Sample records for genital hpv types

  1. DETECTION OF GENITAL HPV TYPES IN FINGERTIP SAMPLES FROM NEWLY SEXUALLY ACTIVE FEMALE UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    PubMed Central

    Winer, Rachel L.; Hughes, James P.; Feng, Qinghua; Xi, Long Fu; Cherne, Stephen; O’Reilly, Sandra; Kiviat, Nancy B.; Koutsky, Laura A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Little is known about detection of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) types in women’s fingertips. The study objectives were to determine the presence of genital HPV types in fingertip samples and agreement between fingertip and genital samples for detecting HPV. Methods At tri-annual visits, genital and fingertip samples were collected from female university students and tested for 37 HPV genotypes by PCR-based assay. Type-specific concordance between paired fingertip and genital samples was evaluated using a kappa statistic for percent positive agreement (“kappa +”). Paired samples with type-specific concordant fingertip and genital results were selected for variant characterization. Results A total of 357 fingertip samples were collected from 128 women. HPV prevalence in fingertip samples was 14.3%. Although percent positive agreement between fingertips and genitals for detecting type-specific HPV was low (17.8%; kappa+=0.17, 95%CI:0.10–0.25), 60.4% of type-specific HPV detected in the fingertips was detected in a concurrent genital sample. All but one of 28 paired concordant samples were positive for the same type-specific variant in the fingertip and genital sample. Re-detection of HPV types at the subsequent visit was more common in genital samples (73.3%) than in fingertip samples (14.5%) (p<.001). Conclusions Detection of genital HPV types in the fingertips was not uncommon. While impossible to distinguish between deposition of DNA from the genitals to the fingertips and true fingertip infection, the rarity of repeat detection in the fingertips suggests that deposition is more common. Impact Finger-genital transmission is plausible, but unlikely to be a significant source of genital HPV infection. PMID:20570905

  2. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Type Distribution and Serological Response to HPV Type 6 Virus-Like Particles in Patients with Genital Warts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CATHERINE E. GREER; COSETTE M. WHEELER; MARTHA B. LADNER; KARL BEUTNER; MAZIE Y. COYNE; HARRIET LIANG; ANDRIA LANGENBERG; T. S. BENEDICT YEN; ANDROBERT RALSTON

    1995-01-01

    Thirty-nine patients with condylomas (12 women and 27 men) attending a dermatology clinic were tested for genital human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA and for seroprevalence to HPV type 6 (HPV6) L1 virus-like particles. The L1 consensus PCR system (with primers MY09 and MY11) was used to determine the presence and types of HPV in sample specimens. All 37 (100%) patients with

  3. Cutaneous human papillomavirus types detected on the surface of male external genital lesions: A case series within the HPV Infection in Men Study

    PubMed Central

    Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Messina, Jane L.; Stoler, Mark H.; Jukic, Drazen M.; Tommasino, Massimo; Gheit, Tarik; Rollison, Dana E.; Sichero, Laura; Sirak, Bradley A.; Ingles, Donna J.; Abrahamsen, Martha; Lu, Beibei; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPVs) may be associated with cutaneous epithelial lesions and non-melanoma skin cancers. No study has systematically evaluated the presence of genus beta [?]-HPV in male genital skin or external genital lesions (EGLs). Objectives To examine cutaneous ?-HPV types detected on the surface of EGLs in men and describe their presence prior to EGL development. Study design A retrospective case series was conducted among 69 men with pathologically confirmed EGLs (n=72) who participated in the HPV Infection in Men Study. Archived exfoliated cells collected from the surface of each EGL and normal genital skin specimens 6–12 months preceding EGL development were tested for ?-HPV DNA using a type-specific multiplex genotyping assay. Results ?-HPV DNA was detected on 61.1% of all EGLs, with types 38 (16.7%), 5 (15.3%), and 12 (12.5%) most commonly identified. HPV prevalence differed across pathological diagnoses, with the largest number of ?-HPV types detected on condylomas. Most ?-HPV types were detected on normal genital skin prior to EGL development, though the prevalence was lower on EGLs compared to preceding normal genital skin. Conclusions EGLs and the normal genital skin of men harbor a large number of ?-HPV types; however, it appears that ?-HPVs are unrelated to EGL development in men. Despite evidence to support a causal role in skin carcinogenesis at UVR-exposed sites, cutaneous HPV appears unlikely to cause disease at the UVR-unexposed genitals. PMID:24210970

  4. Genital and cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) types in relation to conjunctival squamous cell neoplasia: A case-control study in Uganda

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maurits NC de Koning; Keith Waddell; Joseph Magyezi; Karin Purdie; Charlotte Proby; Catherine Harwood; Sebastian Lucas; Robert Downing; Wim GV Quint; Robert Newton

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We investigated the role of infection with genital and cutaneous human papillomavirus types (HPV) in the aetiology of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (which includes both conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and carcinoma) using data and biological material collected as part of a case-control study in Uganda. RESULTS: Among 81 cases, the prevalence of genital and cutaneous HPV types in tumour

  5. GENITAL HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS (HPV) Dartmouth COOP

    E-print Network

    no signs of genital HPV, except with the few subtypes that cause condyloma acuminata (venereal warts). 6. HPV is the only cause of cervical cancer. HPV may also be linked to cancer of the anus, vulva, vagina. Currently there is no cure for HPV. However, a vaccine has just been approved by the FDA for use in girls

  6. HPV

    MedlinePLUS

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are common viruses that can cause warts. There are more than 100 types of HPV. Most are harmless, but about 30 types put ... either low-risk or high-risk. Low-risk HPV can cause genital warts. High-risk HPV can ...

  7. Genital HPV infection and related lesions in men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriella M. Anic; Anna R. Giuliano

    2011-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is highly prevalent in men and there is an interest in further understanding the relationship between HPV infection and disease in men, including the development of genital warts, penile intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive penile carcinomas. Genital warts are caused by HPV 6\\/11 and are the most common clinical manifestation of HPV in men. Though they are benign

  8. Developing an HPV vaccine to prevent cervical cancer and genital warts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janine T. Bryan

    2007-01-01

    The challenges of the journey from target identification through development of a prophylactic quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine have been met in Gardasil®. Cervical cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide. Approximately 70% of cervical cancer is caused by infection with HPV types 16 and 18 and ?90% of genital warts are caused by HPV

  9. The prevalence of genital HPV and factors associated with oncogenic HPV among men having sex with men and men having sex with women and men: The HIM study

    PubMed Central

    Nyitray, Alan G.; Carvalho da Silva, Roberto J.; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Lu, Beibei; Smith, Dan’elle; Abrahamsen, Martha; Papenfuss, Mary; Quiterio, Manuel; Villa, Luisa L.; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Comparative studies of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) among men having sex with men (MSM), men having sex with women and men (MSWM), and men having sex with women (MSW) have not been conducted; however, such comparisons may be important for planning prevention strategies like vaccination. Methods Men, aged 18–70 years, were enrolled in a study of genital HPV in São Paulo, Brazil; Cuernavaca, Mexico; and Tampa, Florida, USA. Men were classified as MSM (n=170), MSWM (n=214) and MSW (n=3326) based on self-reported sexual behavior. Genotyping for HPV was conducted on cells from the penis and scrotum. Prevalence data were adjusted by country. Factors potentially associated with genital HPV were assessed using multivariable Poisson regression. Results Genital HPV prevalence was typically higher among MSWM than among MSM or MSW for groups of HPV genotypes including nononcogenic types (51%, 36%, and 42%, respectively), and multiple types (37%, 24%, and 29%, respectively). Age and alcohol consumption in the past month were associated with oncogenic HPV among both MSM and MSWM; however, there were no statistically significant associations between sexual behaviors and genital HPV among MSM or MSWM. Conclusions Prevalence of genital HPV may be higher among MSWM than among MSW or MSM. Number of female sex partners was associated with genital HPV among MSW, but number of male anal sex partners was not associated with genital HPV among MSM and MSWM. PMID:21934568

  10. A phase I study to evaluate a human papillomavirus (HPV) type 18 L1 VLP vaccine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin A Ault; Anna R Giuliano; Robert P Edwards; Gretchen Tamms; Lee-Lian Kim; Judith F Smith; Kathrin U Jansen; Maria Allende; Frank J Taddeo; DeeMarie Skulsky; Eliav Barr

    2004-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection can cause genital warts and cervical cancer. HPV types 6 and 11 cause >90% of genital wart cases; HPV16 and 18 cause 70% of cervical cancers. A prophylactic HPV (types 6, 11, 16, 18) L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine may substantially reduce the incidence of these lesions. This report describes the results of a phase I

  11. Gardasil 9 Vaccine Protects against Additional HPV Types

    Cancer.gov

    In a large randomized clinical trial, a new human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine effectively prevented infection and disease caused by nine high-risk HPV types, including seven types that cause cervical and other cancers—five of which were not covered by the previously available HPV vaccines—and two types that cause genital warts.

  12. HPV Infection in Women: Psychosexual Impact of Genital Warts and Intraepithelial Lesions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessandra Graziottin; Audrey Serafini

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Genital Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most commonly occurring sexually transmitted viral infection in humans. HPV is a wide family of DNA viruses, which may cause benign skin and mucosal tumors (genital, anal or oral warts), intraepithelial neoplasias and\\/or malignant cancers in different organs. Women are more susceptible to the oncogenic effect of HPVs, mostly at the genital

  13. Male circumcision and the incidence and clearance of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men: the HPV Infection in men (HIM) cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Reported associations of male circumcision (MC) with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men have been inconsistent. Methods 4,033 healthy men were examined every six months for a median of 17.5 months. In each study visit, exfoliated cell specimens from the coronal sulcus/glans penis, penile shaft, and scrotum were collected and combined into one sample per person for HPV DNA detection. Samples were tested for 37 HPV types. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the association between MC and the incidence and clearance of HPV infections and specific genotypes. Results The overall incidence of new HPV infections did not differ by MC status (for any HPV, adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91-1.27). However, incidence was significantly lower among circumcised versus uncircumcised men for HPV types 58 (p?=?0.01), 68 (p?HPV types 39 (p?=?0.01) and 51 (p?=?0.02). Despite the lack of an overall association in the risk of HPV clearance by MC (for any HPV, aHR 0.95, 95% CI 0.88-1.02), median times to clearance were significantly shorter among circumcised than uncircumcised men for HPV types 33 (p?=?0.02) and 64 (p?=?0.04), and longer for HPV types 6 (p?genital HPV detection, except for certain HPV types. The use of a single combined sample from the penis and scrotum for HPV DNA detection likely limited our ability to identify a true effect of MC at the distal penis. PMID:24517172

  14. Stable marital relationship protects men from oral and genital HPV infections.

    PubMed

    Kero, K M; Rautava, J; Syrjänen, K; Kortekangas-Savolainen, O; Grenman, S; Syrjänen, S

    2014-07-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are associated with sexual behavior. Changes in the sexual habits of couples and their impact on male genital and oral HPV infections were determined during 7 years of follow-up (FU). At baseline and 7 years FU, urethral, semen/penile, and oral samples were collected from 46 men and cervical and oral samples of their spouses for HPV DNA detection. Demographic data and risk factors of spouses were recorded by questionnaire at both time points and analyzed for concordance. HPV genotyping was done with the Multimetrix® kit. At baseline, 29.5 % of the male genital and 11 % of their oral samples tested positive. Incident genital HPV infection was found in 23 % and oral infection in 10.9 % of men. Genotype-specific persistence was detected in one man (HPV53) in genital samples. Moderate to almost perfect concordance of changes in sexual habits during FU among spouses were found. Changing partners [p?=?0.028; odds ratio (OR)?=?15; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.355-166.054] and marital status (p?=?0.001; 95 % CI 0.000-0.002) increased the risk of incident genital HPV infections. The overall outcome of genital HPV disease in men was linked to the frequency of sexual intercourse (p?=?0.023; 95 % CI 0.019-0.026) and changes in marital status (p?=?0.022; 95 % CI 0.019-0.026), while oral HPV infections were associated with the number of sexual partners (p?=?0.047; 95 % CI 0.041-0.052). Taken together, asymptomatic genital HPV infections among the men were common. The risk of incident genital HPV infections increased among men reporting a change of sexual partner during FU, implicating that a stable marital relationship protects against oral and genital HPV infection. PMID:24504632

  15. Genital infection with human papillomavirus in adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander K. C. Leung; James D. Kellner; H. Dele Davies

    2005-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections in adolescents. Such infection\\u000a is associated with substantial health risks and is unpredictable in its resolution. Genital warts are the most common clinical\\u000a manifestations of genital HPV infections. Most genital warts are caused by low-risk HPV types (notably HPV-6 and -11). The\\u000a majority of genital HPV infections

  16. Simultaneous detection and typing of genital human papillomavirus DNA using the polymerase chain reaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yukako Fujinaga; Masamitu Shimada; Kazuhide Okazawa; Michio Fukushima; Ikunoshin Kato; Kei Fujinaga

    1991-01-01

    A simple method has been developed for detecting a broad range of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) types using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We utilized two consensus sequence primer pairs within the E6 and E7 open reading frames to amplify HPV DNA; malignant HPV DNA (from HPV- 16, - 18, -31, -33, -52b and -58) was amplified using the pU-1M\\/

  17. HPV Vaccine Promotion: Does Referring to Both Cervical Cancer and Genital Warts Affect Intended and Actual Vaccination Behavior?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilona Juraskova; Royena Abdul Bari; Michaeley Therese O’Brien; Kirsten Jo McCaffery

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundYoung women have poor awareness that human papillomavirus (HPV) can cause both cervical cancer and genital warts, a sexually transmitted infection (STI). A newly developed HPV vaccine can provide protection against both cervical cancer and genital warts. This vaccine could be promoted by health authorities\\/professionals as preventing cervical cancer plus genital warts, or cervical cancer alone. Because stigma around STIs

  18. Risk factors for and prevention of human papillomaviruses (HPV), genital warts and cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Chelimo, Carol; Wouldes, Trecia A; Cameron, Linda D; Elwood, J Mark

    2013-03-01

    Genital HPV infection is associated with development of cervical cancer, cervical neoplasia, anogenital warts, and other anogenital cancers. A number of reviews have primarily addressed the role of HPV infection in cervical carcinogenesis, and differences in human papillomavirus (HPV) subtypes found in cervical cancer cases by histology and geographical region. This review provides an informative summary of the broad body of literature on the burden of HPV, the risk factors for HPV infection, genital warts and cervical cancer, and preventive measures against these conditions in females. Studies have identified the main risk factors for genital HPV infection in females as follows: acquisition of new male partners; an increasing number of lifetime sexual partners both in females and their male partners; and having non-monogamous male partners. Cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination are the primary measures currently recommended to prevent cervical cancer. There is also an ongoing debate and conflicting findings on whether male circumcision and condom use protect against HPV infection and subsequent development of HPV-related illnesses in females. PMID:23103285

  19. Genital warts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicolas Dupin

    2004-01-01

    Genital warts are an epidermal manifestation attributed to the epidermotropic human papillomavirus (HPV).1 Over 100 types of double-stranded HPV have been isolated and completely sequenced thus far. HPV are grouped into low-risk (non-oncogenic) types such as type 6 and type 11, which cause benign anogenital warts (condyloma accuminata), and high-risk (oncogenic) types, such as types 16, 18, 31, and 45,

  20. Presence of human papilloma virus types 16 and 18 in genital warts and cervical neoplasias

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Camillo Battista; Jana Hillova; Miroslav Hill; Michel Reynès; Georges Mathé

    1988-01-01

    Certain types of human papilloma viruses (HPV) are associated with human genital proliferative diseases, and among them HPV16\\u000a and HPV18 seem to play an important role in the occurrence of cervical cancer. We used restriction enzyme analysis and molecular\\u000a hybridization, in order to investigate the type of viral infection and the physical state of viral DNA in gynecological benign,\\u000a pre-malignant

  1. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Other HPV types are responsible for non-genital warts , which are not sexually transmitted. Sexually transmitted HPV ... do not cause cancer but can cause skin warts (technically known as condylomata acuminata) on or around ...

  2. Prevalence and genotype distribution of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR HPV) in male genital samples of Osijek-Baranja County.

    PubMed

    Bosnjak, Zinka; Peri?, Magdalena; Krizan, Ivana Roksandi?; Dzijan, Snjezana; Ruzman, Natasa; Pastuovi?, Tajana; Sarkanj, Bojan; Berti?, Vedran; Burian, Sven; Vukovi?, Dubravka

    2013-12-01

    This is a first cross-sectional study on the prevalence and distribution of HPV infection in asymptomatic, heterosexual men from Osijek-Baranja County, Croatia. Between 2009 and 2011, 330 men tested for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were recruited. Their genital swabs were tested for high-risk HPV (HR HPV) infection by the AMPLICOR HPV test and further genotyped by the Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test (both by Roche). Infection with a single HR HPV was detected in almost one third of men (39%) whereas multiple HPV types, in more than a half of HR HPV-positive men (61%). The highest HR HPV prevalence was detected in those younger than 20 (37.5%) and lowest in 31-35 year old men (27.8%). The most common genotypes were HPV 6 (24%), 16 (17.8%), 51 (9%), 52 (6%), 35, 55, 66, 84 (each 5%), 31, 62 (each 4%), 39, 58, 59, 83 (each 2.5%), and finally 56, 18, 53, and 54 (each 1.3%). Having more than one sexual partner per year was significantly associated with HR HPV infection in age group between 26 and 30 years (p = 0.001). Due to the high prevalence of HR HPV infection in men of this County and its risk of transmission to women, we recommend more public awareness about this particular STD and initiating vaccination programs of young men and women. PMID:24611336

  3. Correlation between Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Type and Histology of Warts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerd Gross; Herbert Pfister; Manfred Hagedorn; Lutz Gissmann

    1982-01-01

    Forty warts from different patients and of different clinical type were examined histologically and virologically. Eight lesions were found to be associated with human papillomavirus type 1 (HPV 1), 15 tumors were induced by HPV 2, HPV 3 was detected 4 times, RPV 4 twice, and HPV 6 eleven times. HPV 3, HPV 4, and HPV 6 induced warts revealed

  4. Distribution of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in Croatian women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Roksandi?-Krizan, Ivana; Bosnjak, Zinka; Peri?, Magdalena; Durkin, Ivona; Atali?, Vlasta Zuji?; Vukovi?, Dubravka

    2013-12-01

    Genital infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HR HPV) associates with increased risk of developing precancerous lesions, such as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). The objective of this pilot study conducted in north-east Croatia was to determine the prevalence of HPV genital infection in women with abnormal cervical cytology and to determine its association with their age and HPV genotype(s). From March 2009 to December 2011, cervical swabs from 100 women were analysed for HR HPV infection (AMPLICOR HPV Test, Roche Diagnostics) and genotyped for high risk (HR), intermediate (IR) and low risk (LR) HPVs (Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test, Roche Diagnostics). The most prevalent HR genotypes in women with CIN were HPV 16 (27.6%), HPV 31 (11.8%), HPV 51 and HPV 52 (10.2% each). The most prevalent IR genotypes were HPV 66 (30%) and HPV 62 (23.3%). The most prevalent LR genotype was HPV 6 (20.3%). Women between 21 and 25 years of age showed the highest rate of HPV infection (44.2%). Moreover, women younger than 35 years showed a significant association (p < 0.01) and positive correlation (r = 0.67; p < 0.05) between HR HPV infection and CIN stages 1 and 2. Multiple HPV infections were found in almost half of the women. This is the first study that analysed the prevalence of genital infection with HR/IR/LR HPVs in women with CIN from north-east Croatia. Despite the preliminary nature of this pilot study, the lower prevalence of some HR HPVs (HPV18) and the higher prevalence of other HR HPVs (HPVs 51, 52 and 31) may imply the necessity for the development of more targeted anti-HPV vaccines or other strategies for more efficient protection against oncogenic HPV infection in women from our region. PMID:24611331

  5. Gender Disparities in Male-Inclusive English and Spanish HPV Discourse

    E-print Network

    Castillo, Leopoldo

    2013-01-01

    cancer-preventive, HPV vaccine framing for males emphasized its non life-threatening nature by focusing on genital warts.genital warts. Male-centered HPV discourse is now beginning to focus on preventing HPV-related cancers;genital warts, the CDC now also recognize a direct link between sexually transmitted HPV high-risk types and throat, penile and anal cancers

  6. Evaluating the Early Benefit of Quadrivalent HPV Vaccine on Genital Warts in Belgium: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Dominiak-Felden, Geraldine; Gobbo, Corrado; Simondon, François

    2015-01-01

    Genital warts (GWs) are common, with about 5% to 10% of people having at least one episode in their lifetime. They develop about 2–3 months after infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes 6 and 11. The prophylactic quadrivalent HPV vaccine (qHPV), protects against HPV6/11 infections and diseases. In Belgium, HPV vaccines started to be reimbursed in 2007 and have been fully reimbursed since December 2008 for women 12 to 18 years old. This study aimed at evaluating the real-life benefit of qHPV vaccine introduction in Belgium on GWs by measuring both vaccine impact (VI) at a population level and the direct effect of the qHPV vaccine at an individual level (vaccine effectiveness (VE)), using data from a large sick-fund (MLOZ) reimbursement database. A first reimbursement for imiquimod (most common first-line GWs treatment in Belgium) was used as a surrogate for a first GWs episode; reimbursement of qHPV vaccine was used as surrogate for vaccination. VI was estimated by comparing the incidence of GWs before and after qHPV vaccine introduction in Belgium (ecologic evaluation). VE was assessed by comparing GWs incidences in vaccinated vs. unvaccinated women, among women eligible for HPV vaccination. VI was evaluated in 9,223,384 person-years. Overall, GWs incidence rates decreased significantly between the pre- and post-vaccination periods (-8.1% (95% CI: -15.3; -0.3) for men and women aged 18–59 years. This decrease was highest in women targeted by the HPV vaccination programme (-72.1% (95% CI: -77.9; -64.7) in women aged 16–22 years, with a 43% vaccine uptake in 2013). A significant decrease was also observed in men aged 16-22 years (-51.1%, 95%CI: -67.6; -26.2), suggesting herd-protection. VE was evaluated in 369,881 person-years. Age-adjusted VE for fully vaccinated women was 88.0% (95% CI: 79.4; 93.0). VE was higher when the first dose was given younger and remained high for over 4 years post-vaccination in all ages. High VI and VE of the qHPV vaccine were observed in a real-life setting in Belgium. PMID:26147096

  7. Cervical Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection and HPV Type 16 Antibodies in South African Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dianne J. Marais; Debbie Constant; Bruce Allan; Henri Carrara; Margaret Hoffman; Samuel Shapiro; Chelsea Morroni; Anna-Lise Williamson

    2008-01-01

    There is a high incidence of cervical cancer in South African women. No large studies to assess human papillomavirus virus (HPV) infection or HPV type 16 (HPV-16) exposure have occurred in the region, a requirement for policy making with regards to HPV screening and the introduction of vaccines. Control women (n 1,003) enrolled in a case control study of hormonal

  8. Therapeutic benefits of carbon dioxide (CO2) laser on single-site HPV lesions in the lower female genital tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urru, Giovanni; Moretti, Gianfranco

    1998-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown contradictory variable percentages of recurrent HPV lesions, after various therapies. The present study therefore evaluates the effectiveness of CO2 laser vaporization in the treatment of single-site HPV lesions of the lower female genital tract in order to confirm the conviction that physical therapy alone, in agreement with some findings reported in the literature, is capable of guaranteeing a high cure rate in selected patients. From January 1995 to June 1996, seventy- five female patients were treated with CO2 laser vaporization for single-site genital HPV lesions, some of which were associated with low-grade intra-epithelial neoplasia. The success rate after 12 months proved to be 97%. The pre-existing clinical symptoms disappeared in all the patients treated. No complication in the vaporization procedure was encountered.

  9. Sulfated K5 Escherichia coli Polysaccharide Derivatives as Wide-Range Inhibitors of Genital Types of Human Papillomavirus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Lembo; Manuela Donalisio; Marco Rusnati; Antonella Bugatti; Maura Cornaglia; Paola Cappello; Mirella Giovarelli; Pasqua Oreste; Santo Landolfo

    2008-01-01

    Genital human papillomaviruses (HPV) represent the most common sexually transmitted agents and are classified into low or high risk by their propensity to cause genital warts or cervical cancer, respectively. Topical microbicides against HPV may be a useful adjunct to the newly licensed HPV vaccine. A main objective in the development of novel microbicides is to block HPV entry into

  10. Family Physicians' Knowledge of Genital Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection and HPV-related Conditions, United States, 2004

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nidhi Jain; Kathleen L. Irwin; Daniel Montano; Danuta Kasprzyk; Linda Carlin; Crystal Freeman

    Background and Objectives: Information about human papillomavirus (HPV) has evolved rapidly and HPV DNA tests are now available. Little is known about family physicians' knowledge about HPV and how it relates to HPV test use and counseling practices. Methods: In mid-2004, confidential surveys were mailed to a nationally representative sample of 760 family physicians. We assessed and analyzed relationships between

  11. High-risk HPV types and head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Dominique S; Langevin, Scott M; Eliot, Melissa; Nelson, Heather H; Pawlita, Michael; McClean, Michael D; Kelsey, Karl T

    2014-10-01

    Although HPV16 has been strongly implicated in oropharyngeal carcinogenesis, the role of other high-risk HPV types in the etiology of head and neck cancer remains unclear. To date, few data exist addressing the nature of the association between antibodies to oncogenic proteins of non-HPV16 HPVs in relation to head and neck cancer. We examined the relationship between multiple HPV types (HPV6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58) and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) in a large population-based case-control study (1069 cases and 1107 controls). Serological measures for HPV types included antibodies to L1, E6 and/or E7. In a secondary analysis, we excluded HPV16 seropositive subjects to examine independent associations with other high-risk HPVs. All analyses were adjusted for age, race, sex, education, smoking and alcohol consumption. Statistically significant associations were observed for HPV16, 18, 33 and 52 and risk of HNSCC after mutually adjusting for HPV types. Among HPV16 seronegative subjects, elevated risks of HNSCC were observed for HPV18 E6 (OR = 4.19, 95% CI = 1.26-14.0), HPV33 E6 (OR = 7.96, 95% CI = 1.56-40.5) and HPV52 E7 (OR = 3.40, 95% CI = 1.16-9.99). When examined by tumor type, associations with HPV18 and HPV33 remained statistically significant for oropharyngeal cancer, and HPV52 was associated with oral cancer. In addition, magnitude of associations for HNSCC increased markedly with increasing number of seropositive high-risk HPV infections. High-risk HPV types, other than HPV16, are likely to be involved in the etiology of HNSCC. PMID:24615247

  12. Human Papillomavirus Types 6 and 11 DNA Sequences in Genital and Laryngeal Papillomas and in Some Cervical Cancers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lutz Gissmann; Lutz Wolnik; Hans Ikenberg; Ursula Koldovsky; Hans Georg Schnurch; Harald Zur Hausen

    1983-01-01

    Human genital tumors as well as recurrent laryngeal papillomas were analyzed for the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) 6 and HPV 11 sequences. HPV 11 DNA was found in 7 of 14 laryngeal papillomas; in the 7 other tumors no HPV DNA was demonstrated. HPV 11 DNA was also found in all five atypical condylomata of the cervix included in

  13. Randomised double blind trial of EMLA for the control of pain related to cryotherapy in the treatment of genital HPV lesions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Mansell-Gregory; B. Romanowski

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of EMLA (eutectic mixture of local anaesthetic) for the control of pain related to cryotherapy for the treatment of human papilloma virus (HPV) in the outpatient setting. DESIGN: A randomised, double blind, placebo controlled study. SUBJECTS: 40 patients (20 male and 20 female) with external genital HPV involving an area of no greater than 1

  14. Prophylactic HPV vaccines: New interventions for cancer control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eliav Barr; Heather L. Sings

    2008-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection causes cervical cancer, a significant portion of anal, vulvar, vaginal, and oropharyngeal cancers, genital warts, and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP). HPV 16 and 18 cause 70–90% of HPV-related cancers whereas HPV 6 and 11 cause 90% of RRP and genital wart cases. Together these four types cause 30–50% of all cervical intraepithelial neoplasia such as those

  15. Serological evidence for protection by human papillomavirus (HPV) type 6 infection against HPV type 16 cervical carcinogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilvars Silins; Zhaohui Wang; Bo Frankendal; Uldis Vikmanis; Martin Sapp; John T. Schiller; Joakim Dillner

    1999-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) exists as more than 100 genotypes. It is not well-established whether the different HPV types interfere with infection or pathogenesis by each other. Possible interactions in cervical carcinogenesis between infection with the most common HPV types (6, 11, 16, 18 and 33) were studied in a seroepidemiological case-control study of 218 women with primary untreated cervical cancer

  16. HPV Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Links Sexually Transmitted Diseases HPV-Associated Cancers Gynecologic Cancers ... but there are treatments for the problems that HPV can cause: Visible genital warts may remain the same, grow more numerous, or ...

  17. Female genital warts.

    PubMed

    Ghaemmaghami, Fatemeh; Nazari, Zeinab; Mehrdad, Nili

    2007-01-01

    Genital warts are a clinical manifestation of HPV types 6 and 11, and are estimated to affect 1% of sexually active adults aged between 15 and 49. HPV leading to a broad spectrum of human diseases, ranging from benign warts to malignant neoplasms, depending on the location of the lesion, the immune status of the patient and the type of HPV. Current therapies for human papillomavirus-associated disease are based on the excision or ablation of involved tissue and are associated with a high frequency of recurrent disease, discomfort and costs. PMID:18159964

  18. Warts in all body locations are caused by the human papilloma virus. Over 100 types of HPV have been

    E-print Network

    Virginia Tech

    , usually cause no symptoms, and often increase in number and/or size as time passes. Visible genital warts impossible to know how long the infection has been present. Genital HPV infection can be found on the penis

  19. High-risk HPV detection and concurrent HPV 16 and 18 typing with Abbott RealTi me High Risk HPV test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ning Tang; Shihai Huang; Brian Erickson; Wai-Bing Mak; John Salituro; John Robinson; Klara Abravaya

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundHigh-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causative agent of cervical cancer. Among the high-risk types, infection with HPV 16 and 18 is associated with significantly higher risk of disease progression, and consequently these two types together cause approximately 70% of invasive cervical cancer worldwide. Identification of HPV 16 and HPV 18 can provide valuable information for risk stratification and clinical

  20. Comparison of real-time multiplex human papillomavirus (HPV) PCR assays with the linear array HPV genotyping PCR assay and influence of DNA extraction method on HPV detection.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Christine C; Swoyer, Ryan; Bryan, Janine T; Taddeo, Frank J

    2011-05-01

    Real-time human papillomavirus (HPV) type-specific multiplex PCR assays were developed to detect HPV DNA in specimens collected for the efficacy determination of the quadrivalent HPV (type 6, 11, 16, and 18) L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine (Gardasil). We evaluated the concordance between type-specific multiplex HPV PCR and the widely used, commercially available Roche Linear Array genotyping PCR assay. Female genital swab specimens were tested for the presence of L1, E6, and E7 sequences of HPV type 6 (HPV6), HPV11, HPV16, HPV18, HPV31, HPV45, HPV52, and HPV58 and E6 and E7 sequences of HPV33, HPV35, HPV39, HPV51, HPV56, and HPV59 in type- and gene-specific real-time multiplex PCR assays. Specimens were also tested for the presence of L1 sequences using two versions of the Roche Linear Array genotyping assay. Measures of concordance of a modified version of the Linear Array and the standard Linear Array PCR assay were evaluated. With specimen DNA extraction using the Qiagen Spin blood kit held as the constant, multiplex PCR assays detect more HPV-positive specimens for the 14 HPV types common to both than either version of the Linear Array HPV genotyping assay. Type-specific agreements between the assays were good, at least 0.838, but were often driven by negative agreement in HPV types with low prevalence, as evidenced by reduced proportions of positive agreement. Overall HPV status agreements ranged from 0.615 for multiplex PCR and standard Linear Array to 0.881 for multiplex PCR and modified Linear Array. An alternate DNA extraction technique, that used by the Qiagen MinElute kit, impacted subsequent HPV detection in both the multiplex PCR and Linear Array assays. PMID:21346041

  1. Quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16, 18) recombinant vaccine (gardasil(®)): a review of its use in the prevention of premalignant anogenital lesions, cervical and anal cancers, and genital warts.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Paul L

    2014-07-01

    Quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) [types 6, 11, 16, 18] recombinant vaccine (Gardasil(®); Silgard(®)) is composed of virus-like particles formed by self-assembly of recombinant L1 capsid protein from each of HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18. It is indicated for use from the age of 9 years as a two- or three-dose vaccination course over 6 months for the prevention of premalignant anogenital lesions, cervical and anal cancers, and genital warts caused by the vaccine HPV types. In placebo-controlled trials, quadrivalent HPV vaccine provided high-level protection against infection or disease caused by the vaccine HPV types over 2-4 years in females aged 15-45 years who were negative for the vaccine HPV types, and provided a degree of cross-protection against certain non-vaccine HPV types. The vaccine also provided high-level protection against persistent infection, anogenital precancerous lesions and genital warts caused by the vaccine HPV types over 3 years in susceptible males aged 16-26 years. Protection has been demonstrated for up to 8 years. In subjects who were negative for the vaccine HPV types, high seroconversion rates and high levels of anti-HPV antibodies were observed in females of all age ranges from 9 to 45 years and in males aged 9-26 years. The vaccine was generally well tolerated and was usually predicted to be cost effective in girls and young women. Therefore, quadrivalent HPV vaccine offers an effective means to substantially reduce the burden of HPV-related anogenital disease in females and males, particularly cervical cancer and genital warts. PMID:25022951

  2. Genital Tract Leukocytes and Shedding of Genital HIV Type 1 RNA

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Brenna L.; Wang, Chia-Ching; DeLong, Allison K.; Liu, Tao; Kojic, Erna Milu; Kurpewski, Jaclynn; Ingersoll, Jessica; Mayer, Kenneth; Caliendo, Angela M.; Cu-Uvin, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background The mechanism of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission via heterosexual intercourse is unknown. We sought to determine whether the presence of inflammatory cells in the vagina is associated with the presence of genital tract HIV type 1 (HIV-1) RNA. Methods Analysis of a longitudinal prospective cohort was performed. Women with HIV-1 infection were assessed with use of paired plasma and cervicovaginal lavage specimens. Viral load measurements were performed using nucleic acid sequence—based amplification. White blood cells found in the genital tract (GT WBCs) were quantified using a hemacytometer. Common lower genital tract infections assessed for association with viral shedding (i.e., genital tract viral load [GTVL]) included bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis, and trichomoniasis. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate the prevalence and odds of detectable GTVL by GT WBC. The association was examined both in the presence and in the absence of lower genital tract infections. Results A total of 97 women and 642 visits were included in the analysis. Median duration of follow-up was 30.4 months. Thirty women (31%) had detectable GTVL at any visit. The median CD4 cell count at baseline was 525 cells/?L. Most women were antiretroviral therapy naive at baseline. After adjustment for plasma viral load, the odds of detectable GTVL increased as GT WBC increased, with an odds ratio of 1.36 (95% confidence interval, 1.1–1.7) per 1000-cell increase in GT WBC among women without lower genital tract infections. After adjustment for plasma viral load and lower genital tract infections by incorporating them in a regression model, GT WBC remained significantly associated with GTVL, with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.22 (95% confidence interval, 1.08–1.37). Conclusions The presence of GT WBC is associated with an increased risk of detectable GTVL. PMID:18808359

  3. Perceptions of HPV, genital warts, and penile/anal cancer and high-risk sexual behaviors among men who have sex with men in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lau, Joseph T F; Wang, Zixin; Lau, Mason; Lai, Coco H Y

    2014-05-01

    The prevalence of HIV and HPV is high among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. It is unclear whether cognitive and affective responses related to HPV and HPV-related diseases are negatively associated with HIV-related risk behaviors among MSM. This cross-sectional study interviewed 449 adult Chinese MSM in Hong Kong. The prevalence of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) and having had anal sex with more than one man in the last 6 months (multiple male sex partnerships) was 39.0 and 71.3 %, respectively. After adjusting for four significant background variables (education level, cohabitation with a man, exposure to HIV prevention materials, and HIV voluntary counseling and testing), variables negatively associated with UAI and/or multiple male sex partnerships included (1) correct HPV-related knowledge (AOR = 0.48-0.66), (2) perceived susceptibility (AOR = 0.32-0.55) and perceived severity (AOR = 0.12-0.60) related to HPV and HPV-related diseases, and (3) fear towards contracting genital warts and penile/anal cancer (AOR = 0.40-0.55). Perceived high chance of contracting HPV was positively associated with multiple partnerships (AOR = 4.74). It is possible to reduce HIV-related risk behaviors by increasing levels of knowledge, cognitions, and fear related to HPV and related diseases. It is important to integrate prevention of HIV with prevention of sexually transmitted infections. Such interventions are warranted. PMID:23982568

  4. HPV Vaccine: Access and Use in the U.S.

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 2011). Genital HPV infection- Fact sheet. ? Return to text CDC. (2014). Genital HPV infection- Fact sheet. ? Return to text CDC. (2014). Human Papillomavirus Vaccination: Recommendations of the ...

  5. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) types 101 and 103 Isolated from Cervicovaginal Cells Lack an E6 Open Reading Frame (ORF) and are Related to Gamma-Papillomaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zigui; Schiffman, Mark; Herrero, Rolando; DeSalle, Rob; Burk, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    Complete genomes of HPV101 and HPV103 were PCR amplified and cloned from cervicovaginal cells of a 34-year-old female with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN 3) and a 30-year-old female with a normal Pap test, respectively. HPV101 and HPV103 contain 4 early genes (E7, E1, E2 and E4) and 2 late genes (L2 and L1), but both lack the canonical E6 ORF. Pairwise alignment similarity of the L1 ORF nucleotide sequences of HPV101 and HPV103 indicated that they are at least 30 % dissimilar to each other and all known PVs. However, similarities of the other ORFs (E7, E1, E2, and L2) indicated that HPV101 and HPV103 are most related to each other. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that these two types form a monophyletic clade, clustering together with the gamma- and pi-PV groups. These data demonstrated that HPV genomes closely related to papillomaviruses identified from cutaneous epithelia can be isolated from the genital mucosal region. Moreover, this is the first report of HPVs lacking an E6 ORF and phylogenetic evidence suggests this occurred subsequent to their emergence from the gamma-/pi-PVs. PMID:17125811

  6. More than 97% of human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV-16) was found with chrysotile asbestos & relatively smooth round tumor outline, and less than 3% was found with HPV-18 and tremolite asbestos & irregular sawtooth-like zigzag outline in breast cancer tissues in over 500 mammograms of female patients: their implications in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Omura, Yoshiaki; Jones, Marilyn K; Nihrane, Abdallah; Duvvi, Harsha; Shimotsuura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu

    2013-01-01

    In the past, Human Papillomavirus Type 16 (HPV-16) was considered to be the main cause of cancer in the oropharynx and genital organs. Cervical cancer of the uterus is the most well-known cancer associated with HPV-16. Among the oncogenic HPVs, types 16 and 18 are most responsible for the majority of the HPV-caused cancers. Recently, using EMF Resonance Phenomenon between 2 identical substances, we non-invasively measured HPV-16 and HPV-18 among 25 physicians and 25 dentists and found that all 50 have HPV-16 in oral cavities and oropharynx but not HPV-18. However most dentists have a stronger infection than physicians. Among them were 2 female dentists with breast cancer containing HPV-16 and strong infections of HPV-16 in the oral cavities and oropharynx. When the author checked their breast cancer positive areas as well as the mammograms of cancer positive areas, Chrysotile Asbestos co-existed with an infection of HPV-16. We then examined over 500 published mammograms of women with malignant breast cancer published by other institutes, and we found HPV-16 in more than 97% and HPV-18 in less than 3% of the breast cancer mammograms examined. Less than 0.4% of cases were found as a variety of combination of HPV-16 & HPV-18. We also discovered that breast cancer with HPV-16 always co-exists with increased Chrysotile Asbestos deposits, and the outline of the breast cancer positive area is a relatively smooth and round or oval shape, and breast cancer with HPV-18 always co-exists with increased Tremolite Asbestos, where the tumor outline is an irregular saw-tooth like zigzag pattern. Based on these findings, better methods of diagnosis, treatment and prevention with a vaccine can be developed. PMID:24494324

  7. Epidemiology and pathology of HPV disease in males.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, Anna R; Anic, Gabriella; Nyitray, Alan G

    2010-05-01

    It is currently recognized that besides the significant impact of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in females, HPV causes substantial disease in men as well. Genital warts are a common manifestation of male infection with HPV. Genital warts are highly infectious and approximately 65% of people who have sex with an infected partner will develop warts themselves. More than 90% of genital warts are caused by non-oncogenic HPV types 6 and 11. In addition, recurrent respiratory papillomatosis is a rare disease most often associated with HPV types 6 and 11. Several cancers of the anogenital tract and upper aero-digestive tract, and their precursor lesions in men are now understood to be caused by infection with sexually transmitted HPV. For example, there is increasing incidence of anal cancer in western countries; however, there are limited data on its primary cause, anal canal HPV infection. Genital HPV infection is very common in men with an ongoing international study estimating a prevalence of 65.2% in asymptomatic males aged 18-70 years. Lifetime number of sexual partners was the most significant risk factor for the acquisition of HPV infection (P<0.05), and circumcision has been associated with reduced detection of HPV infection in men. HPV infections may be less likely to persist in men than in women. In men, the median time to clearance of any HPV infection was 5.9 months, with 75% of infections clearing within 12 months. More data are needed to better understand the natural history of HPV infection. Although the quadrivalent HPV vaccine has been shown to be effective and safe in men, low awareness of HPV in males may be a barrier to its use for the prevention of HPV infection. PMID:20138345

  8. The epidemiology of genital human papillomavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Trottier, Helen; Franco, Eduardo L

    2006-03-30

    Clinical and subclinical human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are the most common sexually transmitted infections in the world, and most sexually-active individuals are likely to be exposed to HPV infection during their lifetimes. More than 40 genotypes of HPV infect the epithelial lining of the anogenital tract and other mucosal areas of the body; of these, 13-18 types are considered to be high-oncogenic risk HPV types (HR-HPV). Persistent infection with HR-HPVs is now unequivocally established as a necessary cause of cervical cancer and is likely to be responsible for a substantial proportion of other anogenital neoplasms and upper aero-digestive tract cancers. Low oncogenic risk HPV types (LR-HPV) are also responsible for considerable morbidity as the cause of genital warts. Youth and certain sexual characteristics are key risk factors for HPV acquisition and persistence of HPV infection, but other mediating factors include smoking, oral contraceptive (OC) use, other STIs (e.g. chlamydia, herpes simplex virus), chronic inflammation, immunosuppressive conditions including HIV infection, parity, dietary factors, and polymorphisms in the human leukocyte antigen system. Not surprisingly, these factors are also established or candidate cofactors identified in epidemiologic studies of cervical cancer. HPV transmissibility and molecular events in HPV-induced carcinogenesis have been the focus of recent multidisciplinary epidemiologic studies. This shift in research focus coincides with a shift in cancer prevention techniques towards immunization with HPV vaccines and HPV testing of precancerous lesions. PMID:16406226

  9. Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mammas, Ioannis N; Sourvinos, George; Spandidos, Demetrios A

    2009-03-01

    Human papilloma viruses (HPV) are common pathogens associated with a wide range of cutaneous and mucosal infections in childhood. Different HPV types can cause common warts, genital warts, low-grade as well as high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. Anogenital warts represent an issue with legal and clinical implications and evaluation of children for the possibility of sexual abuse should be considered in all cases. Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis has also been associated with HPV infection in a variety of studies. The recently introduced HPV vaccination is expected to prevent HPV-related cervical cancer in adulthood; however, HPV infection will continue to affect children. PMID:19050916

  10. Frequency and Spectrum of HPV Types Detected in Cutaneous Squamous-Cell Carcinomas Depend on the HPV Detection System: A Comparison of Four PCR Assays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Meyer; Rüdiger Arndt; Enno Christophers; Eggert Stockfleth; C. Piérard-Franchimont; G. E. Piérard; G. J. Kontochristopoulos; K. Krasagakis; S. Goerdt; R. Valsecchi; P. Leghissa; R. Cortinovis; L. Cologni; M. Shimosegawa; M. Worm

    2000-01-01

    Background: The association of human papillomavirus (HPV) with cutaneous squamous-cell carcinomas (SCCs) has been described recently, but the frequency and spectrum of HPV types identified differed substantially in distinct studies. Objective: Comparison of different PCR assays with respect to sensitivity and range of HPV types detected. Method: Cutaneous SCC were analyzed for HPV DNA using both consensus PCR assays with

  11. Chapter 3: HPV type-distribution in women with and without cervical neoplastic diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary Clifford; Silvia Franceschi; Mireia Diaz; Nubia Muñoz; Luisa Lina Villa

    2006-01-01

    Geographical widespread data on human papillomavirus (HPV) type-distribution are essential for estimating the impact of HPV-16\\/18 vaccines on cervical cancer and cervical screening programmes. Epidemiological studies employing a variety of HPV typing protocols have been collated in meta-analyses. HPV-16\\/18 is estimated to account for 70% of all cervical cancers worldwide, although the estimated HPV-16\\/18 fraction is slightly higher in more

  12. The HPV Vaccine: Framing the Arguments "for" and "against" Mandatory Vaccination of All Middle School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vamos, Cheryl A.; McDermott, Robert J.; Daley, Ellen M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV), the virus responsible for cervical cancer, is the most common viral sexually transmitted infection in the United States. A vaccine was approved in 2006 that is effective in preventing the types of HPV responsible for 70% of cervical cancers and 90% of genital warts. Proposals for routine and mandatory HPV

  13. Genital Warts (Condyloma Acuminata)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... because they very rarely will cause genital or anal cancer. On the other hand, subtypes 16 and ... genital warts, they can lead to cervical or anal precancer and cancer. HPV is spread by skin- ...

  14. Genital warts and genital papillomavirus disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles JN Lacey

    2005-01-01

    Genital infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common STI. Reliable estimates indicate a lifetime risk of infection of more than 50% for the population. Genital HPV infection can be divided into infection with genotypes less likely to be associated with neoplasia (low oncogenic risk) and genotypes with a stronger association with neoplasia (high oncogenic risk). A family of high-risk

  15. High efficacy of HPV 16\\/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine shown against CIN2+ associated with HPV16\\/18 and non-vaccine oncogenic HPV types

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa Rambout

    2010-01-01

    Commentary on: PaavonenJNaudPSalmeronJ. Efficacy of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16\\/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine against cervical infection and precancer caused by oncogenic HPV types (PATRICIA): final analysis of a double-blind, randomised study in young women. Lancet2009;374:301–14.

  16. [HPV-induced anal lesions].

    PubMed

    Wieland, U; Kreuter, A

    2015-06-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections belong to the most common sexually transmitted infections. To date, more than 200 completely classified HPV-types have been reported, and those belonging to the genus alpha predominantly infect the anogenital region. Condylomata acuminata are caused by the two low-risk types HPV6 and HPV11 in more than 90?% of cases. Treatment of genital warts might be either ablative (e.g. electrocautery, surgical excision, or laser therapy) or topical (e.g. podophyllotoxine, trichloroacetic acid, or imiquimod), and depends on the size, location, morphology and anatomical region. Recurrences after treatment are frequent. Therefore, combination therapies (e.g. topical and ablative) play an important role in daily routine. HIV-infected individuals, especially HIV-positive MSM, have a strongly increased risk for anal dysplasia and anal cancer. Condylomata acuminata and a large proportion of anal dysplasia and anal carcinoma are preventable by prophylactic HPV-vaccination. PMID:25859930

  17. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine (Cervarix)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... vulvar cancers in women and other types of cancer in both men and women. It can also cause genital warts and warts in the throat.There is no cure for HPV infection, but some of the problems it causes can be treated.

  18. Epidemiology of Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1997-01-01

    Although it is difficult to estimate the overall prevalence of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, current figures suggest that visible genital warts are present in approximately 1% of sexually active adults in the United States and that at least 15% have subclinical infection, as detected by HPV DNA assays. Genital HPV infection is thus extremely common. The highest rates of

  19. HPV Immunization | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common virus that is spread through sexual contact. Some types of HPVs can cause genital warts, and other types, called high-risk or oncogenic HPVs, can cause cancer. High-risk HPVs cause virtually all cervical cancers, most anal cancers, and some vaginal, vulvar, penile, and oropharyngeal cancers. Many HPV infections go away on their own within 1 to 2 years. However, infections that last for many years increase a person’s risk of developing cancer.

  20. HPV Type Distribution and Cervical Cytology among HIV-Positive Tanzanian and South African Women.

    PubMed

    Dols, Joke A M; Reid, Gregor; Brown, Joelle M; Tempelman, Hugo; Bontekoe, Tj Romke; Quint, Wim G V; Boon, Mathilde E

    2012-01-01

    Background. There are limited data on high-risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV) genotypes among HIV-positive women in Africa, and little is known about their relationship with cervical cytology in these populations. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 194 HIV-positive women (143 from Tanzania, and 51 from South Africa) to evaluate HPV genotypes among HIV-positive women with normal and abnormal cytology. Cervical samples were genotyped for HPV types, and slides were evaluated for atypical squamous cell changes according to the Bethesda classification system. Results. Prevalence of high grade squamous intraepithelial dysplasia (HSIL) was 9%. Overall, more than half (56%) of women were infected with an hr-HPV type; 94% of women with HSIL (n = 16), 90% of women with LSIL (n = 35), and 42% of women within normal limits (WNL) (n = 58) tested positive for hr-HPV. Overall, the most prevalent hr-HPV subtypes were HPV16 (26%) and HPV52 (30%). Regional differences in the prevalence of HPV18 and HPV35 were found. Conclusion. Regional differences in HPV genotypes among African women warrant the need to consider different monitoring programmes for cervical preneoplasia. HPV-based screening tests for cervical preneoplasia would be highly inefficient unless coupled with cytology screening of the HPV-positive sample, especially in HIV-positive women. PMID:22811925

  1. Prophylactic HPV vaccines: new interventions for cancer control.

    PubMed

    Barr, Eliav; Sings, Heather L

    2008-11-18

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection causes cervical cancer, a significant portion of anal, vulvar, vaginal, and oropharyngeal cancers, genital warts, and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP). HPV 16 and 18 cause 70-90% of HPV-related cancers whereas HPV 6 and 11 cause 90% of RRP and genital wart cases. Together these four types cause 30-50% of all cervical intraepithelial neoplasia such as those detected by Papinicalou screening. In June 2006, a quadrivalent HPV (6, 11, 16, 18) vaccine was licensed in the United States, and subsequently in the European Union (September 2006), both following expedited review. We describe the primary objectives of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine clinical trial program including studies in females aged 9-45 and males aged 9-26. Planned long-term efficacy and safety evaluations, as well as programs to evaluate vaccine impact on oropharyngeal cancer are also described. PMID:18694795

  2. Mandating the HPV vaccine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taylor Lowe Hartley

    2008-01-01

    Background. HPV is the underlying cause of cervical cancer, a malignant tumor of the female genital tract. Each year, cervical cancer is newly diagnosed in approximately 10,000 women, and over 3,000 women die from the malignancy. In addition, HPV is implicated as a cause of other cancers involving the genital tract, male and female, and the head and neck. ^

  3. Evaluation of human papillomavirus type replacement postvaccination must account for diagnostic artifacts: masking of HPV52 by HPV16 in anogenital specimens.

    PubMed

    Tota, Joseph E; Ramanakumar, Agnihotram V; Villa, Luisa L; Richardson, Harriet; Burchell, Ann N; Koushik, Anita; Mayrand, Marie-Hélène; Coutlée, François; Franco, Eduardo L

    2015-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that, following a reduction in human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine-targeted genotypes, an increase in prevalence of other HPV types may occur due to reduced competition during natural infection. Any apparent postvaccination increase must be distinguished from diagnostic artifacts consequent to consensus PCR assays failing to detect HPV types present in low copy numbers in coinfected specimens (under the assumption that with a drop in vaccine-preventable types there may be increased detection of previously "masked" types). We reanalyzed anogenital specimens to evaluate unmasking of HPV52 that may be caused by elimination of HPV16. Using highly sensitive type-specific real-time HPV52 PCR, we retested 1,200 anogenital specimens (all HPV52 negative according to consensus PCR assays) from six epidemiologic studies (200 specimens/study; 100 HPV16(+)/study). Multivariate logistic regression, with adjustment for age and number of sexual partners, was used to evaluate the association between HPV16 positivity and detection of HPV52. In our pooled analysis (n = 1,196), the presence of HPV16 was positively associated with HPV52 detection [adjusted OR, 1.47; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.76-2.82]. In our separate (study specific) analyses, a statistically significant association was observed in one study that included HIV-infected males (HIPVIRG study; adjusted OR, 3.82; 95% CI, 1.19-12.26). We observed a positive association between HPV16 viral load (tertiles) and detection of HPV52 (P for trend = 0.003). These results indicate that diagnostic artifacts, resulting from unmasking of HPV52, may occur in some settings in the evaluation of HPV type replacement. Additional studies exploring the extent and severity of unmasking are needed. PMID:25277793

  4. HPV vaccination in boys and men.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses are DNA viruses that infect skin or mucosal cells. In the genital tract HPV (especially types 6 and 11) cause genital warts, the commonest viral sexually transmitted disease. At least 13 of the more than 100 known HPV genotypes are oncogenic "high-risk" genotypes. The 2 most common of these (genotypes 16 and 18) cause approximately 70% of all cervical cancers. Oncogenic HPVs particularly HPV 16 are associated with other anogenital cancers, anus, vagina, vulva and penis, and cancers of the head and neck and current estimates are that 5.2% of all cancers are HPV associated. In industrialised countries cervical cancer is controlled by secondary intervention other HPV associated malignancies are increasing in incidence and the burden of HPV associated disease in men is now comparable to that in women in economically developed countries. Randomized control trials with the quadrivalent HPV VLP vaccine demonstrate robust antibody responses and high efficacy against genital warts anal precancers in men. Few countries have recommended male vaccination on the basis that this is not cost effective. However gender-neutral vaccination has been recommended in the USA, Canada, Austria, and Australia. Careful cost effective modeling has preceded these decisions showing that when the burden of disease in men is included in the models then, depending upon coverage, vaccine price, and other factors male vaccination can become cost effective. PMID:25424825

  5. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Type Distribution in Females with Abnormal Cervical Cytology. A Correlation with Histological Study

    PubMed Central

    Cobo, Fernando; Concha, Ángel; Ortiz, Marta

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine human papillomavirus (HPV) types distribution in cervical preneoplasic lesions in a Southern Spanish population and their relationship between HPV type and grade of histopathological abnormality. Finally, 232 cervical samples from 135 women with previous cytological abnormalities were included in this study. Colposcopy studies and biopsies were performed. Haematoxylin-eosin stained slides were observed and detection of HPV DNA in cervical swabs was carried out with use of a polymerase chain reaction and microarrays technology. The relationship between the presence of HPV infection and diagnostic variables was evaluated. HPV 16 was the most common type followed by HPV 58, 51, 33 and 31. However, the two HPV types targeted in the prophylactic vaccines such as HPV type 16 and 18 were detected in only 37 (21.2%) and 2 (1.1%) cases respectively. Thirty-three (18.9%) of samples were infected with multiple types, the majority of them with two types. In addition, during the follow-up of patients many changes in type distribution were observed. Several studies will be necessary in order to evaluate the HPV type distribution for therapeutically and prophylactic purposes such as vaccine treatment. Also, because of the differences obtained depending of use of various DNA technologies, the performance of some comparative studies of the different methods from detection of HPV would be advisable in a high population of patients and with the most homogeneous conditions possible. PMID:19750125

  6. Prevalence of cervical infection with HPV type 16 and 18 in Vietnam: implications for vaccine campaign

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Expanded Program on Immunization currently considers offering Human Papilomavirus vaccine on a routine basis in Vietnam. However, as the current available vaccine can prevent only two types HPV 16 and 18, before implementing a large-scale vaccine campaign we need information about the prevalence of infection with only HPV 16 and 18 in Viet Nam. This study was done in 5 large cities in Vietnam to estimate the prevalence of HPV 16 and/or 18 infections and to explore the distribution of other high risk types of HPV among married women in these provinces. Methods The study employed a cross-sectional design with multistage sampling. The sample size included 4500 married women in two rounds (aged ranged from 18-69 years old, median age: 40 year old). Participant were randomly selected, interviewed and given gynaecological examinations. HPV infection status (by real-time PCR kit using TaqMan probe) and HPV genotyping test (by Reverse dot blot) were done for all participants. Results The prevalence of cervical infection with HPV type 16 and/or 18 among married women in this study ranged from 3.1% to 7.4%. Many positive HPV cases (ranged from 24.5% to 56.8%) were infected with other type of high risk HPV which can lead to cervical cancer and cannot prevented by currently available vaccines. In addition to HPV 16 and/or 18, most common types of high risk HPV were types 58, 52, 35 and 45. Awareness about HPV and HPV vaccines was still low in the study samples. Discussion While it is relevant to implement an HPV vaccine campaign in Viet Nam, it is important to note that one can be infected with multiple types of HPV. Vaccination does not protected against all type of high risk HPV types. Future vaccine campaigns should openly disclose this information to women receiving vaccines. Conclusion High prevalence of infection with HPV high risk types was observed in this study. As HPV infection has a high correlation with cervical cancer, this study emphasizes the need for both primary prevention of cervical cancer with HPV vaccines as well as secondary prevention with screening. PMID:23374877

  7. A recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 L1-vaccinia virus murine challenge model demonstrates cell-mediated immunity against HPV virus-like particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dianne Marais; Jo-Ann Passmore; James Maclean; Robert Rose; Anna-Lise Williamson

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) virus-like particles (VLP) are emerging as the immunogen of choice for prophylactic vaccines. The inability to infect animals with HPV has prevented the testing of potential vaccines such as these in animal systems. This study describes the development of a recombinant vac- cinia virus (VV)-HPV type 16 (HPV-16) VLP chal- lenge model to evaluate the efficacy of

  8. HPV types, HIV and invasive cervical carcinoma risk in Kampala, Uganda: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background While the association of human papillomavirus (HPV) with cervical cancer is well established, the influence of HIV on the risk of this disease in sub-Saharan Africa remains unclear. To assess the risk of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC) associated with HIV and HPV types, a hospital-based case-control study was performed between September 2004 and December 2006 in Kampala, Uganda. Incident cases of histologically-confirmed ICC (N=316) and control women (N=314), who were visitors or care-takers of ICC cases in the hospital, were recruited. Blood samples were obtained for HIV serology and CD4 count, as well as cervical samples for HPV testing. HPV DNA detection and genotyping was performed using the SPF10/DEIA/LiPA25 technique which detects all mucosal HPV types by DEIA and identifies 25 HPV genotypes by LiPA version 1. Samples that tested positive but could not be genotyped were designated HPVX. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by logistic regression, adjusting for possible confounding factors. Results For both squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma of the cervix, statistically significantly increased ORs were found among women infected with HPV, in particular single HPV infections, infections with HPV16-related types and high-risk HPV types, in particular HPV16, 18 and 45. For other HPV types the ORs for both SCC and adenocarcinoma were not statistically significantly elevated. HIV infection and CD4 count were not associated with SCC or adenocarcinoma risk in our study population. Among women infected with high-risk HPV types, no association between HIV and SCC emerged. However, an inverse association with adenocarcinoma was observed, while decrease in CD4 count was not associated with ICC risk. Conclusions The ORs for SCC and adenocarcinoma were increased in women infected with HPV, in particular single HPV infections, infections with HPV16- and 18-related types, and high-risk HPV types, specifically HPV16, 18 and 45. HIV infection and CD4 count were not associated with SCC or adenocarcinoma risk, but among women infected with high-risk HPV types there was an inverse association between HIV infection and adenocarcinoma risk. These results suggest that HIV and CD4 count may have no role in the progression of cervical cancer. PMID:21702999

  9. Long-term HPV type-specific risks of high-grade cervical intraepithelial lesions: a 14-year follow-up of a randomized primary HPV screening trial.

    PubMed

    Smelov, Vitaly; Elfström, K Miriam; Johansson, Anna L V; Eklund, Carina; Naucler, Pontus; Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen; Dillner, Joakim

    2015-03-01

    Quantitative knowledge of the long-term human papillomavirus (HPV) type-specific risks for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasias Grades 2 and 3 (CIN2 and CIN3) is useful for estimating the effect of elimination of specific HPV types and clinical benefits of screening for specific HPV types. We estimated HPV type-specific risks for CIN2 and CIN3 using a randomized primary HPV screening trial followed up for 14.6 years using comprehensive, nationwide registers. Poisson regression estimated cumulative incidences, population attributable proportions (PAR) and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of high-grade lesions by baseline HPV type, with censoring at date of first CIN2/3 or last registered cytology. Multivariate analysis adjusted for coinfections. IRRs were highest during the first screening round, but continued to be high throughout follow-up (IRRs for CIN3 associated with high-risk (HR) HPV positivity were 226.9, 49.3, 17.7 and 10.3 during the first, second and third screening round and for >9 years of follow-up, respectively). Increased long-term risks were found particularly for HPV Types 16, 18 and 31 and for CIN3+ risks. HPV16/18/31/33 had 14-year cumulative incidences for CIN3+ above 28%, HPV35/45/52/58 had 14 year risks between 14% and 18% and HPV39/51/56/59/66/68 had risks <10%. HPV16 contributed to the greatest proportion of CIN2+ (first round PAR 36%), followed by Types 31, 52, 45 and 58 (7-11%). HPV16/18/31/33/45/52/58 together contributed 73.9% of CIN2+ lesions and all HR types contributed 86.9%. In summary, we found substantial differences in risks for CIN2 and CIN3 between different oncogenic HPV types. These differences may be relevant for both clinical management and design of preventive strategies. PMID:25043476

  10. Sulfated K5 Escherichia coli polysaccharide derivatives as wide-range inhibitors of genital types of human papillomavirus.

    PubMed

    Lembo, David; Donalisio, Manuela; Rusnati, Marco; Bugatti, Antonella; Cornaglia, Maura; Cappello, Paola; Giovarelli, Mirella; Oreste, Pasqua; Landolfo, Santo

    2008-04-01

    Genital human papillomaviruses (HPV) represent the most common sexually transmitted agents and are classified into low or high risk by their propensity to cause genital warts or cervical cancer, respectively. Topical microbicides against HPV may be a useful adjunct to the newly licensed HPV vaccine. A main objective in the development of novel microbicides is to block HPV entry into epithelial cells through cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans. In this study, selective chemical modification of the Escherichia coli K5 capsular polysaccharide was integrated with innovative biochemical and biological assays to prepare a collection of sulfated K5 derivatives with a backbone structure resembling the heparin/heparan biosynthetic precursor and to test them for their anti-HPV activity. Surface plasmon resonance assays revealed that O-sulfated K5 with a high degree of sulfation [K5-OS(H)] and N,O-sulfated K5 with a high [K5-N,OS(H)] or low [K5-N,OS(L)] sulfation degree, but not unmodified K5, N-sulfated K5, and O-sulfated K5 with low levels of sulfation, prevented the interaction between HPV-16 pseudovirions and immobilized heparin. In cell-based assays, K5-OS(H), K5-N,OS(H), and K5-N,OS(L) inhibited HPV-16, HPV-18, and HPV-6 pseudovirion infection. Their 50% inhibitory concentration was between 0.1 and 0.9 mug/ml, without evidence of cytotoxicity. These findings provide insights into the design of novel, safe, and broad-spectrum microbicides against genital HPV infections. PMID:18250186

  11. Differential dependence on host cell glycosaminoglycans for infection of epithelial cells by high-risk HPV types.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Linda; Meyers, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the leading cause of cervical cancer world-wide. Here, we show that native HPV particles produced in a differentiated epithelium have developed different strategies to infect the host. Using biochemical inhibition assays and glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-negative cells, we show that of the four most common cancer-causing HPV types, HPV18, HPV31, and HPV45 are largely dependent on GAGs to initiate infection. In contrast, HPV16 can bind and enter through a GAG-independent mechanism. Infections of primary human keratinocytes, natural host cells for HPV infections, support our conclusions. Further, this renders the different virus types differentially susceptible to carrageenan, a microbicide targeting virus entry. Our data demonstrates that ordered maturation of papillomavirus particles in a differentiating epithelium may alter the virus entry mechanism. This study should facilitate a better understanding of the attachment and infection by the main oncogenic HPV types, and development of inhibitors of HPV infection. PMID:23861898

  12. HPV Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... test for wider range of HPV types. 2009 Mar 13. US Food and Drug Administration. Available online ... approves two DNA tests to detect HPV. 2009 Mar 17. Infectious Disease News. Available online at http:// ...

