Note: This page contains sample records for the topic genital hpv types from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Two novel genital human papillomavirus (HPV) types, HPV68 and HPV70, related to the potentially oncogenic HPV39.  

PubMed Central

The genomes of two novel human papillomavirus (HPV) types, HPV68 and HPV70, were cloned from a low-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and a vulvar papilloma, respectively, and partially sequenced. Both types are related to HPV39, a potentially oncogenic virus. HPV68 and HPV70 were also detected in genital intraepithelial neoplasia from three patients and one patient, respectively. Comparison with sequence data in the literature indicates that the subgenomic ME180-HPV DNA fragment, cloned from a carcinoma cell line, corresponds to an HPV68 subtype and that several HPV DNA fragments amplified by PCR from genital neoplasia represent worldwide distributed variants of HPV68 and HPV70.

Longuet, M; Beaudenon, S; Orth, G

1996-01-01

2

Genital HPV Infection  

MedlinePLUS

... HPV can cause serious health problems, including genital warts and certain cancers. There is no certain way ... that can be caused by HPV include Genital warts (warts on the genital areas); Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis ( ...

3

DETECTION OF GENITAL HPV TYPES IN FINGERTIP SAMPLES FROM NEWLY SEXUALLY ACTIVE FEMALE UNIVERSITY STUDENTS  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about detection of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) types in women’s fingertips. The study objectives were to determine the presence of genital HPV types in fingertip samples and agreement between fingertip and genital samples for detecting HPV. Methods At tri-annual visits, genital and fingertip samples were collected from female university students and tested for 37 HPV genotypes by PCR-based assay. Type-specific concordance between paired fingertip and genital samples was evaluated using a kappa statistic for percent positive agreement (“kappa +”). Paired samples with type-specific concordant fingertip and genital results were selected for variant characterization. Results A total of 357 fingertip samples were collected from 128 women. HPV prevalence in fingertip samples was 14.3%. Although percent positive agreement between fingertips and genitals for detecting type-specific HPV was low (17.8%; kappa+=0.17, 95%CI:0.10–0.25), 60.4% of type-specific HPV detected in the fingertips was detected in a concurrent genital sample. All but one of 28 paired concordant samples were positive for the same type-specific variant in the fingertip and genital sample. Re-detection of HPV types at the subsequent visit was more common in genital samples (73.3%) than in fingertip samples (14.5%) (p<.001). Conclusions Detection of genital HPV types in the fingertips was not uncommon. While impossible to distinguish between deposition of DNA from the genitals to the fingertips and true fingertip infection, the rarity of repeat detection in the fingertips suggests that deposition is more common. Impact Finger-genital transmission is plausible, but unlikely to be a significant source of genital HPV infection.

Winer, Rachel L.; Hughes, James P.; Feng, Qinghua; Xi, Long Fu; Cherne, Stephen; O'Reilly, Sandra; Kiviat, Nancy B.; Koutsky, Laura A.

2010-01-01

4

Genital Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection in Women  

MedlinePLUS

... the skin around the genitals and cause genital warts. Other types of HPV are called “high risk”. ... with a “low risk” virus can cause genital warts but will not produce major problems. However, sometimes “ ...

5

Genital Warts (HPV)  

MedlinePLUS

KidsHealth > Teens > Infections > Sexually Transmitted Diseases > Genital Warts (HPV) Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? (click to view) What Are They? Signs and Symptoms When Do Symptoms ...

6

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Type Distribution and Serological Response to HPV Type 6 Virus-Like Particles in Patients with Genital Warts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-nine patients with condylomas (12 women and 27 men) attending a dermatology clinic were tested for genital human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA and for seroprevalence to HPV type 6 (HPV6) L1 virus-like particles. The L1 consensus PCR system (with primers MY09 and MY11) was used to determine the presence and types of HPV in sample specimens. All 37 (100%) patients with

CATHERINE E. GREER; COSETTE M. WHEELER; MARTHA B. LADNER; KARL BEUTNER; MAZIE Y. COYNE; HARRIET LIANG; ANDRIA LANGENBERG; T. S. BENEDICT YEN; ANDROBERT RALSTON

1995-01-01

7

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Genital Warts: Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... on enabling JavaScript. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Genital Warts Skip Content Marketing Share this: Treatment There are treatments for genital warts, though the warts often disappear even without treatment. ...

8

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Genital Warts: Complications  

MedlinePLUS

... on enabling JavaScript. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Genital Warts Skip Content Marketing Share this: Complications Cancer Some ... treated early, if necessary. Pregnancy and Childbirth Genital warts may cause a number of problems during pregnancy. ...

9

Prophylactic HPV vaccines: prospects for eliminating ano-genital cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtually all cases of cervical cancer and its precursor intra-epithelial lesions are a result of infection with one or other of a subset of genital human papillomaviruses (HPVs), suggesting that prevention of HPV infection by prophylactic vaccination would be a highly effective anticancer strategy. Two HPV L1 virus-like particle vaccines have been developed, a quadrivalent HPV16\\/18\\/6\\/11 product and a bivalent

2007-01-01

10

Genital HPV infection not a local but a regional infection: experience from a female teenage group.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--To investigate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in a group of female teenagers, and to analyse to what extent HPV DNA was also detectable, in urethra and cervix samples among the patients with macroscopic genital warts compared with those without. DESIGN--The patients were interviewed about their sexual habits and history of venereal diseases. They underwent a gynaecological health control examination, including macroscopic inspection for genital warts and collection of a cytological vaginal smear (Pap smear). Cell samples were also taken from endocervix and urethra and from vulva lesions, when found. These samples were tested for HPV DNA of the types 6, 11, 16, 18 and 33 using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. SETTING--An adolescence out-patient clinic in Malmö, Sweden. SUBJECTS--Forty-nine female teenagers consulting for gynaecological complaints, some of them for genital warts. RESULTS--Twenty patients had present and four had a history of genital warts (group A). The other 25 patients had no visible lesions (group B). In the first group (A) 18 of the 24 patients were positive for HPV DNA in one or more of the three locations studied. More patients were positive in urethra (17) than in cervix (15). In group B four of the 25 patients were positive for HPV DNA in urethra, three of these also in cervix. In the two groups 11 and four patients, respectively, showed pathological Pap smears. CONCLUSIONS--The finding of HPV DNA in urethra, both from women with and without visible genital warts, indicates that there is a high probability that the infection is also present in cervix, suggesting that the genital HPV infections are multifocal. Thus, patients with genital warts are most likely to have cervical HPV infections and will more often have pathological Pap smears than patients without warts.

Rymark, P; Forslund, O; Hansson, B G; Lindholm, K

1993-01-01

11

Prevalence of low-risk HPV types and genital warts in women born 1988/89 or 1983/84 -results of WOLVES, a population-based epidemiological study in Wolfsburg, Germany  

PubMed Central

Background Wolfsburg HPV Epidemiological Study (WOLVES) is a population-based cohort study on HPV infections and associated diseases in the pre-vaccination era in young women in Wolfsburg, Germany. Methods Women born 1983/84 or 1988/89 were invited to participate. Participants were recruited in gynecology practices, and completed a questionnaire with socioeconomic, sexual and medical data including vaccination status. Pelvic examination with Pap smear and HPV testing (HC2?=?Hybrid Capture 2) was obligatory. HC2-positive and 10% of HC2-negative samples were tested for specific HPV types with SPF-10-PCR, and in inconclusive cases with DNA sequencing. Women with genital warts (GW) and those with atypical Pap smears were transferred for colposcopy. GWs were classified as typical condylomata acuminata (TCA), flat condyloma (FC) and seborrheic wart-like (SWL). Results In total, 1258 subjects were recruited from the target population of 2850 (44.1%). Overall the prevalence of HC2 low-risk (LR) types was 8.5%. HPV6 was the most frequent LR type (2.1%), followed by HPV42 (1.1%), HPV11 and HPV44 (each 0.4%). LiPA showed a low sensitivity for HPV types 42, 90 and 91, which were detected only by HC2 and HPV sequencing. Nine women (0.7%) were transferred with incident GW: five TCA, two FC and two SWL. All TCA were associated with HPV6 in corresponding cervical swabs and warts. Tissues of SWL contained HPV6 (n?=?1) and HPV16 (n?=?1). The cumulative life-risk for GW was 1.4% in the 1988/89 and 4.8% in the 1983/84 cohort. Eight of 107 HC2-LR?+?and five of nine cases of GW had concomitant abnormal Pap smears. All CIN lesions could be linked to high-risk HPV types but borderline and low-grade abnormal smears were explained by vaginal and cervical TCA in four cases. Conclusions HC2 was a specific test for the detection of established and potential LR types. In this first WOLVES analysis, HPV6 was the most frequent HPV type and the single LR type linked to disease. The observed GW incidence of 715 per 100,000 fits well with estimates of healthcare providers. Although life risks for GW were lower than in Scandinavian analyses, the societal burden within the WOLVES populations was considerable.

2012-01-01

12

Risk factors for genital HPV DNA in men resemble those found in women: a study of male attendees at a Danish STD clinic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Genital infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most important risk factor for cervical cancer. The male sexual partner is supposed to be the vector of the infection. However, the knowledge of risk factors for genital HPV DNA in men is limited. The objective of this paper is to study the risk factors for HPV infection

E I Svare; S K Kjaer

2002-01-01

13

A novel type of human papillomavirus associated with genital neoplasias  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) in the development of genital neoplasias has been well documented1-5. The genomes of two HPV types, HPV16 and HPV18, have been found to be associated with about 70% of invasive carcinomas of the uterine cervix2,4,6. As, under non-stringent hybridization conditions, HPV DNA sequences have been detected in about 90% of cervical carcinomas4,6, it seems

Sylvie Beaudenon; Dina Kremsdorf; Odile Croissant; Stefania Jablonska; Simon Wain-Hobson; Gérard Orth

1986-01-01

14

HPV Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... against the types of HPV that cause most cervical cancers. One of these vaccines (Gardasil) also protects against ... HPV-related diseases, such as genital warts and cervical cancer. But HPV can infect areas that are not ...

15

HPV Infection in Women: Psychosexual Impact of Genital Warts and Intraepithelial Lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Genital Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most commonly occurring sexually transmitted viral infection in humans. HPV is a wide family of DNA viruses, which may cause benign skin and mucosal tumors (genital, anal or oral warts), intraepithelial neoplasias and\\/or malignant cancers in different organs. Women are more susceptible to the oncogenic effect of HPVs, mostly at the genital

Alessandra Graziottin; Audrey Serafini

2009-01-01

16

Metagenomic sequencing of "HPV-negative" condylomas detects novel putative HPV types.  

PubMed

Condylomas are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), but may in rare cases be "negative for HPV" by PCR. Metagenomic sequencing can be used for an unbiased assessment of the presence of virus. Ten swab sample pools, each containing four cases of "HPV-negative" condylomas, were subjected to metagenomic sequencing. One pool contained Molluscum contagiosum. Five pools contained HPV, of which three pools contained novel putative HPV-types. The 12 samples in these three pools were sequenced individually. Six of these contained HPV and two contained Molluscum contagiosum. Altogether, 1337 HPV-related reads were detected, representing 23 novel putative Gammapapillomaviruses, 10 established HPV types (genital HPV types 6, 57, 58 and 66, Betapapillomavirus types 5, 105, 124, and Gammapapillomavirus types 50, 130, 150) and two described HPV sequences (KC7 and FA69). Complete genomes of Gammapillomavirus FA69 and SE87 were compiled. Metagenomic sequencing reveals that seemingly "HPV-negative" condylomas contain known and previously unknown HPV types. PMID:23522725

Johansson, Hanna; Bzhalava, Davit; Ekström, Johanna; Hultin, Emilie; Dillner, Joakim; Forslund, Ola

2013-03-22

17

Denaturing High-Performance Liquid Chromatography for Detecting and Typing Genital Human Papillomavirus  

PubMed Central

Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are important in the development of human cancers, including cervical and oral tumors. However, most existing methods for HPV typing cannot routinely distinguish among the more than 100 distinct types of HPV or the natural HPV intratypic variants that have also been documented. To address this problem, we developed a novel method, general primer-denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (GP-dHPLC), for the detection and typing of genital HPV using an automated 96-well plate format. GP-dHPLC uses general primer PCR (GP-PCR) to amplify the viral DNA and then analyzes the GP-PCR products by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (dHPLC). A number of different primer pairs with homology to most known genital HPV types were tested, and the L1C1-L1C2M pair specific for the L1 region of the viral genome was chosen. A set of HPV standard control patterns, consisting of those for HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 6, and 11, was established for genital HPV typing. One hundred eighty-six frozen and formalin-fixed cervical cancer tissue samples were analyzed for the presence of HPV and the HPV type by this method, and 95.8% of them were found to contain HPV DNA. GP-dHPLC accurately discriminated among HPV variants that differed by as little as one nucleotide. Several new variants of HPV types 16, 18, 39, 45, 52, and 59 were identified. Moreover, multiple HPV infections were detected in 26.6% of the samples. Our results indicate that HPV typing by GP-dHPLC permits discrimination of common genital HPV types, detection of multiple HPV infections, and identification of HPV variants in clinical samples.

Li, Jianduan; Gerhard, Daniela S.; Zhang, Zhengyan; Huettner, Phyllis C.; Wright, Jason; Nguyen, Loan; Lu, Danielle; Rader, Janet S.

2003-01-01

18

HPV  

MedlinePLUS

... Cervical Cancer Screening Guidelines (2011) Elsewhere On The Web Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Genital HPV Infection - CDC Fact Sheet Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Making Sense of Your Pap & HPV Test Results American Social Health Association: HPV American Cancer ...

19

Simultaneous detection and typing of genital human papillomavirus DNA using the polymerase chain reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple method has been developed for detecting a broad range of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) types using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We utilized two consensus sequence primer pairs within the E6 and E7 open reading frames to amplify HPV DNA; malignant HPV DNA (from HPV- 16, - 18, -31, -33, -52b and -58) was amplified using the pU-1M\\/

Yukako Fujinaga; Masamitu Shimada; Kazuhide Okazawa; Michio Fukushima; Ikunoshin Kato; Kei Fujinaga

1991-01-01

20

Risk factors for and prevention of human papillomaviruses (HPV), genital warts and cervical cancer.  

PubMed

Genital HPV infection is associated with development of cervical cancer, cervical neoplasia, anogenital warts, and other anogenital cancers. A number of reviews have primarily addressed the role of HPV infection in cervical carcinogenesis, and differences in human papillomavirus (HPV) subtypes found in cervical cancer cases by histology and geographical region. This review provides an informative summary of the broad body of literature on the burden of HPV, the risk factors for HPV infection, genital warts and cervical cancer, and preventive measures against these conditions in females. Studies have identified the main risk factors for genital HPV infection in females as follows: acquisition of new male partners; an increasing number of lifetime sexual partners both in females and their male partners; and having non-monogamous male partners. Cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination are the primary measures currently recommended to prevent cervical cancer. There is also an ongoing debate and conflicting findings on whether male circumcision and condom use protect against HPV infection and subsequent development of HPV-related illnesses in females. PMID:23103285

Chelimo, Carol; Wouldes, Trecia A; Cameron, Linda D; Elwood, J Mark

2012-10-26

21

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Oropharyngeal Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... HPV) can cause serious health problems, including genital warts and certain cancers. However, in most cases HPV ... HPV (known as “low risk types”) can cause warts in the mouth or throat. In most cases, ...

22

Safety and prophylactic efficacy of a quadrivalent HPV (types 6, 11, 16 and 18) L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine in women with virologic evidence of HPV infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present analysis, we were interested in determining, whether women who were either PCR-positive and\\/or seropositive to one or more quadrivalent vaccine HPV types at enrolment were protected from lower genital tract neoplasia caused the remaining vaccine HPV types. Furthermore, we wanted to determine the safety and tolerability of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine in a population previously exposed to

Daron G. Ferris

2006-01-01

23

Correlation between Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Type and Histology of Warts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty warts from different patients and of different clinical type were examined histologically and virologically. Eight lesions were found to be associated with human papillomavirus type 1 (HPV 1), 15 tumors were induced by HPV 2, HPV 3 was detected 4 times, RPV 4 twice, and HPV 6 eleven times. HPV 3, HPV 4, and HPV 6 induced warts revealed

Gerd Gross; Herbert Pfister; Manfred Hagedorn; Lutz Gissmann

1982-01-01

24

Chapter 6: Epidemiology and transmission dynamics of genital HPV infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter provides an overview of the epidemiology of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, with a focus on the dynamics of sexual transmission. We explore concepts related to the spread of sexually transmitted infections, including population prevalence, duration of infectivity, patterns of sexual contacts, and transmissibility, including modifiers of susceptibility and infectivity. HPV prevalence and incidence are high in most studies,

Ann N. Burchell; Rachel L. Winer; Silvia de Sanjosé; Eduardo L. Franco

2006-01-01

25

Human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and types among Turkish women at a gynecology outpatient unit  

PubMed Central

Background Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a well-known pathogen for lower genital tract neoplasias, yet little is known regarding HPV prevalence in Turkey. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HPV DNA and to determine HPV types distribution among women with normal and abnormal cytology. Methods A total of five hundred seven (n = 507) women were retrospectively evaluated between 2004-2008. Conventional polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the presence of HPV types in cervicovaginal samples obtained from patients during gynecologic examination. Results One hundred four (n = 104) of the women were excluded from the study because of the incomplete data and a total of 403 women were used for the final analysis. There were, 93 (23%) women with cytologic abnormality and 310 (77%) women with normal cytology. Overall, 23% of the women was HPV positive. The overall prevalence of HPV in women with abnormal Pap smears was 36% (93/403), of which in ASCUS 22%, LSIL 51% and HSIL 60%. Also, HPV DNA was positive in 20% of the women with normal cervical cytology. The most common HPV types in cytologically normal women were as follows; HPV 16 (36%), HPV 6 (22%) and HPV 18 (13%). The rate of other HPV types were as follows; HPV11 4.4%, HPV45 4.4%, HPV90 4.4%, HPV35 2.2%, HPV67 2.2%, HPV81 2.2%, and multiple type HPVs 8.9%. The most common HPV types in cytologically abnormal women were HPV 16 (35%), HPV6 (19%) and HPV18 (8%). The rate of multiple HPV infections in women with normal Pap test was 2.2%. Conclusion HPV prevalence and type distribution in this study were similar to that reported worldwide at least in our study population. Hovewer, HPV prevalence was more common compared with previous studies reported from Turkey. This might be related with methodology and hospital based patient accrual and high rate of women with abnormal cytology. Further population based prospective studies are needed to eliminate the drawbacks of our study and to determine nonhospital based HPV prevalence in Turkish women.

2009-01-01

26

Types of female genital mutilation.  

PubMed

The two major types of female genital mutilation include clitoridectomy and excision with infibulation. Clitoridectomy involves removal of the clitoris, part of all of the labia minora, and, often, all external soft genital tissue. Excision with infibulation involves all of this as well as removing the sides of the labia majora, abrading the sides of the vulva, and joining the bleeding sides of the vulva with thorns or a paste. A small opening is all that is allowed to remain for the passage of urine and menstrual blood. In Western Africa, infibulation is accomplished by tying the legs of the affected girls together in a crossed position immediate after the operation. These girls are immobilized for several weeks until the wound has closed. Infibulation is sometimes referred to a "pharaonic" because it occurred in ancient Egypt. Infibulated women must be cut open to allow sexual intercourse or child birth. Women are traditionally reinfibulated after child birth and then reopened when the child is weaned. Female genital mutilation is performed in septic conditions using the same tool on a group of girls. Fatalities are blamed on evil spirits or are said to occur because the victim was not a virgin. PMID:12233709

1998-03-01

27

Prevalence of Antibodies to Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Type 16 Virus-Like Particles in Relation to Cervical HPV Infection among College Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

A human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) virus-like particle (VLP)-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure serum antibody to capsid proteins in 376 sexually active college women who were also screened for the presence of genital HPVs by PCR and interviewed for demographic and behavioral risk factors for HPV infection. The seroprevalence was 46% in women with HPV-16 DNA

RAPHAEL P. VISCIDI; KAREN L. KOTLOFF; BARBARA CLAYMAN; KARIN RUSS; SHARON SHAPIRO; ANDKEERTI V. SHAH

1997-01-01

28

Prevalence of DNA-HPV in Male Sexual Partners of HPV-Infected Women and Concordance of Viral Types in Infected Couples  

PubMed Central

Investigation of HPV infection in men remains important due to its association with genital warts and anorectal cancer, as well as to the role men play in HPV transmission to their female sexual partners. Asymptomatic men (n?=?43), whose sexual partners had presented cervical HPV infection, were enrolled in this study. Among the 43 men, 23 had their female partner included and tested for HPV-DNA, totaling 23 couples. HPV-DNA was detected by PCR. Type specific PCR to detect HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 45 and 6/11 was performed. At least one type of HPV was detected in 86.0% (37/43) of the male patients and more than one HPV type was identified in 39.5% (17/43) of the samples, including high and low risk HPV. HPV-16 proved to be the most prevalent viral type in both male and female samples. Concordance of at least one viral type was observed in 56.5% (13/23) of the couples. Among couples that have shown concordance of viral types, 84.6% (11/13) of the men had the same high risk viral type presented by the female sexual partner. These data suggest that HPV infected men is an important reservoir, contributing to a higher transmission to women and maintenance of infection, and consequently, a higher risk of developing cervical cancer. HPV vaccination in men will protect not only them but will also have implications for their sexual partners.

Rocha, Maria Gabrielle de Lima; Faria, Fabio Lopes; Goncalves, Leonor; Souza, Maria do Carmo M.; Fernandes, Paula Avila; Fernandes, Ana Paula

2012-01-01

29

Prevalence of antibodies to human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 virus-like particles in relation to cervical HPV infection among college women.  

PubMed Central

A human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) virus-like particle (VLP)-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure serum antibody to capsid proteins in 376 sexually active college women who were also screened for the presence of genital HPVs by PCR and interviewed for demographic and behavioral risk factors for HPV infection. The seroprevalence was 46% in women with HPV-16 DNA in the genital tract. The corresponding values for women who harbored other HPV types or no HPV in the genital tract were 30 and 19%, respectively (HPV-16 group versus no-HPV group; odds ratio [OR], 3.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5 to 8.9). The antibody response was significantly higher among women with a high viral load than among those with a low viral load (median optical density value, 0.838 versus 0.137, P = 0.009). Comparable levels of seroreactivity were observed among women infected with HPV types distantly or closely related genetically to HPV-16. Seroreactivity was significantly associated with an age of 25 to 30 years (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.2 to 4.4), three or more lifetime sexual partners (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.1 to 10), and history of a sexually transmitted disease other than HPV (OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.5 to 6.3). The percent seropositivity increased linearly with number of lifetime sexual partners until reaching a plateau at 35% for women with more than six partners (chi for linear trend, P < 0.001). The low sensitivity of HPV-16 VLP-based ELISA may limit the usefulness of the assay as a diagnostic test for HPV-16 infection. However, the assay appears to have adequate specificity and should be useful as an epidemiological marker of HPV-16 infection and sexual behavior.

Viscidi, R P; Kotloff, K L; Clayman, B; Russ, K; Shapiro, S; Shah, K V

1997-01-01

30

Human papillomavirus genital infections among men, China, 2007-2009.  

PubMed

To determine prevalence of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among men in rural China, we analyzed genital swab specimens. Among 2,236 male residents of rural Henan Province, HPV infection prevalence was 17.5%. The most common oncogenic and nononcogenic types were HPV-16 and HPV-3, respectively. Infection was associated with younger age and multiple sex partners. PMID:23735236

He, Zhonghu; Liu, Ying; Sun, Yuan; Xi, Long Fu; Chen, Ke; Zhao, Yiqiang; Gao, Lei; Liu, Fangfang; Pan, Yaqi; Ning, Tao; Zhang, Lixin; Cai, Hong; Ke, Yang

2013-06-01

31

Detection and quantitation of HPV in genital and oral tissues and fluids by real time PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) remain a serious world health problem due to their association with anogenital\\/oral cancers and warts. While over 100 HPV types have been identified, a subset is associated with malignancy. HPV16 and 18 are the most prevalent oncogenic types, while HPV6 and 11 are most commonly responsible for anogenital warts. While other quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays detect

William T Seaman; Elizabeth Andrews; Marion Couch; Erna M Kojic; Susan Cu-Uvin; Joel Palefsky; Allison M Deal; Jennifer Webster-Cyriaque

2010-01-01

32

Detection and quantitation of HPV in genital and oral tissues and fluids by real time PCR  

PubMed Central

Background Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) remain a serious world health problem due to their association with anogenital/oral cancers and warts. While over 100 HPV types have been identified, a subset is associated with malignancy. HPV16 and 18 are the most prevalent oncogenic types, while HPV6 and 11 are most commonly responsible for anogenital warts. While other quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays detect oncogenic HPV, there is no single tube assay distinguishing the most frequent oncogenic types and the most common types found in warts. Results A Sybr Green-based qPCR assay was developed utilizing degenerate primers to the highly conserved HPV E1 theoretically detecting any HPV type. A single tube multiplex qPCR assay was also developed using type-specific primer pairs and TaqMan probes that allowed for detection and quantitation of HPV6,11,16,18. Each HPV type was detected over a range from 2 × 101 to 2 × 106copies/reaction providing a reliable method of quantitating type-specific HPV in 140 anogenital/cutaneous/oral benign and malignant specimens. 35 oncogenic and low risk alpha genus HPV types were detected. Concordance was detected in previously typed specimens. Comparisons to the gold standard detected an overall sensitivity of 89% (95% CI: 77% - 96%) and specificity of 90% (95%CI: 52% - 98%). Conclusion There was good agreement between the ability of the qPCR assays described here to identify HPV types in malignancies previously typed using standard methods. These novel qPCR assays will allow rapid detection and quantitation of HPVs to assess their role in viral pathogenesis.

2010-01-01

33

The spectrum of genital human papillomavirus infection among men attending a Swedish sexually-transmitted infections clinic: human papillomavirus typing and clinical presentation of histopathologically benign lesions.  

PubMed

There have been a number of Swedish studies on human papillomavirus (HPV) typing in men, most of which have used less sensitive HPV-typing techniques. The present study included male patients with genital HPV-induced lesions planned for surgery. Samples were prepared for histopathology and PCR. HPV was detected in 233/253 (92%) and HPV 6 or 11 in 89% of the HPV-positive lesions. There were statistically significant differences regarding morphology (p=0.002), location (p=0.000001) and colour (p=0.005) of the lesions for low- vs. mixed or high-risk HPV types. For example, acuminate lesions were mostly found among men with low-risk HPV types, whereas macular lesions were over-represented among them with mixed or high-risk types. The HPV type distribution is similar to that in earlier studies, but we also found correlations with some clinical parameters. PMID:22688658

Wikström, Arne; Vassilaki, Ismini; Hedblad, Mari-Anne; Syrjänen, Stina

2013-03-27

34

Pre-vaccination prevalence of human papillomavirus types in the genital tract of 15-23-year-old women attending a youth health clinic in Stockholm, Sweden.  

PubMed

Knowledge of the prevalence of different human papillomavirus (HPV) types in young girls is important for the early detection of changes in HPV prevalence, e.g. due to HPV vaccines. The purpose of this study was to obtain information on the prevalence of 24 different genital HPV types in a group of sexually active young women (aged 15-23 y) attending a major youth healthcare centre in Stockholm, before the introduction of public HPV vaccination of young women in the autumn of 2010. A total of 615 women were analyzed for 24 different, mainly high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) types using multiplex polymerase chain reaction and Luminex technology. A high HPV prevalence in this cohort was demonstrated, particularly with regard to HPV16, but also to all included HR-HPV types. Of the 544 successfully analyzed samples from non-vaccinated individuals, 70% were positive for the HPV types assayed for, and 62% were positive for HR-HPV types. Over a third (34.7%) of the women were infected with HPV16, and a high frequency of infections with HR-HPV types 51 (10.7%), 18 (10.1%), 52 (9.9%) and 73 (9.4%) was also observed. At least 9 different non-vaccine HR-HPV types were present with a prevalence of >6% in this selected group of young women. PMID:20964488

Ramqvist, Torbjörn; Du, Juan; Lundén, Mikaela; Ahrlund-Richter, Sofie; Ferreira, Joana; Marions, Lena; Sparén, Pär; Andersson, Sören; Dalianis, Tina

2010-10-21

35

Efficacy of the HPV-16/18 AS04-Adjuvanted Vaccine Against Low-Risk HPV Types (PATRICIA Randomized Trial): An Unexpected Observation.  

PubMed

Background.?Public Health England has reported a decrease of up to 20.8% in new diagnoses of external genital warts (GWs) among women aged <19 years since the national vaccination program with the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine began in 2008. A post hoc analysis of the phase III PATRICIA (PApilloma TRIal against Cancer In young Adults) trial (NCT00122681) was performed to ascertain whether protection against low-risk HPV types was apparent. Methods.?Vaccine efficacy (VE) at 48 months was assessed against 6-month persistent infection (6MPI) with low-risk HPV types in the total vaccinated cohort (TVC) and in the TVC naive (for 25 HPV types tested) populations. Results.?In the TVC naive cohort, VE against 6MPI (95% confidence interval) was 34.5% (11.3 to 51.8) for HPV-6/11, 34.9% (9.1 to 53.7) for HPV-6, 30.3% (-45.0 to 67.5) for HPV-11, and 49.5% (21.0 to 68.3) for HPV-74. Conclusions.?The HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine appears to have moderate efficacy against persistent infections with a number of low-risk HPV types (HPV-6/11/74), which are responsible for the majority of external GWs, and recently, antibody and cell-mediated immune response to HPV-6/11 have been observed. These findings may help to explain the decrease in external GW diagnoses seen in England. PMID:24092907

Szarewski, Anne; Skinner, S Rachel; Garland, Suzanne M; Romanowski, Barbara; Schwarz, Tino F; Apter, Dan; Chow, Song-Nan; Paavonen, Jorma; Del Rosario-Raymundo, M Rowena; Teixeira, Julio C; De Carvalho, Newton S; Castro-Sanchez, Maria; Castellsagué, Xavier; Poppe, Willy A J; De Sutter, Philippe; Huh, Warner; Chatterjee, Archana; Tjalma, Wiebren A; Ackerman, Ronald T; Martens, Mark; Papp, Kim A; Bajo-Arenas, Jose; Harper, Diane M; Torné, Aureli; David, Marie-Pierre; Struyf, Frank; Lehtinen, Matti; Dubin, Gary

2013-11-01

36

Efficacy of the HPV-16/18 AS04-Adjuvanted Vaccine Against Low-Risk HPV Types (PATRICIA Randomized Trial): An Unexpected Observation  

PubMed Central

Background.?Public Health England has reported a decrease of up to 20.8% in new diagnoses of external genital warts (GWs) among women aged <19 years since the national vaccination program with the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine began in 2008. A post hoc analysis of the phase III PATRICIA (PApilloma TRIal against Cancer In young Adults) trial (NCT00122681) was performed to ascertain whether protection against low-risk HPV types was apparent. Methods.?Vaccine efficacy (VE) at 48 months was assessed against 6-month persistent infection (6MPI) with low-risk HPV types in the total vaccinated cohort (TVC) and in the TVC naive (for 25 HPV types tested) populations. Results.?In the TVC naive cohort, VE against 6MPI (95% confidence interval) was 34.5% (11.3 to 51.8) for HPV-6/11, 34.9% (9.1 to 53.7) for HPV-6, 30.3% (?45.0 to 67.5) for HPV-11, and 49.5% (21.0 to 68.3) for HPV-74. Conclusions.?The HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine appears to have moderate efficacy against persistent infections with a number of low-risk HPV types (HPV-6/11/74), which are responsible for the majority of external GWs, and recently, antibody and cell-mediated immune response to HPV-6/11 have been observed. These findings may help to explain the decrease in external GW diagnoses seen in England.

Szarewski, Anne; Skinner, S. Rachel; Garland, Suzanne M.; Romanowski, Barbara; Schwarz, Tino F.; Apter, Dan; Chow, Song-Nan; Paavonen, Jorma; Del Rosario-Raymundo, M. Rowena; Teixeira, Julio C.; De Carvalho, Newton S.; Castro-Sanchez, Maria; Castellsague, Xavier; Poppe, Willy A. J.; De Sutter, Philippe; Huh, Warner; Chatterjee, Archana; Tjalma, Wiebren A.; Ackerman, Ronald T.; Martens, Mark; Papp, Kim A.; Bajo-Arenas, Jose; Harper, Diane M.; Torne, Aureli; David, Marie-Pierre; Struyf, Frank; Lehtinen, Matti; Dubin, Gary

2013-01-01

37

Family Physicians' Knowledge of Genital Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection and HPV-related Conditions, United States, 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Objectives: Information about human papillomavirus (HPV) has evolved rapidly and HPV DNA tests are now available. Little is known about family physicians' knowledge about HPV and how it relates to HPV test use and counseling practices. Methods: In mid-2004, confidential surveys were mailed to a nationally representative sample of 760 family physicians. We assessed and analyzed relationships between

Nidhi Jain; Kathleen L. Irwin; Daniel Montano; Danuta Kasprzyk; Linda Carlin; Crystal Freeman

38

Sulfated K5 Escherichia coli Polysaccharide Derivatives as Wide-Range Inhibitors of Genital Types of Human Papillomavirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genital human papillomaviruses (HPV) represent the most common sexually transmitted agents and are classified into low or high risk by their propensity to cause genital warts or cervical cancer, respectively. Topical microbicides against HPV may be a useful adjunct to the newly licensed HPV vaccine. A main objective in the development of novel microbicides is to block HPV entry into

David Lembo; Manuela Donalisio; Marco Rusnati; Antonella Bugatti; Maura Cornaglia; Paola Cappello; Mirella Giovarelli; Pasqua Oreste; Santo Landolfo

2008-01-01

39

Occurrence of multiple types of human papillomavirus in genital tract lesions. Analysis by in situ hybridization and the polymerase chain reaction.  

PubMed Central

More than 22 types of human papillomavirus (HPV) have been detected in genital tract squamous cell intraepithelial lesions. Seven of two hundred eighty-six (2.4%) genital tract tissues in which HPV DNA was detected by in situ hybridization contained two or more different HPV types. When analyzed by site, 5 of 204 (2.4%) of cervical intraepithelial lesions were infected by more than one type, compared with 2 of 82 (2.4%) of vulvar lesions. The rate for low-grade lesions was similar (5/218; 2.3%) to that for high-grade lesions (2/68; 2.9%). In contrast, two different HPV types were detected in 6/33 (18%) of tissues by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using type-specific primers for eight HPV types. It is concluded that infection by one HPV type is rarely associated with concurrent 'active' infection by a second HPV type, even though DNA of a different viral type can be detected by PCR in about one fifth of such cases. Further study is required to determine if an existing HPV infection can inhibit replication by a different HPV type. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4

Nuovo, G. J.; Darfler, M. M.; Impraim, C. C.; Bromley, S. E.

1991-01-01

40

Does HPV type affect outcome in oropharyngeal cancer?  

PubMed Central

Background An epidemic of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer (OPSCC) has been reported worldwide largely due to oral infection with HPV type-16, which is responsible for approximately 90% of HPV-positive cases. The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. Methods A retrospective search identified ninety-five patients diagnosed with OPSCC. Pre-treatment biopsy specimens were tested for p16 expression using immunohistochemistry and for HPV-16, HPV-18 and other high-risk subtypes, including 31,33,35,39,45,51,52,56,58,59,67,68, by real-time qPCR. Results Fifty-nine tumours (62%) were positive for p16 expression and fifty (53%) were positive for known high-risk HPV types. Of the latter, 45 tumors (90%) were identified as HPV-16 positive, and five tumors (10%) were positive for other high-risk HPV types (HPV-18 (2), HPV-67 (2), HPV-33 (1)). HPV status by qPCR and p16 expression were extremely tightly correlated (p?HPV-positive tumors had improved 3-year overall (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) compared to patients with HPV-negative tumors (90% vs 65%, p?=?0.001; and 85% vs 49%, p?=?0.005; respectively). HPV-16 related OPSCC presented with cervical metastases more frequently than other high-risk HPV types (p?=?0.005) and poorer disease-free survival was observed, although this was not statistically significant. Conclusion HPV-16 infection is responsible for a significant proportion of OPSCC in Southwestern Ontario. Other high-risk subtypes are responsible for a smaller subset of OPSCC that present less frequently with cervical metastases and may have a different prognosis.

2013-01-01

41

Evaluation of a Novel Multiplex Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Genotyping Assay for HPV Types in Skin Warts?  

PubMed Central

Human papillomaviruses (HPV) of the genera alpha, mu, and nu induce benign tumors of the cutaneous epithelia that constitute a significant burden for immunocompromised adults. Currently, no gold standard for genotyping of these HPV types exists. In this study, we describe the prevalence of genus alpha, mu, and nu HPV types in cutaneous warts. We developed a novel multiplex HPV genotyping assay, BSwart-PCR/MPG (BSwart), to type sensitively and specifically 19 cutaneous HPV types frequently found in warts. BSwart-PCR/MPG is based on a multiplex PCR using broad-spectrum primers and subsequent multiplex hybridization to type-specific probes coupled to Luminex beads. In a first application comprising 100 cutaneous warts, the assay was compared to another, recently described genotyping assay, the HSL-PCR/MPG. When a 10-fold dilution series was used, the detection limit was between 10 and 100 HPV genomes per PCR. When comparing the two assays, there was an excellent agreement in detecting dominant HPV types; however, we also obtained evidence for a higher sensitivity of the BSwart assay for multiple infections in these cutaneous warts. Using BSwart, HPV was found in 95% of wart preparations, with HPV1 being most prevalent, followed by types 27, 57, and 2. Both novel BSwart and HSL-PCR/MPG HPV genotyping assays are powerful high-throughput tools that could be used to learn more about the natural history of cutaneous HPV. They would be advantageous to monitor the efficacy of future skin HPV vaccines and to identify novel HPV vaccine candidates.

Schmitt, Markus; de Koning, Maurits N. C.; Eekhof, Just A. H.; Quint, Wim G. V.; Pawlita, Michael

2011-01-01

42

Human Papillomavirus Types 6 and 11 DNA Sequences in Genital and Laryngeal Papillomas and in Some Cervical Cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human genital tumors as well as recurrent laryngeal papillomas were analyzed for the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) 6 and HPV 11 sequences. HPV 11 DNA was found in 7 of 14 laryngeal papillomas; in the 7 other tumors no HPV DNA was demonstrated. HPV 11 DNA was also found in all five atypical condylomata of the cervix included in

Lutz Gissmann; Lutz Wolnik; Hans Ikenberg; Ursula Koldovsky; Hans Georg Schnurch; Harald Zur Hausen

1983-01-01

43

ClinicalStudy Strategies for Fostering HPV Vaccine Acceptance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaccines that protect against infection with the types of human papillomavirus (HPV) commonly associated with cervical cancer (HPV 16 and 18) and genital warts (HPV 6 and 11) are expected to become available in the near future. Because HPV vaccines are prophylactic, they must be administered prior to exposure to the virus, ideally during preadolescence or adolescence. The young age

Bernard Gonik

44

Serological evidence for protection by human papillomavirus (HPV) type 6 infection against HPV type 16 cervical carcinogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human papillomavirus (HPV) exists as more than 100 genotypes. It is not well-established whether the different HPV types interfere with infection or pathogenesis by each other. Possible interactions in cervical carcinogenesis between infection with the most common HPV types (6, 11, 16, 18 and 33) were studied in a seroepidemiological case-control study of 218 women with primary untreated cervical cancer

Ilvars Silins; Zhaohui Wang; Bo Frankendal; Uldis Vikmanis; Martin Sapp; John T. Schiller; Joakim Dillner

1999-01-01

45

HPV and Genital Warts among Peruvian Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender People: Knowledge, Attitudes and Treatment Experiences  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies have assessed the epidemiology of HPV infection among MSM, but no qualitative studies have specifically assessed how HPV and genital warts (GW) affect South American men who have sex with men (MSM) and male-to-female transgendered women (TG). This study explored the knowledge, attitudes and experiences of Peruvian MSM and TG regarding HPV and GW. Methods We performed a qualitative study consisting of fifteen in-depth interviews and three focus groups carried out in Lima, Peru with diverse MSM and TG groups, including sex workers. Resulting data were analyzed by applying a systematic comparative and descriptive content analysis. Results While knowledge of HPV was limited, awareness of GW was common, particularly among TG persons and sex workers. Still, few participants recognized that GW are sexually transmitted, and many had problems differentiating between GW and other STI/anogenital conditions. Stigmatizing experiences were common during sexual encounters with people who had visible GW. Shame, emotional and physical troubles, and embarrassing sexual experiences were reported by individuals with GW. Search for treatment was mediated by peers, but stigma and apparent health services’ inability to deal with GW limited the access to effective medical care. Conclusions In Peru, public health interventions should strengthen services for HPV/GW management and increase accurate knowledge of the transmission, treatment, and sequelae of HPV/GW in MSM and TG populations.

Nurena, Cesar R.; Brown, Brandon; Galea, Jerome T.; Sanchez, Hugo; Blas, Magaly M.

2013-01-01

46

Prophylactic HPV vaccines: New interventions for cancer control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection causes cervical cancer, a significant portion of anal, vulvar, vaginal, and oropharyngeal cancers, genital warts, and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP). HPV 16 and 18 cause 70–90% of HPV-related cancers whereas HPV 6 and 11 cause 90% of RRP and genital wart cases. Together these four types cause 30–50% of all cervical intraepithelial neoplasia such as those

Eliav Barr; Heather L. Sings

2008-01-01

47

Prospective study of HPV types, HPV persistence and risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix  

PubMed Central

Background The link between squamous cell cervical carcinoma and HPV 16/18 is well-established but the magnitude of the risk association is uncertain and the importance of other high-risk HPV types unclear. Methods In two prospective nested case-control series among women participating in cytological screening in Sweden, we collected 2772 cervical smears from 515 women with cancer in situ (CIS), 315 with invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and individually matched controls. All smears were tested for HPV with PCR assays and the median follow-up until diagnosis was 5-7 years. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Presence of HPV16/18 in the first smear was associated with 8.5-fold (95% CI 5.3-13.7), and 18.6-fold (95% CI 9.0-38.9) increased risks of CIS and SCC, respectively, compared to women negative for HPV. Infection with other high-risk HPV types in the first smear was also associated with significantly increased risks for both CIS and SCC. Persistence of HPV16 infection conferred a RR of 18.5 (95% CI, 6.5-52.9) for CIS and 19.5 (95% CI 4.7-81.7) for SCC. The HPV16/18 attributable risk proportion was estimated to 30-50% of CIS, and 41-47% of SCC. Other high-risk HPV types also conferred significant proportions. Conclusions Our large population-based study provides quantification of risks for different HPV types and prospective evidence that non-16/18 high-risk HPV types increase the risk for future cervical cancer. Impact This study gives further insights into cervical cancer risk stratification with implications for HPV-based prevention strategies.

Sundstrom, Karin; Eloranta, Sandra; Sparen, Par; Dahlstrom, Lisen Arnheim; Gunnell, Anthony; Lindgren, Anders; Palmgren, Juni; Ploner, Alexander; Sanjeevi, Carani B.; Melbye, Mads; Dillner, Joakim; Adami, Hans-Olov; Ylitalo, Nathalie

2010-01-01

48

Nonisotopic Detection and Typing of Human Papillomavirus DNA in Genital Samples by the Line Blot Assay  

PubMed Central

The line blot assay, a gene amplification method that combines PCR with nonisotopic detection of amplified DNA, was evaluated for its ability to detect human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in genital specimens. Processed samples were amplified with biotin-labeled primers for HPV detection (primers MY09, MY11, and HMB01) and for ?-globin detection (primers PC03 and PC04). Amplified DNA products were hybridized by a reverse blot method with oligonucleotide probe mixtures fixed on a strip that allowed the identification of 27 HPV genotypes. The line blot assay was compared to a standard consensus PCR test in which HPV amplicons were detected with radiolabeled probes in a dot blot assay. Two hundred fifty-five cervicovaginal lavage specimens and cervical scrapings were tested in parallel by both PCR tests. The line blot assay consistently detected 25 copies of HPV type 18 per run. The overall positivity for the DNA of HPV types detectable by both methods was 37.7% (96 of 255 samples) by the line blot assay, whereas it was 43.5% (111 of 255 samples) by the standard consensus PCR assay. The sensitivity and specificity of the line blot assay reached 84.7% (94 of 111 samples) and 98.6% (142 of 144 samples), respectively. The agreement for HPV typing between the two PCR assays reached 83.9% (214 of 255 samples). Of the 37 samples with discrepant results, 33 (89%) were resolved by avoiding coamplification of ?-globin and modifying the amplification parameters. With these modifications, the line blot assay compared favorably to an assay that used radiolabeled probes. Its convenience allows the faster analysis of samples for large-scale epidemiological studies. Also, the increased probe spectrum in this single hybridization assay permits more complete type discrimination.

Coutlee, Francois; Gravitt, Patti; Richardson, Harriet; Hankins, Catherine; Franco, Eduardo; Lapointe, Normand; Voyer, Helene

1999-01-01

49

HPV Test  

MedlinePLUS

... development of genital warts, abnormal cervical cells or cervical cancer. Your doctor might recommend the HPV test if: ... The HPV test is a screening test for cervical cancer, but the test doesn't tell you whether ...

50

Distribution of genital wart human papillomavirus genotypes in China: a multi-center study.  

PubMed

Although it is understood that low-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes are associated with genital warts, there have been very few published studies reporting the genotype-specific prevalence of HPV among Chinese population. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of HPV genotypes in genital warts across China, and thus to evaluate the potential benefit of a quadrivalent HPV vaccine in this population. The tissue samples of a total of 1,005 genital warts cases were collected from seven geographical regions of China. HPV genotypes were analyzed using the general primer PCR and sequence-based typing method. Prevalence differences between sexes, geographical regions and age groups were assessed. The overall prevalence of HPV DNA in genital warts patients was 88.7% (891/1,005). Low-risk genotypes predominated, with a prevalence of 78.1% (785/1,005). The most prevalent genotypes were HPV-6 (41.3%), HPV-11 (37.6%) and HPV-16 (10.4%). Among HPV positive patients, single infections were more frequent (866/891, 97.2%) than co-infections (25/891, 2.8%). Both the overall prevalence of HPV DNA and that of HPV-6/-11/-16 (positive for any of the three types) decreased with age (P-trend?=?0.010 and P-trend?=?0.025, respectively). The prevalence of HPV-6/-11 (positive for either HPV type) and HPV-16 varied by geographic region (P?=?0.003 and P???0.001, respectively). The prevalence of HPV-16 in female patients between urban and rural areas showed a marginally significant difference (P?=?0.05). In sum, the results provide strong evidence that, in China, the most prevalent HPV genotypes in genital warts are HPV-6, HPV-11 and HPV-16. This indicates that a quadrivalent HPV vaccine may decrease the incidence of genital warts in the future. PMID:23861100

Chang, Lihong; Ci, Puwa; Shi, Jufang; Zhai, Kan; Feng, Xiaoli; Colombara, Danny; Wang, Wei; Qiao, Youlin; Chen, Wen; Wu, Yuping

2013-07-16

51

The role of sexual behavior and HPV persistence in predicting repeated infections with new HPV types  

PubMed Central

Background Although HPV infections are common in young women, the rate of and risk for repeated new infections are not well documented. We examined the rate of and risks for new HPV detection in young women. Methods We used data from an ongoing study of HPV, initiated in 1990. Sexually active women aged 12–22 years were eligible. Interviews on behaviors and HPV testing were performed at 4-month intervals; sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing was annual or if symptomatic. Starting with 1st HPV detection, time to the next (2nd) visit (event) with detection of new HPV types and then the 2nd event to time to 3rd event was calculated. Risks were determined using Cox Proportional hazard model. Results Sixty-nine percent of 1,125 women had a 2nd event and of those with a 2nd event, 63% had a 3rd event by 3 years, respectively. Women with HPV persistence from initial visit to 2nd event [Hazard ratio (H.R.) = 4.51 (3.78 – 5.37)], an STI (H.R. = 1.47 (1.00 – 2.17), bacterial vaginosis (H.R. = 1.60 (1.07 – 2.39), and number of new sex partners (H.R. = 1.10 (1.05 – 1.15 per partner/month) were independent associations for HPV. Risks for 3rd event were similar. Conclusion This study documents the repeated nature of HPV infections in young women and their association with sexual risk behaviors. Impact This finding underscores the lack of clinical utility of HPV testing in young women. Further studies are needed to examine host factors that lead to HPV acquisition and persistence.

Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Ma, Yifei; Jonte, Janet; Miller-Benningfield, Susanna; Hanson, Lynn; Jay, Julie; Godwin-deMedina, Cheryl; Farhat, Sepideh; Clayton, Lisa; Shiboski, Stephen

2010-01-01

52

Declining Genital Warts in Young Women in England Associated With HPV 16/18 Vaccination: An Ecological Study.  

PubMed

Background.?Diagnoses of genital warts (GW) in genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics have been increasing in England for many years. In 2008, an HPV immunization program began with a bivalent vaccine (Cervarix). This was expected to markedly reduce infections and disease due to human papillomavirus (HPV) 16/18 but not HPV 6/11 infections or disease. However, from 2009 to 2011 there were decreases in reported diagnoses of GW in young females at GUM clinics. Methods.?Using data from GUM clinics and a sample of general practices (GPs) throughout England, we analyzed rates of GW diagnoses by age, year of diagnosis, and estimated immunization coverage. Results.?The overall reduction in GW diagnoses at GUM clinics between 2008 and 2011 was 13.3% among 16- to 19-year-old females, with the greatest decline of 20.8% in 17-year-olds. Declines were positively associated with estimated immunization coverage. A similar pattern was seen in GP diagnoses, but not among older women, and for other GUM consultations. Conclusions.?Several factors might contribute to declines in GW. However, the size and pattern of the declines strongly suggest that we are observing an unexpected, moderately protective effect of HPV 16/18 vaccination against GW. PMID:24092908

Howell-Jones, Rebecca; Soldan, Kate; Wetten, Sally; Mesher, David; Williams, Tim; Gill, O Noel; Hughes, Gwenda

2013-11-01

53

Declining Genital Warts in Young Women in England Associated With HPV 16/18 Vaccination: An Ecological Study  

PubMed Central

Background.?Diagnoses of genital warts (GW) in genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics have been increasing in England for many years. In 2008, an HPV immunization program began with a bivalent vaccine (Cervarix). This was expected to markedly reduce infections and disease due to human papillomavirus (HPV) 16/18 but not HPV 6/11 infections or disease. However, from 2009 to 2011 there were decreases in reported diagnoses of GW in young females at GUM clinics. Methods.?Using data from GUM clinics and a sample of general practices (GPs) throughout England, we analyzed rates of GW diagnoses by age, year of diagnosis, and estimated immunization coverage. Results.?The overall reduction in GW diagnoses at GUM clinics between 2008 and 2011 was 13.3% among 16- to 19-year-old females, with the greatest decline of 20.8% in 17-year-olds. Declines were positively associated with estimated immunization coverage. A similar pattern was seen in GP diagnoses, but not among older women, and for other GUM consultations. Conclusions.?Several factors might contribute to declines in GW. However, the size and pattern of the declines strongly suggest that we are observing an unexpected, moderately protective effect of HPV 16/18 vaccination against GW.

Howell-Jones, Rebecca; Soldan, Kate; Wetten, Sally; Mesher, David; Williams, Tim; Gill, O. Noel; Hughes, Gwenda

2013-01-01

54

HPV type infection in different anogenital sites among HIV-positive Brazilian women  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) types, and risk factors for HPV positivity across cervix, vagina and anus, we conducted a study among 138 women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). GOAL: Compare the prevalence of different HPV types and the risk factors for HPV positivity in three sites. RESULTS: The most frequently detected HPV types in all

Maria Gonçalves; Giorgia Randi; Annie Arslan; Luisa L Villa; Marcelo N Burattini; Silvia Franceschi; Eduardo Antonio Donadi; Eduardo Massad

2008-01-01

55

HPV-related carcinogenesis: basic concepts, viral types and variants.  

