Science.gov

Sample records for genital hpv types

  1. Genital Warts (HPV)

    MedlinePlus

    ... or large. They tend to be whitish or flesh colored. They are not always easy to see, so people who have genital warts often don't know they have them. Genital warts are caused by a group of viruses called HPV (short for human papillomavirus ). There are more than 100 types of ...

  2. Detection of HPV types and neutralizing antibodies in women with genital warts in Tianjin City, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xue-ling; Zhang, Chun-tao; Zhu, Xiao-ke; Wang, You-chun

    2010-02-01

    The serum samples and corresponding cervical swabs were collected from 50 women with genital warts from Tianjin city, China. The neutralizing antibodies against HPV-16, -18, -58, -45, -6 and -11 in serum samples were tested by using pseudovirus-based neutralization assays and HPV DNAs in cervical swabs were also tested by using a typing kit that can detect 21 types of HPV. The results revealed that 36% (18/50) of sera were positive for type-specific neutralizing antibodies with a titer range of 160-2560, of which 22%(11/50), 12%(6/50), 10%(5/50), 4%(2/50), 4%(2/50) and 2%(1/50) were against HPVs -6, -16, -18, -58, -45 and -11, respectively. Additionally, 60% (30/50) of samples were HPV DNA-positive, in which the most common types detected were HPV-68(18%), HPV-16(14%), HPV-58(12%), HPV-33(8%) and HPV-6, HPV-11, HPV-18 and HPV-52 (6% each). The concordance between HPV DNA and corresponding neutralizing antibodies was 56% (28/50) with a significant difference (P<0.05). The full-length sequences of five HPV types (HPV -42, -52, -53, -58 and -68) were determined and exhibited 98%-100% identities with their reported genomes. The present data may have utility for investigating the natural history of HPV infection and promote the development of HPV vaccines. PMID:20960279

  3. Genital Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Native Women

    MedlinePlus

    Genital Human Papillomavirus (HPV) At least 50% of sexually active women and men will get it. Most will not ... possible effects of HPV. W hat is genital human papillomavirus (HPV)? HPV is a common virus. There ...

  4. Transforming growth factors beta 1 and 2 transcriptionally regulate human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 early gene expression in HPV-immortalized human genital epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Woodworth, C D; Notario, V; DiPaolo, J A

    1990-01-01

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) early proteins E6 and E7 have been implicated in maintenance of the malignant phenotype in cervical cancer. Transforming growth factors beta one and two (TGF betas 1 and 2), polypeptides that regulate cellular growth and differentiation, reversibly inhibited expression of the HPV16 E6 and E7 genes in several immortal genital epithelial cell lines. Loss of E6 and E7 protein expression followed a dramatic time- and dose-dependent decrease in E6 and E7 RNA levels and was accompanied by cessation of cell proliferation. TGF betas 1 and 2 inhibited HPV16 RNA expression at the transcriptional level; inhibition was dependent upon ongoing protein synthesis. TGF betas 1 and 2 also induced a six- to sevenfold increase in TGF beta 1 RNA. Cells became partially resistant to the inhibitory effects of TGF beta 1 on cell growth and HPV early gene expression after prolonged cultivation in vitro or after malignant transformation. Thus, TGF beta 1 may function as an autocrine regulator of HPV gene expression in infected genital epithelial cells. Images PMID:2168964

  5. Quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6, 11, 16, 18 vaccine: for the prevention of genital warts in males.

    PubMed

    Garnock-Jones, Karly P; Giuliano, Anna R

    2011-03-26

    The quadrivalent HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18 vaccine (Gardasil®) is a recombinant vaccine comprising purified virus-like particles derived from the L1 capsid proteins of HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18. The vaccine was highly immunogenic. Geometric mean titres (GMTs) and seroconversion rates for all four HPV types at month 7 in males aged 10-15 years were noninferior to those in females aged 16-23 years, and those in males aged 9-15 years were noninferior to those in females aged 9-15 years. In addition, GMTs and seroconversion rates in males aged 16-26 years receiving the vaccine were higher than those receiving amorphous aluminium hydroxyphosphate sulfate adjuvant (AAHS) control. The quadrivalent HPV vaccine was significantly more effective than AAHS control at decreasing the incidence of HPV 6-, 11-, 16- or 18-related external genital lesions (primary endpoint) in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre study in males aged 16-26 years. The most common clinical endpoint was HPV 6- and 11-related condyloma; efficacy was robust against these lesions. The vaccine is also expected to be protective against genital warts in males aged 9-15 years, as the immune response in males of this age group was noninferior to that in males aged 16-26 years. The quadrivalent HPV vaccine was generally well tolerated in males aged 9-26 years. The most common adverse events reported were injection-site related, and most of these were of mild to moderate severity. PMID:21443282

  6. Gardasil 9 Protects against Additional HPV Types

    Cancer.gov

    A summary of results from a large randomized clinical trial that shows a new human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine effectively prevented infection and disease caused seven HPV types that cause cancer and two HPV types that cause genital warts.

  7. Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in Hungarian women.

    PubMed

    Czeglédy, J; Veress, G; Kónya, J; Gergely, L

    1993-01-01

    The prevalence of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in Hungarian female populations is not essentially different from that found in other countries of Europe and North-America. Using filter in situ hybridization (FISH), we found that, in a group of cytologically normal women some low risk HPV types (such as HPV 6 and 11) and the most important high risk HPV types (HPV 16 and 18) were present in 23% and 8%, respectively. Eighty-eight percent of condyloma acuminatum patients harboured HPV 6 or HPV 11 in their tumours. On the other hand, in precancerous lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, CIN) HPV 16 was the predominant type, being present in 29-48% of patients, depending on the detection method used (Southern blot hybridization vs. polymerase chain reaction). The detection rate of high risk HPV types was found to rise with the increasing severity of cervical neoplasia. Finally, 48% of invasive cervical carcinoma specimens were positive for HPV 16 DNA in a type-specific polymerase chain reaction. For patients with HPV 16 positive primary tumours, all but one lymph node metastases and about 30% of histologically normal lymph nodes proved positive for HPV 16 DNA. Our results--in accordance with the numerous data found in literature--seem to confirm the hypothesis that certain HPV types are greatly involved in the development of cervical cancer. PMID:8184666

  8. HPV

    MedlinePlus

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are common viruses that can cause warts. There are more than 100 types of HPV. Most are harmless, but about 30 types put ... either low-risk or high-risk. Low-risk HPV can cause genital warts. High-risk HPV can ...

  9. Broad HPV distribution in the genital region of men from the HPV infection in men (HIM) study

    PubMed Central

    Sichero, Laura; Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Ferreira, Silvaneide; Sobrinho, João S.; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Galan, Lenice; Silva, Roberto C.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R.; Villa, Luisa L.

    2013-01-01

    The HPV infection in men (HIM) study examines the natural history of genital HPV infection in men. Genotyping methods used in this study identify 37 α-HPV types; however, the viral type could not be identified in approximately 22% of male genital specimens that were HPV PCR positive. Our aim was to genotype HPV-unclassified specimens by sequencing PGMY09/11, GP5+/6+ or FAP59/64 PCR products. Using this approach we were able to detect 86 unique HPV types among 508 of 931 specimens analyzed. We report for the first time the presence of a broad range of α-, β- and γ-HPV at the male genitals. PMID:23722104

  10. Oral mucosal changes in women with genital HPV infection.

    PubMed

    Kellokoski, J; Syrjänen, S; Syrjänen, K; Yliskoski, M

    1990-03-01

    Sixty different types of human papillomavirus (HPV) are currently recognized. Of these, HPV types 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 11, 13, 16, 18, 30, 32 and 57 have been identified in oral squamous cell lesions. The prevalence and incidence of clinical HPV infections of oral mucosa are incompletely established, and the figures on subclinical and latent infections are completely lacking. Similarly, no data exist on transmission of oral HPV infections. A long-term prospective follow-up study was started to assess the oral mucosal changes related to HPV infection in women with genital HPV infections. The aim was to elucidate whether genital HPV infections predispose the oral mucosa to this virus. This study reports the clinical, histologic and cytologic findings of oral mucosa as related to the genital status of 334 women prospectively followed-up in Kuopio University Central Hospital since 1981. At the time of examination, 5% presented with hand warts. Clinical wart in oral cavity was found in three patients (0.9%) only. Oral mucosa was clinically normal in 207 of 334 (62%) patients examined. Biopsies (n = 255) were taken from the buccal mucosa beneath the linea alba and above the sulcus in the region of the first molar, or from a lesion whenever present. Cytologic scrapings were taken from both sides of the buccal mucosa. Koilocytes were found in 0.9% of the cytologic scrapings, and in 9.4% of the biopsies. Altogether, four squamous cell papillomas and five flat condylomas were found in the biopsies. Morphologic changes suggestive for HPV were present in 25 biopsies. Hyperkeratosis proved to be a frequent finding (34%) in these biopsies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1692879

  11. [The specifities of the HPV-genital infections in males].

    PubMed

    Skerlev, Mihael; Ljubojevic, Suzana

    2010-08-01

    Anogenital infections caused by Human papillomavirus (HPV) are the most frequently diagnosed sexually transmitted infections of viral origin and up to 150 HPV DNA types have been recognized so far. Anogenital warts (condylomata acuminata) are the most common lesions presented in men, however, during the last decade the other HPV-associated exaggerated lesions such as condylomata plana, penile, scrotal, and anal intraepithelial neoplasias, as well as the penile, urine bladder and prostate cancer have been studied somewhat more extensively. The clinical variations might range from clinically invisible, asymptomatic lesions to the bizarre forms of giant condyloma of Buschke-Löwenstein type, including Bowenoid papulosis, Mb. Bowen, different kinds of eryhtroplasia both in men and women and a large spectrum of HPV-induced dermatovenereological entities in genital region including high-grade intraepithelial genital neoplasias, such as penile, anal, scrotal, vulvar, vaginal etc. (thus not only cervical), and, last but not least - the anogenital warts. A prophylactic vaccine that targets these types should thus substantially reduce the burden of HPV-associated clinical diseases. Ultimately, within the spectrum of therapeutic options for condylomata, no method is really superior to others; recurrences occurred in 30-70% of cases. We definitely need the HPV vaccination programme to eliminate one of the oldest and up to now unsolved problems of the mankind. Since HPV is transmitted by sexual intercourse, treatment of both partners is necessary in order to eliminate the virus from the population. Approaches to this include prophylactic vaccines such as quadrivalent HPV vaccine for both men and women. PMID:21258302

  12. The prevalence of genital HPV and factors associated with oncogenic HPV among men having sex with men and men having sex with women and men: The HIM study

    PubMed Central

    Nyitray, Alan G.; Carvalho da Silva, Roberto J.; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Lu, Beibei; Smith, Dan’elle; Abrahamsen, Martha; Papenfuss, Mary; Quiterio, Manuel; Villa, Luisa L.; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Comparative studies of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) among men having sex with men (MSM), men having sex with women and men (MSWM), and men having sex with women (MSW) have not been conducted; however, such comparisons may be important for planning prevention strategies like vaccination. Methods Men, aged 18–70 years, were enrolled in a study of genital HPV in São Paulo, Brazil; Cuernavaca, Mexico; and Tampa, Florida, USA. Men were classified as MSM (n=170), MSWM (n=214) and MSW (n=3326) based on self-reported sexual behavior. Genotyping for HPV was conducted on cells from the penis and scrotum. Prevalence data were adjusted by country. Factors potentially associated with genital HPV were assessed using multivariable Poisson regression. Results Genital HPV prevalence was typically higher among MSWM than among MSM or MSW for groups of HPV genotypes including nononcogenic types (51%, 36%, and 42%, respectively), and multiple types (37%, 24%, and 29%, respectively). Age and alcohol consumption in the past month were associated with oncogenic HPV among both MSM and MSWM; however, there were no statistically significant associations between sexual behaviors and genital HPV among MSM or MSWM. Conclusions Prevalence of genital HPV may be higher among MSWM than among MSW or MSM. Number of female sex partners was associated with genital HPV among MSW, but number of male anal sex partners was not associated with genital HPV among MSM and MSWM. PMID:21934568

  13. Southern blot hybridization and PCR in detection of oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in women with genital HPV infections.

    PubMed

    Kellokoski, J K; Syrjänen, S M; Chang, F; Yliskoski, M; Syrjänen, K J

    1992-11-01

    The presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in biopsies taken from clinically normal buccal mucosa (n = 212) and clinical lesions (n = 60) was examined by Southern blot hybridization (SBH) using 32P-labelled HPV DNA probes. Furthermore, one hundred formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded biopsies were analyzed by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), combined with dot blot hybridization and biotinylated HPV DNA probes. With SBH and PCR, 15.4% and 29.4% of the biopsies, respectively, contained HPV DNA. In clinically normal epithelium, 15.6% and 23.1% of the samples were HPV-positive with SBH and PCR, respectively. The HPV types detected in the genital and oral mucosa of index patients differed in all except two cases. Histology could not be relied on distinguishing HPV DNA positive and HPV DNA negative samples. Hand warts were encountered significantly more frequently in patients with a concomitant oral HPV infection. To conclude, oral HPV infections as detected by SBH and PCR are surprisingly common, but similar to the genital tract, the virus seems to exist in a latent form in the vast majority of cases. The frequent concomitant finding of skin warts and oral HPV infection may suggest some kind of HPV-specific immunosuppression. PMID:1334147

  14. Genital HPV infection and related lesions in men.

    PubMed

    Anic, Gabriella M; Giuliano, Anna R

    2011-10-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is highly prevalent in men and there is an interest in further understanding the relationship between HPV infection and disease in men, including the development of genital warts, penile intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive penile carcinomas. Genital warts are caused by HPV 6/11 and are the most common clinical manifestation of HPV in men. Though they are benign and not associated with mortality, they are a source of psychosocial distress and physical discomfort. HPV infection can also develop into invasive penile carcinoma which is associated with morbidity and mortality. Approximately 40% of invasive penile carcinomas are attributable to HPV with HPV 16, 18, and 6/11 being the genotypes most commonly detected in penile tumors. Penile carcinomas of the basaloid and warty histologic subtypes are most likely to test positive for HPV. In addition to HPV infection, the risk factors most strongly associated with penile cancer are lack of neonatal circumcision, phimosis (the inability of uncircumcised men to fully retract the foreskin), and anogenital warts. Male vaccination with the quadrivalent HPV vaccine that protects against HPV 6/11/16/18 has been shown to significantly reduce HPV-associated anogenital infection and disease in men. If the quadrivalent vaccine is successfully disseminated to large segments of the young male population, there is the potential for substantial reduction in genital HPV infection and related lesions in men. PMID:21962470

  15. Prevalence of high-risk HPV types and associated genital diseases in women born in 1988/89 or 1983/84 – results of WOLVES, a population-based epidemiological study in Wolfsburg, Germany

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High-risk human papilloma virus (HR-HPV) infection is associated with the development of cervical cancer. HPV vaccination reduces the risk of developing malignant lesions and is expected to change the dynamics of HPV transmission. Data from non-vaccinated women may provide an important benchmark to allow the impact of HPV vaccination programs to be assessed. This study was designed to prospectively determine the changing dynamics of HR-HPV infection and associated genital diseases in young women, most of whom were non-vaccinated. Methods Data from a population-based cohort study, comprising women of two predefined birth cohorts (women born in 1983/84 or 1988/89), were analyzed between 19 October 2009 and 31 December 2010 to determine risk factors for high-risk HPV infection and the association between specific HR-HPV types and atypical Pap smear test results. HPV status was determined by Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) assay and genotyping. Results The prevalence of HR-HPV was 22.8% in the 1983/84 cohort (150/659) and 23.7% in the 1988/99 cohort (142/599). Only the number of sexual partners was a significant risk factor for HPV infection (odds ratios 22.687 and 6.124 for more than five versus one partner 84 cohort,/84 and 1988/89 cohorts, respectively) in multivariate analysis. HPV16 positive-women were significantly more likely to have abnormal Pap smears of any degree than HPV16-negative women (22.0% versus 3.61%, p < 0.0001 for the 1983/84 cohort and 9.09% versus 2.52%, p = 0.0482 for the 1988/89 cohort). CIN3 was diagnosed in six women 84 cohort,/84 cohort and two in the 1988/89 cohort. All women with CIN3 tested positive for HC2-HR and all six CIN3 cases 84 cohort,/84 cohort tested positive for HPV16. In the 1988/89 cohort, the rate of HPV16 infection was significantly lower in vaccinated than non-vaccinated women (1.59% versus 8.88%; p = 0.003). Conclusions HR-HPV infection was highly prevalent in both cohorts and associated with an increased risk of abnormal Pap smears and biopsy proven CIN2+. HPV16 infection was associated with a high risk of clinically relevant lesions. HPV vaccination significantly decreased the risk of HPV16 infection. PMID:23497108

  16. Developing an HPV vaccine to prevent cervical cancer and genital warts.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Janine T

    2007-04-20

    The challenges of the journey from target identification through development of a prophylactic quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine have been met in Gardasil. Cervical cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide. Approximately 70% of cervical cancer is caused by infection with HPV types 16 and 18 and approximately 90% of genital warts are caused by HPV types 6 and 11. The quadrivalent HPV vaccine was generated by expression of the major capsid protein (L1) of HPV types 16, 18, 6 and 11 in yeast. L1 proteins self assemble into pentamer structures and these pentamer structures come together to form virus-like particles (VLPs). The VLPs are antigenically indistinguishable from HPV virions. The VLPs contain no viral DNA and therefore the vaccine is non-infectious. Gardasil is composed of VLPs of HPV types 16, 18, 6 and 11 conjugated to a proprietary amorphous aluminum hydroxyphosphate sulfate adjuvant. The results of a rigorous clinical program have demonstrated that the vaccine is safe and highly efficacious in preventing dysplasias, cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN 1-3) the precursors of cervical cancer and external genital lesions caused by vaccine-HPV types. In conclusion, Gardasil addresses a major medical need, that is, reduction of HPV-related disease including cervical cancer as a safe, immunogenic, and highly efficacious vaccine. PMID:17289220

  17. Genital Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection in Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... healthcare provider or dentist can carefully examine your mouth to look for lesions, but it is unknown how helpful that will be in preventing HPV-related mouth or throat cancers. What increases my chances of ...

  18. 9-Valent HPV vaccine for cancers, pre-cancers and genital warts related to HPV.

    PubMed

    Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Velicer, Christine; Luxembourg, Alain

    2015-11-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causative agent of nearly all cervical cancer cases as well as a substantial proportion of anal, vulvar, vaginal, penile and oropharyngeal cancers, making it responsible for approximately 5% of the global cancer burden. The first-generation HPV vaccines that is, quadrivalent HPV type 6/11/16/18 vaccine and bivalent HPV type 16/18 vaccine were licensed in 2006 and 2007, respectively. A second-generation 9-valent HPV type 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 vaccine with broader cancer coverage was initiated even before the first vaccines were approved. By preventing HPV infection and disease due to HPV31/33/45/52/58, the 9vHPV vaccine has the potential to increase prevention of cervical cancer from 70 to 90%. In addition, the 9vHPV vaccine has the potential to prevent 85-95% of HPV-related vulvar, vaginal and anal cancers. Overall, the 9vHPV vaccine addresses a significant unmet medical need, although further health economics and implementation research is needed. PMID:26366475

  19. Recent Developments in Non-HPV-related Adenocarcinomas of the Lower Female Genital Tract and Their Precursors.

    PubMed

    McCluggage, W Glenn

    2016-01-01

    Most adenocarcinomas in the lower female genital tract (cervix, vagina, vulva) arise in the cervix and are associated with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. However, there is an emerging spectrum of non-HPV-related cervical adenocarcinomas, the most common of which is so-called gastric type. In this review, the concept of gastric-type cervical adenocarcinomas and their possible precursor lesions is covered, the precursor lesions still being poorly understood. Other non-HPV-related cervical adenocarcinomas are also discussed, including new information regarding molecular events in mesonephric adenocarcinoma. A variety of primary vaginal adenocarcinomas, including clear cell, endometrioid, intestinal and gastric types are also discussed. The spectrum of benign and malignant glandular lesions involving the lower female genital tract and probably derived from misplaced Skene's (periurethral) glands is also covered. PMID:26645463

  20. Consistent Condom Use Reduces the Genital Human Papillomavirus Burden Among High-Risk Men: The HPV Infection in Men Study

    PubMed Central

    Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William; Papenfuss, Mary R.; Salmerón, Jorge J.; Quiterio, Manuel M.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Villa, Luisa L.; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Data supporting the efficacy of condoms against human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in males are limited. Therefore, we examined the effect of consistent condom use on genital HPV acquisition and duration of infection. Methods. A prospective analysis was conducted within the HPV Infection in Men Study, a multinational HPV cohort study. Men who were recently sexually active (n = 3323) were stratified on the basis of sexual risk behaviors and partnerships. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, type-specific incidence of HPV infection and clearance were modeled for each risk group to assess independent associations with condom use. Results. The risk of HPV acquisition was 2-fold lower among men with no steady sex partner who always used condoms, compared with those who never used condoms (hazard ratio, 0.54), after adjustment for country, age, race, education duration, smoking, alcohol, and number of recent sex partners. The probability of clearing an oncogenic HPV infection was 30% higher among nonmonogamous men who always used condoms with nonsteady sex partners, compared with men who never used condoms (hazard ratio, 1.29), after adjustment for country, age, race, education duration, marital status, smoking, alcohol, and number of recent sex partners. No protective effects of condom use were observed among monogamous men. Conclusions. Condoms should be promoted in combination with HPV vaccination to prevent HPV infection in men. PMID:23644283

  1. Male circumcision and the incidence and clearance of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men: the HPV Infection in men (HIM) cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Reported associations of male circumcision (MC) with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men have been inconsistent. Methods 4,033 healthy men were examined every six months for a median of 17.5 months. In each study visit, exfoliated cell specimens from the coronal sulcus/glans penis, penile shaft, and scrotum were collected and combined into one sample per person for HPV DNA detection. Samples were tested for 37 HPV types. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the association between MC and the incidence and clearance of HPV infections and specific genotypes. Results The overall incidence of new HPV infections did not differ by MC status (for any HPV, adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91-1.27). However, incidence was significantly lower among circumcised versus uncircumcised men for HPV types 58 (p = 0.01), 68 (p < 0.001), 42 (p = 0.01), 61 (p < 0.001), 71 (p < 0.001), 81 (p = 0.04), and IS39 (p = 0.01), and higher for HPV types 39 (p = 0.01) and 51 (p = 0.02). Despite the lack of an overall association in the risk of HPV clearance by MC (for any HPV, aHR 0.95, 95% CI 0.88-1.02), median times to clearance were significantly shorter among circumcised than uncircumcised men for HPV types 33 (p = 0.02) and 64 (p = 0.04), and longer for HPV types 6 (p < 0.001), 16 (p < 0.001), and 51 (p = 0.02). Conclusions MC is not associated with the incidence and clearance of genital HPV detection, except for certain HPV types. The use of a single combined sample from the penis and scrotum for HPV DNA detection likely limited our ability to identify a true effect of MC at the distal penis. PMID:24517172

  2. Lower Female Genital Tract Tumors With Adenoid Cystic Differentiation: P16 Expression and High-risk HPV Detection.

    PubMed

    Xing, Deyin; Schoolmeester, J Kenneth; Ren, Zhiyong; Isacson, Christina; Ronnett, Brigitte M

    2016-04-01

    Lower female genital tract tumors with adenoid cystic differentiation are rare, and data on their relationship with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) are limited. Here we report the clinicopathologic features from a case series. Tumors with adenoid cystic differentiation, either pure or as part of a carcinoma with mixed differentiation, arising in the lower female genital tract were evaluated by means of immunohistochemical analysis for p16 expression and in situ hybridization using 1 or more probes for high-risk HPV (a high-risk probe covering multiple types, a wide-spectrum probe, and separate type-specific probes for HPV16 and HPV18) and when possible by polymerase chain reaction for high-risk HPV. Six cervical carcinomas with adenoid cystic differentiation admixed with various combinations of at least 1 other pattern of differentiation, including adenoid basal tumor (epithelioma and/or carcinoma), squamous cell carcinoma (basaloid or keratinizing), and small cell carcinoma were identified in patients ranging in age from 50 to 86 years (mean, 73 y; median, 76 y). All of these tumors were characterized by diffuse p16 expression. High-risk HPV was detected in 5 of 6 tested cases: 4 cases by in situ hybridization (all positive for HPV-wide-spectrum and HPV16) and 1 by polymerase chain reaction (HPV45). Seven pure adenoid cystic carcinomas (6 vulvar and 1 cervical) were identified in patients ranging in age from 27 to 74 years (mean, 48 y; median, 48 y). All of these tumors were characterized by variable p16 expression ranging from very limited to more extensive but never diffuse. No high-risk HPV was detected in any of these pure tumors. Lower female genital tract carcinomas with adenoid cystic differentiation appear to comprise 2 pathogenetically distinct groups. Cervical carcinomas with mixed differentiation, including adenoid cystic, adenoid basal, squamous, and small cell components, are etiologically related to high-risk HPV and can be identified by diffuse p16 expression. Pure vulvar and cervical adenoid cystic carcinomas appear to be unrelated to high-risk HPV and are distinguished from the mixed carcinomas by nondiffuse p16 expression. PMID:26645728

  3. Human Papillomavirus Virus (HPV) Genotype- and Age-Specific Analyses of External Genital Lesions Among Men in the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study

    PubMed Central

    Ingles, Donna J.; Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Messina, Jane A.; Stoler, Mark H.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William J.; Abrahamsen, Martha; Sirak, Bradley A.; O'Keefe, Michael T.; Papenfuss, Mary; Gage, Christine; Carvalho da Silva, Roberto; Gonzalez Sosa, Rossana; Rojas Juarez, Oscar; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes external genital lesions (EGLs) in men, including condyloma and penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN). We sought to determine the incidence of pathologically confirmed EGLs, by lesion type, among men in different age groups and to evaluate the HPV types that were associated with EGL development. Methods. HPV Infection in Men (HIM) study participants who contributed ≥2 visits from 2009–2013 were included in the biopsy cohort. Genotyping by an HPV line-probe assay was performed on all pathologically confirmed EGLs. Age-specific analyses were conducted for incident EGLs, with Kaplan–Meier estimation of cumulative incidence. Results. This biopsy cohort included 2754 men (median follow-up duration, 12.4 months [interquartile range, 6.9–19.2 months]). EGLs (n = 377) were pathologically confirmed in 228 men, 198 of whom had incident EGLs. The cumulative incidence of any EGL was highest among men <45 years old and, for condyloma, decreased significantly over time with age. The genotype-specific incidence of EGL varied by pathological diagnoses, with high- and low-risk genotypes found in 15.6% and 73.2% of EGLs, respectively. Condyloma primarily contained HPV 6 or 11. While PeIN lesions primarily contained HPV 16, 1 PeIN III lesion was positive for HPV 6 only. Conclusion. Low- and high-risk HPV genotypes contribute to the EGL burden. Men remain susceptible to HPV-related EGLs throughout the life span, making it necessary to ensure the longevity of immune protection against the most common causative HPV genotypes. PMID:25344518

  4. HPV knowledge and impact of genital warts on self esteem and sexual life in Colombian patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Information on HPV knowledge in patients with genital warts is scarse as is the information on factors related to the impact on self-esteem and sex life among them. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in adult patients with a clinical diagnosis of genital warts (GW) attending a major private out-patient clinic in Bogotá, Colombia. Patients underwent biopsy for pathological diagnosis, HPV-DNA testing and completed a questionnaire assessing HPV knowledge, and the consequences of GW on self-esteem and sexual life. Differences in proportions were assessed with a chi2 test. Results 106 men and 155 women had pathologic confirmation of GW. 51% of subjects had heard of HPV before consultation coming mainly from the media (82%). Less than half of the participants knew that HPV could be transmitted through non-penetrant sexual intercourse and only two thirds acknowledged HPV vaccine as a preventive measure against HPV infection. Impact on self-esteem was higher among women than men (90.3% vs 60.4%, [p < 0.01]). In men, factors related to a higher impact on sexual life were HPV awareness and age; in women they were higher education and anatomic location; external GW had a higher impact on sexual life in women (83% vs. 66%; [p = 0.05]). Conclusions We found a low awareness of HPV and low knowledge on the vaccine as a preventive measure for associated diseases even in patients suffering from genital warts, highlighting the need for communication and education on HPV. Greater impact on self-esteem in women might reflect higher health consciousness among Latin American women. PMID:23530591

  5. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection in pregnant women and mother-to-child transmission of genital HPV genotypes: a prospective study in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Studies on HPV infection in pregnant women and HPV transmission to the child have yielded inconsistent results. Methods To estimate mother-to-child HPV transmission we carried out a prospective cohort study that included 66 HPV-positive and 77 HPV-negative pregnant women and their offspring attending a maternity hospital in Barcelona. To estimate HPV prevalence and genotype distribution in pregnancy we also carried out a related screening survey of cervical HPV-DNA detection among 828 pregnant women. Cervical cells from the mother were collected at pregnancy (mean of 31 weeks) and at the 6-week post-partum visit. Exfoliated cells from the mouth and external genitalia of the infants were collected around birth, at the 6-week post-partum visit, and around 3, 6, 12, and 24 months of age. All samples were tested for HPV using PCR. Associations between potential determinants of HPV infection in pregnant women and of HPV positivity in infants were also explored by logistic regression modelling. Results Overall cervical HPV-DNA detection in pregnant women recruited in the HPV screening survey was 6.5% (54/828). Sexual behavior-related variables, previous histories of genital warts or sexually transmitted infections, and presence of cytological abnormalities were statistically significantly and positively associated with HPV DNA detection in pregnant women recruited in the cohort. At 418 infant visits and a mean follow-up time of 14 months, 19.7% of infants born to HPV-positive mothers and 16.9% of those born to HPV-negative mothers tested HPV positive at some point during infants' follow-up. The most frequently detected genotype both in infants and mothers was HPV-16, after excluding untyped HPV infections. We found a strong and statistically significant association between mother's and child's HPV status at the 6-week post-partum visit. Thus, children of mothers' who were HPV-positive at the post-partum visit were about 5 times more likely to test HPV-positive than children of corresponding HPV-negative mothers (p = 0.02). Conclusion This study confirms that the risk of vertical transmission of HPV genotypes is relatively low. HPV persistence in infants is a rare event. These data also indicate that vertical transmission may not be the sole source of HPV infections in infants and provides partial evidence for horizontal mother-to-child HPV transmission. PMID:19473489

  6. Integrative approach to diagnosis of genital human papillomaviruses (HPV) infection of female.

    PubMed

    Dunjic, Momir; Stanisic, Slavisa; Krstic, Dejan; Stanisic, Miodrag; Ignjatic, Z Jovanovic; Dunjic, Marija

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a virus from the papillomavirus family that is capable of infecting humans. Some types of HPVs cause warts, while others can lead to cancers of the cervix, vulva, vagina, penis, oropharynx and anus. High-risk human papillomavirus (hr HPV) has been detected in almost all cervical squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas. All patients examined by colposcopy. Cervical swab is routinely done and patients are screened with both HPV DNA by Real Time Polimerase Chain Reaction (RT PCR) testing and Pap testing. Pictures obtained by colposcopy were examined by indirect Bi-Digital O-Ring Test (BDORT) by using reference control substance (RCS): HPV 16, HPV 18, and Integrin ?5 ?1. BDORT was developed by Prof. Omura Y. of New York and received U.S. patent in 1993. For detection of HPV DNA we used RT PCR and standard Qiagen method which detect 18 types (16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 68, 6, 11, 42, 43, 44) of HPV from smear. From 63 patients where is BDORT indicated presence of HPV, in 49 patients (77.8%) RT PCR confirmed presence of HPV. From 63 patients in 54 patients (85.7%), we detected, by colposcopic exam, some kind of lesions associated with HPV infection. Results obtained by RT PCR: one type (1/18) of DNA HPV in 25 patients (51.02%), 2 types (2/18) in 15 patients (30.61%) and 3 types (3/18) in 9 patients (18.37%). Although BDORT results usually have higher sensitivity and detection rate is much higher, it can be used together with RT PCR in detection of HPV and cervical lesions associated with HPV infection. PMID:25693306

  7. Evaluating the Early Benefit of Quadrivalent HPV Vaccine on Genital Warts in Belgium: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Dominiak-Felden, Geraldine; Gobbo, Corrado; Simondon, François

    2015-01-01

    Genital warts (GWs) are common, with about 5% to 10% of people having at least one episode in their lifetime. They develop about 2–3 months after infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes 6 and 11. The prophylactic quadrivalent HPV vaccine (qHPV), protects against HPV6/11 infections and diseases. In Belgium, HPV vaccines started to be reimbursed in 2007 and have been fully reimbursed since December 2008 for women 12 to 18 years old. This study aimed at evaluating the real-life benefit of qHPV vaccine introduction in Belgium on GWs by measuring both vaccine impact (VI) at a population level and the direct effect of the qHPV vaccine at an individual level (vaccine effectiveness (VE)), using data from a large sick-fund (MLOZ) reimbursement database. A first reimbursement for imiquimod (most common first-line GWs treatment in Belgium) was used as a surrogate for a first GWs episode; reimbursement of qHPV vaccine was used as surrogate for vaccination. VI was estimated by comparing the incidence of GWs before and after qHPV vaccine introduction in Belgium (ecologic evaluation). VE was assessed by comparing GWs incidences in vaccinated vs. unvaccinated women, among women eligible for HPV vaccination. VI was evaluated in 9,223,384 person-years. Overall, GWs incidence rates decreased significantly between the pre- and post-vaccination periods (-8.1% (95% CI: -15.3; -0.3) for men and women aged 18–59 years. This decrease was highest in women targeted by the HPV vaccination programme (-72.1% (95% CI: -77.9; -64.7) in women aged 16–22 years, with a 43% vaccine uptake in 2013). A significant decrease was also observed in men aged 16-22 years (-51.1%, 95%CI: -67.6; -26.2), suggesting herd-protection. VE was evaluated in 369,881 person-years. Age-adjusted VE for fully vaccinated women was 88.0% (95% CI: 79.4; 93.0). VE was higher when the first dose was given younger and remained high for over 4 years post-vaccination in all ages. High VI and VE of the qHPV vaccine were observed in a real-life setting in Belgium. PMID:26147096

  8. Evaluating the Early Benefit of Quadrivalent HPV Vaccine on Genital Warts in Belgium: A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Dominiak-Felden, Geraldine; Gobbo, Corrado; Simondon, François

    2015-01-01

    Genital warts (GWs) are common, with about 5% to 10% of people having at least one episode in their lifetime. They develop about 2-3 months after infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes 6 and 11. The prophylactic quadrivalent HPV vaccine (qHPV), protects against HPV6/11 infections and diseases. In Belgium, HPV vaccines started to be reimbursed in 2007 and have been fully reimbursed since December 2008 for women 12 to 18 years old. This study aimed at evaluating the real-life benefit of qHPV vaccine introduction in Belgium on GWs by measuring both vaccine impact (VI) at a population level and the direct effect of the qHPV vaccine at an individual level (vaccine effectiveness (VE)), using data from a large sick-fund (MLOZ) reimbursement database. A first reimbursement for imiquimod (most common first-line GWs treatment in Belgium) was used as a surrogate for a first GWs episode; reimbursement of qHPV vaccine was used as surrogate for vaccination. VI was estimated by comparing the incidence of GWs before and after qHPV vaccine introduction in Belgium (ecologic evaluation). VE was assessed by comparing GWs incidences in vaccinated vs. unvaccinated women, among women eligible for HPV vaccination. VI was evaluated in 9,223,384 person-years. Overall, GWs incidence rates decreased significantly between the pre- and post-vaccination periods (-8.1% (95% CI: -15.3; -0.3) for men and women aged 18-59 years. This decrease was highest in women targeted by the HPV vaccination programme (-72.1% (95% CI: -77.9; -64.7) in women aged 16-22 years, with a 43% vaccine uptake in 2013). A significant decrease was also observed in men aged 16-22 years (-51.1%, 95%CI: -67.6; -26.2), suggesting herd-protection. VE was evaluated in 369,881 person-years. Age-adjusted VE for fully vaccinated women was 88.0% (95% CI: 79.4; 93.0). VE was higher when the first dose was given younger and remained high for over 4 years post-vaccination in all ages. High VI and VE of the qHPV vaccine were observed in a real-life setting in Belgium. PMID:26147096

  9. Genital Warts

    MedlinePlus

    ... direct skin-to-skin contact during vaginal or anal sex. HPV, the virus that causes genital warts, can be ... direct skin-to-skin contact during vaginal or anal sex. HPV, the virus that causes genital warts, can be ...

  10. Aggressive clinical course of primary invasive vaginal carcinoma associated with type 61 HPV: a case report.

    PubMed

    Zanfagnin, Valentina; Tripodi, Elisa; Perotto, Stefania; Ravarino, Nicoletta; Zola, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Primary invasive vaginal cancer is one of the rarest malignant processes in the female genital tract. The etiology has not been identified, but the strongest association is with HPV infection and subtypes 16 and 18 have the highest oncogenic potential. We present the case of a young woman diagnosed with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the vagina associated with HPV type 61, a non-oncogenic HPV type. We report the propensity of a primary vaginal neoplasm to spread to lymphatic vessels early and the unresponsive aggressive behavior to multimodal therapy. PMID:22678006

  11. Concordance of human papillomavirus types detected on the surface and in the tissue of genital lesions in men

    PubMed Central

    Anic, Gabriella M.; Messina, Jane L.; Stoler, Mark H.; Rollison, Dana E.; Stockwell, Heather; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Gage, Christine; Silva, Roberto Jose C.; Baggio, Maria L.; Salmerón, Jorge; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Swabbing the surface of a genital lesion to obtain a sample for HPV DNA testing is less invasive than a biopsy, but may not represent HPV types present in the lesion tissue. The objective of this study was to examine the concordance of HPV types detected in swab and biopsy samples from 165 genital lesions from men ages 18-70. Lesions included 90 condyloma, 10 penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN), 23 non-condyloma with a known histology, and 42 lesions with an undetermined histology. All lesions were sampled by swabbing the surface of the lesion with a pre-wetted Dacron swab and taking a shave biopsy. HPV genotyping was performed using Linear Array for swab samples and INNO-LiPA for biopsy samples. The kappa and McNemar statistics were used to compare the concordance of detecting HPV types in swab and biopsy samples. Both sampling methods had high agreement for detection of HPV DNA in condyloma (87.8% agreement) and PeIN (100% agreement). There was also high concordance for detection of HPV16 (kappa = 1.00) and HPV18 (kappa = 1.00) in PeIN, however, agreement was low to moderate for detecting HPV6 (kappa = 0.31) and HPV11 (kappa = 0.56) in condyloma. Low to moderate agreement was also observed between sampling methods for detecting individual HPV types in the non-condyloma and lesions with an indefinite histology. The results suggest that obtaining a biopsy in addition to swabbing the surface of a lesion may provide additional information about specific HVP types associated with male genital lesions. PMID:23852680

  12. Presence of human papilloma virus types 16 and 18 in genital warts and cervical neoplasias.

    PubMed

    Battista, C; Hillova, J; Hill, M; Reynès, M; Mathé, G

    1988-01-01

    Certain types of human papilloma viruses (HPV) are associated with human genital proliferative diseases, and among them HPV16 and HPV18 seem to play an important role in the occurrence of cervical cancer. We used restriction enzyme analysis and molecular hybridization, in order to investigate the type of viral infection and the physical state of viral DNA in gynecological benign, pre-malignant and malignant lesions. HPV6/11 specific sequences could only be detected as episomes and this in benign lesions classified as condylomata acuminata. On the other hand, HPV16 and HPV18 sequences were detected in non-malignant lesions such as flat condylomata (7 out of 14 cases), pre-malignant lesions including cervical intra-epithelial neoplasias (10 out of 20 cases), and most frequently in cervical invasive cancers (21 out of 27 cases). In a large number of virus-positive cases, HPV16 and HPV18 could only be discerned in forms consistent with the existence of episomes and/or randomly integrated head-to-tail oligomers. However, some invasive carcinomas and cervical intra-epithelial neoplasias contained, in addition, clonal outgrowths with detectable virus-cellular junction fragments of the integrated viral genomes. In the light of these data, monitoring the type of viral infection proves to be an important adjunct to histological analysis when assessing those patients affected by condyloma or cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia who are at risk for developing invasive carcinoma. PMID:2835559

  13. Efficacy of the HPV-16/18 AS04-Adjuvanted Vaccine Against Low-Risk HPV Types (PATRICIA Randomized Trial): An Unexpected Observation

    PubMed Central

    Szarewski, Anne; Skinner, S. Rachel; Garland, Suzanne M.; Romanowski, Barbara; Schwarz, Tino F.; Apter, Dan; Chow, Song-Nan; Paavonen, Jorma; Del Rosario-Raymundo, M. Rowena; Teixeira, Julio C.; De Carvalho, Newton S.; Castro-Sanchez, Maria; Castellsagué, Xavier; Poppe, Willy A. J.; De Sutter, Philippe; Huh, Warner; Chatterjee, Archana; Tjalma, Wiebren A.; Ackerman, Ronald T.; Martens, Mark; Papp, Kim A.; Bajo-Arenas, Jose; Harper, Diane M.; Torné, Aureli; David, Marie-Pierre; Struyf, Frank; Lehtinen, Matti; Dubin, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Background. Public Health England has reported a decrease of up to 20.8% in new diagnoses of external genital warts (GWs) among women aged <19 years since the national vaccination program with the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine began in 2008. A post hoc analysis of the phase III PATRICIA (PApilloma TRIal against Cancer In young Adults) trial (NCT00122681) was performed to ascertain whether protection against low-risk HPV types was apparent. Methods. Vaccine efficacy (VE) at 48 months was assessed against 6-month persistent infection (6MPI) with low-risk HPV types in the total vaccinated cohort (TVC) and in the TVC naive (for 25 HPV types tested) populations. Results. In the TVC naive cohort, VE against 6MPI (95% confidence interval) was 34.5% (11.3 to 51.8) for HPV-6/11, 34.9% (9.1 to 53.7) for HPV-6, 30.3% (−45.0 to 67.5) for HPV-11, and 49.5% (21.0 to 68.3) for HPV-74. Conclusions. The HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine appears to have moderate efficacy against persistent infections with a number of low-risk HPV types (HPV-6/11/74), which are responsible for the majority of external GWs, and recently, antibody and cell-mediated immune response to HPV-6/11 have been observed. These findings may help to explain the decrease in external GW diagnoses seen in England. PMID:24092907

  14. Therapeutic benefits of carbon dioxide (CO2) laser on single-site HPV lesions in the lower female genital tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urru, Giovanni; Moretti, Gianfranco

    1998-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown contradictory variable percentages of recurrent HPV lesions, after various therapies. The present study therefore evaluates the effectiveness of CO2 laser vaporization in the treatment of single-site HPV lesions of the lower female genital tract in order to confirm the conviction that physical therapy alone, in agreement with some findings reported in the literature, is capable of guaranteeing a high cure rate in selected patients. From January 1995 to June 1996, seventy- five female patients were treated with CO2 laser vaporization for single-site genital HPV lesions, some of which were associated with low-grade intra-epithelial neoplasia. The success rate after 12 months proved to be 97%. The pre-existing clinical symptoms disappeared in all the patients treated. No complication in the vaporization procedure was encountered.

  15. Genital Warts

    MedlinePlus

    ... infected person. In or around the anus after anal sex with someone who has HPV. Images used with permission of the American Academy ... Genital warts spread from a person who has HPV to another person through: Sex (vaginal, anal, or oral). Genital contact (people's genitals touch). Childbirth ( ...

  16. Local and systemic human papillomavirus type 6b-specific cellular immune responses in patients with recurrent genital warts.

    PubMed

    Blanchet, J-S; Sonnex, C; Gough, G W; Warren, A P

    2007-01-01

    Anogenital warts are a common clinical manifestation of genital infection with human papillomavirus type 6b (HPV-6b). Accumulating data indicate that an effective cellular immune response is required for the control of HPV infections. However, in a minority of patients there is a high rate of recurrence of wart lesions. We report the characterization of both local and systemic HPV-specific cellular immune responses in three patients with a history of recurrent genital warts. Although the patients had chronic recurrent wart lesions, we have shown that each had both detectable intralesional and peripheral HPV-specific T lymphocytes. Interestingly, the lesion-infiltrating T cells were specific for only one HPV antigen, focusing on only a few epitopes. Conversely, the T cells derived from peripheral blood recognized a broader range of HPV antigens. The characteristics of the HPV-specific cellular immunity that we have shown in these patients may be indicative of a failure to mount an effective response against the virus. This would be consistent with the chronic nature of the disease in these specific individuals. These observations could be relevant to the design and immunomonitoring of immunotherapeutic vaccines for persistent HPV infections. PMID:17425420

  17. HPV DNA test

    MedlinePlus

    The HPV DNA test is used to check for high-risk HPV infection in women. HPV infection around the genitals is ... warts spread when you have sex. The HPV-DNA test is generally not recommended for detecting low- ...

  18. Coinfection of human foreskin fragments with multiple human papillomavirus types (HPV-11, -40, and -LVX82/MM7) produces regionally separate HPV infections within the same athymic mouse xenograft.

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, N D; Koltun, W A; Cladel, N M; Budgeon, L R; Reed, C A; Kreider, J W; Welsh, P A; Patrick, S D; Yang, H

    1997-01-01

    The athymic mouse xenograft system was used to prepare infectious stocks of two additional anogenital tissue-targeting human papillomaviruses (HPVs) in a manner similar to that for the development of infectious stocks of HPV-11. An anal condyloma from a transplant patient was used as material for extraction of infectious virus, and human foreskin fragments were incubated with the virus suspension and transplanted subrenally into athymic mice. Partial viral sequencing indicated that two rare HPV types (HPV-40 and HPVLVX82/MM7) were concurrently present in both the patient condyloma and the foreskin xenografts, and passage of both types was achieved as a mixed infection with HPV-40 predominating. Xenografts that developed from simultaneous infection of human foreskin fragments with HPV-11, -40, and -LVX82/MM7 virions produced regionally separate areas of HPV-11 and -40 infection as determined by in situ hybridization. In addition, in situ hybridization with HPV-40 and HPVLVX82/MM7 DNA probes demonstrated that both of these HPV types were present as adjacent but separate infections within the same anal condyloma of the transplant patient. These studies indicate that multiple HPV types can simultaneously infect genital tissue and that each HPV type predominantly maintains regional separation within the same papilloma. PMID:9311811

  19. Genital human papillomavirus infection in men.

    PubMed

    Partridge, Jeffrey M; Koutsky, Laura A

    2006-01-01

    Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, globally one of the most common sexually transmitted infections, is associated with cancers, genital warts, and other epithelial lesions. Although a consistent and coherent picture of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of genital HPV infections in women has developed over the past two decades, less is known about these infections in men. Available data suggest that, as with women, most genital HPV infections in men are symptomless and unapparent, and that HPV16 is probably the most frequently detected type. In populations of similar age, the prevalence of specific HPV types is usually lower in men than in women. Whether this observation relates to lower incidence or shorter duration of infection in men than in women has not yet been determined. Seroprevalence of specific anti-HPV antibodies also seems to be lower in men than in women of similar age, a difference that might be due to lower viral load, lower incidence or duration of infection or lower antibody responses, or both, in men compared with women. Differences in sexual behaviour may also be important predictors of genital HPV infection. With the anticipated availability of prophylactic HPV vaccines in the near future, it becomes increasingly important to understand the incidence and duration of HPV infections in men to develop cost-effective approaches to prevention through a combination of immunisation and promotion of risk-reduction strategies. PMID:16377531

  20. Oncogenic Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Type Distribution and HPV Type 16 E6 Variants in Two Spanish Population Groups with Different Levels of HPV Infection Risk

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, M.; Torres, M.; Muñoz, L.; Fernández-García, E.; Canals, J.; Cabornero, A. I.; Aguilar, E.; Ballesteros, J.; del Amo, J.; García-Sáiz, A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types and HPV type 16 (HPV16) variant distribution in two Spanish population groups, commercial sex workers and imprisoned women (CSW/IPW) and the general population. A multicenter cross-sectional study of 1,889 women from five clinical settings in two Spanish cities was conducted from May to November 2004. Oncogenic HPV infection was tested by an Hybrid Capture II (HC2) test, and positive samples were genotyped by direct sequencing using three different primer sets in L1 (MY09/11 and GP5+/GP6+) and E6/E7. HPV16 variants were identified by sequencing the E6, E2, and L1 regions. Four hundred twenty-five samples were positive for the HC2 test, 31.5% from CSW/IPW and 10.7% from the general population. HPV16 was the most frequent type. Distinct profiles of oncogenic HPV type prevalence were observed across the two populations. In order of decreasing frequency, HPV types 16, 31, 58, 66, 56, and 18 were most frequent in CSW/IPW women, and types 16, 31, 52, 68, 51, and 53 were most frequent in the general population. We analyzed HPV16 intratype variants, and a large majority (78.7%) belonged to the European lineage. AA variants were detected in 16.0% of cases. African variants belonging to classes Af1 (4.0%) and Af2 (1.3%) were detected. Different HPV types and HPV16 intratype variants are involved in oncogenic HPV infections in our population. These results suggest that HPV type distribution differs in CSW/IPW women and in the general population, although further analysis is necessary. PMID:16597872

  1. HPV DNA prevalence and type distribution in anal carcinomas worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Alemany, L; Saunier, M; Alvarado, I; Quirós, B; Salmeron, J; Shin, HR; Pirog, E; Guimerà, N; Hernández, GA; Felix, A; Clavero, O; Lloveras, B; Kasamatsu, E; Goodman, MT; Hernandez, BY; Laco, J; Tinoco, L; Geraets, DT; Lynch, CF; Mandys, V; Poljak, M; Jach, R; Verge, J; Clavel, C; Ndiaye, C; Klaustermeier, J; Cubilla, A; Castellsagué, X; Bravo, IG; Pawlita, M; Quint, W; Muñoz, N; Bosch, FX; Sanjosé, S

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge about the human papillomaviruses (HPV) types in anal cancers in some world regions is scanty. Here we describe the HPV DNA prevalence and type distribution in a series of invasive anal cancers and anal intraepithelial neoplasias (AIN) grades 2/3 from 24 countries. We analyzed 43 AIN 2/3 cases and 496 anal cancers diagnosed from 1986 to 2011. After histopathological evaluation of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples, HPV DNA detection and genotyping was performed using SPF-10/DEIA/LiPA25 system (version 1). A subset of 116 cancers was further tested for p16INK4a expression, a cellular surrogate marker for HPV-associated transformation. Prevalence ratios were estimated using multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance in cancer dataset. HPV DNA was detected in 88.3% of anal cancers (95%CI:85.1–91.0%) and in 95.4% of AIN 2/3 (95%CI:84.2–99.4%). Among cancers, the highest prevalence was observed in warty-basaloid subtype of squamous cell carcinomas, in younger patients and in North American geographical region. There were no statistically significant differences in prevalence by gender. HPV16 was the most frequent HPV type detected in both cancers (80.7%) and AIN 2/3 lesions (75.4%). HPV18 was the second most common type in invasive cancers (3.6%). p16INK4a overexpression was found in 95% of HPV DNA positive anal cancers. In view of HPV DNA results and high proportion of p16INK4a overexpression, infection by HPV is most likely to be a necessary cause for anal cancers in both men and women. The large contribution of HPV16 reinforces the potential impact of HPV vaccines in the prevention of these lesions. PMID:24817381

  2. Genital Tract Leukocytes and Shedding of Genital HIV Type 1 RNA

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Brenna L.; Wang, Chia-Ching; DeLong, Allison K.; Liu, Tao; Kojic, Erna Milu; Kurpewski, Jaclynn; Ingersoll, Jessica; Mayer, Kenneth; Caliendo, Angela M.; Cu-Uvin, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background The mechanism of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission via heterosexual intercourse is unknown. We sought to determine whether the presence of inflammatory cells in the vagina is associated with the presence of genital tract HIV type 1 (HIV-1) RNA. Methods Analysis of a longitudinal prospective cohort was performed. Women with HIV-1 infection were assessed with use of paired plasma and cervicovaginal lavage specimens. Viral load measurements were performed using nucleic acid sequence—based amplification. White blood cells found in the genital tract (GT WBCs) were quantified using a hemacytometer. Common lower genital tract infections assessed for association with viral shedding (i.e., genital tract viral load [GTVL]) included bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis, and trichomoniasis. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate the prevalence and odds of detectable GTVL by GT WBC. The association was examined both in the presence and in the absence of lower genital tract infections. Results A total of 97 women and 642 visits were included in the analysis. Median duration of follow-up was 30.4 months. Thirty women (31%) had detectable GTVL at any visit. The median CD4 cell count at baseline was 525 cells/μL. Most women were antiretroviral therapy naive at baseline. After adjustment for plasma viral load, the odds of detectable GTVL increased as GT WBC increased, with an odds ratio of 1.36 (95% confidence interval, 1.1–1.7) per 1000-cell increase in GT WBC among women without lower genital tract infections. After adjustment for plasma viral load and lower genital tract infections by incorporating them in a regression model, GT WBC remained significantly associated with GTVL, with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.22 (95% confidence interval, 1.08–1.37). Conclusions The presence of GT WBC is associated with an increased risk of detectable GTVL. PMID:18808359

  3. Development of genital warts after incident detection of human papillomavirus infection in young men.

    PubMed

    Arima, Yuzo; Winer, Rachel L; Feng, Qinghua; Hughes, James P; Lee, Shu-Kuang; Stern, Michael E; O'Reilly, Sandra F; Koutsky, Laura A

    2010-10-15

    Determining the rate at which men develop genital warts after infection with alpha genus human papillomavirus (HPV) types will provide important information for the design of prevention strategies. We conducted a cohort study of 18-21-year-old men who underwent triannual genital examinations. The 24-month cumulative genital wart incidence was 57.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 38.1%-79.1%) among 46 men with incident detection of HPV-6 or HPV-11 infection, 2.0% (95% CI, 0.5%-7.9%) among 161 men with incident detection of infection with other HPV types, and 0.7% (95% CI, 0.2%-2.8%) among 331 men who tested negative for HPV. Our results suggest that genital warts are common after HPV-6 or HPV-11 infection in young men. PMID:20812849

  4. HPV Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... grant from Roche Diagnostics Corporation . Elsewhere On The Web Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Genital HPV Infection - CDC Fact Sheet Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Making Sense of Your Pap & HPV Test Results Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: HPV ...

  5. HPV infection-associated anogenital cyto-colpo-histological findings and molecular typing in HIV-positive women.

    PubMed

    Tso, F K; Rodrigues, C L L; Levi, J E; Mattosinho de Castro Ferraz, M G; Speck, N M G; Ribalta, J C L

    2015-01-01

    HIV and human papillomavirus (HPV) coinfection is increasing, especially in the anal canal (AC) and cervico-vaginal regions. We identified anal epithelium abnormalities related to high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) lesions in the lower genital tracts (LGTs) of HIV-positive women, described the HPV genotypes identified, and assessed the expression of E6/E7 oncogenes in coinfected patients. Ninety-eight women were enrolled in groups combining HIV status and presence or absence of HPV in the LGT. Anal and cervical smears were collected for cytology and HR-HPV assays using Cobas(®) and/or PapilloCheck(®). Samples with highly oncogenic HPV genotypes were confirmed by NucliSENS EasyQ(®). Forty-two HIV-positive (25-52; mean age 39.5) and 56 HIV-negative (18-58; mean age 35.7) patients were included. E2 and C1 groups presented AC alterations (P = 0.002); altered images for high-resolution anoscopy were higher in E1 and C2 (P < 0.001). Of the 29 women with alterations, 41.38% were HIV-negative and 58.62% were HIV-positive (P < 0.001). HIV-positive patients accounted for 29% of the anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (P = 0.015). The Cobas(®) positive result frequency was higher in three AC groups than in the other groups. There was variation in the number of HPV types in the cervico-vaginal samples among the study groups (P < 0.001). Anal cytology and anoscopy showed more altered findings in HIV-positive patients with HPV in the LGT. HR-HPV anal infections by various genotypes are common and are associated with cervical infections in HIV-positive patients. E6/E7 expression is apparently more common in the AC of HIV-positive women. PMID:26782408

  6. Currently approved prophylactic HPV vaccines.

    PubMed

    Harper, Diane M

    2009-12-01

    Cervarix and Gardasil are two prophylactic HPV vaccines designed primarily for cervical cancer prevention. Cervarix is effective against HPV-16, -18, -31, -33 and -45, the five most common cancer-causing types, including most causes of adenocarcinoma for which we cannot screen adequately. Gardasil is effective against HPV-16, 18 and 31, three common squamous cell cancer-causing types. In addition, Gardasil is effective against HPV-6 and -11, causes of genital warts and respiratory papillomatosis. The most important determinant of vaccine impact to reduce cervical cancer is its duration of efficacy. To date, Cervarix's efficacy is proven for 6.4 years and Gardasil's for 5 years. PMID:19943762

  7. Association of human papillomavirus type 16 with neoplastic lesions of the vulva and other genital sites by in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Gupta, J; Pilotti, S; Rilke, F; Shah, K

    1987-05-01

    The authors examined paraffin sections from 85 genital tract tissues from 49 cases for the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) Types 6/11, 16, and 18 by stringent in situ hybridization using 35S-labeled viral DNA probes, and for viral capsid antigen by the immunoperoxidase test. The cases, selected mostly on the basis of vulvar pathology, were distributed as follows: early neoplasia (Group I, 6 cases); early neoplasia with viral cytopathic effect (CE) (Group II, 24 cases); and papillomavirus infection (PVI) (Group III, 19 cases). Available tissues from all affected sites were examined when the disease was multicentric. One or more viral DNAs were identified in 58% of 77 tissues from Groups II and III and in 2 of 8 tissues from Group I. HPV-6/11, HPV-16 and HPV-18 DNAs were detected, respectively, in 25, 24, and 2 tissues; 3 tissues were infected simultaneously with either two or three viruses. Viral DNA was identified at more than one site in 14 of 30 DNA-positive patients; in 10 of these, a single type was detected at all sites in the same patient. The viral DNA was localized mostly in areas showing viral cytopathology. The presence of HPV-16 correlated with neoplasia. HPV-16 DNA was identified in the 2 virus-positive tissues showing neoplasia, in 17 of 20 (85%) of the DNA-positive tissues showing neoplasia with CE, and in 5 of 25 (20%) of the DNA-positive tissues showing PVI. Conversely, HPV-6/11 was found in 25% of the DNA-positive tissues showing neoplasia with CE and in 80% of the cases of PVI. An HPV genome was identified in neoplastic cells in 14 instances; in all but 1 case, the genome was HPV-16. The association of HPV-16 with neoplasia was seen for both vulvar and cervical lesions. Viral antigen was detected in 83% of lesions associated with HPV 6/11 and in 62% of lesions associated with HPV-16. PMID:3034064

  8. Accumulation of RNA homologous to human papillomavirus type 16 open reading frames in genital precancers

    SciTech Connect

    Crum, C.P.; Nuovo, G.; Friedman, D.; Silverstein, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    The accumulation of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16)-specific RNAs in tissue sections from biopsies of patients with genital precancers was studied by in situ hybridization with single-stranded /sup 35/S-labeled RNA. These analyses revealed that the most abundant early-region RNAs were derived from the E4 and E5 open reading frames (ORFs). RNAs homologous to the E6/E7 ORFs were also detected, whereas RNAs homologous to the intervening E1 ORF were not. This suggest that the E4 and E5 mRNAs are derived by splicing to the upstream E6/E7 ORFs, consistent with studies of HPV-11 in condylomata. Abundant RNAs homologous to the 5' portion of L1 were also detected. These RNAs were localized to the apical strata of the epithelium. HPV-16 RNAs accumulated in discrete regions of these lesions, and when present were most abundant in the upper cell layers of the precancerous epithelium. RNAs homologous to early ORFs were also detected in some germinal cells within the basal layer of the epithelium.

  9. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Oropharyngeal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Human papillomavirus (HPV) can cause serious health problems, including ... Commercial Print Version What is genital HPV? Genital human papillomavirus (also called HPV) is the most common ...

  10. Genital Warts

    MedlinePlus

    ... can get genital warts during oral, vaginal, or anal sex with an infected partner. Correct usage of latex condoms greatly reduces, but does not completely eliminate, the risk of catching or spreading HPV. HPV vaccines may help prevent some of the ...

  11. [Genital infections in girls with type 1 diabetes].

    PubMed

    Petrova, Ch; Shentov, B; Tanchev, S; Mikhaĭlov, V; Sredkova, M; POpova, V

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relation between genital infections (frequency, etiology, clinical presentation) among girls with type 1 diabetes and some factors as age of the girls, duration and metabolic control of diabetes. Forty-three girls with type 1 diabetes and twelve healthy girls for controls were involved in the study. Methods used are: genital tract inspection, direct microscopy and cultures from genital discharge and urine. Glycaemic control in the diabetic girls was assessed by measuring total glycosylated haemoglobin. The results show vulvovaginal candidiasis in 27 (62.8%) in diabetic girls versus 2 (16.6%) in controls (p < 0.01). There was clear prevalence of non-albicans Candida species. Concomitant infection with bacterial pathogens were proved in only 6 (13.9%) of diabetic girls and 1 (8.5%) of the controls. The clinical presentation of genital candidiasis was vulvovaginitis and most of the affected diabetic girls (88.9%) were in puberty period. There was no relation between duration and metabolic control of diabetes and genital infections. PMID:15318538

  12. The E7 proteins of the nononcogenic human papillomavirus type 6b (HPV-6b) and of the oncogenic HPV-16 differ in retinoblastoma protein binding and other properties.

    PubMed Central

    Gage, J R; Meyers, C; Wettstein, F O

    1990-01-01

    The E7 early viral protein of the oncogenic human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) has been strongly implicated in the maintenance of the malignant phenotype in cervical cancers and cancer-derived cell lines. HPV-16 E7 is a nuclear phosphoprotein that can cooperate with ras to transform baby rat kidney cells, transactivates the adenovirus E2 promoter, and binds to the retinoblastoma (RB) protein. The E7 phosphoprotein of the nononcogenic HPV-6b, which is generally associated with benign genital warts, is similar to the HPV-16 E7 in amino acid sequence but differs dramatically in migration in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels, sedimentation in nondenaturing glycerol gradients, and the ability to bind the RB protein. Our results indicate that the RB protein preferentially binds the phosphorylated form of HPV-6b E7, which comprises a minor fraction of the total E7 expressed in transiently transfected COS-7 cells. These characteristics may help to explain the difference in the oncogenic potential of the oncogenic and nononcogenic types of genital papillomaviruses. Images PMID:2153238

  13. More than 97% of human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV-16) was found with chrysotile asbestos & relatively smooth round tumor outline, and less than 3% was found with HPV-18 and tremolite asbestos & irregular sawtooth-like zigzag outline in breast cancer tissues in over 500 mammograms of female patients: their implications in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Omura, Yoshiaki; Jones, Marilyn K; Nihrane, Abdallah; Duvvi, Harsha; Shimotsuura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu

    2013-01-01

    In the past, Human Papillomavirus Type 16 (HPV-16) was considered to be the main cause of cancer in the oropharynx and genital organs. Cervical cancer of the uterus is the most well-known cancer associated with HPV-16. Among the oncogenic HPVs, types 16 and 18 are most responsible for the majority of the HPV-caused cancers. Recently, using EMF Resonance Phenomenon between 2 identical substances, we non-invasively measured HPV-16 and HPV-18 among 25 physicians and 25 dentists and found that all 50 have HPV-16 in oral cavities and oropharynx but not HPV-18. However most dentists have a stronger infection than physicians. Among them were 2 female dentists with breast cancer containing HPV-16 and strong infections of HPV-16 in the oral cavities and oropharynx. When the author checked their breast cancer positive areas as well as the mammograms of cancer positive areas, Chrysotile Asbestos co-existed with an infection of HPV-16. We then examined over 500 published mammograms of women with malignant breast cancer published by other institutes, and we found HPV-16 in more than 97% and HPV-18 in less than 3% of the breast cancer mammograms examined. Less than 0.4% of cases were found as a variety of combination of HPV-16 & HPV-18. We also discovered that breast cancer with HPV-16 always co-exists with increased Chrysotile Asbestos deposits, and the outline of the breast cancer positive area is a relatively smooth and round or oval shape, and breast cancer with HPV-18 always co-exists with increased Tremolite Asbestos, where the tumor outline is an irregular saw-tooth like zigzag pattern. Based on these findings, better methods of diagnosis, treatment and prevention with a vaccine can be developed. PMID:24494324

  14. [HPV vaccination: principles, results and future perspectives].

    PubMed

    Rouzier, R; Uzan, C; Collinet, P

    2007-02-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) are responsible of an important morbidity and mortality. HPV is a significant source of morbidity and mortality. HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection: adolescents are at high-risk for HPV acquisition. Biologic and epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that HPV infection is a necessary but non-sufficient cause of cervical cancer and genital warts. The vast majority of cervical cancers contain high-risk HPV type and approximately 70% contain HPV types 16 or 18. HPV types 6 or 11 are responsible for approximately 90% of genital warts. Thus, a vaccine that could prevent. Prophylactic vaccines based on the use of virus-like particles (VLPs) obtained by auto-assembly of L1 are under clinical trials. Two vaccines are currently evaluated: Cervarix (GlaxoSmithKline Biologics), a bivalent vaccine against HPV 16 and 18, and Gardasil (Merck & Co) a quadrivalent vaccine against HPV 16, 18, 6, and 11. Phase I, II and III studies have demonstrated that both vaccines are well tolerated and provide an excellent immunogenicity. With approximately 5-year follow-up, both vaccines have been effective in preventing persistent infection with targeted HPV types and in preventing cervical intraepithelial lesions. The optimal target for vaccination is probably 12-year-old girls. PMID:17293248

  15. Prophylactic HPV vaccines: reducing the burden of HPV-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Villa, Luisa Lina

    2006-03-30

    HPV-associated diseases, such as cervical and other anogenital cancers, cervical and anal intraepithelial neoplasia, genital warts, and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis confer considerable morbidity and mortality, and are significant health care concerns. Successful vaccination strategies that protect against HPV infection are expected to substantially reduce HPV-related disease burden. Prophylactic HPV vaccines in late stages of clinical testing are composed of HPV L1 capsid protein that self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) when expressed in recombinant systems. Proof-of-principle trials have suggested that intramuscular injections of VLPs results in strong adaptive immune responses, both B- and T-cell mediated, that are capable of neutralizing subsequent natural infections. Furthermore, phase 2 trials of a bivalent vaccine designed to protect against high-risk HPV types 16 and 18 and a quadrivalent vaccine designed to protect against HPV 16 and 18, and low-risk, genital wart-causing HPV 6 and 11 have demonstrated that VLP vaccines reduce the incidence of HPV-associated disease in vaccinated individuals. To derive the greatest public health benefit, HPV vaccines offering protection from cervical cancer and genital warts will, ideally, be administered prior to the initiation of sexual activity; therefore, educational initiatives will be essential to communicate the risks and adverse consequences of HPV infection and to foster widespread vaccine acceptance. PMID:16194583

  16. [How did I contract human Papillomavirus (HPV)?].

    PubMed

    Gavillon, N; Vervaet, H; Derniaux, E; Terrosi, P; Graesslin, O; Quereux, C

    2010-03-01

    More than 120 genotypes have been identified among the Papillomavirus (HPV) family. These viruses are ubiquitary with skin or mucous membrane tropism and cause various pathologies from wart to neoplasia. HPV family is classified according to their tropism. Genital HPV infection is considered as the most frequent sexually transmitted disease in the world. Seventy-five percent of women will be in contact with HPV at least one time in their life. HPV is usually transmitted through direct skin-to-skin contact, more often during penetrative genital contact. Other types of genital contact in the absence of penetration can lead to HPV infection, but those routes of transmission are much less common than sexual intercourse. However, virgins (<2 % of cases) and young children can present HPV infection, suggesting other routes of transmission than sexual intercourse. HPV infection could occur during delivery; vaginal deliveries appear to promote this transmission in comparison with cesarean section. But cesarean section do not completely protect against contamination risk. In utero, vertical transmission has been suggested by different studies but with lack of evidence. HPV infection can be detected on inanimate objects, such as clothing or environmental surfaces. However, transmission is not known to occur by this route. More detailed knowledges of the transmission route of HPV infection will enable to get prevention more effective. PMID:20189438

  17. HPV Population Profiling in Healthy Men by Next-Generation Deep Sequencing Coupled with HPV-QUEST.

    PubMed

    Yin, Li; Yao, Jin; Chang, Kaifen; Gardner, Brent P; Yu, Fahong; Giuliano, Anna R; Goodenow, Maureen M

    2016-01-01

    Multiple-type human papillomaviruses (HPV) infection presents a greater risk for persistence in asymptomatic individuals and may accelerate cancer development. To extend the scope of HPV types defined by probe-based assays, multiplexing deep sequencing of HPV L1, coupled with an HPV-QUEST genotyping server and a bioinformatic pipeline, was established and applied to survey the diversity of HPV genotypes among a subset of healthy men from the HPV in Men (HIM) Multinational Study. Twenty-one HPV genotypes (12 high-risk and 9 low-risk) were detected in the genital area from 18 asymptomatic individuals. A single HPV type, either HPV16, HPV6b or HPV83, was detected in 7 individuals, while coinfection by 2 to 5 high-risk and/or low-risk genotypes was identified in the other 11 participants. In two individuals studied for over one year, HPV16 persisted, while fluctuations of coinfecting genotypes occurred. HPV L1 regions were generally identical between query and reference sequences, although nonsynonymous and synonymous nucleotide polymorphisms of HPV16, 18, 31, 35h, 59, 70, 73, cand85, 6b, 62, 81, 83, cand89 or JEB2 L1 genotypes, mostly unidentified by linear array, were evident. Deep sequencing coupled with HPV-QUEST provides efficient and unambiguous classification of HPV genotypes in multiple-type HPV infection in host ecosystems. PMID:26821041

  18. HPV Population Profiling in Healthy Men by Next-Generation Deep Sequencing Coupled with HPV-QUEST

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Li; Yao, Jin; Chang, Kaifen; Gardner, Brent P.; Yu, Fahong; Giuliano, Anna R.; Goodenow, Maureen M.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple-type human papillomaviruses (HPV) infection presents a greater risk for persistence in asymptomatic individuals and may accelerate cancer development. To extend the scope of HPV types defined by probe-based assays, multiplexing deep sequencing of HPV L1, coupled with an HPV-QUEST genotyping server and a bioinformatic pipeline, was established and applied to survey the diversity of HPV genotypes among a subset of healthy men from the HPV in Men (HIM) Multinational Study. Twenty-one HPV genotypes (12 high-risk and 9 low-risk) were detected in the genital area from 18 asymptomatic individuals. A single HPV type, either HPV16, HPV6b or HPV83, was detected in 7 individuals, while coinfection by 2 to 5 high-risk and/or low-risk genotypes was identified in the other 11 participants. In two individuals studied for over one year, HPV16 persisted, while fluctuations of coinfecting genotypes occurred. HPV L1 regions were generally identical between query and reference sequences, although nonsynonymous and synonymous nucleotide polymorphisms of HPV16, 18, 31, 35h, 59, 70, 73, cand85, 6b, 62, 81, 83, cand89 or JEB2 L1 genotypes, mostly unidentified by linear array, were evident. Deep sequencing coupled with HPV-QUEST provides efficient and unambiguous classification of HPV genotypes in multiple-type HPV infection in host ecosystems. PMID:26821041

  19. Epidemiology and pathology of HPV disease in males.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, Anna R; Anic, Gabriella; Nyitray, Alan G

    2010-05-01

    It is currently recognized that besides the significant impact of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in females, HPV causes substantial disease in men as well. Genital warts are a common manifestation of male infection with HPV. Genital warts are highly infectious and approximately 65% of people who have sex with an infected partner will develop warts themselves. More than 90% of genital warts are caused by non-oncogenic HPV types 6 and 11. In addition, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis is a rare disease most often associated with HPV types 6 and 11. Several cancers of the anogenital tract and upper aero-digestive tract, and their precursor lesions in men are now understood to be caused by infection with sexually transmitted HPV. For example, there is increasing incidence of anal cancer in western countries; however, there are limited data on its primary cause, anal canal HPV infection. Genital HPV infection is very common in men with an ongoing international study estimating a prevalence of 65.2% in asymptomatic males aged 18-70 years. Lifetime number of sexual partners was the most significant risk factor for the acquisition of HPV infection (P<0.05), and circumcision has been associated with reduced detection of HPV infection in men. HPV infections may be less likely to persist in men than in women. In men, the median time to clearance of any HPV infection was 5.9 months, with 75% of infections clearing within 12 months. More data are needed to better understand the natural history of HPV infection. Although the quadrivalent HPV vaccine has been shown to be effective and safe in men, low awareness of HPV in males may be a barrier to its use for the prevention of HPV infection. PMID:20138345

  20. Replication of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNAs supported by the HPV type 18 E1 and E2 proteins.