  13. Genital Warts (HPV)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is abstinence (the decision not to have sex). Teens who do have sex can get some protection by properly using a latex condom every time they have any kind of sex (vaginal, oral, or anal sex). Condoms are a good defense against warts, ...

  14. Population impact of HPV vaccines: summary of early evidence.

    PubMed

    Hariri, Susan; Markowitz, Lauri E; Dunne, Eileen F; Unger, Elizabeth R

    2013-12-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are available in the United States and around the world to prevent HPV-associated diseases including cervical cancer and genital warts. HPV vaccination is currently recommended for adolescents: target ages for routine and catch-up vaccinations vary by country. Because the time from vaccination to cancer development can be several decades, many studies are evaluating more immediate outcomes. In the 4 years since the vaccine was introduced, reductions in HPV vaccine type prevalence and genital warts have been reported in young females in the United States and other countries. Many questions remain about the long-term impact, but the initial studies show promising results for the relatively new HPV vaccine. PMID:24263069

  15. Vaccination HPV : principes, résultats et perspectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Rouzier; C. Uzan; P. Collinet

    2007-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) are responsible of an important morbidity and mortality. HPV is a significant source of morbidity and mortality. HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection: adolescents are at high-risk for HPV acquisition. Biologic and epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that HPV infection is a necessary but non-sufficient cause of cervical cancer and genital warts. The vast majority of

  16. Multiple-type HPV infections: a cross-sectional analysis of the prevalence of specific types in 309,000 women referred for HPV testing at the time of cervical cytology

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Elizabeth L; Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Bliss, Robin L.; Downs, Levi S

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine the frequency of multiple type cervical HPV infections, and whether any types are involved in multiple type infections more or less frequently than might be expected if these infections occur randomly. Methods In this retrospective analysis of type-specific HPV testing, results from women 18-65 years old with samples collected between July 2007 and May 2011 were considered. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to model the presence of each of the 24 most prevalent HPV types, adjusting for one other HPV type, age, laboratory region, and age by region interactions. Results HPV infection was present in 74,543 of 309,471 women (24.1%) and 65,492 (21.1%) were positive for one of the top 24 most prevalent HPV types. The most common HPV type was HPV type 16, occurring in 4.1 of the entire sample%. 14,181 women were positive for 2 or more HPV types (4.6% of entire sample, 19.0% of HPV positive sample). Two-way HPV type comparisons were analyzed. Types 52, 53, 81, and 83 more likely to occur in multiple infections with other types, and types 16, 58, and 66 were less likely to occur in multiple infections with other types. HPV types 72 and 81 have the strongest positive relationship (OR=5.2, 95% CI: 3.6, 7.4). HPV types 33 and 66 have the strongest negative relationship (OR 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2, 0.6). Conclusions In this population, multiple type HPV infections were present in 4.6% of all women. Our findings suggest that there may be both competitive and cooperative interactions between HPV types. PMID:23970156

  17. Genetic variability in the major capsid L1 protein of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) and 18 (HPV18)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Frati; S. Bianchi; D. Colzani; A. Zappa; G. Orlando; E. Tanzi

    HPV-16 and HPV-18 infections result in nearly 73% of cervical cancers worldwide. The L1 protein comprising HPV vaccine formulations elicit high-titre neutralizing antibodies. The aim of this study was to detect L1 HPV-16 and HPV-18 gene polymorphisms and analyze intratypic variations. HPV-16 (n=29) and HPV-18 (n=5) L1 gene sequences were obtained from cervical samples harvested from Italian women. Phylogenetic trees

  18. Analysis of Herpes Simplex Virus-Specific T Cells in the Murine Female Genital Tract Following Genital Infection with Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregg N. Milligan; David I. Bernstein

    1995-01-01

    A murine model of genital infection with a thymidine kinase-deficient (tk-) strain of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was utilized to examine the development of the local T cell response in the genital mucosa and draining genital lymph nodes (gLN). HSV-specific cytokine-secreting T cells were detected in the gLN 4 days postintravaginal inoculation but not in the urogenital tract

  19. Identification of a dendrimeric heparan sulfate-binding peptide that inhibits infectivity of genital types of human papillomaviruses.

    PubMed

    Donalisio, Manuela; Rusnati, Marco; Civra, Andrea; Bugatti, Antonella; Allemand, Donatella; Pirri, Giovanna; Giuliani, Andrea; Landolfo, Santo; Lembo, David

    2010-10-01

    Peptide dendrimers consist of a peptidyl branching core and/or covalently attached surface functional units. They show a variety of biological properties, including antiviral activity. In this study, a minilibrary of linear, dimeric, and dendrimeric peptides containing clusters of basic amino acids was evaluated for in vitro activity against human papillomaviruses (HPVs). The peptide dendrimer SB105-A10 was found to be a potent inhibitor of genital HPV types (i.e., types 16, 18, and 6) in pseudovirus-based neutralization assays. The 50% inhibitory concentration was between 2.8 and 4.2 ?g/ml (0.59 and 0.88 ?M), and no evidence of cytotoxicity was observed. SB105-A10 interacts with immobilized heparin and with heparan sulfates exposed on the cell surface, most likely preventing virus attachment. The findings from this study indicate SB105-A10 to be a leading candidate compound for further development as an active ingredient of a topical microbicide against HPV and other sexually transmitted viral infections. PMID:20643894

  20. Antibodies to human papillomavirus type 11 virus-like particles in sera of patients with genital warts and in control groups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Eisemann; Susan G. Fisher; Gerd Gross; M. Muller; Lutz Gissmann

    1996-01-01

    We analysed by ELISA a total of 478 human sera for the presence of antibodies to HPV-11 virus-like particles. The sera were obtained from patients with current genital warts (group CO), from males attending the hospital for fertility disorders (group HA), from blood donors (group BD) and from patients hospitalized for reasons unrelated to HPV infections (group HO). Antibody prevalence

  1. Prophylactic HPV vaccines: Reducing the burden of HPV-related diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luisa Lina Villa

    2006-01-01

    HPV-associated diseases, such as cervical and other anogenital cancers, cervical and anal intraepithelial neoplasia, genital warts, and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis confer considerable morbidity and mortality, and are significant health care concerns. Successful vaccination strategies that protect against HPV infection are expected to substantially reduce HPV-related disease burden. Prophylactic HPV vaccines in late stages of clinical testing are composed of HPV

  2. HPV vaccine (human papillomavirus) Cervarix - what you need to know

    MedlinePLUS

    ... taken in its entirety from the CDC HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Cervarix® Vaccine Information Statement: http://www.cdc. ... What is HPV? Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common ... in the United States. More than half of sexually active men ...

  3. Clinical features of external genital warts.

    PubMed

    Lynde, Charles; Vender, Ronald; Bourcier, Marc; Bhatia, Neal

    2013-12-01

    External genital warts (EGWs) are a common sexually transmitted infection caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). Although over 100 HPV types have been identified, some of which are associated with cancer, EGWs are caused by noncancerous HPV subtypes 6 and 11. This cutaneous manifestation of HPV infection can be asymptomatic or produce warty lesions that may assume a cauliflower-like, flat, papular, or keratotic appearance. Physical symptoms may also accompany warts, such as pruritus, burning, pain, and obstruction. EGWs typically appear in anogenital areas, such as the vulva, penis, groin, perineum, perianal skin, or mucosal surfaces. EGWs are typically a transient type of infection that often spontaneously regresses without treatment, but long-term remission rates are currently unknown. Treatment is determined according to the size and number of lesions, which can cluster or develop at multiple sites. Because of the individual variability in disease, treatment should be determined on a case-by-case basis. Further investigation, such as a biopsy, may be advisable in cases of atypical lesions, lesions that are unresponsive to therapies, and immunocompromised individuals, who are essentially more susceptible to HPV infections and less responsive to treatment. Although HPV testing is available, it is not currently recommended for detection and HPV typing. Differential diagnoses may include normal skin variations, other infectious or inflammatory diseases, and cancerous growths. PMID:24388559

  4. HPV: diagnosis, prevention, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Hathaway, Jon K

    2012-09-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted disease in the world. Almost 80% of the world's population is exposed by the age of 50. HPV can cause oropharyngeal, genital, and anal cancers. It also causes genital warts. There is no cure for HPV but vaccines are available to prevent infection by the most common HPV viruses; unfortunately, usage is low. Most people will clear HPV spontaneously. Those who do not are at high risk for developing malignancy. Treatment mainstays are destruction and excision of the lesions. PMID:22828099

  5. Human papillomavirus, genital warts, and vaccines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Po-Ren Hsueh

    Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related diseases, including cancers, low-grade neoplasia, genital warts, and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, have a substantial impact on public health. The increasing incidence of HPV infection and genital warts highlights the need for an effective strategy for the management of this disease. Immunization holds the promise of reducing the overall burden of clinical HPV-related diseases. A prophylactic quadrivalent HPV

  6. Cross-Reactivity, Epitope Spreading, and De Novo Immune Stimulation Are Possible Mechanisms of Cross-Protection of Nonvaccine Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Types in Recipients of HPV Therapeutic Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Mayumi; Greenfield, William; Moerman-Herzog, Andrea; Coleman, Hannah N

    2015-07-01

    Numerous versions of human papillomavirus (HPV) therapeutic vaccines designed to treat individuals with established HPV infection, including those with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), are in development because approved prophylactic vaccines are not effective once HPV infection is established. As human papillomavirus 16 (HPV-16) is the most commonly detected type worldwide, all versions of HPV therapeutic vaccines contain HPV-16, and some also contain HPV-18. While these two HPV types are responsible for approximately 70% of cervical cancer cases, there are other high-risk HPV types known to cause malignancy. Therefore, it would be of interest to assess whether these HPV therapeutic vaccines may confer cross-protection against other high-risk HPV types. Data available from a few clinical trials that enrolled subjects with CINs regardless of the HPV type(s) present demonstrated clinical responses, as measured by CIN regression, in subjects with both vaccine-matched and nonvaccine HPV types. The currently available evidence demonstrating cross-reactivity, epitope spreading, and de novo immune stimulation as possible mechanisms of cross-protection conferred by investigational HPV therapeutic vaccines is discussed. PMID:25947147

  7. Isolation and Characterization of Human Papillomavirus Type 6Specific T Cells Infiltrating Genital Warts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KENNETH HONG; CATHERINE E. GREER; NZEERA KETTER; GARY VAN NEST; XAVIER PALIARD

    1997-01-01

    The potential role of T cells in the control of human papillomavirus type 6 (HPV-6) infections is an appealing premise, but their actual role has been sparsely investigated. Since HPV-6 infections are confined to the epithelium, such an investigation should focus on the T cells present at the site of infection (i.e., the warts). Therefore, we isolated wart-infiltrating lymphocytes (WIL)

  8. Comparison of the immunogenicity of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 vaccine and the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine for oncogenic non-vaccine types HPV-31 and HPV-45 in healthy women aged 18–45 years

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Mira; Levin, Myron J; Chatterjee, Archana; Fox, Bradley; Scholar, Sofia; Rosen, Jeffrey; Chakhtoura, Nahida; Lebacq, Marie; van der Most, Robbert; Moris, Philippe; Giannini, Sandra L; Schuind, Anne; Datta, Sanjoy K; Descamps, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    Protection against oncogenic non-vaccine types (cross-protection) offered by human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines may provide a significant medical benefit. Available clinical efficacy data suggest the two licensed vaccines [HPV-16/18 vaccine, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals (GSK), and HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine, Merck and Co., Inc.,] differ in terms of protection against oncogenic non-vaccine HPV types -31/45. The immune responses induced by the two vaccines against these two non-vaccine HPV types (cross-reactivity) was compared in an observer-blind study up to Month 24 (18 mo postvaccination), in women HPV DNA-negative and seronegative prior to vaccination for the HPV type analyzed [HPV-010 (NCT00423046)]. Geometric mean antibody titers (GMTs) measured by pseudovirion-based neutralization assay (PBNA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA ) were similar between vaccines for HPV-31/45. Seropositivity rates for HPV-31 were also similar between vaccines; however, there was a trend for higher seropositivity with the HPV-16/18 vaccine (13.0–16.7%) vs. the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (0.0–5.0%) for HPV-45 with PBNA, but not ELISA . HPV-31/45 cross-reactive memory B-cell responses were comparable between vaccines. Circulating antigen-specific CD4+ T-cell frequencies were higher for the HPV-16/18 vaccine than the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine {HPV-31 [geometric mean ratio (GMR) = 2.0; p = 0.0002] and HPV-45 [GMR = 2.6; p = 0.0092]}, as were the proportion of T-cell responders (HPV-31, p = 0.0009; HPV-45, p = 0.0793). In conclusion, immune response to oncogenic non-vaccine HPV types -31/45 was generally similar for both vaccines with the exception of T-cell response which was higher with the HPV-16/18 vaccine. Considering the differences in cross-protective efficacy between the two vaccines, the results might provide insights into the underlying mechanism(s) of protection. PMID:22048172

  9. Induction of an antibody response in mice against human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 after immunization with HPV recombinant Salmonella strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. L. Krul; Edwin J. Tijhaar; John A. F. W. Kleijne; Anton M. Van Loon; Mirjam G. Nievers; Hans Schipper; Liesbeth Geerse; M. Van der Kolk; Peter A. Steerenberg; Frits R. Mooi; Willem Den Otter

    1996-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are present in approximately 95% of all cervical carcinomas and the HPV E6 and E7 genes are\\u000a continuously expressed in these lesions. There is also circumstantial evidence that often natural immunity against HPV is\\u000a generated and that this is of influence on HPV-induced lesions. Stimulation of the immune system by proper presentation of\\u000a relevant HPV antigens might,

  10. Natural history and epidemiology of HPV infection and cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Castellsagué, Xavier

    2008-09-01

    Cervical cancer is the most common cancer affecting women in developing countries. It has been estimated to have been responsible for almost 260 000 deaths annually, of which about 80% occurred in developing countries. Persistent infection by certain oncogenic HPV types is firmly established as the necessary cause of most premalignant and malignant epithelial lesions of the cervix and of a variable fraction of neoplastic lesions of the vulva, vagina, anus, penis, and oropharynx. There are more than 100 known HPV genotypes, at least 15 of which can cause cancer of the cervix and other sites. HPV 16 and 18, the two most common oncogenic types, cause approximately 70% of all cervical cancers worldwide. HPV, especially genotypes 6 and 11, can also cause genital warts. HPV is highly transmissible and it is now considered the most common sexually transmitted infection in most populations. Although most women infected with the virus become negative within 2 years, women with persistent high-risk HPV infections are at greatest risk for developing cervical cancer. Since the identification of HPV as the necessary cause of cervical cancer, HPV-based technology has become the centre of novel primary and secondary cervical cancer prevention strategies by the introduction of HPV testing in screening and of HPV vaccines in preadolescent girls and young women. If implemented widely and wisely the deployment of these protocols has the potential to complete Papanicolaou's goal of cervical cancer eradication by extending the benefits of prevention to the developing populations of the world. PMID:18760711

  11. A CONTROLLED TRIAL OF HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS TYPE 16 VACCINE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer M. Lehr

    2003-01-01

    A double-blind, multicenter, randomized clinical trial was con- ducted to determine whether a human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) vaccine could prevent HPV-16 infection in women. Female subjects (N = 2392) age 16 to 23 years were randomly assigned to receive 3 injections of either HPV-16 vaccine or placebo at day 0, month 2, and month 6. Genital samples to test

  12. Impact of HPV infection in adolescent populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna-Barbara Moscicki

    2005-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a significant source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The primary risk factors for acquiring HPV are generally associated with sexual activity. Evidence suggests that condoms provide some protection against infection and disease progression, but any genital contact is sufficient for HPV transmission. HPV is so common and transmissible that having just one sexual partner often results

  13. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 as a Cause of Genital Herpes: Impact on Surveillance and Prevention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lois Downey; Connie Celum; Anna Wald

    2000-01-01

    This study compared characteristics of patients who had herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 with characteristics of patients who had HSV-2, by use of data from a cross-sectional analysis. Data were collected in an urban sexually transmitted diseases clinic from patients who had positive genital HSV cultures. Overall, 17.1% (95% confidence interval (CI), 14.9%-19.3%) of 1145 genital HSV isolates obtained

  14. HPV vaccination and cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Szarewski, Anne

    2012-12-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide and often affects women under 40 years with young families. Vaccination against the human papillomavirus (HPV) is a major advance, since it offers primary prevention against the infectious agent that is the main cause of the disease. Two prophylactic vaccines have shown great promise in clinical trials. One of these (Gardasil(®)) contains all four HPV types, offering protection against genital warts (types 6 and 11) as well as cervical cancer (types 16 and 18). The other (Cervarix(®)) contains types 16 and 18, targeting cervical cancer alone, but also has a degree of cross-protection against types 31 and 45, which could significantly increase the level of protection. Adolescent girls remain the primary target of vaccination programmes, but the issues of vaccinating boys and older women are increasingly debated. PMID:22890794

  15. Phylogenetically related, clinically different: human papillomaviruses 6 and 11 variants distribution in genital warts and in laryngeal papillomatosis.

    PubMed

    Godínez, J M; Nicolás-Párraga, S; Pimenoff, V N; Mengual-Chuliá, B; Muñoz, N; Bosch, F X; Sánchez, G I; McCloskey, J; Bravo, I G

    2014-06-01

    Genital warts (GWs) and laryngeal papillomatosis (LP) are two usually benign pathologies related to infection with human papillomaviruses (HPVs), mainly HPV6 and HPV11. The aim of this work was to describe the genetic diversity of HPV6 and HPV11 isolates found in GWs and LPs, and to analyse the differential involvement of viral variants in either lesion. A total of 231 samples diagnosed as GWs (n = 198) or LP (n = 33) and caused by HPV6 or HPV11 monoinfections were analysed. The phylogenetic relationships of the retrieved viral sequences were explored. We have identified the long control region and the intergenic E2-L2 region as the two most variable regions in both HPV6 and HPV11 genomes. We have generated new HPV6 (n = 166) or HPV11 (n = 65) partial sequences from GWs and LPs lesions spanning both regions and studied them in the context of all available sequences of both types (final n = 412). Our results show a significant (p <0.01) differential presence of HPV6 variants among both pathologies, with HPV6 B variants being preferentially found in GW versus LP samples. No differential involvement of HPV11 variants was observed. Our findings suggest that different HPV6 variants may either show differential tropism or have different potential to induce lesions in different epithelia. PMID:24118667

  16. Comparison of real-time multiplex human papillomavirus (HPV) PCR assays with INNO-LiPA HPV genotyping extra assay.

    PubMed

    Else, Elizabeth A; Swoyer, Ryan; Zhang, Yuhua; Taddeo, Frank J; Bryan, Janine T; Lawson, John; Van Hyfte, Inez; Roberts, Christine C

    2011-05-01

    Real-time type-specific multiplex human papillomavirus (HPV) PCR assays were developed to detect HPV DNA in samples collected for the efficacy determination of the quadrivalent HPV (type 6, 11, 16, and 18) L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine (Gardasil). Additional multiplex (L1, E6, and E7 open reading frame [ORF]) or duplex (E6 and E7 ORF) HPV PCR assays were developed to detect high-risk HPV types, including HPV type 31 (HPV31), HPV33, HPV35, HPV39, HPV45, HPV51, HPV52, HPV56, HPV58, and HPV59. Here, we evaluated clinical specimen concordance and compared the limits of detection (LODs) between multiplex HPV PCR assays and the INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra assay, which detects 28 types, for the 14 HPV types common to both of these methods. Overall HPV detection agreement rates were >90% for swabs and >95% for thin sections. Statistically significant differences in detection were observed for HPV6, HPV16, HPV18, HPV35, HPV39, HPV45, HPV56, HPV58, and HPV59 in swabs and for HPV45, HPV58, and HPV59 in thin sections. Where P was <0.05, discordance was due to detection of more HPV-positive samples by the multiplex HPV PCR assays. LODs were similar for eight HPV types, significantly lower in multiplex assays for five HPV types, and lower in INNO-LiPA for HPV6 only. LODs were under 50 copies for all HPV types, with the exception of HPV39, HPV58, and HPV59 in the INNO-LiPA assay. The overall percent agreement for detection of 14 HPV types between the type-specific multiplex HPV PCR and INNO-LiPA genotyping assays was good. The differences in positive sample detection favored multiplex HPV PCR, suggesting increased sensitivity of HPV DNA detection by type-specific multiplex HPV PCR assays. PMID:21068278

  17. HPV types, HIV and invasive cervical carcinoma risk in Kampala, Uganda: a case-control study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Odida; Sven Sandin; Florence Mirembe; Bernhard Kleter; Wim Quint; Elisabete Weiderpass

    2011-01-01

    Background  While the association of human papillomavirus (HPV) with cervical cancer is well established, the influence of HIV on the\\u000a risk of this disease in sub-Saharan Africa remains unclear. To assess the risk of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC) associated\\u000a with HIV and HPV types, a hospital-based case-control study was performed between September 2004 and December 2006 in Kampala,\\u000a Uganda. Incident cases

  18. HPV infection and cervical disease: a review.

    PubMed

    Carter, Jonathan R; Ding, Zongqun; Rose, Barbara R

    2011-04-01

    Cervical cancer remains a significant problem worldwide particularly in underdeveloped countries. The disease and its financial impact are significant. Infection with the human papilloma virus (HPV) is necessary for the development of cervical cancer and its precursors. HPV also causes precancer and cancer elsewhere in the lower genital tract in women and men, as well as cancers of the aerodigestive tract. Whilst non-sexual transmission has been reported, the usual method of transmission is by sexual intercourse with the virus deposited on the basement membrane of the cervical epithelium. It is then taken up by the basal cells, and viral amplification occurs with the maturation of the squamous epithelium. During this process, it remains hidden from the host immune system, thus not mounting an immune response in many instances. About half of the women infected with HPV do not develop clinically detected serum antibody levels and are thus at risk of re-infection with the same HPV type. HPV vaccination produces sustained levels of serum-neutralising antibodies and has been shown to be effective in reducing disease caused by the vaccine-associated HPV types. Vaccination is considered well tolerated and safe with syncope and venous thromboembolism reported more frequently that would be expected. Vaccination will not protect against pre-existing HPV infection and hence may not provide complete protection in all women, and as the duration of protection is not known, for the time being routine Pap testing screening according to the Australian guidelines should continue. PMID:21466509

  19. Upstream Regulatory Region Alterations Found in Human Papillomavirus Type 16 (HPV-16) Isolates from Cervical Carcinomas Increase Transcription, ori Function, and HPV Immortalization Capacity in Culture?

    PubMed Central

    Lace, Michael J.; Isacson, Christina; Anson, James R.; Lörincz, Attila T.; Wilczynski, Sharon P.; Haugen, Thomas H.; Turek, Lubomír P.

    2009-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNAs isolated from cervical and head and neck carcinomas frequently contain nucleotide sequence alterations in the viral upstream regulatory region (URR). Our study has addressed the role such sequence changes may play in the efficiency of establishing HPV persistence and altered keratinocyte growth. Genomic mapping of integrated HPV type 16 (HPV-16) genomes from 32 cervical cancers revealed that the viral E6 and E7 oncogenes, as well as the L1 region/URR, were intact in all of them. The URR sequences from integrated and unintegrated viral DNA were found to harbor distinct sets of nucleotide substitutions. A subset of the altered URRs increased the potential of HPV-16 to establish persistent, cell growth-altering viral-genome replication in the cell. This aggressive phenotype in culture was not solely due to increased viral early gene transcription, but also to augmented initial amplification of the viral genome. As revealed in a novel ori-dependent HPV-16 plasmid amplification assay, the altered motifs that led to increased viral transcription from the intact genome also greatly augmented HPV-16 ori function. The nucleotide sequence changes correlate with those previously described in the distinct geographical North American type 1 and Asian-American variants that are associated with more aggressive disease in epidemiologic studies and encompass, but are not limited to, alterations in previously characterized sites for the negative regulatory protein YY1. Our results thus provide evidence that nucleotide alterations in HPV regulatory sequences could serve as potential prognostic markers of HPV-associated carcinogenesis. PMID:19458011

  20. Detection of human papillomavirus DNA on the fingers of patients with genital warts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Sonnex; S. Strauss; J. J. Gray

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether patients with genital warts carry human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA on their fingers. METHODS: 14 men and eight women with genital warts had cytobrush samples taken from genital lesions, finger tips, and tips of finger nails. Samples were examined for the presence of HPV DNA by the polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: HPV DNA was detected in all

  1. Knowledge of Human Papillomavirus: Differences by Self-Reported Treatment for Genital Warts and Sociodemographic Characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jill Koshiol; Lila Finney Rutten; Richard P. Moser; Nicola Hesse

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate knowledge about human papillomavirus (HPV) in individuals with genital warts compared with women from the general population without genital warts. Human papillomavirus (HPV) knowledge among women reporting treatment for genital warts compared with HPV knowledge in women reporting no treatment was assessed using data from the population-based 2005 Health Information National Trends

  2. Sequence-based genotyping HPV L1 DNA and RNA transcripts in clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Satra, Maria; Vamvakopoulou, Dimitra N; Sioutopoulou, Despina O; Kollia, Panagoula; Kiritsaka, Aspasia; Sotiriou, Sotirios; Antonakopoulos, Georgios; Alexandris, Elias; Costantoulakis, Pantelis; Vamvakopoulos, Nicholas C

    2009-01-01

    We developed a direct sequence-based genotyping method to detect single and multiple HPV L1 DNA and RNA types in genital and dermatological specimens. Our method couples PCR amplification of a highly conserved HPV L1 segment using a broad spectrum-generic primer cocktail mix with automated sequencing of amplified PCR products, followed by GenBank sorting of sequencing data. We genotyped 5 skin and 30 cervical HPV DNA-positive specimens using this method and established its first experimentally derived working cutoff value with the aid of commercial hybridization-based techniques. We suggest that sequence-based genotyping of appropriately amplified DNA and RNA products may serve as a primary HPV detection method in dermatological specimens. It can be applied as an all-purpose genotyping method for rare HPV types not detectable by commercial hybridization-based techniques and for sorting multiple HPV infections by order of prevalence. PMID:19762162

  3. Differential Effects of Human Papillomavirus Type 6, 16, and 18 DNAs on Immortalization and Transformation of Human Cervical Epithelial Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gene Pecoraro; Don Morgan; Vittorio Defendi

    1989-01-01

    The human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are associated with specific benign and malignant lesions of the skin and mucosal epithelia. Cloned viral DNAs from HPV types 6b, 16, and 18 associated with different pathological manifestations of genital neoplasia in vivo were introduced into primary human cervical epithelial cells by electroporation. Cells transfected with HPV16 or HPV18 DNA acquired indefinite lifespans, distinct morphological

  4. Pathology and epidemiology of HPV infection in females.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Margaret

    2010-05-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a large family of small double-stranded DNA viruses that infect squamous epithelia. It has been established that infection with specific HPV types is a contributing factor to different types of anogenital cancer, including vulval, vaginal, anal, penile, and head and neck cancers. Approximately 4% of all cancers are associated with HPV. HPV infection is the major cause of cervical cancer and genital warts. Genital HPV infections are very common, are sexually transmitted, and have a peak prevalence between ages 18 and 30. Most of these infections clear spontaneously, but in 10-20% of women, these infections remain persistent and are at risk of progression to grade 2/3 cervical intraepithelial neoplasm (CIN) and eventually to invasive cancer of the cervix (ICC). CINs are genetically unstable lesions with a 30-40% risk of progression to ICC. If left untreated, they form a spectrum of increasing cytological atypia, ranging from low-grade CIN1 to high-grade CIN3; the latter are caused almost exclusively by high-risk HPVs, HPV 16 and 18. Infection with HPV requires a microabrasion in the genital epithelium. The oncogenic properties of high-risk HPV reside in the E6 and E7 genes, which if inappropriately expressed in dividing cells deregulate cell division and differentiation. HPV DNA testing has been shown consistently to be superior to cytology in terms of sensitivity and positive predictive value and will become a major tool in cervical cancer screening, at least in the developed countries. PMID:20304221

  5. HPV types and cofactors causing cervical cancer in Peru

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Santos; N Muñoz; S Klug; M Almonte; I Guerrero; M Alvarez; C Velarde; O Galdos; M Castillo; J Walboomers; C Meijer; E Caceres

    2001-01-01

    We conducted a hospital-based case-control study in Peru of 198 women with histologically confirmed cervical cancer (173 squamous cell carcinomas and 25 cases of adenocarcinoma\\/adenosquamous carcinoma) and 196 control women. Information on risk factors was obtained by personal interview. Using PCR-based assays on exfoliated cervical cells and biopsy specimens, HPV DNA was detected in 95.3% of women with squamous cell

  6. HPV vaccination in head and neck HPV-related pathologies.

    PubMed

    Wierzbicka, Ma?gorzata; Józefiak, Agata; Jackowska, Joanna; Szyd?owski, Jaros?aw; Go?dzicka-Józefiak, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Recent data demonstrate that human papilloma virus (HPV) plays a role in pathologies other than ano-genital cancers, specifically head and neck malignancies, and non-cancerous conditions such as recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP). High-risk HPV16 and 18, and low risk HPV6 and 11 play the main role in HPV-related pathologies. As more and more information about the role of HPV infection in non-cervical diseases is amassed, additional questions about whether prophylactic HPV vaccines will effectively prevent these conditions are raised. HPV vaccination programs for the cervical pathology are being implemented worldwide. In the United States, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the quadrivalent HPV vaccine for girls in 2006 and for boys in 2011. These vaccination programs were aimed at the genital, HPV-related lesions, and there was not much recognition at that time of how HPV vaccination programs might affect oral HPV infection, which is a risk factor for the development of HPV-related head and neck cancers. Vaccination has proved to be a successful policy, and an extant recommendation is aimed at preventing HPV and associated cervical and other anogenital cancers with the routine use of HPV vaccines for males and females. However, HPV vaccines are presently not recommended for preventing oropharyngeal cancer (OPC), although they have been shown to be highly effective against the HPV strains that are most commonly found in the oropharynx. This review is aimed at presenting the evidence-based knowledge concerning HPV vaccination and highlighting the trials and strategies for vaccine administration in HPV-dependent head and neck pathologies. PMID:24981297

  7. Epidemiology and pathology of HPV disease in males

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna R. Giuliano; Gabriella Anic; Alan G. Nyitray

    2010-01-01

    It is currently recognized that besides the significant impact of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in females, HPV causes substantial disease in men as well. Genital warts are a common manifestation of male infection with HPV. Genital warts are highly infectious and approximately 65% of people who have sex with an infected partner will develop warts themselves. More than 90% of

  8. The epidemiology of herpes simplex types 1 and 2 infection of the genital tract in Edinburgh 1978-1991

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J D Ross; I W Smith; R A Elton

    1993-01-01

    INTRODUCTION--The changing epidemiology of genital herpes in Edinburgh is described in relation to herpes simplex virus (HSV) Type 1 and herpes simplex virus Type 2 infection over a period of 14 years. METHODS--2018 episodes of genital herpes in 1794 patients over a 14 year period were assessed. Data on age, sex, sexual orientation, geographical origin and herpes antibodies were also

  9. HPV-Type Distribution and Reproducibility of Histological Diagnosis in Cervical Neoplasia in Poland.

    PubMed

    Nowakowski, Andrzej; de Souza, Sabrina Collas; Jach, Robert; Rosillon, Dominique; Ksi??ek, Alicja; Holl, Katsiaryna

    2015-07-01

    This study was performed to assess attribution of high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-CIN) and invasive cervical cancer (ICC) to human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes and secondarily to assess reproducibility of HG-CIN/ICC diagnosis obtained in Poland. Formaldehyde fixed, paraffin embedded blocks of HG-CIN/ICC from two distant institutions were sent to a central laboratory together with original histological diagnoses. Central/expert review of histopathological specimens was performed and agreement between local and central/expert diagnoses was calculated. HPV detection and genotyping in the samples was carried out with the use of SPF10-LiPA25 technology. Results were analyzed for 205 HG-CIN and 193 ICC cases with centrally confirmed diagnoses. Kappa coefficients and 95 % confidence intervals for HG-CIN and ICC diagnoses were: 0.13 (0.09;0.17) and 0.19 (0.11;0.26) respectively. Cohen's kappa coefficients for lesions with representative number of samples ranged from 0.01 for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 to 0.75 for adenocarcinoma. HPV DNA was detected in 96.1 and 91.2 % of the confirmed HG-CIN and ICC specimens respectively. HPV positive HG-CIN was most commonly attributed to HPV types: 16 (62.8), 33 (7.8), 31 (6.6), 52 (3.7), 45 (2.6) and 58 (2.6 %). HPV positive ICC was most commonly attributed to HPV types: 16 (72.1), 18 (10.8), 33 (5.7), 45 (3.4) and 31 (1.7 %). Reproducibility of histological diagnosis of HG-CIN/ICC obtained in Poland generally increases with the severity of lesion and is lowest for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 and highest for adenocarcinoma. Over 80 % of ICC cases are vaccine-preventable in Poland. PMID:25547828

  10. Counseling Patients With Genital Warts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1997-01-01

    Counseling patients about any sexually transmitted disease (STD) is difficult, for both the physician and the patient, but a diagnosis of genital warts presents particular challenges. For many patients, being told that they have any STD comes as a shock. Although fear is a common reaction, the relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) and cancer has made the presence of genital

  11. Induction of an antibody response in mice against human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 after immunization with HPV recombinant Salmonella strains.

    PubMed

    Krul, M R; Tijhaar, E J; Kleijne, J A; Van Loon, A M; Nievers, M G; Schipper, H; Geerse, L; Van der Kolk, M; Steerenberg, P A; Mooi, F R; Den Otter, W

    1996-09-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are present in approximately 95% of all cervical carcinomas and the HPV E6 and E7 genes are continuously expressed in these lesions. There is also circumstantial evidence that often natural immunity against HPV is generated and that this is of influence on HPV-induced lesions. Stimulation of the immune system by proper presentation of relevant HPV antigens might, therefore, lead to a prophylactic or therapeutic immunological intervention for HPV-induced lesions. For this purpose we have expressed the E6 and E7 protein of HPV 16 in an attenuated strain of Salmonella typhimurium (SL3261, aroA mutation), which has been used extensively as a live vector. Live recombinant Salmonella vaccines have the ability to elicit humoral, secretory and cell-mediated immune responses, including cytotoxic T cells, against the heterologous antigens they express. This report describes the construction of recombinant Salmonella strains expressing the HPV 16 E6 and E7 proteins, and the induction of an HPV-16-specific immune response in mice after immunization with these live vectors. PMID:8917635

  12. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Type 18 Induces Extended Growth in Primary Human Cervical, Tonsillar, or Foreskin Keratinocytes More Effectively than Other High-Risk Mucosal HPVs?

    PubMed Central

    Lace, Michael J.; Anson, James R.; Klingelhutz, Aloysius J.; Lee, John H.; Bossler, Aaron D.; Haugen, Thomas H.; Turek, Lubomir P.

    2009-01-01

    Mucosal high-risk (HR) human papillomaviruses (HPVs) that cause cervical and other anogenital cancers also are found in ?25% of head and neck carcinomas (HNCs), especially those arising in the oropharynx and the tonsils. While many HR HPV types are common in anogenital cancer, over 90% of HPV-positive HNCs harbor HPV type 16 (HPV-16). Using a quantitative colony-forming assay, we compared the ability of full-length mucosal HPV genomes, i.e., the low-risk HPV-11 and HR HPV-16, -18, and -31, to persist in and alter the growth of primary human keratinocytes from the foreskin, cervix, and tonsils. The HR HPV types led to the formation of growing keratinocyte colonies in culture independent of the site of epithelial origin. However, HPV-18 induced colony growth in all keratinocytes >4-fold more effectively than HPV-16 or HPV-31 and >20-fold more efficiently than HPV-11 or controls. HPV-11-transfected or control colonies failed to expand beyond 32 to 36 population doublings postexplantation. In contrast, individual HR HPV-transfected clones exhibited no apparent slowdown of growth or “crisis,” and many maintained HPV plasmid persistence beyond 60 population doublings. Keratinocyte clones harboring extrachromosomal HR HPV genomes had shorter population doubling times and formed dysplastic stratified epithelia in organotypic raft cultures, mirroring the pathological features of higher-grade intraepithelial lesions, yet did not exhibit chromosomal instability. We conclude that, in culture, the HR HPV type, rather than the site of epithelial origin of the cells, determines the efficacy of inducing continued growth of individual keratinocytes, with HPV-18 being the most aggressive mucosal HR HPV type tested. PMID:19740985

  13. Role of type specific herpes simplex virus serology in the diagnosis and management of genital herpes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. E. Munday; J. Vuddamalay; M. J. Slomka; D. W. Brown

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the indications for the use of a type specific antibody test for herpes simplex virus in a department of genitourinary medicine in the United Kingdom. METHOD: Retrospective analysis of case records of 127 patients who accepted the test during a 20 month period. RESULTS\\/CONCLUSION: The test contributed to patient management in 79% of patients with recurrent genital

  14. Human papillomavirus types in 115,789 HPV-positive women: a meta-analysis from cervical infection to cancer.

    PubMed

    Guan, Peng; Howell-Jones, Rebecca; Li, Ni; Bruni, Laia; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Franceschi, Silvia; Clifford, Gary M

    2012-11-15

    Genotyping may improve risk stratification of high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive women in cervical screening programs; however, prospective data comparing the natural history and carcinogenic potential of individual HR types remain limited. A meta-analysis of cross-sectional HR HPV-type distribution in 115,789 HPV-positive women was performed, including 33,154 normal cytology, 6,810 atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), 13,480 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and 6,616 high-grade SIL (HSIL) diagnosed cytologically, 8,106 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 (CIN1), 4,068 CIN2 and 10,753 CIN3 diagnosed histologically and 36,374 invasive cervical cancers (ICCs) from 423 PCR-based studies worldwide. No strong differences in HPV-type distribution were apparent between normal cytology, ASCUS, LSIL or CIN1. However, HPV16 positivity increased steeply from normal/ASCUS/LSIL/CIN1 (20-28%), through CIN2/HSIL (40/47%) to CIN3/ICC (58/63%). HPV16, 18 and 45 accounted for a greater or equal proportion of HPV infections in ICC compared to normal cytology (ICC:normal ratios = 3.07, 1.87 and 1.10, respectively) and to CIN3 (ICC:CIN3 ratios = 1.08, 2.11 and 1.47, respectively). Other HR types accounted for important proportions of HPV-positive CIN2 and CIN3, but their contribution dropped in ICC, with ICC:normal ratios ranging from 0.94 for HPV33 down to 0.16 for HPV51. ICC:normal ratios were particularly high for HPV45 in Africa (1.85) and South/Central America (1.79) and for HPV58 in Eastern Asia (1.36). ASCUS and LSIL appear proxies of HPV infection rather than cancer precursors, and even CIN3 is not entirely representative of the types causing ICC. HPV16 in particular, but also HPV18 and 45, warrant special attention in HPV-based screening programs. PMID:22323075

  15. Sequence-based genotyping HPV L1 DNA and RNA transcripts in clinical specimens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Satra; Dimitra N. Vamvakopoulou; Despina O. Sioutopoulou; Panagoula Kollia; Aspasia Kiritsaka; Sotirios Sotiriou; Georgios Antonakopoulos; Elias Alexandris; Pantelis Costantoulakis; Nicholas C. Vamvakopoulos

    2009-01-01

    We developed a direct sequence-based genotyping method to detect single and multiple HPV L1 DNA and RNA types in genital and dermatological specimens. Our method couples PCR amplification of a highly conserved HPV L1 segment using a broad spectrum-generic primer cocktail mix with automated sequencing of amplified PCR products, followed by GenBank sorting of sequencing data. We genotyped 5 skin

  16. Chapter 4: Burden and management of non-cancerous HPVrelated conditions: HPV6\\/11 disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles J. N. Lacey; Catherine M. Lowndes; Keerti V. Shah

    2006-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-6 and -11 are the causative agents of ano-genital warts (GWs) and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP). They are low-risk HPV types that are uncommonly found in malignant lesions. GWs are an extremely prevalent sexually transmitted disease, whereas RRP is a rare disease that can be life threatening and requires multiple surgical procedures. GWs and RRP cause substantial healthcare

  17. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and their associations with squamous cell neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Syrjänen, K J

    1987-01-01

    Current data implicating an etiological role of Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in precancer lesions (intraepithelial neoplasia) and squamous cell carcinoma of both the genital tract and other sites (oral cavity, larynx, skin, esophagus, nasal cavity, bronchus) can be summarized as follows: a) HPV involvement in benign, precancer, and malignant genital squamous cell lesions has been demonstrated by morphological, immunohistochemical and DNA hybridization techniques; b) HPV infections in the genital tract are sexually transmitted (STD) and associated with the same risk factors as development of cervical carcinoma; c) natural history of cervical HPV lesions is equivalent to that of CIN, i.e. they are potentially progressive to carcinoma in situ; d) latent HPV infections exist in the genital tract of both sexes; e) animal models exist, where papillomaviruses induce malignant transformation; f) HPV 11 induces transformation of human squamous epithelium in vivo (nude mouse renal subcapsule assay); g) malignant transformation of HPV lesions seems to depend on virus type and the physical state of its DNA, i.e. whether or not integrated in the host cell DNA; h) malignant transformation most probably requires synergistic actions between HPV and chemical or physical carcinogens or other infectious agents; i) genetic disposition (at least in animals) significantly contributes to malignant transformation; j) immunological defence mechanisms of the host probably are capable of modifying the course of HPV infection (efficacy in man remains to be elucidated). Many details of the molecular mechanisms still remain to be clarified, however. No applicable model systems exist to elucidate these issues, or the mechanisms leading to the progression to invasive cancer. Improved tissue culture systems for in vitro differentiation of keratinocytes should help in elucidating the biology of papillomaviruses and their interaction with cell division and differentiation. PMID:2829787

  18. Prevalence of HPV high and low risk types in cervical samples from the Italian general population: a population based study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Giorgi Rossi; Simonetta Bisanzi; Irene Paganini; Angela Di Iasi; Claudio Angeloni; Aurora Scalisi; Rosalba Macis; Maria Teresa Pini; Francesco Chini; Francesca Maria Carozzi

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This multicenter study describes the type-specific prevalence of HPV infection in the general population from central and southern Italy, comparing the data with previously published Italian studies. METHODS: Women aged from 25 to 65 who attended cervical cancer screening in five different Italian regions were tested for HPV infection with Hybrid Capture II (HCII) low and high risk probes.

  19. Chimeric Virus-like Particles of the Human Papillomavirus Type 16 (HPV 16) as a Prophylactic and Therapeutic Vaccine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ingrid Jochmus; Klaus Schäfer; Stefan Faath; Martin Müller; Lutz Gissmann

    1999-01-01

    Infection by certain human papillomaviruses (HPV), most notably HPV types 16 and 18, is the major risk factor for cervical cancer. Worldwide, this disease represents the second most frequent malignant tumor in women; thus, there is urgent need for efficient therapy and prevention. The natural history of cervical cancer and its precursors (cervical intraepithelial neoplasias), as well as animal experiments,

  20. Pattern of HPV infection in basal cell carcinoma and in perilesional skin biopsies from immunocompetent patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) such as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is not yet fully understood. We analysed the prevalence and spectrum of cutaneous beta-HPV types and mucosal/genital HPV types in paired biopsies (tumour and corresponding perilesional skin) obtained from 50 BCC immunocompetent patients. A small group of SCC patients (n=9) was also included. We also evaluated some previously postulated risk factors for HPV infection in NMSC patients. Results All biopsies were negative for mucosal/genital HPV types. Overall, beta-HPV DNA was detected more often in SCC compared to BCC patients (78% vs 55% of total samples). The frequency of infection increased with the patient’s age [OR=4.88 (95% CI 1.29-18.39)]. There was no significant correlation between beta-HPV positivity and sex, skin type and UV exposure. The prevalence of beta-HPV species 1 types was significantly higher than those belonging to other beta-HPV species in biopsies from BCC (p=0.022) but not from SCC subjects (p=0.091). There was no significant difference in the overall prevalence of beta-HPV infection and the number of viral types between tumour lesions and perilesional skin. BCC samples were significantly more likely to be infected with beta-HPV species 1 types compared to perilesional skin (p=0.036) and showed a higher frequency of mixed infections (p=0.028). Conclusions These findings demonstrate that beta-HPV types belonging to species 1 are the most common HPV types detected in the skin of BCC patients. Moreover beta-1-HPV types and mixed infections are significantly more frequent in tumour samples than in healthy perilesional skin. Our results suggest that beta-1-HPVs as well as co-infection with more than one viral type could be important in NMSC and in particular in BCC. Further studies aimed to compare the biological activity of viral types in tumours and in healthy skin (viral replication and expression, interference of infection with cellular functions) are necessary to understand the role of HPV infection in skin cancer. PMID:23244448

  1. Human papillomavirus infections in Mexican women with normal cytology, precancerous lesions, and cervical cancer: type-specific prevalence and HPV coinfections.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Lemarroy, Adriana; Vallejo-Ruiz, Verónica; Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I; Salgado-Bernabé, Manuel Eduardo; Ramos-González, Norma Patricia; Ortega-Cervantes, Laura; Arias-Flores, Rafael; Medina-Díaz, Irma M; Hernández-Garza, Fernando; Santos-López, Gerardo; Piña-Sánchez, Patricia

    2015-05-01

    The prevalence and genotype distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) provides the basis for designing HPV prevention programs. The prevalence rates of type-specific HPV and coinfections in samples of Mexican women were investigated in 822 women aged 18-87 years. HPV detection was performed using a Linear Array™ genotyping test. HPV infection was found in 12.4% of controls, 46.3% of those with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1, and 100% of those with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 or cervical cancer. HPV 16 was the most prevalent type in all diagnosis groups. The HPV types most frequently found in cervical cancers were 16, 18, 45, 52, 58, and 39; HPV types 16, 62, 51, 84, 18, 53, and CP6108 were the most prevalent in control women. Considering HPV-positive samples only, coinfections occurred most often in controls (63%) and were less frequent in those with cervical cancer (26%). The most frequent viral types in coinfections with HPV 16 in control women were HPV 62, 51, and 84; in women with cervical cancers, HPV 18, 39, and 70 were most common. In conclusion, in addition to HPV types 16 and 18, types 45, 39, 58, 52, and 71 were found in cervical cancers in Mexican women (78%); among them, only 65% were attributable to HPV types 16 and 18. Therefore, it is necessary to consider these viral types in the design of new vaccines, and to determine whether certain HPV types coinfecting with HPV 16 in precursor lesions determine tumor progression or regression. PMID:25712774

  2. Worldwide distribution of human papillomavirus types in cytologically normal women in the International Agency for Research on Cancer HPV prevalence surveys: a pooled analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GM Clifford; S. Gallus; R Herrero; N. Munoz; P. J. F. Snijders; S Vaccarella; PTH Anh; C Ferreccio; N. T. Hieu; E Matos; M Molano; R. Rajkumar; G. Ronco; S de Sanjosé; HR Shin; S Sukvirach; JO Thomas; S Tunsakul; C. J. L. M. Meijer; S Franceschi

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The proportion of women infected with human papillomavirus (HPV) varies greatly across populations, as might the distribution of HPV types. We aimed to compare HPV-type distribution in representative samples of women from different world regions. METHODS: Women were randomly selected from the general population of 13 areas from 11 countries (Nigeria, India, Vietnam, Thailand, Korea, Colombia, Argentina, Chile, the

  3. Confirmation and quantitation of human papillomavirus type 52 by Roche Linear Array © using HPV52-specific TaqMan © E6\\/E7 quantitative real-time PCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Morgan Marks; Swati B. Gupta; Kai-Li Liaw; Esther Kim; Amha Tadesse; Francois Coutlee; Somchai Sriplienchan; David D. Celentano; Patti E. Gravitt

    2009-01-01

    Human papillomavirus type 52 is highly prevalent in Asia and Africa and accounts for 2–3% of total cervical cancer burden worldwide. The Roche Molecular Systems HPV Linear Array© (RMS-LA©) uses multiple type (i.e. mixed) probes to detect DNA from HPV 52 infection which limits the assay's ability to determine HPV 52 status in the presence of HPV 33, 35, or

  4. Genotyping of Human Papillomaviruses by a Novel One-Step Typing Method with Multiplex PCR and Clinical Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Morie Nishiwaki; Tomohiro Yamamoto; Somako Tone; Taichi Murai; Tatsuya Ohkawara; Takakuni Matsunami; Motoiki Koizumi; Yoshitake Takagi; Jun Yamaguchi; Nobuo Kondo; Jun Nishihira; Takeharu Horikawa; Takashi Yoshiki

    2008-01-01

    We describe here a rapid, high-throughput genotyping procedure that allows the simultaneous detection of 16 high- and low-risk genital human papillomavirus (HPV) types by multiplex PCR in a single reaction tube. Multiplex PCR is based on the amplification of HPV DNA by sets of HPV genotype-specific primers, and the genotypes of HPV are visually identified by the sizes of amplicons

  5. Efficacy of RG1-VLP vaccination against infections with genital and cutaneous human papillomaviruses.

    PubMed

    Schellenbacher, Christina; Kwak, Kihyuck; Fink, Dieter; Shafti-Keramat, Saeed; Huber, Bettina; Jindra, Christoph; Faust, Helena; Dillner, Joakim; Roden, Richard B S; Kirnbauer, Reinhard

    2013-12-01

    Licensed human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines, based on virus-like particles (VLPs) self-assembled from major capsid protein L1, afford type-restricted protection against HPV types 16/18/6/11 (or 16/18 for the bivalent vaccine), which cause 70% of cervical cancers (CxCas) and 90% of genital warts. However, they do not protect against less prevalent high-risk (HR) types causing 30% of CxCa, or cutaneous HPV. In contrast, vaccination with the minor capsid protein L2 induces low-level immunity to type-common epitopes. Chimeric RG1-VLP presenting HPV16 L2 amino acids 17-36 (RG1 epitope) within the DE-surface loop of HPV16 L1 induced cross-neutralizing antisera. We hypothesized that RG1-VLP vaccination protects against a large spectrum of mucosal and cutaneous HPV infections in vivo. Immunization with RG1-VLP adjuvanted with human-applicable alum-MPL (aluminum hydroxide plus 3-O-desacyl-4'-monophosphoryl lipid A) induced robust L2 antibodies (ELISA titers 2,500-12,500), which (cross-)neutralized mucosal HR HPV16/18/45/37/33/52/58/35/39/51/59/68/73/26/69/34/70, low-risk HPV6/11/32/40, and cutaneous HPV2/27/3/76 (titers 25-1,000) using native virion- or pseudovirion (PsV)-based assays, and a vigorous cytotoxic T lymphocyte response by enzyme-linked immunospot. In vivo, mice were efficiently protected against experimental vaginal challenge with mucosal HR PsV types HPV16/18/45/31/33/52/58/35/39/51/59/68/56/73/26/53/66/34 and low-risk HPV6/43/44. Enduring protection was demonstrated 1 year after vaccination. RG1-VLP is a promising next-generation vaccine with broad efficacy against all relevant mucosal and also cutaneous HPV types. PMID:23752042

  6. Minor Cytological Abnormalities and up to 7-Year Risk for Subsequent High-Grade Lesions by HPV Type

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, Sven-Erik; Dillner, Joakim; Andersson, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Objective Diagnoses of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) are common, but the corresponding risk of disease varies by human papillomavirus (HPV) status, complicating management strategies. Our aim was to estimate the longer-term risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) among women with ASCUS/LSIL by age, HPV status, and genotype(s). Methods A total of 314 women with ASCUS/ LSIL were followed for a median of 3.8 years. Baseline HPV status was determined by reflex testing and women with histologically confirmed CIN2+ were identified through linkage to the Swedish National Quality Register for Cervical Cancer Prevention. Cumulative incidence and hazard ratios were estimated to explore differences between index data and associations with CIN2+. Results In total, 89 women (28.3%) developed CIN2+. High-risk (HR) HPV-positive women developed significantly more CIN2+ than HR-HPV-negative women (cumulative incidence 3.5 years after the index test: 42.2%, 95% CI: 32.5–53.5 for HPV16/18; 36.2%, 95% CI: 28.3–45.4 for other HR-HPV types; and 2.0%, 95% CI: 0.5–7.8 for HR-HPV-negative women; p<0.0001). Conclusion HPV status was of greatest importance in determining the risk of CIN2+. The risk was low among HPV-negative women during the first years of follow-up, suggesting these women could be followed less intensively. HPV16/18-positive women may need intensified follow-up as they showed the highest risk of CIN2+. PMID:26083247

  7. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePLUS

    What is genital herpes? Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) . Genital herpes is probably best known for the sores and ... you do not see a sore. How does genital herpes infection occur? The herpes virus can pass through ...

  8. The HPV infection in males: an update.

    PubMed

    Giraldi, G; De Luca d'Alessandro, E

    2012-01-01

    The role of Human papillomavirus (HPV) in malignant and non-malignant genital diseases in females is well known and the corresponding epidemiological burden has been widely described, in males instead, less is known about the role of the virus in anal, penile and head and neck cancer, and the burden of malignant and non-malignant HPV-related diseases. There are many types of HPV that can infect the epithelium: some types can cause genital warts (low risk genotype), other types (high risk genotypes) can cause cancers of the penis, anus or oropharynx. Relative to females, males tend to be less knowledgeable about the infection: some may view its consequences as less likely and severe for themselves than for females, and thus could perceive vaccination as unnecessary. Including boys in the vaccination program generally exceeded conventional thresholds of good value for money, even under favorable conditions of vaccine protection and health benefits; however, uncertainty still exists in many areas that can either strengthen or attenuate the findings achieved. PMID:23234187

  9. Genital herpes.

    PubMed

    Garland, Suzanne M; Steben, Marc

    2014-10-01

    Genital herpes is a relatively common infection caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) type one or two (HSV-1, HSV-2) respectively. It is acquired most commonly via sexual activity. More recently there has been an increase in infections due to HSV-1. Most new cases of genital HSV are not diagnosed due to HSV infections having short-lived signs and symptoms, or in many instances are asymptomatic. Hence many people infected with HSV are unaware that they have it. The risk of transmission to a partner is highest during outbreak periods, when there are visible lesions, although genital HSV can also be transmitted during asymptomatic periods. Use of condoms and antiviral medications assist in preventing transmission. Antiviral agents are effective in controlling clinical episodes, but do not eradicate infection, which remains latent for the life of a patient. Despite the surge in vaccine research, there is unfortunately no readily available preventative or therapeutic vaccine for HSV to date. PMID:25153069

  10. Genital Warts

    PubMed Central

    Yanofsky, Valerie R.; Patel, Rita V.

