets. In addition, six of the nine genes encoding the putative antigen/adhesin polymorphic membrane proteins seem to be under positive selection along specific serovars, which sustains an essential biological role of this extra-large paralogue family in chlamydial pathobiology. This study provides insight into how evolutionary inferences illuminate ecological processes such as adaptation to different niches, pathogenicity, or ecological success driven by arms races. PMID:22961851

  3. Calcium, ARMS2 Genotype, and Chlamydia Pneumoniae Infection in Early Age-Related Macular Degeneration: a Multivariate Analysis from the Nagahama Study

    PubMed Central

    Nakata, Isao; Yamashiro, Kenji; Kawaguchi, Takahisa; Nakanishi, Hideo; Akagi-Kurashige, Yumiko; Miyake, Masahiro; Tsujikawa, Akitaka; Yamada, Ryo; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2015-01-01

    Although various risk factors have been identified for the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), risk factors of early AMD have been relatively under studied. We aimed to investigate AMD risk factors by evaluating multiple factors in association with large drusen, an important component of AMD, simultaneously. In a community-based cross-sectional survey in Japan, 971 large drusen cases and 3,209 controls were compared for 65 variables, including systemic, environmental, and genetic factors. The association and the effect size of each factor were evaluated with logistic regression analysis using a backward-elimination approach. Multivariate analyses identified a significant association in serum calcium level (odds ratio [OR] = 0.932, P = 1.05 10?3), ARMS2 A69S (rs10490924) genotype (OR = 1.046, P < 0.001), Chlamydia pneumoniae IgG (OR = 1.020, P = 0.0440), and age (OR = 1.013, P < 0.001) for large drusen. Hypocalcemia was observed in 7.2% of large drusen cases and in 5.5% of controls (P = 0.0490). C. pneumoniae infections was more frequent in large drusen cases (56.4%) than in conrols (51.7%, P = 0.00956). These results suggest that calcium, ARMS2 genotype, C. pneumonia infection, and age are significant factors in the development of the early stages of AMD. PMID:25792034

  4. Calcium, ARMS2 genotype, and Chlamydia pneumoniae infection in early age-related macular degeneration: a multivariate analysis from the Nagahama study.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Isao; Yamashiro, Kenji; Kawaguchi, Takahisa; Nakanishi, Hideo; Akagi-Kurashige, Yumiko; Miyake, Masahiro; Tsujikawa, Akitaka; Yamada, Ryo; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2015-01-01

    Although various risk factors have been identified for the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), risk factors of early AMD have been relatively under studied. We aimed to investigate AMD risk factors by evaluating multiple factors in association with large drusen, an important component of AMD, simultaneously. In a community-based cross-sectional survey in Japan, 971 large drusen cases and 3,209 controls were compared for 65 variables, including systemic, environmental, and genetic factors. The association and the effect size of each factor were evaluated with logistic regression analysis using a backward-elimination approach. Multivariate analyses identified a significant association in serum calcium level (odds ratio [OR] = 0.932, P = 1.05 10(-3)), ARMS2 A69S (rs10490924) genotype (OR = 1.046, P < 0.001), Chlamydia pneumoniae IgG (OR = 1.020, P = 0.0440), and age (OR = 1.013, P < 0.001) for large drusen. Hypocalcemia was observed in 7.2% of large drusen cases and in 5.5% of controls (P = 0.0490). C. pneumoniae infections was more frequent in large drusen cases (56.4%) than in controls (51.7%, P = 0.00956). These results suggest that calcium, ARMS2 genotype, C. pneumonia infection, and age are significant factors in the development of the early stages of AMD. PMID:25792034

  5. [Diagnosis of chlamydia trachomatis infections in women: urinary PCR compared to cervical culture and PCR on cervical swabs in high risk females.].

    PubMed

    Olafsson, J H; Davidsson, S; Karlsson, S M; Palsdottir, R; Steingrimsson, O

    1995-07-01

    Diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infections in women has traditionally depended on cell culture or enzyme linked immunoassay. Recently Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) has been shown to be more sensitive than these methods when performed on endocervical swabs. A total of 203 high risk females were enrolled in a comparative study of three methods for diagnosing C. trachomatis infections: McCoy cell culture and Amplicor(R) PCR on endocervical swabs and urine. Thirty four had positive cultures, 38 positive PCR from cervix and 37 had positive PCR on urine specimens. When discrepancy occurred, the leftover Amplicor(R) specimen was retested by Roche with Amplicor(R) and a primer for the Major Outer Membrane Protein (MOMP) gene. None was false positive in cell culture or in urinary PCR but two were false positive in cervical PCR. In all three tests, 32 were positive. The sensitivity of culture was 87%, 92% in cervical PCR and 95% in urinary PCR. The specificity was 100% in both culture and urinary PCR but 98% in cervical PCR. The results show that Amplicor(R) PCR performed on female urine is more sensitive and as specific as cell culture. PMID:20065476

  6. Chlamydiae as agents of human and animal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Schachter, J.; Storz, J.; Tarizzo, M. L.; Bgel, K.

    1973-01-01

    A brief review is given of the properties, occurrence, and public health significance of chlamydiae in man and animals and of the diagnosis and control of chlamydial infections. Chlamydiae occur naturally in a large number of avian and mammalian species. Man is the primary host of chlamydiae causing trachoma, inclusion conjunctivitis, genito-urinary tract infection, and lymphogranuloma venereum. In animals chlamydial infections have been recognized as a cause of pneumonia, encephalitis, abortion, arthritis, diarrhoea, and conjunctivitis. Chlamydial infections have been recognized in a wide range of avian hosts. Sporadic psittacosis/ornithosis in man is associated with close exposure to birds and may occur as an occupational disease. Transmission studies suggest that mammalian chlamydial strains are not very host-specific and that diseases and even chains of infection may develop in secondary hosts. There are a few well-documented cases of human infection with chlamydiae of mammalian origin. Although various chlamydial isolates have specific antigenic components, no routine test for identifying different serotypes has been generally accepted. Further investigation of the host range of chlamydiae and of their antigenic properties is essential for a more accurate assessment of the potential danger of chlamydia-infected animals to human health. The frequent occurrence of inapparent or latent infections makes it imperative to establish adequate laboratory facilities for the effective surveillance and control of chlamydial infections. PMID:4547157

  7. Anti-inflammatory effects of silver-polyvinyl pyrrolidone (Ag-PVP) nanoparticles in mouse macrophages infected with live Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Yilma, Abebayehu N; Singh, Shree R; Dixit, Saurabh; Dennis, Vida A

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a very common sexually transmissible infection in both developing and developed countries. A hallmark of C. trachomatis infection is the induction of severe inflammatory responses which play critical roles in its pathogenesis. Antibiotics are the only treatment option currently available for controlling C. trachomatis infection; however, they are efficacious only when administered early after an infection. The objectives of this study are to explore alternative strategies in the control and regulation of inflammatory responses triggered by a C. trachomatis infection. We employed silver-polyvinyl pyrrolidone (Ag-PVP) nanoparticles, which have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory properties, as our target and the in vitro mouse J774 macrophage model of C. trachomatis infection. Our hypothesis is that small sizes of Ag-PVP nanoparticles will control inflammatory mediators triggered by a C. trachomatis infection. Cytotoxicity studies using Ag-PVP nanoparticles of 10, 20, and 80 nm sizes revealed >80% macrophage viability up to a concentration of 6.25 μg/mL, with the 10 nm size being the least toxic. All sizes of Ag-PVP nanoparticles, especially the 10 nm size, reduced the levels of the prototypic cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin (IL)-6, as elicited from C. trachomatis infected macrophages. Additionally, Ag-PVP nanoparticles (10 nm) selectively inhibited a broad spectrum of other cytokines and chemokines produced by infected macrophages. Of significance, Ag-PVP nanoparticles (10 nm) caused perturbations in a variety of upstream (toll like receptor 2 [TLR2], nucleotide-binding oligomerization-protein 2 [NOD2], cluster of differentiation [CD]40, CD80, and CD86) and downstream (IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 3 [IRAK3] and matrix metallopeptidase 9 [MMP9]) inflammatory signaling pathways by downregulating their messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) gene transcript expressions as induced by C. trachomatis in macrophages. Collectively, our data provides further evidence for the anti-inflammatory properties of Ag-PVP nanoparticles, and opens new possibilities for smaller sizes of Ag-PVP nanoparticles to be employed as regulators of inflammatory responses induced by C. trachomatis. PMID:23882139

  8. Efficacy of latrine promotion on emergence of infection with ocular Chlamydia trachomatis after mass antibiotic treatment: a cluster-randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Stoller, Nicole E; Gebre, Teshome; Ayele, Berhan; Zerihun, Mulat; Assefa, Yared; Habte, Dereje; Zhou, Zhaoxia; Porco, Travis C; Keenan, Jeremy D; House, Jenafir I; Gaynor, Bruce D; Lietman, Thomas M; Emerson, Paul M

    2011-01-01

    Summary The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends environmental improvements such as latrine construction in the integrated trachoma control strategy, SAFE. We report a cluster-randomized trial assessing the effect of intensive latrine promotion on emergence of infection with ocular Chlamydia trachomatis after mass treatment with antibiotics. Twenty-four communities in Goncha Seso Enesie woreda, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia, were enumerated, and a random selection of 60 children aged 0– 9 years in each was monitored for clinical signs of trachoma and ocular chlamydial infection at baseline, 12 and 24 months. All community members were offered treatment with a single dose of oral azithromycin or topical tetracycline. After treatment, 12 subkebeles were randomized to receive intensive latrine promotion. Mean cluster ocular infection in the latrine and the non-latrine arms were reduced from 45.5% (95% CI 34.1–56.8%) and 43.0% (95% CI 31.1–54.8%) respectively at baseline to 14.6% (95% CI 7.4–21.8%) and 14.8% (95% CI 8.9–20.8%) respectively at 24 months (P=0.93). Clinical signs fell from 72.0% (95% CI 58.2–85.5%) and 61.3% (95% CI 44.0–78.5%) at baseline to 45.8% (36.0–55.6%) and 48.5% (34.0–62.9%) respectively at 24 months (P=0.69). At 24 months, estimated household latrine coverage and use were 80.8% and 61.7% respectively where there had been intensive latrine promotion and 30.0% and 25.0% respectively in the single treatment only arm. We were unable to detect a difference in the prevalence of ocular chlamydial infection in children due to latrine construction. PMID:21785663

  9. Simultaneous detection of multiple lower genital tract pathogens by an impedimetric immunochip.

    PubMed

    Chiriacò, Maria Serena; Primiceri, Elisabetta; De Feo, Francesco; Montanaro, Alessandro; Monteduro, Anna Grazia; Tinelli, Andrea; Megha, Marcella; Carati, Davide; Maruccio, Giuseppe

    2016-05-15

    Lower genital tract infections caused by both sexually and not-sexually transmitted pathogens in women are a key public health priority worldwide, especially in developing countries. Since standard analyses are time-consuming, appropriate therapeutic intervention is often neglected or delayed. Lab-on-chips and biosensors open new perspectives and offer innovative tools to simplify the diagnosis by medical staff, especially in countries with inadequate resources. Here we report a biosensing platform based on Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) that allows multiplexed detection of Candida albicans, Streptococcus agalactiae and Chlamydia trachomatis with a single biochip, enabling a quick screening thanks to the presence of different immobilized antibodies, each specific for one of the different target pathogens. PMID:26686917

  10. Inflammation, Infection, and Future Cardiovascular Risk

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-04

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Myocardial Infarction; Venous Thromboembolism; Heart Diseases; Infection; Chlamydia Infections; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Helicobacter Infections; Herpesviridae Infections; Inflammation