PubMed

Human papillomavirus (HPV) constitutes a diverse group of small DNA virus, some extensively studied during the last three decades due to their carcinogenic potential. Persistence of viral infections and uncontrolled expression of E6 and E7 viral oncogenes are critical events in transformation. A surprisingly large number of different HPV types have been identified and classified (>100) and it has been anticipated that almost 200 may exist. HPV types are thought to have originated very early during human evolution and are now defined by their L1 genomic sequence, differing by >10% among them. Importantly, viral types are cell-type specific and usually produce different kinds of lesions, benign or malignant. In addition, these types have co-evolved with their hosts and have generated what we call now intratype variants. Variants of HPV types are found associated with the ethnicity of the populations and have been grouped geographically. It is believed that HPV intratype variants may differ in biological behavior. Recognition of the crucial role that some specific HPV types play in cervical cancer development is highly important for their prevention and implementation of public health strategies to control cervical cancer, still the leading cause of death among cancer patients in many developing nations. Here we review basic concepts of HPV-induced carcinogenesis and molecular differences found among HPV types and intratype variants and discuss their clinical and functional implications. PMID:19853182

Lizano, Marcela; Berumen, Jaime; García-Carrancá, Alejandro

2009-08-01

56

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) DNA Copy Number Is Dependent on Grade of Cervical Disease and HPV Type  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA copy number and cervical disease was inves- tigated. Viral DNA copy number for the most common high-risk HPV types in cervical cancer (types 16, 18, 31, and 45) was determined in cervical cytobrush specimens from 149 women with high-grade cervical intraepi- thelial neoplasias (CIN II-CIN III), 176 with low-grade CIN (CIN I), and

DAVID C. SWAN; RUTH ANN TUCKER; GUILLERMO TORTOLERO-LUNA; MICHELE FOLLEN MITCHELL; LOUISE WIDEROFF; ELIZABETH R. UNGER; ROSANE A. NISENBAUM; WILLIAM C. REEVES; JOSEPH P. ICENOGLE

1999-01-01

57

Nuclear Matrix Attachment Regions of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 Point toward Conservation of These Genomic Elements in All Genital Papillomaviruses  

PubMed Central

The gene functions, transcriptional regulation, and genome replication of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) have been extensively studied. Thus far, however, there has been little research on the organization of HPV genomes in the nuclei of infected cells. As a first step to understand how chromatin and suprachromatin structures may modulate the life cycles of these viruses, we have identified and mapped interactions of HPV DNAs with the nuclear matrix. The endogenous genomes of HPV type 16 (HPV-16) which are present in SiHa, HPKI, and HPKII cells, adhere in vivo to the nuclear matrixes of these cell lines. A tight association with the nuclear matrix in vivo may be common to all genital HPV types, as the genomes of HPV-11, HPV-16, HPV-18, and HPV-33 showed high affinity in vitro to preparations of the nuclear matrix of C33A cells, as did the well-known nuclear matrix attachment region (MAR) of the cellular beta interferon gene. Affinity to the nuclear matrix is not evenly spread over the HPV-16 genome. Five genomic segments have strong MAR properties, while the other parts of the genome have low or no affinity. Some of the five MARs correlate with known cis-responsive elements: a strong MAR lies in the 5? segment of the long control region (LCR), and another one lies in the E6 gene, flanking the HPV enhancer, the replication origin, and the E6 promoter. The strongest MAR coincides with the E5 gene and the early-late intergenic region. Weak MAR activity is present in the E1 and E2 genes and in the 3? part of L2. The in vitro map of MAR activity appears to reflect MAR properties in vivo, as we found for two selected fragments with and without MAR activity. As is typical for many MARs, the two segments with highest affinity, namely, the 5? LCR and the early-late intergenic region, have an extraordinarily high A-T content (up to 85%). It is likely that these MARs have specific functions in the viral life cycle, as MARs predicted by nucleotide sequence analysis, patterns of A-T content, transcription factor YY1 binding sites, and likely topoisomerase II cleavage sites are conserved in similar positions throughout all genital HPVs.

Tan, Shyh-Han; Bartsch, Dusan; Schwarz, Elisabeth; Bernard, Hans-Ulrich

1998-01-01

58

Decline in in-patient treatments of genital warts among young Australians following the national HPV vaccination program  

PubMed Central

Background There has been a rapid decline in the number of young heterosexuals diagnosed with genital warts at outpatient sexual health services since the national human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program started in Australia in 2007. We assessed the impact of the vaccination program on the number of in-patient treatments for genital warts. Methods Data on in-patient treatments of genital warts in all private hospitals were extracted from the Medicare website. Medicare is the universal health insurance scheme of Australia. In the vaccine period (2007–2011) and pre-vaccine period (2000–2007) we calculated the percentage change in treatment numbers and trends in annual treatment rates in private hospitals. Australian population data were used to calculate rates. Summary rate ratios of average annual trends were determined. Results Between 2000 and 2011, 6,014 women and 936 men aged 15–44?years underwent in-patient treatment for genital warts in private hospitals. In 15–24?year old women, there was a significant decreasing trend in annual treatment rates of vulval/vaginal warts in the vaccine period (overall decrease of 85.3% in treatment numbers from 2007 to 2011) compared to no significant trend in the pre-vaccine period (summary rate ratio (SRR)?=?0.33, p?HPV vaccine program. The moderate decline in in-patient treatments for penile warts in men probably reflects herd immunity.

2013-01-01

59

Acceptability of HPV vaccines and perceptions related to genital warts and penile/anal cancers among men who have sex with men in Hong Kong.  

PubMed

Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk of contracting HIV and developing genital warts and penile/anal cancers. HPV vaccines are efficacious in preventing such HPV-related diseases among males and WHO recommends its use to young MSM. In a cross-sectional survey, 542 MSM were interviewed. After being briefed about the vaccines' efficacies and the market price, the prevalence of acceptability of HPV vaccination was 29.2%. Adjusted by significant background variables, perceived high/very high chances of contracting genital warts [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=2.04, 95%CI=1.11-3.72] and penile/anal cancers (AOR=1.89, 95%CI=1.09-3.29) among local MSM, perceived moderately high mortality rate of penile/anal cancers (AOR=1.78, 95%CI=1.13-2.81), fear toward penile/anal cancers (moderate: AOR=1.75, 95%CI=1.07-2.86; high/very high: AOR=1.82, 95%CI=1.13-2.92) and disagreement with the statement "MSM in general are not willing to take HPV vaccines" (AOR=1.82, 95%CI=1.24-2.68) were associated with the conditional acceptability. Acceptability of this new measure is reasonably high and there are rooms for improvement. Implementation trials to promote HPV vaccination by changing cognitions such as HPV-related risk perceptions, norms and perceptions toward anal/penile cancer are greatly warranted. PMID:23845815

Wang, Zixin; Mo, Phoenix K H; Lau, Joseph T F; Lau, Mason; Lai, Coco H Y

2013-07-08

60

Accumulation of RNA homologous to human papillomavirus type 16 open reading frames in genital precancers  

SciTech Connect

The accumulation of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16)-specific RNAs in tissue sections from biopsies of patients with genital precancers was studied by in situ hybridization with single-stranded /sup 35/S-labeled RNA. These analyses revealed that the most abundant early-region RNAs were derived from the E4 and E5 open reading frames (ORFs). RNAs homologous to the E6/E7 ORFs were also detected, whereas RNAs homologous to the intervening E1 ORF were not. This suggest that the E4 and E5 mRNAs are derived by splicing to the upstream E6/E7 ORFs, consistent with studies of HPV-11 in condylomata. Abundant RNAs homologous to the 5' portion of L1 were also detected. These RNAs were localized to the apical strata of the epithelium. HPV-16 RNAs accumulated in discrete regions of these lesions, and when present were most abundant in the upper cell layers of the precancerous epithelium. RNAs homologous to early ORFs were also detected in some germinal cells within the basal layer of the epithelium.

Crum, C.P.; Nuovo, G.; Friedman, D.; Silverstein, S.J.

1988-01-01

61

More men than women make mucosal IgA antibodies to Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) and HPV18: a study of oral HPV and oral HPV antibodies in a normal healthy population  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: We have previously shown the high prevalence of oral anti-human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) antibodies in women with HPV-associated cervical neoplasia. It was postulated that the HPV antibodies were initiated after HPV antigenic stimulation at the cervix via the common mucosal immune system. The present study aimed to further evaluate the effectiveness of oral fluid testing for detecting the

Dianne J Marais; Candice Sampson; Anthea Jeftha; Dherendra Dhaya; Jo-Ann S Passmore; Lynette Denny; Edward P Rybicki; Eric Van Der Walt; Lawrence XG Stephen; Anna-Lise Williamson

2006-01-01

62

Chapter 3: HPV type-distribution in women with and without cervical neoplastic diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographical widespread data on human papillomavirus (HPV) type-distribution are essential for estimating the impact of HPV-16\\/18 vaccines on cervical cancer and cervical screening programmes. Epidemiological studies employing a variety of HPV typing protocols have been collated in meta-analyses. HPV-16\\/18 is estimated to account for 70% of all cervical cancers worldwide, although the estimated HPV-16\\/18 fraction is slightly higher in more

Gary Clifford; Silvia Franceschi; Mireia Diaz; Nubia Muñoz; Luisa Lina Villa

2006-01-01

63

Genital Herpes  

MedlinePLUS

... Division of STD Prevention CS233825A What is genital herpes? Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) ... type 2 (HSV-2). How common is genital herpes? CDC estimates that, annually, 776,000 people in ...

64

Detection of genital human papillomavirus by single-tube nested PCR and type-specific oligonucleotide hybridization.  

PubMed Central

Cervical cancer is, on a global scale, the second most common form of cancer in women. Development of cervical carcinoma is strongly associated with infection by certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV). To facilitate the detection and molecular typing of HPV in clinical samples, nested-PCR amplification systems were developed for regions of the E1 and L1 genes. The nested amplifications were performed in a single reaction tube, and shifting between inner and outer primer pairs was achieved by a two-phase amplification with different annealing temperatures. This method eliminates cross-contamination between samples during transfer from the first to the second amplification step. A set of type-specific oligonucleotide probes were designed for the E1 system and used to distinguish 19 genital HPV types. The sensitivities of our amplification systems compare favorably with that for the L1 system on the basis of the MY09-MY11 primer pair (M.M. Manos, Y. Ting, D. K. Wright, A. J. Lewis, T. R. Broker, and S. M. Wolinsky, Cancer Cells 7:209-214, 1989) and our systems can be used on materials such as HPV-infected cell lines, cytobrush samples, cancer biopsies, and recent as well as archival Papanicolaou (Pap) smears. The high sensitivity coupled with the effective elimination of contamination in the transfer between the two amplification steps of the nested PCR makes these systems suitable for research as well as clinical analyses.

Ylitalo, N; Bergstrom, T; Gyllensten, U

1995-01-01

65

Human papillomavirus DNA in the urogenital tracts of men with gonorrhoea, penile warts or genital dermatoses.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To assess the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in urethral and urine specimens from men with and without sexually transmitted diseases. DESIGN--Prospective study. SETTING--Two London departments of genitourinary medicine PATIENTS--100 men with urethral gonorrhoea, 31 men with penile warts and 37 men with genital dermatoses. METHODS--Urethral and urine specimens were taken, HPV DNA extracted and then amplified using the polymerase chain reaction. HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31 and 33 were identified using Southern blotting followed by hybridisation. RESULTS--HPV DNA was detected in 18-31% of urethral swab specimens and in 0-14% of urine specimens. Men with penile warts had HPV detected in urethral swabs more often than did men in the other two clinical groups. "High risk" HPV types were found in 71-83% of swab specimens and in 73-80% of urine specimens containing HPV DNA. CONCLUSIONS--HPV is present in the urogenital tracts of men with gonorrhoea, penile warts and with genital dermatoses. In men with urethral gonorrhoea, detection of HPV in urethral specimens is not related to the number of sexual partners, condom usage, racial origin or past history of genital warts. HPV DNA in the urethral swab and urine specimens may represent different aspects of the epidemiology of HPV in the male genital tract. The preponderance of HPV types 16 and 18 in all three groups of men may be relevant to the concept of the "high risk male". Images

Hillman, R J; Ryait, B K; Botcherby, M; Taylor-Robinson, D

1993-01-01

66

An analysis of Texas's school based HPV vaccine mandate: A public health risk communication failure: HPVETO!  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) is of public health concern because persistent infection with certain HPV types can cause cervical cancer. In response to a nationwide push for cervical cancer legislation, Texas Governor Rick Perry bypassed the traditional legislative process and issued an executive order mandating compulsory HPV vaccinations for all female public school students prior to their entrance in the

Justine Kerri Fanarof

2009-01-01

67

The HPV Vaccine: Framing the Arguments "for" and "against" Mandatory Vaccination of All Middle School Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV), the virus responsible for cervical cancer, is the most common viral sexually transmitted infection in the United States. A vaccine was approved in 2006 that is effective in preventing the types of HPV responsible for 70% of cervical cancers and 90% of genital warts. Proposals for routine and mandatory HPV

Vamos, Cheryl A.; McDermott, Robert J.; Daley, Ellen M.

2008-01-01

68

Enhanced Detection and Typing of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in Anogenital Samples with PGMY Primers and the Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Roche PGMY primer-based research prototype line blot assay (PGMY-LB) is a convenient tool in epidemi- ological studies for the detection and typing of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA. This assay has been optimized and is being commercialized as the Linear Array HPV genotyping test (LA-HPV). We assessed the agreement between LA-HPV and PGMY-LB for detection and typing of 37 HPV

Francois Coutlee; Danielle Rouleau; Patrick Petignat; Georges Ghattas; Janet R. Kornegay; Peter Schlag; Sean Boyle; Catherine Hankins; Sylvie Vezina; Pierre Cote; John Macleod; Helene Voyer; Sharon Walmsley; Eduardo Franco

69

Epidemiology of recurrent genital herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To describe the epidemiology of type specific recurrent genital herpes, and to compare the duration of recurrent genital lesions caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2.Methods: Participants were enrolled at clinics across the United States. Adults suspected of having active genital herpes were eligible. Lesions were cultured for HSV and typed. Data from 940 participants with

L Solomon; M J Cannon; M Reyes; J M Graber; N T Wetherall; W C Reeves

2003-01-01

70

Male circumcision and prevalence of genital human papillomavirus infection in men: a multinational study  

PubMed Central

Background Accumulated evidence from epidemiological studies and more recently from randomized controlled trials suggests that male circumcision (MC) may substantially protect against genital HPV infection in men. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between MC and genital HPV infection in men in a large multinational study. Methods A total of 4072 healthy men ages 18–70?years were enrolled in a study conducted in Brazil, Mexico, and the United States. Enrollment samples combining exfoliated cells from the coronal sulcus, glans penis, shaft, and scrotum were analyzed for the presence and genotyping of HPV DNA by PCR and linear array methods. Prevalence ratios (PR) were used to estimate associations between MC and HPV detection adjusting for potential confounders. Results MC was not associated with overall prevalence of any HPV, oncogenic HPV types or unclassified HPV types. However, MC was negatively associated with non-oncogenic HPV infections (PR 0.85, 95% confident interval: 0.76-0.95), in particular for HPV types 11, 40, 61, 71, and 81. HPV 16, 51, 62, and 84 were the most frequently identified genotypes regardless of MC status. Conclusions This study shows no overall association between MC and genital HPV infections in men, except for certain non-oncogenic HPV types for which a weak association was found. However, the lack of association with MC might be due to the lack of anatomic site specific HPV data, for example the glans penis, the area expected to be most likely protected by MC.

2013-01-01

71

Immunobiology of HPV and HPV vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection with both low- and high-risk types is common, but most infections resolve as a result of a cell-mediated immune response. Failure to induce an effective immune response is related to inefficient activation of innate immunity and ineffective priming of the adaptive immune response; this defective immune response facilitates viral persistence, a key feature of high-risk

Margaret Stanley

2008-01-01

72

The Physical State of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 DNA in Benign and Malignant Genital Tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Cloned DNA from human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 was subjected to restriction enzyme analysis. A genome size of 7.8 + 0.1 kb was determined and restriction maps were prepared. Fragments of HPV 16 DNA were nick-translated and hybridized with fragments of HPV 6b DNA. The two genomes appeared to be colinear. The physical state of HPV 16 DNA in

MATTHIAS DURST; ANDREAS KLEINHEINZ; MARLIES HOTZ; LUTZ GISSMANN

1985-01-01

73

Prevalence of single and multiple HPV types in cervical carcinomas in Jakarta, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. Cervical cancer is the second most frequently occurring type of cancer in women worldwide. A persistent infection with high- risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary causal factor in cervical carcinogenesis. The distribution of HPV types in populations has been studied worldwide. In Indonesia, however, few data are available describing the prevalence of HPV. Cervical carcinoma is the most

Maaike C. Schellekens; Anneke Dijkman; Mohammad Farid Aziz; Budiningsih Siregar; Santoso Cornain; Sandra Kolkman-Uljee; Lex A. W. Peters; Gert Jan Fleurena

2004-01-01

74

Prevalence of single and multiple HPV types in cervical carcinomas in Jakarta, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. Cervical cancer is the second most frequently occurring type of cancer in women worldwide. A persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary causal factor in cervical carcinogenesis. The distribution of HPV types in populations has been studied worldwide.In Indonesia, however, few data are available describing the prevalence of HPV. Cervical carcinoma is the most common female

Maaike C Schellekens; Anneke Dijkman; Mohammad Farid Aziz; Budiningsih Siregar; Santoso Cornain; Sandra Kolkman-Uljee; Lex A. W Peters; Gert Jan Fleuren

2004-01-01

75

Monoclonal Antibodies to HPV6 L1 Virus-like Particles Identify Conformational and Linear Neutralizing Epitopes on HPV11 in Addition to Type-Specific Epitopes on HPV6  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of 13 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was generated against HPV-6 L1 virus-like particles (VLPs), screened for reactivity to HPV-6 and HPV-11 L1 VLPs by ELISA, and tested for neutralization of HPV-11 infection. Both cross-reactive and type-specific epitopes were detected such that 4 of 13 MAbs reacted to surface conformational sites on HPV-6 L1 VLPs and the remaining 9 MAbs

Neil D. Christensen; Cynthia A. Reed; Nancy M. Cladel; Kathleen Hall; Gary S. Leiserowitz

1996-01-01

76

Molecular epidemiology of herpes simplex virus type 1 genital infection in association with clinical manifestations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?The antigenic types of herpes simplex virus (HSV), HSV-1 and HSV-2 are considered to be the etiology of genital herpes. Symptoms\\u000a of primary HSV-1 and HSV-2 genital infections are similar, however, recurrence of the infection is less frequent after the\\u000a HSV-1-related genital infection. We determined genotypes of 79 HSV-1 strains isolated from genital lesions in women (43 from\\u000a primary and

K. Umene; T. Kawana

2000-01-01

77

Hand-genital transmission of genital warts? An analysis of prevalence data.  

PubMed Central

The role of hand-genital transmission in the aetiology of genital warts is unclear. However this route is suggested by a number of observations including the relatively high proportion of genital warts in children which contain HPV types 1-4 (15% for children and 2% for adults). We compared two transmission models; one which assumes that hand-genital transmission occurs and one that it does not, and determined the conditions in which each model can reflect the available prevalence data. Hand-genital transmission provides a simple explanation of the observed differences in the proportions of genital warts containing HPV types 1-4 and 6/11 in children and adults. If hand-genital transmission does not occur, the observed difference could only be explained by an eightfold greater probability of transmission to children of types 1-4 than types 6/11, or by an eightfold greater duration of infection with types 1-4. Our findings provide support for the view that genital warts may be transmitted by hand-genital contact.

Fairley, C. K.; Gay, N. J.; Forbes, A.; Abramson, M.; Garland, S. M.

1995-01-01

78

Global Stability of Equilibria in a Two-Sex HPV Vaccination Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the primary cause of cervical carcinoma and its precursor lesions, and is associated with a\\u000a variety of other cancers and diseases. A prophylactic quadrivalent vaccine against oncogenic HPV 16\\/18 and warts-causing genital\\u000a HPV 6\\/11 types is currently available in several countries. Licensure of a bivalent vaccine against oncogenic HPV 16\\/18 is\\u000a expected in the near future. This

Elamin H. Elbasha

2008-01-01

79

Epidemiology of Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it is difficult to estimate the overall prevalence of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, current figures suggest that visible genital warts are present in approximately 1% of sexually active adults in the United States and that at least 15% have subclinical infection, as detected by HPV DNA assays. Genital HPV infection is thus extremely common. The highest rates of

1997-01-01

80

The Elevated 10Year Risk of Cervical Precancer and Cancer in Women With Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Type 16 or 18 and the Possible Utility of Type-Specifi c HPV Testing in Clinical Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 cause 60% - 70% of cervical cancer worldwide, and other HPV types cause virtually all remaining cases. Pooled HPV testing for 13 oncogenic types, including HPV16 and 18, is currently used in clinical practice for triage of equivocal cytology and, in conjunction with Pap tests, is an option for general screening among

Michelle J. Khan; Philip E. Castle; Attila T. Lorincz; Sholom Wacholder; David R. Scott; Brenda B. Rush; Andrew G. Glass; Mark Schiffman

81

Mandating the HPV vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. HPV is the underlying cause of cervical cancer, a malignant tumor of the female genital tract. Each year, cervical cancer is newly diagnosed in approximately 10,000 women, and over 3,000 women die from the malignancy. In addition, HPV is implicated as a cause of other cancers involving the genital tract, male and female, and the head and neck. ^

Taylor Lowe Hartley

2008-01-01

82

Three novel papillomaviruses (HPV109, HPV112 and HPV114) and their presence in cutaneous and mucosal samples.  

PubMed

To expand our knowledge of the genomic diversity of human papillomaviruses (HPVs), we searched for new HPVs in squamous cell carcinomas of the skin (SCC) and seemingly HPV-negative, otherwise typically HPV-associated lesions. We describe the characterization of three novel HPV types. HPV109 was isolated from an SCC, HPV112 from a condyloma and HPV114 from a low-grade cervical lesion. Pairwise alignment of the L1 sequences classified HPV114 to genus alpha species 3, whereas HPV112 defined a new species in the genus gamma. HPV109 had uncertain classification because of a low and about equal similarity in the L1 gene (between 60% and 65%) to different genera. Type-specific real-time PCRs of cervical samples, a majority from women with low grade atypical cytology, (n=2856) and various cutaneous samples (n=538), found HPV114 in 1.7% (48/2856) of the genital samples, whereas both HPV109 and 112 were rare viruses found at high viral loads only in their index samples. PMID:19969321

Ekström, Johanna; Forslund, Ola; Dillner, Joakim

2009-12-06

83

Genital Warts  

MedlinePLUS

Genital warts are a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). The warts are soft, moist, pink, or flesh-colored bumps. ... or many of these bumps. In women, the warts usually occur in or around the vagina, on ...

84

Sulfated K5 Escherichia coli Polysaccharide Derivatives as Wide-Range Inhibitors of Genital Types of Human Papillomavirus?  

PubMed Central

Genital human papillomaviruses (HPV) represent the most common sexually transmitted agents and are classified into low or high risk by their propensity to cause genital warts or cervical cancer, respectively. Topical microbicides against HPV may be a useful adjunct to the newly licensed HPV vaccine. A main objective in the development of novel microbicides is to block HPV entry into epithelial cells through cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans. In this study, selective chemical modification of the Escherichia coli K5 capsular polysaccharide was integrated with innovative biochemical and biological assays to prepare a collection of sulfated K5 derivatives with a backbone structure resembling the heparin/heparan biosynthetic precursor and to test them for their anti-HPV activity. Surface plasmon resonance assays revealed that O-sulfated K5 with a high degree of sulfation [K5-OS(H)] and N,O-sulfated K5 with a high [K5-N,OS(H)] or low [K5-N,OS(L)] sulfation degree, but not unmodified K5, N-sulfated K5, and O-sulfated K5 with low levels of sulfation, prevented the interaction between HPV-16 pseudovirions and immobilized heparin. In cell-based assays, K5-OS(H), K5-N,OS(H), and K5-N,OS(L) inhibited HPV-16, HPV-18, and HPV-6 pseudovirion infection. Their 50% inhibitory concentration was between 0.1 and 0.9 ?g/ml, without evidence of cytotoxicity. These findings provide insights into the design of novel, safe, and broad-spectrum microbicides against genital HPV infections.

Lembo, David; Donalisio, Manuela; Rusnati, Marco; Bugatti, Antonella; Cornaglia, Maura; Cappello, Paola; Giovarelli, Mirella; Oreste, Pasqua; Landolfo, Santo

2008-01-01

85

Prevalence of type-specific HPV infection by age and grade of cervical cytology: data from the ARTISTIC trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection causes cervical cancer and premalignant dysplasia. Type-specific HPV prevalence data provide a basis for assessing the impact of HPV vaccination programmes on cervical cytology. We report high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) type-specific prevalence data in relation to cervical cytology for 24 510 women (age range: 20–64; mean age 40.2 years) recruited into the ARTISTIC trial, which is being

A Sargent; A Bailey; M Almonte; A Turner; C Thomson; J Peto; M Desai; J Mather; S Moss; C Roberts; H C Kitchener

2008-01-01

86

Differential dependence on host cell glycosaminoglycans for infection of epithelial cells by high-risk HPV types.  

PubMed

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the leading cause of cervical cancer world-wide. Here, we show that native HPV particles produced in a differentiated epithelium have developed different strategies to infect the host. Using biochemical inhibition assays and glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-negative cells, we show that of the four most common cancer-causing HPV types, HPV18, HPV31, and HPV45 are largely dependent on GAGs to initiate infection. In contrast, HPV16 can bind and enter through a GAG-independent mechanism. Infections of primary human keratinocytes, natural host cells for HPV infections, support our conclusions. Further, this renders the different virus types differentially susceptible to carrageenan, a microbicide targeting virus entry. Our data demonstrates that ordered maturation of papillomavirus particles in a differentiating epithelium may alter the virus entry mechanism. This study should facilitate a better understanding of the attachment and infection by the main oncogenic HPV types, and development of inhibitors of HPV infection. PMID:23861898

Cruz, Linda; Meyers, Craig

2013-07-04

87

Low avidity of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 antibodies is associated with increased risk of low-risk but not high-risk HPV type prevalence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Low avidity of antibodies against viral, bacterial and parasitic agents has been used for differential diagnosis of acute\\u000a versus recent\\/past infections. The low-avidity antibodies may however, persist for a longer period in some individuals.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Findings  We studied the association of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 antibody avidity with seroprevalence to HPV types 6\\/11\\/18\\/31\\/33\\/45.\\u000a Antibody avidity was analysed for 365 HPV16 seropositive

Proscovia B Namujju; Lea Hedman; Klaus Hedman; Cecily Banura; Edward K Mbidde; Dennison Kizito; Romano N Byaruhanga; Moses Muwanga; Reinhard Kirnbauer; Heljä-Marja Surcel; Matti Lehtinen

2011-01-01

88

Analysis of Herpes Simplex Virus-Specific T Cells in the Murine Female Genital Tract Following Genital Infection with Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

A murine model of genital infection with a thymidine kinase-deficient (tk-) strain of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was utilized to examine the development of the local T cell response in the genital mucosa and draining genital lymph nodes (gLN). HSV-specific cytokine-secreting T cells were detected in the gLN 4 days postintravaginal inoculation but not in the urogenital tract

Gregg N. Milligan; David I. Bernstein

1995-01-01

89

Vulvar and vaginal HPV disease.  

PubMed

Human papilloma virus is associated with a multitude of lower genital tract diseases in women in addition to cervical cancer, including genital warts, vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia, and some vulvar, vaginal, and anal cancers that are associated with oncogenic subtypes. The degree to which HPV manifests pathology depends on viral type, host immune response, and local environmental factors. This article reviews the evaluation and management of the following vulvar and vaginal human papilloma virus diseases: condyloma, vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia. Included is a brief discussion of the association with vulvar and vaginal cancer. PMID:23732036

Nelson, Erin L; Stockdale, Colleen K

2013-06-01

90

Strategies for Fostering HPV Vaccine Acceptance  

PubMed Central

Vaccines that protect against infection with the types of human papillomavirus (HPV) commonly associated with cervical cancer (HPV 16 and 18) and genital warts (HPV 6 and 11) are expected to become available in the near future. Because HPV vaccines are prophylactic, they must be administered prior to exposure to the virus, ideally during preadolescence or adolescence. The young age of the target vaccination population means that physicians, parents, and patients will all be involved in the decision-making process. Research has shown that parents and patients are more likely to accept a vaccine if it is efficacious, safe, reasonably priced, and recommended by a physician.Widespread education of physicians, patients, and parents about the risks and consequences of HPV infection and the benefits of vaccination will be instrumental for fostering vaccine acceptance.

Gonik, Bernard

2006-01-01

91

Impact of Vaccination on 14 High-Risk HPV Type Infections: A Mathematical Modelling Approach  

PubMed Central

The development of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) infection to cervical cancer is a complicated process. We considered solely hrHPV infections, thus avoiding the confounding effects of disease progression, screening, and treatments. To analyse hrHPV epidemiology and to estimate the overall impact of vaccination against infections with hrHPVs, we developed a dynamic compartmental transmission model for single and multiple infections with 14 hrHPV types. The infection-related parameters were estimated using population-based sexual behaviour and hrHPV prevalence data from Finland. The analysis disclosed the important role of persistent infections in hrHPV epidemiology, provided further evidence for a significant natural immunity, and demonstrated the dependence of transmission probability estimates on the model structure. The model predicted that vaccinating girls at 80% coverage will result in a 55% reduction in the overall hrHPV prevalence and a higher 65% reduction in the prevalence of persistent hrHPV infections in females. In males, the reduction will be 42% in the hrHPV prevalence solely by the herd effect from the 80% coverage in girls. If such high coverage among girls is not reached, it is still possible to reduce the female hrHPV prevalence indirectly by the herd effect if also boys are included in the vaccination program. On the other hand, any herd effects in older unvaccinated cohorts were minor. Limiting the epidemiological model to infection yielded improved understanding of the hrHPV epidemiology and of mechanisms with which vaccination impacts on hrHPV infections.

Vanska, Simopekka; Auranen, Kari; Leino, Tuija; Salo, Heini; Nieminen, Pekka; Kilpi, Terhi; Tiihonen, Petri; Apter, Dan; Lehtinen, Matti

2013-01-01

92

Mother-infant transfer of anti-human papillomavirus (HPV) antibodies following vaccination with the quadrivalent HPV (type 6/11/16/18) virus-like particle vaccine.  

PubMed

The exploratory immunogenicity objective of this analysis was to characterize the titer of vaccine human papillomavirus (HPV)-type immunoglobulins in both peripartum maternal blood and the cord blood of infants born to women who received blinded therapy. Data were derived from a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy study (protocol 019; NCT00090220). This study enrolled 3,819 women between the ages of 24 and 45 years from 38 international study sites between 18 June 2004 and 30 April 2005. Data in the current analysis are from subjects enrolled in Philippines and Thailand. For each of HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18, maternal anti-HPV was found in cord blood samples. Furthermore, HPV titers in cord blood samples were highly positively correlated with maternal HPV titers. Additionally, there were instances when anti-HPV antibodies were no longer detectable in maternal serum samples and yet were detected in matched cord blood samples. These results demonstrate that quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccine-induced antibodies cross the placenta and could potentially provide some benefit against vaccine-type HPV infection and related diseases such as recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. PMID:22518014

Matys, Katie; Mallary, Sara; Bautista, Oliver; Vuocolo, Scott; Manalastas, Ricardo; Pitisuttithum, Punee; Saah, Alfred

2012-04-18

93

Vaccines for preventing HPV-related anogenital infection and neoplasia.  

PubMed

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common sexually transmitted pathogen. Although most anogenital HPV infections resolve within several years, persistent infection may lead to neoplasia of the cervix, vagina, vulva, anus, and penis, and also genital warts. High-risk HPV types 16 and 18 are known to cause approximately 70% of all cervical cancers, and low-risk HPV types 6 and 11 are the main causes of genital warts. Prophylactic HPV vaccines have the potential to block the acquisition of HPV and hence subsequent development of anogenital neoplasia. Results from several clinical trials have demonstrated that the HPV L1 virus-like-particle vaccines are safe and highly immunogenic. These trials have documented a 100% vaccine efficacy in prevention of persistent HPV infection and, more important, of HPV-associated anogenital neoplasia in per-protocol analyses. Widespread vaccination of sexually naïve preadolescent children could substantially reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with anogenital malignancies. Furthermore, such a primary prevention program would also reduce healthcare costs. PMID:16729555

Ferris, Daron G

2006-03-01

94

Diversity and uncommon HPV types in HIV seropositive and seronegative women attending an STI clinic  

PubMed Central

Given the causal relationship between specific types of HPV with cervical cancer and precursor lesions, it is important to identify the viral type involved. The aim of this study is to access the prevalence of HPV types in HIV seropositive and seronegative women. Accordingly, 77 HPV positive cervical samples were obtained from 284 women (seropositive (n=112) and seronegative (n=172) for HIV) who attended a Sexually Transmitted Infection clinic, in Vitoria, Southeastern Brazil. Viral DNA was amplified by PCR using MY09/MY11 degenerated primers and the genotyping was performed by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism. Seventy five out of the 77 HPV samples were genotyped: 6, 11, 13, 16, 18, 26, 31, 31b, 32, 33, 34, 35, 52, 53, 55, 56, 58, 59, 61, 62, 64, 66, 71, 81, 83, 84. The most prevalent type was HPV16 followed by HPV types 6, 11 and 53. Fifty five percent and 45% belonged to high and low risk types, respectively. High risk types corresponded to 59% and 54.5% of the HPV detected in HIV seronegative and seropositive women, respectively. The uncommon HPV 13 type in cervical samples was also observed in this study. The oncogenic types were more common in the HIV seronegative samples and the number of cases with multiple infections was similar for the two groups. HPV typing is not only important clinically for the establishment of monitoring and treatment of a patient, it also provides knowledge of the viral types circulating in a population, which is of interest in the development of prevention and treatment programs for this disease.

de Mattos, Adriana Tonani; de Freitas, Luciana Bueno; Lima, Bettina Moulin Coelho; Miranda, Angelica Espinosa; Spano, Liliana Cruz

2011-01-01

95

Reducing the economic burden of HPV-related diseases.  

PubMed

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a common sexually transmitted infection that is often acquired at the onset of sexual activity. Risk factors include younger age at time of sexual debut, sexual behavior, intact foreskin, and immunologic status. Persistent infection with high-risk oncogenic HPV types (especially 16 and 18) is associated with cervical cancer, other anogenital diseases, as well as some head and neck cancers. Infection with low-risk HPV types is associated with genital warts, low-grade dysplasias, and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. Screening and management of HPV-related diseases incur high healthcare costs. Whereas routine screening of female patients with Papanicolaou tests helps prevent advanced stages of cancer through early detection and treatment, the recently developed HPV L1 capsid protein virus-like particle vaccines offer an option for prevention of HPV-related diseases, including cervical cancer. PMID:18463361

Mayeaux, Edward John

2008-04-01

96

Determinants of Genital Human Papillomavirus Detection in a US Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the association of selected demographic and behavioral characteristics with the detection of low-risk, high-risk, and uncharacterized genital human papillomavirus (HPV) in women attending clinic for routine nonreferral gynecologic health care. Cervical speci- mens obtained from 3863 women 18-40 years old (mean, 28 years) with no history of high- grade cervical disease were analyzed for 38 HPV types.

Meifen Zhao

2001-01-01

97

Prophylactic HPV vaccines: Reducing the burden of HPV-related diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

HPV-associated diseases, such as cervical and other anogenital cancers, cervical and anal intraepithelial neoplasia, genital warts, and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis confer considerable morbidity and mortality, and are significant health care concerns. Successful vaccination strategies that protect against HPV infection are expected to substantially reduce HPV-related disease burden. Prophylactic HPV vaccines in late stages of clinical testing are composed of HPV

Luisa Lina Villa

2006-01-01

98

[Molecular variants of human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 in adenocarcinomas of the cervix].  

PubMed

Human Papillomavirus (HPV), placebo clinical trial particularly types 16 and 18, are considered human carcinogens since an etiological association has been demonstrated between these viruses and the development of cervical cancer. While the viral role in squamous carcinoma has been largely studied, the information available on adenocarcinoma is scarce, partly because of its lower frequency. In this paper we investigated the presence of HPV types and intratype variants in adenocarcinomas of the cervix. A total of 23 archive samples, fixed and paraffin embedded biopsies, were included. The detection and viral typing was performed by generic PCR and subsequent single stranded conformational polymorphism analysis (SSCP). Genetic variability was investigated in a 450 bp-fragment corresponding to L1 gene by post-PCR direct sequencing. We detected 11 HPV 16 positive samples (9 prototypes and 2 variants: 1 European and 1 Asiatic-American), 10 HPV 18 (9 prototypes and 1 European variant), 1 HPV 31 and 1 negative. The high risk HPV association with this neoplasia was confirmed with a high prevalence (43%) of HPV 18, (but) without predominance over the other types as previously published. The demonstrated variability in L1 protein epitopes originated aminoacidic changes which could have implications on the immune response and therefore should be considered in a vaccine design. PMID:11436697

Picconi, M A; Alonio, L V; García Carrancá, A; Lizano, M; Cervantes Vazquez, G; Distefano, A L; Mural, J; Bazan, G; Teyssie, A R

2000-01-01

99

HPV Vaccine and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... HPV? Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common infection that is transmitted by skin to skin sexual contact. HPV is not just one virus. There are over 200 different kinds of HPV. It is thought that at least ... have no symptoms of HPV infection and no related health problems. However, some types ...

100

Type I Interferon Signaling Exacerbates Chlamydia muridarum Genital Infection in a Murine Model?  

PubMed Central

Type I interferons (IFNs) induced during in vitro chlamydial infection exert bactericidal and immunomodulatory functions. To determine the precise role of type I IFNs during in vivo chlamydial genital infection, we examined the course and outcome of Chlamydia muridarum genital infection in mice genetically deficient in the receptor for type I IFNs (IFNAR?/? mice). A significant reduction in chlamydial shedding and duration of lower genital tract infection was observed in IFNAR?/? mice in comparison to the level of chlamydial shedding and duration of infection in wild-type (WT) mice. Furthermore, IFNAR?/? mice developed less chronic oviduct pathology in comparison to that in WT mice. Compared to the WT, IFNAR?/? mice had a greater number of chlamydial-specific T cells in their iliac lymph nodes 21 days postinfection. IFNAR?/? mice also exhibited earlier and enhanced CD4 T-cell recruitment to the cervical tissues, which was associated with increased expression of CXCL9 in the genital secretions of IFNAR?/? mice, but not with expression of CXCL10, which was reduced in the genital secretions of IFNAR?/? mice. These data suggest that type I IFNs exacerbate C. muridarum genital infection through an inhibition of the chlamydial-specific CD4 T-cell response.

Nagarajan, Uma M.; Prantner, Daniel; Sikes, James D.; Andrews, Charles W.; Goodwin, Anna M.; Nagarajan, Shanmugam; Darville, Toni

2008-01-01

101

Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection in children and adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human papilloma viruses (HPV) are common pathogens associated with a wide range of cutaneous and mucosal infections in childhood.\\u000a Different HPV types can cause common warts, genital warts, low-grade as well as high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions.\\u000a Anogenital warts represent an issue with legal and clinical implications and evaluation of children for the possibility of\\u000a sexual abuse should be considered in

Ioannis N. Mammas; George Sourvinos; Demetrios A. Spandidos

2009-01-01

102

HPV: diagnosis, prevention, and treatment.  

PubMed

Human papilloma virus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted disease in the world. Almost 80% of the world's population is exposed by the age of 50. HPV can cause oropharyngeal, genital, and anal cancers. It also causes genital warts. There is no cure for HPV but vaccines are available to prevent infection by the most common HPV viruses; unfortunately, usage is low. Most people will clear HPV spontaneously. Those who do not are at high risk for developing malignancy. Treatment mainstays are destruction and excision of the lesions. PMID:22828099

Hathaway, Jon K

2012-09-01

103

Comparison of the immunogenicity of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 vaccine and the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine for oncogenic non-vaccine types HPV-31 and HPV-45 in healthy women aged 18-45 years  

PubMed Central

Protection against oncogenic non-vaccine types (cross-protection) offered by human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines may provide a significant medical benefit. Available clinical efficacy data suggest the two licensed vaccines [HPV-16/18 vaccine, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals (GSK), and HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine, Merck and Co., Inc.,] differ in terms of protection against oncogenic non-vaccine HPV types -31/45. The immune responses induced by the two vaccines against these two non-vaccine HPV types (cross-reactivity) was compared in an observer-blind study up to Month 24 (18 mo postvaccination), in women HPV DNA-negative and seronegative prior to vaccination for the HPV type analyzed [HPV-010 (NCT00423046)]. Geometric mean antibody titers (GMTs) measured by pseudovirion-based neutralization assay (PBNA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA ) were similar between vaccines for HPV-31/45. Seropositivity rates for HPV-31 were also similar between vaccines; however, there was a trend for higher seropositivity with the HPV-16/18 vaccine (13.0–16.7%) vs. the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (0.0–5.0%) for HPV-45 with PBNA, but not ELISA . HPV-31/45 cross-reactive memory B-cell responses were comparable between vaccines. Circulating antigen-specific CD4+ T-cell frequencies were higher for the HPV-16/18 vaccine than the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine {HPV-31 [geometric mean ratio (GMR) = 2.0; p = 0.0002] and HPV-45 [GMR = 2.6; p = 0.0092]}, as were the proportion of T-cell responders (HPV-31, p = 0.0009; HPV-45, p = 0.0793). In conclusion, immune response to oncogenic non-vaccine HPV types -31/45 was generally similar for both vaccines with the exception of T-cell response which was higher with the HPV-16/18 vaccine. Considering the differences in cross-protective efficacy between the two vaccines, the results might provide insights into the underlying mechanism(s) of protection.

Baron, Mira; Levin, Myron J; Chatterjee, Archana; Fox, Bradley; Scholar, Sofia; Rosen, Jeffrey; Chakhtoura, Nahida; Lebacq, Marie; van der Most, Robbert; Moris, Philippe; Giannini, Sandra L; Schuind, Anne; Datta, Sanjoy K; Descamps, Dominique

2011-01-01

104

HPV type distribution in invasive cervical cancers in Italy: pooled analysis of three large studies  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study is to describe the prevalence of HPV types in invasive cervical cancers in Italy from 1996 to 2008. Methods A pooled analysis of the three largest case series typed to date was performed. HPV typing was performed on paraffin-embedded slices. Molecular analyses were performed in four laboratories. Multivariate analyses were performed to test the associations between calendar time, age, and geographical area and the proportion of types 16/18. Results Out of 574 cancers, 24 (4.2%) were HPV negative. HPV 16 and 18 were responsible for 74.4% (378/508) and 80.3% (49/61) of the squamous cancers and adenocarcinomas, respectively. Other frequent types were 31 (9.5%), 45 (6.4%), and 58 (3.3%) for squamous cancers and 45 (13.3%), 31, 35, and 58 (5.0%) for adenocarcinomas. The proportion of HPV 16 and/or 18 decreased with age (p-value for trend <0.03), while it increased in cancers diagnosed in more recent years (p-value for trend?HPV 16/18 vaccine on cervical cancer will be greater for early onset cancers. In vaccinated women, screening could be started at an older age without reducing protection.

2012-01-01

105

Breast cancer and human papillomavirus infection: No evidence of HPV etiology of breast cancer in Indian women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Two clinically relevant high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) types 16 and 18 are etiologically associated with the development of cervical carcinoma and are also reported to be present in many other carcinomas in extra-genital organ sites. Presence of HPV has been reported in breast carcinoma which is the second most common cancer in India and is showing a fast rising trend

Suresh Hedau; Umesh Kumar; Showket Hussain; Shirish Shukla; Shailja Pande; Neeraj Jain; Abhishek Tyagi; Trivikram Deshpande; Dilafroze Bhat; Mohammad Muzaffar Mir; Sekhar Chakraborty; Y Mohan Singh; Rakesh Kumar; Kumaravel Somasundaram; Alok C Bharti; Bhudev C Das

2011-01-01

106

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Genotyping Using Paired Exfoliated Cervicovaginal Cells and Paraffin-Embedded Tissues To Highlight Difficulties in Attributing HPV Types to Specific Lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defining type-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) infections within cervical tissues is important for understanding the pathogenesis of cervical neoplasia and assessing the effectiveness of prophylactic vaccines with limited type-specific spectra. We compared HPV DNA-testing results from 146 matched exfoliated-cell and formalin-fixed-tissue specimens collected by cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) within 90 days of each other from women with histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial lesions

Patti E. Gravitt; Leen Jan van Doorn; Wim Quint; Mark Schiffman; Allan Hildesheim; Andrew G. Glass; Brenda B. Rush; Jared Hellman; Mark E. Sherman; Robert D. Burk; Sophia S. Wang

107

Title: HPV genotyping using paired exfoliated cervicovaginal cells and paraffin-embedded tissues highlights difficulties in attributing HPV types to specific lesions. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract 1 Background: Defining type-specific HPV infections within cervical tissues is important for 2 understanding the pathogenesis of cervical neoplasia and assessing the effectiveness of 3 prophylactic vaccines with limited type-specific spectra. Methods,: We compared,HPV DNA 4 testing results from 146 matched cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) collected exfoliated cell and 5 formalin-fixed tissue specimens collected within 90 days of each other

Patti E. Gravitt; Leen Jan van Doorn; Wim Quint; Mark Schiffman; Andrew G. Glass; Brenda B. Rush; Jared Hellman; Mark E. Sherman

2007-01-01

108

Human papillomavirus (HPV) cofactors by disease progression and HPV types in the Study to Understand Cervical Cancer Early Endpoints and Determinants (SUCCEED)  

PubMed Central

HPV cofactors for cervical cancer include smoking, multiparity, and oral contraceptive use, but their mechanisms of action are not fully understood. It is also unknown whether cofactors vary by HPV genotypes. The Study to Understand Cervical Cancer Early Endpoints and Determinants (SUCCEED) is a cross-sectional study comprising women referred to the University of Oklahoma from November 2003 to September 2007 for abnormal cervical screening results. Detailed questionnaire data and liquid cytology specimens were collected and the latter genotyped for HPV using the LINEAR ARRAY® HPV Genotyping Test. The present analysis includes women with both questionnaire and HPV data and diagnosed with HPV types and cofactors among HPV-infected women by calculating odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for CIN3 and CIN2 separately compared to HPV-infected women with minor histologic or cytologic abnormalities (e.g.,CIN1,ASCUS,LSIL) were indistinguishable from those with normal histology/cytology, and were thus combined to form the referent group(HPV, current smokers had a 2.5-fold increased risk for CIN3 (95%CI=1.8–3.6) compared to nonsmokers. Among HPV16- infected women, current smokers had elevated risk for both CIN2 (OR=1.9,95%CI=1.1–3.2) and CIN3 (OR=2.7,95%CI=1.6–4.6). Our data suggest that non-HPV16-related CIN2 likely reflects a combination of CIN1 and CIN3 diagnosis, whereas HPV16-related CIN2 likely indicates a precancerous state. Investigations on the molecular distinctions along the disease continuum of cervical pathogenesis by HPV type are needed.

Wang, Sophia S.; Zuna, Rosemary E.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Dunn, S. Terence; Sherman, Mark E.; Gold, Michael A.; Schiffman, Mark; Wacholder, Sholom; Allen, Richard A.; Block, Ingrid; Downing, Kim; Jeronimo, Jose; Carreon, J. Daniel; Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Brown, David; Walker, Joan L.

2010-01-01

109

Seroepidemiology and control of genital herpes: the value of type specific antibodies to herpes simplex virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional serological techniques cannot discriminate between antibodies specific to HSV types 1 and 2, so these methods cannot be used in the seroepidemiological investigation of genital herpes infections. The discovery of type specific antigens in HSV-1 and HSV-2, most notably glycoprotein G (gG), has been successfully exploited to develop assays for the detection of type specific HSV antibody. The presence

M J Slomka; J P Webster

110

HPV vaccination and cervical cancer.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide and often affects women under 40 years with young families. Vaccination against the human papillomavirus (HPV) is a major advance, since it offers primary prevention against the infectious agent that is the main cause of the disease. Two prophylactic vaccines have shown great promise in clinical trials. One of these (Gardasil(®)) contains all four HPV types, offering protection against genital warts (types 6 and 11) as well as cervical cancer (types 16 and 18). The other (Cervarix(®)) contains types 16 and 18, targeting cervical cancer alone, but also has a degree of cross-protection against types 31 and 45, which could significantly increase the level of protection. Adolescent girls remain the primary target of vaccination programmes, but the issues of vaccinating boys and older women are increasingly debated. PMID:22890794

Szarewski, Anne

2012-12-01

111

Prospective study of genital human papillomaviruses and nonmelanoma skin cancer.  

PubMed

Genital high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) cause cervical cancer and are also found in a small proportion of nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs). We used cancer registry linkages to follow the 856,000 serum donors included in the Southern Sweden Microbiology Biobank or the Janus Biobank in Norway, for incident skin cancers occurring up to 30 years after serum donation. Serum samples taken before diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (N = 633), basal cell carcinoma (BCC) (N = 1990) or other NMSC (N = 153) and matched samples from control donors were tested for antibodies to the genital HPV types 16 and 18. Both HPV 16 and 18 were associated with increased risk for SCC [odds ratio (OR) 1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-2.6 and OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.5, respectively] and other NMSC (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.0-5.2 and OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.4-8.7, respectively), but not for BCC. Tumor blocks from HPV16 or 18 seropositive cases were tested with real-time polymerase chain reaction for presence of HPV16 or 18 DNA. No HPV18 DNA was found and only four of 79 SCC cases (two of which were from the perineum/perianal area), one of 221 BCC cases and zero of five cases with other NMSC contained HPV16 DNA. In conclusion, we found prospective evidence that HPV16 and 18 antibodies associate with SCC and other NMSC risk, but not with BCC risk. As only a small proportion of seropositive subjects had evidence of the corresponding HPV DNA in the tumor, most of this excess risk is likely to be due to confounders associated with genital HPV infection. PMID:23553409

Andersson, Kristin; Luostarinen, Tapio; Strand, Anna Söderlund; Langseth, Hilde; Gislefoss, Randi E; Forslund, Ola; Pawlita, Michael; Waterboer, Tim; Dillner, Joakim

2013-04-25

112

Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 11 recombinant virus-like particles induce the formation of neutralizing antibodies and detect HPV-specific antibodies in human sera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombinant human papillomavirus type 11 (HPV-11) virus-like particles (VLPs) were tested for their ability to induce the formation of neutralizing antibodies, and were also tested for serodiagnostic capabilities in an ELISA in comparison with HPV-11 whole virions. VLPs, purified by CsC1 density gradient centrifugation from the cell-free supernatant of AcllLl-infected Sf9 suspension cell cultures, were used to immunize rabbits and

Robert C. Rose; R. C. Reichman; William Bonnez I

1994-01-01

113

HPV types and cofactors causing cervical cancer in Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a hospital-based case-control study in Peru of 198 women with histologically confirmed cervical cancer (173 squamous cell carcinomas and 25 cases of adenocarcinoma\\/adenosquamous carcinoma) and 196 control women. Information on risk factors was obtained by personal interview. Using PCR-based assays on exfoliated cervical cells and biopsy specimens, HPV DNA was detected in 95.3% of women with squamous cell

C Santos; N Muñoz; S Klug; M Almonte; I Guerrero; M Alvarez; C Velarde; O Galdos; M Castillo; J Walboomers; C Meijer; E Caceres

2001-01-01

114

Detection of specific HPV subtypes responsible for the pathogenesis of condylomata acuminata  

PubMed Central

Background The low-risk human papillomavirus types 6 and 11 are responsible for approximately 90% of anogenital wart cases, with approximately 190,000 new and recurrent cases reported in the UK in 2010. The UK has recently selected the quadrivalent HPV vaccine, which conveys protection against both HPV6 and HPV 11, as part of its immunisation programme for 2012 and it is expected that this will reduce disease burden in the UK. The aims of the study were to evaluate current strategies used for the monitoring of HPV infection in genital warts and to assess the suitability of laser-capture microdissection (LCM) as a technique to improve the understanding of the natural history of HPV types associated with genital wart lesions. Methods DNA and RNA were extracted from whole wart, surface swabs and LCM sections from 23 patients. HPV types present were determined using the Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test (Roche), with HPV DNA viral load and mRNA expression investigated using qPCR and qRT-PCR, respectively. Results Results indicated that swabbing the surface of warts does not accurately reflect potential causative HPV types present within a wart lesion, multiple HPV types being present on the surface of the wart that are absent in the lower layers of tissue isolated by LCM. Although it was shown that HPV DNA viral load does not directly correlate with HPV mRNA load, the presence of both DNA and mRNA from a single HPV type suggested a causative role in lesion development in 8/12 (66.6%) of patients analysed, with dual infections seen in 4/12 (33.3%) cases. HPV 6 and HPV 11 were present in more than 90% of the lesions examined. Conclusions Surface swabbing of warts does not necessarily reflect the causative HPV types. HPV type specific DNA and mRNA loads do not correlate. HPV 6 and 11 were likely to be causally involved in over 90% of the lesions. Dual infections were also found, and further studies are required to determine the biological and clinical nature of dual/multiple infections and to establish the relationship of multiple HPV types within a single lesion.