    PubMed

    Sverdrup, F; Khan, S A

    1994-01-01

    Transient replication of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 18 DNA was shown to require the viral E1 and E2 proteins. A 108-bp sequence within the long control region (nucleotides 12 to 119) was sufficient to function as the origin, but maximal replication required a region of 177 bp from positions 7800 to 7857 and 1 to 119 of HPV-18. The E1 and E2 proteins of HPV-18 also supported transient replication of plasmids containing the origins of HPV-1a and bovine papillomavirus type 1 to low levels. Interestingly, the level of replication observed with the HPV-6b origin was higher than that obtained with the homologous HPV-18 origin. PMID:8254762

  1. HPV vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... other kinds of cancers, including vaginal, vulvar, penile, anal, mouth and throat cancers. ... to 26: Those who have not received the HPV vaccine in the past ... genital and anal warts. The vaccine also reduces the risk of ...

  2. The HPV Vaccine: Framing the Arguments "for" and "against" Mandatory Vaccination of All Middle School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vamos, Cheryl A.; McDermott, Robert J.; Daley, Ellen M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV), the virus responsible for cervical cancer, is the most common viral sexually transmitted infection in the United States. A vaccine was approved in 2006 that is effective in preventing the types of HPV responsible for 70% of cervical cancers and 90% of genital warts. Proposals for routine and mandatory HPV

  3. Detection of oncogenic genital human papillomavirus (HPV) among HPV negative older and younger women after 7 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Brogaard, Kim Agerholm; Munk, Christian; Iftner, Thomas; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Kjaer, Susanne K

    2014-06-01

    The knowledge on risk factors of being human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive among older women is sparse. The aim was to determine the frequency of oncogenic HPV appearance after 7 years among initially HPV-negative women and to examine potential risk factors that influence the occurrence of HPV in older women using multiple logistic regression. For comparison, a younger cohort of women examined under identical study settings was included. This prospective cohort study comprised 1,577 older women (age 40-50 at enrolment) and 2,920 women aged 22-32. Participants were interviewed and underwent a gynecological examination at two time points (7 years apart). Cervical samples were tested for HPV using Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) and only women who tested HC2-negative at baseline were included. The HPV prevalence among older and younger women was 6.4% and 10.7%, respectively, and there was no "second peak" observed among older women. Recent sexual partners were a strong determinant of HPV appearance irrespective of age. Lifetime number of sexual partners was a significant risk factor for HPV appearance among older women, even after adjustment for recent sexual behavior. In addition, menopause was associated with a non-significantly increased risk of HPV appearance at follow-up. In conclusion, appearance of HPV in previously HPV-negative older women may be due to both recent sexual behavior and previous exposure that is, reactivation of a latent HPV infection. PMID:24610211

  4. HPV-beyond cervical cancer (online resource center).

    PubMed

    Alexander, Kenneth A; Giuliano, Anna R

    2012-07-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) causes more than 99% of all cervical cancers (see Am J Med Resource Center: http://supplements.amjmed.com/2011/HPV/). Exposure to HPV infections occurs in a high proportion of the overall population; however, 2 safe and effective vaccines, HPV2 and HPV4, are approved for the prevention of HPV-16 and HPV-18 infection, the most common causes of cervical cancer. Additionally, HPV4 prevents HPV-6 and HPV-11-related genital warts. While prevention of cervical cancer in women has been the initial aim of vaccination programs, it has now become apparent that HPV causes other types of cancer as well, including vulvar and vaginal cancers in women, penile cancer in men, and anal cancer in both sexes. Furthermore, these viruses have been implicated in head and neck cancers in both men and women as well. It is estimated that HPV-related cancers occur in 10,000 American males annually, suggesting that limiting vaccination programs to females may be underserving a significant proportion of the population. The efficacy of the 2 available vaccines against oncogenic HPV is more than 90% for both cervical and anal intraepithelial neoplasia. For those receiving the HPV4 vaccine, efficacy against genital warts is nearly 90%. Adverse effects are few and include episodes of syncope in the period immediately following vaccination. Benefits of vaccinating males include reduction in disease burden in men and enhanced herd immunity to reduce disease burden in women. PMID:22727241

  5. Understanding genital warts: epidemiology, pathogenesis, and burden of disease of human papillomavirus.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Neal; Lynde, Charles; Vender, Ronald; Bourcier, Marc

    2013-12-01

    As the most commonly sexually transmitted disease worldwide, human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. HPV infections most commonly affect young adults, women under 25 in particular. The most common risk factor for HPV infection in both sexes is a high number of lifetime sexual partners, whereas leading protective factors include circumcision, consistent condom use, and abstinence. Over 100 HPV types have been identified to date and are classified according to their level of oncogenic potential. HPV types 6 and 11 are responsible for approximately 90% of genital warts; HPV types 16 and 18 are responsible for 70% of invasive cervical cancers. External genital warts (EGWs) are the most common clinical manifestation of nononcogenic HPV infection. Coinfection with multiple HPV types is possible and may combine both low- and high-risk types, even in cases of genital warts. HPV infections are DNA viruses transmitted through skin-to-skin contact, invading the basal epithelial cells via microtears and evading the host immune response. Although non-life threatening, even low-risk HPV-type infections such as EGW carry a substantial psychosocial and economic burden. Stressors include the shame and embarrassment related to diagnosis, as well as the inconvenience and discomfort of treatment and the fear of recurrence, transmission, and the possible threat of cancer. Costs relate to routine screening for cervical cancer, treatment of genital warts, and the management and follow-up of malignancies. PMID:24388558

  6. Getting to know human papillomavirus (HPV) and the HPV vaccines.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gregory D; Travis, Lisa

    2011-03-01

    More than 100 types of human papillomavirus (HPV), of which more than 40 are transmitted sexually, affect men and women. The worldwide prevalence of cervical HPV infection is approximately 10%. The most common HPV types worldwide are 16 and 18, which are the main causative viruses for cervical cancer and are both preventable by vaccination. Two HPV vaccines are currently approved in the United States: the quadrivalent HPV recombinant vaccine in males and females and the bivalent HPV recombinant vaccine in females. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices does not recommend routine use of the quadrivalent vaccine in males. The vaccines have been demonstrated to be highly effective in preventing cervical dysplasia, vulvar cancer, and genital warts related to HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18; they are most effective, however, in vaccinees who have never been infected with HPV. Based on a review of the literature, the authors argue that it may be appropriate to routinely vaccinate both males and females to prevent the spread of HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18. PMID:21415377

  7. Studies on the prevalence of oncogenic HPV types among Lithuanian women with cervical pathology.

    PubMed

    Simanaviciene, Vaida; Gudleviciene, Zivile; Popendikyte, Violeta; Dekaminaviciute, Dovile; Stumbryte, Ausra; Rubinaite, Vilija; Zvirbliene, Aurelija

    2015-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause of cervical cancer. Therefore, the detection of oncogenic HPV types is important in predicting the risk of cervical cancer. The aim of the current study was to estimate the prevalence of 16 carcinogenic and potentially carcinogenic HPV types in the study group of Lithuanian women with various grades of cervical pathology in comparison to healthy women. A total of 824 cervical specimens were investigated for HPV DNA: 547 specimens of women with abnormal cytology and 277 specimens of healthy women. Cytological diagnosis was confirmed by histology. For the detection of HPV infection, HPV DNA was amplified by PCR using three different primer systems. HPV DNA was detected in 67.6% of specimens collected from women with abnormal cytology and 24.2% of specimens collected from healthy women. The frequency of HPV-positive specimens correlated with the severity of cervical pathology: it ranged from 50.0% in the subgroup of atypical squamous cells to 80.6% in cervical cancer. In cases confirmed by histology the frequency of HPV-positive specimens ranged from 68.6% in the subgroup of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 to 89.2% in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or carcinoma in situ. HPV DNA-positive samples were further investigated for the presence of 16 HPV types by multiplex PCR. The most common HPV type was HPV 16 (detected in 42.3% of HPV-positive specimens) followed by HPV 31 (10.1%), HPV 33 (8.2%), and HPV 56 (5.7%). In contrast, the frequency of HPV 18 was lower as compared to other countries. PMID:25196501

  8. Hand-genital transmission of genital warts? An analysis of prevalence data.

    PubMed

    Fairley, C K; Gay, N J; Forbes, A; Abramson, M; Garland, S M

    1995-08-01

    The role of hand-genital transmission in the aetiology of genital warts is unclear. However this route is suggested by a number of observations including the relatively high proportion of genital warts in children which contain HPV types 1-4 (15% for children and 2% for adults). We compared two transmission models; one which assumes that hand-genital transmission occurs and one that it does not, and determined the conditions in which each model can reflect the available prevalence data. Hand-genital transmission provides a simple explanation of the observed differences in the proportions of genital warts containing HPV types 1-4 and 6/11 in children and adults. If hand-genital transmission does not occur, the observed difference could only be explained by an eightfold greater probability of transmission to children of types 1-4 than types 6/11, or by an eightfold greater duration of infection with types 1-4. Our findings provide support for the view that genital warts may be transmitted by hand-genital contact. PMID:7641831

  9. [HPV-induced anal lesions].

    PubMed

    Wieland, U; Kreuter, A

    2015-06-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections belong to the most common sexually transmitted infections. To date, more than 200 completely classified HPV-types have been reported, and those belonging to the genus alpha predominantly infect the anogenital region. Condylomata acuminata are caused by the two low-risk types HPV6 and HPV11 in more than 90 % of cases. Treatment of genital warts might be either ablative (e.g. electrocautery, surgical excision, or laser therapy) or topical (e.g. podophyllotoxine, trichloroacetic acid, or imiquimod), and depends on the size, location, morphology and anatomical region. Recurrences after treatment are frequent. Therefore, combination therapies (e.g. topical and ablative) play an important role in daily routine. HIV-infected individuals, especially HIV-positive MSM, have a strongly increased risk for anal dysplasia and anal cancer. Condylomata acuminata and a large proportion of anal dysplasia and anal carcinoma are preventable by prophylactic HPV-vaccination. PMID:25859930

  10. Immunobiology of HPV and HPV vaccines.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Margaret

    2008-05-01

    Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection with both low- and high-risk types is common, but most infections resolve as a result of a cell-mediated immune response. Failure to induce an effective immune response is related to inefficient activation of innate immunity and ineffective priming of the adaptive immune response; this defective immune response facilitates viral persistence, a key feature of high-risk HPV infection. This milieu becomes operationally HPV antigen tolerant, and the host's defenses become irrevocably compromised. HPV antigen-specific effector cells are poorly recruited to the infected focus and their activity is downregulated; neoplastic HPV containing cervical keratinocytes expressing high levels of E6 and E7 oncoproteins are not killed in this immunosuppressive, tolerant milieu, and progression to high-grade disease and cancer can result. Highly efficacious prophylactic HPV L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines circumvent viral epithelial evasion strategies since they are delivered by intramuscular injection. The stromal dendritic cells of the muscle that encounter the highly immunogenic repeat structure of the VLP then migrate with their cargo to the lymph node, initiating an immune cascade that results in a robust T-cell dependent B-cell response, which generates high levels of L1-specific serum neutralizing antibodies and immune memory. PMID:18474288

  11. Multiple Human Papillomavirus Infection Is Associated with High-Risk Infection in Male Genital Warts in Ulsan, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Taekmin; Moon, Kyung Hyun; Yang, Sung-Hak; Roh, Min Cheol; Lee, Sang Hoon; Kim, Je Won; Kim, In Kyu; Roh, Kyoung Ho; Park, Sungchan

    2016-03-01

    Further understanding of male human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is necessary to prevent infection in men, as well as transmission to women. In our current study, we investigated patterns of HPV infection and genotype distributions in male genital warts using the Anyplex II HPV28 Detection kit. We reviewed the medical records of 80 male patients who presented to 5 neighborhood clinics in Ulsan, Korea, for the treatment of genital warts between April 2014 and January 2015. All patients underwent HPV genotyping. The prevalence and characteristics of HPV infection were analyzed, and the patterns of HPV infection according to age were assessed. Among the study patients, 13 (16.3%) were negative for HPV infection, 46 (57.3%) were infected with low-risk HPV, and 21 (26.3%) were infected with high-risk HPV. Patients with multiple HPV infection were more likely to have high-risk HPV infection (P = 0.001). The prevalence of HPV infection was much higher in samples obtained by tissue excision due to a definite lesion (P = 0.001). There were no differences in high-risk HPV infection (P = 0.459), multiple HPV infection (P = 0.185), and recurrence at diagnosis (P = 0.178) according to age. HPV-6 and HPV-11 were the most common type overall (39.7% and 13.8%, respectively). HPV-16 and HPV-18 were the most common high-risk infections (both 3.4%). HPV infection is not only commonly encountered in male genital warts, but is also accompanied by high-risk HPV and multiple infections. PMID:26955236

  12. Multiple Human Papillomavirus Infection Is Associated with High-Risk Infection in Male Genital Warts in Ulsan, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Kyung Hyun; Yang, Sung-Hak; Roh, Min Cheol; Lee, Sang Hoon; Kim, Je Won; Kim, In Kyu; Roh, Kyoung Ho

    2016-01-01

    Further understanding of male human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is necessary to prevent infection in men, as well as transmission to women. In our current study, we investigated patterns of HPV infection and genotype distributions in male genital warts using the Anyplex II HPV28 Detection kit. We reviewed the medical records of 80 male patients who presented to 5 neighborhood clinics in Ulsan, Korea, for the treatment of genital warts between April 2014 and January 2015. All patients underwent HPV genotyping. The prevalence and characteristics of HPV infection were analyzed, and the patterns of HPV infection according to age were assessed. Among the study patients, 13 (16.3%) were negative for HPV infection, 46 (57.3%) were infected with low-risk HPV, and 21 (26.3%) were infected with high-risk HPV. Patients with multiple HPV infection were more likely to have high-risk HPV infection (P = 0.001). The prevalence of HPV infection was much higher in samples obtained by tissue excision due to a definite lesion (P = 0.001). There were no differences in high-risk HPV infection (P = 0.459), multiple HPV infection (P = 0.185), and recurrence at diagnosis (P = 0.178) according to age. HPV-6 and HPV-11 were the most common type overall (39.7% and 13.8%, respectively). HPV-16 and HPV-18 were the most common high-risk infections (both 3.4%). HPV infection is not only commonly encountered in male genital warts, but is also accompanied by high-risk HPV and multiple infections. PMID:26955236

  13. Epidemiology and natural history of genital human papillomavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Bethany A

    2006-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a ubiquitous human pathogen that causes cervical and other anogenital cancers as well as genital warts and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. Human papillomavirus infection is most common among young, sexually active individuals, and it is so prevalent that approximately 75% to 80% of sexually active individuals will become infected in their lifetime. Currently, options are limited for both prevention of infection of patients with HPV-associated disease: infection can only be prevented with complete abstinence from all forms of sexual activity because condoms do not offer complete protection from HPV and HPV can be transmitted by nonintromissive sexual activities. Treatment of patients with HPV-associated disease such as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and genital warts consists of counseling, treatment if indicated, and monitoring for recurrence. Soon, however, prevention of these HPV-related diseases may be available in the form of a prophylactic HPV vaccine. Phase 3 studies of a quadrivalent vaccine that protects against both high- and low-risk types of HPV demonstrated the vaccine to be 100% effective in preventing HPV type 16- and type 18-associated cervical disease, suggesting that these vaccines, if made widely available, will dramatically reduce the burden of HPV-related disease. PMID:16729554

  14. Vulvar Epidermoid Cyst and Type 2 Radical Genital Mutilation

    PubMed Central

    Birge, Ozer; Ozbey, Ertugrul Gazi; Arslan, Deniz; Erkan, Mustafa Melih; Demir, Feyza; Akgor, Utku

    2015-01-01

    About 100 million women are estimated to be circumcised globally. Various rates of complications have been encountered, especially after circumcision, such as bleeding, infection, shock, menstrual irregularity, difficulty in urination or common urinary tract infections, inguinal pain, difficulty in sexual intercourse, and genital circumcision scar especially at the vulvar region, and cystic or solid character mass in short and long term. Furthermore, the maternal-fetal morbidity and mortality increase due to bleeding and fistula, which develop after prolonged labor, travail, and difficult labors. Our aim in this paper was to discuss a 42-year-old multiparous female case who had undergone type 2 radical genital mutilation (circumcision) when she was 7 years of age, along with the literature, which has been evaluated for the gradually growing mass at the left inguinal canal region in the last 10 years and diagnosed as epidermoid inclusion cyst developing secondary to postcircumcision surgical ground trauma, since there was no other case found in the literature search that had been circumcised at such an early age and developing after circumcision at such advanced age, and, therefore, this is suggested to be the first case on this subject. PMID:26682078

  15. Vulvar Epidermoid Cyst and Type 2 Radical Genital Mutilation.

    PubMed

    Birge, Ozer; Ozbey, Ertugrul Gazi; Arslan, Deniz; Erkan, Mustafa Melih; Demir, Feyza; Akgor, Utku

    2015-01-01

    About 100 million women are estimated to be circumcised globally. Various rates of complications have been encountered, especially after circumcision, such as bleeding, infection, shock, menstrual irregularity, difficulty in urination or common urinary tract infections, inguinal pain, difficulty in sexual intercourse, and genital circumcision scar especially at the vulvar region, and cystic or solid character mass in short and long term. Furthermore, the maternal-fetal morbidity and mortality increase due to bleeding and fistula, which develop after prolonged labor, travail, and difficult labors. Our aim in this paper was to discuss a 42-year-old multiparous female case who had undergone type 2 radical genital mutilation (circumcision) when she was 7 years of age, along with the literature, which has been evaluated for the gradually growing mass at the left inguinal canal region in the last 10 years and diagnosed as epidermoid inclusion cyst developing secondary to postcircumcision surgical ground trauma, since there was no other case found in the literature search that had been circumcised at such an early age and developing after circumcision at such advanced age, and, therefore, this is suggested to be the first case on this subject. PMID:26682078

  16. HPV types, HIV and invasive cervical carcinoma risk in Kampala, Uganda: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background While the association of human papillomavirus (HPV) with cervical cancer is well established, the influence of HIV on the risk of this disease in sub-Saharan Africa remains unclear. To assess the risk of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC) associated with HIV and HPV types, a hospital-based case-control study was performed between September 2004 and December 2006 in Kampala, Uganda. Incident cases of histologically-confirmed ICC (N=316) and control women (N=314), who were visitors or care-takers of ICC cases in the hospital, were recruited. Blood samples were obtained for HIV serology and CD4 count, as well as cervical samples for HPV testing. HPV DNA detection and genotyping was performed using the SPF10/DEIA/LiPA25 technique which detects all mucosal HPV types by DEIA and identifies 25 HPV genotypes by LiPA version 1. Samples that tested positive but could not be genotyped were designated HPVX. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by logistic regression, adjusting for possible confounding factors. Results For both squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma of the cervix, statistically significantly increased ORs were found among women infected with HPV, in particular single HPV infections, infections with HPV16-related types and high-risk HPV types, in particular HPV16, 18 and 45. For other HPV types the ORs for both SCC and adenocarcinoma were not statistically significantly elevated. HIV infection and CD4 count were not associated with SCC or adenocarcinoma risk in our study population. Among women infected with high-risk HPV types, no association between HIV and SCC emerged. However, an inverse association with adenocarcinoma was observed, while decrease in CD4 count was not associated with ICC risk. Conclusions The ORs for SCC and adenocarcinoma were increased in women infected with HPV, in particular single HPV infections, infections with HPV16- and 18-related types, and high-risk HPV types, specifically HPV16, 18 and 45. HIV infection and CD4 count were not associated with SCC or adenocarcinoma risk, but among women infected with high-risk HPV types there was an inverse association between HIV infection and adenocarcinoma risk. These results suggest that HIV and CD4 count may have no role in the progression of cervical cancer. PMID:21702999

  17. Transcriptional control of human papillomavirus (HPV) oncogene expression: composition of the HPV type 18 upstream regulatory region.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Butz K; Hoppe-Seyler F

    1993-11-01

    The malignant transformation potential of high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) is closely linked to the expression of the viral E6 and E7 genes. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms resulting in HPV oncogene expression, a systematic analysis of the cis-regulatory elements within the HPV type 18 (HPV18) upstream regulatory region (URR) which regulate the activity of the E6/E7 promoter was performed. As the functional behavior of a given cis-regulatory element can be strongly influenced by the overall composition of a transcriptional control region, individual elements were inactivated by site-directed mutagenesis in the physiological context of the complete HPV18 URR. Subsequently, the effects of these mutations on the activity of the E6/E7 promoter were assessed by transient transfection assays. We found that the transcriptional stimulation of the E6/E7 promoter largely depends on the integrity of cis-regulatory elements bound by AP1, SP1, and in certain epithelial cells, KRF-1. In contrast to previous reports by implying a key role for NF1 and Oct-1 recognition motifs in the stimulation of papillomavirus oncogene expression, the inactivation of these elements in the context of the HPV18 URR did not strongly affect the transcriptional activity of the E6/E7 promoter. Mutation of a promoter-proximal glucocorticoid response element completely abolished dexamethasone inducibility of the HPV18 E6/E7 promoter and resulted in an increase of its basal activity. Functional dissection of the HPV18 constitutive enhancer region indicates that its transcriptional activity is largely generated by functional synergism between a centrally located AP1 module and thus far undetected cis-active elements present in the 5' flank of the enhancer. Furthermore, comparative analyses using homologous and heterologous promoters show that the transcriptional activity of HPV18 enhancer elements is influenced by the nature of the test promoter in a cell-type-specific manner.

  18. Transcriptional control of human papillomavirus (HPV) oncogene expression: composition of the HPV type 18 upstream regulatory region.

    PubMed Central

    Butz, K; Hoppe-Seyler, F

    1993-01-01

    The malignant transformation potential of high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) is closely linked to the expression of the viral E6 and E7 genes. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms resulting in HPV oncogene expression, a systematic analysis of the cis-regulatory elements within the HPV type 18 (HPV18) upstream regulatory region (URR) which regulate the activity of the E6/E7 promoter was performed. As the functional behavior of a given cis-regulatory element can be strongly influenced by the overall composition of a transcriptional control region, individual elements were inactivated by site-directed mutagenesis in the physiological context of the complete HPV18 URR. Subsequently, the effects of these mutations on the activity of the E6/E7 promoter were assessed by transient transfection assays. We found that the transcriptional stimulation of the E6/E7 promoter largely depends on the integrity of cis-regulatory elements bound by AP1, SP1, and in certain epithelial cells, KRF-1. In contrast to previous reports by implying a key role for NF1 and Oct-1 recognition motifs in the stimulation of papillomavirus oncogene expression, the inactivation of these elements in the context of the HPV18 URR did not strongly affect the transcriptional activity of the E6/E7 promoter. Mutation of a promoter-proximal glucocorticoid response element completely abolished dexamethasone inducibility of the HPV18 E6/E7 promoter and resulted in an increase of its basal activity. Functional dissection of the HPV18 constitutive enhancer region indicates that its transcriptional activity is largely generated by functional synergism between a centrally located AP1 module and thus far undetected cis-active elements present in the 5' flank of the enhancer. Furthermore, comparative analyses using homologous and heterologous promoters show that the transcriptional activity of HPV18 enhancer elements is influenced by the nature of the test promoter in a cell-type-specific manner. Images PMID:8411351

  19. One virus, one lesion--individual components of CIN lesions contain a specific HPV type.

    PubMed

    Quint, Wim; Jenkins, David; Molijn, Anco; Struijk, Linda; van de Sandt, Miekel; Doorbar, John; Mols, Johann; Van Hoof, Christine; Hardt, Karin; Struyf, Frank; Colau, Brigitte

    2012-05-01

    In 20-40% of cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN) and in 4-8% of cervical carcinoma tissue specimens, multiple HPV genotypes have been detected. Whole tissue section (WTS) PCR does not determine how the individual types relate causally to complex and multiple CIN. Our objective was to determine whether laser capture micro-dissection (LCM) with HPV PCR genotyping (LCM-PCR) could accurately recover type-specific HPV DNA from epithelial cells in individual areas of CIN and normal epithelium, and whether one or more viruses are present in one lesion. For that, histologically selected samples of CIN and normal epithelium were isolated by LCM and analysed by the SPF(10) PCR/LiPA(25) (version 1) HPV genotyping system for 25 HPV genotypes. HPV genotypes detected in 756 areas of CIN (grade 1, 2 or 3) by LCM-PCR were compared with results obtained by WTS-PCR in 60 cases (74 biopsies). We showed that when a single HPV type is detected by WTS-PCR, that type was almost always (94%; 29/31) recovered by LCM-PCR from CIN. When multiple HPV types were present by WTS-PCR, their distribution within histological sections could be mapped by LCM-PCR. Association of a single HPV type with a discrete area of CIN was found for 93% (372/399) of LCM fragments analysed by PCR. We found colliding CIN lesions associated with separate HPV types and only 62% (61/99) of HPV types detected by WTS-PCR were found in CIN by LCM-PCR. Therefore, the LCM-PCR technique was found very accurate for high-resolution HPV genotyping and for assigning an individual HPV type to an area of CIN. At LCM level, in cervical biopsy sections with multiple HPV infections, the relation between HPV types and CIN lesions is often complex. Almost every HPV type found in CIN by LCM-PCR is associated with a biological separate independent CIN lesion-one virus, one lesion. PMID:22127961

  20. Identification of a Dendrimeric Heparan Sulfate-Binding Peptide That Inhibits Infectivity of Genital Types of Human Papillomaviruses?

    PubMed Central

    Donalisio, Manuela; Rusnati, Marco; Civra, Andrea; Bugatti, Antonella; Allemand, Donatella; Pirri, Giovanna; Giuliani, Andrea; Landolfo, Santo; Lembo, David

    2010-01-01

    Peptide dendrimers consist of a peptidyl branching core and/or covalently attached surface functional units. They show a variety of biological properties, including antiviral activity. In this study, a minilibrary of linear, dimeric, and dendrimeric peptides containing clusters of basic amino acids was evaluated for in vitro activity against human papillomaviruses (HPVs). The peptide dendrimer SB105-A10 was found to be a potent inhibitor of genital HPV types (i.e., types 16, 18, and 6) in pseudovirus-based neutralization assays. The 50% inhibitory concentration was between 2.8 and 4.2 ?g/ml (0.59 and 0.88 ?M), and no evidence of cytotoxicity was observed. SB105-A10 interacts with immobilized heparin and with heparan sulfates exposed on the cell surface, most likely preventing virus attachment. The findings from this study indicate SB105-A10 to be a leading candidate compound for further development as an active ingredient of a topical microbicide against HPV and other sexually transmitted viral infections. PMID:20643894

  1. The HPV Vaccine: Framing the Arguments "for" and "against" Mandatory Vaccination of All Middle School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vamos, Cheryl A.; McDermott, Robert J.; Daley, Ellen M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV), the virus responsible for cervical cancer, is the most common viral sexually transmitted infection in the United States. A vaccine was approved in 2006 that is effective in preventing the types of HPV responsible for 70% of cervical cancers and 90% of genital warts. Proposals for routine and mandatory HPV…

  2. Concurrence of oral and genital human papillomavirus infection in healthy men: a population-based cross-sectional study in rural China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fangfang; Hang, Dong; Deng, Qiuju; Liu, Mengfei; Xi, Longfu; He, Zhonghu; Zhang, Chaoting; Sun, Min; Liu, Ying; Li, Jingjing; Pan, Yaqi; Ning, Tao; Guo, Chuanhai; Liang, Yongmei; Xu, Ruiping; Zhang, Lixin; Cai, Hong; Ke, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, a primary cause of genital cancer, is also related to the increasing incidence of oropharyngeal cancer among young men. Relatively little is known about the concurrence of oral and genital infection among healthy individuals. Oral and genital swab exfoliated cells were collected simultaneously from 2566 men in rural China. Using general primer-mediated (SPF1/GP6+) PCR and sequencing, HPV testing results were obtained from 2228 men with both valid oral and genital specimens (β-globin-positive). The prevalence of HPV infection was 6.7% in the oral cavity and 16.9% for the external genitalia. Among 43 men (1.9%, 43/2228) with oral-genital coinfection, 60.5% (26/43) harbored an identical HPV type at both sites. The risk of oral HPV infection was higher among men with genital infection than among uninfected men (11.4% vs. 5.7%, Adjusted OR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.6–3.4). In addition, having multiple lifetime sexual partners was a significant risk for oral-genital HPV coinfection (Adjusted OR = 2.6, 95% CI: 1.0–7.0; 2 partners vs. 1 partner). These findings provide a basis for further understanding the natural history and transmission dynamics of oral HPV infection. PMID:26503510

  3. Concurrence of oral and genital human papillomavirus infection in healthy men: a population-based cross-sectional study in rural China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fangfang; Hang, Dong; Deng, Qiuju; Liu, Mengfei; Xi, Longfu; He, Zhonghu; Zhang, Chaoting; Sun, Min; Liu, Ying; Li, Jingjing; Pan, Yaqi; Ning, Tao; Guo, Chuanhai; Liang, Yongmei; Xu, Ruiping; Zhang, Lixin; Cai, Hong; Ke, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, a primary cause of genital cancer, is also related to the increasing incidence of oropharyngeal cancer among young men. Relatively little is known about the concurrence of oral and genital infection among healthy individuals. Oral and genital swab exfoliated cells were collected simultaneously from 2566 men in rural China. Using general primer-mediated (SPF1/GP6+) PCR and sequencing, HPV testing results were obtained from 2228 men with both valid oral and genital specimens (?-globin-positive). The prevalence of HPV infection was 6.7% in the oral cavity and 16.9% for the external genitalia. Among 43 men (1.9%, 43/2228) with oral-genital coinfection, 60.5% (26/43) harbored an identical HPV type at both sites. The risk of oral HPV infection was higher among men with genital infection than among uninfected men (11.4% vs. 5.7%, Adjusted OR?=?2.3, 95% CI: 1.6-3.4). In addition, having multiple lifetime sexual partners was a significant risk for oral-genital HPV coinfection (Adjusted OR?=?2.6, 95% CI: 1.0-7.0; 2 partners vs. 1 partner). These findings provide a basis for further understanding the natural history and transmission dynamics of oral HPV infection. PMID:26503510

  4. Male circumcision and prevalence of genital human papillomavirus infection in men: a multinational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Accumulated evidence from epidemiological studies and more recently from randomized controlled trials suggests that male circumcision (MC) may substantially protect against genital HPV infection in men. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between MC and genital HPV infection in men in a large multinational study. Methods A total of 4072 healthy men ages 18–70 years were enrolled in a study conducted in Brazil, Mexico, and the United States. Enrollment samples combining exfoliated cells from the coronal sulcus, glans penis, shaft, and scrotum were analyzed for the presence and genotyping of HPV DNA by PCR and linear array methods. Prevalence ratios (PR) were used to estimate associations between MC and HPV detection adjusting for potential confounders. Results MC was not associated with overall prevalence of any HPV, oncogenic HPV types or unclassified HPV types. However, MC was negatively associated with non-oncogenic HPV infections (PR 0.85, 95% confident interval: 0.76-0.95), in particular for HPV types 11, 40, 61, 71, and 81. HPV 16, 51, 62, and 84 were the most frequently identified genotypes regardless of MC status. Conclusions This study shows no overall association between MC and genital HPV infections in men, except for certain non-oncogenic HPV types for which a weak association was found. However, the lack of association with MC might be due to the lack of anatomic site specific HPV data, for example the glans penis, the area expected to be most likely protected by MC. PMID:23327450

  5. Oncogenic and nononcogenic human genital papillomaviruses generate the E7 mRNA by different mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Smotkin, D; Prokoph, H; Wettstein, F O

    1989-01-01

    A new promoter located within E6 was mapped in human papillomavirus type 6b (HPV6b)- and HPV11-containing benign genital condylomata (genital warts). The RNA transcribed from this promoter represented the major RNA species colinear with open reading frames E6 and E7 and can encode the E7 protein. No equivalent promoter was active in HPV16-containing cancers and cancer-derived cell lines. In those, the major transcripts contained one of two different introns within E6 and the RNAs could encode two different E6 proteins and E7. Images PMID:2536845

  6. Distribution of human papillomavirus types in the anogenital tract of females and males.

    PubMed

    Barzon, Luisa; Militello, Valentina; Pagni, Silvana; Franchin, Elisa; Dal Bello, Federico; Mengoli, Carlo; Palù, Giorgio

    2010-08-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection in both men and women, but there are limited data comparing the prevalence of HPV infection between genders and in different anogenital sites. This cross-sectional analysis describes the distribution of HPV types in the genital tract of 3,410 consecutive females and 1,033 males undergoing voluntary screening for HPV and referred to a single institution. The relationship between specific HPV types and the presence of anogenital lesions was examined. In both females and males, the overall prevalence of HPV infection was about 40%. A wide variety of HPV types was identified, but the prevalence of different types was remarkably similar in the two genders, even when considering different anatomical sites. HPV-6 was the most frequent (prevalence 13%) type in all anogenital sites in men followed by HPV-16 (7%), while HPV-16 was the most common type in women (about 6%), either in the cervix, vagina, or vulva, followed by HPV-6. In addition to HPV-16, HPV-58, HPV-33, HPV-31, and HPV-56 were the carcinogenic types detected most commonly and were significantly associated with high-grade squamous intraepithelial cervical lesions, while HPV-53 and HPV-66 were the most common among possibly carcinogenic types. In both genders, anogenital warts were associated with HPV-6 and HPV-11 infection, and, less frequently, with other types, like HPV-54, HPV-62, and HPV-66. These results show that genital HPV infection involves numerous HPV types, which have similar distribution patterns in females and males and in different anogenital anatomical sites. PMID:20572068

  7. Clinical features of external genital warts.

    PubMed

    Lynde, Charles; Vender, Ronald; Bourcier, Marc; Bhatia, Neal

    2013-12-01

    External genital warts (EGWs) are a common sexually transmitted infection caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). Although over 100 HPV types have been identified, some of which are associated with cancer, EGWs are caused by noncancerous HPV subtypes 6 and 11. This cutaneous manifestation of HPV infection can be asymptomatic or produce warty lesions that may assume a cauliflower-like, flat, papular, or keratotic appearance. Physical symptoms may also accompany warts, such as pruritus, burning, pain, and obstruction. EGWs typically appear in anogenital areas, such as the vulva, penis, groin, perineum, perianal skin, or mucosal surfaces. EGWs are typically a transient type of infection that often spontaneously regresses without treatment, but long-term remission rates are currently unknown. Treatment is determined according to the size and number of lesions, which can cluster or develop at multiple sites. Because of the individual variability in disease, treatment should be determined on a case-by-case basis. Further investigation, such as a biopsy, may be advisable in cases of atypical lesions, lesions that are unresponsive to therapies, and immunocompromised individuals, who are essentially more susceptible to HPV infections and less responsive to treatment. Although HPV testing is available, it is not currently recommended for detection and HPV typing. Differential diagnoses may include normal skin variations, other infectious or inflammatory diseases, and cancerous growths. PMID:24388559

  8. E4 Antibodies Facilitate Detection and Type-Assignment of Active HPV Infection in Cervical Disease

    PubMed Central

    Marnane, Rebecca; Dewar, Vincent; Molijn, Anco; Quint, Wim; Van Hoof, Christine; Struyf, Frank; Colau, Brigitte; Jenkins, David; Doorbar, John

    2012-01-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are the cause of nearly all cases of cervical cancer. Although the detection of HPV DNA has proved useful in cervical diagnosis, it does not necessarily predict disease presence or severity, and cannot conclusively identify the causative type when multiple HPVs are present. Such limitations may be addressed using complementary approaches such as cytology, laser capture microscopy, and/or the use of infection biomarkers. One such infection biomarker is the HPV E4 protein, which is expressed at high level in cells that are supporting (or have supported) viral genome amplification. Its distribution in lesions has suggested a role in disease staging. Here we have examined whether type-specific E4 antibodies may also allow the identification and/or confirmation of causal HPV-type. To do this, type-specific polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against three E4 proteins (HPV-16, -18, and -58) were generated and validated by ELISA and western blotting, and by immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining of epithelial rafts containing these individual HPV types. Type-specific detection of HPV and its associated disease was subsequently examined using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cervical intra-epithelial neoplasias (CIN, (n = 247)) and normal controls (n = 28). All koilocytotic CIN1 lesions showed type-specific E4 expression of their respective HPV types. Differences were noted amongst E4 expression patterns in CIN3. HPV-18 E4 was not detected in any of the 6 HPV-18 DNA-positive CIN3 lesions examined, whereas in HPV-16 and -58 CIN3, 28/37 (76%) and 5/9 (55.6%) expressed E4 respectively, usually in regions of epithelial differentiation. Our results demonstrate that type-specific E4 antibodies can be used to help establish causality, as may be required when multiple HPV types are detected. The unique characteristics of the E4 biomarker suggest a role in diagnosis and patient management particularly when used in combination. PMID:23226504

  9. Human Papillomavirus neutralizing and cross-reactive antibodies induced in HIV-positive subjects after vaccination with quadrivalent and bivalent HPV vaccines.

    PubMed

    Faust, Helena; Toft, Lars; Sehr, Peter; Müller, Martin; Bonde, Jesper; Forslund, Ola; Østergaard, Lars; Tolstrup, Martin; Dillner, Joakim

    2016-03-18

    Ninety-one HIV-infected individuals (61 men and 30 women) were randomized to vaccination either with quadrivalent (Gardasil™) or bivalent (Cervarix™) HPV vaccine. Neutralizing and specific HPV-binding serum antibodies were measured at baseline and 12 months after the first vaccine dose. Presence of neutralizing and binding antibodies had good agreement (average Kappa for HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33 and 45 was 0.65). At baseline, 88% of subjects had antibodies against at least one genital HPV. Following vaccination with Cervarix™, all subjects became seropositive for HPV16 and 18. After Gardasil™ vaccination, 96% of subjects seroconverted for HPV16 and 73% for HPV18. Levels of HPV16-specific antibodies were <1 international unit (IU) in 87% of study subjects before vaccination but >10IU in 85% of study subjects after vaccination. Antibodies against non-vaccine HPV types appeared after Gardasil™ vaccination for >50% of vaccinated females for HPV 31, 35 and 73 and for >50% of Cervarix™-vaccinated females for HPV 31, 33, 35, 45, 56 and 58. Cross-reactivity with non-genital HPV types was also detected. In conclusion, HIV-infected subjects responded to HPV vaccination with induction of neutralizing antibodies against both vaccine and non-vaccine types. PMID:26896686

  10. HPV: diagnosis, prevention, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Hathaway, Jon K

    2012-09-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted disease in the world. Almost 80% of the world's population is exposed by the age of 50. HPV can cause oropharyngeal, genital, and anal cancers. It also causes genital warts. There is no cure for HPV but vaccines are available to prevent infection by the most common HPV viruses; unfortunately, usage is low. Most people will clear HPV spontaneously. Those who do not are at high risk for developing malignancy. Treatment mainstays are destruction and excision of the lesions. PMID:22828099

  11. Cross-Reactivity, Epitope Spreading, and De Novo Immune Stimulation Are Possible Mechanisms of Cross-Protection of Nonvaccine Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Types in Recipients of HPV Therapeutic Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Mayumi; Greenfield, William; Moerman-Herzog, Andrea; Coleman, Hannah N

    2015-07-01

    Numerous versions of human papillomavirus (HPV) therapeutic vaccines designed to treat individuals with established HPV infection, including those with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), are in development because approved prophylactic vaccines are not effective once HPV infection is established. As human papillomavirus 16 (HPV-16) is the most commonly detected type worldwide, all versions of HPV therapeutic vaccines contain HPV-16, and some also contain HPV-18. While these two HPV types are responsible for approximately 70% of cervical cancer cases, there are other high-risk HPV types known to cause malignancy. Therefore, it would be of interest to assess whether these HPV therapeutic vaccines may confer cross-protection against other high-risk HPV types. Data available from a few clinical trials that enrolled subjects with CINs regardless of the HPV type(s) present demonstrated clinical responses, as measured by CIN regression, in subjects with both vaccine-matched and nonvaccine HPV types. The currently available evidence demonstrating cross-reactivity, epitope spreading, and de novo immune stimulation as possible mechanisms of cross-protection conferred by investigational HPV therapeutic vaccines is discussed. PMID:25947147

  12. Cross-Reactivity, Epitope Spreading, and De Novo Immune Stimulation Are Possible Mechanisms of Cross-Protection of Nonvaccine Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Types in Recipients of HPV Therapeutic Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, William; Moerman-Herzog, Andrea; Coleman, Hannah N.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous versions of human papillomavirus (HPV) therapeutic vaccines designed to treat individuals with established HPV infection, including those with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), are in development because approved prophylactic vaccines are not effective once HPV infection is established. As human papillomavirus 16 (HPV-16) is the most commonly detected type worldwide, all versions of HPV therapeutic vaccines contain HPV-16, and some also contain HPV-18. While these two HPV types are responsible for approximately 70% of cervical cancer cases, there are other high-risk HPV types known to cause malignancy. Therefore, it would be of interest to assess whether these HPV therapeutic vaccines may confer cross-protection against other high-risk HPV types. Data available from a few clinical trials that enrolled subjects with CINs regardless of the HPV type(s) present demonstrated clinical responses, as measured by CIN regression, in subjects with both vaccine-matched and nonvaccine HPV types. The currently available evidence demonstrating cross-reactivity, epitope spreading, and de novo immune stimulation as possible mechanisms of cross-protection conferred by investigational HPV therapeutic vaccines is discussed. PMID:25947147

  13. Human papillomavirus in men: comparison of different genital sites

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, L V; Lazcano‐Ponce, E; Vaccarella, S; Cruz, A; Hernández, P; Smith, J S; Muñoz, N; Kornegay, J R; Hernández‐Avila, M; Franceschi, S

    2006-01-01

    Objective To elucidate which anatomical sites need to be sampled to detect human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the lower male genital tract. Method In an HPV survey of Mexican soldiers (median age 24 years; range 16–50 years), a cell sample from 2 cm deep into the distal urethra (group 1; n = 168 men), or 0.5 cm deep into the meatus urethralis (group 2; n = 414 men) was collected, along with a sample from the external genitalia. The different samples were tested for 27 HPV types using a polymerase chain reaction based strip assay. Results HPV DNA was detected more frequently in external genitalia samples (46.4%) than in the urethra (20.8%) or meatus samples (12.1%). Lack of samples from the urethra or meatus would have led to 5.1% and 1.5% false HPV negative results, respectively. The most frequently detected high risk HPV types (HPV 59, 52, 51, and 16) were similar in different sites, whereas low risk types were found rarely in urethra samples. Conclusions The addition of cell samples from the meatus to those from external genitalia contributed negligibly to the evaluation of the prevalence of HPV in men. HPV detection was slightly improved by the addition of urethra samples, but the gain may not justify the discomfort of the procedure in large epidemiological studies. PMID:16461598

  14. Trivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) VLP vaccine covering HPV type 58 can elicit high level of humoral immunity but also induce immune interference among component types.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ting; Xu, Yufei; Qiao, Liang; Wang, Youchun; Wu, Xueling; Fan, Dongsheng; Peng, Qinglin; Xu, Xuemei

    2010-04-26

    Both Human Papillomavirus (HPV) type 16/18 bivalent vaccine and type 16/18/6/11 quadrivalent vaccine have been proved to be safe and effective, and licensed for public use. However, these two vaccines do not quite match the distribution of HPV types in China, Southeast Asia and Latin America, where HPV 58 is highly prevalent. Here we produced three types of virus-like particles (VLPs) in baculovirus expression system, formulated a trivalent vaccine containing HPV 16, 18, and 58 L1 VLPs and examined its in vitro neutralizing titers. This vaccine could induce high level and long-term humoral immunity against the component types. But immune interference was observed when comparing type specific neutralizing antibody levels induced by trivalent vaccine to those by corresponding monovalent vaccines. This kind of interference would become more obvious when formulating more types of VLPs into multivalent vaccines, but could be greatly overcome by decreasing the antigen dosage and adding a proper adjuvant. PMID:20211219

  15. HPV Infection in a Cohort of HIV-Positive Men and Women: Prevalence of Oncogenic Genotypes and Predictors of Mucosal Damage at Genital and Oral Sites.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, Giulia; Comi, Laura; Bini, Teresa; Rovati, Marco; Bai, Francesca; Cassani, Barbara; Ravizza, Marina; Tarozzi, Marco; Pandolfo, Alessandro; Dalzero, Serena; Opocher, Enrico; Romagnoli, Solange; Carrassi, Antonio; Bosari, Silvano; d'Arminio Monforte, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of HPV infection and determinants of abnormal cytology in HIV-positive patients. In a cross-sectional study, patients of both sexes, asymptomatic for HPV, underwent anorectal (men)/cervical (women) and oral swabs. Cytology and HPV-PCR detection/genotyping (high- and low-risk genotypes, HR-LR/HPV) were performed. A total of 20% of the 277 enrolled patients showed oral HPV, with no atypical cytology; in men, anal HPV prevalence was 81% with 64% HR genotypes. In women, cervical HPV prevalence was 58% with 37% HR-HPV. The most frequent genotypes were HPV-16 and HPV-18; 37% of men and 20% of women harbored multiple genotypes. Also, 47% of men showed anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs); 6% had high- and 35% low-grade SILs (HSILs/LSILs); 5% had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US). HR-HPV was independently associated with anal-SIL in men (P = 0.039). Moreover, 37% of women showed cervical SIL: 14 ASC-US, 15 LSILs, 4 HSILs, and 1 in situ cancer. The presence of both LR and HR-HPV in women was independently associated with SIL (P = 0.003 and P = 0.0001). HR-HPV and atypical cytology were frequently identified in our cohort. HPV screening should be mandatory in HIV-infected subjects, and vaccine programs for HPV-negative patients should be implemented. PMID:26316967

  16. HPV Infection in a Cohort of HIV-Positive Men and Women: Prevalence of Oncogenic Genotypes and Predictors of Mucosal Damage at Genital and Oral Sites

    PubMed Central

    Marchetti, Giulia; Comi, Laura; Bini, Teresa; Rovati, Marco; Bai, Francesca; Cassani, Barbara; Ravizza, Marina; Tarozzi, Marco; Pandolfo, Alessandro; Dalzero, Serena; Opocher, Enrico; Romagnoli, Solange; Carrassi, Antonio; Bosari, Silvano; d'Arminio Monforte, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of HPV infection and determinants of abnormal cytology in HIV-positive patients. In a cross-sectional study, patients of both sexes, asymptomatic for HPV, underwent anorectal (men)/cervical (women) and oral swabs. Cytology and HPV-PCR detection/genotyping (high- and low-risk genotypes, HR-LR/HPV) were performed. A total of 20% of the 277 enrolled patients showed oral HPV, with no atypical cytology; in men, anal HPV prevalence was 81% with 64% HR genotypes. In women, cervical HPV prevalence was 58% with 37% HR-HPV. The most frequent genotypes were HPV-16 and HPV-18; 37% of men and 20% of women harbored multiple genotypes. Also, 47% of men showed anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs); 6% had high- and 35% low-grade SILs (HSILs/LSILs); 5% had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US). HR-HPV was independently associated with anal-SIL in men (P = 0.039). Moreover, 37% of women showed cervical SIL: 14 ASC-US, 15 LSILs, 4 HSILs, and 1 in situ cancer. The presence of both LR and HR-HPV in women was independently associated with SIL (P = 0.003 and P = 0.0001). HR-HPV and atypical cytology were frequently identified in our cohort. HPV screening should be mandatory in HIV-infected subjects, and vaccine programs for HPV-negative patients should be implemented. PMID:26316967

  17. Genital Herpes: Review of the Epidemic and Potential Use of Type-Specific Serology

    PubMed Central

    Ashley, Rhoda L.; Wald, Anna

    1999-01-01

    Prevention of genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections is desirable from both a public health standpoint and the patient’s perspective. A key factor in the spread of genital herpes infections is the high proportion of undiagnosed infections. Persons with subclinical or unrecognized infections are best diagnosed by accurate, type-specific antibody tests. Unfortunately, these tests are only now becoming widely available. The use of current, conventional (non-type-specific) serologic tests for diagnosis of herpes infections has resulted in confusion and misdiagnosis of patients. This review provides recent information on the epidemiology of genital herpes infections, describes the importance of subclinical herpes infection and shedding, summarizes the status of HSV type-specific serologic assays being developed, and provides indications for using such assays. PMID:9880471

  18. HPV type distribution in invasive cervical cancers in Italy: pooled analysis of three large studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to describe the prevalence of HPV types in invasive cervical cancers in Italy from 1996 to 2008. Methods A pooled analysis of the three largest case series typed to date was performed. HPV typing was performed on paraffin-embedded slices. Molecular analyses were performed in four laboratories. Multivariate analyses were performed to test the associations between calendar time, age, and geographical area and the proportion of types 16/18. Results Out of 574 cancers, 24 (4.2%) were HPV negative. HPV 16 and 18 were responsible for 74.4% (378/508) and 80.3% (49/61) of the squamous cancers and adenocarcinomas, respectively. Other frequent types were 31 (9.5%), 45 (6.4%), and 58 (3.3%) for squamous cancers and 45 (13.3%), 31, 35, and 58 (5.0%) for adenocarcinomas. The proportion of HPV 16 and/or 18 decreased with age (p-value for trend <0.03), while it increased in cancers diagnosed in more recent years (p-value for trend < 0.005). Conclusions The impact of HPV 16/18 vaccine on cervical cancer will be greater for early onset cancers. In vaccinated women, screening could be started at an older age without reducing protection. PMID:23110797

  19. Treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16-infected cells using herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase-mediated gene therapy transcriptionally regulated by the HPV E2 protein.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Neerja; Palefsky, Joel

    2003-01-01

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) is associated with development of anogenital squamous cell cancers (SCCs) and their precursor, intraepithelial neoplasia (IN). Few approaches to the treatment of IN to prevent SCC are targeted specifically to HPV. We have designed an HPV-specific therapy using the herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV-1 TK) gene driven by an HPV-specific promoter in the HPV-16 long control region (LCR) (nucleotide 7450-nucleotide 104), which is regulated by the HPV E2 protein. Expression of the HSV-1 TK gene is designed to render HPV-infected cells sensitive to the prodrugs ganciclovir (GCV) and acyclovir (ACV). To assess the E2 specificity of gene expression driven by the HPV-16 LCR, we measured luciferase expression in HPV-positive and HPV-negative cell lines. Significant induction of luciferase activity was observed in HPV-positive cells when compared with four different HPV-negative epithelial cell lines. Cotransfection of an HPV-negative cell line, MDCK, with an HPV-16 E2-expressing plasmid resulted in 15- to 20-fold induction of luciferase activity, suggesting specific activation by E2 protein. A plasmid expressing the HSV-1 TK gene driven by the LCR was transfected into CaSki and SiHa cells. Treatment of transfected cells with either GCV or ACV (20-30 microg/ml) for 6-10 days resulted in 80-95% cell death. Cell death was progressive, dose dependent, and mediated by apoptosis. These results suggest that direct gene transfer of the HSV-1 TK gene into HPV-16-infected cells expressing E2 protein, accompanied by treatment with either GCV or ACV, may be a clinically feasible therapeutic strategy. PMID:12573058

  20. Verruca vulgaris of the vulva in children and adults: a nonvenereal type of vulvar wart.

    PubMed

    Aguilera-Barrantes, Irene; Magro, Cynthia; Nuovo, Gerard J

    2007-04-01

    Condyloma acuminata are common lesions of the vulva in adults, and associated with infection by human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6 and 11, which are acquired via sexual contact. The detection of an HPV 6/11 condyloma in the genital tract of a child, therefore, raises the question of sexual abuse. In this study, 29 genital warts in girls less than 5 years of age were examined for nongenital and genital tract HPVs by in situ hybridization. These results were compared with 275 vulvar lesions clinically suspicious for condyloma from adults. Of the 27 HPV-related lesions in young girls, 11 (41%) were due to HPV 2 whereas the other 16 (59%) were associated with HPV 6/11 infection. Of the 214/275 (78%) HPV positive vulvar lesions in adults, 6 (3%) were due to HPV 2 whereas 202/214 (94%) contained HPVs 6/11; 1 lesion contained HPV 16 and the 5 other lesions contained HPV 42, 43, or 44. Histologic correlation documented that the vulvar lesions positive for HPV 2 commonly showed the marked hyperkeratosis typical of verruca vulgaris. However, the verrucous pattern was present in lesions HPV 6/11 positive. It is concluded that verruca vulgaris of the vulva, which is likely not transmitted sexually, can occur, albeit rarely, in the genital tract of women and is common in the genital tracts of young girls. This highlights the value of HPV testing in such cases, especially if the histologic changes are consistent with verruca vulgaris. PMID:17414099

  1. HPV vaccination and cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Szarewski, Anne

    2012-12-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide and often affects women under 40 years with young families. Vaccination against the human papillomavirus (HPV) is a major advance, since it offers primary prevention against the infectious agent that is the main cause of the disease. Two prophylactic vaccines have shown great promise in clinical trials. One of these (Gardasil(®)) contains all four HPV types, offering protection against genital warts (types 6 and 11) as well as cervical cancer (types 16 and 18). The other (Cervarix(®)) contains types 16 and 18, targeting cervical cancer alone, but also has a degree of cross-protection against types 31 and 45, which could significantly increase the level of protection. Adolescent girls remain the primary target of vaccination programmes, but the issues of vaccinating boys and older women are increasingly debated. PMID:22890794

  2. Distribution of high and low risk HPV types by cytological status: a population based study from Italy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background HPV type distribution by cytological status represents useful information to predict the impact of mass vaccination on screening programs. Methods women aged from 25 to 64 who attended cervical cancer screening in five different Italian regions were tested for HPV infection with Hybrid Capture II (HCII) low and high risk probes. Women repeating Pap-test upon unsatisfactory or positive results, or as a post-treatment and post-colposcopy follow-up analysis, were excluded from our study. High risk (HR) HPV positive samples were typed using GP5+/GP6+ primed PCR, followed by Reverse Line Blot for 18 high/intermediate risk HPV types, while low risk (LR) HPV positive samples were tested with type specific primers for HPV6 and HPV11. Results 3410 women had a valid HCII and Pap-test. The prevalence of HR and LR infections was 7.0% and 3.6%, 29.1% and 13.7%, 68.1% and 31.9%, 60.0% and 0.0%, 65.0% and 12.0%, for negative, ASC-US, L-SIL, ASC-H and H-SIL cytology, respectively. The fraction of ASC-US+ cytology due to HPV 16 and 18 ranged from 11.2 (HPV 16/18 alone) to 15.4% (including HPV 16/18 in co-infection with other virus strains), and that due to HPV 6 and 11 ranged from 0.2% (HPV 6/11 alone) to 0.7% (including HPV 6/11 in co-infection with other LR virus strains). Conclusions mass vaccination with bivalent or quadrivalent HPV vaccine would modestly impact on prevalence of abnormal Pap-test in screening. PMID:21247508

  3. Human papillomavirus genotypes in genital warts in Latin America: a cross-sectional study in Bogota, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Suarez, G; Pineros, M; Vargas, J C; Orjuela, L; Hernandez, F; Peroza, C; Torres, D; Escobar, A; Perez, G

    2013-07-01

    Epidemiological studies on benign lesions related to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection are scarce in Latin America. We enrolled 342 consecutive patients with lesions suspected of being genital warts (GW). All patients underwent confirmatory biopsy and GP5+/GP6+/- Reverse Line Blot HPV testing on frozen tissue. In 261 (81%) cases, the diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology and HPV was detected in 90.6% of men and 87.7% of women. HPV 6 was by far the most common type in both women (62%) and men (56%), followed by HPV 11 (∼20%). Co-infection with these two types occurred in 7% and 12% of women and men, respectively. HPV16 ranked third in prevalence, with 16% of patients testing positive. Twenty-five percent of cases tested positive for multiple HPV genotypes. Although HPV 6 and HPV 11 were the main types detected and no differences between men and women were observed, we found HPV 11 contributed more to GW aetiology compared with previous reports, showing a variability of HPV type distribution in GW across populations. This information is valuable baseline data in Latin America for future estimations of the burden of GW in men and women and shows the potential benefit obtainable by prophylactic vaccination against HPV types 6 and 11. PMID:23970773

  4. Relationship between HPV typing and the status of G2 cell cycle regulators in cervical neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Yasunori; Tsuda, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Sadako; Inoue, Takeshi; Kawamura, Naoki; Yamamoto, Kumio

    2004-09-01

    We examined human papillomavirus (HPV) typing and the status of ATM, chk2, CDC25C, cdc2 and cyclinB1 in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and invasive cancer (IC). A total of 93 samples [normal: 10; CIN: 34 (CINI:9, CINII:12, CINIII:13); IC: 49 (stage I:10, stage II:21, stage III:15, stage IV:3)] were included in this study. HPV status was evaluated by the PCR non-radioactive HPV detection system. We analyzed ATM, chk2, CDC25C, cdc2 and cyclinB1 protein expression by immunohistochemistry. HPV DNA was detected in 73.5% of 34 CINs and 89.8% of 49 ICs. Detection of HPV subtypes 16 and 18 was more frequent in ICs (46.9%) than in CINs (23.5%) (p=0.0387). Abnormal expression of ATM, chk2, CDC25C, cdc2 and cyclinB1 were 2.9%, 32.4%, 2.9% 20.6% and 0% in CINs and 8.2%, 30.6%, 10.2%, 46.9% and 12.2% in ICs. The alteration of cdc2 was higher in ICs than in CINs (p=0.0198). Altered expression of cdc2 was higher in HPV16 and 18 cases (69.6%) than in other cases (26.9%) (p=0.0042). However, the relationship between HPV typing and ATM, chk2, CDC25C and cyclinB1 expression was not significant. Cdc2 is implicated in cervical carcinogenesis and may be related to p53 inactivation by HPV. PMID:15289842

  5. Upstream regulatory region alterations found in human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) isolates from cervical carcinomas increase transcription, ori function, and HPV immortalization capacity in culture.

    PubMed

    Lace, Michael J; Isacson, Christina; Anson, James R; Lörincz, Attila T; Wilczynski, Sharon P; Haugen, Thomas H; Turek, Lubomír P

    2009-08-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNAs isolated from cervical and head and neck carcinomas frequently contain nucleotide sequence alterations in the viral upstream regulatory region (URR). Our study has addressed the role such sequence changes may play in the efficiency of establishing HPV persistence and altered keratinocyte growth. Genomic mapping of integrated HPV type 16 (HPV-16) genomes from 32 cervical cancers revealed that the viral E6 and E7 oncogenes, as well as the L1 region/URR, were intact in all of them. The URR sequences from integrated and unintegrated viral DNA were found to harbor distinct sets of nucleotide substitutions. A subset of the altered URRs increased the potential of HPV-16 to establish persistent, cell growth-altering viral-genome replication in the cell. This aggressive phenotype in culture was not solely due to increased viral early gene transcription, but also to augmented initial amplification of the viral genome. As revealed in a novel ori-dependent HPV-16 plasmid amplification assay, the altered motifs that led to increased viral transcription from the intact genome also greatly augmented HPV-16 ori function. The nucleotide sequence changes correlate with those previously described in the distinct geographical North American type 1 and Asian-American variants that are associated with more aggressive disease in epidemiologic studies and encompass, but are not limited to, alterations in previously characterized sites for the negative regulatory protein YY1. Our results thus provide evidence that nucleotide alterations in HPV regulatory sequences could serve as potential prognostic markers of HPV-associated carcinogenesis. PMID:19458011

  6. [Prevention of HPV cancer related through HPV-9: state of the art, potential benefits and open issues].

    PubMed

    Mariani, Luciano; Bonanni, Paolo; Castiglia, Paolo; Chiamenti, Giampietro; Conforti, Giorgio; Conversano, Michele; Icardi, Giancarlo; Maio, Tommasa; Mennini, Francesco; Prato, Rosa; Scotti, Silvestro; Signorelli, Carlo; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    HPV vaccines currently marketed in Italy (bivalent and quadrivalent against HPV 16-18 and HPV and 6,11,16,18 respectively) are an extraordinary tool for the primary prevention of HPV related diseases, particularly of the cervical cancer. Although the implementation of the organized vaccination programs has already translated (for some endpoint) in confirmation of clinical efficacy, remains excluded a significant proportion of the diseases linked to non-vaccine HPV types. The new nonavalent vaccine (HPV9), of impending commercialization, represents an evolution of the quadrivalent, the composition of which are added five high-risk HPV types (HPV 31,33,45,52,58). The high clinical-immunological efficacy in experimental trials against the new genotypes (> 96% for CIN2 +), and the equivalence immunogenic to the four already present in the previous vaccine, will render the use of HPV9 a tool able to control in an even more effective HPV disease. The potential of the new vaccine is linked to the reduction of the HPV cancer burden by 2-20% according to anatomical site, with major benefits for cervical cancer, vulvo-vaginal, penile and more limited benefits for anal tumours. Moreover, the potential benefits could be also linked to the reduction of incidence of pre-neoplastic lesions arising in the lower-genital tract, especially in the cervix (CIN2-3), so often cause lengthy and expensive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In the face of this broad provision of benefit from HPV9 vaccine, we have also to consider all the variables related to its introduction in the vaccination calendars: the market price, the schedule of administration (currently in three doses) and data regarding the cost-effectiveness. The authors recognize the new vaccine (currently registered only in the US) a lot of potential in the prevention of HPV-related diseases. PMID:26847275

  7. Post Hoc Analysis of the PATRICIA Randomized Trial of the Efficacy of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 (HPV-16)/HPV-18 AS04-Adjuvanted Vaccine against Incident and Persistent Infection with Nonvaccine Oncogenic HPV Types Using an Alternative Multiplex Type-Specific PCR Assay for HPV DNA

    PubMed Central

    Colau, Brigitte; Wheeler, Cosette M.; Naud, Paulo; Garland, Suzanne; Quint, Wim; Chow, Song-Nan; Salmerón, Jorge; Lehtinen, Matti; Del Rosario-Raymundo, M. Rowena; Paavonen, Jorma; Teixeira, Júlio C.; Germar, Maria Julieta; Peters, Klaus; Skinner, S. Rachel; Limson, Genara; Castellsagué, Xavier; Poppe, Willy A. J.; Ramjattan, Brian; Klein, Terry D.; Schwarz, Tino F.; Chatterjee, Archana; Tjalma, Wiebren A. A.; Diaz-Mitoma, Francisco; Lewis, David J. M.; Harper, Diane M.; Molijn, Anco; van Doorn, Leen-Jan; David, Marie-Pierre; Dubin, Gary

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16)/HPV-18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine against cervical infections with HPV in the Papilloma Trial against Cancer in Young Adults (PATRICIA) was evaluated using a combination of the broad-spectrum L1-based SPF10 PCR-DNA enzyme immunoassay (DEIA)/line probe assay (LiPA25) system with type-specific PCRs for HPV-16 and -18. Broad-spectrum PCR assays may underestimate the presence of HPV genotypes present at relatively low concentrations in multiple infections, due to competition between genotypes. Therefore, samples were retrospectively reanalyzed using a testing algorithm incorporating the SPF10 PCR-DEIA/LiPA25 plus a novel E6-based multiplex type-specific PCR and reverse hybridization assay (MPTS12 RHA), which permits detection of a panel of nine oncogenic HPV genotypes (types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45, 52, 58, and 59). For the vaccine against HPV types 16 and 18, there was no major impact on estimates of vaccine efficacy (VE) for incident or 6-month or 12-month persistent infections when the MPTS12 RHA was included in the testing algorithm versus estimates with the protocol-specified algorithm. However, the alternative testing algorithm showed greater sensitivity than the protocol-specified algorithm for detection of some nonvaccine oncogenic HPV types. More cases were gained in the control group than in the vaccine group, leading to higher point estimates of VE for 6-month and 12-month persistent infections for the nonvaccine oncogenic types included in the MPTS12 RHA assay (types 31, 33, 35, 45, 52, 58, and 59). This post hoc analysis indicates that the per-protocol testing algorithm used in PATRICIA underestimated the VE against some nonvaccine oncogenic HPV types and that the choice of the HPV DNA testing methodology is important for the evaluation of VE in clinical trials. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00122681.) PMID:25540273

  8. Epidermodysplasia verruciformis and cutaneous human papillomavirus DNA, but not genital human papillomavirus DNAs, are frequently detected in vulvar and vaginal melanoma.

    PubMed

    Rohwedder, Angela; Slominski, Andrzej; Wolff, Marisa; Kredentser, Daniel; Carlson, J Andrew

    2007-02-01

    Vulvovaginal melanomas are rare and their etiology is unknown. Genital mucosal human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 has been identified in both cutaneous and mucosal melanoma, suggesting that it might play a role in the pathogenesis or progression of melanoma. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of HPV DNA by using a broad spectrum of degenerate and type-specific primers for genital-mucosal, epidermodysplasia verruciformis-associated (EV), and cutaneous HPV types in 6 vulvar and 3 vaginal melanomas. The patients were mostly postmenopausal women (8/9), had a mean age of 67 years (range, 44-85 years), and had mucosal lentiginous (7) or nodular (2) melanomas. In the adjacent skin/mucosa, mucosal melanosis was found in 5, lichen sclerosus or a lichenoid mucositis in 4, and blue nevi in 2 women. With nested polymerase chain reaction techniques followed by direct sequencing, HPV DNA was identified in 6 of 9 (67%) melanomas; these were either cutaneous (HPV 3) (4/9) or epidermodysplasia verruciformis-associated types (HPV 38, Z95969, AJ00151) (4/9). Epidermodysplasia verruciformis-associated HPV (type 15) was found solely in 1/10 (10%) normal vulvar controls. Genital-mucosal HPV types were not detected either by degenerate nested polymerase chain reaction or type-specific probes for HPV 16. We propose that the above findings are not coincidental but may represent a molecular record of HPV involvement in pathogenesis or progression of melanoma, which is consistent with the strong but poorly defined association of cutaneous HPV types with nonmelanoma skin cancers. The theory that HPV may act as a cofactor in melanoma development deserves further clinical and experimental investigations. PMID:17284956

  9. HPV vaccination in head and neck HPV-related pathologies.

    PubMed

    Wierzbicka, Małgorzata; Józefiak, Agata; Jackowska, Joanna; Szydłowski, Jarosław; Goździcka-Józefiak, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Recent data demonstrate that human papilloma virus (HPV) plays a role in pathologies other than ano-genital cancers, specifically head and neck malignancies, and non-cancerous conditions such as recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP). High-risk HPV16 and 18, and low risk HPV6 and 11 play the main role in HPV-related pathologies. As more and more information about the role of HPV infection in non-cervical diseases is amassed, additional questions about whether prophylactic HPV vaccines will effectively prevent these conditions are raised. HPV vaccination programs for the cervical pathology are being implemented worldwide. In the United States, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the quadrivalent HPV vaccine for girls in 2006 and for boys in 2011. These vaccination programs were aimed at the genital, HPV-related lesions, and there was not much recognition at that time of how HPV vaccination programs might affect oral HPV infection, which is a risk factor for the development of HPV-related head and neck cancers. Vaccination has proved to be a successful policy, and an extant recommendation is aimed at preventing HPV and associated cervical and other anogenital cancers with the routine use of HPV vaccines for males and females. However, HPV vaccines are presently not recommended for preventing oropharyngeal cancer (OPC), although they have been shown to be highly effective against the HPV strains that are most commonly found in the oropharynx. This review is aimed at presenting the evidence-based knowledge concerning HPV vaccination and highlighting the trials and strategies for vaccine administration in HPV-dependent head and neck pathologies. PMID:24981297

  10. Genital warts

    MedlinePlus

    Condylomata acuminata; Penile warts; Human papillomavirus (HPV); Venereal warts; Condyloma; HPV DNA test; Sexually transmitted disease (STD) - warts; Sexually transmitted infection (STI) - warts; LSIL-HPV; ...