    2012-01-01

    External genital warts, also known as condylomata acuminata, are extremely common, with between 500,000 to one million new cases diagnosed each year in the United States alone. To date, more than 120 distinct subtypes of human papillomavirus have been identified. Human papillomavirus types 6 and 11 rarely give rise to cervical cancers, but are responsible for 90 percent of the cases of genital warts. The current treatment options are largely centered upon removal of the warts rather than elimination of the underlying viral infection. A wide range of therapies are presently in use, which are highly variable and can differ dramatically with respect to cost, side-effect profiles, dosing schedules, duration of treatment, and overall effectiveness. As of yet, no definitive therapy has emerged as the ideal standard of care in the treatment of genital warts, and therapy selection generally occurs in a patient-specific manner. PMID:22768354

  11. Low prevalence of oral and nasal human papillomavirus in employees performing CO2-laser evaporation of genital warts or loop electrode excision procedure of cervical dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Kofoed, Kristian; Norrbom, Christina; Forslund, Ola; Møller, Charlotte; Frøding, Ligita P; Pedersen, Anders Elm; Markauskas, Algirdas; Blomberg, Maria; Baumgartner-Nielsen, Jane; Madsen, Jakob Torp; Strauss, Gitte; Madsen, Klaus G; Sand, Carsten

    2015-02-01

    Risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) transmission during laser vaporisation of genital warts or loop electrode excision procedure is controversial. An oral rinse, a nasal swabs, history of HPV related diseases and data on HPV exposure were collected from 287 employees at departments of dermato-venerology and gynaecology in Denmark. A mucosal HPV type was found among 5.8% of employees with experience of laser treatment of genital warts as compared to 1.7% of those with no experience (p?=?0.12). HPV prevalence was not higher in employees participating in electrosurgical treatment or cryotherapy of genital warts, or loop electrode excision procedure compared with those who did not. HPV 6 or 11 were not detected in any samples. Hand warts after the age of 24 years was more common among dermatology than among non-dermatology personnel (18% vs. 8.0%, p?=?0.03). Mucosal HPV types are infrequent in the oral and nasal cavity of health care personnel, however, employees at departments of dermato-venereology are at risk of acquiring hand warts. PMID:24941064

  12. Genetic Variability and Phylogeny of High Risk HPV Type 16, 18, 31, 33 and 45 L1 Gene in Greek Women

    PubMed Central

    Ntova, Chara Kleio; Kottaridi, Christine; Chranioti, Aikaterini; Spathis, Aris; Kassanos, Dimitrios; Paraskevaidis, Evangelos; Karakitsos, Petros

    2012-01-01

    The present study explores nucleotide variability, phylogeny and association with cervical neoplasia in high risk HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33 and 45 collected from Greek women. Of the 1894 women undergoing routine cervical cytology examination, 160 samples test positive for single infections of HPV type 16 (n = 104), HPV 31 (n = 40), HPV 33 (n = 7), HPV 18 (n = 5), and HPV 45 (n = 4) were typed by microarrays method, amplified by PCR then sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. For HPV 16, 9 variants with nucleotide variations were included into the study. For HPV 31, 33, 18 and 45, nucleotide variations were identified in 6, 4, 2 and 3 variants, respectively. The Bayesian inference and Maximum Parsimony methods were used in order to construct the phylogenetic trees. When types were analyzed independently HPV 16 (European and non-European) and HPV 18 (African and non-African) formed distinct clades. The genomic characterization of HPV variants will be important for illuminating the geographical relatedness and biological differences and for the determination of their risk. PMID:22312235

  13. Pathogenic role of the eight probably/possibly carcinogenic HPV types 26, 53, 66, 67, 68, 70, 73 and 82 in cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Halec, Gordana; Alemany, Laia; Lloveras, Belen; Schmitt, Markus; Alejo, Maria; Bosch, Franz X; Tous, Sara; Klaustermeier, Jo Ellen; Guimerà, Nuria; Grabe, Niels; Lahrmann, Bernd; Gissmann, Lutz; Quint, Wim; Bosch, Francesc X; de Sanjose, Silvia; Pawlita, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Eight HPV types (HPV26, 53, 66, 67, 68, 70, 73 and 82) that are phylogenetically closely related to 12 WHO-defined high-risk (HR) HPV have been rarely but consistently identified as single HPV infections in about 3% of cervical cancer (CxCa) tissues. Due to lack of biological data, these types are referred to as probable/possible (p) HR-HPV. To analyse their biological activity in direct comparison to HR-HPV types, we selected 55 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) CxCa tissues harbouring single pHR-HPV infections (2-13 cases per type) and 266 tissues harbouring single HR-HPV (7-40 cases per type) from a worldwide, retrospective, cross-sectional study. Single HPV infection was verified by two genotyping methods. Presence of type-specific spliced E6*I mRNA transcripts and expression of cellular proteins indicative of HPV transformation were assessed in all cases. In 55 CxCa tissues with pHR-HPV, E6*I mRNA expression was 100%; high p16(INK4a) , 98%; low pRb, 96%; low CyD1, 93%; and low p53, 84%. Compared to HPV16 tissues as a reference, individual frequencies of these five markers did not differ significantly, either for any of the eight pHR-HPV and the 11 other HR types individually or for the groups of pHR and HR types without HPV16. We conclude that the eight pHR-HPV types, when present as a single infection in CxCa, are biologically active and affect the same cellular pathways as any of the fully recognized carcinogenic HR-HPV types. Therefore we have provided molecular evidence of carcinogenicity for types currently classified as probably/possibly carcinogenic. Although this evidence is crucial for HPV-type carcinogenicity classification, per se it is not sufficient for inclusion of these HPV types into population-wide primary and secondary prevention programmes. Such decisions have to include careful estimation of effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses. PMID:25043390

  14. Position paper--HPV and the primary prevention of cancer; improving vaccine uptake by paediatricians.

    PubMed

    Ramet, José; van Esso, Diego; Meszner, Zsofia

    2011-03-01

    A large proportion of sexually active adults are infected with the human papillomaviruses (HPVs). Although largely asymptomatic, some types of HPVs (HPV-16, HPV-18) which infect the genitalia are known to cause cancers, including cervical cancer. Cervical cancer is an important public health concern and is the second most clinically important cancer to breast cancer in women aged 15-44 years. Until recently, cervical cancer strategies focussed on screening. However, as adolescents become sexually active at a much younger age, the focus is on the use of vaccination as an effective measure to prevent progression of HPV infection to cancer. HPV is also involved in the aetiology of cancers of the anus, vagina, vulva and penis as well as genital warts and laryngeal papillomatosis in young children. Primary prevention through vaccination is now possible in Europe using either the quadrivalent HPV vaccine, Gardasil® (Sanofi Pasteur MSD), or the bivalent HPV vaccine, Cervarix® (GSK), which are both highly immunogenic, with their effects persisting for at least 5 years. HPV vaccines are well tolerated, with serious vaccine-related events occurring in less than 0.1% of patients for both vaccines. Here, we review the possibilities for utilising vaccination programmes alongside current cervical cancer screening in comprehensive cervical cancer prevention programmes. The European Academy of Paediatrics Scientific Working Group on Vaccination concluded that the use of HPV vaccines will have a significant impact in primary prevention of cancers and other HPV-related disease. PMID:20686784

  15. Genital human papillomavirus infections: current and prospective therapies.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Margaret A

    2012-04-01

    Infection with human papillomaviruses (HPVs) is very common and associated with benign and malignant epithelial proliferations of skin and internal squamous mucosae. A subset of the mucosal HPVs are oncogenic and associated with 5 % of all cancers in men and women. There are two licensed prophylactic vaccines, both target HPV 16 and 18, the two most pathogenic, oncogenic types and one, additionally, targets HPV 6 and 11 the cause of genital warts. The approach of deliberate immunization with oncogenic HPV E6 and/or E7 proteins and the generation of antigen-specific cytotoxic T-cells as an immunotherapy for HPV-associated cancer and their high-grade pre-cancers has been tested with a wide array of potential vaccine delivery systems in Phase I/II trials with varying success. Understanding local viral and tumour immune evasion strategies is a prerequisite for the rational design of therapeutic vaccines for HPV-associated infection and disease, progress in this is discussed. There are no antiviral drugs for the treatment of HPV infection and disease. Current therapies are not targeted antiviral therapies, but either attempt physical removal of the lesion or induce inflammation and a bystander immune response. There has been recent progress in the identification and characterization of molecular targets for small molecule antagonists of the HPV proteins E1, E2 and E6 or their interactions with their cellular targets. Lead compounds that could disrupt E1-E2 protein-protein interactions have been discovered as have inhibitors of E6-E6-AP-binding interactions. Some of these compounds showed nanomolar affinities and high specificities and demonstrate the feasibility of this approach for HPV infections. These studies are, however, at an early phase and it is unlikely that any specific anti-HPV chemotherapeutic will be in the clinic within the next 10-20 years. PMID:22323530

  16. Association Study between Cervical Lesions and Single or Multiple Vaccine-Target and Non-Vaccine Target Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Types in Women from Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Chagas, Bárbara Simas; Comar, Manola; Gurgel, Ana Pavla Almeida Diniz; Paiva, Sérgio; Seraceni, Silva; de Freitas, Antonio Carlos; Crovella, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    We performed an association between high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and single or multiple vaccine-target as well as non-vaccine target Human papillomavirus (HPV) types. Using bead-based HPV genotyping, 594 gynecological samples were genotyped. An association between squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) and presence of HPV16, 18, 31, 58 and 56 types were calculated. The risk was estimated by using odds ratio (OR) and 95% of confidence intervals (CI). A total of 370 (62.3%) women were HPV positive. Among these, 157 (42.7%) presented a single HPV infection, and 212 (57.3%) were infected by more than one HPV type. HPV31 was the most prevalent genotype, regardless single and multiple HPV infections. Single infection with HPV31 was associated with LSIL (OR=2.32; 95%CI: 1.01 to 5.32; p=0.04); HPV31 was also associated with LSIL (OR=3.28; 95%CI: 1.74 to 6.19; p= 0.0002) and HSIL (OR=3.82; 95%CI: 2.10 to 6.97; p<0.001) in multiple HPV infections. Risk to harbor cervical lesions was observed in multiple HPV infections with regard to the HPV56 (OR=5.39; 95%CI: 2.44 to 11.90; p<0.001for LSIL; OR=5.37; 95%CI: 2.71 to 10.69; p<0.001) and HPV58 (OR=3.29; 95%CI: 1.34 to 8.09; p=0.0091 for LSIL; OR=3.55; 95%CI: 1.56 to 8.11; p=0.0026) genotypes. In addition, women coinfected with HPV16/31/56 types had 6 and 5-fold increased risk of HSIL (OR=6.46; 95%CI: 1.89 to 22.09; p=0.002) and LSIL (OR=5.22; 95%CI: 1.10 to 24.70; p=0.03), respectively. Multiple HPV infections without HPV16/18 has 2-fold increased risk of HSIL (OR=2.57; 95%CI: 1.41 to 4.70; p=0.002) and LSIL OR=2.03; 95%CI: 1.08 to 3.79; p=0.02). The results of this study suggest that single and multiple vaccine target as well as non-vaccine target HPV types are associated with LSIL and HSIL. These finding should be taken into consideration in the design of HPV vaccination strategies. PMID:26176537

  17. Association Study between Cervical Lesions and Single or Multiple Vaccine-Target and Non-Vaccine Target Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Types in Women from Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Chagas, Bárbara Simas; Comar, Manola; Gurgel, Ana Pavla Almeida Diniz; Paiva, Sérgio; Seraceni, Silva; de Freitas, Antonio Carlos; Crovella, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    We performed an association between high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and single or multiple vaccine-target as well as non-vaccine target Human papillomavirus (HPV) types. Using bead-based HPV genotyping, 594 gynecological samples were genotyped. An association between squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) and presence of HPV16, 18, 31, 58 and 56 types were calculated. The risk was estimated by using odds ratio (OR) and 95% of confidence intervals (CI). A total of 370 (62.3%) women were HPV positive. Among these, 157 (42.7%) presented a single HPV infection, and 212 (57.3%) were infected by more than one HPV type. HPV31 was the most prevalent genotype, regardless single and multiple HPV infections. Single infection with HPV31 was associated with LSIL (OR=2.32; 95%CI: 1.01 to 5.32; p=0.04); HPV31 was also associated with LSIL (OR=3.28; 95%CI: 1.74 to 6.19; p= 0.0002) and HSIL (OR=3.82; 95%CI: 2.10 to 6.97; p<0.001) in multiple HPV infections. Risk to harbor cervical lesions was observed in multiple HPV infections with regard to the HPV56 (OR=5.39; 95%CI: 2.44 to 11.90; p<0.001for LSIL; OR=5.37; 95%CI: 2.71 to 10.69; p<0.001) and HPV58 (OR=3.29; 95%CI: 1.34 to 8.09; p=0.0091 for LSIL; OR=3.55; 95%CI: 1.56 to 8.11; p=0.0026) genotypes. In addition, women coinfected with HPV16/31/56 types had 6 and 5-fold increased risk of HSIL (OR=6.46; 95%CI: 1.89 to 22.09; p=0.002) and LSIL (OR=5.22; 95%CI: 1.10 to 24.70; p=0.03), respectively. Multiple HPV infections without HPV16/18 has 2-fold increased risk of HSIL (OR=2.57; 95%CI: 1.41 to 4.70; p=0.002) and LSIL OR=2.03; 95%CI: 1.08 to 3.79; p=0.02). The results of this study suggest that single and multiple vaccine target as well as non-vaccine target HPV types are associated with LSIL and HSIL. These finding should be taken into consideration in the design of HPV vaccination strategies. PMID:26176537

  18. A comparative analysis of the epidemiological impact and disease cost-savings of HPV vaccines in France

    PubMed Central

    Bresse, Xavier; Adam, Marjorie; Largeron, Nathalie; Roze, Stephane; Marty, Remi

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to compare the epidemiological and economic impact of 16/18 bivalent and 6/11/16/18 quadrivalent HPV vaccination in France, considering differences in licensed outcomes, protection against non-vaccine HPV types and prevention of HPV-6/11-related diseases. The differential impact of the two vaccines was evaluated using a published model adapted to the French setting. The target population was females aged 14–23 y and the time horizon was 100 y. A total of eight different scenarios compared vaccination impact in terms of reduction in HPV-16/18-associated carcinomas (cervical, vulvar, vaginal, anal, penile and head and neck), HPV-6/11-related genital warts and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, and incremental reduction in cervical cancer due to potential cross-protection. Quadrivalent vaccine was associated with total discounted cost savings ranging from EUR 544–1,020 million vs. EUR 177–538 million with the bivalent vaccination (100-y time horizon). Genital wart prevention thanks to quadrivalent HPV vaccination accounted for EUR 306–380 million savings (37–56% of costs saved). In contrast, the maximal assumed cross-protection against cervical cancer resulted in EUR 13–33 million savings (4%). Prevention of vulvar, vaginal and anal cancers accounted for additional EUR 71–89 million savings (13%). In France, the quadrivalent HPV vaccination would result in significant incremental epidemiological and economic benefits vs. the bivalent vaccination, driven primarily by prevention of genital. The present analysis is the first in the French setting to consider the impact of HPV vaccination on all HPV diseases and non-vaccine types. PMID:23563511

  19. Treatment of Genital Warts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cathryn B. Heath

    \\u000a Genital warts caused by Human Papilloma Virus are the most common viral sexually transmitted disease in the United States.\\u000a Over 24 million Americans are infected with Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), with the current prevalence among adolescents up\\u000a to 15% and college-aged women up to 26.8% [1]. An increased prevalence has been correlated with earlier onset of sexual activity,\\u000a multiple sex

  20. Genital warts

    MedlinePLUS

    Condylomata acuminata; Penile warts; Human papilloma virus (HPV); Venereal warts; Condyloma; HPV DNA test; Sexually transmitted disease (STD) - warts; Sexually transmitted infection (STI) - warts; LSIL- ...

  1. Impact of HPV immunization on the detection of cervical disease.

    PubMed

    Munro, Ami J; Cruickshank, Margaret E

    2014-04-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the primary cause of cervical cancer and genital warts. The development of HPV vaccines has been a major advance in the prevention of these diseases. Recent studies have shown promising early effects of HPV immunization programs on cervical abnormalities and genital warts, with evidence of herd immunity against genital warts also emerging in Australia. Further studies are required to not only continue monitoring the effect of the HPV immunization on the incidence of these diseases, but also to establish the effect the immunization will have on cervical screening programs and the performance of colposcopy. PMID:24606579

  2. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) type as an important determinant of the natural history of HPV infections in uterine cervix

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Syrjanen; S. Parkkinen; R. MANTYJARVI; M. Vayrynen; S. Syrjanen; H. Holopainen; S. Saarikoski; O. Castren

    1985-01-01

    The present report summarizes our current observations on the natural history of cervical HPV (Human papillomavirus) infections, based on data from 418 women prospectively followed-up in our clinic for a mean of 20±15 (M±SD) months. On each attendance at the clinic (at 6-month intervals), the patients are subjected to colposcopy accompanied by PAP smears and\\/or punch biopsy, both being analysed

  3. Comparison of clinical performances among Roche Cobas HPV, RFMP HPV PapilloTyper and Hybrid Capture 2 assays for detection of high-risk types of human papillomavirus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shinae; Kwon, Min-Jung; Lee, Eun Hee; Park, Hyosoon; Woo, Hee-Yeon

    2015-09-01

    The cervical cancer screening guidelines suggest that early detection of HPV16 and HPV18 is helpful for identifying women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade two or higher. We comparatively evaluated three HPV DNA assays, Roche Cobas HPV, RFMP HPV PapilloTyper, and Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2). A total of 861 cervical swab samples from women over 30 years of age were classified into two groups, that is, high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and non-HSIL, according to cervical cytology results and analyzed by three assays. The results of direct sequencing or Linear array HPV genotyping test were considered true when the three assays presented discrepancies. The concordance rates between Roche Cobas HPV versus RFMP HPV PapilloTyper, RFMP HPV PapilloTyper versus HC2, and Roche Cobas versus HC2 were 94.5%, 94.3%, and 95.9%, respectively. For detection of HPV16 and HPV18, Roche Cobas HPV showed the concordance rates of 98.3% (??=?0.73) and 99.4% (??=?0.40) with the confirmation tests, respectively; and RFMP HPV PapilloTyper showed the concordance rates of 99.5% (??=?0.92) and 100.0% (??=?1.00), respectively. In conclusion, Roche Cobas HPV, RFMP HPV PapilloTyper, and HC2 showed high agreement rates. Roche Cobas HPV and RFMP HPV PapilloTyper are particularly useful, since both provide HPV specific genotypes, HPV16 and HPV18. J. Med. Virol. 87:1587-1593, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25914215

  4. Erythroplasia of queyrat: coinfection with cutaneous carcinogenic human papillomavirus type 8 and genital papillomaviruses in a carcinoma in situ.

    PubMed

    Wieland, U; Jurk, S; Weissenborn, S; Krieg, T; Pfister, H; Ritzkowsky, A

    2000-09-01

    Erythroplasia of Queyrat is a carcinoma in situ that mainly occurs on the glans penis, the prepuce, or the urethral meatus of elderly males. Up to 30% progress to squamous cell carcinoma. The cause of erythroplasia of Queyrat is largely unknown. Human papillomavirus type 16 DNA has previously been detected only in very few distinctly characterized patients. We have investigated 12 paraffin-embedded biopsies from eight patients with penile erythroplasia of Queyrat and control biopsies of inflammatory penile lesions, of genital Bowen's disease, and of premalignant/malignant cervical or vulvar lesions by 10 different polymerase chain reaction protocols for the presence of cutaneous and genital/mucosal human papillomaviruses. Human papillomavirus typing was performed by sequencing (cloned) polymerase chain reaction products. Human papillomavirus DNA was detected in all erythroplasia of Queyrat patients and in none of the controls with inflammatory penile lesions. The rare cutaneous carcinogenic epidermodysplasia verruciformis-associated human papillomavirus type 8 was present in all erythroplasia of Queyrat patients and the genital high-risk human papillomavirus type 16 in seven of eight patients (88%). In addition to human papillomavirus type 8 and human papillomavirus type 16, four patients carried the genital carcinogenic human papillomavirus type 39 and/or type 51. All human papillomavirus type 8 sequences found in erythroplasia of Queyrat showed some polymorphism among each other and differed in specific nucleotide exchanges from the human papillomavirus type 8 reference sequence. Viral load determinations (human papillomavirus copies/beta-globin gene copies) by realtime polymerase chain reactions showed that the human papillomavirus type 16 levels in the erythroplasia of Queyrat biopsies were one to five orders of magnitude higher than the human papillomavirus type 8 levels. Human papillomavirus type 8 was not detected in cervical or vulvar precancerous and cancerous lesions and in Bowen's disease lesions that carried genital human papillomavirus types. The data suggest that in erythroplasia of Queyrat, in contrast to other genital neoplasias, a coinfection with human papillomavirus type 8 and carcinogenic genital human papillomavirus types occurs. The presence or absence of human papillomavirus type 8 might help to distinguish between penile erythroplasia of Queyrat and Bowen's diseases. PMID:10951274

  5. Alcohol consumption and prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among US men in the HIM (HPV in Men) Study

    PubMed Central

    Schabath, Matthew B.; Thompson, Zachary J.; Egan, Kathleen M.; Torres, B. Nelson; Nguyen, Anthony; Papenfuss, Mary R.; Abrahamsen, Martha E.; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Moderate alcohol consumption can impair host defense against viral infections. The objective of this cross-sectional analysis was to assess the association between alcohol intake and prevalent HPV infection among U.S. men enrolled in the HIM (HPV in Men) Study utilizing quantitative alcohol intake measured from a food frequency questionnaire. Methods The HIM study is a prospective, multinational study of the natural history of HPV infection. For this report we restricted our analyses to men from the US cohort (No. = 1,313). Samples from the corona of glans penis, penile shaft, and scrotum were combined for HPV DNA testing. Self-reported alcohol intake was quantified by grams of alcohol intake per day. Multivariable prevalence ratios (mPR) were used to assess the association between alcohol intake and HPV infections. Results Prevalent infections were significantly higher among men in the highest quartile of alcohol intake and multivariable models revealed that the highest quartile of alcohol intake was associated with significantly increased risks for any- (mPR=1.13; 95% CI 1.00–1.27) and oncogenic (mPR=1.35; 95% CI 1.08–1.68) HPV types. The fourth quartile of alcohol intake was associated with elevated risks for prevalent HPV infection across all strata of number of sexual partners and among never- and current smokers, but not among former smokers. Conclusions These results demonstrate that high intake of alcohol is associated with an increased risk for prevalent HPV infections among men. The biological role that alcohol plays in genital HPV infection remains understudied and limited epidemiologic data exist especially among men. PMID:25278617

  6. Rates and Determinants of Oral Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection in Young Men

    PubMed Central

    Edelstein, Zoe R.; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Hawes, Stephen; Hughes, James P.; Feng, Qinghua; Stern, Michael E.; O’Reilly, Sandra; Lee, Shu-Kuang; Xi, Long Fu; Koutsky, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about rates and determinants of oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, an infection that is etiologically linked with oropharyngeal cancers. Methods A cohort of male university students (18–24 years of age) was examined every 4 months (212 men; 704 visits). Oral specimens were collected via gargle/rinse and swabbing of the oropharynx. Genotyping for HPV type 16 (HPV-16) and 36 other alpha-genus types was performed by PCR-based assay. Data on potential determinants was gathered via clinical examination, in-person questionnaire, and biweekly online diary. Hazard ratios (HR) were used to measure associations with incident infection. Results Prevalence of oral HPV infection at enrollment was 7.5% and 12-month cumulative incidence was 12.3% (95% confidence interval (CI): 7.0, 21.3). Prevalence of oral HPV-16 was 2.8% and 12-month cumulative incidence was 0.8% (CI: 0.1, 5.7). 28.6% of prevalent and none of incident oral HPV infections were detected more than once. In a multivariate model, incident oral HPV infection was associated with recent frequency of performing oral sex (?1 per week: HR=3.7; CI: 1.4, 9.8), recent anal sex with men (HR=42.9; CI: 8.8, 205.5), current infection with the same HPV type in the genitals (HR=6.2; CI: 2.4, 16.4) and hyponychium (HR=11.8, CI: 4.1; 34.2). Conclusions Although nearly 20% of sexually active male university students had evidence of oral HPV infection within 12 months, most infections were transient. HPV-16 was not common. Sexual contact and autoinoculation appeared to play independent roles in the transmission of alpha-genus HPV to the oral cavity of young men. PMID:23064535

  7. Sensitive HPV detection in oropharyngeal cancers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M Winder; Siolian LR Ball; Katie Vaughan; Nashat Hanna; Yin Woo; Jürgen-Theodor Fränzer; Jane C Sterling; Margaret A Stanley; Holger Sudhoff; Peter KC Goon

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the aetiological agents of certain benign and malignant tumours of skin and mucosae; the most important of which is cervical cancer. Also, the incidence of ano-genital warts, HPV-anal cancer and oropharyngeal cancers are rising. To help ascertain a useful PCR detection protocol for oropharyngeal cancers, we directly compared three commonly used primer sets in detection

  8. Estimating the clinical benefits of vaccinating boys and girls against HPV-related diseases in Europe

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background HPV is related to a number of cancer types, causing a considerable burden in both genders in Europe. Female vaccination programs can substantially reduce the incidence of HPV-related diseases in women and, to some extent, men through herd immunity. The objective was to estimate the incremental benefit of vaccinating boys and girls using the quadrivalent HPV vaccine in Europe versus girls-only vaccination. Incremental benefits in terms of reduction in the incidence of HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18-related diseases (including cervical, vaginal, vulvar, anal, penile, and head and neck carcinomas and genital warts) were assessed. Methods The analysis was performed using a model constructed in Microsoft®Excel, based on a previously-published dynamic transmission model of HPV vaccination and published European epidemiological data on incidence of HPV-related diseases. The incremental benefits of vaccinating 12-year old girls and boys versus girls-only vaccination was assessed (70% vaccine coverage were assumed for both). Sensitivity analyses around vaccine coverage and duration of protection were performed. Results Compared with screening alone, girls-only vaccination led to 84% reduction in HPV 16/18-related carcinomas in females and a 61% reduction in males. Vaccination of girls and boys led to a 90% reduction in HPV 16/18-related carcinomas in females and 86% reduction in males versus screening alone. Relative to a girls-only program, vaccination of girls and boys led to a reduction in female and male HPV-related carcinomas of 40% and 65%, respectively and a reduction in the incidence of HPV 6/11-related genital warts of 58% for females and 71% for males versus girls-only vaccination. Conclusions In Europe, the vaccination of 12-year old boys and girls against HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18 would be associated with substantial additional clinical benefits in terms of reduced incidence of HPV-related genital warts and carcinomas versus girls-only vaccination. The incremental benefits of adding boys vaccination are highly dependent on coverage in girls. Therefore, further analyses should be performed taking into account the country-specific situation. In addition to clinical benefits, substantial economic benefits are also anticipated and warrant further investigation as do the social and ethical implications of including boys in vaccination programs. PMID:23298365

  9. Human papillomavirus and other genital infections in indigenous women from Paraguay: a cross-sectional analytical study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of cervical cancer in Paraguay is among the highest in the world, with the human papillomavirus (HPV) being a necessary factor for cervical cancer. Knowledge about HPV infection among indigenous women is limited. This cross-sectional study analyzed the frequency of HPV and other genital infections in indigenous Paraguayan women of the Department of Presidente Hayes. Methods This study included 181 sexually active women without cervical lesions. They belonged to the following ethnicities: Maká (n?=?40); Nivaclé (n?=?23); Sanapaná (n?=?33); Enxet Sur (n?=?51) and Toba-Qom (n?=?34). The detection of HPV and other gynecological infectious microorganisms was performed by either molecular methods (for Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Chlamydia trachomatis), gram staining and/or culture (for Gardnerella vaginalis, Candida sp, Trichomonas vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae), serological methods (for Treponema pallidum, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]) or cytology (cervical inflammation). Results A high prevalence (41.4%) of women positive for at least one sexually transmitted infection (STI) was found (23.2% any-type HPV, 11.6% T pallidum, 10.5% T vaginalis, 9.9% C trachomatis and 0.6% HIV) with 12.2% having more than one STI. HPV infection was the most frequent, with 16.1% of women positive for high-risk HPV types. There was a statistically significant association observed between any-type HPV and C trachomatis (p?=?0.004), which indicates that the detection of one of these agents should suggest the presence of the other. There was no association between any-type HPV and other genital infections or cervical inflammation, suggesting that other mechanism could exist to favor infection with the virus. Conclusion This multidisciplinary work suggests that STIs are frequent, making it necessary to implement control measures and improve diagnosis in order to increase the number of cases detected, especially in populations with poor access to health centers. PMID:24206645

  10. Expression of the L2 and E7 genes of the human papillomavirus type 16 in female genital dysplasias.

    PubMed Central

    Auvinen, E.; Kujari, H.; Arstila, P.; Hukkanen, V.

    1992-01-01

    The expression of the E7 and L2 genes of HPV 16 was studied in benign and precancerous female genital lesions to evaluate their role in the development of dysplasias. Ninety biopsy specimens from 70 patients, selected on basis of dot blot DNA hybridization, were included in immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization analyses. In the HPV 16 DNA positive cases, L2 mRNA and E7 mRNA were detected in biopsies from 24 and 21 patients, respectively. L2 mRNA was found in eight of 16 cases of condyloma and mild dysplasia, and in 13 of 14 cases of moderate to severe dysplasia. The figures for E7 mRNA were 6/16 and 13/14, respectively. We found L2 mRNA in four of 12 normal or condylomatous specimens and E7 mRNA in only one of these. The detection rates for L2 and E7 mRNAs increased along with the severity of the lesions (P = 0.0064 and P = 0.0001, respectively). The L2 protein was found in one condyloma and in 12 dysplasias, eight of which were moderate or severe. The L2-antibody-reactive cells were localized in superficial layers of the epithelium. The detection rate for L2 mRNA and especially for E7 mRNA increased along with the histopathologic grade of the lesion. Images Figure 2 PMID:1332486

  11. Estimation of the incidence of genital warts and the cost of illness in Germany: A cross-sectional study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Hillemanns; J Gabrielle Breugelmans; Friederike Gieseking; Stève Bénard; Emilie Lamure; Kavi J Littlewood; Karl U Petry

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary cause of cervical cancer. HPV is also responsible for benign condylomata acuminata, also known as genital warts. We assessed the incidence of genital warts in Germany and collected information on their management to estimate the annual cost of disease. METHODS: This was a multi-centre observational (cross-sectional) study of genital warts in Germany. Data

  12. Immunologic responses following administration of a vaccine targeting human papillomavirus Types 6, 11, 16, and 18

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luisa L. Villa; Kevin A. Ault; Anna R. Giuliano; Ronaldo L. R. Costa; Carlos A. Petta; Rosires P. Andrade; Darron R. Brown; Alex Ferenczy; Diane M. Harper; Laura A. Koutsky; Robert J. Kurman; Matti Lehtinen; Christian Malm; Sven-Eric Olsson; Brigitte M. Ronnett; Finn Egil Skjeldestad; Margareta Steinwall; Mark H. Stoler; Cosette M. Wheeler; Frank J. Taddeo; Jimmy Yu; Lisa Lupinacci; Radha Railkar; Rocio Marchese; Mark T. Esser; Janine Bryan; Kathrin U. Jansen; Heather L. Sings; Gretchen M. Tamms; Alfred J. Saah; Eliav Barr

    2006-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection causes cervical cancer and genital warts. Young women (1106) were randomized to receive one of three formulations of a quadrivalent HPV (Types 6\\/11\\/16\\/18) L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine or one of two placebo formulations. The goal was to assess vaccine safety and immunogenicity in baseline HPV 6\\/11\\/16 or 18-naïve and previously infected subjects. All three formulations

  13. HPV-associated diseases.

    PubMed

    Ljubojevic, Suzana; Skerlev, Mihael

    2014-01-01

    Nearly 200 distinct human papilloma viruses (HPVs) have now been recognized, and each is associated with a specific set of clinical lesions. They are associated with a spectrum of diseases, from benign verrucae vulgares and condylomata acuminata to the malignancies of the cervix, vulva, anus, and penis. Disease associated with HPV can be divided into skin and mucosal lesion of the genital and extragenital regions. The relationship between HPV and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is important clinically, because NMSC is the most common form of malignancy among fair-skinned populations. HPVs have also been detected in skin tags, lichen sclerosus, seborrheic keratoses, actinic keratoses, epidermal cysts, psoriatic plaques, and plucked hairs, but cutaneous HPV can be found on healthy skin. PMID:24559558

  14. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Genomic RNA Sequences in the Female Genital Tract and Blood: Compartmentalization and Intrapatient Recombination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sean Philpott; Harold Burger; Christos Tsoukas; Brian Foley; Kathryn Anastos; Christina Kitchen; Barbara Weiser

    2005-01-01

    Investigation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in the genital tract of women is crucial to the development of vaccines and therapies. Previous analyses of HIV-1 in various anatomic sites have documented compartmentalization, with viral sequences from each location that were distinct yet phylogenetically related. Full-length RNA genomes derived from different compartments in the same individual, however, have not

  15. HPV Vaccine and Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 11, 16, and 18. Cervarix ® provides protection against HPV types 16 and 18. Neither of these vaccines contains a live virus. This means they are ... et al. 2010. Risk of miscarriage with bivalent vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18: pooled analysis of two randomized clinical ...

  16. Men’s beliefs about HPV-related disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noel T. Brewer; Terence W. Ng; Annie-Laurie McRee; Paul L. Reiter

    2010-01-01

    While human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with genital warts, anal cancer, and oral cancer, limited research\\u000a has examined what men think causes these diseases. We sought to examine knowledge and beliefs about HPV-related disease among\\u000a gay and bisexual men, who are at high risk for HPV infection and HPV-related cancers, and compare them to heterosexual men.\\u000a We conducted an

  17. PreTect HPV-Proofer: real-time detection and typing of E6/E7 mRNA from carcinogenic human papillomaviruses.

    PubMed

    Molden, Tor; Kraus, Irene; Skomedal, Hanne; Nordstrøm, Trine; Karlsen, Frank

    2007-06-01

    Monitoring human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 mRNA expression may provide an accurate and informative diagnostic approach for detection of oncogene activity related to the development of severe dysplasia or cervical carcinoma. A multiplex nucleic acid sequence based amplification (NASBA) assay, utilizing molecular beacon probes for real-time detection was developed for the identification of E6/E7 mRNA from HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33 and 45. The assay is called PreTect HPV-Proofer and this report describes the development and the analytical performance of the assay. The reproducibility of PreTect HPV-Proofer with regard to a positive result was found to be between 96 and 100%, depending on HPV type. The melting temperature for the different molecular beacons was in the range of 48-55 degrees C, indicating conformational stability, i.e. the molecular beacons will not get activated by the 41 degrees C annealing temperature, but will be activated by the annealing to the target itself. The limit of detection for HPV 16 was ten SiHa or CaSki cells and for HPV 18 one HeLa cell. No cross reactivity was observed with E6/E7 mRNA from the other tested HPV types. mRNA from cervical cells was also successfully amplified after more than one year of storage. In conclusion, the PreTect HPV-Proofer assay, individually identifying E6/E7 mRNA expression from five carcinogenic HPV types, is a reproducible assay that may serve as a valuable tool in monitoring HPV infections producing proteins with a transforming potential. PMID:17379322

  18. Influence of parent characteristics and disease outcome framing on HPV vaccine acceptability among rural, Southern women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nina R. Sperber; Noel T. Brewer; Jennifer S. Smith

    2008-01-01

    Objective  A new prophylactic vaccine protects against infection with HPV types that cause many cervical cancers and genital warts. This\\u000a study explored the impact of framing the vaccine’s benefits, with respect to the disease outcome being prevented, on women’s\\u000a HPV vaccination intentions for themselves and for an adolescent daughter.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A cross-sectional study was conducted in a rural North Carolina area with

  19. Type-Specific HPV Prevalence in Cervical Cancer and High-Grade Lesions in Latin America and the Caribbean: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ciapponi, Agustín; Bardach, Ariel; Glujovsky, Demián; Gibbons, Luz; Picconi, María Alejandra

    2011-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is a major public health problem in Latin America and the Caribbean (LA&C), showing some of the highest incidence and mortality rates worldwide. Information on HPV type distribution in high-grade cervical lesions (HSIL) and invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is crucial to predict the future impact of HPV16/18 vaccines and screening programmes, and to establish an appropriate post-vaccinal virologic surveillance. The aim was to assess the prevalence of HPV types in HSIL and ICC in studies in LA&C. Methods and Findings We performed a systematic review, following the MOOSE guidelines for systematic reviews of observational studies, and the PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Inclusion criteria were at least ten cases of HSIL/ICC, and HPV-type elicitation. The search, without language restrictions, was performed in MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, LILACS from inception date to December 2009, proceedings, reference lists and consulting experts. A meta-analysis was performed using arc-sine transformations to stabilize the variance of simple proportions. Seventy-nine studies from 18 countries were identified, including 2446 cases of HSIL and 5540 of ICC. Overall, 46.5% of HSIL cases harbored HPV 16 and 8.9% HPV18; in ICC, 53.2% of cases harbored HPV 16 and13.2% HPV 18. The next five most common types, in decreasing frequency, were HPV 31, 58, 33, 45, and 52. Study's limitations comprise the cross-sectional design of most included studies and their inherent risk of bias, the lack of representativeness, and variations in the HPV type-specific sensitivity of different PCR protocols. Conclusions This study is the broadest summary of HPV type distribution in HSIL and ICC in LA&C to date. These data are essential for local decision makers regarding HPV screening and vaccination policies. Continued HPV surveillance would be useful, to assess the potential for changing type-specific HPV prevalence in the post-vaccination era in Latin America. PMID:21991313

  20. Efficacy, duration of immunity and cross protection after HPV vaccination: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Bonanni, Paolo; Boccalini, Sara; Bechini, Angela

    2009-05-29

    The efficacy and immunogenicity of HPV vaccines has proven excellent in several phase 2 and phase 3 trials involving tens of thousand women. A decrease in antibody titres was observed in follow-up studies of vaccinees, with initial sharp decline reaching a plateau in the longer term. Only few subjects lost their antibodies during the 5-6 years after vaccination. However, no breakthrough disease occurred even in those subjects. The administration of a challenge dose of quadrivalent vaccine at month 60 of follow-up resulted in a strong anamnestic response. The mechanism by which vaccination confers protection and the reasons for continuing vaccine efficacy remain to be elucidated. The same applies to the possibility of inducing an anamnestic response following viral challenge via genital mucosa. Data strongly suggest that both vaccines can have a variable level of cross protection against HPV types genetically and antigenically-closely related to vaccine types. Demonstration of cross protection against combined endpoints (CIN2/3 and AIS) for combined HPV types, and, as a single type, for HPV-31, has been reached for the quadrivalent vaccine, and there is evidence of cross protection against HPV 31 and 45 persistent infections (as single types) for the bivalent vaccine. Assays used for antibody detection were different for the two vaccines, and standardisation of methods for anti-HPV L1 protein detection is presently underway. The possibility to use universally accepted tests for antibody measurement would make comparison between vaccines and among different studies much easier. PMID:19480962

  1. HPV Infections among MSM in Shenzhen, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dong-Yan; Yin, Yue-Ping; Feng, Tie-Jian; Hong, Fu-Chang; Jiang, Ning; Wang, Bao-Xi; Chen, Xiang-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Background An increasing incidence of anal cancer among men, especially men who have sex with men (MSM) suggests a need to better understand anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among this group. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among MSM in Shenzhen, China. Blood was collected for HIV serological testing and syphilis serological screening, and anal swabs were collected for HPV genotyping. Difference of HPV prevalence between HIV seropositive and HIV seronegative MSM was assessed by chi-square test. Factors associated with anal canal HPV infection were assessed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results A total of 408 MSM were recruited. HIV and HPV prevalence were 6.9% and 36.4%, respectively. HPV was detected in the anal canal in 71.4% of the HIV-positive MSM and in 33.8% of the HIV-negative MSM (P<0.001). Oncogenic types were seen more often in anal specimens of HIV-positive MSM than in specimens of HIV-negative MSM (P?=?0.001). The HPV genotypes detected most frequently were HPV06 (8.2%), HPV16 (7.2%), HPV11 (6.4%), HPV18 (4.7%), HPV58 (4.7%), and HPV52 (4.2%). Conclusions In this study, HIV positive MSM had a higher burden of HPV infection, especially oncogenic HPV infection. HPV types 52 and 58 were as popular as those types designed for the currently available vaccine (HPV6, 11, 16, 18). PMID:24801331

  2. Genotyping of 27 Human Papillomavirus Types by Using L1 Consensus PCR Products by a Single-Hybridization, Reverse Line Blot Detection Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. E. GRAVITT; C. L. PEYTON; R. J. APPLE; C. M. WHEELER

    1998-01-01

    Amplification of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA by L1 consensus primer systems (e.g., MY09\\/11 or GP5 1 \\/6 1 ) can detect as few as 10 to 100 molecules of HPV targets from a genital sample. However, genotype determination by dot blot hybridization is laborious and requires at least 27 separate hybridizations for substantive HPV-type discrimination. A reverse blot method was

  3. HPV prevalence and concordance in the cervix and oral cavity of pregnant women.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, E M; Ritchie, J M; Yankowitz, J; Wang, D; Turek, L P; Haugen, T H

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This investigation examined human papillomavirus (HPV) in pregnant women in order to characterize viral prevalence, types and concordance between infection in the cervix and in the oral cavity. METHODS: A total of 577 pregnant women seeking routine obstetric care were evaluated for HPV infection in their cervix during gestation and immediately before delivery, and in the oral cavity during gestation. Male partners present during the gestational clinic visit also provided a specimen from their oral cavity. HPV assessment was performed by PCR, dot blot hybridization and DNA sequencing. A sexual and health questionnaire was completed by the pregnant women. RESULTS: HPV prevalence in women was 29% in the cervix and 2.4% in the oral cavity. Among those with both gestational and delivery specimens, 35% were infected at least once and 20% had infection at both intervals. At delivery, 68% of infected women had an oncogenic HPV type in the cervix. There was no type-specific HPV concordance between the two cervical specimens, nor cervical and oral results in women, nor with cervical and oral findings between partners. CONCLUSION: The lack of association in HPV positivity and types between the cervix and oral cavity in these women suggests that self-inoculation is uncommon. This source of infection does not appear to be from oral contact with a current male partner, since there also was no concordance between partners. These results suggest either other modes of HPV transmission or differences in susceptibility to HPV infection or its clearance in the oral cavity and genital mucosa. PMID:15739817

  4. Immunological Responses in Women with Human Papillomavirus Type 16 (HPV16)Associated Anogenital Intraepithelial Neoplasia Induced by Heterologous Prime-Boost HPV16 Oncogene Vaccination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucy J. C. Smyth; Mariette I. E. van Poelgeest; Emma J. Davidson; Kitty M. C. Kwappenberg; Debbie Burt; Peter Sehr; Michael Pawlita; Julian K. Hickling; Alison N. Fiander; Amanda Tristram; Henry C. Kitchener; Rienk Offringa; Peter L. Stern; Sjoerd H. van der Burg

    Purpose: The purpose is to study the immunogenicity of heterologous prime-boost human papillomavirus (HPV) on- cogene vaccination in patients with anogenital intraepithe- lial neoplasia (AGIN). Experimental Design: Twenty-nine women with high- grade AGIN received three i.m. doses of TA-CIN (HPV-16 L2\\/E6\\/E7 protein) at four weekly intervals followed by a single dermal scarification of vaccinia HPV-16\\/18 E6\\/E7 and were followed up

  5. Men's beliefs about HPV-related disease.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Noel T; Ng, Terence W; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Reiter, Paul L

    2010-08-01

    While human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with genital warts, anal cancer, and oral cancer, limited research has examined what men think causes these diseases. We sought to examine knowledge and beliefs about HPV-related disease among gay and bisexual men, who are at high risk for HPV infection and HPV-related cancers, and compare them to heterosexual men. We conducted an online survey in January 2009 with a national sample of men aged 18-59 who self-identified as either gay or bisexual (n = 312) or heterosexual (n = 296). The response rate was 70%. Fewer than half of men knew that HPV can cause genital warts (41%), anal cancer (24%), and oral cancers (23%). However, gay and bisexual men typically knew more than heterosexual men about these topics. Overall, most men believed that sexual behavior causes genital warts (70%) and anal cancer (54%), and tobacco use causes oral cancer (89%). Perceived causal factors differed substantially among the three diseases, while differences by sexual orientation were fewer and smaller in magnitude. Many men were unaware that HPV infection can cause genital warts, oral cancer, and anal cancer. PMID:20162346

  6. Accelerating HPV Vaccine Uptake: Urgency for Action to Prevent Cancer: Home

    Cancer.gov

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) cause most cases of cervical cancer and large proportions of vaginal, vulvar, anal, penile, and oropharyngeal cancers. HPV also causes genital warts and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. HPV vaccines could dramatically reduce the incidence of HPV-associated cancers and other conditions among both females and males, but uptake of the vaccines has fallen short of target levels. The President's Cancer Panel finds underuse of HPV vaccines a serious but correctable threat to progress against cancer.

  7. Next-generation sequencing of cervical DNA detects human papillomavirus types not detected by commercial kits

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the aetiological agent for cervical cancer and genital warts. Concurrent HPV and HIV infection in the South African population is high. HIV positive (+) women are often infected with multiple, rare and undetermined HPV types. Data on HPV incidence and genotype distribution are based on commercial HPV detection kits, but these kits may not detect all HPV types in HIV?+?women. The objectives of this study were to (i) identify the HPV types not detected by commercial genotyping kits present in a cervical specimen from an HIV positive South African woman using next generation sequencing, and (ii) determine if these types were prevalent in a cohort of HIV-infected South African women. Methods Total DNA was isolated from 109 cervical specimens from South African HIV?+?women. A specimen within this cohort representing a complex multiple HPV infection, with 12 HPV genotypes detected by the Roche Linear Array HPV genotyping (LA) kit, was selected for next generation sequencing analysis. All HPV types present in this cervical specimen were identified by Illumina sequencing of the extracted DNA following rolling circle amplification. The prevalence of the HPV types identified by sequencing, but not included in the Roche LA, was then determined in the 109 HIV positive South African women by type-specific PCR. Results Illumina sequencing identified a total of 16 HPV genotypes in the selected specimen, with four genotypes (HPV-30, 74, 86 and 90) not included in the commercial kit. The prevalence’s of HPV-30, 74, 86 and 90 in 109 HIV positive South African women were found to be 14.6%, 12.8%, 4.6% and 8.3% respectively. Conclusions Our results indicate that there are HPV types, with substantial prevalence, in HIV positive women not being detected in molecular epidemiology studies using commercial kits. The significance of these types in relation to cervical disease remains to be investigated. PMID:22897914

  8. Pregnancy Complications: Genital Herpes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... by genital herpes can cause the urethra to swell. The urethra is the tube that carries urine ... quick weight gain or your legs and face swell Have questions? Type your question here. Frequently Asked ...

  9. Exploring the Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs, and Communication Preferences of the General Public Regarding HPV: Findings From CDC Focus Group Research and Implications for Practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allison L. Friedman; Hilda Shepeard

    2007-01-01

    Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted virus in the United States, causing genital warts, cervical cell abnormalities, and cervical cancer in women. To inform HPV education efforts, 35 focus groups were conducted with members of the general public, stratified by gender, race\\/ethnicity, and urban\\/rural location. Focus groups explored participants' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about HPV

  10. Men's Perceptions and Knowledge of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection and Cervical Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPartland, Tara S.; Weaver, Bethany A.; Lee, Shu-Kuang; Koutsky, Laura A.

    2005-01-01

    The authors assessed young men's knowledge and perceptions of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection to identify factors that predict intention to make positive behavioral changes. Male university students aged 18 to 25 years completed a self-report instrument to assess knowledge and perceptions of genital HPV infection. If diagnosed with…

  11. HPV Vaccine - Gardasil: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePLUS

    ... if it is given before exposure to the virus. In addition, it can prevent vaginal and vulvar cancer in females, and genital warts and anal cancer in both males and females. Protection from HPV vaccine is expected to be longlasting. ...

  12. Economic and Humanistic Burden of External Genital Warts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam J. N. Raymakers; Mohsen Sadatsafavi; Fawziah Marra; Carlo A. Marra

    2012-01-01

    External genital warts (EGW) are a sexually transmitted infection caused by various strains of human papillomavirus (HPV). Several studies have described the direct and indirect costs of EGW, while others have reported on the burden of EGW in terms of the impact on the quality of life (QOL) of patients. The arrival of a quadrivalent HPV vaccine that protects against

  13. Knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) and HPV vaccination: an international comparison.

    PubMed

    Marlow, Laura A V; Zimet, Gregory D; McCaffery, Kirsten J; Ostini, Remo; Waller, Jo

    2013-01-21

    Since vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) became available, awareness of HPV has dramatically increased. Implementation of a vaccine program varies internationally yet no studies have explored the influence this has on the public's knowledge of HPV. The present study aimed to explore differences in awareness of HPV and HPV knowledge across three countries: The US, UK and Australia. Participants (n=2409) completed a validated measure of HPV knowledge as part of an online survey. There were higher levels of HPV awareness among men and women in the US than the UK and Australia. Being male and having a lower educational level was associated with lower HPV awareness in all three countries. Awareness of HPV vaccine was higher in women from the US than the UK and Australia. Women in the US scored significantly higher on general HPV knowledge (on a 15-item scale) than women in the UK and Australia, but there were no between country differences in HPV vaccine knowledge (on a 6-item scale). When asked about country-specific vaccine availability, participants in the US were less able to identify the correct answers than participants in the UK and Australia. More than half of participants did not know: HPV can cause genital warts; most sexually active people will get HPV at some point in their life; or HPV doesn't usually need treatment. Pharmaceutical advertising campaigns could explain why awareness of HPV and HPV vaccine is higher in the US and this has helped to get some important messages across. Significant gaps in HPV knowledge remain across all three countries. PMID:23246310

  14. The quality of life of patients with genital warts: a qualitative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gitte Lee Mortensen; Helle K Larsen

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genital warts, which are caused by infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), are one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in Europe. Although genital warts are commonly perceived as a non-serious condition, treatment is often long, of varying effectiveness and the recurrence rate is high. Very few studies have been performed on the personal consequences of genital warts. The

  15. Intent to Receive an HPV Vaccine Among University Men and Women and Implications for Vaccine Administration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melissa Jones; Robert Cook

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: In 2006, the authors examined intention to receive an HPV vaccine among 340 college students. Methods: A total of 138 men and 202 women completed questionnaires. The authors measured intention by asking participants how likely they would be to accept an HPV vaccine that prevented against (1) all HPV, (2) cervical cancer but not genital warts, (3)

  16. Association of HIV infection with distribution and viral load of HPV types in Kenya: a survey with 820 female sex workers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) and HIV are each responsible for a considerable burden of disease. Interactions between these infections pose substantial public health challenges, especially where HIV prevalence is high and HPV vaccine coverage low. Methods Between July 2005 and January 2006, a cross-sectional community-based survey in Mombasa, Kenya, enrolled female sex workers using snowball sampling. After interview and a gynaecological examination, blood and cervical cytology samples were taken. Quantitative real-time PCR detected HPV types and viral load measures. Prevalence of high-risk HPV was compared between HIV-infected and -uninfected women, and in women with abnormal cervical cytology, measured using conventional Pap smears. Results Median age of the 820 participants was 28 years (inter-quartile range [IQR] = 24-36 years). One third of women were HIV infected (283/803; 35.2%) and these women were y more likely to have abnormal cervical cytology than HIV-negative women (27%, 73/269, versus 8%, 42/503; P < 0.001). Of HIV-infected women, 73.3% had high-risk HPV (200/273) and 35.5% had HPV 16 and/or 18 (97/273). Corresponding figures for HIV-negative women were 45.5% (229/503) and 15.7% (79/503). After adjusting for age, number of children and condom use, high-risk HPV was 3.6 fold more common in HIV-infected women (95%CI = 2.6-5.1). Prevalence of all 15 of the high-risk HPV types measured was higher among HIV-infected women, between 1.4 and 5.5 fold. Median total HPV viral load was 881 copies/cell in HIV-infected women (IQR = 33-12,110 copies/cell) and 48 copies/cell in HIV-uninfected women (IQR = 6-756 copies/cell; P < 0.001). HPV 16 and/or HPV 18 were identified in 42.7% of LSIL (32/75) and 42.3% of HSIL (11/26) lesions (P = 0.98). High-risk HPV types other than 16 and 18 were common in LSIL (74.7%; 56/75) and HSIL (84.6%; 22/26); even higher among HIV-infected women. Conclusions HIV-infected sex workers had almost four-fold higher prevalence of high-risk HPV, raised viral load and more precancerous lesions. HPV 16 and HPV 18, preventable with current vaccines, were associated with cervical disease, though other high-risk types were commoner. HIV-infected sex workers likely contribute disproportionately to HPV transmission dynamics in the general population. Current efforts to prevent HIV and HPV are inadequate. New interventions are required and improved implementation of existing strategies. PMID:20102630

  17. HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS, GENITAL WARTS, PAP SMEARS, AND CERVICAL CANCER: KNOWLEDGE AND BELIEFS OF ADOLESCENT AND ADULT WOMEN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2000-01-01

    The high prevalence of genital warts, human papillomavirus (HPV), and the virus's cancer-causing potential warrant that women be well informed about these conditions and measures to prevent them. The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine women's knowledge and beliefs about genital warts, HPV, cervical cancer, and Pap tests. We interviewed 40 women recruited from health clinics in Chicago

  18. High Risk HPV Contamination of Endocavity Vaginal Ultrasound Probes: An Underestimated Route of Nosocomial Infection?

    PubMed Central

    Casalegno, Jean-sebastien; Le Bail Carval, Karine; Eibach, Daniel; Valdeyron, Marie-Laure; Lamblin, Gery; Jacquemoud, Hervé; Mellier, Georges; Lina, Bruno; Gaucherand, Pascal; Mathevet, Patrice; Mekki, Yahia

    2012-01-01

    Background Endocavity ultrasound is seen as a harmless procedure and has become a common gynaecological procedure. However without correct disinfection, it may result in nosocomial transmission of genito-urinary pathogens, such as high-risk Human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV). We aimed to evaluate the currently recommended disinfection procedure for covered endocavity ultrasound probes, which consists of “Low Level Disinfection” (LLD) with “quaternary ammonium compounds” containing wipes. Methods From May to October 2011 swabs were taken from endovaginal ultrasound probes at the Gynecology Department of the Lyon University Hospital. During the first phase (May–June 2011) samples were taken after the ultrasound examination and after the LLD procedure. In a second phase (July–October 2011) swab samples were collected just before the probe was used. All samples were tested for the presence of human DNA (as a marker for a possible transmission of infectious pathogens from the genital tract) and HPV DNA with the Genomica DNA microarray (35 different HPV genotypes). Results We collected 217 samples before and 200 samples after the ultrasound examination. The PCR was inhibited in two cases. Human DNA was detected in 36 (18%) post-examination samples and 61 (28%) pre-examination samples. After the ultrasound LLD procedure, 6 (3.0%) samples contained HR-HPV types (16, 31, 2×53 and 58). Similarly, HPV was detected in 6 pre-examination samples (2.7%). Amongst these 4 (1.9%) contained HR-HPV (types 53 and 70). Conclusion Our study reveals that a considerable number of ultrasound probes are contaminated with human and HR-HPV DNA, despite LLD disinfection and probe cover. In all hospitals, where LLD is performed, the endovaginal ultrasound procedure must therefore be considered a source for nosocomial HR-HPV infections. We recommend the stringent use of high-level disinfectants, such as glutaraldehyde or hydrogen peroxide solutions. PMID:23110191

  19. The epidemiology of genital human papillomavirus infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen Trottier; Eduardo L. Franco

    2006-01-01

    Clinical and subclinical human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are the most common sexually transmitted infections in the world, and most sexually-active individuals are likely to be exposed to HPV infection during their lifetimes. More than 40 genotypes of HPV infect the epithelial lining of the anogenital tract and other mucosal areas of the body; of these, 13–18 types are considered to

  20. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... surefire way to prevent genital herpes is abstinence . Teens who do have sex must properly use a latex condom every time they have any form of sexual intercourse (vaginal, oral, or anal sex). Girls receiving oral sex should have their ...

  1. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the chance that your partner will get the virus. You should also use a condom every time you have sexual contact. This includes genital, oral, and anal sex. Barrier protection is not perfect, so it is important that ...

  2. Genital Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Native Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... state, and community programs, such as: For eligible girls age 18 or younger, there are programs to ... not something to fear. More than ever, Native girls and women are preventing cervical cancer. You and ...

  3. Genital Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection in Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gone. Using condoms during sexual intercourse and dental dams during oral sex may also help to reduce the spread of infection. However, condoms or dams may not always completely prevent the spread of ...

  4. Human papillomaviruses: are we ready to type?

    PubMed Central

    Roman, A; Fife, K H

    1989-01-01

    The issue of determining which human papillomavirus (HPV) is present in a clinical specimen (typing specimens for HPVs) is receiving attention because HPVs cause condyloma acuminata and are associated with the continuum of disease which ranges from dysplasia to invasive genital cancer. Morphological inspection of precancerous lesions is not sufficient to determine which lesions will progress and which will not. A number of research tools based primarily on deoxyribonucleic acid hybridization have been developed. These permit identification and typing of HPV in genital tract scrapings or biopsies. Some HPV types (e.g., HPV-16 and HPV-18) have been identified in high-grade dysplasias and carcinomas more commonly than other types (e.g., HPV-6) and have been designated "high risk" types for cervical cancer. Thus, the question arises whether HPV typing would improve patient management by providing increased sensitivity for detection of patients at risk or by providing a prognostic indicator. In this review, the available typing methods are reviewed from the standpoint of their sensitivity, specificity, and ease of application to large-scale screening programs. Data implicating HPVs in the genesis of genital tract cancers are reviewed, as is the association of specific HPV types with specific outcomes. We conclude that there is currently no simple, inexpensive assay for HPV types, although such assays may be developed in the future. Analysis of the typing data indicates that, while HPV types can be designated high risk and low risk, these designations are not absolute and thus the low-risk group should not be ignored. In addition, interpretation of the data is complicated by finding high-risk types in individuals with no indication of disease. Insufficient data exist to indicate whether knowledge of the presence of a given HPV type is a better prognostic indicator than cytological or histological results. Thus, more research is needed before it can be determined whether typing information will augment the method currently in use for deciding treatment regimen and whether it warrants widespread use. Images PMID:2539898

  5. An unusual, giant and benign condyloma acuminatum lesion on the genital area for more than a decade

    PubMed Central

    Aminimoghaddam, Soheila; Badakhsh, Mohammad Hossein; Taftachi, Farrokh; Nejadisalami, Forough; Mahmoudzadeh, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Condyloma acuminatum, is a rare sexually transmitted disease. The virus responsible for condyloma is human papillomavirus.HPV-6 and HPV-11 are the most commonly detected HPV genotypes, but at least 20 other HPV genotypes have occasionally been found in genital wart tissue specimens. In fact genital HPV infection is common among sexually active populations. This disease may occur at any age after puberty and always seen in the mucosal area. It is characterized by slow growth. We reported here a case of a 42-year-old female patient with a 12 year history of a condyloma acuminatum lesion in her genitalia area without any medical treatment. PMID:25405121

  6. Male Genital Lichen Sclerosus

    PubMed Central

    Bunker, Christopher Barry; Shim, Tang Ngee

    2015-01-01

    Male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease responsible for male sexual dyspareunia and urological morbidity. An afeared complication is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis. The precise etiopathogenesis of MGLSc remains controversial although genetic, autoimmune and infective (such as human papillomavirus (HPV) hepatitis C (HCV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Borrelia) factors have been implicated: Consideration of all the evidence suggests that chronic exposure of susceptible epithelium to urinary occlusion by the foreskin seems the most likely pathomechanism. The mainstay of treatment is topical ultrapotent corticosteroid therapy. Surgery is indicated for cases unresponsive to topical corticosteroid therapy, phimosis, meatal stenosis, urethral stricture, carcinoma in situ (CIS) and squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25814697

  7. Human papillomavirus type 16 virus-like particles expressed in attenuated Salmonella typhimurium elicit mucosal and systemic neutralizing antibodies in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Nardelli-Haefliger, D; Roden, R B; Benyacoub, J; Sahli, R; Kraehenbuhl, J P; Schiller, J T; Lachat, P; Potts, A; De Grandi, P

    1997-01-01

    Attenuated strains of Salmonella are attractive live vaccine candidates for eliciting mucosal as well as systemic immune responses. The ability to induce immune responses in the reproductive tract may be critical for the effectiveness of a prophylactic vaccine against genital human papillomaviruses (HPV), which are important etiologic agents in the development of cervical cancer. To examine the potential of a live Salmonella-based vaccine to prevent genital HPV infection, the L1 major capsid protein from HPV type 16 (HPV16) was constitutively expressed in the PhoPc strain of Salmonella typhimurium. As demonstrated by electron microscopy, the L1 protein expressed in these bacteria assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs) that resemble authentic papillomavirus virions. This is the first demonstration that papillomavirus VLPs can self-assemble in prokaryotes. BALB/c mice were immunized with the HPV16 L1 recombinant PhoPc strain by the oral and nasal routes. Despite a low stability of the L1-expressing plasmid in vivo, a double nasal immunization was effective in inducing L1-specific serum antibodies that recognized mainly native, but not disassembled, VLPs. These antibodies effectively neutralized HPV16 pseudotyped virions in an in vitro infectivity assay. Conformationally dependent anti-VLP immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG were also detected in oral and vaginal secretions, indicating that potentially protective antibody responses were elicited at mucosal sites. Recombinant attenuated Salmonella expressing HPV capsids may represent a promising vaccine candidate against genital HPV infection. PMID:9234794

  8. Persistence of mucosal T-cell responses to herpes simplex virus type 2 in the female genital tract.

    PubMed

    Posavad, C M; Zhao, L; Mueller, D E; Stevens, C E; Huang, M L; Wald, A; Corey, L

    2015-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the human T-cell response to herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in the female genital tract, a major site of heterosexual HSV-2 acquisition, transmission, and reactivation. In order to understand the role of local mucosal immunity in HSV-2 infection, T-cell lines were expanded from serial cervical cytobrush samples from 30 HSV-2-infected women and examined for reactivity to HSV-2. Approximately 3% of the CD3+ T cells isolated from the cervix were HSV-2 specific and of these, a median of 91.3% were CD4+, whereas a median of 3.9% were CD8+. HSV-2-specific CD4+ T cells expanded from the cervix were not only more frequent than CD8+ T cells but also exhibited greater breadth in terms of antigenic reactivity. T cells directed at the same HSV-2 protein were often detected in serial cervical cytobrush samples and in blood. Thus, broad and persistent mucosal T-cell responses to HSV-2 were detected in the female genital tract of HSV-2+ women suggesting that these cells are resident at the site of HSV-2 infection. Understanding the role of these T cells at this biologically relevant site will be central to the elucidation of adaptive immune mechanisms involved in controlling HSV-2 disease. PMID:24917455

  9. The potential role of HPV vaccination in the prevention of infectious complications of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bonde, Ulla; Joergensen, Jan Stener; Mogensen, Ole; Lamont, Ronald F

    2014-11-01

    There is now incontrovertible evidence that HPV is the cause of almost all cases of genital warts, cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer. Moreover the current review of the recent literature on HPV in relation to pregnancy found strong indications that HPV plays an important role in adverse outcomes of pregnancy. HPV may contribute to infertility and may increase the risk of miscarriage. Recent studies indicate a significant rate of vertical transmission of HPV between mother and child but whether the mode of delivery makes a difference to the risk of transmission remains unknown. HPV infection appears to be correlated with both spontaneous preterm birth and preterm prelabor rupture of the membranes. PMID:25084626

  10. Evolution and taxonomic classification of human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16)-related variant genomes: HPV31, HPV33, HPV35, HPV52, HPV58 and HPV67

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zigui Chen; Mark Schiffman; Rolando Herrero; Rob Desalle; Kathryn Anastos; Michel Segondy; Vikrant V. Sahasrabuddhe; Patti E. Gravitt; Ann W. Hsing; Robert D. Burk

    2011-01-01

    Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) species group (alpha-9) of the Alphapapillomavirus genus contains HPV16, HPV31, HPV33, HPV35, HPV52, HPV58 and HPV67. These HPVs account for 75% of invasive cervical cancers worldwide. Viral variants of these HPVs differ in evolutionary history and pathogenicity. Moreover, a comprehensive nomenclature system for HPV variants is lacking, limiting comparisons between studies.|DNA from cervical samples previously characterized

  11. HPV Vaccine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs Drugs & Alcohol Staying Safe Recipes En Español ... Body Image HPV Vaccine KidsHealth > Teens > Sexual Health > STDs & ...

  12. E7 Oncoprotein of Novel Human Papillomavirus Type 108 Lacking the E6 Gene Induces Dysplasia in Organotypic Keratinocyte Cultures ?

    PubMed Central

    Nobre, Rui Jorge; Herráez-Hernández, Elsa; Fei, Jian-Wei; Langbein, Lutz; Kaden, Sylvia; Gröne, Hermann-Josef; de Villiers, Ethel-Michele

    2009-01-01

    The genome organization of the novel human papillomavirus type 108 (HPV108), isolated from a low-grade cervical lesion, deviates from those of other HPVs in lacking an E6 gene. The three related HPV types HPV103, HPV108, and HPV101 were isolated from cervicovaginal cells taken from normal genital mucosa (HPV103) and low-grade (HPV108) and high-grade cervical (HPV101) intraepithelial neoplasia (Z. Chen, M. Schiffman, R. Herrero, R. DeSalle, and R. D. Burk, Virology 360:447-453, 2007, and this report). Their unusual genome organization, against the background of considerable phylogenetic distance from the other HPV types usually associated with lesions of the genital tract, prompted us to investigate whether HPV108 E7 per se is sufficient to induce the above-mentioned clinical lesions. Expression of HPV108 E7 in organotypic keratinocyte cultures increases proliferation and apoptosis, focal nuclear polymorphism, and polychromasia. This is associated with irregular intra- and extracellular lipid accumulation and loss of the epithelial barrier. These alterations are linked to HPV108 E7 binding to pRb and inducing its decrease, an increase in PCNA expression, and BrdU incorporation, as well as increased p53 and p21CIP1 protein levels. A delay in keratin K10 expression, increased expression of keratins K14 and K16, and loss of the corneal proteins involucrin and loricrin have also been noted. These modifications are suggestive of infection by a high-risk papillomavirus. PMID:19153227

  13. Long-term persistence of oral human papillomavirus type 16: the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) study.

    PubMed

    Pierce Campbell, Christine M; Kreimer, Aimée R; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William; O'Keefe, Michael T; Ingles, Donna J; Abrahamsen, Martha; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R

    2015-03-01

    Persistent infection with oral HPV16 is believed to drive the development of most oropharyngeal cancers. However, patterns of oral HPV16 persistence remain understudied, particularly among HIV-negative individuals. Oral HPV16 persistence was evaluated among 1,626 participants of the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study. Twenty-three oral HPV16-positive men who provided an oral gargle sample on ?2 study visits were included in the analysis. Archived oral samples from all follow-up visits were tested for HPV16 using Linear Array and INNO-LiPA detection methods. Persistence was evaluated using consecutive HPV16-positive visits held approximately 6 months apart and using the Kaplan-Meier method. Oral HPV16-positive men were aged 18 to 64 years [median, 36 years; interquartile range (IQR), 25-42] and were followed for a median of 44.4 months (IQR, 29.9-49.5). Of 13 incident infections, 4 (30.8%) persisted ?12 months, 1 (10.0%) persisted ?24 months, and none persisted ?36 months [median infection duration, 7.3 months; 95% confidence interval (CI), 6.4-NA)]. Of 10 prevalent infections, 9 (90.0%) persisted ?12 months, 8 (80.0%) persisted ?24 months, 4 (57.1%) persisted ?36 months, and 2 (40.0%) persisted ?48 months (median infection duration, NA). Twelve-month persistence of incident infections increased significantly with age (Ptrend = 0.028). Prevalent oral HPV16 infections in men persisted longer than newly acquired infections, and persistence appeared to increase with age. These findings may explain the high prevalence of oral HPV observed at older ages. Understanding oral HPV16 persistence will aid in the identification of men at high-risk of developing HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer. PMID:25575501

  14. Exploring the Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs, and Communication Preferences of the General Public regarding HPV: Findings from CDC Focus Group Research and Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Allison L.; Shepeard, Hilda

    2007-01-01

    Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted virus in the United States, causing genital warts, cervical cell abnormalities, and cervical cancer in women. To inform HPV education efforts, 35 focus groups were conducted with members of the general public, stratified by gender, race/ethnicity, and urban/rural…

  15. Genital warts.

    PubMed

    Steben, Marc; Garland, Suzanne M

    2014-10-01

    Anogenital warts (AGWs) are a very common disease. They are caused mostly by low-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) 6 and 11, particularly the former. Clinical presentation is mostly of growths in the areas of friction of the anogenital region. The treatment is classified as patient/home applied or administered by a professional. In cases with atypical presentations or resistance to recommended therapies, great care should be taken to establish a differential diagnosis taking into account normal anatomical variations, infectious etiologies, precancers and cancers, as well as benign dermatological growths. The prevention of AGWs can be achieved by the use of the quadrivalent prophylactic HPV vaccine administered prior to sexual debut, as well as the meticulous use of condoms. Where coverage of the quadrivalent vaccine has been high, marked reductions in AGWs are being seen in young women of vaccine-eligible age, as well as in young males (as herd immunity effect). PMID:25155525

  16. Human Papillomavirus and Genital Warts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda Goldman

    Unknown until the second half of the 20th century, human papillomavirus (HPV) is now recognized as being one of the most common\\u000a sexually transmitted infections (STI) in the United States, accounting for more than one-third of the new cases of STIs each\\u000a year (1). HPV is a group of more than 120 viruses, at least 30 types of which can

  17. Chapter 17: Genital Human Papillomavirus Infections—Current and Prospective Therapies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret Stanley

    Many therapies are available for the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated disease, particularly exter- nal genital warts. However, at present, these therapies aim to remove the lesion rather than specifically target HPV infec- tion. When disease and infection are local, as in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), excisional therapies remov- ing lesion and transformation-susceptible cells are highly ef- fective. However, when

  18. Reducing HPV-associated Cancer Globally

    PubMed Central

    Lowy, Douglas R.; Schiller, John T.