  11. Synovial Chlamydia trachomatis up regulates expression of a panel of genes similar to that transcribed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis during persistent infection

    PubMed Central

    Grard, H C; Whittum?Hudson, J A; Schumacher, H R; Hudson, A P

    2006-01-01

    Background Synovial tissues in patients with Chlamydia associated arthritis are persistently infected by C trachomatis, an organism for which genetic manipulation is not possible. M tuberculosis also engages in persistent infection, and because this bacterium is genetically tractable many groups have been able to define transcriptional characteristics of mycobacterial growth and persistence. Objective To investigate whether the pattern of gene expression underlying chlamydial persistence is similar to that underlying mycobacterial persistence. Methods 194 genes in M tuberculosis that are transcriptionally up regulated to support in vivo growth and persistence of that organism have previously been identified. Each of those genes was compared with the C trachomatis genome to identify orthologues. Expression of selected chlamydial orthologues so identified was assessed by real time RT?PCR in an in vitro model of chlamydial persistence and synovial tissues from patients who were PCR positive for C trachomatis at that site. Results 67 C trachomatis genes were identified as being orthologous to mycobacterial persistence related genes, representing 35% of the genes tested. The chlamydial orthologues fell into similar metabolic and other categories as those in M tuberculosis. Expression of a majority of selected chlamydial orthologues was strongly up regulated in an in vitro model of chlamydial persistence and in synovial tissues of relevant patients, compared with their expression during active infection. Conclusions These observations provide new insight into the molecular genetic basis underlying chlamydial persistence, and indicate that this information can be obtained, in some instances, by extrapolating observations made in other biological systems and/or organisms. PMID:16192289

  12. High Prevalence of Co-Infections by Invasive and Non-Invasive Chlamydia trachomatis Genotypes during the Lymphogranuloma Venereum Outbreak in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Dominguez, Mario; Gonzalez-Alba, Jose Maria; Puerta, Teresa; Menendez, Blanca; Sanchez-Diaz, Ana Maria; Canton, Rafael; del Romero, Jorge; Galan, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of Chlamydia trachomatis is mainly driven by recombination events. This fact can be fuelled by the coincidence in several European regions of the high prevalence of non-invasive urogenital genotypes and lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) outbreaks. This scenario could modify the local epidemiology and favor the selection of new C. trachomatis variants. Quantifying the prevalence of co-infection could help to predict the potential risk in the selection of new variants with unpredictable results in pathogenesis or transmissibility. In the 2009-2013 period, 287 clinical samples with demonstrated presence of C. trachomatis were selected. They were divided in two groups. The first group was constituted by 137 samples with C. trachomatis of the LGV genotypes, and the second by the remaining 150 samples in which the presence of LGV genotypes was previously excluded. They were analyzed to detect the simultaneous presence of non-LGV genotypes based on pmpH and ompA genes. In the first group, co-infections were detected in 10.9% of the cases whereas in the second group the prevalence was 14.6%, which is the highest percentage ever described among European countries. Moreover, bioinformatic analyses suggested the presence among men who have sex with men of a pmpH-recombinant variant, similar to strains described in Seattle in 2002. This variant was the result of genetic exchange between genotypes belonging to LGV and members of G-genotype. Sequencing of other genes, phylogenetically related to pathotype, confirmed that the putative recombinant found in Madrid could have a common origin with the strains described in Seattle. Countries with a high prevalence of co-infections and high migration flows should enhance surveillance programs in at least their vulnerable population. PMID:25965545

  13. Enrofloxacin and Macrolides Alone or in Combination with Rifampicin as Antimicrobial Treatment in a Bovine Model of Acute Chlamydia psittaci Infection

    PubMed Central

    Prohl, Annette; Lohr, Markus; Ostermann, Carola; Liebler-Tenorio, Elisabeth; Berndt, Angela; Schroedl, Wieland; Rothe, Michael; Schubert, Evelyn; Sachse, Konrad; Reinhold, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Chlamydia psittaci is a zoonotic bacterium with a wide host range that can cause respiratory disease in humans and cattle. In the present study, effects of treatment with macrolides and quinolones applied alone or in combination with rifampicin were tested in a previously established bovine model of respiratory C. psittaci infection. Fifty animals were inoculated intrabronchially at the age of 6–8 weeks. Seven served as untreated controls, the others were assigned to seven treatment groups: (i) rifampicin, (ii) enrofloxacin, (iii) enrofloxacin + rifampicin, (iv) azithromycin, (v) azithromycin + rifampicin, (vi) erythromycin, and (vii) erythromycin + rifampicin. Treatment started 30 hours after inoculation and continued until 14 days after inoculation (dpi), when all animals were necropsied. The infection was successful in all animals and sufficient antibiotic levels were detected in blood plasma and tissue of the treated animals. Reisolation of the pathogen was achieved more often from untreated animals than from other groups. Nevertheless, pathogen detection by PCR was possible to the same extent in all animals and there were no significant differences between treated and untreated animals in terms of local (i.e. cell count and differentiation of BALF-cells) and systemic inflammation (i.e. white blood cells and concentration of acute phase protein LBP), clinical signs, and pathological findings at necropsy. Regardless of the reduced reisolation rate in treated animals, the treatment of experimentally induced respiratory C. psittaci infection with enrofloxacin, azithromycin or erythromycin alone or in combination with rifampicin was without obvious benefit for the host, since no significant differences in clinical and pathological findings or inflammatory parameters were detected and all animals recovered clinically within two weeks. PMID:25768665

  14. High-risk human papillomavirus infection involving multiple anatomic sites of the female lower genital tract: a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction-based study.

    PubMed

    Hui, Yiang; Manna, Pradip; Ou, Joyce J; Kerley, Spencer; Zhang, Cunxian; Sung, C James; Lawrence, W Dwayne; Quddus, M Ruhul

    2015-09-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus infection usually is seen at one anatomic site in an individual. Rarely, infection at multiple anatomic sites of the female lower genital tract in the same individual is encountered either simultaneously and/or at a later date. The current study identifies the various subtypes of high-risk human papillomavirus infection in these scenarios and analyzes the potential significance of these findings. High-risk human papillomavirus infection involving 22 anatomic sites from 7 individuals was identified after institutional review board approval. Residual paraffin-embedded tissue samples were retrieved, and all 15 high-risk human papillomavirus were identified and viral load quantified using multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction-based method. Multiple high-risk human papillomavirus subtypes were identified in 32% of the samples and as many as 5 different subtypes of high-risk human papillomavirus infection in a single anatomic site. In general, each anatomic site has unique combination of viral subtypes, although one individual showed overlapping subtypes in the vagina, cervix, and vulvar samples. Higher viral load and rare subtypes are more frequent in younger patients and in dysplasia compared with carcinoma. Follow-up ranging from 3 to 84 months revealed persistent high-risk human papillomavirus infection in 60% of cases. PMID:26220161

  15. Comparison of clinical diagnosis and standard laboratory and molecular methods for the diagnosis of genital ulcer disease in Lesotho: association with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Morse, S A; Trees, D L; Htun, Y; Radebe, F; Orle, K A; Dangor, Y; Beck-Sague, C M; Schmid, S; Fehler, G; Weiss, J B; Ballard, R C

    1997-03-01

    A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) assay for Haemophilus ducreyi, Treponema pallidum, and herpes simplex virus (HSV) was compared with clinical and standard laboratory methods for the diagnosis of genital ulcer disease (GUD) in 105 patients; 36% were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive. Chancroid (80%), syphilis (8%), and genital herpes (8%) were the most frequent diagnoses. H. ducreyi and HSV were isolated from ulcers of 43% and 18% of patients, respectively; in 35%, all cultures were negative and the laboratory diagnosis indeterminate. M-PCR detected H. ducreyi, T. pallidum, and HSV in 56%, 23%, and 26% of patients, respectively; (no definitive diagnosis, 6%). The proportion of patients with more than one agent was 4% by culture and 17% by M-PCR (P = .002). Resolved sensitivities of M-PCR for H. ducreyi and HSV cultures were 95% and 93%, respectively. The sensitivities of H. ducreyi and HSV cultures were 75% and 60%, respectively. HSV, detected in 47% of specimens from HIV-infected versus 16% from HIV-uninfected patients (P < .001), may be emerging as a more frequent cause of GUD. PMID:9041329

  16. A randomised trial of point-of-care tests for chlamydia and gonorrhoea infections in remote Aboriginal communities: Test, Treat ANd GO- the TTANGO trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High prevalence rates of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) have been reported in Aboriginal people in remote and regional areas of Australia for well over two decades, and repeat positivity rates are high. To interrupt disease transmission and reduce the risk of complications, early diagnosis and treatment is important. However in many remote and regional areas there are long delays between testing for these curable sexually transmissible infections and providing treatment, due to both physical distance from laboratories and difficulties when recalling patients for subsequent management once results are available. Point-of-care (POC) tests have the potential to provide more timely diagnosis, to increase treatment and contact tracing, and in turn reduce CT and NG infection rates. Methods/design TTANGO (Test, Treat, ANd GO) is a cross-over cluster randomised controlled trial in 12 regional or remote Australian health services, which predominantly provide clinical services to Aboriginal people. The overall aim of TTANGO is to measure the clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and cultural and operational acceptability of molecular POC testing for CT and NG infection. The primary outcome is repeat positivity at three months after treatment of an initial CT or NG infection. Participating health services will undertake the clinical management of CT and NG under two different modalities for one year each. In the first year, six health services will be randomly assigned to manage these infections under current diagnostic guidelines. The other six will supplement current diagnostic guidelines with POC testing, whereby diagnosis is made and subsequent treatment for those with positive POC tests is offered at the initial consultation. In the second year, the health services will cross over to the opposite management modality. TTANGO will be conducted over four years; 1.5years of trial initiation and community consultation, 2years of trial conditions and evaluation, and 6months of data analysis and feedback. Discussion TTANGO is the first cluster randomised trial of POC testing for CT and NG internationally. The results of this trial will provide crucial information to guide sexual health clinical practice in remote Aboriginal communities and other high prevalence settings. Trial registration Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12613000808741 PMID:24138699

  17. Costs of Testing for Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis Infection Compared to Mass Drug Administration for Trachoma in The Gambia: Application of Results from the PRET Study

    PubMed Central

    Harding-Esch, Emma; Jofre-Bonet, Mireia; Dhanjal, Jaskiran K.; Burr, Sarah; Edwards, Tansy; Holland, Martin; Sillah, Ansumana; West, Sheila; Lietman, Tom; Keenan, Jeremy; Mabey, David; Bailey, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Background Mass drug administration (MDA) treatment of active trachoma with antibiotic is recommended to be initiated in any district where the prevalence of trachoma inflammation, follicular (TF) is ≥10% in children aged 1–9 years, and then to continue for at least three annual rounds before resurvey. In The Gambia the PRET study found that discontinuing MDA based on testing a sample of children for ocular Chlamydia trachomatis(Ct) infection after one MDA round had similar effects to continuing MDA for three rounds. Moreover, one round of MDA reduced disease below the 5% TF threshold. We compared the costs of examining a sample of children for TF, and of testing them for Ct, with those of MDA rounds. Methods The implementation unit in PRET The Gambia was a census enumeration area (EA) of 600–800 people. Personnel, fuel, equipment, consumables, data entry and supervision costs were collected for census and treatment of a sample of EAs and for the examination, sampling and testing for Ct infection of 100 individuals within them. Programme costs and resource savings from testing and treatment strategies were inferred for the 102 EAs in the study area, and compared. Results Census costs were $103.24 per EA plus initial costs of $108.79. MDA with donated azithromycin cost $227.23 per EA. The mean cost of examining and testing 100 children was $796.90 per EA, with Ct testing kits costing $4.80 per result. A strategy of testing each EA for infection is more expensive than two annual rounds of MDA unless the kit cost is less than $1.38 per result. However stopping or deciding not to initiate treatment in the study area based on testing a sample of EAs for Ct infection (or examining children in a sample of EAs) creates savings relative to further unnecessary treatments. Conclusion Resources may be saved by using tests for chlamydial infection or clinical examination to determine that initial or subsequent rounds of MDA for trachoma are unnecessary. PMID:25901349

  18. Chlamydiaceae and Chlamydia-like organisms in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus)--organ distribution and histopathological findings.