2013-01-01

115

Human papillomavirus genotypes in genital warts in Latin America: a cross-sectional study in Bogota, Colombia.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies on benign lesions related to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection are scarce in Latin America. We enrolled 342 consecutive patients with lesions suspected of being genital warts (GW). All patients underwent confirmatory biopsy and GP5+/GP6+/- Reverse Line Blot HPV testing on frozen tissue. In 261 (81%) cases, the diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology and HPV was detected in 90.6% of men and 87.7% of women. HPV 6 was by far the most common type in both women (62%) and men (56%), followed by HPV 11 (?20%). Co-infection with these two types occurred in 7% and 12% of women and men, respectively. HPV16 ranked third in prevalence, with 16% of patients testing positive. Twenty-five percent of cases tested positive for multiple HPV genotypes. Although HPV 6 and HPV 11 were the main types detected and no differences between men and women were observed, we found HPV 11 contributed more to GW aetiology compared with previous reports, showing a variability of HPV type distribution in GW across populations. This information is valuable baseline data in Latin America for future estimations of the burden of GW in men and women and shows the potential benefit obtainable by prophylactic vaccination against HPV types 6 and 11. PMID:23970773

Hernandez-Suarez, G; Pineros, M; Vargas, J C; Orjuela, L; Hernandez, F; Peroza, C; Torres, D; Escobar, A; Perez, G

2013-07-19

116

HPV E6 oncoprotein as a potential therapeutic target in HPV related cancers.  

PubMed

Introduction: Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the main etiological agents for the development of most ano-genital cancers and for a subset of head and neck neoplasias. The oncogenic capacity of HPV is due to the combined activity of the viral oncoproteins E6 and E7. A defining feature of all HPV associated cancers is the continued retention and expression of these two viral oncoproteins throughout the development of the disease, and this highlights their value as potential targets for therapeutic intervention, in HPV-induced malignancies. Areas covered: In this review, the authors focus on the HPV E6 oncoprotein functions and its interactions with cellular targets containing either LxxLL motifs or PDZ domains. New approaches leading to the prevention such interactions are described, showing the advantage of E6 as a target for therapeutic intervention against malignant transformation and cancer. Expert opinion: The high degree of conservation in E6-LxxLL interactions across multiple HPV types makes this a compelling therapeutic target for pathologies caused by diverse HPV types. Combining this with therapeutics directed against E6-PDZ interactions offers great promise for the treatment of malignancies caused by high-risk HPV types. PMID:24094136

Manzo-Merino, Joaquin; Thomas, Miranda; Fuentes-Gonzalez, Alma M; Lizano, Marcela; Banks, Lawrence

2013-10-06

117

Aerosol delivery of Virus-like Particles to the genital tract induces local and systemic antibody responses  

PubMed Central

The induction of mucosal immune responses in the genital tract may be important for increasing the effectiveness of vaccines for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In this study, we asked whether direct immunization of the mouse genital tract with a non-replicating virus-like particle (VLP)-based vaccine could induce local mucosal as well as systemic antibody responses. Using VLPs derived from two bacteriophages, Q? and PP7, and from a mammalian virus that normally infects the genital tract, human papillomavirus (HPV), we show that intravaginal aerosol administration of VLPs can induce high titer IgG and IgA antibodies in the female genital tract as well as IgG in the sera. Using a mouse model for HPV infection, we show that intravaginal immunization with either HPV type 16 VLPs or with PP7 bacteriophage VLPs displaying a peptide derived from the HPV minor capsid protein L2 could protect mice from genital infection with an HPV16 pseudovirus. These results provide a general method for inducing genital mucosal and systemic antibody responses using VLP-based immunogens.

Hunter, Zoe; Tumban, Ebenezer; Dziduszko, Agnieszka; Chackerian, Bryce

2011-01-01

118

Aerosol delivery of virus-like particles to the genital tract induces local and systemic antibody responses.  

PubMed

The induction of mucosal immune responses in the genital tract may be important for increasing the effectiveness of vaccines for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In this study, we asked whether direct immunization of the mouse genital tract with a non-replicating virus-like particle (VLP)-based vaccine could induce local mucosal as well as systemic antibody responses. Using VLPs derived from two bacteriophages, Q? and PP7, and from a mammalian virus that normally infects the genital tract, human papillomavirus (HPV), we show that intravaginal aerosol administration of VLPs can induce high titer IgG and IgA antibodies in the female genital tract as well as IgG in the sera. Using a mouse model for HPV infection, we show that intravaginal immunization with either HPV type 16 VLPs or with PP7 bacteriophage VLPs displaying a peptide derived from the HPV minor capsid protein L2 could protect mice from genital infection with an HPV16 pseudovirus. These results provide a general method for inducing genital mucosal and systemic antibody responses using VLP-based immunogens. PMID:21549786

Hunter, Zoe; Tumban, Ebenezer; Dziduszko, Agnieszka; Chackerian, Bryce

2011-05-05

119

Safety and immunogenicity of a peptide containing the cross-neutralization epitope of HPV16 L2 administered nasally in healthy volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amino acid (aa) 108–120 of L2 protein of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 contains a cross-neutralization epitope against genital HPV. We designed a placebo-controlled trial in healthy adults to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a synthetic peptide consisting of the aa 108–120 of HPV16 L2 (L2-108\\/120) region. A total of 13 volunteers were given nasal inoculations with 0.1 (n=5)

Kei Kawana; Toshiharu Yasugi; Tadahito Kanda; Nao Kino; Katsutoshi Oda; Satoshi Okada; Yukiko Kawana; Tomomi Nei; Toshio Takada; Sosuke Toyoshima; Akira Tsuchiya; Kazunari Kondo; Hiroyuki Yoshikawa; Osamu Tsutsumi; Yuji Taketani

2003-01-01

120

Pathology and epidemiology of HPV infection in females.  

PubMed

Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a large family of small double-stranded DNA viruses that infect squamous epithelia. It has been established that infection with specific HPV types is a contributing factor to different types of anogenital cancer, including vulval, vaginal, anal, penile, and head and neck cancers. Approximately 4% of all cancers are associated with HPV. HPV infection is the major cause of cervical cancer and genital warts. Genital HPV infections are very common, are sexually transmitted, and have a peak prevalence between ages 18 and 30. Most of these infections clear spontaneously, but in 10-20% of women, these infections remain persistent and are at risk of progression to grade 2/3 cervical intraepithelial neoplasm (CIN) and eventually to invasive cancer of the cervix (ICC). CINs are genetically unstable lesions with a 30-40% risk of progression to ICC. If left untreated, they form a spectrum of increasing cytological atypia, ranging from low-grade CIN1 to high-grade CIN3; the latter are caused almost exclusively by high-risk HPVs, HPV 16 and 18. Infection with HPV requires a microabrasion in the genital epithelium. The oncogenic properties of high-risk HPV reside in the E6 and E7 genes, which if inappropriately expressed in dividing cells deregulate cell division and differentiation. HPV DNA testing has been shown consistently to be superior to cytology in terms of sensitivity and positive predictive value and will become a major tool in cervical cancer screening, at least in the developed countries. PMID:20304221

Stanley, Margaret

2010-05-01

121

HLA-A2-restricted peripheral blood cytolytic T lymphocyte response to HPV type 16 proteins E6 and E7 from patients with neoplastic cervical lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DNA from human papillomavirus (HPV) can be detected in 90% of cervical carcinomas. To address whether patients infected\\u000a with HPV can mount efficient T cell responses to this pathogen we examined the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response of peripheral\\u000a blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients with abnormal genital epithelial cells. PBMC from 11 HLA-A2+ patients were stimulated with CaSki,

Carys Evans; Stefan Bauer; Thomas Grubert; Cosima Brucker; Sigfried Baur; Klaus Heeg; Hermann Wagner; G. B. Lipford

1996-01-01

122

HPV Prevalence among Women from Appalachia: Results from the CARE Project  

PubMed Central

Background Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates are high among women from Appalachia, yet data do not exist on human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence among these women. We examined the prevalence of genital HPV among Appalachian women and identified correlates of HPV detection. Methods We report data from a case-control study conducted between January 2006 and December 2008 as part of the Community Awareness, Resources, and Education (CARE) Project. We examined HPV prevalence among 1116 women (278 women with abnormal Pap tests at study entry [cases], 838 women with normal Pap tests [controls]) from Appalachian Ohio. Analyses used multivariable logistic regression to identify correlates of HPV detection. Results The prevalence of HPV was 43.1% for any HPV type, 33.5% for high-risk HPV types, 23.4% for low-risk HPV types, and 12.5% for vaccine-preventable HPV types. Detection of any HPV type was more common among women who were ages 18–26 (OR?=?2.09, 95% CI: 1.26–3.50), current smokers (OR?=?1.86, 95% CI: 1.26–2.73), had at least five male sexual partners during their lifetime (OR?=?2.28, 95% CI: 1.56–3.33), or had multiple male sexual partners during the last year (OR?=?1.98, 95% CI: 1.25–3.14). Similar correlates were identified for detection of a high-risk HPV type. Conclusions HPV was prevalent among Appalachian women, with many women having a high-risk HPV type detected. Results may help explain the high cervical cancer rates observed among Appalachian women and can help inform future cervical cancer prevention efforts in this geographic region.

Reiter, Paul L.; Katz, Mira L.; Ruffin, Mack T.; Hade, Erinn M.; DeGraffenreid, Cecilia R.; Patel, Divya A.; Paskett, Electra D.; Unger, Elizabeth R.

2013-01-01

123

Does framing HPV vaccine as preventing cancer in men increase vaccine acceptability?  

PubMed Central

Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is now approved for use in males in the United States to prevent genital warts. We conducted an experiment to see whether framing HPV vaccination as also preventing cancer in men would increase men’s vaccination willingness. Methods We conducted an online survey in January 2009 with a national sample of men aged 18–59 who self-identified as gay/bisexual (n=312) or heterosexual (n=296). In the within-subjects experiment, men read 4 randomly ordered vignettes that described hypothetical vaccines that prevented either genital warts alone, or genital warts and either anal cancer, oral cancer, or penile cancer. We analyzed data using repeated-measures analysis of variance and tested whether perceived severity or perceived likelihood mediated the effect of disease outcome framing on men’s HPV vaccination willingness Results While only 42% of men were willing to receive HPV vaccine when it was framed as preventing genital warts alone, 60% were willing to get it when it was framed as preventing cancer in addition to genital warts (p<.001). The effect of outcome framing was the same for heterosexual and gay/bisexual men and for the three cancer types examined. Perceived severity of disease partially mediated the association between disease outcome and HPV vaccination willingness. Conclusions Men may be more accepting of HPV vaccine when it is framed as preventing cancer, regardless which of the three most common HPV-related cancers in men is described. Impact Study findings may be useful in developing health communication messages that maximize HPV vaccine acceptability among young men.

McRee, Annie-Laurie; Reiter, Paul L.; Chantala, Kim; Brewer, Noel T.

2010-01-01

124

Chimeric Virus-like Particles of the Human Papillomavirus Type 16 (HPV 16) as a Prophylactic and Therapeutic Vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection by certain human papillomaviruses (HPV), most notably HPV types 16 and 18, is the major risk factor for cervical cancer. Worldwide, this disease represents the second most frequent malignant tumor in women; thus, there is urgent need for efficient therapy and prevention. The natural history of cervical cancer and its precursors (cervical intraepithelial neoplasias), as well as animal experiments,

Ingrid Jochmus; Klaus Schäfer; Stefan Faath; Martin Müller; Lutz Gissmann

1999-01-01

125

Vaccination with HPV16 L2E6E7 fusion protein in GPI-0100 adjuvant elicits protective humoral and cell-mediated immunity  

PubMed Central

A vaccine comprising human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) L2, E6 and E7 in a single tandem fusion protein (termed TA-CIN) has the potential advantages of both broad cross-protection against HPV transmission through induction of L2 antibodies able to cross neutralize different HPV types and of therapy by stimulating T cell responses targeting HPV16 early proteins. However, patients vaccinated with TA-CIN alone develop weak HPV neutralizing antibody and E6/E7-specific T cell responses. Here we test TA-CIN formulated along with the adjuvant GPI-0100, a semi-synthetic quillaja saponin analog that was developed to promote both humoral and cellular immune responses. Subcutaneous administration to mice of TA-CIN (20 ?g) with 50 ?g GPI-0100, three times at biweekly intervals, elicited high titer HPV16 neutralizing serum antibody, robust neutralizing titers for other HPV16-related types, including HPV31 and HPV58, and neutralized to a lesser extent other genital mucosatropic papillomaviruses like HPV18, HPV45, HPV6 and HPV11. Notably, vaccination with TA-CIN in GPI-0100 protected mice from cutaneous HPV16 challenge as effectively as HPV16 L1 VLP without adjuvant. Formulation of TA-CIN with GPI-0100 enhanced the production of E7-specific, interferon ? producing CD8+ T cell precursors by 20-fold. Vaccination with TA-CIN in GPI-0100 also completely prevented tumor growth after challenge with 5 × 104 HPV16-transformed TC-1 tumor cells, whereas vaccination with TA-CIN alone delayed tumor growth. Furthermore, three monthly vaccinations with 125 ?g of TA-CIN and 1000 ?g GPI-0100 were well tolerated by pigtail macaques and induced both HPV16 E6/E7-specific T cell responses and serum antibodies that neutralized all HPV types tested.

Karanam, Balasubramanyam; Gambhira, Ratish; Peng, Shiwen; Jagu, Subhashini; Kim, Dae-Jin; Ketner, Gary W.; Stern, Peter L.; Adams, Robert J.; Roden, Richard B.S.

2010-01-01

126

Worldwide distribution of human papillomavirus types in cytologically normal women in the International Agency for Research on Cancer HPV prevalence surveys: a pooled analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The proportion of women infected with human papillomavirus (HPV) varies greatly across populations, as might the distribution of HPV types. We aimed to compare HPV-type distribution in representative samples of women from different world regions. METHODS: Women were randomly selected from the general population of 13 areas from 11 countries (Nigeria, India, Vietnam, Thailand, Korea, Colombia, Argentina, Chile, the

GM Clifford; S. Gallus; R Herrero; N. Munoz; P. J. F. Snijders; S Vaccarella; PTH Anh; C Ferreccio; N. T. Hieu; E Matos; M Molano; R. Rajkumar; G. Ronco; S de Sanjosé; HR Shin; S Sukvirach; JO Thomas; S Tunsakul; C. J. L. M. Meijer; S Franceschi

2005-01-01

127

Low rate of oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in women screened for cervical HPV infection in Southern Italy: A cross-sectional study of 140 immunocompetent subjects.  

PubMed

Even though the natural history of cervical and oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been investigated intensely, the possibility that HPV may infect both sites in the same subject is not well documented. This study investigated the frequency of concurrent oral and cervical HPV infection in southern Italian women, in the light of some selected socio-behavioral variables. One hundred forty women (mean age: 36 years), with known cervical HPV status, were analyzed for oral HPV. Age, smoking/drinking habits, clinical and socio-behavioral history were assessed by personal interviews. Oral mucosal cells were collected by oral brushing and HPV DNA was sought by the use of nested PCR amplification followed by direct DNA sequencing and the commercial assay INNOLiPA HPV Genotyping (Innogenetics N.V., Ghent, Belgium). The data were analyzed by using the chi-square test and a logistic regression (logit) model (P < 0.05 statistically significant). Oral HPV infection was detected in 2/140 (1.4%) cases, being present in 2/76 (2.6%) women with cervical HPV infection and 0/64 uninfected women (P = 0.19). A lack of type-specific concordance in the two patients with concurrent infection was observed. In the sample of population examined, HPV cervical infection does not seem to predispose to oral transmission, even in the presence of oral-genital sexual habits, thus suggesting the independence of infection at the two mucosal sites. PMID:19551817

Termine, Nicoletta; Giovannelli, Lucia; Matranga, Domenica; Perino, Antonio; Panzarella, Vera; Ammatuna, Pietro; D'Angelo, Matteo; Campisi, Giuseppina

2009-08-01

128

Overactive bladder after female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) type III.  

PubMed

A 27-year-old Somali woman with type III a-b female genital mutilation/cutting, consulted because of slow micturition, voiding efforts, urgency and urge incontinence (overactive bladder). She also referred primary dysmenorrhoea and superficial dyspareunia making complete sexual intercourses impossible. We treated her by defibulation and biofeedback re-educative therapy. We also offered a multidisciplinary counselling. At 5 months follow-up, urgency and urge incontinence had resolved and she became pregnant. PMID:24096069

Abdulcadir, Jasmine; Dällenbach, Patrick

2013-10-04

129

Breast cancer and human papillomavirus infection: No evidence of HPV etiology of breast cancer in Indian women  

PubMed Central

Background Two clinically relevant high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) types 16 and 18 are etiologically associated with the development of cervical carcinoma and are also reported to be present in many other carcinomas in extra-genital organ sites. Presence of HPV has been reported in breast carcinoma which is the second most common cancer in India and is showing a fast rising trend in urban population. The two early genes E6 and E7 of HPV type 16 have been shown to immortalize breast epithelial cells in vitro, but the role of HPV infection in breast carcinogenesis is highly controversial. Present study has therefore been undertaken to analyze the prevalence of HPV infection in both breast cancer tissues and blood samples from a large number of Indian women with breast cancer from different geographic regions. Methods The presence of all mucosal HPVs and the most common high-risk HPV types 16 and 18 DNA was detected by two different PCR methods - (i) conventional PCR assays using consensus primers (MY09/11, or GP5+/GP6+) or HPV16 E6/E7 primers and (ii) highly sensitive Real-Time PCR. A total of 228 biopsies and corresponding 142 blood samples collected prospectively from 252 patients from four different regions of India with significant socio-cultural, ethnic and demographic variations were tested. Results All biopsies and blood samples of breast cancer patients tested by PCR methods did not show positivity for HPV DNA sequences in conventional PCRs either by MY09/11 or by GP5+/GP6+/HPV16 E6/E7 primers. Further testing of these samples by real time PCR also failed to detect HPV DNA sequences. Conclusions Lack of detection of HPV DNA either in the tumor or in the blood DNA of breast cancer patients by both conventional and real time PCR does not support a role of genital HPV in the pathogenesis of breast cancer in Indian women.

2011-01-01

130

Baseline assessment of prevalence and geographical distribution of HPV types in Chile using self-collected vaginal samples  

PubMed Central

Background Chile has broad variations in weather, economics and population from the far desert north (Region 1) to the cold, icy south (Region 12). A home-based self-collected vaginal sampling was nested in the 2003 Chilean population-based health survey in order to explore the possibility of a type-specific geographical variation for human papillomavirus Methods The population was a national probability sample of people 17 years of age and over. Consenting women provided self-collected cervicovaginal swabs in universal collection media (UCM). DNA was extracted and typed to 37 HPV genotypes using PGMY consensus PCR and line blot assay. Weighted prevalence rates and adjusted OR were calculated. Results Of the 1,883 women participating in the health survey, 1,219 (64.7%) provided a cervicovaginal sample and in 1,110 (56.2% of participants and 66.5% of those eligible) the samples were adequate for analysis. Refusal rate was 16.9%. HPV prevalence was 29.2% (15.1% high-risk HPV and 14.1% low-risk HPV). Predominant high-risk types were HPV 16, 52, 51, 56 and 58. Predominant low-risk HPVs were HPV 84, CP6108, 62, 53 and 61. High-risk and low-risk HPV rates were inversely correlated between the regions. High-risk HPV prevalence was highest among the youngest women, whereas low-risk HPV increased slightly with age. Conclusion Self-obtained vaginal sampling is adequate for monitoring HPV in the community, for identifying high-risk areas, and for surveying the long term impact of interventions.

Ferreccio, Catterina; Corvalan, Alejandro; Margozzini, Paula; Viviani, Paola; Gonzalez, Claudia; Aguilera, Ximena; Gravitt, Patti E

2008-01-01

131

Oncogenic human papillomavirus genital infection in southern Iranian women: population-based study versus clinic-based data  

PubMed Central

Background Epidemiological studies on genital human papilloma viruses infection (HPVs) in general population are crucial for the implementation of health policy guidelines for developing the strategies to prevent the primary and secondary cervical cancer. In different parts of Iran, there is a lack of population-based studies to determine the prevalence of HPV in the general population. The aim of this population-based study is to compare the prevalence rate of genital HPV infection among reproductive women with our previous clinic-based data, which showed a prevalence rate of 5% in women in southern Iran. Results Using general primers for all genotypes of HPV, of 799 randomly selected women, five (0.63%, 95% CI 0.23-1.55%) tested positive for HPV DNA. Overall, seven different HPV genotypes were detected: six types (16, 18, 31, 33, 51 and 56) were carcinogenic, or “high risk genotypes” and one genotype (HPV-66) was “probably carcinogenic.” Conclusions In a population-based study, the prevalence of HPV infection among southern Iranian women was lower than that observed worldwide. However, our gynaecological clinic-based study on the prevalence of HPV infection showed results comparable with other studies in the Middle East and Persian Gulf countries. Since gynaecological clinic-based data may generally overestimate HPV prevalence, estimates of prevalence according to clinic-based data should be adjusted downward by the population-based survey estimates.

2012-01-01

132

Oncogenic HPV Types Infection in Adolescents and University Women from North Portugal: From Self-Sampling to Cancer Prevention.  

PubMed

This study aimed to characterize the HPV infection status in adolescents and young university women in Portugal. The distribution of HPV genotypes was evaluated by PCR DNA genotyping after self-sampling collection from 435 women of exfoliated cervical cells using a commercial kit. We observed an overall frequency of HPV infection of 11.5%. Furthermore, HPV DNA prevalence was 16.6% in those young women that self-declared as sexually active. The more frequently detected HPV types were 31, 16, 53, and 61. Statistical analysis identified median age (OR = 3.56; P = 0.001), the number of lifetime sexual partners (OR = 4.50; P < 0.001), and years of sexual activity (OR = 2.36; P = 0.008) as risk factors for HPV acquisition. Hence, our study revealed that oncogenic HPV infection is common in young asymptomatic women Portuguese women, with a history of 2-5 sexual partners and over 2 year of sexual activity. Moreover, these results demonstrate that HPV detection performed in self-collected samples may be important to appraise better preventive strategies and to monitorize the influence of vaccination programmes within different populations. PMID:22174713

Silva, Jani; Ribeiro, Joana; Sousa, Hugo; Cerqueira, Fátima; Teixeira, Ana Luisa; Baldaque, Ines; Osório, Teresa; Medeiros, Rui

2011-11-28

133

HPV and Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Share Compartir Add this to... Añadir en... Favorites Delicious Digg Google Bookmarks HPV and Cancer Several types of cancer are associated ...

134

HPV and Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... it for them now. Two vaccines—Cervarix and Gardasil—are available to prevent the HPV types that ... and anal cancers. One of the HPV vaccines, Gardasil, also prevents vulvar and vaginal cancers in women ...

135

Comparison of different assays to assess human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16- and 18-specific antibodies after HPV infection and vaccination.  

PubMed

We compared the measurement of human papillomavirus (HPV)-specific serum antibody levels with the virus-like-particle multiplex immunoassay (VLP-MIA), competitive Luminex immunoassay (cLIA), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) L1-based MIA. Using a large panel of serum samples, these assays showed mutually good correlations for both naturally induced and vaccine-derived HPV-specific antibody levels. However, an adaptation of the GST L1-based MIA resulted in an improved correlation with both cLIA and VLP-MIA. PMID:23740920

Scherpenisse, Mirte; Schepp, Rutger M; Mollers, Madelief; Mooij, Sofie H; Meijer, Chris J L M; Berbers, Guy A M; van der Klis, Fiona R M

2013-06-05

136

Analysis of HPV-other Samples by Performing HPV DNA Sequencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background : HPV-other samples are designated as being positive on HPV-PCR, but nega- tive when using specific HPV hybridization probes. We wanted to determine the types on the HPV-other samples by performing sequencing, and to know the pathologic status of the uter- ine cervix according to the HPV type detected on sequencing. Methods : For HPV genoty- ing, we used

Yoo-Duk Choi; Chang-Woo Han; Woon-Jae Chung; Woon-Won Jung; Ji-Shin Lee; Jong-Hee Nam; Min-Cheol Lee; Sang-Woo Juhng; Ho-Sun Choi; Chang-Soo Park

2009-01-01

137

In Vitro Infection and Type-Restricted Antibody-Mediated Neutralization of Authentic Human Papillomavirus Type 16  

PubMed Central

Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) is strongly associated with the development of cervical cancer. Studies of model systems with animal papillomaviruses have demonstrated the importance of neutralizing antibodies in preventing papillomavirus-associated disease. The assessment of neutralizing antibody responses against HPV-16, previously hampered by the lack of a viral source, was enabled by the recent propagation of an HPV-16 stock in xenografted severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. HPV-16 infection of an immortalized human keratinocyte cell line was demonstrated by detection of an HPV-16-specific spliced mRNA amplified by reverse transcriptase PCR. Infection was blocked by preincubation of the virus with antiserum generated against HPV-16 virus-like particles (VLPs) composed of the major capsid protein, L1. To examine potential cross-neutralizing activity among the different genital HPV types, rabbit antisera to L1 VLPs corresponding to HPV-6, -11, -18, -31, -33, -35, -39, and -45 were assayed for the ability to block the HPV-16 infection of cultured cells. Antiserum raised against HPV-33 L1 VLPs was the only heterologous antiserum which inhibited HPV-16 infection. Thus, a neutralization assay for HPV-16 may help to characterize the components required to compose a broadly efficacious genital HPV vaccine.

White, Wendy I.; Wilson, Susan D.; Bonnez, William; Rose, Robert C.; Koenig, Scott; Suzich, Joann A.

1998-01-01

138

Genital Warts  

PubMed Central

External genital warts, also known as condylomata acuminata, are extremely common, with between 500,000 to one million new cases diagnosed each year in the United States alone. To date, more than 120 distinct subtypes of human papillomavirus have been identified. Human papillomavirus types 6 and 11 rarely give rise to cervical cancers, but are responsible for 90 percent of the cases of genital warts. The current treatment options are largely centered upon removal of the warts rather than elimination of the underlying viral infection. A wide range of therapies are presently in use, which are highly variable and can differ dramatically with respect to cost, side-effect profiles, dosing schedules, duration of treatment, and overall effectiveness. As of yet, no definitive therapy has emerged as the ideal standard of care in the treatment of genital warts, and therapy selection generally occurs in a patient-specific manner.

Yanofsky, Valerie R.; Patel, Rita V.

2012-01-01

139

Detection of human papillomavirus DNA in genital lesions by enzymatic in situ hybridization with Fast Red and laser scanning confocal microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection with potentially oncogenic types 16 or 18 is common in genital lesions especially in\\u000a uterine carcinomas. In such lesions, in situ hybridization with non-radioactive probes is a powerful tool for the histopathologist to detect and type HPV DNA either on\\u000a cell deposits or on tissue sections. The use of an immunohistochemical method involving alkaline phosphatase and

G. Lizard; M. C. Chignol; P. Roignot; C. Souchier; Y. Chardonnet; D. Schmitt

1997-01-01

140

Low risk of type-specific carcinogenic HPV re-appearance with subsequent cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3  

PubMed Central

Carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are very common after sexual debut and nearly all become undetectable (“clear”) within a few years. Following clearance, the long-term risks of type-specific HPV re-appearance and subsequent risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) are not well defined. In the 7-year, population-based cohort study in Guanacaste, Costa Rica, we studied how often type-specific carcinogenic HPV infections re-appeared after clearance, and how often re-appearance led to CIN2+. We considered 1740 carcinogenic HPV infections detected by MY09/11 PCR among 2805 women (18-91 years old, median 34) who were actively followed at 6- or 12-month intervals. We identified women with 1 or more type-specific HPV infections that cleared and re-appeared, and further defined a subgroup of “definite clearance and re-appearance” (? 2 intervening negative results over a period of ? 1 year). We determined the absolute risk of CIN2+ among the different groups. P values are two sided. Only 7.7% (81/1052) of HPV-infected women had intervening negative results. Very few (3.7%, 39/1052) had “definite clearance and re-appearance”, of which 5.1% (2/39) subsequently persisted to a diagnosis of CIN2. There were zero CIN3+ lesions. Extremely few women (2/2805 of women in our cohort) had a type-specific carcinogenic HPV infection clear, re-appear and lead to CIN2+. If confirmed, this argues against vaccination to avoid re-appearance that leads to precursor lesions and against the need of frequent HPV screening after initial negative results.

Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Schiffman, Mark; Herrero, Rolando; Hildesheim, Allan; Bratti, Concepcion; Sherman, Mark E.; Solomon, Diane; Guillen, Diego; Alfaro, Mario; Morales, Jorge; Hutchinson, Martha; Cheung, Li; Wacholder, Sholom; Burk, Robert D.

2012-01-01

141

Papillomaviral Infections of the Female Genital Tract  

PubMed Central

The human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common organism to infect the human genital tract, affecting as much as half, or more, of the sexually active population. This virus has become widely recognized through the well publicized relationship with genital tract neoplasia and through new diagnostic technologies, such as monoclonal antibody analysis, DNA hybridization, and the polymerase chain reaction. This paper describes the full spectrum of HPV infections, starting with pathogenesis and continuing to clinical manifestations, and discusses significance, diagnosis, and management.

Munro, Malcolm G.

1992-01-01

142

Papillomavirus-like particles and HPV vaccine development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human papillomavirus-like particles (VLPs), self-assembled after high level expression of the papillomavirus L1 virion capsid protein in non-mammalian cells, are attractive candidates for a subunit vaccine to prevent genital HPV infection and the subsequent development of cervical cancer. In animal studies, purified VLPs induce high titers of antibodies against conformational type specific L1 epitopes. These antibodies neutralize homologous virions in

John T. Schiller; Douglas R. Lowy

1996-01-01

143

Cervicovaginal HPV Infection Before and After Hysterectomy: Evidence of Different Tissue Tropism for Oncogenic and Non-Oncogenic HPV Types in a Cohort of HIV-positive and HIV-negative Women  

PubMed Central

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is detected in nearly all cervical cancers and approximately half of vaginal cancers. However, vaginal cancer is an order of magnitude less common than cervical cancer, not only in the general population but also among women with HIV/AIDS. It is interesting therefore that recent studies found that HPV was common in both normal vaginal and cervical tissue, with higher prevalence of non-oncogenic HPV types in the vagina. In the current investigation, we prospectively examined HPV infection in 86 HIV-positive and 17 HIV-negative women who underwent hysterectomy during follow-up in a longitudinal cohort. Cervicovaginal lavage specimens were obtained semi-annually and tested for HPV DNA by PCR. To address possible selection biases associated with having a hysterectomy, subjects acted as their own comparison group – before versus after hysterectomy. The average HPV prevalence was higher in HIV-positive than HIV-negative women both before (59% versus 12%; P<0.001) and after hysterectomy (56% versus 6%; P<0.001). Multivariate random effects models (within-individual comparisons) demonstrated significantly lower HPV prevalence (odds ratio [OR]=0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.59-0.85) after hysterectomy. The association of HPV prevalence with hysterectomy was similar among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women. However, hysterectomy had greater effects on oncogenic (OR=0.48; 95%CI=0.35-0.66) than non-oncogenic HPV types (OR=0.89; 95%CI=0.71-1.11; Pinteraction=0.002). Overall, we observed greater reductions in oncogenic than non-oncogenic HPV prevalence following hysterectomy. If correct, these data could suggest that oncogenic HPV have greater tropism for cervical compared with vaginal epithelium, consistent with the lower incidence of vaginal than cervical cancer.

D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Burk, Robert D.; Zhong, Ye; Minkoff, Howard; Massad, L. Stewart; Xue, Xiaonan; Watts, D. Heather; Anastos, Kathryn; Palefsky, Joel M.; Levine, Alexandra M.; Colie, Christine; Castle, Philip E.; Strickler, Howard D.

2011-01-01

144

Genital human papillomavirus infections: current and prospective therapies.  

PubMed

Infection with human papillomaviruses (HPVs) is very common and associated with benign and malignant epithelial proliferations of skin and internal squamous mucosae. A subset of the mucosal HPVs are oncogenic and associated with 5 % of all cancers in men and women. There are two licensed prophylactic vaccines, both target HPV 16 and 18, the two most pathogenic, oncogenic types and one, additionally, targets HPV 6 and 11 the cause of genital warts. The approach of deliberate immunization with oncogenic HPV E6 and/or E7 proteins and the generation of antigen-specific cytotoxic T-cells as an immunotherapy for HPV-associated cancer and their high-grade pre-cancers has been tested with a wide array of potential vaccine delivery systems in Phase I/II trials with varying success. Understanding local viral and tumour immune evasion strategies is a prerequisite for the rational design of therapeutic vaccines for HPV-associated infection and disease, progress in this is discussed. There are no antiviral drugs for the treatment of HPV infection and disease. Current therapies are not targeted antiviral therapies, but either attempt physical removal of the lesion or induce inflammation and a bystander immune response. There has been recent progress in the identification and characterization of molecular targets for small molecule antagonists of the HPV proteins E1, E2 and E6 or their interactions with their cellular targets. Lead compounds that could disrupt E1-E2 protein-protein interactions have been discovered as have inhibitors of E6-E6-AP-binding interactions. Some of these compounds showed nanomolar affinities and high specificities and demonstrate the feasibility of this approach for HPV infections. These studies are, however, at an early phase and it is unlikely that any specific anti-HPV chemotherapeutic will be in the clinic within the next 10-20 years. PMID:22323530

Stanley, Margaret A

2012-02-08

145

HPV type-specific risks of high-grade CIN during 4 years of follow-up: A population-based prospective study  

PubMed Central

We followed a population-based cohort of 5696 women, 32–38 years of age, by registry linkage with cytology and pathology registries during a mean follow-up time of 4.1 years to assess the importance for CIN2+ development of type-specific HPV DNA positivity at baseline. HPV 16, 31 and 33 conveyed the highest risks and were responsible for 33.1, 18.3 and 7.7% of CIN2+ cases, respectively. Women infected with HPV 18, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59 and 66 had significantly lower risks of CIN2+ than women infected with HPV 16. After adjustment for infection with other HPV types, HPV types 35, 45, 59 and 66 had no detectable association with CIN2+. In summary, the different HPV types found in cervical cancer show distinctly different CIN2+ risks, with high risks being restricted to HPV 16 and its close relatives HPV 31 and HPV 33.

Naucler, P; Ryd, W; Tornberg, S; Strand, A; Wadell, G; Hansson, B G; Rylander, E; Dillner, J

2007-01-01

146

The influence of HIV\\/AIDS on the association between genital human papillomavirus and cervical cancer in HIV\\/AIDS infected women: A literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: With over 440 million cases of infections worldwide, genital HPV is the most frequent sexually transmitted infection. There are several types including high risk types 16, 18, 58 and 70 among others, which are known to cause cervical cell abnormality and if persistent, can lead to cervical cancer which globally, claims 288,000 lives annually. 33.4 million people worldwide are

Honey Nyambura Muigai

2010-01-01

147

Multiple-type human papillomavirus infection in younger uncircumcised men.  

PubMed

A cohort of 388 young men enrolled for military service in the Danish army was established and the participants underwent a clinical examination with human papillomavirus (HPV) testing. In addition, a questionnaire containing questions regarding sociodemographic variables, sexual habits and lifestyle factors was completed. The prevalence of HPV was 33.4% in this cohort of uncircumcised men aged 18-29 years. Multiple HPV types were prevalent with one-third of the HPV-positive men being positive for more than one HPV type. Number of recent sexual partners and infrequent condom use were strong risk factors, particularly in men having multiple HPV types. Our findings re-emphasize the importance of sexual transmission and also point to a role of factors that may be related to individual susceptibility as genital warts, alcohol intake and, to a lesser extent, smoking were strongly associated with having multiple HPV types. PMID:23512509

Nielsen, A; Munk, C; Jørgensen, Ho; Winther, Jf; van den Brule, Ajc; Kjaer, Sk

2013-03-19

148

Prevalence of Anti-Human Papillomavirus Type 16, 18, 31, and 58 Virus-Like Particles in Women in the General Population and in Prostitutes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is sexually transmitted. The aim of the study was to characterize serological responses to HPV types 16, 18, 31, and 58 by exploring type-specific virus-like particles (VLPs) in two groups of women with very distinct sexual behaviors. Anti-VLP antibodies for types 16, 18, 31, and 58 and HPV DNA in cervical cells were investigated with

ANTOINE TOUZE; SILVIA DE SANJOSE; PIERRE COURSAGET; M. ROSA ALMIRALL; VIRGILIO PALACIO; CHRIS J. L. M. MEIJER; JANET KORNEGAY; F. XAVIER BOSCH

2001-01-01

149

Imiquimod-induced clearance of HPV is associated with normalization of immune cell counts in usual type vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia.  

PubMed

Recently, we reported on the efficacy of imiquimod for treatment of usual type vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (uVIN). A histologic regression of uVIN to normal tissue was observed in 58% of patients. As success of treatment is related to clearance of high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV), the aim of our study was to assess differences in immune cell counts and in the expression of p16(INK4a) in VIN tissue before and after imiquimod treatment, in relation to HPV clearance and clinical response. Vulvar tissue samples taken prior to imiquimod treatment and 4 weeks after treatment were tested for the presence of HPV. Previously determined immune cell counts (CD1a, CD207, CD208, CD123/CD11c, CD94, CD4, CD8 and CD25/HLA-DR) in epidermis and dermis of 25 VIN patients and 19 healthy controls were completed with the counts for CD14 and CD68. The expression of p16(INK4a) was investigated by immunohistochemistry in 15 patients. Before imiquimod treatment, both HPV cleared and HPV noncleared patients showed mainly in the dermis significantly upregulated immune cell counts compared to healthy controls. However, in patients that cleared HPV and showed histologic regression already 4 weeks after imiquimod treatment, immune cell counts and p16(INK4a) expression were normalized. In conclusion, our data indicate that imiquimod-induced clearance of HPV results in normalization of counts for certain immune cells and is strongly correlated with histologic regression of the disease. PMID:21351262

Terlou, Annelinde; van Seters, Manon; Kleinjan, Alex; Heijmans-Antonissen, Claudia; Santegoets, Lindy A M; Beckmann, Ilse; van Beurden, Marc; Helmerhorst, Theo J M; Blok, Leen J

2010-12-15

150

Type specific persistence of high risk human papillomavirus (HPV) as indicator of high grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions in young women: population based prospective follow up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To investigate the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the development of cervical neoplasia in women with no previous cervical cytological abnormalities; whether the presence of virus DNA predicts development of squamous intraepithelial lesion; and whether the risk of incident squamous intraepithelial lesions differs with repeated detection of the same HPV type versus repeated detection of different types. Design

Susanne K Kjaer; Edith I Svare; Birthe L Thomsen

2002-01-01

151

Warts (non-genital)  

PubMed Central

Introduction Warts are caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), of which there are over 100 types, which probably infects the skin via areas of minimal trauma. Risk factors include use of communal showers, occupational handling of meat, and immunosuppression. In immunocompetent people, warts are harmless and resolve as a result of natural immunity within months or years. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for warts (non-genital)? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2008 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 12 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic, review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: intralesional bleomycin; cimetidine; contact immunotherapy; cryotherapy; duct tape occlusion; formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde; homeopathy; photodynamic treatment; pulsed dye laser; surgical procedures; topical salicylic acid; and zinc sulphate.

2009-01-01

152

Estimation of the incidence of genital warts and the cost of illness in Germany: A cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary cause of cervical cancer. HPV is also responsible for benign condylomata acuminata, also known as genital warts. We assessed the incidence of genital warts in Germany and collected information on their management to estimate the annual cost of disease. METHODS: This was a multi-centre observational (cross-sectional) study of genital warts in Germany. Data

Peter Hillemanns; J Gabrielle Breugelmans; Friederike Gieseking; Stève Bénard; Emilie Lamure; Kavi J Littlewood; Karl U Petry

2008-01-01

153

Abnormalities of cornified cell envelopes isolated from human papillomavirus type 11-infected genital epithelium.  

PubMed

Keratinocytes are the predominant cells in human skin. As keratinocytes differentiate, the nuclei are lost and the cornified cell envelope (CCE) develops, forming a covalently cross-linked, insoluble structure under the cell membrane. Layers of anuclear CCEs in the stratum corneum provide a barrier against water loss and mechanical damage and are a first line of immunologic defense. Infection of keratinocytes with human papillomaviruses (HPVs) induces proliferation and abnormalities including retention of nuclei in the stratum corneum and perinuclear halo formation. For effective transmission, HPV virions must be released from the CCE, a normally very durable structure. Therefore, it is likely that HPV infection affects the CCE in a manner that would facilitate virion release. To investigate the effects of HPV 11 infection on morphology and fragility, CCEs were purified from infected and uninfected epithelium. CCEs isolated from uninfected epithelium were smooth, cuboidal, and sonicated into long coiled structures. In contrast, CCEs from HPV 11-infected epithelium were irregular in size and shape, with rough edges, and sonicated into small fragments. In addition, the thickness of CCEs from HPV 11-infected tissue was 65% that of uninfected epithelium. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that in contrast to uninfected epithelium, loricrin, the major component of the CCE, was abnormally distributed in the differentiated layers of HPV 11-infected epithelium. We conclude that in addition to the previously described epithelial abnormalities induced by HPV, the CCE is also affected by infection in ways that may facilitate transmission of virus from person to person. PMID:10814571

Brown, D R; Bryan, J T

2000-05-25

154

Occurrence of vaccine and non-vaccine human papillomavirus types in adolescent Finnish females 4 years post-vaccination.  

PubMed

Control of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers by inclusion of HPV vaccination into national vaccination programmes is likely. One open question is replacement of the vaccine types with other high-risk (hr) HPV types in the vaccination era. We studied occurrence of HPV types in adolescent females participating in a population-based vaccination trial. A total of 4,808 16- to 17-year-old females from Finland were enrolled in the 1:1 randomized phase III (PATRICIA) trial of the efficacy of vaccination with the AS04-adjuvanted HPV-16/18 virus-like particle vaccine as compared to hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccine. HPV infection was assessed from cervical samples taken every 6 months for 4 years post-vaccination by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for genital oncogenic HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 58, 59, 66, 68, and 73 as well as low-risk types HPV-6 and HPV-11. The HPV-16/18 vaccine coverage ranged between 1 and 22% by age-cohort and study community. Odds ratios (ORs) for infections with different HPV types in baseline PCR negative HPV-16/18 vs. HAV vaccinated women, and Poisson regression derived HPV incidence rate ratios (IRRs) in baseline positive vs. negative women were calculated. The OR and IRR estimates for acquisition of any genital HPV types showed no excess risk neither in baseline HPV DNA-negative HPV-16/18-vaccinated women compared to baseline HPV DNA-negative HAV vaccinated women nor in HPV-16/18-vaccinated baseline HPV-16/18-positive women compared to baseline HPV-16/18-negative women. In the HAV-vaccinated, baseline HPV-18-positive women showed an increased risk of acquiring other clade A7 HPV types (39, 45, 59, 68) (IRR 1.8, 95% confidence interval = 1.01.-3.1). We found no increased occurrence of non-vaccine HPV types suggestive of type-replacement 1-4 years post-vaccination among HPV-16/18-vaccinated Finnish adolescents. PMID:22492244

Palmroth, Johanna; Merikukka, Marko; Paavonen, Jorma; Apter, Dan; Eriksson, Tiina; Natunen, Kari; Dubin, Gary; Lehtinen, Matti

2012-04-30

155

Regression of Established Human Papillomavirus Type 16 (HPV16) Immortalized Tumors In Vivo by Vaccinia Viruses Expressing Different Forms of HPV16 E7 Correlates with Enhanced CD8+ T-Cell Responses That Home to the Tumor Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using vaccinia virus as a live vector, we show that the expression of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E7 fused to a nonhemolytic portion of the Listeria monocytogenes virulence factor, listeriolysin O (LLO), induces an immune response that causes the regression of established HPV-16 immortalized tumors in C57BL\\/6 mice. The vaccinia virus construct expressing LLO fused to E7 (VacLLOE7) was

ABIGAIL LAMIKANRA; ZHEN-KUN PAN; STUART N. ISAACS; T.-C. Wu; Y. Paterson

2001-01-01

156

Enhancement of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 E6 and E7-specific T-cell immunity in healthy volunteers through vaccination with TA-CIN, an HPV16 L2E7E6 fusion protein vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

TA-CIN is a vaccine that comprises the human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 L2, E6 and E7 as a single fusion protein. In a mouse model, TA-CIN effectively prevented outgrowth of HPV16-positive tumour cells. To assess the safety and immunogenicity of TA-CIN, a dose escalating (26, 128, 533?g), double blind and placebo-controlled phase I study was conducted in 40 healthy volunteers.

A de Jong; T O’Neill; A. Y Khan; K. M. C Kwappenberg; S. E Chisholm; N. R Whittle; J. A Dobson; L. C Jack; J St Clair Roberts; R Offringa; S. H van der Burg; J. K Hickling

2002-01-01

157

Immune responses against human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 virus-like particles in a cohort study of women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia II. Systemic but not local IgA responses correlate with clearance of HPV16  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate whether there is an association between local or systemic IgG and IgA responses against human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 virus-like particles (VLP) containing L1 and L2 and the possible influence of these responses on clearance of HPV-16 and its associated lesions, cervical mucus samples from 125 patients and plasma samples from 100 patients, all participating in a non-intervention

Hetty J. Bontkes; Tanja D. de Gruijl; Jan M. M. Walboomers; John T. Schiller; Joakim Dillner; Theo J. M. Helmerhorst; H. M. Verheijen; Rik J. Scheper; Chris J. L. M. Meijer

158

Immunologic responses following administration of a vaccine targeting human papillomavirus Types 6, 11, 16, and 18  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection causes cervical cancer and genital warts. Young women (1106) were randomized to receive one of three formulations of a quadrivalent HPV (Types 6\\/11\\/16\\/18) L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine or one of two placebo formulations. The goal was to assess vaccine safety and immunogenicity in baseline HPV 6\\/11\\/16 or 18-naïve and previously infected subjects. All three formulations

Luisa L. Villa; Kevin A. Ault; Anna R. Giuliano; Ronaldo L. R. Costa; Carlos A. Petta; Rosires P. Andrade; Darron R. Brown; Alex Ferenczy; Diane M. Harper; Laura A. Koutsky; Robert J. Kurman; Matti Lehtinen; Christian Malm; Sven-Eric Olsson; Brigitte M. Ronnett; Finn Egil Skjeldestad; Margareta Steinwall; Mark H. Stoler; Cosette M. Wheeler; Frank J. Taddeo; Jimmy Yu; Lisa Lupinacci; Radha Railkar; Rocio Marchese; Mark T. Esser; Janine Bryan; Kathrin U. Jansen; Heather L. Sings; Gretchen M. Tamms; Alfred J. Saah; Eliav Barr

2006-01-01

159

Integrating Clinical, Community, and Policy Perspectives on HPV Vaccination  

PubMed Central

Infection with genital human papillomavirus (HPV) may cause anogenital cancers, oropharyngeal cancers, anogenital warts, and respiratory papillomas. Two prophylactic vaccines (a bivalent and a quadrivalent vaccine) are now licensed and currently in use in a number of countries. Both vaccines prevent infection with HPV-16 and HPV-18, which together cause approximately 70% of cervical cancers, and clinical trials have demonstrated 90%-100% efficacy in preventing precancerous cervical lesions attributable to HPV-16 and HPV-18. One vaccine also prevents HPV-6 and HPV-11, which cause 90% of genital warts. A growing literature describes associations between psychosocial, interpersonal, organizational, and societal factors that influence HPV vaccination acceptability. This paper summarizes the current literature and presents an integrated perspective, taking into account these diverse influences. The resulting integrated model can be used as a heuristic tool for organizing factors at multiple levels to guide intervention development and future research.

Fernandez, Maria E.; Allen, Jennifer D.; Mistry, Ritesh; Kahn, Jessica A.

2010-01-01

160

Differential effects of human papillomavirus type 6, 16, and 18 DNAs on immortalization and transformation of human cervical epithelial cells  

SciTech Connect

The human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are associated with specific benign and malignant lesions of the skin and mucosal epithelia. Cloned viral DNAs from HPV types 6b, 16, and 18 associated with different pathological manifestations of genital neoplasia in vivo were introduced into primary human cervical epithelial cells by electroporation. Cells transfected with HPV16 or HPV18 DNA acquired indefinite lifespans, distinct morphological alterations, and anchorage-independent growth (HPV18), and contain integrated transcriptionally active viral genomes. HPV6b or plasmid electroporated cells senesced at low passage. The alterations in growth and differentiation of the cells appear to reflect the progressive oncogenic processes that result in cervical carcinoma in vivo.

Pecoraro, G.; Morgan, D.; Defendi, V. (New York Univ. Medical Center, NY (USA))

1989-01-01

161

Type-Specific HPV Prevalence in Cervical Cancer and High-Grade Lesions in Latin America and the Caribbean: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Cervical cancer is a major public health problem in Latin America and the Caribbean (LA&C), showing some of the highest incidence and mortality rates worldwide. Information on HPV type distribution in high-grade cervical lesions (HSIL) and invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is crucial to predict the future impact of HPV16/18 vaccines and screening programmes, and to establish an appropriate post-vaccinal virologic surveillance. The aim was to assess the prevalence of HPV types in HSIL and ICC in studies in LA&C. Methods and Findings We performed a systematic review, following the MOOSE guidelines for systematic reviews of observational studies, and the PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Inclusion criteria were at least ten cases of HSIL/ICC, and HPV-type elicitation. The search, without language restrictions, was performed in MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, LILACS from inception date to December 2009, proceedings, reference lists and consulting experts. A meta-analysis was performed using arc-sine transformations to stabilize the variance of simple proportions. Seventy-nine studies from 18 countries were identified, including 2446 cases of HSIL and 5540 of ICC. Overall, 46.5% of HSIL cases harbored HPV 16 and 8.9% HPV18; in ICC, 53.2% of cases harbored HPV 16 and13.2% HPV 18. The next five most common types, in decreasing frequency, were HPV 31, 58, 33, 45, and 52. Study's limitations comprise the cross-sectional design of most included studies and their inherent risk of bias, the lack of representativeness, and variations in the HPV type-specific sensitivity of different PCR protocols. Conclusions This study is the broadest summary of HPV type distribution in HSIL and ICC in LA&C to date. These data are essential for local decision makers regarding HPV screening and vaccination policies. Continued HPV surveillance would be useful, to assess the potential for changing type-specific HPV prevalence in the post-vaccination era in Latin America.

Ciapponi, Agustin; Bardach, Ariel; Glujovsky, Demian; Gibbons, Luz; Picconi, Maria Alejandra

2011-01-01

162

Integration of HPV16 and HPV18 DNA in vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective.Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) is a premalignant disease of the lower genital tract. The increased occurrence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection seems to be associated with the increasing frequency of VIN. Integration of HPV DNA into host chromosome has been hypothesized to be a critical step in the carcinogenesis of cervical neoplasia resulting in altered expression of two viral

Peter Hillemanns; Xiuli Wang

2006-01-01

163

Genital Warts  

MedlinePLUS

Genital warts Basics In-Depth Multimedia Resources Reprints A single copy of this article may be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Genital warts By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: http://www. ...