  11. Epidemiological impact of a genital herpes type 2 vaccine for young females.

    PubMed

    Lou, Yijun; Qesmi, Redouane; Wang, Qian; Steben, Marc; Wu, Jianhong; Heffernan, Jane M

    2012-01-01

    Genital Herpes, which is caused by Herpes Simplex Virus-1 or -2 (HSV-1, -2, predominantly HSV-2) is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) that causes a chronic latent infection with outbreak episodes linked to transmission. Antiviral therapies are effective in reducing viral shedding during these episodes, but are ineffective as a whole since many outbreaks are asymptomatic or have mild symptoms. Thus, the development of a vaccine for genital herpes is needed to control this disease. The question of how to implement such a vaccine program is an important one, and may be similar to the vaccination program for Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) for young females. We have developed a mathematical model to describe the epidemiology of vaccination targeting young females against HSV-2. The model population is delineated with respect to age group, sexual activity and infection status including oral infection of HSV-1, which may affect vaccine efficacy. A threshold parameter R(C), which determines the level of vaccine uptake needed to eradicate HSV-2, is found. Computer simulation shows that an adolescent-only vaccination program may be effective in eliminating HSV-2 disease, however, the success of extinction greatly depends on the level of vaccine uptake, the vaccine efficacy, the age of sexual maturity and safe sex practices. However, the time course of eradication would take many years. We also investigate the prevalence of infection in the total population and in women between 16-30 years of age before and after vaccination has been introduced, and show that the adolescent-only vaccination program can be effective in reducing disease prevalence in these populations depending on the level of vaccine uptake and vaccine efficacy. This will also result in a decrease of maternal-fetal transmission of HSV-2 infection. Another important, if commonsense, conclusion is that vaccination of some females reduces infection in men, which then reduces infection in women. PMID:23071536

  12. From the monovalent to the nine-valent HPV vaccine.

    PubMed

    Pils, S; Joura, E A

    2015-09-01

    An investigational monovalent human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 virus-like particle vaccine has been shown to prevent persistent infection and cervical disease related to HPV 16 and was proof of concept (2002). Designed to prevent the bulk of invasive cervical cancer, quadrivalent (HPV 6/11/16/18) and bivalent (HPV 16/18) vaccines have been available since 2006 and 2007, respectively. They are highly effective in preventing HPV 16/18-related cervical precancer; the quadrivalent version also prevents genital warts related to HPV 6/11. It has been shown that the precursors of vulvar, vaginal and anal cancer related to the vaccine types are effectively prevented. This led to a paradigm shift from a female-only cervical cancer vaccine to a vaccine for the prevention of HPV-related disease and cancer for both sexes. Vaccination before the start of sexual activity is most effective, and consequently most programs target 9- to 12-year-olds. Additionally, recent studies have proven the noninferior immunoresponse of a two-dose schedule in these age cohorts. Gender-neutral vaccination has become more common; it improves coverage and also provides protection to all males. Recently a nine-valent HPV vaccine (HPV 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) was licensed; it provides high and consistent protection against infections and diseases related to these types, with ∼90% of cervical and other HPV-related cancers and precancers potentially being avoided. Coverage is key. Efforts must be made to provide HPV vaccination in low-resource countries that lack screening programs. In countries with cervical cancer screening, HPV vaccination will greatly affect screening algorithms. PMID:25980355

  13. Comparison of physician- and self-collected genital specimens for detection of human papillomavirus in men.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Brenda Y; McDuffie, K; Goodman, M T; Wilkens, L R; Thompson, P; Zhu, X; Wong, W; Ning, L

    2006-02-01

    There is currently no consensus regarding the most appropriate methods of sampling for the detection of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) in men. We employed a recently developed collection method involving abrasion and moistened swabbing of the genital skin surface for the detection of HPV in a cohort of 136 university-affiliated males in Hawaii. Genital specimens collected by physicians using this method were compared with self-collected specimens from the same individuals obtained 24 h later. Self-collected specimens yielded a greater proportion of sufficient specimens than physician-collected specimens. HPV detection was comparable in physician- and self-collected specimens; detection was highest in the penile shaft (51.2% and 51.5%, respectively, P = 0.96), followed by the scrotum (41.2% and 46.2%, P = 0.43), the glans/coronal sulcus (31.9% and 33.1%, P = 0.84), and the foreskin (33.3% and 28.6%, P = 0.74). Site-specific agreement in HPV detection between paired physician- and self-collected samples ranged from 67.2% (kappa = 0.34) for the penile shaft to 95.0% (kappa = 0.89) for the foreskin. There was a high degree of concordance in HPV genotypes in HPV-positive pairs. The most common type was HPV type 84, which comprised approximately 15% of the specimens. The emery paper-swab method offers an efficient sampling method for genital HPV DNA detection in men that could be used both within and outside of the clinical setting. PMID:16455906

  14. The Most Common Type of HPV in Women with Atypical Squamous Cell of Undetermined Significance (ASCUS) in Pap Smear in Iran-Yazd

    PubMed Central

    Karimi-Zarchi, Mojgan; Tabatabaie, Afsarosadat; Dehghani-Firoozabadi, Alie; Shamsi, Farima; Baghianimoghaddam, Maleknaz; Dargahi, Mandana; Yazian, Pouria; Mojahed, Shahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Cervical cancer is the third most gynecological cancer and one of the common causes of cancer death in women in Iran and the other developing countries. Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is a known Risk factor in cervical cancer, but according to HPV deference types, the high risk and low risks differ. Material and method: We evaluate the most common high risk and low risk HPV type in 180 females with an atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) results in pap smear in Gynecological Oncology Clinic in Shahid Sadoughi Hospital in Yazd, Iran within 2012 to 2014.HPV typing was done with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. The data obtained were recorded in a questionnaire and analyzed by SPSS software. Result: More common low risk HPV type in ASCUS patients was type 6 (63.6%) and then type 11 (36.4%). Type 16 was the most common high risk HPV type. Discussion: HPV DNA typing for better management of women With ASCUS is important and this study showed HPV type 16 is the most prevalent type in ASCUS patients. It seems the living region is important in HPV type distribution and Quadri-valant Vaccine can prevent cervical cancer in Iran because the most common low risk HPV is type6 and 11, and HPV 16 is the most common high risk HPV. PMID:26759533

  15. Overactive bladder after female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) type III

    PubMed Central

    Abdulcadir, Jasmine; Dällenbach, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    A 27-year-old Somali woman with type III a–b female genital mutilation/cutting, consulted because of slow micturition, voiding efforts, urgency and urge incontinence (overactive bladder). She also referred primary dysmenorrhoea and superficial dyspareunia making complete sexual intercourses impossible. We treated her by defibulation and biofeedback re-educative therapy. We also offered a multidisciplinary counselling. At 5 months follow-up, urgency and urge incontinence had resolved and she became pregnant. PMID:24096069

  16. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and their associations with squamous cell neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Syrjänen, K J

    1987-01-01

    Current data implicating an etiological role of Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in precancer lesions (intraepithelial neoplasia) and squamous cell carcinoma of both the genital tract and other sites (oral cavity, larynx, skin, esophagus, nasal cavity, bronchus) can be summarized as follows: a) HPV involvement in benign, precancer, and malignant genital squamous cell lesions has been demonstrated by morphological, immunohistochemical and DNA hybridization techniques; b) HPV infections in the genital tract are sexually transmitted (STD) and associated with the same risk factors as development of cervical carcinoma; c) natural history of cervical HPV lesions is equivalent to that of CIN, i.e. they are potentially progressive to carcinoma in situ; d) latent HPV infections exist in the genital tract of both sexes; e) animal models exist, where papillomaviruses induce malignant transformation; f) HPV 11 induces transformation of human squamous epithelium in vivo (nude mouse renal subcapsule assay); g) malignant transformation of HPV lesions seems to depend on virus type and the physical state of its DNA, i.e. whether or not integrated in the host cell DNA; h) malignant transformation most probably requires synergistic actions between HPV and chemical or physical carcinogens or other infectious agents; i) genetic disposition (at least in animals) significantly contributes to malignant transformation; j) immunological defence mechanisms of the host probably are capable of modifying the course of HPV infection (efficacy in man remains to be elucidated). Many details of the molecular mechanisms still remain to be clarified, however. No applicable model systems exist to elucidate these issues, or the mechanisms leading to the progression to invasive cancer. Improved tissue culture systems for in vitro differentiation of keratinocytes should help in elucidating the biology of papillomaviruses and their interaction with cell division and differentiation. PMID:2829787

  17. What school nurses need to know about cervical cancer, HPV, and the new vaccine.

    PubMed

    Ehrhardt, Jeanie

    2007-12-01

    At least 12,000 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer each year in the United States, accounting for at least 4,000 deaths. Worldwide, cervical cancer is the second most common type of cancer among women. The human papilloma virus (HPV) has been linked to at least 70% of all cervical cancer. HPV can be divided into 2 categories: (a) low risk, which is responsible for genital warts, and (b) high risk, which is responsible for cervical cancer. An effective new vaccine has been approved that will decrease the spread of infection caused by HPV, therefore decreasing the future incidence of cervical cancer and genital warts. Understanding the risks of acquiring HPV and the increased risk for cervical cancer may lead to enhanced vaccine acceptance. PMID:18052515

  18. HPV infection in men.

    PubMed

    Palefsky, Joel M

    2007-01-01

    While much is known about the natural history of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and its consequences, including cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer, relatively little is known about the natural history of anogenital HPV infection and diseases in men. In part this reflects difficulties in penile sampling and visual assessment of penile lesions. Anal HPV infection and disease also remain poorly understood. Although HPV is transmitted sexually and infects the genitals of both sexes, the cervix remains biologically more vulnerable to malignant transformation than does the penis or anus in men. An understanding of male HPV infection is therefore important in terms of reducing transmission of HPV to women and improving women's health. However, it is also important due to the burden of disease in men, who may develop both penile and anal cancer, particularly among HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Improved sampling techniques of the male genitalia and cohort studies in progress should provide important information on the natural history of anogenital HPV infection and disease in men, including risk factors for HPV acquisition and transmission. The impact of HPV vaccination in women on male anogenital HPV infection will also need to be assessed. PMID:17627061

  19. Prognosis of vulvar dysplasia and carcinoma in situ with special reference to histology and types of human papillomavirus (HPV).

    PubMed

    Junge, J; Poulsen, H; Horn, T; Hørding, U; Lundvall, F

    1997-12-01

    Sixty-one women with vulvar dysplasia or carcinoma in situ were treated with local laser excision of the initial lesion and of the recurrences, and followed at intervals of from 3 increasing to 12 months. Recurrences were observed in 16 (26%) patients. No case of invasive carcinoma was seen. Patients with recurrences were significantly younger than those without (P < 0.02, median age 42.5 and 54 years, respectively). The resection borders were significantly more often involved in the initial lesions in the group with recurrences (36%) than in the group without (9%) (P < 0.014). All lesions were classified according to the WHO (mild, moderate, severe dysplasia or carcinoma in situ) and Toki et al. (1991) (warty, basaloid, combined warty/basaloid or mixed (warty, basaloid and simple). No pure types of Toki (1991) could be demonstrated. There were no differences regarding recurrences in any of these groups. HPV DNA was detected in the initial lesions by PCR in 50/56 (89%) (44 with HPV type 16 and 6 with HPV type 33) and by ISH in 23/61 (38%). The same type of HPV could be demonstrated in all first recurrences except in two, where HPV types 33 was shown in specimens harboring HPV type 16 in the initial lesions. In one of these cases, HPV type 16 could again be demonstrated in the second and final recurrence. In no specimen was more than one type of HPV detected. The results indicate that the most important parameter in predicting the recurrence of vulvar dysplasia or carcinoma in situ is the involvement of the resection borders. The location of the lesion, the degree and type of dysplasia, and the type of HPV seem to play a minor role. Local excision and subsequent intensive control with removal of any visible new lesion probably prevents development of vulvar invasive carcinoma. PMID:9463515

  20. Epidemiology of oral HPV in the oral mucosa in women without signs of oral disease from Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Losa, María Del Refugio; Barrera, Ernesto Soria; Herrera-Pech, Verónica; Conde-Ferráez, Laura; Puerto-Solís, Marylin; Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe

    2015-03-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) are considered necessary for the development of cervical cancer. Furthermore, there is no doubt that some types of oral squamous cell carcinoma are associated with HR-HPV. The epidemiology of oral HPV infections in healthy subjects remains unclear due to a lack of knowledge. The objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of human papillomavirus infections of the oral mucosa without pathology. A cross-sectional study was performed; samples from 390 women seeking prenatal care, Pap smears, family planning or gynecological diseases were studied. Oral cells were collected by direct swab sampling. Information regarding sociodemographic status, sexual behavior, infectious diseases, contraceptive history and tobacco and alcohol consumption were obtained through direct interviews. HPV and genotypes were detected by type-specific polymerase chain reaction. Our results revealed that 14% of the women studied had an oral HPV infection. Women ≤ 20 years of age had the highest HPV prevalence (24.5%). In total, seven genotypes were identified, including the high-risk genotypes 16, 18, 58 and 59 and the low-risk genotypes 6, 81 and 13, the latter of which is a type exclusive to oral mucosa. Sexual behavior was not associated with the presence of genital HPV types in the oral mucosa. Genital HPV types were present in the oral mucosa of women without associated clinical manifestations; however, sexual behavior was not associated with infection, and therefore others routes of transmission should be explored. PMID:26221121

  1. Epidemiology of oral HPV in the oral mucosa in women without signs of oral disease from Yucatan, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Losa, María del Refugio; Barrera, Ernesto Soria; Herrera-Pech, Verónica; Conde-Ferráez, Laura; Puerto-Solís, Marylin; Ayora-Talavera, Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) are considered necessary for the development of cervical cancer. Furthermore, there is no doubt that some types of oral squamous cell carcinoma are associated with HR-HPV. The epidemiology of oral HPV infections in healthy subjects remains unclear due to a lack of knowledge. The objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of human papillomavirus infections of the oral mucosa without pathology. A cross-sectional study was performed; samples from 390 women seeking prenatal care, Pap smears, family planning or gynecological diseases were studied. Oral cells were collected by direct swab sampling. Information regarding sociodemographic status, sexual behavior, infectious diseases, contraceptive history and tobacco and alcohol consumption were obtained through direct interviews. HPV and genotypes were detected by type-specific polymerase chain reaction. Our results revealed that 14% of the women studied had an oral HPV infection. Women ≤ 20 years of age had the highest HPV prevalence (24.5%). In total, seven genotypes were identified, including the high-risk genotypes 16, 18, 58 and 59 and the low-risk genotypes 6, 81 and 13, the latter of which is a type exclusive to oral mucosa. Sexual behavior was not associated with the presence of genital HPV types in the oral mucosa. Genital HPV types were present in the oral mucosa of women without associated clinical manifestations; however, sexual behavior was not associated with infection, and therefore others routes of transmission should be explored. PMID:26221121

  2. Efficacy of RG1-VLP vaccination against infections with genital and cutaneous human papillomaviruses.

    PubMed

    Schellenbacher, Christina; Kwak, Kihyuck; Fink, Dieter; Shafti-Keramat, Saeed; Huber, Bettina; Jindra, Christoph; Faust, Helena; Dillner, Joakim; Roden, Richard B S; Kirnbauer, Reinhard

    2013-12-01

    Licensed human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines, based on virus-like particles (VLPs) self-assembled from major capsid protein L1, afford type-restricted protection against HPV types 16/18/6/11 (or 16/18 for the bivalent vaccine), which cause 70% of cervical cancers (CxCas) and 90% of genital warts. However, they do not protect against less prevalent high-risk (HR) types causing 30% of CxCa, or cutaneous HPV. In contrast, vaccination with the minor capsid protein L2 induces low-level immunity to type-common epitopes. Chimeric RG1-VLP presenting HPV16 L2 amino acids 17-36 (RG1 epitope) within the DE-surface loop of HPV16 L1 induced cross-neutralizing antisera. We hypothesized that RG1-VLP vaccination protects against a large spectrum of mucosal and cutaneous HPV infections in vivo. Immunization with RG1-VLP adjuvanted with human-applicable alum-MPL (aluminum hydroxide plus 3-O-desacyl-4'-monophosphoryl lipid A) induced robust L2 antibodies (ELISA titers 2,500-12,500), which (cross-)neutralized mucosal HR HPV16/18/45/37/33/52/58/35/39/51/59/68/73/26/69/34/70, low-risk HPV6/11/32/40, and cutaneous HPV2/27/3/76 (titers 25-1,000) using native virion- or pseudovirion (PsV)-based assays, and a vigorous cytotoxic T lymphocyte response by enzyme-linked immunospot. In vivo, mice were efficiently protected against experimental vaginal challenge with mucosal HR PsV types HPV16/18/45/31/33/52/58/35/39/51/59/68/56/73/26/53/66/34 and low-risk HPV6/43/44. Enduring protection was demonstrated 1 year after vaccination. RG1-VLP is a promising next-generation vaccine with broad efficacy against all relevant mucosal and also cutaneous HPV types. PMID:23752042

  3. Baseline assessment of prevalence and geographical distribution of HPV types in Chile using self-collected vaginal samples

    PubMed Central

    Ferreccio, Catterina; Corvalán, Alejandro; Margozzini, Paula; Viviani, Paola; González, Claudia; Aguilera, Ximena; Gravitt, Patti E

    2008-01-01

    Background Chile has broad variations in weather, economics and population from the far desert north (Region 1) to the cold, icy south (Region 12). A home-based self-collected vaginal sampling was nested in the 2003 Chilean population-based health survey in order to explore the possibility of a type-specific geographical variation for human papillomavirus Methods The population was a national probability sample of people 17 years of age and over. Consenting women provided self-collected cervicovaginal swabs in universal collection media (UCM). DNA was extracted and typed to 37 HPV genotypes using PGMY consensus PCR and line blot assay. Weighted prevalence rates and adjusted OR were calculated. Results Of the 1,883 women participating in the health survey, 1,219 (64.7%) provided a cervicovaginal sample and in 1,110 (56.2% of participants and 66.5% of those eligible) the samples were adequate for analysis. Refusal rate was 16.9%. HPV prevalence was 29.2% (15.1% high-risk HPV and 14.1% low-risk HPV). Predominant high-risk types were HPV 16, 52, 51, 56 and 58. Predominant low-risk HPVs were HPV 84, CP6108, 62, 53 and 61. High-risk and low-risk HPV rates were inversely correlated between the regions. High-risk HPV prevalence was highest among the youngest women, whereas low-risk HPV increased slightly with age. Conclusion Self-obtained vaginal sampling is adequate for monitoring HPV in the community, for identifying high-risk areas, and for surveying the long term impact of interventions. PMID:18304362

  4. Genital Warts

    PubMed Central

    Yanofsky, Valerie R.; Patel, Rita V.

    2012-01-01

    External genital warts, also known as condylomata acuminata, are extremely common, with between 500,000 to one million new cases diagnosed each year in the United States alone. To date, more than 120 distinct subtypes of human papillomavirus have been identified. Human papillomavirus types 6 and 11 rarely give rise to cervical cancers, but are responsible for 90 percent of the cases of genital warts. The current treatment options are largely centered upon removal of the warts rather than elimination of the underlying viral infection. A wide range of therapies are presently in use, which are highly variable and can differ dramatically with respect to cost, side-effect profiles, dosing schedules, duration of treatment, and overall effectiveness. As of yet, no definitive therapy has emerged as the ideal standard of care in the treatment of genital warts, and therapy selection generally occurs in a patient-specific manner. PMID:22768354

  5. Decreasing risk: impact of HPV vaccination on outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hymel, Pamela Ann

    2006-12-01

    Cervical cancer, caused by oncogenic types of human papillomavirus (HPV), remains a major health problem worldwide. The recent introduction of a quadrivalent vaccine (Gardasil), which targets HPV strains responsible for approximately 70% of cervical cancer cases and 90% of genital warts, has ushered in new hope of substantially reducing global prevalence of HPV disease. A further bivalent HPV vaccine (Cervarix) is in the offing. However, many issues still need to be addressed, including actual vaccine efficacy in preventing cervical cancer, public acceptance, use of the vaccine in men, vaccine access, costs, and impact of the vaccine on cervical cancer screening programs. This review analyzes some of these issues, and emphasizes the need for a coordinated effort of patients, parents, health professionals, hospitals, and policymakers to ensure successful implementation of vaccination programs in the United States. PMID:17203991

  6. Ten years of HPV vaccines: State of art and controversies.

    PubMed

    Angioli, Roberto; Lopez, Salvatore; Aloisi, Alessia; Terranova, Corrado; De Cicco, Carlo; Scaletta, Giuseppe; Capriglione, Stella; Miranda, Andrea; Luvero, Daniela; Ricciardi, Roberto; Montera, Roberto; Plotti, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) represents one of the most common sexually transmitted infections and it has been related to cervical cancer. The HPV vaccines prevent infection with certain species of HPV associated with the development of cervical cancer or genital warts. We carried out a PubMed search up to 2015 evaluating all randomized studies published in literature. This review discusses the current status of HPVs vaccines on the global market, efficacy, safety profiles, controversies and future vaccine developments. Three HPVs vaccines are currently on the global market: bivalent, quadrivalent and ninevalent. Bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines can protect against almost 70% of cervical HPV-related cancerous and precancerous conditions and the ninevalent vaccine, instead, provides a protection against almost 90%. The use of vaccinations raised several controversies in the last years and, currently, is not possible to establish which type of vaccine is most effective, however all of them are safe. PMID:27066937

  7. HPV Vaccine and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... from your health care provider. What is HPV? Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common infection that is ... infant outcomes in the clinical trials of a human papillomavirus type 6/11/16/18 vaccine: a combined ...

  8. In vitro infection and type-restricted antibody-mediated neutralization of authentic human papillomavirus type 16.

    PubMed

    White, W I; Wilson, S D; Bonnez, W; Rose, R C; Koenig, S; Suzich, J A

    1998-02-01

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) is strongly associated with the development of cervical cancer. Studies of model systems with animal papillomaviruses have demonstrated the importance of neutralizing antibodies in preventing papillomavirus-associated disease. The assessment of neutralizing antibody responses against HPV-16, previously hampered by the lack of a viral source, was enabled by the recent propagation of an HPV-16 stock in xenografted severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. HPV-16 infection of an immortalized human keratinocyte cell line was demonstrated by detection of an HPV-16-specific spliced mRNA amplified by reverse transcriptase PCR. Infection was blocked by preincubation of the virus with antiserum generated against HPV-16 virus-like particles (VLPs) composed of the major capsid protein, L1. To examine potential cross-neutralizing activity among the different genital HPV types, rabbit antisera to L1 VLPs corresponding to HPV-6, -11, -18, -31, -33, -35, -39, and -45 were assayed for the ability to block the HPV-16 infection of cultured cells. Antiserum raised against HPV-33 L1 VLPs was the only heterologous antiserum which inhibited HPV-16 infection. Thus, a neutralization assay for HPV-16 may help to characterize the components required to compose a broadly efficacious genital HPV vaccine. PMID:9444988

  9. HPV Vaccine Gardasil®-9: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... in females, • vaginal and vulvar cancers in females, • anal cancer in females and males, • throat cancer in females and males, and • penile cancer in males. In addition, Gardasil-9 prevents HPV types that cause genital warts in both females ...

  10. In vitro assessment of the effect of vaccine-targeted human papillomavirus (HPV) depletion on detection of non-vaccine HPV types: implications for post-vaccine surveillance studies.

    PubMed

    Cornall, Alyssa M; Phillips, Samuel; Cummins, Eleanor; Garland, Suzanne M; Tabrizi, Sepehr N

    2015-03-01

    In populations where the prevalence of vaccine-targeted HPV types has been reduced significantly due to widespread vaccination of the target population, the sensitivity of some consensus PCR-based assays to detect remaining HPV types may be altered, leading to misrepresentations of prevalence. Importantly, this may lead to false indications of type replacement in vaccinated populations. To assess whether excess vaccine-targeted HPV DNA resulted in reduced detection of other genotypes on the Roche HPV linear array genotype assay, simulated samples containing 1000 copies of one or two high-risk HPV DNA genomes in the presence and the absence of 10,000 copies of the HPV16 genome were tested. HPV16 alone did not affect detection of other high-risk genotypes; however when HPV16 and an additional genotype were present, detection of HPV31, 33, 51 or 59 was impeded, indicating potential for misrepresentation of population-based prevalence of these genotypes and false evidence for type replacement following vaccination. PMID:25528202

  11. Prevalence of HPV high and low risk types in cervical samples from the Italian general population: a population based study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This multicenter study describes the type-specific prevalence of HPV infection in the general population from central and southern Italy, comparing the data with previously published Italian studies. Methods Women aged from 25 to 65 who attended cervical cancer screening in five different Italian regions were tested for HPV infection with Hybrid Capture II (HCII) low and high risk probes. Women repeating Pap-test upon unsatisfactory or positive results, or as a post-treatment and post-colposcopy follow-up analysis, were excluded from our study. High risk (HR) HPV positive samples were typed using GP5+/GP6+ primed PCR, followed by Reverse Line Blot for 18 high/intermediate risk HPV types, while low risk (LR) HPV positive samples were tested with type specific primers for HPV6 and HPV11. Results 3817 women had a valid HCII test: 350 of them (9.2%) were positive for HR probes, 160 (4.2%) for LR probes, while 57 women were positive for both. Multiple infections were detected in 97 HR HPV positive women. The most common types were HPV 16 (3%), 31 (1.2%), 51 (1%). HPV6 ranked fifth (0.6%), HPV18 ranked tenth (0.5%) and HPV11 sixteenth (0.3%). In Sardinia the prevalence of high-risk infection was 13%, significantly higher than the mean value (p < 0.00005). The distribution of the most frequent types did not significantly differ by centre (p = 0.187) and age (p = 0.085). Conclusions Because cervical cancer incidence and Pap test coverage is lower in southern than in northern Italy, a lower prevalence of high-risk infections in the general population was expected in the south. However, prevalence detected in this study for the south of the country is slightly but significantly higher than the rest of Italy. The consequence may be an epidemic of cervical cancer in the next decades if adequate screening programs are not implemented there. PMID:20646310

  12. Female genital mutilation/cutting type IV in Cambodia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Abdulcadir, Jasmine; Irion, Olivier; de Tejada, Begoa Martinez

    2015-12-01

    Nontherapeutic female genital modifications can cause short- and long-term consequences. Caregivers should promote women's self knowledge on genitals' anatomy and physiology, and psychophysical and sexual health. They should also inform on possible negative consequences of vulvar nontherapeutic alterations requested and avoid the medicalization of female genital mutilation. PMID:26732824

  13. New types of human papillomaviruses and intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies: a classification of inclusion warts according to clinical features, histology and associated HPV types.

    PubMed

    Egawa, K

    1994-02-01

    Two new types of intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies (ICBs) associated with distinct clinical features, and the presence of DNA of distinct types of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are reported. One hundred and seven cutaneous warts containing ICBs were grouped into three categories according to distinct clinicopathological features: 67 were wart lesions with well-known granular (Gr)-ICB, 13 were punctate keratotic lesions with filamentous (Fl)-ICB and 31 were pigmented warts with homogeneous (Hg)-ICB. Molecular biological studies were performed in order to assess a specific association of each group of warts with distinct types of HPV. HPV-1 DNA sequences were detected in all the lesions with a Gr-ICB. Punctate keratotic lesions with Fl-ICB were associated with HPV-63, which was newly cloned from such a lesion. One of the samples also contained HPV-1 DNA. Pigmented warts with Hg-ICBs contained one of the related HPVs, i.e. HPV-4, HPV-60 or a novel type of HPV, HPV-65. Based on these associations, a classification of inclusion warts is proposed. PMID:8123568

  14. EUROGIN 2011 roadmap on prevention and treatment of HPV-related disease

    PubMed Central

    Arbyn, Marc; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Saraiya, Mona; Sideri, Mario; Palefsky, Joel; Lacey, Charles; Gillison, Maura; Bruni, Laia; Ronco, Guglielmo; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Brotherton, Julia; Qiao, You-Lin; Denny, Lynnette; Bornstein, Jacob; Abramowitz, Laurent; Giuliano, Anna; Tommasino, Massimo; Monsonego, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The EUROGIN 2011 roadmap reviews the current burden of HPV (human papillomavirus)-related morbidity, as well as the evidence and potential practice recommendations regarding primary and secondary prevention and treatment of cancers and other disease associated with HPV infection. HPV infection causes approximately 600,000 cases of cancer of the cervix, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx annually, as well as benign diseases such as genital warts and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. Whereas the incidence of cervical cancer has been decreasing over recent decades, the incidence of anal and oropharyngeal carcinoma, for which there are no effective screening programs, has been rising over the last couple of decades. Randomised trials have demonstrated improved efficacy of HPV-based compared to cytology-based cervical cancer screening. Defining the best algorithms to triage HPV-positive women, age ranges and screening intervals are priorities for pooled analyses and further research, whereas feasibility questions can be addressed through screening programmes. HPV vaccination will reduce the burden of cervical precancer and probably also of invasive cervical and other HPV-related disease in women. Recent trials demonstrated that prophylactic vaccination also protects against anogenital HPV infection, ano-genital intraepithelial lesions and warts associated with vaccine types, in males; and anal HPV infection and anal intraepithelial neoplasia in MSM. HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer could be treated less aggressively because of better survival compared to cancers of the oropharynx unrelated to HPV. Key findings in the field of cervical cancer prevention should now be translated in cost-effective strategies, following an organised approach integrating primary and secondary prevention, according to scientific evidence but adapted to the local situation with particular attention to regions with the highest burden of disease. PMID:22623137

  15. Low prevalence of oral and nasal human papillomavirus in employees performing CO2-laser evaporation of genital warts or loop electrode excision procedure of cervical dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Kofoed, Kristian; Norrbom, Christina; Forslund, Ola; Møller, Charlotte; Frøding, Ligita P; Pedersen, Anders Elm; Markauskas, Algirdas; Blomberg, Maria; Baumgartner-Nielsen, Jane; Madsen, Jakob Torp; Strauss, Gitte; Madsen, Klaus G; Sand, Carsten

    2015-02-01

    Risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) transmission during laser vaporisation of genital warts or loop electrode excision procedure is controversial. An oral rinse, a nasal swabs, history of HPV related diseases and data on HPV exposure were collected from 287 employees at departments of dermato-venerology and gynaecology in Denmark. A mucosal HPV type was found among 5.8% of employees with experience of laser treatment of genital warts as compared to 1.7% of those with no experience (p = 0.12). HPV prevalence was not higher in employees participating in electrosurgical treatment or cryotherapy of genital warts, or loop electrode excision procedure compared with those who did not. HPV 6 or 11 were not detected in any samples. Hand warts after the age of 24 years was more common among dermatology than among non-dermatology personnel (18% vs. 8.0%, p = 0.03). Mucosal HPV types are infrequent in the oral and nasal cavity of health care personnel, however, employees at departments of dermato-venereology are at risk of acquiring hand warts. PMID:24941064

  16. OASL1 deficiency promotes antiviral protection against genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection by enhancing type I interferon production

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Ji Eun; Lee, Myeong Sup; Kim, Young-Joon; Lee, Heung Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Type I interferon (IFN) interferes with virus replication, promotes antiviral responses, and controls innate and adaptive immune responses to certain viruses. Recently, we reported that 2’–5’ oligoadenylate synthetase-like 1 (OASL1) negatively regulates type I IFN production by inhibiting the translation of the type I IFN-regulating master transcription factor, IRF7. Notably, while OASL1-deficient mice induce robust production of type I IFN and are resistant to systemic viral infection, the effects of OASL1 during localized viral infection has not been studied. To this end, we investigated the role of OASL1 during mucosal HSV-2 infection of the genital tract. Oasl1−/− mice exhibited better survival rates than wild type (WT) mice following intravaginal HSV-2 infection, and suppressed virus replication more efficiently despite comparable recruitment of effector immune cells. Moreover, Ly6Chigh monocytes, and not pDCs or other cell types, displayed enhanced production of type I IFNs in Oasl1−/− mice in response to HSV-2 infection. Furthermore, cytotoxic T cell responses including IFN-γ production were accelerated in Oasl1−/− mice after mucosal HSV-2 infection. Collectively, these results demonstrate that OASL1 deficiency promotes antiviral immunity against local mucosal viral infection and suggest that OASL1 could be a therapeutic target for treatment of HSV-2 infection of the genital mucosa. PMID:26750802

  17. OASL1 deficiency promotes antiviral protection against genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection by enhancing type I interferon production.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ji Eun; Lee, Myeong Sup; Kim, Young-Joon; Lee, Heung Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Type I interferon (IFN) interferes with virus replication, promotes antiviral responses, and controls innate and adaptive immune responses to certain viruses. Recently, we reported that 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase-like 1 (OASL1) negatively regulates type I IFN production by inhibiting the translation of the type I IFN-regulating master transcription factor, IRF7. Notably, while OASL1-deficient mice induce robust production of type I IFN and are resistant to systemic viral infection, the effects of OASL1 during localized viral infection has not been studied. To this end, we investigated the role of OASL1 during mucosal HSV-2 infection of the genital tract. Oasl1(-/-) mice exhibited better survival rates than wild type (WT) mice following intravaginal HSV-2 infection, and suppressed virus replication more efficiently despite comparable recruitment of effector immune cells. Moreover, Ly6C(high) monocytes, and not pDCs or other cell types, displayed enhanced production of type I IFNs in Oasl1(-/-) mice in response to HSV-2 infection. Furthermore, cytotoxic T cell responses including IFN-γ production were accelerated in Oasl1(-/-) mice after mucosal HSV-2 infection. Collectively, these results demonstrate that OASL1 deficiency promotes antiviral immunity against local mucosal viral infection and suggest that OASL1 could be a therapeutic target for treatment of HSV-2 infection of the genital mucosa. PMID:26750802

  18. Comparison of the sensitivities of three commercial assays for detection of the high risk HPV types 16, 18 and 45.

    PubMed

    Cuschieri, Kate; Hardie, Alison; Hovland, Siri; Hoaas, Bente; Karlsen, Frank; Cubie, Heather

    2013-10-01

    The relative and analytical sensitivity of the APTIMA HPV test (AHPV, broad-spectrum, target amplification) and the PreTect HPV-Proofer (type-specific, target amplification) for the detection of HPV mRNA in various cell lines was compared. Equivalent relative sensitivity for the HPV 16-containing cell lines (2.5 cells/ml with both CaSki and SiHa) was observed for the mRNA assays--and similar sensitivities were observed for the detection of HPV 18 (HeLa) and 45 (MS751); ranging from 2.5 cells/ml (Proofer) to 25 cells/ml (APTIMA). In relation to analytical sensitivity, again, the mRNA assays showed similar sensitivities to each other, ranging from 0.1 to 1 cell per reaction for APTIMA and 0.1 to 10 cells per reaction for PreTect HPV-Proofer (depending on cell line). Both mRNA assays consistently achieved a higher analytical sensitivity than a DNA based comparator--the Hybrid Capture 2 High-Risk HPV DNA test (hc2). This study indicates that mRNA tests had high analytical sensitivity, higher than a well established DNA-test based when using cell lines as target. Implications for clinical application are discussed. PMID:23727117

  19. Genital human papillomavirus infections: current and prospective therapies.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Margaret A

    2012-04-01

    Infection with human papillomaviruses (HPVs) is very common and associated with benign and malignant epithelial proliferations of skin and internal squamous mucosae. A subset of the mucosal HPVs are oncogenic and associated with 5 % of all cancers in men and women. There are two licensed prophylactic vaccines, both target HPV 16 and 18, the two most pathogenic, oncogenic types and one, additionally, targets HPV 6 and 11 the cause of genital warts. The approach of deliberate immunization with oncogenic HPV E6 and/or E7 proteins and the generation of antigen-specific cytotoxic T-cells as an immunotherapy for HPV-associated cancer and their high-grade pre-cancers has been tested with a wide array of potential vaccine delivery systems in Phase I/II trials with varying success. Understanding local viral and tumour immune evasion strategies is a prerequisite for the rational design of therapeutic vaccines for HPV-associated infection and disease, progress in this is discussed. There are no antiviral drugs for the treatment of HPV infection and disease. Current therapies are not targeted antiviral therapies, but either attempt physical removal of the lesion or induce inflammation and a bystander immune response. There has been recent progress in the identification and characterization of molecular targets for small molecule antagonists of the HPV proteins E1, E2 and E6 or their interactions with their cellular targets. Lead compounds that could disrupt E1-E2 protein-protein interactions have been discovered as have inhibitors of E6-E6-AP-binding interactions. Some of these compounds showed nanomolar affinities and high specificities and demonstrate the feasibility of this approach for HPV infections. These studies are, however, at an early phase and it is unlikely that any specific anti-HPV chemotherapeutic will be in the clinic within the next 10-20 years. PMID:22323530

  20. Low risk of type-specific carcinogenic HPV re-appearance with subsequent cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Ana Cecilia; Schiffman, Mark; Herrero, Rolando; Hildesheim, Allan; Bratti, Concepción; Sherman, Mark E; Solomon, Diane; Guillén, Diego; Alfaro, Mario; Morales, Jorge; Hutchinson, Martha; Cheung, Li; Wacholder, Sholom; Burk, Robert D

    2012-10-15

    Carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are very common after sexual debut and nearly all become undetectable ("clear") within a few years. Following clearance, the long-term risks of type-specific HPV re-appearance and subsequent risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) are not well defined. In the 7-year, population-based cohort study in Guanacaste, Costa Rica, we studied how often type-specific carcinogenic HPV infections re-appeared after clearance and how often re-appearance led to CIN2+. We considered 1,740 carcinogenic HPV infections detected by MY09/11 PCR among 2,805 women (18-91 years old, median 34) who were actively followed at 6- or 12-month intervals. We identified women with one or more type-specific HPV infections that cleared and re-appeared and further defined a subgroup of "definite clearance and re-appearance" (≥2 intervening negative results over a period of ≥1 year). We determined the absolute risk of CIN2+ among the different groups. p values are two-sided. Only 7.7% (81/1,052) of HPV-infected women had intervening negative results. Very few (3.7%, 39/1,052) had "definite clearance and re-appearance", of which 5.1% (2/39) subsequently persisted to a diagnosis of CIN2. There were zero CIN3+ lesions. Extremely few women (2/2,805 of women in our cohort) had a type-specific carcinogenic HPV infection clear, re-appear and lead to CIN2+. If confirmed, this argues against vaccination to avoid re-appearance that leads to precursor lesions and against the need of frequent HPV screening after initial negative results. PMID:22213126

  1. HPV Type 6 and 18 Coinfection in a Case of Adult-Onset Laryngeal Papillomatosis: Immunization with Gardasil

    PubMed Central

    Fancello, Virginia; Melis, Andrea; Piana, Andrea Fausto; Castiglia, Paolo; Cossu, Andrea; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Bozzo, Corrado; King, Emma Victoria; Meloni, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Laryngeal papillomatosis (LP) is a rare human papillomavirus (HPV) related disease that often requires multiple surgical interventions and residual impairment of voice is almost inevitable. We report the case of a patient with adult onset recurrent LP, showing moderate dysplasia and coinfection with HPV types 6 and 18. The tetravalent HPV vaccine Gardasil was prescribed off label, with the aim of triggering an immunogenic response and consequently reducing the probability of further recurrences. The patient was followed for 9 months with no sign of relapse of his LP. The postexposure use of the anti-HPV vaccine could represent a promising therapeutic agent in established LP. Unfortunately, the potential efficacy of this new therapeutic option in this situation has been suggested only by isolated case reports. Further controlled studies, with a longer follow-up and a larger sample size, are needed to assess efficacy of Gardasil in LP. PMID:26783482

  2. A comparative analysis of the epidemiological impact and disease cost-savings of HPV vaccines in France

    PubMed Central

    Bresse, Xavier; Adam, Marjorie; Largeron, Nathalie; Roze, Stephane; Marty, Remi

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to compare the epidemiological and economic impact of 16/18 bivalent and 6/11/16/18 quadrivalent HPV vaccination in France, considering differences in licensed outcomes, protection against non-vaccine HPV types and prevention of HPV-6/11-related diseases. The differential impact of the two vaccines was evaluated using a published model adapted to the French setting. The target population was females aged 14–23 y and the time horizon was 100 y. A total of eight different scenarios compared vaccination impact in terms of reduction in HPV-16/18-associated carcinomas (cervical, vulvar, vaginal, anal, penile and head and neck), HPV-6/11-related genital warts and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, and incremental reduction in cervical cancer due to potential cross-protection. Quadrivalent vaccine was associated with total discounted cost savings ranging from EUR 544–1,020 million vs. EUR 177–538 million with the bivalent vaccination (100-y time horizon). Genital wart prevention thanks to quadrivalent HPV vaccination accounted for EUR 306–380 million savings (37–56% of costs saved). In contrast, the maximal assumed cross-protection against cervical cancer resulted in EUR 13–33 million savings (4%). Prevention of vulvar, vaginal and anal cancers accounted for additional EUR 71–89 million savings (13%). In France, the quadrivalent HPV vaccination would result in significant incremental epidemiological and economic benefits vs. the bivalent vaccination, driven primarily by prevention of genital. The present analysis is the first in the French setting to consider the impact of HPV vaccination on all HPV diseases and non-vaccine types. PMID:23563511

  3. Prophylactic HPV vaccination: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Castle, P E; Maza, M

    2016-02-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the necessary cause of cervical cancer, the fourth most common cancer and cause of cancer-related death in females worldwide. HPV also causes anal, vaginal, vulvar, penile, and oropharyngeal cancer. Prophylactic HPV vaccines based on recombinantly expressed virus-like particles have been developed. Two first-generation, U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved vaccines prevent infections and disease caused by HPV16 and HPV18, the two HPV genotypes that cause approximately 70% of cervical cancer, and one of these vaccines also prevents HPV6 and HPV11, the two HPV genotypes that cause 90% of genital warts. A next-generation vaccine, recently approved by the U.S. FDA, targets HPV16, HPV18, and five additional HPV genotypes that together causes approximately 90% of cervical cancer as well as HPV6 and HPV11. In clinical trials, these vaccines have shown high levels of efficacy against disease and infections caused by the targeted HPV genotypes in adolescent females and males and older females. Data indicate population effectiveness, and therefore cost effectiveness, is highest in HPV-naive young females prior to becoming sexually active. Countries that implemented HPV vaccination before 2010 have already experienced decreases in population prevalence of targeted HPV genotypes and related anogenital diseases in women and via herd protection in heterosexual men. Importantly, after more than 100 million doses given worldwide, HPV vaccination has demonstrated an excellent safety profile. With demonstrated efficacy, cost-effectiveness, and safety, universal HPV vaccination of all young, adolescent women, and with available resources at least high-risk groups of men, should be a global health priority. Failure to do so will result in millions of women dying from avertable cervical cancers, especially in low- and middle-income countries, and many thousands of women and men dying from other HPV-related cancers. PMID:26429676

  4. [HPV-associated cutaneous lesions].

    PubMed

    Kiyofumi, Egawa

    2008-12-01

    More than 100 HPV genotypes are presently distinguished by comparing the DNA sequence of the L1 ORF of each HPV. Two important aspects of the nature of this group of heterogeneous viruses are the way in which specific HPV genotypes are associated with distinct clinical and histological morphologies and the way specific HPV genotypes affect distinct anatomical sites. The former is best evidenced by the HPV type specific cytopathic or cytopathogenic effect (CPE), whereas the latter is suggested by the marked preference of each HPV genotype for specific tissues and sites. Recent studies have also suggested that specific HPV genotypes may target epithelial stem cells at specific anatomical sites. HPV type-specific CPE is the central schema when we analyze and understand the HPV-associated diseases. The concept was suggested by the characterization of distinct HPVs from different types of warts: HPV 2/27/57 from common warts, HPV 3/10/28 from flat warts, HPV 6/11 from condyloma acuminatum, and HPV 5/8 from lesions of epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV). In this paper, I summarize recent advances in HPV study field, especially on HPV-associated cutaneous lesions. These include inclusion warts, HPV-associated epidermoid cysts, HPV type specific activation of melanogenesis, a double infection with HPV 1 and HPV 63 within a single cell, primary target cells and life cycle of the virus, and the identification of novel genes that are associated EV. The HPV-associated cutaneous lesions thus pose important problems to be resolved in virology and human pathology. PMID:19374195

  5. A content analysis of news coverage of the HPV vaccine by U.S. newspapers, January 2002-June 2005.

    PubMed

    Calloway, Crystal; Jorgensen, Cynthia M; Saraiya, Mona; Tsui, Jennifer

    2006-09-01

    Genital Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States. Of the 100 HPV types, HPV type 16 and HPV type 18 have been demonstrated to cause cervical cancer. Two pharmaceutical manufacturers have developed and tested HPV vaccines and are applying to the FDA for licensure. This research describes the content of HPV vaccine information contained in news articles. The Lexis-Nexis database was used to identify 25 articles on HPV that were published in 285 U.S. newspapers from January 1, 2003 to June 17, 2005. The coding schema captured information about the news event and source, as well as HPV and cervical cancer, transmission, vaccine, potential impact of the vaccine, and its relationship to PAP tests. The content analysis revealed that the news coverage of HPV vaccine provides information on the experimental status and efficacy of the vaccine, explains link between HPV and cervical cancer, and reports the manufacturers by name, as well as relies on them for a news source. Detailed information about HPV, however, was frequently missing which could lead to an incomplete picture or lack of understanding of the complexity of HPV and cervical cancer. As a major source of medical information, the media can be particularly important in educating policy makers and the general public about new scientific advances. Public health officials may wish to collaborate with journalists, health educators, healthcare providers, and women's health advocates to ensure that future educational initiatives explain the complexity of the association of HPV and cervical cancer and to stress the importance of continued cervical cancer screening. PMID:16999634

  6. Quantification of Poly(I:C)-Mediated Protection against Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Herbst-Kralovetz, Melissa M.; Pyles, Richard B.

    2006-01-01

    Alternative strategies for controlling the growing herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) epidemic are needed. A novel class of immunomodulatory microbicides has shown promise as antiherpetics, including intravaginally applied CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotides that stimulate toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). In the current study, we quantified protection against experimental genital HSV-2 infection provided by an alternative nucleic acid-based TLR agonist, polyinosine-poly(C) (PIC) (TLR3 agonist). Using a protection quantification paradigm, groups of mice were PIC treated and then subdivided into groups challenged with escalating doses of HSV-2. Using this paradigm, a temporal window of PIC efficacy for single applications was defined as 1 day prior to (prophylactic) through 4 h after (therapeutic) viral challenge. PIC treatment within this window protected against 10-fold-higher HSV-2 challenges, as indicated by increased 50% infectious dose values relative to those for vehicle-treated controls. Disease resolution and survival were significantly enhanced by repetitive PIC doses. Using optimal PIC regimens, cytokine induction was evaluated in murine vaginal lavages and in human vaginal epithelial cells. Similar induction patterns were observed, with kinetics that explained the limited durability of PIC-afforded protection. Daily PIC delivery courses did not generate sustained cytokine levels in murine vaginal fluids that would be indicative of local immunotoxicity. No evidence of immunotoxicity was observed in selected organs that were analyzed following repetitive vaginal PIC doses. Animal and in vitro data indicate that PIC may prove to be a valuable preventative microbicide and/or therapeutic agent against genital herpes by increasing resistance to HSV-2 and enhancing disease resolution following a failure of prevention. PMID:17005677

  7. Relationship between female genital tract infections, mucosal interleukin-17 production and local T helper type 17 cells.

    PubMed

    Masson, Lindi; Salkinder, Amy L; Olivier, Abraham Jacobus; McKinnon, Lyle R; Gamieldien, Hoyam; Mlisana, Koleka; Scriba, Thomas J; Lewis, David A; Little, Francesca; Jaspan, Heather B; Ronacher, Katharina; Denny, Lynette; Abdool Karim, Salim S; Passmore, Jo-Ann S

    2015-12-01

    T helper type 17 (Th17) cells play an important role in immunity to fungal and bacterial pathogens, although their role in the female genital tract, where exposure to these pathogens is common, is not well understood. We investigated the relationship between female genital tract infections, cervicovaginal interleukin-17 (IL-17) concentrations and Th17 cell frequencies. Forty-two cytokines were measured in cervicovaginal lavages from HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected women. Frequencies of Th17 cells (CD3(+)  CD4(+)  IL-17a(+) ) were evaluated in cervical cytobrushes and blood by flow cytometry. Women were screened for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis and herpes simplex virus 2 by PCR, and candidal infections and bacterial vaginosis by Gram stain. Women with bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs), specifically chlamydia and gonorrhoea, had higher genital IL-17 concentrations than women with no STI, whereas women with candidal pseudohyphae/spores had lower IL-17 concentrations compared with women without candidal infections. Viral STIs (herpes simplex virus 2 and HIV) were not associated with significant changes in genital IL-17 concentrations. Genital IL-17 concentrations correlated strongly with other inflammatory cytokines and growth factors. Although Th17 cells were depleted from blood during HIV infection, cervical Th17 cell frequencies were similar in HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected women. Cervical Th17 cell frequencies were also not associated with STIs or candida, although few women had a STI. These findings suggest that IL-17 production in the female genital tract is induced in response to bacterial but not viral STIs. Decreased IL-17 associated with candidal infections suggests that candida may actively suppress IL-17 production or women with dampened IL-17 responses may be more susceptible to candidal outgrowth. PMID:26302175

  8. HPV vaccine (human papillomavirus) Cervarix - what you need to know

    MedlinePlus

    ... taken in its entirety from the CDC HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Cervarix® Vaccine Information Statement: www.cdc.gov/ ... What is HPV? Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common ... in the United States. More than half of sexually active men ...

  9. HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Gardasil Vaccine - What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... taken in its entirety from the CDC HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Vaccine - Gardasil® Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www. ... WHAT IS HPV? Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common ... in the United States. More than half of sexually active men ...

  10. Human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine for the prevention of cervical cancer and HPV-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Skinner, S Rachel; Apter, Dan; De Carvalho, Newton; Harper, Diane M; Konno, Ryo; Paavonen, Jorma; Romanowski, Barbara; Roteli-Martins, Cecilia; Burlet, Nansa; Mihalyi, Attila; Struyf, Frank

    2016-03-01

    Vaccines are available against human papillomavirus (HPV), the causal agent of cervical and other cancers. Efficacy data from the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine clinical trial program were reviewed. Six randomized, controlled phase II/III trials evaluating cervical endpoints enrolled women from diverse populations and geographical locations. The program analyzed extensively the cohorts most relevant from a public health perspective: the total vaccinated cohort (TVC), approximating a general population including those with existing or previous HPV infection, and TVC-naïve, approximating a population of young women before sexual debut. Results show that the vaccine reduces HPV-16/18 infection and associated cervical endpoints in women regardless of age, location, or sexual experience. It provides cross-protection against some non-vaccine oncogenic HPV types and types causing genital warts, and may be effective against vulvar, oral, and anal HPV infection. Early epidemiology data following its introduction suggest a decline in the prevalence of vaccine and some non-vaccine HPV types. PMID:26902666

  11. A cost-effectiveness analysis of targeted HPV vaccination of men who have sex with men in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jane J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background A vaccine targeting human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18, associated with 80% of anal cancers, has demonstrated high efficacy in males. High-risk populations such as men who have sex with men (MSM) may especially benefit from HPV vaccination. To inform immunization guidelines in the U.S., we evaluated the cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccination of MSM. Methods We used decision-analytic models to estimate the direct health and economic outcomes of HPV vaccination in averting HPV-related anal cancer and genital warts, varying age at vaccination, prior exposure to vaccine-targeted HPV types, prevalence of HIV, and other uncertainties. Findings HPV vaccination of MSM at an early age had a cost of $15,290 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained, compared to no vaccination. If MSM are vaccinated at later ages, when exposure to HPV infections is higher, the cost-effectiveness ratios become less attractive but consistently fall below $50,000 per QALY in the majority of evaluated scenarios. Results were most sensitive to rates of anal cancer incidence, duration of vaccine protection, and HIV prevalence among MSM. Interpretation Our analysis suggests that, based on the current evidence, HPV vaccination of MSM is a robustly attractive strategy across a wide range of uncertainties. Funding J Kim is funded in part by grants from the National Cancer Institute (R01 CA93435) and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (30505). PMID:21051295

  12. Identification of a Novel Human Papillomavirus, Type HPV199, Isolated from a Nasopharynx and Anal Canal, and Complete Genomic Characterization of Papillomavirus Species Gamma-12

    PubMed Central

    Oštrbenk, Anja; Kocjan, Boštjan J.; Hošnjak, Lea; Li, Jingjing; Deng, Qiuju; Šterbenc, Anja; Poljak, Mario

    2015-01-01

    The novel human papillomavirus type 199 (HPV199) was initially identified in a nasopharyngeal swab sample obtained from a 25 year-old immunocompetent male. The complete genome of HPV199 is 7,184 bp in length with a GC content of 36.5%. Comparative genomic characterization of HPV199 and its closest relatives showed the classical genomic organization of Gammapapillomaviruses (Gamma-PVs). HPV199 has seven major open reading frames (ORFs), encoding five early (E1, E2, E4, E6, and E7) and two late (L1 and L2) proteins, while lacking the E5 ORF. The long control region (LCR) of 513 bp is located between the L1 and E6 ORFs. Phylogenetic analysis additionally confirmed that HPV-199 clusters into the Gamma-PV genus, species Gamma-12, additionally containing HPV127, HV132, HPV148, HPV165, and three putative HPV types: KC5, CG2 and CG3. HPV199 is most closely related to HPV127 (nucleotide identity 77%). The complete viral genome sequence of additional HPV199 isolate was determined from anal canal swab sample. Two HPV199 complete viral sequences exhibit 99.4% nucleotide identity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first member of Gamma-PV with complete nucleotide sequences determined from two independent clinical samples. To evaluate the tissue tropism of the novel HPV type, 916 clinical samples were tested using HPV199 type-specific real-time PCR: HPV199 was detected in 2/76 tissue samples of histologically confirmed common warts, 2/108 samples of eyebrow hair follicles, 2/137 anal canal swabs obtained from individuals with clinically evident anal pathology, 4/184 nasopharyngeal swabs and 3/411 cervical swabs obtained from women with normal cervical cytology. Although HPV199 was found in 1.4% of cutaneous and mucosal samples only, it exhibits dual tissue tropism. According to the results of our study and literature data, dual tropism of all Gamma-12 members is highly possible. PMID:26375679

  13. Antibody response to human papillomavirus (HPV) type 11 in children with juvenile-onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP).

    PubMed

    Bonnez, W; Kashima, H K; Leventhal, B; Mounts, P; Rose, R C; Reichman, R C; Shah, K V

    1992-05-01

    We previously established, using an ELISA, the presence of specific antibodies directed at human papillomavirus (HPV) type 11 virions in the sera of patients with condylomata acuminata, mostly a disease of young adults that, like recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP), is caused by two closely related HPVs, types 6 and 11. The present study was done to investigate if children with RRP can make viral-specific antibodies to an infection that is acquired at birth. Using the same ELISA, we studied the sera of 32 children with biopsy-documented juvenile-onset RRP and compared them to the sera of 31 control children. The median (and interquartile range) of the OD values in the controls and the cases was 0.078 (0.003, 0.101) and 0.230 (0.063, 0.725), respectively, a statistically significant difference (P = 0.001). Among the cases, there was no difference in seroreactivity between children with HPV-11-induced RRP and those with HPV-6-induced RRP (P = 0.31). Since HPV-11 viral particles do bind to the ELISA plate and remain intact and accessible to antibodies, we conclude that children with RRP, like adults with condylomata acuminata, develop antibodies directed at HPV-11 virions. PMID:1314464

  14. Human Female Genital Tract Infection by the Obligate Intracellular Bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis Elicits Robust Type 2 Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Vicetti Miguel, Rodolfo D.; Harvey, Stephen A. K.; LaFramboise, William A.; Reighard, Seth D.; Matthews, Dean B.; Cherpes, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    While Chlamydia trachomatis infections are frequently asymptomatic, mechanisms that regulate host response to this intracellular Gram-negative bacterium remain undefined. This investigation thus used peripheral blood mononuclear cells and endometrial tissue from women with or without Chlamydia genital tract infection to better define this response. Initial genome-wide microarray analysis revealed highly elevated expression of matrix metalloproteinase 10 and other molecules characteristic of Type 2 immunity (e.g., fibrosis and wound repair) in Chlamydia-infected tissue. This result was corroborated in flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry studies that showed extant upper genital tract Chlamydia infection was associated with increased co-expression of CD200 receptor and CD206 (markers of alternative macrophage activation) by endometrial macrophages as well as increased expression of GATA-3 (the transcription factor regulating TH2 differentiation) by endometrial CD4+ T cells. Also among women with genital tract Chlamydia infection, peripheral CD3+ CD4+ and CD3+ CD4- cells that proliferated in response to ex vivo stimulation with inactivated chlamydial antigen secreted significantly more interleukin (IL)-4 than tumor necrosis factor, interferon-γ, or IL-17; findings that repeated in T cells isolated from these same women 1 and 4 months after infection had been eradicated. Our results thus newly reveal that genital infection by an obligate intracellular bacterium induces polarization towards Type 2 immunity, including Chlamydia-specific TH2 development. Based on these findings, we now speculate that Type 2 immunity was selected by evolution as the host response to C. trachomatis in the human female genital tract to control infection and minimize immunopathological damage to vital reproductive structures. PMID:23555586

  15. Human female genital tract infection by the obligate intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis elicits robust Type 2 immunity.

    PubMed

    Vicetti Miguel, Rodolfo D; Harvey, Stephen A K; LaFramboise, William A; Reighard, Seth D; Matthews, Dean B; Cherpes, Thomas L

    2013-01-01

    While Chlamydia trachomatis infections are frequently asymptomatic, mechanisms that regulate host response to this intracellular Gram-negative bacterium remain undefined. This investigation thus used peripheral blood mononuclear cells and endometrial tissue from women with or without Chlamydia genital tract infection to better define this response. Initial genome-wide microarray analysis revealed highly elevated expression of matrix metalloproteinase 10 and other molecules characteristic of Type 2 immunity (e.g., fibrosis and wound repair) in Chlamydia-infected tissue. This result was corroborated in flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry studies that showed extant upper genital tract Chlamydia infection was associated with increased co-expression of CD200 receptor and CD206 (markers of alternative macrophage activation) by endometrial macrophages as well as increased expression of GATA-3 (the transcription factor regulating TH2 differentiation) by endometrial CD4(+) T cells. Also among women with genital tract Chlamydia infection, peripheral CD3(+) CD4(+) and CD3(+) CD4(-) cells that proliferated in response to ex vivo stimulation with inactivated chlamydial antigen secreted significantly more interleukin (IL)-4 than tumor necrosis factor, interferon-γ, or IL-17; findings that repeated in T cells isolated from these same women 1 and 4 months after infection had been eradicated. Our results thus newly reveal that genital infection by an obligate intracellular bacterium induces polarization towards Type 2 immunity, including Chlamydia-specific TH2 development. Based on these findings, we now speculate that Type 2 immunity was selected by evolution as the host response to C. trachomatis in the human female genital tract to control infection and minimize immunopathological damage to vital reproductive structures. PMID:23555586

  16. Comparison of smear specimens with biopsy specimens in a nucleic acid hybridization test for human papilloma virus (HPV) infection.

    PubMed

    Auvinen, E; Hukkanen, V; Lehmijoki, J; Salmi, T; Arstila, P

    1989-01-01

    A total of 323 pairs of specimens from women with Papanicolaou class II or III cytology were examined for human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6, 11, 16 and 18 by spot hybridization. Each pair consisted of a representative biopsy specimen and a smear specimen from cervical, vaginal or, more rarely, vulvar lesions. We found a close correlation between HPV findings in biopsies and smears. In 83.9% (271) of the cases, both specimens were either positive for a given HPV type or negative. No discordant HPV-types in the two types of specimens were found. In 15.8% (51) of the cases, one specimen proved positive for a given HPV-type while the other specimen from the same patient was negative. In 8.0% (26) of the cases, the biopsy specimen proved positive and the corresponding smear specimen was negative. On the other hand, in 7.7% (25) of the cases we were able to detect HPV DNA in the smear specimen, whereas the corresponding biopsy specimen was negative. We suggest that a smear specimen would be advantageous for screening large groups of patients for the presence of a HPV infection in the genital tract. By using smear specimens together with biopsy specimens it is possible to maximize the number of HPV infection diagnoses. PMID:2561043

  17. HPV vaccines: their pathology-based discovery, benefits, and adverse effects.

    PubMed

    Nicol, Alcina F; de Andrade, Cecilia V; Russomano, Fabio B; Rodrigues, Luana S L; Oliveira, Nathalia S; Provance, David William; Nuovo, Gerard J

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine illustrates the power of in situ-based pathologic analysis in better understanding and curing diseases. The 2 available HPV vaccines have markedly reduced the incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasias, genital warts, and cervical cancer throughout the world. Concerns about HPV vaccine safety have led some physicians, health care officials, and parents to refuse providing the recommended vaccination to the target population. The aims of the study were to discuss the discovery of HPV vaccine and review scientific data related to measurable outcomes from the use of HPV vaccines. The strong type-specific immunity against HPV in humans has been known for more than 25 years. Multiple studies confirm the positive risk benefit of HPV vaccination with minimal documented adverse effects. The most common adverse effect, injection site pain, occurred in about 10% of girls and was less than the rate reported for other vaccines. Use of HPV vaccine should be expanded into more diverse populations, mainly in low-resource settings. PMID:26321154

  18. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... about one out of every six people aged 14 to 49 years have genital herpes. How is genital herpes spread? You can get herpes by having oral, vaginal, or anal sex with someone who has the disease. Fluids ...

  19. Differential effects of human papillomavirus type 6, 16, and 18 DNAs on immortalization and transformation of human cervical epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pecoraro, G.; Morgan, D.; Defendi, V. )

    1989-01-01

    The human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are associated with specific benign and malignant lesions of the skin and mucosal epithelia. Cloned viral DNAs from HPV types 6b, 16, and 18 associated with different pathological manifestations of genital neoplasia in vivo were introduced into primary human cervical epithelial cells by electroporation. Cells transfected with HPV16 or HPV18 DNA acquired indefinite lifespans, distinct morphological alterations, and anchorage-independent growth (HPV18), and contain integrated transcriptionally active viral genomes. HPV6b or plasmid electroporated cells senesced at low passage. The alterations in growth and differentiation of the cells appear to reflect the progressive oncogenic processes that result in cervical carcinoma in vivo.

  20. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... who have sex with women get genital herpes? Yes. It is possible to get genital herpes, or any other STI, if you are a woman who ... sex and avoid sexual activity during an outbreak. Yes. It is possible to get genital herpes, or any other STI, if you are a woman who ...

  1. Integrating Clinical, Community, and Policy Perspectives on HPV Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, María E.; Allen, Jennifer D.; Mistry, Ritesh; Kahn, Jessica A.

    2010-01-01

    Infection with genital human papillomavirus (HPV) may cause anogenital cancers, oropharyngeal cancers, anogenital warts, and respiratory papillomas. Two prophylactic vaccines (a bivalent and a quadrivalent vaccine) are now licensed and currently in use in a number of countries. Both vaccines prevent infection with HPV-16 and HPV-18, which together cause approximately 70% of cervical cancers, and clinical trials have demonstrated 90%-100% efficacy in preventing precancerous cervical lesions attributable to HPV-16 and HPV-18. One vaccine also prevents HPV-6 and HPV-11, which cause 90% of genital warts. A growing literature describes associations between psychosocial, interpersonal, organizational, and societal factors that influence HPV vaccination acceptability. This paper summarizes the current literature and presents an integrated perspective, taking into account these diverse influences. The resulting integrated model can be used as a heuristic tool for organizing factors at multiple levels to guide intervention development and future research. PMID:20001821

  2. Epidemiologic natural history and clinical management of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Disease: a critical and systematic review of the literature in the development of an HPV dynamic transmission model

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Natural history models of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and disease have been used in a number of policy evaluations of technologies to prevent and screen for HPV disease (e.g., cervical cancer, anogenital warts), sometimes with wide variation in values for epidemiologic and clinical inputs. The objectives of this study are to: (1) Provide an updated critical and systematic review of the evidence base to support epidemiologic and clinical modeling of key HPV disease-related parameters in the context of an HPV multi-type disease transmission model which we have applied within a U.S. population context; (2) Identify areas where additional studies are particularly needed. Methods Consistent with our and other prior HPV natural history models, the literature review was confined to cervical disease and genital warts. Between October 2005 and January 2006, data were gathered from the published English language medical literature through a search of the PubMed database and references were examined from prior HPV natural history models and review papers. Study design and data quality from individual studies were compared and analyses meeting pre-defined criteria were selected. Results Published data meeting review eligibility criteria were most plentiful for natural history parameters relating to the progression and regression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) without HPV typing, and data concerning the natural history of HPV disease due to specific HPV types were often lacking. Epidemiologic evidence to support age-dependency in the risk of progression and regression of HPV disease was found to be weak, and an alternative hypothesis concerning the time-dependence of transition rates is explored. No data were found on the duration of immunity following HPV infection. In the area of clinical management, data were observed to be lacking on the proportion of clinically manifest anogenital warts that are treated and the proportion of cervical cancer cases that become symptomatic by stage. Conclusion Knowledge of the natural history of HPV disease has been considerably enhanced over the past two decades, through the publication of an increasing number of relevant studies. However, considerable opportunity remains for advancing our understanding of HPV natural history and the quality of associated models, particularly with respect to examining HPV age- and type-specific outcomes, and acquired immunity following infection. PMID:19640281

  3. Potential coverage of circulating HPV types by current and developing vaccines in a group of women in Bosnia and Herzegovina with abnormal Pap smears.

    PubMed

    Salimović-Bešić, I; Hukić, M

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in a group of Bosnian-Herzegovinian women with abnormal cytology and to assess their potential coverage by vaccines. HPVs were identified by multiplex real-time PCR test (HPV High Risk Typing Real-TM; Sacace Biotechnologies, Italy) of 105 women with an abnormal cervical Pap smear and positive high-risk (HR) HPV DNA screening test. The most common genotypes in the study were HPV-16 (32·6%, 48/147), HPV-31 (14·3%, 21/147), HPV-51 (9·5%, 14/147) and HPV-18 (7·5%, 11/147). The overall frequency of HR HPV-16 and/or HPV-18, covered by currently available vaccines [Gardasil® (Merck & Co., USA) and Cervarix®; (GlaxoSmithKline, UK)] was lower than the overall frequency of other HPVs detected in the study (40·1%, 59/174, P = 0·017). Group prevalence of HR HPVs targeted by a nine-valent vaccine in development (code-named V503) was higher than total frequency of other HPVs detected (68·0%, 100/147, P < 0·001). Development of cervical cytological abnormalities was independent of the presence of multiple infections (χ 2 = 0·598, P = 0·741). Compared to other HPVs, dependence of cervical diagnosis and HPV-16, -18 (P = 0·008) and HPV-16, -18, -31 (P = 0·008) infections were observed. Vaccines targeting HR HPV-16, -18 and -31 might be an important tool in the prevention of cervical disease in Bosnia and Herzegovina. PMID:25578155

  4. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine (Gardasil)

    MedlinePlus

    ... vulvar cancer in females, and genital warts and anal cancer in both males and females.Protection from HPV vaccine is expected to be long-lasting. But vaccination is not a substitute for cervical cancer screening. Women should still get regular Pap tests.

  5. Identification of immunoreactive antigens of human papillomavirus type 6b by using Escherichia coli-expressed fusion proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Jenison, S A; Firzlaff, J M; Langenberg, A; Galloway, D A

    1988-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPVs) infect the genital epithelium and are found in proliferative lesions ranging from benign condylomata to invasive carcinomas. The immunological response to these infections is poorly understood because of the lack of purified viral antigens. In this study, bacterially derived fusion proteins expressing segments of all the major open reading frames (ORFs) of HPV type 6b (HPV-6b) have been used in Western blot (immunoblot) assays to detect antibodies directed against HPV-encoded proteins. The most striking reactivities present in sera from patients with genital warts were to the HPV-6b L1 ORF protein and, to a lesser extent, to the HPV-6b L2 ORF protein. Two cases of reactivity to HPV-6b E2 ORF were observed, but no reactivities were seen with other HPV-6b constructs. Two sera reacted with the HPV-16 L2 fusion protein, and two sera reacted with the HPV-16 E4 protein. The antibodies directed against the HPV-6b fusion proteins showed no cross-reactivity with comparable regions of the HPV-16 ORFs. This assay provides a useful approach for further studies of HPV serology. Images PMID:2835513

  6. [Current problems and recent advances in the molecular diagnosis of genital human papillomavirus infections].

    PubMed

    Sahiner, Fatih

    2014-10-01

    It was proven in the early 1980s that cervical cancer (CC) biopsy specimens and CC cell lines contain human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA sequences. In subsequent years, researchers discovered that the E6 and E7 genes of HPV are expressed in CC tissues and these oncoproteins interact with cellular proteins, including pRb and p53. Establishment of the relationship between HPV infections and CC led to increasing interest on this topic. Comprehensive epidemiological studies determined that specific types of HPV are major risk factors for CC. These HPV types, called high-risk or oncogenic types, are associated with other anogenital cancers and a subset of head and neck cancers. A number of commercial and in-house diagnostic techniques, each of which has a different approach and methodology, have been developed to diagnose HPV infections. HPV testing based on the detection of viral DNA has become an important part of CC screening programs. These screening-typing methods and combined approaches, which are used to diagnose and follow-up (management) HPV infections, have advantages and disadvantages. The choice of method is complicated by several factors and challenges that arise owing to the nature of the virus and the assay methodology. For example, a number of different HPV types can cause genital infections, multiple sequence variations are often observed even in the same HPV genotype, the detection sensitivity of the available methods is variable depending on the HPV genotypes and the viral DNA copy number in the samples examined. The capability for the detection of multiple infections and the ability to perform genotyping differ between the methods. The aim of this review is to summarize the methods used for the diagnosis and follow-up of HPV infections, and to share the current informations that may be helpfull for the choice of appropriate method. For this purpose, molecular-based HPV tests that were used in the past and their development processes were described briefly, then currently accepted and widely used methods for diagnosis, screening, and typing were discussed in detail, along with their advantages and disadvantages. PMID:25492665

  7. Type-Specific HPV Prevalence in Cervical Cancer and High-Grade Lesions in Latin America and the Caribbean: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ciapponi, Agustín; Bardach, Ariel; Glujovsky, Demián; Gibbons, Luz; Picconi, María Alejandra

    2011-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is a major public health problem in Latin America and the Caribbean (LA&C), showing some of the highest incidence and mortality rates worldwide. Information on HPV type distribution in high-grade cervical lesions (HSIL) and invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is crucial to predict the future impact of HPV16/18 vaccines and screening programmes, and to establish an appropriate post-vaccinal virologic surveillance. The aim was to assess the prevalence of HPV types in HSIL and ICC in studies in LA&C. Methods and Findings We performed a systematic review, following the MOOSE guidelines for systematic reviews of observational studies, and the PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Inclusion criteria were at least ten cases of HSIL/ICC, and HPV-type elicitation. The search, without language restrictions, was performed in MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, LILACS from inception date to December 2009, proceedings, reference lists and consulting experts. A meta-analysis was performed using arc-sine transformations to stabilize the variance of simple proportions. Seventy-nine studies from 18 countries were identified, including 2446 cases of HSIL and 5540 of ICC. Overall, 46.5% of HSIL cases harbored HPV 16 and 8.9% HPV18; in ICC, 53.2% of cases harbored HPV 16 and13.2% HPV 18. The next five most common types, in decreasing frequency, were HPV 31, 58, 33, 45, and 52. Study's limitations comprise the cross-sectional design of most included studies and their inherent risk of bias, the lack of representativeness, and variations in the HPV type-specific sensitivity of different PCR protocols. Conclusions This study is the broadest summary of HPV type distribution in HSIL and ICC in LA&C to date. These data are essential for local decision makers regarding HPV screening and vaccination policies. Continued HPV surveillance would be useful, to assess the potential for changing type-specific HPV prevalence in the post-vaccination era in Latin America. PMID:21991313

  8. HPV vaccine update: new indications and controversies.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Natalia; Hernandez, Paul O; Tyring, Stephen K

    2011-09-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) has a predilection for infecting epidermal and mucosal surfaces such as those of the anogenital region. HPV causes substantial pre-malignant, malignant, and benign disease in both women and men, ranging from cervical, vulvar, penile, and anal cancers to condyloma acuminata (genital warts). Although HPV vaccination is becoming more common, infection rates remain high in both genders. Perception of HPV vaccine has largely centered on its ability to prevent cervical cancer in women, though indication for its use in men is expanding. The benefits to men include prevention of genital warts and, more recently, regulatory approval was expanded in the US for prevention of anal cancer. Herein, we review HPV vaccine with a focus on its new indication in men and existing controversies. PMID:22089414

  9. Vaccine-Induced Serum Immunoglobin Contributes to Protection from Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Genital Infection in the Presence of Immune T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Lynda A.; Zhu, Li; Thebeau, Lydia G.

    2001-01-01

    Herpes simplex type virus 2 (HSV-2) is a sexually transmitted pathogen that causes genital lesions and spreads to the nervous system to establish acute and latent infections. Systemic but not mucosal cellular and humoral immune responses are elicited by immunization of mice with a replication-defective mutant of HSV-2, yet the mice are protected against disease caused by subsequent challenge of the genital mucosa with virulent HSV-2. In this study, we investigated the role of immune serum antibody generated by immunization with a replication-defective HSV-2 vaccine prototype strain in protection of the genital mucosa and the nervous system from HSV-2 infection. Passive transfer of replication-defective virus-immune serum at physiologic concentrations to SCID or B-cell-deficient mice had no effect on replication of challenge virus in the genital mucosa but did significantly reduce the incidence and severity of genital and neurologic disease. In contrast, B-cell-deficient mice immunized with replication-defective HSV-2 were able to control replication of challenge virus in the genital mucosa, but not until 3 days postchallenge, and were not completely protected against genital and neurologic disease. Passive transfer of physiologic amounts of immune serum to immunized, B-cell-deficient mice completely restored their capacity to limit replication of challenge virus in the genital mucosa and prevented signs of genital and systemic disease. In addition, the numbers of viral genomes in the lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia of immunized, B-cell-deficient mice were dramatically reduced by transfer of immune serum prior to challenge. These results suggest that there is an apparent synergism between immune serum antibody and immune T cells in achieving protection and that serum antibody induced by vaccination with replication-defective virus aids in reducing establishment of latent infection after genital infection with HSV-2. PMID:11152492

  10. Effects of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 oncoproteins on the expression of involucrin in human keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The human papillomavirus (HPV) life cycle is closely linked to keratinocyte differentiation. Oncogenic HPV infection has been shown to hamper the normal differentiation of keratinocytes; however, the underlying mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon are yet to be clarified. Here, we aimed to study the effects of HPV16 E6 and E7 oncogenes on the expression of involucrin (IVL), an established marker of keratinocyte differentiation, in human foreskin keratinocyte (HFK) cells. Results The differentiation of HFK cells by serum and high calcium significantly increased both the mRNA and the protein levels of IVL. The E6 and E7 oncoproteins of HPV16 together caused strong down-regulation of IVL mRNA and protein both in proliferating and in differentiating HFK cells. To study the effects of HPV oncogenes on the IVL promoter, we made transient transfection assays and luciferase tests and found that HPV 16 E6 but not E7 repressed IVL promoter activity in proliferating HFK cells. The inhibitory effect of HPV 16 E6 on the human IVL promoter could be localised to the proximal regulatory region (PRR) of the gene. Conclusions These results suggest that the down-regulation of IVL promoter activity by HPV 16 E6 significantly contribute to the inhibition of endogenous IVL expression by the HPV 16 oncoproteins. In contrast, the down-regulation of endogenous IVL expression by HPV16 E7 is probably not caused by a direct and specific effect of E7 on the IVL promoter. PMID:22333115

  11. How will HPV vaccines affect cervical cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Roden, Richard; Wu, T.-C.

    2011-01-01

    Cancer of the uterine cervix is the second largest cause of cancer deaths in women, and its toll is greatest in populations that lack screening programmes to detect precursor lesions. Persistent infection with ‘high risk’ genotypes of human papillomavirus (HPV) is necessary, although not sufficient, to cause cervical carcinoma. Therefore, HPV vaccination provides an opportunity to profoundly affect cervical cancer incidence worldwide. A recently licensed HPV subunit vaccine protects women from a high proportion of precursor lesions of cervical carcinoma and most genital warts. Here we examine the ramifications and remaining questions that surround preventive HPV vaccines. PMID:16990853

  12. Papillomaviral Infections of the Female Genital Tract

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Malcolm G.