    PubMed

    Burach, Fabienne; Pospischil, Andreas; Hanger, Jon; Loader, Jo; Pillonel, Trestan; Greub, Gilbert; Borel, Nicole

    2014-08-01

    Chlamydial infections in koalas can cause life-threatening diseases leading to blindness and sterility. However, little is known about the systemic spread of chlamydiae in the inner organs of the koala, and data concerning related pathological organ lesions are limited. The aim of this study was to perform a thorough investigation of organs from 23 koalas and to correlate their histopathological lesions to molecular chlamydial detection. To reach this goal, 246 formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded organ samples from 23 koalas were investigated by histopathology, Chlamydiaceae real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, ArrayTube Microarray for Chlamydiaceae species identification as well as Chlamydiales real-time PCR and sequencing. By PCR, two koalas were positive for Chlamydia pecorum whereas immunohistochemical labelling for Chlamydiaceae was detected in 10 tissues out of nine koalas. The majority of these (n=6) had positive labelling in the urogenital tract related to histopathological lesions such as cystitis, endometritis, pyelonephritis and prostatitis. Somehow unexpected was the positive labelling in the gastrointestinal tract including the cloaca as well as in lung and spleen indicating systemic spread of infection. Uncultured Chlamydiales were detected in several organs of seven koalas by PCR, and four of these suffered from plasmacytic enteritis of unknown aetiology. Whether the finding of Chlamydia-like organisms in the gastrointestinal tract is linked to plasmacytic enteritis is unclear and remains speculative. However, as recently shown in a mouse model, the gastrointestinal tract might play a role being the site for persistent chlamydial infections and being a source for reinfection of the genital tract. PMID:24888862

  19. [Chlamydia: from population screening to individual repeated screening].

    PubMed

    Bally, F; Quach, A

    2014-10-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a frequent sexually transmitted infection especially in young adults and adolescents. Its complications can impair a woman's reproductive potential. chlamydia control has several challenges. These include asymptomatic infections; a long duration of untreated infections; re-infections and partner treatments. Any person with infection is at high risk of re-infection. Repeated screening would decrease, at an individual level, the risk of complications. General practitioners, gynaecologists and centres for sexual health could participate in Chlamydia screening for asymptomatic infections, in Switzerland, the cost of the laboratory test is fixed by national tariff regulations. The cost is high and prohibitive for many, especially adolescents and young adults and needs to be lowered. PMID:25507087

  20. [Chlamydia: from population screening to individual repeated screening].

    PubMed

    Bally, F; Quach, A

    2014-10-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a frequent sexually transmitted infection especially in young adults and adolescents. Its complications can impair a woman's reproductive potential. chlamydia control has several challenges. These include asymptomatic infections; a long duration of untreated infections; re-infections and partner treatments. Any person with infection is at high risk of re-infection. Repeated screening would decrease, at an individual level, the risk of complications. General practitioners, gynaecologists and centres for sexual health could participate in Chlamydia screening for asymptomatic infections, in Switzerland, the cost of the laboratory test is fixed by national tariff regulations. The cost is high and prohibitive for many, especially adolescents and young adults and needs to be lowered. PMID:25417359

  1. Interaction of chlamydiae and host cells in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Moulder, J W

    1991-01-01

    The obligately intracellular bacteria of the genus Chlamydia, which is only remotely related to other eubacterial genera, cause many diseases of humans, nonhuman mammals, and birds. Interaction of chlamydiae with host cells in vitro has been studied as a model of infection in natural hosts and as an example of the adaptation of an organism to an unusual environment, the inside of another living cell. Among the novel adaptations made by chlamydiae have been the substitution of disulfide-bond-cross-linked polypeptides for peptidoglycans and the use of host-generated nucleotide triphosphates as sources of metabolic energy. The effect of contact between chlamydiae and host cells in culture varies from no effect at all to rapid destruction of either chlamydiae or host cells. When successful infection occurs, it is usually followed by production of large numbers of progeny and destruction of host cells. However, host cells containing chlamydiae sometimes continue to divide, with or without overt signs of infection, and chlamydiae may persist indefinitely in cell cultures. Some of the many factors that influence the outcome of chlamydia-host cell interaction are kind of chlamydiae, kind of host cells, mode of chlamydial entry, nutritional adequacy of the culture medium, presence of antimicrobial agents, and presence of immune cells and soluble immune factors. General characteristics of chlamydial multiplication in cells of their natural hosts are reproduced in established cell lines, but reproduction in vitro of the subtle differences in chlamydial behavior responsible for the individuality of the different chlamydial diseases will require better in vitro models. PMID:2030670

  2. Multi locus sequence typing of Chlamydia reveals an association between Chlamydia psittaci genotypes and host species.

    PubMed

    Pannekoek, Yvonne; Dickx, Veerle; Beeckman, Delphine S A; Jolley, Keith A; Keijzers, Wendy C; Vretou, Evangelia; Maiden, Martin C J; Vanrompay, Daisy; van der Ende, Arie

    2010-01-01

    Chlamydia comprises a group of obligate intracellular bacterial parasites responsible for a variety of diseases in humans and animals, including several zoonoses. Chlamydia trachomatis causes diseases such as trachoma, urogenital infection and lymphogranuloma venereum with severe morbidity. Chlamydia pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired respiratory tract infections. Chlamydia psittaci, causing zoonotic pneumonia in humans, is usually hosted by birds, while Chlamydia abortus, causing abortion and fetal death in mammals, including humans, is mainly hosted by goats and sheep. We used multi-locus sequence typing to asses the population structure of Chlamydia. In total, 132 Chlamydia isolates were analyzed, including 60 C. trachomatis, 18 C. pneumoniae, 16 C. abortus, 34 C. psittaci and one of each of C. pecorum, C. caviae, C. muridarum and C. felis. Cluster analyses utilizing the Neighbour-Joining algorithm with the maximum composite likelihood model of concatenated sequences of 7 housekeeping fragments showed that C. psittaci 84/2334 isolated from a parrot grouped together with the C. abortus isolates from goats and sheep. Cluster analyses of the individual alleles showed that in all instances C. psittaci 84/2334 formed one group with C. abortus. Moving 84/2334 from the C. psittaci group to the C. abortus group resulted in a significant increase in the number of fixed differences and elimination of the number of shared mutations between C. psittaci and C. abortus. C. psittaci M56 from a muskrat branched separately from the main group of C. psittaci isolates. C. psittaci genotypes appeared to be associated with host species. The phylogenetic tree of C. psittaci did not follow that of its host bird species, suggesting host species jumps. In conclusion, we report for the first time an association between C. psittaci genotypes with host species. PMID:21152037

  3. Genital warts

    MedlinePLUS

    Condylomata acuminata; Penile warts; Human papillomavirus (HPV); Venereal warts; Condyloma; HPV DNA test; Sexually transmitted disease (STD) - warts; Sexually transmitted infection (STI) - warts; LSIL-HPV; ...

  4. Chlamydia (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with urination Untreated chlamydia also can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which can affect the vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. Sometimes, PID causes no symptoms; more often, it causes abdominal ...

  5. Full Genome Sequences of All Nine Chlamydia psittaci Genotype Reference Strains

    PubMed Central

    Van Lent, Sarah; Piet, Jurgen R.; Beeckman, Delphine; van der Ende, Arie; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Bavoil, Patrik; Myers, Garry; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2012-01-01

    Chlamydia psittaci primarily infects birds, but zoonotic transmission occurs in people in close contact with infected birds. The clinical outcome ranges from inapparent disease to pneumonia. Here we report the genome sequences of all 9 Chlamydia psittaci genotype reference strains. PMID:23209198

  6. Ocular clinical pictures disclosed by PCR molecular diagnosis of Chlamydia trachomatis infection performed following the appropriate sampling modality in ocular ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Gallenga, P E; Del Boccio, M; Lobefalo, L; Rapinese, M; Pennelli, A; Martinotti, S

    2012-01-01

    Four clinical cases regarding the correct diagnosis of early ocular Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) inflammation, performed by two different modalities on the ocular ecosystem, are discussed. The present study was carried out in parallel using a cotton flock ocular swab and the scraping of upper lid conjunctiva. The ocular samplings were carried out by a first ocular swab from inner canthus and fornix, while the second by a conjunctival scraping from upper the conjunctiva of four patients. In the first case, by ocular swab, all samples resulted negative to Ct-DNA research by PCR, while the cultural analyses showed a growth of saprophytic and opportunist germs in all patients. No growth micetes resulted. On the contrary, in the second case, by conjunctival scraping, three of four samples were positive to Ct-DNA research. No fungal growth was observed, while only the 3rd patient, negative to Ct-DNA research, showed microbial growth. Our study, carried out with two different modalities of sampling on different areas of the same ecosystem, showed different results, demonstrating the importance of sampling accuracy for chlamydial research by molecular analysis in PCR, during the slight phase of inflammation. These initial data indicate that laboratory diagnosis by PCR for precocious Ct infection, not revealed clinically, could represent the first step for a correct diagnostic procedure, eliminating one of the critical points, allowing an accurate, effective and precocious antibiotic therapy. We hypothesize that only by following these correct procedures of sampling during the early phase of chlamydial inflammation, in the future, will it be possible to reduce a pejorative evolution of this worsening disease in people genetically susceptible, building a more efficacious Public Health program of prevention against chronic conjunctivitis and to favour a major prevention of trachoma in endemic areas. PMID:23298500

  7. Epidemiology of genital herpes - recent advances.

    PubMed

    Halioua, B; Malkin, J E

    1999-01-01

    Genital herpes is a common, distressing infection which, due to increasing incidence world-wide, has become a prominent public health issue over recent years, even throughout the decade of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Since the late 1970's, the prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection has increased by approximately 30 percent in the US. The number of sufferers world-wide is currently estimated at approximately 86 million people. New serological methods based on the detection of type-specific antibodies to herpes simplex virus (HSV) glycoproteins have clarified issues concerning the true incidence of genital herpes, the modifying effect of prior HSV-1 infections, the changing proportions of HSV-1 genital herpes, and the importance of asymptomatic shedding. Patients' ignorance of their diagnosis along with the occurrence of atypical symptomatology and asymptomatic viral shedding of HSV all contribute to the transmission of genital herpes. Genital ulcer disease, of which genital herpes is the most common cause in developed countries, is an important risk factor in the acquisition and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and has contributed to the spread of this disorder. Risk factors for genital herpes HSV-2 are strongly related to lifetime number of sexual partners, number of years of sexual activity, male homosexuality, black race, female gender and a history of previous sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Understanding the epidemiology of genital herpes is of great importance in limiting the spread of this STD. In this review, we summarise current knowledge related to the epidemiology of genital herpes. PMID:10210781

  8. A comparison of referral patterns and characteristics of patients with first episode symptomatic genital HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections in Sheffield.