164

Survey of human papillomavirus types and their vertical transmission in pregnant women  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence, genotypes, and vertical transmission characteristics of human papillomavirus (HPV) among pregnant women from Nanjing, China was investigated. Methods Cervical cells were collected from healthy pregnant women (n?=?3139; stage of gestation, 24.6?±?2.1?weeks) for cytological evaluation and determination of HPV infection status. Exfoliated oral and genital cells were collected from neonates (<1-day-old, n?=?233) whose mothers were positive for HPV DNA. We used HPV Gene Chip technology with 23 HPV genotype probes to conduct our analysis. Results Overall prevalence of HPV DNA among pregnant women was 13.4% (422/3139). The most frequently detected HPV genotypes were HPV-16 (29.6%, 125/422), -18 (14.7%, 62/422), and -58 (14.2%, 60/422). The rate of concordance for HPV DNA in maternal-neonatal pairs was 23.6% (55/233), with HPV type-specific concordance occurring in 26 cases. A higher prevalence of HPV DNA was apparent in female neonates compared with males (17.7 vs. 11.6%). Conclusions The prevalence of cervical HPV DNA in pregnant women from Nanjing was low, with vertical transmission rates slightly higher. From our findings, we concluded that there was efficient vertical transmission of three HPV genotypes, with HPV-16 the most prevalent type in pregnant women and newborn babies.

2013-01-01

165

HPV antibody levels and clinical efficacy following administration of a prophylactic quadrivalent HPV vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of the quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is thought to be mediated by humoral immunity. We evaluated the correlation between quadrivalent HPV vaccine-induced serum anti-HPV responses and efficacy. 17,622 women were vaccinated at day 1, and months 2 and 6. At day 1 and at 6–12 months intervals for up to 48 months, subjects underwent Papanicolaou and genital

Elmar A. Joura; Susanne K. Kjaer; Cosette M. Wheeler; Kristján Sigurdsson; Ole-Erik Iversen; Mauricio Hernandez-Avila; Gonzalo Perez; Darron R. Brown; Laura A. Koutsky; Eng Hseon Tay; Patricia García; Kevin A. Ault; Suzanne M. Garland; Sepp Leodolter; Sven-Eric Olsson; Grace W. K. Tang; Daron G. Ferris; Jorma Paavonen; Matti Lehtinen; Marc Steben; Xavier Bosch; Joakim Dillner; Robert J. Kurman; Slawomir Majewski; Nubia Muñoz; Evan R. Myers; Luisa L. Villa; Frank J. Taddeo; Christine Roberts; Amha Tadesse; Janine Bryan; Lisa C. Lupinacci; Katherine E. D. Giacoletti; Shuang Lu; Scott Vuocolo; Teresa M. Hesley; Richard M. Haupt; Eliav Barr

2008-01-01

166

Comparison of the Cobas 4800 Human Papillomavirus test against a combination of the Amplicor Human Papillomavirus and the Linear Array tests for detection of HPV types 16 and 18 in cervical samples.  

PubMed

The greater prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 compared to the other high-risk HPV types of cervical cancer led to the development of clinical tests that detect both types separately from other genotypes. One method is the Roche Cobas 4800 HPV test, which is based on a real-time PCR. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Cobas 4800 HPV test for detecting genotypes 16 and 18 by comparing the results with those obtained in a combination of the Roche Amplicor HPV assay and the Roche Linear Array (LA) HPV genotyping assay. Excellent concordance was found between both methods (92.7%, kappa value=0.872). The Cobas 4800 HPV test could be used as a single test for identifying HPV types 16 and 18 directly from clinical specimens. PMID:22197189

Martínez, Samuel Bernal; Palomares, José Carlos; Artura, Antonio; Parra, Manuel; Cabezas, Jose Luis; Romo, Jose Ma; Martín-Mazuelos, Estrella

2011-12-14

167

HPV vaccine MedImmune/GlaxoSmithKline.  

PubMed

MedImmune, in collaboration with GlaxoSmithKline, is developing a vaccine consisting of self-assembling, virus-like particles for the prevention of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection of the genital tract and associated cervical cancer. The vaccine candidates include the prototype vaccine, MEDI-501 (a vaccine directed against HPV-11), MEDI-503 (directed against HPV-16) and MEDI-504 (directed against HPV-18). Following phase I studies, the HPV-16 and HPV-18 components were combined into a multivalent vaccine for subsequent trials; this vaccine is known as MEDI-517. Phase II trials of MEDI-517 were initiated by January 2000 and are currently ongoing. PMID:12669384

Billich, Andreas

2003-02-01

168

Acquired Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis Due to Multiple and Unusual HPV Infection Among Vertically-Infected, HIV-Positive Adolescents in Zimbabwe  

PubMed Central

Background.?We have previously described the presentation of epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV)–like eruptions in almost a quarter of hospitalized adolescents with vertically-acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Harare, Zimbabwe, a region with a high prevalence of HIV infection. Methods.?We performed a clinical case note review and skin biopsy from affected sites in 4 HIV-infected adolescents with EV-like lesions in Harare. Biopsies were processed for histology and for human papillomavirus (HPV) typing. Results.?All patients had long-standing skin lesions that pre-dated the diagnosis of HIV by several years. The histology of skin biopsies from all patients was consistent with EV. In each biopsy, EV-associated ?-HPV type 5 was identified (additionally, type 19 was found in 1 biopsy). Cutaneous wart–associated HPV types 1 and 2 were detected in all biopsies, together with genital lesion–associated HPV types 6, 16, and 52, (as well as ?3 other genital lesion–associated HPV types). Despite immune reconstitution with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), there was no improvement in EV-like lesions in any patient. Conclusions.?EV is a disfiguring and potentially stigmatizing condition among this patient group and is difficult to treat; cART appears to have no impact on the progression of skin disease. Among adolescents with longstanding HIV-induced immunosuppression and with high levels of sun exposure, close dermatological surveillance for potential skin malignancy is required.

Lowe, S. M.; Katsidzira, L.; Meys, R.; Sterling, J. C.; de Koning, M.; Quint, W.; Nathoo, K.; Munyati, S.; Ndhlovu, C. E.; Salisbury, J. R.; Bunker, C. B.; Corbett, E. L.; Miller, R. F.; Ferrand, R. A.

2012-01-01

169

A new surveillance gynecological network to assess the incidence and prevalence of genital warts in the Italian female population: lessons learned.  

PubMed

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the etiologic agent of genital warts. Genital warts are transmitted through sexual contacts and caused in about 90% of the cases by HPV types 6 and 11. Worldwide, several million cases of genital warts occur each year both in females and males. In Italy, genital warts are not subject to mandatory notification; the only available data come from the sentinel surveillance system for sexually transmitted infections (STI), which show that external genital warts represent the most frequent STI in Italy. However, these data are not suitable for estimates of incidence and prevalence of single STI in the general population. To obtain more reliable data on the epidemiology of genital warts in the female population at large, we implemented a network of local gynecologists reporting essential data on all women visited throughout one year and detailed data on women who were diagnosed with genital warts. In order to organize and create this network, a partnership between the Italian National Institute of Health and the Italian Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics was constituted to implement the start-up and management of this pilot and unique project in Europe. The present paper intends to present the methods used to build and implement this surveillance network of local gynecologists. PMID:24096294

Suligoi, B; Salfa, M C; Mariani, L; Corsini, D; Timelli, L; Fattorini, G; Vittori, G

2013-10-01

170

GARDASIL® Quadrivalent HPV (Types 6, 11, 16, 18) L1 VLP ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... The majority of endpoints in the clinical development program were genital warts due to ... Mark Esser, PhD PPD Vaccines and Biologics Laboratory. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

171

Circumcision status and incident herpes simplex virus type 2 infection, genital ulcer disease, and HIV infection  

PubMed Central

Objective We assessed the protective effect of medical male circumcision (MMC) against HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), and genital ulcer disease (GUD) incidence. Design Two thousand, seven hundred and eighty-seven men aged 18–24 years living in Kisumu, Kenya were randomly assigned to circumcision (n=1391) or delayed circumcision (n =1393) and assessed by HIV and HSV-2 testing and medical examinations during follow-ups at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Methods Cox regression estimated the risk ratio of each outcome (incident HIV, GUD, HSV-2) for circumcision status and multivariable models estimated HIV risk associated with HSV-2, GUD, and circumcision status as time-varying covariates. Results HIV incidence was 1.42 per 100 person-years. Circumcision was 62% protective against HIV [risk ratio =0.38; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.22–0.67] and did not change when controlling for HSV-2 and GUD (risk ratio =0.39; 95% CI 0.23–0.69). GUD incidence was halved among circumcised men (risk ratio =0.52; 95% CI 0.37–0.73). HSV-2 incidence did not differ by circumcision status (risk ratio =0.94; 95% CI 0.70–1.25). In the multivariable model, HIV seroconversions were tripled (risk ratio =3.44; 95% CI 1.52–7.80) among men with incident HSV-2 and seven times greater (risk ratio =6.98; 95% CI 3.50–13.9) for men with GUD. Conclusion Contrary to findings from the South African and Ugandan trials, the protective effect of MMC against HIV was independent of GUD and HSV-2, and MMC had no effect on HSV-2 incidence. Determining the causes of GUD is necessary to reduce associated HIV risk and to understand how circumcision confers protection against GUD and HIV

Mehta, Supriya D.; Moses, Stephen; Parker, Corette B.; Agot, Kawango; Maclean, Ian; Bailey, Robert C.

2013-01-01

172

Detection of human papillomavirus types in balanitis xerotica obliterans and other penile conditions.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--To determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6, 11, 16 and 18 in foreskin biopsies from patients with balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO) and other penile conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS--Foreskin biopsy specimens from 24 patients with penile lesions and 5 control patients were analysed by type-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS--HPV6 or HPV16 were not detected in patients with BXO. HPV6 was detected in 2 controls. CONCLUSIONS--Genital papillomaviruses do not have a strong association with BXO. Images

Lau, P W; Cook, N; Andrews, H; Bracka, A; Myint, S H

1995-01-01

173

HPV type concordance in sexual couples determines the effect of condoms on regression of flat penile lesions  

PubMed Central

We earlier demonstrated, in a randomised clinical trial, that the regression time of flat penile lsions in male sexual partners of women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) was shorter in men who used condoms compared to those who did not. To further evaluate this finding, we examined whether the effect of condom use on the regression of flat penile lesions depends on the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) type concordance in sexual couples, as determined in cervical and penile scrapes by GP5+/6+ PCR testing. A Cox model with time-dependent covariates showed a beneficial effect of condoms on regression of flat penile lesions in concordant couples (hazard ratio 2.63, 95% CI 1.07–6.48) but not in those who were nonconcordant. When both partners harboured different HPV types, no effect of condoms was found (hazard ratio 0.90, 95% CI 0.27–2.96). Delayed regression of flat penile lesions was associated with either stable lesions or with new penile lesions developing at sites surrounding pre-existing lesions suggesting reinfection of the penile epithelium. We conclude that condom use blocks sexual HPV transmission by preventing reinfection and development of new penile lesions in men who are susceptible to the same type as present in the female partner.

Bleeker, M C G; Berkhof, J; Hogewoning, C J A; Voorhorst, F J; van den Brule, A J C; Starink, T M; Snijders, P J F; Meijer, C J L M

2005-01-01

174

Immunization with a highly attenuated replication-competent herpes simplex virus type 1 mutant, HF10, protects mice from genital disease caused by herpes simplex virus type 2  

PubMed Central

Genital herpes is an intractable disease caused mainly by herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 (HSV-2), and is a major concern in public health. A previous infection with HSV type 1 (HSV-1) enhances protection against primary HSV-2 infection to some extent. In this study, we evaluated the ability of HF10, a naturally occurring replication-competent HSV-1 mutant, to protect against genital infection in mice caused by HSV-2. Subcutaneous inoculation of HF10-immunized mice against lethal infection by HSV-2, and attenuated the development of genital ulcer diseases. Immunization with HF10 inhibited HSV-2 replication in the mouse vagina, reduced local inflammation, controlled emergence of neurological dysfunctions of HSV-2 infection, and increased survival. In HF10-immunized mice, we observed rapid and increased production of interferon-? in the vagina in response to HSV-2 infection, and numerous CD4+ and a few CD8+ T cells localized to the infective focus. CD4+ T cells invaded the mucosal subepithelial lamina propria. Thus, the protective effect of HF10 was related to induction of cellular immunity, mediated primarily by Th1 CD4+ cells. These data indicate that the live attenuated HSV-1 mutant strain HF10 is a promising candidate antigen for a vaccine against genital herpes caused by HSV-2.

Luo, Chenhong; Goshima, Fumi; Kamakura, Maki; Mutoh, Yoshifumi; Iwata, Seiko; Kimura, Hiroshi; Nishiyama, Yukihiro

2012-01-01

175

Next-generation sequencing of cervical DNA detects human papillomavirus types not detected by commercial kits  

PubMed Central

Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the aetiological agent for cervical cancer and genital warts. Concurrent HPV and HIV infection in the South African population is high. HIV positive (+) women are often infected with multiple, rare and undetermined HPV types. Data on HPV incidence and genotype distribution are based on commercial HPV detection kits, but these kits may not detect all HPV types in HIV?+?women. The objectives of this study were to (i) identify the HPV types not detected by commercial genotyping kits present in a cervical specimen from an HIV positive South African woman using next generation sequencing, and (ii) determine if these types were prevalent in a cohort of HIV-infected South African women. Methods Total DNA was isolated from 109 cervical specimens from South African HIV?+?women. A specimen within this cohort representing a complex multiple HPV infection, with 12 HPV genotypes detected by the Roche Linear Array HPV genotyping (LA) kit, was selected for next generation sequencing analysis. All HPV types present in this cervical specimen were identified by Illumina sequencing of the extracted DNA following rolling circle amplification. The prevalence of the HPV types identified by sequencing, but not included in the Roche LA, was then determined in the 109 HIV positive South African women by type-specific PCR. Results Illumina sequencing identified a total of 16 HPV genotypes in the selected specimen, with four genotypes (HPV-30, 74, 86 and 90) not included in the commercial kit. The prevalence’s of HPV-30, 74, 86 and 90 in 109 HIV positive South African women were found to be 14.6%, 12.8%, 4.6% and 8.3% respectively. Conclusions Our results indicate that there are HPV types, with substantial prevalence, in HIV positive women not being detected in molecular epidemiology studies using commercial kits. The significance of these types in relation to cervical disease remains to be investigated.

2012-01-01

176

Patient attitudes to type specific serological tests in the diagnosis of genital herpes  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To assess patient attitudes to HSV-2 serotesting and the effect of providing detailed information regarding genital herpes, the blood test, and its implications. METHODS: Consecutive genitourinary medicine clinic attenders were asked to complete an anonymous self administered questionnaire. Half received minimal additional information while the other half received a detailed information sheet. RESULTS: Overall, 200 clinic attenders with a

I Fairley; E F Monteiro

1997-01-01

177

Men's Perceptions and Knowledge of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection and Cervical Cancer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors assessed young men's knowledge and perceptions of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection to identify factors that predict intention to make positive behavioral changes. Male university students aged 18 to 25 years completed a self-report instrument to assess knowledge and perceptions of genital HPV infection. If diagnosed with…

McPartland, Tara S.; Weaver, Bethany A.; Lee, Shu-Kuang; Koutsky, Laura A.

2005-01-01

178

Men's Perceptions and Knowledge of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection and Cervical Cancer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors assessed young men's knowledge and perceptions of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection to identify factors that predict intention to make positive behavioral changes. Male university students aged 18 to 25 years completed a self-report instrument to assess knowledge and perceptions of genital HPV infection. If diagnosed with…

McPartland, Tara S.; Weaver, Bethany A.; Lee, Shu-Kuang; Koutsky, Laura A.

2005-01-01

179

Isolation of a novel human papillomavirus (type 51) from a cervical condyloma  

SciTech Connect

The authors cloned the DNA from a novel human papillomavirus (HPV) present in a cervical condyloma. When DNA from this isolate was hybridized at high stringency with HPV types 1 through 50 (HPV-1 through HPV-50), it showed weak homology with HPV-6 and -16 and stronger homology with HPV-26. A detailed restriction endonuclease map was prepared which showed marked differences from the maps for other HPVs that have been isolated from the female genital tract. Reassociation kinetic analysis revealed that HPV-26 and this new isolate were less than 10% homologous; hence, the new isolate is a noel strain of HPV. The approximate positions of the open reading frames of the new strain were surmised by hybridization with probes derived from individual open reading frames of HPV-16. In an analysis of 175 genital biopsies from patients with abnormal Papanicolaou smears, sequences hybridizing under highly stringent conditions to probes from this novel HPV type were found in 4.2, 6.1, and 2.4% of biopsies containing normal squamous epithelium, condylomata, and intraepithelial neoplasia, respectively. In addition, sequences homologous to probes from this novel isolate were detected in one of five cervical carcinomas examined.

Nuovo, G.J.; Crum, C.P.; Levine, R.U.; Silverstein, S.J. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (USA)); De Villiers, E.M. (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (West Germany))

1988-04-01

180

Short-Term Effect of Zidovudine on Plasma and Genital Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 and Viral Turnover in These Compartments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of zidovudine on plasma and genital human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) was deter- mined in 42 antiretroviral-naive HIV-1-seropositive women in Nairobi. After 7 days of zidovudine treatment, HIV-1 RNA levels decreased by 0.5 to 1.1 log10 in plasma and genital secretions. HIV-1 RNA half-life following zidovudine treatment was 4.7, 1.3, and 0.9 days in plasma, cervix, and

Dorothy Mbori-Ngacha; Barbra A. Richardson; Julie Overbaugh; Dana DeVange Panteleeff; Ruth Nduati; Matt Steele; Grace John-Stewart

2003-01-01

181

Knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) and HPV vaccination: an international comparison.  

PubMed

Since vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) became available, awareness of HPV has dramatically increased. Implementation of a vaccine program varies internationally yet no studies have explored the influence this has on the public's knowledge of HPV. The present study aimed to explore differences in awareness of HPV and HPV knowledge across three countries: The US, UK and Australia. Participants (n=2409) completed a validated measure of HPV knowledge as part of an online survey. There were higher levels of HPV awareness among men and women in the US than the UK and Australia. Being male and having a lower educational level was associated with lower HPV awareness in all three countries. Awareness of HPV vaccine was higher in women from the US than the UK and Australia. Women in the US scored significantly higher on general HPV knowledge (on a 15-item scale) than women in the UK and Australia, but there were no between country differences in HPV vaccine knowledge (on a 6-item scale). When asked about country-specific vaccine availability, participants in the US were less able to identify the correct answers than participants in the UK and Australia. More than half of participants did not know: HPV can cause genital warts; most sexually active people will get HPV at some point in their life; or HPV doesn't usually need treatment. Pharmaceutical advertising campaigns could explain why awareness of HPV and HPV vaccine is higher in the US and this has helped to get some important messages across. Significant gaps in HPV knowledge remain across all three countries. PMID:23246310

Marlow, Laura A V; Zimet, Gregory D; McCaffery, Kirsten J; Ostini, Remo; Waller, Jo

2012-12-11

182

Influence of age and CD4+ T cell counts on the prevalence of genital human papillomavirus infection among HIV-seropositive men who have sex with men in Taiwan.  

PubMed

This study aimed to examine the baseline prevalence of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive men who have sex with men in Taiwan and to determine the association of age and CD4+ T cell counts with HPV infection. In 2010, 305 men who have sex with men infected with HIV and 100 HIV-seronegative men who have sex with men were recruited. Genital swabs were collected and 37 HPV genotypes were detected using linear array HPV genotyping. HPV infection was present in 45.3% of the patients infected with HIV and in 18% of the HIV-negative subjects (P < 0.001). HPV types 52, 51, and 16 were the most commonly identified oncogenic types. Oncogenic HPV types were identified in 31.2% of the patients infected with HIV and in 13% of the seronegative subjects (P < 0.001). Adjusted odd ratios (ORs) for the detection of any HPV type were 2.9 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-5.9) for men who have sex with men aged 30-34 and 2.1 (95% CI, 1.1-4.3) for those aged >35 compared with that for those aged <25. ORs were 2.8 (95% CI, 1.0-7.4) for a CD4+ T cell count of 200-350 cells/µl and 8.5 (95% CI, 2.9-24.5) for a CD4+ T cell count of <200 cells/µl compared with that for seronegative subjects. In conclusion, this novel HPV study, carried out in Northern Taiwan on men who have sex with men, revealed that age and immune state were associated significantly and independently with HPV infection. PMID:23080490

Cheng, Shu-Hsing; Chu, Fang-Yeh; Lin, Yu-Shiang; Hsueh, Yu-Mei

2012-12-01

183

Carcinoma of the head and neck in the HPV era.  

PubMed

This review encompasses the most salient advances in the understanding of the biopathology of head and neck squamous-cell carcinoma (HNSCC) accomplished over the last decade, emphasizing the significant role played by high-risk HPV genotypes. This has led to a new and meaningful subdivision of conventional HNSCC in two main prognostic and therapeutic groups: 1) keratinizing HNSCC, mainly occurring in elderly men that are heavy smokers and drinkers, TP53 mutated and/or p53-positive, HPV16-negative, being associated with an aggressive course; and 2) non-keratinizing HNSCC, occurring in younger men between 40 and 60 years that are non-smokers and non-drinkers, HPV16- positive, p16-positive, and p53- negative, being associated with improved prognosis. The main risk factors are number of sexual partners, oral-genital sex, oral-anal sex, and marijuana use. Among the unusual variants of HNSCC, papillary and lymphoepithelial-like are mostly related to HPV-16 infection, whereas the spindle and acantholytic types are mainly associated with tobacco and alcohol. The basaloid, adenosquamous, and verrucous variants may be related to both types of risk factors. Spindle cell carcinoma has been shown to be a prototype of epithelial mesenchymal transition. The hallmark of the novel and aggressive entity "undifferentiated midline carcinoma" is the rearrangement of the Nuclear Protein in Testis (NUT) gene at t[15; 19]. In the HPV era we are proposing the Ljubljana Classification (LC) as the recommended system for grading precursor lesions in heavy cigarette smokers and alcohol drinkers and the dysplasia and SIN systems for grading intraepithelial precursor lesions related to the increasingly detected epidemic of HNSCC associated with high-risk HPV infections. PMID:22131117

Cardesa, Antonio; Nadal, Alfons

2011-09-01

184

Genital herpes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are common. In both developed and developing countries, the incidence of infection appears to be increasing. The epidemiology of HSV is shifting, and new genital infections are increasingly with HSV-1. Such infections are indistinguishable from HSV-2 infections. Acquisition episodes are often asymptomatic and many individuals are unaware of their infection status. Recurrences are more

Raj Patel

2005-01-01

185

Historical correlates of genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in men attending an STD clinic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/objectives: While nearly one in four Americans has antibodies to HSV-2, only one of 40 reports a history of genital herpes (GH). The goal of this study was to correlate questions designed to elicit a GH history with serological evidence of HSV-2 in male STD clinic attendees.Methods: Consecutive males were enrolled in a study of the epidemiology of GH. Consenting

J M Sizemore; F Lakeman; R Whitley; A Hughes; E W Hook

2005-01-01

186

Genital Herpes in a Primary Care Clinic: Demographic and Sexual Correlates of Herpes Simplex Type 2 Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Background,and Objectives: Genital herpes,remains one of the most prevalent,sexually transmitted,diseases (STDs). The sexual behavioral correlates of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection in the general population,have not been,well characterized. Goals: To assess demographic,and sexual behavioral,correlates of symptomatic,and subclinical HSV-2 infection. Study Design: Cross-sectional survey of 922 randomly chosen patients and 78 of their partners (1,000 total) in a

Anna Mph Koutsky; Laura Ashley; L Rhoda

187

Annual disease burden due to human papillomavirus (HPV) 6 and 11 infections in Finland.  

PubMed

In addition to cancer of the lower female genital tract, human papillomaviruses (HPV) are associated with a large number of benign, precancer and cancer lesions at different anatomic sites in both genders. Malignant tumours and their precursors are usually attributed to the oncogenic (high-risk, HR) HPV types, whereas benign lesions (papillomas) are associated with the low-risk (LR) HPV types, most notably with HPV6 and HPV11. Until recently, the main interest in HPV research has been focused on HR-HPV types and their associated pathology, and much less attention has been paid to the lesions caused by the LR-HPV types. With the recent licensing of an effective prophylactic vaccine against the 2 most important LR-HPV types (HPV6 and HPV11), it has become timely to make a systematic survey on the annual disease burden due to these 2 HPV genotypes in our country. These types of data should form the foundation for all calculations of the annual costs needed to treat these diseases by conventional means. Accurate estimates of disease burden are also mandatory for all modelling of the cost-effectiveness of prophylactic HPV6 and HPV11 vaccines. If proven useful for any of these purposes, this document will have fulfilled its purpose. In the first step, published HPV literature was used to create a list of benign, premalignant and malignant lesions associated with this virus at different anatomic sites. GLOBOCAN 2004 (IARC) database was used to derive the global numbers of incident cases for each of these malignancies in 2002, and the Finnish Cancer Registry (FCR) website for obtaining these (y 2005) numbers in Finland. The evidence linking HPV to each individual tumour category was classified as: 1) established, 2) emerging, and 3) controversial. All published evidence was weighted for each individual malignant, premalignant and benign lesion, anatomic region by region, while assessing the attributable fraction of HPV6/11 genotypes in each lesion. Because benign and most of the precancer lesions are not registered by FCR or GLOBOCAN, different approaches had to be used to derive the best estimates for their incidence, based on published literature or other registries (e.g. genital wart registry of the UK and Wales, and mass screening registry of FCR). With a lack of reasonable consensus, a lower and an upper limit was set for the range of estimates. In cases with different age-specific incidence (e.g. genital warts), the population pyramid of Finland was used to calculate the incident cases. Where well established, the different incidence rates among males and females were used to calculate the numbers of incident cases by gender. The malignant neoplasms with established or emerging evidence on the causal role of HPV are listed by their ICD-10 codes in Table I. Included in this list are also 2 controversial malignancies (colorectal cancer and endometrial cancer), of which the contradictory HPV data are critically discussed. The third major cancer in this same category (prostate cancer) was not included in the list, because the data are clearly insufficient to categorize this entity even among the emerging HPV associated malignancies. Estimated disease burden due to HPV6/11 in Finland, calculated as numbers of annual new cases by anatomic region and tumour type is given in Table II, and summarized in Figure 1. The present analysis implicates that a minimum of 12,666 to 13,066 new cases of HPV6- or HPV11-associated clinical lesions would be detected each y in Finland, if all were registered. Notably, these numbers represent the disease burden due to these 2 HPV types. However, these clinical lesions only represent a small minority of the total viral burden due to the infections by these 2 HPV genotypes. This is because the vast majority of all infections by these ubiquitous viruses are latent, being transient in nature and spontaneously resolving within a few months (up to 1 y), without ever developing a clinically detectable disease. This spontaneous clearance does not make these latent infections less important, however, becaus

Syrjänen, Kari J

2009-01-01

188

Herpes simplex virus type 2 detection by culture and polymerase chain reaction and relationship to genital symptoms and cervical antibody status during the third trimester of pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to define the frequency of asymptomatic herpes simplex virus type 2 shedding by culture and polymerase chain reaction and to correlate our findings with cervical anti–herpes simplex virus type 2 immunoglobulin A production.STUDY DESIGN: Women who were seropositive for herpes simplex virus type 2 collected daily genital tract samples during the third trimester for culture and

Kim A. Boggess; D. Heather Watts; Ann C. Hobson; Rhoda L. Ashley; Zane A. Brown; Lawrence Corey

1997-01-01

189

Detection of human papillomavirus type 6/11 DNA in conjunctival papillomas by in situ hybridization with radioactive probes  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-three conjunctival papillomas and 28 conjunctival dysplasias were examined for human papillomavirus (HPV)-DNA sequences by in situ hybridization with nick-translated /sup 35/S-labeled HPV probes. Adjacent paraffin sections were hybridized with HPV type 2, 6, 16, and 18 probes at Tm - 17 degrees C. Fifteen tissues, all papillomas, displayed positive hybridization with the HPV-6 probe. Infection with HPV-6 (or the closely related HPV-11) appeared to be responsible for most of the conjunctival papillomas of children and young adults. The presence of genital tract HPV-6 in these lesions suggests that some of the infections were acquired during passage through an infected birth canal. The lack of hybridization in adult conjunctival dysplasias indicates either that HPVs are not associated with this condition or that the probes and the technique utilized were not adequate for demonstration of this association.

McDonnell, P.J.; McDonnell, J.M.; Kessis, T.; Green, W.R.; Shah, K.V.

1987-11-01

190

What Women in the United States Virgin Islands Still Want and Need to Know About HPV, Cervical Cancer, and Condom Use  

PubMed Central

Cervical cancer is an infection-related cancer caused primarily by the human papilloma virus. Sexual behavior is a primary risk factor for contracting the genital type of the HPV. While studies have shown that vertical transmission, horizontal transmission, and transmission of the HPV following contact with infected secretions without sexual intercourse are possible, they are not common. The incidence of cervical cancer in the Caribbean is the third highest in the world. This report describes the outcomes of a cross-sectional, mixed methods, exploratory study undertaken to examine questions and concerns about HPV transmission, physical examination, cervical cancer screening, and HPV/cervical cancer risk management among a targeted group of single, unmarried women in the U.S. Virgin Islands. Analysis of the data revealed that the women had many questions and concerns about the origin of HPV infection and cervical cancer, HPV and cervical cancer risk factors, HPV and cervical cancer screening, and HPV and cervical cancer prevention and risk management. Results of the study are used to suggest opportunities for nurses to respond to the questions and concerns posed by the women through the University of the Virgin Islands and within community-based settings.

Underwood, Sandra Millon; Ramsay-Johnson, Edith; Browne, Lois; Caines, Natasha; Dean, Ashanti; Duval, Samantha; Ivalis, Ruth; Lawrence, Nishel D.; Lewis, Nicole; Mulkanen, Meseret; Pogson, Shenella; Stuard, Princess-Onesha; Randolph, Benita; Riley, Shalini; Ruiz, Melanie; Russ, Jori; Averhart, LaCreessha; De Castro, Tyra; Dockery, Rashida

2011-01-01

191

High Risk HPV Contamination of Endocavity Vaginal Ultrasound Probes: An Underestimated Route of Nosocomial Infection?  

PubMed Central

Background Endocavity ultrasound is seen as a harmless procedure and has become a common gynaecological procedure. However without correct disinfection, it may result in nosocomial transmission of genito-urinary pathogens, such as high-risk Human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV). We aimed to evaluate the currently recommended disinfection procedure for covered endocavity ultrasound probes, which consists of “Low Level Disinfection” (LLD) with “quaternary ammonium compounds” containing wipes. Methods From May to October 2011 swabs were taken from endovaginal ultrasound probes at the Gynecology Department of the Lyon University Hospital. During the first phase (May–June 2011) samples were taken after the ultrasound examination and after the LLD procedure. In a second phase (July–October 2011) swab samples were collected just before the probe was used. All samples were tested for the presence of human DNA (as a marker for a possible transmission of infectious pathogens from the genital tract) and HPV DNA with the Genomica DNA microarray (35 different HPV genotypes). Results We collected 217 samples before and 200 samples after the ultrasound examination. The PCR was inhibited in two cases. Human DNA was detected in 36 (18%) post-examination samples and 61 (28%) pre-examination samples. After the ultrasound LLD procedure, 6 (3.0%) samples contained HR-HPV types (16, 31, 2×53 and 58). Similarly, HPV was detected in 6 pre-examination samples (2.7%). Amongst these 4 (1.9%) contained HR-HPV (types 53 and 70). Conclusion Our study reveals that a considerable number of ultrasound probes are contaminated with human and HR-HPV DNA, despite LLD disinfection and probe cover. In all hospitals, where LLD is performed, the endovaginal ultrasound procedure must therefore be considered a source for nosocomial HR-HPV infections. We recommend the stringent use of high-level disinfectants, such as glutaraldehyde or hydrogen peroxide solutions.

Casalegno, Jean-sebastien; Le Bail Carval, Karine; Eibach, Daniel; Valdeyron, Marie-Laure; Lamblin, Gery; Jacquemoud, Herve; Mellier, Georges; Lina, Bruno; Gaucherand, Pascal; Mathevet, Patrice; Mekki, Yahia

2012-01-01

192

Genital Herpes  

MedlinePLUS

... surround the brain and spinal cord), seizures, and brain damage. How Is It Prevented? The only surefire way to prevent genital herpes is abstinence . Teens who do have sex must properly use a latex condom every time ...

193

Genital injury  

MedlinePLUS

... important to rule out sexual abuse, rape, and assault. The health care provider should ask the girl how the object was placed there. In young boys, common causes of genital injury include: Having the toilet ...

194

Development of HPV Vaccines for HPV-associated Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-risk genotypes of the human papillomavirus (HPV), particularly HPV type 16, are found in a distinct subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). Thus, these HPV-associated HNSCC may be prevented or treated by vaccines designed to induce appropriate HPV virus-specific immune responses. Infection by HPV may be prevented by neutralizing antibodies specific for the viral capsid proteins. In

Kalpana Devaraj; Maura L. Gillison; T.-C. Wu

2003-01-01

195

Projecting the health and economic impact of a quadrivalent HPV vaccine using a multi-type transmission dynamic model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, a number of randomised clinical trials have demonstrated that a prophylactic HPV vaccine can prevent HPV infection and disease. While clinical studies may be sufficient for vaccine licensure, policy makers will seek answers to a number of pertinent questions related to epidemiological and economic consequences of the vaccine to formulate HPV vaccination guidelines. These questions are: (1) what is

Elamin H. Elbasha; Erik J. Dasbach; Ralph P. Insinga

196

Simultaneous PCR detection of Haemophilus ducreyi, Treponema pallidum, and herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 from genital ulcers.  

PubMed Central

A multiplex PCR (M-PCR) assay with colorimetric detection was devised for the simultaneous amplification of DNA targets from Haemophilus ducreyi, Treponema pallidum, and herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2. By using target-specific oligonucleotides in a microwell format, 298 genital ulcer swab specimens collected in New Orleans during three intervals from 1992 through 1994 were evaluated. The results of the M-PCR assay were compared with the results of dark-field microscopy and H. ducreyi culture on two different culture media. HSV culture results were available for 99 specimens collected during the third interval. Confirmatory PCR assays targeting different gene sequences for each of the three organisms were used to validate the M-PCR results. Specimens were resolved as positive for the determination of sensitivity if the reference diagnostic test was positive or if the results of both the M-PCR and the confirmatory PCR were positive. The resolved sensitivities of M-PCR for HSV, H. ducreyi, and T. pallidum were 100, 98.4, and 91%, respectively. The resolved sensitivities of HSV culture, H. ducreyi culture, and dark-field microscopy were 71.8, 74.2, and 81%, respectively. These results indicate that the M-PCR assay is more sensitive than standard diagnostic tests for the detection of HSV, H. ducreyi, and T. pallidum from genital ulcers.

Orle, K A; Gates, C A; Martin, D H; Body, B A; Weiss, J B

1996-01-01

197

Efficacy of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16 and 18) vaccine (GARDASIL) in Japanese women aged 18-26 years.  

PubMed

A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled phase II trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a prophylactic quadrivalent vaccine targeting the human papillomavirus (HPV) types most frequently associated with cervical cancer (types 16/18) and genital warts (types 6/11) in Japanese women aged 18-26 years. Participants were randomly assigned to either quadrivalent HPV (types 6/11/16/18) L1 virus-like particle vaccine (GARDASIL) (n = 509) or placebo (n = 512). Participants underwent regular gynecological examinations, cervicovaginal sampling for HPV DNA, testing for serum neutralizing antibodies to HPV and Papanicolau testing. The primary end-point was the combined incidence of persistent infection with HPV types 6, 11, 16 or 18 and cervical or external genital disease (i.e. cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, cervical cancer or external genital lesions related to HPV 6, 11, 16 or 18. Primary analyses were done per protocol. Combined incidence of persistent infection or disease with HPV 6, 11, 16 or 18 fell by 87.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 59.2-97.6; P < 0.001), with HPV 6 or 11 by 73.1% (95% CI, -1.1-97.3; P = 0.0756) and with HPV 16 or 18 by 94.5% (95% CI, 65.2-99.9; P < 0.001) in those assigned vaccine compared with those assigned placebo. The median duration of follow up after month 7 in subjects was 23 months. In addition, the vaccine was well tolerated in Japanese women aged 18-26 years. Quadrivalent HPV vaccine could significantly reduce the acquisition of infection and clinical disease caused by HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18. PMID:23331518

Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki; Ebihara, Keiko; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Noda, Kiichiro

2013-03-07

198

Real-time duplex PCR for simultaneous HPV 16 and HPV 18 DNA quantitation.  

PubMed

HPV 16 and HPV 18 are responsible for more than 75% of cervical cancers and high HPV 16 loads are associated with both prevalent and incident lesions. The objective of the present study was to develop a method allowing the detection and quantitation of HPV 16 and 18 DNA to improve future strategies for cervical cancer screening. A duplex real-time PCR allowing the simultaneous quantitation of both HPV 16 and HPV 18 was carried out. Mixes of HPV 16 and HPV 18 whole genome plasmids were prepared to test a wide range of viral DNA concentrations. The values obtained for each mix of plasmids with the simplex and the duplex PCR were very close to the theoretical values except when a HPV type represented only 1:1000 genome equivalent or lower than the concurrent type. Cervical samples harboring HPV 16, HPV 18 or both types were tested by comparing the results with simplex and duplex real-time PCR assays. HPV 16 and HPV 18 genome titers were similar with the two assays. In conclusion, the real-time duplex PCR proved to be robust for HPV 16 and HPV 18 DNA quantitation. PMID:23891872

Jacquin, Elise; Saunier, Maëlle; Mauny, Frédéric; Schwarz, Elisabeth; Mougin, Christiane; Prétet, Jean-Luc

2013-07-24

199

The epidemiology of genital human papillomavirus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical and subclinical human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are the most common sexually transmitted infections in the world, and most sexually-active individuals are likely to be exposed to HPV infection during their lifetimes. More than 40 genotypes of HPV infect the epithelial lining of the anogenital tract and other mucosal areas of the body; of these, 13–18 types are considered to

Helen Trottier; Eduardo L. Franco

2006-01-01

200

Human papillomaviruses: are we ready to type?  

PubMed Central

The issue of determining which human papillomavirus (HPV) is present in a clinical specimen (typing specimens for HPVs) is receiving attention because HPVs cause condyloma acuminata and are associated with the continuum of disease which ranges from dysplasia to invasive genital cancer. Morphological inspection of precancerous lesions is not sufficient to determine which lesions will progress and which will not. A number of research tools based primarily on deoxyribonucleic acid hybridization have been developed. These permit identification and typing of HPV in genital tract scrapings or biopsies. Some HPV types (e.g., HPV-16 and HPV-18) have been identified in high-grade dysplasias and carcinomas more commonly than other types (e.g., HPV-6) and have been designated "high risk" types for cervical cancer. Thus, the question arises whether HPV typing would improve patient management by providing increased sensitivity for detection of patients at risk or by providing a prognostic indicator. In this review, the available typing methods are reviewed from the standpoint of their sensitivity, specificity, and ease of application to large-scale screening programs. Data implicating HPVs in the genesis of genital tract cancers are reviewed, as is the association of specific HPV types with specific outcomes. We conclude that there is currently no simple, inexpensive assay for HPV types, although such assays may be developed in the future. Analysis of the typing data indicates that, while HPV types can be designated high risk and low risk, these designations are not absolute and thus the low-risk group should not be ignored. In addition, interpretation of the data is complicated by finding high-risk types in individuals with no indication of disease. Insufficient data exist to indicate whether knowledge of the presence of a given HPV type is a better prognostic indicator than cytological or histological results. Thus, more research is needed before it can be determined whether typing information will augment the method currently in use for deciding treatment regimen and whether it warrants widespread use. Images

Roman, A; Fife, K H

1989-01-01

201

Influence of physiologic folate deficiency on human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16)-harboring human keratinocytes in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Although HPV16 transforms infected epithelial tissues to cancer in the presence of several co-factors, there is insufficient molecular evidence that poor nutrition has any such role. Because physiological folate deficiency led to the intracellular homocysteinylation of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein E1 (hnRNP-E1) and activated a nutrition-sensitive (homocysteine-responsive) posttranscriptional RNA operon that included interaction with HPV16 L2 mRNA, we investigated the functional consequences of folate deficiency on HPV16 in immortalized HPV16-harboring human (BC-1-Ep/SL) keratinocytes and HPV16-organotypic rafts. Although homocysteinylated hnRNP-E1 interacted with HPV16 L2 mRNA cis-element, it also specifically bound another HPV16 57-nucleotide poly(U)-rich cis-element in the early polyadenylation element (upstream of L2L1 genes) with greater affinity. Together, these interactions led to a profound reduction of both L1 and L2 mRNA and proteins without effects on HPV16 E6 and E7 in vitro, and in cultured keratinocyte monolayers and HPV16-low folate-organotypic rafts developed in physiological low folate medium. In addition, HPV16-low folate-organotypic rafts contained fewer HPV16 viral particles, a similar HPV16 DNA viral load, and a much greater extent of integration of HPV16 DNA into genomic DNA when compared with HPV16-high folate-organotypic rafts. Subcutaneous implantation of 18-day old HPV16-low folate-organotypic rafts into folate-replete immunodeficient mice transformed this benign keratinocyte-derived raft tissue into an aggressive HPV16-induced cancer within 12 weeks. Collectively, these studies establish a likely molecular linkage between poor folate nutrition and HPV16 and predict that nutritional folate and/or vitamin-B(12) deficiency, which are both common worldwide, will alter the natural history of HPV16 infections and also warrant serious consideration as reversible co-factors in oncogenic transformation of HPV16-infected tissues to cancer. PMID:22351779

Xiao, Suhong; Tang, Ying-Sheng; Khan, Rehana A; Zhang, Yonghua; Kusumanchi, Praveen; Stabler, Sally P; Jayaram, Hiremagalur N; Antony, Asok C

2012-02-17

202

Influence of Physiologic Folate Deficiency on Human Papillomavirus Type 16 (HPV16)-harboring Human Keratinocytes in Vitro and in Vivo*  

PubMed Central

Although HPV16 transforms infected epithelial tissues to cancer in the presence of several co-factors, there is insufficient molecular evidence that poor nutrition has any such role. Because physiological folate deficiency led to the intracellular homocysteinylation of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein E1 (hnRNP-E1) and activated a nutrition-sensitive (homocysteine-responsive) posttranscriptional RNA operon that included interaction with HPV16 L2 mRNA, we investigated the functional consequences of folate deficiency on HPV16 in immortalized HPV16-harboring human (BC-1-Ep/SL) keratinocytes and HPV16-organotypic rafts. Although homocysteinylated hnRNP-E1 interacted with HPV16 L2 mRNA cis-element, it also specifically bound another HPV16 57-nucleotide poly(U)-rich cis-element in the early polyadenylation element (upstream of L2?L1 genes) with greater affinity. Together, these interactions led to a profound reduction of both L1 and L2 mRNA and proteins without effects on HPV16 E6 and E7 in vitro, and in cultured keratinocyte monolayers and HPV16-low folate-organotypic rafts developed in physiological low folate medium. In addition, HPV16-low folate-organotypic rafts contained fewer HPV16 viral particles, a similar HPV16 DNA viral load, and a much greater extent of integration of HPV16 DNA into genomic DNA when compared with HPV16-high folate-organotypic rafts. Subcutaneous implantation of 18-day old HPV16-low folate-organotypic rafts into folate-replete immunodeficient mice transformed this benign keratinocyte-derived raft tissue into an aggressive HPV16-induced cancer within 12 weeks. Collectively, these studies establish a likely molecular linkage between poor folate nutrition and HPV16 and predict that nutritional folate and/or vitamin-B12 deficiency, which are both common worldwide, will alter the natural history of HPV16 infections and also warrant serious consideration as reversible co-factors in oncogenic transformation of HPV16-infected tissues to cancer.

Xiao, Suhong; Tang, Ying-Sheng; Khan, Rehana A.; Zhang, Yonghua; Kusumanchi, Praveen; Stabler, Sally P.; Jayaram, Hiremagalur N.; Antony, Asok C.

2012-01-01

203

HPV vaccine shown to also protect against oral HPV infection  

Cancer.gov

Women who received a vaccine targeting two types of the human papilloma virus (HPV) that cause 70 percent of cervical cancers had the added benefit of protection against oral HPV infection, which can lead to cancer of the tonsils and throat (oropharyngeal cancer). The results were published July 17, 2013, in PLOS ONE.

204

Dinamics of HPV Infection among Women with Cervical Lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 293 women treated at Tomsk Cancer Research Institute were examined. HPV type 16 had the highest incidence rate (45.0%) followed by HPV 31-17,0%, HPV 56\\/33-15,0%, HPV 51\\/18\\/52-13,0%, HPV 58\\/35\\/39\\/45-7,0%, HPV 59-5,0%. Persistent infection was detected in 35.7% of primarily HPV-positive cases (10 out of 28 patients), mainly in cervical cancer patients. Total number of primarily HPV-positive and

E. Nikitina; L. Urazova; O. Churuksaeva

2011-01-01

205

Human Papillomavirus Type 6 and 11 Genetic Variants Found in 71 Oral and Anogenital Epithelial Samples from Australia  

PubMed Central

Genetic variation of 49 human papillomavirus (HPV) 6 and 22 HPV11 isolates from recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) (n?=?17), genital warts (n?=?43), anal cancer (n?=?6) and cervical neoplasia cells (n?=?5), was determined by sequencing the long control region (LCR) and the E6 and E7 genes. Comparative analysis of genetic variability was examined to determine whether different disease states resulting from HPV6 or HPV11 infection cluster into distinct variant groups. Sequence variation analysis of HPV6 revealed that isolates cluster into variants within previously described HPV6 lineages, with the majority (65%) clustering to HPV6 sublineage B1 across the three genomic regions examined. Overall 72 HPV6 and 25 HPV11 single nucleotide variations, insertions and deletions were observed within samples examined. In addition, missense alterations were observed in the E6/E7 genes for 6 HPV6 and 5 HPV11 variants. No nucleotide variations were identified in any isolates at the four E2 binding sites for HPV6 or HPV11, nor were any isolates found to be identical to the HPV6 lineage A or HPV11 sublineage A1 reference genomes. Overall, a high degree of sequence conservation was observed between isolates across each of the regions investigated for both HPV6 and HPV11. Genetic variants identified a slight association with HPV6 and anogenital lesions (p?=?0.04). This study provides important information on the genetic diversity of circulating HPV 6 and HPV11 variants within the Australian population and supports the observation that the majority of HPV6 isolates cluster to the HPV6 sublineage B1 with anogenital lesions demonstrating an association with this sublineage (p?=?0.02). Comparative analysis of Australian isolates for both HPV6 and HPV11 to those from other geographical regions based on the LCR revealed a high degree of sequence similarity throughout the world, confirming previous observations that there are no geographically specific variants for these HPV types.

Danielewski, Jennifer A.; Garland, Suzanne M.; McCloskey, Jenny; Hillman, Richard J.; Tabrizi, Sepehr N.

2013-01-01

206

Human papillomavirus type 16 virus-like particles expressed in attenuated Salmonella typhimurium elicit mucosal and systemic neutralizing antibodies in mice.  

PubMed Central

Attenuated strains of Salmonella are attractive live vaccine candidates for eliciting mucosal as well as systemic immune responses. The ability to induce immune responses in the reproductive tract may be critical for the effectiveness of a prophylactic vaccine against genital human papillomaviruses (HPV), which are important etiologic agents in the development of cervical cancer. To examine the potential of a live Salmonella-based vaccine to prevent genital HPV infection, the L1 major capsid protein from HPV type 16 (HPV16) was constitutively expressed in the PhoPc strain of Salmonella typhimurium. As demonstrated by electron microscopy, the L1 protein expressed in these bacteria assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs) that resemble authentic papillomavirus virions. This is the first demonstration that papillomavirus VLPs can self-assemble in prokaryotes. BALB/c mice were immunized with the HPV16 L1 recombinant PhoPc strain by the oral and nasal routes. Despite a low stability of the L1-expressing plasmid in vivo, a double nasal immunization was effective in inducing L1-specific serum antibodies that recognized mainly native, but not disassembled, VLPs. These antibodies effectively neutralized HPV16 pseudotyped virions in an in vitro infectivity assay. Conformationally dependent anti-VLP immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG were also detected in oral and vaginal secretions, indicating that potentially protective antibody responses were elicited at mucosal sites. Recombinant attenuated Salmonella expressing HPV capsids may represent a promising vaccine candidate against genital HPV infection.

Nardelli-Haefliger, D; Roden, R B; Benyacoub, J; Sahli, R; Kraehenbuhl, J P; Schiller, J T; Lachat, P; Potts, A; De Grandi, P

1997-01-01

207

Vaccine-Induced Serum Immunoglobin Contributes to Protection from Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Genital Infection in the Presence of Immune T Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex type virus 2 (HSV-2) is a sexually transmitted pathogen that causes genital lesions and spreads to the nervous system to establish acute and latent infections. Systemic but not mucosal cellular and humoral immune responses are elicited by immunization of mice with a replication-defective mutant of HSV-2, yet the mice are protected against disease caused by subsequent challenge of

LYNDA A. MORRISON; LI ZHU; LYDIA G. THEBEAU

2001-01-01

208

Type specific persistence of high risk human papillomavirus (HPV) as indicator of high grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions in young women: population based prospective follow up study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the development of cervical neoplasia in women with no previous cervical cytological abnormalities; whether the presence of virus DNA predicts development of squamous intraepithelial lesion; and whether the risk of incident squamous intraepithelial lesions differs with repeated detection of the same HPV type versus repeated detection of different types. Design Population based prospective cohort study. Setting General population in Copenhagen, Denmark. Participants 10?758 women aged 20-29 years followed up for development of cervical cytological abnormalities; 370 incident cases were detected (40 with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, 165 with low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, 165 with high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions). Main outcome measures Results of cervical smear tests and cervical swabs at enrolment and at the second examination about two years later. Results Compared with women who were negative for human papillomavirus at enrolment, those with positive results had a significantly increased risk at follow up of having atypical cells (odds ratio 3.2, 95% confidence interval 1.3 to 7.9), low grade lesions (7.5, 4.8 to 11.7), or high grade lesions (25.8, 15.3 to 43.6). Similarly, women who were positive for HPV at the second examination had a strongly increased risk of low (34.3, 17.6 to 67.0) and high grade lesions (60.7, 25.5 to 144.0). For high grade lesions the risk was strongly increased if the same virus type was present at both examinations (813.0, 168.2 to 3229.2). Conclusions Infection with human papillomavirus precedes the development of low and high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. For high grade lesions the risk is greatest in women positive for the same type of HPV on repeated testing. What is already known on this topicPersistence of infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is thought to have a role in the development of cervical neoplasiaPrevious studies have included only a few cases of high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, and few have randomly sampled women from the general populationWhat this study addsIn women aged 20-29, HPV infection preceded the development of high grade lesionsPersistent HPV infection with a specific HPV type was an indicator of incident high grade lesions among young women in the general populationThe association between persistence and high grade cervical lesions was more pronounced among women aged over 25

Kjaer, Susanne K; van den Brule, Adriaan J C; Paull, Gerson; Svare, Edith I; Sherman, Mark E; Thomsen, Birthe L; Suntum, Mette; Bock, Johannes E; Poll, Paul A; Meijer, Chris J L M

2002-01-01

209

The epidemiology of genital infection with herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in genitourinary medicine attendees in inner London  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To characterise the epidemiological and clinical features of genital herpes and the diagnostic role of HSV-2 specific serology in an ethnically diverse cohort of genitourinary medicine (GUM) attendees in inner London.Methods: Genital swabs (n = 186) were tested by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and serum samples (n = 70) by HSV-2 specific enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA).Results: Among

M Ramaswamy; C McDonald; C Sabin; M Tenant-Flowers; M Smith; A M Geretti

2005-01-01

210

Induction of human papillomavirus oncogene-specific CD8 T-cell effector responses in the genital mucosa of vaccinated mice.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer, the second leading cause of cancer mortality in women worldwide, results from infection with a subset of human papillomaviruses (HPV), HPV-16 being the most prevalent type. The available prophylactic vaccines are an effective strategy to prevent this cancer in the long term. However, they only target 70-80% of all cervical cancers and cannot control existing HPV infections and associated lesions. Therapeutic vaccines are thus necessary for women who cannot benefit from prophylactic vaccination. Induction of protective immune responses in the genital mucosa (GM) may be crucial for efficacy of HPV therapeutic vaccines. We report here that mice that received a single subcutaneous (s.c.) vaccination of an adjuvanted long synthetic HPV16 E7(1-98) polypeptide showed induction of 100% tumor protection against s.c. TC-1 tumors and that tumor regression was mainly provided by CD8 T cells. In vivo cytotoxic assay revealed high E7-specific cytolytic T lymphocytes activity in spleen and in genital draining lymph nodes (LN), and E7-specific CD8 T cells could be detected in GM by tetramer staining. More importantly, high-avidity E7-specific INF-gamma secreting CD8 T cells were induced not only in blood, spleen and LN but also in GM of vaccinated mice, thus providing evidence that a parenteral vaccination may be sufficient to provide regression of genital tumors. In addition, there was no correlation between the responses measured in blood with those measured in GM, highlighting the necessity and relevance to determine the immune responses in the mucosa where HPV-tumors reside. PMID:19816937

Decrausaz, Loane; Revaz, Véronique; Bobst, Martine; Corthésy, Blaise; Romero, Pedro; Nardelli-Haefliger, Denise

2010-05-15

211

Melanoma genital  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genital melanoma is a rare tumor that should always be considered in an old patient with a pigmented lesion on the vulva or even in a patient without apparent injury with a persistent itching and rebellious to standard treatments. The diagnosis is usually delayed (biopsy directed to it). The approach should be multidisciplinary (gynecology-oncology, plastic surgery).