    1992-01-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common organism to infect the human genital tract, affecting as much as half, or more, of the sexually active population. This virus has become widely recognized through the well publicized relationship with genital tract neoplasia and through new diagnostic technologies, such as monoclonal antibody analysis, DNA hybridization, and the polymerase chain reaction. This paper describes the full spectrum of HPV infections, starting with pathogenesis and continuing to clinical manifestations, and discusses significance, diagnosis, and management. PMID:21221347

  13. HPV16-E7 Expression in skin induces TSLP secretion, type 2 ILC infiltration and atopic dermatitis-like lesions

    PubMed Central

    Bergot, Anne-Sophie; Monnet, Nastasia; Tran, Le Son; Mittal, Deepak; Al-Kouba, Jane; Steptoe, Raymond J.; Grimbaldeston, Michele A.; Frazer, Ian H.; Wells, James W.

    2014-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common pruritic and inflammatory skin disorder with unknown etiology. Most commonly occurring during early childhood, atopic dermatitis is associated with eczematous lesions and lichenification, in which the epidermis becomes hypertrophied resulting in thickening of the skin. In this study, we report an atopic dermatitis-like pathophysiology results in a murine model following the expression of the high-risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV) 16 oncoprotein E7 in keratinocytes under the Keratin 14 promoter. We show that HPV 16 E7 expression in the skin is associated with skin thickening, acanthosis and light spongiosis. Locally, HPV 16 E7 expressing skin secreted high levels of TSLP and contained increased numbers of ILCs. High levels of circulating IgE were associated with increased susceptibility to skin allergy in a model of cutaneous challenge, and to airway bronchiolar inflammation, enhanced airway goblet cell metaplasia and mucus production in a model of atopic march. Surprisingly, skin pathology occurred independently of T-cells and mast cells. Thus, our findings suggest that the expression of a single HPV oncogene in the skin can drive the onset of atopic dermatitis-like pathology through the induction of TSLP and type 2 ILC infiltration. PMID:25601274

  14. HPV prevalence and type-distribution in cervical cancer and premalignant lesions of the cervix: A population-based study from Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Lesley A; O'Rorke, Michael A; Wilson, Robbie; Jamison, Jackie; Gavin, Anna T

    2016-07-01

    Assessment of Human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and genotype distribution is important for monitoring the impact of prophylactic HPV vaccination. This study aimed to demonstrate the HPV genotypes predominating in pre-malignant and cervical cancers in Northern Ireland (NI) before the vaccination campaign has effect. Formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue blocks from 2,303 women aged 16-93 years throughout NI were collated between April 2011 and February 2013. HPV DNA was amplified by PCR and HPV genotyping undertaken using the Roche(®) linear array detection kit. In total, 1,241 out of 1,830 eligible samples (68.0%) tested positive for HPV, with the majority of these [1,181/1,830 (64.5%)] having high-risk (HR) HPV infection; 37.4% were positive for HPV-16 (n = 684) and 5.1% for HPV-18 (n = 93). HPV type-specific prevalence was 48.1%, 65.9%, 81.3%, 92.2%, and 64.3% among cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN) Grades I-III, squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and adenocarcinoma (AC) cases, respectively. Most SCC cases (81.3%) had only one HPV genotype detected and almost a third (32.0%) of all cervical pathologies were HPV negative including 51.9% of CIN I (n = 283), 34.1% CIN II (n = 145), 18.7% of CIN III (n = 146), 7.8% of SCC (n = 5), and 35.7% of AC (n = 5) cases. This study provides important baseline data for monitoring the effect of HPV vaccination in NI and for comparison with other UK regions. The coverage of other HR-HPV genotypes apart from 16 and 18, including HPV-45, 31, 39, and 52, and the potential for cross protection, should be considered when considering future polyvalent vaccines. J. Med. Virol. 88:1262-1270, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26680281

  15. Annual disease burden due to human papillomavirus (HPV) 6 and 11 infections in Finland.

    PubMed

    Syrjänen, Kari J

    2009-01-01

    In addition to cancer of the lower female genital tract, human papillomaviruses (HPV) are associated with a large number of benign, precancer and cancer lesions at different anatomic sites in both genders. Malignant tumours and their precursors are usually attributed to the oncogenic (high-risk, HR) HPV types, whereas benign lesions (papillomas) are associated with the low-risk (LR) HPV types, most notably with HPV6 and HPV11. Until recently, the main interest in HPV research has been focused on HR-HPV types and their associated pathology, and much less attention has been paid to the lesions caused by the LR-HPV types. With the recent licensing of an effective prophylactic vaccine against the 2 most important LR-HPV types (HPV6 and HPV11), it has become timely to make a systematic survey on the annual disease burden due to these 2 HPV genotypes in our country. These types of data should form the foundation for all calculations of the annual costs needed to treat these diseases by conventional means. Accurate estimates of disease burden are also mandatory for all modelling of the cost-effectiveness of prophylactic HPV6 and HPV11 vaccines. If proven useful for any of these purposes, this document will have fulfilled its purpose. In the first step, published HPV literature was used to create a list of benign, premalignant and malignant lesions associated with this virus at different anatomic sites. GLOBOCAN 2004 (IARC) database was used to derive the global numbers of incident cases for each of these malignancies in 2002, and the Finnish Cancer Registry (FCR) website for obtaining these (y 2005) numbers in Finland. The evidence linking HPV to each individual tumour category was classified as: 1) established, 2) emerging, and 3) controversial. All published evidence was weighted for each individual malignant, premalignant and benign lesion, anatomic region by region, while assessing the attributable fraction of HPV6/11 genotypes in each lesion. Because benign and most of the precancer lesions are not registered by FCR or GLOBOCAN, different approaches had to be used to derive the best estimates for their incidence, based on published literature or other registries (e.g. genital wart registry of the UK and Wales, and mass screening registry of FCR). With a lack of reasonable consensus, a lower and an upper limit was set for the range of estimates. In cases with different age-specific incidence (e.g. genital warts), the population pyramid of Finland was used to calculate the incident cases. Where well established, the different incidence rates among males and females were used to calculate the numbers of incident cases by gender. The malignant neoplasms with established or emerging evidence on the causal role of HPV are listed by their ICD-10 codes in Table I. Included in this list are also 2 controversial malignancies (colorectal cancer and endometrial cancer), of which the contradictory HPV data are critically discussed. The third major cancer in this same category (prostate cancer) was not included in the list, because the data are clearly insufficient to categorize this entity even among the emerging HPV associated malignancies. Estimated disease burden due to HPV6/11 in Finland, calculated as numbers of annual new cases by anatomic region and tumour type is given in Table II, and summarized in Figure 1. The present analysis implicates that a minimum of 12,666 to 13,066 new cases of HPV6- or HPV11-associated clinical lesions would be detected each y in Finland, if all were registered. Notably, these numbers represent the disease burden due to these 2 HPV types. However, these clinical lesions only represent a small minority of the total viral burden due to the infections by these 2 HPV genotypes. This is because the vast majority of all infections by these ubiquitous viruses are latent, being transient in nature and spontaneously resolving within a few months (up to 1 y), without ever developing a clinically detectable disease. This spontaneous clearance does not make these latent infections less important, however, because as long as the virus reservoir exists, it serves as the source of viral transmission to susceptible individuals, with a multitude of HPV6/11 associated pathologies as a potential outcome, as described in this document. The implications of these data in the era of effective prophylactic HPV vaccination against HPV6 and HPV11 should be clear. PMID:19408160

  16. Antibiotic Susceptibility and Sequence Type Distribution of Ureaplasma Species Isolated from Genital Samples in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Sarah C.; Tinguely, Regula; Droz, Sara; Hilty, Markus; Donà, Valentina; Bodmer, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance in Ureaplasma urealyticum/Ureaplasma parvum and Mycoplasma hominis is an issue of increasing importance. However, data regarding the susceptibility and, more importantly, the clonality of these organisms are limited. We analyzed 140 genital samples obtained in Bern, Switzerland, in 2014. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed by using the Mycoplasma IST 2 kit and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. MICs for ciprofloxacin and azithromycin were obtained in broth microdilution assays. Clonality was analyzed with PCR-based subtyping and multilocus sequence typing (MLST), whereas quinolone resistance and macrolide resistance were studied by sequencing gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes, as well as 23S rRNA genes and genes encoding L4/L22 ribosomal proteins. A total of 103 samples were confirmed as positive for U. urealyticum/U. parvum, whereas 21 were positive for both U. urealyticum/U. parvum and M. hominis. According to the IST 2 kit, the rates of nonsusceptibility were highest for ciprofloxacin (19.4%) and ofloxacin (9.7%), whereas low rates were observed for clarithromycin (4.9%), erythromycin (1.9%), and azithromycin (1%). However, inconsistent results between microdilution and IST 2 kit assays were recorded. Various sequence types (STs) observed previously in China (ST1, ST2, ST4, ST9, ST22, and ST47), as well as eight novel lineages, were detected. Only some quinolone-resistant isolates had amino acid substitutions in ParC (Ser83Leu in U. parvum of serovar 6) and ParE (Val417Thr in U. parvum of serovar 1 and the novel Thr417Val substitution in U. urealyticum). Isolates with mutations in 23S rRNA or substitutions in L4/L22 were not detected. This is the first study analyzing the susceptibility of U. urealyticum/U. parvum isolates in Switzerland and the clonality outside China. Resistance rates were low compared to those in other countries. We hypothesize that some hyperepidemic STs spread worldwide via sexual intercourse. Large combined microbiological and clinical studies should address this important issue. PMID:26195516

  17. Isolation of a novel human papillomavirus (type 51) from a cervical condyloma

    SciTech Connect

    Nuovo, G.J.; Crum, C.P.; Levine, R.U.; Silverstein, S.J. ); De Villiers, E.M. )

    1988-04-01

    The authors cloned the DNA from a novel human papillomavirus (HPV) present in a cervical condyloma. When DNA from this isolate was hybridized at high stringency with HPV types 1 through 50 (HPV-1 through HPV-50), it showed weak homology with HPV-6 and -16 and stronger homology with HPV-26. A detailed restriction endonuclease map was prepared which showed marked differences from the maps for other HPVs that have been isolated from the female genital tract. Reassociation kinetic analysis revealed that HPV-26 and this new isolate were less than 10% homologous; hence, the new isolate is a noel strain of HPV. The approximate positions of the open reading frames of the new strain were surmised by hybridization with probes derived from individual open reading frames of HPV-16. In an analysis of 175 genital biopsies from patients with abnormal Papanicolaou smears, sequences hybridizing under highly stringent conditions to probes from this novel HPV type were found in 4.2, 6.1, and 2.4% of biopsies containing normal squamous epithelium, condylomata, and intraepithelial neoplasia, respectively. In addition, sequences homologous to probes from this novel isolate were detected in one of five cervical carcinomas examined.

  18. Men's Perceptions and Knowledge of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection and Cervical Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPartland, Tara S.; Weaver, Bethany A.; Lee, Shu-Kuang; Koutsky, Laura A.

    2005-01-01

    The authors assessed young men's knowledge and perceptions of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection to identify factors that predict intention to make positive behavioral changes. Male university students aged 18 to 25 years completed a self-report instrument to assess knowledge and perceptions of genital HPV infection. If diagnosed with…

  19. HPV type concordance in sexual couples determines the effect of condoms on regression of flat penile lesions

    PubMed Central

    Bleeker, M C G; Berkhof, J; Hogewoning, C J A; Voorhorst, F J; van den Brule, A J C; Starink, T M; Snijders, P J F; Meijer, C J L M

    2005-01-01

    We earlier demonstrated, in a randomised clinical trial, that the regression time of flat penile lsions in male sexual partners of women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) was shorter in men who used condoms compared to those who did not. To further evaluate this finding, we examined whether the effect of condom use on the regression of flat penile lesions depends on the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) type concordance in sexual couples, as determined in cervical and penile scrapes by GP5+/6+ PCR testing. A Cox model with time-dependent covariates showed a beneficial effect of condoms on regression of flat penile lesions in concordant couples (hazard ratio 2.63, 95% CI 1.07–6.48) but not in those who were nonconcordant. When both partners harboured different HPV types, no effect of condoms was found (hazard ratio 0.90, 95% CI 0.27–2.96). Delayed regression of flat penile lesions was associated with either stable lesions or with new penile lesions developing at sites surrounding pre-existing lesions suggesting reinfection of the penile epithelium. We conclude that condom use blocks sexual HPV transmission by preventing reinfection and development of new penile lesions in men who are susceptible to the same type as present in the female partner. PMID:15812547

  20. A prospective analysis of smoking and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among men in The HPV in Men (HIM) Study

    PubMed Central

    Schabath, Matthew B.; Villa, Luisa L.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William J.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Salmerón, Jorge; Abrahamsen, Martha E.; Papenfuss, Mary R.; Quiterio, Manuel; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2013-01-01

    At present it is unknown whether the higher prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among smokers in men is attributed to a higher probability of acquiring an infection or because of longer infection persistence. Thus, we investigated the role of smoking on the (acquisition) and clearance (persistence) of genital HPV infections among 4,026 men in The HPV in Men (HIM) Study, a multinational prospective study of the natural history of genital HPV infection in men. Genital HPV infections were grouped any-, oncogenic-, and non-oncogenic HPV infections and smoking status was categorized as current-, former, and never smokers. The incidence of any-, oncogenic-, and non-oncogenic HPV infections was significantly higher among current smokers compared to former- and never smokers (P < 0.01). In multivariable analyses adjusting for sexual behavior and potential confounders, when compared to never smokers, current smokers exhibited significantly higher probability of acquiring any- (Hazard Ratio [HR] = 1.23; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02 – 1.50) and non-oncogenic (HR = 1.21; 95% CI 1.00 – 1.45) infections and a borderline significant probability for oncogenic infections (HR = 1.18; 95% CI 0.98 – 1.41). Although the median duration of HPV infection was generally longer among current smokers, we found no statistically significant associations in the multivariable analyses. Overall, these results demonstrated that current smoking exhibited the highest incidence and highest probability of acquiring genital HPV infections. PMID:24222514

  1. Multiple-type human papillomavirus infection in male anogenital sites: prevalence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Nielson, Carrie M; Harris, Robin B; Flores, Roberto; Abrahamsen, Martha; Papenfuss, Mary R; Dunne, Eileen F; Markowitz, Lauri E; Giuliano, Anna R

    2009-04-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes cervical cancer and is strongly associated with other anogenital cancers. Multiple-type HPV infection has been associated with lengthier infection and precancerous lesions. Little is known about multiple-type HPV prevalence and associated factors in men. We examined the prevalence of and risk factors for multiple-type HPV in primarily asymptomatic men. Detection of 37 HPV types in male anogenital epithelium and semen was completed in 463 men in two U.S. cities. The proportions of men with multiple HPV of any type and with multiple oncogenic or nononcogenic types were calculated. Factors associated with multiple HPV were evaluated using multinomial logistic regression. Overall, 22.9% of men had multiple-HPV, 8.6% of men had multiple oncogenic types, and 13.4% had multiple nononcogenic types. Greater proportions of samples at the shaft, glans/corona, and scrotum had multiple HPV types (18.7%, 12.8%, and 7.3%, respectively) than did other anogenital sites (all < or =2.8%). Factors independently associated with multiple-type HPV were Hispanic ethnicity [adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 2.45; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.05-5.67], concurrent detection of genital warts (AOR, 10.40; 95% CI, 1.12-96.6), smoking > or =10 cigarettes/d (AOR, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.07-8.43), greater lifetime number of female sexual partners (AOR, 13.73 for > or =21 versus 1-5; 95% CI, 5.34-35.3), and condom use less than half the time (AOR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.07-3.84). Detection of multiple HPV types in this study of primarily asymptomatic men was common, particularly at external genital sites. Lifetime number of female sex partners, condom use, and smoking were modifiable factors associated with multiple HPV. PMID:19318438

  2. Should Male Circumcision be Advocated for Genital Cancer Prevention?

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Brian J; Mindel, Adrian; Tobian, Aaron AR; Hankins, Catherine A; Gray, Ronald H; Bailey, Robert C; Bosch, Xavier; Wodak, Alex D

    2013-01-01

    The recent policy statement by the Cancer Council of Australia on infant circumcision and cancer prevention and the announcement that the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine will be made available for boys in Australia prompted us to provide an assessment of genital cancer prevention. While HPV vaccination of boys should help reduce anal cancer in homosexual men and cervical cancer in women, it will have little or no impact on penile or prostate cancer. Male circumcision can reduce cervical, penile and possibly prostate cancer. Promotion of both HPV vaccination and male circumcision will synergistically maximize genital cancer prevention. PMID:23167429

  3. Numerical simulation of a two-sex human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryani, I.; Adi-Kusumo, F.

    2014-02-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a major cause of cervical cancer, precancerous lesions, cancer and other disease. HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection. Although HPV virus primarily affects woman but it can also affects man because it cause of cancer of the anus, vulva, vagina, penis and some other cancers. HPV vaccines now used to prevent cervical cancer and genital warts because the vaccine protect against four types of HPV that most commonly cause disease are types 6, 11, 16, and 18. This paper is sequel work of Elbasha (2008). Difference with Elbasha (2008) are give alternative proof global stability, numerical simulation and interpretation. Global stability of the equilibrium on the model of a two-sex HPV vaccination were explored by using Lyapunov. Although we use the same lyapunov function, we use the largest invariant set to proof the global stability. The result show that the global stability of the equilibrium depends on the effective reproduction number (R). If R < 1 then the infection-free equilibrium is asymptotically stable globally. If R > 1 then endemic equilibrium have globally asymptotically stable properties. Then equilibrium proceed with the interpretation of numerical simulation.

  4. Genome variation of human papillomavirus types: phylogenetic and medical implications.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Hans-Ulrich; Calleja-Macias, Itzel E; Dunn, S Terence

    2006-03-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are described as "types" based on their genome sequences and identified by a number. For example, HPV-6 is associated with genital warts, and HPV-16 with anogenital cancers. The genomes of many HPV types have been reisolated, sequenced and compared to reference "prototypes" countless times by laboratories throughout the world. It was found that each HPV type occurs in the form of "variants", identified by about 2% nucleotide differences in most genes and 5% in less conserved regions. Less than 100 variants of any HPV type have been detected, a scenario that is very different from the quasi-species formed by many RNA viruses. The variants of each HPV type form phylogenetic trees, and variants from specific branches are often unique to specific ethnic groups. Immigrant populations contain, depending on their respective ethnic origins, mixtures of variants. The absence of HPV genomes intermediate to specific types show that all HPV types existed already when humans became a species. Consequently, humans had always suffered from lesions like anogenital cancer, genital warts and common warts. A growing number of epidemiological, etiological and molecular data suggest that variants of the same HPV type are biologically distinct and may confer differential pathogenic risks. Since the distribution of some variants of HPV-16 and 18 correlates with the distribution of human populations that have an increased risk to develop anogenital cancer, the study of HPV type variation may point to one of the reasons for the higher incidence rates of these lesions in specific cohorts. PMID:16331617

  5. Productive replication of adeno-associated virus can occur in human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) episome-containing keratinocytes and is augmented by the HPV-16 E2 protein.

    PubMed

    Ogston, P; Raj, K; Beard, P

    2000-04-01

    We used a sensitive assay to test whether an adeno-associated virus (AAV) productive replication cycle can occur in immortalized human keratinocytes carrying episomal human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) DNA. Following transfection with cloned AAV DNA, infectious AAV was produced, and the infectivity was blocked by anti-AAV antiserum. The HPV-16 E2 protein substantially increased the yield of AAV. Other HPV early proteins did not, in our experiments, show this ability. E2 has been shown to be able to affect p53 levels and to block cell cycle progression at mitosis. We tested the effect of changes in p53 expression on AAV replication and found that large differences in the level of p53 did not alter AAV DNA replication. In extension of this, we found that cellular help for AAV in response to stress was also independent of p53. To test if a mitotic block could trigger AAV DNA replication, we treated the cells with the mitotic inhibitor nocodazole. AAV DNA replication was stimulated by the presence of nocodazole in these and a number of other cell types tested. Yields of infectious virus, however, were not increased by this treatment. We conclude that the HPV-16 E2 protein stimulates AAV multiplication in these cells and propose that this occurs independently of the effects of E2 on p53 and cell cycle progression. Since the effect of E2 was not seen in keratinocytes lacking the HPV-16 episome, we suggest that E2 can help AAV by working in concert with other HPV-16 proteins. PMID:10729123

  6. Genital injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... It is important to rule out sexual abuse, rape, and assault. The health care provider should ask the girl how the object was placed there. In men and young boys, common causes of genital injury include: Having the ...

  7. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by a herpes simplex virus (HSV). It can cause sores on ... also infect their babies during childbirth. Symptoms of herpes are called outbreaks. You usually get sores near ...

  8. Detection of human papillomavirus type 6/11 DNA in conjunctival papillomas by in situ hybridization with radioactive probes

    SciTech Connect

    McDonnell, P.J.; McDonnell, J.M.; Kessis, T.; Green, W.R.; Shah, K.V.

    1987-11-01

    Twenty-three conjunctival papillomas and 28 conjunctival dysplasias were examined for human papillomavirus (HPV)-DNA sequences by in situ hybridization with nick-translated /sup 35/S-labeled HPV probes. Adjacent paraffin sections were hybridized with HPV type 2, 6, 16, and 18 probes at Tm - 17 degrees C. Fifteen tissues, all papillomas, displayed positive hybridization with the HPV-6 probe. Infection with HPV-6 (or the closely related HPV-11) appeared to be responsible for most of the conjunctival papillomas of children and young adults. The presence of genital tract HPV-6 in these lesions suggests that some of the infections were acquired during passage through an infected birth canal. The lack of hybridization in adult conjunctival dysplasias indicates either that HPVs are not associated with this condition or that the probes and the technique utilized were not adequate for demonstration of this association.

  9. HPV Infections Decrease in the U.S.

    Cancer.gov

    Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types targeted by the quadrivalent HPV vaccine has declined by nearly two-thirds among teenage girls since HPV vaccination was recommended in the United States.

  10. Detection of specific types of human papillomavirus in cervical scrapes, anal scrapes, and anogenital biopsies by DNA hybridization.

    PubMed

    Henderson, B R; Thompson, C H; Rose, B R; Cossart, Y E; Morris, B J

    1987-04-01

    Specific varieties of human papillomavirus (HPV) infecting the anogenital region were detected in clinical samples by use of a filter hybridization technique suitable for rapid screening of cervical and anal scrapes. In this way possibly benign types (HPV6 and HPV11) could be differentiated from types thought to be capable of malignant transformation (HPV 16 and HPV 18). Cervical or anal canal cells were applied directly to nylon filters and fixed by u.v. irradiation before hybridization with mixed viral DNA probes under both low- and high-stringency conditions. In addition, probe for the human Alu-repeated DNA sequence was used to assess the relative amount of total nucleic acids in each sample applied to the filter. HPV DNA was detected in 3 of 19 cervical scrapes from patients with no past or present history of wart virus infection or cervical dysplasia. Within a positive study group totalling 71 patients, HPV (6/11 or 16/18) was detected in cervical scrapes from 24% of 41 patients who did not have visible genital dysplasia, 30% of 27 patients with visible genital dysplasia or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) I, and in 1 of 3 patients with past CIN II/III. In addition, HPV6/11 or 16/18 DNA was detected in anal scrapes from 3 of 6 male patients and in 85% of genital biopsies. A notably high proportion (4/6) of vaginal condylomata were positive with both the HPV6/11 and the HPV16/18 mixed viral DNA probes. Of the biopsies prepared for histopathology and positive for HPV DNA, the HPV group-specific antigen could be detected in only 60%. PMID:3035075

  11. A Contemporary Review of HPV and Penile Cancer.

    PubMed

    Stratton, Kelly L; Culkin, Daniel J

    2016-03-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a widespread sexually transmitted infection. In both men and women, HPV infection can result in a spectrum of genitourinary manifestations ranging from genital warts to cancer. Cervical cancer is nearly always associated with high-risk HPV infection. For men, penile cancer can develop following or independently of HPV infection. Basaloid and warty subtypes of penile squamous cell carcinoma are most frequently associated with HPV infection. Further research into the molecular alterations caused by HPV infection may provide prognostic markers and future treatment targets. Until an effective treatment for HPV infection is developed, prevention will remain the focus of disease control. For women, vaccination is increasingly utilized to prevent HPV infection and subsequent cervical cancer development. New recommendations for routine male vaccination may further reduce cancers for both men and women. PMID:26984219

  12. Primary Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Type I in Preterm Prelabour Rupture of Membranes at 30 Weeks' Gestation

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Anna; Grivell, Rosalie

    2015-01-01

    Background. Disseminated herpes simplex virus (HSV) in the neonate is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Current guidelines recommend caesarean in third-trimester maternal primary genital HSV outbreaks to prevent transmission from mother to fetus. In the premature fetus, however, expectant management is often necessary to reduce morbidity of prematurity. The benefit of performing caesarean after 6 hrs of rupture of membranes (ROM) to reduce maternal-fetal transmission is unclear. Case. A female patient with primary genital HSV type 1 outbreak coinciding with preterm, prelabour rupture of membranes (PPROM) at 30 + 3 weeks' gestation. An immediate caesarean section was not performed after multidisciplinary team discussion due to the benefits of glucocorticoids on immune complications of prematurity. The patient had expectant management for 5 days with intravenous (IV) aciclovir and then delivered an infant vaginally with disseminated neonatal HSV. Conclusion. We address the rare presentation of primary HSV infection associated with PPROM and the dilemma of how to manage these patients given the limited literature. We discuss the role of intrauterine compartment monitoring with amniocentesis, the mode of delivery when ROM has occurred for 120 hours, expectant management to reduce prematurity, and the effectiveness of aciclovir to reduce viral shedding in the prevention of neonatal HSV. PMID:26649212

  13. An immunomodulating dipeptide, SCV-07, is a potential therapeutic for recurrent genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2).

    PubMed

    Rose, William A; Tuthill, Cynthia; Pyles, Richard B

    2008-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections produce a recurrent disease state associated with susceptibility to other pathogens, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and cannot be cured by current therapeutic treatments. The HSV-2 epidemic must therefore be addressed by therapeutic strategies that reduce recurrent lesions and ideally lack the possibility for development of drug resistance. To this end, the therapeutic potential of SCV-07 (gamma-D-glutamyl-L-tryptophan), a synthetic dipeptide with potent immunomodulatory and antimicrobial activity, was studied in the guinea pig model of recurrent genital HSV-2. Initial evaluations showed that when delivered orally, but not subcutaneously, SCV-07 significantly reduced recurrent lesions. Oral dose ranging studies indicated that, of the tested amounts, 5microg/kg was optimal when delivered after an overnight fast. Interestingly, fasting induced a significant increase in recurrent lesions in vehicle-treated guinea pigs relative to non-fasted animals. Despite this increase, SCV-07 significantly reduced lesion formation in treated animals but showed no durability following cessation of treatment. In fact, this regimen of SCV-07 treatment produced statistically indistinguishable outcomes compared with those provided by topical aciclovir. These data illustrate that SCV-07 may provide an easily administered alternative or supplemental treatment option for genital HSV-2 recurrent disease. PMID:18619817

  14. Simultaneous PCR detection of Haemophilus ducreyi, Treponema pallidum, and herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 from genital ulcers.

    PubMed Central

    Orle, K A; Gates, C A; Martin, D H; Body, B A; Weiss, J B

    1996-01-01

    A multiplex PCR (M-PCR) assay with colorimetric detection was devised for the simultaneous amplification of DNA targets from Haemophilus ducreyi, Treponema pallidum, and herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2. By using target-specific oligonucleotides in a microwell format, 298 genital ulcer swab specimens collected in New Orleans during three intervals from 1992 through 1994 were evaluated. The results of the M-PCR assay were compared with the results of dark-field microscopy and H. ducreyi culture on two different culture media. HSV culture results were available for 99 specimens collected during the third interval. Confirmatory PCR assays targeting different gene sequences for each of the three organisms were used to validate the M-PCR results. Specimens were resolved as positive for the determination of sensitivity if the reference diagnostic test was positive or if the results of both the M-PCR and the confirmatory PCR were positive. The resolved sensitivities of M-PCR for HSV, H. ducreyi, and T. pallidum were 100, 98.4, and 91%, respectively. The resolved sensitivities of HSV culture, H. ducreyi culture, and dark-field microscopy were 71.8, 74.2, and 81%, respectively. These results indicate that the M-PCR assay is more sensitive than standard diagnostic tests for the detection of HSV, H. ducreyi, and T. pallidum from genital ulcers. PMID:8748271

  15. Seroepidemiology of Human Papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) L2 and Generation of L2-Specific Human Chimeric Monoclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Joshua W; Jagu, Subhashini; Wu, Wai-Hong; Viscidi, Raphael P; Macgregor-Das, Anne; Fogel, Jessica M; Kwak, Kihyuck; Daayana, Sai; Kitchener, Henry; Stern, Peter L; Gravitt, Patti E; Trimble, Cornelia L; Roden, Richard B S

    2015-07-01

    Presently, the seroprevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) minor capsid antigen L2-reactive antibody is not well understood, and no serologic standard exists for L2-specific neutralizing antibodies. Therefore, we screened a total of 1,078 serum samples for HPV16 L2 reactivity, and these were obtained from four prior clinical studies: a population-based (n = 880) surveillance study with a high-risk HPV DNA prevalence of 10.8%, a cohort study of women (n = 160) with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and two phase II trials in women with high-grade vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) receiving imiquimod therapy combined with either photodynamic therapy (PDT) (n = 19) or vaccination with a fusion protein comprising HPV16 L2, E7, and E6 (TA-CIN) (n = 19). Sera were screened sequentially by HPV16 L2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and then Western blot. Seven of the 1,078 serum samples tested had L2-specific antibodies, but none were detectably neutralizing for HPV16. To develop a standard, we substituted human IgG1 sequences into conserved regions of two rodent monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for neutralizing epitopes at HPV16 L2 residues 17 to 36 and 58 to 64, creating JWW-1 and JWW-2, respectively. These chimeric MAbs retained neutralizing activity and together reacted with 33/34 clinically relevant HPV types tested. In conclusion, our inability to identify an HPV16 L2-specific neutralizing antibody response even in the sera of patients with active genital HPV disease suggests the subdominance of L2 protective epitopes and the value of the chimeric MAbs JWW-1 and JWW-2 as standards for immunoassays to measure L2-specific human antibodies. PMID:25972404

  16. Seroepidemiology of Human Papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) L2 and Generation of L2-Specific Human Chimeric Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Joshua W.; Jagu, Subhashini; Wu, Wai-Hong; Viscidi, Raphael P.; Macgregor-Das, Anne; Fogel, Jessica M.; Kwak, Kihyuck; Daayana, Sai; Kitchener, Henry; Stern, Peter L.; Gravitt, Patti E.; Trimble, Cornelia L.

    2015-01-01

    Presently, the seroprevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) minor capsid antigen L2-reactive antibody is not well understood, and no serologic standard exists for L2-specific neutralizing antibodies. Therefore, we screened a total of 1,078 serum samples for HPV16 L2 reactivity, and these were obtained from four prior clinical studies: a population-based (n = 880) surveillance study with a high-risk HPV DNA prevalence of 10.8%, a cohort study of women (n = 160) with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and two phase II trials in women with high-grade vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) receiving imiquimod therapy combined with either photodynamic therapy (PDT) (n = 19) or vaccination with a fusion protein comprising HPV16 L2, E7, and E6 (TA-CIN) (n = 19). Sera were screened sequentially by HPV16 L2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and then Western blot. Seven of the 1,078 serum samples tested had L2-specific antibodies, but none were detectably neutralizing for HPV16. To develop a standard, we substituted human IgG1 sequences into conserved regions of two rodent monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for neutralizing epitopes at HPV16 L2 residues 17 to 36 and 58 to 64, creating JWW-1 and JWW-2, respectively. These chimeric MAbs retained neutralizing activity and together reacted with 33/34 clinically relevant HPV types tested. In conclusion, our inability to identify an HPV16 L2-specific neutralizing antibody response even in the sera of patients with active genital HPV disease suggests the subdominance of L2 protective epitopes and the value of the chimeric MAbs JWW-1 and JWW-2 as standards for immunoassays to measure L2-specific human antibodies. PMID:25972404

  17. Male genital tract compartmentalization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV).

    PubMed

    Diem, Kurt; Nickle, David C; Motoshige, Alexis; Fox, Alan; Ross, Susan; Mullins, James I; Corey, Lawrence; Coombs, Robert W; Krieger, John N

    2008-04-01

    We present phylogenetic evidence supporting viral compartmentalization between the blood (peripheral blood mononuclear cells or plasma) and multiple genitourinary sites in HIV-infected men. Four of the five subjects evaluated demonstrated compartmentalization of viral sequences between urogenital tract specimens (tissue or fluid) and at least one blood category. HIV sequence migration from blood to urogenital tract was detected in four of five men, with migration from urogenital tract to blood in the fifth, and cross migration between both compartments noted in one man. These observations add 5 additional cases to the 27 total reported cases in which male urogenital tract compartmentalization has been studied, investigate surgical samples/specimens that have not been evaluated previously, and provide further evidence for restricted flow of HIV between the blood and the genital tract. As such, our study findings are important for understanding the long-term response to antiretroviral therapy, the design of vaccines, and the sexual transmission of HIV. PMID:18426336

  18. Male Genital Lichen Sclerosus

    PubMed Central

    Bunker, Christopher Barry; Shim, Tang Ngee

    2015-01-01

    Male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease responsible for male sexual dyspareunia and urological morbidity. An afeared complication is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis. The precise etiopathogenesis of MGLSc remains controversial although genetic, autoimmune and infective (such as human papillomavirus (HPV) hepatitis C (HCV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Borrelia) factors have been implicated: Consideration of all the evidence suggests that chronic exposure of susceptible epithelium to urinary occlusion by the foreskin seems the most likely pathomechanism. The mainstay of treatment is topical ultrapotent corticosteroid therapy. Surgery is indicated for cases unresponsive to topical corticosteroid therapy, phimosis, meatal stenosis, urethral stricture, carcinoma in situ (CIS) and squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25814697

  19. Genital sores - male

    MedlinePlus

    Sores - male genitals; Ulcers - male genitals ... A common cause of male genital sores are infections that are spread through sexual contact, such as: Genital herpes (small, painful blisters filled with clear ...

  20. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Genital Warts

    MedlinePlus

    ... page. Skip Navigation U.S. Department of Health and Human Services • National Institutes of Health Temas de Salud ... RELATED GOVERNMENT SITES U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health USA.gov

  1. HPV vaccination for prevention of skin cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vinzón, Sabrina E; Rösl, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous papillomaviruses are associated with specific skin diseases, such as extensive wart formation and the development of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), especially in immunosuppressed patients. Hence, clinical approaches are required that prevent such lesions. Licensed human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines confer type-restricted protection against HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18, responsible of 90% of genital warts and 70% of cervical cancers, respectively. However, they do not protect against less prevalent high-risk types or cutaneous HPVs. Over the past few years, several studies explored the potential of developing vaccines targeting cutaneous papillomaviruses. These vaccines showed to be immunogenic and prevent skin tumor formation in certain animal models. Furthermore, under conditions mimicking the ones found in the intended target population (i.e., immunosuppression and in the presence of an already established infection before vaccination), recent preclinical data shows that immunization can still be effective. Strategies are currently focused on finding vaccine formulations that can confer protection against a broad range of papillomavirus-associated diseases. The state-of-the-art of these approaches and the future directions in the field will be presented. PMID:25692212

  2. Human papillomavirus type 16 virus-like particles expressed in attenuated Salmonella typhimurium elicit mucosal and systemic neutralizing antibodies in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Nardelli-Haefliger, D; Roden, R B; Benyacoub, J; Sahli, R; Kraehenbuhl, J P; Schiller, J T; Lachat, P; Potts, A; De Grandi, P

    1997-01-01

    Attenuated strains of Salmonella are attractive live vaccine candidates for eliciting mucosal as well as systemic immune responses. The ability to induce immune responses in the reproductive tract may be critical for the effectiveness of a prophylactic vaccine against genital human papillomaviruses (HPV), which are important etiologic agents in the development of cervical cancer. To examine the potential of a live Salmonella-based vaccine to prevent genital HPV infection, the L1 major capsid protein from HPV type 16 (HPV16) was constitutively expressed in the PhoPc strain of Salmonella typhimurium. As demonstrated by electron microscopy, the L1 protein expressed in these bacteria assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs) that resemble authentic papillomavirus virions. This is the first demonstration that papillomavirus VLPs can self-assemble in prokaryotes. BALB/c mice were immunized with the HPV16 L1 recombinant PhoPc strain by the oral and nasal routes. Despite a low stability of the L1-expressing plasmid in vivo, a double nasal immunization was effective in inducing L1-specific serum antibodies that recognized mainly native, but not disassembled, VLPs. These antibodies effectively neutralized HPV16 pseudotyped virions in an in vitro infectivity assay. Conformationally dependent anti-VLP immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG were also detected in oral and vaginal secretions, indicating that potentially protective antibody responses were elicited at mucosal sites. Recombinant attenuated Salmonella expressing HPV capsids may represent a promising vaccine candidate against genital HPV infection. PMID:9234794

  3. Human Papillomavirus Type 6 and 11 Genetic Variants Found in 71 Oral and Anogenital Epithelial Samples from Australia

    PubMed Central

    Danielewski, Jennifer A.; Garland, Suzanne M.; McCloskey, Jenny; Hillman, Richard J.; Tabrizi, Sepehr N.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic variation of 49 human papillomavirus (HPV) 6 and 22 HPV11 isolates from recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) (n = 17), genital warts (n = 43), anal cancer (n = 6) and cervical neoplasia cells (n = 5), was determined by sequencing the long control region (LCR) and the E6 and E7 genes. Comparative analysis of genetic variability was examined to determine whether different disease states resulting from HPV6 or HPV11 infection cluster into distinct variant groups. Sequence variation analysis of HPV6 revealed that isolates cluster into variants within previously described HPV6 lineages, with the majority (65%) clustering to HPV6 sublineage B1 across the three genomic regions examined. Overall 72 HPV6 and 25 HPV11 single nucleotide variations, insertions and deletions were observed within samples examined. In addition, missense alterations were observed in the E6/E7 genes for 6 HPV6 and 5 HPV11 variants. No nucleotide variations were identified in any isolates at the four E2 binding sites for HPV6 or HPV11, nor were any isolates found to be identical to the HPV6 lineage A or HPV11 sublineage A1 reference genomes. Overall, a high degree of sequence conservation was observed between isolates across each of the regions investigated for both HPV6 and HPV11. Genetic variants identified a slight association with HPV6 and anogenital lesions (p = 0.04). This study provides important information on the genetic diversity of circulating HPV 6 and HPV11 variants within the Australian population and supports the observation that the majority of HPV6 isolates cluster to the HPV6 sublineage B1 with anogenital lesions demonstrating an association with this sublineage (p = 0.02). Comparative analysis of Australian isolates for both HPV6 and HPV11 to those from other geographical regions based on the LCR revealed a high degree of sequence similarity throughout the world, confirming previous observations that there are no geographically specific variants for these HPV types. PMID:23691108

  4. Genital injuries in adults.

    PubMed

    White, Catherine

    2013-02-01

    The examination of the rape victim should focus on the therapeutic, forensic and psychological needs of the individual patient. One aspect will be an examination for ano-genital injuries. From a medical perspective, they tend to be minor and require little in the way of treatment. They must be considered when assessing the risk of blood-borne viruses and the need for prophylaxis. From a forensic perspective, an understanding of genital injury rates, type of injury, site and healing may assist the clinician to interpret the findings in the context of the allegations that have been made. There are many myths and misunderstandings about ano-genital injuries and rape. The clinician has a duty to dispel these. PMID:23219384

  5. Racial differences in the incidence and clearance of human papillomavirus (HPV): The HPV in Men (HIM) Study

    PubMed Central

    Schabath, Matthew B.; Villa, Luisa L.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William J.; Akogbe, Gabriel O.; Abrahamsen, Martha E.; Papenfuss, Mary R.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Salmerón, Jorge; Quiterio, Manuel; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2013-01-01

    Background This analysis assessed the acquisition (incidence) and persistence (clearance) of HPV infection by self-reported race among men in The HPV in Men (HIM) Study, a multinational prospective study of the natural history of genital HPV infections. Methods Self-reported race was categorized as White, Black, Asian/Pacific Islander (PI), or multiple and mixed race. Genital samples were combined for HPV DNA testing and categorized by any-, oncogenic-, and non-oncogenic HPV infections. Results Asian/PI race had significantly the lowest incidence of any-, oncogenic-, and non-oncogenic HPV infection (P < 0.001). In multivariable analyses Asian/PI race was associated with a lower probability of acquiring any- (HR=0.63; 95% CI 0.42–0.95) and non-oncogenic HPV infection (HR=0.61; 95% CI 0.40–0.93) when compared to Whites. No significant associations were evident for Asian/PI race for clearance. Multiple and mixed race was significantly associated with lower probability of acquiring non-oncogenic HPV infection (HR=0.83; 95% CI 0.69–0.99) and borderline significant associations were observed for any HPV (HR=0.91) and oncogenic infections (HR=0.92). Multiple and mixed race was associated with a lower probability of clearing any- (HR=0.92; 95% CI 0.84–1.00) and oncogenic HPV infections (HR=0.85; 95% CI 0.75–0.95). Conclusion Asian/PI race had the lowest incidence of HPV and exhibited a lower probability of acquiring new HPV infections. Multiple and mixed race had the second lowest incidence of infection and was associated with a lower probability of acquiring and clearing a HPV infection. Impact Race-specific differences in HPV infection could be due to behavior, innate genetic differences, or circulating intratypic HPV variants. PMID:23872745

  6. HPV Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... through age 26 Guys: from age 11 or 12 through age 21 The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved the HPV vaccine as safe for both guys and girls ages 9 to 26 years old. continue How Does the Vaccine Work? The HPV ...

  7. Serial type-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) load measurement allows differentiation between regressing cervical lesions and serial virion productive transient infections

    PubMed Central

    Depuydt, Christophe E; Jonckheere, Jef; Berth, Mario; Salembier, Geert M; Vereecken, Annie J; Bogers, Johannes J

    2015-01-01

    Persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is strongly associated with the development of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or cancer. Not all persistent infections lead to cancer. Viral load measured at a single time-point is a poor predictor of the natural history of HPV infections. However the profile of viral load evolution over time could distinguish nonprogressive from progressive (carcinogenic) infections. A retrospective natural history study was set up using a Belgian laboratory database including more than 800,000 liquid cytology specimens. All samples were submitted to qPCR identifying E6/E7 genes of 18 HPV types. Viral load changes over time were assessed by the linear regression slope. Database search identified 261 untreated women with persistent type-specific HPV DNA detected (270 infections) in at least three of the last smears for a average period of 3.2 years. Using the coefficient of determination (R²) infections could be subdivided in a latency group (n = 143; R² < 0.85) and a regressing group (n = 127; R² ≥ 0.85). In (≥3) serial viral load measurements, serial transient infections with latency is characterized by a nonlinear limited difference in decrease or increase of type-specific viral load (R² < 0.85 and slopes between 2 measurements 0.0010 and −0.0010 HPV copies/cell per day) over a longer period of time (1553 days), whereas regression of a clonal cell population is characterized by a linear (R² ≥ 0.85) decrease (−0.0033 HPV copies/cell per day) over a shorter period of time (708 days; P < 0.001). Using serial HPV type-specific viral load measurements we could for the first time identify regressing CIN2 and CIN3 lesions. Evolution of the viral load is an objective measurable indicator of the natural history of HPV infections and could be used for future triage in HPV-based cervical screening programs. PMID:25991420

  8. Human papillomavirus and other genital infections in indigenous women from Paraguay: a cross-sectional analytical study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of cervical cancer in Paraguay is among the highest in the world, with the human papillomavirus (HPV) being a necessary factor for cervical cancer. Knowledge about HPV infection among indigenous women is limited. This cross-sectional study analyzed the frequency of HPV and other genital infections in indigenous Paraguayan women of the Department of Presidente Hayes. Methods This study included 181 sexually active women without cervical lesions. They belonged to the following ethnicities: Maká (n = 40); Nivaclé (n = 23); Sanapaná (n = 33); Enxet Sur (n = 51) and Toba-Qom (n = 34). The detection of HPV and other gynecological infectious microorganisms was performed by either molecular methods (for Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Chlamydia trachomatis), gram staining and/or culture (for Gardnerella vaginalis, Candida sp, Trichomonas vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae), serological methods (for Treponema pallidum, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]) or cytology (cervical inflammation). Results A high prevalence (41.4%) of women positive for at least one sexually transmitted infection (STI) was found (23.2% any-type HPV, 11.6% T pallidum, 10.5% T vaginalis, 9.9% C trachomatis and 0.6% HIV) with 12.2% having more than one STI. HPV infection was the most frequent, with 16.1% of women positive for high-risk HPV types. There was a statistically significant association observed between any-type HPV and C trachomatis (p = 0.004), which indicates that the detection of one of these agents should suggest the presence of the other. There was no association between any-type HPV and other genital infections or cervical inflammation, suggesting that other mechanism could exist to favor infection with the virus. Conclusion This multidisciplinary work suggests that STIs are frequent, making it necessary to implement control measures and improve diagnosis in order to increase the number of cases detected, especially in populations with poor access to health centers. PMID:24206645

  9. Influence of Physiologic Folate Deficiency on Human Papillomavirus Type 16 (HPV16)-harboring Human Keratinocytes in Vitro and in Vivo*

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Suhong; Tang, Ying-Sheng; Khan, Rehana A.; Zhang, Yonghua; Kusumanchi, Praveen; Stabler, Sally P.; Jayaram, Hiremagalur N.; Antony, Aśok C.

    2012-01-01

    Although HPV16 transforms infected epithelial tissues to cancer in the presence of several co-factors, there is insufficient molecular evidence that poor nutrition has any such role. Because physiological folate deficiency led to the intracellular homocysteinylation of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein E1 (hnRNP-E1) and activated a nutrition-sensitive (homocysteine-responsive) posttranscriptional RNA operon that included interaction with HPV16 L2 mRNA, we investigated the functional consequences of folate deficiency on HPV16 in immortalized HPV16-harboring human (BC-1-Ep/SL) keratinocytes and HPV16-organotypic rafts. Although homocysteinylated hnRNP-E1 interacted with HPV16 L2 mRNA cis-element, it also specifically bound another HPV16 57-nucleotide poly(U)-rich cis-element in the early polyadenylation element (upstream of L2̂L1 genes) with greater affinity. Together, these interactions led to a profound reduction of both L1 and L2 mRNA and proteins without effects on HPV16 E6 and E7 in vitro, and in cultured keratinocyte monolayers and HPV16-low folate-organotypic rafts developed in physiological low folate medium. In addition, HPV16-low folate-organotypic rafts contained fewer HPV16 viral particles, a similar HPV16 DNA viral load, and a much greater extent of integration of HPV16 DNA into genomic DNA when compared with HPV16-high folate-organotypic rafts. Subcutaneous implantation of 18-day old HPV16-low folate-organotypic rafts into folate-replete immunodeficient mice transformed this benign keratinocyte-derived raft tissue into an aggressive HPV16-induced cancer within 12 weeks. Collectively, these studies establish a likely molecular linkage between poor folate nutrition and HPV16 and predict that nutritional folate and/or vitamin-B12 deficiency, which are both common worldwide, will alter the natural history of HPV16 infections and also warrant serious consideration as reversible co-factors in oncogenic transformation of HPV16-infected tissues to cancer. PMID:22351779

  10. A novel vaccine for cervical cancer: quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16 and 18) recombinant vaccine (Gardasil).

    PubMed

    Govan, Vandana A

    2008-02-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are one of the most common sexually transmitted infections and remains a public health problem worldwide. There is strong evidence that HPV causes cervical, vulva and vaginal cancers, genital warts and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. The current treatments for HPV-induced infections are ineffective and recurrence is common-place. Therefore, to reduce the burden of HPV-induced infections, several studies have investigated the effi cacy of different prophylactic vaccines in clinical human trials directed against HPV types 6, 11, 16, or 18. Notably, these HPV types contribute to a signifi cant proportion of disease worldwide. This review will focus on the published results of Merck & Co's prophylactic quadrivalent recombinant vaccine targeting HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18 (referred to as Gardasil((R))). Data from the Phase III trial demonstrated that Gardasil was 100% effi cacious in preventing precancerous lesions of the cervix, vulva, and vagina and effective against genital warts. Due to the success of these human clinical trials, the FDA approved the registration of Gardasil on the 8 June 2006. In addition, since Gardasil has been effi cacious for 5 years post vaccination, the longest evaluation of an HPV vaccine, it is expected to reduce the incidence of these type specifi c HPV-induced diseases in the future. PMID:18728721

  11. HPV Infections among MSM in Shenzhen, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dong-Yan; Yin, Yue-Ping; Feng, Tie-Jian; Hong, Fu-Chang; Jiang, Ning; Wang, Bao-Xi; Chen, Xiang-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Background An increasing incidence of anal cancer among men, especially men who have sex with men (MSM) suggests a need to better understand anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among this group. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among MSM in Shenzhen, China. Blood was collected for HIV serological testing and syphilis serological screening, and anal swabs were collected for HPV genotyping. Difference of HPV prevalence between HIV seropositive and HIV seronegative MSM was assessed by chi-square test. Factors associated with anal canal HPV infection were assessed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results A total of 408 MSM were recruited. HIV and HPV prevalence were 6.9% and 36.4%, respectively. HPV was detected in the anal canal in 71.4% of the HIV-positive MSM and in 33.8% of the HIV-negative MSM (P<0.001). Oncogenic types were seen more often in anal specimens of HIV-positive MSM than in specimens of HIV-negative MSM (P = 0.001). The HPV genotypes detected most frequently were HPV06 (8.2%), HPV16 (7.2%), HPV11 (6.4%), HPV18 (4.7%), HPV58 (4.7%), and HPV52 (4.2%). Conclusions In this study, HIV positive MSM had a higher burden of HPV infection, especially oncogenic HPV infection. HPV types 52 and 58 were as popular as those types designed for the currently available vaccine (HPV6, 11, 16, 18). PMID:24801331

  12. HPV-type-specific response of cervical cancer cells to cisplatin after silencing replication licensing factor MCM4.

    PubMed

    Das, Mitali; Prasad, Shyam Babu; Yadav, Suresh Singh; Modi, Arusha; Singh, Sunita; Pradhan, Satyajit; Narayan, Gopeshwar

    2015-12-01

    Minichoromosome maintenance (MCM) proteins play key role in cell cycle progression by licensing DNA replication only once per cell cycle. These proteins are found to be overexpressed in cervical cancer cells. In this study, we depleted MCM4, one of the MCM 2-7 complex components by RNA interference (RNAi) in four cervical cancer cell lines. The four cell lines were selected on the basis of their human papillomavirus (HPV) infection: HPV16-positive SiHa, HPV18-positive ME-180, HPV16- and HPV18-positive CaSki, and HPV-negative C-33A. The MCM4-deficient cells irrespective of their HPV status grow for several generations and maintain regular cell cycle. We did not find any evidence of augmented response to a short-term (48 h) cisplatin treatment in these MCM4-deficient cells. However, MCM4-/HPV16+ SiHa cells cannot withstand a prolonged treatment (up to 5 days) of even a sublethal dosage of cisplatin. They show increased chromosomal instability compared to their control counterparts. On the other hand, MCM4-deficient CaSki cells (both HPV16+ and 18+) remain resistant to a prolonged exposure to cisplatin. Our study indicates that cervical cancer cells may be using excess MCMs as a backup for replicative stress; however, its regulatory mechanism is dependent on the HPV status of the cells. PMID:26188903

  13. HPV Vaccine Effective at Multiple Anatomic Sites

    Cancer.gov

    A new study from NCI researchers finds that the HPV vaccine protects young women from infection with high-risk HPV types at the three primary anatomic sites where persistent HPV infections can cause cancer. The multi-site protection also was observed at l

  14. HPV Genotyping 9G Membrane Test

    PubMed Central

    Sayyed, Danishmalik Rafiq; Song, Keum-Soo; Nimse, Satish Balasaheb; An, Heejung; Kim, Junghoon; Kim, Taisun

    2013-01-01

    The results of the genital human papillomavirus (HPV) detection in 439 cervical samples by cervical cytology were compared with sequencing analysis and a newly developed HPV genotyping 9G membrane test. The excellent sensitivity and specificity of the HPV genotyping 9G membrane test was assured by a signal to noise ratio of more than 300 and a target hybridization to non-target hybridization ratio of 300 ~ 400 at 25 °C. The final results can be obtained in 29 min by simple loading of the hybridization and washing solutions and scanning the membranes without any drying steps or special handling. The 100% identical results of the HPV genotyping 9G membrane test with sequencing results in 439 clinical samples demonstrate significant clinical application for this test. HPV genotyping 9G membrane tests can identify and discriminate five HR-HPV genotypes which are prevalent in almost 87% of cervical cancer cases. Its simple handling makes the HPV genotyping 9G membrane test a very convenient platform for accurate HPV genotyping. PMID:24284877

  15. A comparison of methylation levels in HPV18, HPV31 and HPV33 genomes reveals similar associations with cervical precancers☆

    PubMed Central

    Vasiljević, Nataša; Scibior-Bentkowska, Dorota; Brentnall, Adam; Cuzick, Jack; Lorincz, Attila

    2014-01-01

    Background High risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection is common and only a small minority of infections become persistent and lead to cervical cancers. Women positive for HR-HPV usually require a second test to avoid unnecessary colposcopies and over treatment. Elevated DNA methylation of HR-HPV L1 and L2 genes in high grade disease has emerged as a promising molecular triage tool. Objectives Our aim was to accurately measure methylation levels at selected CpG positions in the HPV18, HPV31 and HPV33 genomes. We focused on the L2, L1, URR and E6 regions because these were previously shown to be interesting areas for study. Study design Pyrosequencing was used to measure methylation in 208 HPV18, 207 HPV31, and 126 HPV33 positive women selected from a London colposcopy referral population. Results After adjustment for multiple testing, at FDR 5%, elevated methylation was significantly associated with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2 or worse (CIN2+) in all investigated CpGs in HPV18 L2 and L1. Two of 6 L2 and 12 of 15 L1 sites in HPV31 and 6 of 8 L2 and 3 of 13 L1 sites in HPV33 showed significantly elevated methylation in CIN2+. Methylation of CpG sites in the URR and E6 region of the HPV types was low and most differences were not significant. Conclusion Elevated methylation of CpG sites in the L1 and L2 regions of HPV18, HPV31 and HPV33 is associated with CIN2+ and a panel test may be useful for triage of women with HR-HPV infections. PMID:24468012

  16. gp340 Promotes Transcytosis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 in Genital Tract-Derived Cell Lines and Primary Endocervical Tissue▿

    PubMed Central

    Stoddard, Earl; Ni, Houping; Cannon, Georgetta; Zhou, Chunhui; Kallenbach, Neville; Malamud, Daniel; Weissman, Drew

    2009-01-01

    The human scavenger receptor gp340 has been identified as a binding protein for the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope that is expressed on the cell surface of female genital tract epithelial cells. This interaction allows such epithelial cells to efficiently transmit infective virus to susceptible targets and maintain viral infectivity for several days. Within the context of vaginal transmission, HIV must first traverse a normally protective mucosa containing a cell barrier to reach the underlying T cells and dendritic cells, which propagate and spread the infection. The mechanism by which HIV-1 can bypass an otherwise healthy cellular barrier remains an important area of study. Here, we demonstrate that genital tract-derived cell lines and primary human endocervical tissue can support direct transcytosis of cell-free virus from the apical to basolateral surfaces. Further, this transport of virus can be blocked through the addition of antibodies or peptides that directly block the interaction of gp340 with the HIV-1 envelope, if added prior to viral pulsing on the apical side of the cell or tissue barrier. Our data support a role for the previously described heparan sulfate moieties in mediating this transcytosis but add gp340 as an important facilitator of HIV-1 transcytosis across genital tract tissue. This study demonstrates that HIV-1 actively traverses the protective barriers of the human genital tract and presents a second mechanism whereby gp340 can promote heterosexual transmission. PMID:19553331

  17. Long-term persistence of oral human papillomavirus type 16: The HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Christine M. Pierce; Kreimer, Aimée R.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William; O’Keefe, Michael T.; Ingles, Donna J.; Abrahamsen, Martha; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2014-01-01

    Persistent infection with oral HPV16 is believed to drive the development of most oropharyngeal cancers. However, patterns of oral HPV16 persistence remain understudied, particularly among HIV-negative individuals. Oral HPV16 persistence was evaluated among 1626 participants of the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study. Twenty-three oral HPV16-positive men who provided an oral gargle sample on ≥2 study visits were included in the analysis. Archived oral samples from all follow-up visits were tested for HPV16 using Linear Array and INNO-LiPA detection methods. Persistence was evaluated using consecutive HPV16-positive visits held approximately 6 months apart and using the Kaplan-Meier method. Oral HPV16-positive men were aged 18–64 years (median, 36 years; IQR, 25–42) and were followed for a median of 44.4 months (IQR, 29.9–49.5). Of 13 incident infections, 4 (30.8%) persisted ≥12 months, 1 (10.0%) persisted ≥24 months, and none persisted ≥36 months (median infection duration, 7.3 months [95% CI, 6.4–NA]). Of 10 prevalent infections, 9 (90.0%) persisted ≥12 months, 8 (80.0%) persisted ≥24 months, 4 (57.1%) persisted ≥36 months, and 2 (40.0%) persisted ≥48 months (median infection duration, NA). Twelve-month persistence of incident infections increased significantly with age (P trend=0.028). Prevalent oral HPV16 infections in men persisted longer than newly acquired infections, and persistence appeared to increase with age. These findings may explain the high prevalence of oral HPV observed at older ages. Understanding oral HPV16 persistence will aid in the identification of men at high-risk of developing HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer. PMID:25575501

  18. Long-term persistence of oral human papillomavirus type 16: the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) study.

    PubMed

    Pierce Campbell, Christine M; Kreimer, Aimée R; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William; O'Keefe, Michael T; Ingles, Donna J; Abrahamsen, Martha; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R

    2015-03-01

    Persistent infection with oral HPV16 is believed to drive the development of most oropharyngeal cancers. However, patterns of oral HPV16 persistence remain understudied, particularly among HIV-negative individuals. Oral HPV16 persistence was evaluated among 1,626 participants of the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study. Twenty-three oral HPV16-positive men who provided an oral gargle sample on ≥2 study visits were included in the analysis. Archived oral samples from all follow-up visits were tested for HPV16 using Linear Array and INNO-LiPA detection methods. Persistence was evaluated using consecutive HPV16-positive visits held approximately 6 months apart and using the Kaplan-Meier method. Oral HPV16-positive men were aged 18 to 64 years [median, 36 years; interquartile range (IQR), 25-42] and were followed for a median of 44.4 months (IQR, 29.9-49.5). Of 13 incident infections, 4 (30.8%) persisted ≥12 months, 1 (10.0%) persisted ≥24 months, and none persisted ≥36 months [median infection duration, 7.3 months; 95% confidence interval (CI), 6.4-NA)]. Of 10 prevalent infections, 9 (90.0%) persisted ≥12 months, 8 (80.0%) persisted ≥24 months, 4 (57.1%) persisted ≥36 months, and 2 (40.0%) persisted ≥48 months (median infection duration, NA). Twelve-month persistence of incident infections increased significantly with age (Ptrend = 0.028). Prevalent oral HPV16 infections in men persisted longer than newly acquired infections, and persistence appeared to increase with age. These findings may explain the high prevalence of oral HPV observed at older ages. Understanding oral HPV16 persistence will aid in the identification of men at high-risk of developing HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer. PMID:25575501

  19. Testing for HPV

    MedlinePlus

    ... Offices Close + - Text Size HPV and HPV Testing Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) What are viruses? Viruses are ... what does it mean? If you have cervical human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and an abnormal Pap ...

  20. Robust In Vitro and In Vivo Neutralization against Multiple High-Risk HPV Types Induced by a Thermostable Thioredoxin-L2 Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Seitz, Hanna; Ribeiro-Mller, Lis; Canali, Elena; Bolchi, Angelo; Tommasino, Massimo; Ottonello, Simone; Mller, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Current prophylactic virus-like particle (VLP) human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are based on the L1 major capsid protein and provide robust but virus type-restricted protection. Moreover, VLP vaccines have a high production cost, require cold-chain storage, and are thus not readily implementable in developing countries, which endure 85% of the cervical cancer-related death burden worldwide. In contrast with L1, immunization with minor capsid protein L2 elicits broad cross-neutralization, and we previously showed that insertion of a peptide spanning amino acids 20-38 of L2 into bacterial thioredoxin (Trx) greatly enhances its immunogenicity. Building on this finding, we use, here, four different neutralization assays to demonstrate that low doses of a trivalent Trx-L2 vaccine, incorporating L2(20-38) epitopes from HPV16, HPV31 and HPV51, and formulated in a human-compatible adjuvant, induce broadly protective responses. Specifically, we show that this vaccine, which uses a far-divergent archaebacterial thioredoxin as scaffold and is amenable to an easy one-step thermal purification, induces robust cross-neutralization against 12 of the 13 known oncogenic HPV types. Immune performance measured with two different in vitro neutralization assays was corroborated by the results of mouse cervico-vaginal challenge and passive transfer experiments indicating robust cross-protection also in vivo. Altogether, our results attest to the potential of Trx-L2 as a thermostable second-generation HPV vaccine particularly well suited for low-resource countries. PMID:26170394

  1. Local delivery of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides induces rapid changes in the genital mucosa and inhibits replication, but not entry, of herpes simplex virus type 2.

    PubMed

    Ashkar, Ali A; Bauer, Stefan; Mitchell, William J; Vieira, Jeff; Rosenthal, Kenneth L

    2003-08-01

    Mucosal surfaces are the entry sites for the vast majority of infectious pathogens and provide the first line of defense against infection. In addition to the epithelial barrier, the innate immune system plays a key role in recognizing and rapidly responding to invading pathogens via innate receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLR). Bacterial CpG DNA, a potent activator of innate immunity, is recognized by TLR9. Here, we confirm that local mucosal, but not systemic, delivery of CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) to the genital tract protects mice from a subsequent lethal vaginal herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) challenge. Since these effects were so local in action, we examined the genital mucosa. Local delivery of CpG ODN induced rapid proliferation and thickening of the genital epithelium and caused significant recruitment of inflammatory cells to the submucosa. Local CpG ODN treatment also resulted in inhibition of HSV-2 replication but had no effect on HSV-2 entry into the genital mucosa. CpG ODN-induced protection against HSV-2 was not associated with early increases in gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) secretion in the genital tract, and CpG ODN-treated IFN-gamma(-/-) mice were protected from subsequent challenge with a lethal dose of HSV-2. Treatment of human HEK-293 cells transfected with murine TLR9 showed that the antiviral activity of CpG ODN was mediated through TLR9. These studies suggest that local induction of mucosal innate immunity can provide protection against sexually transmitted infections, such as HSV-2 or possibly human immunodeficiency virus, at the mucosal surfaces. PMID:12885911

  2. Exploring the Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs, and Communication Preferences of the General Public regarding HPV: Findings from CDC Focus Group Research and Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Allison L.; Shepeard, Hilda

    2007-01-01

    Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted virus in the United States, causing genital warts, cervical cell abnormalities, and cervical cancer in women. To inform HPV education efforts, 35 focus groups were conducted with members of the general public, stratified by gender, race/ethnicity, and urban/rural…

  3. Exploring the Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs, and Communication Preferences of the General Public regarding HPV: Findings from CDC Focus Group Research and Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Allison L.; Shepeard, Hilda

    2007-01-01

    Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted virus in the United States, causing genital warts, cervical cell abnormalities, and cervical cancer in women. To inform HPV education efforts, 35 focus groups were conducted with members of the general public, stratified by gender, race/ethnicity, and urban/rural

  4. Update on the treatment of genital warts.

    PubMed

    Scheinfeld, Noah

    2013-06-01

    This review summarizes new treatments from the last seven years employed for the treatment of genital warts caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). Imquimod 3.75% is a new agent with fewer side effects and perhaps a better dosing schedule than imquimod 5%, but is not more effective. Sinecatechins/Polyphenon E 15%, a novel extract from green tea can be effective against genital warts but requires three times a day dosing and is not more effective than existing treatments; the treatment course is 12-16 weeks. Photodynamic therapy combined with other destructive modalities might increase the cure rate for genital warts. The quadrivalent vaccine against HPV 6, 11, 16, 18 is decreasing the incidence of warts in the western world but the evidence does not support vaccination as a treatment for those already infected by HPV. Hyperthermia and immunomodulators might be positive additions to the armamentarium of clinicians. In sum, there are new tools that physicians can use but none is really a great advance over what was available a decade ago. PMID:24011309

  5. HPV Carcinomas in Immunocompromised Patients

    PubMed Central

    Reusser, Nicole M.; Downing, Christopher; Guidry, Jacqueline; Tyring, Stephen K.

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease worldwide and can result in pre-malignancies or overt malignancies of the skin and mucosal surfaces. HPV-related illnesses are an important personal and public health problem causing physical, mental, sexual and financial detriments. Moreover, this set of malignancies severely affects the immunosuppressed population, particularly HIV-positive patients and organ-transplant recipients. There is growing incidence of HPV-associated anogenital malignancies as well as a decrease in the average age of affected patients, likely related to the rising number of high-risk individuals. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of HPV-related malignancy. Current treatment options for HPV infection and subsequent disease manifestations include imiquimod, retinoids, intralesional bleomycin, and cidofovir; however, primary prevention with HPV vaccination remains the most effective strategy. This review will discuss anogenital lesions in immunocompromised patients, cutaneous warts at nongenital sites, the association of HPV with skin cancer in immunocompromised patients, warts and carcinomas in organ-transplant patients, HIV-positive patients with HPV infections, and the management of cutaneous disease in the immunocompromised patient. PMID:26239127

  6. HPV Carcinomas in Immunocompromised Patients.

    PubMed

    Reusser, Nicole M; Downing, Christopher; Guidry, Jacqueline; Tyring, Stephen K

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease worldwide and can result in pre-malignancies or overt malignancies of the skin and mucosal surfaces. HPV-related illnesses are an important personal and public health problem causing physical, mental, sexual and financial detriments. Moreover, this set of malignancies severely affects the immunosuppressed population, particularly HIV-positive patients and organ-transplant recipients. There is growing incidence of HPV-associated anogenital malignancies as well as a decrease in the average age of affected patients, likely related to the rising number of high-risk individuals. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of HPV-related malignancy. Current treatment options for HPV infection and subsequent disease manifestations include imiquimod, retinoids, intralesional bleomycin, and cidofovir; however, primary prevention with HPV vaccination remains the most effective strategy. This review will discuss anogenital lesions in immunocompromised patients, cutaneous warts at nongenital sites, the association of HPV with skin cancer in immunocompromised patients, warts and carcinomas in organ-transplant patients, HIV-positive patients with HPV infections, and the management of cutaneous disease in the immunocompromised patient. PMID:26239127

  7. HPV Prevalence in Multiple Anatomical Sites among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Blas, Magaly M.; Brown, Brandon; Menacho, Luis; Alva, Isaac E.; Silva-Santisteban, Alfonso; Carcamo, Cesar

    2015-01-01

    Background Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted viral infection worldwide. HPV is highly prevalent in sexually active men who have sex with men (MSM) and has been associated with anal cancer, penile cancer, and oropharyngeal cancer. Methods From March to September 2011, we conducted a cross-sectional study of HPV prevalence among MSM above age 18 years. Participants were recruited using respondent driven sampling at Clinica Cayetano Heredia. All participants provided anal, genital, and oral samples for HPV DNA testing, and blood for HIV and HPV antibody testing. Results A total of 200 MSM were recruited in the study. The mean age was 34 years (range 18–59 years, SD = 9.4) and101 participants were HIV negative (99 HIV positive). HPV 6/11/16/18 or quadrivalent HPV vaccine (HPV4) genotype seroprevalence among HIV negative and positive MSM was 64.3% (55%-75.9%) and 93.8% (87.6%-99.2%) respectively (p<0.001). HIV positivity was associated with a higher prevalence of HPV4 and HPV 16/18 DNA at external genital sites and the anal canal. HPV4 DNA prevalence at external genital sites among HIV negative and positive MSM was 14.9% and 28.7% (p = 0.02) respectively, at anal canal was 50.9% and 79.0% (p = 0.001), and at the oral cavity was 9.9% and 8.5% (p = 0.6). Conclusions HPV4 seroprevalence was high in our study among both HIV positives and negatives, with HPV DNA prevalence much lower, and the anal canal being the anatomical site with the highest HPV DNA prevalence. HPV prevention interventions are needed among MSM at high-risk for HIV infection. PMID:26437318

  8. The E7 protein of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 expressed by recombinant vaccinia virus can be used for detection of antibodies in sera from cervical cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Nindl, I; Gissmann, L; Fisher, S G; Bribiesca, L B; Berumen, J; Mller, M

    1996-10-01

    Sera from 128 Mexican cervical cancer patients (age 30-80; mean 53.6) and from 47 healthy women (age 25-69; mean 49.2) were investigated using a newly developed assay for the detection of serum antibodies to the human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 early protein E7. This test (CIPA), based upon immunoprecipitation followed by Western blot analysis, uses the complete E7 protein expressed in HeLa cells infected with recombinant vaccinia virus. To determine the sensitivity and specificity of this assay, these results were compared with previous results of the same sera tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA; using synthetic peptides derived from HPV 16 E7) and radio-immunoprecipitation (RIPA) using in vitro translated HPV 16 E7 protein. CIPA (45% positives) demonstrated a significant increase in detection rate compared to the peptide-ELISA (30% positives; P = 0.014, chi2-test) and only a slight increase compared to RIPA (38% positives; P = 0.204, chi2-test). Based on the testing of sera from patients with HPV 16 DNA positive tumors the specificity and sensitivity of the CIPA were 0.98 and 0.59, respectively. PMID:8910651

  9. Genital mycoplasmas.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Martin

    2009-04-01

    The first described pathogenic organisms that caused urethritis were Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. The significance of detecting mycoplasma with genital swabs remained unclear for a long time. Culture can differentiate between Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis. After introduction of nuclear acid amplification, Mycoplasma genitalium was additionally detected, while gene analysis differentiates between Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum. Mycoplasma genitalium has become the third most frequent pathogen causing non-chlamydial, non-gonococcal urethritis (NCNGU); Ureaplasma urealyticum is less often isolated. Because urethritis caused by Mycoplasma genitalium does not always respond to tetracycline, it is advisable to begin therapy with a macrolide. Mycoplasma hominis is a cofactor for bacterial vaginosis and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). During therapy with metronidazole, the colonization of this mycoplasma is decreased indirectly. PMID:19500195

  10. Reducing HPV-associated Cancer Globally

    PubMed Central

    Lowy, Douglas R.; Schiller, John T.