    2012-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers are a major worldwide public health concern. Virtually all cervical cancer is HPV-related, with 70% caused by HPV16 and -18. Variable proportions of certain non-cervical cancers (e.g., anal, vulvar, oropharyngeal) are HPV-related; over 90% of the HPV-related ones are related to HPV16, -18. The HPV-related cancers are dominated by cervical cancer in the developing world, where cervical cancer screening is limited. In this setting, widespread uptake of current HPV vaccines by adolescent girls could reduce this cancer's incidence and mortality by approximately two-thirds, with cost-effective screening programs of adult women having the potential to reduce mortality more rapidly. In the industrialized world, non-cervical HPV-related cancers, especially oropharyngeal, are rapidly increasing, and now rival the incidence of cervical cancer, whose rates continue to decline thanks to established cervical screening programs. Therefore, reducing HPV-associated non-cervical cancers with HPV vaccination has greater importance in the industrialized world, especially since there are no approved screening programs for these cancers. Preventing the substantial number of non-cervical HPV cancers in men will require either “herd” immunity through high vaccination rates in females or male vaccination. Current HPV vaccination can complement cervical screening in protecting against cervical cancer and may permit the safe reduction of screening intensity in industrialized countries. Second-generation HPV vaccines (active against a broader array of cervical cancer–related HPV types) could prevent an even higher proportion of cervical precancer and cancer and might permit further reductions in screening intensity. PMID:22219162

  19. A review of cross-protection against oncogenic HPV by an HPV16\\/18 AS04-adjuvanted cervical cancer vaccine: Importance of virological and clinical endpoints and implications for mass vaccination in cervical cancer prevention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Jenkins

    2008-01-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV)-16 and -18 are responsible for approximately 70% of invasive cervical cancers worldwide. Other oncogenic HPV types account for almost all the remainder. Importantly, HPV-45 and -31 account for approximately 10%. HPV-18 and -45, along with HPV-16, are found in over 90% of endocervical adenocarcinomas. HPV-45 is the third most frequent HPV type in cervical carcinoma and

  20. Regression of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia and Loss of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection Is Associated with Cell-mediated Immune Responses to an HPV Type 16 E7 Peptide1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna S. Kadish; Patrick Timmins; Yuexian Wang; Gloria Y. F. Ho; Robert D. Burk; John Ketz; Seymour L. Romney; Anne Johnson; Ruth Angeletti; Maria Abadi

    Most human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) lesions in normal women regress spontaneously, but a small number persist and may progress to invasive cancer. To evaluate the role of immunity to HPV and the outcome of CIN and associated HPV infection, we examined cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses to HPV 16 E6 and E7 peptides. One hundred thirty-six women with

  1. Testing for HPV

    MedlinePLUS

    ... HPV test, what does it mean? Testing for HPV What’s the difference between a Pap test and an HPV test? A Pap test is used to find ... HPV is found. Should I be tested for HPV? If you are a woman under age 30 ...

  2. The Quantity of Latent Viral DNA Correlates with the Relative Rates at Which Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 Cause Recurrent Genital Herpes Outbreaks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JULIE A. LEKSTROM-HIMES; LESLEY PESNICAK; STEPHEN E. STRAUS

    Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) have evolved specific anatomic tropisms and site- dependent rates of reactivation. To determine whether reactivation rates depend on distinct abilities of HSV-1 and -2 to establish latency and to express latency-associated transcripts (LATs), virulent strains of each virus were studied in the guinea pig genital model. Following infection with equivalent

  3. HPV and Men

    MedlinePLUS

    ... time in their life. Although most HPV infections go away on their own without causing problems, HPV ... me? Most of the time HPV infections completely go away and don’t cause any health problems. ...

  4. Pre-vaccination prevalence of infections with 25 non-high-risk human papillomavirus types among 1,000 Slovenian women in cervical cancer screening.

    PubMed

    U?akar, Veronika; Poljak, Mario; Oštrbenk, Anja; Klavs, Irena

    2014-10-01

    Cervical infections with non-high-risk human papillomavirus (non-HR-HPV) types have been associated with genital warts and a fraction of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. The pre-vaccination prevalence of cervical infections with 25 non-HR-HPV types has been estimated, regardless of and without the coexistence of infection with HR-HPV types among Slovenian women 20-64 years old in cervical cancer screening, overall and according to age and cytology result. One thousand cervical specimens selected randomly from 4,455 specimens collected in 2010 in the Slovenian HPV prevalence survey were tested with Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test. Prevalence of cervical infections with any of the 25 non-HR-HPV types was 10.0% (95% CI: 8.1-11.9%) and with exclusively non-HR-HPV types 4.5% (95% CI: 3.2-5.8%). Prevalence of infections with any non-HR-HPV types among women with normal cytology was 8.8%, with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance 30.4%, with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions 60.0%, and with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions 7.7%. Non-HR-HPV types without coexisting HR-HPV types were found in 4.0% of women with normal cytology, 26.1% with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, 6.7% with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, and none with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. Non-HR-HPV type cervical infections without coexisting HR-HPV infections were common among Slovenian women in cervical cancer screening with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, while rare in those with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or worse. J. Med. Virol. 86: 1772-1779, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24978445

  5. The epidemiology of genital infection with herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in genitourinary medicine attendees in inner London

    PubMed Central

    Ramaswamy, M; McDonald, C; Sabin, C; Tenant-Flowers, M; Smith, M; Geretti, A

    2005-01-01

    Methods: Genital swabs (n = 186) were tested by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and serum samples (n = 70) by HSV-2 specific enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA). Results: Among 186 patients (median age 29 years), 104/186 (56%) were male and 176/186 (95%) heterosexual; ethnicity was predominantly black Caribbean (76/186, 41%), white (65/186, 35%), or black-African (41/186, 22%). The most common lesion sites were penis (85/104 men, 82%) and vulva (63/82 women, 77%); 114/186 (61%) patients were diagnosed clinically with first episode disease. Women were more likely to present <5 days of onset (p = 0.008). Black Caribbean patients were more likely to present ?5 days (p = 0.04) and decline HIV testing (p = 0.03). By PCR, 108/186 (58%) swabs tested positive for HSV-1 (7/108, 6.5%) or HSV-2 (101/108, 93.5%). Independent predictors of a positive PCR were heterosexual group, <5 days of onset, and visible genital ulceration on examination. HSV-2 was associated with black Caribbean and black African ethnicity; HSV-1 with white ethnicity (p = 0.006). By HSV-2 specific serology, 16/42 (38%) first episodes caused by HSV-2 were recurrent infections, and 7/19 (37%) patients with recurrent genital disease but negative PCR had genital herpes. Conclusions: Epidemiological trends in genital HSV-1 and HSV-2 infection appear to vary between ethnic groups in the United Kingdom. HSV-2 specific serology improves diagnostic accuracy in GUM populations where most genital infections are caused by HSV-2. PMID:16061536

  6. Pathology and epidemiology of HPV infection in females

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret Stanley

    2010-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a large family of small double-stranded DNA viruses that infect squamous epithelia. It has been established that infection with specific HPV types is a contributing factor to different types of anogenital cancer, including vulval, vaginal, anal, penile, and head and neck cancers. Approximately 4% of all cancers are associated with HPV. HPV infection is the major

  7. Oxidative Stress and HPV Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    De Marco, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Extensive experimental work has conclusively demonstrated that infection with certain types of human papillomaviruses, the so-called high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV), represent a most powerful human carcinogen. However, neoplastic growth is a rare and inappropriate outcome in the natural history of HPV, and a number of other events have to concur in order to induce the viral infection into the (very rare) neoplastic transformation. From this perspective, a number of putative viral, host, and environmental co-factors have been proposed as potential candidates. Among them oxidative stress (OS) is an interesting candidate, yet comparatively underexplored. OS is a constant threat to aerobic organisms being generated during mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, as well as during inflammation, infections, ionizing irradiation, UV exposure, mechanical and chemical stresses. Epithelial tissues, the elective target for HPV infection, are heavily exposed to all named sources of OS. Two different types of cooperative mechanisms are presumed to occur between OS and HPV: I) The OS genotoxic activity and the HPV-induced genomic instability concur independently to the generation of the molecular damage necessary for the emergence of neoplastic clones. This first mode is merely a particular form of co-carcinogenesis; and II) OS specifically interacts with one or more molecular stages of neoplastic initiation and/or progression induced by the HPV infection. This manuscript was designed to summarize available data on this latter hypothesis. Experimental data and indirect evidences on promoting the activity of OS in viral infection and viral integration will be reviewed. The anti-apoptotic and pro-angiogenetic role of NO (nitric oxide) and iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) will be discussed together with the OS/HPV cooperation in inducing cancer metabolism adaptation. Unexplored/underexplored aspects of the OS interplay with the HPV-driven carcinogenesis will be highlighted. The aim of this paper is to stimulate new areas of study and innovative approaches. PMID:23403708

  8. Sequence Imputation of HPV16 Genomes for Genetic Association Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin Smith; Zigui Chen; Laura Reimers; Koenraad van Doorslaer; Mark Schiffman; Rob Desalle; Rolando Herrero; Kai Yu; Sholom Wacholder; Tao Wang; Robert D. Burk; Art F. Y. Poon

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundHuman Papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) causes over half of all cervical cancer and some HPV16 variants are more oncogenic than others. The genetic basis for the extraordinary oncogenic properties of HPV16 compared to other HPVs is unknown. In addition, we neither know which nucleotides vary across and within HPV types and lineages, nor which of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)

  9. Second-Generation Prophylactic HPV Vaccines: Successes and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Mitchell; Tumban, Ebenezer; Chackerian, Bryce

    2015-01-01

    The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) as the causative factor in cervical cancer has led to the development of the HPV vaccines Gardasil and Cervarix. These vaccines effectively protect against two HPV types associated with 70% of cervical cancer cases. Despite this success, researchers continue to develop second generation HPV vaccines to protect against more HPV types and allow increased uptake in developing countries. While a reformulated vaccine based on the current technology is currently in clinical trials, another strategy consists of targeting highly conserved epitopes in the minor capsid protein of HPV, L2. Vaccines targeting L2 induce broadly neutralizing antibodies, capable of blocking infection by a wide range of HPV types. Several vaccine designs have been developed to optimize the display of L2 epitopes to the immune system and to reduce the cost of manufacture and distribution. L2-based vaccines show considerable promise as a potential next-generation HPV vaccine. PMID:24350614

  10. The Psychosocial Impact of Testing Individuals with No History of Genital Herpes for Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomio Miyai; Katherine R. Turner; Charlotte K. Kent; Jeffrey Klausner

    2004-01-01

    Background: Although approximately 20% of the population has a genital herpes (HSV-2) infection, 80% of these infections are unrec- ognized or asymptomatic. Serologic identification of HSV-2 leads to recognition of infection, which could lead to behavioral changes that reduce transmission. However, there has been concern that HSV-2 testing among persons without symptoms will cause substantial psy- chosocial harm. Goal: The

  11. HPV16\\/18 L1 VLP vaccine induces cross-neutralizing antibodies that may mediate cross-protection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Troy J. Kemp; Allan Hildesheim; Mahboobeh Safaeian; Joseph G. Dauner; Yuanji Pan; Carolina Porras; John T. Schiller; Douglas R. Lowy; Rolando Herrero; Ligia A. Pinto

    2011-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 VLP-based vaccines are protective against HPV vaccine-related types; however, the correlates of protection have not been defined. We observed that vaccination with Cervarix™ induced cross-neutralizing antibodies for HPV types for which evidence of vaccine efficacy has been demonstrated (HPV31\\/45) but not for other types (HPV52\\/58). In addition, HPV31\\/45 cross-neutralizing titers showed a significant increase with number

  12. MassARRAY Spectrometry Is More Sensitive than PreTect HPV-Proofer and Consensus PCR for Type-Specific Detection of High-Risk Oncogenic Human Papillomavirus Genotypes in Cervical Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Partha; Chandna, Puneet; Bamezai, R. N. K.; Siddiqi, Maqsood; Saranath, Dhananjaya; Lear, Adrian; Ratnam, Sam

    2011-01-01

    Type-specific detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) is indicated for better risk stratification and clinical management of women testing positive for HPV and for epidemiologic surveillance. MassARRAY spectrometry (MassARRAY; Sequenom) is a novel method for type-specific detection of 15 high-risk oncogenic HPV types: HPV-16, -18, -31, -33, -35, -39, -45, -51, -52, -56, -58, -59, -66, -68, and -73. PreTect HPV-Proofer (Proofer; Norchip) is a type-specific assay that detects E6/E7 mRNA from five high-risk oncogenic HPV types: HPV-16, -18, -31, -33, and -45. The performance of these tests for type-specific identification of HPV was assessed with cervical specimens from 192 cases of cervical cancer in comparison with consensus MY09/MY11 PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing (consensus PCR). The overall HPV detection rates were 94.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 91.7, 97.9), 83.3% (95% CI, 78.1, 88.5), and 86.5% (95% CI, 81.7, 91.3) for MassARRAY, Proofer, and consensus PCR, respectively. All tests were negative in six (3.1%) of the 192 cases. Considering only the specimens that contained at least one of the five types targeted by Proofer, the detection rates were 96.6%, 91.4%, and 86.9% for MassARRAY, Proofer, and consensus PCR, respectively. MassARRAY detected multiple infections in 14.1%, Proofer detected multiple infections in 3.6%, and consensus PCR failed to detect any multiple infections. The agreement was highest at 86.0% (kappa = 0.76) between MassARRAY and Proofer and lowest at 81.8% (kappa = 0.69) between Proofer and consensus PCR. In conclusion, MassARRAY is a highly sensitive and accurate method for type-specific detection of oncogenic HPV in cervical cancer, with Proofer showing impressive performance. PMID:21813716

  13. Human Papillomavirus Type 16 (HPV-16) Genomes Integrated in Head and Neck Cancers and in HPV-16-Immortalized Human Keratinocyte Clones Express Chimeric Virus-Cell mRNAs Similar to Those Found in Cervical Cancers ?

    PubMed Central

    Lace, Michael J.; Anson, James R.; Klussmann, Jens P.; Wang, Dong Hong; Smith, Elaine M.; Haugen, Thomas H.; Turek, Lubomir P.

    2011-01-01

    Many human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive high-grade lesions and cancers of the uterine cervix harbor integrated HPV genomes expressing the E6 and E7 oncogenes from chimeric virus-cell mRNAs, but less is known about HPV integration in head and neck cancer (HNC). Here we compared viral DNA status and E6-E7 mRNA sequences in HPV-16-positive HNC tumors to those in independent human keratinocyte cell clones derived from primary tonsillar or foreskin epithelia immortalized with HPV-16 genomes. Three of nine HNC tumors and epithelial clones containing unintegrated HPV-16 genomes expressed mRNAs spliced from HPV-16 SD880 to SA3358 and terminating at the viral early gene p(A) signal. In contrast, most integrated HPV genomes in six HNCs and a set of 31 keratinocyte clones expressed HPV-16 major early promoter (MEP)-initiated mRNAs spliced from viral SD880 directly to diverse cellular sequences, with a minority spliced to SA3358 followed by a cellular DNA junction. Sequence analysis of chimeric virus-cell mRNAs from HNC tumors and keratinocyte clones identified viral integration sites in a variety of chromosomes, with some located in or near growth control genes, including the c-myc protooncogene and the gene encoding FAP-1 phosphatase. Taken together, these findings support the hypothesis that HPV integration in cancers is a stochastic process resulting in clonal selection of aggressively expanding cells with altered gene expression of integrated HPV genomes and potential perturbations of cellular genes at or near viral integration sites. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that this selection also takes place and can be studied in primary human keratinocytes in culture. PMID:21123375

  14. Understanding HPV Disease and Prevention: A Guide for School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood-Rayermann, Suzy; McIntyre, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    Oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) causes 99.7% of all cervical cancers. HPV Types 16 and 18 are responsible for approximately 77% of cases, and peak prevalence occurs in females younger than 25 years of age. The recent implementation of HPV vaccination provides females with the opportunity to prevent infection. School nurses are advocates of…

  15. Prevalence and type distribution of human papillomavirus infection using the INNo-Lipa assay, Kerman, Southeast Iran.

    PubMed

    Afshar, Reza Malekpour; Mollaie, Hamid Reza; Fazlalipour, Mehdi; Arabzadeh, Seyad Alimohammad

    2013-01-01

    The human papilloma virus (HPV) causes skin and mucous membrane infections. It crosses from one person to another by skin-to-skin contact, such as sexual contact. There are more than 100 types of HPV that can influence different parts of the body. Some types of HPV can cause cancer (such as cervical or anal cancer) and others can cause warts (such as genital or plantar warts). HPV infection is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Iran and around the world. Considerable molecular evidence suggests a role for human papilloma virus (HPV) in the pathogenesis of carcinoma. Epidemiological studies on human papilloma viruses (HPVs) infections in general population are critical for the performing of health policy guidelines for developing the strategies to hinder the primary and secondary different cancer. In different parts of Iran, there is a lack of population-based studies to determine the prevalence of HPV in the general population. The aim of this population-based study was therefore to report the prevalence ratse of HPV types among Iranian patients. To study the risk of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection, we managed a retrospective study in Kerman province, southeast of Iran. For this purpose, 410 patients tested for the presence of HPV DNA using PCR and INNo- Lipa assays. HPV DNA was detected in 108 out of 410 patients (26.34%), while it was not detected in any of the control group samples. Patients included 23 (21.1%) males and 86 (78.8%) females. HPV type 6 was the most common (49%) followed by HPV type 16 (10.1%), and also HPV type11 (9.2%). The prevalence of HPV in Iran is comparable to those reported in other regions of the world. In a similar manner, it seems that HPV types 6, 16 and11 are the most common types in Kerman. Additional studies on larger group of patients, particularly in those with pre-invasive forms of disease, are needed to explain the roles of different HPV types in this location of Iran. PMID:24175815

  16. Effect of TA-CIN (HPV 16 L2E6E7) booster immunisation in vulval intraepithelial neoplasia patients previously vaccinated with TA-HPV (vaccinia virus encoding HPV 16\\/18 E6E7)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. J Davidson; R. L Faulkner; P Sehr; M Pawlita; L. J. C Smyth; D. J Burt; A. E Tomlinson; J Hickling; H. C Kitchener; P. L Stern

    2004-01-01

    Heterologous prime-boost vaccination schedules employing TA-HPV, a vaccinia virus encoding HPV 16\\/18 E6 and E7, in combination with TA-CIN, an HPV 16 L2E6E7 fusion protein, may offer advantages over the use of either agent alone for the immunotherapy of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16-associated vulval intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN). In the present study, 10 women with HPV 16-positive high grade VIN,

  17. Recognition of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Tegument Proteins by CD4 T Cells Infiltrating Human Genital Herpes Lesions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID M. KOELLE; JEANNINE M. FRANK; MATTHEW L. JOHNSON; WILLIAM W. KWOK

    1998-01-01

    The local cellular immune response to herpes simplex virus (HSV) is important in the control of recurrent HSV infection. The antiviral functions of infiltrating CD4-bearing T cells may include cytotoxicity, inhibition of viral growth, lymphokine secretion, and support of humoral and CD8 responses. The antigens recognized by many HSV-specific CD4 T cells localizing to genital HSV-2 lesions are unknown. T

  18. Prospects for prevention of HPV-driven oropharynx cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kreimer, Aimée R.

    2014-01-01

    Prevention of HPV-associated cancers can take two forms—one through prevention of infection via prophylactic HPV vaccination, and one through interruption of disease progression through early identification (i.e.: screening) and treatment. Primary prevention via vaccination seems promising, as a proof-of-principal study demonstrated high vaccine efficacy against one-time detection of oral HPV16/18 infection. In addition to the direct benefit of vaccination, indirect protection from reduced genital HPV infection should also reduce oral HPV exposure at the individual level. Yet, for the current unvaccinated cohorts who will bear the burden of non-cervical HPV-associated cancers for the foreseeable future, no secondary prevention opportunities exist, as the field has not yet validated any screening methods for non-cervical HPV associated cancers. Serum HPV16 E6 antibody data suggest that this test might one day be able to detect many of the at-risk patients prior to tumor development. For any biomarker that proves valid and reliable, transitioning into clinical practice will require additional research focused on 1) diagnostics, 2) effective intervention, and 3) observed reductions in cancer mortality. PMID:23876626

  19. Topical Herpes Simplex Virus 2 (HSV-2) Vaccination with Human Papillomavirus Vectors Expressing gB/gD Ectodomains Induces Genital-Tissue-Resident Memory CD8+ T Cells and Reduces Genital Disease and Viral Shedding after HSV-2 Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Çuburu, Nicolas; Wang, Kening; Goodman, Kyle N.; Pang, Yuk Ying; Thompson, Cynthia D.; Lowy, Douglas R.; Cohen, Jeffrey I.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT No herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) vaccine has been licensed for use in humans. HSV-2 glycoproteins B (gB) and D (gD) are targets of neutralizing antibodies and T cells, but clinical trials involving intramuscular (i.m.) injection of HSV-2 gB and gD in adjuvants have not been effective. Here we evaluated intravaginal (ivag) genetic immunization of C57BL/6 mice with a replication-defective human papillomavirus pseudovirus (HPV PsV) expressing HSV-2 gB (HPV-gB) or gD (HPV-gD) constructs to target different subcellular compartments. HPV PsV expressing a secreted ectodomain of gB (gBsec) or gD (gDsec), but not PsV expressing a cytoplasmic or membrane-bound form, induced circulating and intravaginal-tissue-resident memory CD8+ T cells that were able to secrete gamma interferon (IFN-?) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) as well as moderate levels of serum HSV neutralizing antibodies. Combined immunization with HPV-gBsec and HPV-gDsec (HPV-gBsec/gDsec) vaccines conferred longer survival after vaginal challenge with HSV-2 than immunization with HPV-gBsec or HPV-gDsec alone. HPV-gBsec/gDsec ivag vaccination was associated with a reduced severity of genital lesions and lower levels of viral shedding in the genital tract after HSV-2 challenge. In contrast, intramuscular vaccination with a soluble truncated gD protein (gD2t) in alum and monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) elicited high neutralizing antibody titers and improved survival but did not reduce genital lesions and viral shedding. Vaccination combining ivag HPV-gBsec/gDsec and i.m. gD2t-alum-MPL improved survival and reduced genital lesions and viral shedding. Finally, high levels of circulating HSV-2-specific CD8+ T cells, but not serum antibodies, correlated with reduced viral shedding. Taken together, our data underscore the potential of HPV PsV as a platform for a topical mucosal vaccine to control local manifestations of primary HSV-2 infection. IMPORTANCE Genital herpes is a highly prevalent chronic disease caused by HSV infection. To date, there is no licensed vaccine against HSV infection. This study describes intravaginal vaccination with a nonreplicating HPV-based vector expressing HSV glycoprotein antigens. The data presented in this study underscore the potential of HPV-based vectors as a platform for the induction of genital-tissue-resident memory T cell responses and the control of local manifestations of primary HSV infection. PMID:25320297

  20. Management of external genital warts.

    PubMed

    Karnes, Jonathan B; Usatine, Richard P

    2014-09-01

    Genital warts affect 1% of the sexually active U.S. population and are commonly seen in primary care. Human papillomavirus types 6 and 11 are responsible for most genital warts. Warts vary from small, flat-topped papules to large, cauliflower-like lesions on the anogenital mucosa and surrounding skin. Diagnosis is clinical, but atypical lesions should be confirmed by histology. Treatments may be applied by patients, or by a clinician in the office. Patient-applied treatments include topical imiquimod, podofilox, and sinecatechins, whereas clinician-applied treatments include podophyllin, bichloroacetic acid, and trichloroacetic acid. Surgical treatments include excision, cryotherapy, and electrosurgery. The quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine is active against virus subtypes that cause genital warts in men and women. Additionally, male circumcision may be effective in decreasing the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, human papillomavirus, and herpes simplex virus. PMID:25251091

  1. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution, cervical cancer screening practices and current status of vaccination implementation in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Poljak, Mario; Seme, Katja; Maver, Polona J; Kocjan, Boštjan J; Cuschieri, Kate S; Rogovskaya, Svetlana I; Arbyn, Marc; Syrjänen, Stina

    2013-12-31

    We present a review of current cervical cancer screening practices, the implementation status of vaccination against human papillomaviruses (HPV) and available data concerning the burden of HPV infection and HPV type-specific distribution in 16 Central and Eastern European countries: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia and the Former Yugoslav Republic (FYR) of Macedonia. Since published data were relatively scarce, two detailed surveys were conducted during August-October 2011 and in January 2013 to obtain relevant and updated information. The mean prevalence of HPV infection in 8610 women with normal cervical cytology from the region was 12.6%, with HPV16 being the most frequent HPV type. The overall HPV DNA prevalence in women with high-grade cervical lesions was 78.1%. HPV DNA was found in 86.6% of cervical cancers; the combined prevalence of HPV16/18 among HPV positive cases was 87.5%. The overall HPV DNA prevalence in genital warts and laryngeal papillomas was 94.8% and 95.2%, respectively, with HPV6 and HPV11 being the most frequent types. Opportunistic and organized cervical screening, mainly based on conventional cytology, is performed in nine and seven countries in the region, respectively, with the proposed age of the start of screening ranging from 20 to 30 years and the estimated coverage ranging from a few percent to over 70%. At least one of the current HPV prophylactic vaccines is registered in all Central and Eastern European countries except Montenegro. Only Bulgaria, Czech Republic, FYR Macedonia, Latvia, Romania and Slovenia have actually integrated HPV vaccination into their national immunization programme and currently provide routine vaccination free of charge to the primary target population. The key reasons for lack of implementation of HPV vaccination into the national immunization programme are high vaccine cost and negative public perception. This article forms part of a regional report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in the Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia Region" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 7, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012. PMID:24332298

  2. [Prevention of cervical cancer (II): prophylactic HPV vaccination, current knowledge, practical procedures and new issues].

    PubMed

    Monsonego, Joseph

    2007-04-01

    Despite the considerable success of early screening for prevention of cervical cancer, Pap smears have not fulfilled the hopes that it would lead to a large-scale reduction of this cancer's incidence. Screening appears to be useful for a tiny portion of the world population, although a relatively large portion must put up with its limitations and disadvantages. Human papilloma viruses (HPV) 16 and 18 are responsible for two thirds of all cervical cancers worldwide. The condylomata (condyloma acuminatum), or genital warts, induced by HPV 6 and 11 are frequent among the young and difficult to manage. The extent and burden of HPV infection are considerable, as is the psychological and emotional impact of the diseases associated with it. Because cancer of the cervix is the final consequence of chronic HPV infection, it can be prevented by vaccination. A prophylactic vaccine to protect against the precancerous and cancerous lesions associated with HPV should save lives, reduce expensive diagnostic and therapeutic interventions, and have substantial individual and collective benefits. Clinical trials of anti-HPV vaccines for the prevention of cervical cancer and condyloma have shown remarkable results and an efficacy unequaled in the history of vaccination against infectious diseases. Vaccine efficacy has been shown only in young girls never exposed to the virus and only for the lesions associated with the specific viral types in the vaccine. Preliminary data indicate that the vaccination is effective in women who have previously eliminated naturally the virus. It has no therapeutic effects on existing lesions or in healthy virus carriers. Practical questions remain to be resolved. If the vaccination is left to individual initiative and vaccination coverage is insufficient, there will be no perceptible reduction in the frequency of cervical cancer. Vaccination policies will not be identical in poor countries, where the disease represents one of the leading causes of mortality among women, and in the rich countries, where screening programs have considerably reduced the frequency of this cancer. Current planning calls for the introduction of systematic vaccination of young girls aged 9-15 years, with progressive "catch-up" vaccination of the cohorts of young women aged 16-26 years. Nonetheless mathematical models and immunogenicity results indicate a possible benefit for individual vaccination of adults. This approach must still be assessed in the clinical trials underway. Because the vaccine does not protect against all types of HPV associated with cervical cancer, screening must be continued according to the conditions currently set. Vaccination and screening, which are complementary and synergistic, now constitute the new standards for prevention of this disease. PMID:17350792

  3. Comparative immunogenicity and safety of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 vaccine and HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Mira; Levin, Myron J; Chatterjee, Archana; Fox, Bradley; Scholar, Sofia; Rosen, Jeffrey; Chakhtoura, Nahida; Meric, Dorothée; Dessy, Francis J; Datta, Sanjoy K; Descamps, Dominique; Dubin, Gary

    2011-01-01

    In this observer-blind study (NCT00423046), women (N = 1,106), stratified by age (18–26, 27–35, 36–45 y), were randomized (1:1) to receive the HPV-16/18 vaccine (Cervarix®, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Months 0, 1, 6) or the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (Gardasil® Merck and Co., Inc., Months 0, 2, 6). Month 7 results were previously reported; we now report Month 24 results. In the according-to-protocol cohort for immunogenicity (seronegative and DNA-negative at baseline for HPV type analyzed), seropositivity rates of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) [pseudovirion-based neutralization assay] were, across all age strata, 100% (HPV-16/18 vaccine) and 97.5–100% (HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine) for HPV-16, and 99.0–100% (HPV-16/18 vaccine) and 72.3–84.4% (HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine) for HPV-18. Corresponding geometric mean titers (GMTs) were 2.4–5.8-fold higher for HPV-16 and 7.7–9.4-fold higher for HPV-18 with the HPV-16/18 vaccine vs. the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine; HPV-16 and HPV-18 GMTs were significantly higher with the HPV-16/18 vaccine than the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (p < 0.0001) in the total vaccinated cohort (received ?1 vaccine dose, irrespective of baseline sero/DNA-status). Similar results were obtained using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA ). Positivity rates and GMTs of antigen-specific IgG antibodies in cervicovaginal secretions (ELISA) were not significantly different between vaccines. At Month 24, CD4+ T-cell responses for HPV-16 and HPV-18 were higher with the HPV-16/18 vaccine; memory B-cell response was higher for HPV-18 with the HPV-16/18 vaccine and similar between vaccines for HPV-16. Both vaccines were generally well tolerated. Although an immunological correlate of protection has not been defined, differences in the magnitude of immune response between vaccines may represent determinants of duration of protection. PMID:22048173

  4. HPV and HPV-associated diseases.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Eileen F; Park, Ina U

    2013-12-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection. HPV is associated with a significant burden of disease and cancer, including anogenital warts and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, and anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers. Effective prevention is available, including primary prevention of cancers and anogenital warts through HPV vaccination, and secondary prevention of cervical cancer through screening and treatment of precancer. This article focuses on HPV infection and the clinical consequences of infection, with attention to cervical and anogenital squamous intraepithelial neoplasia and anogenital warts. PMID:24275269

  5. Characterization of Human Papillomavirus Type 154 and Tissue Tropism of Gammapapillomaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Ure, Agustín Enrique; Forslund, Ola

    2014-01-01

    The novel human papillomavirus type 154 (HPV154) was characterized from a wart on the crena ani of a three-year-old boy. It was previously designated as the putative HPV type FADI3 by sequencing of a subgenomic FAP amplicon. We obtained the complete genome by combined methods including rolling circle amplification (RCA), genome walking through an adapted method for detection of integrated papillomavirus sequences by ligation-mediated PCR (DIPS-PCR), long-range PCR, and finally by cloning of four overlapping amplicons. Phylogenetically, the HPV154 genome clustered together with members of the proposed species Gammapapillomavirus 11, and demonstrated the highest identity in L1 to HPV136 (68.6%). The HPV154 was detected in 3% (2/62) of forehead skin swabs from healthy children. In addition, the different detection sites of 62 gammapapillomaviruses were summarized in order to analyze their tissue tropism. Several of these HPV types have been detected from multiple sources such as skin, oral, nasal, and genital sites, suggesting that the gammapapillomaviruses are generalists with a broader tissue tropism than previously appreciated. The study expands current knowledge concerning genetic diversity and tropism among HPV types in the rapidly growing gammapapillomavirus genus. PMID:24551244

  6. Characterization of human papillomavirus type 154 and tissue tropism of gammapapillomaviruses.

    PubMed

    Ure, Agustín Enrique; Forslund, Ola

    2014-01-01

    The novel human papillomavirus type 154 (HPV154) was characterized from a wart on the crena ani of a three-year-old boy. It was previously designated as the putative HPV type FADI3 by sequencing of a subgenomic FAP amplicon. We obtained the complete genome by combined methods including rolling circle amplification (RCA), genome walking through an adapted method for detection of integrated papillomavirus sequences by ligation-mediated PCR (DIPS-PCR), long-range PCR, and finally by cloning of four overlapping amplicons. Phylogenetically, the HPV154 genome clustered together with members of the proposed species Gammapapillomavirus 11, and demonstrated the highest identity in L1 to HPV136 (68.6%). The HPV154 was detected in 3% (2/62) of forehead skin swabs from healthy children. In addition, the different detection sites of 62 gammapapillomaviruses were summarized in order to analyze their tissue tropism. Several of these HPV types have been detected from multiple sources such as skin, oral, nasal, and genital sites, suggesting that the gammapapillomaviruses are generalists with a broader tissue tropism than previously appreciated. The study expands current knowledge concerning genetic diversity and tropism among HPV types in the rapidly growing gammapapillomavirus genus. PMID:24551244

  7. Serum Antibodies to Human Papillomavirus Type 6, 11, 16 and 18 and Their Role in the Natural History of HPV Infection in Men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beibei Lu

    2010-01-01

    Our understanding of humoral immune response to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been mainly derived from studies in women. Very little is known about humoral immune response to HPV in men. There is also a growing interest in understanding the burden of HPV exposure in the subgroups of the male population, including men who have sex with women (MSW), men

  8. Prevalence and distribution of high-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) types in invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix and in normal women in Andhra Pradesh, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Pavani Sowjanya; Meenkashi Jain; Usha Rani Poli; S Padma; Manik Das; Keerti V Shah; BN Rao; Radha Rama Devi; Patti E Gravitt; Gayatri Ramakrishna

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the high incidence of cervical cancer reported from India, large scale population based studies on the HPV prevalence and genotype distribution are very few from this region. In view of the clinical trials for HPV vaccine taking place in India, it is of utmost importance to understand the prevalence of HPV genotypes in various geographical regions of India.

  9. HPV and Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Anal cancer : About 91% are linked to HPV. Oropharyngeal cancers (cancers of the back of the throat, including ... Cancers Basic Information About Gynecologic Cancers HPV and Oropharyngeal Cancer - Fact Sheet Cervical Cancer Screening Guidelines [2 pages] ...

  10. Human papillomavirus DNA in genital cancers, metastases, and lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Beyer-Finkler, E; Girardi, F; Sillem, M; Pfister, H

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the utility of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA as molecular marker for diagnostic screening of lymph nodes for cancer metastases, we examined 16 involved and 124 histologically cancer-free nodes of 34 patients with cervical, vulval, or vaginal carcinomas associated with HPV 6, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, or X. All metastases of HPV-positive tumors contained viral DNA of the same type as the primary cancer but in one case the copy number of viral genomes was dramatically reduced. In a varying proportion of histologically normal nodes of 7 of 23 patients with HPV 16-positive cancers HPV 16 DNA was revealed by Southern blot hybridization and/or PCR. Histologic reevaluation showed a metastasis in one case. Three examples of tumor heterogeneity regarding physical state or copy number of viral DNA are presented. Tumor heterogeneity is discussed as possible explanation for apparently inconsistent results such as HPV-negative metastases of HPV-positive tumors. PMID:8682613

  11. Antiviral medication in sexually transmitted diseases. Part I: HSV, HPV.

    PubMed

    Mlynarczyk-Bonikowska, Beata; Majewska, Anna; Malejczyk, Magdalena; Mlynarczyk, Grazyna; Majewski, Slawomir

    2013-11-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in the world and important cause of morbidity and mortality. Especially STDs of viral etiology are difficult to cure. In many cases the antiviral therapy can relieve the symptoms but not eliminate the virus. During the past decades, considerable progress has been made in the development of antiviral drugs. One of the oldest antiviral medications is acyclovir (ACV). It is approved to treat initial and recurrent genital herpes and as a suppressive therapy in severe recurrent genital infections as well. Drug resistance to ACV and related drugs is seen among immunocompromised hosts, including human immunodeficiency virus HIV-infected patients. Resistant infections can be managed by second-line drugs - foscarnet or cidofovir- but they are more toxic than ACV. In case of HPV there is not known specific target for the medication and that is why the substances used in human papilloma virus HPV infection therapy are either antimitotics or immunomodulators. The Part I review focuses on mechanisms of actions and mechanisms of resistance to antiviral agents used in a treatment of the genital herpes and genital HPV infection. In Part II we will show the therapeutic options in other sexually transmitted infections: hepatitis B, C and HIV. PMID:24032509

  12. Phase I\\/II trial of immunogenicity of a human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 E7 protein–based vaccine in women with oncogenic HPV-positive cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sophie Hallez; Philippe Simon; Frédéric Maudoux; Jean Doyen; Jean-Christophe Noël; Aude Beliard; Xavier Capelle; Frédéric Buxant; Isabelle Fayt; Anne-Cécile Lagrost; Pascale Hubert; Colette Gerday; Arsène Burny; Jacques Boniver; Jean-Michel Foidart; Philippe Delvenne; Nathalie Jacobs

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) and HPV-16 in particular is a leading cause of anogenital neoplasia. High-grade intraepithelial lesions require treatment because of their potential to progress to invasive cancer. Numerous preclinical studies have demonstrated the therapeutic potential of E7-directed vaccination strategies in mice tumour models. In the present study, we tested the immunogenicity of a fusion protein

  13. Detection of Human Papillomavirus DNA in Genital Warts, Cervical Dysplasias and Neoplasias

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshimi Tomita; Koichi Kubota; Souei Sekiya; Hiroyoshi Takamizawa; Bunsiti Simizu

    1986-01-01

    Summary Biopsies from human genital lesions in Japan (108 samples), including condyloma acuminata, squamous metaplasia, dysplasia, and cervical cancer, were screened for the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) 6-, 11-, 16-, and 18-related DNAs by spot hybridization and Southern blot hybridization under stringent conditions. By spot hybridization, HPV 6\\/11-related DNA was found in 92.9% (13\\/14) of condyloma acuminata and in

  14. Persistent antibodies to HPV virus-like particles following natural infection are protective against subsequent cervicovaginal infection with related and unrelated HPV.

    PubMed

    Malik, Zainab A; Hailpern, Susan M; Burk, Robert D

    2009-12-01

    Whether persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) IgG antibodies following natural infection are protective against subsequent infection is unknown. In a cohort of 508 college women followed for 3 y, persistent seropositivity was defined as the presence of type-specific HPV virus-like particle (VLP) antibodies at > or = 2 consecutive visits 1 y apart. Protection from incident infection with any HPV was conferred by persistent antibodies to HPV16 (p = 0.02), HPV31 (p < 0.001), HPV33 (p = 0.03), HPV35 (p = 0.002), HPV52 (p = 0.007), HPV45 (p = 0.003), and HPV53 (p = 0.01). The risk of incident infection with species-specific HPV types was also decreased in women with persistent antibodies to any HPV type in that group, suggesting that exposure to HPV with persistent development of antibody response can be protective, and may explain the decreased efficacy of HPV vaccine in women with prior exposure. PMID:19951181

  15. Establishment of a Korea HPV cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won-Chul; Lee, Sae-Young; Koo, Yu Jin; Kim, Tae-Jin; Hur, Soo Young; Hong, Sung Ran; Kim, Sung Soon; Kee, Mee-Kyung; Rhee, Jee Eun; Lee, Joo Shil; Choi, Ho Sun; Cho, Chi Heum; Kim, Ki Tae

    2013-01-01

    We have designed a five-year multicentre prospective cohort study in women who are both human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive with either atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) of cervix. This study aimed to analyze the risk of developing a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) from either ASCUS or LSIL in HPV-positive women, so called 'progression' rate, to investigate differences in the progression rates according to HPV type-specific infection, and to evaluate the various factors associated with the persistence or clearance of HPV infection in the Korean population. At present, the study protocol composed of cervical cytology, HPV DNA testing, and questionnaire have been conducted actively since the first participant was enrolled in 2010. This study is the first nationwide Korea HPV cohort study. Our data will provide valuable information about not only the ambiguous cytology results of ASCUS and LSIL but also the effect of the specific HPV type and other various factors on the progression to HSIL. Finally, the results of our study will be helpful and applicable to determine the primary cervical cancer prevention strategies. PMID:23346315

  16. Parents' knowledge, risk perception and willingness to allow young males to receive human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Muhwezi, Wilson Winstons; Banura, Cecily; Turiho, Andrew Kampikaho; Mirembe, Florence

    2014-01-01

    The Ministry of Health in Uganda in collaboration with the Program for Appropriate Technology for Health (PATH) supported by Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation in 2008-2009 vaccinated approximately 10,000 girls with the bivalent humanpapilloma virus (HPV) vaccine. We assessed parent's knowledge, risk perception and willingness to allow son(s) to receive HPV vaccines in future through a cross-sectional survey of secondary school boys aged 10-23 years in 4 districts. 377 questionnaires were distributed per district and 870 were used in analysis. Parents that had ever heard about cervical cancer and HPV vaccines; those who would allow daughter(s) to be given the vaccine and those who thought that HPV infection was associated with genital warts were more willing to allow son(s) to receive the HPV vaccine. Unwilling parents considered HPV vaccination of boys unimportant (p = 0.003), believed that only females should receive the vaccine (p = 0.006), thought their son(s) couldn't contract HPV (p = 0.010), didn't know about HPV sexual transmissibility (p = 0.002), knew that males could not acquire HPV (p = 0.000) and never believed that the HPV vaccines could protect against HPV (p = 0.000). Acceptance of HPV vaccination of daughters and likelihood of recommending HPV vaccines to son(s) of friends and relatives predicted parental willingness to allow sons to receive HPV vaccines. Probable HPV vaccination of boys is a viable complement to that of girls. Successfulness of HPV vaccination relies on parental acceptability and sustained sensitization about usefulness of HPV vaccines even for boys is vital. PMID:25203053

  17. Parents' Knowledge, Risk Perception and Willingness to Allow Young Males to Receive Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Muhwezi, Wilson Winstons; Banura, Cecily; Turiho, Andrew Kampikaho; Mirembe, Florence

    2014-01-01

    The Ministry of Health in Uganda in collaboration with the Program for Appropriate Technology for Health (PATH) supported by Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation in 2008–2009 vaccinated approximately 10,000 girls with the bivalent humanpapilloma virus (HPV) vaccine. We assessed parent's knowledge, risk perception and willingness to allow son(s) to receive HPV vaccines in future through a cross-sectional survey of secondary school boys aged 10–23 years in 4 districts. 377 questionnaires were distributed per district and 870 were used in analysis. Parents that had ever heard about cervical cancer and HPV vaccines; those who would allow daughter(s) to be given the vaccine and those who thought that HPV infection was associated with genital warts were more willing to allow son(s) to receive the HPV vaccine. Unwilling parents considered HPV vaccination of boys unimportant (p?=?0.003), believed that only females should receive the vaccine (p?=?0.006), thought their son(s) couldn't contract HPV (p?=?0.010), didn't know about HPV sexual transmissibility (p?=?0.002), knew that males could not acquire HPV (p?=?0.000) and never believed that the HPV vaccines could protect against HPV (p?=?0.000). Acceptance of HPV vaccination of daughters and likelihood of recommending HPV vaccines to son(s) of friends and relatives predicted parental willingness to allow sons to receive HPV vaccines. Probable HPV vaccination of boys is a viable complement to that of girls. Successfulness of HPV vaccination relies on parental acceptability and sustained sensitization about usefulness of HPV vaccines even for boys is vital. PMID:25203053

  18. The quality of life of patients with genital warts: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Genital warts, which are caused by infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), are one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in Europe. Although genital warts are commonly perceived as a non-serious condition, treatment is often long, of varying effectiveness and the recurrence rate is high. Very few studies have been performed on the personal consequences of genital warts. The aim of this qualitative study, set in Denmark, was to examine the ways in which genital warts may affect patients' quality of life. Methods To obtain an in-depth understanding of patients' perceptions of genital warts, we used qualitative focus-group interviews with five men and five women aged between 18 and 30 years who had genital warts. The interview guide was based on a literature review that identified important issues and questions. The data were analysed using a medical anthropological approach. Results Patients' experiences were related to cultural conceptions of venereal diseases and the respective identities and sexuality of the sexes. The disease had negative psychological and social effects both for men and for women and it affected their sex and love lives, in particular. The psychological burden of the disease was increased by the uncertain timeline and the varying effectiveness of treatment. We identified a need for more patient information about the disease and its psycho-sexual aspects. Conclusions The men and women participating in this study considered their quality of life to be significantly lowered because of genital warts. The experiences described by the participants give insights that may be valuable in treatment and counselling. The quadrivalent HPV vaccine that has now been added to the childhood vaccination programme for girls in Denmark for the prevention of cervical cancer can also prevent 90% of cases of genital warts. Our results suggest that HPV vaccination could considerably reduce the largely unacknowledged psychological and social burden associated with genital warts, in men as well as women. PMID:20205944

  19. Biology of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and their role in squamous cell carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Syrjänen, K J

    1987-01-01

    Current data implicating the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in squamous cell carcinogenesis may be summarised as follows: animal models have shown that PVs can induce malignant transformation; HPV involvement in both benign and malignant human squamous cell tumours has been demonstrated by morphological, immunohistochemical and DNA hybridisation techniques; HPV infections in the genital tract are venereally transmitted and are associated with the same risk factors as cervical carcinoma; the natural history of cervical HPV lesions is similar to that of CIN, namely, they have the potential to develop into carcinoma in situ; malignant transformation of PV-induced lesions seems to depend on virus type and the physical state of its DNA, e.g., whether or not it is integrated in the host cell DNA; malignant transformation most probably requires synergistic actions between the PVs and chemical or physical carcinogens, or other infectious agents; genetic disposition (at least in animals) significantly contributes to malignant transformation; immunological defence mechanisms of the host are probably capable of modifying the course of PV infections (efficacy in man remains to be elucidated). Many details of the molecular mechanisms, however, still remain to be clarified. Although BPV1 is capable of transforming fibroblasts, the way that papillomaviruses transform epithelial cells is unclear. Which gene is capable of inducing the limited cell proliferation in benign lesions? No model systems exist to provide the answer nor to elucidate the progression to malignant cells and then to invasive cancer. Improved tissue culture systems for in vitro differentiation of keratinocytes should help in elucidating the biology of papillomaviruses and their interaction with cell division and differentiation. PMID:3039265

  20. Interleukin12 (IL12) and IL18 Are Important in Innate Defense against Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Infection in Mice but Are Not Required for the Development of Acquired Gamma Interferon-Mediated Protective Immunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALI M. HARANDI; BO SVENNERHOLM; JAN HOLMGREN; KRISTINA ERIKSSON

    2001-01-01

    Using a combination of gene-targeted mice and neutralizing antibodies, we showed that interleukin-12 (IL-12) and IL-18 are important in the innate control of genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection but were not found to be critical, either singly or in combination, for the development of a protective gamma interferon- mediated immune response.

  1. A Pan-HPV Vaccine Based on Bacteriophage PP7 VLPs Displaying Broadly Cross-Neutralizing Epitopes from the HPV Minor Capsid Protein, L2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ebenezer Tumban; Julianne Peabody; David S. Peabody; Bryce Chackerian

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundCurrent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines that are based on virus-like particles (VLPs) of the major capsid protein L1 largely elicit HPV type-specific antibody responses. In contrast, immunization with the HPV minor capsid protein L2 elicits antibodies that are broadly cross-neutralizing, suggesting that a vaccine targeting L2 could provide more comprehensive protection against infection by diverse HPV types. However, L2-based immunogens

  2. An overview on the implementation of HPV vaccination in Europe.

    PubMed

    Bonanni, Paolo; Levi, Miriam; Latham, Nina B; Bechini, Angela; Tiscione, Emilia; Lai, Piero; Panatto, Donatella; Gasparini, Roberto; Boccalini, Sara

    2011-01-01

    The discovery that the Human PapillomaVirus (HPV) is the necessary cause of cervical cancer has led to the development of prophylactic vaccines. Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of death from cancer among young women in Europe: mortality is still high, despite its important reduction due to screening programs for early detection. Besides cervical cancer, HPV is responsible for a significant proportion of other anogenital cancers and an increasing number of oropharyngeal cancers, representing together an at least equal burden compared to cervical cancer. HPV is also responsible for conditions such as condyloma acuminata (genital warts) and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. Organized vaccination programs against HPV have the potential to prevent about 70% of cervical cancers and the vast majority of the other HPV-related conditions. Recommendations for HPV vaccination of at least one cohort of females have been issued in nearly all western European countries, and national/regional publicly funded vaccination programs have been introduced in most of them. Different approaches have been chosen for the implementation of HPV vaccination, based on the organization of each country's health care system. A brief outline of these programs in Europe is presented. As for all preventive public health interventions, high coverage of the target population with HPV vaccines pre-exposure is essential to achieve maximum reduction of cases: therefore, in order to obtain the maximum and most equitable coverage and future benefit, programs targeting adolescents before exposure to HPV should be preferred and population-based. Catch-up programs should also be implemented wherever possible, in order to deliver more and even earlier benefits, and effective communication strategies need to be adopted. PMID:21245659

  3. Modeling the long-term antibody response of a human papillomavirus (HPV) virus-like particle (VLP) type 16 prophylactic vaccine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christophe Fraser; Joanne E. Tomassini; Liwen Xi; Greg Golm; Michael Watson; Anna R. Giuliano; Eliav Barr; Kevin A. Ault

    2007-01-01

    The duration over which antibody responses persist following HPV vaccination is unknown. To estimate the longevity of responses induced by HPV-16 vaccination, two models were fitted to serum anti-HPV-16 levels measured during a 48-month study period. The first was a conventional model of antibody decay and the second was a modified model that accounts for long-lived immune memory. Using the

  4. Are 20 human papillomavirus types causing cervical cancer?

    PubMed

    Arbyn, Marc; Tommasino, Massimo; Depuydt, Christophe; Dillner, Joakim

    2014-12-01

    In 2012, the International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that there was consistent and sufficient epidemiological, experimental and mechanistic evidence of carcinogenicity to humans for 12 HPV types (HPV16, HPV18, HPV31, HPV33, HPV35, HPV39, HPV45, HPV51, HPV52, HPV56, HPV58 and HPV59) for cervical cancer. Therefore, these types were considered as 1A carcinogens. They all belong to the family of the ?-Papillomaviridae, in particular to the species ?5 (HPV51), ?6 (HPV56), ?7 (HPV18, HPV39, HPV45, HPV59) and ?9 (HPV16, HPV31, HPV33, HPV35, HPV52, HPV58). Less evidence is available for a thirteenth type (HPV68, ?7), which is classified as a 2A carcinogen (probably carcinogenic). Moreover, seven other phylogenetically related types (HPV26, HPV53, HPV66, HPV67, HPV68, HPV70 and HPV73) were identified as single HPV infections in certain rare cases of cervical cancer and were considered possibly carcinogenic (2B carcinogens). Recently, Halec et al [7] demonstrated that the molecular signature of HPV-induced carcinogenesis (presence of type-specific spliced E6*| mRNA; increased expression of p16; and decreased expression of cyclin D1, p53 and Rb) was similar in cervical cancers containing single infections with one of the eight afore-mentioned 2A or 2B carcinogens to those in cancers with single infections with group 1 carcinogens. Ninety six percent of cervical cancers are attributable to one of the 13 most common HPV types (groups 1 and 2A). Including the additional seven HPV types (group 2B) added 2.6%, to reach a total of 98.7% of all HPV-positive cervical cancers. From recently updated meta-analyses, it was shown that HPV68, HPV26, HPV66, HPV67, HPV73 and HPV82 were significantly more common in cancer cases than in women with normal cervical cytology, suggesting that for these HPV types, an upgrading of the carcinogen classification could be considered. However, there is no need to include them in HPV screening tests or vaccines, given their rarity in cervical cancers. PMID:25124771

  5. HPV16/18 L1 VLP vaccine induces cross-neutralizing antibodies that may mediate cross-protection.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Troy J; Hildesheim, Allan; Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Dauner, Joseph G; Pan, Yuanji; Porras, Carolina; Schiller, John T; Lowy, Douglas R; Herrero, Rolando; Pinto, Ligia A

    2011-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 VLP-based vaccines are protective against HPV vaccine-related types; however, the correlates of protection have not been defined. We observed that vaccination with Cervarix™ induced cross-neutralizing antibodies for HPV types for which evidence of vaccine efficacy has been demonstrated (HPV31/45) but not for other types (HPV52/58). In addition, HPV31/45 cross-neutralizing titers showed a significant increase with number of doses (HPV31, p<0.001; HPV45, p<0.001) and correlated with HPV16/18 neutralizing titers, respectively. These findings raise the possibility that cross-neutralizing antibodies are effectors of cross-protection observed for the HPV16/18 vaccine. PMID:21241731

  6. Transcriptional regulatory elements in the noncoding region of human papillomavirus type 6

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Tzyy-Choou.

    1989-01-01

    The structure and function of the transcriptional regulatory region of human papillomavirus type 6 (HPV-6) has been investigated. To investigate tissue specific gene expression, a sensitive method to detect and localize HPV-6 viral DNA, mRNA and protein in plastic-embedded tissue sections of genital and respiratory tract papillomata by using in situ hybridization and immunoperoxidase assays has been developed. This method, using ultrathin sections and strand-specific {sup 3}H labeled riboprobes, offers the advantages of superior morphological preservation and detection of viral genomes at low copy number with good resolution, and the modified immunocytochemistry provides better sensitivity. The results suggest that genital tract epithelium is more permissive for HPV-6 replication than respiratory tract epithelium. To study the tissue tropism of HPV-6 at the level of regulation of viral gene expression, the polymerase chain reaction was used to isolate the noncoding region (NCR) of HPV-6 in independent isolates. Nucleotide sequence analysis of molecularly cloned DNA identified base substitutions, deletions/insertions and tandem duplications. Transcriptional regulatory elements in the NCR were assayed in recombinant plasmids containing the bacterial gene for chloramphenicol acetyl transferase.

  7. Acceptability of HPV Vaccine for Males and Preferences for Future Education Programs Among Appalachian Residents

    PubMed Central

    Reiter, Paul L.; Oldach, Benjamin R.; Randle, Katherine E.; Katz, Mira L.

    2014-01-01

    Appalachia is a geographic region with several disparities related to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, yet little is known about acceptability of HPV vaccine for males among Appalachian residents. HPV vaccine acceptability and preferences for future HPV vaccine education programs were examined among residents of Appalachian Ohio. Focus groups and in-depth interviews were conducted with Appalachian Ohio residents between July and October 2011. Participants (n = 102 from 24 focus groups and 5 in-depth interviews) included four key stakeholder groups: health care providers, community leaders, parents with adolescent sons, and young adult men ages 18 to 26 years. Support for vaccinating males against HPV was high among participants, despite low awareness and knowledge about HPV vaccine for males. Participants reported three categories of potential barriers to vaccinating males against HPV: concerns about vaccine safety and side effects, access to care and vaccination logistics, and gender and cultural issues. Participants reported that HPV vaccine was viewed as being only for females in their communities and that receiving the vaccine may be emasculating or embarrassing to males. Participants suggested that future HPV vaccine education programs mainly target parents, include basic information about HPV-related diseases and HPV vaccine (e.g., number of doses, cost), and present the vaccine as having the potential to prevent cancer (as opposed to preventing genital warts). Acceptability of HPV vaccine for males was high among residents of Appalachian Ohio. Future HPV vaccine education programs in Appalachia should address common potential barriers to vaccination and help destigmatize vaccination among males. PMID:24085197

  8. Acceptability of HPV vaccine for males and preferences for future education programs among Appalachian residents.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Paul L; Oldach, Benjamin R; Randle, Katherine E; Katz, Mira L

    2014-03-01

    Appalachia is a geographic region with several disparities related to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, yet little is known about acceptability of HPV vaccine for males among Appalachian residents. HPV vaccine acceptability and preferences for future HPV vaccine education programs were examined among residents of Appalachian Ohio. Focus groups and in-depth interviews were conducted with Appalachian Ohio residents between July and October 2011. Participants (n = 102 from 24 focus groups and 5 in-depth interviews) included four key stakeholder groups: health care providers, community leaders, parents with adolescent sons, and young adult men ages 18 to 26 years. Support for vaccinating males against HPV was high among participants, despite low awareness and knowledge about HPV vaccine for males. Participants reported three categories of potential barriers to vaccinating males against HPV: concerns about vaccine safety and side effects, access to care and vaccination logistics, and gender and cultural issues. Participants reported that HPV vaccine was viewed as being only for females in their communities and that receiving the vaccine may be emasculating or embarrassing to males. Participants suggested that future HPV vaccine education programs mainly target parents, include basic information about HPV-related diseases and HPV vaccine (e.g., number of doses, cost), and present the vaccine as having the potential to prevent cancer (as opposed to preventing genital warts). Acceptability of HPV vaccine for males was high among residents of Appalachian Ohio. Future HPV vaccine education programs in Appalachia should address common potential barriers to vaccination and help destigmatize vaccination among males. PMID:24085197

  9. Fewer doses of HPV vaccine result in immune response similar to three-dose regimen

    Cancer.gov

    NCI scientists report that two doses of a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, trademarked as Cervarix, resulted in similar serum antibody levels against two of the most carcinogenic types of HPV (16 and 18), compared to a standard three dose regimen.

  10. Association of HIV infection with distribution and viral load of HPV types in Kenya: a survey with 820 female sex workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Davy Vanden Broeck; Matthew F Chersich; Annalene Nel; Wim Delva; Kishor Mandaliya; Christophe E Depuydt; Patricia Claeys; John-Paul Bogers; Marleen Temmerman

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) and HIV are each responsible for a considerable burden of disease. Interactions between these infections pose substantial public health challenges, especially where HIV prevalence is high and HPV vaccine coverage low. METHODS: Between July 2005 and January 2006, a cross-sectional community-based survey in Mombasa, Kenya, enrolled female sex workers using snowball sampling. After interview and a

  11. Detection of immunoglobulin M antibodies to glycoprotein G-2 by western blot (immunoblot) for diagnosis of initial herpes simplex virus type 2 genital infections.