    PubMed Central

    Nageswaran, A; Shen, R N; Craig, J; Kyi, T T; Priestley, C J; Kinghorn, G R

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To ascertain factors associated with HSV-1 and HSV-2 isolates in patients attending a genitourinary medicine clinic with symptomatic first episode genital herpes (FEGH). DESIGN: Retrospective study. SUBJECTS: A total of 606 females and 333 males presenting with culture positive FEGH between 1990-94. SETTING: Department of Genitourinary Medicine, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, UK. METHODS: Group comparison of referral patterns, demographic data, prior and concurrent episodes of STD, recent partner change. RESULTS: HSV-1 infected patients of either sex were more likely to be general practitioner (GP) referred, to be white, and less likely to have had preceding STD episodes. Recent sexual partner change had occurred significantly more often in HSV-2 infected females but there was no similar difference between HSV-1 and HSV-2 infected males. CONCLUSION: The relative HSV-1:HSV-2 isolate ratio in FEGH is influenced by the referral patterns. HSV-1 isolates predominate in patients presenting to GPs who refer the patients to GUM clinics for accurate diagnosis, counselling, follow up and screening for other STDs. PMID:8707325

  9. Inactivated simian immunodeficiency virus vaccine failed to protect rhesus macaques from intravenous or genital mucosal infection but delayed disease in intravenously exposed animals.

    PubMed Central

    Sutjipto, S; Pedersen, N C; Miller, C J; Gardner, M B; Hanson, C V; Gettie, A; Jennings, M; Higgins, J; Marx, P A

    1990-01-01

    Eight rhesus macaques were immunized four times over a period of 8 months with a psoralen-UV-light-inactivated whole simian immunodeficiency virus vaccine adjuvanted with threonyl muramyl dipeptide. Eight unvaccinated control animals received adjuvant alone. Only the vaccinated animals made antibodies before challenge exposure to the viral core and envelope as determined by Western blotting (immunoblotting) and virus-neutralizing antibodies. Ten days after the final immunization, one-half of the vaccinated and nonvaccinated monkeys were challenged exposed intravenously (i.v.) and one-half were challenge exposed via the genital mucosa with virulent simian immunodeficiency virus. All of the nonvaccinated control monkeys became persistently infected. In spite of preexisting neutralizing antibodies and an anamnestic antibody response, all of the immunized monkeys also became persistently infected. However, there was evidence that the clinical course in immunized i.v. infected animals was delayed. All four mock-vaccinated i.v. challenge-exposed animals died with disease from 3 to 9 months postchallenge. In contrast, only one of four vaccinated i.v. challenge-exposed monkeys had died by 11 months postchallenge. Images PMID:2157886

  10. Inactivated simian immunodeficiency virus vaccine failed to protect rhesus macaques from intravenous or genital mucosal infection but delayed disease in intravenously exposed animals

    SciTech Connect

    Sutjipto, S.; Pedersen, N.C.; Miller, C.J.; Gardner, M.B.; Hanson, C.V.; Gettie, A.; Jennings, M.; Higgins, J.; Marx, P.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Eight rhesus macaques were immunized four times over a period of 8 months with a psoralen-UV-light-inactivated whole simian immunodeficiency virus vaccine adjuvanted with threonyl muramyl dipeptide. Eight unvaccinated control animals received adjuvant alone. Only the vaccinated animals made antibodies before challenge exposure to the viral core and envelope as determined by Western blotting (immunoblotting) and virus-neutralizing antibodies. Ten days after the final immunization, one-half of the vaccinated and nonvaccinated monkeys were challenged exposed intravenously (i.v.) and one-half were challenge exposed via the genital mucosa with virulent simian immunodeficiency virus. All of the nonvaccinated control monkeys became persistently infected. In spite of preexisting neutralizing antibodies and an anamnestic antibody response, all of the immunized monkeys also became persistently infected. However, there was evidence that the clinical course in immunized i.v. infected animals was delayed. All four mock-vaccinated i.v. challenge-exposed animals died with disease from 3 to 9 months postchallenge. In contrast, only one of four vaccinated i.v. challenge-exposed monkeys had died by 11 months postchallenge.

  11. Population-level intervention to promote chlamydia screening. Moving toward implementation of chlamydia hedis 2000 measure

    PubMed

    Oh; Grimley; Heudebert

    2000-05-01

    Background: HEDIS 2000 measure includes chlamydia screening in women which is designed to assess the percentage of sexually active women 15 to 25 years who have received at least one screening test for chlamydia during the reporting year. This study is being undertaken to determine feasibility of implementing a population-level intervention within HMOs to promote chlamydia screening. This abstract presents preliminary findings from the Birmingham project of this multicenter study.Methods: In partnerships with two HMOs, series of outreach methods were used in a stepwise fashion to determine potential barriers and enabling factors for the implementation of chlamydia HEDIS measure in a conservative social environment. Mail outreach was sequentially combined with newspaper, TV, radio advertisements and poster displays. Both qualitative and quantitative impact of the outreach efforts were measured across the timeline. The measures included reporting for chlamydia screening (urine LCR) and infection rate, monitoring chlamydia hotline and staffed phoneline use, and assessment of untoward effects and cost-analysis of the chlamydia outreach campaign.Results: The key findings are: the benefit of chlamydia screening is not understood by general public, letters send by Health Plans to their members are not read by many subscribers, and there are wide gaps between adolescents and their parents, in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs in regard to obtaining information and accessing the screening services (teens prefer hotline, brochure in an envelop addressed to teens, incentives for reporting to the clinic for screening, vs. parents prefer staffed phone consults, "exposed" brochure addressed to parents, and no incentives). A month of sustained and repeat multi-media campaign resulted in 330 hotline calls, 83 phone calls and only 17 subjects being tested (3 were positive) though many more intended to come. Cumulative effects and cost of various outreach efforts are being monitored. Informational chlamydia brochures and free test cards mailed to the homes generated no negative response from the subscribers, contrary to the concerns of the HMOs. Conclusion: To be effective, investment in public education campaign and social marketing strategies must be integrated in population-level intervention for the implementation of the chlamydia HEDIS 2000 measure. PMID:10869987

  12. Genital herpes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Mosby; 2012:chap 80. Palmore TN, Henderson DK. Nosocomial herpesvirus infections. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser ... KA, Bolan GA; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2015. MMWR Recomm ...

  13. Coexistence of urethritis with genital ulcer disease in South Africa: influence on provision of syndromic management

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, R; Fehler, H; Htun, Y; Radebe, F; Jensen, J; Taylor-Robinson, D

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether syndromic management of genital ulcer disease was sound, if based on the premise that men with genital ulcers rarely have a concomitant urethral infection. Methods: Specimens were taken in 1998 from 186 mine workers in Carletonville, South Africa, who were seen consecutively with genital ulcers. The specimens comprised a swab from the ulcer, a urethral swab for a Gram stained smear, and 1015 ml of a first catch urine sample. The latter was tested by ligase chain reaction assays for Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis specific DNA sequences and by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for Mycoplasma genitalium. Ulcer inducing micro-organisms were detected either by a multiplex PCR assay, or in the case of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) serologically, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was detected by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. Results: Most (54%) of the ulcers were chancroidal, 18% were herpetic (HSV type 2), 6.5% primary syphilitic, and 3.2% due to LGV. More than one micro-organism was detected in 9.1% of the ulcers and less than 10% were undiagnosed. Microscopic examination of the urethral smears showed that 99 (53%) of the men had urethritis, of whom 45 (45%) were infected with N gonorrhoeae. Of the 54 men (55%) who had non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU), 11 (19.6%) harboured C trachomatis or M genitalium. Almost two thirds (64.5%) of the men had HIV infection, but this did not seem to have influenced the aetiology of the ulcers. Nor was a particular ulcer associated with one type of urethritis more than the other. Neither C trachomatis nor M genitalium was associated significantly with non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) in either HIV positive or HIV negative men. Conclusion: The combination of antibiotics used for the management of genital ulcer disease in men in this South African mining population needs to be widened to encompass frequently occurring concomitant gonococcal urethritis and NGU infections. This means treatment with long acting penicillin, combined with ciprofloxacin and azithromycin or erythromycin. A similar situation may exist in other geographical locations with a need to provide appropriate antimicrobial combinations depending on the patterns of infection detected. PMID:12181466

  14. Pharmacokinetic Modelling of Efavirenz, Atazanavir, Lamivudine and Tenofovir in the Female Genital Tract of HIV-Infected Pre-Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Dumond, Julie B.; Nicol, Melanie R.; Kendrick, Racheal N.; Garonzik, Samira M.; Patterson, Kristine B.; Cohen, Myron S.; Forrest, Alan; Kashuba, Angela D.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives A previously published study of antiretroviral pharmacokinetics in the female genital tract of HIV-infected women demonstrated differing degrees of female genital tract penetration among antiretrovirals. These blood plasma (BP) and cervicovaginal fluid (CVF) data were co-modelled for four antiretrovirals with varying CVF exposures. Methods Six paired BP and CVF samples were collected over 24 h, and antiretroviral concentrations determined using validated liquid chromatography (LC) with UV detection or LC-mass spectrometry analytical methods. For each antiretroviral, a BP model was fit using Bayesian estimation (ADAPT5), followed by addition of a CVF model. The final model was chosen based on graphical and statistical output, and then non-linear mixed-effects modelling using S-ADAPT was performed. Population mean parameters and their variability are reported. Model-predicated area under the concentration-time curve during the dosing interval (AUC?) and exposure ratios of CVF AUC?:BP AUC? were calculated for each drug. Results The base model uses first-order absorption with a lag time, a two-compartment model, and a series of transit compartments that transfer the drug from BP to CVF. Protein-unbound drug transfers into CVF for efavirenz and atazanavir; total drug transfers for lamivudine and tenofovir. CVF follows a one-compartment model for efavirenz and atazanavir, and a two-compartment model for lamivudine and tenofovir. As expected, inter-individual variability was high. Model-predicted CVF AUC?:BP AUC? ratios are consistent with published results. Conclusions This is the first pharmacokinetic modelling of antiretroviral disposition in BP and CVF. These models will be further refined with tissue data, and used in clinical trials simulations to inform future studies of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis in women. PMID:23044523

  15. Presence of antigen and antibodies in serum and genital discharges of cows from dairy herds naturally infected with Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo.

    PubMed

    Dhaliwal, G S; Murray, R D; Dobson, H; Montgomery, J; Ellis, W A

    1996-03-01

    Samples of cervico-vaginal mucus from 163 bulling cows (group 1) and post calving discharges from 59 newly calved cows (group 2) in five dairy herds naturally infected with Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo were examined for the presence of antigen and IgG and IgA antibodies by using two ELISA systems which were protein or carbohydrate based. Corresponding serum samples were examined for systemic immune responses by using a microscopic agglutination test (MAT) and IgG-ELISA tests. Antigen was detected by direct immunofluorescence in six of the 163 samples of cervico-vaginal mucus. Both IgG and IgA antibodies were detected by ELISA in the genital discharges with a prevalence much higher than that obtained by the MAT but lower than that observed with the serum IgG-ELISA. Combining both groups, none of the MAT-positive cattle was negative by serum-ELISA. By using the protein or carbohydrate fraction serum IgG-ELISA assays, respectively, 29 or 41 per cent of the MAT-negative cows were positive at a titre of at least 1:40. Similarly, eight or 23 samples (10 or 27 per cent) had titres of at least 1:20 in the genital discharge ELISA for IgG and IgA antibodies, respectively. The serum IgG-ELISA was the most efficient in detecting hardjo antibodies, but in group 2 the IgG- and IgA-ELISA of the post calving discharge proved to be equally effective. PMID:8685539

  16. Ribosomal RNA Evidence of Ocular Chlamydia trachomatis Infection Following 3 Annual Mass Azithromycin Distributions in Communities With Highly Prevalent Trachoma

    PubMed Central

    Ayele, Berhan; Gebre, Teshome; Moncada, Jeanne; Stoller, Nicole E.; Zhou, Zhaoxia; Porco, Travis C.; McCulloch, Charles E.; Gaynor, Bruce D.; Emerson, Paul M.; Schachter, Julius; Lietman, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Twelve trachoma-hyperendemic communities were treated with 3 annual mass azithromycin distributions. Children aged 0–9 years were monitored 1 year following the third treatment. An RNA-based test detected ocular chlamydial infection in more children than did a DNA-based test (6.9% vs 4.2%), and in a larger number of communities (8 vs 7). PMID:22095569

  17. Genital Herpes (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Emergency Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child Genital Herpes KidsHealth > For Parents > Genital Herpes Print A A A Text Size What's in ... article? Symptoms Contagiousness Treatment Prevention Getting Help Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that's usually ...