    2012-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers are a major worldwide public health concern. Virtually all cervical cancer is HPV-related, with 70% caused by HPV16 and -18. Variable proportions of certain non-cervical cancers (e.g., anal, vulvar, oropharyngeal) are HPV-related; over 90% of the HPV-related ones are related to HPV16, -18. The HPV-related cancers are dominated by cervical cancer in the developing world, where cervical cancer screening is limited. In this setting, widespread uptake of current HPV vaccines by adolescent girls could reduce this cancer's incidence and mortality by approximately two-thirds, with cost-effective screening programs of adult women having the potential to reduce mortality more rapidly. In the industrialized world, non-cervical HPV-related cancers, especially oropharyngeal, are rapidly increasing, and now rival the incidence of cervical cancer, whose rates continue to decline thanks to established cervical screening programs. Therefore, reducing HPV-associated non-cervical cancers with HPV vaccination has greater importance in the industrialized world, especially since there are no approved screening programs for these cancers. Preventing the substantial number of non-cervical HPV cancers in men will require either “herd” immunity through high vaccination rates in females or male vaccination. Current HPV vaccination can complement cervical screening in protecting against cervical cancer and may permit the safe reduction of screening intensity in industrialized countries. Second-generation HPV vaccines (active against a broader array of cervical cancer–related HPV types) could prevent an even higher proportion of cervical precancer and cancer and might permit further reductions in screening intensity. PMID:22219162

  11. Association of Genital Infections Other Than Human Papillomavirus with Pre-Invasive and Invasive Cervical Neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Ishita; Mandal, Ranajit; Kundu, Pratip; Biswas, Jaydip

    2016-02-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a well-established causative agent of malignancy of the female genital tract and a common Sexually Transmitted Infection. The probable co-factors that prevent spontaneous clearance of HPV and progression to neoplasia are genital tract infections from organisms like Chlamydia, Trichomonas vaginalis etc, smoking, nutritional deficiencies and multiparity. Inflammatory conditions can lead to pre-neoplastic manifestations in the cervical epithelium; however their specific role in cervical carcinogenesis is not yet established. Therefore it is imperative to study the likely association between HPV and co-infection with various common pathogens in the genital tract of women having cervical precancer or cancer. A "Pubmed" search was made for articles in Literature on this topic using the words: Cervical neoplasia, HPV, co-infections, Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN), Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida, Chlamydia and the relevant information obtained was used to draft the review. PMID:27042571

  12. Association of Genital Infections Other Than Human Papillomavirus with Pre-Invasive and Invasive Cervical Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Ranajit; Kundu, Pratip; Biswas, Jaydip

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a well-established causative agent of malignancy of the female genital tract and a common Sexually Transmitted Infection. The probable co-factors that prevent spontaneous clearance of HPV and progression to neoplasia are genital tract infections from organisms like Chlamydia, Trichomonas vaginalis etc, smoking, nutritional deficiencies and multiparity. Inflammatory conditions can lead to pre-neoplastic manifestations in the cervical epithelium; however their specific role in cervical carcinogenesis is not yet established. Therefore it is imperative to study the likely association between HPV and co-infection with various common pathogens in the genital tract of women having cervical precancer or cancer. A “Pubmed” search was made for articles in Literature on this topic using the words: Cervical neoplasia, HPV, co-infections, Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN), Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida, Chlamydia and the relevant information obtained was used to draft the review. PMID:27042571

  13. Factors associated with type-specific persistence of high-risk human papillomavirus infection: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Stensen, Signe; Kjaer, Susanne K; Jensen, Signe M; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Junge, Jette; Iftner, Thomas; Munk, Christian

    2016-01-15

    Persistent genital infection with high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) is a prerequisite for cervical cancer development. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with type-specific persistence of HR HPV infections. From a population-based cohort of 40,399 women participating in cervical cancer screening established during 2002-2005, we selected all HR HPV-positive women (N = 7,778). During follow-up (2005-2008), we collected cervical samples from these women and tested them for HPV DNA to determine type-specific HR HPV persistence in the interval 1-4.5 years after enrolment. Data on hospitalisations, prescriptions and socioeconomic factors were obtained from nationwide registers. Women with abnormal cytology at baseline or who had undergone conisation during follow-up were excluded. Factors associated with persistence were identified by logistic regression analysis. The overall rate of HR HPV persistence was 31.4%. The risk for persistence was significantly increased among women with a previous episode of genital warts (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.04-1.74), current use of oral contraceptives (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.13-1.63) or use of systemic glucocorticoids (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.16-3.56). The number of pregnancies or births or use of a hormonal intrauterine device, hormonal therapy or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs was not associated with risk for HR HPV persistence. A history of genital warts and current use of oral contraceptives or systemic glucocorticoids increased the risk, potentially indicating a decreased immune response to HPV infection. These findings suggest that host immune response characteristics are important in HR HPV persistence and consequently in cervical cancer development. PMID:26238558

  14. Six-Month Incidence, Persistence, and Factors Associated With Persistence of Anal Human Papillomavirus in Men: The HPV in Men Study

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho da Silva, Roberto J.; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Smith, Dan’elle; Abrahamsen, Martha; Papenfuss, Mary; Lin, Hui-Yi; Quiterio, Manuel; Salmerón, Jorge; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Villa, Luisa L.; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Although there are limited numbers of incidence and persistence estimates for anal human papillomavirus (HPV) in women and in men who have sex with men (MSM), there are no such reports for men who have sex with women (MSW). Methods. Genotyping was performed on anal samples from men, aged 18–70, from São Paulo, Brazil; Cuernavaca, Mexico; and Tampa, Florida, who provided specimens at enrollment and the 6-month visit of a 4-year prospective study. Eligibility included no history of genital warts or human immunodeficiency virus. A total of 954 MSW and 156 MSM provided evaluable specimens at both visits. Persistence was defined as type-specific infection at each visit. Results. Incident anal infection was common among both MSM and MSW but generally higher for MSM for HPV groups and specific genotypes. A total of 5.1% of MSM and 0.0% of MSW had a persistent HPV-16 infection at the 6-month visit. Cigarette smoking among MSM and age among MSW were associated with persistent infection with any HPV genotype. Conclusions. Although anal HPV infection is commonly acquired by both MSW and MSM, incident events and persistence occurred more often among MSM. Cigarette smoking is a modifiable risk factor that may contribute to HPV persistence among MSM. PMID:21964400

  15. Sequence variation of human papillomavirus type 31 long control region: phylogenetic and functional implications.

    PubMed

    Ferenczi, Annamária; Gyöngyösi, Eszter; Szalmás, Anita; Hernádi, Zoltán; Tóth, Zoltán; Kónya, József; Veress, György

    2013-05-01

    About one-third of human papillomavirus (HPV) types infect the anogenital tract. High-risk genital HPV types (such as HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, and 35) are linked causally to the development of cervical cancer. The long control region (LCR) of the HPV genome regulates the replication and transcription of the viral genome. In this study, the functional significance of nucleotide sequence variation within the LCR of HPV 31 was investigated. The LCR was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from 41 HPV 31 positive cervical samples of Hungarian women. A phylogenetic tree constructed from the nucleotide sequences of the LCR variants revealed the presence of three intratypic variant lineages of HPV 31, in accordance with previous results. In order to explore the functional consequences of sequence variation in the LCR of HPV 31, selected LCR variants were cloned into a luciferase reporter vector, transfected into C33-A cells and tested in luciferase reporter assays. Significant differences were found between the transcriptional activities of HPV 31 LCR variants belonging to different variant lineages. As the LCR is governing the transcription of the E6 and E7 oncogenes, the differences in the transcriptional activities of LCR variants may be associated with differences in their oncogenic potential. PMID:23508911

  16. HPV-Associated Cancers Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Year Rates by Race and Ethnicity HPV-Associated Anal Cancer HPV-Associated Cervical Cancer HPV-Associated Oropharyngeal Cancers HPV- ... Associated Vulvar Cancer Rates by State HPV-Associated Anal Cancer HPV-Associated Cervical Cancer HPV-Associated Oropharyngeal Cancers HPV- ...

  17. HPV Serology Testing Confirms High HPV Immunisation Coverage in England

    PubMed Central

    Mesher, David; Stanford, Elaine; White, Joanne; Findlow, Jamie; Warrington, Rosalind; Das, Sukamal; Pebody, Richard; Borrow, Ray; Soldan, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Background Reported human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination coverage in England is high, particularly in girls offered routine immunisation at age 12 years. Serological surveillance can be used to validate reported coverage and explore variations within it and changes in serological markers over time. Methods Residual serum specimens collected from females aged 15–19 years in 2010–2011 were tested for anti-HPV16 and HPV18 IgG by ELISA. Based on these results, females were classified as follows: seronegative, probable natural infection, probable vaccine-induced seropositivity, or possible natural infection/possible vaccine-induced seropositivity. The proportion of females with vaccine-induced seropositivity was compared to the reported vaccination coverage. Results Of 2146 specimens tested, 1380 (64%) were seropositive for both types HPV16 and HPV18 and 159 (7.4%) positive for only one HPV type. The IgG concentrations were far higher for those positive for both HPV types than those positive for only one HPV type. 1320 (62%) females were considered to have probable vaccine-induced seropositivity. Among vaccine-induced seropositives, antibody concentrations declined with increasing age at vaccination and increasing time since vaccination. Conclusions The proportion of females with vaccine-induced seropositivity was closest to the reported 3-dose coverage in those offered the vaccination at younger ages, with a greater discrepancy in the older females. This suggests either some under-reporting of immunisations of older females and/or that partial vaccination (i.e. one- or two-doses) has provided high antibody responses in 13–17 year olds. PMID:26959232

  18. Pre-vaccination prevalence of infections with 25 non-high-risk human papillomavirus types among 1,000 Slovenian women in cervical cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Učakar, Veronika; Poljak, Mario; Oštrbenk, Anja; Klavs, Irena

    2014-10-01

    Cervical infections with non-high-risk human papillomavirus (non-HR-HPV) types have been associated with genital warts and a fraction of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. The pre-vaccination prevalence of cervical infections with 25 non-HR-HPV types has been estimated, regardless of and without the coexistence of infection with HR-HPV types among Slovenian women 20-64 years old in cervical cancer screening, overall and according to age and cytology result. One thousand cervical specimens selected randomly from 4,455 specimens collected in 2010 in the Slovenian HPV prevalence survey were tested with Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test. Prevalence of cervical infections with any of the 25 non-HR-HPV types was 10.0% (95% CI: 8.1-11.9%) and with exclusively non-HR-HPV types 4.5% (95% CI: 3.2-5.8%). Prevalence of infections with any non-HR-HPV types among women with normal cytology was 8.8%, with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance 30.4%, with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions 60.0%, and with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions 7.7%. Non-HR-HPV types without coexisting HR-HPV types were found in 4.0% of women with normal cytology, 26.1% with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, 6.7% with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, and none with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. Non-HR-HPV type cervical infections without coexisting HR-HPV infections were common among Slovenian women in cervical cancer screening with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, while rare in those with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or worse. J. Med. Virol. 86: 1772-1779, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24978445

  19. HPV and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... Transmitted Diseases HPV-Associated Cancers Gynecologic Cancers Redirect HPV and Cancer Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ...

  20. HPV and Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... time in their life. Although most HPV infections go away on their own without causing problems, HPV ... me? Most of the time HPV infections completely go away and don’t cause any health problems. ...

  1. Human Papillomavirus (HPV)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Page Content Article Body According to ... Control and Prevention, there is an epidemic of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the United States. HPV is ...

  2. Oncogenic HPV infection interrupts the expression of tumor-suppressive miR-34a through viral oncoprotein E6.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaohong; Wang, Hsu-Kun; McCoy, J Philip; Banerjee, Nilam S; Rader, Janet S; Broker, Thomas R; Meyers, Craig; Chow, Louise T; Zheng, Zhi-Ming

    2009-04-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) play pivotal roles in controlling cell proliferation and differentiation. Aberrant miRNA expression in human is becoming recognized as a new molecular mechanism of carcinogenesis. However, the causes for alterations in miRNA expression remain largely unknown. Infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus types 16 (HPV16) and 18 (HPV18) can lead to cervical and other ano-genital cancers. Here, we have demonstrated that cervical cancer tissues and cervical cancer-derived cell lines containing oncogenic HPVs display reduced expression of tumor-suppressive miR-34a. The reduction of miR-34a expression in organotypic tissues derived from HPV-containing primary human keratinocytes correlates with the early productive phase and is attributed to the expression of viral E6, which destabilizes the tumor suppressor p53, a known miR-34a transactivator. Knockdown of viral E6 expression in HPV16(+) and HPV18(+) cervical cancer cell lines by siRNAs leads to an increased expression of p53 and miR-34a and accumulation of miR-34a in G(0)/G(1) phase cells. Ectopic expression of miR-34a in HPV18(+) HeLa cells and HPV(-) HCT116 cells results in a substantial induction of cell growth retardation and a moderate cell apoptosis. Together, this is the first time a viral oncoprotein has been shown to regulate cellular miRNA expression. Our data have provided new insights into mechanisms by which high-risk HPVs contribute to the development of cervical cancer. PMID:19258450

  3. Oncogenic HPV infection interrupts the expression of tumor-suppressive miR-34a through viral oncoprotein E6

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaohong; Wang, Hsu-Kun; McCoy, J. Philip; Banerjee, Nilam S.; Rader, Janet S.; Broker, Thomas R.; Meyers, Craig; Chow, Louise T.; Zheng, Zhi-Ming

    2009-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) play pivotal roles in controlling cell proliferation and differentiation. Aberrant miRNA expression in human is becoming recognized as a new molecular mechanism of carcinogenesis. However, the causes for alterations in miRNA expression remain largely unknown. Infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus types 16 (HPV16) and 18 (HPV18) can lead to cervical and other ano-genital cancers. Here, we have demonstrated that cervical cancer tissues and cervical cancer-derived cell lines containing oncogenic HPVs display reduced expression of tumor-suppressive miR-34a. The reduction of miR-34a expression in organotypic tissues derived from HPV-containing primary human keratinocytes correlates with the early productive phase and is attributed to the expression of viral E6, which destabilizes the tumor suppressor p53, a known miR-34a transactivator. Knockdown of viral E6 expression in HPV16+ and HPV18+ cervical cancer cell lines by siRNAs leads to an increased expression of p53 and miR-34a and accumulation of miR-34a in G0/G1 phase cells. Ectopic expression of miR-34a in HPV18+ HeLa cells and HPV? HCT116 cells results in a substantial induction of cell growth retardation and a moderate cell apoptosis. Together, this is the first time a viral oncoprotein has been shown to regulate cellular miRNA expression. Our data have provided new insights into mechanisms by which high-risk HPVs contribute to the development of cervical cancer. PMID:19258450

  4. Genetic diversity of HPV16 and HPV18 in Brazilian patients with invasive cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Joao Paulo C B; Felix, Shayany Pinto; Chaves, Cláudia B P; Patury, Patrícia; Franco, Vanessa F; de Morais, Evaneide A; de Carvalho, Neile A; Carvalho, Aurenice C L; Almeida Neto, Olimpio F; Vieira, Lina Maria T M; Correa, Flavia Miranda; Martins, Luís Felipe Leite; Negrão, Antonio; de Almeida, Liz Maria; Moreira, Miguel Angelo Martins

    2016-07-01

    Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women, and ∼70-80% of these cancers are associated with two human papillomavirus types: HPV16 and HPV18. Several studies have reported that intra-type diversity is associated with the progression of infection to invasive cancer. Herein, we report the genetic diversity of HPV16 and HPV18 in a cohort of 594 Brazilian women with invasive cervical cancer and describe the prevalence of lineages and intra-type diversity prior to the implementation of the public immunization program in Brazil. HPV detection and genotyping were performed using PCR, PGMY/GP primers, and DNA extracted from fresh tumors. The HPV16 (378 women) and HPV18 (80 women) lineages were identified by PCR and sequencing of the LCR and E6 fragments, followed by SNV comparison and phylogenetic analysis. In our cohort, was found a higher frequency of the lineage A (in 217 women), followed by lineage D (in 97 women) and lineages B and C (in 10 women each) for HPV16; and a higher frequency of lineage A (in 56 women) followed by lineage B (in 15 women) in HPV18. The genetic diversity of HPV16 indicated a recent expansion of specific variants or a selective advantage that is associated with invasive cancer; this pattern was not observed for HPV18. J. Med. Virol. 88:1279-1287, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26694554

  5. HPV vaccination's second act: promotion, competition, and compulsion.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Jason L

    2010-10-01

    Developments regarding human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines will transform HPV vaccination in the United States while simultaneously raising several new policy and ethical concerns. Policymakers, vaccine manufacturers, and the public health community must now respond to the presence of competing vaccines that are similar but distinct, particularly with respect to genital wart prevention and the benefits of vaccinating males. This work arises in the shadow of the contentious introduction of the HPV vaccine Gardasil (Merck & Co, Inc, Whitehouse Station, NJ) in 2006, particularly the opposition to efforts in many states to require the vaccine for school attendance. I review the current status of HPV vaccine policy in the United States and examine issues of public health ethics and policy central to ongoing and future HPV vaccination programs. PMID:20724671

  6. HPV Vaccination's Second Act: Promotion, Competition, and Compulsion

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Developments regarding human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines will transform HPV vaccination in the United States while simultaneously raising several new policy and ethical concerns. Policymakers, vaccine manufacturers, and the public health community must now respond to the presence of competing vaccines that are similar but distinct, particularly with respect to genital wart prevention and the benefits of vaccinating males. This work arises in the shadow of the contentious introduction of the HPV vaccine Gardasil (Merck & Co, Inc, Whitehouse Station, NJ) in 2006, particularly the opposition to efforts in many states to require the vaccine for school attendance. I review the current status of HPV vaccine policy in the United States and examine issues of public health ethics and policy central to ongoing and future HPV vaccination programs. PMID:20724671

  7. HPV and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... can cause health problems, like cancer and genital warts. Genital warts are not a life-threatening disease, but they ... active adults in the United States have genital warts at any given time. DISEASES and the VACCINES ...

  8. Comparison of the Cobas 4800 HPV and HPV 9G DNA Chip Tests for Detection of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus in Cervical Specimens of Women with Consecutive Positive HPV Tests But Negative Pap Smears

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Sun-Young; Park, Eun Su; Kim, Jiyoung; Kang, Jun; Lee, Jae Jun; Bae, Yoonjin; Kim, Sang-Il; Maeng, Lee-So

    2015-01-01

    Detecting high-risk (HR) HPV is important for clinical management of women with persistent HPV-positive and Pap-negative results. The Cobas 4800 HPV test is the first FDA-approved HPV DNA test that can be used alone as a first-line screening tool. The HPV 9G DNA chip test is a PCR-based DNA microarray assay. We evaluated the patients of consecutive HPV-positivity on HPV 9G DNA chip test without cytologic abnormalities. We then compared the performances of HPV 9G DNA chip and the Cobas 4800 HPV tests for detecting HR HPV with each other and confirmed HPV genotyping using direct sequencing. All 214 liquid-based cytology specimens were collected from 100 women with consecutive HPV-positive and Pap-negative results on the HPV 9G DNA chip test between May 2012 and Dec 2013, but only 180 specimens were available for comparing HPV test results. The HPV 9G DNA chip and the Cobas 4800 HPV tests agreed with each other in 81.7% of the samples, and the concordance rate was greater than 97.2% for detecting HPV-16 or -18. For HR genotypes other than HPV types 16 and 18, the two tests agreed for 81.1% of the samples. The sensitivity of both assays for detecting HR HPV was 100%, regardless of HR genotypes. The HPV 9G DNA chip test may be as effective as the Cobas 4800 HPV test in detecting HR HPV, and has a similar ability to identify HPV-16 and -18. PMID:26469982

  9. [Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection].

    PubMed

    Fallani, M G; Pirami, L; Penna, C; Giachè, V; Zipoli, E; Cardelli, A; Marchionni, M; Becciolini, A

    1997-01-01

    Many studies have shown a strong correlation between CIN and HPV infection. Molecular biology has allowed identification of types of HPV which seem to be connected, more frequently than others, to dysplastic lesions. Physical state of HPV-genome seems to play an important role in the development of cervical cancer. In this study the HPV-genome has been searched in tissue specimens obtained from 34 women affected by CIN II and III. All patients underwent laser conization. Immediately before treatment, colposcopically directed biopsies of the cervical lesion and of the areas with no colposcopically apparent disease were taken and on these samples, HPV-DNA has been searched, isolated and analysed for HPV types and physical state. Histologic examination on cones showed 6 cases of CIN II (3 with HPV), 24 cases of CIN III (14 with HPV), 1 microinvasive carcinoma and 3 with no residual lesion. Southern blot analysis detected HPV-DNA in 4 cases of CIN II (16.7%) and in 20 cases of CIN III (70.6%). In 50% of CIN II and 85% of CIN III HPV 16 DNA has been found and in the remaining 50% of CIN II and 15% of CIN III HPV 31 DNA has been detected. All CIN II and 14 cases of CIN III showed episomal HPV-DNA. Integrated HPV-DNA has been found in 3 cases of CIN III and the other 3 cases of CIN III showed both integrated and episomal HPV-genome. Integrated form has been noticed only for HPV 16 type. In no case of colposcopically normal tissue has HPV-DNA been found. These data seem to confirm the strong correlation between HPV 16 type, which often has integrated form, and CIN III strengthening the hypothesis of its potential oncogenic action. PMID:9162879

  10. MassARRAY Spectrometry Is More Sensitive than PreTect HPV-Proofer and Consensus PCR for Type-Specific Detection of High-Risk Oncogenic Human Papillomavirus Genotypes in Cervical Cancer▿

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Partha; Chandna, Puneet; Bamezai, R. N. K.; Siddiqi, Maqsood; Saranath, Dhananjaya; Lear, Adrian; Ratnam, Sam

    2011-01-01

    Type-specific detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) is indicated for better risk stratification and clinical management of women testing positive for HPV and for epidemiologic surveillance. MassARRAY spectrometry (MassARRAY; Sequenom) is a novel method for type-specific detection of 15 high-risk oncogenic HPV types: HPV-16, -18, -31, -33, -35, -39, -45, -51, -52, -56, -58, -59, -66, -68, and -73. PreTect HPV-Proofer (Proofer; Norchip) is a type-specific assay that detects E6/E7 mRNA from five high-risk oncogenic HPV types: HPV-16, -18, -31, -33, and -45. The performance of these tests for type-specific identification of HPV was assessed with cervical specimens from 192 cases of cervical cancer in comparison with consensus MY09/MY11 PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing (consensus PCR). The overall HPV detection rates were 94.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 91.7, 97.9), 83.3% (95% CI, 78.1, 88.5), and 86.5% (95% CI, 81.7, 91.3) for MassARRAY, Proofer, and consensus PCR, respectively. All tests were negative in six (3.1%) of the 192 cases. Considering only the specimens that contained at least one of the five types targeted by Proofer, the detection rates were 96.6%, 91.4%, and 86.9% for MassARRAY, Proofer, and consensus PCR, respectively. MassARRAY detected multiple infections in 14.1%, Proofer detected multiple infections in 3.6%, and consensus PCR failed to detect any multiple infections. The agreement was highest at 86.0% (kappa = 0.76) between MassARRAY and Proofer and lowest at 81.8% (kappa = 0.69) between Proofer and consensus PCR. In conclusion, MassARRAY is a highly sensitive and accurate method for type-specific detection of oncogenic HPV in cervical cancer, with Proofer showing impressive performance. PMID:21813716

  11. HPV frequency in penile carcinoma of Mexican patients: important contribution of HPV16 European variant

    PubMed Central

    López-Romero, Ricardo; Iglesias-Chiesa, Candela; Alatorre, Brenda; Vázquez, Karla; Piña-Sánchez, Patricia; Alvarado, Isabel; Lazos, Minerva; Peralta, Raúl; González-Yebra, Beatriz; Romero, AnaE; Salcedo, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in penile carcinoma (PeC) is currently reported and about half of the PeC is associated with HPV16 and 18. We used a PCR-based strategy by using HPV general primers to analyze 86 penile carcinomas paraffin-embedded tissues. Some clinical data, the histological subtype, growth pattern, and differentiation degree were also collected. The amplified fragments were then sequenced to confirm the HPV type and for HPV16/18 variants. DNA samples were also subjected to relative real time PCR for hTERC gene copy number. Some clinical data were also collected. Global HPV frequency was 77.9%. Relative contributions was for HPV16 (85%), 31 (4.4%), 11 (4.4%), 58, 33, 18, and 59 (1.4% each one). Sequence analysis of HPV16 identified European variants and Asian-American (AAb-c) variants in 92% and in 8% of the samples, respectively. Furthermore hTERC gene amplification was observed in only 17% of the cases. Our results suggest that some members of HPV A9 group (represented by HPV16, 58, and 31) are the most frequent among PeC patients studied with an important contribution from HPV16 European variant. The hTERC gene amplification could be poorly related to penile epithelial tissue. PMID:23826423

  12. Evaluation of the polyclonal ELISA HPV serology assay as a biomarker for HPV exposure

    PubMed Central

    Coseo, Sarah E.; Porras, Carolina; Dodd, Lori E.; Hildesheim, Allan; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Schiffman, Mark; Herrero, Rolando; Wacholder, Sholom; Gonzalez, Paula; Sherman, Mark E.; Jimenez, Silvia; Solomon, Diane; Bougelet, Catherine; van Doorn, Leen-Jan; Quint, Wim; Safaeian, Mahboobeh

    2011-01-01

    Background Seropositivity to HPV16 and 18 antibodies is used as a measure of cumulative HPV exposure and as a stratifier of HPV exposure for vaccine efficacy analyses. Overall performance of these assays, as a measure of HPV exposure, has not been evaluated. Methods Using data from the enrollment phase of the HPV16/18 vaccine trial in Costa Rica, we evaluated the performance of the polyclonal ELISA HPV16 and 18 serological assays as a measure of HPV exposure. Biological (for eg. HPV infection at the cervix) and behavioral characteristics (for eg. lifetime number of sexual partners) with known associations with current and past HPV infection were used to define cases and controls (HPV exposed vs. not exposed). Pre-vaccination serum was measured for antibodies against HPV16 and HPV18 by ELISA; cervical samples were tested for HPV DNA using PCR SPF10/LiPA25. ELISA results were analyzed using receiver-operator-characteristic curves (ROC); performance was evaluated at the manufacturer set cutpoint (HPV16 =8, HPV18 =7) and at cutpoints chosen to optimize sensitivity and specificity (HPV16 =34, HPV18 =60). Results Defining cases as type-specific HPV DNA positive with high-grade abnormal cytolzogy (i.e. combined molecular and microscopic markers of infection), HPV16-ELISA gave sensitivity that was lower at the optimal cutpoint than the manufacturer cutpoint (62.2 compared with 75.7, respectively; p=0.44). However, specificity was higher (85.3 compared with 70.4, respectively; p<0.0001). Similarly, HPV18-ELISA gave sensitivity that was lower at the optimal cutpoint than the manufacturer cutpoint (34.5 compared with 51.7, respectively; p=0.40), with higher specificities (94.9 compared with 72.6, respectively; p<0.0001). Conclusions Modifying cutpoints did not improve the low sensitivity. The low sensitivity of this assay does not support its use for risk stratification or clinical settings. PMID:21934576

  13. Characterization of novel cutaneous human papillomavirus genotypes HPV-150 and HPV-151.

    PubMed

    Kovanda, Anja; Kocjan, Boštjan J; Luzar, Boštjan; Bravo, Ignacio G; Poljak, Mario

    2011-01-01

    DNA from two novel HPV genotypes, HPV-150 and HPV-151, isolated from hair follicles of immuno-competent individuals, was fully cloned, sequenced and characterized. The complete genomes of HPV-150 and HPV-151 are 7,436-bp and 7,386-bp in length, respectively. Both contain genes for at least six proteins, namely E6, E7, E1, E2, L2, L1, as well as a non-coding upstream regulatory region located between the L1 and E6 genes: spanning 416-bp in HPV-150 (genomic positions 7,371 to 350) and 322-bp in HPV-151 (genomic positions 7,213 to 148). HPV-150 and HPV-151 are phylogenetically placed within the Betapapillomavirus genus and are most closely related to HPV-96 and HPV-22, respectively. As in other members of this genus, the intergenic E2-L2 region is very short and does not encode for an E5 gene. Both genotypes contain typical zinc binding domains in their E6 and E7 proteins, but HPV-151 lacks the regular pRb-binding core sequence within its E7 protein. In order to assess the tissue predilection and clinical significance of the novel genotypes, quantitative type-specific real-time PCR assays were developed. The 95% detection limits of the HPV-150 and HPV-151 assays were 7.3 copies/reaction (range 5.6 to 11.4) and 3.4 copies/reaction (range 2.5 to 6.0), respectively. Testing of a representative collection of HPV-associated mucosal and cutaneous benign and malignant neoplasms and hair follicles (total of 540 samples) revealed that HPV-150 and HPV-151 are relatively rare genotypes with a cutaneous tropism. Both genotypes were found in sporadic cases of common warts and SCC and BCC of the skin as single or multiple infections usually with low viral loads. HPV-150 can establish persistent infection of hair follicles in immuno-competent individuals. A partial L1 sequence of a putative novel HPV genotype, related to HPV-150, was identified in a squamous cell carcinoma of the skin obtained from a 64-year old immuno-compromised male patient. PMID:21799888

  14. Persistence of mucosal T cell responses to herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in the female genital tract

    PubMed Central

    Posavad, Christine M.; Zhao, Lin; Mueller, Dawn E.; Stevens, Claire E.; Huang, Meei Li; Wald, Anna; Corey, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the human T cell response to HSV-2 in the female genital tract, a major site of heterosexual HSV-2 acquisition, transmission and reactivation. In order to understand the role of local mucosal immunity in HSV-2 infection, T cell lines were expanded from serial cervical cytobrush samples from 30 HSV-2 infected women and examined for reactivity to HSV-2. Approximately 3% of the CD3+ T cells isolated from the cervix were HSV-2 specific and of these, a median of 91.3% were CD4+ while a median of 3.9% were CD8+. HSV-2 specific CD4+ T cells expanded from the cervix were not only more frequent than CD8+ T cells but also exhibited greater breadth in terms of antigenic reactivity. T cells directed at the same HSV-2 protein were often detected in serial cervical cytobrush samples and in blood. Thus, broad and persistent mucosal T cell responses to HSV-2 were detected in the female genital tract of HSV-2+ women suggesting that these cells are resident at the site of HSV-2 infection. Understanding the role of these T cells at this biologically relevant site will be central to the elucidation of adaptive immune mechanisms involved in controlling HSV-2 disease. PMID:24917455

  15. Awareness of Diagnosis and Knowledge of HPV in Women Patients: Data from a Multi-Site Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCree, Donna Hubbard; Daley, Ellen M.; Gorbach, Pamina; Hamm, Robert M.; Sharpe, Patricia A.; Brandt, Heather M.; McFarlane, Mary; Kerndt, Peter; McDermott, Robert J.; Perrin, Karen M.; St. Lawrence, Janet S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Persistent infection with high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with cervical and other anogenital cancers. Purpose: This paper reports results of awareness of an HPV diagnosis and HPV knowledge from a multi-site study of HPV knowledge, attitudes and behavior, and the impact of an HPV diagnosis on women and their…

  16. Reprogrammed CRISPR-Cas9 targeting the conserved regions of HPV6/11 E7 genes inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in E7-transformed keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Chen; Cai, Zhi-Ming; Zhang, Xue-Jun

    2016-01-01

    The persistence infection of low-risk type (type 6 or type 11) of human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause of genital warts. Given the high rate of recurrence after treatment, the use of a new molecular agent is certain to be of value. The aim of this study was to achieve targeted inactivation of viral E 7 gene in keratinocytes using the reprogrammed clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) 9 system. To accomplish this, a universal CRISPR-Cas9 system for targeting both HPV6/11 E 7 genes was constructed by using a dual guide RNA vector. After transfection of the vector into E 7-transfromed keratinocytes, the expression level of E 7 protein was measured using western-blot analysis and the sequence of the E 7 gene was determined using Sanger sequencing. Cell proliferation was analyzed by CCK-8 assay, and cell apoptosis was evaluated by Hoechst 33258 staining, flow cytometry analysis and ELISA assay. The results indicated that both HPV6/11 E 7 genes can be inactivated by the single CRISPR-Cas9 system. Furthermore, silencing of E 7 led to inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in E 7-transfromed keratinocytes but not in normal keratinocytes. Our data suggested that the reprogrammed CRISPR-Cas9 system has the potential for the development of an adjuvant therapy for genital warts. PMID:26228041

  17. Prevalence and type distribution of human papillomavirus infection using the INNo-Lipa assay, Kerman, Southeast Iran.

    PubMed

    Afshar, Reza Malekpour; Mollaie, Hamid Reza; Fazlalipour, Mehdi; Arabzadeh, Seyad Alimohammad

    2013-01-01

    The human papilloma virus (HPV) causes skin and mucous membrane infections. It crosses from one person to another by skin-to-skin contact, such as sexual contact. There are more than 100 types of HPV that can influence different parts of the body. Some types of HPV can cause cancer (such as cervical or anal cancer) and others can cause warts (such as genital or plantar warts). HPV infection is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Iran and around the world. Considerable molecular evidence suggests a role for human papilloma virus (HPV) in the pathogenesis of carcinoma. Epidemiological studies on human papilloma viruses (HPVs) infections in general population are critical for the performing of health policy guidelines for developing the strategies to hinder the primary and secondary different cancer. In different parts of Iran, there is a lack of population-based studies to determine the prevalence of HPV in the general population. The aim of this population-based study was therefore to report the prevalence ratse of HPV types among Iranian patients. To study the risk of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection, we managed a retrospective study in Kerman province, southeast of Iran. For this purpose, 410 patients tested for the presence of HPV DNA using PCR and INNo- Lipa assays. HPV DNA was detected in 108 out of 410 patients (26.34%), while it was not detected in any of the control group samples. Patients included 23 (21.1%) males and 86 (78.8%) females. HPV type 6 was the most common (49%) followed by HPV type 16 (10.1%), and also HPV type11 (9.2%). The prevalence of HPV in Iran is comparable to those reported in other regions of the world. In a similar manner, it seems that HPV types 6, 16 and11 are the most common types in Kerman. Additional studies on larger group of patients, particularly in those with pre-invasive forms of disease, are needed to explain the roles of different HPV types in this location of Iran. PMID:24175815

  18. Prevalence of Anti-Human Papillomavirus Type 16, 18, 31, and 58 Virus-Like Particles in Women in the General Population and in Prostitutes

    PubMed Central

    Touz, Antoine; de Sanjos, Silvia; Coursaget, Pierre; Almirall, M. Rosa; Palacio, Virgilio; Meijer, Chris J. L. M.; Kornegay, Janet; Bosch, F. Xavier

    2001-01-01

    Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is sexually transmitted. The aim of the study was to characterize serological responses to HPV types 16, 18, 31, and 58 by exploring type-specific virus-like particles (VLPs) in two groups of women with very distinct sexual behaviors. Anti-VLP antibodies for types 16, 18, 31, and 58 and HPV DNA in cervical cells were investigated with 177 prostitutes and 283 age-matched controls from the female general population in Spain. Anti-VLP positivity increased with number of lifetime sexual partners in women from the general population, and no seroresponse was found in virgins. However, in prostitutes HPV infection was characterized by higher multireactivity to three or four VLPs (25%) than the general population (3%) and by a more frequent antibody response to HPV-58 than in the general population. About 75% of the women seropositive for type 58 had been born in a Latin American country. Seroprevalence of HPV and cervical HPV DNA in prostitutes were 14 and 10 times higher than observed in women in the general population (prevalence odds ratio [POR] of HPV seropositivity, 14.04 [95%; CI = 8.4 to 23.6] and POR for HPV DNA, 10.4 [95% CI = 3.9 to 27.6). Our results indicate that prostitutes are at an increased risk of oncogenic HPV infections, and they confirm the validity of anti-VLPs as markers of present or past HPV infection, that the number of sexual partners is the major determinant in acquisition of oncogenic HPV, and that anti-VLPs could be used as a marker of repeated infection in prostitutes. PMID:11724843

  19. HPV - immune response to infection and vaccination.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    HPV infection in the genital tract is common in young sexually active individuals, the majority of whom clear the infection without overt clinical disease. However most of those who develop benign lesions eventually mount an effective cell mediated immune (CMI) response and the lesions regress.Failure to develop effective CMI to clear or control infection results in persistent infection and, in the case of the oncogenic HPVs, an increased probability of progression to CIN3 and invasive carcinoma. The prolonged duration of infection associated with HPV seems to be associated with effective evasion of innate immunity thus delaying the activation of adaptive immunity.Natural infections in animals show that neutralising antibody to the virus coat protein L1 is protective suggesting that this would be an effective prophylactic vaccine strategy. The current prophylactic HPV VLP vaccines are delivered i.m. circumventing the intra-epithelial immune evasion strategies. These vaccines generate high levels of antibody and both serological and B cell memory as evidenced by persistence of antibody and robust recall responses. However there is no immune correlate - no antibody level that correlates with protection. Recent data on how HPV infects basal epithelial cells and how antibody can prevent this provides a mechanistic explanation for the effectiveness of HPV VLP vaccines. PMID:20961432

  20. Understanding HPV Disease and Prevention: A Guide for School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood-Rayermann, Suzy; McIntyre, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    Oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) causes 99.7% of all cervical cancers. HPV Types 16 and 18 are responsible for approximately 77% of cases, and peak prevalence occurs in females younger than 25 years of age. The recent implementation of HPV vaccination provides females with the opportunity to prevent infection. School nurses are advocates of

  1. Understanding HPV Disease and Prevention: A Guide for School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood-Rayermann, Suzy; McIntyre, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    Oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) causes 99.7% of all cervical cancers. HPV Types 16 and 18 are responsible for approximately 77% of cases, and peak prevalence occurs in females younger than 25 years of age. The recent implementation of HPV vaccination provides females with the opportunity to prevent infection. School nurses are advocates of…

  2. Association of cervical biopsy with HIV type 1 genital shedding among women on highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Woo, Victoria G; Liegler, Teri; Cohen, Craig R; Sawaya, George F; Smith-McCune, Karen; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Huchko, Megan J

    2013-07-01

    HIV-1 genital shedding is associated with increased HIV-1 transmission risk. Inflammation and ulceration are associated with increased shedding, while highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been shown to have a protective effect. We sought to examine the impact of cervical biopsies, a routine component of cervical cancer screening, on HIV-1 genital RNA levels in HIV-infected women on HAART. We enrolled HIV-1-infected women undergoing cervical biopsy for diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2/3 in this prospective cohort study. All were stable on HAART for at least 3 months. Clinical and demographic information as well as plasma HIV-1 viral load were collected at the baseline visit. Specimens for cervical HIV-1 RNA were collected immediately prior to biopsy, and 2 and 7 days afterward. Quantitative PCR determined HIV-1 concentration in cervical specimens at each time point to a lower limit of detection of 40 copies/specimen. Among the 30 participants, five (16.6%) women had detectable cervical HIV-1 RNA at baseline, of whom four (80%) had detectable HIV-1 RNA after cervical biopsy, with no significant increase in viral load in the follow-up specimens. Only one woman (3.3%) with undetectable baseline cervical HIV-1 RNA had detection postbiopsy. Detectable plasma HIV-1 RNA was the only factor associated with baseline cervical HIV-1 RNA. In women on HAART, an increase in cervical HIV-1 RNA detection or concentration was not associated with cervical biopsy. These findings help provide safety data regarding cervical cancer screening and diagnosis in HIV-infected women and inform postprocedure counseling. PMID:23594240

  3. [Light-microscopic study of classified virus warts (HPV-1 and HPV-4) (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Grussendorf, E I

    1980-01-01

    Histological investigations of verrucae vulgares of the hand and of plantar warts show striking differences between HPV-1-induced warts and those caused by the virus type HPV-4. In warts caused by HPV-1 massive vacuolization and disturbance of epidermal cell differentiation through the entire thickness of the epidermis is predominant whereas in HPV-4 stimulated warts cell differentiation is impaired to a much lesser degree. Despite the presence of inclusions and of vacuolized cells a thick stratum granulosum and a compact horny layer are formed in the latter type. PMID:6252855

  4. Development and evaluation of the quantitative real-time PCR assay in detection and typing of herpes simplex virus in swab specimens from patients with genital herpes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Junlian; Yi, Yong; Chen, Wei; Si, Shaoyan; Yin, Mengmeng; Jin, Hua; Liu, Jianjun; Zhou, Jinlian; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2015-01-01

    Genital herpes (GH), which is caused mainly by herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 and HSV-1, remains a worldwide problem. Laboratory confirmation of GH is important, particularly as there are other conditions which present similarly to GH, while atypical presentations of GH also occur. Currently, virus culture is the classical method for diagnosis of GH, but it is time consuming and with low sensitivity. A major advance for diagnosis of GH is to use Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In this study, to evaluate the significance of the real-time PCR method in diagnosis and typing of genital HSV, the primers and probes targeted at HSV-1 DNA polymerase gene and HSV-2 glycoprotein D gene fraction were designed and applied to amplify DNA from HSV-1 or HSV-2 by employing the real-time PCR technique. Then the PCR reaction system was optimized and evaluated. HSV in swab specimens from patients with genital herpes was detected by real-time PCR. The real-time PCR assay showed good specificity for detection and typing of HSV, with good linear range (5×102~5×108 copies/ml, r=0.997), a sensitivity of 5×102 copies/ml, and good reproducibility (intra-assay coefficients of variation 2.29% and inter-assay coefficients of variation 4.76%). 186 swab specimens were tested for HSV by real-time PCR, and the positive rate was 23.7% (44/186). Among the 44 positive specimens, 8 (18.2%) were positive for HSV-1 with a viral load of 8.5546×106 copies/ml and 36 (81.2%) were positive for HSV-2 with a viral load of 1.9861×106 copies/ml. It is concluded that the real-time PCR is a specific, sensitive and rapid method for the detection and typing of HSV, which can be widely used in clinical diagnosis of GH. PMID:26770492

  5. HPV and oropharyngeal cancer: etiology and prognostic importance.

    PubMed

    Yom, Sue S

    2015-12-01

    HPV is the most common sexually transmitted disease, but the overwhelming majority of individuals clear the infection. A small percentage of individuals develop persistence of oncogenic HPV types, especially HPV-16; and as a result, squamous cell carcinoma can develop in the tonsils and base of the tongue. Over 70% of oropharyngeal cancers are now thought to be associated with oncogenic HPV infection. Immunohistochemistry for p16 protein is often used as a surrogate marker for oncogenic HPV in the oropharyngeal tissues, although alternative HPV DNA testing methods are under intensive study. The clinical profile of patients with HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) differs quite notably from that of traditional head and neck cancer patients, and the prognosis for HPV-associated OPC is significantly better. As a result, experimental clinical trials are focused on de-intensification of therapies with the hope of preserving an improved long-term quality of life for these patients. PMID:26650695

  6. Role of bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5) in diseases of cattle. Recent findings on BoHV-5 association with genital disease

    PubMed Central

    Favier, P.A.; Marin, M.S.; Pérez, S.E.

    2012-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5) belongs to the family Herpesviridae, subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae, genus Varicellovirus. This virus is a major causative agent of non-suppurative meningoencephalitis in young cattle. It was first isolated in 1962 from a neurological disease outbreak in Australia. BoHV-5 is genetically and antigenically related to bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1), a highly prevalent virus responsible for respiratory and genital disease in cattle. Initially, BoHV-5 was considered a subtype of BoHV-1 (BoHV-1.3). However, the exclusive presentation of outbreaks of neurological disease suggested that the virus was a new agent with characteristics of neuropathogenicity. Even though both are neurotropic viruses, only BoHV-5 is capable of replicating extensively in the central nervous system and inducing neurological disease. Occasionally, encephalitis caused by BoHV-1 has been reported. Like other alpha-herpesviruses, BoHV-5 can establish latency in nervous ganglia and, by stress factors or glucocorticoid treatment, latent virus can be reactivated. During episodes of reactivation, the virus is excreted in nasal, ocular and genital secretions and transmitted to other susceptible hosts. Recently, BoHV-5 has been associated with infection of the reproductive tract. The virus has been isolated and the presence of viral DNA has been demonstrated in semen samples from Brazil and Australia and natural transmission of the virus through contaminated semen has also been described. Embryos and oocytes are permissive for BoHV-5 infection and BoHV-5 DNA has been detected in the central nervous system of aborted fetuses. The objective of this review is to compile the limited information on the recent association between BoHV-5 and reproductive disorders in cattle. PMID:26623291

  7. Immunity in the female genital tract after intravaginal vaccination of mice with an attenuated strain of herpes simplex virus type 2.

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, M R; Smiley, J R; Leslie, P; Brais, J; Rudzroga, H E; Bienenstock, J

    1984-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 is a common human venereal pathogen which causes lethal neurological illness after intravaginal inoculation into BALB/cJ mice. To investigate whether an attenuated, nonlethal strain of this virus would confer immunity after inoculation of mice, we constructed a strain containing a partial deletion of the thymidine kinase gene, which is necessary for viral replication and spread in sensory ganglia. Unlike its wild-type counterpart, this deletion-containing strain of herpes simplex virus type 2 caused mild clinical disease and was not lethal when studied in an age-dependent murine model of intravaginal infection. Furthermore, after intravaginal infection, the deletion-containing strain could not be isolated from sensory ganglia at a time when wild-type virus was abundant. Of greater significance, intravaginal inoculation with the deletion-containing strain rendered mice completely resistant to rechallenge with a 10-fold 50% lethal dose of wild-type virus. These results suggest that a strain of herpes simplex virus type 2 containing a deletion of the thymidine kinase gene will be useful in studying the cellular basis of mucosal immunity in the genital tract. Images PMID:6088797

  8. HPV and HPV-associated diseases.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Eileen F; Park, Ina U

    2013-12-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection. HPV is associated with a significant burden of disease and cancer, including anogenital warts and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, and anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers. Effective prevention is available, including primary prevention of cancers and anogenital warts through HPV vaccination, and secondary prevention of cervical cancer through screening and treatment of precancer. This article focuses on HPV infection and the clinical consequences of infection, with attention to cervical and anogenital squamous intraepithelial neoplasia and anogenital warts. PMID:24275269

  9. Genital herpes - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    Herpes - genital -self-care; Herpes simplex - genital - self-care; Herpesvirus 2 - self-care; HSV-2 - self-care ... genital herpes can be treated. Follow your health care provider's instructions for treatment and follow-up.

  10. [The impact of natural history and genital tract distribution of human papillomavirus on technology for cervical cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Wu, Z N; Chen, W

    2016-04-23

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the necessary cause of cervical cancer. There is a close relationship between the amount of DNA, mRNA and protein expression in the natural history of virus and the cervical lesion. This article is aimed to elaborate the natural history and genital tract distribution of high risk HPV, and also evaluate the HPV based cervical cancer screening technology from the perspective of the natural history of HPV, which is meaningful for screening and clinical practice in devising and utilizing different detection technology. PMID:27087368

  11. Epidemiology of genital herpes - recent advances.

    PubMed

    Halioua, B; Malkin, J E

    1999-01-01

    Genital herpes is a common, distressing infection which, due to increasing incidence world-wide, has become a prominent public health issue over recent years, even throughout the decade of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Since the late 1970's, the prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection has increased by approximately 30 percent in the US. The number of sufferers world-wide is currently estimated at approximately 86 million people. New serological methods based on the detection of type-specific antibodies to herpes simplex virus (HSV) glycoproteins have clarified issues concerning the true incidence of genital herpes, the modifying effect of prior HSV-1 infections, the changing proportions of HSV-1 genital herpes, and the importance of asymptomatic shedding. Patients' ignorance of their diagnosis along with the occurrence of atypical symptomatology and asymptomatic viral shedding of HSV all contribute to the transmission of genital herpes. Genital ulcer disease, of which genital herpes is the most common cause in developed countries, is an important risk factor in the acquisition and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and has contributed to the spread of this disorder. Risk factors for genital herpes HSV-2 are strongly related to lifetime number of sexual partners, number of years of sexual activity, male homosexuality, black race, female gender and a history of previous sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Understanding the epidemiology of genital herpes is of great importance in limiting the spread of this STD. In this review, we summarise current knowledge related to the epidemiology of genital herpes. PMID:10210781

  12. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... Share Compartir You are being redirected to the HPV Cancer Screening page. Please update your bookmarks to ...

  13. The quality of life of patients with genital warts: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Genital warts, which are caused by infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), are one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in Europe. Although genital warts are commonly perceived as a non-serious condition, treatment is often long, of varying effectiveness and the recurrence rate is high. Very few studies have been performed on the personal consequences of genital warts. The aim of this qualitative study, set in Denmark, was to examine the ways in which genital warts may affect patients' quality of life. Methods To obtain an in-depth understanding of patients' perceptions of genital warts, we used qualitative focus-group interviews with five men and five women aged between 18 and 30 years who had genital warts. The interview guide was based on a literature review that identified important issues and questions. The data were analysed using a medical anthropological approach. Results Patients' experiences were related to cultural conceptions of venereal diseases and the respective identities and sexuality of the sexes. The disease had negative psychological and social effects both for men and for women and it affected their sex and love lives, in particular. The psychological burden of the disease was increased by the uncertain timeline and the varying effectiveness of treatment. We identified a need for more patient information about the disease and its psycho-sexual aspects. Conclusions The men and women participating in this study considered their quality of life to be significantly lowered because of genital warts. The experiences described by the participants give insights that may be valuable in treatment and counselling. The quadrivalent HPV vaccine that has now been added to the childhood vaccination programme for girls in Denmark for the prevention of cervical cancer can also prevent 90% of cases of genital warts. Our results suggest that HPV vaccination could considerably reduce the largely unacknowledged psychological and social burden associated with genital warts, in men as well as women. PMID:20205944

  14. Therapeutic HPV DNA vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ken; Roosinovich, Elena; Ma, Barbara; Hung, Chien-Fu

    2010-01-01

    It is now well established that most cervical cancers are causally associated with HPV infection. This realization has led to efforts to control HPV-associated malignancy through prevention or treatment of HPV infection. Currently, commercially available HPV vaccines are not designed to control established HPV infection and associated premalignant and malignant lesions. To treat and eradicate pre-existing HPV infections and associated lesions which remain prevalent in the U.S. and worldwide, effective therapeutic HPV vaccines are needed. DNA vaccination has emerged as a particularly promising form of therapeutic HPV vaccines due to its safety, stability and ability to induce antigen-specific immunity. This review focuses on improving the potency of therapeutic HPV vaccines through modification of dendritic cells (DCs) by [1] increasing the number of antigen-expressing/antigen-loaded DCs, [2] improving HPV antigen expression, processing and presentation in DCs, and [3] enhancing DC and T cell interaction. Continued improvement in therapeutic HPV DNA vaccines may ultimately lead to an effective DNA vaccine for the treatment of HPV-associated malignancies. PMID:20066511

  15. HPV Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... ci1n2esyfeoarryooludr:  THMdPaeVpningococcal HPV VACCINE IS BEST AT 11-12 YEARS Preteens have a higher immune response to HPV ... protecting adolescents from HPV cancers. VACCINATE YOUR 11-12 YEAR OLDS. www. cdc. gov/ vaccines/ teens Distributed by: ...

  16. Genital warts in Burmeister's porpoises: characterization of Phocoena spinipinnis papillomavirus type 1 (PsPV-1) and evidence for a second, distantly related PsPV.

    PubMed

    Van Bressem, Marie-Françoise; Cassonnet, Patricia; Rector, Annabel; Desaintes, Christian; Van Waerebeek, Koen; Alfaro-Shigueto, Joanna; Van Ranst, Marc; Orth, Gérard

    2007-07-01

    We identified sequences from two distantly related papillomaviruses in genital warts from two Burmeister's porpoises, including a PV antigen-positive specimen, and characterized Phocoena spinipinnis papillomavirus type 1 (PsPV-1). The PsPV-1 genome comprises 7879 nt and presents unusual features. It lacks an E7, an E8 and a bona fide E5 open reading frame (ORF) and has a large E6 ORF. PsPV-1 L1 ORF showed the highest percentage of nucleotide identity (54-55 %) with human papillomavirus type 5, bovine papillomavirus type 3 (BPV-3) and Tursiops truncatus papillomavirus type 2 (TtPV-2). This warrants the classification of PsPV-1 as the prototype of the genus Omikronpapillomavirus. PsPV-1 clustered with TtPV-2 in the E6 and E1E2 phylogenetic trees and with TtPV-2 and BPV-3 in the L2L1 tree. This supports the hypothesis that PV evolution may not be monophyletic across all genes. PMID:17554024

  17. Commercially available molecular tests for human papillomaviruses (HPV): 2015 update.

    PubMed

    Poljak, Mario; Kocjan, Boštjan J; Oštrbenk, Anja; Seme, Katja

    2016-03-01

    Commercial molecular tests for human papillomaviruses (HPV) are invaluable diagnostic tools in cervical carcinoma screening and management of women with cervical precancerous lesions as well as important research tools for epidemiological studies, vaccine development, and implementation and monitoring of vaccination programs. In this third inventory of commercial HPV tests, we identified 193 distinct commercial HPV tests and at least 127 test variants available on the market in 2015, which represents a 54% and 79% increase in the number of distinct HPV tests and variants, respectively, in comparison to our last inventory performed in 2012. Identified HPV tests were provisionally divided into eight main groups and several subgroups. Among the 193 commercial HPV tests, all but two target alpha-HPV types only. Although the number of commercial HPV tests with at least one published study in peer-reviewed literature has increased significantly in the last three years, several published performance evaluations are still not in line with agreed-upon standards in the HPV community. Manufacturers should invest greater effort into evaluating their products and publishing validation/evaluation results in peer-reviewed journals. To achieve this, more clinically oriented external quality-control panels and initiatives are required. For evaluating the analytical performance of the entire range of HPV tests currently on the market, more diverse and reliable external quality-control programs based on international standards for all important HPV types are indispensable. The performance of a wider range of HPV tests must be promptly evaluated on a variety of alternative clinical specimens. In addition, more complete HPV assays containing validated sample-extraction protocols and appropriate internal controls are urgently needed. Provision of a broader range of automated systems allowing large-scale HPV testing as well as the development of reliable, rapid, and affordable molecular point-of-care tests are priorities for the further improvement of HPV tests. PMID:26601820

  18. Nonendemic HPV-Positive Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Association With Poor Prognosis

    SciTech Connect

    Stenmark, Matthew H.; McHugh, Jonathan B.; Schipper, Matthew; Walline, Heather M.; Komarck, Christine; Feng, Felix Y.; Worden, Francis P.; Wolf, Gregory T.; Chepeha, Douglas B.; Prince, Mark E.; Bradford, Carol R.; Mukherji, Suresh K.; Eisbruch, Avraham; Carey, Thomas E.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in nonendemic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and assess the prognostic implications of viral status. Methods and Materials: Paraffin-embedded tumor specimens from 62 patients with primary NPC diagnosed between 1985 and 2011 were analyzed for EBV and high-risk HPV. EBV status was determined by the use of in situ hybridization for EBV encoded RNA. HPV status was assessed with p16 immunohistochemistry and multiplex polymerase chain reaction MassArray for determination of HPV type. Proportional hazards models were used to compare the risk of death among patients as stratified by viral status. Results: Of 61 evaluable tumors, 26 (43%) were EBV-positive/HPV-negative, 18 (30%) were HPV-positive/EBV-negative, and 17 (28%) were EBV/HPV-negative. EBV and HPV infection was mutually exclusive. HPV positivity was significantly correlated with World Health Organization grade 2 tumors, older age, and smoking (all P<.001). The racial distribution of the study population was 74% white, 15% African American, and 11% Asian/Middle Eastern. Among HPV-positive patients, 94% were white. At a median follow-up time of 7 years, HPV-positive and EBV/HPV-negative tumors exhibited worse outcomes than did EBV-positive tumors, including decreased overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] 2.98, P=.01; and HR 3.89, P=.002), progression-free survival (HR 2.55, P=.02; and HR 4.04, P<.001), and locoregional control (HR 4.01, P=.03; and HR 6.87, P=.001). Conclusion: In our Midwestern population, high-risk HPV infection may play an etiologic role in the development of nonendemic, EBV-negative NPC. Compared with EBV-positive NPC, HPV-positive and EBV/HPV-negative NPC are associated with worse outcomes. A larger confirmatory study is needed to validate these findings.

  19. Cost of Preventing, Managing, and Treating Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-Related Diseases in Sweden before the Introduction of Quadrivalent HPV Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Östensson, Ellinor; Fröberg, Maria; Leval, Amy; Hellström, Ann-Cathrin; Bäcklund, Magnus; Zethraeus, Niklas; Andersson, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Objective Costs associated with HPV-related diseases such as cervical dysplasia, cervical cancer, and genital warts have not been evaluated in Sweden. These costs must be estimated in order to determine the potential savings if these diseases were eradicated and to assess the combined cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccination and cervical cancer screening. The present study aimed to estimate prevention, management, and treatment costs associated with cervical dysplasia, cervical cancer, and genital warts from a societal perspective in Sweden in 2009, 1 year before the quadrivalent HPV vaccination program was implemented. Methods and Materials Data from the Swedish cervical cancer screening program was used to calculate the costs associated with prevention (cytological cervical cancer screening), management (colposcopy and biopsy following inadequate/abnormal cytological results), and treatment of CIN. Swedish official statistics were used to estimate treatment costs associated with cervical cancer. Published epidemiological data were used to estimate the number of incident, recurrent, and persistent cases of genital warts; a clinical expert panel assessed management and treatment procedures. Estimated visits, procedures, and use of medications were used to calculate the annual cost associated with genital warts. Results From a societal perspective, total estimated costs associated with cervical cancer and genital warts in 2009 were €106.6 million, of which €81.4 million (76%) were direct medical costs. Costs associated with prevention, management, and treatment of CIN were €74 million; screening and management costs for women with normal and inadequate cytology alone accounted for 76% of this sum. The treatment costs associated with incident and prevalent cervical cancer and palliative care were €23 million. Estimated costs for incident, recurrent and persistent cases of genital warts were €9.8 million. Conclusion Prevention, management, and treatment costs associated with cervical dysplasia, cervical cancer, and genital warts are substantial. Defining these costs is important for future cost-effectiveness analyses of the quadrivalent HPV vaccination program in Sweden. PMID:26398189

  20. Noninfectious genital ulcers.

    PubMed

    Kirshen, Carly; Edwards, Libby

    2015-12-01

    Noninfectious genital ulcers are much more common than ulcers arising from infections. Still, it is important to take a thorough history of sexual activity and a sexual abuse screen. A physical exam should include skin, oral mucosa, nails, hair, vulva, and vaginal mucosa if needed. The differential diagnosis of noninfectious genital ulcers includes: lipschütz ulcers, complex aphthosis, Behçet's syndrome, vulvar metastatic Crohn's disease, hidradenitis suppurativa, pyoderma gangrenosum, pressure ulcers, and malignancies. It is important to come to the correct diagnosis to avoid undue testing, stress, and anxiety in patients experiencing genital ulcerations. PMID:26650697

  1. Human papillomavirus DNA in men who have sex with men: type-specific prevalence, risk factors and implications for vaccination strategies

    PubMed Central

    King, E M; Gilson, R; Beddows, S; Soldan, K; Panwar, K; Young, C; Prah, P; Jit, M; Edmunds, W J; Sonnenberg, P

    2015-01-01

    Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of girls will have relatively little effect on HPV-related disease in men who have sex with men (MSM). We determined HPV prevalence and risk factors in MSM to inform the potential effectiveness of vaccinating MSM. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 522 MSM aged 18–40 attending a London sexual health clinic who completed a computer-assisted self-interview. Urine and two swabs (anal and penile/scrotal/perianal) were collected and tested using an in-house Luminex-based HPV genotyping system. Results: Prevalence of DNA of the vaccine-preventable HPV types in ano-genital specimens of men was 87/511 (17.0%), 166/511 (32.5%) and 232/511 (45.4%) for the bivalent (HPV16/18), quadrivalent (HPV6/11/16/18) and nonavalent (HPV6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) vaccine types, respectively. A total of 25.1% had one of the quadrivalent types, and 7.4% had 2+ types. Median age at first anal sex was 19 (IQR 17–23) and at first clinic attendance was 24 (IQR 20–27). The increase in the odds of any HPV infection per year of age was 4.7% (95% CI 1.2–8.4). Conclusions: On the basis of the current infection status, most MSM, even among a high-risk population attending a sexual health clinic, are not currently infected with the vaccine-type HPV. A targeted vaccination strategy for MSM in the UK could have substantial benefits. PMID:25791874

  2. Sequence Imputation of HPV16 Genomes for Genetic Association Studies

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Benjamin; Chen, Zigui; Reimers, Laura; van Doorslaer, Koenraad; Schiffman, Mark; DeSalle, Rob; Herrero, Rolando; Yu, Kai; Wacholder, Sholom; Wang, Tao; Burk, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Human Papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) causes over half of all cervical cancer and some HPV16 variants are more oncogenic than others. The genetic basis for the extraordinary oncogenic properties of HPV16 compared to other HPVs is unknown. In addition, we neither know which nucleotides vary across and within HPV types and lineages, nor which of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) determine oncogenicity. Methods A reference set of 62 HPV16 complete genome sequences was established and used to examine patterns of evolutionary relatedness amongst variants using a pairwise identity heatmap and HPV16 phylogeny. A BLAST-based algorithm was developed to impute complete genome data from partial sequence information using the reference database. To interrogate the oncogenic risk of determined and imputed HPV16 SNPs, odds-ratios for each SNP were calculated in a case-control viral genome-wide association study (VWAS) using biopsy confirmed high-grade cervix neoplasia and self-limited HPV16 infections from Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Results HPV16 variants display evolutionarily stable lineages that contain conserved diagnostic SNPs. The imputation algorithm indicated that an average of 97.5±1.03% of SNPs could be accurately imputed. The VWAS revealed specific HPV16 viral SNPs associated with variant lineages and elevated odds ratios; however, individual causal SNPs could not be distinguished with certainty due to the nature of HPV evolution. Conclusions Conserved and lineage-specific SNPs can be imputed with a high degree of accuracy from limited viral polymorphic data due to the lack of recombination and the stochastic mechanism of variation accumulation in the HPV genome. However, to determine the role of novel variants or non-lineage-specific SNPs by VWAS will require direct sequence analysis. The investigation of patterns of genetic variation and the identification of diagnostic SNPs for lineages of HPV16 variants provides a valuable resource for future studies of HPV16 pathogenicity. PMID:21731721

  3. Transcriptional regulatory elements in the noncoding region of human papillomavirus type 6

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Tzyy-Choou.

    1989-01-01

    The structure and function of the transcriptional regulatory region of human papillomavirus type 6 (HPV-6) has been investigated. To investigate tissue specific gene expression, a sensitive method to detect and localize HPV-6 viral DNA, mRNA and protein in plastic-embedded tissue sections of genital and respiratory tract papillomata by using in situ hybridization and immunoperoxidase assays has been developed. This method, using ultrathin sections and strand-specific {sup 3}H labeled riboprobes, offers the advantages of superior morphological preservation and detection of viral genomes at low copy number with good resolution, and the modified immunocytochemistry provides better sensitivity. The results suggest that genital tract epithelium is more permissive for HPV-6 replication than respiratory tract epithelium. To study the tissue tropism of HPV-6 at the level of regulation of viral gene expression, the polymerase chain reaction was used to isolate the noncoding region (NCR) of HPV-6 in independent isolates. Nucleotide sequence analysis of molecularly cloned DNA identified base substitutions, deletions/insertions and tandem duplications. Transcriptional regulatory elements in the NCR were assayed in recombinant plasmids containing the bacterial gene for chloramphenicol acetyl transferase.

  4. Development of AAVLP(HPV16/31L2) Particles as Broadly Protective HPV Vaccine Candidate

    PubMed Central

    Nieto, Karen; Weghofer, Margit; Sehr, Peter; Ritter, Mirko; Sedlmeier, Sebastian; Karanam, Balasubramanyam; Seitz, Hanna; Müller, Martin; Kellner, Markus; Hörer, Markus; Michaelis, Uwe; Roden, Richard B. S.; Gissmann, Lutz; Kleinschmidt, Jürgen A.

    2012-01-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) minor capsid protein L2 is a promising candidate for a broadly protective HPV vaccine yet the titers obtained in most experimental systems are rather low. Here we examine the potential of empty AAV2 particles (AAVLPs), assembled from VP3 alone, for display of L2 epitopes to enhance their immunogenicity. Insertion of a neutralizing epitope (amino acids 17–36) from L2 of HPV16 and HPV31 into VP3 at positions 587 and 453, respectively, permitted assembly into empty AAV particles (AAVLP(HPV16/31L2)). Intramuscularly vaccination of mice and rabbits with AAVLP(HPV16/31L2)s in montanide adjuvant, induced high titers of HPV16 L2 antibodies as measured by ELISA. Sera obtained from animals vaccinated with the AAVLP(HPV16/31L2)s neutralized infections with several HPV types in a pseudovirion infection assay. Lyophilized AAVLP(HPV16/31L2) particles retained their immunogenicity upon reconstitution. Interestingly, vaccination of animals that were pre-immunized with AAV2 - simulating the high prevalence of AAV2 antibodies in the population - even increased cross neutralization against HPV31, 45 and 58 types. Finally, passive transfer of rabbit antisera directed against AAVLP(HPV16/31L2)s protected naïve mice from vaginal challenge with HPV16 pseudovirions. In conclusion, AAVLP(HPV16/31L2) particles have the potential as a broadly protective vaccine candidate regardless of prior exposure to AAV. PMID:22761884

  5. Genital herpes simplex.

    PubMed Central

    Tummon, I. S.; Dudley, D. K.; Walters, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the herpes simplex virus. Following the initial infection the virus becomes latent in the sacral ganglia. Approximately 80% of patients are then subject to milder but unpredictable recurrences and may shed the virus even when they are asymptomatic. The disorder causes concern because genital herpes in the mother can result in rare but catastrophic neonatal infection and because of a possible association between genital herpes and cancer of the cervix. No effective treatment is as yet available. Weekly monitoring for virus by cervical culture from 32 weeks' gestation is recommended for women with a history of genital herpes and for those whose sexual partner has such a history. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 PMID:7020907

  6. Female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    More resources and evidence-based guidelines are needed for healthcare practitioners across the world to provide culturally sensitive medical and psychological treatment for women and girls who have undergone female genital mutilation (FGM) or cutting. PMID:26853668

  7. Genital Warts (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids Up for Sports Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies ... genital warts is typically transmitted through sexual contact (anal, oral, or vaginal) with an infected person, and ...

  8. Genital sores - female

    MedlinePlus

    ... DC. Neoplastic diseases of the vulva. In: Lentz GM, Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, Katz VL, eds . Comprehensive ... Mosby Elsevier; 2012:chap 30. Eckert L, Lentz GM. Infections of the lower genital tract. In: Lentz ...

  9. Cellular immune responses to HPV-18, -31, and -53 in healthy volunteers immunized with recombinant HPV-16 L1 virus-like particles

    SciTech Connect

    Pinto, Ligia A.; Harro, Clayton D.; Kemp, Troy J.; Lowy, Douglas R.; Schiller, John T.; Berzofsky, Jay A.; Hildesheim, Allan

    2006-09-30

    Human papillomavirus-like particles (HPV VLP) are candidate vaccines that have shown to be efficacious in reducing infection and inducing robust antiviral immunity. Neutralizing antibodies generated by vaccination are largely type-specific, but little is known about the type-specificity of cellular immune responses to VLP vaccination. To determine whether vaccination with HPV-16 L1VLP induces cellular immunity to heterologous HPV types (HPV-18, HPV-31, and HPV-53), we examined proliferative and cytokine responses in vaccine (n = 11) and placebo (n = 5) recipients. Increased proliferative and cytokine responses to heterologous types were observed postvaccination in some individuals. The proportion of women responding to heterologous types postvaccination (36%-55%) was lower than that observed in response to HPV-16 (73%). Response to HPV-16 VLP predicted response to other types. The strongest correlations in response were observed between HPV-16 and HPV-31, consistent with their phylogenetic relatedness. In summary, PBMC from HPV-16 VLP vaccine recipients can respond to L1VLP from heterologous HPV types, suggesting the presence of conserved T cell epitopes.

  10. Comparable Genital Tract Infection, Pathology, and Immunity in Rhesus Macaques Inoculated with Wild-Type or Plasmid-Deficient Chlamydia trachomatis Serovar D

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Yanyan; Frazer, Lauren C.; O'Connell, Catherine M.; Tarantal, Alice F.; Andrews, Charles W.; O'Connor, Shelby L.; Russell, Ali N.; Sullivan, Jeanne E.; Poston, Taylor B.; Vallejo, Abbe N.

    2015-01-01

    Rhesus macaques were studied to directly address the potential for plasmid-deficient Chlamydia trachomatis to serve as a live attenuated vaccine in the genital tract. Five repeated cervical inoculations of rhesus macaques with wild-type serovar D strain D/UW-3/Cx or a plasmid-deficient derivative of this strain, CTD153, resulted in infections with similar kinetics and induced comparable levels of protective immunity. After all animals received five challenges with D/UW-3/Cx, levels of inflammation observed grossly and histologically were similar between the groups. Animals in both groups developed evidence of oviduct dilatation; however, reduced oviduct dilatation was observed for “controllers,” i.e., animals without detectable chlamydial DNA in the fimbriae at weeks 5 and 12. Grouping animals into “ascenders” and “controllers” revealed that elevated early T cell responses were associated with protection, whereas higher antibody responses were associated with ascension. Protected animals shared common major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alleles. Overall, genetic differences of individual animals, rather than the presence or absence of the chlamydial plasmid in the primary infecting strain, appeared to play a role in determining the outcome of infection. PMID:26216426

  11. Comparable Genital Tract Infection, Pathology, and Immunity in Rhesus Macaques Inoculated with Wild-Type or Plasmid-Deficient Chlamydia trachomatis Serovar D.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yanyan; Frazer, Lauren C; O'Connell, Catherine M; Tarantal, Alice F; Andrews, Charles W; O'Connor, Shelby L; Russell, Ali N; Sullivan, Jeanne E; Poston, Taylor B; Vallejo, Abbe N; Darville, Toni

    2015-10-01

    Rhesus macaques were studied to directly address the potential for plasmid-deficient Chlamydia trachomatis to serve as a live attenuated vaccine in the genital tract. Five repeated cervical inoculations of rhesus macaques with wild-type serovar D strain D/UW-3/Cx or a plasmid-deficient derivative of this strain, CTD153, resulted in infections with similar kinetics and induced comparable levels of protective immunity. After all animals received five challenges with D/UW-3/Cx, levels of inflammation observed grossly and histologically were similar between the groups. Animals in both groups developed evidence of oviduct dilatation; however, reduced oviduct dilatation was observed for "controllers," i.e., animals without detectable chlamydial DNA in the fimbriae at weeks 5 and 12. Grouping animals into "ascenders" and "controllers" revealed that elevated early T cell responses were associated with protection, whereas higher antibody responses were associated with ascension. Protected animals shared common major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alleles. Overall, genetic differences of individual animals, rather than the presence or absence of the chlamydial plasmid in the primary infecting strain, appeared to play a role in determining the outcome of infection. PMID:26216426

  12. HPV-QUEST: A highly customized system for automated HPV sequence analysis capable of processing Next Generation sequencing data set.

    PubMed

    Yin, Li; Yao, Jiqiang; Gardner, Brent P; Chang, Kaifen; Yu, Fahong; Goodenow, Maureen M

    2012-01-01

    Next Generation sequencing (NGS) applied to human papilloma viruses (HPV) can provide sensitive methods to investigate the molecular epidemiology of multiple type HPV infection. Currently a genotyping system with a comprehensive collection of updated HPV reference sequences and a capacity to handle NGS data sets is lacking. HPV-QUEST was developed as an automated and rapid HPV genotyping system. The web-based HPV-QUEST subtyping algorithm was developed using HTML, PHP, Perl scripting language, and MYSQL as the database backend. HPV-QUEST includes a database of annotated HPV reference sequences with updated nomenclature covering 5 genuses, 14 species and 150 mucosal and cutaneous types to genotype blasted query sequences. HPV-QUEST processes up to 10 megabases of sequences within 1 to 2 minutes. Results are reported in html, text and excel formats and display e-value, blast score, and local and coverage identities; provide genus, species, type, infection site and risk for the best matched reference HPV sequence; and produce results ready for additional analyses. PMID:22570520

  13. Acquisition and Persistence of Human Papillomavirus 16 (HPV-16) and HPV-18 Among Men With High-HPV Viral Load Infections in a Circumcision Trial in Kisumu, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Senkomago, Virginia; Backes, Danielle M.; Hudgens, Michael G.; Poole, Charles; Agot, Kawango; Moses, Stephen; Snijders, Peter J. F.; Meijer, Chris J. L. M.; Hesselink, Albertus T.; Schlecht, Nicolas F.; Bailey, Robert C.; Smith, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Circumcision and lower human papillomavirus (HPV) viral loads in men are possibly associated with a reduced risk of HPV transmission to women. However, the association between male circumcision and HPV viral load remains unclear. Methods. Swab specimens from the glans and shaft of the penis were collected from men enrolled in a circumcision trial in Kisumu, Kenya. GP5+/6+ polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to identify HPV DNA types. HPV-16 and HPV-18 loads were measured with a LightCycler real-time PCR and classified as high (>250 copies/scrape) or low (≤250 copies/scrape). Results. A total of 1159 men were randomly assigned to undergo immediate circumcision, and 1140 men were randomly assigned to the control arm (these individuals were asked to remain uncircumcised until the study ended). The hazard of acquisition of high-viral load infections in the glans was lower in the circumcision arm, compared with the control arm, for HPV-16 (hazard ratio [HR], 0.32 [95% confidence interval {CI}, .20–.49]) and HPV-18 (HR, 0.34 [95% CI, .21–.54]). The 6-month risk of HPV persistence among men with high-viral load infections in the glans at baseline was lower in the circumcision arm, compared with the control arm, for HPV-16 (risk ratio [RR], 0.36 [95% CI, .18–.72]) and HPV-18 (RR 0.34 [95% CI, .13–.86]). Weaker and less precise results were obtained for shaft samples. Conclusions. Male circumcision could potentially reduce the risk of HPV transmission to women by reducing the hazard of acquisition, and the risk of persistence of high-HPV viral load infections in the glans in men. PMID:25261492

  14. A Population-based Study of HPV Genotype Prevalence in the United States: Baseline Measures Prior to Mass HPV Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Cosette M.; Hunt, William C.; Cuzick, Jack; Langsfeld, Erika; Pearse, Amanda; Robertson, Michael; Shearman, Catherine A.; Castle, Philip E.