    PubMed Central

    Ho, D W; Field, P R; Irving, W L; Packham, D R; Cunningham, A L

    1993-01-01

    Western blots (immunoblots) for the detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies specific for herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 in patients' sera were developed. The locations of the type-specific glycoprotein G (gpG-2) of HSV-2 (92- and 140-kDa forms) and glycoprotein C of HSV-1 (gpC-1), which carries mostly type-specific antigenic epitopes, were checked with specific monoclonal antibodies. Western blot assays for IgM antibody to gpC-1 or gpG-2 were performed after depletion of IgG by precipitation with anti-human IgG. In patients with primary HSV-2 genital infections, seroconversion of IgM and IgG antibodies to both the 92- and 140-kDa forms of gpG-2 was observed, although both antibodies appeared in convalescent-phase serum after the first week. IgM and IgG antibodies to low-molecular-size polypeptides (40 to 65 kDa) were the first antibodies observed in patients with primary infection, but these antibodies were cross-reactive with HSV-1 and HSV-2. However, in patients with recurrent HSV-2 infections, IgG antibodies to both forms of gpG-2 and the low-molecular-size polypeptides were found no matter how early after onset the patient was bled, and IgM to gpG-2 did not appear. In patients with nonprimary initial genital HSV-2 infections, IgG antibody to HSV-1 was demonstrated in the first serum specimen, and HSV-2-specific IgM was found in 39% of the serum specimens. Hence, the Western blot assay can be used to test for IgM antibody to gpG-2, allowing for the retrospective diagnosis of inital HSV-2 infections and its use as a supplementary test to the gpG-2 IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays developed elsewhere. In contrast, IgM antibody to gpG-2 is not usually detected in patients with recurrent HSV-2 infections. Images PMID:7508453

  12. Control of HPV infection and related cancer through vaccination.

    PubMed

    Tran, Nam Phuong; Hung, Chien-Fu; Roden, Richard; Wu, T-C

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV), the most common sexually transmitted virus, and its associated diseases continue to cause significant morbidity and mortality in over 600 million infected individuals. Major progress has been made with preventative vaccines, and clinical data have emerged regarding the efficacy and cross-reactivity of the two FDA approved L1 virus like particle (VLP)-based vaccines. However, the cost of the approved vaccines currently limits their widespread use in developing countries which carry the greatest burden of HPV-associated diseases. Furthermore, the licensed preventive HPV vaccines only contain two high-risk types of HPV (HPV-16 and HPV-18) which can protect only up to 75 % of all cervical cancers. Thus, second generation preventative vaccine candidates hope to address the issues of cost and broaden protection through the use of more multivalent L1-VLPs, vaccine formulations, or alternative antigens such as L1 capsomers, L2 capsid proteins, and chimeric VLPs. Preventative vaccines are crucial to controlling the transmission of HPV, but there are already hundreds of millions of infected individuals who have HPV-associated lesions that are silently progressing toward malignancy. This raises the need for therapeutic HPV vaccines that can trigger T cell killing of established HPV lesions, including HPV-transformed tumor cells. In order to stimulate such antitumor immune responses, therapeutic vaccine candidates deliver HPV antigens in vivo by employing various bacterial, viral, protein, peptide, dendritic cell, and DNA-based vectors. This book chapter will review the commercially available preventive vaccines, present second generation candidates, and discuss the progress of developing therapeutic HPV vaccines. PMID:24008298

  13. Dietary intake and risk of persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection: the Ludwig-McGill HPV Natural History Study.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, Anna R; Siegel, Erin M; Roe, Denise J; Ferreira, Silvandeiede; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Galan, Lenice; Duarte-Franco, Eliane; Villa, Luisa L; Rohan, Thomas E; Marshall, James R; Franco, Eduardo L

    2003-11-15

    The association between dietary intake and persistence of type-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, during a 12-month period, among 433 women participating in the Ludwig-McGill HPV Natural History Study was evaluated by use of a nested case-control design. Dietary intake was assessed by a food-frequency questionnaire at the month-4 visit. HPV status was assessed at months 0, 4, 8, and 12 by polymerase chain reaction (MY09/11). Only women who ever tested positive for HPV were included in the present study: 248 had transient HPV infections (1 of 4 positive tests or nonconsecutively positive), and 185 had persistent HPV infections (> or =2 consecutive tests positive for the same HPV type). Risk of type-specific, persistent HPV infection was lower among women reporting intake values of beta-cryptoxanthin and lutein/zeaxanthin in the upper 2 quartiles and intake values of vitamin C in the upper quartile, compared with those reporting intake in the lowest quartile. Consumption of papaya > or =1 time/week was inversely associated with persistent HPV infection. PMID:14624376

  14. Male genital modification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raven Rowanchilde

    1996-01-01

    By modifying the body in meaningful ways, human beings establish their identity and social status. Lip plugs, ear plugs, penis\\u000a sheaths, cosmetics, ornaments, scarification, body piercings, and genital modifications encode and transmit messages about\\u000a age, sex, social status, health, and attractiveness from one individual to another. Through sociocultural sexual selection,\\u000a male genital modification plays an important role as a sociosexual

  15. Anal, Penile, and Oral High-Risk HPV Infections and HPV Seropositivity in HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Mollers, Madelief; Snijders, Peter J. F.; Speksnijder, Arjen G. C. L.; King, Audrey J.; de Vries, Henry J. C.; van Eeden, Arne; van der Klis, Fiona R. M.; de Melker, Hester E.; van der Sande, Marianne A. B.; van der Loeff, Maarten F. Schim

    2014-01-01

    The effects of single or multiple concordant HPV infections at various anatomical sites on type-specific HPV seropositivity are currently unknown. In this cross-sectional study we assessed whether high-risk HPV infections at various anatomical sites (i.e., anal canal, penile shaft, and oral cavity), as well as concordant infections at multiple anatomical sites, were associated with type-specific seropositivity in HIV-positive and HIV-negative MSM. MSM aged ?18 years were recruited in Amsterdam, the Netherlands (2010–2011). Baseline anal, penile, and oral samples were analyzed for HPV DNA and genotyped using a highly sensitive PCR and reverse line blot assay. Virus-like particle (VLP) based multiplex immunoassay was used to asses HPV-specific serum antibodies against L1 VLPs. The associations between HPV infections and type-specific seropositivity of seven high-risk HPV types (7-hrHPV: types 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58) were estimated using logistic regression analyses with generalized estimating equations. We found that 86% of 306 HIV-positive MSM and 62% of 441 HIV-negative MSM were seropositive for at least one 7-hrHPV type. 69% of HIV-positive and 41% of HIV-negative MSM were infected with at least one 7-hrHPV type at the anus, penis, or oral cavity. In multivariable analyses, 7-hrHPV seropositivity was associated with type-specific anal (and not penile) 7-hrHPV infection, and did not significantly increase with a higher number of infected anatomical sites. Oral 7-hrHPV infection showed a positive, albeit non-significant, association with seropositivity. In conclusion, seropositivity among MSM appears to be largely associated with anal HPV infection, irrespective of additionally infected anatomical sites. PMID:24651691

  16. Proteomic analysis of oropharyngeal carcinomas reveals novel HPV-associated biological pathways

    PubMed Central

    Slebos, Robbert J.C.; Jehmlich, Nico; Brown, Brandee; Yin, Zhirong; Chung, Christine H.; Yarbrough, Wendell G.; Liebler, Daniel C

    2012-01-01

    Oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC) can be classified into two equally prevalent sub-types depending on the presence of Human Papillomavirus (HPV). Patients with HPV-positive (HPV+) OPC represent a unique cohort with a distinct tumor biology and clinical behavior compared to HPV-negative (HPV-) OPC. Genetic studies have demonstrated chromosomal and gene expression changes associated with distinct sub-classes of OPC, although the proteomic consequences of HPV infection are not known. We analyzed sets of 10 HPV+ and 10 HPV? OPCs, and 10 normal adult oral epithelia using a standardized global proteomic analysis platform. This analysis yielded a total of 2,653 confidently identified proteins from which we chose 31 proteins on the basis of expression differences between HPV+, HPV? and normal epithelium for targeted protein quantiation. Analysis of differentially expressed proteins by HPV status revealed enrichment of proteins involved epithelial cell development, keratinization, and extracellular matrix organization in HPV? OPC while enrichment of proteins in DNA initiation and replication and cell cycle control was found for HPV+ OPC. Enrichment analysis for transcription factor targets identified transcription factors E2F1 and E2F4 to be highly expressed in HPV+ OPC. We also found high expression of argininosuccinate synthase 1 (ASS1) in HPV+ OPC suggesting HPV+ OPC is more dependent on conditionally essential amino acid, arginine, and this was confirmed on a OPC-specific tissue microarray. These identified proteomic changes reveal novel driving molecular pathways for HPV+ and HPV? OPC that may be pertinent in therapeutic strategies and outcomes of OPC. PMID:22733545

  17. Epidemiology of genital herpes simplex virus infection.

    PubMed

    Guinan, M E; Wolinsky, S M; Reichman, R C

    1985-01-01

    This paper offers a comprehensive review of the literature on the epidemiology of genital herpes simplex virus infection. Topics covered include its microbiology, immunology, incidence, prevalence, pathogenesis and clinical course, diagnosis, treatment, transmission, prevention, and effect on pregnancy outcome. The prevalence of genital herpes is estimated at 20 million persons in the US, about 25% of whom are symptomatic. Determination of the actual incidence and prevalence of genital herpes requires the availability of methods able to distinguish precisely between type 1 and type 2 antibody. Indirect evidence suggests an increasing incidence of the disease over the past 15 years. Asymptomatic infected persons may shed virus in the absence of lesions and thus transmit genital herpes to their sexual partners. Of particular concern is vertical transmission of virus from the maternal genital tract to newborns. In the majority of documented cases of neonatal herpes, the mothers were asymptomatic at the time of delivery. Because of the severe morbidity and mortality associated with neonatal herpes infection, studies are urgently needed to identify risk factors for vertical transmission and to design and test appropriate preventive intervention strategies. At present, treatment of genital herpes is limited to palliative therapy. No known antiviral agent either prevents or eliminates viral latency, although vaccines are under development for primary prevention. The role of contraceptive practice in the prevention of genital herpes infection is unclear. Although theoretically plausible, the efficacy of barrier methods in decreasing the risk of acquiring or transmitting infection has not yet been demonstrated. Virus may be present in areas not covered by condoms. Use of a spermicidal cream or jelly with a diaphragm may reduce the risk of virus infection and transmissions, but, again, this method cannot protect from virus transmission to or from the external genitalia. PMID:2996917

  18. Genome-wide gene expression profiles of HPV-positive and HPV-negative oropharyngeal cancer: potential implications for treatment choices

    PubMed Central

    Lohavanichbutr, Pawadee; Houck, John; Fan, Wenhong; Yueh, Bevan; Mendez, Eduardo; Futran, Neal; Doody, David R.; Upton, Melissa P.; Farwell, D. Gregory; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Zhao, Lue Ping; Chen, Chu

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the difference in gene expression between human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive and HPV-negative oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Design We used Affymetrix U133 plus 2.0 arrays to examine gene expression profiles of OSCC and normal oral tissue. HPV DNA was detected using PCR followed by the Roche Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test, and the differentially expressed genes were analyzed to examine their potential biological roles using the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis Software (IPA 5.0). Subjects Tumor tissue from 119 primary OSCC patients and normal oral tissue from 35 patients without cancer, all of whom were treated at three University of Washington-affiliated medical centers. Results HPV DNA was found in 41 of 119 (34.5%) tumors and 2 of 35 (5.7%) normal tissue samples, with 39 of 43 HPV being HPV type 16; there was a higher prevalence of HPV DNA in oropharyngeal cancer (23 of 31) than in oral cavity cancer (18 of 88). We found no significant difference in gene expression between HPV-positive and HPV-negative oral cavity cancer but found 446 probe sets (347 known genes) differentially expressed between HPV-positive and HPV-negative oropharyngeal cancer. The most prominent functions of these genes are DNA replication, DNA repair, and cell cycle. Some genes differentially expressed between HPV-positive and HPV-negative oropharyngeal cancer (e.g., TYMS, STMN1, CCND1 and RBBP4) are involved in chemotherapy or radiation sensitivity. Conclusion These results suggest that differences in the biology of HPV-positive and HPV-negative oropharyngeal cancer may have implications for the management of patients with these different tumors. PMID:19221247

  19. Evaluation of a radionovela to promote HPV vaccine awareness and knowledge among Hispanic parents.

    PubMed

    Kepka, Deanna; Coronado, Gloria D; Rodriguez, Hector P; Thompson, Beti

    2011-12-01

    Hispanic women have more than a 1.5-fold increased cervical cancer incidence and mortality compared to non-Hispanic white women in the United States. The Centers for Disease Control recommends the HPV vaccine for females at ages 11 and 12 years, though it is approved for females aged 9-26 to protect against the primary types of high-risk HPV (HPV-16 and HPV-18) that cause approximately 70% of cervical cancer cases. Few culturally-tailored Spanish HPV vaccine awareness programs have been developed. This study evaluates the efficacy of a Spanish radionovela as an educational tool. Rural Hispanic parents of daughters aged 9-17 (n = 88; 78 mothers and 10 fathers) were randomized to listen to the HPV vaccine radionovela or to another public service announcement. Participants completed a 30 min pretest posttest questionnaire. Parents who listened to the HPV radionovela (intervention group) scored higher on six knowledge and belief items. They were more likely to confirm that HPV is a common infection (70% vs. 48%, P = .002), to deny that women are able to detect HPV (53% vs. 31%, P = .003), to know vaccine age recommendations (87% vs. 68%, P = .003), and to confirm multiple doses (48% vs. 26%, P = .03) than control group parents. The HPV vaccine radionovela improved HPV and HPV vaccine knowledge and attitudes. Radionovela health education may be an efficacious strategy to increase HPV vaccine awareness among Hispanic parents. PMID:21452030

  20. HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For ... test. Can I prevent HPV? FDA has approved vaccines that prevent certain diseases, including cervical cancer, caused ...

  1. What is the significance of the HPV epidemic?

    PubMed

    Anorlu, Rose I

    2008-02-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection. The incidence of this infection has been on the rise in recent times. It is estimated that approximately 6 million new HPV infections are acquired each year in the United States alone, and prevalence data suggest that as many as 24 million American adults--that is, 1 in 5--may be infected with HPV. Unfortunately, there is little public awareness and knowledge about the infection and its sequelae. It is well known that more than 90% of cases of anogenital warts are caused by HPV. HPV has been implicated in cancers of the cervix, vulva, vagina, penis, anus, and oropharynx. The virus is a necessary cause of cervical cancer. HPV DNA is detected in almost 100% of cases of cervical cancer. There have been major strides in recent years in the prevention of this infection and consequently, of diseases related to it. Vaccines are available and licensed in some countries. Two HPV vaccines are available: a quadrivalent (HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18) vaccine and a bivalent (HPV types 16 and 18) vaccine. Both vaccines show a more than 90% protection against persistent HPV infection for up to 5 years after vaccination. The role of the vaccine in males is still controversial. The vaccination cost, however, is beyond the reach of many individuals in developing countries where 80% of cervical cancer cases of are found. Many countries in Africa are battling with HIV, malaria, tuberculosis, maternal mortality, and childhood illness. Nevertheless, with increased awareness, political will, and engagement by pharmaceutical countries, HPV vaccines may become affordable in these countries. PMID:18304395

  2. Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis of the vulva associated with basal cell carcinoma in a patient with vaginal condyloma acuminatum and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia harboring HPV, type 42.

    PubMed

    Kacerovská, Denisa; Michal, Michal; Kašpírková, Jana; Kazakov, Dmitry V

    2014-04-01

    The occurrence of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the vulva is rare. We report the case of a 79-year-old woman with a medical history of intravaginal condyloma acuminatum and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia 3 (VaIN 3) who presented with a solitary whitish lesion sized 8x5 mm with a central desquamation located on the right labium majus. Histopathologic examination revealed a typical superficial and nodular BCC. Additionally, there were multiple remarkable foci of epidermolytic hyperkeratosis (EH). These foci both merged with superficial BCC or were sharply demarcated from the tumor. Retrospective molecular-biological examination of all the available material revealed HPV type 42 in both condyloma acuminatum and VaIN 3 specimen but not in the BCC associated with EH. To our best knowledge, involvement of the lower female genitalia by EH is a rare finding with six cases published to date. Awareness of EH in this location and its distinction is important because it may be potentially misinterpreted as a viral condyloma. PMID:24758505

  3. Genital herpes - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... likely worried after finding out that you have genital herpes . But know that you are not alone. Millions ... carry the virus. Although there is no cure, genital herpes can be treated. Follow your health care provider’s ...

  4. Baseline characteristics and prevalence of HPV 6, 11, 16, 18 in young German women participating in phase III clinical trials of a quadrivalent HPV (6\\/11\\/16\\/18) vaccine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisabeth Barthell; Linn Woelber; Karin Hellner; Birka Camerer; Friederike Gieseking; Maik Hauschild; Ioannis Mylonas; Klaus Friese; Heather L. Sings; Radha Railkar; Christine Gause; Eliav Barr

    2009-01-01

    Introduction  As limited data among German women exist about HPV, Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, we report the prevalence of these genital infections and general baseline demographics of the young German women enrolled\\u000a in the phase III trials of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  German females (n = 437; 9–23 years) were recruited among 3 international phase 3 studies of an HPV-6\\/11\\/16\\/18

  5. Frequent Display of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E6-specific Memory T-Helper Cells in the Healthy Population as Witness of Previous Viral Encounter1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marij J. P. Welters; Annemieke de Jong; Susan J. F. van den Eeden; Jeanette M. van der Hulst; Kitty M. C. Kwappenberg; Sabrin Hassane; Kees L. M. C. Franken; Jan Wouter Drijfhout; Gert Jan Fleuren; Gemma Kenter; Cornelis J. M. Melief; Rienk Offringa; Sjoerd H. van der Burg

    2003-01-01

    Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is common and the majority of infected individuals successfully deal with this virus. Clear- ance of HPV is presumably mediated by T cells but HPV-16-specific T-cell memory was usually detected in patients with progressive disease and not in healthy subjects, suggesting that HPV-immunity comes too late. We now show the presence of HPV-16 E6-specific memory

  6. Discrimination of 'driver' and 'passenger' HPV in tonsillar carcinomas by the polymerase chain reaction, chromogenic in situ hybridization, and p16(INK4a) immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Evans, Mark Francis; Matthews, Alisa; Kandil, Dina; Adamson, Christine Stewart-Crawford; Trotman, Winifred Elizabeth; Cooper, Kumarasen

    2011-12-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) positive tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) is associated with a favorable clinical outcome. However, the HPV detected in a given tumor may be causal (driver HPV) or an incidental bystander (passenger HPV). There is a need to discriminate these forms of HPV in TSCCs to understand their impact on HPV as a biomarker for use in TSCC patient management. This study has compared the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH), and p16(INK4a) immunohistochemistry in the assessment of HPV status in TSCC. Archival specimens of TSCC from thirty patients were investigated. HPV was detected by PCR in 25/30 (83.3%) tumors; HPV16 (70.0%) and HPV52 (6.7%) were the most common types. HPV was corroborated by CISH in 22/25 (88.0%) specimens; integrated HPV was implicated by the presence of punctate signals in each of these cases. p16(INK4a) staining was found in 20/22 (90.9%) HPV PCR positive samples; two PCR/CISH HPV positive cases were p16(INK4a) negative and two HPV negative samples were p16(INK4a) positive. These data suggest that a minority of HPV positive TSCCs are positive for passenger HPV and that two or more assays may be required for diagnosing driver HPV status. Further studies are required to exam whether oropharyngeal tumors positive for passenger HPV have a less favorable prognosis than tumors that are driver HPV positive. The clinical significance of TSCCs that test HPV negative/p16(INK4a) positive, PCR and CISH HPV positive/p16 (INK4a) negative, or PCR HPV positive/p16 (INK4a) and CISH negative, also requires further investigation. PMID:21786153

  7. Intraurethral condylomata acuminata associated with genital piercings.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, S; Hirano, Y; Kawamura, T; Homma, Y

    2013-01-01

    A 33-year-old man was referred to our institution with papillary masses at the urethral meatus and difficulty urinating. Genital examination showed two piercings on the frenulum, which were penetrating the external urethra. Endoscopic examination revealed papillary tumours over the entire circumference of the penile urethra and the piercing site. The tumours were resected transurethrally. Microscopic examination revealed condylomata acuminata. Human papillomavirus types 6 and 66 were detected in the lesions. Retrograde urethral viral infection is rare because of the protection provided by the mucosal immune system. Genital piercing may have facilitated spread of the human papillomavirus into the urethra. PMID:23512508

  8. Universal vaccination with the quadrivalent HPV vaccine in Austria: impact on virus circulation, public health and cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Bresse, Xavier; Goergen, Christoph; Prager, Bernhard; Joura, Elmar

    2014-04-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer acknowledges that HPV is a human carcinogen affecting both sexes. This study aimed to evaluate the public health impact of universal HPV vaccination in Austria, to assess its cost-effectiveness and to estimate the HPV prevalence reduction over time. Vaccinating 65% of 9-year-old boys and girls in Austria would result in a 70% decrease in HPV infections in both males and females, hereby avoiding 9500 cases of genital warts annually and 431 HPV 16/18-related cancers in males and females. This strategy would be cost effective with base case analysis of €26,701/quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained for cervical cancer only, €15,820/QALY also including vaginal/vulvar cancers and genital warts, and €10,033/QALY also considering anal, oropharyngeal and penile cancers, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio ranging from €2500 to €21,000/QALY in sensitivity analyses. HPV circulation would be controlled hereby preventing subsequent HPV-related cancers. PMID:24450951

  9. Genital lesions following bestiality.

    PubMed

    Mittal, A; Shenoi, S D; Kumar, K B; Sharma, P V

    2000-01-01

    A 48-year-old man presented with painful genital lesions with history of bestiality and abnor-mal sexual behaviour. Examination revealed multiple irregular tender ulcers and erosions, with phimosis and left sided tender inguinal adenopathy. VDRL, TPHA, HIV-ELISA were negative. He was treated with ciprofloxacin 500mg b.d. along with saline compresses with complete resolution. PMID:20877040

  10. Genital Yeast Infections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Oriel; Betty M. Partridge; Maire J. Denny; J. C. Coleman

    1972-01-01

    Genital yeast infection was studied in 533 women seen in a department of venereology. Yeasts were recovered in culture from 138 patients (26% of the total). Candida albicans accounted for 112 (81%) of the isolates and Torulopsis glabrata for 22 (16%); other yeasts were uncommon. There was no evidence that the presence of yeasts was related to age. 32% of

  11. Type-specific detection of 30 oncogenic human papillomaviruses by genotyping both E6 and L1 genes.

    PubMed

    Peng, Junping; Gao, Lei; Guo, Junhua; Wang, Ting; Wang, Ling; Yao, Qing; Zhu, Haijun; Jin, Qi

    2013-02-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the principal cause of invasive cervical cancer and benign genital lesions. There are currently 30 HPV types linked to cervical cancer. HPV infection also leads to other types of cancer. We developed a 61-plex analysis of these 30 HPV types by examining two genes, E6 and L1, using MassARRAY matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) (PCR-MS). Two hundred samples from homosexual males (HM) were screened by PCR-MS and MY09/MY11 primer set-mediated PCR (MY-PCR) followed by sequencing. One hundred thirty-five formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) cervical cancer samples were also analyzed by PCR-MS, and results were compared to those of the commercially available GenoArray (GA) assay. One or more HPV types were identified in 64.5% (129/200) of the samples from HM. Comprising all 30 HPV types, PCR-MS detected 51.9% (67/129) of samples with multiple HPV types, whereas MY-PCR detected only one single HPV type in these samples. All PCR-MS results were confirmed by MY-PCR. In the cervical cancer samples, PCR-MS and GA detected 97% (131/135) and 90.4% (122/135) of HPV-positive samples, respectively. PCR-MS and GA results were fully concordant for 122 positive and 4 negative samples. The sequencing results for the 9 samples that tested negative by GA were completely concordant with the positive PCR-MS results. Multiple HPV types were identified in 25.2% (34/135) and 55.6% (75/135) of the cervical cancer samples by GA and PCR-MS, respectively, and results were confirmed by sequencing. The new assay allows the genotyping of >1,000 samples per day. It provides a good alternative to current methods, especially for large-scale investigations of multiple HPV infections and degraded FFPE samples. PMID:23152557

  12. Type-Specific Detection of 30 Oncogenic Human Papillomaviruses by Genotyping both E6 and L1 Genes

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Junping; Gao, Lei; Guo, Junhua; Wang, Ting; Wang, Ling; Yao, Qing; Zhu, Haijun

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the principal cause of invasive cervical cancer and benign genital lesions. There are currently 30 HPV types linked to cervical cancer. HPV infection also leads to other types of cancer. We developed a 61-plex analysis of these 30 HPV types by examining two genes, E6 and L1, using MassARRAY matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) (PCR-MS). Two hundred samples from homosexual males (HM) were screened by PCR-MS and MY09/MY11 primer set-mediated PCR (MY-PCR) followed by sequencing. One hundred thirty-five formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) cervical cancer samples were also analyzed by PCR-MS, and results were compared to those of the commercially available GenoArray (GA) assay. One or more HPV types were identified in 64.5% (129/200) of the samples from HM. Comprising all 30 HPV types, PCR-MS detected 51.9% (67/129) of samples with multiple HPV types, whereas MY-PCR detected only one single HPV type in these samples. All PCR-MS results were confirmed by MY-PCR. In the cervical cancer samples, PCR-MS and GA detected 97% (131/135) and 90.4% (122/135) of HPV-positive samples, respectively. PCR-MS and GA results were fully concordant for 122 positive and 4 negative samples. The sequencing results for the 9 samples that tested negative by GA were completely concordant with the positive PCR-MS results. Multiple HPV types were identified in 25.2% (34/135) and 55.6% (75/135) of the cervical cancer samples by GA and PCR-MS, respectively, and results were confirmed by sequencing. The new assay allows the genotyping of >1,000 samples per day. It provides a good alternative to current methods, especially for large-scale investigations of multiple HPV infections and degraded FFPE samples. PMID:23152557

  13. T-cell responses to human papillomavirus type 16 among women with different grades of cervical neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Steele, J C; Mann, C H; Rookes, S; Rollason, T; Murphy, D; Freeth, M G; Gallimore, P H; Roberts, S

    2005-01-01

    Infection with high-risk genital human papillomavirus (HPV) types is a major risk factor for the development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and invasive cervical carcinoma. The design of effective immunotherapies requires a greater understanding of how HPV-specific T-cell responses are involved in disease clearance and/or progression. Here, we have investigated T-cell responses to five HPV16 proteins (E6, E7, E4, L1 and L2) in women with CIN or cervical carcinoma directly ex vivo. T-cell responses were observed in the majority (78%) of samples. The frequency of CD4+ responders was far lower among those with progressive disease, indicating that the CD4+ T-cell response might be important in HPV clearance. CD8+ reactivity to E6 peptides was dominant across all disease grades, inferring that E6-specific CD8+ T cells are not vitally involved in disease clearance. T-cell responses were demonstrated in the majority (80%) of cervical cancer patients, but are obviously ineffective. Our study reveals significant differences in HPV16 immunity during progressive CIN. We conclude that the HPV-specific CD4+ T-cell response should be an important consideration in immunotherapy design, which should aim to target preinvasive disease. PMID:15986031

  14. The role of cytology in the era of HPV-related head and neck carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Roy-Chowdhuri, Sinchita; Krishnamurthy, Savitri

    2015-07-01

    Enlarged neck lymph nodes are very often subject to fine needle aspiration biopsy to detect metastatic disease in patients with suspected or proven squamous cell carcinoma in head and neck region. Cytology specimens of metastatic carcinoma in such patients are routinely evaluated for human papilloma virus (HPV) to identify patients with HPV- related head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Different types of cytology specimens including smears, cytospins, cell blocks and aspirated material in the rinse can all be used for different types of HPV testing such as immunohistochemistry for p16, HPV-in situ hybridization, and HPV-Polymerase chain reaction. There is currently no consensus regarding the testing of high-risk HPV in cytology specimens. The establishment of standardized HPV testing of cytology specimens is of utmost importance and is eagerly awaited. PMID:25638437

  15. [Contemporary views of the role of HPV infection in oncogenesis in cervical cancer].

    PubMed

    Wójcicki, Janusz

    2006-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer of the woman worldwide. Infection with some genotypes of human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most important risk factor associated to cervical cancer, particularly HPV type 16 and 18 and potentially 31 and 45. Till now specific treatment or vaccination is not available but recently published results can be the first step to produce specific vaccination and reduce the number of cervical cancer. HPV has an influence on oncogenesis, but there are also mechanisms not depending on HPV infection. Recently published Institute Pasteur' data concerning the HPV genom may be the first step to produce specific vaccination. PMID:17017492

  16. Women Have a Preference for Their Male Partner to Be HPV Vaccinated

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Diane Medved; Alexander, Natalie Marya; Ahern, Debra Ann; Comes, Johanna Claire; Smith, Melissa Smith; Heutinck, Melinda Ann; Handley, Sandra Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background Peer influence and social networking can change female adolescent and young adult behavior. Peer influence on preferences for male human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has not been documented. The primary aim of this study was to determine if women had preferences about male sexual partner HPV vaccination receipt. Methods and Findings A prospective survey of women 18–26 years of age was conducted at an urban university student health clinic. Education about the two HPV vaccines, cervical cancer and genital warts was provided. Women self-reported their demographic and medical history data, as well as their own preferences for HPV vaccine and their preferences for their male partner HPV vaccine using a 5 point Likert scale. 601 women, mean age of 21.5 years (SD 2.4), participated between 2011 and 2012. Nearly 95% of respondents were heterosexual; condoms and contraceptives were used in over half of the population. Regardless of the woman's vaccination status, women had significantly higher (strongly agree/agree) preferences for the male partner being vaccinated with HPV4 than not caring if he was vaccinated (63.6% vs. 13.1%, p<0.001). This preference was repeated for sexual risk factors and past reproductive medical history. Women who received HPV4 compared to those choosing HPV2 had a significantly lower proportion of preferences for not caring if the male partner was vaccinated (13% vs. 22%, p?=?0.015). Conclusions Women preferred a HPV vaccinated male partner. Peer messaging might change the male HPV vaccination uptake. PMID:24828237

  17. Worldwide genomic diversity of the human papillomaviruses-53, 56, and 66, a group of high-risk HPVs unrelated to HPV-16 and HPV-18.

    PubMed

    Prado, Jose C; Calleja-Macias, Itzel E; Bernard, Hans-Ulrich; Kalantari, Mina; Macay, Sylvia A; Allan, Bruce; Williamson, Anna-Lise; Chung, Lap-Ping; Collins, Robert J; Zuna, Rosemary E; Dunn, S Terence; Ortiz-Lopez, Rocio; Barrera-Saldaña, Hugo A; Cubie, Heather A; Cuschieri, Kate; von Knebel-Doeberitz, Magnus; Sanchez, Gloria I; Bosch, F Xavier; Villa, Luisa L

    2005-09-15

    Among more than 200 human papillomavirus (HPV) types presumed to exist, 18 "high-risk" HPV types are frequently found in anogenital cancer. The best studied types are HPV-16 and 18, which are only distantly related to one another and form two separate phylogenetic branches, each including six closely related types. HPV-30, 53, 56, and 66 form a third phylogenetic branch unrelated to HPV-16 and 18. Worldwide comparison of HPV-16 and 18 isolates revealed a distribution of variant genomes that correlated with the geographic origin and the ethnicity of the infected cohort and led to the concept of unique African, European, Asian, and Native American HPV-16 and 18 variants. Here, we address the question whether similar phylogenies are found for HPV-53, 56, and 66 by determining the sequence of the long control regions (LCR) of these HPVs in samples from Europe, Asia, and Africa, and from immigrant societies in North and South America. Phylogenetic trees calculated from point mutations and a few insertions/deletions affecting 2-4.2% of the nucleotide sequences were distinct for each of the three HPVs and divergent from HPV-16 and 18. In contrast to the "star-phylogenies" formed by HPV-16 and 18 variants, 44 HPV-53 isolates represented nine variants, which formed two deep dichotomic branches reminiscent of the beginning split into two new taxa, as recently observed for subtypes of HPV-44 and 68. A total of 66 HPV-56 isolates represented 17 variants, which formed three branches preferentially containing European, Asian, and African variants. Variants of a fourth branch, deeply separated from the other three, were characterized by a 25 bp insertion and created a dichotomy rather than star-like phylogeny. As it contained isolates from cohorts in all continents, it may have evolved before the spread of humans into all continents. 18 of 31 HPV-66 isolates represented the prototype clone, which was found in all parts of the world, while the remaining 13 clones formed 11 branches without any geographic association. Our findings confirm the notion of a quantitatively limited genomic diversity of each HPV type with some correlation to the geographic origin of the sample. In addition, we observed in some variants of these three HPV types mutations that affect the amino acid sequence of the E6 oncoproteins and the L1 capsid protein, supporting the possibility of immunogenic and oncogenic diversity between variants of any HPV type. PMID:16039686

  18. Effects of the human papilloma virus HPV-16 E7 oncoprotein on glycolysis and glutaminolysis: role of pyruvate kinase type M2 and the glycolytic-enzyme complex.

    PubMed Central

    Mazurek, S; Zwerschke, W; Jansen-Dürr, P; Eigenbrodt, E

    2001-01-01

    Proliferating and tumour cells express the glycolytic isoenzyme, pyruvate kinase type M2 (M2-PK), which occurs in a highly active tetrameric form and in a dimeric form with low affinity for phosphoenolpyruvate. The switch between the two forms regulates glycolytic phosphometabolite pools and the interaction between glycolysis and glutaminolysis. In the present study, we show the effects of oncoprotein E7 of the human papilloma virus (HPV)-16 (E7)-transformation on two NIH 3T3 cell strains with different metabolic characteristics. E7-transformation of the high glycolytic NIH 3T3 cell strain led to a shift of M2-PK to the dimeric form and, in consequence, to a decrease in the cellular pyruvate kinase mass-action ratio, the glycolytic flux rate and the (ATP+GTP)/(UTP+CTP) ratio, as well as to an increase in fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) levels, glutamine consumption and cell proliferation. The low glycolytic NIH 3T3 cell strain is characterized by high pyruvate and glutamine consumption rates and by an intrinsically large amount of the dimeric form of M2-PK, which is correlated with high FBP levels, a low (ATP+GTP)/(CTP+UTP) ratio and a high proliferation rate. E7-transformation of this cell strain led to an alteration in the glycolytic-enzyme complex that correlates with an increase in pyruvate and glutamine consumption and a slight increase in the flow of glucose to lactate. The association of phosphoglyceromutase within the glycolytic-enzyme complex led to an increase of glucose and serine consumption and a disruption of the linkage between glucose consumption and glutaminolysis. In both NIH 3T3 cell lines, transformation increased glutaminolysis and the positive correlation between alanine and lactate production. PMID:11336658

  19. UHS Health Promotion Office, UHS Building, 2nd floor, 273-5775 December 2009December 2009December 2009December 2009

    E-print Network

    Mahon, Bradford Z.

    common sexually transmitted infection. There are more than 40 HPV types that can infect the genital genital warts (low risk) or cancer (high risk). You cannot see HPV. Most people who become infected with HPV do not even know they have it. How do people get HPV? HPV is passed through genital contact, most

  20. Persistent genital arousal and restless genitalia: sexual dysfunction or subtype of vulvodynia?

    PubMed

    Markos, A R; Dinsmore, Wallace

    2013-11-01

    We conducted a literature review of patients' conditions described under persistent genital arousal disorder and restless genital syndrome, vulvodynia and male genital skin pain of unknown aetiology (penoscrotodynia). Our aim is to improve the understanding of the condition, unify nomenclature and promote evidence-based practice. The most prominent symptom in persistent genital arousal disorder and restless genital syndrome is a spontaneous, unwelcomed, intrusive and distressing vulval sensation. There are similarities between the clinical presentation of vulvodynia, penoscrotodynia, persistent genital arousal disorder and restless genital syndrome patients. The aetiology of persistent genital arousal disorder and restless genital syndrome, similar to vulvodynia, could be better explained in terms of neuro-vascular dysfunction, genital peripheral neuropathy and/or dysfunctional micro-vascular arterio-venous shunting. Erythromelalgia lends itself to explain some cases of restless genital syndrome, who have concurrent restless legs syndrome; and therefore draw parallels with the red scrotum syndrome. The published literature supports the concept of classifying restless genital syndrome as a sub-type of vulvodynia rather than sexual dysfunction. PMID:23970620

  1. 1 Dose of HPV Vaccine May Offer Protection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... three-dose schedules, a new study contends. The vaccine protects against HPV types 16 and 18, which are believed to cause about 70 percent of cervical cancers. The vaccine was originally approved to be given in three ...

  2. Oxidative Stress in HPV-Driven Viral Carcinogenesis: Redox Proteomics Analysis of HPV-16 Dysplastic and Neoplastic Tissues

    PubMed Central

    De Marco, Federico; Bucaj, Elona; Foppoli, Cesira; Fiorini, Ada; Blarzino, Carla; Filipi, Kozeta; Giorgi, Alessandra; Schininà, Maria Eugenia; Di Domenico, Fabio; Coccia, Raffaella; Butterfield, D. Allan; Perluigi, Marzia

    2012-01-01

    Genital infection by high risk Human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV), although recognized as the main etio-pathogenetic factor of cervical cancer, is not per se sufficient to induce tumour development. Oxidative stress (OS) represents an interesting and under-explored candidate as a promoting factor in HPV-initiated carcinogenesis. To gain insight into the role of OS in cervical cancer, HPV-16 positive tissues were collected from patients with invasive squamous cervical carcinoma, from patients with High Grade dysplastic HPV lesions and from patients with no clinical evidence of HPV lesions. After virological characterization, modulation of proteins involved in the redox status regulation was investigated. ERp57 and GST were sharply elevated in dysplastic and neoplastic tissues. TrxR2 peaked in dysplastic samples while iNOS was progressively reduced in dysplastic and neoplastic samples. By redox proteomic approach, five proteins were found to have increased levels of carbonyls in dysplastic samples respect to controls namely: cytokeratin 6, actin, cornulin, retinal dehydrogenase and GAPDH. In carcinoma samples the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase A, ERp57, serpin B3, Annexin 2 and GAPDH were found less oxidized than in dysplastic tissues. HPV16 neoplastic progression seems associated with increased oxidant environment. In dysplastic tissues the oxidative modification of DNA and proteins involved in cell morphogenesis and terminal differentiation may provide the conditions for the neoplastic progression. Conversely cancer tissues seem to attain an improved control on oxidative damage as shown by the selective reduction of carbonyl adducts on key detoxifying/pro-survival proteins. PMID:22470562

  3. Baseline assessment of prevalence and geographical distribution of HPV types in Chile using self-collected vaginal samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catterina Ferreccio; Alejandro Corvalán; Paula Margozzini; Paola Viviani; Claudia González; Ximena Aguilera; Patti E Gravitt

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chile has broad variations in weather, economics and population from the far desert north (Region 1) to the cold, icy south (Region 12). A home-based self-collected vaginal sampling was nested in the 2003 Chilean population-based health survey in order to explore the possibility of a type-specific geographical variation for human papillomavirus METHODS: The population was a national probability sample

  4. School Nurses' Role as Opinion Leaders Regarding the HPV Vaccine for Youth

    E-print Network

    Rosen, Brittany Leigh

    2013-06-17

    for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2011a), which cause over 4,000 deaths in the US each year (American Cancer Society, 2011). HPV is also linked with 65% of vaginal cancers, 50% of vulvar cancers, 35% of penile cancers and 90% of anal cancers (CDC... is available, and it has been shown to protect against most genital warts (in males and females), anal cancer (in males and females), and vaginal and vulvar cancers (CDC, 2011b). The HPV vaccine is nearly 100% effective in preventing precancerous cervical...

  5. Detection, genotyping and quantitation of multiple hpv infections in south african women with cervical squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lebelo, Ramokone L; Bogers, Johannes J; Thys, Sofie; Depuydt, Christophe; Benoy, Ina; Selabe, S Gloria; Bida, Meshack N; Mphahlele, M Jeffrey

    2015-09-01

    In Africa, data is limited on quantitation of human papillomavirus (HPV) types in women with multiple infections. This study applied a real time PCR (qPCR) assay for detection, genotyping and quantitation of multiple HPV infections in 90 tissue blocks of South African women with cervical squamous cell carcinoma. One sample with multiple HPV types was subjected to laser micro-dissection and qPCR. Four samples were negative for ?-globin and these were excluded from the analysis. The HPV DNA positivity rate was 93.0% (80/86). All 80 positives showed the presence of HR HPV types; HPV 68 was the only type negative in all the samples. Overall, HPV 16 was positive in most of the samples (88.8%), followed by HPV 56 (28.7%), HPV 18 (20.0%) and HPV 39 (18.7%). More than half of the samples (65.0%) had multiple infections. HPV 16 was present in majority of single (85.7%) and multiple infections (90.4%). HPV 16 showed higher viral loads in 70.3% of the HPV 16 co-infected samples. In one multiple infected sample laser micro-dissection and qPCR identified HPV 18 with higher viral load as the most likely cause of the invasive lesion. There is large number of multiple HPV infections in South African women with cervical squamous cell carcinoma. HPV 16 is the most frequently detected type and often presents with higher viral load, suggesting it could be responsible for pathogenesis of the lesions in the majority of cases. J. Med. Virol. 87:1594-1600, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26037775

  6. Studies towards the potential of poliovirus as a vector for the expression of HPV 16 virus-like-particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank J. M. van Kuppeveld; Arjan de Jong; Henri B. P. M. Dijkman; Raul Andino; Willem J. G. Melchers

    2002-01-01

    Development of human cervical carcinomas is associated with infection by certain human papillomavirus (HPV) types. Thus, protection against HPV infection through vaccination may prevent development of cervical cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of using a poliovirus recombinant vector to induce immunity against HPV. A poliovirus recombinant was constructed which contained the complete coding sequence

  7. Isolated genital annular lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Badri, T; Kenani, N; Benmously, R; Debbiche, A; Mokhtar, I; Fenniche, S

    2011-01-01

    Annular lichen planus is a rarely reported variant of lichen planus (LP). Although genital lesions are frequent in patients with LP, isolated genital LP is rarely reported. We present a case of a 29-year- -old circumcised man with an asymptomatic annular lesion of the penis. Histopathological features were consistent with LP. Topical clobetasol was prescribed, with clinical improvement. It is important to consider annular LP among the possible diagnoses of individual annular genital lesions. PMID:21879203

  8. Age-specific prevalence of HPV genotypes in cervical cytology samples with equivocal or low-grade lesions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Brismar-Wendel; M Froberg; A Hjerpe; S Andersson; B Johansson

    2009-01-01

    Background:To define the spectrum of human papillomavirus (HPV) types and establish an age limit for triage HPV testing in atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL).Materials and methods:343 liquid-based cytological samples from the population-based screening programme with minor abnormalities were subjected to HPV genotyping (Linear Array, Roche, Basel, Switzerland).Results:High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) was found

  9. VIN usual type—from the past to the future

    PubMed Central

    Preti, Mario; Igidbashian, Sarah; Costa, Silvano; Cristoforoni, Paolo; Mariani, Luciano; Origoni, Massimo; Sandri, Maria T; Boveri, Sara; Spolti, Noemi; Spinaci, Laura; Sanvito, Francesca; Preti, Eleonora P; Falasca, Adriana; Radici, Gianluigi; Micheletti, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    Usual vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (uVIN) is the most common VIN type, generally related to a human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, predominantly type 16. The incidence of uVIN has been increasing over the last decades, and a bimodal peak is observed at the age of 40–44 and over 55 years. Almost 40% of patients with uVIN have a past, concomitant or future HPV-associated lesion of the lower genital tract. HPV-related malignancies are associated with a persistent HPV infection. The host immune response is of crucial importance in determining clearance or persistence of both HPV infections and HPV-related VIN. About 60% of the patients present with symptoms. Clinical features of uVIN vary in site, number, size, shape, colour, and thickness of lesions. Multicentric disease is often present. Most uVIN lesions are positive at immunohistochemistry to p16ink4a and p14arf, but negative to p53. Irrespective of surgical treatment used, uVIN recurrence rates are high. Positive margins do not predict the development of invasive disease and the need to re-excide the tissue around the scare remains to be demonstrated. Therefore, considering the low progression rate of uVIN and psycosexual sequelae, treatments should be as conservative as possible. Medical treatments available are mainly based on immunotherapy to induce normalisation of immune cell count in uVIN. None are approved by the food and drug administration (FDA) for the treatment of uVIN. If medical treatment is performed, adequate biopsies are required to reduce the risk of unrecognised invasive disease. Some studies suggest that failure to respond to immunotherapy might be related to a local immunosuppressive microenvironment, but knowledge of the uVIN microenvironment is limited. Moreover, our knowledge of the potential mechanisms involved in the escape of HPV-induced lesions from the immune system has many gaps. HPV vaccines have been demonstrated to be effective in preventing uVIN, with 94.9% efficacy in the HPV-naive population, while studies on therapeutic vaccines are limited. The low incidence of VIN requires large multicentre studies to determine the best way to manage affected patients and to investigate the immunological characteristics of the ‘vulvar microenviroment’ which leads to the persistence of HPV. PMID:25987900

  10. Therapeutic potential of an AcHERV-HPV L1 DNA vaccine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee-Jung; Yoon, Jong Kwang; Heo, Yoonki; Cho, Hansam; Cho, Yeondong; Gwon, Yongdae; Kim, Kang Chang; Choi, Jiwon; Lee, Jae Sung; Oh, Yu-Kyoung; Kim, Young Bong

    2015-06-01

    Cervical cancer is strongly associated with chronic human papillomavirus infections, among which HPV16 is the most common. Two commercial HPV vaccines, Gardasil and Cervarix are effective for preventing HPV infection, but cannot be used to treat existing HPV infections. Previously, we developed a human endogenous retrovirus (HERV)-enveloped recombinant baculovirus capable of delivering the L1 genes of HPV types 16, 18, and 58 (AcHERV-HP16/18/58L1, AcHERV-HPV). Intramuscular administration of AcHERVHPV vaccines induced a strong cellular immune response as well as a humoral immune response. In this study, to examine the therapeutic effect of AcHERV-HPV in a mouse model, we established an HPV16 L1 expressing tumor cell line. Compared to Cervarix, immunization with AcHERVHPV greatly enhanced HPV16 L1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in C57BL/6 mice. Although vaccination could not remove preexisting tumors, strong CTL activity retarded the growth of inoculated tumor cells. These results indicate that AcHERV-HPV could serve as a potential therapeutic DNA vaccine against concurrent infection with HPV 16, 18, and 58. PMID:26025174

  11. HPV16 synthetic long peptide (HPV16-SLP) vaccination therapy of patients with advanced or recurrent HPV16-induced gynecological carcinoma, a phase II trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV16)-induced gynecological cancers, in particular cervical cancers, are found in many women worldwide. The HPV16 encoded oncoproteins E6 and E7 are tumor-specific targets for the adaptive immune system permitting the development of an HPV16-synthetic long peptide (SLP) vaccine with an excellent treatment profile in animal models. Here, we determined the toxicity, safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of the HPV16 SLP vaccine in patients with advanced or recurrent HPV16-induced gynecological carcinoma. Methods Patients with HPV16-positive advanced or recurrent gynecological carcinoma (n?=?20) were subcutaneously vaccinated with an HPV16-SLP vaccine consisting of a mix of 13 HPV16 E6 and HPV16 E7 overlapping long peptides in Montanide ISA-51 adjuvant. The primary endpoints were safety, toxicity and tumor regression as determined by RECIST. In addition, the vaccine-induced T-cell response was assessed by proliferation and associated cytokine production as well as IFN?-ELISPOT. Results No systemic toxicity beyond CTCAE grade II was observed. In a few patients transient flu-like symptoms were observed. In 9 out of 16 tested patients vaccine-induced HPV16-specific proliferative responses were detected which were associated with the production of IFN?, TNF?, IL-5 and/or IL-10. ELISPOT analysis revealed a vaccine-induced immune response in 11 of the 13 tested patients. The capacity to respond to the vaccine was positively correlated to the patient’s immune status as reflected by their response to common recall antigens at the start of the trial. Median survival was 12.6 ± 9.1?months. No regression of tumors was observed among the 12 evaluable patients. Nineteen patients died of progressive disease. Conclusions The HPV16-SLP vaccine was well tolerated and induced a broad IFN?-associated T-cell response in patients with advanced or recurrent HPV16-induced gynecological carcinoma but neither induced tumor regression nor prevented progressive disease. We, therefore, plan to use this vaccine in combination with chemotherapy and immunomodulation. PMID:23557172

  12. CXCL9 and CXCL10 expression are critical for control of genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection through mobilization of HSV-specific CTL and NK cells to the nervous system1

    PubMed Central

    Thapa, Manoj; Welner, Robert S.; Pelayo, Rosana; Carr, Daniel J.J.

    2007-01-01

    CXCL9 and CXCL10 mediate the recruitment of T lymphocytes and NK cells known to be important in viral surveillance. The relevance of CXCL10 in comparison to CXCL9 in response to genital HSV-2 infection was determined using mice deficient in CXCL9 (CXCL9?/?) and CXCL10 (CXCL10?/?) along with wild type (WT) C57BL/6 mice. An increased sensitivity to infection was found in CXCL10?/? mice in comparison to CXCL9?/? or WT mice as determined by detection of HSV-2 in the central nervous system (CNS) at day 3 post infection. However, by day 7 post infection both CXCL9?/? & CXCL10?/?mice possessed significantly higher viral titers in the CNS in comparison to WT mice consistent with mortality (18–35%) of these mice within the first 7 days after infection. Even though CXCL9?/? and CXCL10?/? mice expressed elevated levels of CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, and CXCL1 in the spinal cord in comparison to WT mice, there was a reduction in NK cell and virus-specific CD8+ T cell mobilization to this tissue suggesting CXCL9 and CXCL10 are critical for recruitment of these effector cells to the spinal cord following genital HSV-2 infection. Moreover, leukocytes from the spinal cord but not draining lymph nodes or spleens of infected CXCL9?/? or CXCL10?/? mice displayed reduced CTL activity in comparison to effector cells from WT mice. Thus, the absence of CXCL9 or CXCL10 expression significantly alters the ability of the host to control genital HSV-2 infection through the mobilization of effector cells to sites of infection. PMID:18178850

  13. Correlation between ebv co-infection and HPV16 genome integrity in Tunisian cervical cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Kahla, Saloua; Oueslati, Sarra; Achour, Mongia; Kochbati, Lotfi; Chanoufi, Mohamed Badis; Maalej, Mongi; Oueslati, Ridha

    2012-01-01

    Infection with high risk Human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is necessary but not sufficient to cause cervical carcinoma. This study explored whether multiple HR-HPV or coinfection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) influence the integration status of HPV16 genome. The presence and typing of HPV in a series of 125 cervical specimens were assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the specific primers for the HPV L1 region. As for EBV infection, the viral EBNA1 gene was used for its detection through PCR amplification. Disruption of the HPV E2 gene was assessed by amplification of the entire E2 gene with single set of primers, while E2 transcripts were evaluated by a reverse transcription PCR method (RT-PCR). The overall prevalence of HPVDNA was of 81.8% in cervical cancers versus 26.9% in benign lesions. In HPV positive cases, HPV16 and HPV18 were the most prevalent types, followed by HPV types 33, 31. EBV EBNA1 prevalence was statistically more frequent in cervical carcinomas than in benign lesions (29.5%, vs 9.6%; P=0.01). No viral infection was detected in healthy control women. The uninterrupted E2 gene was correlated with the presence of E2 transcripts originating from the HPV episomal forms. It was observed that integration was more common in HPV18 and EBV coinfection. The presence of EBV caused a five-fold [OR= 5; CI= 1.15-21.8; P = 0.04] increase in the risk of HPV16 genome integration in the host genome. This study indicates that EBV infection is acting as a cofactor for induction of cervical cancer by favoring HPVDNA integration. PMID:24031886

  14. Immune responses induced by lower airway mucosal immunisation with a human papillomavirus type 16 virus-like particle vaccine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denise Nardelli-Haefliger; Floriana Lurati; Daniel Wirthner; François Spertini; John T. Schiller; Douglas R. Lowy; Françoise Ponci; Pierre De Grandi

    2005-01-01

    Cervical cancer results from cervical infection by human papillomaviruses (HPV), especially HPV16. Previous studies have shown that intramuscular vaccination of women with an HPV16 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine induced a strong IgG response and protected against genital HPV16 infection. However, an alternative route of administration that avoids parenteral injection while inducing mucosal immunity might facilitate vaccine implementation in some settings,

  15. DCCPS: BRP: PCRB: Key Initiatives: HPV and Cervical Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    Although human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a significant factor in the development of most cervical and vulvar cancers, large population-based studies have implied an inherited predisposition to these cancers. Cell-mediated immune mechanisms, including human leukocyte antigen (HLA) type 1 and 2 cytokines, determine an individual's response to HPV infection. Investigators propose to analyze associations of HLA class I and II alleles with the risk of cervical and vulvar cancers.

  16. Cost-effectiveness of vaccination with a quadrivalent HPV vaccine in Germany using a dynamic transmission model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Persistent infections with human papillomavirus (HPV) are a necessary cause of cervical cancer and are responsible for important morbidity in men and women. Since 2007, HPV vaccination has been recommended and funded for all girls aged 12 to 17 in Germany. A previously published cost-effectiveness analysis, using a static model, showed that a quadrivalent HPV vaccination programme for 12-year-old girls in Germany would be cost effective. Here we present the results from a dynamic transmission model that can be used to evaluate the impact and cost-effectiveness of different vaccination schemas. Methods We adapted a HPV dynamic transmission model, which has been used in other countries, to the German context. The model was used to compare a cervical cancer screening only strategy with a strategy of combining vaccination of females aged 12–17 years old and cervical cancer screening, based on the current recommendations in Germany. In addition, the impact of increasing vaccination coverage in this cohort of females aged 12–17 years old was evaluated in sensitivity analysis. Results The results from this analysis show that the current quadrivalent HPV vaccination programme of females ages 12 to 17 in Germany is cost-effective with an ICER of 5,525€/QALY (quality adjusted life year). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) increased to 10,293€/QALY when the vaccine effects on HPV6/11 diseases were excluded. At steady state, the model predicted that vaccinating girls aged 12 to 17 could reduce the number of HPV 6/11/16/18-related cervical cancers by 65% and genital warts among women and men by 70% and 48%, respectively. The impact on HPV-related disease incidence and costs avoided would occur relatively soon after initiating the vaccine programme, with much of the early impact being due to the prevention of HPV6/11-related genital warts. Conclusions These results show that the current quadrivalent HPV vaccination and cervical cancer screening programmes in Germany will substantially reduce the incidence of cervical cancer, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and genital warts. The evaluated vaccination strategies were all found to be cost-effective. Future analyses should include more HPV-related diseases. PMID:23009387

  17. HPV E6/E7 mRNA versus HPV DNA biomarker in cervical cancer screening of a group of Macedonian women.

    PubMed

    Duvlis, Sotirija; Popovska-Jankovic, Katerina; Arsova, Zorica Sarafinovska; Memeti, Shaban; Popeska, Zaneta; Plaseska-Karanfilska, Dijana

    2015-09-01

    High risk types of human papillomaviruses E6/E7 oncogenes and their association with tumor suppressor genes products are the key factors of cervical carcinogenesis. This study proposed them as specific markers for cervical dysplasia screening. The aim of the study is to compare the clinical and prognostic significance of HPV E6/E7 mRNA as an early biomarker versus HPV DNA detection and cytology in triage of woman for cervical cancer. The study group consists of 413 women: 258 NILM, 26 ASC-US, 81 LSIL, 41 HSIL, and 7 unsatisfactory cytology. HPV4AACE screening, real-time multiplex PCR and MY09/11 consensus PCR primers methods were used for the HPV DNA detection. The real-time multiplex nucleic acid sequence-based assay (NucliSENS EasyQ HPV assay) was used for HPV E6/E7 mRNA detection of the five most common high risk HPV types in cervical cancer (16, 18, 31, 33, and 45). The results show that HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing had a higher specificity 50% (95% CI 32-67) and positive predictive value (PPV) 62% (95% CI 46-76) for CIN2+ compared to HPV DNA testing that had specificity of 18% (95% CI 7-37) and PPV 52% (95% CI 39-76) respectively. The higher specificity and PPV of HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing are valuable in predicting insignificant HPV DNA infection among cases with borderline cytological finding. It can help in avoiding aggressive procedures (biopsies and over-referral of transient HPV infections) as well as lowering patient's anxiety and follow up period. J. Med. Virol. 87:1578-1586, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25880030

  18. Identification and functional validation of HPV-mediated hypermethylation in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus-positive (HPV+) head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) represents a distinct clinical and epidemiological condition compared with HPV-negative (HPV-) HNSCC. To test the possible involvement of epigenetic modulation by HPV in HNSCC, we conducted a genome-wide DNA-methylation analysis. Methods Using laser-capture microdissection of 42 formalin-fixed paraffin wax-embedded (FFPE) HNSCCs, we generated DNA-methylation profiles of 18 HPV+ and 14 HPV- samples, using Infinium 450 k BeadArray technology. Methylation data were validated in two sets of independent HPV+/HPV- HNSCC samples (fresh-frozen samples and cell lines) using two independent methods (Infinium 450 k and whole-genome methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (MeDIP-seq)). For the functional analysis, an HPV- HNSCC cell line was transduced with lentiviral constructs containing the two HPV oncogenes (E6 and E7), and effects on methylation were assayed using the Infinium 450 k technology. Results and discussion Unsupervised clustering over the methylation variable positions (MVPs) with greatest variation showed that samples segregated in accordance with HPV status, but also that HPV+ tumors are heterogeneous. MVPs were significantly enriched at transcriptional start sites, leading to the identification of a candidate CpG island methylator phenotype in a sub-group of the HPV+ tumors. Supervised analysis identified a strong preponderance (87%) of MVPs towards hypermethylation in HPV+ HNSCC. Meta-analysis of our HNSCC and publicly available methylation data in cervical and lung cancers confirmed the observed DNA-methylation signature to be HPV-specific and tissue-independent. Grouping of MVPs into functionally more significant differentially methylated regions identified 43 hypermethylated promoter DMRs, including for three cadherins of the Polycomb group target genes. Integration with independent expression data showed strong negative correlation, especially for the cadherin gene-family members. Combinatorial ectopic expression of the two HPV oncogenes (E6 and E7) in an HPV- HNSCC cell line partially phenocopied the hypermethylation signature seen in HPV+ HNSCC tumors, and established E6 as the main viral effector gene. Conclusions Our data establish that archival FFPE tissue is very suitable for this type of methylome analysis, and suggest that HPV modulates the HNSCC epigenome through hypermethylation of Polycomb repressive complex 2 target genes such as cadherins, which are implicated in tumor progression and metastasis. PMID:23419152

  19. [Genital lichen sclerosus].

    PubMed

    Héla, Zakraoui; Samy, Fenniche; Rym, Benmously; Hajlaoui, Khaoula; Hayet, Marrak; Mohamed, Ben Ayed; Inçaf, Mokhtar

    2005-03-01

    Lichen sclerosus is a chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disease which origin remains unknown. Its prevalence ranges from one in 300 to one in 1000 of all patients referred to a dermatology clinic in the seventeenth. Through the analysis of a hospital survey, we outline the epidemio-clinical aspects of this dermatosis. Over a 19-year period (1984-2002), we have conducted a retrospective and monocentric study of all patients with genital lichen sclerosus were examined at the dermatology department of Habib Thameur hospital. Thirty-four patients suffered from lichen sclerosus. There were 33 female and only one male (sex-ratio: 0.03). All patients underwent topical corticosteroid therapy (level I, II or IV). The recovery rate of lichen sclerosus was about 20% (7/34). An epidermoid carcinoma occurred in three patients. The frequency of lichen sclerosus in our study is estimated at 1,8 new cases per year. This frequency is probably under-estimated because of some patients' reluctance to seek help. A relatively low recovery rate of genital lichen sclerosus was found in our study. This may be related to an inadequate follow up added to an insufficient treatment adherence. PMID:15929444

  20. The new human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine: pros and cons for pediatric and adolescent health.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Tami L

    2008-01-01

    The new human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is a research breakthrough for pediatric/adolescent health to prevent cervical cancer and related morbidity. The annual heath care cost for the treatment of cervical cancer and genital warts is estimated to be more than three billion dollars a year. The new HPV vaccine has incredible potential to improve reproductive health promotion, reduce health care costs, and close health care disparity gaps. However, issues both for and against the new HPV vaccine, including mandating vaccination, high cost of the vaccine, the short duration of protection offered, and the perceived promotion of sexual activity, cause confusion. Pediatric nurses, including those in advanced practice, benefit by understanding the pros and cons of these issues in advocating for their patients. PMID:19051848

  1. Determination of integrated HPV58 sequences in cervical lesions.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Zhang, Ruifen; Cai, Yupin; Li, Yuan; Cheng, Xuemei; Zhu, Baoli; Yang, Yi; Xiang, Yang

    2012-09-01

    Integration of high-risk HPV in host genome is an important event in cervical cancer development. This study was aimed to analyze the integration of HPV58, a high-risk type that is prevalent in cervical lesions from southeastern Asia. Detection of integrated papillomavirus sequences by ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction followed by DNA sequencing revealed 8 integrations in 5 samples, and virus integration was found present in 2 samples with early lesion. Sequence analysis of the viral-cellular junctions showed that E1 disruption in virus genome was an early and common event during HPV58 infection. In 6 integrations, DNA fragments of HPV58 genome integrated into the repetitive element sequences of host genome. PMID:22801029

  2. Impact of vaccination with Cervarix™ on subsequent HPV16\\/18 infection and cervical disease in women 15–25 years of age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diane M. Harper

    2008-01-01

    Cervical cancer of both squamous and adenocarcinoma types is considered virtually 100% attributable to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. HPV-16 and -18 are the predominant types worldwide accounting for over 70% of all cervical cancer. Persistent oncogenic HPV infection has been confirmed as one key determinant in the development of cervical precancer (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN] 2+) and cervical cancer. The

  3. Detection of systemic and mucosal HPV-specific IgG and IgA antibodies in adolescent girls one and two years after HPV vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Scherpenisse, Mirte; Mollers, Madelief; Schepp, Rutger M.; Meijer, Chris J.L.M.; de Melker, Hester E.; Berbers, Guy A.M.; van der Klis, Fiona R.M.

    2013-01-01

    The bivalent HPV16/18 vaccine induces high antibody concentrations in serum while data about antibody responses in the cervix are limited. In this study, we investigated pre- and post-vaccination antibody responses against seven high-risk HPV types by detection of IgG and IgA HPV-specific antibodies in cervical secretion samples (CVS) and serum. From an HPV vaccine monitoring study CVS and serum samples were available (pre-vaccination (n = 297), one year (n = 211) and two years (n = 141) post-dose-one vaccination) from girls aged 14–16 y. The girls were vaccinated with the bivalent HPV vaccine at months 0, 1 and 6. CVS was self-sampled using a tampon. Samples were tested for HPV-specific antibodies (HPV16/18/31/33/45/52/58) by a VLP-based multiplex immunoassay. Post-vaccination, IgG and IgA antibody levels for HPV16/18 were detectable in CVS and amounted to 2% and 1% of the IgG and IgA antibody levels observed in serum, respectively. The antibody levels remained constant between one and two years after vaccination. The correlation between CVS and serum was similar for IgG and IgA vaccine-derived antibody levels for HPV16 (rs = 0.58, rs = 0.54) and HPV18 (rs = 0.50, rs = 0.55). Vaccine-derived IgG antibody levels against cross-reactive HPV types in CVS and in serum were highest for HPV45. No IgA cross-reactive antibody responses could be detected in CVS. Post-vaccination, HPV16/18 IgG and IgA antibodies are not only detectable in serum but also in CVS. The correlation of HPV16/18 IgG antibody levels between serum and CVS suggests that vaccine induced HPV antibodies transudate and/or exudate from the systemic circulation to the cervical mucosa to provide protection against HPV infections. PMID:23149693

  4. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Oral HPV Infection in Young Australians

    PubMed Central

    Antonsson, Annika; Cornford, Michelle; Perry, Susan; Davis, Marcia; Dunne, Michael P.; Whiteman, David C.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV)–associated head and neck cancers is increasing, but the prevalence of oral HPV infection in the wider community remains unknown. We sought to determine the prevalence of, and identify risk factors for, oral HPV infection in a sample of young, healthy Australians. For this study, we recruited 307 Australian university students (18–35 years). Participants reported anonymously about basic characteristics, sexual behaviour, and alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs use. We collected oral rinse samples from all participants for HPV testing and typing. Seven of 307 (2.3%) students tested positive for oral HPV infection (3 HPV-18, one each of HPV-16, -67, -69, -90), and six of them were males (p?=?0.008). Compared to HPV negative students, those with oral HPV infection were more likely to have received oral sex from more partners in their lifetime (p?=?0.0004) and in the last year (p?=?0.008). We found no statistically significant associations with alcohol consumption, smoking or numbers of partners for passionate kissing or sexual intercourse. In conclusion, oral HPV infection was associated with male gender and receiving oral sex in our sample of young Australians. PMID:24637512

  5. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Glycoprotein H Interacts with Integrin ?v?3 To Facilitate Viral Entry and Calcium Signaling in Human Genital Tract Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cheshenko, Natalia; Trepanier, Janie B.; González, Pablo A.; Eugenin, Eliseo A.; Jacobs, William R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Herpes simplex virus (HSV) entry requires multiple interactions at the cell surface and activation of a complex calcium signaling cascade. Previous studies demonstrated that integrins participate in this process, but their precise role has not been determined. These studies were designed to test the hypothesis that integrin ?v?3 signaling promotes the release of intracellular calcium (Ca2+) stores and contributes to viral entry and cell-to-cell spread. Transfection of cells with small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting integrin ?v?3, but not other integrin subunits, or treatment with cilengitide, an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) mimetic, impaired HSV-induced Ca2+ release, viral entry, plaque formation, and cell-to-cell spread of HSV-1 and HSV-2 in human cervical and primary genital tract epithelial cells. Coimmunoprecipitation studies and proximity ligation assays indicated that integrin ?v?3 interacts with glycoprotein H (gH). An HSV-2 gH-null virus was engineered to further assess the role of gH in the virus-induced signaling cascade. The gH-2-null virus bound to cells and activated Akt to induce a small Ca2+ response at the plasma membrane, but it failed to trigger the release of cytoplasmic Ca2+ stores and was impaired for entry and cell-to-cell spread. Silencing of integrin ?v?3 and deletion of gH prevented phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and the transport of viral capsids to the nuclear pore. Together, these findings demonstrate that integrin signaling is activated downstream of virus-induced Akt signaling and facilitates viral entry through interactions with gH by activating the release of intracellular Ca2+ and FAK phosphorylation. These findings suggest a new target for HSV treatment and suppression. IMPORTANCE Herpes simplex viruses are the leading cause of genital disease worldwide, the most common infection associated with neonatal encephalitis, and a major cofactor for HIV acquisition and transmission. There is no effective vaccine. These epidemiological findings underscore the urgency to develop novel HSV treatment or prevention strategies. This study addresses this gap by further defining the signaling pathways the virus usurps to enter human genital tract epithelial cells. Specifically, the study defines the role played by integrins and by the viral envelope glycoprotein H in entry and cell-to-cell spread. This knowledge will facilitate the identification of new targets for the development of treatment and prevention. PMID:24942591

  6. Vaccination with HPV16 L2E6E7 fusion protein in GPI-0100 adjuvant elicits protective humoral and cell-mediated immunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Balasubramanyam Karanam; Ratish Gambhira; Shiwen Peng; Subhashini Jagu; Dae-Jin Kim; Gary W. Ketner; Peter L. Stern; Robert J. Adams; Richard B. S. Roden

    2009-01-01

    A vaccine comprising human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) L2, E6 and E7 in a single tandem fusion protein (termed TA-CIN) has the potential advantages of both broad cross-protection against HPV transmission through induction of L2 antibodies able to cross neutralize different HPV types and of therapy by stimulating T cell responses targeting HPV16 early proteins. However, patients vaccinated with TA-CIN

  7. Analytic and Clinical Performance of cobas HPV Testing in Anal Specimens from HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Follansbee, Stephen; Borgonovo, Sylvia; Tokugawa, Diane; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V.; Chen, Jie; Lorey, Thomas S.; Gage, Julia C.; Fetterman, Barbara; Boyle, Sean; Sadorra, Mark; Tang, Scott Dahai; Darragh, Teresa M.; Castle, Philip E.

    2014-01-01

    Anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are common, and the incidence of anal cancer is high in HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). To evaluate the performance of HPV assays in anal samples, we compared the cobas HPV test (cobas) to the Roche Linear Array HPV genotyping assay (LA) and cytology in HIV-infected MSM. Cytology and cobas and LA HPV testing were conducted for 342 subjects. We calculated agreement between the HPV assays and the clinical performance of HPV testing and HPV genotyping alone and in combination with anal cytology. We observed high agreement between cobas and LA, with cobas more likely than LA to show positive results for HPV16, HPV18, and other carcinogenic types. Specimens testing positive in cobas but not in LA were more likely to be positive for other markers of HPV-related disease compared to those testing negative in both assays, suggesting that at least some of these were true positives for HPV. cobas and LA showed high sensitivities but low specificities for the detection of anal intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3 (AIN2/3) in this population (100% sensitivity and 26% specificity for cobas versus 98.4% sensitivity and 28.9% specificity for LA). A combination of anal cytology and HPV genotyping provided the highest accuracy for detecting anal precancer. A higher HPV load was associated with a higher risk of AIN2/3 with HPV16 (Ptrend < 0.001), HPV18 (Ptrend = 0.07), and other carcinogenic types (Ptrend < 0.001). We demonstrate that cobas can be used for HPV detection in anal cytology specimens. Additional tests are necessary to identify men at the highest risk of anal cancer among those infected with high-risk HPV. PMID:24899025

  8. P16(INK4A) immunostaining is a strong indicator for high-risk-HPV-associated oropharyngeal carcinomas and dysplasias, but is unreliable to predict low-risk-HPV-infection in head and neck papillomas and laryngeal dysplasias.