  18. Genital Herpes (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Your Child All About Food Allergies Genital Herpes KidsHealth > For Parents > Genital Herpes Print A A A Text Size What's in ... article? Symptoms Contagiousness Treatment Prevention Getting Help Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that's usually ...

  19. Effect of Chlamydia diagnosis on heterosexual relationships.

    PubMed

    O'Farrell, Nigel; Weiss, Helen A

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated whether a Chlamydia diagnosis was associated with relationship breakup or physical violence from partners when compared to other attenders at a sexually transmitted infections (STIs) clinic. Patients diagnosed with Chlamydia and who had a regular partner at the time of diagnosis, were contacted 3-12 months later and completed a questionnaire on relationship history. A comparison group of gender-matched non-STI patients were also interviewed. About half of Chlamydia cases (exposed) and non-cases (unexposed) had broken up with their partner since diagnosis (52% vs. 47%; p=0.42), but cases were more likely to have split up within one week of diagnosis (48% vs. 24%; p=0.003), and somewhat more likely to resume the relationship (24% vs. 15%; p=0.24). The prevalence of reported physical violence in the past year was slightly higher in cases than the unexposed group (9% vs. 4%; p=0.09). Cases that saw a health adviser were less likely to report experiencing physical violence than those who had not seen a health adviser (7% vs. 12%: p=0.31). Patients with Chlamydia are more likely to suffer relationship breakup soon after diagnosis than STI clinic attenders without an STI. Health advice should include reassurance about sexual relationships as well as safer sex. PMID:23970585

  20. Male genital lichen sclerosus.

    PubMed

    Bunker, Christopher Barry; Shim, Tang Ngee

    2015-01-01

    Male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease responsible for male sexual dyspareunia and urological morbidity. An afeared complication is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis. The precise etiopathogenesis of MGLSc remains controversial although genetic, autoimmune and infective (such as human papillomavirus (HPV) hepatitis C (HCV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Borrelia) factors have been implicated: Consideration of all the evidence suggests that chronic exposure of susceptible epithelium to urinary occlusion by the foreskin seems the most likely pathomechanism. The mainstay of treatment is topical ultrapotent corticosteroid therapy. Surgery is indicated for cases unresponsive to topical corticosteroid therapy, phimosis, meatal stenosis, urethral stricture, carcinoma in situ (CIS) and squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25814697

  1. Male Genital Lichen Sclerosus

    PubMed Central

    Bunker, Christopher Barry; Shim, Tang Ngee

    2015-01-01

    Male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease responsible for male sexual dyspareunia and urological morbidity. An afeared complication is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis. The precise etiopathogenesis of MGLSc remains controversial although genetic, autoimmune and infective (such as human papillomavirus (HPV) hepatitis C (HCV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Borrelia) factors have been implicated: Consideration of all the evidence suggests that chronic exposure of susceptible epithelium to urinary occlusion by the foreskin seems the most likely pathomechanism. The mainstay of treatment is topical ultrapotent corticosteroid therapy. Surgery is indicated for cases unresponsive to topical corticosteroid therapy, phimosis, meatal stenosis, urethral stricture, carcinoma in situ (CIS) and squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25814697

  2. Transfer of IgG in the female genital tract by MHC class I-related neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) confers protective immunity to vaginal infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    IgG is a major immunoglobulin subclass in mucosal secretions of human female genital tract, where it predominates over the IgA isotype. Despite the abundance of IgG, surprisingly little is known about whether and how IgG enters the lumen of the genital tract and the exact role of local IgG may play ...

  3. Chlamydial conjunctivitis: prevalence and serovar distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis in adults.

    PubMed

    Petrovay, Fruzsina; Nmeth, Istvn; Balzs, Andrea; Balla, Eszter

    2015-09-01

    The extragenital manifestation of Chlamydia trachomatis infection frequently results in non-specific conjunctivitis among sexually active adults. The aims of the present study were to determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis, to describe the distribution of serovars among patients with conjunctivitis and to characterize the relationship between the prevalence and patient demographics such as age and gender. A total of 245 conjunctival specimens were screened for C. trachomatis DNA targeting the plasmid gene. Serovar determination of the C. trachomatis-positive specimens was carried out by an omp1 PCR-based RFLP analysis method. Statistical analysis was done using a generalized linear model. C. trachomatis was detected in 53 cases (21.6 %) of adult conjunctivitis. Molecular genotyping differentiated seven distinct urogenital serovars, the most prevalent being serovar E (16/53), followed by F (15/53), D (6/53), K (6/53), G (4/53), H (4/53) and J (2/53). Statistical analysis showed higher C. trachomatis prevalence in the younger age groups, and this peaked at younger age in women than in men. The high prevalence of this pathogen found in ocular samples should alert ophthalmologists to focus on the role of C. trachomatis in adult conjunctivitis. The serovar distribution indicated that ocular chlamydial infections usually have a genital source. Nevertheless, conjunctivitis might be the only sign of this sexually transmitted infection. Further comparative genotyping of C. trachomatis in ocular and genital specimens might give more detailed epidemiological information about the aetiology of the disease. PMID:26297635

  4. VACCINES. A mucosal vaccine against Chlamydia trachomatis generates two waves of protective memory T cells.

    PubMed

    Stary, Georg; Olive, Andrew; Radovic-Moreno, Aleksandar F; Gondek, David; Alvarez, David; Basto, Pamela A; Perro, Mario; Vrbanac, Vladimir D; Tager, Andrew M; Shi, Jinjun; Yethon, Jeremy A; Farokhzad, Omid C; Langer, Robert; Starnbach, Michael N; von Andrian, Ulrich H

    2015-06-19

    Genital Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) infection induces protective immunity that depends on interferon-γ-producing CD4 T cells. By contrast, we report that mucosal exposure to ultraviolet light (UV)-inactivated Ct (UV-Ct) generated regulatory T cells that exacerbated subsequent Ct infection. We show that mucosal immunization with UV-Ct complexed with charge-switching synthetic adjuvant particles (cSAPs) elicited long-lived protection in conventional and humanized mice. UV-Ct-cSAP targeted immunogenic uterine CD11b(+)CD103(-) dendritic cells (DCs), whereas UV-Ct accumulated in tolerogenic CD11b(-)CD103(+) DCs. Regardless of vaccination route, UV-Ct-cSAP induced systemic memory T cells, but only mucosal vaccination induced effector T cells that rapidly seeded uterine mucosa with resident memory T cells (T(RM) cells). Optimal Ct clearance required both T(RM) seeding and subsequent infection-induced recruitment of circulating memory T cells. Thus, UV-Ct-cSAP vaccination generated two synergistic memory T cell subsets with distinct migratory properties. PMID:26089520

  5. Chlamydia trachomatis and ectopic pregnancy: retrospective analysis of salpingectomy specimens, endometrial biopsies, and cervical smears.

    PubMed Central

    Lan, J; van den Brule, A J; Hemrika, D J; Risse, E K; Walboomers, J M; Schipper, M E; Meijer, C J

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To examine the role of Chlamydia trachomatis in ectopic pregnancy by detection of DNA in archival salpingectomy specimens, and in their preceding cervical specimens and endometrial biopsies, by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). METHODS--Archival paraffin embedded salpingectomy tissues (n = 48) from 37 women with ectopic pregnancy were examined for the presence of C trachomatis plasmid and omp1 DNA by PCR. In addition, preceding cervical specimens (n = 58) stored either as cervical cell suspensions or as archival cervical smears, and preceding endometrial biopsies (n = 18), taken 0-5.8 years before the ectopic pregnancy, were examined by PCR for the presence of C trachomatis. RESULTS--C trachomatis DNA was detected in only one of the 48 salpingectomy specimens from 37 women. However, in six of the 37 women, C trachomatis DNA was detected in the genital specimens (cervix and/or endometrial) taken before salpingectomy. C trachomatis infections were mostly found in endometrial or cervical specimens taken more than three years before ectopic pregnancy. No chlamydial DNA was found in endometrial or cervical specimens taken at the same time of the ectopic pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS--Although no C trachomatis DNA was found in salpingectomy specimens, several women with ectopic pregnancy had C trachomatis infections in endometrial and cervical specimens in the past. This suggests that at least in these cases the ectopic pregnancy is a late post-inflammatory complication of an ascending C trachomatis infection resulting in a scarred fallopian tube. PMID:7490313

  6. Chlamydia abortus in Cows Oviducts, Occasional Event or Causal Connection?

    PubMed

    Appino, S; Vincenti, L; Rota, A; Pellegrini, S; Chieppa, M N; Cadoni, V; Pregel, P

    2015-06-01

    Fifty-seven genital tracts of regularly slaughtered culled Piedmontese cows, aged 7.44.3years (meanSD), range: 2.6-15.6years, were grossly and microscopically examined. DNA extracted from oviducts was subjected to PCR to evaluate the presence of Chlamydia spp. The 15 PCR-positive oviducts were subjected to Sanger sequencing and showed the presence of Chamydia abortus, with an identity range between 99 and 100%. Nine of the PCR-positive samples belonged to the 24 animals with a normal macroscopic appearance of the whole genital tract (percentage of positive oviducts in normal genital tracts 9/24=37.5%), while six belonged to the 33 genital tracts with lesions in one or more organs (percentage of positive oviducts in pathological genital tracts 6/33=18.1%); of these, a single animal had salpingitis. The detection of C.abortus in bovine oviducts is of particular interest because it has never been previously investigated or reported. PMID:25704292

  7. Increased Levels of Immune Activation in the Genital Tract of Healthy Young Women from sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    COHEN, Craig R; MOSCICKI, Anna-Barbara; SCOTT, Mark E; MA, Yifei; SHIBOSKI, Stephen; BUKUSI, Elizabeth; DAUD, Ibrahim; REBBAPRAGADA, Anu; BROWN, Joelle; KAUL, Rupert

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine if healthy, young women in sub-Saharan Africa have a more activated immune milieu in the genital tract (i.e. activated CD4+ T-cells) than a similar population in the US. Design Cross-sectional study nested in a phase 1 microbicide trial. Methods Cervical cytobrushes were collected from 1824 year old women in San Francisco, CA (n=18) and Kisumu, Kenya (n=36) at enrollment into a phase 1 microbicide trial. All participants tested negative for HIV, HSV-2, gonorrhea, chlamydia and trichomonas, and had abstained from sex for at least seven days prior to enrollment. Cryopreserved T-cell populations were assayed by flow cytometry in a central laboratory. SLPI levels were assayed in cervicovaginal lavage samples. The Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare immune parameters between sites. Results The total number of endocervical CD4+ T-cells was slightly higher in San Francisco, but participants from Kisumu had a substantially higher number and proportion of CD4+ T-cells expressing the early activation marker CD69, with and without the HIV-coreceptor CCR5, and a greater proportion of activated CD8+ T-cells. Median [interquartile] genital levels of SLPI were lower in participants from Kisumu compared to those from San Francisco (190 pg/mL [96, 519] vs. 474 pg/mL [206, 817]; p<0.03). Conclusions Activated mucosal T-cells were increased in the genital tract of young, STI/HIV-free Kenyan women, independent of common genital co-infections, and SLPI levels were reduced. The cause of these mucosal immune differences is not known, but could partly explain the high HIV incidence in young women from sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:20588163