    2013-01-01

    Currently, two prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines targeting HPV 16 and 18 have been shown to be highly efficacious for preventing precursor lesions, although the effectiveness of these vaccines in real world clinical settings must still be determined. Toward this end, an ongoing statewide surveillance program was established in New Mexico to assess all aspects of cervical cancer preventive care. Given that the reduction in cervical cancer incidence is expected to take several decades to manifest, a systematic population-based measurement of HPV type-specific prevalence employing an age- and cytology-stratified sample of 47,617 women attending for cervical screening was conducted prior to widespread HPV vaccination. A well-validated PCR method for 37 HPV genotypes was used to test liquid-based cytology specimens. The prevalence for any of the 37 HPV types was 27.3% overall with a maximum of 52% at age 20 years followed by a rapid decline at older ages. The HPV 16 prevalence in women aged ≤ 20 years, 21-29 years, or ≥ 30 years was 9.6%, 6.5%, and 1.8%, respectively. The combined prevalence of HPV 16 and 18 in these age groups was 12.0%, 8.3% and 2.4%, respectively. HPV 16 and/or HPV 18 were detected in 54.5% of high-grade squamous intraepithelial (cytologic) lesions (HSIL) and in 25.0% of those with low-grade SIL (LSIL). These baseline data enable estimates of maximum HPV vaccine impact across time and provide critical reference measurements important to assessing clinical benefits and potential harms of HPV vaccination including increases in non-vaccine HPV types (i.e., type replacement). PMID:22532127

  15. Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Ty21a Expressing Human Papillomavirus Type 16 L1 as a Potential Live Vaccine against Cervical Cancer and Typhoid Fever▿

    PubMed Central

    Fraillery, Dominique; Baud, David; Pang, Susana Yuk-Ying; Schiller, John; Bobst, Martine; Zosso, Nathalie; Ponci, Françoise; Nardelli-Haefliger, Denise

    2007-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines based on L1 virus-like particles (VLPs) can prevent HPV-induced genital neoplasias, the precursors of cervical cancer. However, most cervical cancers occur in developing countries, where the implementation of expensive vaccines requiring multiple injections will be difficult. A live Salmonella-based vaccine could be a lower-cost alternative. We previously demonstrated that high HPV type 16 (HPV16)-neutralizing titers are induced after a single oral immunization of mice with attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains expressing a codon-optimized version of HPV16 L1 (L1S). To allow the testing of this type of vaccine in women, we constructed a new L1-expressing plasmid, kanL1S, and tested kanL1S recombinants of three Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi vaccine strains shown to be safe in humans, i.e., Ty21a, the actual licensed typhoid vaccine, and two highly immunogenic typhoid vaccine candidates, Ty800 and CVD908-htrA. In an intranasal mouse model of Salmonella serovar Typhi infection, Ty21a kanL1S was unique in inducing HPV16-neutralizing antibodies in serum and genital secretions, while anti-Salmonella responses were similar to those against the parental Ty21a vaccine. Electron microscopy examination of Ty21a kanL1S lysates showed that L1 assembled in capsomers and capsomer aggregates but not well-ordered VLPs. Comparison to the neutralizing antibody response induced by purified HPV16 L1 VLP immunizations in mice suggests that Ty21a kanL1S may be an effective prophylactic HPV vaccine. Ty21a has been widely used against typhoid fever in humans with a remarkable safety record. These finds encourage clinical testing of Ty21a kanL1S as a combined typhoid fever/cervical cancer vaccine with the potential for worldwide application. PMID:17687110

  16. Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping of cutaneous warts in Greek children.

    PubMed

    Giannaki, Maria; Kakourou, Talia; Theodoridou, Maria; Syriopoulou, Vassiliki; Kabouris, Marios; Louizou, Eirini; Chrousos, George

    2013-01-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) infects the squamous epithelium of the skin and produces common warts, plantar warts, and flat warts, which occur commonly on the hands, face, and feet. The objective of this study was to determine the presence of HPV in warts in children in order to associate the virus with the disease. Sixty-eight children with clinically diagnosed cutaneous warts were recruited. Skin biopsy samples were examined and DNA was extracted using a commercially available kit. To distinguish between the HPV types, we used a specific pair of primers to amplify the HPV DNA. Polymerase chain reaction amplification of the L1 region was followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and Luminex xMAP technology. HPV 57 was the predominant type in our study, although the detection of the high-risk HPV type 16 in 33% of our positive samples indicates the presence of mucosal high-risk HPV types in the skin of children. It seems that the newly introduced Luminex assay maximized the discrimination of genotypes even in the case of multiple HPV infections. Or findings also suggest the presence of high-risk HPV types in cutaneous warts. PMID:24283440

  17. HPV vaccines and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    2015-10-01

    Occasionally, pregnant women are inadvertently vaccinated against human papillomavirus. Data are available able on pregnancy outcomes in over a thousand women exposed to the HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine and several hundred exposed to the HPV 16/18 vaccine. No notable risks were identified. No specific safety signals have been identified with the aluminium- and lipid-containing adjuvant AS04 included in the HPV 16/18 vaccine, nor with the aluminium-based adjuvant used in the HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccine. PMID:26594728

  18. Potential Anti-HPV and Related Cancer Agents from Marine Resources: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shi-Xin; Zhang, Xiao-Shuang; Guan, Hua-Shi; Wang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the studies on the prevention and treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV) which is closely related to the cervical cancer and other genital diseases are attracting more and more attention all over the world. Marine-derived polysaccharides and other bioactive compounds have been shown to possess a variety of anti-HPV and related cancer activities. This paper will review the recent progress in research on the potential anti-HPV and related cancer agents from marine resources. In particular, it will provide an update on the anti-HPV actions of heparinoid polysaccharides and bioactive compounds present in marine organisms, as well as the therapeutic vaccines relating to marine organisms. In addition, the possible mechanisms of anti-HPV actions of marine bioactive compounds and their potential for therapeutic application will also be summarized in detail. PMID:24705500

  19. Characterization of Two Novel Gammapapillomaviruses, HPV179 and HPV184, Isolated from Common Warts of a Renal-Transplant Recipient

    PubMed Central

    Hošnjak, Lea; Kocjan, Boštjan J.; Pirš, Branko; Seme, Katja; Poljak, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Gammapapillomavirus (Gamma-PV) is a diverse and rapidly expanding PV-genus, currently consisting of 76 fully characterized human papillomavirus (HPV) types. In this study, DNA genomes of two novel HPV types, HPV179 and HPV184, obtained from two distinct facial verrucae vulgares specimens of a 64 year-old renal-transplant recipient, were fully cloned, sequenced and characterized. HPV179 and HPV184 genomes comprise 7,228-bp and 7,324-bp, respectively, and contain four early (E1, E2, E6 and E7) and two late genes (L1 and L2); the non-coding region is typically positioned between L1 and E6 genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the L1 nucleotide sequence placed both novel types within the Gamma-PV genus: HPV179 was classified as a novel member of species Gamma-15, additionally containing HPV135 and HPV146, while HPV184 was classified as a single member of a novel species Gamma-25. HPV179 and HPV184 type-specific quantitative real-time PCRs were further developed and used in combination with human beta-globin gene quantitative real-time PCR to determine the prevalence and viral load of the novel types in the patient’s facial warts and several follow-up skin specimens, and in a representative collection, a total of 569 samples, of HPV-associated benign and malignant neoplasms, hair follicles and anal and oral mucosa specimens obtained from immunocompetent individuals. HPV179 and HPV184 viral loads in patients’ facial warts were estimated to be 2,463 and 3,200 genome copies per single cell, respectively, suggesting their active role in the development of common warts in organ-transplant recipients. In addition, in this particular patient, both novel types had established a persistent infection of the skin for more than four years. Among immunocompetent individuals, HPV179 was further detected in low-copy numbers in a few skin specimens, indicating its cutaneous tissue tropism, while HPV184 was further detected in low-copy numbers in one mucosal and a few skin specimens, suggesting its dual tissue tropism. PMID:25748516

  20. Characterization of two novel gammapapillomaviruses, HPV179 and HPV184, isolated from common warts of a renal-transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Hošnjak, Lea; Kocjan, Boštjan J; Pirš, Branko; Seme, Katja; Poljak, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Gammapapillomavirus (Gamma-PV) is a diverse and rapidly expanding PV-genus, currently consisting of 76 fully characterized human papillomavirus (HPV) types. In this study, DNA genomes of two novel HPV types, HPV179 and HPV184, obtained from two distinct facial verrucae vulgares specimens of a 64 year-old renal-transplant recipient, were fully cloned, sequenced and characterized. HPV179 and HPV184 genomes comprise 7,228-bp and 7,324-bp, respectively, and contain four early (E1, E2, E6 and E7) and two late genes (L1 and L2); the non-coding region is typically positioned between L1 and E6 genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the L1 nucleotide sequence placed both novel types within the Gamma-PV genus: HPV179 was classified as a novel member of species Gamma-15, additionally containing HPV135 and HPV146, while HPV184 was classified as a single member of a novel species Gamma-25. HPV179 and HPV184 type-specific quantitative real-time PCRs were further developed and used in combination with human beta-globin gene quantitative real-time PCR to determine the prevalence and viral load of the novel types in the patient's facial warts and several follow-up skin specimens, and in a representative collection, a total of 569 samples, of HPV-associated benign and malignant neoplasms, hair follicles and anal and oral mucosa specimens obtained from immunocompetent individuals. HPV179 and HPV184 viral loads in patients' facial warts were estimated to be 2,463 and 3,200 genome copies per single cell, respectively, suggesting their active role in the development of common warts in organ-transplant recipients. In addition, in this particular patient, both novel types had established a persistent infection of the skin for more than four years. Among immunocompetent individuals, HPV179 was further detected in low-copy numbers in a few skin specimens, indicating its cutaneous tissue tropism, while HPV184 was further detected in low-copy numbers in one mucosal and a few skin specimens, suggesting its dual tissue tropism. PMID:25748516

  1. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) genital shedding in HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women receiving effective combination antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Péré, Héléne; Rascanu, Aida; LeGoff, Jérome; Matta, Mathieu; Bois, Frédéric; Lortholary, Olivier; Leroy, Valériane; Launay, Odile; Bélec, Laurent

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of genital shedding of HSV-2 DNA was assessed in HIV-1-infected women taking combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA and HSV DNA loads were measured during 12-18 months using frozen plasma, PBMC and cervicovaginal lavage samples from 22 HIV-1-infected women, including 17 women naive for antiretroviral therapy initiating cART and 5 women with virological failure switching to a new regimen. Nineteen (86%) women were HSV-2-seropositive. Among HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women, HIV-1 RNA loads showed a rapid fall from baseline after one month of cART, in parallel in paired plasma and cervicovaginal secretions. In contrast, HIV-1 DNA loads did not show significant variations from baseline up to 18 months of treatment in both systemic and genital compartments. HSV DNA was detected at least once in 12 (63%) of 19 women during follow up: HSV-2 shedding in the genital compartment was observed in 11% of cervicovaginal samples at baseline and in 16% after initiating or switching cART. Cervicovaginal HIV-1 RNA loads were strongly associated with plasma HIV-1 RNA loads over time, but not with cervicovaginal HSV DNA loads. Reactivation of genital HSV-2 replication frequently occurred despite effective cART in HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women. Genital HSV-2 replication under cART does not influence cervicovaginal HIV-1 RNA or DNA shedding. PMID:25769886

  2. Expression patterns of immune-associated genes in external genital and perianal warts treated with sinecatechins.

    PubMed

    Doan, Hung Q; Nguyen, Harrison P; Rady, Peter; Tyring, Stephen K

    2015-05-01

    The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in human disease includes external genital and perianal warts (EGW), with some HPV genotypes having oncogenic potential (i.e., HPV-16 and -18). While green-tea extracts have antitumor and antiproliferative effects in vitro, the mechanism of action of sinecatechins in the treatment of EGW is not well understood. To investigate the role of immune-regulated genes further, an open-label, single institution, prospective study was conducted enrolling patients with clinically diagnosed EGW. Thirty subjects were enrolled, and 18 completed the trial. All patients applied sinecatechins 15% ointment to target lesions in the study. RNA expression microarrays were obtained from treated EGW lesions and analyzed for differential gene expression of immune-regulated genes. HPV types were analyzed and, based on copy number, were stratified into virological responders (VR) or nonresponders (VNR). Gene expression analysis of RNA samples was performed using TaqMan arrays for human T cell receptor and CD3 complex (TCR), Toll-like receptors (TLR) pathway, interferon (IFN) pathway, and antigen processing pathway. A total of 256 genes were analyzed across the four arrays. Genes that were significantly regulated between VRs and VNRs were CREB3L4, HIST1H3A, HIST1H3H, IFNA1, IFNA4, IFNA5, IFNA6, IFNA8, IFNA14, IFNG, IFNAR1, IL6, IRF9, MAPK4, MAPK5, MAPK14, NET1, and PIK3C2A in the IFN array. In the TCR array, HLA_B was found to be statistically significantly upregulated in both the VR and VNR groups; concomitantly, CD8A was found to be statistically significantly downregulated only in VRs. In the TLR array, only LBP and MAPK8 were found to be differentially regulated. In the antigen processing array, HLA-A, HLA-C, HLA-DMA, HLA-DMB, HLA-F, PSMA5, PSMB8, and PSMB9 were differentially downregulated. Based on these findings, it was determined that sinecatechins treatment modulates and downregulates genes involved in the pro-inflammatory response to HPV infection. PMID:25774455

  3. The role of anticipated regret and health beliefs in HPV vaccination intentions among young adults.

    PubMed

    Christy, Shannon M; Winger, Joseph G; Raffanello, Elizabeth W; Halpern, Leslie F; Danoff-Burg, Sharon; Mosher, Catherine E

    2016-06-01

    Although cognitions have predicted young adults' human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine decision-making, emotion-based theories of healthcare decision-making suggest that anticipatory emotions may be more predictive. This study examined whether anticipated regret was associated with young adults' intentions to receive the HPV vaccine above and beyond the effects of commonly studied cognitions. Unvaccinated undergraduates (N = 233) completed a survey assessing Health Belief Model (HBM) variables (i.e., perceived severity of HPV-related diseases, perceived risk of developing these diseases, and perceived benefits of HPV vaccination), anticipatory emotions (i.e., anticipated regret if one were unvaccinated and later developed genital warts or HPV-related cancer), and HPV vaccine intentions. Anticipated regret was associated with HPV vaccine intentions above and beyond the effects of HBM variables among men. Among women, neither anticipated regret nor HBM variables showed consistent associations with HPV vaccine intentions. Findings suggest that anticipatory emotions should be considered when designing interventions to increase HPV vaccination among college men. PMID:26782668

  4. Attitude, Acceptability and Knowledge of HPV Vaccination among Local University Students in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Vico Chung Lim; Wong, Ho Ting; Yeung, Pui Chun Au; Choi, Yuk Ki; Fok, Michelle Sum Yue; Mak, Oi In; Wong, Hing Yu; Wong, Kim Ho; Wong, Shui Yan; Wong, Yee Shan; Wong, Eugene Ying Yeung

    2016-01-01

    The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has the great potential to prevent HPV-related infections for millions of women and men worldwide. However, the success of the vaccine is highly dependent on the vaccination rate. Factors influencing the attitudes of undergraduate students towards HPV vaccination should be studied. This is a cross-sectional survey that was conducted to estimate the HPV vaccination rate among undergraduate students in Hong Kong, and to identify the predictors of their attitude towards HPV vaccination. The results showed that the HPV vaccination rate was 13.3%. Factors related to knowledge of vaccination were the main predictors of the students’ attitude towards vaccination (there were seven predictors, with B = 1.36 to 2.30; p < 0.05), followed by gender (B = −1.40; p < 0.05), acceptable maximum price (B = 0.35; p < 0.05), and willingness to receive the HPV vaccine if it can protect against cervical/anal cancer and genital warts (B = −1.90; p < 0.001). The regression model that was developed based on the predictors had a moderate effect size (adj-R2 = 0.33). To conclude, the HPV vaccination rate among undergraduate students in Hong Kong was low. They should be provided with more active education and activities to promote HPV vaccination to improve their knowledge on the subject. PMID:27187424

  5. Attitude, Acceptability and Knowledge of HPV Vaccination among Local University Students in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Vico Chung Lim; Wong, Ho Ting; Yeung, Pui Chun Au; Choi, Yuk Ki; Fok, Michelle Sum Yue; Mak, Oi In; Wong, Hing Yu; Wong, Kim Ho; Wong, Shui Yan; Wong, Yee Shan; Wong, Eugene Ying Yeung

    2016-01-01

    The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has the great potential to prevent HPV-related infections for millions of women and men worldwide. However, the success of the vaccine is highly dependent on the vaccination rate. Factors influencing the attitudes of undergraduate students towards HPV vaccination should be studied. This is a cross-sectional survey that was conducted to estimate the HPV vaccination rate among undergraduate students in Hong Kong, and to identify the predictors of their attitude towards HPV vaccination. The results showed that the HPV vaccination rate was 13.3%. Factors related to knowledge of vaccination were the main predictors of the students' attitude towards vaccination (there were seven predictors, with B = 1.36 to 2.30; p < 0.05), followed by gender (B = -1.40; p < 0.05), acceptable maximum price (B = 0.35; p < 0.05), and willingness to receive the HPV vaccine if it can protect against cervical/anal cancer and genital warts (B = -1.90; p < 0.001). The regression model that was developed based on the predictors had a moderate effect size (adj-R² = 0.33). To conclude, the HPV vaccination rate among undergraduate students in Hong Kong was low. They should be provided with more active education and activities to promote HPV vaccination to improve their knowledge on the subject. PMID:27187424

  6. Fewer doses of HPV vaccine result in immune response similar to three-dose regimen

    Cancer.gov

    NCI scientists report that two doses of a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, trademarked as Cervarix, resulted in similar serum antibody levels against two of the most carcinogenic types of HPV (16 and 18), compared to a standard three dose regimen.

  7. Mastication of verruca vulgaris associated with esophageal papilloma: HPV-45 sequences detected in oral and cutaneous tissues.

    PubMed

    Ratoosh, S L; Glombicki, A P; Lockhart, S G; Rady, P L; Chin, R; Arany, I; Hughes, T K; Tyring, S K

    1997-05-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are double-stranded, circular, epitheliotropic DNA viruses of which nearly 70 types have been identified. Specific HPV types exhibit a predilection to infect certain sites; however, occurrence is not unique or restricted to these sites. HPV typing may also be helpful in determining the oncogenic potential of HPV lesions. The most common HPV types, 6 and 11, are associated with benign mucosal lesions, whereas types 18, 16, 31, and 33 are thought to confer a high rate of malignant transformation. We describe a patient with both palmar verrucae and esophageal papillomatosis that proved to be HPV type 45 by polymerase chain reaction. HPV 45 has a high homology to HPV 18 and is a member of the relatively new "high-risk" mucosal HPV family in terms of cervical oncogenic potential. To our knowledge, HPV 45 has never been reported in cutaneous warts or esophageal lesions. PMID:9146567

  8. The human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 oncoproteins promotes nuclear localization of active caspase 8

    SciTech Connect

    Manzo-Merino, Joaquin; Lizano, Marcela

    2014-02-15

    The HPV-16 E6 and E6{sup ⁎} proteins have been shown previously to be capable of regulating caspase 8 activity. We now show that the capacity of E6 to interact with caspase 8 is common to diverse HPV types, being also seen with HPV-11 E6, HPV-18 E6 and HPV-18 E6{sup ⁎}. Unlike most E6-interacting partners, caspase 8 does not appear to be a major proteasomal target of E6, but instead E6 appears able to stimulate caspase 8 activation, without affecting the overall apoptotic activity. This would appear to be mediated in part by the ability of the HPV E6 oncoproteins to recruit active caspase 8 to the nucleus. - Highlights: • Multiple HPV E6 oncoproteins interact with the caspase 8 DED domain. • HPV E6 stimulates activation of caspase 8. • HPV E6 promotes nuclear accumulation of caspase 8.

  9. Transmission heterogeneity and autoinoculation in a multisite infection model of HPV.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Andrew F; Meza, Rafael; Eisenberg, Marisa C

    2015-12-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) is sexually transmitted and can infect oral, genital, and anal sites in the human epithelium. Here, we develop a multisite transmission model that includes autoinoculation to study HPV and other multisite diseases. Under a homogeneous-contacts assumption, we analyze the basic reproduction number R0, as well as type and target reproduction numbers, for a two-site model. In particular, we find that R0 occupies a space between taking the maximum of next generation matrix terms for same site transmission and taking the geometric average of cross-site transmission terms in such a way that heterogeneity in the same-site transmission rates increases R0 while heterogeneity in the cross-site transmission decreases it. Additionally, autoinoculation adds considerable complexity to the form of R0. We extend this analysis to a heterosexual population, which additionally yields dynamics analogous to those of vector-host models. We also examine how these issues of heterogeneity may affect disease control, using type and target reproduction numbers. PMID:26518265

  10. Recent advances in management of genital herpes.

    PubMed Central

    Tétrault, I.; Boivin, G.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide an update on new diagnostic tests and antiviral strategies for managing genital herpes. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Treatment guidelines are based on randomized clinical trials and recommendations from the Expert Working Group on Canadian Guidelines for Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Recommendations concerning other aspects of managing genital herpes (e.g., indications for using type-specific serologic tests) are mainly based on expert opinion. MAIN MESSAGE: Genital herpes is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases, affecting about 20% of sexually active people; up to 80% of cases are undiagnosed. Because of frequent atypical presentation and the emotional burden associated with genital herpes, clinical diagnosis should be confirmed by viral culture. Type-specific serologic assays are now available, but their use is often restricted to special situations and requires adequate counseling. New antivirals (valacyclovir and famciclovir) with improved pharmacokinetic profiles have now been approved for episodic treatment of recurrences and suppressive therapy. CONCLUSION: Wise use of new diagnostic assays for herpes simplex coupled with more convenient treatment regimens should provide better management of patients with genital herpes. Images Figure 1 PMID:10955181

  11. HPV Vaccination: An Investigation of Physician Reminders and Recommendation Scripts

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-09

    Human Papilloma Virus Infection Type 11; Human Papilloma Virus Infection Type 16; Human Papilloma Virus Infection Type 18; Human Papilloma Virus Infection Type 6; Cervical Cancer; Genital Warts; Oropharyngeal Cancer

  12. Evaluation of multiplex real-time PCR for detection of Haemophilus ducreyi, Treponema pallidum, herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 in the diagnosis of genital ulcer disease in the Rakai District, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Suntoke, T R; Hardick, A; Tobian, A A R; Mpoza, B; Laeyendecker, O; Serwadda, D; Opendi, P; Gaydos, C A; Gray, R H; Wawer, M J; Quinn, T C; Reynolds, S J

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To develop a real-time PCR assay that reliably and accurately detects the predominant sexually transmitted aetiological agents of genital ulcer disease (GUD) (Haemophilus ducreyi, Treponema pallidum and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2)) and to assess the use of real-time PCR diagnostic testing in a rural African field site. Methods: Two multiplex real-time PCR reactions were used to detect H ducreyi/and HSV-1/HSV-2 in ulcer swabs from 100 people with symptomatic genital ulcers in rural Rakai, Uganda. Results were compared with syphilis, HSV-1 and HSV-2 serology. Results: Of 100 GUD samples analysed from 43 HIV positive and 57 HIV negative individuals, 71% were positive for one or more sexually transmitted infection (STI) pathogens by real-time PCR (61% for HSV-2, 5% for T pallidum, 3% for HSV-1, 1% for H ducreyi and 1% for dual H ducreyi/HSV-2). The frequency of HSV in genital ulcers was 56% (32/57) in HIV negative individuals and 77% (33/43) in HIV positive individuals (p=0.037). Assay reproducibility was evaluated by repeat PCR testing in the USA with 96% agreement (κ=0.85). Conclusions: STI pathogens were detected in the majority of GUD swab samples from symptomatic patients in Rakai, Uganda, by real-time PCR. HSV-2 was the predominant cause of genital ulcers. Real-time PCR technology can provide sensitive, rapid and reproducible evaluation of GUD aetiology in a resource-limited setting. PMID:19066198

  13. Relationship between Humoral Immune Responses against HPV16, HPV18, HPV31 and HPV45 in 12-15 Year Old Girls Receiving Cervarix® or Gardasil® Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Godi, Anna; Bissett, Sara L.; Miller, Elizabeth; Beddows, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines confer protection against the oncogenic genotypes HPV16 and HPV18 through the generation of type-specific neutralizing antibodies raised against virus-like particles (VLP) representing these genotypes. The vaccines also confer a degree of cross-protection against HPV31 and HPV45, which are genetically-related to the vaccine types HPV16 and HPV18, respectively, although the mechanism is less certain. There are a number of humoral immune measures that have been examined in relation to the HPV vaccines, including VLP binding, pseudovirus neutralization and the enumeration of memory B cells. While the specificity of responses generated against the vaccine genotypes are fairly well studied, the relationship between these measures in relation to non-vaccine genotypes is less certain. Methods We carried out a comparative study of these immune measures against vaccine and non-vaccine genotypes using samples collected from 12–15 year old girls following immunization with three doses of either Cervarix® or Gardasil® HPV vaccine. Results The relationship between neutralizing and binding antibody titers and HPV-specific memory B cell levels for the vaccine genotypes, HPV16 and HPV18, were very good. The proportion of responders approached 100% for both vaccines while the magnitude of these responses induced by Cervarix® were generally higher than those following Gardasil® immunization. A similar pattern was found for the non-vaccine genotype HPV31, albeit at a lower magnitude compared to its genetically-related vaccine genotype, HPV16. However, both the enumeration of memory B cells and VLP binding responses against HPV45 were poorly related to its neutralizing antibody responses. Purified IgG derived from memory B cells demonstrated specificities similar to those found in the serum, including the capacity to neutralize HPV pseudoviruses. Conclusions These data suggest that pseudovirus neutralization should be used as the preferred humoral immune measure for studying HPV vaccine responses, particularly for non-vaccine genotypes. PMID:26495976

  14. HPV in HIV-Infected Women: Implications for Primary Prevention

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Nathalie Dauphin; Kobetz, Erin N.; Ganjei-Azar, Parvin; Rosa-Cunha, Isabella; Potter, JoNell E.; Morishita, Atsushi; Lucci, Joseph A.; Guettouche, Toumy; Hnatyszyn, James H.; Koru-Sengul, Tulay

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is growing evidence that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women might have a different human papillomavirus (HPV) type distribution in cervical dysplasia specimens as compared to the general population. This has implications for primary prevention. Objective: We aimed to obtain preliminary data on the HPV genotypes prevalent in histological samples of HIV-infected women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 3/CIS of the cervix in Miami, FL, USA. Methods: Retrospective data were collected on HIV-infected women referred to the University of Miami-Jackson Memorial Hospital colposcopy clinic between years 2000 and 2008. The histology slides of CIN 3/CIS biopsies underwent pathological review and sections were cut from these archived specimens for HPV DNA extraction. HPV genotyping was then performed using the GeneSquare HPV genotyping assay. We report on our first set of 23 samples. Results: Eight high-risk HPV types were detected. Types in decreasing order of frequency were 16, 35, 45, 52, 59, 31, 58, and 56. Most cases had multiple infections. HPV type 16 was the most common (45%) followed by HPV-35 and -45 with equal frequency (40%). No samples contained HPV-18. Conclusion: Our preliminary results suggest that cervical dysplasia specimens of HIV-infected women more likely (55%) contain non-16 and -18 high-risk HPV types. We show that this held true for histologically confirmed severe dysplasia and carcinoma-in situ. Epidemiological studies guide vaccine development, therefore HPV type prevalence in CIS and invasive cervical cancer among HIV-infected women should be more rigorously explored to ensure that this highly vulnerable population receives appropriate primary prevention. PMID:25161956

  15. Therapeutic HPV DNA vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Monie, Archana; Tsen, Shaw-Wei D; Hung, Chien-Fu; Wu, T-C

    2009-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been associated with several human cancers, including cervical cancer, vulvar cancer, vaginal and anal cancer, and a subset of head and neck cancers. The identification of HPV as an etiological factor for HPV-associated malignancies creates the opportunity for the control of these cancers through vaccination. Currently, the preventive HPV vaccine using HPV virus-like particles has been proven to be safe and highly effective. However, this preventive vaccine does not have therapeutic effects, and a significant number of people have established HPV infection and HPV-associated lesions. Therefore, it is necessary to develop therapeutic HPV vaccines to facilitate the control of HPV-associated malignancies and their precursor lesions. Among the various forms of therapeutic HPV vaccines, DNA vaccines have emerged as a potentially promising approach for vaccine development due to their safety profile, ease of preparation and stability. However, since DNA does not have the intrinsic ability to amplify or spread in transfected cells like viral vectors, DNA vaccines can have limited immunogenicity. Therefore, it is important to develop innovative strategies to improve DNA vaccine potency. Since dendritic cells (DCs) are key players in the generation of antigen-specific immune responses, it is important to develop innovative strategies to modify the properties of the DNA-transfected DCs. These strategies include increasing the number of antigen-expressing/antigen-loaded DCs, improving antigen processing and presentation in DCs, and enhancing the interaction between DCs and T cells. Many of the studies on DNA vaccines have been performed on preclinical models. Encouraging results from impressive preclinical studies have led to several clinical trials. PMID:19722895

  16. An improved rearranged Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E7 DNA vaccine candidate (HPV-16 E7SH) induces an E7 wildtype-specific T cell response.

    PubMed

    Ohlschläger, Peter; Pes, Michaela; Osen, Wolfram; Dürst, Matthias; Schneider, Achim; Gissmann, Lutz; Kaufmann, Andreas M

    2006-04-01

    A new and very promising approach in vaccine development is the application of naked DNA. In comparison to conventional vaccines it offers several advantages, especially if there is a need for the development of low cost vaccines. Infection with high-risk human papillomaviruses (hr-HPVs) is the major risk factor for the development of cervical cancer (cc), the third most common cancer in women worldwide. The HPV E7 oncogene is constitutively expressed in HPV-infected cells and represents an excellent target for immune therapy of HPV-related disease. Therefore, we chose the HPV-16 E7 as model antigen in the development of a therapeutic DNA vaccine candidate. For safety reasons the use of a transforming gene like the HPV-16 E7 for DNA vaccination is not feasible in humans. In consequence we have generated an artificial ("shuffled") HPV-16 E7-gene (HPV-16 E7SH), containing all putative cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTLs) epitopes and exhibiting high safety features. Here, we show the induction of a strong E7-wildtype (E7WT) directed cellular and humoral immune response including tumor protection and regression after in vivo immunization in the murine system. Moreover, the vaccine candidate demonstrated immunogenicity in humans, demonstrated by priming of antigen-specific T cells in vitro. Importantly, the artificial HPV-gene has completely lost its transforming properties as measured in soft agar transformation assays. These results may be of importance for the development of vaccines based on oncogenes or oncoproteins. PMID:16472545

  17. Risk of miscarriage with bivalent vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18: pooled analysis of two randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bingshu Eric; Wilcox, Allen; Macones, George; Gonzalez, Paula; Befano, Brian; Hildesheim, Allan; Rodríguez, Ana Cecilia; Solomon, Diane; Herrero, Rolando; Schiffman, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess whether vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) increases the risk of miscarriage. Design Pooled analysis of two multicentre, phase three masked randomised controlled trials Setting Multicentre trials in several continents and in Costa Rica. Participants 26 130 women aged 15-25 at enrolment; 3599 pregnancies eligible for analysis. Interventions Participants were randomly assigned to receive three doses of bivalent HPV 16/18 VLP vaccine with AS04 adjuvant (n=13 075) or hepatitis A vaccine as control (n=13 055) over six months. Main outcome measures Miscarriage and other pregnancy outcomes. Results The estimated rate of miscarriage was 11.5% in pregnancies in women in the HPV arm and 10.2% in the control arm. The one sided P value for the primary analysis was 0.16; thus, overall, there was no significant increase in miscarriage among women assigned to the HPV vaccine arm. In secondary descriptive analyses, miscarriage rates were 14.7% in the HPV vaccine arm and 9.1% in the control arm in pregnancies that began within three months after nearest vaccination. Conclusion There is no evidence overall for an association between HPV vaccination and risk of miscarriage. Trial registration Clinical Trials NCT00128661 and NCT00122681. PMID:20197322

  18. Activation of Src, Fyn and Yes non-receptor tyrosine kinases in keratinocytes expressing human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 E7 oncoprotein

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Src family tyrosine kinases (SFK) are cellular regulatory proteins that influence cell adhesion, proliferation, invasion and survival during tumor development. Elevated activity of Src was associated with increased cell proliferation and invasivity in human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated malignancies; therefore, transduced human foreskin keratinocytes (HFK) were used to investigate whether SFK activation is a downstream effect of papillomaviral oncoproteins. Activation of ubiquitously expressed SFKs, namely Src, Yes and Fyn, was investigated in both proliferating and differentiating keratinocytes. Results In proliferating keratinocytes, Src, Yes and Fyn mRNA levels were not affected by HPV 16 E6 or E7 oncoproteins, while at the protein level as detected by western blot, the presence of both E6 and E7 resulted in substantial increase in Src and Yes expression, but did not alter the high constitutive level of Fyn. Phospo-kinase array revealed that all ubiquitously expressed SFKs are activated by phosphorylation in the presence of HPV 16 E7 oncoprotein. Keratinocyte differentiation led to increased Yes mRNA and protein levels in all transduced cell lines, while it did not influence the Src transcription but resulted in elevated Src protein level in HPV16 E7 expressing lines. Conclusions This study revealed that HPV 16 oncoproteins upregulate Src family kinases Src and Yes via posttranscriptional mechanisms. A further effect of HPV 16 E7 oncoprotein is to enhance the activating phosphorylation of SFKs expressed in keratinocytes. PMID:23497302

  19. ANTIBODY-MEDIATED PROTECTION AGAINST GENITAL HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS TYPE 2 DISEASE IN MICE BY FC GAMMA RECEPTOR -DEPENDENT AND -INDEPENDENT MECHANISMS

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chin-Fun; Meador, Michael G.; Young, Christal G.; Strasser, Jane E.; Bourne, Nigel; Milligan, Gregg N.

    2008-01-01

    The ability of antibody (Ab) to modulate HSV pathogenesis is well recognized but the mechanisms by which HSV-specific IgG antibodies protect against genital HSV-2 disease are not well understood. The requirement for Ab interactions with Fcγ receptors (FcγR) in protection was examined using a murine model of genital HSV-2 infection. IgG antibodies isolated from the serum of HSV-immune mice protected normal mice against HSV-2 disease when administered prior to genital HSV-2 inoculation. However, protection was significantly diminished in recipient mice lacking the gamma chain subunit utilized in FcγRI, FcγRIII, FcγRIV and FcepsilonRI receptors and in normal mice depleted of Gr-1+ immune cell populations known to express FcγR, suggesting protection was largely mediated by an FcγR-dependent mechanism. To test whether neutralizing Ab might provide superior protection, a highly neutralizing HSV glycoprotein D (gD)- specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) was utilized. Similar to results with HSV-specific polyclonal IgG, administration of the gD-specific mAb did not prevent initial infection of the genital tract but resulted in lower virus loads in the vaginal epithelium and provided significant protection against disease and acute infection of the sensory ganglia; however, this protection was independent of host FcγR expression and was manifest in mice depleted of Gr-1+ immune cells. Together, these data demonstrate that substantial Ab-mediated protection against genital HSV-2 disease could be achieved by either FcγR-dependent or -independent mechanisms. These studies suggest that HSV vaccines might need to elicit multiple, diverse antibody effector mechanisms to achieve optimal protection. PMID:17950908

  20. Characterisation of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in the Azorean population, Terceira island

    PubMed Central

    Dutra, Isa; Santos, Margarida R; Soares, Marta; Couto, Ana R; Bruges-Armas, Maria; Teixeira, Fernando; Monjardino, Luísa; Hodgson, Shirley; Bruges-Armas, Jácome

    2008-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus detection is very important for the evaluation of prevention strategies in cervical cancer. In the Azorean population, the virus prevalence has never been studied, and there is no data available to preview a successful outcome with HPV vaccination. In this article, our objective is to characterise the HPV genotypes in Terceira Island, contributing for the epidemiological knowledge on the virus infection. Results Cervical samples were collected from 289 women aged 16–81 in the Gynaecological Outpatient Clinic of the Hospital de Santo Espírito de Angra do Heroísmo (HSEAH). HPV DNA was amplified by Polymerase Chain Reaction using the general consensus primers PGMYO9/PGMY11. Commercially available Papillomavirus Clinical Arrays® kits (Genomica) were used to perform HPV genotyping. 30 women were HPV positive, with a median age of 41 years old. Our results show that the overall HPV prevalence was 10.49%. Seventeen genotypes were identified, including 58.82% high risk, 17.65% low risk and 23.53% undetermined risk. Conclusion Unlike other epidemiological studies, HPV31 was the most frequent type (26.67%) in Terceira Island, followed by HPV16 (10.00%), HPV51, HPV53, HPV70 and HPV82 (6.67%). Further studies are needed to investigate if the HPV types found in our population are associated with the risk of progression to high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or cervical cancer. PMID:18426589

  1. Female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Ladjali, M; Rattray, T W; Walder, R J

    1993-08-21

    Female genital mutilation, also misleadingly known as female circumcision, is usually performed on girls ranging in from 1 week to puberty. Immediate physical complications include severe pain, shock, infection, bleeding, acute urinary infection, tetanus, and death. Longterm problems include chronic pain, difficulties with micturition and menstruation, pelvic infection leading to infertility, and prolonged and obstructed labor during childbirth. An estimated 80 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation. In Britain alone an estimated 10,000 girls are currently at risk. Religious, cultural, medical, and moral grounds rationalize the custom which is practiced primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab world, Malaysia, Indonesia, and among migrant populations in Western countries. According to WHO it is correlated with poverty, illiteracy, and the low status of women. Women who escape mutilation are not sought in marriage. WHO, the UN Population Fund, the UN Children's Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child have issued declarations on the eradication of female genital mutilation. In Britain, local authorities have intervened to prevent parents from mutilating their daughters. In 1984, the Inter-African Committee Against Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting Women and Children was established to work toward eliminating female genital mutilation and other damaging customs. National committees in 26 African countries coordinate projects run by local people using theater, dance, music, and storytelling for communication. In Australia, Canada, Europe, and the US women have organized to prevent the practice among vulnerable migrants and refugees. PMID:8400925

  2. Healing of Genital Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Carol D.

    2011-01-01

    Child sexual abuse as well as accidental trauma may cause acute injuries in the anogenital area. Most data on residual findings following genital trauma come from longitudinal studies of children who have been sexually assaulted, undergone surgical procedures, or experienced accidental trauma. Like injuries in other part parts of the body, such

  3. Healing of Genital Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Carol D.

    2011-01-01

    Child sexual abuse as well as accidental trauma may cause acute injuries in the anogenital area. Most data on residual findings following genital trauma come from longitudinal studies of children who have been sexually assaulted, undergone surgical procedures, or experienced accidental trauma. Like injuries in other part parts of the body, such…

  4. HPV Vaccine Acceptance in a Clinic-Based Sample of Women in the Rural South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Heather M.; Sharpe, Patricia A.; McCree, Donna H.; Wright, Marcie S.; Davis, Jennifer; Hutto, Brent E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a very common sexually transmitted infection linked to cervical disease. Vaccines for some types of HPV were in development at the time of the study. Purpose: The study examined HPV vaccine acceptability among underserved women in a rural region of the southeastern U.S. with high rates of cervical cancer…

  5. HPV genotypes detected in cervical cancers from Alaska Native women, 1980–2007

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Janet J.; Unger, Elizabeth R.; Dunne, Eileen F.; Murphy, Neil J.; Tiesinga, James; Koller, Kathy R.; Swango-Wilson, Amy; Philemonof, Dino; Lounmala, Xay; Markowitz, Lauri E.; Steinau, Martin; Hennessy, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine prevents cervical pre-cancers and cancers caused by HPV types 16 and 18. This study provides information on the HPV types detected in cervical cancers of Alaska Native (AN) women. Methods Cases of invasive cervical cancer diagnosed in AN women aged 18 and above between 1980 and 2007 were identified from the Alaska Native Tumor Registry. A representative formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded archived pathology block was retrieved and serially sectioned to allow histologic confirmation of lesion (first and last sections) and PCR testing of intervening sections. Extracted DNA was tested for HPV using Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test (Roche Diagnostics) with additional INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Assay (Innogenetics) testing on negative or inadequate specimens. All specimens were tested for a minimum 37 HPV types. Results Of 62 cervical cancer specimens evaluated, 57 (91.9%) contained one or more HPV types. Thirty-eight (61.2%) cancers contained HPV types 16 or 18, and 18 (29%) contained an oncogenic type other than type 16 or 18. Conclusions Overall, almost two-thirds (61.2%) of the archived cervical cancers had detectible HPV types 16 or 18, a finding similar to studies of US women. As expected, a proportion of cancers would not be prevented by the current vaccines. HPV vaccination and cervical cancer screening are important prevention strategies for AN women. PMID:23984281

  6. Evaluation of a Radionovela to Promote HPV Vaccine Awareness and Knowledge Among Hispanic Parents

    PubMed Central

    Coronado, Gloria D.; Rodriguez, Hector P.; Thompson, Beti

    2014-01-01

    Hispanic women have more than a 1.5-fold increased cervical cancer incidence and mortality compared to non-Hispanic white women in the United States. The Centers for Disease Control recommends the HPV vaccine for females at ages 11 and 12 years, though it is approved for females aged 9–26 to protect against the primary types of high-risk HPV (HPV-16 and HPV-18) that cause approximately 70% of cervical cancer cases. Few culturally-tailored Spanish HPV vaccine awareness programs have been developed. This study evaluates the efficacy of a Spanish radionovela as an educational tool. Rural Hispanic parents of daughters aged 9–17 (n = 88; 78 mothers and 10 fathers) were randomized to listen to the HPV vaccine radionovela or to another public service announcement. Participants completed a 30 min pretest posttest questionnaire. Parents who listened to the HPV radionovela (intervention group) scored higher on six knowledge and belief items. They were more likely to confirm that HPV is a common infection (70% vs. 48%, P = .002), to deny that women are able to detect HPV (53% vs. 31%, P = .003), to know vaccine age recommendations (87% vs. 68%, P = .003), and to confirm multiple doses (48% vs. 26%, P = .03) than control group parents. The HPV vaccine radionovela improved HPV and HPV vaccine knowledge and attitudes. Radionovela health education may be an efficacious strategy to increase HPV vaccine awareness among Hispanic parents. PMID:21452030

  7. Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in an Australian sample of anal cancers.

    PubMed

    Hillman, Richard J; Garland, Suzanne M; Gunathilake, Manoji P W; Stevens, Matthew; Kumaradevan, Nirmala; Lemech, Charlotte; Ward, Robyn L; Meagher, Alan; McHugh, Leo; Jin, Fengyi; Carroll, Susan; Goldstein, David; Grulich, Andrew E; Tabrizi, Sepehr N

    2014-08-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes most cases of anal cancers. In this study, we analyzed biopsy material from 112 patients with anal cancers in Australia for the presence of HPV DNA by the INNO LiPA HPV genotyping assay. There were 82% (92) males and 18% (20) females. The mean age at diagnosis was significantly (p = 0.006) younger for males (52.5 years) than females (66 years). HIV-infected males were diagnosed at a much earlier mean age (48.2 years) than HIV negative (56.3 years) males (p = 0.05). HPV DNA was detected in 96.4% (108) of cases. HPV type 16 was the commonest, at 75% (81) of samples and being the sole genotype detected in 61% (66). Overall, 79% (85) of cases had at least one genotype targeted by the bivalent HPV (bHPV) vaccine, 90% (97) by the quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccine and 96% (104) by the nonavalent HPV (nHPV) vaccine. The qHPV vaccine, which is now offered to all secondary school students in Australia, may prevent anal cancers in Australia. However, given the mean age of onset of this condition, the vaccine is unlikely to have a significant impact for several decades. Further research is necessary to prove additional protective effects of the nHPV vaccine. PMID:24497322

  8. Comparison of Hybribio GenoArray and Roche human papillomavirus (HPV) linear array for HPV genotyping in anal swab samples.

    PubMed

    Low, Huey Chi; Silver, Michelle I; Brown, Brandon J; Leng, Chan Yoon; Blas, Magaly M; Gravitt, Patti E; Woo, Yin Ling

    2015-02-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is causally associated with anal cancer, as HPV DNA is detected in up to 90% of anal intraepithelial neoplasias and anal cancers. With the gradual increase of anal cancer rates, there is a growing need to establish reliable and clinically relevant methods to detect anal cancer precursors. In resource-limited settings, HPV DNA detection is a potentially relevant tool for anal cancer screening. Here, we evaluated the performance of the Hybribio GenoArray (GA) for genotyping HPV in anal samples, against the reference standard Roche Linear Array (LA). Anal swab samples were obtained from sexually active men who have sex with men. Following DNA extraction, each sample was genotyped using GA and LA. The overall interassay agreement, type-specific, and single and multiple genotype agreements were evaluated by kappa statistics and McNemar's χ(2) tests. Using GA and LA, 68% and 76% of samples were HPV DNA positive, respectively. There was substantial interassay agreements for the detection of all HPV genotypes (κ = 0.70, 86% agreement). Although LA was able to detect more genotypes per sample, the interassay agreement was acceptable (κ = 0.53, 63% agreement). GA had poorer specific detection of HPV genotypes 35, 42, and 51 (κ < 0.60). In conclusion, GA and LA showed good interassay agreement for the detection of most HPV genotypes in anal samples. However, the detection of HPV DNA in up to 76% of anal samples warrants further evaluation of its clinical significance. PMID:25502520

  9. Comparison of Hybribio GenoArray and Roche Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Linear Array for HPV Genotyping in Anal Swab Samples

    PubMed Central

    Silver, Michelle I.; Brown, Brandon J.; Leng, Chan Yoon; Blas, Magaly M.; Gravitt, Patti E.; Woo, Yin Ling

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is causally associated with anal cancer, as HPV DNA is detected in up to 90% of anal intraepithelial neoplasias and anal cancers. With the gradual increase of anal cancer rates, there is a growing need to establish reliable and clinically relevant methods to detect anal cancer precursors. In resource-limited settings, HPV DNA detection is a potentially relevant tool for anal cancer screening. Here, we evaluated the performance of the Hybribio GenoArray (GA) for genotyping HPV in anal samples, against the reference standard Roche Linear Array (LA). Anal swab samples were obtained from sexually active men who have sex with men. Following DNA extraction, each sample was genotyped using GA and LA. The overall interassay agreement, type-specific, and single and multiple genotype agreements were evaluated by kappa statistics and McNemar's χ2 tests. Using GA and LA, 68% and 76% of samples were HPV DNA positive, respectively. There was substantial interassay agreements for the detection of all HPV genotypes (κ = 0.70, 86% agreement). Although LA was able to detect more genotypes per sample, the interassay agreement was acceptable (κ = 0.53, 63% agreement). GA had poorer specific detection of HPV genotypes 35, 42, and 51 (κ < 0.60). In conclusion, GA and LA showed good interassay agreement for the detection of most HPV genotypes in anal samples. However, the detection of HPV DNA in up to 76% of anal samples warrants further evaluation of its clinical significance. PMID:25502520

  10. Genotypic mapping of HPV and assessment of EBV prevalence in endocervical lesions.

    PubMed Central

    O'Leary, J J; Landers, R J; Crowley, M; Healy, I; Kealy, W F; Hogan, J; Cullinane, C; Kelehan, P; Doyle, C T

    1997-01-01

    AIMS: To examine the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in low grade glandular intraepithelial lesions of the cervix, adenocarcinoma with high grade glandular intraepithelial lesions combined, and adenocarcinomas; and to perform a genotyping mapping analysis of endocervical carcinomas to determine the extent of HPV infections in such lesions. MATERIAL: Archival paraffin wax embeded material from the files of the departments of pathology, National Maternity Hospital, Dublin, and University College Cork, Ireland. METHODS: HPV prevalence was examined using type specific HPV PCR, general primer HPV PCR (pan HPV screen), nonisotopic in situ hybridisation (NISH), and PCR in situ hybridisation (PCR-ISH). In situ hybridisation was performed using fluorescein labelled oligonucleotide cocktail for eber transcripts of EBV. Genotypic analysis was performed, in all cases where possible, using a grid system. RESULTS: HPV 16 and 18 were predominantly identified in low grade glandular intraepithelial lesions, high grade glandular intraepithelial lesions, and adenocarcinomas, with HPV prevalence increasing with grade of dysplasia. EBV was only identified in subepithelial lymphocytes in a minority of cases. No link could be shown between HPV and EBV in endocervical lesions. HPV infection was not clonal in endocervical cancer and coexistent adjacent cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, where present, tended to show a similar HPV type. CONCLUSIONS: The restriction of HPV types 16 and 18 to endocervical lesions suggests that their effect is restricted and specific to endocervical mucosa, but the mechanism of interaction is currently unknown. Images PMID:9462238

  11. Pap and HPV Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... and HPV cotesting is used, lengthening the screening interval to 5 years still allows abnormalities to be ... on how much tissue is removed. The screening intervals in the 2012 guidelines are intended to minimize ...

  12. The HPV Vaccination Crisis

    Cancer.gov

    Following the release of a consensus statement from the NCI-Designated Cancer Centers urging HPV vaccination in the United States, Dr. Noel Brewer discusses the country’s low vaccination rates and how clinicians can help to improve them.

  13. HPV Vaccine Information for Young Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... in time. Which girls/women should receive HPV vaccination? HPV vaccination is recommended for 11 and 12 ... help prevent fainting and injuries. Why is HPV vaccination only recommended for women through age 26? HPV ...

  14. Abnormal anal cytology risk in women with known genital squamous intraepithelial lesion.

    PubMed

    do Socorro Nobre, Maria; Jacyntho, Claudia Marcia; Eleutério, José; Giraldo, Paulo César; Gonçalves, Ana Katherine

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of abnormal anal cytology in women with known genital squamous intraepithelial lesion. This study evaluated 200 women with and without genital squamous intraepithelial lesion who were recruited for anal Pap smears. Women who had abnormal results on equally or over atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance were classified as having abnormal anal cytology. A multiple logistic regression analysis (stepwise) was performed to identify the risk for developing abnormal anal cytology. Data were analyzed using the SPSS 20.0 program. The average age was 41.09 (±12.64). Of the total participants, 75.5% did not practice anal sex, 91% did not have HPV-infected partners, 92% did not have any anal pathology, and 68.5% did not have anal bleeding. More than half (57.5%) had genital SIL and a significant number developed abnormal anal cytology: 13% in the total sample and 17.4% in women with genital SIL. A significant association was observed between genital squamous intraepithelial lesion and anal squamous intraepithelial lesion (PR=2.46; p=0.03). In the logistic regression model, women having genital intraepithelial lesion were more likely to have abnormal anal Pap smear (aPR=2.81; p=0.02). This report shows that women with genital squamous intraepithelial lesion must be more closely screened for anal cancer. PMID:27037113

  15. Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection among Women in Bangladesh: Findings from a Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Nahar, Quamrun; Sultana, Farhana; Alam, Anadil; Islam, Jessica Yasmine; Rahman, Mustafizur; Khatun, Fatema; Alam, Nazmul; Dasgupta, Sushil Kanta; Marions, Lena; Ashrafunnessa; Kamal, Mohammed; Cravioto, Alejandro; Reichenbach, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Background There has been no population-based study on human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence or its genotypes in Bangladesh; a country eligible for GAVI funding for HPV vaccine. Methods We used baseline survey data of a prospective cohort study that was conducted in one urban and one rural area of Bangladesh. A total of 997 urban and 905 rural married women, aged 13 to 64 years, were enrolled in the baseline during July-December, 2011. Information was collected on socio-demographic characteristics and potential risk factors for HPV infection followed by gynecological examination and collection of endocervical samples using the cervical cytobrush (Digene cervical sampler). HPV DNA testing was done by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) using a consensus primer set. Results Prevalence of any HPV infection was 7.7% with no significant difference between urban and rural women. Most common high-risk genotypes were HPV16, HPV66, HPV18, HPV45, HPV31 and HPV53. Urban women working as housemaids or garment workers were at higher risk of any HPV infection (OR = 2.15, 95% CI: 1.13–4.11) compared to housewives. Rural women whose husband lived overseas were almost two times more likely to have any HPV infection (OR = 1.93; 95% CI 1.05–3.55) compared to women whose husbands lived with them. Conclusion The prevalence of HPV infection among Bangladeshi women is similar to other regions of Asia. However, type-specific patterns are different. The study findings will inform the formulation of HPV vaccination policies in Bangladesh, monitoring the impact of vaccination programmes, and the identification of target populations for screening. PMID:25271836

  16. Prevalence and genotype distribution of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) among women in urban Tianjin, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiujie; Wallin, Keng-Ling; Duan, Meng; Gharizadeh, Baback; Zheng, Biying; Qu, Pengpeng

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the prevalence and genotype distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among women in urban Tianjin, China. A cervical cancer screening program for 2,000 women aged 21-65 years old was performed in urban Tianjin from April to October in 2013. The program included ThinPrep cytologic tests (TCT), HPV DNA detection and genotyping using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) combined with Pyrosequencing technology. Colposcopy examination and biopsy were needed if TCT reported greater or equal atypical cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS). One thousand nine hundred seventy-eight women were enrolled in the final study, 14.71% (291/1,978) of women were tested HPV positive. Of HPV-positive specimens, 248 (85.22%) and 43 (14.78%) were infected with high- and low-risk HPV genotypes, respectively. Twenty-eight types of HPV were detected in all, the most frequently detected types were HPV16, 58, 18, and 66 orderly. The single infection rate was 92.28% among HPV-positive samples while the multiple infection rate was 7.72%. Among multiple infection models, HPV16 was the most common type co-infection with other types. This study is, to our knowledge, the first population-based survey to provide data on HPV infection and genotype distribution among women in urban Tianjin, China. There was a high prevalence of HPV infection in this area, and HPV16, 58, 18, 66 were the most frequently detected genotypes. Our study provide important information regarding the necessity of early cervical cancer screenings and prophylactic HPV vaccinations, and the knowledge of HPV distribution can also inform us about the HPV ecological change after the vaccination. PMID:26073652

  17. Reduced Prevalence of Oral Human Papillomavirus (HPV) 4 Years after Bivalent HPV Vaccination in a Randomized Clinical Trial in Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Herrero, Rolando; Quint, Wim; Hildesheim, Allan; Gonzalez, Paula; Struijk, Linda; Katki, Hormuzd A.; Porras, Carolina; Schiffman, Mark; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Solomon, Diane; Jimenez, Silvia; Schiller, John T.; Lowy, Douglas R.; van Doorn, Leen-Jan; Wacholder, Sholom; Kreimer, Aimée R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, particularly with type 16, causes a growing fraction of oropharyngeal cancers, whose incidence is increasing, mainly in developed countries. In a double-blind controlled trial conducted to investigate vaccine efficacy (VE) of the bivalent HPV 16/18 vaccine against cervical infections and lesions, we estimated VE against prevalent oral HPV infections 4 years after vaccination. Methods and Findings A total of 7,466 women 18–25 years old were randomized (1∶1) to receive the HPV16/18 vaccine or hepatitis A vaccine as control. At the final blinded 4-year study visit, 5,840 participants provided oral specimens (91·9% of eligible women) to evaluate VE against oral infections. Our primary analysis evaluated prevalent oral HPV infection among all vaccinated women with oral and cervical HPV results. Corresponding VE against prevalent cervical HPV16/18 infection was calculated for comparison. Oral prevalence of identifiable mucosal HPV was relatively low (1·7%). Approximately four years after vaccination, there were 15 prevalent HPV16/18 infections in the control group and one in the vaccine group, for an estimated VE of 93·3% (95% CI = 63% to 100%). Corresponding efficacy against prevalent cervical HPV16/18 infection for the same cohort at the same visit was 72·0% (95% CI = 63% to 79%) (p versus oral VE = 0·04). There was no statistically significant protection against other oral HPV infections, though power was limited for these analyses. Conclusions HPV prevalence four years after vaccination with the ASO4-adjuvanted HPV16/18 vaccine was much lower among women in the vaccine arm compared to the control arm, suggesting that the vaccine affords strong protection against oral HPV16/18 infection, with potentially important implications for prevention of increasingly common HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancer. ClinicalTrials.gov, Registry number NCT00128661 PMID:23873171

  18. Sterile α Motif Domain Containing 9 Is a Novel Cellular Interacting Partner to Low-Risk Type Human Papillomavirus E6 Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jia; Dupuis, Crystal; Tyring, Stephen K.; Underbrink, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Low-risk type human papillomavirus (HPV) 6 and 11 infection causes recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) and genital warts. RRP is the most common benign tumor of the larynx in children with frequent relapses. Repeated surgeries are often needed to improve vocal function and prevent life-threatening respiratory obstruction. Currently, there are no effective treatments available to completely eliminate these diseases, largely due to limited knowledge regarding their viral molecular pathogenesis. HPV E6 proteins contribute to cell immortalization by interacting with a variety of cellular proteins, which have been well studied for the high-risk type HPVs related to cancer progression. However, the functions of low-risk HPV E6 proteins are largely unknown. In this study, we report GST-pulldown coupled mass spectrometry analysis with low-risk HPV E6 proteins that identified sterile alpha motif domain containing 9 (SAMD9) as a novel interacting partner. We then confirmed the interaction between HPV-E6 and SAMD9 using co-immunoprecipitation, proximity ligation assay, and confocal immunofluorescence staining. The SAMD9 gene is down-regulated in a variety of neoplasms and deleteriously mutated in normophosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis. Interestingly, SAMD9 also has antiviral functions against poxvirus. Our study adds to the limited knowledge of the molecular properties of low-risk HPVs and describes new potential functions for the low-risk HPV E6 protein. PMID:26901061

  19. Sterile α Motif Domain Containing 9 Is a Novel Cellular Interacting Partner to Low-Risk Type Human Papillomavirus E6 Proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Dupuis, Crystal; Tyring, Stephen K; Underbrink, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    Low-risk type human papillomavirus (HPV) 6 and 11 infection causes recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) and genital warts. RRP is the most common benign tumor of the larynx in children with frequent relapses. Repeated surgeries are often needed to improve vocal function and prevent life-threatening respiratory obstruction. Currently, there are no effective treatments available to completely eliminate these diseases, largely due to limited knowledge regarding their viral molecular pathogenesis. HPV E6 proteins contribute to cell immortalization by interacting with a variety of cellular proteins, which have been well studied for the high-risk type HPVs related to cancer progression. However, the functions of low-risk HPV E6 proteins are largely unknown. In this study, we report GST-pulldown coupled mass spectrometry analysis with low-risk HPV E6 proteins that identified sterile alpha motif domain containing 9 (SAMD9) as a novel interacting partner. We then confirmed the interaction between HPV-E6 and SAMD9 using co-immunoprecipitation, proximity ligation assay, and confocal immunofluorescence staining. The SAMD9 gene is down-regulated in a variety of neoplasms and deleteriously mutated in normophosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis. Interestingly, SAMD9 also has antiviral functions against poxvirus. Our study adds to the limited knowledge of the molecular properties of low-risk HPVs and describes new potential functions for the low-risk HPV E6 protein. PMID:26901061

  20. HPV infection and p16 expression in carcinomas of the minor salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Markus; Koperek, Oskar; Wrba, Fritz; Erovic, Boban M; Heiduschka, Gregor; Schoppper, Christian; Thurnher, Dietmar

    2012-10-01

    The correlation between p16 upregulation and high-risk HPV infection is well known in head and neck squamous cell cancer. However, no information is available on rare carcinomas of the minor salivary glands. We analyzed 38 samples of minor salivary gland malignancies. p16 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry, HPV DNA by using in situ hybridization to detect low (type 6 and 11) and high (type 16 and 18) risk HPV types. In 71% of samples p16 expression was found. Low-risk HPV DNA could not be detected in any of the samples, whereas high-risk HPV DNA was found in two samples of mucoepidermoid carcinoma, which also showed the highest immunoreactivity with p16. HPV infection does not seem to be a common event in minor salivary gland carcinoma. Upregulation of p16 is present in the majority of cases but only diffuse staining correlates with HPV 16 and 18 infections. PMID:22207527

  1. Evaluating HPV-negative CIN2+ in the ATHENA trial.

    PubMed

    Petry, Karl Ulrich; Cox, J Thomas; Johnson, Kristin; Quint, Wim; Ridder, Ruediger; Sideri, Mario; Wright, Thomas C; Behrens, Catherine M

    2016-06-15

    A post hoc analysis of the ATHENA study was performed to determine whether true HPV-negative cervical lesions occur and whether they have clinical relevance. The ATHENA database was searched for all CIN2 or worse (CIN2+) cases with cobas HPV-negative results and comparison was made with Linear Array (LA) and Amplicor to detect true false-negative HPV results. Immunostaining with p16 was performed on these cases to identify false-positive histology results. H&E slides were re-reviewed by the study pathologists with knowledge of patient age, HPV test results and p16 immunostaining. Those with positive p16 immunostaining and/or a positive histopathology review underwent whole tissue section HPV PCR by the SPF10/LiPA/RHA system. Among 46,887 eligible women, 497 cases of CIN2+ were detected, 55 of which tested negative by the cobas(®) HPV Test (32 CIN2, 23 CIN3/ACIS). By LA and/or Amplicor, 32 CIN2+ (20 CIN2, 12 CIN3/ACIS) were HPV positive and categorized as false-negatives by cobas HPV; nine of 12 false-negative CIN3/ACIS cases were p16+. There were 23 cases (12 CIN2, 11 CIN3/ACIS) negative by all HPV tests; seven of 11 CIN3/ACIS cases were p16+. H&E slides were available for six cases for re-review and all were confirmed as CIN3/ACIS. Tissue PCR was performed on the six confirmed CIN3/ACIS cases (and one without confirmation): four were positive for HPV types not considered oncogenic, two were positive for oncogenic genotypes and one was indeterminate. In summary, subanalysis of a large cervical cancer screening study did not identify any true CIN3/ACIS not attributable to HPV. PMID:26851121

  2. Clinical and serological manifestations of genital human papillomavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Wikström, A

    1995-01-01

    Efficacy of chemical and/or surgical treatment for penile and anal condylomata acuminata was investigated in two retrospective studies of hetero- and homosexual men. Variation in clinical features and symptomatology as well as the reliability of diagnostic criteria by different methods for acetowhite penile lesions was also studied. Furthermore, the antibody response in the course of penile wart disease as well as in asymptomatic genitoanal papillomavirus infection (GPVI) was analysed. In the first retrospective study, as much as 23% of patients still had condylomas after one year of chemical and/or surgical treatment. On the other hand, 38% were cured after a single treatment session. In the group mainly with anal warts, concurrent penile warts were significantly more common among heterosexual men compared to homosexual men (p < 0.001), while intra-anal wart growth was more common among the homosexual males (p < 0.001). When comparing diagnostic methods for subclinical penile HPV infection, conventional histopathology appeared to be the most valuable diagnostic aid to penoscopy, while the additional use of Southern blot, in situ hybridisation and PCR assays for HPV DNA detection did not increase the predictive value of GPVI. We also describe a new distinct clinical entity, HPV-associated balanoposthitis, comprising a wide range of often long-lasting symptoms, such as itching, burning and dyspareunia. A significant increase in the IgG antibody response against defined epitopes in the L1 and L2 capsid proteins of HPV 6, was found among men with previous condylomata. By following a cohort of STD clinic patients with multiple brush samples from the genitoanal region as well as serum samples taken at several consecutive clinical visits, we identified 16 patients who had seroconverted to HPV seropositivity during follow-up. Antibody responses to several HPV-derived peptide and protein antigens were induced at the same time. Seroconversions were usually seen concomitantly with HPV acquisition or at the visit after HPV DNA was first detected. The HPV antibody response was frequently transient and declined or disappeared after clearance of infection. The antibody responses were induced by several different HPV types, indicating limited type-specificity. The most type-restricted response was against HPV 16 capsids, where seroconversions to continuous seropositivity were induced by infection with HPV 16. PMID:8721519

  3. Interaction between lactobacilli, bacterial vaginosis-associated bacteria, and HIV Type 1 RNA and DNA Genital shedding in U.S. and Kenyan women.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Caroline; Balkus, Jennifer E; Fredricks, David; Liu, Congzhou; McKernan-Mullin, Jennifer; Frenkel, Lisa M; Mwachari, Christina; Luque, Amneris; Cohn, Susan E; Cohen, Craig R; Coombs, Robert; Hitti, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis has been associated with genital HIV-1 shedding; however, the effect of specific vaginal bacterial species has not been assessed. We tested cervicovaginal lavage from HIV-1-seropositive women for common Lactobacillus species: L. crispatus, L. jensenii, and seven BV-associated species: BVAB1, BVAB2, BVAB3, Leptotrichia, Sneathia, Megasphaera, and Atopobium spp. using quantitative PCR. We used linear and Poisson regression to evaluate associations between vaginal bacteria and genital HIV-1 RNA and DNA. Specimens from 54 U.S. (310 visits) and 50 Kenyan women (137 visits) were evaluated. Controlling for plasma viral load, U.S. and Kenyan women had similar rates of HIV-1 RNA (19% of visits vs. 24%; IRR=0.95; 95% CI 0.61, 1.49) and DNA shedding (79% vs. 76%; IRR=0.90; 0.78, 1.05). At visits during antiretroviral therapy (ART), the likelihood of detection of HIV-1 RNA shedding was greater with BVAB3 (IRR=3.16; 95% CI 1.36, 7.32), Leptotrichia, or Sneathia (IRR=2.13; 1.02, 4.72), and less with L. jensenii (IRR=0.39; 0.18, 0.84). At visits without ART, only L. crispatus was associated with a lower likelihood of HIV-1 RNA detection (IRR=0.6; 0.40, 0.91). Vaginal Lactobacillus species were associated with lower risk of genital HIV-1 shedding, while the presence of certain BV-associated species may increase that risk. PMID:23020644

  4. Interaction Between Lactobacilli, Bacterial Vaginosis-Associated Bacteria, and HIV Type 1 RNA and DNA Genital Shedding in U.S. and Kenyan Women

    PubMed Central

    Balkus, Jennifer E.; Fredricks, David; Liu, Congzhou; McKernan-Mullin, Jennifer; Frenkel, Lisa M.; Mwachari, Christina; Luque, Amneris; Cohn, Susan E.; Cohen, Craig R.; Coombs, Robert; Hitti, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Bacterial vaginosis has been associated with genital HIV-1 shedding; however, the effect of specific vaginal bacterial species has not been assessed. We tested cervicovaginal lavage from HIV-1-seropositive women for common Lactobacillus species: L. crispatus, L. jensenii, and seven BV-associated species: BVAB1, BVAB2, BVAB3, Leptotrichia, Sneathia, Megasphaera, and Atopobium spp. using quantitative PCR. We used linear and Poisson regression to evaluate associations between vaginal bacteria and genital HIV-1 RNA and DNA. Specimens from 54 U.S. (310 visits) and 50 Kenyan women (137 visits) were evaluated. Controlling for plasma viral load, U.S. and Kenyan women had similar rates of HIV-1 RNA (19% of visits vs. 24%; IRR=0.95; 95% CI 0.61, 1.49) and DNA shedding (79% vs. 76%; IRR=0.90; 0.78, 1.05). At visits during antiretroviral therapy (ART), the likelihood of detection of HIV-1 RNA shedding was greater with BVAB3 (IRR=3.16; 95% CI 1.36, 7.32), Leptotrichia, or Sneathia (IRR=2.13; 1.02, 4.72), and less with L. jensenii (IRR=0.39; 0.18, 0.84). At visits without ART, only L. crispatus was associated with a lower likelihood of HIV-1 RNA detection (IRR=0.6; 0.40, 0.91). Vaginal Lactobacillus species were associated with lower risk of genital HIV-1 shedding, while the presence of certain BV-associated species may increase that risk. PMID:23020644

  5. HPV Vaccine - Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Redirect for HPV Vaccine FAQ This page has moved. Please update ... to the address below. http://www.cdc.gov/hpv/parents/questions-answers.html Print page Share Compartir ...