    PubMed

    Mooren, Jeroen J; Gültekin, Sibel E; Straetmans, Jos M J A A; Haesevoets, Annick; Peutz-Kootstra, Carine J; Huebbers, Christian U; Dienes, Hans P; Wieland, Ulrike; Ramaekers, Frans C S; Kremer, Bernd; Speel, Ernst-Jan M; Klussmann, Jens P

    2014-05-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a risk factor for the development of benign and malignant mucosal head and neck lesions. P16(INK4A) is often used as a surrogate marker for HPV-infection, although there is still controversy with respect its reliability. Our aim was to determine if p16(INK4A) overexpression can accurately predict both high-risk and low-risk-HPV-presence in (pre)malignant and benign head and neck lesions. P16(INK4A) immunohistochemistry was performed on paraffin-embedded tissue sections of 162 oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCC), 14 tonsillar and 23 laryngeal dysplasias, and 20 tonsillar and 27 laryngeal papillomas. PCR, enzyme-immunoassay and FISH analysis were used to assess HPV-presence and type. Of the 162 OPSCC and 14 tonsillar dysplasias, 51 (31%) and 10 (71%) were HPV16-positive, respectively. All tonsillar papillomas were HPV-negative and four laryngeal dysplasias and 26 laryngeal papillomas were positive for HPV6 or -11. P16(INK4A) immunohistochemistry revealed a strong nuclear and cytoplasmic staining in 50 out of 51 HPV16-positive and 5 out of 111 HPV-negative OPSCC (p < 0.0001) and in all HPV16-positive tonsillar dysplasias, whereas highly variable staining patterns were detected in the papillomas and laryngeal dysplasias, irrespective of the HPV-status. In addition, the latter lesions generally showed a higher nuclear than cytoplasmic p16(INK4A) immunostaining intensity. In conclusion, our data show that strong nuclear and cytoplasmic p16(INK4A) overexpression is a reliable surrogate indicator for HPV16 in OPSCC and (adjacent) dysplasias. For HPV6 or -11-positive and HPV-negative benign and premalignant lesions of the tonsil and larynx, however, p16(INK4A) immunostaining is highly variable and cannot be recommended to predict HPV-presence. PMID:24127203

  9. Levels of immunoglobulin G antibodies against defined epitopes of the L1 and L2 capsid proteins of human papillomavirus type 6 are elevated in men with a history of condylomata acuminata.

    PubMed Central

    Wikström, A; Eklund, C; Von Krogh, G; Lidbrink, P; Dillner, J

    1992-01-01

    Sera from 159 men attending the sexually transmitted disease clinic at Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden, were analyzed for the presence of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG antibodies to a panel of synthetic peptides derived from the E2, L1, and L2 regions of the human papillomavirus types 1 (HPV 1), 6, 8, 11, 16, 18, 31, and 33. The study subjects were divided into three groups: (i) asymptomatic men with no history of genital warts who served as controls, (ii) men with visible condylomata, and (iii) men who had previously been afflicted with condylomata. There were no significant differences in antibody titers for any of the HPV 6- or 11-derived peptides among patients with current condylomata and the controls. For the peptide from L1 of HPV 6, there was an increase in the IgG titers among men with previous condylomata compared with the titers for the controls (52% versus 27% seropositivity; P less than 0.05). Also, for the peptide from L2 of HPV 6, there was an increase in the IgG titers among men who had been afflicted with condylomata previously (P less than 0.05). Increased IgA antibody titers against an HPV 16-derived peptide and an HPV 18-derived peptide were also detected. For the peptides from L1 and L2 of HPV 6, the study was extended to an additional group of 127 males attending the sexually transmitted disease clinic at Huddinge Hospital in southern Stockholm. Again, significantly increased antibody levels were detected only for IgG and only among asymptomatic men with a history of condylomata (P < 0.01 for the L1 peptide and P < 0.05 for the L2 peptide). The results suggest that the IgG response against the late proteins of HPV 6 reflects mainly previous exposure to the virus rather than ongoing viral disease. PMID:1378454

  10. Case-control study of vulvar vestibulitis risk associated with genital infections.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Elaine M; Ritchie, Justine M; Galask, Rudolph; Pugh, Erica E; Jia, Jian; Ricks-McGillan, Joan

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk of vulvar vestibulitis syndrome (VVS) associated with genital infections in a case-control study. METHODS: Diagnosed cases with VVS (n = 69) and age-frequency-matched healthy controls (n = 65) were enrolled from gynecology clinics in a university medical hospital during 1999. They were compared for potential risk factors and symptoms of disease. RESULTS: VVS cases had a significantly higher risk of physician-reported bacterial vaginosis (BV) (odds ratio, OR = 9.4), Candida albicans (OR = 5.7), pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) (OR = 11.2), trichomoniasis (OR = 20.6), and vulvar dysplasia (OR = l5.7) but no risk associated with human papillomavirus (HPV), ASCUS, cervical dysplasia, genital warts, chlamydia, genital herpes or gonorrhea. Genital symptoms reported significantly more often with VVS included vulvar burning (91 vs. 12%), dyspareunia (81 vs. 15%), vulvar itching (68 vs. 23%) and dysuria (54 vs. 19%) (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: A history of genital infections is associated with an increased risk of VVS. Long-term follow-up case-control studies are needed to elucidate etiologic mechanisms, methods for prevention and effective treatment. PMID:12648313

  11. A role for microRNA-155 expression in microenvironment associated to HPV-induced carcinogenesis in K14-HPV16 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Isabel; Gil da Costa, Rui M; Ribeiro, Joana; Sousa, Hugo; Bastos, Margarida; Rocha, Ana Faustino Carlos; Oliveira, Paula A; Medeiros, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus cause a number of diseases most notably cervical cancer. K14-HPV16 transgenic mice expressing the HPV16 early genes in squamous epithelial cells provide a suitable experimental model for studying these diseases. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that play an important role in regulating gene expression and have been suggested to play an important role in cancer development. The role of miR-155 in cancer remains controversial and there is limited evidence linking this miRNA to HPV- associated diseases. We hypothesized that miR-155 expression modulates each tissue's susceptibility to develop HPV-associated carcinogenesis. In this study, we analyzed miR-155 expression in ear and chest skin samples from 22-26 weeks old, female K14-HPV16 transgenic (HPV16+/-) and wild-type (HPV-/-) mice. Among wild-type mice the expression of miR-155 was lower in ear skin compared with chest skin (p = 0.028). In transgenic animals, in situ carcinoma was present in all ear samples whereas chest tissues only showed epidermal hyperplasia. Furthermore, in hyperplastic chest skin samples, miR-155 expression was lower than in normal chest skin (p = 0,026). These results suggest that miR-155 expression may modulate the microenvironmental susceptibility to cancer development and that high miR155 levels may be protective against the carcinogenesis induced by HPV16. PMID:25625305

  12. Warts and All: HPV in Primary Immunodeficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Leiding, Jennifer W.; Holland, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Infection with human papilloma virus (HPV) is almost universal and eventually asymptomatic, but pathologic infection with HPV is severe, recurrent, and recalcitrant to therapy. It is also an underappreciated manifestation of primary immunodeficiency. Mutations in EVER1, EVER2, GATA2, CXCR4, and DOCK8 are typically associated with extensive HPV infections, whereas several other primary immune defects have severe HPV much less frequently. We review immunodeficiencies with severe HPV infections and the mechanisms underlying them. PMID:23036745

  13. Altered expression of filaggrin in human papillomavirus (HPV) lesions of the uterine cervix

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Cintorino; S. Syrjfinen; P. Leoncini; E. Bellizzi De Marco; R. Petracca; V. Pallini; P. Tosi; R. Mfintyjfirvi; K. Syrjänen

    1988-01-01

    A series of 64 punch biopsies collected from women prospectively followed-up for cervical Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections (with and without CIN), and 38 control biopsies (normal epithelia, and classical CIN) were analysed for expression of filaggrin (a histidine-rich protein constituent of keratohyalin granules) using the ABC technique and polyclonal antibody. HPV typing was completed using the in situ hybridization technique

  14. Phase II studies to select the formulation of a multivalent HPV L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine.

    PubMed

    Luxembourg, Alain; Brown, Darron; Bouchard, Celine; Giuliano, Anna R; Iversen, Ole-Erik; Joura, Elmar A; Penny, Mary E; Restrepo, Jaime A; Romaguera, Josefina; Maansson, Roger; Moeller, Erin; Ritter, Michael; Chen, Joshua

    2015-06-01

    Our objective was to develop a multivalent prophylactic HPV vaccine that protects against infection and disease caused by HPV16/18 (oncogenic types in existing prophylactic vaccines) plus additional oncogenic types by conducting 3 Phase II studies comparing the immunogenicity (i.e., anti-HPV6/11/16/18 geometric mean titers [GMT]) and safety of 7 vaccine candidates with the licensed quadrivalent HPV6/11/16/18 vaccine (qHPV vaccine) in young women ages 16-26. In the first study (Study 1), subjects received one of 3 dose formulations of an 8-valent HPV6/11/16/18/31/45/52/58 vaccine or qHPV vaccine (control). In Study 2, subjects received one of 3 dose formulations (termed low-, mid-, and high-dose formulations, respectively) of a 9-valent HPV6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 vaccine (9vHPV vaccine) or qHPV vaccine (control). In Study 3, subjects concomitantly received qHPV vaccine plus 5-valent HPV31/33/45/52/58 or qHPV vaccine plus placebo (control). All vaccines were administered at day 1/month 2/month 6. In studies 1 and 3, anti-HPV6/11/16/18 GMTs at month 7 were non-inferior in the experimental arms compared with the control arm; however, there was a trend for lower antibody responses for all 4 HPV types. In Study 2, this immune interference was overcome with the mid- and high-dose formulations of the 9vHPV vaccine by increasing antigen and adjuvant doses. In all 3 studies, all vaccine candidates were strongly immunogenic with respect to HPV31/33/45/52/58 and were well tolerated. Based on the totality of the results, the middle dose formulation of the 9vHPV vaccine was selected for Phase III evaluation. Each 0.5mL dose contains 30?g/40?g/60?g/40?g/20?g/20?g/20?g/20?g/20?g of HPV6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 virus-like particles, and 500?g of amorphous aluminum hydroxyphosphate sulfate adjuvant.ClinicalTrials.gov numbers NCT00260039, NCT00543543, and NCT00551187. PMID:25912208

  15. A novel CD4 T-cell epitope described from one of the cervical cancer patients vaccinated with HPV 16 or 18 E7-pulsed dendritic cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xuelian Wang; Alessandro D. Santin; Stefania Bellone; Sushil Gupta; Mayumi Nakagawa

    2009-01-01

    Previously, safety and immunogenicity of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) or 18 E7-pulsed dendritic cells (DC) vaccinations\\u000a were demonstrated in a dose-escalation Phase I clinical trial which enrolled ten patients diagnosed with stage IB or IIA cervical\\u000a cancer (nine HPV 16-positive, one HPV 18-positive). The goal of the study was to define the T-cell epitopes of HPV 16 or 18

  16. Quantifying the broader economic consequences of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in Germany applying a government perspective framework.

    PubMed

    Kotsopoulos, Nikolaos; Connolly, Mark P; Remy, Vanessa

    2015-12-01

    HPV infections can cause substantial burden in females and males as it is associated with several genital cancers, in addition to genital warts. Traditional economic evaluations often focus on quantifying cost-effectiveness, however, it is increasingly recognized that vaccinations may generate broader benefits not captured in cost-effectiveness analysis. ?he aim of this study was to evaluate the broader economic consequences associated with HPV vaccination in males and females and to conduct a lifetime cost-benefit analysis of investing in universal vaccination in Germany from the perspective of government. Methodologies from generational accounting, human capital and health economics were combined to estimate the broader economic consequences of HPV vaccination including the fiscal impact for the government. A cohort model was developed simulating the medical costs and average lifetime fiscal transfers between the government and 12-year-old immunized and non-immunized males and females. To estimate tax revenue attributed to vaccination-related changes in morbidity and mortality, direct and indirect tax rates were linked to differences in age- and gender-specific earnings. Based on HPV vaccination costs, the base case cost-benefit analysis demonstrated that investing 1 in universal HPV vaccination could yield 1.7 in gross tax revenue over the lifetime of the cohorts. After taking into consideration the governmental transfers, universal HPV vaccination in Germany could result in incremental positive net discounted taxes (i.e. tax revenue-transfers) from 62 million for the German government. The vaccination of males and females with the quadrivalent HPV vaccine is likely to have positive effects on public finances. PMID:26198884

  17. Reverse Phase Protein Array profiling of oropharyngeal cancer and significance of PIK3CA mutations in HPV-associated head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sewell, Andrew; Brown, Brandee; Biktasova, Asel; Mills, Gordon B.; Lu, Yiling; Tyson, Darren R.; Issaeva, Natalia; Yarbrough, Wendell G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose HPV-associated (HPV+) oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCC) have different molecular and biological characteristics and clinical behavior compared to HPV-negative (HPV?) OPSCC. PIK3CA mutations are more common in HPV(+)OPSCC. To define molecular differences and tumor subsets, protein expression and phosphorylation were compared between HPV(+) and HPV(?) OPSCC and between tumors with and without PIK3CA mutations. Experimental design Expression of 137 total and phosphorylated proteins was evaluated by reverse phase protein array(RPPA) in 29 HPV(+) and 13 HPV(?)prospectively collected OPSCCs. 47 OPSCCs were tested for hotspot activating mutations in PIK3CA and AKT. Activation of PIK3CA downstream targets and sensitivity to pathway inhibitors were determined in HPV(+) head and neck cancer cells overexpressing wild-type or mutant PIK3CA. Results Analyses revealed forty-one differentially expressed proteins between HPV(+) and HPV(?) OPSCC categorized into functional groups: DNA repair, cell cycle, apoptosis, PI3K/AKT/mTOR, and receptor kinase pathways. All queried DNA repair proteins were significantly upregulated in HPV(+) samples. 8 of 33 HPV(+) and 0 of 14 HPV(?) tumors contained activating PIK3CA mutations. Despite all activating PIK3CA mutations occurring in HPV(+) samples, HPV(+) tumors had lower mean levels of activated AKT and downstream AKT target phosphorylation. Ectopic expression of mutant PIK3CA in HPV(+) cells increase dmTOR, but not AKT activity. HPV E6/E7 overexpression inhibited AKT phosphorylation in HPV-negative cells. Mutant PIK3CA overexpressing cells were more sensitive to a dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor compared to an AKT inhibitor. Conclusions Protein expression analyses suggest that HPV(+) and HPV(?) OPSCC differentially activate DNA repair, cell cycle, apoptosis, PI3K/AKT/mTOR, and receptor kinase pathways. PIK3CA mutations are more common in HPV(+) OPSCC and are associated with activation of mTOR, but not AKT. These data suggest that inhibitors for mTOR may have activity against HPV(+) PIK3CA mutant oropharyngeal cancers. PMID:24599934

  18. Quality of life of homosexual males with genital warts: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A recent qualitative study in Denmark showed that genital warts (GWs) can considerably lower the quality of life of heterosexual patients. In this follow-up study, we interviewed men having sex with men (MSM) suffering from GWs to obtain an in-depth understanding of their perception of GWs and determine the extent to which minority (homosexual) cultural issues affect these patients' experiences. Qualitative interviews with six MSM were performed using a semi-structured interview guide. Questions were formulated on the basis of the earlier qualitative study in heterosexual patients with GWs along with a literature review. Data were analysed using a medical anthropological approach. Findings Many MSM worried about being stigmatised and excluded from the small homosexual 'scene', their key social group, thereby lowering their chances of finding sex and love. Most participants had suffered from GWs for several years which added to the negative psycho-sexual and social effects of the disease. Participants' fears of developing anal cancer were similar to those expressed about cervical cancer by females with GWs. Conclusions Ano-genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is common and has a serious psychological and sexual impact among MSM. However, they do not benefit to the same extent as heterosexual men from the herd immunity effect of HPV vaccination of girls. The pathological profile and concerns specific to MSM should be addressed when communicating with these patients, and should be taken into account when considering HPV vaccination of boys. PMID:21050431

  19. Current trends in the etiology and diagnosis of HPV-related head and neck cancers.

    PubMed

    Chai, Ryan C; Lambie, Duncan; Verma, Mukesh; Punyadeera, Chamindie

    2015-04-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is a major risk factor for a distinct subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The current review summarizes the epidemiology of HNSCC and the disease burden, the infectious cycle of HPV, the roles of viral oncoproteins, E6 and E7, and the downstream cellular events that lead to malignant transformation. Current techniques for the clinical diagnosis of HPV-associated HNSCC will also be discussed, that is, the detection of HPV DNA, RNA, and the HPV surrogate marker, p16 in tumor tissues, as well as HPV-specific antibodies in serum. Such methods do not allow for the early detection of HPV-associated HNSCC and most cases are at an advanced stage upon diagnosis. Novel noninvasive approaches using oral fluid, a clinically relevant biological fluid, allow for the detection of HPV and cellular alterations in infected cells, which may aid in the early detection and HPV-typing of HNSCC tumors. Noninvasive diagnostic methods will enable early detection and intervention, leading to a significant reduction in mortality and morbidity associated with HNSCC. PMID:25644715

  20. Oral Sex and HPV: Population Based Indications.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Anupam; Verma, Veerendra

    2015-03-01

    Human pappilloma virus (HPV) is well established in etiology of uterine cervical cancers, but its role in head and neck cancer is strongly suggested through many epidemiological and laboratory studies. Although HPV-16 induced oropharyngeal cancer is a distinct molecular entity, its role at other sub-sites (oral cavity, larynx, nasopharynx, hypopharynx) is less well established. Oral sex is supposedly the most commonly practiced unnatural sex across the globe and may prove to be a potential transmitting link between cancers of the uterine cervix and the oropharynx in males particularly in those 10-15% non-smokers. In India with the second largest population (higher population density than China) the oral sex is likely to be a common 'recreation-tool' amongst the majority (poor) and with the concurrent highly prevalent bad cervical/oral hygiene the HPV is likely to synergize other carcinogens. Hence in accordance (or coincidently), in India the cervical cancer happens to be the commonest cancer amongst females while oral/oropharyngeal cancer amongst males. Oral sex as a link between these two cancer types, can largely be argued considering a poor level of evidence in the existing literature. The modern world has even commercialized oral sex in the form of flavored condoms. The inadequate world literature currently is of a low level of evidence to conclude such a relationship because no such specific prospective study has been carried out and also due to wide (and unpredictable) variety of sexual practices, such a relationship can only be speculated. This article briefly reviews the existing literature on various modes and population based indications for HPV to be implicated in head and neck cancer with reference to oral sexual practice. PMID:25621245

  1. HPV-Associated Cancers Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What CDC Is Doing Related Links Stay Informed Statistics for Other Kinds of Cancer Breast Cervical Colorectal ( ... Vaginal and Vulvar Cancer Home HPV-Associated Cancers Statistics Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  2. Cellular Immunity Induced by a Novel HPV-18 DNA Vaccine Encoding an E6/E7 Fusion Consensus Protein in Mice and Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jian; Harris, Kristina; Khan, Amir S.; Draghia-Akli, Ruxandra; Sewell, Duane; Weiner, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Human papilloma-virus (HPV) infection is the major cause of cervical cancer. HPV 18 is the most prevalence high-risk HPV after type 16 that accounts for the largest number of cervical cancer cases worldwide. Currently, although prophylactic vaccines have been developed, there is still an urgent need to develop therapeutic HPV vaccines for targeting tumors post infection. In this study, we utilize a novel multi-phase strategy for HPV 18 antigen development with the goal of increasing anti-HPV18 cellular immunity. Our data show that this construct can induce strong cellular immune responses against HPV 18 E6 and E7 antigens in a murine model. Moreover, when applied to Rhesus monkeys, this construct is also able to elicit cellular immunity. These data suggest such DNA immunogens are candidates for further study in the eventual context of immunotherapy for HPV-associated cancers. PMID:18455277

  3. Perspectives for Preventive and Therapeutic HPV Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ken; Doolan, Kimberley; Hung, Chien-Fu; Wu, T-C

    2010-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of female cancer death worldwide. Persistent infection with `high risk' HPV genotypes is the major etiological factor in cervical cancer and thus effective vaccination against HPV provides an opportunity to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with HPV. The FDA has approved two preventive vaccines to limit the spread of HPV. However, these are unlikely to impact upon HPV prevalence and cervical cancer rates for many years. Furthermore, preventive vaccines do not exert therapeutic effects on pre-existing HPV infections and HPV-associated lesions. In order to further impact upon the burden of HPV infections worldwide, therapeutic vaccines are being developed. These vaccines aim to generate a cell-mediated immune response to infected cells. This review discusses current preventive and therapeutic HPV vaccines and their future directions. PMID:20123582

  4. Prevention of HPV-Related Cancers in Norway: Cost-Effectiveness of Expanding the HPV Vaccination Program to Include Pre-Adolescent Boys

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Emily A.; Sy, Stephen; Nygård, Mari; Kristiansen, Ivar S.; Kim, Jane J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Increasingly, countries have introduced female vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV), causally linked to several cancers and genital warts, but few have recommended vaccination of boys. Declining vaccine prices and strong evidence of vaccine impact on reducing HPV-related conditions in both women and men prompt countries to reevaluate whether HPV vaccination of boys is warranted. Methods A previously-published dynamic model of HPV transmission was empirically calibrated to Norway. Reductions in the incidence of HPV, including both direct and indirect benefits, were applied to a natural history model of cervical cancer, and to incidence-based models for other non-cervical HPV-related diseases. We calculated the health outcomes and costs of the different HPV-related conditions under a gender-neutral vaccination program compared to a female-only program. Results Vaccine price had a decisive impact on results. For example, assuming 71% coverage, high vaccine efficacy and a reasonable vaccine tender price of $75 per dose, we found vaccinating both girls and boys fell below a commonly cited cost-effectiveness threshold in Norway ($83,000/quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained) when including vaccine benefit for all HPV-related diseases. However, at the current market price, including boys would not be considered ‘good value for money.’ For settings with a lower cost-effectiveness threshold ($30,000/QALY), it would not be considered cost-effective to expand the current program to include boys, unless the vaccine price was less than $36/dose. Increasing vaccination coverage to 90% among girls was more effective and less costly than the benefits achieved by vaccinating both genders with 71% coverage. Conclusions At the anticipated tender price, expanding the HPV vaccination program to boys may be cost-effective and may warrant a change in the current female-only vaccination policy in Norway. However, increasing coverage in girls is uniformly more effective and cost-effective than expanding vaccination coverage to boys and should be considered a priority. PMID:24651645

  5. Gene expression profiling in male genital lichen sclerosus

    PubMed Central

    Edmonds, Emma; Barton, Geraint; Buisson, Sandrine; Francis, Nick; Gotch, Frances; Game, Laurence; Haddad, Munther; Dinneen, Michael; Bunker, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc) has a bimodal distribution in boys and men. It is associated with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The pathogenesis of MGLSc is unknown. HPV and autoimmune mechanisms have been mooted. Anti extracellular matrix protein (ECM)1 antibodies have been identified in women with GLSc. The gene expression pattern of LSc is unknown. Using DNA microarrays we studied differences in gene expression in healthy and diseased prepuces obtained at circumcision in adult males with MGLSc (n = 4), paediatric LSc (n = 2) and normal healthy paediatric foreskin (n = 4). In adult samples 51 genes with significantly increased expression and 87 genes with significantly reduced expression were identified; paediatric samples revealed 190 genes with significantly increased expression and 148 genes with significantly reduced expression. Concordance of expression profiles between adult and paediatric samples indicates the same disease process. Functional analysis revealed increased expression in the adult and child MGSLc samples in the immune response/cellular defence gene ontology (GO) category and reduced expression in other categories including genes related to squamous cancer. No specific HPV, autoimmune or squamous carcinogenesis-associated gene expression patterns were found. ECM1 and CABLES1 expression were significantly reduced in paediatric and adult samples respectively. PMID:21718371

  6. Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Treated With Radiotherapy or Radiochemotherapy: Prognostic Role of TP53 and HPV Status

    SciTech Connect

    Fallai, Carlo, E-mail: carlo.fallai@istitutotumori.mi.i [Radiation Oncology Department, Fondazione IRCCS, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan (Italy); Perrone, Federica [Pathology Department, Fondazione IRCCS, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan (Italy); Licitra, Lisa [Medical Oncology Department, Fondazione IRCCS, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan (Italy); Pilotti, Silvana [Pathology Department, Fondazione IRCCS, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan (Italy); Locati, Laura; Bossi, Paolo [Medical Oncology Department, Fondazione IRCCS, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan (Italy); Orlandi, Ester; Palazzi, Mauro; Olmi, Patrizia [Radiation Oncology Department, Fondazione IRCCS, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan (Italy)

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: To study the prognostic value of the TP53 mutation and human papilloma virus (HPV) status in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). Methods and materials: The TP53 mutation and HPV status were analyzed in 78 cases of locoregionally advanced OPSCC. The possible correlation of these factors with locoregiownal control, relapse-free survival, disease-specific survival, and overall survival (OS) was also investigated. Results: Of these 78 cases, 22 had disruptive and 22 had non-disruptive (silent) TP53 mutations; the remaining 34 cases had wild-type (WT) TP53. HPV 16 DNA was found in 9 cases (11%), but all HPV-positive (HPV+) cases carried a functional p53 protein, except for 1 case that had a silent mutation. HPV+ patients fared better than HPV-negative (HPV-) patients in terms of all survival parameters, with highly statistically significant differences between the groups. Specifically, no distant metastases were observed in the HPV+ patients, whereas they occurred in 17% of the HPV- patients. However, no difference was observed between the WT TP53 and mutation group, even when this was analyzed in terms of disruptive and non-disruptive mutations. Regardless, treatment with chemotherapy nearly doubled the 5-year OS rates, both in the mutation (42% vs. 22%) and WT (30 vs. 16%) group, but only the mutation group showed improvement in all survival parameters. In addition, the second tumor-free 5-year survival rate was 72% in HPV- cases, but no second tumors were observed in HPV+ and WT p53 cases. Conclusions: Patients with HPV+ OPSCC have an excellent prognosis after radiochemotherapy, but cisplatin-based chemotherapy may not confer a satisfactory outcome, especially in WT cases, thereby justifying the additional or alternative use of taxanes and epidermal growth factor receptors inhibitors. Uncommon distant metastases and second tumors in the HPV+ group may be cause for clinicians to review the follow-up policies in these patients.

  7. Surface Conformational and Linear Epitopes on HPV16 and HPV18 L1 Virus-like Particles as Defined by Monoclonal Antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil D. Christensen; Joakim Dillner; Carina Eklund; Joseph J. Carter; Gregory C. Wipf; Cynthia A. Reed; Nancy M. Cladel; Denise A. Galloway

    1996-01-01

    A panel of 24 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was generated against human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 L1 virus-like particles (VLPs). The MAbs were screened for reactivity to a variety of VLPs prepared from HPV-6, -11, -16, -18, -31, -33, -35, and -45, cottontail rabbit papillomavirus, bovine papillomavirus type 1, and a set of 35 overlapping 20-amino-acid peptides spanning the

  8. The Male Factor: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and HPV4 Vaccine Acceptance Among African American Young Men.

    PubMed

    Sledge, Jennifer A

    2015-08-01

    The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections (STD) in the United States. In the U.S., racial and ethnic minorities are disproportionality affected by STDs. In 2009 the Food and Drug Administration approved the HPV4 vaccine for young men. It is necessary to understand African American young men's HPV knowledge, health beliefs, and perceived risk in relation to HPV4 vaccine acceptance. To date, there remains paucity in the literature regarding African American young men's HPV knowledge and HPV4 vaccine acceptance. The current study was a non-probability convenience sample of 68 African American college students. This study was part of a larger project of HPV4 vaccine acceptance. Participants completed a 68-item questionnaire about personal characteristics, HPV, and the HPV4 vaccine. A majority of the young men had heard about HPV (85 %, n = 58), however, only 38 % (n = 26) new about the HPV4 vaccine for women. Only 12.2 % (n = 9) of the respondents knew of an HPV4 vaccine for men. The top three barriers to HPV4 vaccination were that insurance would not cover the vaccine; they would have to pay a lot for the vaccine and worrying that the vaccine is not safe. Study findings suggest that HPV and HPV4 education programs, and low or no cost HPV4 vaccinations for African American young men are needed. PMID:25750108

  9. A coding variant in TMC8 (EVER2) is associated with high risk HPV infection and head and neck cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Liang, Caihua; Kelsey, Karl T; McClean, Michael D; Christensen, Brock C; Marsit, Carmen J; Karagas, Margaret R; Waterboer, Tim; Pawlita, Michael; Nelson, Heather H

    2015-01-01

    HPV infection is a causal agent in many epithelial cancers, yet our understanding of genetic susceptibility to HPV infection and resultant cancer risk is limited. Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis is a rare condition of extreme susceptibility to cutaneous HPV infection primarily attributable to mutations in TMC6 and TMC8. Genetic variation in the TMC6/TMC8 region has been linked to beta-type HPV infection and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, cervical cancer, HPV persistence and progression to cervical cancer. Here, we have tested the hypothesis that the common TMC8 SNP rs7208422 is associated with high-risk HPV infection and risk of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Seropositivity to the HPV L1 protein (HPV16, 18, 11, 31, 33, 35, 45, 52, 58) was measured in 514 cases and 452 population-based controls. Genotype was significantly associated with seropositivity to HPV18 L1 (OR TT vs AA = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.22-0.99) and borderline significantly associated with HPV16 L1 (OR TT vs AA = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.22-1.17). There was a consistent inverse association between TMC8 genotype and infection with other HPV types, including statistically significant associations for HPV31 and HPV52. Consistent with these results, the variant T genotype was associated with a reduced risk of HNSCC (ORAT: 0.63, 95% CI 0.45-0.89, ORTT: 0.54, 95% CI 0.36-0.81), even among subjects seronegative for all HPV types (ORAT: 0.71, 95% CI 0.45-1.11, ORTT: 0.54, 95% CI 0.31-0.93). Our data indicate that common genetic variation in TMC8 is associated with high-risk HPV infection and HNSCC etiology. PMID:25853559

  10. Laboratory diagnosis and epidemiology of herpes simplex 1 and 2 genital infections.

    PubMed

    Glinšek Biškup, Urška; Urši?, Tina; Petrovec, Miroslav

    2015-06-01

    Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 are the main cause of genital ulcers worldwide. Although herpes simplex virus type 2 is the major cause of genital lesions, herpes simplex virus type 1 accounts for half of new cases in developed countries. Herpes simplex virus type 2 seroprevalence rises with sexual activity from adolescence through adulthood. Slovenian data in a high-risk population shows 16% seroprevalence of HSV-2. HSV-1 and HSV-2 DNA in genital swabs was detected in 19% and 20.7%, respectively. In most cases, genital herpes is asymptomatic. Primary genital infection with herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 can be manifested by a severe clinical picture, involving the vesicular skin and mucosal changes and ulcerative lesions of the vulva, vagina, and cervix in women and in the genital region in men. Direct methods of viral genome detection are recommended in the acute stage of primary and recurrent infections when manifest ulcers or lesions are evident. Serological testing is recommended as an aid in diagnosing genital herpes in patients with reinfection in atypical or already healed lesions. When herpes lesions are present, all sexual activities should be avoided to prevent transmission of infection. Antiviral drugs can reduce viral shedding and thus reduce the risk of sexual transmission of the virus. PMID:26086165

  11. Epidemiology of Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in Developed Countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Standardized; Jean-Elie Malkin

    SUMMARY Comparisons of the seroepidemiology of genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection within and between countries are hampered by variations in tests, methods and populations sampled. Differences in seroprevalence may partly reflect variability in diagnostic efforts and healthcare awareness, expectations and utilization. To allow comparison between surveys and to improve their performance, seroepidemiological studies should use validated HSV type-specific tests,

  12. A real-time PCR approach based on SPF10 primers and the INNO-LiPA HPV genotyping extra assay for the detection and typing of human papillomavirus.

    PubMed

    Micalessi, M Isabel; Boulet, Gaëlle A; Bogers, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    A highly sensitive SPF10 real-time PCR was developed to achieve simultaneous amplification and detection of the human papillomavirus (HPV) target. That way, LiPA analysis of the HPV-negative samples can be avoided, reducing workload and cost. Here, we describe in detail a SYBR Green I-based real-time PCR assay based on SPF10 primers using the LightCycler(®) 480 system to generate and detect HPV amplicons, which are compatible with the LiPA assay. PMID:25348295

  13. Development of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies for oncogenic human papillomavirus types 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58.

    PubMed

    Brown, Martha J; Seitz, Hanna; Towne, Victoria; Müller, Martin; Finnefrock, Adam C

    2014-04-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the etiological agent for all cervical cancers, a significant number of other anogenital cancers, and a growing number of head and neck cancers. Two licensed vaccines offer protection against the most prevalent oncogenic types, 16 and 18, responsible for approximately 70% of cervical cancer cases worldwide and one of these also offers protection against types 6 and 11, responsible for 90% of genital warts. The vaccines are comprised of recombinantly expressed major capsid proteins that self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) and prevent infection by eliciting neutralizing antibodies. Adding the other frequently identified oncogenic types 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58 to a vaccine would increase the coverage against HPV-induced cancers to approximately 90%. We describe the generation and characterization of panels of monoclonal antibodies to these five additional oncogenic HPV types, and the selection of antibody pairs that were high affinity and type specific and recognized conformation-dependent neutralizing epitopes. Such characteristics make these antibodies useful tools for monitoring the production and potency of a prototype vaccine as well as monitoring vaccine-induced immune responses in the clinic. PMID:24574536

  14. HPV Genotypes Predict Survival Benefits From Concurrent Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy in Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chun-Chieh [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Science, Chang Gung University, School of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Lai, Chyong-Huey [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Huang, Yi-Ting [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chao, Angel; Chou, Hung-Hsueh [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Hong, Ji-Hong, E-mail: jihong@adm.cgmh.org.tw [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Science, Chang Gung University, School of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To study the prognostic value of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in patients with advanced cervical cancer treated with radiation therapy (RT) alone or concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT). Methods and Materials: Between August 1993 and May 2000, 327 patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage III/IVA or stage IIB with positive lymph nodes) were eligible for this study. HPV genotypes were determined using the Easychip Registered-Sign HPV genechip. Outcomes were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and the Cox proportional hazards model. Results: We detected 22 HPV genotypes in 323 (98.8%) patients. The leading 4 types were HPV16, 58, 18, and 33. The 5-year overall and disease-specific survival estimates for the entire cohort were 41.9% and 51.4%, respectively. CCRT improved the 5-year disease-specific survival by an absolute 9.8%, but this was not statistically significant (P=.089). There was a significant improvement in disease-specific survival in the CCRT group for HPV18-positive (60.9% vs 30.4%, P=.019) and HPV58-positive (69.3% vs 48.9%, P=.026) patients compared with the RT alone group. In contrast, the differences in survival with CCRT compared with RT alone in the HPV16-positive and HPV-33 positive subgroups were not statistically significant (P=.86 and P=.53, respectively). An improved disease-specific survival was observed for CCRT treated patients infected with both HPV16 and HPV18, but these differenced also were not statistically significant. Conclusions: The HPV genotype may be a useful predictive factor for the effect of CCRT in patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Verifying these results in prospective trials could have an impact on tailoring future treatment based on HPV genotype.

  15. Natural history and epidemiology of HPV infection and cervical cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xavier Castellsagué

    2008-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the most common cancer affecting women in developing countries. It has been estimated to have been responsible for almost 260 000 deaths annually, of which about 80% occurred in developing countries.Persistent infection by certain oncogenic HPV types is firmly established as the necessary cause of most premalignant and malignant epithelial lesions of the cervix and of a

  16. HPV and the Prevention of Cervical Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin C. Mahoney

    Summary Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has many significant clinical outcomes, including the development of cervical cancer. The consequences of HPV infec- tion are costly in terms of both direct and indirect costs. A significant advance in the prevention of cervical cancer and other adverse outcomes from HPV has occurred with the introduction of a vaccine to prevent infection with the

  17. Classification and nomenclature system for Human Alphapapillomavirus variants: general features, nucleotide landmarks and assignment of HPV6 and HPV11 isolates to variant lineages

    PubMed Central

    Burk, R. D.; Chen, Z.; Harari, A.; Smith, B. C.; Kocjan, B. J.; Maver, P. J.; Poljak, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Papillomaviruses constitute a family of viruses that can be classified into genera, species and types based on their viral genome heterogeneity. Currently circulating infectious human Alphapapillomaviruses (alpha-PVs) constitute a set of viral genomes that have evolved from archaic times and display features of host co-speciation. Viral variants are more recently evolved genomes that require a standardized classification and nomenclature. Objectives To describe a system for the classification and nomenclature of HPV viral variants and provide landmarks for the numbering of nucleotide positions. Methods The complete 8 kb genomes of the alpha-9 species group and HPV6 and 11 types, collected from isolates throughout the world were obtained from published reports and GenBank. Complete genomes for each HPV type were aligned using the E1 start codon and sequence divergence was calculated by global and pairwise alignments using the MUSCLE program. Phylogenetic trees were constructed from the aligned sequences using a maximum likelihood method (RAxML). Results Pairwise comparisons of nucleotide differences between complete genomes of each type from alpha-9 HPV isolates (HPV16, 31, 33, 35, 52, 58 and 67) revealed a trimodal distribution. Maximum heterogeneity for variants within a type varied from 0.6%-2.3%. Nucleotide differences of approximately 1.0%-10.0% and 0.5%-1.0% of the complete genomes were used to define variant lineages and sublineages, respectively. Analysis of 43 HPV6 complete genomes indicated the presence of 2 variant lineages, whereas 32 HPV11 isolates were highly similar and clustered into 2 sublineages. A table was constructed of the human alpha-PV landmark nucleotide sequences for future reference and alignments. Conclusions A proposed nomenclature system for viral variants and coordination of nucleotide positions will facilitate the comparison of variants across geographic regions and amongst different populations. In addition, this system will facilitate study of pathogenic, tissue tropism and functional differences amongst variant lineages of and polymorphisms within HPV variants. PMID:22131111

  18. A Human Papillomavirus (HPV) In Vitro Neutralization Assay That Recapitulates the In Vitro Process of Infection Provides a Sensitive Measure of HPV L2 Infection-Inhibiting Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Yuk-Ying S.; Kines, Rhonda C.; Thompson, Cynthia D.; Lowy, Douglas R.; Schiller, John T.

    2012-01-01

    Papillomavirus L2-based vaccines have generally induced low-level or undetectable neutralizing antibodies in standard in vitro assays yet typically protect well against in vivo experimental challenge in animal models. Herein we document that mice vaccinated with an L2 vaccine comprising a fusion protein of the L2 amino acids 11 to 88 of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16), HPV18, HPV1, HPV5, and HPV6 were uniformly protected from cervicovaginal challenge with HPV16 pseudovirus, but neutralizing antibodies against HPV16, -31, -33, -45, or -58 were rarely detected in their sera using a standard in vitro neutralization assay. To address this discrepancy, we developed a neutralization assay based on an in vitro infectivity mechanism that more closely mimics the in vivo infectious process, specifically by spaciotemporally separating primary and secondary receptor engagement and correspondingly by altering the timing of exposure of the dominant L2 cross-neutralizing epitopes to the antibodies. With the new assay, titers in the 100 to 10,000 range were measured for most sera, whereas undetectable neutralizing activities were observed with the standard assay. In vitro neutralizing titers measured in the serum of mice after passive transfer of rabbit L2 immune serum correlated with protection from cervicovaginal challenge of the mice. This “L2-based” in vitro neutralization assay should prove useful in critically evaluating the immunogenicity of L2 vaccine candidates in preclinical studies and future clinical trials. PMID:22593236

  19. Progression and regression of incident cervical HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18 infections in young women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph P Insinga; Erik J Dasbach; Elamin H Elbasha; Kai-Li Liaw; Eliav Barr

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We describe type-specific progression, regression and persistence of incident human papillomavirus (HPV)-6-11-16 and -18 infections, along with type distribution in cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN) lesions. METHODS: The study population consisted of 16–23 year-old women undergoing Pap testing and cervical swab polymerase chain reaction testing for HPV DNA at approximate 6 month intervals for up to 4 years in the

  20. Cell mediated immunity induced in mice by HPV 16 L1 virus-like particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine Dupuy; Dominique Buzoni-Gate; Antoine Touze; Pierre Le Cann; Daniel Bout; Pierre Coursaget

    1997-01-01

    Recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 L1 virus-like particles (VLPs) expressed in the baculovirus system were used to investigate the cellular immune response to human papillomavirus type 16. The cell-mediated immune response was evaluated through immunization of mice with HPV 16 L1 virus-like particles using a lymphoproliferation assay and cytokine production and cytometric analysis of lymphocyte subsets. A significant proliferative

  1. Identification of the nuclear localization and export signals of high risk HPV16 E7 oncoprotein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alixandra A. Knapp; Patrick M. McManus; Katy Bockstall; Junona Moroianu

    2009-01-01

    The E7 oncoprotein of high risk human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) binds and inactivates the retinoblastoma (RB) family of proteins. Our previous studies suggested that HPV16 E7 enters the nucleus via a novel Ran-dependent pathway independent of the nuclear import receptors (Angeline, M., Merle, E., and Moroianu, J. (2003). The E7 oncoprotein of high-risk human papillomavirus type 16 enters the

  2. Epidemiology of HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pytynia, Kristen B.; Dahlstrom, Kristina R.; Sturgis, Erich M.

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx is increasing in incidence in epidemic proportion. This site specific increase in incidence is due to an increase in human papillomavirus (HPV)-related squamous cell carcinoma, while the incidence of tobacco related squamous cell carcinoma is decreasing. In particular, the incidence of HPV-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is increased among middle aged white men, and sexual behavior is a risk factor. HPV-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma represents a growing etiologically distinct subset of head and neck cancers with unique epidemiological, clinical, and molecular characteristics that differ from those of HPV-unassociated cancers. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology of HPV-related OPSCC, the prevalence of oral/oropharyngeal HPV infection, and efforts aimed at reducing the incidence of HPV-related OPSCC. PMID:24461628

  3. Isolated Itching of the Genitals

    PubMed Central

    Pomares, Christelle; Marty, Pierre; Delaunay, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    A 38-year-old man, returned from Ivory Coast 2 months ago and presented with a 3-month history of pruritus exclusively on the scrotum. Itching was continuous during the day and no pruritus was described in his wife and son. Clinical examination of the genitals revealed several nodules on the scrotum, a chancrous lesion was seen on the penis, and multiple excoriations were noted. Dermoscopy exam with a dermatoscope of the whole body was performed and no papules, nodules, or burrow were found. Microscopic examination of several superficial skin samples obtained by scraping in the peri-genital area revealed one adult of Sarcoptes scabiei. The patient and his relatives were successfully treated with Ivermectin 200 ?g/kg with a second dose 2 weeks later. Very rare cases are described on localized scabies (scalp, feet) and they mainly occurred in an immunocompromised patient unlike this patient who does not have any immunosuppression. PMID:24696404

  4. Cleavage/Alteration of Interleukin-8 by Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 in the Female Lower Genital Tract

    PubMed Central

    Zariffard, M. Reza; Anastos, Kathryn; French, Audrey L.; Munyazesa, Elisaphane; Cohen, Mardge; Landay, Alan L.; Spear, Gregory T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Interleukin-8 (IL-8, CXCL8) plays important roles in immune responses at mucosal sites including in the lower genital tract. Since several types of bacteria produce proteases that cleave IL-8 and many types of bacteria can be present in lower genital tract microbiota, we assessed genital fluids for IL-8 cleavage/alteration. Study Design Genital fluids collected by lavage from 200 women (23 HIV-seronegative and 177 HIV-seropositive) were tested for IL-8 cleavage/alteration by ELISA. Results IL-8 cleaving/altering activity was observed in fluids from both HIV-positive (28%) and HIV-negative women (35%). There was no clear relationship between the activity and the types of bacteria present in the lower genital tract as determined by high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Protease inhibitors specific for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) reduced the activity and a multiplex assay that detects both inactive and active MMPs showed the presence of multiple MMPs, including MMP-1, -3, -7, -8, -9, -10 and -12 in genital secretions from many of the women. The IL-8-cleaving/altering activity significantly correlated with active MMP-9 as well as with cleavage of a substrate that is acted on by several active MMPs. Conclusions These studies show that multiple MMPs are present in the genital tract of women and strongly suggest that MMP-9 in genital secretions can cleave IL-8 at this mucosal site. These studies suggest that MMP-mediated cleavage of IL-8 can modulate inflammatory responses in the lower genital tract. PMID:25611319

  5. Noninferiority of Antibody Response to Human Papillomavirus Type 16 in Subjects Vaccinated with Monovalent and Quadrivalent L1 Virus-Like Particle Vaccines?

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Suzanne M.; Steben, Marc; Hernandez-Avila, Mauricio; Koutsky, Laura A.; Wheeler, Cosette M.; Perez, Gonzalo; Harper, Diane M.; Leodolter, Sepp; Tang, Grace W. K.; Ferris, Daron G.; Esser, Mark T.; Vuocolo, Scott C.; Nelson, Micki; Railkar, Radha; Sattler, Carlos; Barr, Eliav

    2007-01-01

    The incorporation of multiple antigens into a single human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine may induce immune interference. To evaluate whether interference occurs when HPV type 16 (HPV16) virus-like particles are combined in a multivalent vaccine, we conducted a study to evaluate anti-HPV16 responses among subjects receiving three-dose regimens of either a monovalent HPV16 vaccine or a quadrivalent HPV (types 6, 11, 16, and 18) vaccine. PMID:17428949

  6. Measurement of the Humoral Immune Response following an Incident Human Papillomavirus Type 16 or 18 Infection in Young Women by a Pseudovirion-Based Neutralizing Antibody Assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane Steele; Stuart Collins; Kaisheng Wen; Gordon Ryan; Christothea Constandinou-Williams; Ciaran B. J. Woodman

    2008-01-01

    We have evaluated a neutralizing antibody assay which uses human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 (HPV-16) and HPV-18 pseudovirions carrying a secretory alkaline phosphatase reporter gene and which can potentially measure functionally relevant HPV type-specific neutralizing antibodies. The reproducibility of the assay was excellent; for HPV-16, the intra- and interassay kappa values were 0.95 and 0.90, respectively; and for HPV-18, the

  7. Novel Human Papillomavirus (HPV) DNA Sequences from Recurrent Cutaneous and Mucosal Lesions of a Stoma-Carrier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrike Wieland; Gerd E Gross; Ansgar Hofmann; Nib Sohendra; Hans Peter Berlien; Herbert Pfister

    1998-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated a high prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) types originally believed to be restricted to patients with epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) in benign and malignant skin tumors of the general population. Other groups detected typical mucosal HPV in skin tumors. We have investigated recurrent leukoplakial cutaneous and mucosal lesions located around the ileostoma of a woman with ulcerative

  8. The Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus in Cervical Cancer in Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SH Mortazavi; M Raoufi; M Nadji; P Kowsarian; A Nowroozi

    2002-01-01

    Background: The human papiloma virus (HPV), which is sexually transmitted, and most commonly causes genital warts, has been linked to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive carcinoma. Of ninety plus types of HPV, HPV-16 is the most prevalent in cervical cancer, followed by HPV-18, and HPV-33. As HPV's implication has not been assessed in the Middle East the main focus of

  9. Effect of the human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine in a subgroup of women with cervical and vulvar disease: retrospective pooled analysis of trial data

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine the effect of human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine on the risk of developing subsequent disease after an excisional procedure for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or diagnosis of genital warts, vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, or vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia. Design Retrospective analysis of data from two international, double blind, placebo controlled, randomised efficacy trials of quadrivalent HPV vaccine (protocol 013 (FUTURE I) and protocol 015 (FUTURE II)). Setting Primary care centres and university or hospital associated health centres in 24 countries and territories around the world. Participants Among 17?622 women aged 15–26 years who underwent 1:1 randomisation to vaccine or placebo, 2054 received cervical surgery or were diagnosed with genital warts, vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, or vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia. Intervention Three doses of quadrivalent HPV vaccine or placebo at day 1, month 2, and month 6. Main outcome measures Incidence of HPV related disease from 60 days after treatment or diagnosis, expressed as the number of women with an end point per 100 person years at risk. Results A total of 587 vaccine and 763 placebo recipients underwent cervical surgery. The incidence of any subsequent HPV related disease was 6.6 and 12.2 in vaccine and placebo recipients respectively (46.2% reduction (95% confidence interval 22.5% to 63.2%) with vaccination). Vaccination was associated with a significant reduction in risk of any subsequent high grade disease of the cervix by 64.9% (20.1% to 86.3%). A total of 229 vaccine recipients and 475 placebo recipients were diagnosed with genital warts, vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, or vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia, and the incidence of any subsequent HPV related disease was 20.1 and 31.0 in vaccine and placebo recipients respectively (35.2% reduction (13.8% to 51.8%)). Conclusions Previous vaccination with quadrivalent HPV vaccine among women who had surgical treatment for HPV related disease significantly reduced the incidence of subsequent HPV related disease, including high grade disease. Trial registrations NCT00092521 and NCT00092534 PMID:22454089

  10. High-throughput polymerase chain reaction chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay for typing and quantifying human papillomavirus DNAs.

    PubMed

    Ambretti, Simone; Mirasoli, Mara; Venturoli, Simona; Zerbini, Marialuisa; Baraldini, Mario; Musiani, Monica; Roda, Aldo

    2004-09-15

    A miniaturized polymerase chain reaction (PCR) chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA) based on a 384-well microtiter plate for detection and typing of oncogenic high- and low-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) in genital lesions is described. The assay relies on PCR consensus amplification, hybridization of the digoxigenin-labeled product by means of type-specific biotin-labeled oligoprobes immobilized on the streptavidin-coated wells of a 384-well microtiter plate, and quantification by means of a horseradish peroxidase-labeled antidigoxigenin antibody and chemiluminescence detection. The method provides semiquantitative information on the viral load, with a limit of detection of 10-50 DNA copies for HPV 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 53, 54, 58, and 59 and high reproducibility (intraassay CV 7.5%, interassay CV 9.5%). Results obtained on 60 clinical samples were concordant with those obtained with a conventional PCR-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay colorimetric assay. The 384 PCR-CLEIA method, which is amenable to automation, represents a fast and high-throughput method for detecting and typing HPV DNAs in screening programs and evaluating the viral load. PMID:15325304

  11. Identification of Broad-Genotype HPV L2 Neutralization Site for Pan-HPV Vaccine Development by a Cross-Neutralizing Antibody.

    PubMed

    Wang, Daning; Li, Zhihai; Xiao, Jieqiong; Wang, Junqi; Zhang, Li; Liu, Yajing; Fan, Fei; Xin, Lu; Wei, Minxi; Kong, Zhibo; Yu, Hai; Gu, Ying; Zhang, Jun; Li, Shaowei; Xia, Ningshao

    2015-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV), a non-enveloped, double-stranded DNA virus, is responsible for 5% of human cancers. The HPV capsid consists of major and minor structural proteins, L1 and L2. L1 proteins form an icosahedral shell with building blocks of the pentameric capsomere, and one L2 molecule extends outward from the central hole of the capsid. Thus, L2 is concealed within L1 and only becomes exposed when the capsid interacts with host cells. The low antigenic variation of L2 means that this protein could offer a target for the development of a pan-HPV vaccine. Toward this goal, here we describe an anti-L2 monoclonal antibody, 14H6, which broadly neutralizes at least 11 types of HPV, covering types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45, 52, 58 and 59, in pseudovirion-based cell neutralization assay. The mAb 14H6 recognizes a minimal linear epitope located on amino acids 21 to 30 of the L2 protein. Alanine scanning mutagenesis and sequence alignment identified several conserved residues (Cys22, Lys23, Thr27, Cys28 and Pro29) that are involved in the 14H6 binding with L2. The epitope was grafted to several scaffolding proteins, including HPV16 L1 virus-like particles, HBV 149 core antigen and CRM197. The resultant chimeric constructs were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified with high efficiency. Immunization with these pan-HPV vaccine candidates elicited high titers of the L2-specific antibody in mice and conferred robust (3-log) titers of cross-genotype neutralization, including against HPV11, 16, 18, 45, 52, 58 and 59. These findings will help in the development of an L2-based, pan-HPV vaccine. PMID:25905781

  12. Cervical cancer screening and HPV genotype distribution among asymptomatic patients of Karachi Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Shahid, Mubeena; Kazmi, Shahana Urooj; Rehman, Ameena; Ainuddin, Jahanara; Furqan, Sayed; Nazeer, Sobia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is the second most prevalent cancer in females worldwide. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a sexually transmitted infection. However, in addition to HPV infection, other factors exist that influence the risk of developing cervical cancer. In Pakistan most women who developed cervical cancer have been infrequently or never screened. Objective: To determine the prevalence of HPV infection and its subtype profile among asymptomatic patients with pre cancerous cervical intraepithelial lesion. Methods: In this hospital-based descriptive study, 160 asymptomatic females attending gynecology clinics were subjected to HPV screening after obtaining informed consent. Cervical Scrapings were examined by cytopathology and colposcopic directed biopsies taken. High-grade intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) CIN-2, and Low-grade intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) CIN-1 were selected. Samples were analyzed for the presence of HPV-DNA general and type specific genotype 16 and 18. HPV- DNA was extracted by QIA amp DNA kit protocol and amplification was done by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and genotyped by type specific primers. Results: Out of 160, 17 Pap smear tests were positive, 6 (35.3%) with abnormal results (HSIL) CIN-2 were HPV-DNA positive. Among them, 5 (83.3%) had subtype 16 and in 1 (16.7%) case the genotype was undetectable. The remaining 11(6.9%) with pre cancer minimal abnormal (LSIL) CIN-1 presented. Out of them 3 (27.3%) were HPV-DNA positive with subtype 16. Five (45.4%) were followed by repeated pap smear every six months for two years, and the rest of 3 (27.3%) patients refused for the test. Conclusion: A high incidence of Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is found in women with pre cancerous lesion of cervix in Pakistani women.

  13. HPV-18 transformed cells fail to arrest in G1 in response to quercetin treatment.

    PubMed

    Beniston, R G; Campo, M S

    2005-05-01

    Previous work with primary human keratinocytes demonstrated that quercetin, a potent mutagen found in high levels in bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum), arrested cells in G1 with concomitant elevation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (cdki) p27Kip1. Expression of the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E6 and E7 oncoproteins, under transcriptional control of a heterologous promoter, in transformed keratinocytes failed to abrogate this arrest [Beniston, R., Campo, M.S., 2003. Quercetin elevates p27Kip1 and arrests both primary and HPV-16 E6/E7 transformed human keratinocytes in G1. Oncogene 22, 5504-5514]. Given the link between papillomavirus infection, bracken fern in the diet and cancer of the oesophagus in humans, we wished to investigate further whether cells transformed by the whole genome of HPV-16 or HPV-18, with E6 and E7 under the transcriptional control of their respective homologous promoters, would be similarly arrested in G1 by quercetin. In agreement with earlier work, quercetin arrested HPV-16 transformed cells in G1 with an increase in the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1. However, HPV-18 transformed cells did not arrest after quercetin treatment. The failure of HPV-18 transformed cells to arrest in G1 was linked to the up-regulation of the HPV-18 long control region (LCR) by quercetin, maintaining high expression of the viral transforming proteins. Transcriptional up-regulation of the HPV-18 LCR was mediated by a "quercetin responsive element" homologous to the one identified previously in the bovine papillomavirus type 4 (BPV-4) LCR. PMID:15763151

  14. Deconstructing Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Knowledge: Objective and Perceived Knowledge in Males' Intentions to Receive the HPV Vaccine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krawczyk, Andrea; Stephenson, Ellen; Perez, Samara; Lau, Elsa; Rosberger, Zeev

    2013-01-01

    Background: The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine was recently approved for men. To effectively tailor HPV education efforts toward men, it is important to understand what men know about HPV and how this knowledge relates to their decision to receive the vaccine. This study examines how objective HPV knowledge, objective HPV vaccine knowledge,…

  15. Characterization of HPV and host genome interactions in primary head and neck cancers

    PubMed Central

    Parfenov, Michael; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Gehlenborg, Nils; Freeman, Samuel S.; Danilova, Ludmila; Bristow, Christopher A.; Lee, Semin; Hadjipanayis, Angela G.; Ivanova, Elena V.; Wilkerson, Matthew D.; Protopopov, Alexei; Yang, Lixing; Seth, Sahil; Song, Xingzhi; Tang, Jiabin; Ren, Xiaojia; Zhang, Jianhua; Pantazi, Angeliki; Santoso, Netty; Xu, Andrew W.; Mahadeshwar, Harshad; Wheeler, David A.; Haddad, Robert I.; Jung, Joonil; Ojesina, Akinyemi I.; Issaeva, Natalia; Yarbrough, Wendell G.; Hayes, D. Neil; Grandis, Jennifer R.; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Meyerson, Matthew; Park, Peter J.; Chin, Lynda; Seidman, J. G.; Hammerman, Peter S.; Kucherlapati, Raju; Ally, Adrian; Balasundaram, Miruna; Birol, Inanc; Bowlby, Reanne; Butterfield, Yaron S.N.; Carlsen, Rebecca; Cheng, Dean; Chu, Andy; Dhalla, Noreen; Guin, Ranabir; Holt, Robert A.; Jones, Steven J.M.; Lee, Darlene; Li, Haiyan I.; Marra, Marco A.; Mayo, Michael; Moore, Richard A.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Robertson, A. Gordon; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Sipahimalani, Payal; Tam, Angela; Thiessen, Nina; Wong, Tina; Protopopov, Alexei; Santoso, Netty; Lee, Semin; Parfenov, Michael; Zhang, Jianhua; Mahadeshwar, Harshad S.; Tang, Jiabin; Ren, Xiaojia; Seth, Sahil; Haseley, Psalm; Zeng, Dong; Yang, Lixing; Xu, Andrew W.; Song, Xingzhi; Pantazi, Angeliki; Bristow, Christopher; Hadjipanayis, Angela; Seidman, Jonathan; Chin, Lynda; Park, Peter J.; Kucherlapati, Raju; Akbani, Rehan; Casasent, Tod; Liu, Wenbin; Lu, Yiling; Mills, Gordon; Motter, Thomas; Weinstein, John; Diao, Lixia; Wang, Jing; Fan, You Hong; Liu, Jinze; Wang, Kai; Auman, J. Todd; Balu, Saianand; Bodenheimer, Tom; Buda, Elizabeth; Hayes, D. Neil; Hoadley, Katherine A.; Hoyle, Alan P.; Jefferys, Stuart R.; Jones, Corbin D.; Kimes, Patrick K.; Marron, J.S.; Meng, Shaowu; Mieczkowski, Piotr A.; Mose, Lisle E.; Parker, Joel S.; Perou, Charles M.; Prins, Jan F.; Roach, Jeffrey; Shi, Yan; Simons, Janae V.; Singh, Darshan; Soloway, Mathew G.; Tan, Donghui; Veluvolu, Umadevi; Walter, Vonn; Waring, Scot; Wilkerson, Matthew D.; Wu, Junyuan; Zhao, Ni; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Hammerman, Peter S.; Tward, Aaron D.; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Saksena, Gordon; Jung, Joonil; Ojesina, Akinyemi I.; Carter, Scott L.; Zack, Travis I.; Schumacher, Steven E.; Beroukhim, Rameen; Freeman, Samuel S.; Meyerson, Matthew; Cho, Juok; Chin, Lynda; Getz, Gad; Noble, Michael S.; DiCara, Daniel; Zhang, Hailei; Heiman, David I.; Gehlenborg, Nils; Voet, Doug; Lin, Pei; Frazer, Scott; Stojanov, Petar; Liu, Yingchun; Zou, Lihua; Kim, Jaegil; Lawrence, Michael S.; Sougnez, Carrie; Lichtenstein, Lee; Cibulskis, Kristian; Lander, Eric; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Muzny, Donna; Doddapaneni, HarshaVardhan; Kovar, Christie; Reid, Jeff; Morton, Donna; Han, Yi; Hale, Walker; Chao, Hsu; Chang, Kyle; Drummond, Jennifer A.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Kakkar, Nipun; Wheeler, David; Xi, Liu; Ciriello, Giovanni; Ladanyi, Marc; Lee, William; Ramirez, Ricardo; Sander, Chris; Shen, Ronglai; Sinha, Rileen; Weinhold, Nils; Taylor, Barry S.; Aksoy, B. Arman; Dresdner, Gideon; Gao, Jianjiong; Gross, Benjamin; Jacobsen, Anders; Reva, Boris; Schultz, Nikolaus; Sumer, S. Onur; Sun, Yichao; Chan, Timothy; Morris, Luc; Stuart, Joshua; Benz, Stephen; Ng, Sam; Benz, Christopher; Yau, Christina; Baylin, Stephen B.; Cope, Leslie; Danilova, Ludmila; Herman, James G.; Bootwalla, Moiz; Maglinte, Dennis T.; Laird, Peter W.; Triche, Timothy; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Van Den Berg, David J.; Agrawal, Nishant; Bishop, Justin; Boutros, Paul C.; Bruce, Jeff P; Byers, Lauren Averett; Califano, Joseph; Carey, Thomas E.; Chen, Zhong; Cheng, Hui; Chiosea, Simion I.; Cohen, Ezra; Diergaarde, Brenda; Egloff, Ann Marie; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Ferris, Robert L.; Frederick, Mitchell J.; Grandis, Jennifer R.; Guo, Yan; Haddad, Robert I.; Hammerman, Peter S.; Harris, Thomas; Hayes, D. Neil; Hui, Angela BY; Lee, J. Jack; Lippman, Scott M.; Liu, Fei-Fei; McHugh, Jonathan B.; Myers, Jeff; Ng, Patrick Kwok Shing; Perez-Ordonez, Bayardo; Pickering, Curtis R.; Prystowsky, Michael; Romkes, Marjorie; Saleh, Anthony D.; Sartor, Maureen A.; Seethala, Raja; Seiwert, Tanguy Y.; Si, Han; Tward, Aaron D.; Van Waes, Carter; Waggott, Daryl M.; Wiznerowicz, Maciej; Yarbrough, Wendell; Zhang, Jiexin; Zuo, Zhixiang; Burnett, Ken; Crain, Daniel; Gardner, Johanna; Lau, Kevin; Mallery, David; Morris, Scott; Paulauskis, Joseph; Penny, Robert; Shelton, Candance; Shelton, Troy; Sherman, Mark; Yena, Peggy; Black, Aaron D.; Bowen, Jay; Frick, Jessica; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Harper, Hollie A.; Lichtenberg, Tara M.; Ramirez, Nilsa C.; Wise, Lisa; Zmuda, Erik; Baboud, Julien; Jensen, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have established that a subset of head and neck tumors contains human papillomavirus (HPV) sequences and that HPV-driven head and neck cancers display distinct biological and clinical features. HPV is known to drive cancer by the actions of the E6 and E7 oncoproteins, but the molecular architecture of HPV infection and its interaction with the host genome in head and neck cancers have not been comprehensively described. We profiled a cohort of 279 head and neck cancers with next generation RNA and DNA sequencing and show that 35 (12.5%) tumors displayed evidence of high-risk HPV types 16, 33, or 35. Twenty-five cases had integration of the viral genome into one or more locations in the human genome with statistical enrichment for genic regions. Integrations had a marked impact on the human genome and were associated with alterations in DNA copy number, mRNA transcript abundance and splicing, and both inter- and intrachromosomal rearrangements. Many of these events involved genes with documented roles in cancer. Cancers with integrated vs. nonintegrated HPV displayed different patterns of DNA methylation and both human and viral gene expressions. Together, these data provide insight into the mechanisms by which HPV interacts with the human genome beyond expression of viral oncoproteins and suggest that specific integration events are an integral component of viral oncogenesis. PMID:25313082

  16. Prevalence of HPV infection in head and neck carcinomas shows geographical variability: a comparative study from Brazil and Germany.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Franziska; Oliveira-Silva, Michelle; Dreyer, Johannes H; Perrusi, Victor José Ferreira; Arcuri, Roberto Alfonso; Hassan, Rocio; Bonvicino, Cibele Rodrigues; Barros, Mario Henrique M; Niedobitek, Gerald

    2015-06-01

    Rising prevalence rates of high-risk human papillomaviruses (hrHPV) infection in oropharyngeal carcinoma (up to 80 %) have been reported in North America and Scandinavia. We have analysed 424 German and 163 Brazilian head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) from the oral cavity (OSCC), oropharynx (OPSCC) and hypopharynx (HPSCC) using p16 immunohistochemistry, HPV DNA PCR and sequencing, hrHPV DNA in situ hybridisation (ISH) and hrHPV E6/E7 RNA ISH. In the German series, 52/424 cases (12.3 %) were p16-positive/hrHPV-positive (OSCC 3.8 % [10/265], OPSCC 34.4 % [42/122], HPSCC 0 % [0/37]). In addition, there were 9 cases that were p16-positive/hrHPV-negative (5 OPSCC and 4 OSCC). In the Brazilian series, the overall hrHPV DNA prevalence by PCR was 11.0 % ([18/163]; OSCC 6 % [5/83], OPSCC 15.5 % [11/71], HPSCC 22.2 % [2/9]). Ten of these cases were hrHPV-positive/p16-positive. The remaining 8 hrHPV-positive/p16-negative cases were also negative in both ISH assays. Furthermore, 5 p16-positive/hrHPV-negative cases (2 OPSCC and 3 OSCC) were identified. In both series, HPV16 was by far the most common HPV type detected. We confirm that regardless of geographical origin, the highest hrHPV prevalence in HNSCC is observed in oropharyngeal carcinomas. The proportion of HPV-associated OPSCC was substantially higher in the German cohort than in the Brazilian series (34.4 vs. 15.5 %), and in both groups, the prevalence of hrHPV in OPSCC was much lower than in recent reports from North America and Scandinavia. We suggest, therefore, that it may be possible to define areas with high (e.g. USA, Canada, Scandinavia), intermediate (e.g. Germany) and low (e.g. Brazil) prevalences of HPV infection in OPSCC. PMID:25820374

  17. Genital warts and anogenital papillomavirus disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles J. N. Lacey

    2010-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is an ancient stable DNA virus, which has evolved over millennia to be able to cause a variety of niche-specific cutaneous and mucosal infections and diseases, including squamous carcinoma and its precursor lesions. There are a wide variety of HPVs which are widely distributed in the human population. Anogenital infection by HPV is very frequent; it is

  18. Preventing Cervical Cancer: The Development of HPV Vaccines

    Cancer.gov

    Cervical cancer can be prevented with HPV vaccines. NCI-supported researchers helped establish HPV as a cause of cervical cancer. They also helped create the first HPV vaccines, were involved in the vaccine trials, and contribute to ongoing studies.