  8. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection in pregnant women and mother-to-child transmission of genital HPV genotypes: a prospective study in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Studies on HPV infection in pregnant women and HPV transmission to the child have yielded inconsistent results. Methods To estimate mother-to-child HPV transmission we carried out a prospective cohort study that included 66 HPV-positive and 77 HPV-negative pregnant women and their offspring attending a maternity hospital in Barcelona. To estimate HPV prevalence and genotype distribution in pregnancy we also carried out a related screening survey of cervical HPV-DNA detection among 828 pregnant women. Cervical cells from the mother were collected at pregnancy (mean of 31 weeks) and at the 6-week post-partum visit. Exfoliated cells from the mouth and external genitalia of the infants were collected around birth, at the 6-week post-partum visit, and around 3, 6, 12, and 24 months of age. All samples were tested for HPV using PCR. Associations between potential determinants of HPV infection in pregnant women and of HPV positivity in infants were also explored by logistic regression modelling. Results Overall cervical HPV-DNA detection in pregnant women recruited in the HPV screening survey was 6.5% (54/828). Sexual behavior-related variables, previous histories of genital warts or sexually transmitted infections, and presence of cytological abnormalities were statistically significantly and positively associated with HPV DNA detection in pregnant women recruited in the cohort. At 418 infant visits and a mean follow-up time of 14 months, 19.7% of infants born to HPV-positive mothers and 16.9% of those born to HPV-negative mothers tested HPV positive at some point during infants' follow-up. The most frequently detected genotype both in infants and mothers was HPV-16, after excluding untyped HPV infections. We found a strong and statistically significant association between mother's and child's HPV status at the 6-week post-partum visit. Thus, children of mothers' who were HPV-positive at the post-partum visit were about 5 times more likely to test HPV-positive than children of corresponding HPV-negative mothers (p = 0.02). Conclusion This study confirms that the risk of vertical transmission of HPV genotypes is relatively low. HPV persistence in infants is a rare event. These data also indicate that vertical transmission may not be the sole source of HPV infections in infants and provides partial evidence for horizontal mother-to-child HPV transmission. PMID:19473489

  9. Early genital naming.

    PubMed

    Fraley, M C; Nelson, E C; Wolf, A W; Lozoff, B

    1991-10-01

    To evaluate the clinical impression that young girls are given little or confusing information about their genitals, a sample of 117 mothers with 1- to 4-year-old children were asked which words for genitals, if any, they used with their children. The ethnically and socioeconomically heterogeneous sample was composed of 63 girls and 54 boys, with the average ages of 26 and 29 months, respectively. Neither boys nor girls were likely to be given a standard anatomical genital term, although many children received colorful colloquial expressions. However, girls were less likely than boys to receive a term for their genitals. Receiving names for genitals was related to certain family circumstances, such as higher parental education, exposure to adult male nudity, having a sibling of the opposite sex, and cosleeping. Pediatric health professionals have the opportunity to contribute to early sex education by conveying accurate information regarding genital terms in the course of routine physical examinations. PMID:1939685

  10. PATTERNS OF PERSISTENT GENITAL HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTION AMONG WOMEN WORLDWIDE: A LITERATURE REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Rositch, Anne F.; Koshiol, Jill; Hudgens, Michael; Razzaghi, Hilda; Backes, Danielle M.; Pimenta, Jeanne M.; Franco, Eduardo L.; Poole, Charles; Smith, Jennifer S.

    2013-01-01

    Persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection is the strongest risk factor for high-grade cervical precancer. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of HPV persistence patterns worldwide. Medline and ISI Web of Science were searched through January 1, 2010 for articles estimating HPV persistence or duration of detection. Descriptive and meta-regression techniques were used to summarize variability and the influence of study definitions and characteristics on duration and persistence of cervical HPV infections in women. Among 86 studies providing data on over 100,000 women, 73% defined persistence as HPV positivity at a minimum of two time points. Persistence varied notably across studies and was largely mediated by study region and HPV type, with HPV-16, 31, 33 and 52 being most persistent. Weighted median duration of any-HPV detection was 9.8 months. HR-HPV (9.3 months) persisted longer than low-risk HPV (8.4 months), and HPV-16 (12.4 months) persisted longer than HPV-18 (9.8 months). Among populations of HPV positive women with normal cytology, the median duration of any-HPV detection was 11.5 and HR-HPV detection was10.9 months. In conclusion, we estimated that approximately half of HPV infections persist past 612 months. Repeat HPV testing at 12 month intervals could identify women at increased risk of high-grade cervical precancer due to persistent HPV infections. PMID:22961444

  11. HIV-1 Genital Shedding is Suppressed in the Setting of High Genital Antiretroviral Drug Concentrations Throughout the Menstrual Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Sheth, Anandi N.; Evans-Strickfaden, Tammy; Haaland, Richard; Martin, Amy; Gatcliffe, Chelsea; Adesoye, Adebola; Omondi, Michael W.; Lupo, L. Davis; Danavall, Damien; Easley, Kirk; Chen, Cheng-Yen; Pau, Chou-Pong; Hart, Clyde; Ofotokun, Igho

    2014-01-01

    Background. It is not known if fluctuations in genital tract antiretroviral drug concentrations correlate with genital virus shedding in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected women on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods. Among 20 HIV-infected women on ART (tenofovir [TFV], emtricitabine [FTC], and ritonavir-boosted atazanavir [ATV]) with suppressed plasma virus loads, blood and cervicovaginal samples collected twice weekly for 3 weeks were tested for antiretroviral concentrations, HIV-1 RNA, and proviral DNA. Results. Cervicovaginal:plasma antiretroviral concentration ratios were highest for FTC (11.9, 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.66–16.3), then TFV (3.52, 95% CI, 2.27–5.48), and ATV (2.39, 95% CI, 1.69–3.38). Within- and between-person variations in plasma and genital antiretroviral concentrations were observed. Low amounts of genital HIV-1 RNA (<50 copies/mL) were detected in 45% of women at 16% of visits. Genital HIV-1 DNA was detected in 70% of women at 35% of visits. Genital virus detection was associated with higher concentrations of mucosal leukocytes but not with genital antiretroviral concentrations, menstrual cycle phase, bacterial vaginosis, genital bleeding, or plasma virus detection. Conclusions. Standard doses of ART achieved higher genital than plasma concentrations across the menstrual cycle. Therapeutic ART suppresses genital virus shedding throughout the menstrual cycle, even in the presence of factors reported to increase virus shedding. PMID:24643223

  12. Infection, antibiotics, and preterm delivery.

    PubMed

    Locksmith, G; Duff, P

    2001-10-01

    The relationship between genital tract infection and preterm delivery has been established on the basis of biochemical, microbiological, and clinical evidence. In theory, pathogenic bacteria may ascend from the lower reproductive tract into the uterus, and the resulting inflammation leads to preterm labor, rupture of the membranes, and birth. A growing body of evidence suggests that preterm labor and/rupture of the membranes are triggered by micro-organisms in the genital tract and by the host response to these organisms, ie, elaboration of cytokines and proteolytic enzymes. Epidemiologic and in vitro studies do not prove a cause-and-effect relationship between infection and preterm birth. However, the preponderance of evidence indicates that treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic lower genital tract infections such as bacterial vaginosis (BV), trichomoniasis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia will lower the risk of preterm delivery. Based on current evidence, pregnant women who note an abnormal vaginal discharge should be tested for BV, trichomonas, gonorrhea, and chlamydia. Those who test positive should be treated appropriately. A 3- to 7-day course of antibiotic treatment for asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy is clinically indicated to reduce the risk of pyelonephritis and preterm delivery. Routine screening for chlamydia and gonorrhea should be performed for women at high risk of acquiring sexually transmitted diseases. The practice of routine screening for BV in asymptomatic women who are at low risk for preterm delivery cannot be supported based on evidence from the literature. Routine screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy is cost-effective, particularly in high-prevalence populations. The results of antibiotic trials for the treatment of preterm labor have been inconsistent. In the absence of reasonable evidence that antimicrobial therapy leads to significant prolongation of pregnancy in the setting of preterm labor, antibiotics should be used only for protecting the neonate from group B streptococci sepsis. They should not be used for the purpose of prolonging pregnancy. Multiple investigations have shown that, in patients with preterm premature rupture of the membranes, prophylactic antibiotics are of value in prolonging the latent period between rupture of the membranes and onset of labor and in reducing the incidence of maternal and neonatal infection. The most extensively tested effective antibiotic regimen for prophylaxis involves erythromycin alone or in combination with ampicilln. Controversy still exists regarding the appropriate length and route of antibiotic prophylaxis. PMID:11707017

  13. Genital herpes - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    Herpes - genital -self-care; Herpes simplex - genital - self-care; Herpesvirus 2 - self-care; HSV-2 - self-care ... worried after finding out that you have genital herpes . But know that you are not alone. Millions ...

  14. Genital Herpes (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Use ©2016 UpToDate, Inc. Patient information: Genital herpes (Beyond the Basics) Author Mary A Albrecht, MD ... last updated: Jul 22, 2015. WHAT IS GENITAL HERPES? — Genital herpes is a common sexually transmitted disease ...

  15. Variability of human immunodeficiency virus-1 in the female genital reservoir during genital reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 2.

    PubMed

    LeGoff, J; Roques, P; Jenabian, M-A; Charpentier, C; Brochier, C; Bouhlal, H; Gresenguet, G; Frost, E; Pepin, J; Mayaud, P; Belec, L

    2015-09-01

    Clinical and subclinical genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) reactivations have been associated with increases in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 genital shedding. Whether HSV-2 shedding contributes to the selection of specific genital HIV-1 variants remains unknown. We evaluated the genetic diversity of genital and blood HIV-1 RNA and DNA in 14 HIV-1/HSV-2-co-infected women, including seven with HSV-2 genital reactivation, and seven without as controls. HIV-1 DNA and HIV-1 RNA env V1-V3 sequences in paired blood and genital samples were compared. The HSV-2 selection pressure on HIV was estimated according to the number of synonymous substitutions (dS), the number of non-synonymous substitutions (dN) and the dS/dN ratio within HIV quasi-species. HIV-1 RNA levels in cervicovaginal secretions were higher in women with HSV-2 replication than in controls (p0.02). Plasma HIV-1 RNA and genital HIV-1 RNA and DNA were genetically compartmentalized. No differences in dS, dN and the dS/dN ratio were observed between the study groups for either genital HIV-1 RNA or plasma HIV-1 RNA. In contrast, dS and dN in genital HIV-1 DNA were significantly higher in patients with HSV-2 genital reactivation (p <0.01 and p <0.05, respectively). The mean of the dS/dN ratio in genital HIV-1 DNA was slightly higher in patients with HSV-2 genital replication, indicating a trend for purifying selection (p 0.056). HSV-2 increased the genetic diversity of genital HIV-1 DNA. These observations confirm molecular interactions between HSV-2 and HIV-1 at the genital tract level. PMID:26003280

  16. Clinical response to glycyrrhizinic acid in genital infection due to human papillomavirus and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion

    PubMed Central

    Valencia, Marcelino Hernández; Pacheco, Adia Carrillo; Quijano, Tomás Hernández; Girón, Antonio Vargas; López, Carlos Vargas

    2011-01-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) can infect any of the mucosal areas of the body and cause cervical cancer. Until recently, no specific treatments were available for this condition; therefore, any damaged tissue had to be removed or destroyed, which may have presented obstetrical repercussions for some women. Recently, new drugs have been developed that have shown to be effective for the cure of HPV infection. Glycyrrhizinic acid (GA) has shown fewer side effects and its systemic use makes it possible to reach difficult-to-treat lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of GA to eliminate the epithelial lesion and HPV. We carried out a longitudinal, descriptive study that included women of reproductive age who were diagnosed with HPV associated with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). Subjects began treatment based on GA using two routes of administration - systemic (oral) and topical (spray) - with assessments every month to determine the clinical changes of the lesions through colposcopy and Papanicolaou (Pap) smear. Simple statistics were used along with two-tailed Student's t-test; P<0.05 was considered statistically significant before and after treatment. There were 70 eligible patients, of whom 62 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Age of subjects was 27.8±9.5 years. At the time of the study, 100% of the patients had HPV infection, 40% were associated with LSIL, and only 16% used a barrier contraceptive (condom) method. Resolution was achieved in all patients from 4 weeks of treatment initiation and improvement was achieved in the majority of patients at 12 weeks (74%) (P<0.001). However, there was persistence of LSIL in 27.7% of patients and only one patient progressed to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) II. The use of GA proved to be effective in resolving clinical HPV lesions. For cervical lesions with epithelial changes (LSIL), treatment may be required for a longer period as with other drugs used for this infection, as well as monitoring for at least 1 year according to the natural evolution of the disease. PMID:24765393

  17. [Update on the treatment of genital herpes].