  6. Genetic Diversity in the Major Capsid L1 Protein of HPV-16 and HPV-18 in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    King, Audrey J.; Sonsma, Jan A.; Vriend, Henrike J.; van der Sande, Marianne A. B.; Feltkamp, Mariet C.; Koopmans, Marion P. G.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Intratypic molecular variants of human papillomavirus (HPV) type-16 and -18 exist. In the Netherlands, a bivalent vaccine, composed of recombinant L1 proteins from HPV-16 and -18, is used to prevent cervical cancer since 2009. Long-term vaccination could lead to changes in HPV-16 and -18 virus population, thereby hampering vaccination strategies. We determined the genetic diversity of the L1 gene in HPV-16 and -18 viral strains circulating in the Netherlands at the start of vaccination in order to understand the baseline genetic diversity in the Dutch population. Methods DNA sequences of the L1 gene were determined in HPV-16 (n = 241) and HPV-18 (n = 108) positive anogenital samples collected in 2009 and 2011 among Dutch 16- to 24-year old female and male attendees of the sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics. Phylogenetic analysis was performed and sequences were compared to reference sequences HPV-16 (AF536179) and HPV-18 (X05015) using BioNumerics 7.1. Results For HPV-16, ninety-five single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) were identified, twenty–seven (28%) were non-synonymous variations. For HPV-18, seventy-one SNPs were identified, twenty-nine (41%) were non-synonymous. The majority of the non-silent variations were located in sequences encoding alpha helix, beta sheet or surface loops, in particular in the immunodominant FG loop, and may influence the protein secondary structure and immune recognition. Conclusions This study provides unique pre-vaccination/baseline data on the genetic L1 diversity of HPV-16 and -18 viruses circulating in the Netherlands among adolescents and young adults. PMID:27070907

  7. Dose-dependent regulation of the early promoter of human papillomavirus type 18 by the viral E2 protein.

    PubMed Central

    Steger, G; Corbach, S

    1997-01-01

    The activity of the E6/E7 promoter of genital human papillomaviruses (HPVs) is positively and negatively modulated by a complex interplay between a variety of cellular transcription factors and the virally encoded E2 protein. The long control region of genital HPVs contains four E2 binding sites in conserved positions, two of which are very close to the TATA box. Binding of E2 to these two sites has been shown to repress the promoter. To carefully analyze the effect of E2 on the activity of the early promoter P105 of HPV18, we used an in vitro transcription system, which allowed titration of the amount of E2 protein. We found that low amounts of HPV18 E2 stimulated the promoter, whereas increasing amounts resulted in promoter repression. When the affinity was analyzed, it became obvious that E2 bound with highest affinity to E2 binding site 4 (BS-4), located 500 bp upstream of the promoter. The promoter most proximal binding site (BS-1) was the weakest site. Transient transfection assays confirmed that small amounts of HPV type (HPV18) E2 and also of bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV1) E2 were able to activate the P105, which was dependent on an intact BS-4. The positive role of BS-4 was also obvious at higher E2 concentrations, since mutation of BS-4 enhanced repression. In contrast to HPV18 E2, BPV1 E2 bound better to BS-1 and, in correlation, was able to more strongly repress the P105 in vivo. Our results suggest a dose-dependent regulation of the HPV18 E6/E7 promoter by E2 due to variable occupancy of its binding sites, which have antagonizing effects on the activity of the E6/E7 promoter. PMID:8985322

  8. Use of HPV testing for cervical screening in vaccinated women-Insights from the SHEVa (Scottish HPV Prevalence in Vaccinated Women) study.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Ramya; Kavanagh, Kimberley; Cubie, Heather Ann; Serrano, Itziar; Wennington, Holli; Hopkins, Mark; Pan, Jiafeng; Pollock, Kevin G; Palmer, Tim J; Cuschieri, Kate

    2016-06-15

    The management of cervical disease is changing worldwide as a result of HPV vaccination and the increasing use of HPV testing for cervical screening. However, the impact of vaccination on the performance of HPV based screening strategies is unknown. The SHEVa (Scottish HPV Prevalence in Vaccinated women) projects are designed to gain insight into the impact of vaccination on the performance of clinically validated HPV assays. Samples collated from women attending for first cervical smear who had been vaccinated as part of a national "catch-up" programme were tested with three clinically validated HPV assays (2 DNA and 1 RNA). Overall HR-HPV and type specific positivity was assessed in total population and according to underlying cytology and compared to a demographically equivalent group of unvaccinated women. HPV prevalence was significantly lower in vaccinated women and was influenced by assay-type, reducing by 23-25% for the DNA based assays and 32% for the RNA assay (p = 0.0008). All assays showed over 75% reduction of HPV16 and/or 18 (p < 0.0001) whereas the prevalence of non 16/18 HR-HPV was not significantly different in vaccinated vs unvaccinated women. In women with low grade abnormalities, the proportion associated with non 16/18 HR-HPV was significantly higher in vaccinated women (p < 0.0001). Clinically validated HPV assays are affected differentially when applied to vaccinated women, dependent on assay chemistry. The increased proportion of non HPV16/18 infections may have implications for clinical performance, consequently, longitudinal studies linking HPV status to disease outcomes in vaccinated women are warranted. PMID:26845632

  9. Epitope-mapped monoclonal antibodies against the HPV16E1--E4 protein.

    PubMed

    Doorbar, J; Ely, S; Coleman, N; Hibma, M; Davies, D H; Crawford, L

    1992-03-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) E1--E4 protein is the only nonstructural late protein encoded by the virus. We have isolated three hybridomas producing monoclonal antibodies to the E1--E4 protein of HPV16, which is the HPV type most frequently associated with cervical cancer. The three antibodies (TVG 401, 402, and 403) detect adjacent epitopes within the major seroreactive region of the molecule and show no reactivity against the E4 proteins of HPV1, HPV2, HPV4, or HPV6. The E1--E4 protein migrates as a 10K species on SDS-gel electrophoresis and forms cytoplasmic inclusion granules in infected cells in vitro similar in appearance to those produced by HPV1 in benign warts. In naturally occurring HPV16-induced tumors the E1--E4 protein was detected in the cytoplasm of cells in the upper layers of the lesion in areas in which HPV16 DNA replication was occurring, as determined by in situ hybridization. Although the epitopes recognized by these monoclonal antibodies survive brief fixation in 5% formaldehyde, reactivity was destroyed by prolonged fixation. These monoclonal antibodies represent the first against HPV16 E1--E4 and should complement those already available to E7 and L1 for the screening of frozen sections of clinical biopsies and will be of value in monitoring the progression of HPV infection from benign lesions to invasive cancer. PMID:1371027

  10. Serological and T-helper cell responses to human papillomavirus type 16 L1 in women with cervical dysplasia or cervical carcinoma and in healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Luxton, J C; Rose, R C; Coletart, T; Wilson, P; Shepherd, P S

    1997-04-01

    In a cross-sectional study we have investigated serological and T-helper (Th) cell responses to human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) L1 in women with HPV-16 related diseases and related them to cervical histology and HPV DNA status. Using a virus-like particle (VLP) based ELISA to detect antibodies to the HPV-16 L1 capsid protein, 45% (33/73) of women with cervical dysplasia, 40% (2/5) of women with cervical cancer, 36% (4/11) of healthy adult female controls and 6% (2/35) of healthy children were found to be seropositive. Amongst women with cervical dysplasia, the highest levels of seropositivity were found in those who were HPV-16 DNA positive (60%, 15/25) or positive for any of the "high-risk' HPV types, 16/18/33 (58%, 18/31), when compared with those with HPV type "X' (25%, 5/20) or with healthy children (6%, 2/35; P < 0.05 for all comparisons). There was a trend for women with cervical dysplasia to show an increased level of seropositivity with increasing grade of lesion. There was no direct correlation found between seropositivity and Th cell responses in all groups studied. However, a combined analysis of each individual's Th and B cell responses suggests that a Th1 pattern of response is predominant amongst healthy adult controls (80% of responders) but reduced in women with cervical dysplasia (55% of responders). A trend towards a decrease in Th1 type responses was also noted with increasing grade of dysplastic lesion. These findings provide further evidence for the importance of the Th response in the control of genital HPV infections. PMID:9129666

  11. Pros, cons, and ethics of HPV vaccine in teens—Why such controversy?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection remains one of the most commonly sexually transmitted infections in both females and males. HPV viruses are associated with several manifestations including genital warts, but more importantly for urology practitioners, cervical and penile carcinomas and recurrent genital condylomata in both sexes. The incidence of HPV-related carcinomas has increased in cervical, oropharyngeal, vulvar, penile, and anal cancers. Effective vaccines have been available for almost a decade, but widespread adoption of vaccine administration has been problematic for multiple reasons. Many countries (over 100) have adopted vaccine programs for females and an increasing number of countries are extending the indications to include males between the ages of 9-26. There still seems to be controversy surrounding these universal vaccination programs as well as some ethical and practical concerns regarding the administration of a vaccine for diseases that are associated with sexual contact in both sexes, especially during the early adolescent years. Objective The objective was to provide a review of the available literature so pediatric and adult urologists may be more aware of the issues related to HPV vaccination in order to more effectively counsel patients and parents regarding the risks, benefits, and public health issues regarding HPV vaccination. This topic is especially relevant to pediatric urologists who see patients in the target age group for the HPV vaccine. There has been an explosion of literature regarding HPV vaccination programs and the relative difficulty in adopting the vaccine series with a completion rate of under 50% of patients in the recommended age ranges for vaccination. Methods Articles were obtained from an extensive Medline literature search (1998-present) to evaluate the current HPV vaccination regimens for teenagers with special emphasis on the urologically focused disease burden. Results The adoption of universal HPV vaccination has been difficult, but appears to be increasing over time as public education improves and governmentally- mandated vaccine programs increase. Despite the ethical concerns raised, the benefits of vaccination with regard to cancer prevention outweigh the risks and potential side effects related to the quadrivalent vaccine administration. Clearly, more follow-up over time is required to document these improvements in public health. Urologists need to remain aware of the prevention strategies for HPV infection and should help with counseling parents and patients in the appropriate age groups for HPV vaccination. Urology providers need to help engage and educate the parents and teenage patients to help promote broader adoption of the HPV vaccine regimen. PMID:26816799

  12. Prevalence of HPV infection among 28,457 Chinese women in Yunnan Province, southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zheng; Liu, Feng; Cheng, Si; Shi, Lei; Yan, Zhiling; Yang, Jie; Shi, Li; Yao, Yufeng; Ma, Yanbing

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection plays a key role in the development of cervical cancer. The aim of the current study was to investigate the HPV type distribution in Chinese women from Yunnan Province, southwest China. A total of 28,457 individuals ranging in age from 17–84 years were recruited from 13 clinical hospitals located in 10 different regions of Yunnan Province. Cervicovaginal swabs were collected from each participant, and HPV screening was performed using Luminex xMAP technology. Our results showed that the HPV prevalence was 12.9% in Yunnan Province. Overall, 10.6% of the individuals were positive for a single HPV type, and 2.3% were positive for multiple types. Among the individuals who tested positive for a single HPV type and multiple HPV types, the three most prevalent high-risk types were 52, 16, and 58. Age subgroup analysis showed two peaks for the frequencies of single and multiple HPV infections, one for the group of women under 25 years old, and the other for the group over 56 years old. Here, we present data regarding the prevalence and type distribution of HPV infection, which will aid in the estimation of the potential clinical benefit and cost-effectiveness of HPV screening and vaccination in China. PMID:26868772

  13. Humoral immune responses to the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) in the genital tract compared to other mucosal sites.

    PubMed

    Mestecky, Jiri

    2006-12-01

    Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) must be considered as a primarily mucosal disease. On a worldwide basis, the absolute majority of HIV infections occur through mucosal surfaces of the genital and intestinal tracts, and the earliest and most dramatic immunologic alterations are induced by the virus in mucosal tissues. However, individual compartments of mucosal components of the immune system display remarkable differences with respect to dominant antibody isotypes, virus phenotypes, densities and origins of cells involved in innate and specific immunity, presence or absence of inductive sites, and routes of immunizations that induce humoral and cellular responses. In this regard, the mucosal immune system of the female and male genital tracts exhibit several features which are distinct from other mucosal tissues, including dominance of the IgG isotype, local as well as pronounced systemic origin of antibodies, the absence of organized lymphoepithelial inductive sites and limited humoral responses stimulated by local antigen administration. Furthermore, it is evident that, irrespective of the route of infection, HIV-1 induces easily detectable IgG but not IgA specific antibody responses. These differences must be considered in the design of protective vaccines against infection with HIV and other agents of sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:17095369

  14. Expression of PCNA is associated with the presence of HPV DNA in skin warts.

    PubMed

    Lu, S; Syrjänen, K; Havu, V K; Syrjänen, S

    1996-12-01

    A series of 90 excised cutaneous warts (verrucae vulgaris) were studied for the presence of HPV (human papillomavirus) DNA using in situ hybridization (ISH) with biotinylated full genomic DNA probes of HPV types 1, 2, 3, and 4. The expression of PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) was examined using conventional immunohistochemistry. The aim was to test the hypothesis that HPV can reactivate PCNA, including in the host replication machinery. HPV DNA of the above types was detected in 60 of 90 verruca biopsies studied (66.7%): HPV 2 in 56 cases, HPV 1 in 2 cases, and HPV 3 in 2 cases. PCNA was expressed in all samples except two. The signal distribution of HPV DNA markedly differed from that of PCNA expression. ISH revealed strong HPV DNA signals in both the granular and the upper spinous cell layers, the most intense signals being detected in the upper epidermis. On the other hand, nuclear PCNA staining was present in the majority of parabasal and basal cells. Although strong PCNA signals within the wart lesions were found in the areas where HPV DNA was present, the PCNA positivity was almost invariably localized in the differentiated cells of the spinous cell layers, just below the HPV DNA-expressing cells. At the margins of the lesions, PCNA expression was still strong but disappeared abruptly towards the normal epidermis. HPV DNA-positive warts showed more intense expression of PCNA than did the HPV DNA-negative ones in this study. Our results indicate that PCNA induction is associated with the presence of HPV DNA, suggesting that HPV can reactivate PCNA, thus interfering with the host cell DNA replication machinery. PMID:9017133

  15. International standardization and classification of human papillomavirus types.

    PubMed

    Bzhalava, Davit; Eklund, Carina; Dillner, Joakim

    2015-02-01

    Established Human Papillomavirus (HPV) types, up to HPV202, belong to 49 species in five genera. International standardization in classification and quality standards for HPV type designation and detection is ensured by the International HPV Reference Center. The center i) receives clones of potentially novel HPV types, re-clones and re-sequences them. If confirmed, an HPV type number is assigned and posted on www.hpvcenter.se. ii) distributes reference clone samples, for academic research, under Material Transfer Agreements agreed with the originator. iii) provides preliminary checking of whether new sequences represent novel types iv) issues international proficiency panels for HPV genotyping. The rate of HPV type discovery is increasing, probably because of metagenomic sequencing. γ-genus today contains 79HPV types and 27 species, surpassing ∝ and β genera with 65 and 51HPV types, respectively. Regular issuing of proficiency panels based on HPV reference clones has resulted in global improvement of HPV genotyping services. PMID:25577151

  16. Expression of human papillomavirus type 11 L1 protein in insect cells: in vivo and in vitro assembly of viruslike particles.

    PubMed Central

    Rose, R C; Bonnez, W; Reichman, R C; Garcea, R L

    1993-01-01

    The L1 coat protein of human papillomavirus type 11 (HPV-11) was expressed in Sf-9 insect cells with the recombinant baculovirus vector Ac11L1. Viruslike particles (VLPs) were identified by electron microscopy in the nucleus and cytoplasm of Sf-9 cells infected with Ac11L1. The L1 protein was purified from Ac11L1-infected insect cells. The purified protein spontaneously assembled in vitro into various aggregates, including particles appearing similar to empty virions. Reaction of VLP-containing insect cell extracts with antisera directed against either denatured or nondenatured capsid epitopes in Western blot (immunoblot) and immuno-dot blot assays suggested that conformational epitopes present in native HPV-11 infectious virions were also present on the baculovirus-produced HPV-11 VLPs. Immuno-dot blot assays using human sera obtained from individuals with biopsy-proven condyloma acuminatum correlated closely with results previously obtained in HPV-11 whole virus particle-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. These morphologic and immunologic similarities to native HPV-11 virions suggest that recombinant VLPs produced in the baculovirus system may be useful in seroepidemiology and pathogenesis studies of genital HPV infection and that they may also be potential candidates for vaccine development. Images PMID:8383219

  17. Genotyping of 27 human papillomavirus types by using L1 consensus PCR products by a single-hybridization, reverse line blot detection method.

    PubMed

    Gravitt, P E; Peyton, C L; Apple, R J; Wheeler, C M

    1998-10-01

    Amplification of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA by L1 consensus primer systems (e.g., MY09/11 or GP5(+)/6(+)) can detect as few as 10 to 100 molecules of HPV targets from a genital sample. However, genotype determination by dot blot hybridization is laborious and requires at least 27 separate hybridizations for substantive HPV-type discrimination. A reverse blot method was developed which employs a biotin-labeled PCR product hybridized to an array of immobilized oligonucleotide probes. By the reverse blot strip analysis, genotype discrimination of multiple HPV types can be accomplished in a single hybridization and wash cycle. Twenty-seven HPV probe mixes, two control probe concentrations, and a single reference line were immobilized to 75- by 6-mm nylon strips. Each individual probe line contained a mixture of two bovine serum albumin-conjugated oligonucleotide probes specific to a unique HPV genotype. The genotype spectrum discriminated on this strip includes the high-risk, or cancer-associated, HPV genotypes 16, 18, 26, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 55, 56, 58, 59, 68 (ME180), MM4 (W13B), MM7 (P291), and MM9 (P238A) and the low-risk, or non-cancer-associated, genotypes 6, 11, 40, 42, 53, 54, 57, 66, and MM8 (P155). In addition, two concentrations of beta-globin probes allowed for assessment of individual specimen adequacy following amplification. We have evaluated the performance of the strip method relative to that of a previously reported dot blot format (H. M. Bauer et al., p. 132-152, in C. S. Herrington and J. O. D. McGee (ed.), Diagnostic Molecular Pathology: a Practical Approach, (1992), by testing 328 cervical swab samples collected in Digene specimen transport medium (Digene Diagnostics, Silver Spring, Md.). We show excellent agreement between the two detection formats, with 92% concordance for HPV positivity (kappa = 0.78, P < 0.001). Nearly all of the discrepant HPV-positive samples resulted from weak signals and can be attributed to sampling error from specimens with low concentrations (<1 copy/microliter) of HPV DNA. The primary advantage of the strip-based detection system is the ability to rapidly genotype HPVs present in genital samples with high sensitivity and specificity, minimizing the likelihood of misclassification. PMID:9738060

  18. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of adolescents in the South African private health sector: Lessons from the HPV demonstration project in KwaZulu-Natal.

    PubMed

    Tathiah, N; Naidoo, M; Moodley, I

    2015-11-01

    In South Africa (SA), >4,000 women die annually of cervical cancer, a disease caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). Infections caused by certain genotypes of HPV increase the risk of cervical cancer. HIV-infected women in particular are more likely to have persistent HPV infection, with higher-risk genotypes. In SA, two vaccines (HPV quadrivalent (types 6, 11, 16, and 18) vaccine, recombinant (Gardasil) and HPV bivalent (types 16 and 18) vaccine, recombinant (Cervarix)) are currently registered for the prevention of HPV-related disease. In the past, there have been significant challenges to achieving high coverage and uptake of vaccination–contributory factors include cost and lack of awareness. An HPV demonstration project among schoolgirls in rural KwaZulu-Natal showed that high vaccine uptake is achievable. In 2014, the National Department of Health launched the national HPV vaccination programme among female learners attending public schools. Awareness of HPV vaccination among healthcare providers, education of parents, teachers and learners, and avoidance of missed opportunities for vaccination are vital to the success of the programme. Primary healthcare practitioners may play an important role in cervical cancer prevention by identifying and offering vaccination to girls who miss the opportunity to be vaccinated at school. HPV vaccination should be considered as one arm of a comprehensive programme of cervical cancer prevention and control. PMID:26937512

  19. Anogenital hairs are an important reservoir of alpha-papillomaviruses in patients with genital warts.

    PubMed

    Poljak, Mario; Kocjan, Bostjan J; Potocnik, Marko; Seme, Katja

    2009-05-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) were detected in 69 (43.7%) of 158 and in 7 (4.5%) of 155 anogenital hairs obtained from 53 patients with genital warts (GWs) and from 53 age-matched healthy control subjects, respectively. At least 1 hair sample was positive for 69.8% of patients and for 13.2% of control subjects. For patients, HPV was detected in 64.2%, 39.6%, and 26.9% of hairs plucked from the pubic, scrotal, and perianal regions, respectively. For 91.9% of patients, the same HPV genotype was identified in GWs and hairs from at least 1 sampling site. Having GWs was found to be strongly associated with the presence in anogenital hairs of the HPV genotype causing the GWs (range of odds ratios, 13.0-20.0). PMID:19301978

  20. Genital Cancers in Women: Vulvar Cancer.

    PubMed

    Hill-Daniel, Jamie; Roett, Michelle A

    2015-11-01

    Vulvar cancer is uncommon, accounting for 0.3% of all new US cancer diagnoses. The majority of cases are squamous cell carcinoma. Malignant melanoma is the second most common type. Other cases are related to chronic inflammatory skin disorders such as lichen sclerosus. Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) is a precursor to squamous cell vulvar cancer. It may be the usual type associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, or the differentiated type often associated with chronic skin disorders. Risk factors for VIN are HPV infection, cigarette smoking, chronic skin disorders, and immunosuppression. Symptoms of vulvar cancer include pruritus, bleeding, skin color change, skin lesions, and dysuria. VIN and vulvar cancer are diagnosed by skin biopsy. Treatment of VIN includes wide local excision, via surgical removal or with laser or ultrasonic surgical aspiration procedures. Medical therapy with imiquimod also may be used. Prognosis is good with early detection; the 5-year survival rate for stage I cancer is greater than 85%. Advanced disease has a poor prognosis, with a 5-year survival rate in stage IV disease as low as 5%. Although screening for vulvar cancer is not recommended, clinicians should evaluate and biopsy any suspicious vulvar lesions. Current efforts at prevention are aimed at HPV vaccination. PMID:26569049

  1. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Glycoprotein H Interacts with Integrin αvβ3 To Facilitate Viral Entry and Calcium Signaling in Human Genital Tract Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cheshenko, Natalia; Trepanier, Janie B.; González, Pablo A.; Eugenin, Eliseo A.; Jacobs, William R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Herpes simplex virus (HSV) entry requires multiple interactions at the cell surface and activation of a complex calcium signaling cascade. Previous studies demonstrated that integrins participate in this process, but their precise role has not been determined. These studies were designed to test the hypothesis that integrin αvβ3 signaling promotes the release of intracellular calcium (Ca2+) stores and contributes to viral entry and cell-to-cell spread. Transfection of cells with small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting integrin αvβ3, but not other integrin subunits, or treatment with cilengitide, an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) mimetic, impaired HSV-induced Ca2+ release, viral entry, plaque formation, and cell-to-cell spread of HSV-1 and HSV-2 in human cervical and primary genital tract epithelial cells. Coimmunoprecipitation studies and proximity ligation assays indicated that integrin αvβ3 interacts with glycoprotein H (gH). An HSV-2 gH-null virus was engineered to further assess the role of gH in the virus-induced signaling cascade. The gH-2-null virus bound to cells and activated Akt to induce a small Ca2+ response at the plasma membrane, but it failed to trigger the release of cytoplasmic Ca2+ stores and was impaired for entry and cell-to-cell spread. Silencing of integrin αvβ3 and deletion of gH prevented phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and the transport of viral capsids to the nuclear pore. Together, these findings demonstrate that integrin signaling is activated downstream of virus-induced Akt signaling and facilitates viral entry through interactions with gH by activating the release of intracellular Ca2+ and FAK phosphorylation. These findings suggest a new target for HSV treatment and suppression. IMPORTANCE Herpes simplex viruses are the leading cause of genital disease worldwide, the most common infection associated with neonatal encephalitis, and a major cofactor for HIV acquisition and transmission. There is no effective vaccine. These epidemiological findings underscore the urgency to develop novel HSV treatment or prevention strategies. This study addresses this gap by further defining the signaling pathways the virus usurps to enter human genital tract epithelial cells. Specifically, the study defines the role played by integrins and by the viral envelope glycoprotein H in entry and cell-to-cell spread. This knowledge will facilitate the identification of new targets for the development of treatment and prevention. PMID:24942591

  2. Specific Magnetic Isolation of E6 HPV16 Modified Magnetizable Particles Coupled with PCR and Electrochemical Detection.

    PubMed

    Jimenez Jimenez, Ana Maria; Ruttkay-Nedecky, Branislav; Dostalova, Simona; Krejcova, Ludmila; Michalek, Petr; Richtera, Lukas; Adam, Vojtech

    2016-01-01

    The majority of carcinomas that were developed due to the infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) are caused by high-risk HPV types, HPV16 and HPV18. These HPV types contain the E6 and E7 oncogenes, so the fast detection of these oncogenes is an important point to avoid the development of cancer. Many different HPV tests are available to detect the presence of HPV in biological samples. The aim of this study was to design a fast and low cost method for HPV identification employing magnetic isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and electrochemical detection. These assays were developed to detect the interactions between E6-HPV16 oncogene and magnetizable particles (MPs) using commercial Dynabeads M-280 Streptavidin particles and laboratory-synthesized "homemade" particles called MANs (MAN-37, MAN-127 and MAN-164). The yields of PCR amplification of E6-HPV16 oncogene bound on the particles and after the elution from the particles were compared. A highest yield of E6-HPV16 DNA isolation was obtained with both MPs particles commercial M-280 Streptavidin and MAN-37 due to reducing of the interferents compared with the standard PCR method. A biosensor employing the isolation of E6-HPV16 oncogene with MPs particles followed by its electrochemical detection can be a very effective technique for HPV identification, providing simple, sensitive and cost-effective analysis. PMID:27164078

  3. Specific Magnetic Isolation of E6 HPV16 Modified Magnetizable Particles Coupled with PCR and Electrochemical Detection

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez Jimenez, Ana Maria; Ruttkay-Nedecky, Branislav; Dostalova, Simona; Krejcova, Ludmila; Michalek, Petr; Richtera, Lukas; Adam, Vojtech

    2016-01-01

    The majority of carcinomas that were developed due to the infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) are caused by high-risk HPV types, HPV16 and HPV18. These HPV types contain the E6 and E7 oncogenes, so the fast detection of these oncogenes is an important point to avoid the development of cancer. Many different HPV tests are available to detect the presence of HPV in biological samples. The aim of this study was to design a fast and low cost method for HPV identification employing magnetic isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and electrochemical detection. These assays were developed to detect the interactions between E6-HPV16 oncogene and magnetizable particles (MPs) using commercial Dynabeads M-280 Streptavidin particles and laboratory-synthesized “homemade” particles called MANs (MAN-37, MAN-127 and MAN-164). The yields of PCR amplification of E6-HPV16 oncogene bound on the particles and after the elution from the particles were compared. A highest yield of E6-HPV16 DNA isolation was obtained with both MPs particles commercial M-280 Streptavidin and MAN-37 due to reducing of the interferents compared with the standard PCR method. A biosensor employing the isolation of E6-HPV16 oncogene with MPs particles followed by its electrochemical detection can be a very effective technique for HPV identification, providing simple, sensitive and cost-effective analysis. PMID:27164078

  4. HPV infections: can they be eradicated using nanotechnology?

    PubMed

    Foldvari, Marianna

    2012-02-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are considered the most common sexually transmitted diseases, with more than 450 million people worldwide infected. HPVs can cause anogenital warts and neoplasias. One prevalent cancer type caused by HPV (mostly type 16 and 18) is cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Nanotechnology tools employed in the development of vaccines and a noninvasive treatment may provide a significant advancement in the global combat against this disease. PMID:22101106

  5. Molecular epidemiology of HPV infection using a clinical array methodology in 2952 women in Greece.

    PubMed

    Tsiodras, S; Hatzakis, A; Spathis, A; Margari, N; Meristoudis, C; Chranioti, A; Kyrgiou, M; Panayiotides, J; Kassanos, D; Petrikkos, G; Nasioutziki, M; Loufopoulos, A; Paraskevaidis, E; Karakitsos, P

    2011-08-01

    The molecular epidemiology of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in a sample of Greek women (n = 2952, mean age 42.2 ± 13.3 years) was examined. HPV prevalence was 50.7% (95% confidence interval, 48.8-52.6). The most frequent HPV types were HPV 53, 51 and 66 (10.2%, 9.4% and 9.3%, respectively). HPV positivity was associated with age, age of sexual debut, number of sexual partners and duration of sexual relationship, while marriage or multiparity protected against infection (all p <0.001). Follow-up of this cohort will assist in predicting the effect of vaccination with the new HPV vaccines on future screening with HPV-based tests for cervical cancer. PMID:21595788

  6. Molecular genotyping of HPV L1 gene in low-risk and high-risk populations in Bangkok

    PubMed Central

    Leaungwutiwong, Pornsawan; Bamrungsak, Busara; Jittmittraphap, Akanitt; Maneekan, Pannamas; Kosoltanapiwat, Nathamon; Kalambaheti, Thareerat; Kelley, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in Thailand are a public health concern but information on HPV infection in sex workers and men who have sex with men (MSM) is limited. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence and genotype distribution of HPV among low- and high-risk, HIV-negative populations. Methods A total of 300 participants were categorized as general women, female sex workers, MSM, and MSM sex workers. HPV infections were identified by the Papanicolaou (Pap) test and nested-PCR. A phylogenetic analysis of partial HPV L1 genes was performed. Results Abnormal cytology was found in 5% of general women, 10% of female sex workers, 24% of MSM and 28% of MSM sex workers. HPV was detected in 9% of general women, 13% of female sex workers and 30% in both MSM and the MSM sex workers. The prevalence of HPV high-risk genotypes was significantly higher in female sex workers and MSM while low-risk genotypes and genital warts were significantly higher in MSM sex workers. Significantly more patients with genital warts and CIN I/AIN I harbored low-risk genotypes while those with CIN II/AIN II harbored high-risk genotypes. Conclusion High- and low-risk HPV genotypes persist in high-risk groups in Bangkok. Some genotypes infecting at-risk populations are not vaccine-preventable. These findings may help to elucidate the prevalence of HPV infections in Thailand and serve as the basis for additional investigations into risk factors for these populations. PMID:25763674

  7. HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

    MedlinePlus

    ... intestine) to the outside of the body. To Learn More About HPV Human Papillomavirus Vaccine More in For Women Medication Safety for Women ¡Nunca Más! Novelas An Invitation to Collaborate Free Publications English Publications Spanish Publications Publications in Other Languages Take ...

  8. HPV immunohistochemical testing and cervical dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    MUREŞAN, DANIEL; ROTAR, IOANA CRISTINA; APOSTOL, SILVANA; COROIU, GEORGIANA; STAMATIAN, FLORIN

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) infection represents a necessary condition for cervical carcinogenesis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of HPV testing using an immunohistochemical staining kit with implications upon both diagnosis and treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Methods Seventy-nine patients and eighty-six controls were enrolled in the study. Each patient had completed a physical examination, gynecological examination with cervical sampling using a liquid-based cytology system and also colposcopy. The cervical samples were analyzed according to Bethesda terminology and HPV-HR immunohistochemical staining was performed. In all the patients with high-grade lesion a surgical excision procedure was performed followed by pathological examination of the specimen. The collected data were analyzed using statistical software. Results The colposcopic examination has detected acetowhite modifications of the cervical epithelium in 47% of patients with ASC-US (Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance) in 71% of patients with LSIL (Low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) and in 100% of patients with HSIL ( High grade squamous intraepithelial lesion). The biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of LSIL in 27% of biopsy specimens in patients with ASC-US and in 79.99% of patients with LSIL respectively. In all patients with HSIL the diagnosis was CIN II or higher. The percentage of HPV-HR (Human Papilloma Virus – High Risk) positivity porportionaly increased with the severity of cytological diagnosis: 30% in ASC-US, 42.86% in LSIL and 75% in HSIL patients. The sensitivity of detection of HPV-HR was 50% with CI 95% [17.45;82.55] for ASC-US, 77.77% with CI 95% [51.91;92.62] for LSIL and 81.81% with CI 95% [58.99;94.00] for HSIL. Conclusion HPV testing can be an important screening tool for cervical dysplasia. The HPV testing targeting high risk types is indicated for ASC-US and LSIL triage. The present work sustains the idea of introducing HPV testing as a primary screening tool for cervical cancer. PMID:27152075

  9. Acute genital ulcers.

    PubMed

    Delgado-García, Silvia; Palacios-Marqués, Ana; Martínez-Escoriza, Juan Carlos; Martín-Bayón, Tina-Aurora

    2014-01-01

    Acute genital ulcers, also known as acute vulvar ulcers, ulcus vulvae acutum or Lipschütz ulcers, refer to an ulceration of the vulva or lower vagina of non-venereal origin that usually presents in young women, predominantly virgins. Although its incidence is unknown, it seems a rare entity, with few cases reported in the literature. Their aetiology and pathogenesis are still unknown. The disease is characterised by an acute onset of flu-like symptoms with single or multiple painful ulcers on the vulva. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, after exclusion of other causes of vulvar ulcers. The treatment is mainly symptomatic, with spontaneous resolution in 2 weeks and without recurrences in most cases. We present a case report of a 13-year-old girl with two episodes of acute ulcers that fit the clinical criteria for Lipschütz ulcers. PMID:24473429

  10. HPV vaccines: a controversial issue?

    PubMed Central

    Nicol, A.F.; Andrade, C.V.; Russomano, F.B.; Rodrigues, L.L.S.; Oliveira, N.S.; Provance, D.W.

    2016-01-01

    Controversy still exists over whether the benefits of the available HPV vaccines outweigh the risks and this has suppressed uptake of the HPV vaccines in comparison to other vaccines. Concerns about HPV vaccine safety have led some physicians, healthcare officials and parents to withhold the recommended vaccination from the target population. The most common reason for not administering the prophylactic HPV vaccines are concerns over adverse effects. The aim of this review is the assessment of peer-reviewed scientific data related to measurable outcomes from the use of HPV vaccines throughout the world with focused attention on the potential adverse effects. We found that the majority of studies continue to suggest a positive risk-benefit from vaccination against HPV, with minimal documented adverse effects, which is consistent with other vaccines. However, much of the published scientific data regarding the safety of HPV vaccines appears to originate from within the financially competitive HPV vaccine market. We advocate a more independent monitoring system for vaccine immunogenicity and adverse effects to address potential conflicts of interest with regular systematic literature reviews by qualified individuals to vigilantly assess and communicate adverse effects associated with HPV vaccination. Finally, our evaluation suggests that an expanded use of HPV vaccine into more diverse populations, particularly those living in low-resource settings, would provide numerous health and social benefits. PMID:27074168

  11. Characterization of a novel cutaneous human papillomavirus genotype HPV-125.

    PubMed

    Kovanda, Anja; Kocjan, Boštjan J; Potočnik, Marko; Poljak, Mario

    2011-01-01

    The DNA genome of a novel HPV genotype, HPV-125, isolated from a hand wart of an immuno-competent 19-year old male was fully cloned, sequenced and characterized. The full genome of HPV-125 is 7,809-bp in length with a GC content of 46.4%. By comparing the nucleotide sequence of the complete L1 gene, HPV-125 is phylogenetically placed within cutaneotrophic species 2 of Alphapapillomaviruses, and is most closely related to HPV-3 and HPV-28. HPV-125 has a typical genomic organization of Alphapapillomaviruses and contains genes coding for five early proteins, E6, E7, E1, E2 and E4 and two late capsid proteins, L1 and L2. The genome contains two non-coding regions: the first located between the L1 and E6 genes (nucleotide positions 7,137-7,809, length 673-bp) and the second between genes E2 and L2 (nucleotide positions 3,757-4,216, length 460-bp). The E6 protein of HPV-125 contains two regular zinc-binding domains at amino acid positions 29 and 102, whereas the E7 protein exhibits one such domain at position 50. HPV-125 lacks the regular pRb-binding core sequence within its E7 protein. In order to assess the tissue predilection and clinical significance of HPV-125, a quantitative type-specific real-time PCR was developed. The 95% limit-of-detection of the assay was 2.5 copies per reaction (range 1.7-5.7) and the intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were 0.47 and 2.00 for 100 copies per reaction, and 1.15 and 2.15 for 10 copies per reaction, respectively. Testing of a representative collection of HPV-associated mucosal and cutaneous benign and malignant neoplasms and hair follicles (a total of 601 samples) showed that HPV-125 is a relatively rare HPV genotype, with cutaneous tropism etiologically linked with sporadic cases of common warts. PMID:21811601

  12. Genital injuries in neonates following breech presentation.

    PubMed

    Saroha, M; Batra, P; Dewan, P; Faridi, Mma

    2015-12-18

    Breech presentation is seen in 3-4% of babies born. Delivering a breech baby through vaginal route is difficult and carries a much higher complication rate than cesarean sections. Breech born babies carry an overall increased risk of maternal morbidity, neonatal mortality, birth asphyxia and birth injuries. Various types of birth injuries to the babies have been reported following breech delivery, but genital injuries are less commonly reported and thus, less anticipated. We report series of five babies with spectrum of genital injuries following breech delivery. These injuries led to significant short and long term morbidity in these babies. Keeping high index of suspicion, an early cesarean section can be an aide in preventing these complications. Once the baby is born, careful examination and early intervention should be done to prevent long term complications. PMID:26757006

  13. Senegal outlaws female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Ciment, J

    1999-02-01

    Senegal has joined Burkina Faso, the Central African Republic, Djibouti, Ghana, and Togo in outlawing female genital mutilation and assigning penalties of up to five years imprisonment to those who order or perform the procedure. Currently, 20% of Senegalese women have undergone female genital mutilation, and many girls are thought to have died as a result. UN agencies have made their opposition to female genital mutilation clear and have argued that women attempting to avoid the procedure should be granted asylum in other countries. PMID:9933182

  14. HPV-Associated Oropharyngeal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Year Rates by Race and Ethnicity HPV-Associated Anal Cancer HPV-Associated Cervical Cancer HPV-Associated Oropharyngeal Cancers HPV- ... Associated Vulvar Cancer Rates by State HPV-Associated Anal Cancer HPV-Associated Cervical Cancer HPV-Associated Oropharyngeal Cancers HPV- ...

  15. HPV-Associated Vulvar Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Year Rates by Race and Ethnicity HPV-Associated Anal Cancer HPV-Associated Cervical Cancer HPV-Associated Oropharyngeal Cancers HPV- ... Associated Vulvar Cancer Rates by State HPV-Associated Anal Cancer HPV-Associated Cervical Cancer HPV-Associated Oropharyngeal Cancers HPV- ...

  16. How Many Cancers Are Linked with HPV Each Year?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Year Rates by Race and Ethnicity HPV-Associated Anal Cancer HPV-Associated Cervical Cancer HPV-Associated Oropharyngeal Cancers HPV- ... Associated Vulvar Cancer Rates by State HPV-Associated Anal Cancer HPV-Associated Cervical Cancer HPV-Associated Oropharyngeal Cancers HPV- ...

  17. Prevalence of IgG Antibodies against Human Papillomavirus (HPV) type 6, 11, 16, and 18 Virus-Like Particles in Women of Childbearing Age in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okonko, I O; Ofoedu, V

    2015-01-01

    Most HPV prevalence studies have been carried out in high-resource countries with few studies focused on low-resource regions where highest HPV prevalence in the world occurs. This study reports on prevalence of IgG antibodies against HPVs among women of childbearing age in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. One hundred and eighty-two consented women (age-range 19-45 years) were consecutively recruited. Demographic/behavioral data and 5 mL blood samples were collected from each woman. Plasma of each sample was assayed for HPV-6/11/16/18 virus-like particles using a HPV IgG ELISA kit. The overall anti-HPV prevalence was 4.9% while 7.7% with itching/wound in the private part tested positive. Most (88.9%) of the seropositive women were sexually active. Group-specific seropositivity was low (0.0-10.0%). It also showed that all the 9(100.0%) who tested positive to the HPV responded "yes" to no information on the source of HPV information. Being younger, married, high educational level, religion, and lack of information on HPV were the main correlates of HPV positivity among these women. None was vaccinated and would have been naturally exposed to at least one of HPV-6/11/16/18. With 4.9% seropositivity and lack of information regarding HPV among these women, this study recommends a statewide enlightenment campaign and vaccination. PMID:25774633

  18. Predictors of genital injury after nonconsensual intercourse.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Sarah L; Parker, Barbara J; Bourguignon, Cheryl M

    2009-01-01

    Understanding differences in genital injuries after nonconsensual and consensual intercourse is an important element of prosecuting sexual assault cases. In order to determine if the injury patterns and total surface area of genital injuries can differentiate between the types of intercourse (consensual or non-consensual), eighty women were examined after non-consensual (retrospective chart review, n = 40) and consensual (recruited, n = 40) intercourse within 48 hours using colposcopy, toluidine blue dye, and digital photography to document genital injuries. Differences between types of injuries found in the nonconsensual and consensual groups, based on the univariate analysis, were found with the number of sites (NoS) with ecchymosis (p < 0.01) and NoS with redness (p < 0.01). Based on the logistic hierarchical regression model, 85% of the nonconsensual group and 90% of the consensual group were classified correctly by using the NoS with tears, ecchymosis, abrasions, and redness and SA of injury when controlling for time from intercourse to examination. The NoS with redness (p = 0.017), NoS with ecchymosis, and SA of injury (p = 0.039) were individually predictive. The NoS with ecchymosis were also a significant finding when addressed as an individual block (p < 0.001). In this small sample, exploratory study, while controlling for time, the injury patterns and total SA of genital injuries were able to correctly classify the nonconsensual group 85% of the time. Replication of this study with a larger sample is essential. PMID:20118876

  19. Cost-effectiveness of vaccination with a quadrivalent HPV vaccine in Germany using a dynamic transmission model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Persistent infections with human papillomavirus (HPV) are a necessary cause of cervical cancer and are responsible for important morbidity in men and women. Since 2007, HPV vaccination has been recommended and funded for all girls aged 12 to 17 in Germany. A previously published cost-effectiveness analysis, using a static model, showed that a quadrivalent HPV vaccination programme for 12-year-old girls in Germany would be cost effective. Here we present the results from a dynamic transmission model that can be used to evaluate the impact and cost-effectiveness of different vaccination schemas. Methods We adapted a HPV dynamic transmission model, which has been used in other countries, to the German context. The model was used to compare a cervical cancer screening only strategy with a strategy of combining vaccination of females aged 12–17 years old and cervical cancer screening, based on the current recommendations in Germany. In addition, the impact of increasing vaccination coverage in this cohort of females aged 12–17 years old was evaluated in sensitivity analysis. Results The results from this analysis show that the current quadrivalent HPV vaccination programme of females ages 12 to 17 in Germany is cost-effective with an ICER of 5,525€/QALY (quality adjusted life year). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) increased to 10,293€/QALY when the vaccine effects on HPV6/11 diseases were excluded. At steady state, the model predicted that vaccinating girls aged 12 to 17 could reduce the number of HPV 6/11/16/18-related cervical cancers by 65% and genital warts among women and men by 70% and 48%, respectively. The impact on HPV-related disease incidence and costs avoided would occur relatively soon after initiating the vaccine programme, with much of the early impact being due to the prevention of HPV6/11-related genital warts. Conclusions These results show that the current quadrivalent HPV vaccination and cervical cancer screening programmes in Germany will substantially reduce the incidence of cervical cancer, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and genital warts. The evaluated vaccination strategies were all found to be cost-effective. Future analyses should include more HPV-related diseases. PMID:23009387

  20. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Signs and Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... Diseases HPV-Associated Cancers Gynecologic Cancers Redirect CDC - HPV - Symptoms and Health Consequences Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  1. Preventing Cervical Cancer with HPV Vaccines

    Cancer.gov

    Cervical cancer can be prevented with HPV vaccines. NCI-supported researchers helped establish HPV as a cause of cervical cancer. They also helped create the first HPV vaccines, were involved in the vaccine trials, and contribute to ongoing studies.

  2. HPV vaccine stimulates cytotoxic activity of killer dendritic cells and natural killer cells against HPV-positive tumour cells

    PubMed Central

    Van den Bergh, Johan M J; Guerti, Khadija; Willemen, Yannick; Lion, Eva; Cools, Nathalie; Goossens, Herman; Vorsters, Alex; Van Tendeloo, Viggo F I; Anguille, Sébastien; Van Damme, Pierre; Smits, Evelien L J M

    2014-01-01

    Cervarix™ is approved as a preventive vaccine against infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV) strains 16 and 18, which are causally related to the development of cervical cancer. We are the first to investigate in vitro the effects of this HPV vaccine on interleukin (IL)-15 dendritic cells (DC) as proxy of a naturally occurring subset of blood DC, and natural killer (NK) cells, two innate immune cell types that play an important role in antitumour immunity. Our results show that exposure of IL-15 DC to the HPV vaccine results in increased expression of phenotypic maturation markers, pro-inflammatory cytokine production and cytotoxic activity against HPV-positive tumour cells. These effects are mediated by the vaccine adjuvant, partly through Toll-like receptor 4 activation. Next, we demonstrate that vaccine-exposed IL-15 DC in turn induce phenotypic activation of NK cells, resulting in a synergistic cytotoxic action against HPV-infected tumour cells. Our study thus identifies a novel mode of action of the HPV vaccine in boosting innate immunity, including killing of HPV-infected cells by DC and NK cells. PMID:24979331

  3. Genital and Urinary Tract Defects

    MedlinePlus

    ... bladder) that helps your body get rid of waste and extra fluids. What problems can genital and ... including: Kidneys, the pair of organs that remove waste from the blood and make urine Bladder, the ...

  4. Anal Neoplasia in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Is Associated With HPV and Perianal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ruel, Joannie; Ko, Huaibin Mabel; Roda, Giulia; Patil, Ninad; Zhang, David; Jharap, Bindia; Harpaz, Noam; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Literature describing the risk factors predisposing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients to anal squamous neoplasia is very scarce. Case reports and small case series have implicated perianal Crohn's disease (CD), long-standing IBD, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and immunosuppressive treatment. In this study, we retrospectively examined the association between HPV infection and anal squamous neoplastic lesions among IBD patients from our center. METHODS: We reviewed the pathology records and slides of IBD patients diagnosed with anal squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs), and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs) who presented at our center between 1 March 1994 and 9 September 2014. The HPV status of the neoplasms was assessed histologically, by immunohistochemical staining for p16 overexpression, and by global and type-specific HPV PCR. RESULTS: SCCs, HSILs, LSILs, and small cell carcinoma were identified, respectively, in six, nine, two, and one IBD patients. All six patients with SCC had CD with perianal involvement. HPV-related neoplasia was identified in 3/6 cases of SCC (all HPV-16), 1/1 small cell carcinoma (HPV-18), and 9/9 HSIL (7 HPV-16, 2 not typed); 2/2 LSILs were negative for high-risk HPV. CONCLUSIONS: In our experience, anal squamous neoplastic lesions in IBD are associated with HPV infection and SCC seem to be associated with perianal CD. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these results. PMID:26938479

  5. HPV E6/E7 mRNA versus HPV DNA biomarker in cervical cancer screening of a group of Macedonian women.

    PubMed

    Duvlis, Sotirija; Popovska-Jankovic, Katerina; Arsova, Zorica Sarafinovska; Memeti, Shaban; Popeska, Zaneta; Plaseska-Karanfilska, Dijana

    2015-09-01

    High risk types of human papillomaviruses E6/E7 oncogenes and their association with tumor suppressor genes products are the key factors of cervical carcinogenesis. This study proposed them as specific markers for cervical dysplasia screening. The aim of the study is to compare the clinical and prognostic significance of HPV E6/E7 mRNA as an early biomarker versus HPV DNA detection and cytology in triage of woman for cervical cancer. The study group consists of 413 women: 258 NILM, 26 ASC-US, 81 LSIL, 41 HSIL, and 7 unsatisfactory cytology. HPV4AACE screening, real-time multiplex PCR and MY09/11 consensus PCR primers methods were used for the HPV DNA detection. The real-time multiplex nucleic acid sequence-based assay (NucliSENS EasyQ HPV assay) was used for HPV E6/E7 mRNA detection of the five most common high risk HPV types in cervical cancer (16, 18, 31, 33, and 45). The results show that HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing had a higher specificity 50% (95% CI 32-67) and positive predictive value (PPV) 62% (95% CI 46-76) for CIN2+ compared to HPV DNA testing that had specificity of 18% (95% CI 7-37) and PPV 52% (95% CI 39-76) respectively. The higher specificity and PPV of HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing are valuable in predicting insignificant HPV DNA infection among cases with borderline cytological finding. It can help in avoiding aggressive procedures (biopsies and over-referral of transient HPV infections) as well as lowering patient's anxiety and follow up period. PMID:25880030

  6. Gene chip technology used in the detection of HPV infection in esophageal cancer of Kazakh Chinese in Xinjiang Province.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-gang; Yang, Chun-mei; Xu, Li-hong; Zhang, Ning; Liu, Xiao-yan; Ma, Yun-gui; Huo, Xiao-ling; Han, Yu-sheng; Tian, De-an; Zheng, Yong

    2014-06-01

    This study was aimed to screen human papillomavirus (HPV) types associated with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma of Kazakh in Xinjiang using the gene chip technique and study the clinical significance of this application. The DNAs were collected from esophageal squamous cell carcinoma tissues and healthy esophageal mucosa of Kazakh adults in Xinjiang, and amplified firstly using HPV MY09/11 and then using HPV G5+/6+ to screen positive HPV specimens. These positive specimens were further detected by the gene chip technique to screen highly pathogenic HPV types. After determination with nested PCR amplification with HPV MY09/11 and G5+/6+, the infection rate of HPV was 66.67% in the esophageal squamous cell carcinoma group and 12.12% in the healthy control group. By testing the positive HPV specimens from the esophageal squamous cell carcinoma group, the infection rate of HPV16 was 97.72% and the co-infection rate of HPV16 and HPV18 was 2.27%. HPV16 infection may be involved in the development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Xinjiang Hazakh adults. PMID:24939296

  7. Flagellin is a strong vaginal adjuvant of a therapeutic vaccine for genital cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shee Eun; Hong, Seol Hee; Verma, Vivek; Lee, Youn Suhk; Duong, Tra-My Nu; Jeong, Kwangjoon; Uthaman, Saji; Sung, Young Chul; Lee, Jae-Tae; Park, In-Kyu; Min, Jung-Joon; Rhee, Joon Haeng

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cervical cancer is a high-incidence female cancer most commonly caused by human papilloma virus (HPV) infection of the genital mucosa. Immunotherapy targeting HPV-derived tumor antigens (TAs) has been widely studied in animal models and in patients. Because the female genital tract is a portal for the entry of HPV and a highly compartmentalized system, the development of topical vaginal immunotherapy in an orthotopic cancer model would provide an ideal therapeutic. Thus, we examined whether flagellin, a potent mucosal immunomodulator, could be used as an adjuvant for a topical therapeutic vaccine for female genital cancer. Intravaginal (IVAG) co-administration of the E6/E7 peptides with flagellin resulted in tumor suppression and long-term survival of tumor-bearing mice. In contrast to IVAG vaccination, intranasal (IN) or subcutaneous (SC) immunization did not induce significant tumor suppression in the same model. The vaginal adjuvant effect of the flagellin was completely abolished in Toll-like receptor-5 (TLR5) knock-out mice. IVAG immunization with the E6/E7 peptides plus flagellin induced the accumulation of CD4+ and CD8+ cells and the expression of T cell activation-related genes in the draining genital lymph nodes (gLNs). The co-administered flagellin elicited antigen-specific IFNγ production in the gLNs and spleen. The intravaginally administered flagellin was found in association with CD11c+ cells in the gLNs. Moreover, after immunization with a flagellin and the E6/E7 peptides, the TLR5 expression in gLN cells was significantly upregulated. These results suggest that flagellin serves as a potent vaginal adjuvant for a therapeutic peptide cancer vaccine through the activation of TLR5 signaling. PMID:27057462

  8. Zip-related genital injury

    PubMed Central

    Bagga, Herman S.; Tasian, Gregory E.; McGeady, James; Blaschko, Sarah D.; McCulloch, Charles E.; McAninch, Jack W.; Breyer, Benjamin N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the epidemiology of genital injuries caused by trouser zips and to educate both consumers and the caregivers of patients who sustain such injuries. Patients and Methods The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System, a dataset validated to provide a probability sample of patients who present to emergency departments (EDs) in the USA with injuries, was analysed to characterize zip-related genital injuries occurring between 2002 and 2010. A total of 523 cases were analysed to obtain national estimates. Results Between 2002 and 2010, an estimated 17 616 patients presented to US EDs with trouser zip injuries to the genitals. The penis was almost always the only genital organ involved. Zip injuries represented nearly one-fifth of all penile injuries. Amongst adults, zips were the most frequent cause of penile injuries. Annual zip-related genital injury incidence remained stable over the study period. Conclusions Zip-related genital injuries a3ect both paediatric and adult cohorts. Practitioners should be familiar with various zip-detachment strategies for these populations. PMID:23490164

  9. Molekulare Diagnostik der HPV Infektion

    PubMed Central

    Wentzensen, PD Dr. med. Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Carcinogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV) cause the majority of cervical cancers and other anogentical cancers. Large randomized trials have shown that HPV testing can be efficiently used for primary cervical cancer screening. Other applications include the triage of abnormal cytology results and the follow-up of women after treatment. Many assays have been developed to measure DNA, RNA, and proteins of HPV. The various tests can have very different applications. It is important to validate HPV assays before they are implemented in screening or clinical care. PMID:21845360

  10. The new human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine: pros and cons for pediatric and adolescent health.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Tami L

    2008-01-01

    The new human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is a research breakthrough for pediatric/adolescent health to prevent cervical cancer and related morbidity. The annual heath care cost for the treatment of cervical cancer and genital warts is estimated to be more than three billion dollars a year. The new HPV vaccine has incredible potential to improve reproductive health promotion, reduce health care costs, and close health care disparity gaps. However, issues both for and against the new HPV vaccine, including mandating vaccination, high cost of the vaccine, the short duration of protection offered, and the perceived promotion of sexual activity, cause confusion. Pediatric nurses, including those in advanced practice, benefit by understanding the pros and cons of these issues in advocating for their patients. PMID:19051848

  11. A novel multiplex real-time PCR assay for the detection and quantification of HPV16/18 and HSV1/2 in cervical cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Youyun; Cao, Xuan; Tang, Jingfeng; Zhou, Li; Gao, Yinglin; Wang, Jiangping; Zheng, Yi; Yin, Shanshan; Wang, Yefu

    2012-04-01

    Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), particularly HPV16 and HPV18, is the main cause of invasive cervical cancer, although other factors such as herpes simplex virus (HSV) may act in conjunction with HPV in this context. To explore the possibility of developing a system for rapid diagnosis and clinical screening of cervical cancer, we developed a multiplex real-time PCR assay that can simultaneously detect and quantify HPV16/18 and HSV1/2. To evaluate its possibilities and practical uses, 177 samples collected from patients with suspected HPV and HSV infection in exfoliated cervical cells, genital herpes or labial herpes were tested by multiplex real-time PCR and compared with results obtained by DNA sequencing. Each virus was detected over a range from 1.0נ10(1) to 1.0נ10(7) copies/reaction. The clinical sensitivity was 100% for HPV16/18 and HSV1/2. The clinical specificity was 97.1% for HPV16, 98.1% for HPV18, 97.0% for HSV1 and 96.0% for HSV2. The kappa value was 0.96 for HPV16, 0.92 for HPV18, 0.94 for HSV1 and 0.93 for HSV2, when DNA sequencing was used as the reference standard. In summary, this novel multiplex real-time PCR allows the rapid and specific detection of HPV16/18 and HSV1/2, as well as coinfection with HPV and HSV, in clinical samples. In the future, this multiplex real-time PCR assay will assist in cervical cancer screening, viral treatment evaluation and epidemiological studies in which high throughput analysis is required. PMID:22293505

  12. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Prevalence in Nasal and Antrochoanal Polyps and Association with Clinical Data

    PubMed Central

    Knr, Mareike; Tziridis, Konstantin; Agaimy, Abbas; Zenk, Johannes; Wendler, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The pathogenesis of sinonasal polyposis remains unclear, in spite of several investigative approaches. Antrochoanal polyps, a subgroup of sinonasal polyposis along with allergic- and chronic-inflammatory nasal polyps, mostly originate from the maxillary sinus and develop as a unilateral, pedunculated mass towards the nasopharynx. The human papillomavirus (HPV) is discussed as a possible causative and influencing factor in development and progression of sinonasal polyposis. This study aims to elucidate HPV frequency in nasal polyps and antrochoanal polyps. Materials and Methods Genomic DNA from 257 tissue specimens (166 nasal polyps, 39 antrochoanal polyps and 52 nasal turbinates) was subjected to three different established HPV- polymerase chain reaction assays, testing for 37 low- and high-risk HPV. In addition, immunohistochemical analyses for HPV16 were carried out, as well as immunohistochemistry and western blots of p16, a biomarker for HPV induced cancer. Results HPV-DNA was detected in 53.8% of antrochoanal polyps, 15.1% of nasal polyps, and 5.8% of nasal turbinates. HPV16 was the predominant type with a detection rate of 76% in nasal polyps and 62% in antrochoanal polyps. Immunohistochemically, HPV positive tissues stained positive for HPV16 antigens and p16 in epithelial cell layers. No significant p16 overexpression was traceable in antrochoanal polyps, nasal polyps and nasal turbinates by western blot. There was no correlation of HPV-status with sex, age, smoking, alcohol consumption or allergic background. Conclusion The present study shows a significant frequency of high-risk type HPV16 in antrochoanal polyps. Absence of oncogenic transformation or correlation of the HPV-status with clinical data suggests a latent superinfection, possibly because of anatomical proximity to the oropharynx. PMID:26509801

  13. Vietnamese Health Care Providers' Preferences Regarding Recommendation of HPV Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Asiedu, Gladys B; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Kremers, Walter K; Ngo, Quang V; Nguyen, Nguyen V; Barenberg, Benjamin J; Tran, Vinh D; Dinh, Tri A

    2015-01-01

    Physician recommendation is an important predictor of HPV vaccine acceptance; however, physician willingness and preferences regarding HPV vaccination may be influenced by factors including patient age, vaccine type, and cost. A cross-sectional survey was administered to a convenience sample of health care providers in Da Nang, Vietnam, to evaluate awareness, perceptions about HPV and HPV vaccines, and willingness to vaccinate a female patient. Willingness to vaccinate was evaluated using a full-factorial presentation of scenarios featuring the following factors: vaccine cost (free vs 1,000,000 VND), patient age (12, 16, or 22 years), and HPV vaccine type (bivalent vs quadrivalent). Responses from 244 providers were analyzed; providers had a mean age of 34±11.9 years; a majority were female, married, and had children of their own. Thirty-six percent specialized in obstetrics/gynecology and 24% were providers in family medicine. Of the three factors considered in conjoint analysis, vaccine cost was the most important factor in willingness to vaccinate, followed by patient age, and vaccine type. The most favorable scenario for vaccinating a female patient was when the vaccine was free, the patient was 22 years of age, and the HPV4 vaccine was described. In multivariable analysis, older age, being a physician, being married, and having children were all associated with increased willingness to recommend HPV vaccination (p<0.05). Provider willingness is an important aspect of successful HPV vaccination programs; identifying preferences and biases in recommendation patterns will highlight potential areas for education and intervention. PMID:26163611

  14. Comparison of Human Papillomavirus Detection by Aptima HPV and cobas HPV Tests in a Population of Women Referred for Colposcopy following Detection of Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance by Pap Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Philip E.; Eaton, Barbara; Reid, Jennifer; Dockter, Janel

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have compared the cobas HPV test to the Aptima HPV assay (AHPV) and the Aptima HPV 16 18/45 genotype assay (AHPV GT) for high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) detection, clinical performance in detecting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2) or more severe (CIN2+) diagnoses, and risk stratification by partial HPV genotyping. The cobas HPV test is a DNA test that separately and concurrently detects HPV16, HPV18, and a pool of 12 other hrHPV types. AHPV is an RNA test for a pool of 14 hrHPV genotypes, and AHPV GT is an RNA test run on AHPV-positive results to detect HPV16 separately from HPV18 and HPV45, which are detected together. In a population of patients (n = 988) referred for colposcopy because of a cervical Pap cytology result of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US), a cervical scrape specimen was taken, placed into a ThinPrep Pap test vial containing PreservCyt liquid cytology medium, and tested in a blinded fashion with cobas and AHPV and with AHPV GT for AHPV-positive results. The final diagnoses were based on a consensus panel review of the biopsy specimen histology. AHPV and cobas were equally sensitive for CIN2+ diagnoses (89.4% each; P = 1.000), and AHPV was more specific than cobas (63.1% versus 59.3%; P ≤ 0.001). The percent total agreement, percent positive agreement, and kappa value were 90.9%, 81.1%, and 0.815, respectively. Risk stratification using partial HPV genotyping was similar for the two assays. AHPV and AHPV GT had similar sensitivity and risk stratification to cobas HPV, but they were more specific than cobas HPV. PMID:25653409

  15. Male genital trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, G.H.; Gilbert, D.A.

    1988-07-01

    We have attempted to discuss genital trauma in relatively broad terms. In most cases, patients present with relatively minimal trauma. However, because of the complexity of the structures involved, minimal trauma can lead to significant disability later on. The process of erection requires correct functioning of the arterial, neurologic, and venous systems coupled with intact erectile bodies. The penis is composed of structures that are compliant and distensible to the limits of their compliance. These structures therefore tumesce in equal proportion to each other, allowing for straight erection. Relatively minimal trauma can upset this balance of elasticity, leading to disabling chordee. Likewise, relatively minimal injuries to the vascular erectile structures can lead to significantly disabling spongiofibrosis. The urethra is a conduit of paramount importance. Whereas the development of stricture is generally related to the nature of the trauma, the extent of stricture and of attendant complications is clearly a function of the immediate management. Overzealous debridement can greatly complicate subsequent reconstruction. A delicate balance between aggressive initial management and maximal preservation of viable structures must be achieved. 38 references.

  16. Genital examination of Hijras.

    PubMed

    Rehan, Naghma

    2011-07-01

    There is a common belief in Pakistan that hijras are born hermaphrodites or have undergone an emasculation procedure. There are many studies about socio-sexual behaviour of hijras, but one rarely finds any study regarding genital examination of hijras. Four hundred hijras from Karachi and Lahore were examined as part of National Study of Reproductive Tract Infection conducted in 2004. A random sample of the Gurus of Hijras in each city was taken and all hijras under selected Gurus were included in the study. The purpose of study was explained to each Guru/participant and only those, who consented, were included. Out of 400 hijras, penis and testes were absent in only three hijras (0.8%). Among the remaining 397 hijras, 98.3% were circumcised and 1.7% were non-circumcised. Inguinal Lymphadenopathy was the most common finding. The study dispels the myth that Hijras in Pakistan have ambiguous genitalia, are hermaphrodites or have undergone removal of male sexual organs. PMID:22204249

  17. High Prevalence and Genotype Diversity of Anal HPV Infection among MSM in Northern Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Supindham, Taweewat; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Utaipat, Utaiwan; Miura, Toshiyuki; Ruanpeng, Darin; Chotirosniramit, Nuntisa; Kosashunhanan, Natthapol; Sugandhavesa, Patcharaphan; Saokhieo, Pongpun; Songsupa, Radchanok; Siriaunkgul, Sumalee; Wongthanee, Antika

    2015-01-01

    Background HPV infection is common and may cause cancer among men who have sex with men (MSM). Anal HPV infection (HPV+) was found in 85% of HIV-positive (HIV+) and 59% of HIV-negative (HIV-) MSM in Bangkok, central Thailand. As little is known about HPV in this group in northern Thailand, we studied MSM subgroups comprised of gay men (GM), bisexual men (BM), and transgender women (TGW). Methods From July 2012 through January 2013, 85 (42.5% of 200) GM, 30 (15%) BM, and 85 (42.5%) TGW who practiced receptive anal intercourse were recruited after informed consent, followed by self-assisted computer interview, HIV testing, and anal swabs for HPV genotyping. Results Of 197 adequate specimens, the overall prevalence of any HPV was 157 (80%). Prevalence was 89% (76/85) in GM, 48% (14/29) in BM, and 81% (67/83) in TGW. The most common high-risk types were HPV16 (27% of 197), HPV58 (23%), and HPV51 (18%). Prevalence of high-risk types was 74% in 85 GM, 35% in 29 BM, and 71% in 83 TGW. Prevalence of any HPV type, or high-risk type, was 100% and 94%, respectively, among 48 HIV+ MSM, 70% and 54% among 120 HIV- MSM. Of the 197 specimens, 36% (70) had HPV types 16 and/or 18 in the bivalent vaccine, compared to 48% (95) with ≥1 of types 16/18/06/11 in the quadrivalent, 56% (111) for 16/18/31/33/45/52/58 in the 7-valent, and 64% (126) for 16/18/31/33/45/52/58/06/11 in the 9-valent. HIV+, GM, and TGW were independently associated with HPV infection. Conclusions We found higher rates of both any HPV and high-risk types than previous studies. Among the heretofore unstudied TGW, their equivalent HPV rates were comparable to GM. Current and investigational HPV vaccines could substantially protect GM, BM, and TGW from the serious consequences of HPV infection especially among HIV + MSM. PMID:25932915

  18. Detection of systemic and mucosal HPV-specific IgG and IgA antibodies in adolescent girls one and two years after HPV vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Scherpenisse, Mirte; Mollers, Madelief; Schepp, Rutger M.; Meijer, Chris J.L.M.; de Melker, Hester E.; Berbers, Guy A.M.; van der Klis, Fiona R.M.

    2013-01-01

    The bivalent HPV16/18 vaccine induces high antibody concentrations in serum while data about antibody responses in the cervix are limited. In this study, we investigated pre- and post-vaccination antibody responses against seven high-risk HPV types by detection of IgG and IgA HPV-specific antibodies in cervical secretion samples (CVS) and serum. From an HPV vaccine monitoring study CVS and serum samples were available (pre-vaccination (n = 297), one year (n = 211) and two years (n = 141) post-dose-one vaccination) from girls aged 14–16 y. The girls were vaccinated with the bivalent HPV vaccine at months 0, 1 and 6. CVS was self-sampled using a tampon. Samples were tested for HPV-specific antibodies (HPV16/18/31/33/45/52/58) by a VLP-based multiplex immunoassay. Post-vaccination, IgG and IgA antibody levels for HPV16/18 were detectable in CVS and amounted to 2% and 1% of the IgG and IgA antibody levels observed in serum, respectively. The antibody levels remained constant between one and two years after vaccination. The correlation between CVS and serum was similar for IgG and IgA vaccine-derived antibody levels for HPV16 (rs = 0.58, rs = 0.54) and HPV18 (rs = 0.50, rs = 0.55). Vaccine-derived IgG antibody levels against cross-reactive HPV types in CVS and in serum were highest for HPV45. No IgA cross-reactive antibody responses could be detected in CVS. Post-vaccination, HPV16/18 IgG and IgA antibodies are not only detectable in serum but also in CVS. The correlation of HPV16/18 IgG antibody levels between serum and CVS suggests that vaccine induced HPV antibodies transudate and/or exudate from the systemic circulation to the cervical mucosa to provide protection against HPV infections. PMID:23149693

  19. Human Papillomavirus Infection and Vaccination: Awareness and Knowledge of HPV and Acceptability of HPV Vaccine among Mothers of Teenage Daughters in Weihai, Shandong, China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jiandong; Li, Ruiying; Li, Meilan; Wang, Jianguang; Zhang, Dongfeng; Xu, Aiqiang

    2016-01-01

    In preparation for the introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, we investigated awareness and knowledge of HPV/HPV vaccine and potential acceptability to HPV vaccine among mothers with a teenage daughter in Weihai, Shandong, China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2013 with a sample of 1850 mothers who had a daughter (aged 9–17 years) attending primary, junior and senior high schools. In the final sample (N = 1578, response rate 85.30%), awareness of HPV was reported by 305 (19.32%) mothers. Awareness varied significantly by daughter’s age (P<0.01), mother’s education level (P<0.01), mother’s occupation (P<0.01), household income (P<0.01) and residence type (P<0.01). Knowledge about HPV/HPV vaccine was poor with a mean total score of 3.56 (SD = 2.40) out of a possible score of 13. Mothers with a higher education level reported higher levels of knowledge (P = 0.02). Slightly more than one-fourth (26.49%) of mothers expressed their potential acceptability of HPV vaccine for their daughters. Acceptability increased along with increased daughters’ age (P<0.01), household income (P<0.01) and knowledge level (P<0.01). House wives and unemployed mothers had the highest acceptability (P<0.01). The most common reasons for not accepting HPV vaccination were “My daughter is too young to have risk of cervical cancer (30.95%)”, “The vaccine has not been widely used, and the decision will be made after it is widely used (24.91%)”, “Worry about the safety of the vaccine (22.85%)”. Awareness and knowledge of HPV/HPV vaccines are poor and HPV vaccine acceptability is low among these Chinese mothers. These results may help inform appropriate health education programs in this population. PMID:26766565

  20. Transmission of human papillomavirus DNA from patient to surgical masks, gloves and oral mucosa of medical personnel during treatment of laryngeal papillomas and genital warts.

    PubMed

    Ilmarinen, Taru; Auvinen, Eeva; Hiltunen-Back, Eija; Ranki, Annamari; Aaltonen, Leena-Maija; Pitkäranta, Anne

    2012-11-01

    The risk of occupational human papillomavirus (HPV) transmission from patient to medical personnel during laser vaporization procedures remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of HPV transmission from the patient to the protective surgical masks, gloves and oral mucosa of medical personnel during the treatment of laryngeal papillomas and genital warts. The study involved five male patients scheduled for the surgical treatment of laryngeal papillomas, and five male patients undergoing carbon dioxide (CO(2)) laser treatment for urethral warts. Oral mucosa specimens were obtained from the study patients and the employees pre- and postoperatively. Samples were collected from the HPV-infected patient tissue, and from the surgical masks and gloves used by the employees. A total of 120 samples were analyzed for the presence of HPV DNA by PCR, using the degenerated MY09/11/HMB01 primers. After the papilloma procedures, the surgeons' gloves tested HPV positive in one of the five cases and those of the surgical nurse in three of the five cases. After the treatment of genital warts, HPV DNA corresponding to the patient tissue specimens was present in all the samples obtained from the surgical gloves of the operators. All oral mucosa samples obtained from 18 different employees tested HPV negative, as did the surgical mask specimens. According to our study, HPV may contaminate protective equipment, most of all surgical gloves, but transmission of HPV DNA to medical personnel is unlikely to occur provided that protective surgical gloves and masks are applied and disposed of properly. PMID:22588197

  1. HPV genotypes and associated cervical cytological abnormalities in women from the Pearl River Delta region of Guangdong province, China: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is important to understand the specific HPV genotype distribution in screen-detected lesions. HPV Genotype is helpful for separating HPV-positive women at greater risk of cancer from those who can regress spontaneously and for preventing cervical cancer at early stage. The aim of this study was to investigate the high-risk HPV genotype distribution among cervical cytology abnormality in Pearl River Delta Region, Southern China Methods 5585 HPV-infected women were screened from 77069 women in Pearl River Delta Region. Information was obtained from 3226 screened subjects through questionnaires and personal interviews. Exfoliated cervical cells were collected by doctors for HPV test with MassARRAY (Sequenom, Sandiego, CA) technique based on the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). The ThinPrep cytology test was performed to screen for cervical cancer. Unconditional logistic was used to determine the most common HPV carcinogenic types. Results Of the 3226 HPV-positive samples tested, 1744 (54.1%) with normal cervical cytology, 1482 (45.9%) with abnormal cytology. The five most common HPV types in this study were HPV16 (20.2%), HPV52 (17.1%), HPV58 (13.2%), HPV18 (9.5%), HPV6 (7.6%). Overall, HPV16 (OR = 10.5, 95% CI: 3.7 ~ 29.6), HPV33 (OR = 9.1, 95% CI: 2.8 ~ 29.2), HPV58 (OR = 6.3, 95% CI: 2.1 ~ 18.6), HPV31 (OR = 4.5, 95% CI: 1.3 ~ 15.5), multiple genotype infection (OR = 3.0, 95% CI: 1.7 ~ 14.7), especially HPV16 and HPV33, increased the risk of cytology abnormalities. Conclusions HPV16, HPV31, HPV33, HPV58, and multiple HPV genotype infection increased the risk of cytology abnormalities in Pearl River Delta Region and might be useful for the screening, preventing, treating, and monitoring of pre-cancer lesions in southern China. PMID:25016305

  2. Analytic and Clinical Performance of cobas HPV Testing in Anal Specimens from HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Follansbee, Stephen; Borgonovo, Sylvia; Tokugawa, Diane; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V.; Chen, Jie; Lorey, Thomas S.; Gage, Julia C.; Fetterman, Barbara; Boyle, Sean; Sadorra, Mark; Tang, Scott Dahai; Darragh, Teresa M.; Castle, Philip E.

    2014-01-01

    Anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are common, and the incidence of anal cancer is high in HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). To evaluate the performance of HPV assays in anal samples, we compared the cobas HPV test (cobas) to the Roche Linear Array HPV genotyping assay (LA) and cytology in HIV-infected MSM. Cytology and cobas and LA HPV testing were conducted for 342 subjects. We calculated agreement between the HPV assays and the clinical performance of HPV testing and HPV genotyping alone and in combination with anal cytology. We observed high agreement between cobas and LA, with cobas more likely than LA to show positive results for HPV16, HPV18, and other carcinogenic types. Specimens testing positive in cobas but not in LA were more likely to be positive for other markers of HPV-related disease compared to those testing negative in both assays, suggesting that at least some of these were true positives for HPV. cobas and LA showed high sensitivities but low specificities for the detection of anal intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3 (AIN2/3) in this population (100% sensitivity and 26% specificity for cobas versus 98.4% sensitivity and 28.9% specificity for LA). A combination of anal cytology and HPV genotyping provided the highest accuracy for detecting anal precancer. A higher HPV load was associated with a higher risk of AIN2/3 with HPV16 (Ptrend < 0.001), HPV18 (Ptrend = 0.07), and other carcinogenic types (Ptrend < 0.001). We demonstrate that cobas can be used for HPV detection in anal cytology specimens. Additional tests are necessary to identify men at the highest risk of anal cancer among those infected with high-risk HPV. PMID:24899025

  3. Levels of immunoglobulin G antibodies against defined epitopes of the L1 and L2 capsid proteins of human papillomavirus type 6 are elevated in men with a history of condylomata acuminata.

    PubMed Central

    Wikström, A; Eklund, C; Von Krogh, G; Lidbrink, P; Dillner, J

    1992-01-01

    Sera from 159 men attending the sexually transmitted disease clinic at Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden, were analyzed for the presence of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG antibodies to a panel of synthetic peptides derived from the E2, L1, and L2 regions of the human papillomavirus types 1 (HPV 1), 6, 8, 11, 16, 18, 31, and 33. The study subjects were divided into three groups: (i) asymptomatic men with no history of genital warts who served as controls, (ii) men with visible condylomata, and (iii) men who had previously been afflicted with condylomata. There were no significant differences in antibody titers for any of the HPV 6- or 11-derived peptides among patients with current condylomata and the controls. For the peptide from L1 of HPV 6, there was an increase in the IgG titers among men with previous condylomata compared with the titers for the controls (52% versus 27% seropositivity; P less than 0.05). Also, for the peptide from L2 of HPV 6, there was an increase in the IgG titers among men who had been afflicted with condylomata previously (P less than 0.05). Increased IgA antibody titers against an HPV 16-derived peptide and an HPV 18-derived peptide were also detected. For the peptides from L1 and L2 of HPV 6, the study was extended to an additional group of 127 males attending the sexually transmitted disease clinic at Huddinge Hospital in southern Stockholm. Again, significantly increased antibody levels were detected only for IgG and only among asymptomatic men with a history of condylomata (P < 0.01 for the L1 peptide and P < 0.05 for the L2 peptide). The results suggest that the IgG response against the late proteins of HPV 6 reflects mainly previous exposure to the virus rather than ongoing viral disease. PMID:1378454

  4. Impact of HPV infection on the development of head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Betiol, J.; Villa, L.L.; Sichero, L.