  19. HPV vaccine (human papillomavirus) Gardasil - what you need to know

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is taken in its entirety from the CDC HPV Gardasil® Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/hpv-gardasil.html CDC review information for HPV Gardasil® ...

  20. Position paper—HPV and the primary prevention of cancer; improving vaccine uptake by paediatricians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Ramet; Diego van Esso; Zsofia Meszner

    2011-01-01

    A large proportion of sexually active adults are infected with the human papillomaviruses (HPVs). Although largely asymptomatic,\\u000a some types of HPVs (HPV-16, HPV-18) which infect the genitalia are known to cause cancers, including cervical cancer. Cervical\\u000a cancer is an important public health concern and is the second most clinically important cancer to breast cancer in women\\u000a aged 15–44 years. Until recently,

  1. Immunogenicity and Efficacy of Intramuscular Replication-Defective and Subunit Vaccines against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 in the Mouse Genital Model

    PubMed Central

    Delagrave, Simon; Hernandez, Hector; Zhou, Changhong; Hamberger, John F.; Mundle, Sophia T.; Catalan, John; Baloglu, Simge; Anderson, Stephen F.; DiNapoli, Joshua M.; Londoño-Hayes, Patricia; Parrington, Mark; Almond, Jeffrey; Kleanthous, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is a sexually transmitted virus that is highly prevalent worldwide, causing a range of symptoms that result in significant healthcare costs and human suffering. ACAM529 is a replication-defective vaccine candidate prepared by growing the previously described dl5-29 on a cell line appropriate for GMP manufacturing. This vaccine, when administered subcutaneously, was previously shown to protect mice from a lethal vaginal HSV-2 challenge and to afford better protection than adjuvanted glycoprotein D (gD) in guinea pigs. Here we show that ACAM529 given via the intramuscular route affords significantly greater immunogenicity and protection in comparison with subcutaneous administration in the mouse vaginal HSV-2 challenge model. Further, we describe a side-by-side comparison of intramuscular ACAM529 with a gD vaccine across a range of challenge virus doses. While differences in protection against death are not significant, ACAM529 protects significantly better against mucosal infection, reducing peak challenge virus shedding at the highest challenge dose by over 500-fold versus 5-fold for gD. Over 27% (11/40) of ACAM529-immunized animals were protected from viral shedding while 2.5% (1/40) were protected by the gD vaccine. Similarly, 35% (7/20) of mice vaccinated with ACAM529 were protected from infection of their dorsal root ganglia while none of the gD-vaccinated mice were protected. These results indicate that measuring infection of the vaginal mucosa and of dorsal root ganglia over a range of challenge doses is more sensitive than evaluating survival at a single challenge dose as a means of directly comparing vaccine efficacy in the mouse vaginal challenge model. The data also support further investigation of ACAM529 for prophylaxis in human subjects. PMID:23071620

  2. Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men who have sex with men: prevalence and lack of anogenital concordance

    PubMed Central

    King, Eleanor M; Gilson, Richard; Beddows, Simon; Soldan, Kate; Panwar, Kavita; Young, Carmel; Jit, Mark; Edmunds, W John; Sonnenberg, Pam

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of oral detectable human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) attending a sexual health clinic in London and concordance with anogenital HPV infection. Such data are important to improve our understanding of the epidemiology of oral HPV and the potential use of vaccines to prevent oropharyngeal cancers. Methods Paired oral rinse samples and anogenital samples were available from 151 HIV-negative MSM within a larger cross-sectional survey. All samples were tested in parallel for 21 types of HPV DNA using an in-house assay. Results The median age of participants was 30 (IQR 25–35). The prevalence of any oral HPV and of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) was 13.7% (n=21; 95% CI 8.7 to 20.2) and 5.9% (n=9; 95% CI 2.7 to 10.9) compared with 64.9% (n=98; 95% CI 56.7 to 72.5) and 34.4% (n=52; 95% CI 26.9 to 42.6) in any anogenital sample, respectively. The prevalence of types prevented by the bivalent (HPV16/18), quadrivalent (HPV6/11/16/18) and nonavalent (HPV6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) vaccines was 1.3% (95% CI 0.2 to 4.7), 2.6% (95% CI 0.7 to 6.6) and 4.6% (95% CI 1.9 to 9.3), respectively. There was no concordance between HPV genotypes detected in oral and anogenital sites. Conclusions HR-HPV DNA, including HPV 16/18, was detected in oral specimens from HIV-negative MSM attending sexual health clinics, suggesting a potential role for vaccination, but is far less common than anogenital infection. How this relates to the risk and natural history of HPV-related head and neck cancers warrants further study. Lack of concordance with anogenital infection also suggests that oral HPV infection should be considered separately when estimating potential vaccine impact. PMID:25887283

  3. Progesterone Increases Susceptibility and Decreases Immune Responses to Genital Herpes Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charu Kaushic; Ali A. Ashkar; Lesley A. Reid; Kenneth L. Rosenthal

    2003-01-01

    Depo-provera, a long-acting progestational formulation, is widely used to facilitate infection of sexually transmitted diseases in animal models. We have previously reported that hormone treatments change suscep- tibility and immune responses to genital tract infections. In this study we compared the changes in suscepti- bility of mice to genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) after Depo-provera or a saline

  4. Meta-Analysis on Prevalence and Attribution of Human Papillomavirus Types 52 and 58 in Cervical Neoplasia Worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Paul K. S.; Ho, Wendy C. S.; Chan, Martin C. W.; Wong, Martin C. S.; Yeung, Apple C. M.; Chor, Josette S. Y.; Hui, Mamie

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence and attribution of two non-vaccine-covered HPV types (HPV52 and HPV58) across the world. Methods Meta-analysis on studies reported in English and Chinese between 1994 and 2012. Results The pooled prevalence and attribution rates of HPV52 and HPV58 in invasive cervical cancers were significantly higher in Eastern Asia compared to other regions (HPV52 prevalence: 5.7% vs. 1.8–3.6%, P<0.001; HPV52 attribution: 3.7% vs. 0.2–2.0%; HPV58 prevalence: 9.8% vs. 1.1–2.5%, P<0.001; HPV58 attribution: 6.4% vs. 0.7–2.2%, P<0.001). Oceania has an insufficient number of studies to ascertain the prevalence of HPV52. Within Eastern Asia, the attribution of HPV58 to invasive cervical cancer was 1.8-fold higher than that of HPV52. Similarly, HPV52 and HPV58 shared a higher prevalence and attribution among cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in Eastern Asia. In contrast to the classical high-risk type, HPV16, the prevalence and attribution of HPV52 and HPV58 decreased with increasing lesion severity. Thus, HPV52 and HPV58 behave as an “intermediate-risk” type. Conclusion The attribution of HPV52 and HPV58 to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cancer in Eastern Asia were respectively 2.5–2.8 and 3.7–4.9 folds higher than elsewhere. Changes in the attributed disease fraction can serve as a surrogate marker for cross-protection or type replacement following widespread use of HPV16/18-based vaccines. This unique epidemiology should be considered when designing HPV screening assays and vaccines for Eastern Asia. PMID:25229350

  5. Experiential Interventions for Clients with Genital Herpes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Anne L.

    1999-01-01

    Explores potential benefits of incorporating concepts and interventions from experimental therapy to help clients with psychosocial difficulties in learning to live with genital herpes. Recommends experimental counseling of two-chair dialog, empty chair, and metaphor for helping clients with emotional sequelae of genital herpes. Presents case…

  6. Treatment of genital warts: Facts and controversies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronni Wolf; Batya Davidovici

    2010-01-01

    There are two opposing approaches in the treatment of genital warts: (1) the traditional approach advocates complete elimination of all lesions, and (2) a second approach regards condyloma as merely a cosmetic nuisance. After a long journey through many arguments and scientific papers, we have concluded that many unknowns, uncertainties, and controversies concerning the value of treatment of genital warts

  7. Predictors of Genital Pain in Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Melissa A.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of genital pain in healthy young adult women, limited research has addressed genital pain during intercourse using contemporary models of multidimensional sexual function. The objectives of this study were threefold: (1) to identify differences in sexual functioning in women who experience genital pain compared to pain free women; (2) to identify predictors of sexual functioning in women with and without genital pain; and (3) to identify predictors of sexual satisfaction in women with and without genital pain. Sexually active female undergraduates (n = 651) were administered the Female Sexual Function Index and the Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory. We evaluated the sexual factors that impact the sexual function of women with any pain (including high and low pain groups) versus women with no history of pain. Women with genital pain reported greater rates of sexual dysfunction as compared to pain-free women; however, sexual functioning in the high versus low pain groups was distinguished primarily by vaginal lubrication. Women in the high pain group showed negative correlations between domains of sexual satisfaction and genital pain frequency and intensity that were not found in the low pain group. For pain-free women, intercourse played a strong role in sexual satisfaction, whereas non-intercourse sexual behavior was central to sexual satisfaction in women who reported pain. The evaluation of levels of genital pain may provide insight into the mechanisms underlying the impairment of sexual function, sexual behavior, and sexual satisfaction. PMID:17674182

  8. [Ethics and reproductive health: the issue of HPV vaccination].

    PubMed

    Mateji?, Bojana; Kesi?, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    The ethics of reproductive health covers a wide field of different issues, from the ethical dimensions of assisted reproduction, life of newborns with disabilities to the never-ending debate on the ethical aspects of abortion. Furthermore, increasing attention is paid to the ethical dimensions of using stem cells taken from human embryos, the creation of cloned embryos of patients for possible self-healing, and the increasingly present issue of reproductive cloning. Development of vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) has introduced new ethical aspects related to reproductive health and the need for a consensus of clinical and public-healthcare population. Today immunization with HPV vaccine is a measure for the primary prevention of cervical cancer and it provides effective protection against certain types of viruses included in the vaccine. The most often mentioned issues of discussions on ethical concerns about HPV vaccination are the recommended age of girls who should be informed and vaccinated (12-14 years), attitudes and fears of parents concerning discussion with their preadolescent daughters on issues important for their future sexual behavior, dilemma on the vaccination of boys and the role of the chosen pediatrician in providing information on the vaccination. In Serbia, two HPV vaccines have been registered but the vaccination is not compulsory. Up-till-now there has been no researches on the attitudes of physicians and parents about HPV vaccination. Nevertheless, it is very important to initiate education of general and medical public about the fact that the availability of vaccine, even if we disregard all aforementioned dilemmas, does not lead to the neglect of other preventive strategies against cervical cancer, primarily screening. The National Program for Cervical Cancer Prevention involves organized screening, i.e. regular cytological examinations of the cervical smear of all women aged 25-69 years, every three years, regardless of the vaccination status. PMID:23539924

  9. High sustained efficacy of a prophylactic quadrivalent human papillomavirus types 6\\/11\\/16\\/18 L1 virus-like particle vaccine through 5 years of follow-up

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L L Villa; R L R Costa; C A Petta; R P Andrade; J Paavonen; O-E Iversen; S-E Olsson; J Høye; M Steinwall; G Riis-Johannessen; A Andersson-Ellstrom; K Elfgren; G von Krogh; M Lehtinen; C Malm; G M Tamms; K Giacoletti; L Lupinacci; R Railkar; F J Taddeo; J Bryan; M T Esser; H L Sings; A J Saah; E Barr

    2006-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes cervical, vulvar, and vaginal cancers, precancerous dysplasia, and genital warts. We report data for the longest efficacy evaluation to date of a prophylactic HPV vaccine. In total, 552 women (16–23 years) were enrolled in a randomised, placebo-controlled study of a quadrivalent HPV 6\\/11\\/16\\/18 L1 virus-like-particle vaccine with vaccination at months 0, 2, and 6. At regular

  10. Radioimmunotherapy of experimental head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) with E6-specific antibody using a novel HPV16 positive HNSCC cell line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew Harris; Xing Guo Wang; Zewei Jiang; Gary L Goldberg; Arturo Casadevall; Ekaterina Dadachova

    2011-01-01

    Background  Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide with a poor prognosis. Human papilloma\\u000a virus (HPV) infection is associated with 20% HNSCC, and 50% of oropharyngeal carcinoma. HPV16 type is detected in 90% of all\\u000a HPV+ HNSCC. Recently we suggested a fundamentally different approach to treatment of cancers of viral origin by targeting\\u000a viral

  11. New highly potent and specific E6 and E7 siRNAs for treatment of HPV16 positive cervical cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Yamato; T Yamada; M Kizaki; K Ui-Tei; Y Natori; M Fujino; T Nishihara; Y Ikeda; Y Nasu; K Saigo; M Yoshinouchi

    2008-01-01

    Persistent infection by high-risk types of human papillomaviruses (HPV) is a necessary cause of cervical cancer, with HPV16 the most prevalent, accounting for more than 50% of reported cases. The virus encodes the E6 and E7 oncoproteins, whose expression is essential for maintenance of the malignant phenotype. To select efficacious siRNAs applicable to RNAi therapy for patients with HPV16+ cervical

  12. Benefit of fewer than three doses of HPV vaccine reported

    Cancer.gov

    Further, investigators observed that participants who received two doses six months apart showed evidence of partial protection against other HPV types not included in the vaccine formulation; experts refer to this as cross-protection. But women who received one dose, or who received two doses just one month apart, showed no evidence of cross-protection. The study was a collaborative effort by Aimée R.

  13. DCCPS: BRP: PCRB: Key Initiatives: HPV and Cervical Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    The overall goal of this study is to determine the association between serum biomarkers of oxidant load and cervical carcinogenesis among women from the Ludwig-McGill Cohort Study. The Ludgwig-McGill Cohort Study is a large prospective study which collected multiple measurements of relevant risk factors (e.g., smoking, presence of cervical inflammatory cells, dietary and circulatory concentrations of antioxidant nutrients) and endpoints (e.g., type-specific HPV persistence, viral load, and development of SIL).

  14. University Students' Knowledge and Awareness of HPV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Yacobi; Colleen Tennant; Jeanne Ferrante; Naazneen Pal; Richard Roetzheim

    1999-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of university students regarding the human papillomavirus (HPV).Methods. A random sample of 500 university students was mailed a self-administered questionnaire that elicited their knowledge and awareness about HPV and compared their knowledge and attitudes with those of other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Among the 480 deliverable

  15. Are women ready for the HPV vaccine?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian M. Slomovitz; Charlotte C. Sun; Michael Frumovitz; Pamela T. Soliman; Kathleen M. Schmeler; Heidi C. Pearson; Abbey Berenson; Pedro T. Ramirez; Karen H. Lu; Diane C. Bodurka

    2006-01-01

    Objective. An HPV (human papillomavirus) vaccine will be available soon. Because vaccination for both boys and girls will be critical to reduce the incidence of this disease, we evaluated the willingness of women to accept the HPV vaccine and to consent to having their children vaccinated. Methods. A 20-item questionnaire was distributed to women who had children between the ages

  16. HPV - a vaccine against cervical cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Desmond; H. Petousis-Harris; N. Turner

    2006-01-01

    Most cervical cancer is caused by Human papillomavirus (HPV). Protection against the major cancer-causing serotypes of this virus by vaccination is now a reality for New Zealand women. Internationally two manufacturers have candidate HPV vaccines: the bivalent Cervarix (GlaxoSmith Kline) and the tetravalent Gardasil (CSL and Merck & Co). This article focuses on Gardasil, as this vaccine is now available

  17. How will HPV vaccines affect cervical cancer?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Roden; T.-C. Wu

    2006-01-01

    Cancer of the uterine cervix is the second largest cause of cancer deaths in women, and its toll is greatest in populations that lack screening programmes to detect precursor lesions. Persistent infection with 'high risk' genotypes of human papillomavirus (HPV) is necessary, although not sufficient, to cause cervical carcinoma. Therefore, HPV vaccination provides an opportunity to profoundly affect cervical cancer

  18. Comparison of the GenoFlow human papillomavirus (HPV) test and the Linear Array assay for HPV screening in an Asian population.

    PubMed

    Wong, Oscar Gee-Wan; Lo, C K; Chow, Joanne N K; Tsun, Obe K L; Szeto, Elaine; Liu, Stephanie S; Ngan, Hextan Y S; Cheung, Annie N Y

    2012-05-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) DNA detection in cervical cytology samples is useful for primary screening of cervical cancer and for triage of patients with equivocal cytological findings. The GenoFlow HPV array test (GF assay; Diagcor Bioscience Inc., Hong Kong) was recently developed to detect 33 HPV genotypes by a "flowthrough" hybridization technology. In this study, we assessed the analytical sensitivity and reproducibility of the GF assay and compared its genotyping results with those of the Linear Array (LA) assay (Roche Molecular Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN), using 400 archived liquid-based cytology samples representing the full range of cytology findings. Genotyping findings of the GF and LA assays were concordant or compatible for 93.44% of tested samples, with a good (? = 0.797) to very good (? = 0.812) strength of agreement for assay-common and oncogenic HPV types, respectively. The two assays showed good (? = 0.635) agreement in detecting infections with multiple HPV genotypes. The lowest detection limits of the GF assay for HPV16 and HPV18 were 25 copies and 20 copies, respectively. Repeat testing of 60 samples by use of two different lots of the GF assay revealed no discordant results, suggesting good reproducibility of the assay. Both assays achieved approximately 80% and 100% sensitivity for identifying cases of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) with subsequent detection of LSIL+ and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or higher (HSIL+) in 2 years, respectively. Among ASC-US samples, the GF assay achieved the highest specificity (23.08%) for indicating subsequent identification of HSIL compared with the LA (19.23%) and Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) (8.97%) assays. The GF and LA assays showed significant discrepancy in detecting HPV genotypes 11, 26, 39, 52, and 66. More sensitive detection of HPV52 by GF assay offers an advantage in regions where HPV52 is more prevalent. The sensitivity of the GF assay for detecting patients with HSIL+ was noninferior to that of the LA assay. PMID:22337983

  19. Optical Detection of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 and Type 18 by Sequence Sandwich Hybridization With Oligonucleotide-Functionalized Au Nanoparticles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sz-Hau Chen; Kun-I Lin; Chuan-Yi Tang; Sheng-Lung Peng; Yao-Chen Chuang; Yi-Rou Lin; Jui-Ping Wang; Chih-Sheng Lin

    2009-01-01

    The importance of detecting and subtyping human papillomaviruses (HPVs) in clinical and epidemiological studies has been well addressed. In detecting the most common types of HPV, type 16 (HPV-16) and type 18 (HPV-18), in the cervical mucous of patients in a simple and rapid manner, the assay of a label- free colorimetric DNA sensing method based on sequence sandwich hybridization

  20. Efficacy of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in women aged 15-25 years with and without serological evidence of previous exposure to HPV-16/18.

    PubMed

    Szarewski, A; Poppe, W A J; Skinner, S R; Wheeler, C M; Paavonen, J; Naud, P; Salmeron, J; Chow, S-N; Apter, D; Kitchener, H; Castellsagué, X; Teixeira, J C; Hedrick, J; Jaisamrarn, U; Limson, G; Garland, S; Romanowski, B; Aoki, F Y; Schwarz, T F; Bosch, F X; Harper, D M; Hardt, K; Zahaf, T; Descamps, D; Struyf, F; Lehtinen, M; Dubin, G

    2012-07-01

    In the Phase III PATRICIA study (NCT00122681), the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine (Cervarix(®), GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals) was highly efficacious against HPV-16/18 infections and precancerous lesions in women HPV-16/18 deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA) negative and seronegative at baseline. We present further data on vaccine efficacy (VE) against HPV-16/18 in the total vaccinated cohort including women who may have been exposed to HPV-16/18 infection before vaccination. In women with no evidence of current or previous HPV-16/18 infection (DNA negative and seronegative), VE was 90.3% (96.1% confidence interval: 87.3-92.6) against 6-month persistent infection (PI), 91.9% (84.6-96.2) against cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)1+ and 94.6% (86.3-98.4) against CIN2+ [97.7% (91.1-99.8) when using the HPV type assignment algorithm (TAA)]. In women HPV-16/18 DNA negative but with serological evidence of previous HPV-16/18 infection (seropositive), VE was 72.3% (53.0-84.5) against 6-month PI, 67.2% (10.9-89.9) against CIN1+, and 68.8% (-28.3-95.0) against CIN2+ [88.5% (10.8-99.8) when using TAA]. In women with no evidence of current HPV-16/18 infection (DNA negative), regardless of their baseline HPV-16/18 serological status, VE was 88.7% (85.7-91.1) against 6-month PI, 89.1% (81.6-94.0) against CIN1+ and 92.4% (84.0-97.0) against CIN2+ [97.0% (90.6-99.5) when using TAA]. In women who were DNA positive for one vaccine type, the vaccine was efficacious against the other vaccine type. The vaccine did not impact the outcome of HPV-16/18 infections present at the time of vaccination. Vaccination was generally well tolerated regardless of the woman's HPV-16/18 DNA or serological status at entry. PMID:21858807

  1. Incidence and prognostic impact of high-risk HPV tumor infection in cervical esophageal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ludmir, Ethan B.; Palta, Manisha; Zhang, Xuefeng; Wu, Yuan; Willett, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cervical esophageal carcinoma (CEC) is an uncommon malignancy. Limited data supports the use of definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) as primary treatment. Furthermore, the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) tumor infection in CEC remains unknown. This study retrospectively analyzes both outcomes of CEC patients treated with CRT and the incidence and potential role of HPV tumor infection in CEC lesions. Methods A total of 37 CEC patients were treated with definitive CRT at our institution between 1987 and 2013. Of these, 19 had tumor samples available for high-risk HPV (types 16 and 18) pathological analysis. Results For all patients (n=37), 5-year overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and loco-regional control (LRC) rates were 34.1%, 40.2%, and 65.6%, respectively. On pathological analysis, 1/19 (5.3%) patients had an HPV-positive lesion. Conclusions Definitive CRT provides disease-related outcomes comparable to surgery. Moreover, HPV tumor infection in CEC is uncommon and its prognostic role is unclear. Our data contribute to the construction of an anatomical map of HPV tumor infection in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the upper aerodigestive tract, and suggest a steep drop in viral infection rates at sites distal to the oropharynx, including the cervical esophagus. PMID:25436117

  2. Bridging Links between Long Noncoding RNA HOTAIR and HPV Oncoprotein E7 in Cervical Cancer Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sweta; Mandal, Paramita; Sadhukhan, Tamal; Roy Chowdhury, Rahul; Ranjan Mondal, Nidhu; Chakravarty, Biman; Chatterjee, Tanmay; Roy, Sudipta; Sengupta, Sharmila

    2015-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 oncoprotein E7 plays a major role in cervical carcinogenesis by interacting with and functionally inactivating various host regulatory molecules. Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) HOTAIR is one such regulator that recruits chromatin remodelling complex PRC2, creating gene silencing H3K27?me3 marks. Hence, we hypothesized that HOTAIR could be a potential target of E7, in HPV16 related cervical cancers (CaCx). We identified significant linear trend of progressive HOTAIR down-regulation through HPV negative controls, HPV16 positive non-malignants and CaCx samples. Majority of CaCx cases portrayed HOTAIR down-regulation in comparison to HPV negative controls, with corresponding up-regulation of HOTAIR target, HOXD10, and enrichment of cancer related pathways. However, a small subset had significantly higher HOTAIR expression, concomitant with high E7 expression and enrichment of metastatic pathways. Expression of HOTAIR and PRC2-complex members (EZH2 and SUZ12), showed significant positive correlation with E7 expression in CaCx cases and E7 transfected C33A cell line, suggestive of interplay between E7 and HOTAIR. Functional inactivation of HOTAIR by direct interaction with E7 could also be predicted by in silico analysis and confirmed by RNA-Immunoprecipitation. Our study depicts one of the causal mechanisms of cervical carcinogenesis by HPV16 E7, through modulation of HOTAIR expression and function. PMID:26152361

  3. Bridging Links between Long Noncoding RNA HOTAIR and HPV Oncoprotein E7 in Cervical Cancer Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sweta; Mandal, Paramita; Sadhukhan, Tamal; Roy Chowdhury, Rahul; Ranjan Mondal, Nidhu; Chakravarty, Biman; Chatterjee, Tanmay; Roy, Sudipta; Sengupta, Sharmila

    2015-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 oncoprotein E7 plays a major role in cervical carcinogenesis by interacting with and functionally inactivating various host regulatory molecules. Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) HOTAIR is one such regulator that recruits chromatin remodelling complex PRC2, creating gene silencing H3K27?me3 marks. Hence, we hypothesized that HOTAIR could be a potential target of E7, in HPV16 related cervical cancers (CaCx). We identified significant linear trend of progressive HOTAIR down-regulation through HPV negative controls, HPV16 positive non-malignants and CaCx samples. Majority of CaCx cases portrayed HOTAIR down-regulation in comparison to HPV negative controls, with corresponding up-regulation of HOTAIR target, HOXD10, and enrichment of cancer related pathways. However, a small subset had significantly higher HOTAIR expression, concomitant with high E7 expression and enrichment of metastatic pathways. Expression of HOTAIR and PRC2-complex members (EZH2 and SUZ12), showed significant positive correlation with E7 expression in CaCx cases and E7 transfected C33A cell line, suggestive of interplay between E7 and HOTAIR. Functional inactivation of HOTAIR by direct interaction with E7 could also be predicted by in silico analysis and confirmed by RNA-Immunoprecipitation. Our study depicts one of the causal mechanisms of cervical carcinogenesis by HPV16 E7, through modulation of HOTAIR expression and function. PMID:26152361

  4. The carcinogenicity of human papillomavirus types reflects viral evolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Schiffman; Rolando Herrero; Rob DeSalle; Allan Hildesheim; Sholom Wacholder; Ana Cecilia Rodriguez; Maria C. Bratti; Mark E. Sherman; Jorge Morales; Diego Guillen; Mario Alfaro; Martha Hutchinson; Thomas C. Wright; Diane Solomon; Zigui Chen; John Schussler; Philip E. Castle; Robert D. Burk

    2005-01-01

    Persistent infections with carcinogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV) cause virtually all cervical cancers. Cervical HPV types (n > 40) also represent the most common sexually transmitted agents, and most infections clear in 1–2 years. The risks of persistence and neoplastic progression to cancer and its histologic precursor, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3), differ markedly by HPV type. To study type-specific HPV natural

  5. Female genital mutilation and cosmetic surgery: regulating non-therapeutic body modification.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Sally; Wilkinson, Stephen

    1998-10-01

    In the UK, female genital mutilation is unlawful, not only when performed on minors, but also when performed on adult women. The aim of our paper is to examine several arguments which have been advanced in support of this ban and to assess whether they are sufficient to justify banning female genital mutilation for competent, consenting women. We proceed by comparing female genital mutilation, which is banned, with cosmetic surgery, towards which the law has taken a very permissive stance. We then examine the main arguments for the prohibition of the former, assessing in each case both (a) whether the argument succeeds in justifying the ban and, if so, (b) whether a parallel argument would not also support a ban on the latter. We focus on the following arguments. Female genital mutilation should be unlawful because: (1) no woman could validly consent to it; (2) it is an oppressive and sexist practice; (3) it involves the intentional infliction of injury; (4) it causes offence. Our view is that arguments (3) and (4) are unsound and that, although arguments (1) and (2) may be sound, they support not only a ban on female genital mutilation, but also one on (some types of) cosmetic surgery. Hence, we conclude that the present legal situation in the UK is ethically unsustainable in one of the following ways. Either the ban on female genital mutilation is unjustified because arguments (1) and (2) are not in fact successful; or the law's permissive attitude towards cosmetic surgery is unjustified because arguments (1) and (2) are in fact successful and apply equally to female genital mutilation and (certain forms of) cosmetic surgery. The people of the countries where female genital mutilation is practised resent references to 'barbaric practices imposed on women by male-dominated primitive societies', especially when they look at the Western world and see women undergoing their own feminization rites intended to increase sexual desirability: medically dangerous forms of cosmetic plastic surgery, for instance.... PMID:11657294

  6. Association of tumor necrosis factor-alpha promoter variants with risk of HPV-associated oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) plays an important role in inflammation, immunity, and defense against infection and clearance of human papillomavirus (HPV). Thus, genetic variants may modulate individual susceptibility to HPV-associated oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Methods In this study we genotyped four common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TNF-? promoter [ ?308G?>?A(rs1800629), -857C?>?T (rs1799724), -863C?>?A (rs1800630), and -1031T?>?C (rs1799964)] and determined HPV16 serology in 325 OSCC cases and 335 matched controls and tumor HPV status in 176 squamous cell carcinomas of the oropharynx (SCCOP) patients. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results We found that HPV16 seropositivity alone was associated with an increased risk of OSCC (OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 2.1–4.6), and such risk of HPV16-associated OSCC was modified by each SNP. Patients with both HPV16 seropositivity and variant genotypes for each SNP had the highest risk when using patients with HPV16 seronegativity and a wild-type genotype as a comparison group. Moreover, similar results were observed for the combined risk genotypes of four variants and all such significant associations were more pronounced in several subgroups, particularly in SCCOP patients and never smokers. Notably, the combined risk genotypes of four variants were also significantly associated with tumor HPV-positive SCCOP. Conclusion Taken together, these results suggest that TNF-? SNPs may individually or, more likely, jointly affect individual susceptibility to HPV16-associated OSCC, particularly SCCOP and never smokers. Validation of our findings is warranted. PMID:23870134

  7. HPV and Genital Warts among Peruvian Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender People: Knowledge,

    E-print Network

    Jones, Peter JS

    ) and male- to-female transgendered women (TG). This study explored the knowledge, attitudes and experiences experiences were common during sexual encounters with people who had visible GW. Shame, emotional and physical

  8. Genital Warts - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... List of All Topics All Genital Warts - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amharic (amarunya) Oromo (Afaan Oromo) Spanish (español) Amharic (amarunya) ...

  9. Lipschütz Genital Ulceration Associated with Mumps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johan Chanal; Agnès Carlotti; Hélène Laude; Nadège Wallet-Faber; Marie-Françoise Avril; Nicolas Dupin

    2010-01-01

    Lipschütz ulcers are characterised by a first flare of non-sexually related acute genital ulcers (AGU) occurring in adolescent girls. Epstein-Barr primary infection is the most frequently reported aetiology but other infectious agents are probably implicated. We report the first case of mumps associated with an AGU in a 21-year-old girl. She presented a bilateral parotitis with genital ulcers, and serology

  10. Lactobacillus-dominated cervicovaginal microbiota associated with reduced HIV/STI prevalence and genital HIV viral load in African women.

    PubMed

    Borgdorff, Hanneke; Tsivtsivadze, Evgeni; Verhelst, Rita; Marzorati, Massimo; Jurriaans, Suzanne; Ndayisaba, Gilles F; Schuren, Frank H; van de Wijgert, Janneke H H M

    2014-09-01

    Cervicovaginal microbiota not dominated by lactobacilli may facilitate transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), as well as miscarriages, preterm births and sepsis in pregnant women. However, little is known about the exact nature of the microbiological changes that cause these adverse outcomes. In this study, cervical samples of 174 Rwandan female sex workers were analyzed cross-sectionally using a phylogenetic microarray. Furthermore, HIV-1 RNA concentrations were measured in cervicovaginal lavages of 58 HIV-positive women among them. We identified six microbiome clusters, representing a gradient from low semi-quantitative abundance and diversity dominated by Lactobacillus crispatus (cluster R-I, with R denoting 'Rwanda') and L. iners (R-II) to intermediate (R-V) and high abundance and diversity (R-III, R-IV and R-VI) dominated by a mixture of anaerobes, including Gardnerella, Atopobium and Prevotella species. Women in cluster R-I were less likely to have HIV (P=0.03), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2; P<0.01), and high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV; P<0.01) and had no bacterial STIs (P=0.15). Statistically significant trends in prevalence of viral STIs were found from low prevalence in cluster R-I, to higher prevalence in clusters R-II and R-V, and highest prevalence in clusters R-III/R-IV/R-VI. Furthermore, only 10% of HIV-positive women in clusters R-I/R-II, compared with 40% in cluster R-V, and 42% in clusters R-III/R-IV/R-VI had detectable cervicovaginal HIV-1 RNA (Ptrend=0.03). We conclude that L. crispatus-dominated, and to a lesser extent L. iners-dominated, cervicovaginal microbiota are associated with a lower prevalence of HIV/STIs and a lower likelihood of genital HIV-1 RNA shedding. PMID:24599071

  11. Use of 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine: updated HPV vaccination recommendations of the advisory committee on immunization practices.

    PubMed

    Petrosky, Emiko; Bocchini, Joseph A; Hariri, Susan; Chesson, Harrell; Curtis, C Robinette; Saraiya, Mona; Unger, Elizabeth R; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2015-03-27

    During its February 2015 meeting, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine (9vHPV) (Gardasil 9, Merck and Co., Inc.) as one of three HPV vaccines that can be used for routine vaccination. HPV vaccine is recommended for routine vaccination at age 11 or 12 years. ACIP also recommends vaccination for females aged 13 through 26 years and males aged 13 through 21 years not vaccinated previously. Vaccination is also recommended through age 26 years for men who have sex with men and for immunocompromised persons (including those with HIV infection) if not vaccinated previously. 9vHPV is a noninfectious, virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine. Similar to quadrivalent HPV vaccine (4vHPV), 9vHPV contains HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 VLPs. In addition, 9vHPV contains HPV 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58 VLPs. 9vHPV was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on December 10, 2014, for use in females aged 9 through 26 years and males aged 9 through 15 years. For these recommendations, ACIP reviewed additional data on 9vHPV in males aged 16 through 26 years. 9vHPV and 4vHPV are licensed for use in females and males. Bivalent HPV vaccine (2vHPV), which contains HPV 16, 18 VLPs, is licensed for use in females. This report summarizes evidence considered by ACIP in recommending 9vHPV as one of three HPV vaccines that can be used for vaccination and provides recommendations for vaccine use. PMID:25811679

  12. Female genital mutilation: a reproductive health concern.

    PubMed

    Kiragu, K

    1995-10-01

    The practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) is thought to be 2000 years old and continues today in many areas of Africa, the Mid-East, and Asia. An estimated 100-132 million women have undergone the procedure, and 2 million more are subjected to it each year during infancy, childhood, or adolescence. The World Health Organization has defined four categories of FGM. Type 1 entails removal of the prepuce and, sometimes, all or part of the clitoris. In type 2, the clitoris is removed along with all or part of the labia minora. Type 3 (infibulation) involves removal of the clitoris, some or all of the labia minora, and the sealing of the labia majora with only a small opening remaining for the flow of urine and blood. Type 4 is a general category that includes other operations on the external genitalia as well as procedures done to the vagina. The FGM procedure itself can lead to shock, death, and infection. Long-term physical effects of infibulation include difficulty in urinating, in having sexual intercourse, and in delivering a baby. The psychological and psychosexual consequences of FGM remain to be identified. FGM is still practiced because it affords status to women in certain cultures. Efforts to eradicate the practice have been made by international agencies, governments, and grassroots community advocates. Public education as well as legislative action are important tactics as are working to educate health care providers and providing alternatives to FGM as well as alternative employment opportunities to FGM practitioners. In Western countries, anti-FGM efforts are centered on women in immigrant and refugee communities. Research efforts are underway in order to provide an understanding of FGM that will allow the design of effective eradication strategies. Community input will be vital in designing and conducting such campaigns. PMID:8654884

  13. High-risk HPV detection and genotyping by APTIMA HPV using cervical samples.

    PubMed

    Pyne, Michael T; Hamula, Camille L; Tardif, Keith; Law, Christian; Schlaberg, Robert

    2015-09-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) detection and genotyping is critical for cervical cancer screening. Testing of 967 cervical cytology specimens in PreservCyt preservative revealed similar positivity rates for HC2 (13.8%) and APTIMA HPV (AHPV) tests (13.5%, p=0.89) and high overall agreement (94.6%, ?=0.77). A trend towards higher HPV16 positivity rates by the Cobas HPV test (23.0%, 26/113) compared to the AHPV genotyping assay (19.5%, 22/113; p=0.125) was noted. No cross-contamination was detected with AHPV in a challenge experiment. PMID:25956671

  14. Acetylation of intragenic histones on HPV16 correlates with enhanced HPV16 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Cecilia; Jamal Fattah, Tavan; Yu, Haoran; Nygren, Jakob; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Schwartz, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    We report that many histone modifications are unevenly distributed over the HPV16 genome in cervical cancer cells as well as in HPV16-immortalized keratinocytes. For example, H3K36me3 and H3K9Ac that are common in highly expressed cellular genes and over exons, were more common in the early than in the late region of the HPV16 genome. In contrast, H3K9me3, H4K20me3, H2BK5me1 and H4K16Ac were more frequent in the HPV16 late region. Furthermore, a region encompassing the HPV16 early polyadenylation signal pAE displayed high levels of histone H3 acetylation. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors caused a 2- to 8-fold induction of HPV16 early and late mRNAs in cervical cancer cells and in immortalized keratinocytes, while at the same time increasing the levels of acetylated histones in the cells and on the HPV16 genome specifically. We concluded that increased histone acetylation on the HPV16 genome correlates with increased HPV16 gene expression. PMID:25900886

  15. Human antibodies recognize multiple distinct type-specific and cross-reactive regions of the minor capsid proteins of human papillomavirus types 6 and 11.

    PubMed Central

    Yaegashi, N; Jenison, S A; Batra, M; Galloway, D A

    1992-01-01

    Human serum samples derived from a case-control study of patients with cervical carcinoma (n = 174) or condyloma acuminatum (n = 25) were tested for the presence of immunoglobulin G antibodies to human papillomavirus type 6 (HPV6) L2 and HPV11 L2 recombinant proteins in a Western immunoblot assay. Thirty-six samples (18%) were positive for HPV6 L2 antibodies alone, 25 (13%) were positive for HPV11 L2 antibodies alone, and 34 (17%) were positive for both HPV6 L2 and HPV11 L2 antibodies. Thirty samples that were positive for both antibodies were tested for the presence of HPV6-HPV11 L2 cross-reactive antibodies. Fifteen (50%) serum samples contained HPV6-HPV11 L2 cross-reactive antibodies, and 15 (50%) contained independent, type-specific HPV6 L2 and HPV11 L2 antibodies. Altogether, 82% of the HPV6 L2 and HPV11 L2 antibody reactivities were type specific and 18% were HPV6-HPV11 cross-reactive. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of antibody reactivities between samples from patients with cervical carcinoma and those with condyloma acuminatum. Deletion mapping identified five HPV6 L2 regions that reacted with HPV6 type-specific antibodies: 6U1 (amino acids [aa] 152 to 173), 6U2 (aa 175 to 191), 6U3 (aa 187 to 199), 6U4 (aa 201 to 217), and 6U5 (aa 351 to 367). Five HPV11 L2 regions that reacted with HPV11 type-specific antibodies were identified: 11U1 (aa 49 to 84), 11U2 (aa 147 to 162), 11U3 (aa 179 to 188), 11U4 (aa 180 to 200), and 11U5 (aa 355 to 367). Two HPV6-HPV11 cross-reactive regions were identified: 6CR1 (HPV6 L2 aa 106 to 128)/11CR1 (HPV11 L2 aa 103 to 127) and 6CR2 (HPV6 L2 aa 187 to 199)/11CR2 (HPV11 L2 aa 180 to 200). Images PMID:1312618

  16. [Prevalence of human papilloma virus types and their influence on the course of the disease in children suffering from recurrent respiratory papillomatosis].

    PubMed

    Obchinnikov, Iu M; Kiselev, V I; Soldatski?, Iu L; Artem'ev, M I; Onufrieva, E K; Baranovski?, P M; Shchepin, N V; Smetanina, S E; Gasparian, S F; Steklov, A M

    2004-01-01

    The type of human papilloma virus (HPV) was determined in 26 children aged between 1 year 10 months to 15 years 5 months suffering from recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP). Polymerase chain reaction identified DNA of HPV type 6, 11, 16 and 18. HPV DNA was detected in all the patients including fifteen patients infected with HPV type 11; seven patients infected with HPV type 6; four children infected with HPV type 6 and 11. Types 16 and 18 of HPV were not detected. The analysis of RRP course has found that laryngeal papillomatosis runs a more aggressive course in cases with HPV type 11 infection than in those with HPV type 6. PMID:15159735

  17. Potential cost-effectiveness of the nonavalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine.

    PubMed

    Drolet, Mélanie; Laprise, Jean-François; Boily, Marie-Claude; Franco, Eduardo L; Brisson, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Randomized clinical trials are currently examining the efficacy of a nonavalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, including HPV-types 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58. Evidence on the cost-effectiveness of the nonavalent is required for timely policy-decisions. We compared the potential cost-effectiveness of the nonavalent and quadrivalent HPV vaccines. We used a multi-type individual-based transmission-dynamic model of HPV infection and diseases, 70-year time-horizon, 3% discount rate and healthcare payer perspective. We calibrated the model to Canadian sexual behavior and epidemiologic data, and estimated Quality-Adjusted Life-Years (QALYs) lost and costs ($CAN 2010) from the literature. Under base-case assumptions (vaccinating 10-year-old girls, 80% coverage, 95$/dose, vaccine-type efficacy = 95%, cross-protection for the quadrivalent vaccine, duration of vaccine-type protection (cross-protection) = 20 (10) years), using the quadrivalent and nonavalent vaccines is estimated to cost $15,528 [12,056; 19,140] and $12,203 [9,331; 17,292] per QALY-gained, respectively. At equal price, the nonavalent vaccine is more cost-effective than the quadrivalent vaccine, even when assuming both shorter duration of protection (nonavalent = 20 years vs. quadrivalent = lifelong) and lower vaccine-type efficacy (nonavalent = 85% vs. quadrivalent = 95%). However, the additional cost per dose of the nonavalent vaccine should not exceed $11 to remain more cost-effective than the quadrivalent vaccine, and $24 to represent a cost-effective alternative to the quadrivalent vaccine (using a $40,000/QALY-gained threshold). The nonavalent vaccine can be a cost-effective alternative to the quadrivalent vaccine, even in scenarios where nonavalent vaccine efficacy is 85%. However, because most cervical cancers are caused by HPV-16/18, it is unlikely that the nonavalent would be used if its efficacy against these types is lower than current HPV vaccines. PMID:24174175

  18. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis: An update

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Meenakshi; Sood, Seema; Mukherjee, Anjan; Muralidhar, Sumathi; Bala, Manju

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of curable bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide. It manifests primarily as urethritis in males and endocervicitis in females. Untreated chlamydial infection in man can cause epididymitis and proctitis. Though most women with Chlamydia infection are asymptomatic or have minimal symptoms, some develop salpingitis, endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy and tubal factor infertility. It is associated with an increased risk for the transmission or acquisition of HIV and is also attributed to be a risk factor for the development of cervical carcinoma. Early diagnosis and treatment of infected individuals is required to prevent the spread of the disease and severe sequelae. Traditionally, tissue culture was considered the gold standard for the diagnosis. However, with the availability of newer diagnostic techniques particularly molecular methods which are not only highly sensitive and specific but are cost-effective also, the diagnosis has became fast and easy. The purpose of this review is to study the various aspects of genital C. trachomatis infection. Also the advances related to the clinical picture, various diagnostic modalities, prevention, treatment, drug resistance and control measures will be dealt with. PMID:24135174

  19. Preferential Activation of the Hedgehog Pathway by Epigenetic Modulations in HPV Negative HNSCC Identified with Meta-Pathway Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fertig, Elana J.; Markovic, Ana; Danilova, Ludmila V.; Gaykalova, Daria A.; Cope, Leslie; Chung, Christine H.; Ochs, Michael F.; Califano, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is largely divided into two groups based on their etiology, human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive and –negative. Global DNA methylation changes are known to drive oncogene and tumor suppressor expression in primary HNSCC of both types. However, significant heterogeneity in DNA methylation within the groups results in different transcriptional profiles and clinical outcomes. We applied a meta-pathway analysis to link gene expression changes to DNA methylation in distinguishing HNSCC subtypes. This approach isolated specific epigenetic changes controlling expression in HPV? HNSCC that distinguish it from HPV+ HNSCC. Analysis of genes identified Hedgehog pathway activation specific to HPV? HNSCC. We confirmed that GLI1, the primary Hedgehog target, showed higher expression in tumors compared to normal samples with HPV? tumors having the highest GLI1 expression, suggesting that increased expression of GLI1 is a potential driver in HPV? HNSCC. Our algorithm for integration of DNA methylation and gene expression can infer biologically significant molecular pathways that may be exploited as therapeutics targets. Our results suggest that therapeutics targeting the Hedgehog pathway may be of benefit in HPV? HNSCC. Similar integrative analysis of high-throughput coupled DNA methylation and expression datasets may yield novel insights into deregulated pathways in other cancers. PMID:24223768

  20. Vaginal immunization of Cynomolgus monkeys with Streptococcus gordonii expressing HIV1 and HPV 16 antigens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Di Fabio; D. Medaglini; C. M. Rush; F. Corrias; G. L. Panzini; M. Pace; P. Verani; G. Pozzi; F. Titti

    1998-01-01

    Cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were immunized by intravaginal administration of live recombinant Streptococcus gordonii. The vaccine strains of S. gordonii expressed the V3 domain of the gp120 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), and the E7 protein of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV 16). Multiple inocula of recombinant bacteria were used, since S. gordonii could persist for no longer

  1. HPV and cancer of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Hübbers, Christian U; Akgül, Baki

    2015-04-01

    Increased awareness of human papillomavirus (HPV) as an etiological cause of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma has increased the interest in analysis of distinct oral sub-sites. It is currently under debate, whether HPV plays a role in the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC). The weakness in most published studies is the lack of performing different HPV detection tests combined with analysis for biological activity of the virus. In addition, different sub-sites of the oral cavity had been combined to a single entity, which retrospectively leads to a highly heterogeneous basis of data. In this review we mainly discuss the unclear role of HPV in OSCC development. PMID:25654476

  2. Vaccine Reduces HPV Infections in Young Men

    Cancer.gov

    An international randomized clinical trial has shown that the vaccine Gardasil can reduce the incidence of anogenital human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in young men 16 to 26 years of age at the time of vaccination.

  3. Investigating a cluster of vulvar cancer in young women: a cross-sectional study of genital human papillomavirus prevalence

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Vulvar cancer is a relatively rare malignancy, which occurs most often in postmenopausal women. We have previously identified a geographic cluster of vulvar cancer in young Indigenous women living in remote communities in the Arnhem Land region of Australia. In this population, we investigated the prevalence of oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in anogenital samples (vulvar/vaginal/perianal area and cervix) and compared the overall, type-specific and multiple infection prevalence between sites. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 551 Indigenous women aged 18–60 years was undertaken in 9 Arnhem Land communities. Women were consented for HPV detection and genotyping collected by a combined vulvar/vaginal/perianal (VVP) sweep swab and a separate PreservCyt endocervical sample collected during Pap cytology screening. HPV DNA testing was undertaken using PCR with broad spectrum L1 consensus PGMY09/11 primers with genotyping of positive samples by Roche Linear Array. The primary outcomes were the prevalence of cervical and VVP high-risk (HR) HPV. Results The prevalence of VVP HR-HPV was 39%, which was significantly higher than the cervical HR-HPV prevalence (26%, p<0.0001). HPV-16 was the most common genotype detected in both sites (VVP 11%, cervical 6%). HPV-16 infection peaked in women aged <20 years; however, there was a marked decline in cervical HPV-16 prevalence with age (p=0.007), whereas following an initial decline, the prevalence of VVP HPV-16 remained constant in subsequent age-groups (p=0.835). Conclusions In this population experiencing a cluster of vulvar cancer, the prevalence of cervical oncogenic HPV infection was similar to that reported by studies of other Australian women; however there was a significantly higher prevalence of vulvar/vaginal/perianal infection to cervical. The large discrepancy in HPV prevalence between anogenital sites in this population may represent more persistent infection at the vulva. This needs further investigation, including the presence of possible environmental and/or genetic factors that may impair host immunity. PMID:23040203

  4. School Nurses' Role as Opinion Leaders Regarding the HPV Vaccine for Youth 

    E-print Network

    Rosen, Brittany Leigh

    2013-06-17

    The most common sexually transmitted infection for both males and females is the human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is responsible for nearly all cervical cancers. Currently, an HPV vaccine is available; however, HPV ...

  5. A novel method for multiplex genotyping in a single reactor using GTPlex-PyroSeq: genotyping HPV as a prototype.

    PubMed

    Oh, Myungsok; Hoehn, Benjamin Douglass; Moon, Youngho; Oh, Taejeong; Ko, Youngbok; An, Sungwhan

    2012-07-01

    Herein, we describe a novel multiplex genotyping method, GTPlex-PyroSeq. This method consists of two phases: multiplex PCR followed by a single reaction of pyrosequencing. This study demonstrates how GTPlex-PyroSeq can be adapted for the determination of multiple human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes. A biotinylated consensus primer, GP6+, and 15 high-risk HPV type-specific primers are used for multiplex PCR. Each type-specific primer has a 5'-tag unique ID sequence connected to a pyrosequencing primer binding region. The unique ID sequence is composed of three parts: i) a single nucleotide ID representing a specific genotype; ii) a sign post; and iii) an end mark. This design allows multiple genotype determination under an ID sequence-dependent nucleotide dispensation order during pyrosequencing. Following initial studies using HPV plasmids and cell lines, we evaluated the clinical utility and effectiveness by comparing our assay with direct sequencing and HPV DNA chip analysis of 80 samples from high-risk, HPV-positive patients. We found in single-type infections, 100% concordance with direct sequencing (70 of 80 perfect matches) and 97.5% concordance with HPV DNA chip data (50 of 80 perfect matches). Additionally, our system was superior to direct sequencing in detection of multiple infections (12 of 80), with a limit of detection of 100 copies. The scalability of this multiplex system, with its open-platform design and ability to use various sample types, makes the GTPlex applicable for use in multiple settings. PMID:22575716

  6. Against which human papillomavirus types shall we vaccinate and screen? The international perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Munoz; F. Xavier Bosch; X Castellsague; M Diaz; Silvia de Sanjose; Doudja Hammouda; Keerti V. Shah; Chris J. L. M. Meijer

    2004-01-01

    At least 15 types of HPV have been associated with cervical cancer, but current HPV vaccines confer only type-specific immunity. To determine geographic variations in the HPV type distribution in cervical cancer, we carried out a pooled analysis of data from an international survey of HPV types in cervical cancer and from a multicenter case-control study, both co-coordinated by the

  7. Initial symptoms in patients with HPV-positive and HPV-negative oropharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    McIlwain, Wesley R; Sood, Amit J; Nguyen, Shaun A; Day, Terry A

    2014-05-01

    IMPORTANCE This study addresses the most common initial symptoms of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) and investigates differences between human papillomavirus (HPV)–positive vs HPV-negative tumors. OBJECTIVES To analyze the most common initial symptoms in patients with OPSCC and to determine if any differences in initial symptoms occur between HPV-positive and HPV-negative tumors. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS Retrospective single-institution review of medical records of previously untreated patients with OPSCC diagnosed from January 1, 2008, toMay 20, 2013, who were evaluated by 1 physician (the senior author, T.A.D.) at the Medical University of South Carolina. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES We determined the most common initial symptoms of OPSCC and analyzed differences between HPV-positive and HPV-negative tumors. RESULTS Neck mass (in 39 patients [44%]) and sore throat (in 29 patients [33%]) comprised the most common initial symptoms in OPSCC. Patients who were HPV-positive were more likely to initially notice a neck mass than HPV-negative patients (51% vs 18%; P = .02), whereas HPV-negative patients were more likely to notice sore throat (53%vs 28%; P = .09), dysphagia (41% vs 10%; P = .05), or odynophagia (24%vs 6%; P = .04). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE This study provides preliminary evidence supporting neck mass and sore throat as the initial symptoms of patients with OPSCC. Patients who were HPV-positive more commonly complained of a neck mass as the initial symptom, whereas HPV-negative patients more commonly had symptoms related to the primary tumor site, including sore throat, dysphagia, and/or odynophagia. PMID:24652023

  8. Guidance on Management of Asymptomatic Neonates Born to Women With Active Genital Herpes Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Kimberlin, David W.; Baley, Jill; Brady, Michael T.; Byington, Carrie L.; Davies, H. Dele; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Glode, Mary P.; Jackson, Mary Anne; Keyserling, Harry L.; Maldonado, Yvonne A.; Murray, Dennis L.; Orenstein, Walter A.; Schutze, Gordon E.; Willoughby, Rodney E.; Zaoutis, Theoklis E.; Papile, Lu-Ann; Bhutani, Vinod K.; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Cummings, James; Kumar, Praveen; Polin, Richard A.; Tan, Rosemarie C.; Wang, Kasper S.; Watterberg, Kristi L.

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection of the neonate is uncommon, but genital herpes infections in adults are very common. Thus, although treating an infant with neonatal herpes is a relatively rare occurrence, managing infants potentially exposed to HSV at the time of delivery occurs more frequently. The risk of transmitting HSV to an infant during delivery is determined in part by the mother’s previous immunity to HSV. Women with primary genital HSV infections who are shedding HSV at delivery are 10 to 30 times more likely to transmit the virus to their newborn infants than are women with recurrent HSV infection who are shedding virus at delivery. With the availability of commercial serological tests that reliably can distinguish type-specific HSV antibodies, it is now possible to determine the type of maternal infection and, thus, further refine management of infants delivered to women who have active genital HSV lesions. The management algorithm presented herein uses both serological and virological studies to determine the risk of HSV transmission to the neonate who is delivered to a mother with active herpetic genital lesions and tailors management accordingly. The algorithm does not address the approach to asymptomatic neonates delivered to women with a history of genital herpes but no active lesions at delivery. PMID:23359576

  9. Time Course of Humoral and Cell-Mediated Immune Responses to Human Papillomavirus Type 16 in Infected Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mayumi Nakagawa; Raphael Viscidi; Ian Deshmukh; Maria Da Costa; Joel M. Palefsky; Sepideh Farhat; Anna-Barbara Moscicki

    2002-01-01

    The time course of cell-mediated and humoral immune responses was elucidated in eight women with human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) infection by performing serial HPV-16 E6 and E7 cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) assays and HPV-16 virus-like particle (VLP) antibody analyses. Four subjects had a single incident of HPV-16 DNA detection, and four subjects had two periods of HPV-16 DNA detection. In

  10. Staurosporine-induced apoptosis of HPV positive and negative human cervical cancer cells from different points in the cell cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B Bernard; T Fest; J-L Prétet; C Mougin

    2001-01-01

    In the present study, we compare the sensitivity of CaSki and HeLa cells (HPV positive, wild-type p53) and C33A cells (HPV negative, mutated p53) to a protein kinase inhibitor, the staurosporine (ST). We show that ST can reversibly arrest the three cervical-derived cell lines, either in G1 or in G2\\/M. Beyond certain ST concentrations or\\/and over 24 h exposure, the

  11. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection in Southern Chinese Women -- A Population-Based Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie Si Liu; Kelvin Yuen Kwong Chan; Rebecca Ching Yu Leung; Karen Kar Loen Chan; Kar Fai Tam; May Hiu Mei Luk; Sue Seen Tsing Lo; Daniel Yee Tak Fong; Annie Nga Yin Cheung; Zhong Qiu Lin; Hextan Yuen Sheung Ngan; Torbjorn Ramqvist

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundPersistent high-risk type Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is recognized as a necessary cause of cervical cancer. This study aimed to compare the HPV prevalence and risk factors between women residing in Hong Kong (HK) and Guangzhou (GZ) region of China.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsA total of 1,570 and 1,369 women were recruited from HK and GZ, respectively. The cytology samples were collected and

  12. Epidemiology of HPV 16 and Cervical Cancer in Finland and the Potential Impact of Vaccination: Mathematical Modelling Analyses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruanne V Barnabas; Päivi Laukkanen; Pentti Koskela; Osmo Kontula; Matti Lehtinen; Geoff P Garnett

    2006-01-01

    BackgroundCandidate human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines have demonstrated almost 90%-100% efficacy in preventing persistent, type-specific HPV infection over 18 mo in clinical trials. If these vaccines go on to demonstrate prevention of precancerous lesions in phase III clinical trials, they will be licensed for public use in the near future. How these vaccines will be used in countries with national cervical

  13. Phase II trial of imiquimod and HPV therapeutic vaccination in patients with vulval intraepithelial neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Daayana, S; Elkord, E; Winters, U; Pawlita, M; Roden, R; Stern, P L; Kitchener, H C

    2010-01-01

    Background: Vulval intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) is a premalignant condition, which is frequently associated with type HPV16 infection, and multifocal disease has high rates of surgical treatment failure. Methods: We report a phase II clinical trial of the topical immunomodulator, imiquimod, for 8 weeks, followed by 3 doses (weeks 10, 14 and 18) of therapeutic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination (TA-CIN, fusion protein HPV16 E6E7L2) in 19 women with VIN grades 2 and 3. Histology and HPV testing of biopsies were performed at weeks 0, 10, 20 and 52. Intralesional infiltration of T-cell subsets and lymphocyte proliferation for HPV systemic immune responses were also assessed. Results: Lesion response (complete regression of VIN on histology) was observed in 32% (6 out of 19) of women at week 10, increasing to 58% (11 out of 19) at week 20 and 63% (12 out of 19) at week 52. At this time, 36% (5 out of 14) of lesions showed HPV16 clearance and 79% (15 out of 19) of women were symptom free. At week 20, after treatment with imiquimod and vaccination, there was significantly increased local infiltration of CD8 and CD4 T cells in lesion responders; in contrast, non-responders (persistent VIN by histology) showed an increased density of T regulatory cells. After vaccination, only lesion responders had significantly increased lympho-proliferation to the HPV vaccine antigens. Conclusion: The therapeutic effect of treatment depends on the differential immune response of responders and non-responders with affect locally and systemically. PMID:20234368

  14. Herd immunity effect of the HPV vaccination program in Australia under different assumptions regarding natural immunity against re-infection.