M. Sandino; M. J. Navarrete; J. León; S. Zambrano; T. Lozano

212

The four steps in the prevention of human papillomavirus-associated neoplasia : Considerations for preventive measures, screening, disease impact, and potential overtreatments in HPV-related pathology.  

PubMed

There is no cure currently available for HPV infections, although ablative and excisional treatments of some dysplasias often result in a clinical and virological cure. Effective control measures of HPV-associated cancers rely on the prevention at four different levels. Apart from sexual abstinence, primary prevention is realized through vaccines targeting the most frequent HPV types: negative attitudes towards HPV vaccination and high costs are the main obstacles. The aim of secondary prevention is to detect precancerous changes before they develop into invasive cancer, while tertiary prevention involves actual treatment of high-grade lesions: in many countries routine screening with cytology is being challenged with HPV DNA testing. Quaternary prevention comprehends those actions adopted to mitigate or avoid unnecessary or excessive medical interventions, and may well be addressed in avoiding treatments for low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia. Though some gynecologists commonly recommend treatment for low-grade disease and women tend to prefer active management if not properly informed, harms arising from unnecessary treatments, increased costs, work overload for second-level health services, and induced psychosocial distress are causing on-going problems. Prevention efforts of genital HPV-associated cancers should concentrate in: (1) enhancing primary prevention through vaccination of all eligible subjects, (2) achieving high levels of adherence to routine screening programs, (3) treating precancerous lesions, and (4) monitoring current guidelines recommendations to avoid overtreatments. Novel research projects should be designed to study the delicate mechanisms of immune response to HPV. PMID:23974280

Liverani, Carlo A

2013-08-24

213

Counseling about the HPV vaccine: desexualize, educate, and advocate.  

PubMed

Information is provided for clinicians who treat adolescents and adult women to use when counseling patients about human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. A literature search was done to determine: (1) reasons for refusal of the vaccine, including cost and concerns that immunization against HPV will lead to promiscuity; (2) potential for non-sexual transmission of HPV; (3) non-genital locations of HPV; (4) non-genital cancers associated with HPV. Vaccines for Children Program and the Affordable Care Act eliminate many costs.Neither biological nor behavioral evidence supports the idea that sexual behavior changes after immunization. HPV is transmitted from person to person by non-sexual routes including mother to child at birth and apparently by touch after birth. HPV is persistent in the environment, including medical environments. It has been found on apparently sterilized instruments used in vaginal exams. Pathogenic HPV has been recovered from breast tissue, sinonasal areas, and nipples as well as from hair follicles on arms, legs, scalps, eyebrows, and pubic hair. Pathogenic HPV was found in 6.5% of the oral cavities of a random sample of Americans. HPV is known to cause anal and oral cancers. It has also been associated with skin cancers, breast tumors, and prostate cancers. It is not known if the vaccine is protective against these cancers, but it is useful to educate about these other routes of transmission and non-genital HPV linked cancers so that patients/parents do not just focus on the sexual nature of the human papillomavirus. PMID:24049807

Grimes, Richard M; Benjamins, Laura J; Williams, Kendra L

2013-08-01

214

Human papillomavirus type 16 related DNA in an anaplastic carcinoma of the lung.  

PubMed

Twenty-four biopsy specimens from various histologic types of human carcinomas in the lung were analyzed for the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA. DNA from the individual specimens was tested for the presence of homologous sequences to HPV genotypes 1, 2, 4, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13, 16 and 18. One anaplastic carcinoma in the lung contained multiple copies of DNA hybridizing under stringent conditions to HPV 16 DNA. The latter DNA has been found to be frequently associated with human genital cancer (cervical, penile, and vulval cancer) and genital Bowen's disease. The HPV 16 positive lung tumor originated from a 61-year-old female patient who underwent hysterectomy due to cervical cancer 9 years earlier. PMID:2983861

Stremlau, A; Gissmann, L; Ikenberg, H; Stark, M; Bannasch, P; zur Hausen, H

1985-04-15

215

Transcriptional Activation of the Telomerase hTERT Gene by Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E6 Oncoprotein  

Microsoft Academic Search

The E6 and E7 oncogenes of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) are sufficient for the immortalization of human genital keratinocytes in vitro. The products of these viral genes associate with p53 and pRb tumor suppressor proteins, respectively, and interfere with their normal growth-regulatory functions. The HPV-16 E6 protein has also been shown to increase the telomerase enzyme activity in primary

TIM VELDMAN; IZUMI HORIKAWA; J. CARL BARRETT; RICHARD SCHLEGEL

2001-01-01

216

Exploring the Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs, and Communication Preferences of the General Public regarding HPV: Findings from CDC Focus Group Research and Implications for Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted virus in the United States, causing genital warts, cervical cell abnormalities, and cervical cancer in women. To inform HPV education efforts, 35 focus groups were conducted with members of the general public, stratified by gender, race/ethnicity, and urban/rural…

Friedman, Allison L.; Shepeard, Hilda

2007-01-01

217

Exploring the Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs, and Communication Preferences of the General Public regarding HPV: Findings from CDC Focus Group Research and Implications for Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted virus in the United States, causing genital warts, cervical cell abnormalities, and cervical cancer in women. To inform HPV education efforts, 35 focus groups were conducted with members of the general public, stratified by gender, race/ethnicity, and urban/rural…

Friedman, Allison L.; Shepeard, Hilda

2007-01-01

218

Human Papillomavirus and Genital Warts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unknown until the second half of the 20th century, human papillomavirus (HPV) is now recognized as being one of the most common\\u000a sexually transmitted infections (STI) in the United States, accounting for more than one-third of the new cases of STIs each\\u000a year (1). HPV is a group of more than 120 viruses, at least 30 types of which can

Linda Goldman

219

Prevalence of HPV Infection and High Risk HPV Genotypes (16, 18), among Monogamous and Polygamous Women, In Zabol, Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: This study was performed to compare the prevalence of HPV infection and high risk HPV genotypes [16, 18] between monogamous and polygamous women, in Zabol, Iran. Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in Zabol in 2006 – 2007. Two hundred sixty five married women attending the Gynecology Clinic for Cervical Disease Screening entered to this study. One hundred sixty two cases had monogamous, and 103 had polygamous husbands. HPV PCR samples were obtained from scrape of papsmear specimens. The biotinylated primers MY09/MY11, GP5+/GP6+, were utilized to enable amplification and detection of positive PCR products. Confirmation of HPV-16 and -18 were done by type-specific PCR primers HPV-16/F, HPV-16/R and HPV-18/F, HPV-18/R. Results: Prevalence of HPV infection in monogamous and polygamous groups was 29% and 37.9%, respectively. The most HPV infection was found in 15–25 years group. The most prevalence of infection in monogamous group was HPV-18 and HPV-non16, 18 in 15–25 years, and HPV-16 in 26–35 years group. In polygamous group the most prevalent type was HPV-16, 18 in 15–25 years group. The most prevalent HPV-16 was seen in sever inflammation and dysplasia cytology in both groups. Conclusion: Prevalence of HPV infection in Zabol is high, and in women with polygamous husbands group is slightly more than monogamous. Screening for this infection must be recommended in this region of Iran.

Shahramian, I; Heidari, Z; Mahmoudzadeh-Sagheb, HR; Moradi, A; Forghani, F

2011-01-01

220

Oral human papillomavirus infection in women with cervical HPV infection: new data from an Italian cohort and a metanalysis of the literature.  

PubMed

A key issue in oral HPV infection is whether it can be associated with a genital HPV infection, or whether it can be considered as an independent event. This analysis evaluated the frequency and type-concordance of oral HPV infection in women with cervical HPV infection by means of: (i) a cross-sectional study on a sample (n=98) of Italian women; and (ii) a literature-based metanalysis, including the experimental study the subject of this Paper and nine other published studies (n=1017), which also examined the influence of oral sampling procedure (oral brushing vs oral rinse) and HIV status on oral HPV detection. The prevalence of oral HPV infection in the Italian study was 14.3% (95% CI: 7.4-21.2); the prevalence of type-concordance was 21.4% (95% CI: 0.0-43.6) and it was only marginally significant (P=0.05). The prevalence of oral HPV infection in the metanalysis was estimated as 18.1% (95% CI: 10.3-25.9); the prevalence of type-concordance was 27.0% (95% CI: 12.3-41.7), and it was statistically significant (P=0.002). The metanalysis also showed that the oral sampling procedure was not a determinant of HPV detection; however, HIV status increased the likelihood of oral HPV infection (HIV-positive vs negative: 27.2%; 95% CI: 22.1-32.2 vs 15.5%; 95% CI: 6.9-24.2) and type-concordance (HIV-positive vs negative: 46.8%; 95% CI: 34.7-58.9 vs 15.6%; 95% CI: 0.8-30.4). Oral HPV infection and type-concordance in women with cervical HPV infection are more prevalent than could be expected by chance; this finding is consistent with the notion of a degree of dependence of the oral site on the cervical site. Furthermore, oral HPV prevalence and type-concordance are influenced by immunity. PMID:21429788

Termine, Nicoletta; Giovannelli, Lucia; Matranga, Domenica; Caleca, Maria Pia; Bellavia, Carmelina; Perino, Antonio; Campisi, Giuseppina

2011-04-01

221

Reducing HPV-associated Cancer Globally  

PubMed Central

Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers are a major worldwide public health concern. Virtually all cervical cancer is HPV-related, with 70% caused by HPV16 and -18. Variable proportions of certain non-cervical cancers (e.g., anal, vulvar, oropharyngeal) are HPV-related; over 90% of the HPV-related ones are related to HPV16, -18. The HPV-related cancers are dominated by cervical cancer in the developing world, where cervical cancer screening is limited. In this setting, widespread uptake of current HPV vaccines by adolescent girls could reduce this cancer's incidence and mortality by approximately two-thirds, with cost-effective screening programs of adult women having the potential to reduce mortality more rapidly. In the industrialized world, non-cervical HPV-related cancers, especially oropharyngeal, are rapidly increasing, and now rival the incidence of cervical cancer, whose rates continue to decline thanks to established cervical screening programs. Therefore, reducing HPV-associated non-cervical cancers with HPV vaccination has greater importance in the industrialized world, especially since there are no approved screening programs for these cancers. Preventing the substantial number of non-cervical HPV cancers in men will require either “herd” immunity through high vaccination rates in females or male vaccination. Current HPV vaccination can complement cervical screening in protecting against cervical cancer and may permit the safe reduction of screening intensity in industrialized countries. Second-generation HPV vaccines (active against a broader array of cervical cancer–related HPV types) could prevent an even higher proportion of cervical precancer and cancer and might permit further reductions in screening intensity.

Lowy, Douglas R.; Schiller, John T.

2012-01-01

222

Immunization with a dominant-negative recombinant Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) type 1 protects against HSV2 genital disease in guinea pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: CJ9-gD is a novel dominant-negative recombinant herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) that is completely replication-defective, cannot establish detectable latent infection in vivo, and expresses high levels of the major HSV-1 antigen glycoprotein D immediately following infection. In the present study, CJ9-gD was evaluated as a vaccine against HSV-2 genital infection in guinea pigs. RESULTS: Animals immunized with CJ9-gD

Richard Brans; Feng Yao

2010-01-01

223

The Quantity of Latent Viral DNA Correlates with the Relative Rates at Which Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 Cause Recurrent Genital Herpes Outbreaks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) have evolved specific anatomic tropisms and site- dependent rates of reactivation. To determine whether reactivation rates depend on distinct abilities of HSV-1 and -2 to establish latency and to express latency-associated transcripts (LATs), virulent strains of each virus were studied in the guinea pig genital model. Following infection with equivalent

JULIE A. LEKSTROM-HIMES; LESLEY PESNICAK; STEPHEN E. STRAUS

224

ARTICLES Clonal History of Papillomavirus-Induced Dysplasia in the Female Lower Genital Tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Dysplastic lesions of the vagina or the vulva often occur in women who have a previous history of cervical dysplasia. Most lesions in the female lower genital tract are induced by infections with high-risk oncogenic human papil- lomaviruses (HR-HPVs), including HPV16 and HPV18. HR-HPV genomes frequently integrate into host cell chromo- somes at random sites. We analyzed viral integration

Svetlana Vinokurova; Nicolas Wentzensen; Jens Einenkel; Ruediger Klaes; Corina Ziegert; Peter Melsheimer; Heike Sartor; Lars-Christian Horn; Michael Höckel; Magnus von Knebel Doeberitz

225

Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2, Genital Ulcers and HIV1 Disease Progression in Postpartum Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundCo-infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) has been associated with increased HIV-1 RNA levels and immune activation, two predictors of HIV-1 progression. The impact of HSV-2 on clinical outcomes among HIV-1 infected pregnant women is unclear.MethodsHIV-1 infected pregnant women in Nairobi were enrolled antenatally and HSV-2 serology was obtained. HIV-1 RNA and CD4 count were serially measured for

Alison C. Roxby; Alison L. Drake; Grace John-Stewart; Elizabeth R. Brown; Daniel Matemo; Phelgona A. Otieno; Carey Farquhar; Virginia J. Vitzthum

2011-01-01

226

Herpes simplex virus type 2-induced mortality following genital infection is blocked by anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha antibody in CXCL10-deficient mice.  

PubMed

The role of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) was evaluated for CXCL10-deficient (CXCL10(-/-)) mice which succumbed to genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection and possessed elevated levels of virus and TNF-alpha but not other cytokines in the central nervous system (CNS) and vaginal tissue within the first 7 days following virus exposure. Anti-TNF-alpha but not control antibody treatment offsets the elevated mortality rate of CXCL10(-/-) mice, despite increased CNS viral titers. In addition, TNF-alpha neutralization suppressed recruitment of leukocyte subpopulations into the CNS, which is associated with reduced CCL2 and CXCL9 expression. Collectively, the results implicate TNF-alpha as the principal mediator of mortality in response to genital HSV-2 infection. PMID:18684827

Thapa, Manoj; Carr, Daniel J J

2008-08-06

227

Immunization with a dominant-negative recombinant Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) type 1 protects against HSV-2 genital disease in guinea pigs  

PubMed Central

Background CJ9-gD is a novel dominant-negative recombinant herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) that is completely replication-defective, cannot establish detectable latent infection in vivo, and expresses high levels of the major HSV-1 antigen glycoprotein D immediately following infection. In the present study, CJ9-gD was evaluated as a vaccine against HSV-2 genital infection in guinea pigs. Results Animals immunized with CJ9-gD developed at least 700-fold higher titers of HSV-2-specific neutralization antibodies than mock-immunized controls. After challenge with wild-type HSV-2, all 10 control guinea pigs developed multiple genital lesions with an average of 21 lesions per animal. In contrast, only 2 minor lesions were found in 2 of 8 CJ9-gD-immunized animals, representing a 40-fold reduction on the incidence of primary genital lesions in immunized animals (p < 0.0001). Immunization significantly reduced the amount and duration of viral shedding and provided complete protection against neurological symptoms, while 90% of mock-immunized animals succumbed due to the severity of disease. Importantly, immunized animals showed no signs of recurrent disease or viral shedding during a 60-days observation period after recovery from primary infection, and carried 50-fold less latent viral DNA load in their dorsal root ganglia than the surviving mock-vaccinated controls (p < 0.0001). Conclusions Collectively, we demonstrate that vaccination with the HSV-1 recombinant CJ9-gD elicits strong and protective immune responses against primary and recurrent HSV-2 genital disease and significantly reduces the extent of latent infection.

2010-01-01

228

NHPV16 VLP Vaccine Induces Human Antibodies That Neutralize Divergent Variants of HPV16  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genital HPV genotypes are generally distinct serotypes, but whether variants within a genotype can represent serologic subtypes is unclear. In this study we used serum from human volunteers vaccinated with HPV16 L1 VLPs from variant 114K, to examine cross-neutralization of variants from each of the five major phylogenetic branches of HPV16. Recombinant Semliki Forest virus-derived pseudovirions for each variant were

Diana V. Pastrana; William C. Vass; Douglas R. Lowy; John T. Schiller

2001-01-01

229

Intravaginal immunization with HPV vectors induces tissue-resident CD8+ T cell responses  

PubMed Central

The induction of persistent intraepithelial CD8+ T cell responses may be key to the development of vaccines against mucosally transmitted pathogens, particularly for sexually transmitted diseases. Here we investigated CD8+ T cell responses in the female mouse cervicovaginal mucosa after intravaginal immunization with human papillomavirus vectors (HPV pseudoviruses) that transiently expressed a model antigen, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) M/M2, in cervicovaginal keratinocytes. An HPV intravaginal prime/boost with different HPV serotypes induced 10-fold more cervicovaginal antigen-specific CD8+ T cells than priming alone. Antigen-specific T cell numbers decreased only 2-fold after 6 months. Most genital antigen-specific CD8+ T cells were intra- or subepithelial, expressed ?E-integrin CD103, produced IFN-? and TNF-?, and displayed in vivo cytotoxicity. Using a sphingosine-1-phosphate analog (FTY720), we found that the primed CD8+ T cells proliferated in the cervicovaginal mucosa upon HPV intravaginal boost. Intravaginal HPV prime/boost reduced cervicovaginal viral titers 1,000-fold after intravaginal challenge with vaccinia virus expressing the CD8 epitope M2. In contrast, intramuscular prime/boost with an adenovirus type 5 vector induced a higher level of systemic CD8+ T cells but failed to induce intraepithelial CD103+CD8+ T cells or protect against recombinant vaccinia vaginal challenge. Thus, HPV vectors are attractive gene-delivery platforms for inducing durable intraepithelial cervicovaginal CD8+ T cell responses by promoting local proliferation and retention of primed antigen-specific CD8+ T cells.

Cuburu, Nicolas; Graham, Barney S.; Buck, Christopher B.; Kines, Rhonda C.; Pang, Yuk-Ying S.; Day, Patricia M.; Lowy, Douglas R.; Schiller, John T.

2012-01-01

230

HPV Awareness and Willingness to HPV Vaccination among High-Risk Men attending an STI Clinic in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Objective An HPV vaccine has been approved for men aged 9 to 26 in the US for the prevention of genital warts and anal cancer. The purpose of this study is to describe 1) HPV vaccine awareness, 2) willingness to get the HPV vaccine and 3) perceived susceptibility to HPV-related cancers and genital warts among men 18–26 years old who attend an STI clinic in San Juan, Puerto Rico (PR). Methods A cross-sectional pilot study consisting of 206 HIV+/HIV? men. For purpose of this analysis, only those participants aged ?26 years old were included in this analysis (n=46). Results None of the study participants had been vaccinated against HPV. Fewer than a third knew about the HPV vaccine (28.3%). However, more than half (76.9%) were willing to be vaccinated against HPV. Information sources about the HPV vaccine included their female sexual partners (13.0%), a female sexual partner who received the vaccine (8.7%) and a male sexual partner (2.2%). Most participants reported that the main reason that would increase their willingness to get vaccinated was if a physician recommend the vaccine (95.7%). Perceived susceptibility was low, particularly for anal and oral cancer. Conclusion This pilot study shows poor awareness of the HPV vaccine, although willingness to getting the HPV vaccine was high among those who knew about the vaccine. Future studies should try to evaluate this paradox and study in depth willingness and barriers to vaccination among male sub-groups, such as men who have sex with men (MSM). These studies should also evaluate predictors of uptake of the HPV vaccine among men in this and other STI clinics in PR, in order to develop interventions to increase male vaccination.

Colon-Lopez, Vivian; Del Toro-Mejias, Lizbeth M.; Ortiz, Ana P.; Tortolero-Luna, Guillermo; Palefsky, Joel M.

2013-01-01

231

HPV outcomes in an access to care laryngeal cancer cohort  

PubMed Central

Objective Human papillomavirus (HPV), particularly HPV16, is a causative agent for 25% of head and neck squamous cell cancer, including laryngeal squamous cell cancer (LSCC). HPV positive (HPV+ve) patients, particularly oropharyngeal SCC, have improved prognosis. For LSCC, this remains to be established. The goal was to determine stage and survival outcomes in LSCC in the context of HPV infection. Study Design Historical cohort study. Setting Primary care academic health system. Subjects and Methods In 79 primary LSCC, HPV was determined using real-time quantitative PCR. Chi-square or Fisher’s exact test was used to test association of HPV+ve with 21 risk factors including race, stage, gender, age, smoking, alcohol, treatment, and health insurance. Kaplan-Meier and log rank test were used to study the association of HPV and LSCC survival outcome. Results HPV16 was detected in 27% LSCC. There was a trend towards higher HPV prevalence in Caucasian American (CA, 33%) vs African American (AA, 16%) (p=0.058). HPV was significantly associated with gender (p=0.016) and insurance type (p=0.001). HPV+ve LSCC had a slightly longer survival than HPV-negative (HPV?ve) patients, but the differences were not significant. There was no association with HPV and other risk factors including stage (early vs late). Conclusion We found high prevalence of HPV in males and lower prevalence of HPV infection in AA compared to CA. A slightly better survival for HPV+ve LSCC versus HPV?ve was noted but was not significant. Larger multi ethnic LSCC cohorts are needed to more clearly delineate HPV related survival across ethnicities.

Stephen, Josena K.; Chen, Kang Mei; Shah, Veena; Havard, Shaleta; Lu, Mei; Schweitzer, Vanessa G.; Gardner, Glendon; Worsham, Maria J.

2013-01-01

232

[Genital candidiasis].  

PubMed

Genital candidiasis occurs mainly in women referred as vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), and occasionally occurs in men as to be called balanitis. VVC is one of the most common causes of infectious vaginitis. Approximately three-quarters of women will experience an episode of VVC at least once in their life and 5-8% of them will have more than four attacks within a year; this condition has been designated as recurrent VVC (RVVC). Causative agent in majority of VVC is Candida albicans, but occasionally VVC is caused by other Candida spp. VVC is not traditionally considered a sexually transmitted disease. On occasion sexual transmission of Candida can occur during vaginal intercourse. Particularly Candida transmission and sexual behaviors are linked to RVVC. Epidemiological evidence suggests that anogenital and, especially, orogenital contact transmits Candida. PMID:19177766

Ono, Fumitake; Yasumoto, Shinichiro

2009-01-01

233

Oncogenic HPV infection interrupts the expression of tumor-suppressive miR-34a through viral oncoprotein E6  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRNA) play pivotal roles in controlling cell proliferation and differentiation. Aberrant miRNA expression in human is becoming recognized as a new molecular mechanism of carcinogenesis. However, the causes for alterations in miRNA expression remain largely unknown. Infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus types 16 (HPV16) and 18 (HPV18) can lead to cervical and other ano-genital cancers. Here, we have demonstrated that cervical cancer tissues and cervical cancer-derived cell lines containing oncogenic HPVs display reduced expression of tumor-suppressive miR-34a. The reduction of miR-34a expression in organotypic tissues derived from HPV-containing primary human keratinocytes correlates with the early productive phase and is attributed to the expression of viral E6, which destabilizes the tumor suppressor p53, a known miR-34a transactivator. Knockdown of viral E6 expression in HPV16+ and HPV18+ cervical cancer cell lines by siRNAs leads to an increased expression of p53 and miR-34a and accumulation of miR-34a in G0/G1 phase cells. Ectopic expression of miR-34a in HPV18+ HeLa cells and HPV? HCT116 cells results in a substantial induction of cell growth retardation and a moderate cell apoptosis. Together, this is the first time a viral oncoprotein has been shown to regulate cellular miRNA expression. Our data have provided new insights into mechanisms by which high-risk HPVs contribute to the development of cervical cancer.

Wang, Xiaohong; Wang, Hsu-Kun; McCoy, J. Philip; Banerjee, Nilam S.; Rader, Janet S.; Broker, Thomas R.; Meyers, Craig; Chow, Louise T.; Zheng, Zhi-Ming

2009-01-01

234

Immunization with Human Papillomavirus Type 16 (HPV16) Oncoprotein-loaded Dendritic Cells as well as Protein in Adjuvant Induces MHC Class I-restricted Protection to HPV16-induced Tumor Cells1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 and E7 oncoproteins are attractive targets for T-cell-based immunotherapy of cervical cancer. In this study, we demonstrate that dendritic cells (DCs) pulsed with HPV 16 E7 protein are not only recognized in vitro by E7-specific CTLs but also elicit E7- specific CTL responses in vivo, associated with protection against a chal lenge with syngeneic HPV16-induced tumor

Marloes L. H. De Bruijn; Danita H. Schuurhuis; Michel P. M. Vierboom; Hans Vermeulen; Karin A. J. de Cock; Marlies E. Ooms; Maaike E. Ressing; Mireille Toebes; Kees L. M. C. Franken; Jan-Wouter Drijfhout; Tom H. M. Ottenhoff; Rienk Offringa; Cornelis J. M. Melief

235

HPV vaccination's second act: promotion, competition, and compulsion.  

PubMed

Developments regarding human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines will transform HPV vaccination in the United States while simultaneously raising several new policy and ethical concerns. Policymakers, vaccine manufacturers, and the public health community must now respond to the presence of competing vaccines that are similar but distinct, particularly with respect to genital wart prevention and the benefits of vaccinating males. This work arises in the shadow of the contentious introduction of the HPV vaccine Gardasil (Merck & Co, Inc, Whitehouse Station, NJ) in 2006, particularly the opposition to efforts in many states to require the vaccine for school attendance. I review the current status of HPV vaccine policy in the United States and examine issues of public health ethics and policy central to ongoing and future HPV vaccination programs. PMID:20724671

Schwartz, Jason L

2010-08-19

236

The expression of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16 E7) induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in radiation and hypoxia resistant glioblastoma cells.  

PubMed

p53 is a widely known tumor-suppressor gene product that plays a key role in apoptotic cell death induced by DNA-damaging chemotherapeutic agents. Human glioma cells with functional p53 are known to be more resistant to ?-radiation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the mutant glioblastoma cells (U87MG) transfected with human papilloma virus-type 16 E7 (HPV16 E7) genes were capable of increasing sensitivity towards irradiation and hypoxia-induced cell death. The pLXSN retroviral vector expressed HPV-16E7 genes and was infected into the p53 mutated U87MG cell line. A specific amplification band of HPV16 E7 genes was detected in E7 genes and transfected in the U87MG cell line using a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The experimental groups included the mutant glioblastoma cell line (U87MG), empty vector (pLXSN) transfected to mutant glioblastoma cell line (U87MG-LXSN), and retrovirus carrying HPV16 E7 genes transfected to the mutant glioblastoma cell line (U87MG-E7). Hypoxic conditions were optimized using LDH assay and the subjects were exposed to hypoxia (16 and 20 h) and irradiation (9 h). Hoechst-propidium iodide (PI) staining results showed that hypoxia and irradiation increased the number of dead cells in the U87MG-E7 cells compared to U87MG and U87MG-LXSN cells. Results of the FACS analysis showed a similar pattern and recorded 80.44 and 58.94% of apoptotic cells in U87MG-E7 and U87MG cells, respectively. Cell cycle analysis by FACS revealed that, following irradiation and hypoxia, cells showed G2-M arrest. Additionally, the Western blot analysis results showed altered expression of E2F-1, Rb and p53 in the irradiation- and hypoxia-induced U87MG-E7 cells compared to U87MG and U87MG LXSN cells. In conclusion, the over-expression of HPV16 E7 genes in U87MG cell lines increasd cell apoptosis and E2F1 expression compared to the HPV non-infected U87MG cells following irradiation and hypoxia. These results indicate that tumor-specific therapies that increase sensitivity towards radiation and hypoxic conditions may be beneficial for suppression of cancers. PMID:21850378

Moon, Sung-Ung; Choi, Soo Kyoung; Kim, Han Jo; Kumar Bokara, Kiran; Park, Kyung Ah; Lee, Won Taek; Lee, Jong-Eun

2011-08-17

237

[Proven and new methods in the treatment of genital warts].  

PubMed

Anogenital warts are the most common clinical manifestation of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections. Although easy to recognize, asymptomatic anogenital warts (condylomata acuminata) may be overlooked, leading to unaware transmission to the sexual partner. On the other hand awareness of this sexually transmitted disease (STD) is largely associated with a great psychological and social burden, in men as well as women. Spontaneous regression of genital warts has been observed mostly within 2-5 years; however, persisting condylomata may prove refractory to all current treatment options. Because removal of the warts does not totally eliminate the underlying viral infection, treatment of genital warts can often be of long duration, of varying effectiveness and with high recurrence rates. Without a doubt only the patient's own immune system is capable of clearing HPV infections. Therefore, the solution to one of mankind's oldest health problems will depend on the future acceptability of HPV vaccines. PMID:24026888

Schneede, P; Waidelich, R

2013-10-01

238

Human papillomavirus type 16 E6/E7-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes for adoptive immunotherapy of HPV-associated malignancies.  

PubMed

Vaccines prevent human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancer but, although these tumors express foreign, viral antigens (E6 and E7 proteins), they have little benefit in established malignancies, likely due to negative environmental cues that block tumor recognition and induce T-cell anergy in vivo. We postulated that we could identify mechanisms by which ex vivo stimulation of T cells could reactivate and expand tumor-directed T-cell lines from HPV cancer patients for subsequent adoptive immunotherapy. A total of 68 patients with HPV-associated cancers were studied. Peripheral blood T cells were stimulated with monocyte-derived dendritic cells loaded with pepmixes [peptide libraries of 15-mers overlapping by 11 amino acids (aa)] spanning E6/E7, in the presence or absence of specific accessory cytokines. The resulting T-cell lines were further expanded with pepmix-loaded activated B-cell blasts. Interferon-? release and cytotoxic responses to E6/E7 were assessed. We successfully reactivated and expanded (>1200-fold) E6-specific/E7-specific T cells from 8/16 cervical and 33/52 oropharyngeal cancer patients. The presence of the cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-7, IL-12, and IL-15 is critical for this process. These T-cell lines possess the desirable characteristics of polyclonality, multiple T-cell subset representation (including the memory compartment) and a TH1 bias, and may eliminate E6/E7 targets. In conclusion, we have shown it is possible to robustly generate HPV16 E6/E7-directed T-cell lines from patients with HPV16-associated cancers. Because our technique is scalable and good-manufacturing procedures-compliant, these lines could be used for adoptive cellular immunotherapy of patients with HPV16 cancers. PMID:23211628

Ramos, Carlos A; Narala, Neeharika; Vyas, Gayatri M; Leen, Ann M; Gerdemann, Ulrike; Sturgis, Erich M; Anderson, Matthew L; Savoldo, Barbara; Heslop, Helen E; Brenner, Malcolm K; Rooney, Cliona M

2013-01-01

239

Cellular immune responses to HPV18, -31, and -53 in healthy volunteers immunized with recombinant HPV16 L1 virus-like particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human papillomavirus-like particles (HPV VLP) are candidate vaccines that have shown to be efficacious in reducing infection and inducing robust antiviral immunity. Neutralizing antibodies generated by vaccination are largely type-specific, but little is known about the type-specificity of cellular immune responses to VLP vaccination. To determine whether vaccination with HPV-16 L1VLP induces cellular immunity to heterologous HPV types (HPV-18, HPV-31,

Ligia A.. Pinto; Raphael Viscidi; Clayton D. Harro; Troy J. Kemp; Alfonso J. García-Piñeres; Matthew Trivett; Franklin Demuth; Douglas R. Lowy; John T. Schiller; Jay A. Berzofsky; Allan Hildesheim

2006-01-01

240

HPV detection and measurement of HPV-16, telomerase, and survivin transcripts in colposcopy clinic patients  

PubMed Central

Aims—To determine whether the detection of high risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types is more predictive for high grade CIN than the current cervical smear test, and whether the production and measurement of HPV type 16 (HPV-16) and cellular survivin and telomerase transcripts can be used to discriminate between cervical HPV infections that self cure and those that induce high grade lesions. Methods—Three hundred and fifty four cervical smear samples from women attending the colposcopy clinic were tested by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of HPV. Transcripts for HPV-16 E6, E6*I, E6*II, E7, and L1 as well as cellular survivin, telomerase RNA component, and telomerase reverse transcriptase were measured using fluorogenic probe (Taqman) assays. Results—Referral smear grades of severe or moderate showed greater positive predictive values for CIN 2/3 than did the detection of high or moderate risk HPV types. HPV-16 transcripts from E6, E6*I, E6*II, and E7 showed high predictive values for CIN 2/3, but low sensitivity. The telomerase RNA component was detected in 53 of 57 samples and telomerase reverse transcriptase was only detected in one sample, whereas survivin transcripts were detected in 40% of samples. Conclusions—The detection of HPV-16 or cellular survivin or telomerase transcripts did not accurately predict the grade of CIN in the samples. The detection of HPV risk types correlated well with the grade of CIN; however, the referral grade smear was the most accurate predictor of the severity of the lesion. Of the 35 different HPV types detected, 18 are not included in the HPV hybrid capture II commercial test kit. The use of such kits would have missed HPV infection in 4.3% of clinic patients with CIN 2/3 lesions and 15.4% with CIN 0/1. Key Words: human papillomavirus type 16 • survivin • telomerase • CIN • transcripts • Taqman

Lanham, S; Herbert, A; Watt, P

2001-01-01

241

Chapter 13: Current findings from prophylactic HPV vaccine trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early data from randomized controlled trials consistently show that prophylactic human papillomavirus virus-like particle (HPV VLP) vaccines are effective in preventing infection and lesions caused by the targeted HPV type(s). Two vaccines, a bivalent HPV-16\\/18 VLP vaccine and a quadrivalent HPV-6\\/11\\/16\\/18 VLP vaccine, are currently undergoing evaluation in phase III trials with anticipation of receiving regulatory approval for use in

Laura A. Koutsky; Diane M. Harper

2006-01-01

242

HPV genotype distribution according to severity of cervical neoplasia using the Digene HPV genotyping LQ test.  

PubMed

A new genotyping-based DNA assay (Digene LQ(®)) was developed recently. The primary aim was to assess the distribution of HPV types using this new assay in atypical squamous cells of undeterminate significance (ASCUS). The secondary aim was to correlate the HPV types with the severity of the disease. The study population comprised 376 ASCUS women. The women were all Hybrid Capture II (HCII) positive and were admitted in three European referral gynecology clinics between 2007 and 2010. A colposcopy with histological examination was performed in all these patients. HPV 16 was typed in 40 % of patients, HPV 18 in 7 %, and HPV 31 in 17 %, and 18 % of patients had mixed genotypes. Patients aged over 30 more often had the HPV 16 genotype than patients aged under 30 (29 % vs. 11 %, chi-square test p < 0.001). The risk of cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or more (CIN2 +) when HPV 18 positive is lower than the probability associated with HPV 16 or HPV 31: 28 % vs. 58 % and 52 %, respectively (chi-square test, p = 0.005 and p = 0.05, respectively). The Digene LQ(®), a new sequence-specific hybrid capture sample preparation, is fast and efficient and allows high-throughput genotyping of 18 HR HPV types by PCR compared to traditional non-sequence-specific sample preparation methods. PMID:23299934

Halfon, Philippe; Lindemann, Maria Luisa Mateos; Raimondo, Audrey; Ravet, Sophie; Camus, Claire; Khiri, Hacène; Pénaranda, Guillaume; Sideri, Mario; Sandri, Maria Teresa

2013-01-09

243

HPV frequency in penile carcinoma of Mexican patients: important contribution of HPV16 European variant.  

PubMed

The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in penile carcinoma (PeC) is currently reported and about half of the PeC is associated with HPV16 and 18. We used a PCR-based strategy by using HPV general primers to analyze 86 penile carcinomas paraffin-embedded tissues. Some clinical data, the histological subtype, growth pattern, and differentiation degree were also collected. The amplified fragments were then sequenced to confirm the HPV type and for HPV16/18 variants. DNA samples were also subjected to relative real time PCR for hTERC gene copy number. Some clinical data were also collected. Global HPV frequency was 77.9%. Relative contributions was for HPV16 (85%), 31 (4.4%), 11 (4.4%), 58, 33, 18, and 59 (1.4% each one). Sequence analysis of HPV16 identified European variants and Asian-American (AAb-c) variants in 92% and in 8% of the samples, respectively. Furthermore hTERC gene amplification was observed in only 17% of the cases. Our results suggest that some members of HPV A9 group (represented by HPV16, 58, and 31) are the most frequent among PeC patients studied with an important contribution from HPV16 European variant. The hTERC gene amplification could be poorly related to penile epithelial tissue. PMID:23826423

López-Romero, Ricardo; Iglesias-Chiesa, Candela; Alatorre, Brenda; Vázquez, Karla; Piña-Sánchez, Patricia; Alvarado, Isabel; Lazos, Minerva; Peralta, Raúl; González-Yebra, Beatriz; Romero, Anae; Salcedo, Mauricio

2013-06-15

244

HPV Prevention series  

PubMed Central

Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is a major leading cause of Human Cancer. Through the HPV Prevention series we would like to highlight the quality and the breadth of the research being carried out on the Control and Prevention of HPV and HPV related disease. This series aims to bring together a diverse range of HPV related specialties featuring research that has as ultimate goal insights into HPV related disease reduction. Articles within a wide range of topics such as natural history studies, impact of screening interventions or impact of HPV vaccines will be most welcome.

2012-01-01

245

Establishment of the Human Papillomavirus Type 16 (HPV16) Life Cycle in an Immortalized Human Foreskin Keratinocyte Cell Line  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) in cell culture has been hindered because of the difficulty in recreating the three-dimensional structure of the epithelium on which the virus depends to complete its life cycle. Additionally, the study of genetic mutations in the HPV genome and its effects on the viral life cycle are difficult using the current method of transfecting

Elsa R. Flores; B. Lynn Allen-Hoffmann; Denis Lee; Carol A. Sattler; Paul F. Lambert

1999-01-01

246

Awareness of Diagnosis and Knowledge of HPV in Women Patients: Data from a Multi-Site Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Persistent infection with high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with cervical and other anogenital cancers. Purpose: This paper reports results of awareness of an HPV diagnosis and HPV knowledge from a multi-site study of HPV knowledge, attitudes and behavior, and the impact of an HPV diagnosis on women and their…

McCree, Donna Hubbard; Daley, Ellen M.; Gorbach, Pamina; Hamm, Robert M.; Sharpe, Patricia A.; Brandt, Heather M.; McFarlane, Mary; Kerndt, Peter; McDermott, Robert J.; Perrin, Karen M.; St. Lawrence, Janet S.

2010-01-01

247

Chapter 2: The burden of HPV-related cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of current evidence regarding human papillomavirus (HPV) and cancer, this chapter provides estimates of the global burden of HPV-related cancers, and the proportion that are actually “caused” by infection with HPV types, and therefore potentially preventable. We also present trends in incidence and mortality of these cancers in the past, and consider their likely future evolution.

D. Maxwell Parkin; Freddie Bray

2006-01-01

248

HPV testing in primary screening of older women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain types of the human papilloma virus (HPV) are well established as the primary cause of cervical cancer. Several studies have shown that HPV testing can improve the detection rate of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), but these have been carried out primarily in younger women. In this study we evaluated the role of HPV testing as an adjunct to

J Cuzick; E Beverley; L Ho; G Terry; H Sapper; I Mielzynska; A Lorincz; W-K Chan; T Krausz; P Soutter

1999-01-01

249

Chapter 16: HPV vaccines in immunocompromised women and men  

Microsoft Academic Search

HIV-positive as well as other immunocompromised women and men have increased risk of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated anogenital and oral cancers. The effectiveness of a HPV vaccine to reduce the incidence of these tumors in immunocompromised individuals may depend on several factors, including the effects of immunocompromise on the response to vaccination, the extent of prior infection with the HPV types

Joel M. Palefsky; Maura L. Gillison; Howard D. Strickler

2006-01-01

250

Understanding HPV Disease and Prevention: A Guide for School Nurses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) causes 99.7% of all cervical cancers. HPV Types 16 and 18 are responsible for approximately 77% of cases, and peak prevalence occurs in females younger than 25 years of age. The recent implementation of HPV vaccination provides females with the opportunity to prevent infection. School nurses are advocates of…

Lockwood-Rayermann, Suzy; McIntyre, Susan J.

2009-01-01

251

Dual genitotropic human papillomavirus infections in genital warts.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND METHODS--We have carried out a prospective study of dual genitotropic human papillomavirus (HPV) infections by means of two different DNA detection methods in biopsy specimens obtained from patients who were examined for genital warts at the STD clinic of the School of Medicine in Seville, between January 1990 and December 1991. RESULTS--100 patients with a clinical diagnosis of condilomata acuminata were seen during the study period. DNA of the genitotropic HPV 6/11, 16/18 and 31/33/35 was detected by an in situ hybridisation method in 75 (77%) of the 98 evaluable samples; one of the genotypes tested in 59 (61%) samples, and two or more genotypes tested in the remaining 16 (15%) samples. In 21 (98%) of the 23 negative samples by in situ hybridisation, we were able to detect DNA of genital HPV using a polymerase chain reaction amplification method (PCR). Among the 34 samples where PCR was applied we confirmed the presence of two different HPV genotypes in eight samples. CONCLUSIONS--The frequency of dual infections with human genitotropic papillomavirus in genital warts was 8%, although we believe that this rate should be higher as we have not used the PCR method in all of the samples.

Aznar, J; Ojeda, A; Torres, M J; Palomares, J C; Rodriguez-Pichardo, A

1993-01-01

252

A modeling framework for the analysis of HPV incidence and persistence: a semi-parametric approach for clustered binary longitudinal data analysis.  

PubMed

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a common sexually transmitted disease of growing public health importance, and over 40 genotypes have been identified in genital infections. Current HPV cohort studies often follow participants at pre-determined visits, such as every 6 months, and data generated from such epidemiology studies can be described as clustered longitudinal binary data where correlation arises in two ways: the directionless clustering due to the multiple genotypes tested within an individual, and the temporal correlation among the repeated measurements on the same genotype along time. Current analyses for identification of risk factors associated with HPV incidence and persistence often either do not fully utilize information in the data set or ignore the correlation between the multiple genotypes. Given the scientific definition of incidence and persistence, conditional probability modeling provides us a natural mathematical tool. We thus present a semi-parametric regression model for such data where full specification of the joint multivariate binary distribution is avoided by using conditioning argument to handle the temporal correlation and GEE to account for the correlation between the multiple genotypes. The model is applied to the HPV data from the Rakai male circumcision (MC) trial to evaluate the as-treated efficacy of MC and also identify modifiable risk factors for incidence and persistence of oncogenic HPV types in men. A simulation study is performed to provide empirical information on the number of individuals that is needed for satisfactory power and estimation accuracy of the association parameter estimates in future studies. PMID:20839368

Kong, Xiangrong; Gray, Ronald H; Moulton, Lawrence H; Wawer, Maria; Wang, Mei-Cheng

2010-12-10

253

Hybrid Papillomavirus L1 Molecules Assemble into Virus-like Particles That Reconstitute Conformational Epitopes and Induce Neutralizing Antibodies to Distinct HPV Types  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human papillomavirus (HPV) hybrid virus-like particles (VLPs) were prepared using complementary regions of the major capsid L1 proteins of HPV-11 and -16. These hybrid L1 proteins were tested for assembly into VLPs, for presentation and mapping of conformational neutralizing epitopes, and as immunogens in rabbits and mice. Two small noncontiguous hypervariable regions of HPV-16 L1, when replaced into the HPV-11

Neil D. Christensen; Nancy M. Cladel; Cynthia A. Reed; Lynn R. Budgeon; Monica E. Embers; Dee M. Skulsky; William L. McClements; Steven W. Ludmerer; Kathrin U. Jansen

2001-01-01

254

Phase I\\/II trial of immunogenicity of a human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 E7 protein–based vaccine in women with oncogenic HPV-positive cervical intraepithelial neoplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) and HPV-16 in particular is a leading cause of anogenital neoplasia. High-grade intraepithelial lesions require treatment because of their potential to progress to invasive cancer. Numerous preclinical studies have demonstrated the therapeutic potential of E7-directed vaccination strategies in mice tumour models. In the present study, we tested the immunogenicity of a fusion protein

Sophie Hallez; Philippe Simon; Frédéric Maudoux; Jean Doyen; Jean-Christophe Noël; Aude Beliard; Xavier Capelle; Frédéric Buxant; Isabelle Fayt; Anne-Cécile Lagrost; Pascale Hubert; Colette Gerday; Arsène Burny; Jacques Boniver; Jean-Michel Foidart; Philippe Delvenne; Nathalie Jacobs

2004-01-01

255

HPV infections and oesophageal cancer  

PubMed Central

The first reports suggesting an involvement of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the development of both benign and malignant squamous cell tumours of the oesophagus date back to 1982. Since then, a substantial amount of literature has accumulated on this subject, summarised in this review. To date, 239 oesophageal squamous cell papillomas have been analysed in 29 separate studies using different HPV detection methods, with HPV being detected in 51 (21.3%) cases. Many more squamous cell carcinomas have been analysed: of the 1485 squamous cell carcinomas analysed by in situ hybridisation, 22.9% were positive for HPV DNA, as were 15.2% of the 2020 cases tested by the polymerase chain reaction. In addition, evidence derived from large scale serological studies, animal experiments, and in vitro studies is discussed in the light of the highly variable geographical incidence rates of oesophageal carcinoma worldwide. It may be that the (multifactorial) aetiology of oesophageal cancer differs greatly between those geographical areas with a low risk and those with a high risk for this disease. Oncogenic HPV types seem to play an important causal role, particularly in high risk areas.

Syrjanen, K J

2002-01-01

256

Comparative immunogenicity and safety of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 vaccine and HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine  

PubMed Central

In this observer-blind study (NCT00423046), women (N = 1,106), stratified by age (18–26, 27–35, 36–45 y), were randomized (1:1) to receive the HPV-16/18 vaccine (Cervarix®, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Months 0, 1, 6) or the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (Gardasil® Merck and Co., Inc., Months 0, 2, 6). Month 7 results were previously reported; we now report Month 24 results. In the according-to-protocol cohort for immunogenicity (seronegative and DNA-negative at baseline for HPV type analyzed), seropositivity rates of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) [pseudovirion-based neutralization assay] were, across all age strata, 100% (HPV-16/18 vaccine) and 97.5–100% (HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine) for HPV-16, and 99.0–100% (HPV-16/18 vaccine) and 72.3–84.4% (HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine) for HPV-18. Corresponding geometric mean titers (GMTs) were 2.4–5.8-fold higher for HPV-16 and 7.7–9.4-fold higher for HPV-18 with the HPV-16/18 vaccine vs. the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine; HPV-16 and HPV-18 GMTs were significantly higher with the HPV-16/18 vaccine than the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (p < 0.0001) in the total vaccinated cohort (received ?1 vaccine dose, irrespective of baseline sero/DNA-status). Similar results were obtained using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA ). Positivity rates and GMTs of antigen-specific IgG antibodies in cervicovaginal secretions (ELISA) were not significantly different between vaccines. At Month 24, CD4+ T-cell responses for HPV-16 and HPV-18 were higher with the HPV-16/18 vaccine; memory B-cell response was higher for HPV-18 with the HPV-16/18 vaccine and similar between vaccines for HPV-16. Both vaccines were generally well tolerated. Although an immunological correlate of protection has not been defined, differences in the magnitude of immune response between vaccines may represent determinants of duration of protection.

Baron, Mira; Levin, Myron J; Chatterjee, Archana; Fox, Bradley; Scholar, Sofia; Rosen, Jeffrey; Chakhtoura, Nahida; Meric, Dorothee; Dessy, Francis J; Datta, Sanjoy K; Descamps, Dominique; Dubin, Gary

2011-01-01

257

High-risk HPV L1 capsid protein as a marker of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in high-risk HPV-positive women with minor cytological abnormalities.  

PubMed

Human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 capsid protein is only produced during a productive HPV infection at the end of the natural viral life cycle and is a major target of the immune response in women with HPV-related squamous intraepithelial lesions. We evaluated the usefulness of L1 detection by immunocytochemistry in high-risk (HR) HPV-positive women with minor cytological abnormalities detected at organised population-based cervical cancer screening in Sweden, and assessed the relationship with histological diagnoses. Cytological slides were immunocytochemically stained using an HPV L1-specific monoclonal antibody for all known HPV types. HPV DNA analysis was performed using Linear Array test. Out of thirteen L1-positive women infected with HPV16, only two (15.0%) progressed to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+); compared to four L1-positive women infected with other HR-HPV types. Among L1-positive women with CIN2+, 35.7% harboured both HR and low-risk HPV types, 25.0% harboured HR-HPV types only and 13.3% were infected with HPV16. Loss of L1 expression could be a prognostic marker for the development of preinvasive cervical lesions. We show that different HPV types may initiate a parallel oncogenic process, but only loss of L1 expression predicts the development of CIN2+, suggesting that HPV typing in combination with L1 detection could be used for more focused investigations of women with minor cytological abnormalities. PMID:23756570

Norman, Ingrid; Hjerpe, Anders; Andersson, Sonia

2013-06-11

258

Antiviral Medication in Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Part I: HSV, HPV.  

PubMed

Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in the world and important cause of morbidity and mortality. Especially STDs of viral etiology are difficult to cure. In many cases the antiviral therapy can relieve the symptoms but not eliminate the virus. During the past decades, considerable progress has been made in the development of antiviral drugs. One of the oldest antiviral medications is acyclovir (ACV). It is approved to treat initial and recurrent genital herpes and as a suppressive therapy in severe recurrent genital infections as well. Drug resistance to ACV and related drugs is seen among immunocompromised hosts, including human immunodeficiency virus HIV-infected patients. Resistant infections can be managed by second-line drugs - foscarnet or cidofovir- but they are more toxic than ACV. In case of HPV there is not known specific target for the medication and that is why the substances used in human papilloma virus HPV infection therapy are either antimitotics or immunomodulators. The Part I review focuses on mechanisms of actions and mechanisms of resistance to antiviral agents used in a treatment of the genital herpes and genital HPV infection. In Part II we will show the therapeutic options in other sexually transmitted infections: hepatitis B, C and HIV. PMID:24032509

Mlynarczyk-Bonikowska, Beata; Majewska, Anna; Malejczyk, Magdalena; Mlynarczyk, Grazyna; Majewski, Slawomir

2013-11-01

259

Therapeutic HPV DNA vaccines  

PubMed Central

It is now well established that most cervical cancers are causally associated with HPV infection. This realization has led to efforts to control HPV-associated malignancy through prevention or treatment of HPV infection. Currently, commercially available HPV vaccines are not designed to control established HPV infection and associated premalignant and malignant lesions. To treat and eradicate pre-existing HPV infections and associated lesions which remain prevalent in the U.S. and worldwide, effective therapeutic HPV vaccines are needed. DNA vaccination has emerged as a particularly promising form of therapeutic HPV vaccines due to its safety, stability and ability to induce antigen-specific immunity. This review focuses on improving the potency of therapeutic HPV vaccines through modification of dendritic cells (DCs) by [1] increasing the number of antigen-expressing/antigen-loaded DCs, [2] improving HPV antigen expression, processing and presentation in DCs, and [3] enhancing DC and T cell interaction. Continued improvement in therapeutic HPV DNA vaccines may ultimately lead to an effective DNA vaccine for the treatment of HPV-associated malignancies.