    PubMed

    Martn, J M; Villaln, G; Jord, E

    2009-01-01

    Genital herpes is a chronic infection characterized by periodic reactivation. It can produce symptomatic disease in the host although asymptomatic viral excretion can also occur. It is currently the main cause of genital ulceration and an important public health problem that has substantial clinical, psychological, and economic repercussions. This review analyzes the currently available therapeutic options and regimens, which are based mainly on systemic use of antiviral agents such as aciclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir. In addition, special emphasis is placed on the prevention and management of this infection in specific situations, such as pregnant, pediatric, and immunocompromised patients. PMID:19268108

  18. Immune Activation in the Female Genital Tract: Expression Profiles of Soluble Proteins in Women at High Risk for HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Francis, Suzanna C; Hou, Yanwen; Baisley, Kathy; van de Wijgert, Janneke; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Ao, Trong T; Herrera, Carolina; Maganja, Kaballa; Andreasen, Aura; Kapiga, Saidi; Coulton, Gary R; Hayes, Richard J; Shattock, Robin J

    2016-01-01

    Soluble cervicovaginal biomarkers of inflammation, immune activation and risk of HIV acquisition are needed to reliably assess the safety of new biomedical prevention strategies including vaccines and microbicides. However, a fuller understanding of expression profiles in women at high risk for HIV infection is crucial to the effective use of these potential biomarkers in Phase 3 trial settings. We have measured 45 soluble proteins and peptides in cervicovaginal lavage samples from 100 HIV negative women at high risk for HIV infection. Women were followed over one menstrual cycle to investigate modulation by hormonal contraception, menstrual cycle phase, recent sexual exposure and intravaginal practices. Women using injectable DMPA had increased concentration of several soluble proteins of the innate and adaptive immune system, including IL-1?, IL-1?, IL-2, MIP-1?, IP-10, IL-8, TGF-?, HBD4, IgA, IgG1, and IgG2. Women using combined oral contraceptives had a similar signature. There were differences in concentrations among samples from post-ovulation compared to pre-ovulation, notably increased immunoglobulins. Increased prostate-specific antigen, indicative of recent sexual exposure, was correlated with increased IL-6, MCP-1, and SLPI, and decreased GM-CSF and HBD3. The identified signature profiles may prove critical in evaluating the potential safety and impact on risk of HIV acquisition of different biomedical intervention strategies. PMID:26814891

  19. Immune Activation in the Female Genital Tract: Expression Profiles of Soluble Proteins in Women at High Risk for HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Suzanna C.; Hou, Yanwen; Baisley, Kathy; van de Wijgert, Janneke; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Ao, Trong T.; Herrera, Carolina; Maganja, Kaballa; Andreasen, Aura; Kapiga, Saidi; Coulton, Gary R.; Hayes, Richard J.; Shattock, Robin J.

    2016-01-01

    Soluble cervicovaginal biomarkers of inflammation, immune activation and risk of HIV acquisition are needed to reliably assess the safety of new biomedical prevention strategies including vaccines and microbicides. However, a fuller understanding of expression profiles in women at high risk for HIV infection is crucial to the effective use of these potential biomarkers in Phase 3 trial settings. We have measured 45 soluble proteins and peptides in cervicovaginal lavage samples from 100 HIV negative women at high risk for HIV infection. Women were followed over one menstrual cycle to investigate modulation by hormonal contraception, menstrual cycle phase, recent sexual exposure and intravaginal practices. Women using injectable DMPA had increased concentration of several soluble proteins of the innate and adaptive immune system, including IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, MIP-1β, IP-10, IL-8, TGF-β, HBD4, IgA, IgG1, and IgG2. Women using combined oral contraceptives had a similar signature. There were differences in concentrations among samples from post-ovulation compared to pre-ovulation, notably increased immunoglobulins. Increased prostate-specific antigen, indicative of recent sexual exposure, was correlated with increased IL-6, MCP-1, and SLPI, and decreased GM-CSF and HBD3. The identified signature profiles may prove critical in evaluating the potential safety and impact on risk of HIV acquisition of different biomedical intervention strategies. PMID:26814891

  20. Determinants of human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 infections in the lower female genital tract in an Italian population.

    PubMed

    Venuti, A; Badaracco, G; Sedati, A; Carbini, R; Marcante, M L

    1994-01-01

    The prevalences of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 infection were determined by a non isotopic molecular hybridization assay on cervical scrapes from 738 women affected by gynaecological lesions different from malignancies. The correlation with known epidemiological risk factors for cervical neoplasia, such as sexual habits, smoking and pill use, was investigated. The overall HPV prevalence rate was 29.8% (220/738). Viral DNA sequences were detected in 26.9% (122/452) of morphologically normal cervices, in 75 of 224 HPV lesions (32.5%), in 1 case of 3 HSV2 lesions and in 22 of 59 dysplastic lesions (37.3%), and the frequency was increasing with the severity of CIN from 22.7% of CIN I to 57.1% of CIN III. The most relevant factor as relative risk for the presence of HPV 16/18 was the multiple lifetime sexual partners, whereas the other investigated factors were mainly associated with the clinically manifested HPV infection. PMID:7957325

  1. Syndromic treatment of gonococcal and chlamydial infections in women seeking primary care for the genital discharge syndrome: decision-making.

    PubMed Central

    Behets, F. M.; Miller, W. C.; Cohen, M. S.

    2001-01-01

    The syndromic treatment of gonococcal and chlamydial infections in women seeking primary care in clinics where resources are scarce, as recommended by WHO and implemented in many developing countries, necessitates a balance to be struck between overtreatment and undertreatment. The present paper identifies factors that are relevant to the selection of specific strategies for syndromic treatment in the above circumstances. Among them are the general aspects of decision-making and caveats concerning the rational decision-making approach. The positive and negative implications are outlined of providing or withholding treatment following a specific algorithm with a given accuracy to detect infection, i.e. sensitivity, specificity and predictive values. Other decision-making considerations that are identified are related to implementation and include the stability of risk factors with regard to time, space and the implementer, acceptability by stakeholders, and environmental constraints. There is a need to consider empirically developed treatment algorithms as a basis for policy discourse, to be evaluated together with the evidence, alternatives and arguments by the stakeholders. PMID:11731816

  2. High co-occurrence of anorectal chlamydia with urogenital chlamydia in women visiting an STI clinic revealed by routine universal testing in an observational study; a recommendation towards a better anorectal chlamydia control in women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Symptom- and sexual history-based testing i.e., testing on indication, for anorectal sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in women is common. Yet, it is unknown whether this strategy is effective. Moreover, little is known about alternative transmission routes i.e. by fingers/toys. This study assesses anorectal STI prevalence and infections missed by current testing practice, thereby informing the optimal control strategy for anorectal STIs in women. Methods Women (n?=?663) attending our STI-clinic between May 2012-July 2013 were offered routine testing for anorectal and urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Data were collected on demographics, sexual behaviour and symptoms. Women were assigned to one of the categories: indication (reported anal sex/symptoms), fingers/toys (only reported use of fingers/toys), or without indication. Results Of women, 92% (n?=?654) participated. There were 203 reports (31.0%) of anal sex and/or symptoms (indication), 48 reports (7.3%) of only using fingers/toys (fingers/toys), and 403 reports (61.6%) of no anal symptoms, no anal sex and no anal use of fingers/toys (without indication). The overall prevalence was 11.2% (73/654) for urogenital chlamydia and 8.4% (55/654) for anorectal chlamydia. Gonorrhoea infections were not observed. Prevalence of anorectal chlamydia was 7.9% (16/203) for women with indication and 8.6% (39/451) for all other women (P?=?0.74). Two-thirds (39/55) of anorectal infections were diagnosed in women without indication. Isolated anorectal chlamydia was rare (n?=?3): of all women with an anorectal infection, 94.5% (52/55) also had co-occurrence of urogenital chlamydia. Of all women with urogenital chlamydia, 71.2% (52/73) also had anorectal chlamydia. Conclusions Current selective testing on indication of symptoms and sexual history is not an appropriate control strategy for anorectal chlamydia in women visiting an STI clinic. Routine universal anorectal testing is feasible and may be a possible control strategy in women. Yet costs may be a problem. When more restricted control measures are preferred, possible alternatives include (1) anorectal testing only in women with urogenital chlamydia (problem: treatment delay or loss to follow up), and (2) direct treatment for urogenital chlamydia that is effective for anorectal chlamydia as well. PMID:24885306

  3. CHLAMYDIAL INFECTION, PLASMA PEROXIDATION AND OBESITY IN TUBAL INFERTILITY

    PubMed Central

    Nsonwu-Anyanwu, A.C.; Charles-Davies, M.A.; Oni, A.A.; Taiwo, V.O.; Bello, F.A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Genital tract infections and obesity are both sources of oxidative stress. Alterations in immune and antioxidant parameters may arise from this or from an indeterminate autoimmune mechanism. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the association of Chlamydial infection, obesity and oxidative response with tubal infertility in Nigerian women. Methods: It was a case-control study of 40 women with tubal infertility and 32 fertile women, respectively, recruited from the Infertility and Family Planning Clinics respectively, of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Anthropometric indices were measured in each subject and endocervical swabs were taken to screen for current genital tract infection. Antioxidant, hormonal and immunologic analysis were performed on serum. Results: None of the subjects had current genital tract infections. Chlamydia trachomatis IgG positivity was significantly higher in infertile than in fertile subjects [OR 4.33; 95%CI (0.078-0.681)]. No significant variations were observed in the anthropometric indices, antioxidant parameters and hormones between infertile and the fertile women. Body mass index correlated positively with oxidative stress in infertile subjects. Waist and hip circumferences correlated negatively with oestradiol in women with tubal infertility. Conclusion: Chlamydial infection is associated with tubal factor infertility, however, obesity seems to increase oxidative stress and reduce fertility potential in women with tubal factor infertility. PMID:25161489