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is considered to be a distinct clinical entity with better prognosis than the classical tobacco- and alcohol-associated tumors. The increasing incidence of this neoplasia during the last decades highlights the need to better understand the role of HPV in the development of these cancers. Although the proportion of HNSCC attributed to HPV varies considerably according to anatomical site, overall approximately 25% of all HNSCC are HPV-DNA positive, and HPV-16 is by far the most prevalent type. In this review we discuss the existing evidence for a causal association between HPV infection and HNSCC at diverse anatomical head and neck subsites. PMID:23532264

  5. Impact of HPV infection on the development of head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Betiol, J; Villa, L L; Sichero, L

    2013-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is considered to be a distinct clinical entity with better prognosis than the classical tobacco- and alcohol-associated tumors. The increasing incidence of this neoplasia during the last decades highlights the need to better understand the role of HPV in the development of these cancers. Although the proportion of HNSCC attributed to HPV varies considerably according to anatomical site, overall approximately 25% of all HNSCC are HPV-DNA positive, and HPV-16 is by far the most prevalent type. In this review we discuss the existing evidence for a causal association between HPV infection and HNSCC at diverse anatomical head and neck subsites. PMID:23532264

  6. Population-based study for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in young women in Japan: A multicenter study by the Japanese human papillomavirus disease education research survey group (J-HERS).

    PubMed

    Sasagawa, Toshiyuki; Maehama, Toshiyuki; Ideta, Kazuhisa; Irie, Takuya

    2016-02-01

    A multi-center study was conducted to examine 6,628 eligible Japanese women aged from 16 to 50 years for uterine cervical abnormality and HPV infection with a liquid based-cytology test and a novel HPV test using the PCR-SSOP-Luminex(®) method identifying 31 HPV genotypes. In 3,047 normal subjects, the overall prevalence across all HPV types was 25%, while that of the common 13 high-risk (Common-13HR) types (HPV-16, 18. 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, and 68) was 17%, and that of the definite high-risk (Definite-HR) types (HPV-16, 18. 31, 33, 35, 45, 52, and 58) was 12%. For Definite-HR, HPV-52, 16, and 58 were the most common, HPV-31 was relatively common, and HPV-18 was less common, while HPV-33, 35, and 45 were rare. Seven Definite-HR excluding HPV-45 and seven Possible-HR (HPV-39, 51, 56, 66, 68, 70, and 82) HPV types were identified as a single type infection in patients with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) or worse. The Common-13HR types were detected in 89% of subjects with HSIL, whereas either Definite-HR or Possible-HR types were detected in 95% of HSIL. These 1420 HPV types appear to be involved with HSIL or worse in Japan. The prevalences of multiple-type HPV infections were identified in roughly half of HPV-positive subjects, and decreased significantly with age in normal population and abnormal cytology groups, although the prevalences of single-type infections increased with age in the latter group. Most HPV infections are cleared for some years, while a certain HR-HPV type persists to induce HSIL. J. Med. Virol. 88:324-335, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26147986

  7. Age-specific prevalence of HPV genotypes in cervical cytology samples with equivocal or low-grade lesions

    PubMed Central

    Brismar-Wendel, S; Froberg, M; Hjerpe, A; Andersson, S; Johansson, B

    2009-01-01

    Background: To define the spectrum of human papillomavirus (HPV) types and establish an age limit for triage HPV testing in atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). Materials and methods: 343 liquid-based cytological samples from the population-based screening programme with minor abnormalities were subjected to HPV genotyping (Linear Array, Roche, Basel, Switzerland). Results: High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) was found in 71% of LSIL and 49% of ASCUS cases (P<0.001). High-risk human papillomavirus prevalence was age-dependent in LSIL (P=0.01), with decreasing prevalence until the age of 50 years, followed by a slight increase. Human papillomavirus type 16 was the most common HR-HPV, found in 23% of HPV-positive women. Human papillomavirus type 18 was the sixth most common, found in 9.9% (P<0.001). An age-dependent quadratic trend was observed for multiple infections (P=0.01) with a trough at about 42 years. The most common HR-HPV types to show a coinfection with HPV16 (clade 9) were HPV39 (28%), 45 (38%), and 59 (46%), belonging to HPV18 clade 7. The frequency of low-risk (LR) vs probable HR and HR-HPV also followed an age-dependent quadratic trend. Conclusions: After the age of 25 years, HR-HPV prevalence is similar in LSIL and ASCUS cases, motivating a low age limit for triage HPV testing. Multiple infections and LR/HR-HPV dominance are age-dependent. Genotyping in longitudinal design is needed to elucidate the importance of multiple infections in cancer progression and in cross-protection from vaccination. PMID:19623178

  8. Epidemiology of genital human papillomavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Koutsky, L A; Galloway, D A; Holmes, K K

    1988-01-01

    Recent clinical research has suggested a link between specific human papillomavirus types and the development of cancers of the genital tract and anus; however, supportive epidemiologic data are not well developed. In both the US and the UK, condylomata acuminata is the most commonly diagnosed viral sexually transmitted disease. The highest incidence is among females 20-24 years of age. The results of 6 studies to examine the prevalence of human papillomavirus suggest a rate of 1-13%, with a positive association to the prevalence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in that population. It is estimated that genital human papillomavirus infection has a 10% prevalence among men and women in the US 15-49 years of age: 1% have condylomata, 2% have lesions visible only by magnification with the colposcope or hand lens, and 7% have clinically inapparent infections. Human papillomavirus types 6 and 11 tend to cause condylomata and low-grade epithelial cell atypia, while types 16, 18, and 31 have been found in higher-grade intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cervical cancers. Current evidence suggests a long latency between acquisition of genital papillomavirus infection and the development of cervical malignancy, with cervical cancer generally not developing until the 5th decade and beyond. From an epidemiologic point of view, the current research literature lacks evidence of careful selection and definition of study populations, consistent quality control of clinical and laboratory methods, and thorough statistical analyses. To make it more possible to compare the results of different studies, more attention to epidemiologic factors is needed. PMID:2852116

  9. Natural History of Cutaneous Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection in Men: The HIM Study

    PubMed Central

    Hampras, Shalaka S.; Giuliano, Anna R.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fisher, Kate J.; Abrahamsen, Martha E.; Sirak, Bradley A.; Iannacone, Michelle R.; Gheit, Tarik; Tommasino, Massimo; Rollison, Dana E.

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Little is known about the natural history of cutaneous HPV. A sub-cohort of 209 men with no NMSC history, initially enrolled in the HPV infection in men (HIM) study, were followed for a median of 12.6 months. Epidemiological data were collected through self-administered questionnaires. Cutaneous HPV DNA was measured in normal skin swabs (SS) and eyebrow hairs (EB) for 25 and 16 HPV types in genera β and γ, respectively. Any β HPV infection was more prevalent in SS (67.3%) compared to EB (56.5%, p = 0.04). Incidence in SS was higher than 20 per 1,000 person-months for HPV types 4, 5, 23, 38 and 76. Median duration of persistence of β and γ HPV infection was 8.6 and 6.1 months in EB, respectively, and 11.3 months and 6.3 months, in SS, respectively. Older age (>44 years vs. 18-30 years) was significantly associated with prevalent (SS OR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.2–7.0) and persistent β HPV infection (EB OR = 6.1, 95% CI = 2.6–14.1). History of blistering sunburn was associated with prevalent (OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.3–5.8) and persistent (OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.2–4.6) β HPV infection in SS. Cutaneous HPV is highly prevalent in men, with age and blistering sunburn being significant risk factors for cutaneous β HPV infection. PMID:25198694

  10. Gene expression profiling in male genital lichen sclerosus.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Emma; Barton, Geraint; Buisson, Sandrine; Francis, Nick; Gotch, Frances; Game, Laurence; Haddad, Munther; Dinneen, Michael; Bunker, Chris

    2011-10-01

    Male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc) has a bimodal distribution in boys and men. It is associated with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The pathogenesis of MGLSc is unknown. HPV and autoimmune mechanisms have been mooted. Anti extracellular matrix protein (ECM)1 antibodies have been identified in women with GLSc. The gene expression pattern of LSc is unknown. Using DNA microarrays we studied differences in gene expression in healthy and diseased prepuces obtained at circumcision in adult males with MGLSc (n = 4), paediatric LSc (n = 2) and normal healthy paediatric foreskin (n = 4). In adult samples 51 genes with significantly increased expression and 87 genes with significantly reduced expression were identified; paediatric samples revealed 190 genes with significantly increased expression and 148 genes with significantly reduced expression. Concordance of expression profiles between adult and paediatric samples indicates the same disease process. Functional analysis revealed increased expression in the adult and child MGSLc samples in the immune response/cellular defence gene ontology (GO) category and reduced expression in other categories including genes related to squamous cancer. No specific HPV, autoimmune or squamous carcinogenesis-associated gene expression patterns were found. ECM1 and CABLES1 expression were significantly reduced in paediatric and adult samples respectively. PMID:21718371

  11. Managing external genital warts: practical aspects of treatment and prevention.

    PubMed

    Bourcier, Marc; Bhatia, Neal; Lynde, Charles; Vender, Ronald

    2013-12-01

    Rising rates of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in recent decades, including external genital warts (EGWs), underscore the need for effective management of this common sexually transmitted disease. Although treatment is a vital aspect that aims primarily to resolve physical symptoms, health care providers must also address the psychosocial burden that typically accompanies diagnosis, treatment, remission, and recurrence. Education and counseling are integral components of care to address the cascade of negative emotional reactions that follow diagnosis, which often include anger, shame, stigma, frustration, and fear. Health care providers should offer patient information that is clear and simple, both verbally and in written form. Research to date has shown that information is most helpful when it is conveyed in a supportive tone and avoids stigmatization. Treatment decisions should consider the patient's preferences and the clinician's ability to offer certain therapies. A locally relevant algorithm and an individualized treatment approach are recommended by various treatment guidelines to improve the chances of compliance and treatment success. Given that success rates are variable, monitoring treatment is also necessary to gauge the patient's response to treatment, local reactions, and the potential need to switch treatments. Patients diagnosed with EGWs should also be screened for other sexually transmitted diseases because coinfection is common. Vaccination is becoming an increasingly important aspect of prevention strategies for HPV infections and should be considered for eligible patients. PMID:24388561

  12. Human papillomavirus type 18 is associated with less apoptosis in fibroblast tumours than human papillomavirus type 16.

    PubMed Central

    Arends, M. J.; Wyllie, A. H.; Bird, C. C.

    1995-01-01

    In human cervical neoplasia human papillomavirus (HPV) type 18 has a higher cancer/cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) prevalence ratio than HPV 16. Fibrosarcomas derived from rat fibroblasts transfected with HPV 16 or 18 genomes showed increased apoptosis compared with controls. However, HPV 18 was associated with significantly less apoptosis than HPV 16, affording one possible explanation for the more rapidly progressive cervical neoplasia associated with HPV 18. PMID:7669576

  13. [Prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in Belém, Pará State, Brazil, in the oral cavity of individuals without clinically diagnosable injuries].

    PubMed

    Araújo, Marizeli Viana de Aragão; Pinheiro, Helder Henrique Costa; Pinheiro, João de Jesus Viana; Quaresma, Juarez Antônio Simões; Fuzii, Hellen Thais; Medeiros, Rita Catarina

    2014-05-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to determine HPV prevalence in the oral cavity of individuals without clinically diagnosable lesions and to identify the respective HPV types. A total of 166 samples were analyzed from patients 18 years or older in the State of Pará, Brazil. Samples were collected by sterile brush scraping in the oral cavity. HPV detection used polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Infected samples were typed as HPV 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 52, and 58. HPV was present in 40 samples (24.1%). Three samples (7.5%) were positive for HPV 6, five (12.5%) for HPV 18, and one (2.5%) for HPV 58. PMID:24936827

  14. Incidence and persistence of carcinogenic genital human papillomavirus infections in young women with or without Chlamydia trachomatis co-infection

    PubMed Central

    Vriend, Henrike J; Bogaards, Johannes A; van Bergen, Jan E A M; Brink, Antoinette A T P; van den Broek, Ingrid V F; Hoebe, Christian J P A; King, Audrey J; van der Sande, Marianne A B; Wolffs, Petra F G; de Melker, Hester E

    2015-01-01

    We assessed whether infection with chlamydia increases the incidence of carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and if HPV persistence is affected by chlamydia co-infection. For 1982 women (16–29 years-old) participating in two consecutive rounds of a chlamydia screening implementation trial, swabs were polymerase chain reaction tested to detect chlamydia and 14 carcinogenic HPV genotypes. HPV type-specific incidence and persistence rates were stratified for chlamydia positivity at follow-up. Associations were assessed by multilevel logistic regression analyses with correction for sexual risk factors. HPV type-specific incidence ranged from 1.4% to 8.9% and persistence from 22.7% to 59.4% after a median follow-up of 11 months (interquartile range: 11–12). Differences in 1-year HPV persistence rates between chlamydia -infected and noninfected women were less distinct than differences in HPV incidence rates (pooled adjusted odds ratios of 1.17 [95% CI: 0.69–1.96] and 1.84 [95% CI: 1.36–2.47], respectively). The effect of chlamydia co-infection on HPV-infection risk did not significantly differ by HPV genotype. In conclusion, infection with chlamydia increases the risk of infection by carcinogenic HPV types and may enhance persistence of some HPV types. Although these findings could reflect residual confounding through unobserved risk factors, our results do give reason to explore more fully the association between chlamydia and HPV type-specific acquisition and persistence. PMID:26194784

  15. Warts and All: HPV in Primary Immunodeficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Leiding, Jennifer W.; Holland, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Infection with human papilloma virus (HPV) is almost universal and eventually asymptomatic, but pathologic infection with HPV is severe, recurrent, and recalcitrant to therapy. It is also an underappreciated manifestation of primary immunodeficiency. Mutations in EVER1, EVER2, GATA2, CXCR4, and DOCK8 are typically associated with extensive HPV infections, whereas several other primary immune defects have severe HPV much less frequently. We review immunodeficiencies with severe HPV infections and the mechanisms underlying them. PMID:23036745

  16. Quantifying the broader economic consequences of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in Germany applying a government perspective framework.

    PubMed

    Kotsopoulos, Nikolaos; Connolly, Mark P; Remy, Vanessa

    2015-12-01

    HPV infections can cause substantial burden in females and males as it is associated with several genital cancers, in addition to genital warts. Traditional economic evaluations often focus on quantifying cost-effectiveness, however, it is increasingly recognized that vaccinations may generate broader benefits not captured in cost-effectiveness analysis. Τhe aim of this study was to evaluate the broader economic consequences associated with HPV vaccination in males and females and to conduct a lifetime cost-benefit analysis of investing in universal vaccination in Germany from the perspective of government. Methodologies from generational accounting, human capital and health economics were combined to estimate the broader economic consequences of HPV vaccination including the fiscal impact for the government. A cohort model was developed simulating the medical costs and average lifetime fiscal transfers between the government and 12-year-old immunized and non-immunized males and females. To estimate tax revenue attributed to vaccination-related changes in morbidity and mortality, direct and indirect tax rates were linked to differences in age- and gender-specific earnings. Based on HPV vaccination costs, the base case cost-benefit analysis demonstrated that investing 1 in universal HPV vaccination could yield 1.7 in gross tax revenue over the lifetime of the cohorts. After taking into consideration the governmental transfers, universal HPV vaccination in Germany could result in incremental positive net discounted taxes (i.e. tax revenue-transfers) from 62 million for the German government. The vaccination of males and females with the quadrivalent HPV vaccine is likely to have positive effects on public finances. PMID:26198884

  17. Clinical Study of Styping Detection of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection with Microarray from Paraffinembedded Specimens of Cervical Cancer and Precursor Lesions.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai; Wang, Xubo; Geng, Jianxiang; Zhao, Xue

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence and type distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in Jiangsu, China was investigated. A total of 93 cases with cervical cancer and 176 CINII-III tissue samples were obtained from women undergoing biopsy or surgery. The 1047 exfoliated cervical cell samples were collected with cervical brush in physical examination women. HPV DNA and typing were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gene-chip. The results showed that HPV DNA was detected in 82 cases with cervical cancer (88.17%), HPV 16 being detected in 65 (69.89%) cases, HPV 18 in 12 (12.90%) cases, HPV 33 in 10 (10.75%) cases, HPV 31 in 4 (4.30%) cases, and HPV 45 in 3 (3.23%) cases. HPV DNA was detected in 154 cases with CINII-III (87.50%), HPV 16 being detected in 92 (52.27%) cases, HPV 18 in 50 (28.41%) cases, HPV 33 in 25 (14.21%) cases, HPV 58 in 25 (14.21%) cases, and HPV 31 in 20 (11.36%) cases. About 20.43% cervical cancer and 38.64% CINII-III specimens exhibited multiple infections (p < 0.01). The total positive rate, single infection and mixed infection rate of the CINII-III and SCC group all had a significant difference (p < 0.05) when compared with the normal cells group. The total positive rate, single infection rate and mixed infection rate of CINII-III group did not show significant difference (p > 0.05) when compared with SCC group. CINII-III and SCC had all intimate relation with HPV infection. The high prevalence of HPV 16, 18, 33, 31 and 58 in Jiangsu (China) deserves more attention, as it has important implications for the successful use of HPV vaccine and choice of diagnostic methods. PMID:26716195

  18. Phase II studies to select the formulation of a multivalent HPV L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Luxembourg, Alain; Brown, Darron; Bouchard, Celine; Giuliano, Anna R; Iversen, Ole-Erik; Joura, Elmar A; Penny, Mary E; Restrepo, Jaime A; Romaguera, Josefina; Maansson, Roger; Moeller, Erin; Ritter, Michael; Chen, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to develop a multivalent prophylactic HPV vaccine that protects against infection and disease caused by HPV16/18 (oncogenic types in existing prophylactic vaccines) plus additional oncogenic types by conducting 3 Phase II studies comparing the immunogenicity (i.e., anti-HPV6/11/16/18 geometric mean titers [GMT]) and safety of 7 vaccine candidates with the licensed quadrivalent HPV6/11/16/18 vaccine (qHPV vaccine) in young women ages 16–26. In the first study (Study 1), subjects received one of 3 dose formulations of an 8-valent HPV6/11/16/18/31/45/52/58 vaccine or qHPV vaccine (control). In Study 2, subjects received one of 3 dose formulations (termed low-, mid-, and high-dose formulations, respectively) of a 9-valent HPV6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 vaccine (9vHPV vaccine) or qHPV vaccine (control). In Study 3, subjects concomitantly received qHPV vaccine plus 5-valent HPV31/33/45/52/58 or qHPV vaccine plus placebo (control). All vaccines were administered at day 1/month 2/month 6. In studies 1 and 3, anti-HPV6/11/16/18 GMTs at month 7 were non-inferior in the experimental arms compared with the control arm; however, there was a trend for lower antibody responses for all 4 HPV types. In Study 2, this immune interference was overcome with the mid- and high-dose formulations of the 9vHPV vaccine by increasing antigen and adjuvant doses. In all 3 studies, all vaccine candidates were strongly immunogenic with respect to HPV31/33/45/52/58 and were well tolerated. Based on the totality of the results, the middle dose formulation of the 9vHPV vaccine was selected for Phase III evaluation. Each 0.5mL dose contains 30μg/40μg/60μg/40μg/20μg/20μg/20μg/20μg/20μg of HPV6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 virus-like particles, and 500μg of amorphous aluminum hydroxyphosphate sulfate adjuvant.ClinicalTrials.gov numbers NCT00260039, NCT00543543, and NCT00551187. PMID:25912208

  19. What School Nurses Need to Know about Cervical Cancer, HPV, and the New Vaccine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrhardt, Jeanie

    2007-01-01

    At least 12,000 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer each year in the United States, accounting for at least 4,000 deaths. Worldwide, cervical cancer is the second most common type of cancer among women. The human papilloma virus (HPV) has been linked to at least 70% of all cervical cancer. HPV can be divided into 2 categories: (a) low risk,

  20. [Prokaryotic expression and polyclonal antibody preparation of HPV6b E7 protein].

    PubMed

    Tang, Yi; Zhou, Qiang; Wang, Qi; Cheng, Hao

    2011-09-01

    To express and prepare polyclonal antibody of Human papillomavirus type 6b (HPV6b) E7 protein. a prokaryotic expression vector pGEX-4T-2/HPV6b E7 was constructed and GST-HPV6b E7 fusion protein was expressed as a soluble protein in E. coli. The expressed fusion protein was purified via Glutathione-Sepharose 4B column and thrombin cleavage in order to obtain HPV6b E7 protein. Polyclonal IgG antibody was prepared by immunizing New-Zealand rabbits with HPV6b E7 protein. Western-Blot and immunofluorescence analysis showed that the polyclonal IgG antibody could specifically recognize HPV6b E7 protein and its titer was identified. SDS-PAGE analysis demonstrated that large amounts of soluble GST-HPV6b E7 fusion protein was expressed in E. coli after 3.0-6.0 hours of IPTG induction. Polyclonal IgG antibody successfully prepared from immunized rabbits showed high titer and high specificity as confirmed by Western-Blot and immunofluorescence. The preparation of anti-HPV6b E7 polyclonal antibody will facilitate further research on the biological and immunological functions of HPV6b E7 protein. PMID:21998951

  1. HPV Genotyping and Site of Viral Integration in Cervical Cancers in Indian Women

    PubMed Central

    Das, Poulami; Thomas, Asha; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Shrivastava, Shyam K.; Deodhar, Kedar; Mulherkar, Rita

    2012-01-01

    Persistent HPV infection plays a major role in cervical cancer. This study was undertaken to identify HPV types in a cohort of Indian women with locally advanced cervical cancer as well as to determine the physical state and/or site of viral integration in the host genome. Pretreatment biopsies (n = 270) from patients were screened for HPV infection by a high throughput HPV genotyping assay based on luminex xMAP technology as well as MY09/11 PCR and SPF1/2 PCR. Overall HPV positivity was observed to be 95%, with HPV16 being most common (63%) followed by infection with HPV18. Integration status of the virus was identified using Amplification of Papillomavirus Oncogene Transcripts (APOT) assay in a subset of samples positive for HPV16 and/or HPV18 (n = 86) and with an adequate follow-up. The data was correlated with clinical outcome of the patients. Integration of the viral genome was observed in 79% of the cases and a preference for integration into the chromosomal loci 1p, 3q, 6q, 11q, 13q and 20q was seen. Clinical data revealed that the physical state of the virus (integrated or episomal) could be an important prognostic marker for cervical cancer. PMID:22815898

  2. First HSV-1 non primary genital herpes in two patients.

    PubMed

    Fouéré, Sébastien; Chaine, Bénédicte; Maylin, Sarah; Minier, Marine; Vallée, Pascale; Scieux, Catherine; Lassau, François; Legoff, Jérôme; Janier, Michel

    2016-05-01

    First HSV-1 genital episodes in HSV-2 infected patients however, had never been demonstrated until the 2 cases we observed. This scarcity could reflect the lower impact of HSV-2 on western populations but questions the existence of cross-protection between viral types. PMID:27018573

  3. Anal HPV/HIV co-infection among Men Who Have Sex with Men: a cross-sectional survey from three cities in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangwei; Li, Mufei; Yang, Yu; Zhong, Xiang; Feng, Boxuan; Xin, Henan; Li, Zhen; Jin, Qi; Gao, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, which is linked to anal warts and anal cancer, is common among men who have sex with men (MSM), especially among those HIV positives. MSM aged 18 years or older were recruited from mainland China. Blood and anal cytologic samples were collected for HIV-1 serological test and HPV genotyping. A total of 889 eligible participations were included. The genotyping results of HPV were available for 822 participants (92.46%), 65.32% of which were positive for the targeted 37 HPV types. Prevalence of infection with any type of HPV was higher among HIV-infected participants (82.69%) as compared to HIV-uninfected participants (62.81%) (p < 0.01). HPV06 (15.45%), HPV18(13.50%), HPV16 (11.44%), and HPV11 (10.71%) were the most frequent types identified in the study population. Ever had paid sex with man was found to be independent predictor for HPV positivity with an adjusted odds ratios (OR) of 2.34 (1.16-4.74). Anal HPV positivity was observed to be independently associated with HIV infection with an adjusted OR of 3.03 (1.76-5.21) in the study population. In conclusion, the prevalence of anal HPV infection was observed to be common among MSM from mainland China, and it was significantly associated with the status of HIV infection. PMID:26892938

  4. Anal HPV/HIV co-infection among Men Who Have Sex with Men: a cross-sectional survey from three cities in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiangwei; Li, Mufei; Yang, Yu; Zhong, Xiang; Feng, Boxuan; Xin, Henan; Li, Zhen; Jin, Qi; Gao, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, which is linked to anal warts and anal cancer, is common among men who have sex with men (MSM), especially among those HIV positives. MSM aged 18 years or older were recruited from mainland China. Blood and anal cytologic samples were collected for HIV-1 serological test and HPV genotyping. A total of 889 eligible participations were included. The genotyping results of HPV were available for 822 participants (92.46%), 65.32% of which were positive for the targeted 37 HPV types. Prevalence of infection with any type of HPV was higher among HIV-infected participants (82.69%) as compared to HIV-uninfected participants (62.81%) (p < 0.01). HPV06 (15.45%), HPV18(13.50%), HPV16 (11.44%), and HPV11 (10.71%) were the most frequent types identified in the study population. Ever had paid sex with man was found to be independent predictor for HPV positivity with an adjusted odds ratios (OR) of 2.34 (1.16–4.74). Anal HPV positivity was observed to be independently associated with HIV infection with an adjusted OR of 3.03 (1.76–5.21) in the study population. In conclusion, the prevalence of anal HPV infection was observed to be common among MSM from mainland China, and it was significantly associated with the status of HIV infection. PMID:26892938

  5. Alcohol and Tobacco Increases Risk of High Risk HPV Infection in Head and Neck Cancer Patients: Study from North-East Region of India

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rupesh; Rai, Avdhesh Kumar; Das, Debabrata; Das, Rajjyoti; Kumar, R. Suresh; Sarma, Anupam; Sharma, Shashi; Kataki, Amal Chandra; Ramteke, Anand

    2015-01-01

    Background Human papilloma virus (HPV) associated Head and Neck Cancers (HNCs) have generated significant amount of research interest in recent times. Due to high incidence of HNCs and lack of sufficient data on high-risk HPV (hr-HPV) infection from North -East region of India, this study was conceived to investigate hr-HPV infection, its types and its association with life style habits such as tobacco, alcohol consumption etc. Methods A total of one hundred and six primary HNC tumor biopsy specimens were collected. These samples were analyzed for hr-HPV DNA (13 HPV types) using hybrid capture 2 (HC2) assay and genotyping was done by E6 nested multiplex PCR (NMPCR). Results The presence of hr-HPV was confirmed in 31.13% (n = 33) and 24.52% (n = 26) of the HNC patients by nested multiplex PCR (NMPCR) and HC2 assay respectively. Among hr-HPV positive cases, out of thirteen hr- HPV types analyzed, only two prevalent genotypes, HPV-16 (81.81%) followed by HPV-18 (18.18%) were found. Significant association was observed between hr-HPV infection with alcohol consumption (p <0.001) and tobacco chewing (p = 0.02) in HNC cases. Compared to HPV-18 infection the HPV-16 was found to be significantly associated with tobacco chewing (p = 0.02) habit. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that tobacco chewing and alcohol consumption may act as risk factors for hr-HPV infection in HNCs from the North-East region of India. This was the first study from North-East India which also assessed the clinical applicability of HC2 assay in HNC patient specimens. We suggest that alcohol, tobacco and hr- HPV infection act synergistically or complement each other in the process of HNC development and progression in the present study population. PMID:26473489

  6. Consistent condom use increases spontaneous regression in high-risk non-HPV16 but not in HPV16 CIN2-3 lesions, a prospective population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The major cause of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) is persistent infection with human papillomavirus (HPV). Most CIN grade 2 and 3 lesions are treated with cone excision, although a substantial proportion (6-50%) of CIN2-3 lesions will regresses spontaneously. Predictors for regression of CIN2-3 are desirable in order to reduce this overtreatment. Methods In this prospective cohort study, 145 consecutive women with first-time onset CIN2-3 in colposcopy-directed biopsies and standardized biopsy-cone excision interval were included. The genotype of the high-risk human papillomaviruses (=hrHPV) and clinical factors including sexual behaviour, parity, contraception and smoking were assessed. Patients were divided into two groups according to lesions containing HPV16 (hrHPV16+) and high-risk non-HPV16 (hrHPV16-) genotypes. Results Women whose partners consistently used condoms showed a significantly higher regression rate than women using other types of contraception (53% versus 13%, p<0.0001). However, this effect was only seen in hrHPV16- patients (73% regression rate versus 13%, p<0.0001). HrHPV16+ patients had a significantly higher number of sexual partners and more current smokers compared to hrHPV16- patients. The regression rate was not significantly different in CIN2-3 lesions containing HPV16 (hrHPV16+) versus hrHPV16- genotypes. Conclusions Heterogeneity among hrHPV genotypes excists. HPV-genotype analyses can identify women who significantly increase their chance of regression by consistent condom use. PMID:23126423

  7. High-risk and multiple human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in cancer-free Jamaican women

    PubMed Central

    Watt, Angela; Garwood, David; Jackson, Maria; Younger, Novie; Ragin, Camille; Smikle, Monica; Fletcher, Horace; McFarlane-Anderson, Norma

    2009-01-01

    Background Vaccines, that target human papillomavirus (HPV) high risk genotypes 16 and 18, have recently been developed. This study was aimed at determining genotypes commonly found in high-risk and multiple-HPV infections in Jamaican women. Two hundred and fifty three (253) women were enrolled in the study. Of these, 120 pregnant women, aged 1544 years, were recruited from the Ante Natal Clinic at the University Hospital of the West Indies and 116 non-pregnant, aged 1983, from a family practice in Western Jamaica. Cervical cell samples were collected from the women and HPV DNA was detected using Polymerase Chain Reaction and Reverse Line Hybridization. HPV genotypes were assessed in 236 women. Data were collected from January 2003 to October 2006. Results HPV DNA was detected in 87.7% (207/236) and of these 80.2% were positive for high-risk types. The most common high-risk HPV types were: HPV 45 (21.7%), HPV 58 (18.8%), HPV 16 (18.4%), HPV 35 (15.0%), HPV 18 (14.5%), HPV 52 (12.0%) and HPV 51(11.1%). Other high-risk types were present in frequencies of 1.4% 7.2%. Multivariate regression analyses showed that bacterial vaginosis predicted the presence of multiple infections (OR 3.51; CI, 1.269.82) and that alcohol use (OR 0.31; CI, 0.150.85) and age at first sexual encounter (1215 years: OR 3.56; CI, 1.419.12; 1619 years, OR 3.53, CI, 1.2210.23) were significantly associated with high risk infections. Cervical cytology was normal in the majority of women despite the presence of high-risk and multiple infections. Conclusion HPV genotype distribution in this group of Jamaican women differs from the patterns found in Europe, North America and some parts of Asia. It may be necessary therefore to consider development of other vaccines which target genotypes found in our and similar populations. HPV genotyping as well as Pap smears should be considered. PMID:19208202

  8. Perspectives for Preventive and Therapeutic HPV Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ken; Doolan, Kimberley; Hung, Chien-Fu; Wu, T-C

    2010-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of female cancer death worldwide. Persistent infection with `high risk' HPV genotypes is the major etiological factor in cervical cancer and thus effective vaccination against HPV provides an opportunity to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with HPV. The FDA has approved two preventive vaccines to limit the spread of HPV. However, these are unlikely to impact upon HPV prevalence and cervical cancer rates for many years. Furthermore, preventive vaccines do not exert therapeutic effects on pre-existing HPV infections and HPV-associated lesions. In order to further impact upon the burden of HPV infections worldwide, therapeutic vaccines are being developed. These vaccines aim to generate a cell-mediated immune response to infected cells. This review discusses current preventive and therapeutic HPV vaccines and their future directions. PMID:20123582

  9. Anal Cytology and Human Papillomavirus Genotyping in Women With a History of Lower Genital Tract Neoplasia Compared With Low-Risk Women

    PubMed Central

    Robison, Katina; Cronin, Beth; Bregar, Amy; Luis, Christine; DiSilvestro, Paul; Schechter, Steven; Pisharodi, Latha; Raker, Christina; Clark, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare the prevalence of abnormal anal cytology and high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) among women with a history of HPV-related genital neoplasia with women without a history of HPV-related genital neoplasia. METHODS A cross-sectional cohort study was performed from December 2012 to February 2014. Women were recruited from outpatient clinics at an academic medical center. Women with a history of high-grade cervical, vulvar, or vaginal cytology, dysplasia, or cancer were considered the high-risk group. Women with no history of high-grade anogenital dysplasia or cancer were considered the low-risk group. Human immunodeficiency virus–positive women were excluded. Anal cytology and HPV genotyping were performed. Women with abnormal anal cytology were referred for high-resolution anoscopy. RESULTS There were 190 women in the high-risk group and 83 in the low-risk group. The high-risk group was slightly older: 57 years compared with 47 years (P=.045); 21.7% of low-risk women had abnormal anal cytology compared with 41.2% of high-risk women (P=.006). High-risk HPV was detected in the anal canal of 1.2% of the low-risk group compared with 20.8% of the high-risk group (P<.001). Among women who underwent anoscopy, no anal dysplasia was detected in the low-risk group, whereas 13.4% in the high-risk group had anal dysplasia with 4.2% having anal intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or greater (P<.001). CONCLUSION Human immunodeficiency virus–negative women with a history of lower genital tract neoplasia are more likely to have positive anal cytology, anal high-risk HPV, and anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Anal cancer screening should be considered for these high-risk women. PMID:26551180

  10. HPV Infection and Cervical Screening in Socially Isolated Indigenous Women Inhabitants of the Amazonian Rainforest

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Allex Jardim; Taeko, Daniela; Chaves, Thiciane Araújo; Amorim, Lucia Dayanny da Costa; Murari, Raisa Saron Wanderley; Miranda, Angélica Espinosa; Chen, Zigui; Burk, Robert David; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos Lima

    2015-01-01

    Objective Indigenous women from the Amazon regions have some of the highest rates of cervical cancer in the world. This study evaluated cervical cytology and human papillomavirus (HPV) in native women that differ by lifestyle and interaction with western society. Yanomami women are isolated deep in the Amazon with a hunter/gatherer lifestyle. Macuxi and Wapishana women live in proximity to western society. Methods To select a representative group of women from each district, random cluster sampling was used, considering each registered village as a cluster. Cervical samples were collected for cytology and HPV detection and typing by PCR amplification and next generation sequencing. The study was approved by the National IRB and by tribal leaders. Results 664 native women were enrolled from 13 indigenous villages (76% participation rate). Yanomami women had higher rates of abnormal cytology (5.1% vs. 1.8%, p = 0.04) and prevalent HR-HPV (34.1% vs. 19.2%, p<0.001). Yanomami women >35y of age were significantly more likely to have HR-HPV, whereas women ≤35y did not significantly differ between groups. Prevalence of HPV was significantly different amongst geographically clustered Yanomami women (p<0.004). The most prevalent HPV types in the entire group were HPV31 (8.7%), HPV16 (5.9%) and HPV18 (4.4%). Conclusion Isolated endogenous Yanomami women were more likely to be HPV+ and rates increased with age. Study of HPV in isolated hunter-gather peoples suggests that long-term persistence is a characteristic of prehistoric humans and patterns reflecting decreased prevalence with age in western society represents recent change. These studies have implications for cervical cancer prevention and viral-host relationships. PMID:26207895

  11. Implication of high risk human papillomavirus HR-HPV infection in prostate cancer in Indian population--a pioneering case-control analysis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Neha; Hussain, Showket; Kakkar, Nandita; Singh, Shrawan K; Sobti, Ranbir C; Bharadwaj, Mausumi

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer with sexual history as a consistent risk factor. This is the pioneering study that evaluates the frequency of HPV infection in prostate cancer in India. Ninety five (95) histopathologically confirmed cancer and fifty five (55) BPH from Indian population were analyzed for HPV infection using a pair of consensus sequence primer followed by type specific PCRs for both high-risk and low-risk HPV types. The data demonstrate HPV infection in 41% of prostate tumor biopsies and 20% in BPH. Subsequent PCR- based HPV typing using type - specific primers revealed 32% were infected with HPV type 16 whereas 6% were found to be positive for HPV type 18, while in BPH controls only 5% of the BPH controls were infected with HPV 16 and this difference was highly significant (p = 0.0004). Significant proportion of HPV infected (74%) cases belonged to stage III and IV (p < 0.001) with a high Gleason score ≥ 8 (p = 0.003). The study represents for the first time the incidence of HPV infection in prostate cancer in Indian population and strengthens the hypothesis that HPV infection could be one of the co factor associated with progression of prostate cancer. PMID:25592643

  12. Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Treated With Radiotherapy or Radiochemotherapy: Prognostic Role of TP53 and HPV Status

    SciTech Connect

    Fallai, Carlo; Perrone, Federica; Licitra, Lisa; Pilotti, Silvana; Locati, Laura; Bossi, Paolo; Orlandi, Ester; Palazzi, Mauro; Olmi, Patrizia

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: To study the prognostic value of the TP53 mutation and human papilloma virus (HPV) status in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). Methods and materials: The TP53 mutation and HPV status were analyzed in 78 cases of locoregionally advanced OPSCC. The possible correlation of these factors with locoregiownal control, relapse-free survival, disease-specific survival, and overall survival (OS) was also investigated. Results: Of these 78 cases, 22 had disruptive and 22 had non-disruptive (silent) TP53 mutations; the remaining 34 cases had wild-type (WT) TP53. HPV 16 DNA was found in 9 cases (11%), but all HPV-positive (HPV+) cases carried a functional p53 protein, except for 1 case that had a silent mutation. HPV+ patients fared better than HPV-negative (HPV-) patients in terms of all survival parameters, with highly statistically significant differences between the groups. Specifically, no distant metastases were observed in the HPV+ patients, whereas they occurred in 17% of the HPV- patients. However, no difference was observed between the WT TP53 and mutation group, even when this was analyzed in terms of disruptive and non-disruptive mutations. Regardless, treatment with chemotherapy nearly doubled the 5-year OS rates, both in the mutation (42% vs. 22%) and WT (30 vs. 16%) group, but only the mutation group showed improvement in all survival parameters. In addition, the second tumor-free 5-year survival rate was 72% in HPV- cases, but no second tumors were observed in HPV+ and WT p53 cases. Conclusions: Patients with HPV+ OPSCC have an excellent prognosis after radiochemotherapy, but cisplatin-based chemotherapy may not confer a satisfactory outcome, especially in WT cases, thereby justifying the additional or alternative use of taxanes and epidermal growth factor receptors inhibitors. Uncommon distant metastases and second tumors in the HPV+ group may be cause for clinicians to review the follow-up policies in these patients.

  13. Characteristics of memory B cells elicited by a highly efficacious HPV vaccine in subjects with no pre-existing immunity.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Erin M; Smith, Robin A; Simonich, Cassandra A; Niyonzima, Nixon; Carter, Joseph J; Galloway, Denise A

    2014-10-01

    Licensed human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines provide near complete protection against the types of HPV that most commonly cause anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers (HPV 16 and 18) when administered to individuals naive to these types. These vaccines, like most other prophylactic vaccines, appear to protect by generating antibodies. However, almost nothing is known about the immunological memory that forms following HPV vaccination, which is required for long-term immunity. Here, we have identified and isolated HPV 16-specific memory B cells from female adolescents and young women who received the quadrivalent HPV vaccine in the absence of pre-existing immunity, using fluorescently conjugated HPV 16 pseudoviruses to label antigen receptors on the surface of memory B cells. Antibodies cloned and expressed from these singly sorted HPV 16-pseudovirus labeled memory B cells were predominantly IgG (>IgA>IgM), utilized diverse variable genes, and potently neutralized HPV 16 pseudoviruses in vitro despite possessing only average levels of somatic mutation. These findings suggest that the quadrivalent HPV vaccine provides an excellent model for studying the development of B cell memory; and, in the context of what is known about memory B cells elicited by influenza vaccination/infection, HIV-1 infection, or tetanus toxoid vaccination, indicates that extensive somatic hypermutation is not required to achieve potent vaccine-specific neutralizing antibody responses. PMID:25330199

  14. Characteristics of Memory B Cells Elicited by a Highly Efficacious HPV Vaccine in Subjects with No Pre-existing Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Erin M.; Smith, Robin A.; Simonich, Cassandra A.; Niyonzima, Nixon; Carter, Joseph J.; Galloway, Denise A.

    2014-01-01

    Licensed human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines provide near complete protection against the types of HPV that most commonly cause anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers (HPV 16 and 18) when administered to individuals naive to these types. These vaccines, like most other prophylactic vaccines, appear to protect by generating antibodies. However, almost nothing is known about the immunological memory that forms following HPV vaccination, which is required for long-term immunity. Here, we have identified and isolated HPV 16-specific memory B cells from female adolescents and young women who received the quadrivalent HPV vaccine in the absence of pre-existing immunity, using fluorescently conjugated HPV 16 pseudoviruses to label antigen receptors on the surface of memory B cells. Antibodies cloned and expressed from these singly sorted HPV 16-pseudovirus labeled memory B cells were predominantly IgG (>IgA>IgM), utilized diverse variable genes, and potently neutralized HPV 16 pseudoviruses in vitro despite possessing only average levels of somatic mutation. These findings suggest that the quadrivalent HPV vaccine provides an excellent model for studying the development of B cell memory; and, in the context of what is known about memory B cells elicited by influenza vaccination/infection, HIV-1 infection, or tetanus toxoid vaccination, indicates that extensive somatic hypermutation is not required to achieve potent vaccine-specific neutralizing antibody responses. PMID:25330199

  15. Genotype distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) in histological sections of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cervical carcinoma in Madrid, Spain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Human Papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution and co-infection occurrence was studied in cervical specimens from the city of Madrid (Spain), as a contribution to the knowledge of Human Papillomavirus genotype distribution and prevalence of carcinogenic HPV types in cervical lesions in Spain. Methods A total of 533 abnormal specimens, from the Hospital General Universitario “Gregorio Marañón” of Madrid, were studied. These included 19 benign lesions, 349 cervical intraepithelial neoplasias 1 (CIN1), 158 CIN2-3 and 7 invasive cervical carcinomas (ICC). HPV genotyping was performed using PCR and tube array hybridization. Results We detected 20 different HPV types: 13 carcinogenic high-risk HPV types (HR-HPVs), 2 probably carcinogenic high-risk HPV types (PHR-HPVs) and 5 carcinogenic low-risk HPV types (LR-HPVs). The most frequent HPV genotypes found in all specimens were HPV16 (26.0%), 31 (10.7%) and 58 (8.0%). HPV 18 was only detected in 5.0%. Co-infections were found in 30.7% of CIN 1 and 18.4% cases of CIN2-3. The highest percentage of HR HPVs was found in those specimens with a CIN2-3 lesion (93.7%). Conclusion As our study shows the current tetravalent vaccine could be effective in our geographical area for preventing all the invasive cervical carcinomas. In addition, upon the estimates of the important presence of other HR-HPV types – such as 31, 58, 33 and 52 – in different preneoplasic lesions the effectiveness of HPV vaccination in our geographical area, and others with similar genotype distribution, should be limited. PMID:23167826

  16. Dermoscopic and Clinical Features of Pigmented Skin Lesions of the Genital Area*

    PubMed Central

    Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Emiroglu, Nazan; Wellenhof, Rainer Hofmann

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The dermoscopic features of vulvar melanosis lesions are well known. To our knowledge, there are only a few case reports about dermoscopic features of pigmented genital lesions in male patients. OBJECTIVE To evaluate dermoscopic and clinical characteristics of benign lesions of the genital area in both males and females, and to assess the distinguishing dermoscopic criteria of vulvar melanosis and atypical melanocytic nevi of the genital type. METHODS 68 patients with pigmented genital lesions were included in this observational study (28 male and 40 female). A punch biopsy was taken from all pigmented lesions and histopathological examination was performed on all specimens. RESULTS We histopathologically diagnosed: genital melanosis in 40 lesions, atypical melanocytic nevi of the genital type in 15 lesions, melanocytic nevi in 9 lesions, seborrheic keratosis in 4 lesions. The most frequent locations were the glans penis (19 patients, 67.9%) in males and the labia minora (19 patients, 47.5%) in females. The mean age of patients with atypical nevi (28,6 ± 11,36) was significantly lower than the mean age of patients with genital melanosis (47,07 ± 15,33). CONCLUSIONS Parallel pattern is prominent in genital melanosis, ring-like pattern is only observed in genital melanosis. Most pigmented lesions on the genital area are solitary. Blue-white veil and irregular dots are only observed in AMNGT. According to these results, we propose that histopathological examination is performed, especially if blue-white veil and irregular dots are found by dermoscopy. PMID:25830986

  17. Evaluation for High-risk HPV in Squamous Cell Carcinomas and Precursor Lesions Arising in the Conjunctiva and Lacrimal Sac.

    PubMed

    Afrogheh, Amir H; Jakobiec, Frederick A; Hammon, Rebecca; Grossniklaus, Hans E; Rocco, James; Lindeman, Neal I; Sadow, Peter M; Faquin, William C

    2016-04-01

    High-risk human papilloma virus (HR-HPV) is a well-established causative agent of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). In addition, HR-HPV has occasionally been reported to be present in dysplastic and malignant lesions of the conjunctiva and lacrimal sac, although its overall incidence and etiological role in periocular SCC are controversial. Sequential surgical samples of 52 combined cases of invasive SCC (I-SCC) and SCC in situ (SCCIS) from 2 periocular sites (conjunctiva and lacrimal sac) diagnosed over a 14-year period (2000 to 2014) were selected for evaluation, and relevant patient characteristics were documented. p16 immunohistochemistry was performed as a screening test. All p16-positive cases were further evaluated for HR-HPV using DNA in situ hybridization (DNA ISH), and a subset was also analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of 43 ocular surface squamous neoplasias (OSSNs), 30% (n=13; 8 SCCIS and 5 I-SCC cases) were positive for HR-HPV. HPV-positive OSSNs occurred in 8 men and 5 women with a mean age of 60 years (range, 39 to 94 y). HPV type-16 was detected in all conjunctival cases evaluated by PCR. All 5 conjunctival I-SCCs were nonkeratinizing (n=4) or partially keratinizing (n=1) and managed by simple excision. In contrast, HPV-negative conjunctival I-SCCs were predominantly keratinizing (11 keratinizing and 2 nonkeratinizing). Of 9 lacrimal sac I-SCCs (LSSCCs), 66.7% (n=6) were positive for HR-HPV by p16 and DNA ISH; HPV subtypes were HPV-16 (n=5) and HPV-58 (n=1). In addition, 2 p16-positive cases with negative DNA ISH results were HR-HPV positive (HPV-16 and HPV-33) when evaluated by PCR, suggesting that the rate of HR-HPV positivity among the LSSCCs may be as high as 89% (n=8). The combined group of HR-HPV-positive LSSCCs was seen in 4 men and 4 women with a mean age of 60 years (range, 34 to 71 y). Seven of the 8 HPV-positive LSSCCs (87.5%) had a nonkeratinizing or partially keratinizing histomorphology, whereas 1 case (12.5%) was predominantly keratinizing. The presence of HR-HPV in 30% of OSSNs and at least 66.7% of LSSCCs suggests the possibility of an etiologic role for HR-HPV at these sites. PMID:26735858

  18. Oral Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection among Unvaccinated High-Risk Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    D’Souza, Gypsyamber; Kluz, Nicole; Wentz, Alicia; Youngfellow, Renee M.; Griffioen, Anne; Stammer, Emily; Guo, Yingshi; Xiao, Weihong; Gillison, Maura L.

    2014-01-01

    Oral HPV infection, the cause of most oropharyngeal cancer in the U.S., is not well studied among high-risk young adults. Men (n = 340) and women (n = 270) aged 18–25 years attending Baltimore County STD clinics were recruited if they declined HPV vaccination. Each participant had a 30-second oral rinse and gargle sample tested for 37 types of HPV DNA, and a risk-factor survey. Factors associated with prevalent infection were explored using log binomial regression. Men had higher prevalence of any oral HPV (15.3% vs. 7.8%, p = 0.004) and vaccine-type oral HPV (i.e., HPV16/18/6/11: 5.0% vs. 1.1%, p = 0.007) infection than women. In multivariate analysis, male gender (aPR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.10–3.39), number of recent oral sex partners (p-trend = 0.013) and having ever performed oral sex on a woman (aPR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.06–2.82) were associated with increased oral HPV prevalence. Performing oral sex on a woman may confer higher risk of oral HPV acquisition than performing oral sex on a man. PMID:25256827

  19. Isolated itching of the genitals.

    PubMed

    Pomares, Christelle; Marty, Pierre; Delaunay, Pascal

    2014-04-01

    A 38-year-old man, returned from Ivory Coast 2 months ago and presented with a 3-month history of pruritus exclusively on the scrotum. Itching was continuous during the day and no pruritus was described in his wife and son. Clinical examination of the genitals revealed several nodules on the scrotum, a chancrous lesion was seen on the penis, and multiple excoriations were noted. Dermoscopy exam with a dermatoscope of the whole body was performed and no papules, nodules, or burrow were found. Microscopic examination of several superficial skin samples obtained by scraping in the peri-genital area revealed one adult of Sarcoptes scabiei. The patient and his relatives were successfully treated with Ivermectin 200 μg/kg with a second dose 2 weeks later. Very rare cases are described on localized scabies (scalp, feet) and they mainly occurred in an immunocompromised patient unlike this patient who does not have any immunosuppression. PMID:24696404

  20. Distribution of human papillomavirus genotypes, assessment of HPV 16 and 18 viral load and anal related lesions in HIV positive patients: a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Tamalet, Catherine; Obry-Roguet, Veronique; Ressiot, Emmanuelle; Bregigeon, Sylvie; Del Grande, Jean; Poizot-Martin, Isabelle

    2014-03-01

    Natural history of anal intraepithelial neoplasia and anal cancer is not fully understood. Factors associated with cytological abnormalities and predictors of progression to high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia still deserve investigation. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence of HPV types, the relationship between HPV genotypes, HPV 16/18 viral load and cytological abnormalities in male and female HIV-infected patients. One hundred and twenty-two (72.6%) patients were infected with HPV, 75 (61%) had multiple HPV infection, and 94 (77%) had high-risk HPV infection. The most frequently identified HPV types were HPV 16 (64%), HPV 6 (39%), HPV 18 (31%), HPV 53 (14.7%), HPV 33 (10.6%), HPV 11 (8.2%), HPV 70 (5.7%), and HPV 61 (4.9%). The HPV types which were most frequently found in combination were HPV 6 + 16 (9.8%), 6 + 16 + 18 (8.2%), 16 + 18 (6.6%), 6 + 18 (4.9%), 16 + 33 (3.3%), 16 + 53 (3.3%). Median HPV16 and 18 viral loads were 6.1 log10 copies/10(6) cells [IQR 5.0-7.3] and 6.1 log10 copies/10(6) cells [IQR 5.7-6.0], respectively. Male gender (P = 0.03, OR: 1.2 [1.0-1.4]) and homo/bisexual transmission routes (P = 0.044, OR: 1.4 [1.0-1.9]) were associated with HPV 16 infection. An HPV 16 viral load cut-off ≥5.3 log10 copies/10(6) cells and a CD4+ cell count ≤200/µl were independent factors associated with abnormal cytology. In the absence of national consensus guidelines, a strict regular follow-up at shorter intervals is recommended for HIV-infected patients with abnormal cytology, especially low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, an HPV 16 viral load ≥5.3 log/10(6) cells and a CD4+ cell count ≤200/µl. PMID:24154930

  1. Characterization of the plasma membrane localization and orientation of HPV16 E5 for cell-cell fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Lulin; Ceresa, Brian P.

    2009-10-10

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a non-enveloped DNA virus with an approx 8000 base pair genome. Infection with certain types of HPV is associated with cervical cancer, although the molecular mechanism by which HPV induces carcinogenesis is poorly understood. Three genes encoded by HPV16 are regarded as oncogenic - E5, E6, and E7. The role of E5 has been controversial. Expression of HPV16 E5 causes cell-cell fusion, an event that can lead to increased chromosomal instability, particularly in the presence of cell cycle checkpoint inhibitors like HPV16 E6 and E7. Using biochemical and cell biological assays to better understand HPV16 E5, we find that HPV16 E5 localizes to the plasma membrane with an intracellular amino terminus and an extracellular carboxyl-terminus. Further, HPV16 E5 must be expressed on both cells for cell fusion to occur. When the extracellular epitope of HPV16 E5 is targeted with an antibody, the number of bi-nucleated cells decreases.

  2. Community Awareness of HPV Screening and Vaccination in Odisha

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Niharika; Ramaseshan, Aparna; Arnold, Stephanie; Panigrahi, Kalpana; Macek, Mark D.; Padhi, Bijaya K.; Samanta, Diptirani; Senapati, Surendra N.; Panigrahi, Pinaki

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. A number of new technologies including cervical cancer screening and vaccination have introduced new tools in the fight against cervical cancer. Methods. This study was set in Odisha, India, at the Acharya Harihar Regional Cancer Center and study research infrastructure at the Asian Institute of Public Health. IRB approvals were obtained and a research assistant recruited 286 women aged 18–49 years, who provided informed consent and completed a survey tool. Data were entered into EpiData software and statistical analysis was conducted. Results. 76.3% women participants were married, 45.5% had sexual debut at age 21 or greater, 60.5% used contraception, 12.2% reported having a Pap smear in the past, and 4.9% reported having prior genital warts. Most, 68.8% had never heard of HPV and 11.9% were aware that HPV is the main cause of cervical cancer. 82.9% women thought that vaccinations prevent disease, and 74.8% said they make the decision to vaccinate their children. Conclusion. The Odisha community demonstrated a low level of knowledge about cervical cancer prevention, accepted vaccinations in the prevention of disease and screening, and identified mothers/guardians as the key family contacts. PMID:26783394

  3. Diethylstilbestrol metabolism by the fetal genital tract.

    PubMed

    Maydl, R; Newbold, R R; Metzler, M; McLachlan, J A

    1983-07-01

    Oxidative metabolism of diethylstilbestrol (DES) was measured in both the male and female genital tracts of the fetal mouse in organ culture. The major oxidative metabolite formed was Z,Z-dienestrol, whose formation appeared to be time dependent in the isolated fetal genital tract of both sexes. This peroxidative metabolite, which has been previously linked to bioactivation of DES in adult target tissues, was not detected in the fetal liver cultures. In addition, fetal genital tracts were capable of O-methylation of DES. In fact, a new metabolite, 4'-O-methyl-DES, was formed in fetal genital tissues but not in liver cultures. On the other hand, conjugation of DES occurred extensively in the fetal liver and placenta but not in the fetal genital tissues; conjugated DES was found primarily in the media. Thus, the fetal genital tract, which is the primary target for the transplacental carcinogenicity of DES, has the capacity to metabolize this compound. PMID:6861692

  4. Acceptance of the HPV vaccine among women, parents, community leaders, and healthcare providers in Ohio Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Katz, Mira L; Reiter, Paul L; Heaner, Sarah; Ruffin, Mack T; Post, Douglas M; Paskett, Electra D

    2009-06-19

    To assess HPV vaccine acceptability, focus groups of women (18-26 years), parents, community leaders, and healthcare providers were conducted throughout Ohio Appalachia. Themes that emerged among the 23 focus groups (n=114) about the HPV vaccine were: barriers (general health and vaccine specific), lack of knowledge (cervical cancer and HPV), cultural attitudes, and suggestions for educational materials and programs. Important Appalachian attitudes included strong family ties, privacy, conservative views, and lack of trust of outsiders to the region. There are differences in HPV vaccine acceptability among different types of community members highlighting the need for a range of HPV vaccine educational materials/programs to be developed that are inclusive of the Appalachian culture. PMID:19389447

  5. Acceptance Of The HPV Vaccine Among Women, Parents, Community Leaders, and Healthcare Providers In Ohio Appalachia

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Mira L.; Reiter, Paul L.; Heaner, Sarah; Ruffin, Mack T.; Post, Douglas M.; Paskett, Electra D.

    2009-01-01

    To assess HPV vaccine acceptability, focus groups of women (18–26 years), parents, community leaders, and healthcare providers were conducted throughout Ohio Appalachia. Themes that emerged among the 23 focus groups (n=114) about the HPV vaccine were: barriers (general health and vaccine specific), lack of knowledge (cervical cancer and HPV), cultural attitudes, and suggestions for educational materials and programs. Important Appalachian attitudes included strong family ties, privacy, conservative views, and lack of trust of outsiders to the region. There are differences in HPV vaccine acceptability among different types of community members highlighting the need for a range of HPV vaccine educational materials/programs to be developed that are inclusive of the Appalachian culture. PMID:19389447

  6. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Genotyping: Automation and Application in Routine Laboratory Testing

    PubMed Central

    Torres, M; Fraile, L; Echevarria, JM; Hernandez Novoa, B; Ortiz, M

    2012-01-01

    A large number of assays designed for genotyping human papillomaviruses (HPV) have been developed in the last years. They perform within a wide range of analytical sensitivity and specificity values for the different viral types, and are used either for diagnosis, epidemiological studies, evaluation of vaccines and implementing and monitoring of vaccination programs. Methods for specific genotyping of HPV-16 and HPV-18 are also useful for the prevention of cervical cancer in screening programs. Some commercial tests are, in addition, fully or partially automated. Automation of HPV genotyping presents advantages such as the simplicity of the testing procedure for the operator, the ability to process a large number of samples in a short time, and the reduction of human errors from manual operations, allowing a better quality assurance and a reduction of cost. The present review collects information about the current HPV genotyping tests, with special attention to practical aspects influencing their use in clinical laboratories. PMID:23248734

  7. From Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Detection to Cervical Cancer Prevention in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sin Hang; Vigliotti, Jessica S.; Vigliotti, Veronica S.; Jones, William

    2014-01-01

    The newly gained knowledge of the viral etiology in cervical carcinogenesis has prompted industrial interests in developing virology-based tools for cervical cancer prevention. Due to the long incubation period from viral infection to developing an invasive cancer, a process whose outcome is influenced by numerous life-style and genetic factors, the true efficacy of the genotype-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines in cervical cancer prevention cannot be determined for another 30 years. Most HPV DNA test kits designed to replace the traditional Papanicolaou (Pap) smears for precancer detection lack the analytical sensitivity and specificity to comprehensively detect all potentially carcinogenic HPVs and to perform reliable genotyping. The authors implemented the classic nested PCR and Sanger DNA-sequencing technology for routine HPV testing. The results showed a true negative HPV PCR invariably indicates the absence of precancerous cells in the cytology samples. However, 80.5% of single positive HPV-16 tests and 97.3% of single positive HPV-18 tests were associated with a negative or a largely self-reversible Pap cytology. Routine sensitive and reliable HPV type-specific or perhaps even variant-specific methods are needed to address the issues of persistence of HPV infection if a virology-based primary cervical screen is used to replace the Pap cytology screening paradigm. PMID:25279452

  8. Prevalent high-risk HPV infection and vaginal microbiota in Nigerian women.

    PubMed

    Dareng, E O; Ma, B; Famooto, A O; Akarolo-Anthony, S N; Offiong, R A; Olaniyan, O; Dakum, P S; Wheeler, C M; Fadrosh, D; Yang, H; Gajer, P; Brotman, R M; Ravel, J; Adebamowo, C A

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the association between high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) and the vaginal microbiome. Participants were recruited in Nigeria between April and August 2012. Vaginal bacterial composition was characterized by deep sequencing of barcoded 16S rRNA gene fragments (V4) on Illumina MiSeq and HPV was identified using the Roche Linear Array® HPV genotyping test. We used exact logistic regression models to evaluate the association between community state types (CSTs) of vaginal microbiota and hrHPV infection, weighted UniFrac distances to compare the vaginal microbiota of individuals with prevalent hrHPV to those without prevalent hrHPV infection, and the Linear Discriminant Analysis effect size (LEfSe) algorithm to characterize bacteria associated with prevalent hrHPV infection. We observed four CSTs: CST IV-B with a low relative abundance of Lactobacillus spp. in 50% of participants; CST III (dominated by L. iners) in 39·2%; CST I (dominated by L. crispatus) in 7·9%; and CST VI (dominated by proteobacteria) in 2·9% of participants. LEfSe analysis suggested an association between prevalent hrHPV infection and a decreased abundance of Lactobacillus sp. with increased abundance of anaerobes particularly of the genera Prevotella and Leptotrichia in HIV-negative women (P < 0·05). These results are hypothesis generating and further studies are required. PMID:26062721

  9. HPV detection and genotyping in males from the city of Córdoba, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Venezuela, F; Kremer, L E; Kiguen, X; Cuffini, C

    2010-01-01

    A wide range of human papillomavirus (HPV) types can infect the anogenital region of males. Although there is a vast knowledge on HPV infections in women as well as on their association with cervical cancer, the study of HPV infections in males is scarce and controversial. The aim of the present work was to detect and typify HPV infections of the anogenital region in males and analyze the associated risk factors in the population studied. Anogenital samples from 37 patients (30 of whom were HIV carriers) attending the Infectology Service at the Hospital Nacional de Clinicas in C6rdoba, Argentina, were studied. Nine of these patients tested HPV-positive and five out of these nine were found to have mixed infections, being 18 and 61 the most frequent genotypes. There was a significant correlation between the HPV-positive patients and those having an HPV-compatible lesion or AIDS. The present work is the first study in the city of Cordoba which contributes relevant results to the knowledge of HPV infection and to the possible implementation of measures for its prevention. PMID:21180390

  10. Genital contact allergy: A diagnosis missed

    PubMed Central

    Marfatia, Yogesh S.; Patel, Dimpal; Menon, Devi S.; Naswa, Smriti

    2016-01-01

    Genital allergy should be considered as a possible diagnosis in all patients with genital soreness or irritation for which no infection or dermatosis can be identified and in whom symptoms remain unchanged or worsen with treatment. It is an underreported and underdiagnosed condition as patients may not complain about symptoms in this area. Moreover, diagnosis and therapy may not often be conducted by a dermatologist or allergologist. Therefore, many cases of allergic diseases in the genital area remain undetected. PMID:27190404

  11. [HPV-associated alterations of the vulva and vagina. Morphology and molecular pathology].

    PubMed

    Horn, L-C; Klostermann, K; Hautmann, S; Höhn, A K; Beckmann, M W; Mehlhorn, G

    2011-11-01

    Non-neoplastic HPV-induced alterations of the vulva and vagina are frequent. The traditional three-tier grading system of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) will be replaced by the definition of usual and simplex type of VIN. The usual type is characterized by a strong association to high-risk HPV infections, the occurrence at younger age and multifocality, mostly associated with non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma. The differentiated (or simplex) type is rare and shows an association to older age and p53 alterations and is typically diagnosed co-incidentally with keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma. Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN) is still graded into VAIN 1-3 where VAIN 1 and 2 are mostly associated with low-risk HPV infections and a high spontaneous regression rate whereas VAIN 3 represents a high-risk HPV-associated lesion with capable progression into (micro-)invasive carcinoma. The differential diagnosis between a non-neoplastic condylomatous lesion and VIN common type and VAIN may be aided by p16 immunohistochemistry. The HPV-associated invasive vulvo-vaginal cancers are verrucous carcinoma (low-risk HPV) and the high-risk HPV-induced (non-keratinizing) squamous cell carcinoma (NOS), the condylomatous (warty) carcinoma and the very rare vaginal squamo-transitional carcinoma. PMID:22038133

  12. Quality control for normal liquid-based cytology: rescreening, high-risk HPV targeted reviewing and/or high-risk HPV detection?

    PubMed

    Depuydt, Christophe E; Arbyn, Marc; Benoy, Ina H; Vandepitte, Johan; Vereecken, Annie J; Bogers, Johannes J

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this prospective study was to compare the number of CIN2+cases detected in negative cytology by different quality control (QC) methods. Full rescreening, high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV)-targeted reviewing and HR HPV detection were compared. Randomly selected negative cytology detected by BD FocalPoint (NFR), by guided screening of the prescreened which needed further review (GS) and by manual screening (MS) was used. A 3-year follow-up period was available. Full rescreening of cytology only detected 23.5% of CIN2+ cases, whereas the cytological rescreening of oncogenic positive slides (high-risk HPV-targeted reviewing) detected 7 of 17 CIN2+ cases (41.2%). Quantitative real-time PCR for 15 oncogenic HPV types detected all CIN2+ cases. Relative sensitivity to detect histological CIN2+ was 0.24 for full rescreening, 0.41 for HR-targeted reviewing and 1.00 for HR HPV detection. In more than half of the reviewed negative cytological preparations associated with histological CIN2+cases no morphologically abnormal cells were detected despite a positive HPV test. The visual cut-off for the detection of abnormal cytology was established at 6.5 HR HPV copies/cell. High-risk HPV detection has a higher yield for detection of CIN2+ cases as compared to manual screening followed by 5% full review, or compared to targeted reviewing of smears positive for oncogenic HPV types, and show diagnostic properties that support its use as a QC procedure in cytologic laboratories. PMID:18544049

  13. HPV Genotypes Predict Survival Benefits From Concurrent Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy in Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chun-Chieh; Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Science, Chang Gung University, School of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan ; Lai, Chyong-Huey; Huang, Yi-Ting; Chao, Angel; Chou, Hung-Hsueh; Hong, Ji-Hong; Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Science, Chang Gung University, School of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To study the prognostic value of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in patients with advanced cervical cancer treated with radiation therapy (RT) alone or concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT). Methods and Materials: Between August 1993 and May 2000, 327 patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage III/IVA or stage IIB with positive lymph nodes) were eligible for this study. HPV genotypes were determined using the Easychip Registered-Sign HPV genechip. Outcomes were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and the Cox proportional hazards model. Results: We detected 22 HPV genotypes in 323 (98.8%) patients. The leading 4 types were HPV16, 58, 18, and 33. The 5-year overall and disease-specific survival estimates for the entire cohort were 41.9% and 51.4%, respectively. CCRT improved the 5-year disease-specific survival by an absolute 9.8%, but this was not statistically significant (P=.089). There was a significant improvement in disease-specific survival in the CCRT group for HPV18-positive (60.9% vs 30.4%, P=.019) and HPV58-positive (69.3% vs 48.9%, P=.026) patients compared with the RT alone group. In contrast, the differences in survival with CCRT compared with RT alone in the HPV16-positive and HPV-33 positive subgroups were not statistically significant (P=.86 and P=.53, respectively). An improved disease-specific survival was observed for CCRT treated patients infected with both HPV16 and HPV18, but these differenced also were not statistically significant. Conclusions: The HPV genotype may be a useful predictive factor for the effect of CCRT in patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Verifying these results in prospective trials could have an impact on tailoring future treatment based on HPV genotype.

  14. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, HIV infection and cervical cancer in Tanzania, east Africa.

    PubMed

    ter Meulen, J; Eberhardt, H C; Luande, J; Mgaya, H N; Chang-Claude, J; Mtiro, H; Mhina, M; Kashaija, P; Ockert, S; Yu, X

    1992-06-19

    The presence of HPV-DNA was determined in tumor biopsies of cervical-cancer patients and in cervical swabs of non-cancer patients from Tanzania, East Africa, by Southern blot hybridization and/or PCR. HPV types 16 and 18 were detected in 38% and 32%, respectively, of 50 cervical-carcinoma biopsies. A consensus primer PCR capable of detecting a broad spectrum of HPV types revealed the presence of HPV-DNA in 59% of 359 cervical swabs of non-cancer patients. Type-specific PCR showed that types 16 and 18 accounted for 13.2% and 17.5%, respectively, of all HPV infections. Therefore we concluded that HPV 18 is more prevalent in Tanzania than in any other geographical location so far reported. The strongest risk factors for the presence of any HPV-DNA in the 359 female non-cancer patients were young age and HIV infection. The epidemiology of HPV types 16 and 18 was found to differ from that of other HPV types, being associated in univariate analysis with trichomonas vaginalis infection, martial status (single/divorced), age at first intercourse, and young age at menarche. However, young age at menarche accounted for most of the effects of all other, variables in multivariate analysis. Of the non-cancer patients, 12.8% had antibodies against HIV I (no patient being severely symptomatic), and HIV infection was highly correlated with the presence of HPV-DNA, especially types 16 and 18. While HPV-DNA of any type was detectable 1.4-fold more often in HIV-positive patients than in HIV-negative patients, evidence of an infection with HPV types 16 or 18 was found 2.2-fold more often in the HIV-positive patients. The HIV-positive women did not show an increased rate of cervical cytological abnormalities as assessed by PAP staining of a single cervical smear, the overall rate of abnormalities being 2.8%. Furthermore, the age-adjusted prevalence of HIV antibodies was found to be considerably lower in 270 cervical-carcinoma patients (3% HIV-positive) in comparison with non-cancer patients. Thus there was no association observable between the prevalence of HIV infections and the frequency of cervical cytological abnormalities or cervical cancer in the setting of this cross-sectional study. PMID:1318265

  15. Survey of diagnostic services for genital herpes in fourteen countries in Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Domeika, Marius; Babayan, Karen; Ismailov, Rashad; Shimanskaya, Iryna; Chudomirova, Krasimira; Brilene, Tatjana; Kvlividze, Oleg; Deak, Judith; Askarova, Gulsum; Mamajeva, Galina; Kucinskiene, Vesta; Frigo, Natalia; Savicheva, Alevtina; Krasnoselskich, Tatiana; Mavrov, Gennadiy; Kasymov, Olim; Izvekova, Olga; Unemo, Magnus; Ballard, Ronald Campbell

    2011-05-01

    This paper reports survey-based data on the diagnosis and management of genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in 14 countries of the Eastern European Network for Sexual and Reproductive Health (EE SRH). Only 43% of the countries could provide the number of genital HSV cases recorded at national level. Eighty-six percent of countries employed syndromic management in cases of genital ulcer disease. Most countries performed type-specific and/or non-type-specific enzyme immunoassays to detect HSV antibodies. Non-type-specific serology for diagnostic purposes should be actively discouraged. Direct detection methods for HSV, such as PCR, antigen detection and culture, are available in the region, but their usage was extremely low. Their use in Eastern European countries should be actively promoted. The availability of laboratory services must be improved, and countries in the region should implement consensus recommendations for the laboratory diagnosis of genital HSV infections in order to improve clinical practice. PMID:21369687

  16. Female genital tract tumors in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chen, K T

    1986-08-01

    Multiple genital tract tumors, including bilateral ovarian sex cord tumors with annular tubules, adenoma malignum of the cervix, and bilateral ovarian mucinous tumors, developed in a female patient with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. Although each of these tumor types has been reported to occur in this syndrome, the present case appears to be the first in which the syndrome was complicated by tumors of all three types. PMID:3733073

  17. A Human Papillomavirus (HPV) In Vitro Neutralization Assay That Recapitulates the In Vitro Process of Infection Provides a Sensitive Measure of HPV L2 Infection-Inhibiting Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Yuk-Ying S.; Kines, Rhonda C.; Thompson, Cynthia D.; Lowy, Douglas R.; Schiller, John T.

    2012-01-01

    Papillomavirus L2-based vaccines have generally induced low-level or undetectable neutralizing antibodies in standard in vitro assays yet typically protect well against in vivo experimental challenge in animal models. Herein we document that mice vaccinated with an L2 vaccine comprising a fusion protein of the L2 amino acids 11 to 88 of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16), HPV18, HPV1, HPV5, and HPV6 were uniformly protected from cervicovaginal challenge with HPV16 pseudovirus, but neutralizing antibodies against HPV16, -31, -33, -45, or -58 were rarely detected in their sera using a standard in vitro neutralization assay. To address this discrepancy, we developed a neutralization assay based on an in vitro infectivity mechanism that more closely mimics the in vivo infectious process, specifically by spaciotemporally separating primary and secondary receptor engagement and correspondingly by altering the timing of exposure of the dominant L2 cross-neutralizing epitopes to the antibodies. With the new assay, titers in the 100 to 10,000 range were measured for most sera, whereas undetectable neutralizing activities were observed with the standard assay. In vitro neutralizing titers measured in the serum of mice after passive transfer of rabbit L2 immune serum correlated with protection from cervicovaginal challenge of the mice. This “L2-based” in vitro neutralization assay should prove useful in critically evaluating the immunogenicity of L2 vaccine candidates in preclinical studies and future clinical trials. PMID:22593236

  18. A prospective, open, comparative study of 5% potassium hydroxide solution versus cryotherapy in the treatment of genital warts in men*

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, Caio Lamunier de Abreu; Belda, Walter; Fagundes, Luiz Jorge; Romiti, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Genital warts are caused by human papillomavirus infection and represent one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases. Many infections are transient but the virus may recur, persist, or become latent. To date, there is no effective antiviral treatment to eliminate HPV infection and most therapies are aimed at the destruction of visible lesions. Potassium hydroxide is a strong alkali that has been shown to be safe and effective for the treatment of genital warts and molluscum contagiosum. Cryot