Lin, Ken; Roosinovich, Elena; Ma, Barbara; Hung, Chien-Fu

2010-01-01

260

[HPV in urology : Basic principles and controversies].  

PubMed

The information presented in this article summarizes some of the basic knowledge on human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and the consequences particularly in men. According to current understanding most HPV infections are latent and transient in immunocompetent patients but some will persist. Predominantly due to the different oncogenic potential of various HPV types, persisting infections can give rise to benign or malignant neoplasms in both genders. Current controversies, such as the need for HPV testing in men or routine male HPV vaccination will be discussed. High-risk male populations, e.g. men who have sex with men (MSM) and HIV positive men, merit special attention from urologists in the future. The groups of HIV positive MSMs are at an extremely high risk of developing anal cancer that currently even exceeds the highest reported incidence of cervical cancer. PMID:23942723

Schneede, P; Waidelich, R

2013-09-01

261

Rapid decline in presentations of genital warts after the implementation of a national quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccination programme for young women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:This study aimed to determine if the Australian human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme has had a population impact on presentations of genital warts.Methods:Retrospective study comparing the proportion of new clients with genital warts attending Melbourne Sexual Health Centre (MSHC) from January 2004 to December 2008. Australia provided free quadrivalent HPV vaccine to 12–18-year-old girls in a school-based programme from April

C K Fairley; J S Hocking; L C Gurrin; M Y Chen; B Donovan; C S Bradshaw

2009-01-01

262

Genome-wide methylation and expression differences in HPV(+) and HPV(-) squamous cell carcinoma cell lines are consistent with divergent mechanisms of carcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

Oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV) are associated with nearly all cervical cancers and are increasingly important in the etiology of oropharyngeal tumors. HPV-associated head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) have distinct risk profiles and appreciate a prognostic advantage compared to HPV-negative HNSCC. Promoter hypermethylation is widely recognized as a mechanism in the progression of HNSCC, but the extent to which this mechanism is consistent between HPV(+) and HPV(?) tumors is unknown. To investigate the epigenetic regulation of gene expression in HPV-induced and carcinogen-induced cancers, we examined genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression in HPV(+) and HPV(?) SCC cell lines. We used two platforms: the Illumina Infinium Methylation BeadArray and tiling arrays, and confirmed illustrative examples with pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR. These analyses indicate that HPV(+) cell lines have higher DNA methylation in genic and LINE-1 regions than HPV(?) cell lines. Differentially methylated loci between HPV(+) and HPV(?) cell lines significantly correlated with HPV-typed HNSCC primary tumor DNA methylation levels. Novel findings include higher promoter methylation of polycomb repressive complex 2 target genes in HPV(+) cells compared to HPV(?) cells and increased expression of DNMT3A in HPV(+) cells. Additionally, CDKN2A and KRT8 were identified as interaction hubs among genes with higher methylation and lower expression in HPV(?) cells. Conversely, RUNX2, IRS-1 and CCNA1 were major hubs with higher methylation and lower expression in HPV(+) cells. Distinct HPV(+) and HPV(?) epigenetic profiles should provide clues to novel targets for development of individualized therapeutic strategies.

Sartor, Maureen A; Dolinoy, Dana C; Jones, Tamara R; Colacino, Justin A; Prince, Mark EP; Carey, Thomas E

2011-01-01

263

HPV genotype prevalence in cytologically abnormal cervical samples from women living in south Italy.  

PubMed

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the commonest sexually transmitted infection, and high-risk HPV types are associated with cervical carcinogenesis. This study investigated: the HPV type-specific prevalence in 970 women with an abnormal cytological diagnosis; and the association of HPV infection and cervical disease in a subset of 626 women with a histological diagnosis. HPV-DNA was researched by nested PCR/sequencing and the INNOLiPA HPV Genotyping assay. The data were analysed by the chi-square test (pHPV prevalence was 37.7%; high-risk genotypes were found in 88.5% of women and multiple-type infections in 30.9% of the HPV-positive women. The commonest types were HPV-16 (8.2%), HPV-6 (5.0%), HPV-51 (4.2%) and HPV-53 (3.6%). Among the women with histological diagnosis, HPV was evident in 19.9% of those without lesions, 65.8% of those with low-grade lesions and 100% (p=0.002) of those with high-grade lesions. The commonest types were HPV-16 (in 14.7% low-grade and 42.8% high-grade lesions), HPV-31 (4.7% and 14.3%, respectively) and HPV-33 (2.0% and 14.3%, respectively). Two high-grade lesions contained exclusively one uncommon type, namely, HPV-83 and -85. This study confirmed the high prevalence of HPV infection and high-risk genotypes among women with cervical abnormalities living in Italy. These data may contribute to increasing the knowledge of HPV epidemiology and designing adequate vaccine strategies. PMID:18282628

Capra, Giuseppina; Giovannelli, Lucia; Bellavia, Carmelina; Migliore, Maria Colomba; Caleca, Maria Pia; Perino, Antonio; Ammatuna, Pietro

2008-02-20

264

Mouse Strain-Dependent Chemokine Regulation of the Genital Tract T Helper Cell Type 1 Immune Response  

PubMed Central

Vaginal infection with the mouse pneumonitis agent of Chlamydia trachomatis (MoPn) produces shorter courses of infection in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice than in C3H/HeN mice, while C57BL/6 mice are more resistant to oviduct pathology. A robust Th1 response is extremely important in host defense against chlamydia. In this study we examined gamma interferon (IFN-?), interleukin 10 (IL-10), and the T-cell-regulatory chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein-1? (MIP-1?) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) to determine if differences in these responses were associated with the differential courses of infection seen in these three strains of mice. Increased and prolonged IFN-? responses and lower IL-10 responses were observed in the C57BL/6 strain compared to BALB/c and C3H. Examination of genital tract chemokines revealed a marked predominance of MIP-1? over MCP-1 only in the C57 strain. Thus, a pattern of high MIP-1? and low MCP-1 levels during the first week of infection is associated with an increased Th1 response and a shorter, more benign chlamydial infection. Inhibition of the MCP-1 response in C3H mice increased their later T-cell production of IFN-? but decreased their early IFN-? response and had no effect on the course or outcome of infection. Inhibition of MCP-1 is not beneficial in chlamydial infection because of its pleiotropic effects.

Darville, Toni; Andrews, Charles W.; Sikes, James D.; Fraley, Patrick L.; Braswell, Leah; Rank, Roger G.

2001-01-01

265

Association of genital human papillomavirus infection with HIV acquisition: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Objectives To conduct a systematic review and a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies investigating the association of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and HIV acquisition. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data Sources Scientific databases and conference abstracts were systematically searched to identify all relevant studies published up to 31 January 2012. Search terms included ‘HIV’, ‘HPV’, ‘human papillomavirus’ and ‘papillomaviridae’ as keywords or text, in the title or abstract. Methods To be eligible for inclusion, a study had to be conducted among humans, report data on HIV incidence, and assess genital HPV infection. Summary ORs and 95% CIs were estimated from the extracted data using random-effect meta-analysis. Subgroup analyses were conducted for high-risk (HR) and low-risk (LR) HPV oncogenic risk groups. Between-study heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed. Results Of 2601 identified abstracts, six observational studies, comprising 6567 participants were retained for the systematic review and the meta-analysis. HIV acquisition was significantly associated with HPV infection (summary OR=1.96; 95% CI 1.55 to 2.49). HIV incident infection was significantly associated with HR-HPV in five of six studies and with LR-HPV in two out of five. The association was significant for HR-HPV (summary OR=1.92; 95% CI 1.49 to 2.46) and borderline for LR-HPV. No between-study heterogeneity was detected. There was a borderline indication of publication bias. Conclusions Further research is needed to elucidate the biological mechanisms involved, and assess the effect of HPV vaccination on HIV acquisition, using vaccines with broad coverage of HPV genotypes. Such research could have important public health implications for HIV prevention.

Lissouba, Pascale; Van de Perre, Philippe; Auvert, Bertran

2013-01-01

266

Therapeutic Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines: A Novel Approach.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer is the second largest cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide, and it occurs following persistent infection, sometimes for decades, with a specific subset of human papillomavirus (HPV) types; the approximately 13 oncogenic subtypes. Prophylactic vaccines against HPV infections hold promise for cost-effective reductions in the incidence of cervical cancer, but this may not be enough. Two prophylactic HPV vaccines are presently available and both contain L1 virus-like particles (VLPs) derived from the HPV subtypes most frequently associated with cervical cancer, HPV-16 and -18. Since the L1-VLP vaccines can only effectively prevent infection by the specific HPV subtype against which the vaccine was developed, cervical cancers caused by high-risk HPV subtypes other than HPV-16 and -18 may still occur in recipients of the current HPV vaccines. Furthermore, HPV vaccination coverage for adolescents is insufficient in most countries and therefore even HPV-16 and -18 infections are unlikely to be fully eradicated using the existing strategies. The development of HPV therapeutic vaccines remains essential. Many therapeutic vaccines aimed at clearing HPV-related cervical lesions have been developed and tested in patients with HPV16-positive cervical intraepithelial lesions (CIN) or cervical cancers. To date, definitive clinical efficacy and appropriate immunological responses have never been demonstrated for cervical neoplasia although promising results have been reported in patients with vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. Here we discuss shortcomings of previous HPV therapeutic vaccine candidates and propose a novel vaccination strategy that leverages newly gained knowledge about mucosal immunity and the induction of mucosal immune responses. PMID:23341862

Kawana, Kei; Adachi, Katsuyuki; Kojima, Satoko; Kozuma, Shiro; Fujii, Tomoyuki

2012-12-28

267

Genital Herpes Complicating Pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 22% of pregnant women are infected with herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2, and 2% of women will acquire HSV during pregnancy. Remarkably, up to 90% of these women are undiagnosed because they are asymptomatic or have subtle symptoms attributed to other vulvovaginal disorders. Diagnosis of genital herpes relies on laboratory confirmation with culture or polymerase chain reaction assay of genital

Carolyn Gardella; Anna Wald; Rhoda Ashley; Lawrence Corey; Zane A. Brown

268

Exploring the Presentation of News Information About the HPV Vaccine: A Content Analysis of a Representative Sample of U.S. Newspaper Articles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 20 million people in the United States have genital human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted infection linked to cancer. We examined the news information presented about the HPV vaccine in major U.S. newspapers over the 19 months following its Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval. To answer the question of how news information is presented in ways that might

Jessie Quintero Johnson; Catlainn Sionean; Allison M. Scott

2011-01-01

269

Comparative clinical evaluation of the IsoAmp(R) HSV assay with ELVIS(R) HSV culture/ID/typing test system for the detection of herpes simplex virus in genital and oral lesions  

PubMed Central

Background The novel IsoAmp® HSV Assay employs isothermal helicase-dependent nucleic acid amplification and a user-friendly disposable test device to achieve rapid (<1.5 hours), on-demand qualitative detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 in oral and genital lesions. Objectives To compare performance of the IsoAmp® HSV Assay with the ELVIS® HSV ID/typing (shell-vial culture and DFA) test system for clinical specimens collected from oral and genital lesions in symptomatic patients. Study design A total of 994 specimens from male and female genital and oral lesions were obtained and evaluated at five study sites in the United States. Results from the IsoAmp® HSV Assay were compared to those from the ELVIS® system. Separate reproducibility studies were performed at 3 sites using a blinded and randomized study panel. Discrepant specimens were resolved by bidirectional sequencing analysis. Results After discrepant analysis, overall agreement of IsoAmp® with ELVIS® was 98.8% with 37.0% overall prevalence (all study sites). Reproducibility rates were well within expectations. Conclusion The IsoAmp® HSV assay showed excellent performance for clinical use for detection of HSV in genital and oral specimens. In contrast to ELVIS®, IsoAmp® HSV offers excellent sensitivity plus rapid on-demand testing and simpler specimen preparation.

Miller, Nancy S.; Yen-Lieberman, Belinda; Poulter, Melinda D.; Tang, Yi-Wei; Granato, Paul A.

2012-01-01

270

Prevalence of human papilloma virus genital infections in sexually transmitted diseases clinic attendees in Ibadan.  

PubMed

All patients, who presented at the Sexually Transmitted Disease clinic of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, between the period of August 1996 and January 1998 were included in this study. They were examined for genital infections in order to determine the prevalence rate of Human papilloma virus genital infection (genital warts) among them. Out of the 1,373 patients seen in the clinic during the period, 861 (62.71%) had STD while the remaining 512 (37.29%) had other conditions. Out of these 861 cases, 69 (8.01%) had HPV genital infection, while the remaining 792 (91.9%) had other STDS. Of these 69 cases of genital warts, 35 (50.7%) were males while 34 (49.3%) were females. Their ages ranged between 17 and 74 years, with the peak incidence in the 20-29 years age group. 32 (46.4%) had concurrent genital infections with non-gonococcal urethritis and cervicitis 9(13%) constituting the most common type. The highest incidence (36.2%) of this condition was found among petty traders while the lowest was found among the business executives and applicants. In 67 (97%) of these patients, the nature of sexual intercourse was vaginal, while in 1 (1.5%) it was oral and another 1 (1.5%) both vaginal and oral. 26 (37.7%) of the patients had just one sexual partner, while 7 (8.1%) had 2 or more. Only 2 (2.9%) admitted to have had any sexual contact with commercial sex workers. The sites of warts in males include the shaft of the penis, the glans penis, perineum and intrameatum. In females, warts were found in the vulva, vagina, cervix, perineum and perianal regions. 42 (60.9%) of these patients were placed on 20% podophyllin on tincture of benzoin, 17 (24.6%) on cryotherapy and 1 (1.5%) on both. They all did well on the different treatment regimens except for 1 (1.5%) that had to change from podophyllin to cryotherapy when there was no reduction in size. 11 (15.9%) were however lost to follow up. PMID:11126083

Okesola, A O; Fawole, O I

271

Polymorphism of the capsid L1 gene of human papillomavirus types 31, 33, and 35.  

PubMed

The L1 gene encodes for the major capsid protein of human papillomaviruses (HPV). There is limited information on the polymorphism of L1 for types related to HPV-16. This report explores the polymorphism of L1 in phylogenetically related types 31, 33, and 35 compared to HPV-16. Genital specimens collected from 732 HIV-seropositive and 323 HIV-seronegative women were screened for HPV DNA with consensus L1 PCR. Cervical samples positive for HPV-16 (n = 74), HPV-31 (n = 78), HPV-33 (n = 37), and HPV-35 (n = 58) were further characterized by PCR-sequencing of the complete L1 gene. The number of nucleotide substitutions within L1 ranged from 19 for HPV-33 to 52 for HPV-31. The ratio of the number of variants/number of isolates tested was higher for HPV-31 (56.4%, P = 0.05) and HPV-35 (60.3%, P = 0.04) compared to HPV-16 (40.5%), while this ratio was lower for HPV-33 (24.3%), although not significantly (P = 0.14). The maximal distance between HPV variants was greater in the five putative surface-exposed loops of L1 than in sequences outside the loops (P < 0.01). Synonymous variations were encountered in 1.7% (95% CI 1.1-2.3) of nucleotides inside the L1 loops and 2.4% (95% CI1.2-3.7) of nucleotides outside the L1 loops. Non-synonymous variations were encountered in 1.8% (95% CI 1.1-2.5) of nucleotides within the L1 loops and 0.2% (95% CI 0-0.4) of nucleotides outside the loops. dN/dS ratios were below 1.0 in extra-loop and intra-loop regions, but they were lower in extra-loop regions. These results suggest that sequences within and outside the hypervariable loops of L1 were under selective constraint. PMID:20513080

Cornut, Gilbert; Gagnon, Simon; Hankins, Catherine; Money, Deborah; Pourreaux, Karina; Franco, Eduardo L; Coutlée, François

2010-07-01

272

Characterization of human papillomavirus type 66 from an invasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix.  

PubMed Central

Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA sequences coexisting with HPV16 and HPV45 were cloned from an invasive cervical carcinoma. The cloned HPV was shown to be a novel type, named HPV66, and is related to HPV56 (an HPV detected in cervical cancer). After screening 160 anogenital biopsies, four specimens exhibited histological features of intraepithelial neoplasia and contained HPV66 sequences. Of these, three were found to be associated with another HPV type. Images

Tawheed, A R; Beaudenon, S; Favre, M; Orth, G

1991-01-01

273

Analysis of HPV16, 18, 31, and 35 DNA in pre-invasive and invasive lesions of the uterine cervix  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS: To analyse the physical state of different human papillomavirus (HPV) DNAs in 55 intraepithelial and invasive HPV associated cervical neoplasms. METHODS: Restriction analysis, using a panel of five HPV type specific enzymes, was carried out for each sample; this was followed by Southern blot analysis. RESULTS: Six (25%) of 24 cervical intraepithelial neoplasms had integrated DNA of different HPV

L Pirami; V Giachè; A Becciolini

1997-01-01

274

Transcriptional regulatory elements in the noncoding region of human papillomavirus type 6  

SciTech Connect

The structure and function of the transcriptional regulatory region of human papillomavirus type 6 (HPV-6) has been investigated. To investigate tissue specific gene expression, a sensitive method to detect and localize HPV-6 viral DNA, mRNA and protein in plastic-embedded tissue sections of genital and respiratory tract papillomata by using in situ hybridization and immunoperoxidase assays has been developed. This method, using ultrathin sections and strand-specific {sup 3}H labeled riboprobes, offers the advantages of superior morphological preservation and detection of viral genomes at low copy number with good resolution, and the modified immunocytochemistry provides better sensitivity. The results suggest that genital tract epithelium is more permissive for HPV-6 replication than respiratory tract epithelium. To study the tissue tropism of HPV-6 at the level of regulation of viral gene expression, the polymerase chain reaction was used to isolate the noncoding region (NCR) of HPV-6 in independent isolates. Nucleotide sequence analysis of molecularly cloned DNA identified base substitutions, deletions/insertions and tandem duplications. Transcriptional regulatory elements in the NCR were assayed in recombinant plasmids containing the bacterial gene for chloramphenicol acetyl transferase.

Wu, Tzyy-Choou.

1989-01-01

275

Low Rate of Detection of Mucosal High-Risk-Type Human Papillomavirus in Korean Patients with Extragenital Bowen's Disease and Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Especially in Digital Cases.  

PubMed

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been demonstrated in some of the nonmelanoma skin cancers as well as in precancerous lesions. Multiple infections of mucosal high-risk HPV may contribute to the onset of digital Bowen's disease through, if any, digital-genital transmission. We screened for the presence of the mucosal HPV DNA in patients with extragenital Bowen's disease (n = 30), squamous cell carcinoma (n = 11), bowenoid papulosis (n = 9), verrucous carcinoma (n = 1), actinic keratosis (n = 5), and basal cell carcinoma (n = 5). We used a PANArray HPV Genotyping Chip for high-risk and low-risk mucosal types. Genotyping data was confirmed using a conventional direct DNA sequencing method. Two cases of extragenital Bowen's disease were positive for types 16 and 33 of mucosal HPV, respectively. None of the squamous cell carcinoma cases were positive. Neither patients with digital Bowen's disease (n = 5) nor those with squamous cell carcinoma (n = 3) showed any mucosal high-risk HPV. Mucosal high-risk HPV DNA was confirmed in 5 (55.6%) of the 9 patients with bowenoid papulosis. HPV 16 was most prevalent (n = 3), while the DNA of HPVs 35 and 67 was detected in one sample for each of the two types. Our study demonstrated that two (6.7%) of the patients with 30 extragenital Bowen's disease were positive for types 16 and 33 of mucosal HPV, respectively. HPVs belonging to the mucosal high-risk group may participate in the development of extragenital Bowen's disease. However, we could not find any relationship between the mucosal high-risk HPV and Bowen's disease or squamous cell carcinoma in the fingers. PMID:24024191

Park, Hye-Rim; Kim, Kwang Ho; Min, Soo Kee; Seo, Jinwon; Kim, Dong Hoon; Kwon, Mi Jung

2013-08-19

276

Study of genital lesions.  

PubMed

A total of one hundred patients (75 males and 25 females) age ranged from 17-65 years with genital lesions attending the STD clinic of Bowring and LC Hospitals Bangalore constituted the study group. Based on clinical features, the study groups were classified as syphilis (39), chancroid (30), herpes genitalis (13), condylomato lato (9), LGV (7t condylomata acuminata (5), genital scabies (3), granuloma inguinole (2) and genital candidiasis (1). In 68% microbiological findings confirmed the clinical diagnosis. Of the 100 cases 13% and 2% were positive for HIV antibodies and HbsAg respectively. PMID:17642854

Anand Kumar, B H; Vijaya, D; Ravi, R; Reddy, R R

277

HPV infection among rural American Indian women and urban white women in South Dakota: an HPV prevalence study  

PubMed Central

Background High-risk strains of human papillomavirus (HPV) cause cervical cancer. American Indian (AI) women in the Northern Plains of the U.S. have significantly higher incidence and mortality rates for cervical cancer than White women in the same geographical area. We compared HPV prevalence, patterns of HPV types, and infection with multiple HPV types in AI and White women living in South Dakota, U.S. Methods We analyzed the HPV status of cervical samples collected in 2006-2008 from women aged 18-65 years who attended two rural AI reservation clinics (n = 235) or an urban clinic in the same area serving mostly White women (n = 246). Data collection occurred before HPV vaccination was available to study participants. HPV DNA was amplified by using the L1 consensus primer system and an HPV Linear Array detection assay to identify HPV types. We used chi-square tests to compare HPV variables, with percentages standardized by age and lifetime number of sexual partners. Results Compared to White women, AI women were younger (p = 0.01) and reported more sexual partners (p < 0.001). A lower percentage of AI women tested negative for HPV infection compared to Whites (58% [95% CI = 51-65] vs. 77% [95% CI = 71-82]; p < 0.001), and a higher percentage of AI women were infected by oncogenic types (30% [95% CI = 25-36] vs. 16% [95% CI = 11-21]; p = 0.001). Infections among AI women showed a wider variety and very different pattern of HPV types, including a higher prevalence of mixed HPV infections (19% [95% CI = 26-38] vs. 7% [95% CI = 4-11]; p = 0.001). AI women had a higher percentage of HPV infections that were not preventable by HPV vaccination (32% [95% CI = 26-38] vs. 15% [95% CI = 11-21]; p < 0.001). Conclusions A higher HPV burden and a different HPV genotyping profile may contribute to the high rate of cervical cancer among AI women.

2011-01-01

278

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in Atypical Squamous Cervical Cytology: the Invader HPV Test as a New Screening Assay?  

PubMed Central

In surveillance for cervical neoplasia, a diagnosis of cytologically atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) presents a significant clinical issue, often dependent on testing for high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) for the triage of patients. HPV type 16 now appears to be a critical concern in the follow-up of patients with ASCUS. The Invader HPV (Inv2) test, by Third Wave Technologies, Inc., is a recently developed analyte-specific reagent assay that uses probe sets for the detection of 14 HR HPV subtypes. These probe sets are A5/A6 (HPV types 51, 56, and 66), A7 (HPV types 18, 39, 45, 59, and 68), and A9 (HPV types 16, 31, 33, 35, 52, and 58). This report describes the performance characteristics of the Inv2 test in the screening of ASCUS cervical cytology specimens and correlates the results of the Inv2 test with those of the Hybrid Capture II HPV (HC2) test by Digene. The linear array HPV genotyping test (Roche Molecular Systems) was used as a reference method for the testing of samples with discordant results. Ninety-four Pap smear samples with a cytological diagnosis of ASCUS and 39 samples with a negative diagnosis were tested. The results of the Inv2 test demonstrated a good (86.6%) concordance with those of the HC2 test, with an overall sensitivity and specificity of 96% for the Inv2 test. Additionally, the Inv2 assay, which offers high-throughput, semiautomated DNA extraction, allows the subgrouping of HPV types by differential probe sets, could provide a useful test for screening for HPV, and has the potential to provide an improved means of risk stratification and the selection of patients for further HPV subtyping.

Wong, Anna K.; Chan, Raymond C.-K.; Nichols, W. Stephen; Bose, Shikha

2008-01-01

279

[Progress and challenges on HPV vaccination].  

PubMed

In developed countries including Japan, cervical cancer tends to affect younger woman who may be responsible for young children. Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in the world. Therefore, the social consequences of the disease can be still tremendous. For cervical cancer prevention, vaccination programs against the two major cancer-causing types (HPV-16/18) started in the world. There are two licensed HPV vaccines; Gardasil (HPV-6/11/16/18) and Cervarix (HPV-16/18). Clinical trials have shown that these vaccines are almost 100% effective in preventing high-grade precancer associated with the HPV types and that these vaccines are safe, well tolerated and highly immunogenic. In 26 countries, universal vaccination of females between 9 and 15 years is recommended and 65-100% of the cost of the vaccine is paid for by the state. We all look with eager anticipation towards the prospects of HPV vaccines and the perspective of eradicating cervical cancer in the not too distant future. PMID:20218332

Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki

2009-12-01

280

Health and Economic Implications of HPV Vaccination in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Background The cost-effectiveness of prophylactic vaccination against human,papillomavirus types 16 (HPV-16) and 18 (HPV-18) is an important consideration for guidelines for im- munization,in the United States. Methods

Jane J. Kim; Sue J. Goldie

2009-01-01

281

Factors associated with HPV persistence after conization in patients with negative margins  

PubMed Central

Objective The clearance rate of human papillomavirus (HPV) after conization is generally high, although some HPV infections persist. We investigated the factors that affect the clearance of HPV after conization in patients with negative margins. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 77 patients (mean age 39.9 years, range 25 to 51 years) with CIN 2/3 who underwent loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) conization with negative margins. All patients had a Pap smear and high-risk (HR) HPV testing using Hybrid Capture II system and HPV DNA chip before conization. We used?1 relative light units (RLUs) as the cutoff for persistence of HPV after conization. Results High-risk HPV was detected in 73 of 77 (94.8%) patients before conization. At the 6-months follow-up, the high-risk HPV was eliminated in 60 of 73 (82.2%) patients. The HPV persistence rate after conization was 17.8% (13/73). Univariate analysis showed that persistent HPV infection after conization with negative margins was more likely to occur when the pretreatment viral load was high (RLU/positive control >100 (p=0.027) and the HPV was type 16 (p=0.021). Logistic regression analysis showed that preoperative HPV type 16 infection was the only significant independent factor (p=0.021) for HPV persistence out of age, cytology, punch biopsy histology, HPV viral load, and conization histology. Conclusion Conization effectively removes HR-HPV infection. HPV type 16 infection before conization was significantly related to HR-HPV persistence after conization with negative margins. Therefore, patients with HPV 16 infection before conization need to be followed closely.

Chung, Sooho; Kim, Jeongsig; Jeon, Seob; Bae, Donghan

2009-01-01

282

The Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors of Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender University of South Florida (USF) Students Concerning Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and the HPV Vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases and can cause several types of cancer, including cervical and anal cancer. The lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) population is an often overlooked subgroup at risk for HPV. The purpose of this research was to describe LGBT college students? knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors pertaining to HPV and

Andrea E. Larson

2011-01-01

283

A pooled analysis of continued prophylactic efficacy of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (Types 6/11/16/18) vaccine against high-grade cervical and external genital lesions.  

PubMed

Quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has been shown to provide protection from HPV 6/11/16/18-related cervical, vaginal, and vulvar disease through 3 years. We provide an update on the efficacy of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine against high-grade cervical, vaginal, and vulvar lesions based on end-of-study data from three clinical trials. Additionally, we stratify vaccine efficacy by several baseline characteristics, including age, smoking status, and Papanicolaou (Pap) test results. A total of 18,174 females ages 16 to 26 years were randomized and allocated into one of three clinical trials (protocols 007, 013, and 015). Vaccine or placebo was given at baseline, month 2, and month 6. Pap testing was conducted at regular intervals. Cervical and anogenital swabs were collected for HPV DNA testing. Examination for the presence of vulvar and vaginal lesions was also done. Endpoints included high-grade cervical, vulvar, or vaginal lesions (CIN 2/3, VIN 2/3, or VaIN 2/3). Mean follow-up time was 42 months post dose 1. Vaccine efficacy against HPV 6/11/16/18-related high-grade cervical lesions in the per-protocol and intention-to-treat populations was 98.2% [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 93.3-99.8] and 51.5% (95% CI, 40.6-60.6), respectively. Vaccine efficacy against HPV 6/11/16/18-related high-grade vulvar and vaginal lesions in the per-protocol and intention-to-treat populations was 100.0% (95% CI, 82.6-100.0) and 79.0% (95% CI, 56.4-91.0), respectively. Efficacy in the intention-to-treat population tended to be lower in older women, women with more partners, and women with abnormal Pap test results. The efficacy of quadrivalent HPV vaccine against high-grade cervical and external anogenital neoplasia remains high through 42 months post vaccination. PMID:19789295

Kjaer, Susanne K; Sigurdsson, Kristján; Iversen, Ole-Erik; Hernandez-Avila, Mauricio; Wheeler, Cosette M; Perez, Gonzalo; Brown, Darron R; Koutsky, Laura A; Tay, Eng Hseon; García, Patricia; Ault, Kevin A; Garland, Suzanne M; Leodolter, Sepp; Olsson, Sven-Eric; Tang, Grace W K; Ferris, Daron G; Paavonen, Jorma; Lehtinen, Matti; Steben, Marc; Bosch, F Xavier; Dillner, Joakim; Joura, Elmar A; Majewski, Slawomir; Muñoz, Nubia; Myers, Evan R; Villa, Luisa L; Taddeo, Frank J; Roberts, Christine; Tadesse, Amha; Bryan, Janine; Maansson, Roger; Lu, Shuang; Vuocolo, Scott; Hesley, Teresa M; Saah, Alfred; Barr, Eliav; Haupt, Richard M

2009-09-29

284

Genital herpes simplex.  

PubMed Central

Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the herpes simplex virus. Following the initial infection the virus becomes latent in the sacral ganglia. Approximately 80% of patients are then subject to milder but unpredictable recurrences and may shed the virus even when they are asymptomatic. The disorder causes concern because genital herpes in the mother can result in rare but catastrophic neonatal infection and because of a possible association between genital herpes and cancer of the cervix. No effective treatment is as yet available. Weekly monitoring for virus by cervical culture from 32 weeks' gestation is recommended for women with a history of genital herpes and for those whose sexual partner has such a history. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 4 FIG. 5

Tummon, I. S.; Dudley, D. K.; Walters, J. H.

1981-01-01

285

Control of HPV Infection and Related Cancer Through Vaccination.  

PubMed

Human papillomavirus (HPV), the most common sexually transmitted virus, and its associated diseases continue to cause significant morbidity and mortality in over 600 million infected individuals. Major progress has been made with preventative vaccines, and clinical data have emerged regarding the efficacy and cross-reactivity of the two FDA approved L1 virus like particle (VLP)-based vaccines. However, the cost of the approved vaccines currently limits their widespread use in developing countries which carry the greatest burden of HPV-associated diseases. Furthermore, the licensed preventive HPV vaccines only contain two high-risk types of HPV (HPV-16 and HPV-18) which can protect only up to 75 % of all cervical cancers. Thus, second generation preventative vaccine candidates hope to address the issues of cost and broaden protection through the use of more multivalent L1-VLPs, vaccine formulations, or alternative antigens such as L1 capsomers, L2 capsid proteins, and chimeric VLPs. Preventative vaccines are crucial to controlling the transmission of HPV, but there are already hundreds of millions of infected individuals who have HPV-associated lesions that are silently progressing toward malignancy. This raises the need for therapeutic HPV vaccines that can trigger T cell killing of established HPV lesions, including HPV-transformed tumor cells. In order to stimulate such antitumor immune responses, therapeutic vaccine candidates deliver HPV antigens in vivo by employing various bacterial, viral, protein, peptide, dendritic cell, and DNA-based vectors. This book chapter will review the commercially available preventive vaccines, present second generation candidates, and discuss the progress of developing therapeutic HPV vaccines. PMID:24008298

Tran, Nam Phuong; Hung, Chien-Fu; Roden, Richard; Wu, T-C

2014-01-01

286

Male genital modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

By modifying the body in meaningful ways, human beings establish their identity and social status. Lip plugs, ear plugs, penis\\u000a sheaths, cosmetics, ornaments, scarification, body piercings, and genital modifications encode and transmit messages about\\u000a age, sex, social status, health, and attractiveness from one individual to another. Through sociocultural sexual selection,\\u000a male genital modification plays an important role as a sociosexual

Raven Rowanchilde

1996-01-01

287

Human papillomavirus and HIV coinfection and the risk of neoplasias of the lower genital tract: a review of recent developments  

Microsoft Academic Search

ONE OF THE RISK FACTORS FOR HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS (HPV) INFECTION and subsequent lower genital tract neoplasias and cancers is im- paired cell-mediated immunity. HIV-positive women with severe immunosuppression are 5 times more likely than HIV-negative wo- men to have lower genital tract neoplasias. A corresponding in- crease in the risk of invasive vulvar and anal cancers, but not of cer-

Alex Ferenczy; François Coutlée; Eduardo Franco; Catherine Hankins

2003-01-01

288

Activation of Src, Fyn and Yes non-receptor tyrosine kinases in keratinocytes expressing human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 E7 oncoprotein  

PubMed Central

Background The Src family tyrosine kinases (SFK) are cellular regulatory proteins that influence cell adhesion, proliferation, invasion and survival during tumor development. Elevated activity of Src was associated with increased cell proliferation and invasivity in human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated malignancies; therefore, transduced human foreskin keratinocytes (HFK) were used to investigate whether SFK activation is a downstream effect of papillomaviral oncoproteins. Activation of ubiquitously expressed SFKs, namely Src, Yes and Fyn, was investigated in both proliferating and differentiating keratinocytes. Results In proliferating keratinocytes, Src, Yes and Fyn mRNA levels were not affected by HPV 16 E6 or E7 oncoproteins, while at the protein level as detected by western blot, the presence of both E6 and E7 resulted in substantial increase in Src and Yes expression, but did not alter the high constitutive level of Fyn. Phospo-kinase array revealed that all ubiquitously expressed SFKs are activated by phosphorylation in the presence of HPV 16 E7 oncoprotein. Keratinocyte differentiation led to increased Yes mRNA and protein levels in all transduced cell lines, while it did not influence the Src transcription but resulted in elevated Src protein level in HPV16 E7 expressing lines. Conclusions This study revealed that HPV 16 oncoproteins upregulate Src family kinases Src and Yes via posttranscriptional mechanisms. A further effect of HPV 16 E7 oncoprotein is to enhance the activating phosphorylation of SFKs expressed in keratinocytes.

2013-01-01

289

Differential roles of B cells and IFN-gamma-secreting CD4(+) T cells in innate and adaptive immune control of genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in mice.  

PubMed

The role of B, CD4(+) T and CD8(+) T cells in both primary genital infection with attenuated herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and development of protective immunity to a later challenge with virulent HSV-2 using lymphocyte-deficient mice has been elucidated. Following primary inoculation with attenuated thymidine kinase-deficient (TK(-)) HSV-2, B cell-deficient (microMT) mice developed a local viraemia and transient genital inflammation, suggesting a role for B cells in the innate control of local infection and inflammation. Natural antibodies are implicated in this process, as passive transfer of normal serum into microMT mice significantly reduced HSV-2 TK(-) shedding in the vaginal lumen, although it did not affect subsequent inflammation. Protection against lethal HSV-2 challenge was noted in HSV-2-vaccinated wild-type, CD8(+) T cell-deficient and microMT mice and was characterized by strong virus-specific IFN-gamma responses in vitro and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses in vivo. In contrast, CD4(+) T cell-deficient (CD4(-/-)) mice had impaired HSV-2-specific IFN-gamma production and DTH responses and succumbed rapidly to genital HSV-2 challenge. However, protective responses to HSV-2 could be induced in HSV-2-vaccinated CD4(-/-) mice by treatment with recombinant IFN-gamma. Taken together, these results suggest that CD4(+) T cells secreting IFN-gamma are critical for immune protection against lethal genital HSV-2 re-infection, whereas B cells/natural antibodies have anti-viral and -inflammatory effects in the innate control of a primary infection. PMID:11257190

Harandi, A M; Svennerholm, B; Holmgren, J; Eriksson, K

2001-04-01

290

Age for HPV vaccination.  

PubMed

HPV vaccination of pre-pubescent girls will be effective for many girls. Vaccinating girls and women older than 12 years of age may accelerate the reduction in cervical cancer rates. Currently HPV vaccines are effective for at least 5 years in the prevention of HPV 16 and 18 associated precancerous lesions however the duration of vaccine protection is unknown. The need for booster shots must therefore be addressed with patients as unknown. Continued cervical cancer screening is necessary regardless of vaccination. Vaccination alone will not eliminate cervical cancer. PMID:18642467

Harper, Diane M; Paavonen, Jorma

2008-03-14

291

Use of Immunostimulatory Sequence-Containing Oligonucleotides as Topical Therapy for Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic oligonucleotides containing CpG motifs in specific sequence contexts have been shown to induce potent immune responses. We have evaluated mucosal administration of two immunostimulatory sequence (ISS)-containing phosphorothioate-stabilized oligonucleotides for antiherpetic efficacy in animal models. The ISS oligonucleotides, suspended in phosphate-buffered saline, were tested in mouse and guinea pig vaginal models of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection. For

Richard B. Pyles; Debbie Higgins; Claudia Chalk; Anthony Zalar; Joseph Eiden; Carrie Brown; Gary Van Nest; Lawrence R. Stanberry

2002-01-01

292

Characterisation of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in the Azorean population, Terceira island  

PubMed Central

Background Human papillomavirus detection is very important for the evaluation of prevention strategies in cervical cancer. In the Azorean population, the virus prevalence has never been studied, and there is no data available to preview a successful outcome with HPV vaccination. In this article, our objective is to characterise the HPV genotypes in Terceira Island, contributing for the epidemiological knowledge on the virus infection. Results Cervical samples were collected from 289 women aged 16–81 in the Gynaecological Outpatient Clinic of the Hospital de Santo Espírito de Angra do Heroísmo (HSEAH). HPV DNA was amplified by Polymerase Chain Reaction using the general consensus primers PGMYO9/PGMY11. Commercially available Papillomavirus Clinical Arrays® kits (Genomica) were used to perform HPV genotyping. 30 women were HPV positive, with a median age of 41 years old. Our results show that the overall HPV prevalence was 10.49%. Seventeen genotypes were identified, including 58.82% high risk, 17.65% low risk and 23.53% undetermined risk. Conclusion Unlike other epidemiological studies, HPV31 was the most frequent type (26.67%) in Terceira Island, followed by HPV16 (10.00%), HPV51, HPV53, HPV70 and HPV82 (6.67%). Further studies are needed to investigate if the HPV types found in our population are associated with the risk of progression to high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or cervical cancer.

Dutra, Isa; Santos, Margarida R; Soares, Marta; Couto, Ana R; Bruges-Armas, Maria; Teixeira, Fernando; Monjardino, Luisa; Hodgson, Shirley; Bruges-Armas, Jacome

2008-01-01

293

Patterns of genital injury in female sexual assault victims  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: New colposcopic protocols allow examiners to better document genital trauma in rape victims. We report our findings on the locations and types of genital injury seen in female assault victims versus women engaging in consensual sex.STUDY DESIGN: Physical examinations were performed on 311 rape victims seen by San Luis Obispo County's Suspected Abuse Response Team between 1985 and 1993

Laura Slaughter; Carl R. V. Brown; Sharon Crowley; Roxy Peck

1997-01-01

294

HPV 16 and cigarette smoking as risk factors for high-grade cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is well established as the etiologic agent for cervical intra- epithelial neoplasia (CIN), little is known about the cofactors involved in the development of high-grade lesions or the progression of low-grade to high-grade lesions. In our study of HPV-infected women with CIN (163 CIN I, 51 CIN II and 44 CIN III), women with

Gloria Y. F. Ho; Anna S. Kadish; Robert D. Burk; Jayasri Basu; Prabhudas R. Palan; Magdy Mikhail; Seymour L. Romney

1998-01-01

295

Genital warts in children: what do they mean?  

PubMed

Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a diverse family of viruses, of which 30-40 genotypes specifically infect the genital tract. Genital HPVs are largely transmitted sexually, with most infections being asymptomatic and transient. In contrast, persistent infection with oncogenic genotypes in a minority is a strong risk factor, for subsequent development of high grade dysplasia, the precursor lesion to cervical neoplasia, which generally occurs after a long latency period. It is unknown whether there is a disease correlate in children chronically infected with oncogenic HPVs. Low risk HPV genotypes 6 and 11 are the primary cause of condylomata acuminata, although in children non-genital genotypes are also found in a proportion, with the mode of transmission being either perinatal, horizontal, or sexual. The finding of asymptomatic HPV DNA in children, and correlation with live virus, infectivity, or disease is unclear. Long term follow up for children with anogenital warts is recommended, although there are no longitudinal studies available to clarify whether they are at risk of developing carcinoma in young adulthood. PMID:16670117

Jayasinghe, Y; Garland, S M

2006-05-02

296

Genital herpes in adolescents.  

PubMed

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections occur commonly among adolescents. Most HSV-2 infections are genital, but genital herpes can be caused by either HSV-1 or HSV-2. Weighted means were calculated based on published seroprevalence data on adolescents from the United States and found HSV-1 rates of 53.1 percent for adolescent males and 49.4 percent for adolescent females. The weighted means for HSV-2 was 15 percent for adolescent females and 12 percent for adolescent males. Most individuals who are infected with HSV-2 are unaware of their infection. Healthcare providers of adolescents should consider genital herpes even when an adolescent presents with nonspecific genital symptoms. In this article, we review current recommendations for diagnosis and management and review the psychological sequelae that can be associated with having genital herpes. Finally, we discuss biomedical interventions that are being developed to help reduce the epidemic of HSV and the challenges that these interventions face with regard to implementation. PMID:15685146

Auslander, Beth A; Biro, Frank M; Rosenthal, Susan L

2005-01-01

297

The natural history of cervical HPV infection: unresolved issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identification of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types as a necessary cause of cervical cancer offers the prospect of effective primary prevention and the possibility of improving the efficiency of cervical screening programmes. However, for these opportunities to be realized, a more complete understanding of the natural history of HPV infection, and its relationship to the development of epithelial abnormalities

Stuart I. Collins; Lawrence S. Young; Ciaran B. J. Woodman

2007-01-01

298

Multiple HPV infection in cervical cancer screened by HPVDNAChip™  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study determined the distribution of high-risk HPV type infection in cervical cancer using newly developed oligonucleotide chips (HPVDNAChips™). The study subjects included 80 cases of cervical neoplasia and 746 controls with a normal Pap smear. For HPV genotyping, the commercially available HPVDNAChips™ was used. The risk of cervical cancer was increased in women with a family history of cervical

Sang Ah Lee; Daehee Kang; Sang Soo Seo; Jeongmi Kim Jeong; Keun Young Yoo; Yong Tark Jeon; Jae Weon Kim; Noh Hyun Park; Soon Beom Kang; Hyo Pyo Lee; Yong Sang Song

2003-01-01

299

HPV genotypes detected in cervical cancers from Alaska Native women, 1980-2007  

PubMed Central

Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine prevents cervical pre-cancers and cancers caused by HPV types 16 and 18. This study provides information on the HPV types detected in cervical cancers of Alaska Native (AN) women. Methods Cases of invasive cervical cancer diagnosed in AN women aged 18 and above between 1980 and 2007 were identified from the Alaska Native Tumor Registry. A representative formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded archived pathology block was retrieved and serially sectioned to allow histologic confirmation of lesion (first and last sections) and PCR testing of intervening sections. Extracted DNA was tested for HPV using Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test (Roche Diagnostics) with additional INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Assay (Innogenetics) testing on negative or inadequate specimens. All specimens were tested for a minimum 37 HPV types. Results Of 62 cervical cancer specimens evaluated, 57 (91.9%) contained one or more HPV types. Thirty-eight (61.2%) cancers contained HPV types 16 or 18, and 18 (29%) contained an oncogenic type other than type 16 or 18. Conclusions Overall, almost two-thirds (61.2%) of the archived cervical cancers had detectible HPV types 16 or 18, a finding similar to studies of US women. As expected, a proportion of cancers would not be prevented by the current vaccines. HPV vaccination and cervical cancer screening are important prevention strategies for AN women.

Kelly, Janet J.; Unger, Elizabeth R.; Dunne, Eileen F.; Murphy, Neil J.; Tiesinga, James; Koller, Kathy R.; Swango-Wilson, Amy; Philemonof, Dino; Lounmala, Xay; Markowitz, Lauri E.; Steinau, Martin; Hennessy, Thomas

2013-01-01

300

Critical evaluation of HPV16 gene copy number quantification by SYBR green PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Human papilloma virus (HPV) load and physical status are considered useful parameters for clinical evaluation of cervical squamous cell neoplasia. However, the errors implicit in HPV gene quantification by PCR are not well documented. We have undertaken the first rigorous evaluation of the errors that can be expected when using SYBR green qPCR for quantification of HPV type 16

Ian Roberts; Grace Ng; Nicola Foster; Margaret Stanley; Michael T Herdman; Mark R Pett; Andrew Teschendorff; Nicholas Coleman

2008-01-01

301

HPV Vaccine Acceptance in a Clinic-Based Sample of Women in the Rural South  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a very common sexually transmitted infection linked to cervical disease. Vaccines for some types of HPV were in development at the time of the study. Purpose: The study examined HPV vaccine acceptability among underserved women in a rural region of the southeastern U.S. with high rates of cervical cancer…

Brandt, Heather M.; Sharpe, Patricia A.; McCree, Donna H.; Wright, Marcie S.; Davis, Jennifer; Hutto, Brent E.

2009-01-01

302

Genome wide expression analysis in HPV16 Cervical Cancer: identification of altered metabolic pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cervical carcinoma (CC) is a leading cause of death among women worldwide. Human papilloma virus (HPV) is a major etiological factor in CC and HPV 16 is the more frequent viral type present. Our aim was to characterize metabolic pathways altered in HPV 16 tumor samples by means of transcriptome wide analysis and bioinformatics tools for visualizing expression data

Carlos Pérez-Plasencia; Guelaguetza Vázquez-Ortiz; Ricardo López-Romero; Patricia Piña-Sanchez; José Moreno; Mauricio Salcedo

2007-01-01

303

A nontoxic derivative of lipopolysaccharide increases immune responses to Gardasil ® HPV vaccine in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causative agent of cervical cancer, the second most common cause of cancer death in women worldwide. The licensed HPV vaccine Gardasil® from Merck & Co. is a quadrivalent vaccine containing virus-like particles (VLPs) of the L1 proteins from HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18 adsorbed on aluminum salts (alum). CIA07 is an immunostimulatory agent

Ji Eun Han; Hye Kyeong Kim; Shin Ae Park; Seung Jae Lee; Hyoung Jin Kim; Ga Hyun Son; Young Tae Kim; Yang Je Cho; Hong-Jin Kim; Na Gyong Lee

2010-01-01

304

Detection of human papillomavirus 16 and 18 DNA in epithelial lesions of the lower genital tract by in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction: cervical scrapes are not substitutes for biopsies.  

PubMed Central

Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 in 66 women with histologically documented lesions of the genital tract and 64 control cohorts were investigated. The efficacies of in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in detecting HPV 16 and 18 DNA were analyzed. In order to assess the usefulness of replacing biopsies with cervical scrapes, the two samples were compared by PCR. The prevalence rates of HPV infection by PCR were 59.1 and 10.9% in patients and controls, respectively. PCR was three times more sensitive than in situ hybridization (52.6 versus 17.8%). However, the need to improve PCR sensitivity by subsequent dot blot hybridization reduced one of the main advantages of PCR, i.e., expeditious diagnosis. Cervical scrapes were less sensitive than biopsies (13.6 versus 53%), although with four (6.1%) patients with intraepithelial neoplasias, HPV DNA was identified only by means of cervical scraping. We conclude that obtaining biopsy specimens and cervical scraping are complementary sampling procedures. Images

Margall, N; Matias-Guiu, X; Chillon, M; Coll, P; Alejo, M; Nunes, V; Quilez, M; Rabella, N; Prats, G; Prat, J

1993-01-01

305

Female genital mutilation.  

PubMed

Genital mutilation of females constitutes a significant health hazard to the emotional and psychological status of women in many parts of the world. The anthropologic, cultural and social rationale for this custom is complex and case specific. The practice of female circumcision is nearly world-wide in its distribution and the extent of the genital alteration varies widely. Attitudes regarding a woman's role in society impact strongly on the acceptance and perpetration of this practice. Health care workers in the western world are encountering female circumcision as world travel becomes more frequently available for Third World citizens. Over 25 per cent of women subjected to the more severe forms of circumcision, i.e., "Pharaonic," suffer serious physical complications. The current status and remedial measures being undertaken in the Sudan and Somalia are reviewed. The question of, why is there any form of genital mutilation for either sex, is raised. PMID:4022475

Cutner, L P

1985-07-01

306

Multiple HPV infection: microanatomy by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry.  

PubMed

Specific human papillomavirus (HPV) types have been shown to be associated with proliferative epithelial lesions with variable biological consequences in infected patients. Simultaneous infection by more than one HPV type has been infrequently reported, and its clinical significance is unknown. We have examined four biopsies of cervical and vulvar tissue, each with evidence of infection by two different HPVs. Using both in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical techniques, we determined the cellular distribution of the viral infections. Using biotinylated type-specific probes and stringent conditions we were able to demonstrate that in each case the two HPVs occupied distinct, non-overlapping foci within the lesions. The condylomatous tissues contained DNA from HPV types that are associated with high-grade neoplasia and invasive cancer (16 and 18), as well as types commonly associated with benign proliferative lesions. Immunohistochemical analysis of the lesions with antibody to bovine papillomavirus capsid antigen failed to detect HPV in regions shown by in situ hybridization to contain HPV 16 and 18 DNA, whereas type 6 and 11 infected areas were readily identified. These results provide indirect evidence of viral interference between HPV types and indicate that interference may limit the number of HPV types that produce active infections within a single cell. PMID:1323102

Hinrichs, S; Smith, L; Ghazvini, S; Kirven, K; Palladino, H; Spaulding, D

1992-05-01

307

In situ human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in South African and British patients: evidence for putative HPV integration in vivo.  

PubMed Central

In South Africa asymptomatic wart virus infection diagnosed by morphological criteria occurs in 16-20% of all ethnic groups; the incidence in black women is 66%. To identify human papillomavirus (HPV) types the prevalence of HPV in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in South African women (n = 72) with age matched British women (n = 73) was compared by non-isotopic in situ hybridisation (NISH) using digoxigenin labelled probes for HPV 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33 and 35 on archival biopsy specimens. A higher proportion of British biopsy specimens (68%) contained HPV than those from South Africa (50%) in CIN 2 and 3; this difference was due to HPV 16. Thirty six per cent of the positive biopsy specimens from South African women also contained HPV 33/35 compared with 16% in the United Kingdom. There was no difference in HPV detection with age in either group. These data indicate that HPV types vary geographically, with "minor" HPV types being more common in South Africa. Three qualitatively distinct NISH signals were observed; a diffuse (type 1) signal in superficial cells, mainly koilocytes; a punctate signal (type 2) in basal/"undifferentiated" cells in CIN 3; and combined type 1 and 2 signals in CIN with wart virus infection (type 3). The punctate signal may represent HPV integration. Images

Cooper, K; Herrington, C S; Graham, A K; Evans, M F; McGee, J O

1991-01-01

308

Evaluation of a radionovela to promote HPV vaccine awareness and knowledge among Hispanic parents.  