  4. High prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections in anal and pharyngeal sites among a community-based sample of men who have sex with men and transgender women in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Leon, Segundo R; Segura, Eddy R; Konda, Kelika A; Flores, Juan A; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Galea, Jerome T; Coates, Thomas J; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Caceres, Carlos F

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to characterise the epidemiology of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) in Lima, Peru. Setting Cross-sectional study in Lima, Peru. Participants We recruited a group of 510 MSM and 208 TW for a subsequent community-based randomised controlled trial. The presence of CT and NG were evaluated using Aptima Combo2 in pharyngeal and anal swabs. We also explored correlates of these infections. Primary and secondary outcome measures: Study end points included overall prevalence of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae in anal and pharyngeal sites. Results Overall prevalence of CT was 19% (95% CI 16.1% to 22.1%) and 4.8% (95% CI 3.3% to 6.6%) in anal and pharyngeal sites, respectively, while prevalence of NG was 9.6% (95% CI 7.5% to 12.0%) and 6.5% (95% CI 4.8% to 8.5%) in anal and pharyngeal sites, respectively. Conclusions The prevalence of each infection declined significantly among participants older than 34 years (p<0.05). Efforts towards prevention and treatment of extraurogenital chlamydial and gonococcal infections in high-risk populations like MSM and TW in Lima, Peru, are warranted. Trial registration number NCT00670163; Results. PMID:26739719

  5. Genital Tract Leukocytes and Shedding of Genital HIV Type 1 RNA

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Brenna L.; Wang, Chia-Ching; DeLong, Allison K.; Liu, Tao; Kojic, Erna Milu; Kurpewski, Jaclynn; Ingersoll, Jessica; Mayer, Kenneth; Caliendo, Angela M.; Cu-Uvin, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background The mechanism of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission via heterosexual intercourse is unknown. We sought to determine whether the presence of inflammatory cells in the vagina is associated with the presence of genital tract HIV type 1 (HIV-1) RNA. Methods Analysis of a longitudinal prospective cohort was performed. Women with HIV-1 infection were assessed with use of paired plasma and cervicovaginal lavage specimens. Viral load measurements were performed using nucleic acid sequence—based amplification. White blood cells found in the genital tract (GT WBCs) were quantified using a hemacytometer. Common lower genital tract infections assessed for association with viral shedding (i.e., genital tract viral load [GTVL]) included bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis, and trichomoniasis. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate the prevalence and odds of detectable GTVL by GT WBC. The association was examined both in the presence and in the absence of lower genital tract infections. Results A total of 97 women and 642 visits were included in the analysis. Median duration of follow-up was 30.4 months. Thirty women (31%) had detectable GTVL at any visit. The median CD4 cell count at baseline was 525 cells/μL. Most women were antiretroviral therapy naive at baseline. After adjustment for plasma viral load, the odds of detectable GTVL increased as GT WBC increased, with an odds ratio of 1.36 (95% confidence interval, 1.1–1.7) per 1000-cell increase in GT WBC among women without lower genital tract infections. After adjustment for plasma viral load and lower genital tract infections by incorporating them in a regression model, GT WBC remained significantly associated with GTVL, with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.22 (95% confidence interval, 1.08–1.37). Conclusions The presence of GT WBC is associated with an increased risk of detectable GTVL. PMID:18808359

  6. Genital lesions in male red fronted gazelles (Gazella rufifrons) experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei and the effect of melarsamine hydrochloride (Cymelarsan) and diminazene aceturate (Berenil) in its treatment.

    PubMed

    Mbaya, A W; Nwosu, C O; Kumshe, H A

    2011-09-01

    Thirty red fronted gazelles (Gazella rufifrons) were used to assess the genital lesions associated with trypanosomosis and the efficacy of melarsamine hydrochloride (Cymelarsan) and diminazene aceturate (Berenil) in the treatment of the condition. The animals were divided into 6 equal groups (A-F). Animals in groups A-E were infected with Trypanosoma brucei, and later treated on day 8 post infection (p.i.) with either melarsamine hydrochloride (Cymelarsan) at 0.3 mg/kg (Group A) and 0.6 mg/kg (Group B) or diminazene aceturate (Berenil) at 3.5 mg/kg (Group C) and 7.0 mg/kg (Group D). Animals in group E remained untreated while group F served as healthy controls. Parasitaemia was established by day 8 p.i. in all infected groups and eliminated by day 16 following treatment on day 8 p.i. with melarsamine hydrochloride (Cymelarsan) (Groups A and B) or diminazene aceturate (Berenil) (Group D). On the other hand, diminazene aceturate treatment (Berenil) on day 8 p.i. at 3.5 mg/kg (Group C) caused a temporary disappearance of parasites from the circulation by day 16 p.i. but there was a relapse parasitaemia on day 44 with a peak count of 500 2.79 10(3) parasites/?L of blood by day 52 p.i. In the infected/untreated group (E), parasitaemia fluctuated but attained the same peak as Group C by day 52 p.i. Increase in body temperatures (40.5 3.16 - 42.8 3.25 C) occurred during the first wave of parasitaemia but declined to pre-infection values from day 28 p.i. in Groups A, B and D. In Groups C and E, there was a second wave of parasitaemia (P < 0.05) with peak counts of 42.4 0.81 10(3)/?L and 41.8 0.80 10(3)/?L respectively by day 52 p.i. A significant (P < 0.05) decline in packed cell volume was also noted by day 52 p.i. The major clinical signs observed in Groups C and E were pyrexia, inappetance, emaciation, anaemia, dullness, starry hair coat, pallor of buccal and ocular mucous membranes. Similarly, in Groups C and E, the testicles appeared oedematous and painful to touch with degenerative changes, morphological sperm abnormalities and oligospermia with 2.0% and 0% sperm reserves respectively. Sperm reserve was 100% in Groups A, B and D. It is therefore, concluded that trypanosomosis can cause serious infertility in male red fronted gazelles and that early treatments with melarsamine hydrochloride (Cymelarsan) at 0.3 and 0.6 mg/kg body weight or diminazene aceturate (Berenil) at 7.0 mg/kg body weight may prevent such effects. PMID:21601916

  7. Accuracy of clinical diagnosis of genital ulcer disease.

    PubMed

    Dangor, Y; Ballard, R C; da L Exposto, F; Fehler, G; Miller, S D; Koornhof, H J

    1990-01-01

    In Africa, establishment of an accurate clinical diagnosis in cases of genital ulcer disease is difficult owing to atypical presentation of ulcerations and mixed infections. This is compounded by the frequent lack of suitable laboratory facilities. In 240 cases of genital ulcer disease among mineworkers in Carletonville, South Africa, this study endeavored to correlate the clinical diagnosis with laboratory findings. Clinical accuracy and positive and negative predictive values were determined for each type of genital ulcer disease encountered. Overall, the accuracy of clinical diagnosis was 68% for single infections, 80% for chancroid, 55% for primary syphilis, 27% for lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), and 22% for genital herpes. Adequate laboratory facilities are indispensible for the establishment of an accurate etiologic diagnosis of genital ulcer disease and thus the institution of appropriate antimicrobial therapy. PMID:2175951

  8. Paper-based molecular diagnostic for Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Linnes, Jacqueline C.; Fan, Andy; Rodriguez, Natalia M.; Lemieux, Bertrand; Kong, Huimin; Klapperich, Catherine M.

    2014-01-01

    Herein we show the development of a minimally instrumented paper-based molecular diagnostic for point of care detection of sexually transmitted infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. This new diagnostic platform incorporates cell lysis, isothermal nucleic acid amplification, and lateral flow visual detection using only a pressure source and heat block, eliminating the need for expensive laboratory equipment. This paper-based test can be performed in less than one hour and has a clinically relevant limit of detection that is 100x more sensitive than current rapid immunoassays used for chlamydia diagnosis. PMID:25309740

  9. Female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    More resources and evidence-based guidelines are needed for healthcare practitioners across the world to provide culturally sensitive medical and psychological treatment for women and girls who have undergone female genital mutilation (FGM) or cutting. PMID:26853668

  10. Sperm-mediated host-derived DNA transfer as a new mechanism for immune system evasion of sexually transmitted genital tract pathogens.

    PubMed

    Landau, Eliahu Yuval; Wainrach, Bezalel

    2012-09-01

    Over one century of extensive efforts directed towards investigating the immune response and the immuno-protection associated with sexually transmitted infections have failed to produce any effective vaccines against most of the major pathogens, among them Neisseria gonorrhea, herpes simplex virus type 2, and Chlamydia trachomatis. Attempts to design and develop protective vaccines against them have also yielded disappointing results. It has long been felt that there might be another yet undiscovered complicating factor, in addition to the recognized difficulties, which might be impeding the development of successful vaccines. Unlike the other body organs and systems, the genital tract and the elements found within it (e.g., spermatozoa) are endowed with unique features, some of which are associated with inherent DNA transferability skills as physiologically required from such an environment. We hypothesize that there is a novel evasion mechanism that involves an unusual sperm-mediated host-derived DNA transfer by which sexually transmitted genital tract microorganisms can express brand new chimeric antigens and epitopes and, by doing so, thus evade the surveillance of the immune system. This hypothesis may describe what would be the long-awaited breakthrough in the search for a vaccine against sexually transmitted infections. It may also assist in developing better-designed vaccines in general, and may have implications on other microorganism-related challenges (e.g., antibiotic resistance). PMID:22795612

  11. Chlamydia-induced reactive arthritis: hidden in plain sight?

    PubMed

    Carter, John D; Inman, Robert D

    2011-06-01

    Reactive arthritis belongs to the group of arthritidies known as the spondyloarthritides. There are two main types of reactive arthritis: post-venereal and post-enteric. Chlamydia trachomatis is felt to be the most common cause of reactive arthritis, in general. Until recently, even the terminology for the condition itself was unclear as multiple eponyms and names have been associated with reactive arthritis. In recent years, a great deal has been learnt about the epidemiology, pathophysiology and treatment of reactive arthritis and Chlamydia-induced reactive arthritis, specifically. Prospective epidemiologic data suggest that Chlamydia-induced reactive arthritis is underdiagnosed. Other truths being actively revealed include data suggesting that the pathogen itself (i.e., Chlamydia) might play an equally important role, or perhaps even more important, than the host with disease susceptibility; asymptomatic chlamydial infections might be a common cause of ReA and the two variants of reactive arthritis might respond differently to treatment in spite of the congruent clinical presentation. However, much about this syndrome remains shrouded in mystery. Data covered in this review suggest that Chlamydia-induced reactive arthritis might be a common condition that clinicians fail to recognise. An emphasis is placed on disease awareness since viable treatment options are emerging. PMID:22100286

  12. Approximating optimal controls for networks when there are combinations of population-level and targeted measures available: chlamydia infection as a case-study.

    PubMed

    Clarke, James; White, K A Jane; Turner, Katy

    2013-10-01

    Using a modified one-dimensional model for the spread of an SIS disease on a network, we show that the behaviour of complex network simulations can be replicated with a simpler model. This model is then used to design optimal controls for use on the network, which would otherwise be unfeasible to obtain, resulting in information about how best to combine a population-level random intervention with one that is more targeted. This technique is used to minimise intervention costs over a short time interval with a target prevalence, and also to minimise prevalence with a specified budget. When applied to chlamydia, we find results consistent with previous work; that is maximising targeted control (contact tracing) is important to using resources effectively, while high-intensity bursts of population control (screening) are more effective than maintaining a high level of coverage. PMID:23812958

  13. Evidence for Chlamydia in wild mammals of the Serengeti.

    PubMed

    Pospischil, Andreas; Kaiser, Carmen; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Lutz, Hans; Hilbe, Monika; Vaughan, Lloyd; Borel, Nicole

    2012-10-01