PubMed

Hispanic women have more than a 1.5-fold increased cervical cancer incidence and mortality compared to non-Hispanic white women in the United States. The Centers for Disease Control recommends the HPV vaccine for females at ages 11 and 12 years, though it is approved for females aged 9-26 to protect against the primary types of high-risk HPV (HPV-16 and HPV-18) that cause approximately 70% of cervical cancer cases. Few culturally-tailored Spanish HPV vaccine awareness programs have been developed. This study evaluates the efficacy of a Spanish radionovela as an educational tool. Rural Hispanic parents of daughters aged 9-17 (n = 88; 78 mothers and 10 fathers) were randomized to listen to the HPV vaccine radionovela or to another public service announcement. Participants completed a 30 min pretest posttest questionnaire. Parents who listened to the HPV radionovela (intervention group) scored higher on six knowledge and belief items. They were more likely to confirm that HPV is a common infection (70% vs. 48%, P = .002), to deny that women are able to detect HPV (53% vs. 31%, P = .003), to know vaccine age recommendations (87% vs. 68%, P = .003), and to confirm multiple doses (48% vs. 26%, P = .03) than control group parents. The HPV vaccine radionovela improved HPV and HPV vaccine knowledge and attitudes. Radionovela health education may be an efficacious strategy to increase HPV vaccine awareness among Hispanic parents. PMID:21452030

Kepka, Deanna; Coronado, Gloria D; Rodriguez, Hector P; Thompson, Beti

2011-12-01

309

Oligonucleotide primers for DNA amplification of the early regions 1, 6, and 7 from human papillomavirus types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, and 33  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Human papillomavirus (HPV) type-specific sequences required for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) mediated amplification of HPV DNA sequences are presented. One primer pair within the E1 open reading frame (ORF) was shared by HPV 6, HPV 11, HPV 16, and HPV 31, whereas the other primer pair within the E1 ORF was specific for HPV 16. Eight primer pairs from

M. Evander; E. Bodén; L. Bjersing; E. Rylander; G. Wadell

1991-01-01

310

Genital Delivery of Virus-like Particle and Pseudovirus Based Vaccines  

PubMed Central

Sexually transmitted diseases represent a significant cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The genital mucosa is the first line of defense against sexually transmitted pathogens and, like other mucosal tissues, it is colonized by resident immune cells that initiate an immune responses that can prevent the establishment and dissemination of infection. While it is clear that systemic vaccination is sufficient to provide protection against certain pathogens that infect the genital tract, such as human papillomavirus (HPV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV), it has not worked for other. Induction of local mucosal immune responses in the genital tract might increase the efficacy of vaccines targeting HSV, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Here, we describe recent promising efforts to induce adaptive immune responses in the genital tract using vaccines based on virus-like particles (VLPs) and pseudoviruses (PsVs).

Cuburu, Nicolas; Chackerian, Bryce

2013-01-01

311

Genetic immunization against cervical carcinoma: induction of cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity with a recombinant alphavirus vector expressing human papillomavirus type 16 E6 and E7  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection of genital epithelial cells with human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 is closely associated with the development of cervical carcinoma. The transforming potential of these high-risk HPVs depends on the expression of the E6 and E7 early viral gene products. Since the expression of E6 and E7 is selectively maintained in premalignant and malignant cervical lesions these proteins

T Daemen; F Pries; L Bungener; M Kraak; J Regts; J Wilschut

2000-01-01

312

Mucosal but Not Parenteral Immunization with Purified Human Papillomavirus Type 16 Virus-Like Particles Induces Neutralizing Titers of Antibodies throughout the Estrous Cycle of Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have recently shown that nasal immunization of anesthetized mice with human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) virus-like particles (VLPs) is highly effective at inducing both neutralizing immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG in genital secretions, while parenteral immunization induced only neutralizing IgG. Our data also demonstrated that both isotypes are similarly neutralizing according to an in vitro pseudotyped neutralization assay. However,

DENISE NARDELLI-HAEFLIGER; RICHARD RODEN; CAROLE BALMELLI; ALEXANDRA POTTS; JOHN SCHILLER; PIERRE DE GRANDI

1999-01-01

313

Frequent Display of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E6-specific Memory T-Helper Cells in the Healthy Population as Witness of Previous Viral Encounter1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is common and the majority of infected individuals successfully deal with this virus. Clear- ance of HPV is presumably mediated by T cells but HPV-16-specific T-cell memory was usually detected in patients with progressive disease and not in healthy subjects, suggesting that HPV-immunity comes too late. We now show the presence of HPV-16 E6-specific memory

Marij J. P. Welters; Annemieke de Jong; Susan J. F. van den Eeden; Jeanette M. van der Hulst; Kitty M. C. Kwappenberg; Sabrin Hassane; Kees L. M. C. Franken; Jan Wouter Drijfhout; Gert Jan Fleuren; Gemma Kenter; Cornelis J. M. Melief; Rienk Offringa; Sjoerd H. van der Burg

2003-01-01

314

Knowledge about human papillomavirus and the HPV vaccine - a survey of the general population  

PubMed Central

Background The United States (US) Food & Drug Administration (FDA) recently approved a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine with the purpose of reducing the risk of cervical cancers caused by HPV 16 and HPV 18. It is important that the general population be educated about HPV and the HPV vaccine in order to make the appropriate decision whether or not to vaccinate against this virus. Participants from the adult US general population of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA and Hampton, Virginia, USA (18+ years old) were surveyed to determine their knowledge about HPV and the HPV vaccine, and to evaluate their perception of the vaccine efficacy and safety. Results We report herein preliminary data for 202 participants. Fifty-five percent (55%) of the study population was White, 45% Black, and 1% was from other ethnic groups or did not disclose their ethnicity. A large proportion of participants had heard of the human papillomavirus (overall population: 93.6%; Pittsburgh: 95%; Hampton: 90%). Participants of African descent were slightly less aware of HPV than Whites (Black 89% vs. Whites 97%, p > 0.1). Although the majority of participants knew that HPV caused cervical cancer (84%), Whites were more informed than Black participants (91% vs. 73%, p = 0.044). Eighty-seven percent (87%) of participants had heard of the HPV vaccine (Pittsburgh: 92% and Hampton: 74%, p = 0.029); a higher proportion of Whites were aware of the vaccine when compared with Blacks (93% vs. 76%, p = 0.031). However, only 18% of the population knew that the current FDA-approved vaccine protected against genital warts and most cervical cancer (20% of Blacks and 16% of Whites, p > 0.1). Conclusion These data suggest that although the general population might be aware of HPV and the HPV vaccine, knowledge of the benefits of the HPV vaccination may not be apparent. Knowledge of HPV and the HPV vaccine could result in a likely choice of HPV vaccination and would subsequently reduce the incidence of cervical cancer.

Ragin, Camille C; Edwards, Robert P; Jones, Jade; Thurman, Natalie E; Hagan, Kourtney L; Jones, Erin A; Moss, Cierra M; Smith, Ar'Lena C; Akers, Aletha; Gollin, Susanne M; Heron, Dwight E; Andraos-Selim, Cecile; Bondzi, Cornelius; Robertson, Linda; Taioli, Emanuela

2009-01-01

315

Female cosmetic genital surgery.  

PubMed

Genital plastic surgery for women has come under scrutiny and has been the topic of discussion in the news media, online, and in medical editorials. In the absence of measurable standards of care, lack of evidence-based outcome norms, and little standardization either in nomenclature or training requirements, concern has been raised by both ethicists and specialty organizations.Some women request alteration of their vulvas and vaginas for reasons of cosmesis, increasing self-esteem, and improving sexual function. Patients must be assured their surgeon is properly trained and should understand that few validated long-term safety or outcome data are presently available in this relatively new field. Women also should be made aware that, although they may wish to cosmetically or physically alter their external genitalia, this does not mean that they are developmentally or structurally "abnormal." It is important that training guidelines for practitioners be established and that long-term outcome, psychosexual, and safety data be published. The genital plastic surgeon must have sufficient training in sexual medicine to withhold these procedures from women with sexual dysfunction, mental impairment, or body dysmorphic disorder. In an atmosphere in which trademarked marketing terms are becoming part of the lexicon, a more descriptive terminology is suggested, incorporating the terms "labiaplasty," "reduction of clitoral hood," "perineoplasty," "hymenoplasty," and "vaginoplasty." The term "female cosmetic genital surgery" is presented as a descriptive umbrella encompassing these genital plastic procedures. PMID:19104372

Goodman, Michael P

2009-01-01

316

Healing of Genital Injuries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Child sexual abuse as well as accidental trauma may cause acute injuries in the anogenital area. Most data on residual findings following genital trauma come from longitudinal studies of children who have been sexually assaulted, undergone surgical procedures, or experienced accidental trauma. Like injuries in other part parts of the body, such…

Berkowitz, Carol D.

2011-01-01

317

External Genital Anomalies in Newborn Babies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: External genital anomalies are common congenital anomalies, especially in male newborns. It seems that the incidence of these anomalies is increasing. Although the etiology of these anomalies is obscure in most cases, genetic and environmental factors have important roles. This study aimed to determine the types and frequency of these anomalies in newborn babies and to compare the results

Siamak Shiva; Pediatric Endocrinologist; Mohammad-Hosein Hoseinian

2008-01-01

318

Immunogenic Display of Diverse Peptides, Including a Broadly Cross-Type Neutralizing Human Papillomavirus L2 epitope, on Virus-like Particles of the RNA Bacteriophage PP7  

PubMed Central

The immunogenicity of an antigen can be dramatically increased by displaying it in a dense, multivalent context, such as on the surface of a virus or virus-like particle (VLP). Here we describe a highly versatile VLP platform for peptide display based on VLPs of the RNA bacteriophage PP7. We show that this platform can be used for the engineered display of specific peptide sequences as well as for the construction of random peptide libraries. Peptides representing the FLAG epitope, the V3 loop of HIV gp120, and a broadly cross-type neutralizing epitope from L2, the minor capsid protein of Human Papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16), were inserted into an exposed surface loop of a form of PP7 coat protein in which the two identical polypeptides of coat were fused together to form a single-chain dimer. The recombinant proteins assembled into VLPs, displayed these peptides on their surfaces, and induced high titer antibody responses. The single-chain dimer was also highly tolerant of random 6-, 8-, and 10-amino acid insertions. PP7 VLPs displaying the HPV16 L2 epitope generated robust anti-HPV16 L2 serum antibodies after intramuscular injection that protected mice from genital infection with HPV16 pseudovirus as well as a heterologous HPV pseudovirus type, HPV45. Thus, PP7 VLPs are well-suited for the display of a wide diversity of peptides in a highly immunogenic format.

Caldeira, Jerri do Carmo; Medford, Alexander; Kines, Rhonda C.; Lino, Christopher A.; Schiller, John T.; Chackerian, Bryce; Peabody, David S.

2010-01-01

319

Effects of the human papilloma virus HPV-16 E7 oncoprotein on glycolysis and glutaminolysis: role of pyruvate kinase type M2 and the glycolytic-enzyme complex.  

PubMed Central

Proliferating and tumour cells express the glycolytic isoenzyme, pyruvate kinase type M2 (M2-PK), which occurs in a highly active tetrameric form and in a dimeric form with low affinity for phosphoenolpyruvate. The switch between the two forms regulates glycolytic phosphometabolite pools and the interaction between glycolysis and glutaminolysis. In the present study, we show the effects of oncoprotein E7 of the human papilloma virus (HPV)-16 (E7)-transformation on two NIH 3T3 cell strains with different metabolic characteristics. E7-transformation of the high glycolytic NIH 3T3 cell strain led to a shift of M2-PK to the dimeric form and, in consequence, to a decrease in the cellular pyruvate kinase mass-action ratio, the glycolytic flux rate and the (ATP+GTP)/(UTP+CTP) ratio, as well as to an increase in fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) levels, glutamine consumption and cell proliferation. The low glycolytic NIH 3T3 cell strain is characterized by high pyruvate and glutamine consumption rates and by an intrinsically large amount of the dimeric form of M2-PK, which is correlated with high FBP levels, a low (ATP+GTP)/(CTP+UTP) ratio and a high proliferation rate. E7-transformation of this cell strain led to an alteration in the glycolytic-enzyme complex that correlates with an increase in pyruvate and glutamine consumption and a slight increase in the flow of glucose to lactate. The association of phosphoglyceromutase within the glycolytic-enzyme complex led to an increase of glucose and serine consumption and a disruption of the linkage between glucose consumption and glutaminolysis. In both NIH 3T3 cell lines, transformation increased glutaminolysis and the positive correlation between alanine and lactate production.

Mazurek, S; Zwerschke, W; Jansen-Durr, P; Eigenbrodt, E

2001-01-01

320

Genital, oral, and anal human papillomavirus infection in men who have sex with men.  

PubMed

Even though the incidence of anal cancer among men who have sex with men (MSM) is higher than the incidence of cervical cancer among women, few MSM are identified as high-risk patients in primary care or have received vaccination for human papillomavirus (HPV), the most common sexually transmitted infection worldwide, with 6.2 million new infections each year. The authors review the current literature on diagnosis and basic management of genital, oral, and anal HPV infection. Early diagnosis and treatment of patients with HPV infection is important because this infection causes patients substantial distress even in its benign manifestations. It has also been implicated in a host of cancers, including oral, cervical, penile, and anal cancers and is an independent risk factor for the development of human immunodeficiency virus infection. The incidence of HPV infection drops in women older than 30 years but remains high for MSM in all age ranges. For all of these reasons, physicians should routinely assess the sexual practices of all male patients, especially MSM, and educate them on the HPV infection risks, diagnosis, and treatment options. Physicians can have a significant impact in the primary prevention of HPV by routinely offering HPV vaccination to male patients younger than 26 years. PMID:21415374

Dietz, Craig A; Nyberg, Chessa R

2011-03-01

321

Neutralization of human papillomavirus (HPV) pseudovirions: a novel and efficient approach to detect and characterize HPV neutralizing antibodies.  

PubMed

The development of vaccines against human papillomaviruses (HPVs) has long been hampered by the inability to grow HPVs in tissue culture and the lack of an efficient neutralization assay. To date, less than 10% of more than 100 different HPV types can be grown in athymic and "SCID" mouse xenograft systems or raft culture systems. Recently, the in vitro generation of HPV pseudovirions and their use in neutralization assays were demonstrated. The major shortcomings of the current approaches to HPV neutralization are the lack of HPV virions for most types for the xenograft methods and the time-consuming and inefficient generation of infective pseudovirions for the latter methods, which precludes their use in large-scale HPV clinical trials or epidemiological studies. We describe here a novel and efficient approach to generating pseudovirions in which HPV virus-like particles (VLPs) are coupled to the beta-lactamase gene as a reporter. We show that it is not necessary to encapsidate the reporter gene constructs into the pseudovirions. Using sera from human volunteers immunized with HPV-11 VLPs expressed in yeast, we demonstrate that our novel neutralization assay compares favorably with the athymic mouse neutralization assay. Furthermore, our assay was used to define neutralizing monoclonal antibodies to HPV-6, which were previously unknown. PMID:11118379

Yeager, M D; Aste-Amezaga, M; Brown, D R; Martin, M M; Shah, M J; Cook, J C; Christensen, N D; Ackerson, C; Lowe, R S; Smith, J F; Keller, P; Jansen, K U

2000-12-20

322

Short version of the German evidence-based Guidelines for prophylactic vaccination against HPV-associated neoplasia.  

PubMed

Persistent infection with HPV 16 and 18 has been causally associated with the development of cervical cancer and its precursor lesions as well as with other carcinomas and their precursors, e.g. some vulvar and vaginal cancers. Furthermore HPV 6 and 11 are responsible for anogenital condylomata acuminata in more than 90% of cases. With the recently developed prophylactic bivalent (HPV 16 and 18) and quadrivalent (HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18) vaccines, it is possible to prevent infection of the cervical epithelium and other squamous epithelia, the development of premalignant lesions and, in the case of the quadrivalent vaccine, the development of condylomata acuminata. The following paper represents a summary of the full-text version of the German evidence-based Guidelines, including all evidence-based recommendations regarding the safety as well as the efficacy of the vaccines in preventing CIN, VIN/VaIN, genital warts and other HPV-associated lesions. PMID:19524337

Pathirana, D; Hillemanns, P; Petry, K-U; Becker, N; Brockmeyer, N H; Erdmann, R; Gissmann, L; Grundhewer, H; Ikenberg, H; Kaufmann, A M; Klusmann, J; Kopp, I; Pfister, H; Rzany, B; Schneede, P; Schneider, A; Smola, S; Winter-Koch, N; Wutzler, P; Gross, G

2009-04-17

323

Prevalence of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in Vanuatu.  

PubMed

To provide information on human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and the distribution of individual HPV types in Pacific Islands, we conducted a population-based survey in Vanuatu, South Pacific. Nine hundred and eighty-seven women between 18 and 64 years of age were included. GP5(+)/6(+)-mediated PCR assay was used for HPV testing. The prevalence of 44 HPV types was 28.4% corresponding to an age (world)-standardized prevalence of 25.0% [95% confidence interval (CI), 21.9%-28.0%]. The prevalence of high-risk (HR) HPV types was 21.7% (age-standardized prevalence of 19.2%; 95% CI, 16.4%-22.0%). Among 840 women with adequate cytologic results, 13.6% showed cervical abnormalities, including 3.6% with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) and 0.8% with invasive cervical carcinoma. HPV prevalence declined from 46.1% in women aged ?21 to 15.3% in those ?45 years. Being single was significantly associated with HPV positivity. HR HPV findings by PCR assay and hybrid capture 2 (HC2; conducted in Vanuatu) were moderately correlated (? test = 0.59). The positive predictive values of HR HPV positivity for HSIL or worse were 27.6% for PCR and 35.2% for HC2 among women aged ?30. Nearly half of screening-positive women could not be reevaluated mainly on account of the difficulty to trace back women. The availability of a rapid HPV testing method that allows see-and-treat approaches at the same visit would be, therefore, essential. On account of their high cumulative burden of cervical lesions, also women older than 40 years should be included in at least the first screening round in unscreened populations. PMID:22427345

Aruhuri, Bernadette; Tarivonda, Len; Tenet, Vanessa; Sinha, Rohit; Snijders, Peter J F; Clifford, Gary; Pang, James; McAdam, Margaret; Meijer, Chris J L M; Frazer, Ian H; Franceschi, Silvia

2012-03-16

324

Status of HPV Vaccine in the ICSN Countries  

Cancer.gov

Australia has approved the HPV vaccine. Brazil has approved the HPV vaccine. Canada has approved the HPV vaccine. Denmark has approved the HPV vaccine. Finland has not approved the HPV vaccine. France has approved the HPV vaccine. Germany has approved the HPV vaccine. Hungary has the HPV vaccine under review. Iceland has approved the HPV vaccine. Italy has approved the HPV vaccine. Ireland has not approved the HPV vaccine. Japan has the HPV vaccine under review.

325

Effects of Genital Ulcer Disease and Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 on the Efficacy of Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention: Analyses from the Rakai Trials  

PubMed Central

Background Randomized trials show that male circumcision (MC) reduces the incidence of HIV and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections, and symptomatic genital ulcer disease (GUD). We assessed the role of GUD and HSV-2 in the protection against HIV afforded by MC. Methods and Findings HIV-uninfected men were randomized to immediate (n?=?2,756) or delayed MC (n?=?2,775) in two randomized trials in Rakai, Uganda. GUD symptoms, HSV-2 status, and HIV acquisition were determined at enrollment and at 6, 12, and 24 mo of follow up. Ulcer etiology was assessed by PCR. We estimated the prevalence and prevalence risk ratios (PRRs) of GUD in circumcised versus uncircumcised men and assessed the effects of HSV-2 serostatus as a risk-modifying factor for GUD. We estimated the proportion of the effect of MC on HIV acquisition that was mediated by symptomatic GUD, and by HSV-2 infection. Circumcision significantly reduced symptomatic GUD in HSV-2-seronegative men (PRR?=?0.51, 95% [confidence interval] CI 0.43–0.74), HSV-2-seropositive men (PRR?=?0.66, 95% CI 0.51–0.69), and in HSV-2 seroconverters (PRR?=?0.48, 95% CI 0.30–0.79). The proportion of acute ulcers due to HSV-2 detected by PCR was 48.0% in circumcised men and 39.3% in uncircumcised men (?2 p?=?0.62). Circumcision reduced the risk of HIV acquisition in HSV-2 seronegative men (incidence rate ratio [IRR]?=?0.34, 95% CI 0.15–0.81), and potentially in HSV-2 seroconverters (IRR?=?0.56, 95% CI 0.19–1.57; not significant), but not in men with prevalent HSV-2 at enrollment (IRR?=?0.89, 95% CI 0.49–1.60). The proportion of reduced HIV acquisition in circumcised men mediated by reductions in symptomatic GUD was 11.2% (95% CI 5.0–38.0), and the proportion mediated by reduced HSV-2 incidence was 8.6% (95% CI ?1.2 to 77.1). Conclusions Circumcision reduced GUD irrespective of HSV-2 status, but this reduction played only a modest role in the protective effect of circumcision on HIV acquisition. NIH Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00425984 Gates Foundation Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00124878 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

Gray, Ronald H.; Serwadda, David; Tobian, Aaron A. R.; Chen, Michael Z.; Makumbi, Frederick; Suntoke, Tara; Kigozi, Godfrey; Nalugoda, Fred; Iga, Boaz; Quinn, Thomas C.; Moulton, Lawrence H.; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Reynolds, Steven J.; Kong, Xiangrong; Wawer, Maria J.

2009-01-01

326

Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in Oesophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Relation to Anatomical Site of the Tumour  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence and role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the aetiology of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma is uncertain. Based on the presence of HPV in the oral cavity and its causal association with squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx, we hypothesised that HPV is more strongly associated with proximal than distal oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Methods A population-based study comparing HPV infection in relation to tumour site in patients diagnosed with oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas in the Stockholm County in 1999–2006. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction genotyping (PCR) with Luminex was conducted on pre-treatment endoscopic biopsies to identify type specify HPV. Carcinogenic activity of HPV was assessed by p16INK4a expression. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results Among 204 patients, 20 (10%) had tumours harbouring HPV DNA, almost all (90%) of HPV high-risk type, mainly HPV16. Tumours containing HPV were not overrepresented in the upper compared to the middle or lower third of the oesophagus (odds ratio 0.6, 95% confidence interval 0.2–1.9). P16INK4a expression was similarly common (24% and 16%) in the HPV-positive and HPV-negative groups. Conclusion This study found a limited presence of HPV in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma of uncertain oncogenic relevance and did not demonstrate that HPV was more strongly associated with proximal than distal tumours.

Lofdahl, Hedvig E.; Du, Juan; Nasman, Anders; Andersson, Emilia; Rubio, Carlos A.; Lu, Yunxia; Ramqvist, Torbjorn; Dalianis, Tina; Lagergren, Jesper; Dahlstrand, Hanna

2012-01-01

327

HPV16 Seropositivity and Subsequent HPV16 Infection Risk in a Naturally Infected Population: Comparison of Serological Assays  

PubMed Central

Background Several serological assays have been developed to detect antibodies elicited against infections with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16. The association between antibody levels measured by various assays and subsequent HPV infection risk may differ. We compared HPV16-specific antibody levels previously measured by a virus-like particle (VLP)-based direct enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) with levels measured by additional assays and evaluated the protection against HPV16 infection conferred at different levels of the assays. Methodology/Principal Findings Replicate enrollment serum aliquots from 388 unvaccinated women in the control arm of the Costa Rica HPV vaccine trial were measured for HPV16 seropositivity using three serological assays: a VLP-based direct ELISA; a VLP-based competitive Luminex immunoassay (cLIA); and a secreted alkaline phosphatase protein neutralization assay (SEAP-NA). We assessed the association of assay seropositivity and risk of subsequent HPV16 infection over four years of follow-up by calculating sampling-adjusted odds ratios (OR) and HPV16 seropositivity based on standard cutoff from the cLIA was significantly associated with protection from subsequent HPV16 infection (OR?=?0.48, CI?=?0.27–0.86, compared with seronegatives). Compared with seronegatives, the highest seropositive tertile antibody levels from the direct ELISA (OR?=?0.53, CI?=?0.28–0.90) as well as the SEAP-NA (OR?=?0.20, CI?=?0.06, 0.64) were also significantly associated with protection from HPV16 infection. Conclusions/Significance Enrollment HPV16 seropositivity by any of the three serological assays evaluated was associated with protection from subsequent infection, although cutoffs for immune protection were different. We defined the assays and seropositivity levels after natural infection that better measure and translate to protective immunity.

Lin, Shih-Wen; Ghosh, Arpita; Porras, Carolina; Markt, Sarah C.; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Schiffman, Mark; Wacholder, Sholom; Kemp, Troy J.; Pinto, Ligia A.; Gonzalez, Paula; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Esser, Mark T.; Matys, Katie; Meuree, Ariane; Quint, Wim; van Doorn, Leen-Jan; Herrero, Rolando; Hildesheim, Allan; Safaeian, Mahboobeh

2013-01-01

328

Comparison of the Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV with Genomica HPV Clinical Array for the detection of human papillomavirus DNA.  

PubMed

Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified as the major cause of cervical cancer worldwide and HPV DNA testing is recommended in primary cervical cancer screening. Several molecular tests for detection/typing of HPV DNA with different sensitivity and specificity are commercially available. The present study compared the performance of the Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV assay and the Genomica HPV Clinical Array CLART2 in 78 specimens (63 cervical smears and 15 rectal/urethral swabs).The typing results of the Genomica assay were in absolute agreement with each of the four possible result categories of the Abbott assay (HPV16, HPV18, Other HR HPV, not detected) in 87.2% (68/78) of the samples, with a Cohen' kappa agreement coefficient for every HR type of 0.62 (95% CI: 0.39-0.85), higher in cervical swabs (k = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.50-0.99) than in rectal/urethral swabs (k = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.00-0.82). There was an excellent agreement of the Genomica results with those of Abbott in cervical samples harbored HPV single infection (100% agreement). Nonetheless, both methods may lose sensitivity for detecting HPV types in multiple infections, giving discordant results (10/78). This underlines the importance of establishing the analytical sensitivity in HPV type detection in single and multiple HPV infections. In rectal/urethral swabs, 5 of 15 (33%) discordant cases were observed, most of which became compatible when the Genomica assay was performed starting from nucleic acid extracted with the Abbott m2000sp system. These results suggest that nucleic extraction based on the magnetic beads technique is suitable for HPV DNA detection in urethral/rectal swabs. PMID:23398447

Sias, Catia; Garbuglia, Anna Rosa; Piselli, Pierluca; Cimaglia, Claudia; Lapa, Daniele; Del Nonno, Franca; Baiocchini, Andrea; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria

2013-02-11

329

Persistent genital arousal and restless genitalia: sexual dysfunction or subtype of vulvodynia?  

PubMed

We conducted a literature review of patients' conditions described under persistent genital arousal disorder and restless genital syndrome, vulvodynia and male genital skin pain of unknown aetiology (penoscrotodynia). Our aim is to improve the understanding of the condition, unify nomenclature and promote evidence-based practice. The most prominent symptom in persistent genital arousal disorder and restless genital syndrome is a spontaneous, unwelcomed, intrusive and distressing vulval sensation. There are similarities between the clinical presentation of vulvodynia, penoscrotodynia, persistent genital arousal disorder and restless genital syndrome patients. The aetiology of persistent genital arousal disorder and restless genital syndrome, similar to vulvodynia, could be better explained in terms of neuro-vascular dysfunction, genital peripheral neuropathy and/or dysfunctional micro-vascular arterio-venous shunting. Erythromelalgia lends itself to explain some cases of restless genital syndrome, who have concurrent restless legs syndrome; and therefore draw parallels with the red scrotum syndrome. The published literature supports the concept of classifying restless genital syndrome as a sub-type of vulvodynia rather than sexual dysfunction. PMID:23970620

Markos, Ar; Dinsmore, Wallace

2013-08-01

330

Type-Specific Detection of 30 Oncogenic Human Papillomaviruses by Genotyping both E6 and L1 Genes  

PubMed Central

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the principal cause of invasive cervical cancer and benign genital lesions. There are currently 30 HPV types linked to cervical cancer. HPV infection also leads to other types of cancer. We developed a 61-plex analysis of these 30 HPV types by examining two genes, E6 and L1, using MassARRAY matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) (PCR-MS). Two hundred samples from homosexual males (HM) were screened by PCR-MS and MY09/MY11 primer set-mediated PCR (MY-PCR) followed by sequencing. One hundred thirty-five formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) cervical cancer samples were also analyzed by PCR-MS, and results were compared to those of the commercially available GenoArray (GA) assay. One or more HPV types were identified in 64.5% (129/200) of the samples from HM. Comprising all 30 HPV types, PCR-MS detected 51.9% (67/129) of samples with multiple HPV types, whereas MY-PCR detected only one single HPV type in these samples. All PCR-MS results were confirmed by MY-PCR. In the cervical cancer samples, PCR-MS and GA detected 97% (131/135) and 90.4% (122/135) of HPV-positive samples, respectively. PCR-MS and GA results were fully concordant for 122 positive and 4 negative samples. The sequencing results for the 9 samples that tested negative by GA were completely concordant with the positive PCR-MS results. Multiple HPV types were identified in 25.2% (34/135) and 55.6% (75/135) of the cervical cancer samples by GA and PCR-MS, respectively, and results were confirmed by sequencing. The new assay allows the genotyping of >1,000 samples per day. It provides a good alternative to current methods, especially for large-scale investigations of multiple HPV infections and degraded FFPE samples.

Peng, Junping; Gao, Lei; Guo, Junhua; Wang, Ting; Wang, Ling; Yao, Qing; Zhu, Haijun

2013-01-01

331

Integrating epidemiology, psychology, and economics to achieve HPV vaccination targets.  

PubMed

Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines provide an opportunity to reduce the incidence of cervical cancer. Optimization of cervical cancer prevention programs requires anticipation of the degree to which the public will adhere to vaccination recommendations. To compare vaccination levels driven by public perceptions with levels that are optimal for maximizing the community's overall utility, we develop an epidemiological game-theoretic model of HPV vaccination. The model is parameterized with survey data on actual perceptions regarding cervical cancer, genital warts, and HPV vaccination collected from parents of vaccine-eligible children in the United States. The results suggest that perceptions of survey respondents generate vaccination levels far lower than those that maximize overall health-related utility for the population. Vaccination goals may be achieved by addressing concerns about vaccine risk, particularly those related to sexual activity among adolescent vaccine recipients. In addition, cost subsidizations and shifts in federal coverage plans may compensate for perceived and real costs of HPV vaccination to achieve public health vaccination targets. PMID:19015536

Basu, Sanjay; Chapman, Gretchen B; Galvani, Alison P

2008-11-17

332

REDUCTION OF HPV INFECTIONS THROUGH VACCINATION AMONG AT-RISK URBAN ADOLESCENTS  

PubMed Central

Introduction Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine trials have demonstrated high efficacy in preventing HPV infections and HPV related disease in females ages 16–26. However, there is no source data to demonstrate the impact of the vaccine in other populations who may be at higher risk for HPV related disease. This study examines the impact of HPV vaccination on subsequent HPV detection and sexual behaviors among urban adolescents in a clinical setting. Methods A cohort of adolescent women, ages 14 to 17, were recruited prospectively and matched to historical controls to assess the impact of HPV vaccination. All women completed the same questionnaire and face-to-face interview that assessed sexual behaviors; all provided a clinician or self-collected vaginal swab that was used to test for sexually transmitted infections, including HPV. Logistic regression models, incorporating random pair effects, were used to assess the impact of the HPV vaccine on HPV detection and sexual behaviors between the two groups. Results Each woman recruited (N=75) was matched to 2 historical controls (HC); most of the recruited women (89.3%) had received one or more doses of the HPV vaccine. At enrollment, detection of quadrivalent vaccine types (HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18) was significantly less in the recruited group (5.3%) as compared to the HC (24%): OR=5.6 (CI=1.9, 16.5), p=.002. Adolescent women in the HC had a 9.5 times greater odds of HPV infection when the analysis was adjusted to compare those who had 2 or more vaccine doses to their matched controls. The only behavioral difference found was that the recruited women used condoms more frequently. Conclusion This study demonstrates that HPV vaccination was associated with fewer vaccine-type HPV infections despite incomplete vaccination and high risk sexual behaviors. These data also suggest that sexual behaviors were not altered because of the vaccine.

Cummings, Teresa; Zimet, Gregory D; Brown, Darron; Tu, Wanzhu; Yang, Ziyi; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Shew, Marcia L

2012-01-01

333

Human papilloma virus (HPV) is rarely detected in malignant melanomas of sun sheltered mucosal membranes.  

PubMed

Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been associated with some types of human cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate if HPV could be associated with human primary malignant melanoma in non sun-exposed body areas like mucous membranes. Through the Swedish National Cancer Registry, in compliance with the rules of the Human Ethical Committee, histopathological specimens were collected from different pathological laboratories throughout Sweden. The histopathological diagnosis was reviewed, and from 45 primary melanomas, tumour tissue was micro-dissected and analysed further. A protocol for detection of HPV DNA using general HPV primers GP5 + /GP6+ or CPI/IIG, which together identify 36 different HPV subtypes, was developed. This protocol could detect presence of HPV DNA in less than 10 ng of DNA of a control cell that contained 1-2 copies of HPV type 16/cell. Before HPV testing the melanoma samples were examined for amplifiable DNA by a beta-microglobulin PCR and 39 were positive. Thirty-five of these could be evaluated for HPV DNA and no samples were positive according to all five defined criteria for HPV positivity although two were positive according to 4/5 criteria. In conclusion, HPV is rarely detected in primary malignant melanomas of non-sun exposed body areas. PMID:16227159

Dahlgren, Liselotte; Schedvins, Kjell; Kanter-Lewensohn, Lena; Dalianis, Tina; Ragnarsson-Olding, Boel K

2005-01-01

334

Chapter 17: Second generation HPV vaccines to prevent cervical cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines based on intramuscular injection of non-infectious L1 virus-like particles (VLPs) are undergoing intense clinical evaluation. As documented in preceding chapters of this monograph, clinical trials of these vaccines have demonstrated their safety and high efficacy at preventing type-specific persistent cervical HPV infection and the development of type-specific cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) cervical neoplasia. There is

John T. Schiller; Denise Nardelli-Haefliger

2006-01-01

335

Pairwise antibody footprinting using surface plasmon resonance technology to characterize human papillomavirus type 16 virus-like particles with direct anti-HPV antibody immobilization.  

PubMed

This paper describes an approach to surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based epitope mapping, also referred to as pairwise antibody footprinting, involving the direct immobilization of an antigen-specific primary mAb to the surface of an SPR interface. This technique offers a more straightforward approach than indirect capture (e.g., via rabbit anti-mouse Fc) as it does not require additional steps to block the unoccupied immobilized anti-Fc to prevent non-specific antibody binding. This is also an alternative to the direct immobilization of an antigen of interest, which may cause conformational changes in the antigen or epitope degradation upon chemical immobilization, particularly in successive regeneration cycles. It is particularly suitable for highly multivalent targets such as virus-like particles (VLPs). Using this technique, we assessed a panel of eight monoclonal antibodies against HPV (human papilloma virus) L1 protein VLPs expressed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the antibody epitope screening studies, HPV16 L1-directed conformational mAbs were clearly distinguished from the linear mAbs and consistent with known epitope information. Additional studies using a linear mAb and a conformational mAb demonstrate the practical application of this technique for characterizing the result of process changes and the consistency of recombinant HPV16 VLPs. The method is readily extensible to other VLPs and VLP-based vaccines. PMID:23159495

Towne, Victoria; Zhao, Qinjian; Brown, Martha; Finnefrock, Adam C

2012-11-15

336

Ritual genital cutting of female minors.  

PubMed

The traditional custom of ritual cutting and alteration of the genitalia of female infants, children, and adolescents, referred to as female genital mutilation or female genital cutting (FGC), persists primarily in Africa and among certain communities in the Middle East and Asia. Immigrants in the United States from areas in which FGC is common may have daughters who have undergone a ritual genital procedure or may request that such a procedure be performed by a physician. The American Academy of Pediatrics believes that pediatricians and pediatric surgical specialists should be aware that this practice has life-threatening health risks for children and women. The American Academy of Pediatrics opposes all types of female genital cutting that pose risks of physical or psychological harm, counsels its members not to perform such procedures, recommends that its members actively seek to dissuade families from carrying out harmful forms of FGC, and urges its members to provide patients and their parents with compassionate education about the harms of FGC while remaining sensitive to the cultural and religious reasons that motivate parents to seek this procedure for their daughters. PMID:20421257

Davis, Dena S

2010-04-26

337

AKT1 loss correlates with episomal HPV16 in vulval intraepithelial neoplasia.  

PubMed

Anogenital malignancy has a significant association with high-risk mucosal alpha-human papillomaviruses (alpha-PV), particularly HPV 16 and 18 whereas extragenital SCC has been linked to the presence of cutaneous beta and gamma-HPV types. Vulval skin may be colonised by both mucosal and cutaneous (beta-, mu-, nu- and gamma-) PV types, but there are few systematic studies investigating their presence and their relative contributions to vulval malignancy. Dysregulation of AKT, a serine/threonine kinase, plays a significant role in several cancers. Mucosal HPV types can increase AKT phosphorylation and activity whereas cutaneous HPV types down-regulate AKT1 expression, probably to weaken the cornified envelope to promote viral release. We assessed the presence of mucosal and cutaneous HPV in vulval malignancy and its relationship to AKT1 expression in order to establish the corresponding HPV and AKT1 profile of normal vulval skin, vulval intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) and vulval squamous cell carcinoma (vSCC). We show that HPV16 is the principle HPV type present in VIN, there were few detectable beta types present and AKT1 loss was not associated with the presence of these cutaneous HPV. We show that HPV16 early gene expression reduced AKT1 expression in transgenic mouse epidermis. AKT1 loss in our VIN cohort correlated with presence of high copy number, episomal HPV16. Maintained AKT1 expression correlated with low copy number, an increased frequency of integration and increased HPV16E7 expression, a finding we replicated in another untyped cohort of vSCC. Since expression of E7 reflects tumour progression, these findings suggest that AKT1 loss associated with episomal HPV16 may have positive prognostic implications in vulval malignancy. PMID:22685591

Ekeowa-Anderson, Arucha L; Purdie, Karin J; Gibbon, Karen; Byrne, Carolyn R; Arbeit, Jeffrey M; Harwood, Catherine A; O'Shaughnessy, Ryan F L

2012-06-07

338

Intratumoral injection of therapeutic HPV vaccinia vaccine following cisplatin enhances HPV-specific antitumor effects.  

PubMed

Despite the conventional treatments of radiation therapy and chemotherapy, the 5-year survival rates for patients with advanced-stage cervical cancers remain low. Cancer immunotherapy has emerged as an alternative, innovative therapy that may improve survival. Here, we utilize a preclinical HPV-16 E6/E7-expressing tumor model, TC-1, and employ the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin to generate an accumulation of CD11c+ dendritic cells in tumor loci making it an ideal location for the administration of therapeutic vaccines. Following cisplatin treatment, we tested different routes of administration of a therapeutic HPV vaccinia vaccine encoding HPV-16 E7 antigen (CRT/E7-VV). We found that TC-1 tumor-bearing C57BL/6 mice treated with cisplatin and intratumoral injection of CRT/E7-VV significantly increased E7-specific CD8+ T cells in the blood and generated potent local and systemic antitumor immune responses compared to mice receiving cisplatin and CRT/E7-VV intraperitoneally or mice treated with cisplatin alone. We further extended our study using a clinical grade recombinant vaccinia vaccine encoding HPV-16/18 E6/E7 antigens (TA-HPV). We found that intratumoral injection with TA-HPV following cisplatin treatment also led to increased E7-specific CD8+ T cells in the blood as well as significantly decreased tumor size compared to intratumoral injection with wild type vaccinia virus. Our study has strong implications for future clinical translation using intratumoral injection of TA-HPV in conjunction with the current treatment strategies for patients with advanced cervical cancer. PMID:23615841

Lee, Sung Yong; Kang, Tae Heung; Knoff, Jayne; Huang, Zhuomin; Soong, Ruey-Shyang; Alvarez, Ronald D; Hung, Chien-Fu; Wu, T-C

2013-04-25

339

Human papillomavirus genital infection in modern gynecology: genetic and genomic aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

HPV (human papillomavirus) is a virus responsible for many female and male genital tract diseases. It is a small nonenveloped\\u000a virus with icosahedral symmetry that contains a double-stranded DNA genomes of approximately 7,900 bp. Approximately 200 different\\u000a HPVs have been characterized, classified in mucosal and cutaneous viruses, responsible for a wide spectrum of clinical conditions,\\u000a from simple feet and hands warts

Andrea Tinelli; Daniele Vergara; Giuseppe Leo; Antonio Malvasi; Sergio Casciaro; Elisa Leo; Maria Rosa Montinari; Michele Maffia; Santo Marsigliante; Vito Lorusso

2007-01-01

340

Serum antibody response to Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections detected by a novel ELISA technique based on denatured recombinant HPV16 L1, L2, E4, E6 and E7 proteins  

PubMed Central

Background Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the primary etiological agents of cervical cancer and are also involved in the development of other tumours (skin, head and neck). Serological survey of the HPV infections is important to better elucidate their natural history and to disclose antigen determinants useful for vaccine development. At present, the analysis of the HPV-specific antibodies has not diagnostic value for the viral infections, and new approaches are needed to correlate the antibody response to the disease outcome. The aim of this study is to develop a novel ELISA, based on five denatured recombinant HPV16 proteins, to be used for detection HPV-specific antibodies. Methods The HPV16 L1, L2, E4, E6 and E7 genes were cloned in a prokaryotic expression vector and expressed as histidine-tagged proteins. These proteins, in a denatured form, were used in ELISA as coating antigens. Human sera were collected from women with abnormal PAP smear enrolled during an ongoing multicenter HPV-PathogenISS study in Italy, assessing the HPV-related pathogenetic mechanisms of progression of cervical cancer precursor lesions. Negative human sera were collected from patients affected by other infectious agents. All the HPV-positive sera were also subjected to an avidity test to assess the binding strength in the antigen-antibody complexes. Results Most of the sera showed a positive reactivity to the denatured HPV16 proteins: 82% of the sera from HPV16 infected women and 89% of the sera from women infected by other HPV genotypes recognised at least one of the HPV16 proteins. The percentages of samples showing reactivity to L1, L2 and E7 were similar, but only a few serum samples reacted to E6 and E4. Most sera bound the antigens with medium and high avidity index, suggesting specific antigen-antibody reactions. Conclusion This novel ELISA, based on multiple denatured HPV16 antigens, is able to detect antibodies in women infected by HPV16 and it is not genotype-specific, as it detects antibodies also in women infected by other genital HPVs. The assay is easy to perform and has low cost, making it suitable for monitoring the natural history of HPV infections as well as for detecting pre-existing HPV antibodies in women who receive VLP-based HPV vaccination.

Di Bonito, Paola; Grasso, Felicia; Mochi, Stefania; Accardi, Luisa; Dona, Maria Gabriella; Branca, Margherita; Costa, Silvano; Mariani, Luciano; Agarossi, Alberto; Ciotti, Marco; Syrjanen, Kari; Giorgi, Colomba

2006-01-01

341

Genotyping of 27 Human Papillomavirus Types by Using L1 Consensus PCR Products by a Single-Hybridization, Reverse Line Blot Detection Method  

PubMed Central

Amplification of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA by L1 consensus primer systems (e.g., MY09/11 or GP5+/6+) can detect as few as 10 to 100 molecules of HPV targets from a genital sample. However, genotype determination by dot blot hybridization is laborious and requires at least 27 separate hybridizations for substantive HPV-type discrimination. A reverse blot method was developed which employs a biotin-labeled PCR product hybridized to an array of immobilized oligonucleotide probes. By the reverse blot strip analysis, genotype discrimination of multiple HPV types can be accomplished in a single hybridization and wash cycle. Twenty-seven HPV probe mixes, two control probe concentrations, and a single reference line were immobilized to 75- by 6-mm nylon strips. Each individual probe line contained a mixture of two bovine serum albumin-conjugated oligonucleotide probes specific to a unique HPV genotype. The genotype spectrum discriminated on this strip includes the high-risk, or cancer-associated, HPV genotypes 16, 18, 26, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 55, 56, 58, 59, 68 (ME180), MM4 (W13B), MM7 (P291), and MM9 (P238A) and the low-risk, or non-cancer-associated, genotypes 6, 11, 40, 42, 53, 54, 57, 66, and MM8 (P155). In addition, two concentrations of ?-globin probes allowed for assessment of individual specimen adequacy following amplification. We have evaluated the performance of the strip method relative to that of a previously reported dot blot format (H. M. Bauer et al., p. 132–152, in C. S. Herrington and J. O. D. McGee (ed.), Diagnostic Molecular Pathology: a Practical Approach, (1992), by testing 328 cervical swab samples collected in Digene specimen transport medium (Digene Diagnostics, Silver Spring, Md.). We show excellent agreement between the two detection formats, with 92% concordance for HPV positivity (kappa = 0.78, P < 0.001). Nearly all of the discrepant HPV-positive samples resulted from weak signals and can be attributed to sampling error from specimens with low concentrations (<1 copy/?l) of HPV DNA. The primary advantage of the strip-based detection system is the ability to rapidly genotype HPVs present in genital samples with high sensitivity and specificity, minimizing the likelihood of misclassification.

Gravitt, P. E.; Peyton, C. L.; Apple, R. J.; Wheeler, C. M.

1998-01-01

342

Gaps in detailed knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) and the HPV vaccine among medical students in Scotland  

PubMed Central

Background A vaccination programme targeted against human papillomavirus (HPV) types16 and 18 was introduced in the UK in 2008, with the aim of decreasing incidence of cervical disease. Vaccine roll out to 12–13 year old girls with a catch-up programme for girls aged up to 17 years and 364 days was accompanied by a very comprehensive public health information (PHI) campaign which described the role of HPV in the development of cervical cancer. Methods A brief questionnaire, designed to assess acquisition of knowledge of HPV infection and its association to cervical cancer, was administered to two different cohorts of male and female 1st year medical students (school leavers: 83% in age range 17–20) at a UK university. The study was timed so that the first survey in 2008 immediately followed a summer's intensive PHI campaign and very shortly after vaccine roll-out (150 students). The second survey was exactly one year later over which time there was a sustained PHI campaign (213 students). Results We addressed three research questions: knowledge about three specific details of HPV infection that could be acquired from PHI, whether length of the PHI campaign and/or vaccination of females had any bearing on HPV knowledge, and knowledge differences between men and women regarding HPV. No female student in the 2008 cohort had completed the three-dose vaccine schedule compared to 58.4% of female students in 2009. Overall, participants’ knowledge regarding the sexually transmitted nature of HPV and its association with cervical cancer was high in both year groups. However, in both years, less than 50% of students correctly identified that HPV causes over 90% of cases of cervical cancer. Males gave fewer correct answers for these two details in 2009. In 2008 only around 50% of students recognised that the current vaccine protects against a limited subset of cervical cancer-causing HPV sub-types, although there was a significant increase in correct response among female students in the 2009 cohort compared to the 2008 cohort. Conclusions This study highlights a lack of understanding regarding the extent of protection against cervical cancer conferred by the HPV vaccine, even among an educated population in the UK who could have a vested interest in acquiring such knowledge. The intensive PHI campaign accompanying the first year of HPV vaccination seemed to have little effect on knowledge over time. This is one of the first studies to assess detailed knowledge of HPV in both males and females. There is scope for continued improvements to PHI regarding the link between HPV infection and cervical cancer.

2013-01-01

343

HPV16 synthetic long peptide (HPV16-SLP) vaccination therapy of patients with advanced or recurrent HPV16-induced gynecological carcinoma, a phase II trial  

PubMed Central

Background Human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV16)-induced gynecological cancers, in particular cervical cancers, are found in many women worldwide. The HPV16 encoded oncoproteins E6 and E7 are tumor-specific targets for the adaptive immune system permitting the development of an HPV16-synthetic long peptide (SLP) vaccine with an excellent treatment profile in animal models. Here, we determined the toxicity, safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of the HPV16 SLP vaccine in patients with advanced or recurrent HPV16-induced gynecological carcinoma. Methods Patients with HPV16-positive advanced or recurrent gynecological carcinoma (n?=?20) were subcutaneously vaccinated with an HPV16-SLP vaccine consisting of a mix of 13 HPV16 E6 and HPV16 E7 overlapping long peptides in Montanide ISA-51 adjuvant. The primary endpoints were safety, toxicity and tumor regression as determined by RECIST. In addition, the vaccine-induced T-cell response was assessed by proliferation and associated cytokine production as well as IFN?-ELISPOT. Results No systemic toxicity beyond CTCAE grade II was observed. In a few patients transient flu-like symptoms were observed. In 9 out of 16 tested patients vaccine-induced HPV16-specific proliferative responses were detected which were associated with the production of IFN?, TNF?, IL-5 and/or IL-10. ELISPOT analysis revealed a vaccine-induced immune response in 11 of the 13 tested patients. The capacity to respond to the vaccine was positively correlated to the patient’s immune status as reflected by their response to common recall antigens at the start of the trial. Median survival was 12.6 ± 9.1?months. No regression of tumors was observed among the 12 evaluable patients. Nineteen patients died of progressive disease. Conclusions The HPV16-SLP vaccine was well tolerated and induced a broad IFN?-associated T-cell response in patients with advanced or recurrent HPV16-induced gynecological carcinoma but neither induced tumor regression nor prevented progressive disease. We, therefore, plan to use this vaccine in combination with chemotherapy and immunomodulation.

2013-01-01

344

Cervical, Anal and Oral HPV in an Adolescent Inner-City Health Clinic Providing Free Vaccinations  

PubMed Central

Objectives Published human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine trials indicate efficacy is strongest for those naive to the vaccine-types. However, few high-risk young women have been followed and cervical HPV has been the predominant outcome measure. Methods We collected cervical and anal swabs, as well as oral rinse specimens from 645 sexually active inner-city young females attending a large adolescent health-clinic in New York City that offers free care and HPV vaccination. Specimens were tested for HPV-DNA using a MY09/MY11-PCR system. Type-specific prevalence of HPV at each anatomic site was compared for individuals by vaccination dose using generalized estimating equation logistic regression models. Results The majority of subjects reported being of non-Caucasian (92%) and/or Hispanic ethnicity (61%). Median age was 18 years (range:14–20). All had practiced vaginal sex, a third (33%) practiced anal sex, and most (77%) had also engaged in oral sex. At enrollment, 21% had not received the vaccine and 51% had received three doses. Prevalent HPV infection at enrollment was detected in 54% of cervical, 42% of anal and 20% of oral specimens, with vaccine types present in 7%, 6% and 1% of specimens, respectively. Comparing prevalence for vaccine types, the detection of HPV in the cervix of vaccinated compared to unvaccinated adolescents was significantly reduced: HPV6/11 (odds ratio [OR]?=?0.19, 95%CI:0.06–0.75), HPV16 (OR?=?0.31, 95%CI:0.11–0.88) and HPV18 (OR?=?0.14, 95%CI:0.03–0.75). For anal HPV, the risk of detecting vaccine types HPV6/11 (OR?=?0.27, 95%CI:0.10–0.72) and HPV18(OR?=?0.12, 95%CI:0.01–1.16) were significantly reduced for vaccinated adolescents however, the risk for HPV16 was not significantly decreased (OR?=?0.63, 95%CI:0.18–2.20). Conclusion HPV Prevalence is extremely high in inner-city female adolescents. Administration of the HPV vaccine reduced the risk for cervical HPV; however continued follow-up is required to assess the protection for HPV at all sites in young women with high exposure.

Schlecht, Nicolas F.; Burk, Robert D.; Nucci-Sack, Anne; Shankar, Viswanathan; Peake, Ken; Lorde-Rollins, Elizabeth; Porter, Richard; Linares, Lourdes Oriana; Rojas, Mary; Strickler, Howard D.; Diaz, Angela

2012-01-01

345

Bogarting that joint might decrease oral hpv among cannabis users  

PubMed Central

Human papilloma virus (hpv) has many known strains, two of the most well studied perhaps being the high-risk types 16 and 18. These strains have attracted more interest because they are known to disrupt tumour-suppressor genes that control the cell cycle, rendering those genes less effective at keeping cell division in check. Within the last decade, an increase in oral hpv–linked cancers of the throat and tongue has been attributed to exposure and contraction of hpv through oral sex, most notably in younger people. An understudied and arguably equal contributor to oral hpv infection might be indirect contact with an infected person. Presented here is a brief but important perspective on the relationship between cannabis use and oral cancer. The development of oral cancer is not a result of smoking cannabis per se; rather, it is hypothesized to be a result of contracting hpv through various forms of sharing and passing joints and other smoking apparatuses. Therefore, it is hypothesized that bogarting (and not passing) joints might decrease oral hpv among cannabis smokers. Future research should therefore investigate the prevalence of oral hpv in cannabis smokers to better understand its epidemiology.

Zwenger, S.R.

2009-01-01

346

Comparisons of high-risk cervical HPV infections in Caribbean and US populations  

PubMed Central

Background Disparities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates exist among women of African ancestry (African-American, African-Caribbean and African). Persistent cervical infection with Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with cervical dysplasia and if untreated, could potentially progress to invasive cervical cancer. Very few studies have been conducted to examine the true prevalence of HPV infection in this population. Comparisons of cervical HPV infection and the type-specific distribution of HPV were performed between cancer-free Caribbean and US women. Results The Caribbean population consisted of 212 women from Tobago and 99 women from Jamaica. The US population tested, consisted of 82 women from Pittsburgh. The majority of the US subjects was Caucasian, 74% (61/82) while 12% (10/82) and 13% (11/82) were African-American or other ethnic groups, respectively. The age-adjusted prevalence of any HPV infection among women from Tobago was 35%, while for Jamaica, it was 81% (p < 0.0001). The age-adjusted prevalence of HPV infection for Caribbean subjects was not statistically significantly different from the US (any HPV: 47% vs. 39%, p > 0.1; high-risk HPVs: 27% vs. 25%, p > 0.1); no difference was observed between US-Blacks and Jamaicans (any HPV: 92% vs. 81%, p > 0.1; high-risk HPV: 50% vs. 53%, p > 0.1). However, US-Whites had a lower age-adjusted prevalence of HPV infections compared to Jamaican subjects (any HPV: 29% vs. 81%, p < 0.0001; high-risk HPV: 20% vs. 53%, p < 0.001). Subjects from Jamaica, Tobago, and US-Blacks had a higher proportion of high-risk HPV infections (Tobago: 20%, Jamaica: 58%, US-Blacks: 40%) compared to US-Whites (15%). Similar observations were made for the presence of infections with multiple high-risk HPV types (Tobago: 12%, Jamaica: 43%, US-Blacks: 30%, US-Whites: 8%). Although we observed similar prevalence of HPV16 infections among Caribbean and US-White women, there was a distinct distribution of high-risk HPV types when comparisons were made between the ethnic groups. Conclusion The higher prevalence of cervical HPV infections and multiple high-risk infections in Caribbean and US-Black women may contribute to the high incidence and prevalence of cervical cancer in these populations. Evaluation of a larger sample size is currently ongoing to confirm the distinct distribution of HPV types between ethnic groups.

Ragin, Camille C; Watt, Angela; Markovic, Nina; Bunker, Clareann H; Edwards, Robert P; Eckstein, Stacy; Fletcher, Horace; Garwood, David; Gollin, Susanne M; Jackson, Maria; Patrick, Alan L; Smikle, M; Taioli, Emanuela; Wheeler, Victor W; Wilson, Jacque B; Younger, N; McFarlane-Anderson, Norma

2009-01-01

347

Novel oligomannose liposome-DNA complex DNA vaccination efficiently evokes anti-HPV E6 and E7 CTL responses.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to establish an efficient human papilloma virus (HPV) type 16-targeting cancer immunotherapy. Persistent high-risk HPV infection causes cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN) and subsequent cervical carcinoma. HPV type16 (HPV16) is one of the common carcinogenic types and is found in about 50% of invasive cervical carcinomas. HPV16-derived viral proteins E6 and E7 are expressed in cancerous cells through the progression of the disease and have a role in carcinogenesis but are not expressed in normal cells. Thus, these proteins are regarded as ideal antigens for cervical carcinoma immunotherapy. In this study, we generated a novel HPV 16 E6 and E7 gene plasmid containing oligomannose liposomes (OML-HPV). We compared the cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) induction efficiency of OML-HPV and that of standard liposome-HPV16 E6 and E7 DNA complex. HPV16 E6-specific CTLs could be generated from HPV 16-positive cervical carcinoma patient's peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by stimulating OML-HPV, but could not by stimulating standard liposome-HPV 16 E6, E7 DNA complex. Furthermore, we screened HLA-A24-restricted HPV16 E6- and E7-derived peptides, and found that one E6-derived peptide (E6 66-74) showed the highest immunogenicity with ELISPOT assay from 100% of HPV16-positive patients (4 out of 4). On the other hand, other E6- or E7-derived peptides, including E6 49-57, E6 82-90, E6 87-95, E6 98-106 and E7 83-93, showed less frequent reactivity. These results indicate that OML-HPV is a more effective approach than DNA vaccination using standard liposomes, and that a novel HLA-A24-restricted peptide, E6 66-74, might be a suitable target of cervical cancer immunotherapy. PMID:22032938

Mizuuchi, Masahito; Hirohashi, Yoshihiko; Torigoe, Toshihiko; Kuroda, Takafumi; Yasuda, Kazuyo; Shimizu, Yoshitaka; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Noriyuki

2011-10-15

348

E6/E7 proteins of HPV type 16 and ErbB-2 cooperate to induce neoplastic transformation of primary normal oral epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) are characterized by a marked propensity for local invasion and spread to cervical lymph nodes, with distant metastases developing in 30-40% of cases. HPV-16 is an important risk factor for HNSCC. How HPV enhances susceptibility to HNSCC is not fully understood, but seems to involve cofactors. In this study, we examined the effect of the cooperation between HPV-16 and the tyrosine kinase receptor ErbB-2 on E-cadherin/catenin complex patterns and neoplastic transformation of human normal oral epithelial (NOE) cells. We report that overexpression of ErbB-2 or E6/E7 alone does not affect E-cadherin/catenin complex patterns nor does it induce cell transformation of NOE cells. In contrast, coexpression of E6/E7 and ErbB-2 downregulates E-cadherin and catenin expression. This is accompanied by cytoplasmic localization of E-cadherin, as well as nuclear translocation of alpha, beta, and gamma-catenins. Furthermore, we demonstrate that E6/E7 cooperate with overexpressed ErbB-2 to induce tumor formation in nude mice and to upregulate cyclin D1 and c-myc expression. Our data suggest that E6/E7 cooperate with ErbB-2 in head and neck carcinogenesis, at least in part, via the conversion of beta-catenin from a cell adhesion to a nuclear function, that is, to act as a potential transcriptional regulator. This conversion leads to the upregulation of cyclin D1, c-myc and other oncoproteins necessary for alteration of the E-cadherin/catenin complex and cell transformation of NOE cells. PMID:14724563

Al Moustafa, Ala-Eddin; Foulkes, William D; Benlimame, Naciba; Wong, Annick; Yen, Lily; Bergeron, Josée; Batist, Gerald; Alpert, Lesley; Alaoui-Jamali, Moulay A

2004-01-15

349

Immune responses induced by lower airway mucosal immunisation with a human papillomavirus type 16 virus-like particle vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cervical cancer results from cervical infection by human papillomaviruses (HPV), especially HPV16. Previous studies have shown that intramuscular vaccination of women with an HPV16 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine induced a strong IgG response and protected against genital HPV16 infection. However, an alternative route of administration that avoids parenteral injection while inducing mucosal immunity might facilitate vaccine implementation in some settings,

Denise Nardelli-Haefliger; Floriana Lurati; Daniel Wirthner; François Spertini; John T. Schiller; Douglas R. Lowy; Françoise Ponci; Pierre De Grandi

2005-01-01

350

Methods for detection of HPV infection and its clinical utility  

Microsoft Academic Search

HPVs cannot be cultured and the detection of virus relies on a variety of techniques used in immunology, serology, and molecular biology. Currently the only FDA-approved commercially available method for the detection of HPV DNA is the Hybrid Capture assay, version hc2 (Digene, Gaithersburg, MD, USA) which is able to detect 13 high-risk types of HPV. The advantage of PCR-based

Luisa Lina Villa; Lynette Denny

351

Chlamydial genital infection in prostitutes in Iran.  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of chlamydial genital infection was studied in 177 prostitutes in Iran; 100 in Teheran and 77 in the port of Bandar Abbas. Chlamydia trachomatis was isolated in eight (6.9%) of 116 patients with valid cultures. Type-specific antibodies were found against C trachomatis serotypes D to K (genital serotypes) in 94.2% and against serotypes A to C (trachoma serotypes) in 2% of the prostitutes. Type-specific IgM at a titre of greater than or equal to 8, indicating current infection, was found in 29.2%, whereas type-specific IgG at a titre greater than or equal to 64, suggesting a current or recent infection, was present in 71.5%. The lower chlamydial isolation rate in these women may have been due to previous treatment with antichlamydial drugs and because of immune responses resulting from repeated reinfection with chlamydiae. The results indicate that in Iran prostitutes are commonly infected with C trachomatis and are probably a major reservoir of chlamydial genital infection.

Darougar, S; Aramesh, B; Gibson, J A; Treharne, J D; Jones, B R

1983-01-01

352

Identification and functional validation of HPV-mediated hypermethylation in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Human papillomavirus-positive (HPV+) head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) represents a distinct clinical and epidemiological condition compared with HPV-negative (HPV-) HNSCC. To test the possible involvement of epigenetic modulation by HPV in HNSCC, we conducted a genome-wide DNA-methylation analysis. Methods Using laser-capture microdissection of 42 formalin-fixed paraffin wax-embedded (FFPE) HNSCCs, we generated DNA-methylation profiles of 18 HPV+ and 14 HPV- samples, using Infinium 450 k BeadArray technology. Methylation data were validated in two sets of independent HPV+/HPV- HNSCC samples (fresh-frozen samples and cell lines) using two independent methods (Infinium 450 k and whole-genome methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (MeDIP-seq)). For the functional analysis, an HPV- HNSCC cell line was transduced with lentiviral constructs containing the two HPV oncogenes (E6 and E7), and effects on methylation were assayed using the Infinium 450 k technology. Results and discussion Unsupervised clustering over the methylation variable positions (MVPs) with greatest variation showed that samples segregated in accordance with HPV status, but also that HPV+ tumors are heterogeneous. MVPs were significantly enriched at transcriptional start sites, leading to the identification of a candidate CpG island methylator phenotype in a sub-group of the HPV+ tumors. Supervised analysis identified a strong preponderance (87%) of MVPs towards hypermethylation in HPV+ HNSCC. Meta-analysis of our HNSCC and publicly available methylation data in cervical and lung cancers confirmed the observed DNA-methylation signature to be HPV-specific and tissue-independent. Grouping of MVPs into functionally more significant differentially methylated regions identified 43 hypermethylated promoter DMRs, including for three cadherins of the Polycomb group target genes. Integration with independent expression data showed strong negative correlation, especially for the cadherin gene-family members. Combinatorial ectopic expression of the two HPV oncogenes (E6 and E7) in an HPV- HNSCC cell line partially phenocopied the hypermethylation signature seen in HPV+ HNSCC tumors, and established E6 as the main viral effector gene. Conclusions Our data establish that archival FFPE tissue is very suitable for this type of methylome analysis, and suggest that HPV modulates the HNSCC epigenome through hypermethylation of Polycomb repressive complex 2 target genes such as cadherins, which are implicated in tumor progression and metastasis.

2013-01-01

353

Intranasal Immunization with synthetic peptides corresponding to the E6 and E7 oncoproteins of Human Papillomavirus type 16 induces systemic and mucosal cellular immune responses and tumor protection  

PubMed Central

The E6 and E7 oncoproteins of the high-risk HPV type16 represent ideal targets for HPV vaccine development, they being consistently expressed in cervical cancer lesions. Since HPV-16 is primarily transmitted through genital mucosal route, mucosal immune responses constitute an essential feature for vaccination strategies against HPV-associated lesions. We present here evidence showing that mucosal immunization of mice by the intranasal route with a mixture of peptides E744–62 and E643–57 from the E7 and E6 oncoproteins of HPV-16, respectively, using a mutant cholera toxin adjuvant (CT-2*), primed strong antigen-specific cellular immune responses in systemic and mucosal tissues. Significant levels of IFN-? production by both CD4 and CD8 cells were observed along with CTL responses that were effective against both peptide-pulsed targets as well as syngeneic tumor cells (TC-1) expressing the cognate E6 and E7 proteins. Furthermore, mice immunized with the peptide mixture and CT-2* effectively resisted TC-1 tumor challenge. These results together with our earlier observations that T cell responses to these peptides correlate with recurrence-free survival in women after ablative treatment for HPV-associated cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, support the potential of these E6 and E7 peptides for inclusion in vaccine formulations.

Manuri, Pallavi R.; Nehete, Bharti; Nehete, Pramod N.; Reisenauer, Rose; Wardell, Seth; Courtney, Amy N.; Gambhira, Ratish; Lomada, Dakshyani; Chopra, Ashok K.; Sastry, K. Jagannadha

2007-01-01

354

Induction of robust cellular immunity against HPV6 and HPV11 in mice by DNA vaccine encoding for E6/E7 antigen  

PubMed Central

Due to the strong relationship between the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) “high-risk” subtypes and cervical cancers, most HPV-related studies have been focusing on the “high-risk” HPV subtypes 16 and 18. However, it has been suggested that the “low-risk” subtypes of HPV, HPV6 and HPV11, are the major cause of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis and genital warts. In addition, HPV 6 and 11 are also associated with otolaryngologic malignancies, carcinoma of the lung, tonsil, larynx and low-grade cervical lesions. Therefore, development of HPV therapeutic vaccines targeting on subtypes 6 and 11 E6 or E7 are in great need. In this report, we describe two novel engineered DNA vaccines that encode HPV 6 and 11 consensus E6/E7 fusion proteins (p6E6E7 and p11E6E7) by utilizing a multi-phase strategy. Briefly, after generating consensus sequences, several modifications were performed to increase the expression of both constructs, including codon/RNA optimization, addition of a Kozak sequence and a highly efficient leader sequence. An endoproteolytic cleavage site was also introduced between E6 and E7 protein for proper protein folding and for better CTL processing. The expressions of both constructs were confirmed by western blot analysis and immunofluorescence assay. Vaccination with these DNA vaccines could elicit robust cellular immune responses. The epitope mapping assay was performed to further characterize the cellular immune responses induced by p6E6E7 and p11E6E7. The HPV 6 and 11 E6 or E7-specific immunodominant and subdominant epitopes were verified, respectively. The intracellular cytokine staining revealed that the magnitude of IFN-? and TNF-? secretion in antigen-specific CD8+ cells was significantly enhanced, indicating that the immune responses elicited by p6E6E7 and p11E6E7 was heavily skewed toward driving CD8+ T cells. Such DNA immunogens are interesting candidates for further studies on HPV 6 and 11-associated diseases.

Shin, Thomas; Pankhong, Panyupa; Yan, Jian; Khan, Amir S.; Sardesai, Niranjan Y.; Weiner, David B.

2012-01-01

355

The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine and cervical cancer: Uptake and next steps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection with a high-risk type of the human papillomavirus (HPV) is a major contributing factor in the vast majority of cervical\\u000a cancers. Dissemination of the HPV vaccine is critical in reducing the risk of the disease. This descriptive review of HPV\\u000a vaccine uptake in papers published between 2006 and 2011 focuses on studies conducted in girls and young women. In

Sherri N. Sheinfeld Gorin; Beth A. Glenn; Rebecca B. Perkins

2011-01-01

356

HPV Immortalization of Human Oral Epithelial Cells: A Model for Carcinogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been implicated in the etiology of oral and cervical cancers. Normal oral epithelial cells at passage two were infected with recombinant retrovirus containing the E6\\/E7 open reading frames of HPV type 16. The G418-selected cells that were immortalized and express HPV 16 E6\\/E7 have been in culture for over 4 years and 350 passages. In contrast,

Dolphine Oda; Lenora Bigler; Peggy Lee; Rebecca Blanton

1996-01-01

357

The E5 Gene of HPV16 Enhances Keratinocyte Immortalization by Full-Length DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) is the most common papillomavirus genome found in human cervical cancers and its DNA is capable of immortalizing primary keratinocytesin vitro.When expressed by their native promoter, two separate HPV-16 oncogenes, E6 and E7, cooperate to immortalize primary human keratinocytes. Early HPV cervical lesions express abundant amounts of E5-specific RNA, and using a quantitative keratinocyte immortalization

Melissa Conrad Stöppler; Samuel W. Straight; Grace Tsao; Richard Schlegel; Dennis J. Mccance

1996-01-01

358

Malignant progression of an HPV16-immortalized human keratinocyte cell line (HPKIA) in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DNA of human papillomavirus (HPV) types found in cervical carcinomas can immortalize primary human keratinocytes. However, in analogy to tumor progression in vivo, HPV-immortalized keratinocytes require secondary events for malignant conversion. Here, we report on an HPV16-immortalized keratinocyte cell line (HPKIA) which after gamma-irradiation and long term culturing in vitro has acquired the ability to form squamous cell carcinomas

Matthias Dürst; Sibylle Seagon; Sylke Wanschura; Harald zur Hausen; Jörn Bullerdiek

1995-01-01

359

Determinants of incidence and clearance of high-risk HPV infections in rural Rakai, Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background We used self-administered vaginal swabs to assess the incidence and clearance of carcinogenic HPV infections in rural Rakai, Uganda. Methods Women provided self-administered vaginal swab at annual, home-based visits. Type-specific carcinogenic HPV incidence and clearance, and risk-factors were assessed. Results Carcinogenic HPV incidence was 17.3/100 person-years (PY) among HIV-positive, compared with 7.0/100 PY among HIV-negative women (p<0.001). HPV-51 had the highest incidence followed by HPV-16 (1.8/100 PY, and 1.5/100 PY, respectively). In multivariate model, HIV-positive women were twice as likely to have incident infection compared to HIV-negatives. Younger women were at higher risk for incident infection, as were women with higher lifetime and recent sexual partners, and high perception of AIDS. Married women were less likely to have incident infection. Approximately half of all carcinogenic HPV infections cleared over the study follow-up of three years. HPV-31, 35, and 16 had the lowest clearance (16.7%, 27.9%, and 38.3%, respectively). In multivariate model, HIV-positives, women over 30, higher HPV viral burden, and more lifetime sex partners were less likely to clear infections. Conclusions Self-collected vaginal swabs provide accurate HPV exposure assessment for studying the HPV exposure and epidemiology, and can be an important tool for research in populations unwilling to undergo pelvic exam.

Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Kiddugavu, Mohammad; Gravitt, Patti E.; Gange, Stephen J.; Ssekasanvu, Joseph; Murokora, Dan; Sklar, Marc; Serwadda, David; Wawer, Maria J.; Shah, Keerti V.; Gray, Ron

2011-01-01

360

Detection of HPV infection in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: a practical proposal.  

PubMed

Detecting human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is clinically relevant, but there is no agreement about the most appropriate methodology. We have studied 64 oropharyngeal carcinomas using p16 immunohistochemistry, HPV DNA in situ hybridisation (ISH) and HPV DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by pyrosequencing. We have also evaluated a new assay, RNAscope, designed to detect HPV E6/E7 RNA transcripts. Using a threshold of 70 % labelled tumour cells, 21 cases (32.8 %) were p16 positive. Of these, 19 cases scored positive with at least one HPV detection assay. Sixteen cases were positive by HPV DNA-ISH, and 18 cases were positive using the E6/E7 RNAscope assay. By PCR and pyrosequencing, HPV16 was detected in 15 cases, while one case each harboured HPV33, 35 and 56. All p16-negative cases were negative using these assays. We conclude that p16 expression is a useful surrogate marker for HPV infection in HNSCC with a high negative predictive value and that p16-positive cases should be further evaluated for HPV infection, preferably by PCR followed by type determination. Using RNase digestion experiments, we show that the RNAscope assay is not suitable for the reliable discrimination between E6/E7 RNA transcripts and viral DNA. PMID:23503925

Dreyer, Johannes H; Hauck, Franziska; Oliveira-Silva, Michelle; Barros, Mario Henrique M; Niedobitek, Gerald

2013-03-17

361

Female genital cutting: clinical and cultural guidelines.  

PubMed

Clinical guidelines for managing women who have undergone female genital cutting are essential in providing appropriate and culturally competent care. The objectives of this study were to review the literature, describe the types of female genital cutting, evaluate its immediate and long-term complications, and provide clinical guidelines for managing women who have undergone this procedure. We conducted an extensive literature search on the MEDLINE database (1966-2003) for articles pertaining to female circumcision/genital mutilation/cutting. The search was extended further by citations in these journals not identified in MEDLINE. National and international nongovernmental organizations provided articles not available in American libraries. The author has developed guidelines based on personal experience and recommendations from the literature. The major inclusion criteria limited the search to: 1) English language, 2) medical journals, 3) WHO publications, 4) medical society publications, 5) case studies and statistical data on medical complications, 6) infertility and sexual issues, 7) U.S. legal practice, and 8) deinfibulation. The exclusion criteria pertained to articles: 1) reviewing the literature, 2) lacking epidemiologic data, 3) addressing political and ethical issues, and 4) discussing international concerns. Immediate complications include hemorrhage, infection, urinary dysfunction, shock, or death. Long-term complications include urinary complications, scarring, pain, infection, and infertility. Obstetric complications include lacerations, wound infections, postpartum hemorrhage, and sepsis. Fetal complications are rarely seen in Western countries. Women who have undergone female genital cutting can experience complications. Practitioners must recognize the type of circumcision, ensure cultural competency, and provide appropriate clinical care. PMID:15024227

Nour, Nawal M

2004-04-01

362

Chapter 20: Issues in planning cervical cancer screening in the era of HPV vaccination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines will likely have an impact as a preventive strategy for cervical cancer. Screening for precancerous lesions cannot be discontinued because vaccination will not protect against HPV types not included in the first generation of vaccines. Moreover, protection for the target types, 16 and 18, which are responsible for most cases of cervical precancerous lesions and cancer,

Eduardo L. Franco; Jack Cuzick; Allan Hildesheim; Silvia de Sanjosé

2006-01-01

363

High Sp1\\/Sp3 Ratios in Epithelial Cells during Epithelial Differentiation and Cellular Transformation Correlate with the Activation of the HPV16 Promoter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene expression of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) and other HPV types is epithelial specific. Specificity is brought about by synergism between several different transcription factors that seem to occur ubiquitously but differ qualitatively and quantitatively between cells in which HPV genomes are transcriptionally active or inactive. Here, we report on the contribution to this combinatorial mechanism by the activator

Doris Apt; Robin M. Watts; Guntram Suske; Hans-Ulrich Bernard

1996-01-01

364

Isolation of two keratinocyte cell lines derived from HPV-positive dysplastic vaginal lesions.  

PubMed

Explant cultures were started from human papillomavirus (HPV)-infected genital lesions in order to isolate and propagate abnormally differentiating cells from squamous intraepithelial neoplasia. A medium with high calcium concentration was used to induce terminal differentiation of cells from surrounding normal epithelium. Two cell lines with extended life-spans were established. The UT-DEC-1 cell line was derived from an HPV-33-positive mild vaginal dysplasia (VAIN I). In cultured UT-DEC-1 cells, HPV 33 DNA was detected with Southern-blot hybridization and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. The restriction pattern of HPV 33 changed during early passages and flow cytometric analysis detected a decrease in chromosomal DNA content. HPV 33 RNA from the E6-E7 region could be amplified by PCR at late passage. UT-DEC-2 cell line was derived from an HPV-16-positive moderate vaginal dysplasia (VAIN II). HPV 16 DNA was also detected in cultured cells by the PCR technique. The senescence of normal keratinocytes and growth selection in favor of aneuploid cells was observed by flow cytometric analysis at subsequent passages. Karyotype analysis showed clonal chromosomal abnormalities in both cell lines. To date, UT-DEC-1 cells have undergone 40 and UT-DEC-2 cells 25 passages. This study shows that the isolation of HPV-infected dysplastic cells can be achieved by culturing the cells in a medium with high calcium concentration. The cell lines presented provide the opportunity of evaluating the early stages of squamous-cell carcinogenesis. PMID:1328068

Hietanen, S; Auvinen, E; Grénman, S; Lakkala, T; Sajantila, A; Klemi, P; Mäenpää, J

1992-09-30

365

Awareness and knowledge of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection among high-risk men of Hispanic origin attending a Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) clinic  

PubMed Central

Background Genital Human papilloma virus (HPV) is one of the most commonly diagnosed Sexually Transmitted Infection (STIs) in men and women. Knowledge about HPV infection among men is limited. This study aims to determine correlates of adequate knowledge of HPV infection among men who attend an STI clinic in Puerto Rico. Methods A cross-sectional study of 206 men was conducted at an STI clinic in San Juan, PR. Adequate knowledge was defined as a score of at least 70% of correct responses among those men who reported having ever heard of HPV. Variables that achieved statistical significance in the bivariate analysis (p<0.05) were included in the multivariate logistic regression model. Results Although 52.5% of men reported having heard of HPV infection before the survey, only 29.3% of this sub-group had an adequate knowledge of HPV. Most men did not know that HPV is a risk factor for anal (38.7%), penile (50.0%) and oral (72.6%) cancer. Factors associated with adequate knowledge of HPV in age-adjusted models were being men who have sex with men (MSM) (OR=2.6;95%CI=1.1-6.1), self-report of genital warts (OR=3.2;95%CI=1.3-7.9) and herpes (OR=7.4;95% CI=2.2-25.1). MSM was marginally associated with adequate knowledge (OR=2.3;95% CI=0.9-5.9) and self-report of herpes remained significantly associated (OR=5.0;95%CI=1.3-18.4) in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusions Awareness and knowledge of HPV was very low in this group of men. Interventions to increase knowledge and awareness in this group are necessary to promote preventive practices for HPV-related cancers in high-risk groups.

2012-01-01

366

Humoral and cellular immune responses to airway immunization of mice with human papillomavirus type 16 virus-like particles and mucosal adjuvants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cervical cancer results from cervical infection by human papillomaviruses (HPV), especially HPV16. Intramuscular administrations of HPV16 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines have been shown to induce strong neutralizing antibody responses and protect women against genital HPV16 infection and associated lesions. However, an alternative route of administration that avoids parenteral injection might facilitate vaccine implementation, particularly in developing countries which account for

Véronique Revaz; Rinaldo Zurbriggen; Christian Moser; John T. Schiller; Françoise Ponci; Martine Bobst; Denise Nardelli-Haefliger

2007-01-01

367

Perceptions and acceptability of HPV vaccination among parents of young adolescents: a multicenter national survey in China.  

PubMed

Prophylactic HPV vaccines target young adolescents to prevent related cervical lesions and even genital warts prior to onset of sexual activity. Parental consent is often essential for success of vaccination program for this age group. We conducted a national multicenter study to explore the acceptability of HPV vaccination among parents of young adolescents and associated factors in relevant parent decision making in China. A total of 2899 parents of young adolescents (11-17 years) participated in the survey between November 28, 2011 and May 9, 2012, but four were excluded from analysis because of inconsistencies in their given information in the questionnaire. Mothers accounted for 62.8% of the parent participants. The mean age of the parents was 40.40 (standard deviation, 4.68) years. Only 36.2% of the parents accepted the vaccine for their children. Knowledge about HPV and HPV vaccine was a positive correlate with HPV vaccination acceptability (Ptrend=0.003). Grade of child (Ptrend=0.015), prior vaccination experience outside the National Expanded Program on Immunization (OR: 1.43; 95%CI: 1.19-1.72), fear of cervical cancer and/or genital warts (OR: 2.47; 95%CI: 2.00-3.05), and prior consultation regarding HPV vaccine information (OR: 2.35; 95%CI: 1.57-3.52) were also positively associated with higher HPV vaccine acceptability. The acceptability was lower in mothers (OR: 0.45; 95%CI: 0.37-0.54) and who had better education (Ptrend=0.009). 57.3% of the parents agreed that the most appropriate venue for HPV vaccination was the local center for disease prevention and control. In conclusion, our study indicates a low acceptability of HPV vaccination among parents of young adolescents in China. We understand there are many challenges in implementing HPV vaccination program. Our findings will serve as valuable references for future HPV vaccination policies and campaigns after HPV vaccines are approved in China. PMID:23707446

Zhang, Shao-Kai; Pan, Xiong-Fei; Wang, Shao-Ming; Yang, Chun-Xia; Gao, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Zeng-Zhen; Li, Man; Ren, Ze-Fang; Zhao, Fang-Hui; Qiao, You-Lin

2013-05-24

368

Application of shRNA-containing herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)-based gene therapy for HSV-2-induced genital herpes.  

PubMed

HSV-1-based vectors have been widely used to achieve targeted delivery of genes into the nervous system. In the current study, we aim to use shRNA-containing HSV-1-based gene delivery system for the therapy of HSV-2 infection. Guinea pigs were infected intravaginally with HSV-2 and scored daily for 100 days for the severity of vaginal disease. HSV-2 shRNA-containing HSV-1 was applied intravaginally daily between 8 and 14 days after HSV-2 challenge. Delivery of HSV-2 shRNA-containing HSV-1 had no effect on the onset of disease and acute virus shedding in animals, but resulted in a significant reduction in both the cumulative recurrent lesion days and the number of days with recurrent disease. Around half of the animals in the HSV-2 shRNA group did not develop recurrent disease 100 days post HSV-2 infection. In conclusion, HSV-2 shRNA-containing HSV-1 particles are effective in reducing the recurrence of genital herpes caused by HSV-2. PMID:23845900

Liu, Zhihong; Xiang, Yang; Wei, Zhun; Yu, Bo; Shao, Yong; Zhang, Jie; Yang, Hong; Li, Manmei; Guan, Ming; Wan, Jun; Zhang, Wei

2013-07-08

369

Age considerations when vaccinating against HPV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines have been shown to be both highly effective and safe, and there is now considerable enthusiasm among healthcare providers to use the vaccines to reduce the burden of HPV-associated disease in women. When considering who should be vaccinated, it is important that providers understand the complex relationships between age and HPV infections. HPV infections and cervical

Thomas C. Wright Jr; Warner K. Huh; Bradley J. Monk; Jennifer S. Smith; Kevin Ault; Thomas J. Herzog

2008-01-01

370

Correlates of mother-to-child human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission: association with maternal plasma HIV-1 RNA load, genital HIV-1 DNA shedding, and breast infections.  

PubMed

To determine the effects of plasma, genital, and breast milk human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and breast infections on perinatal HIV-1 transmission, a nested case-control study was conducted within a randomized clinical trial of breast-feeding and formula feeding among HIV-1-seropositive mothers in Nairobi, Kenya. In analyses comparing 92 infected infants with 187 infants who were uninfected at 2 years, maternal viral RNA levels >43,000 copies/mL (cohort median) were associated with a 4-fold increase in risk of transmission (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2-7.2). Maternal cervical HIV-1 DNA (odds ratio [OR], 2.4; 95% CI, 1.3-4.4), vaginal HIV-1 DNA (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.1-4.7), and cervical or vaginal ulcers (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.2-5.8) were significantly associated with infant infection, independent of plasma virus load. Breast-feeding (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0-2.9) and mastitis (relative risk [RR], 3.9; 95% CI, 1.2-12.7) were associated with increased transmission overall, and mastitis (RR, 21.8; 95% CI, 2.3-211.0) and breast abscess (RR, 51.6; 95% CI, 4.7-571.0) were associated with late transmission (occurring >2 months postpartum). Use of methods that decrease infant exposure to HIV-1 in maternal genital secretions or breast milk may enhance currently recommended perinatal HIV-1 interventions. PMID:11120927

John, G C; Nduati, R W; Mbori-Ngacha, D A; Richardson, B A; Panteleeff, D; Mwatha, A; Overbaugh, J; Bwayo, J; Ndinya-Achola, J O; Kreiss, J K

2000-12-15

371

Review: current knowledge on the role of HPV antibodies after natural infection and vaccination: implications for monitoring an HPV vaccination programme.  

PubMed

In 2006/2007, two vaccines were licensed against two of the most common HPV types that cause about 70% of cervical cancers. Clinical trials show that vaccinated individuals develop high levels of neutralizing antibodies. Although these data suggest that serum antibodies are the mode of action against HPV infection, it is uncertain whether immune responses generated by vaccination are similar to those induced by a natural infection. In this review, the current knowledge of humoral immune responses after natural infection and vaccination is described. Serosurveillance can be used as a monitoring tool to study vaccine uptake, the impact of HPV16/18 vaccination on other HPV types, dynamics of HPV infection and herd-immunity. In addition, factors that contribute to a higher seroresponse after a natural infection, which are summarized in this article (a persistent DNA infection, increased viral load, immunosuppression and high sexual risk behavior), can help to interpret these indirect effects better. PMID:23722396

Mollers, Madelief; Vossen, Jeanique M; Scherpenisse, Mirte; van der Klis, Fiona R M; Meijer, Chris J L M; de Melker, Hester E

2013-05-30

372

Association of genetic polymorphism of the DNA base excision repair gene (APE-1 Asp/148 Glu) and HPV type (16/18) with the risk of cervix cancer in north Indian population.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer is one of the most common neoplastic diseases affecting women, with a combined world wide incidence of almost half a million new cases. Reduced DNA repair capacity (DRC) can render a high risk of developing many types of cancer; including cervical cancer. Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes may contribute the genetic instability and carcinogenesis. Smoking experience and use of oral contraceptives have been confirmed to be risk factors for cervical cancer. The purpose of the present study was, therefore to investigate APE-1 genotypes (Asp/Asp, Asp/Glu, Glu/Glu) with different histological subtypes in cases compared with controls. It has been observed that Asp/Glu with Glu/Glu genotypes that combined we observed statistically significant with protective effect for developing of cervix cancer (OR-0.51, 95% CI 0.31-0.83, p-0.006). The combined Asp/Glu with Glu/Glu genotypes who were using oral contraceptives were shown to be statistically significant with reduced risk of cervical cancer (OR-0.22 95% CI- 0.11-0.47, p-0.0002). It has been suggested that significantly correlation between HPV 16 and users of oral contraceptives in certain APE-1 genotypes with reduced risk in developing cervix cancer. In conclusion we observed statistical significant association with reduced risk of cervix cancer in APE-1 with different genotypes, though, on the other hand, in association between HPV type 18 and those having SCC, highly increased risk of cervical cancer was observed. PMID:18503157

Shekari, Mohammad; Sobti, Ranbir Chander; Tamandani, Dor Mohammad Kordi; Malekzadeh, Keyanoosh; Kaur, Pushpinder; Suri, Vanita

2008-01-01

373

Case-control study of vulvar vestibulitis risk associated with genital infections.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk of vulvar vestibulitis syndrome (VVS) associated with genital infections in a case-control study. METHODS: Diagnosed cases with VVS (n = 69) and age-frequency-matched healthy controls (n = 65) were enrolled from gynecology clinics in a university medical hospital during 1999. They were compared for potential risk factors and symptoms of disease. RESULTS: VVS cases had a significantly higher risk of physician-reported bacterial vaginosis (BV) (odds ratio, OR = 9.4), Candida albicans (OR = 5.7), pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) (OR = 11.2), trichomoniasis (OR = 20.6), and vulvar dysplasia (OR = l5.7) but no risk associated with human papillomavirus (HPV), ASCUS, cervical dysplasia, genital warts, chlamydia, genital herpes or gonorrhea. Genital symptoms reported significantly more often with VVS included vulvar burning (91 vs. 12%), dyspareunia (81 vs. 15%), vulvar itching (68 vs. 23%) and dysuria (54 vs. 19%) (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: A history of genital infections is associated with an increased risk of VVS. Long-term follow-up case-control studies are needed to elucidate etiologic mechanisms, methods for prevention and effective treatment.

Smith, Elaine M; Ritchie, Justine M; Galask, Rudolph; Pugh, Erica E; Jia, Jian; Ricks-McGillan, Joan

2002-01-01

374

Transmission of human papillomavirus DNA from patient to surgical masks, gloves and oral mucosa of medical personnel during treatment of laryngeal papillomas and genital warts.  

PubMed

The risk of occupational human papillomavirus (HPV) transmission from patient to medical personnel during laser vaporization procedures remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of HPV transmission from the patient to the protective surgical masks, gloves and oral mucosa of medical personnel during the treatment of laryngeal papillomas and genital warts. The study involved five male patients scheduled for the surgical treatment of laryngeal papillomas, and five male patients undergoing carbon dioxide (CO(2)) laser treatment for urethral warts. Oral mucosa specimens were obtained from the study patients and the employees pre- and postoperatively. Samples were collected from the HPV-infected patient tissue, and from the surgical masks and gloves used by the employees. A total of 120 samples were analyzed for the presence of HPV DNA by PCR, using the degenerated MY09/11/HMB01 primers. After the papilloma procedures, the surgeons' gloves tested HPV positive in one of the five cases and those of the surgical nurse in three of the five cases. After the treatment of genital warts, HPV DNA corresponding to the patient tissue specimens was present in all the samples obtained from the surgical gloves of the operators. All oral mucosa samples obtained from 18 different employees tested HPV negative, as did the surgical mask specimens. According to our study, HPV may contaminate protective equipment, most of all surgical gloves, but transmission of HPV DNA to medical personnel is unlikely to occur provided that protective surgical gloves and masks are applied and disposed of properly. PMID:22588197

Ilmarinen, Taru; Auvinen, Eeva; Hiltunen-Back, Eija; Ranki, Annamari; Aaltonen, Leena-Maija; Pitkäranta, Anne

2012-05-16

375

Warts and All: HPV in Primary Immunodeficiencies  

PubMed Central

Infection with human papilloma virus (HPV) is almost universal and eventually asymptomatic, but pathologic infection with HPV is severe, recurrent, and recalcitrant to therapy. It is also an underappreciated manifestation of primary immunodeficiency. Mutations in EVER1, EVER2, GATA2, CXCR4, and DOCK8 are typically associated with extensive HPV infections, whereas several other primary immune defects have severe HPV much less frequently. We review immunodeficiencies with severe HPV infections and the mechanisms underlying them.

Leiding, Jennifer W.; Holland, Steven M.

2012-01-01

376

Differential Requirements for Conserved E2 Binding Sites in the Life Cycle of Oncogenic Human Papillomavirus Type 31  

PubMed Central

Human papillomavirus (HPV) E2 proteins regulate viral replication by binding to sites in the upstream regulatory region (URR) and by complex formation with the E1 origin recognition protein. In the genital HPV types, the distribution and location of four E2 binding sites (BS1 to BS4) which flank a single E1 binding site are highly conserved. We have examined the roles of these four E2 sites in the viral life cycle of HPV type 31 (HPV31) by using recently developed methods for the biosynthesis of papillomaviruses from transfected DNA templates (M. G. Frattini et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93:3062–3067, 1996). In transient assays, no single site was found to be necessary for replication, and mutation of the early promoter-proximal site (BS4) led to a fourfold increase in replication. Cotransfection of the HPV31 wild-type (HPV-wt) and mutant genomes with expression vectors revealed that E1 stimulated replication of HPV31-wt as well as the HPV31-BS1, -BS2, and -BS3 mutants. In contrast, increased expression of E2 decreased replication of these genomes. Replication of the HPV31-BS4 mutant genome was not further increased by cotransfection of E1 expression vectors but was stimulated by E2 coexpression. In stably transfected normal human keratinocytes, mutation of either BS1, BS3, or BS4 resulted in integration of viral genomes into host chromosomes. In contrast, mutation of BS2 had no effect on stable maintenance of episomes or copy number. Following growth of stably transfected lines in organotypic raft cultures, the differentiation-dependent induction of late gene expression and amplification of viral DNA of the BS2 mutant was found to be similar to that of HPV31-wt. We were unable to find a role for BS2 in our assays for viral functions. We conclude that at least three of the four E2 binding sites in the URRs of HPVs are essential for the productive viral life cycle. The specific arrangement of E2 binding sites within the URR appears to be more important for viral replication than merely the number of sites.

Stubenrauch, Frank; Lim, Hock B.; Laimins, Laimonis A.

1998-01-01

377

Current Status of HPV Vaccines  

PubMed Central

Cervical cancer is the second largest cause of cancer deaths in women worldwide, with ~500,000 diagnoses and 274,000 deaths annually. It remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality despite effective screening tools and treatments for its precursor high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Increased understanding of cervical pathogenesis has led to the identification of human papillomavirus (HPV) as the etiological agent for cervical cancer and the development of preventive and therapeutic vaccines targeting HPV antigens for the control of cervical cancer. Herein, we discuss the current status of HPV vaccines.

Ma, Barbara; Roden, Richard; Wu, T.C.

2010-01-01

378

[Guidelines for application of molecular tests identyfying HR HPV DNA in the prevention of cervical cancer. Statement of experts from PGS (PTG) and NCLD (KIDL)].  

PubMed

DNA from high risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV-HR) is detected in virtually all cervical cancer samples. Most of HPV infections are transient, some persist and lead to development of neoplastics or even cervical cancer lesions. Cervical cancer screening programs are designed to detect early precancerous changes, which should decrease the cancer morbidity and mortality and reduce the costs of diagnosis and treatment. The most effective are screening programs that use cytological and HPV testing. Screening with this method are proven to reduce both the incidence and mortality from cervical cancer WOMEN AGED 21-29 YEARS: HPV testing should not be used to screen women aged 21-29 years, either as a stand-alone test or as a cotest with cytology DNA HPV HR testing in this group of women is recommended in diagnostics ofASCUS. Women DNA HPV positive with ASCUS should be referred to colposcopy WOMEN AGED 30-65 YEARS: Screening by HPV testing alone is not recommended. Women should be screened with cytology and HPV testing every 5 years or cytology alone every 3 years (acceptable). DNA HPV HR /+/, PAP /-/: Two options are recommended. Option 1: 12-months follow-up with contesting (PAP and DNA HPV HR tests). Option 2: Test for HPV16 or HPV16/18 genotypes. If HPV16 or HPV16/18 positive: refer to colposcopy If HPV16 or HPV16/18 negative:12-months follow-up with cotesting. DNA HPV HR /-/, ASC-US: Repetition of cytology in 12 moths is recommended. WOMEN AGED >65 YEARS: No screening is recommended following adequate negative prior to screening. Women with a history of CIN2 or a more severe diagnosis should continue routine screening for at least 20 years. WOMEN HPV VACCINATED: Follow age-specific recommendations (same as unvaccinated women). REQUIREMENTS OF DNA HPV HR TESTS IN CERVICAL SCREENING: The DNA HPV tests used in cervical screening should detect as much as possible of 14 HPV HR types (16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66 i 68) and genotyping HPV 16/18. Candidates' tests should have control of DNA HPV purification and amplification processes and be preserved against contaminations. Clinical sensitivity for CIN 2 + should be no less than 90%. HPV tests and specimen collection system should fulfill the requirements of the act on medical devices. PMID:23819408

2013-05-01

379

The role of inflammation in HPV infection of the Oesophagus  

PubMed Central

Background Several human cancers are known to be associated with inflammation and/or viral infections. However, the influence of tumour-related inflammation on viral uptake is largely unknown. In this study we used oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) as a model system since this type of cancer is associated with chronic irritation, inflammation and viral infections. Although still debated, the most important viral infection seems to be with Human Papillomavirus (HPV). The present study focused on a possible correlation between inflammation, OSCC development and the influence of HPV infection. Methods A total of 114 OSCC biopsies and corresponding normal tissue were collected at Groote Schuur Hospital and Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa), that were subjected to RNA and DNA isolation. RNA samples were analysed by quantitative Light Cycler RT-PCR for the expression of selected genes involved in inflammation and infection, while conventional PCR was performed on the DNA samples to assess the presence of integrated viral DNA. Further, an in vitro infection assay using HPV pseudovirions was established to study the influence of inflammation on viral infectivity using selected cell lines. Results HPV DNA was found in about 9% of OSCC patients, comprising predominantly the oncogenic type HPV18. The inflammatory markers IL6 and IL8 as well as the potential HPV receptor ITGA6 were significantly elevated while IL12A was downregulated in the tumour tissues. However, none of these genes were expressed in a virus-dependent manner. When inflammation was mimicked with various inflammatory stimulants such as benzo-?-pyrene, lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan in oesophageal epithelial cell lines in vitro, HPV18 pseudovirion uptake was enhanced only in the benzo-?-pyrene treated cells. Interestingly, HPV pseudovirion infectivity was independent of the presence of the ITGA6 receptor on the surface of the tested cells. Conclusion This study showed that although the carcinogen benzo-?-pyrene facilitated HPV pseudovirion uptake into cells in culture, HPV infectivity was independent of inflammation and seems to play only a minor role in oesophageal cancer.

2013-01-01

380

Quality of life of homosexual males with genital warts: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background A recent qualitative study in Denmark showed that genital warts (GWs) can considerably lower the quality of life of heterosexual patients. In this follow-up study, we interviewed men having sex with men (MSM) suffering from GWs to obtain an in-depth understanding of their perception of GWs and determine the extent to which minority (homosexual) cultural issues affect these patients' experiences. Qualitative interviews with six MSM were performed using a semi-structured interview guide. Questions were formulated on the basis of the earlier qualitative study in heterosexual patients with GWs along with a literature review. Data were analysed using a medical anthropological approach. Findings Many MSM worried about being stigmatised and excluded from the small homosexual 'scene', their key social group, thereby lowering their chances of finding sex and love. Most participants had suffered from GWs for several years which added to the negative psycho-sexual and social effects of the disease. Participants' fears of developing anal cancer were similar to those expressed about cervical cancer by females with GWs. Conclusions Ano-genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is common and has a serious psychological and sexual impact among MSM. However, they do not benefit to the same extent as heterosexual men from the herd immunity effect of HPV vaccination of girls. The pathological profile and concerns specific to MSM should be addressed when communicating with these patients, and should be taken into account when considering HPV vaccination of boys.

2010-01-01

381

[Cervix uteri lesions and human papiloma virus infection (HPV): detection and characterization of DNA/HPV using PCR (polymerase chain reaction].  

PubMed

The prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes was estimated by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), in archival paraffin was embedded tissues. The case group consisted of 84 women aged 21-67 years (mean, 40 years) who were referred to the Department of Gynaecology (Oncology Centre, Coimbra) with citopathologically abnormal smears. This group was selected from a population of women who had undergone a screening programme (1990/94) in Central Region of Portugal. All these patients (n = 84) had a colposcopic directed cervical biopsy. HPV detection and typing was performed by the PCR method in the Department of Virology (National Health Care Institute, Lisbon). The prevalence of DNA/HPV found, concerning all epithelial cervical lesions studied and classified as squamous intra-epithelial lesions (SIL) and cervical cancer was 97.8%. On the basis of the data presented in this study, it was estimated that there was a statistically significant prevalence of low risk HPV types (HPV 6/11) in low grade SIL, 83.3%, and a statistically significant prevalence of high risk HPV types (HPV 16,18,31,33,51) in high grade SIL, 58.4%, as well as cervical cancer lesions in 100%. We conclude that there was a statistically significant difference between women with low and high grade SIL for HPV infection, with low and high risk HPV types, respectively. The risk factors for cervical cancer investigated (age at first sexual intercourse, multiple sexual partners, parity, use of oral contraceptives) were not associated to statistically significant differences concerning low grade SIL and high grade SIL. The clinical and therapeutic procedures were evaluated for the same five years (1990/94). It may be concluded that there would be no significant difference in clinical procedure for high grade lesions and cervical cancer, in which the treatment had been frequently radical (cone biopsies, simple or radical hysterectomy) and in which the HPV infection persisted frequently and was associated to high risk types (HPV 16 in 50% of these cases). On the other hand, it may be concluded that HPV detection in cervical biopsies, especially for low grade SIL lesions, which were evaluated in this study with a more conservative procedure (clinical evaluation only, punch biopsies, loop diathermy, CO2 laser vaporisation, cone biopsies), could identify women with high risk HPV types who might be at risk of developing dysplasia and cervical cancer. PMID:11155485

Serra, H; Pista, A; Figueiredo, P; Urbano, A; Avilez, F; De Oliveira, C F

382

Cervical and anal HPV infections in HIV positive women and men  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this review is to summarize recently published epidemiological information that contribute to understanding the natural history of cervical and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and their associated lesions among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected women and men. HIV-positive women and men are more likely to be infected with oncogenic HPV types and to have cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)

Silvia de Sanjosé; Joel Palefsky

2002-01-01

383

What School Nurses Need to Know about Cervical Cancer, HPV, and the New Vaccine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|At least 12,000 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer each year in the United States, accounting for at least 4,000 deaths. Worldwide, cervical cancer is the second most common type of cancer among women. The human papilloma virus (HPV) has been linked to at least 70% of all cervical cancer. HPV can be divided into 2 categories: (a) low risk,…

Ehrhardt, Jeanie

2007-01-01

384

A combination of DNA vaccines targeting human papillomavirus type 16 E6 and E7 generates potent antitumor effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infects large numbers of women worldwide and is present in more than 99% of all cervical cancers. HPV E6 and E7 are two viral oncoproteins that are consistently expressed in HPV infections and HPV-associated malignancies. We have previously developed DNA vaccines encoding calreticulin (CRT) linked either to HPV type 16 (HPV-16) E6 or to HPV-16 E7, both

S Peng; T T Tomson; C Trimble; L He; C-F Hung; T-C Wu

2006-01-01

385

HPV presence precedes abnormal cytology in women developing cervical cancer and signals false negative smears  

PubMed Central

In a retrospective case–control study, we investigated high-risk HPV DNA presence by general primer GP5+/6+ PCR in the last normal cervical smear in the patient archives (i.e. baseline smear) of 57 women who later developed cervical cancer. Also, normal cervical smears of 114 age-matched control women were analysed. High-risk HPV DNA was detected in 37 of the 57 (65%) baseline smears of the case women, and 7 (6%) of 114 smears of the control women (OR 28, 95% Cl 11–72). The HPV positive subsequent smears and cervical cancer biopsies of the case women contained the same HPV type as was detected in the baseline smear. After cytological revision, the baseline smears of 48 case women (84%) were reclassified as abnormal, 33 (69%) of which scored high-risk HPV DNA positive. Ultimately, an undisputable normal baseline smear was found in only 10 case women. In 7 (70%) of them this smear was HPV positive, whereas only 7 (7%) of 104 revised, undisputable normal smears of control women were high-risk HPV positive (OR 32, 95% Cl 6.8–153). The results showed that (1) high-risk HPV presence precedes abnormal cytology in women who develop cervical cancer, and (2) high-risk HPV testing signals false-negative smears of women at risk of cervical cancer. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com

Zielinski, G D; Snijders, P J F; Rozendaal, L; Voorhorst, F J; Linden, H C van der; Runsink, A P; Schipper, F A de; Meijer, C J L M

2001-01-01

386

HPV genotyping and site of viral integration in cervical cancers in Indian women.  

PubMed

Persistent HPV infection plays a major role in cervical cancer. This study was undertaken to identify HPV types in a cohort of Indian women with locally advanced cervical cancer as well as to determine the physical state and/or site of viral integration in the host genome. Pretreatment biopsies (n?=?270) from patients were screened for HPV infection by a high throughput HPV genotyping assay based on luminex xMAP technology as well as MY09/11 PCR and SPF1/2 PCR. Overall HPV positivity was observed to be 95%, with HPV16 being most common (63%) followed by infection with HPV18. Integration status of the virus was identified using Amplification of Papillomavirus Oncogene Transcripts (APOT) assay in a subset of samples po