    PubMed

    Korostil, Igor A; Peters, Gareth W; Law, Matthew G; Regan, David G

    2013-04-01

    Deterministic dynamic compartmental transmission models (DDCTMs) of human papillomavirus (HPV) transmission have been used in a number of studies to estimate the potential impact of HPV vaccination programs. In most cases, the models were built under the assumption that an individual who cleared HPV infection develops (life-long) natural immunity against re-infection with the same HPV type (this is known as SIR scenario). This assumption was also made by two Australian modelling studies evaluating the impact of the National HPV Vaccination Program to assist in the health-economic assessment of male vaccination. An alternative view denying natural immunity after clearance (SIS scenario) was only presented in one study, although neither scenario has been supported by strong evidence. Some recent findings, however, provide arguments in favour of SIS. We developed HPV transmission models implementing life-time (SIR), limited, and non-existent (SIS) natural immunity. For each model we estimated the herd immunity effect of the ongoing Australian HPV vaccination program and its extension to cover males. Given the Australian setting, we aimed to clarify the extent to which the choice of model structure would influence estimation of this effect. A statistically robust and efficient calibration methodology was applied to ensure credibility of our results. We observed that for non-SIR models the herd immunity effect measured in relative reductions in HPV prevalence in the unvaccinated population was much more pronounced than for the SIR model. For example, with vaccine efficacy of 95% for females and 90% for males, the reductions for HPV-16 were 3% in females and 28% in males for the SIR model, and at least 30% (females) and 60% (males) for non-SIR models. The magnitude of these differences implies that evaluations of the impact of vaccination programs using DDCTMs should incorporate several model structures until our understanding of natural immunity is improved. PMID:23434388

  15. Anal cytological abnormalities and anal HPV infection in men with Centers for Disease Control group IV HIV disease.

    PubMed Central

    Palefsky, J M; Holly, E A; Ralston, M L; Arthur, S P; Hogeboom, C J; Darragh, T M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterise risk factors for abnormal and cytology and anal human papilloma virus (HPV) infection in homosexual/bisexual men with advanced HIV related immunosuppression. DESIGN: Cross sectional study of men with Centers for Disease Control group IV HIV disease. SETTING: The University of California San Francisco, AIDS Clinic. PATIENTS: 129 homosexual or bisexual men with group IV HIV disease. METHODS: A questionnaire was administered detailing tobacco, alcohol and recreational drug use, medical history, and sexual practices. Anal swabs for cytology and HPV studies were obtained, as was blood for CD4 levels. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Abnormal anal cytology and anal HPV infection. RESULTS: Abnormal anal cytology was detected in 39% of subjects and anal HPV infection in 93% as measured by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Risk factors for abnormal cytology in multivariate analysis included HPV 16/18 infection (measured by PCR, RR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.2-3.5) and intravenous drug use (RR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.2-2.7). Infection with HPV 6/11 also had significantly elevated RRs in a separate model. Cigarette smoking, alcohol use, recreational drug use, and low CD4 level were associated with abnormal anal cytology in univariate analysis, as was infection with multiple HPV types and high levels of hybrid capture group B viral DNA. CONCLUSIONS: Anal cytological abnormalities and HPV infection are common among homosexual/bisexual men with group IV HIV disease. In this study population, the main risk factors for abnormal cytology were HPV infection and intravenous drug use. Images PMID:9306896

  16. High-risk HPV nucleic acid detection kit–the careHPV test –a new detection method for screening

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Hong; Jing, Fang; Fanghui, Zhao; Youlin, Qiao; Yali, Hu

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the clinical accuracy of the correlation between the careHPV test and the HC2 test, as well as the correlation between the careHPV test and the HPV-PCR test. From September 21 to December 31, 2009, 419 cervical specimens from women, 30–49 years, were collected. All women were assessed by Digene HC2 High-Risk HPV DNA Test (HC2), careHPV test, and HPV-PCR. The concordance rate between careHPV and HC2 was 93.81% and between careHPV and HPV-PCR 88.12%. The sensitivity and specificity of the careHPV test to detect cancers of equal or greater severity than CIN 2 were 85.71% and 83.15% respectively. Results from careHPV, HC2, and HPV-PCR were highly consistent. The careHPV test has good sensitivity and specificity for the detection of HPV infection and is a promising primary screening method for cervical cancer in low-resource regions. PMID:24736475

  17. Identification of type-specific and cross-reactive neutralizing conformational epitopes on the major capsid protein of human papillomavirus type 31

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. J. Fleury; A. Touzé; E. Alvarez; G. Carpentier; C. Clavel; J.-F. Vautherot; P. Coursaget

    2006-01-01

    Summary.  The majority of the neutralizing epitopes of papillomaviruses (PV) are conformation-specific and have not been fully characterised.\\u000a Studies have, to date, been limited to a few HPV types only. We analysed the epitopes on the major capsid protein (L1) of\\u000a Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 31 using monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) generated against HPV-31 virus-like particles (VLPs).\\u000a The type-specific MAbs against HPV-31

  18. Differential in vitro immortalization capacity of eleven (probable) [corrected] high-risk human papillomavirus types.

    PubMed

    Schütze, Denise M; Snijders, Peter J F; Bosch, Leontien; Kramer, Duco; Meijer, Chris J L M; Steenbergen, Renske D M

    2014-02-01

    Epidemiological studies identified 12 high-risk HPV (hrHPV) types and 8 probable/possible hrHPV types that display different cancer risks. Functional studies on transforming properties of hrHPV are mainly limited to HPV16 and -18, which induce immortalization of human foreskin keratinocytes (HFKs) by successive bypass of two proliferative life span barriers, senescence and crisis. Here, we systematically compared the in vitro immortalization capacities, as well as influences on p53, pRb, hTERT, growth behavior, and differentiation capacity, of nine hrHPV types (HPV16, -18, -31, -33, -35, -45, -51, -52, and -59), and two probable hrHPV types (HPV66 and -70). By retroviral transduction, the respective E6/E7 coding sequences were expressed in HFKs from two or three independent donors. Reduced p53 levels and low-level hTERT expression in early-passage cells, as seen in HPV16-, -31-, -33-, and -35-, and to a lesser extent HPV18-transduced HFKs, was associated with continuous growth and an increased immortalization capacity. Less frequent immortalization by HPV45 and -51 and immortalization by HPV66 and -70 was preceded by an intervening period of strongly reduced growth (crisis) without prior increase in hTERT expression. Immortalization by HPV59 was also preceded by a period crisis, despite the onset of low hTERT expression at early passage. HPV52 triggered an extended life span but failed to induce immortality. Variations in p53 and pRb levels were not correlated with differences in alternative E6/E7 mRNA splicing in all hrHPV-transduced HFKs. On collagen rafts, transductants showed disturbed differentiation reminiscent of precancerous lesions. In conclusion, in vitro oncogenic capacities differ between the established hrHPV types, and both some established and probable hrHPV types display weak or moderate immortalization potential. PMID:24257607

  19. Differential In Vitro Immortalization Capacity of Eleven, Probable High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Types

    PubMed Central

    Schütze, Denise M.; Snijders, Peter J. F.; Bosch, Leontien; Kramer, Duco; Meijer, Chris J. L. M.

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies identified 12 high-risk HPV (hrHPV) types and 8 probable/possible hrHPV types that display different cancer risks. Functional studies on transforming properties of hrHPV are mainly limited to HPV16 and -18, which induce immortalization of human foreskin keratinocytes (HFKs) by successive bypass of two proliferative life span barriers, senescence and crisis. Here, we systematically compared the in vitro immortalization capacities, as well as influences on p53, pRb, hTERT, growth behavior, and differentiation capacity, of nine hrHPV types (HPV16, -18, -31, -33, -35, -45, -51, -52, and -59), and two probable hrHPV types (HPV66 and -70). By retroviral transduction, the respective E6/E7 coding sequences were expressed in HFKs from two or three independent donors. Reduced p53 levels and low-level hTERT expression in early-passage cells, as seen in HPV16-, -31-, -33-, and -35-, and to a lesser extent HPV18-transduced HFKs, was associated with continuous growth and an increased immortalization capacity. Less frequent immortalization by HPV45 and -51 and immortalization by HPV66 and -70 was preceded by an intervening period of strongly reduced growth (crisis) without prior increase in hTERT expression. Immortalization by HPV59 was also preceded by a period crisis, despite the onset of low hTERT expression at early passage. HPV52 triggered an extended life span but failed to induce immortality. Variations in p53 and pRb levels were not correlated with differences in alternative E6/E7 mRNA splicing in all hrHPV-transduced HFKs. On collagen rafts, transductants showed disturbed differentiation reminiscent of precancerous lesions. In conclusion, in vitro oncogenic capacities differ between the established hrHPV types, and both some established and probable hrHPV types display weak or moderate immortalization potential. PMID:24257607

  20. Nip the HPV encoded evil in the cancer bud: HPV reshapes TRAILs and signaling landscapes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    HPV encoded proteins can elicit ectopic protein–protein interactions that re-wire signaling pathways, in a mode that promotes malignancy. Moreover, accumulating data related to HPV is now providing compelling substantiation of a central role played by HPV in escaping immunosurveillance and impairment of apoptotic response. What emerges is an intricate network of Wnt, TGF, Notch signaling cascades that forms higher-order ligand–receptor complexes routing downstream signaling in HPV infected cells. These HPV infected cells are regulated both extracellularly by ligand receptor axis and intracellularly by HPV encoded proteins and impair TRAIL mediated apoptosis. We divide this review into different sections addressing how linear signaling pathways integrate to facilitate carcinogenesis and compounds that directly or indirectly reverse these aberrant interactions offer new possibilities for therapy in cancer. Although HPV encoded proteins mediated misrepresentation of pathways is difficult to target, improved drug-discovery platforms and new technologies have facilitated the discovery of agents that can target dysregulated pathways in HPV infected cervical cancer cells, thus setting the stage for preclinical models and clinical trials. PMID:23773282

  1. Comparison of Onclarity Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Assay with Hybrid Capture II HPV DNA Assay for Detection of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 2 and 3 Lesions.

    PubMed

    Bottari, F; Sideri, M; Gulmini, C; Igidbashian, S; Tricca, A; Casadio, C; Carinelli, S; Boveri, S; Ejegod, D; Bonde, J; Sandri, M T

    2015-07-01

    Analytical and clinical performance validation is essential before introduction of a new human papillomavirus (HPV) assay into clinical practice. This study compares the new BD Onclarity HPV assay, which detects E6/E7 DNA from 14 high-risk HPV types, to the Hybrid Capture II (HC2) HPV DNA test, to concurrent cytology and histology results, in order to evaluate its performance in detecting high-grade cervical lesions. A population of 567 women, including 325 with ?ASCUS (where ASCUS stands for atypical cells of undetermined significance) and any HC2 result and 242 with both negative cytology and negative HC2 results, were prospectively enrolled for the study. The overall agreement between Onclarity and HC2 was 94.6% (95% confidence intervals [CI], 92.3% to 96.2%). In this population with a high prevalence of disease, the relative sensitivities (versus adjudicated cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2 and 3 [CIN2+] histology endpoints) of the Onclarity and HC2 tests were 95.2% (95% CI, 90.7% to 97.5%) and 96.9% (95% CI, 92.9% to 98.7%), respectively, and the relative specificities were 50.3% (95% CI, 43.2% to 57.4%) for BD and 40.8% (95% CI, 33.9%, 48.1%) for HC2. These results indicate that the BD Onclarity HPV assay has sensitivity comparable to that of the HC2 assay, with a trend to an increased specificity. Moreover, as Onclarity gives the chance to discriminate between the different genotypes, we calculated the genotype prevalence and the absolute risk of CIN2+: HPV 16 was the most prevalent genotype (19.8%) with an absolute risk of CIN2+ of 77.1%. PMID:25903574

  2. The knowledge levels and opinions of biomedical students regarding the human papillomavirus quadrivalent (types 6, 11, 16, and 18) recombinant vaccine.

    PubMed

    Tsau, Kristy; Reutzel, Thomas J; Wang, Sheila; Quiñones, Ana; Nguyen, Patrick; Hasan, Shehrbano; Workman, Gloria

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the knowledge levels and attitudes of all students enrolled in 1 biomedical university regarding the human papillomavirus quadrivalent (types 6, 11, 16, and 18) recombinant vaccine (Gardasil-Merck; the HPV vaccine). A survey of students from all 7 programs at the University was conducted in January 2009. A total of 1120 useable questionnaires were obtained. These programs included pharmacy, osteopathic medicine, physician assistant, physical therapy, occupational therapy, doctor of psychology, and master of biomedical sciences. Mean percentage correct on the HPV vaccine knowledge test was 73. Subjects scored highest on the question that asks whether the vaccine helps prevent cervical cancer (97% correct) and lowest on the one asking whether it helps prevent genital warts (41% correct). Eighty-eight percent thought that patients 18 years and older should be able to receive the HPV vaccine without parental consent. Only about 5% think that the vaccine would cause patients to become sexually active, or that it would cause patients to have unprotected sex. The results suggest that these students have reasonable but limited knowledge of the vaccine. Their positive attitudes suggest that they will likely recommend or provide the vaccine to their patients. PMID:21712218

  3. Antibody responses among adolescent females receiving the quadrivalent HPV vaccine series corresponding to standard or non-standard dosing intervals.

    PubMed

    Russell, Kate; Dunne, Eileen F; Kemper, Alex R; Dolor, Rowena J; Unger, Elizabeth R; Panicker, Gitika; Markowitz, Lauri E; Walter, Emmanuel B

    2015-04-15

    Quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV4) is recommended as a 3-dose series administered at 0, 1-2, and 6 months. However, this dosing schedule is often not followed leading to longer dosing intervals. We conducted a prospective study to assess antibody titers to HPV4 when dose 2 and/or dose 3 were administered on schedule or delayed. Healthy females (N=331) aged 9-18 years were enrolled at the time of receipt of HPV4 dose 2 or 3. Participants were classified as belonging to one of four groups depending upon timing of receipt of HPV4: both doses on time; only dose 2 delayed later than 90 days; only dose 3 delayed later than 180 days; or both doses 2 and 3 delayed. Pre- and post-dose 3 blood samples were assayed for HPV antibody titers (types 6, 11, 16, and 18). Post-dose 3 geometric mean titers (GMTs) for all HPV types were not significantly lower for any of the delayed dosing groups when compared to the on time group. When compared to the on time group, the post dose 3 GMTs in the delayed dose 3 group were significantly higher (p<0.05) for HPV types 6, 11, and 16. Our findings suggest that delays of dose 2 or 3 do not interfere with immune responses after completion of the 3-dose series. These results support current recommendations to not administer additional doses of HPV4 vaccine if dose 2, dose 3, or both doses have been administered late. PMID:25744229

  4. Honeybee venom possesses anticancer and antiviral effects by differential inhibition of HPV E6 and E7 expression on cervical cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Wan; Chaturvedi, Pankaj Kumar; Chun, Sung Nam; Lee, Yang Gu; Ahn, Woong Shick

    2015-04-01

    Bee venom (BV) therapy is a type of alternative medical treatment used to treat various diseases in oriental medicine. The mechanisms underlying the effects of BV remain poorly understood. In the present study, we evaluated the antiviral effect of BV on cervical carcinoma cell lines (CaSki, HeLa, C33A and TC-1). BV treatments resulted in a more significant suppression of cell growth in HPV 16-infected cells (CaSki) and a lesser suppression in HPV 18-infected cells (HeLa). However, less suppression was observed in HPV-negative C33A cells. In 10 µg/ml BV-treated CaSki cells, the mRNA expression and protein levels of HPV16 E6 and E7 were significantly decreased by BV, while HPV18 E6 and E7 mRNA expression levels were not significantly altered by 10 µg/ml BV-treated HeLa cells. The antitumor effects of BV were in accordance with in vitro data, in restricting tumor growth in vivo and were much more effective on the suppression of tumor growth. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein expression levels of HPV16 E6 and E7 were decreased by BV in TC-1 tumors. These findings demonstrated the antiviral effects of BV in HPV-infected cervical cancer cells and the anticancer effects of BV in HPV16 E6/E7-expressed TC-1 tumors. Collectively, BV plays a differential role in suppressing HPV16-infected cells (CaSki cells) and HPV18-infected cells (HeLa cells) by the downregulation of E6/E7 protein of HPV16/18. PMID:25633640

  5. Identification of promiscuous HPV16-derived T helper cell epitopes for therapeutic HPV vaccine design.

    PubMed

    Grabowska, Agnieszka K; Kaufmann, Andreas M; Riemer, Angelika B

    2015-01-01

    Cervical carcinoma and several other human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced malignancies are a global public health problem, thus novel treatment modalities are urgently needed. Immunotherapy is an attractive option for treatment of HPV infection and HPV-mediated premalignant and malignant lesions. However, previous approaches--focusing on the induction of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells (CTLs)--have as yet not yielded clinical successes. Since CD4+ T cells have been shown to be crucial for the induction and maintenance of CTL responses, and more recently to be also important for direct anti-tumor immunity, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II-restricted epitopes are intensively investigated to improve the efficacy of peptide-based HPV immunotherapy. We here present an approach to identify promiscuous HPV16-derived CD4+ T helper epitopes, which are capable of inducing T cell immunity in a large proportion of the population. To this end, we combined HLA class II epitope prediction servers with in vitro immunological evaluation to identify HPV16 E2-, E5-, E6-, and E7-derived CD4+ T cell epitopes. Candidate selected HPV16-derived epitopes were found to be restricted by up to nine HLA-DR molecules. Furthermore, they were found to induce frequent and robust HPV16 peptide-specific Th1 responses in healthy donors, as monitored by interferon (IFN)-? ELISPOT and cytokine secretion assays. Moreover, these selected peptides also induced specific IFN-? T cell responses in blood from HPV16+ CIN2/3 and cervical carcinoma patients. We thus conclude that the identified T helper epitopes are valuable candidates for the development of a comprehensive therapeutic HPV vaccine. PMID:24824905

  6. Innovations in HPV vaccination and roles of nurses in cervical cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Julide Gulizar; Arabaci, Zeynep

    2014-01-01

    The human papilloma virus (HPV) is the main aetiological agent for cervical cancer, one of the most frequent cancers observed in women throughout the world. There are effective programs for reducing the incidence of cervical cancer with HPV vaccination. The objective of this study was to discuss the applicability of the HPV vaccination and the role of nurses in prevention of cervical cancer. Use of bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines has been initiated against the types of HPV which are the primary cause of cancer. The quadrivalent HPV vaccination has entered into the routine vaccination schedule in many European countries for use in children and adolescents between 9-15 years of age and for women between 16-26 years of age, whereas it has been proposed that the bivalent vaccination should be given to girls between 9-18 years of age. While cervical cancer is among the cancers that can be prevented, it is essential to continue screening tests while introducing vaccination in a systematic manner for protection. On this subject, among the most important roles of nurses is to implement the screening programs by fulfilling the caregiving, training and consultancy roles for the society and especially, for high risk groups and to increase the awareness of the people. PMID:25556424

  7. The relationship between anti-HPV-16 IgG seropositivity and cancer of the cervix, anogenital organs, oral cavity and pharynx, oesophagus and prostate in a black South African population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Freddy Sitas; Margaret Urban; Lara Stein; Valerie Beral; Paul Ruff; Martin Hale; Moosa Patel; Dianne O'Connell; Xue Qin Yu; Anke Verzijden; Dianne Marais; Anna-Lise Williamson

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) infection is an important cause of cervical cancer, other anogenital cancers and, possibly, some oral and pharyngeal cancers. The association of HPV-16 with oesophageal and with prostate cancers has not been firmly established. METHODS: We analysed sera from 3,757 HIV seronegative black South Africans using an anti-HPV IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The subjects

  8. Mothers' acceptance of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for daughters in a country with a high prevalence of HPV.

    PubMed

    Alder, Susanna; Gustafsson, Sofia; Perinetti, Claudia; Mints, Miriam; Sundström, Karin; Andersson, Sonia

    2015-05-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women in Argentina and the mortality rate is not declining despite opportunistic screening. Free-of-charge human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of 11-year-old girls was introduced in 2011. Parental acceptance of HPV vaccination is considered to be of great importance for HPV vaccine uptake. However, little is known regarding this factor in Argentina. The aim of the present study was to explore maternal HPV vaccination acceptance, willingness to pay for HPV vaccination and correlates of this willingness, awareness of HPV and HPV-associated disease and behaviors and attitudes associated with HPV vaccination acceptance. A total of 180 mothers of girls aged 9-15 years comprised this quantitative, cross-sectional, survey-based study, conducted at two hospitals in the Mendoza Province. Correlates of willingness to pay for HPV vaccination were obtained using multivariable logistic regression models. Maternal HPV vaccination acceptance was 90%, and 60% of mothers were willing to pay for HPV vaccination. Mothers who were gainfully employed and had a higher disposable household income were significantly more willing to pay for HPV vaccination [odds ratio (OR)=2.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-6.38; OR=3.28, 95% CI 1.36-7.94, respectively], as were mothers who were aware of cervical cancer prior to the study (OR=3.22, 95% CI 1.02-10.14). Only one in 10 mothers were informed that HPV vaccination does not offer complete protection against cervical cancer. In conclusion, the present study showed high maternal HPV vaccination acceptance, although acceptance decreased when vaccination was not free-of-charge. Continuous public education campaigns are needed to improve knowledge of HPV, HPV vaccines and HPV-associated disease. PMID:25738832

  9. Update on adolescent immunization: pertussis, meningococcus, HPV, and the future.

    E-print Network

    Yeh, S. H; Lieberman, J. M

    2007-01-01

    approved vaccine covers the four serotypes of HPV that causecause rare, but serious, adverse reactions. Acellular pertussis vaccines,cause of female cancer-related deaths worldwide after breast cancer. 68 HPV vaccines

  10. DCCPS: BRP: PCRB: Key Initiatives: HPV and Cervical Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Twitter Multimedia Home About Key Initiatives Funding Resources Tools Cancer Control & Population Sciences Home Behavioral Research Program Home Process of Care Research Branch Process of Care Research Branch (PCRB) Key Initiatives HPV and Cervical Cancer HPV

  11. A systematic investigation of the contribution of genetic variation within the MHC region to HPV seropositivity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dan; Gaborieau, Valérie; Zhao, Yao; Chabrier, Amélie; Wang, Huibo; Waterboer, Tim; Zaridze, David; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Bencko, Vladimir; Janout, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Mates, Ioan Nicolae; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Boffetta, Paolo; Pawlita, Michael; Lathrop, Mark; Gyllensten, Ulf; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James D

    2015-05-01

    High-risk mucosal types of human papillomavirus (HPV) cause anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers, whereas cutaneous types (e.g. HPV8 and 77) are suspected to be involved in non-melanoma skin cancer. The antibody response to HPVs is a key determinant of protective immunity, but not all infected individuals seroconvert. Genetic variability of the host may have large impact on seroconversion. A previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) has identified a susceptibility locus (rs41270488) for HPV8 seropositivity within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region. To further study this locus, we imputed alleles at classical leukocyte antigen (HLA) loci using HLA*IMP:02 with a reference panel from the HapMap Project and the 1958 Birth Cohort, and conducted an integrated analysis among 4811 central European subjects to assess the contribution of classical HLA alleles and gene copy number variation (CNV) at the hypervariable DRB locus within the MHC region to HPV seropositivity at both the individual HPV type level and the phylogenetic species level. Our study provides evidence that the association noted between rs41270488 and HPV8 seropositivity is driven by two independent variants, namely DQB1*0301 [odds ratio (OR) = 1.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.36-1.68, P = 1.0 × 10(-14)] and DRB1*1101 (OR = 1.89, 95%CI = 1.57-2.28, P = 1.5 × 10(-11)) within the HLA class II region. Additionally, we identified two correlated alleles DRB1*0701 (OR = 1.67, 95%CI = 1.41-1.98, P = 2.6 × 10(-9)) and DQA1*0201 (OR = 1.67, 95%CI = 1.38-1.93, P = 1.7 × 10(-8)), to be associated with HPV77 seropositivity. Comparable results were observed through imputation using SNP2HLA with another reference panel from the Type 1 diabetes Genetics Consortium. This study provides support for an important role of HLA class II alleles in antibody response to HPV infection. PMID:25616963

  12. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type distribution in invasive cervical cancer in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Denny, Lynette; Adewole, Isaac; Anorlu, Rose; Dreyer, Greta; Moodley, Manivasan; Smith, Trudy; Snyman, Leon; Wiredu, Edwin; Molijn, Anco; Quint, Wim; Ramakrishnan, Gunasekaran; Schmidt, Johannes

    2014-03-15

    In sub-Saharan Africa, invasive cervical cancer (ICC) incidence and mortality are among the highest in the world. This cross-sectional epidemiological study assessed human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and type distribution in women with ICC in Ghana, Nigeria, and South Africa. Cervical biopsy specimens were obtained from women aged ? 21 years with lesions clinically suggestive of ICC. Histopathological diagnosis of ICC was determined by light microscopy examination of hematoxylin and eosin stained sections of paraffin-embedded cervical specimens; samples with a confirmed histopathological diagnosis underwent HPV DNA testing by polymerase chain reaction. HPV-positive specimens were typed by reverse hybridization line probe assay. Between October 2007 and March 2010, cervical specimens from 659 women were collected (167 in Ghana, 192 in Nigeria and 300 in South Africa); 570 cases were histologically confirmed as ICC. The tumor type was identified in 551/570 women with ICC; squamous cell carcinoma was observed in 476/570 (83.5%) cases. The HPV-positivity rate in ICC cases was 90.4% (515/570). In ICC cases with single HPV infection (447/515 [86.8%]), the most commonly detected HPV types were HPV16 (51.2%), HPV18 (17.2%), HPV35 (8.7%), HPV45 (7.4%), HPV33 (4.0%) and HPV52 (2.2%). The prevalence of single and multiple HPV infections seemed higher among HIV-positive women and HPV type distribution appeared to differ according to tumor type and HIV status. In conclusion, HPV16, 18, 45 and 35 were the most common HPV types in sub-Saharan African women with ICC and HPV infections were more common in HIV-positive women. PMID:23929250

  13. Analysis of peripheral blood immune cells after prophylactic immunization with HPV-16/18 ASO4-adjuvanted vaccine.

    PubMed

    Hus, Iwona; Gonet-Sebastianka, Joanna; Surdacka, Agata; Bojarska-Junak, Agnieszka; Roli?ski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Persistent infection with oncogenic types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is a causal factor for more than 99% of cervical cancers. Recently, prophylactic vaccines have been developed to prevent infections with cancer-associated HPV types (HPV16 and HPV18). The aim of this study was to analyze the changes in the immune system that occur within four weeks of the first dose of HPV-16/18 ASO4-adjuvanted vaccine. Assessment of the percentages of selected cell populations in peripheral blood of 20 healthy volunteers vaccinated with Cervarix was performed using flow cytometry. The analysis revealed an increase in the proportion of activated B and CD4+ T helper cells and an absence of significant differences in cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocytes, indicating activation of the humoral response after vaccination, without a significant effect on cellular response. There were no significant changes in the NK cell population, and there was a reduction of the percentage of NKT-like cells, which may result from expiry of the primary response at the time of analysis. The presented results are preliminary, and in the context of the increasing use of the anti-HPV vaccine, it would be worth continuing the study in larger groups of patients and at earlier and later time points in combination with the measurement of specific anti-HPV16 and -HPV18 antibody levels. Such an assessment could therefore contribute not only to better understanding of the exact mechanism of action of the vaccine, but also to defining the immunological parameters that determine its effectiveness. PMID:25983293

  14. Construction of Prophylactic Human Papillomavirus Type 16 L1 Capsid Protein Vaccine Delivered by Live Attenuated Shigella flexneri Strain sh42

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-Feng YANG; Xin-Zhong QU; Kai WANG; Jin ZHENG; Lu-Sheng SI; Xiao-Ping DONG; Yi-Li WANG

    2005-01-01

    To express human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 capsid protein in the recombinant strain of Shigella and study the potential of a live attenuated Shigella-based HPV prophylactic vaccine in preventing HPV infection, the icsA\\/virG fragment of Shigella-based prokaryotic expression plasmid pHS3199 was constructed. HPV type 16 L1 (HPV16L1) gene was inserted into plasmid pHS3199 to form the pHS3199-HPV16L1 construct, and pHS3199-HPV16L1 was

  15. HPV58 Molecular Variants Exhibit Different Transcriptional Activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tainá Raiol; Regina Maria Santos de Amorim; Pedro Galante; Cláudia Renata Fernandes Martins; Luisa Lina Villa; Laura Sichero

    2011-01-01

    Early promoter activity of HPV-58 molecular variants isolated from high-grade cervical lesions in Brazil was compared. Luciferase reporter assays were conducted in C33 cells transfected with the complete long control region of 3 molecular variants of HPV-58 as well as HPV-58, -18 or -16 prototypes. The HPV-58 prototype and Bsb-329 and Bsb-367 variants showed a promoter activity similar to that

  16. HPV and EBV in Head and Neck Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey Brumbaugh; Robert L. Ferris; Shen Hu

    \\u000a The focus of this book chapter is to discuss the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma\\u000a (HNSCC) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We have summarized the main events of HPV & EBV life\\u000a cycle, potential mechanisms of HPV- or EBV-mediated carcinogenesis, and the implications of HPV and EBV in head and

  17. Efficacy HPV vaccine in late 2014.

    PubMed

    2015-05-01

    Initial evaluation of the HPV 6, 11, 16, 18 vaccine showed about a 40% reduction in high-grade cervical dysplasia due to all virus genotypes among young women aged 16 to 23 years who were not yet sexually active. These results were obtained after 4 years of follow-up and were confirmed after an additional 3 years. Clinical assessment of the HPV 16, 18 vaccine yielded similar results. The interval between initial HPV infection and diagnosis of cervical cancer seems to be at least 20 years. Comparisons of vaccinated and unvaccinated cohorts are consistent with the results of clinical trials, but follow-up is still too short because most of the women studied have not reached the age at which the incidence of high-grade dysplasia peaks. The available evidence shows no replacement of HPV vaccine genotypes by other highly oncogenic genotypes but, once again, follow-up is relatively short. In late 2014, follow-up is still too short to show whether HPV vaccination prevents cervical cancer in young women before they become sexually active. Earlier clinical trials showing efficacy in preventing high-grade dysplasia have not been challenged by epidemiological data. Overall, it will be several more years before conclusive evidence is obtained. In 2015, screening remains the cornerstone for reducing the incidence of invasive cervical cancer. PMID:26034805

  18. Diagnosing genital ulcer disease in a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases in Amsterdam, the Netherlands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Bruisten; H. Fennema; A. Pijl; M. Buimer; P. G. H. Peerbooms; E. Van Dyck; A. Meijer; J. M. Ossewaarde; Doornum van G. J. J

    2001-01-01

    The most common etiologic agents of genital ulcer disease (GUD) are herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), HSV-2, Treponema pallidum, and Haemophilus ducreyi. In an outpatient clinic for sexually transmitted diseases in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, specimens from 372 patients with GUD were collected from February to November 1996. Sera were collected at the time of the symptoms and, for most

  19. Highly Effective Detection of Human Papillomavirus 16 and 18 DNA by a Testing Algorithm Combining Broad-Spectrum and Type-Specific PCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leen-Jan van Doorn; Anco Molijn; Bernhard Kleter; Wim Quint; Brigitte Colau

    2006-01-01

    The use of a single broad-spectrum human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA-based PCR test may fail to detect lower concentrations of HPV DNA due to competition between different genotypes in mixed infections. To improve HPV detection by PCR, broad-spectrum and type-specific (TS) PCRs were combined, with a focus on HPV-16 and HPV-18. Cervical and cervicovaginal cell samples were obtained from 1,113 healthy

  20. Vaccines and Microbicides Preventing HIV1, HSV2, and HPV Mucosal Transmission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Damjan S Nikolic; Vincent Piguet

    2010-01-01

    HIV-1, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), and human papillomavirus (HPV), among other sexually transmitted infections, represent a major burden for global health. Initial insights into the mucosal transmission of these viral pathogens have raised optimism with regard to the rapid generation of protective vaccines. Nevertheless, setbacks for HIV-1 and HSV-2 vaccines have seriously challenged the initial enthusiasm. Recently, two

  1. The first international standard for antibodies to HPV 16

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Morag Ferguson; Dianna E. Wilkinson; Alan Heath; Paul Matejtschuk

    2011-01-01

    Current HPV vaccines and vaccine candidates are based on recombinant virus capsid proteins, so called virus-like particles (VLPs). Standardisation of assays for HPV capsid antibody will assist with epidemiology studies and future vaccine development. A World Health Organization international collaborative study was undertaken to assess the suitability of a freeze-dried serum, obtained from women naturally infected with HPV 16 and

  2. Time to consider HPV testing in cervical screening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Cuzick

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) has been clearly es- tablished as the primary cause of cervical cancer in nearly all cases (1). Thus, it should not be surprising that testing for HPV should have a role in measures aimed at control of this disease. The ultimate goal must be eradication of HPV by vaccination, but a more imme- diate prospect is

  3. Genital trauma in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Diane F

    2008-06-01

    Traumatic wounds of the female genitalia include accidental straddle injuries or impalement, chemical or thermal burns, insufflation injuries, blunt trauma, or crush injuries. Children and adolescents may be victims of rape, sexual abuse, and female genital mutilation. Information is provided on epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management. Treatment guidelines are offered using the best evidence available, and recommendations are provided when data are limited. PMID:18463455

  4. Coping and adjustment to genital herpes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon Manne; Irwin Sandler

    1984-01-01

    The current study examined how individuals deal with genital herpes, a recurrent, incurable disease with a great psychological impact. An assessment battery composed of cognitive and problem-focused coping, attribution, and social support mechanisms was employed. These coping mechanisms were correlated with measures of psychological adjustment: self-esteem, depression, sexual adjustment, and amount upset by herpes. Subjects were 152 people with herpes

  5. Arachidonic acid and male genital differentiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Goldman

    1987-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) prevents neural tube defects, cleft palate, and micrognathia in the rat models of diabetic embryopathy and neural tube defects in the mouse embryo culture model. In this study, the involvement of AA in the male genital differentiation was described. These observations raise the complementary possibility that the AA-prostaglandin biochemical pathway may be a major mechanism mediating many

  6. New approach to managing genital warts

    PubMed Central

    Lopaschuk, Catharine C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To summarize and determine the appropriate use for the new and old management tools for genital warts. Sources of information The following databases were searched: MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ACP Journal Club, and Trip. The bibliographies of retrieved papers were also reviewed. Clinical trials, qualitative review articles, consensus reports, and clinical practice guidelines were retrieved. Main message Symptomatic warts are prevalent in at least 1% of the population between the ages of 15 and 49, with estimates of up to 50% of the population being infected with human papillomavirus at some point in their lifetime. Imiquimod and podophyllotoxin are 2 new treatments for external genital warts that are less painful and can be applied by patients at home. In addition, the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine has been shown to be efficacious in preventing genital warts and cervical cancer. There is still a role for the older treatment methods in certain situations, such as intravaginal, urethral, anal, or recalcitrant warts; or for pregnant patients. Conclusion The new treatments of external genital warts can reduce the pain of treatment and the number of office visits. Other treatment methods are still useful in certain situations. PMID:23851535

  7. Genital Evolution: Why Are Females Still Understudied?

    PubMed Central

    Ah-King, Malin; Barron, Andrew B.; Herberstein, Marie E.

    2014-01-01

    The diversity, variability, and apparent rapid evolution of animal genitalia are a vivid focus of research in evolutionary biology, and studies exploring genitalia have dramatically increased over the past decade. These studies, however, exhibit a strong male bias, which has worsened since 2000, despite the fact that this bias has been explicitly pointed out in the past. Early critics argued that previous investigators too often considered only males and their genitalia, while overlooking female genitalia or physiology. Our analysis of the literature shows that overall this male bias has worsened with time. The degree of bias is not consistent between subdisciplines: studies of the lock-and-key hypothesis have been the most male focused, while studies of cryptic female choice usually consider both sexes. The degree of bias also differed across taxonomic groups, but did not associate with the ease of study of male and female genital characteristics. We argue that the persisting male bias in this field cannot solely be explained by anatomical sex differences influencing accessibility. Rather the bias reflects enduring assumptions about the dominant role of males in sex, and invariant female genitalia. New research highlights how rapidly female genital traits can evolve, and how complex coevolutionary dynamics between males and females can shape genital structures. We argue that understanding genital evolution is hampered by an outdated single-sex bias. PMID:24802812

  8. Psychosocial Treatment for Recurrent Genital Herpes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, David J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Assigned 21 individuals with recurrent genital herpes to psychosocial intervention, social support, or waiting-list control conditions. Those receiving psychosocial intervention (herpes simplex virus information, relaxation training, stress management instructions, and an imagery technique) reported significantly greater reductions in herpes…

  9. Prevalence of human papillomavirus types in invasive cervical cancers from seven US cancer registries prior to vaccine introduction

    PubMed Central

    Hopenhayn, Claudia; Christian, Amy; Christian, W. Jay; Watson, Meg; Unger, Elizabeth R.; Lynch, Charles F.; Peters, Edward S.; Wilkinson, Edward J.; Huang, Youjie; Copeland, Glenn; Cozen, Wendy; Saber, Maria Sibug; Goodman, Marc T.; Hernandez, Brenda Y.; Steinau, Martin; Lyu, Christopher; Tucker, Thomas T.; Saraiya, Mona

    2013-01-01

    Objective We conducted a baseline study of human papillomavirus (HPV) type prevalence in invasive cervical cancers (ICC) using data from seven cancer registries (CR) in the US. Cases were diagnosed between 1994 and 2005, before the implementation of the HPV vaccines. Materials and Methods CRs from Florida, Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan, Hawaii, Iowa and Los Angeles, California identified eligible ICC cases, and obtained sections from representative blocks of archived tumor specimens for DNA extraction. All extracts were assayed by Linear Array and if inadequate or HPV negative, re-tested with INNO-LiPA Genotype test. Clinical and demographic factors were obtained from the CRs and merged with the HPV typing data to analyze factors associated with different types and with HPV negativity. Results A total of 777 ICCs were included in this analysis, with broad geographic, age and race distribution. Overall, HPV was detected in 91% of cases, including 51% HPV16, 16% HPV18 (HPV16 negative), and 24% other oncogenic and rare types. After HPV16 and 18, the most common types were 45, 33, 31, 35 and 52. Older age and non-squamous histology were associated with HPV negative typing. Conclusions This study provides baseline pre-vaccine HPV types for post-vaccine ICC surveillance in the future. HPV16 and/or 18 were found in 67% of ICCs, indicating the potential for vaccines to prevent a significant number of cervical cancers. PMID:24477171

  10. Health beliefs and attitudes of HPV among Hispanic parents as predictors of intention to use the HPV vaccine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle Ruth Murtaza

    2008-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted disease in the United States. Although HPV prevalence is high in the United States, there are a limited number of research studies that focus on Hispanics, who have higher incidence rates of cervical cancer than their non-Hispanic counterparts. The HPV vaccine introduced in 2006 may offer a feasible solution to the

  11. Measurement of Neutralizing Serum Antibodies of Patients Vaccinated with Human Papillomavirus L1 or L2-Based Immunogens Using Furin-Cleaved HPV Pseudovirions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Joshua W.; Jagu, Subhashini; Wang, Chenguang; Kitchener, Henry C.; Daayana, Sai; Stern, Peter L.; Pang, Susana; Day, Patricia M.; Huh, Warner K.; Roden, Richard B. S.

    2014-01-01

    Antibodies specific for neutralizing epitopes in either Human papillomavirus (HPV) capsid protein L1 or L2 can mediate protection from viral challenge and thus their accurate and sensitive measurement at high throughput is likely informative for monitoring response to prophylactic vaccination. Here we compare measurement of L1 and L2-specific neutralizing antibodies in human sera using the standard Pseudovirion-Based Neutralization Assay (L1-PBNA) with the newer Furin-Cleaved Pseudovirion-Based Neutralization Assay (FC-PBNA), a modification of the L1-PBNA intended to improve sensitivity towards L2-specific neutralizing antibodies without compromising assay of L1-specific responses. For detection of L1-specific neutralizing antibodies in human sera, the FC- PBNA and L1-PBNA assays showed similar sensitivity and a high level of correlation using WHO standard sera (n?=?2), and sera from patients vaccinated with Gardasil (n?=?30) or an experimental human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) L1 VLP vaccine (n?=?70). The detection of L1-specific cross-neutralizing antibodies in these sera using pseudovirions of types phylogenetically-related to those targeted by the L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines was also consistent between the two assays. However, for sera from patients (n?=?17) vaccinated with an L2-based immunogen (TA-CIN), the FC-PBNA was more sensitive than the L1-PBNA in detecting L2-specific neutralizing antibodies. Further, the neutralizing antibody titers measured with the FC-PBNA correlated with those determined with the L2-PBNA, another modification of the L1-PBNA that spacio-temporally separates primary and secondary receptor engagement, as well as the protective titers measured using passive transfer studies in the murine genital-challenge model. In sum, the FC-PBNA provided sensitive measurement for both L1 VLP and L2-specific neutralizing antibody in human sera. Vaccination with TA-CIN elicits weak cross-protective antibody in a subset of patients, suggesting the need for an adjuvant. PMID:24999962

  12. Simultaneous Characterization of Somatic Events and HPV-18 Integration in a Metastatic Cervical Carcinoma Patient Using DNA and RNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Winnie S.; Aldrich, Jessica; Nasser, Sara; Kurdoglu, Ahmet; Phillips, Lori; Reiman, Rebecca; McDonald, Jacquelyn; Izatt, Tyler; Christoforides, Alexis; Baker, Angela; Craig, Christine; Egan, Jan B.; Chase, Dana M.; Farley, John H.; Bryce, Alan H.; Stewart, A. Keith; Borad, Mitesh J.; Carpten, John D.; Craig, David W.; Monk, Bradley J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Integration of carcinogenic human papillomaviruses (HPVs) into the host genome is a significant tumorigenic factor in specific cancers including cervical carcinoma. Although major strides have been made with respect to HPV diagnosis and prevention, identification and development of efficacious treatments for cervical cancer patients remains a goal and thus requires additional detailed characterization of both somatic events and HPV integration. Given this need, the goal of this study was to use the next generation sequencing to simultaneously evaluate somatic alterations and expression changes in a patient’s cervical squamous carcinoma lesion metastatic to the lung and to detect and analyze HPV infection in the same sample. Materials and Methods We performed tumor and normal exome, tumor and normal shallow whole-genome sequencing, and RNA sequencing of the patient’s lung metastasis. Results We generated over 1.2 billion mapped reads and identified 130 somatic point mutations and indels, 21 genic translocations, 16 coding regions demonstrating copy number changes, and over 36 genes demonstrating altered expression in the tumor (corrected P < 0.05). Sequencing also revealed the HPV type 18 (HPV-18) integration in the metastasis. Using both DNA and RNA reads, we pinpointed 3 major events indicating HPV-18 integration into an intronic region of chromosome 6p25.1 in the patient’s tumor and validated these events with Sanger sequencing. This integration site has not been reported for HPV-18. Conclusions We demonstrate that DNA and RNA sequencing can be used to concurrently characterize somatic alterations and expression changes in a biopsy and delineate HPV integration at base resolution in cervical cancer. Further sequencing will allow us to better understand the molecular basis of cervical cancer pathogenesis. PMID:24418928

  13. Analyzing the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Life Cycle in Primary Keratinocytes with a Quantitative Colony-Forming Assay.

    PubMed

    Lace, Michael J; Turek, Lubomir P; Anson, James R; Haugen, Thomas H

    2014-01-01

    Papillomavirus genomes replicate as extrachromosomal plasmids within infected keratinocytes, requiring the regulated expression of early viral gene products to initially amplify the viral genomes and subvert cell growth checkpoints as part of a complex path to immortalization. Building on contemporary keratinocyte transfection and culture systems, the methods described in this unit form a detailed approach to analyzing critical events in the human papillomavirus (HPV) life cycle, utilizing physiologic levels of viral gene products expressed from their native promoter(s) in the natural host cells for HPV infection. A quantitative colony-forming assay permits comparison of the capacities of various transfected HPV types and mutant HPV genomes to initially form colonies and immortalize human keratinocytes. In conjunction with additional methods, these protocols enable examination of genomic stability, viral and cellular gene expression, viral integration, and differentiation patterns influenced by HPV persistence in clonal human keratinocytes that effectively mimic early events in HPV infection. Curr. Protoc. Microbiol. 33:14B.2.1-14B.2.13. © 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:24789595

  14. Characterization of the nuclear localization signal of high risk HPV16 E2 protein

    SciTech Connect

    Klucevsek, Kristin [Biology Department, Boston College, Higgins Hall, room 578, 140 Commonwealth Avenue, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467 (United States); Wertz, Mary [Biology Department, Boston College, Higgins Hall, room 578, 140 Commonwealth Avenue, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467 (United States); Lucchi, John [Biology Department, Boston College, Higgins Hall, room 578, 140 Commonwealth Avenue, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467 (United States); Leszczynski, Anna [Biology Department, Boston College, Higgins Hall, room 578, 140 Commonwealth Avenue, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467 (United States); Moroianu, Junona [Biology Department, Boston College, Higgins Hall, room 578, 140 Commonwealth Avenue, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467 (United States)]. E-mail: moroianu@bc.edu

    2007-03-30

    The E2 protein of high risk human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) contains an amino-terminal (N) domain, a hinge (H) region and a carboxyl-terminal (C) DNA-binding domain. Using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) fusions with full length E2 and E2 domains in transfection assays in HeLa cells, we found that the C domain is responsible for the nuclear localization of E2 in vivo, whereas the N and H domains do not contain additional nuclear localization signals (NLSs). Deletion analysis of EGFP-E2 and EGFP-cE2 determined that the C domain contains an {alpha} helix cNLS that overlaps with the DNA-binding region. Mutational analysis revealed that the arginine and lysine residues in this cNLS are essential for nuclear localization of HPV16 E2. Interestingly, these basic amino acid residues are well conserved among the E2 proteins of BPV-1 and some high risk HPV types but not in the low risk HPV types, suggesting that there are differences between the NLSs and corresponding nuclear import pathways between these E2 proteins.

  15. Characterization of the Nuclear Localization Signal of High Risk HPV16 E2 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Klucevsek, Kristin; Wertz, Mary; Lucchi, John; Leszczynski, Anna; Moroianu, Junona

    2009-01-01

    The E2 protein of high risk human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) contains an amino-terminal (N) domain, a hinge (H) region and a carboxyl-terminal (C) DNA binding domain. Using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) fusions with full length E2 and E2 domains in transfection assays in HeLa cells we found that the C domain is responsible for the nuclear localization of E2 in vivo, whereas the N and H domains do not contain additional nuclear localization signals (NLSs). Deletion analysis of EGFP-E2 and EGFP-cE2 determined that the C domain contains an alpha helix cNLS that overlaps with the DNA binding region. Mutational analysis revealed that the arginine and lysine residues in this cNLS are essential for nuclear localization of HPV16 E2. Interestingly, these basic amino acid residues are well conserved among the E2 proteins of BPV-1 and some high risk HPV types but not in the low risk HPV types, suggesting that there are differences between the NLSs and corresponding nuclear import pathways between these E2 proteins. PMID:17097712

  16. Identification of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 L1 Surface Loops Required for Neutralization by Human Sera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph J. Carter; Greg C. Wipf; Margaret M. Madeleine; Stephen M. Schwartz; Laura A. Koutsky; Denise A. Galloway

    2006-01-01

    The variable surface loops on human papillomavirus (HPV) virions required for type-specific neutralization by human sera remain poorly defined. To determine which loops are required for neutralization, a series of hybrid virus-like particles (VLPs) were used to adsorb neutralizing activity from HPV type 16 (HPV16)-reactive human sera before being tested in an HPV16 pseudovirion neutralization assay. The hybrid VLPs used

  17. Acceptability of HPV vaccine implementation among parents in India.

    PubMed

    Paul, Proma; Tanner, Amanda E; Gravitt, Patti E; Vijayaraghavan, K; Shah, Keerti V; Zimet, Gregory D; Study Group, Catch

    2014-01-01

    Due to high cervical cancer rates and limited research on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine acceptability in India, the research team examined parental attitudes toward HPV vaccines. Thirty-six interviews with parents were conducted to assess sexually transmitted infection (STI)-related knowledge and HPV-specific vaccine awareness and acceptability. Despite limited knowledge, parents had positive views toward HPV vaccines. Common barriers included concerns about side effects, vaccine cost, and missing work to receive the vaccine. Parents were strongly influenced by health care providers' recommendations. Our findings suggest that addressing parental concerns, health worker training and polices, and efforts to minimize cost will be central to successful HPV vaccine implementation. PMID:23611111

  18. Completion of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Series among Insured Females, 2006–2009

    PubMed Central

    Hirth, Jacqueline M.; Tan, Alai; Wilkinson, Gregg S.; Berenson, Abbey B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Completion of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in a large proportion of young females is an important goal to prevent anogenital cancers associated with HPV. This study examines whether the proportion of insured women who complete the vaccine series has changed across time, and how provider type and age at initiation affects completion. Methods This retrospective cohort study used administrative data from a private insurance company. This study included 271,976 female initiators of the HPV vaccine who had been continuously enrolled in their respective insurance plan 365 days after vaccine initiation. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the odds of completing the vaccine series within 365 days after initiation. Results Females 13–18 years, 19–26 years, and ?27 years old were less likely than 9–12 year olds to complete their HPV vaccine series. Obstetricians/gynecologists were more likely to administer vaccines to completers than pediatricians, while clinics, nurses, family care practitioners, and specialists were less likely to administer initial vaccines to completers compared to pediatricians. This study also found that 9–12 year olds and 13–18 year olds had lower odds of completing the HPV vaccine series for each subsequent year than those 19–26 years and ?27 years old. Conclusions Among insured females in the US, the proportion of females that complete the HPV vaccine is dropping over time, especially among younger females that are specifically targeted to receive the vaccine. Physicians need to stress the importance of completing all three vaccinations to their patients. PMID:22544681

  19. Infection with human papillomavirus: Update on epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael E. Hagensee

    2000-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted viral disease worldwide. Low-risk types of HPV\\u000a (eg, HPV-6 and HPV-11) are the causative agents of genital warts, whereas high-risk types (eg, HPV-16 and HPV-18) have been\\u000a associated with anogenital cancer, particularly cervical cancer. Cervical cancer remains the second most common cancer in\\u000a women worldwide. Recent advances have led to

  20. Evaluation of HPV Genotyping Assays for Archival Clinical Samples.

    PubMed

    Lillsunde Larsson, Gabriella; Carlsson, Jessica; Karlsson, Mats G; Helenius, Gisela

    2015-05-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and genotyping of FFPE tissue samples is important in epidemiological investigations. Here, we compare four different HPV genotyping methods for use in FFPE clinical samples. Comparative testing was performed on 99 samples with a clinical suspicion of HPV. Specimens were analyzed with Anyplex II HPV28 detecting 28 genotypes using real-time PCR and melting curve analysis, CLART HPV2 detecting 35 genotypes using PCR and microarray detection, and MGP5+/6+ consensus primer system together with pyrosequencing. Results were compared to a real-time PCR reference protocol detecting 14 genotypes. In total, 68% of the samples were positive for an HPV genotype using the reference protocol and MGP5+/6+ primer system. Anyplex II HPV28 analysis and CLART HPV2 had 82% and 72% positive samples, respectively. All four methods showed good agreement when comparing the 14 genotypes included in the reference protocol. When evaluating all genotypes, the Anyplex II HPV28 assay and the CLART assay changed the status of the sample (individually or together) from negative with respect to the reference protocol to positive for either a Group 1 (n = 4) or Group 2 (n = 6) genotype. We conclude from this study that for an extended genotyping approach with a high sensitivity for FFPE specimens, both the Anyplex II HPV28 and CLART HPV2 assays are suitable alternatives despite minor intra-assay differences. PMID:25791291

  1. Human papillomavirus disease in adolescents: management and prevention.

    PubMed

    Widdice, Lea E

    2012-04-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are a family of viruses that infect the epithelium of many parts of the body. Persistent infection with high-risk HPV is necessary but insufficient to cause cervical cancer. High-risk HPV types are increasingly recognized as a risk factor for cancers other than cervical cancer. A large proportion of vulvar, vaginal, anal, penile, and oropharyngeal cancers are associated with HPV. Low-risk HPV types cause genital warts. Recent advancement in the prevention of HPV infection, genital warts, and HPV-associated precancers and cancers include vaccination. Until the full potential of vaccination can be attained, cervical cancer screening remains an important component of prevention. PMID:22764563

  2. Improving immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccines for genital herpes containing herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Sita; Shaw, Carolyn; Friedman, Harvey

    2014-12-01

    No vaccines are approved for prevention or treatment of genital herpes. The focus of genital herpes vaccine trials has been on prevention using herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) glycoprotein D (gD2) alone or combined with glycoprotein B. These prevention trials did not achieve their primary end points. However, subset analyses reported some positive outcomes in each study. The most recent trial was the Herpevac Trial for Women that used gD2 with monophosphoryl lipid A and alum as adjuvants in herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 seronegative women. Unexpectedly, the vaccine prevented genital disease by HSV-1 but not HSV-2. Currently, HSV-1 causes more first episodes of genital herpes than HSV-2, highlighting the importance of protecting against HSV-1. The scientific community is conflicted between abandoning vaccine efforts that include gD2 and building upon the partial successes of previous trials. We favor building upon success and present approaches to improve outcomes of gD2-based subunit antigen vaccines. PMID:25138572

  3. Significance of dermatoscopy in genital dermatoses.

    PubMed

    Paštar, Zrinjka; Lipozen?i?, Jasna

    2014-01-01

    Dermatoscopy as a non-invasive technique has become an integrative part in the evaluation of pigmented and non-pigmented skin lesions, particularly for the early detections of melanoma. Although dermatoscopy improves diagnosis of pigmented and nonpigmented lesions of the skin, it is unknown if dermatoscopy improves the diagnostic accuracy of pigmented mucosal lesions. The "entodermatoscopy" is used for the dermatoscopy of skin infections and infestations and revised as entomodermatoscopy, as it connects the research fields of dermatology and entomology, with its roots being found in these two words. In genital dermatology along with the clinical examination, dermatoscopy is also used for the diagnosis and treatment follow-up of pediculosis pubis, genital warts, molluscum contagiosum, and scabies. PMID:24559569

  4. Production of Recombinant Human Papillomavirus Type 52 L1 Protein in Hansenula polymorpha Formed Virus-Like Particles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cunbao; Yao, Yufeng; Yang, Xu; Bai, Hongmei; Huang, Weiwei; Xia, Ye; Ma, Yanbing

    2015-06-28

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 52 is a high-risk HPV responsible for cervical cancer. HPV type 52 is common around the world and is the most common in some Asian regions. The available prophylactic HPV vaccines protect only from HPV types 16 and 18. Supplementing economical vaccines that target HPV type 52 may satisfactorily complement available prophylactic vaccines. A codon-adapted HPV 52 L1 gene was expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha, which is used as an industrial platform for economical hepatitis B surface antigen particle production in China. We found that the recombinant proteins produced in this expression system could form virus-like particles (VLPs) with diameters of approximately 50 nm. This study suggests that the HPV 52 VLPs produced in this platform may satisfactorily complement available prophylactic vaccines in fighting against HPVs prevalent in Asia. PMID:25639723

  5. Genital Anomalies in Klinefelter’s Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yung Seng Lee; Anna Wai Fun Cheng; Syed Faisal Ahmed; Nick J. Shaw; Ieuan A. Hughes

    2007-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: Klinefelter’s syndrome is characterized by progressive testicular failure causing aspermatogenesis and androgen deficiency. Klinefelter patients classically have complete male sex differentiation, and genital anomalies are generally not recognized as associated features of the syndrome. Methods: We reviewed the cases of Klinefelter’s syndrome with genitalia abnormalities from the Cambridge Disorders of Sex Development Database, and also reviewed previous case reports

  6. Genital necrosis secondary to warfarin therapy.

    PubMed

    Kandrotas, R J; Deterding, J

    1988-01-01

    Several adverse dermatologic effects have been reported with the use of warfarin. Among these is the rare complication of drug-induced necrosis. Approximately 150 cases had been reported by 1976, and a review of the literature since 1943 revealed only 4 reported cases of penile necrosis. We present the fifth case of genital necrosis reported with coumarin anticoagulants and the third such case associated with warfarin. PMID:3065746

  7. Hyperaesthesia Following Genital Herpes: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, Catriona; Zawar, Vijay

    2011-01-01

    We report an adult female patient who presented with sacral radiculopathy as incapacitating dysthesias following primary genital herpes simplex, which later recurred. Despite use of systemic antiviral treatment, the painful syndrome in our patient persisted. The success in treatment was seen only after the addition of amitriptyline hydrochloride. The case is being presented here for its rare manifestation and novel use of amitriptyline hydrochloride. PMID:21747842

  8. Anatomy and physiology of genital organs - women.

    PubMed

    Graziottin, Alessandra; Gambini, Dania

    2015-01-01

    "Anatomy is destiny": Sigmund Freud viewed human anatomy as a necessary, although not a sufficient, condition for understanding the complexity of human sexual function with a solid biologic basis. The aim of the chapter is to describe women's genital anatomy and physiology, focusing on women's sexual function with a clinically oriented vision. Key points include: embryology, stressing that the "female" is the anatomic "default" program, differentiated into "male" only in the presence of androgens at physiologic levels for the gestational age; sex determination and sex differentiation, describing the interplay between anatomic and endocrine factors; the "clitoral-urethral-vaginal" complex, the most recent anatomy reading of the corpora cavernosa pattern in women; the controversial G spot; the role of the pelvic floor muscles in modulating vaginal receptivity and intercourse feelings, with hyperactivity leading to introital dyspareunia and contributing to provoked vestibulodynia and recurrent postcoital cystitis, whilst lesions during delivery reduce vaginal sensations, genital arousability, and orgasm; innervation, vessels, bones, ligaments; and the physiology of women's sexual response. Attention to physiologic aging focuses on "low-grade inflammation," genital and systemic, with its impact on women sexual function, especially after the menopause, if the woman does not or cannot use hormone replacement therapy. PMID:26003238

  9. Evaluation of high-risk Human papillomaviruses type distribution in cervical cancer in Sichuan province of China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    En-qi Wu; Guo-nan Zhang; Xiang-hui Yu; Yuan Ren; Ying Fan; Yong-ge Wu; Wei Kong; Xiao Zha

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus is an important factor associated with cervical cancer, and the distribution of HPV types varies greatly worldwide. Determination of type-specific HPV prevalence constitutes an important step towards the development of vaccines for the prevention of cervical cancer. METHODS: The human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in 190 cervical cancer specimens taken from the Sichuan province, the

  10. Codon optimization of the human papillomavirus type 58 L1 gene enhances the expression of soluble L1 protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoung Jin; Kwag, Hye-Lim; Kim, Hong-Jin

    2013-03-01

    The effect of codon optimization of L1 gene on the production of the L1 protein of human papillomavirus (HPV) was investigated in a yeast expression system. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was transformed with a plasmid containing either the wild type (WS)-HPV type 58 L1 (HPV58 L1) gene or a codon-optimized (MO)-HPV58 L1 gene. The proportion of soluble L1 protein expressed from MO-HPV58 L1 was significantly higher than that expressed from WS-HPV58 L1. Moreover, the amount of purified MO-HPV58 L1 protein recovered was 2.5-fold higher than the amount of WS-HPV58 L1 protein. Codon optimization of HPV58 L1 gene thus increases the proportion of soluble L1 protein and the amount of purified product that can be used as antigen to generate vaccines. PMID:23183918

  11. Opportunities for Increasing HPV Vaccine Provision in School Health Centers

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Jennifer L.; Leighton, Ashley; O’Malley, Brittany; Entzel, Pamela; Smith, Jennifer S.; Gilkey, Melissa B.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Uptake of HPV vaccine remains low among adolescents in the United States. We sought to assess barriers to HPV vaccine provision in school health centers to inform subsequent interventions. Methods We conducted structured interviews in Fall 2010 with staff from all 33 school health centers in North Carolina that stocked HPV vaccine. Results Centers had heterogeneous policies and procedures. Out-of-pocket costs for children to receive privately-purchased HPV vaccine were a key barrier to providing HPV vaccine within school health centers. Other barriers included students not returning consent forms, costs to clinics of ordering and stocking privately-purchased HPV vaccine, and difficulty using the statewide immunization registry. Most (82%) school health centers were interested in hosting interventions to increase HPV vaccine uptake, especially those that the centers could implement themselves, but many had limited staff to support such efforts. Activities rated as more likely to raise HPV vaccine uptake were student incentives, parent reminders, and obtaining consent from parents while they are at school (all p < .05). Conclusions While school health centers reported facing several key barriers to providing HPV vaccine, many were interested in partnering with outside organizations on low-cost interventions to increase HPV vaccine uptake among adolescent students. PMID:24749919

  12. Prevalence of human papillomavirus variants and genetic diversity in the L1 gene and long control region of HPV16, HPV31, and HPV58 found in North-East Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gurgel, Ana Pavla Almeida Diniz; Chagas, Bárbara Simas; do Amaral, Carolina Medeiros; Nascimento, Kamylla Conceição Gomes; Leal, Lígia Rosa Sales; Silva Neto, Jacinto da Costa; Cartaxo Muniz, Maria Tereza; de Freitas, Antonio Carlos

    2015-01-01

    This study showed the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) variants as well as nucleotide changes within L1 gene and LCR of the HPV16, HPV31, and HPV58 found in cervical lesions of women from North-East Brazil. PMID:25793187

  13. Trimester dependent preterm births in pregnancy with genital herpes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ferenc Bánhidy; István Dudás; Andrew E. Czeizel

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies reported controversial results regarding the possible association of recurrent genital herpes during pregnancy\\u000a with a higher risk of preterm birth\\/low birth weight in newborns. Thus, birth outcomes of mothers with prospective and medically\\u000a recorded symptomatic recurrent genital herpes confirmed by serological examination and of mothers without genital herpes were\\u000a compared in the population-based large data set of the

  14. Seroepidemiological and socioeconomic studies of genital chlamydial infection in Ethiopian women.

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, M E; Jamil, Y; Tibaux, G; Pelzer, A; Mehari, L; Darougar, S

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To measure the prevalence of chlamydial genital infection in Ethiopian women attending gynaecological, obstetric and family planning clinics; to identify the epidemiological, social and economic factors affecting the prevalence of infection in a country where routine laboratory culture and serological tests for chlamydial species are unavailable; to determine the risk factors for genital chlamydial infection in those with serological evidence of other sexually transmitted diseases. SUBJECTS--1846 Ethiopian women, outpatient attenders at two teaching hospitals and a mother and child health centre in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. SETTING--Gynaecological outpatient department, antenatal, postnatal and family planning clinics. METHODS--Sera were tested for type-specific anti-chlamydial antibodies using purified chlamydial antigens (C. trachomatis A-C (CTA-C), C. trachomatis D-K (CTD-K), Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV1-3), and C. pneumoniae (CPn)), in a micro-immunofluorescence test. The genital chlamydia seropositivity was analysed against patient's age, clinic attended, ethnic group, religion, origin of residence, age at first marriage and first coitus, income, number of sexual partners, duration of sexual activity, marital status/profession, obstetric and contraceptive history, and seropositivity for other sexually transmitted diseases. RESULTS--Overall exposure to chlamydia species was found in 84%, genital chlamydial infection in 62%, and titres suggestive of recent or present genital infection in 42% of those studied. Genital chlamydial infection was highest (64%) in family planning and lowest (54%) in antenatal clinic attenders. Exposure to genital chlamydia species was influenced by ethnic group and religion. Those married and sexually active under 13 years of age had greater exposure (69%) to genital chlamydial infection than those first sexually active aged over 18 (46%). Prevalence of infection was highest in those with more than five sexual partners (78%) and in bargirls (84%). The lowest income groups had a higher prevalence (65%) of genital chlamydial infection than the wealthiest (48%). Multivariate analysis showed the most important factors to be age at first coitus, religion, prostitution and present age of the woman in that order. Risk for genital chlamydial infection was increased in those with seropositivity for syphilis, gonorrhoea, HSV-2 but not HBV infection. CONCLUSION/APPLICATION--Chlamydial genital infections are highly prevalent in both symptomatic and asymptomatic Ethiopian women. The high prevalence of infection reported reflects a complexity of socioeconomic factors: very early age at first marriage and first coitus, instability of first marriage, subsequent divorce and remarriage or drift into prostitution, all of which are influenced by ethnic group, religion and poverty--together with transmission from an infected group of prostitutes by promiscuous males to their wives, lack of diagnostic facilities and inadequate treatment of both symptomatic and asymptomatic men and women. The problem of chlamydial disease in Ethiopia needs to be addressed urgently in the context of control of STD. PMID:1398656

  15. Promoter Methylation of p16INK4A, hMLH1, and MGMT in Liquid-Based Cervical Cytology Samples Compared with Clinicopathological Findings and HPV Presence

    PubMed Central

    Spathis, Aris; Aga, Evaggelia; Alepaki, Maria; Chranioti, Aikaterini; Meristoudis, Christos; Panayiotides, Ioannis; Kassanos, Dimitrios; Karakitsos, Petros

    2011-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a common cancer inflicting women worldwide. Even though, persistent infection with oncogenic Human Papillomavirus (HPV) types is considered the most important risk factor for cervical cancer development, less than 5% of women with HPV will eventually develop cervical cancer supporting that other molecular events, like methylation-dependent inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, may cocontribute in cervical carcinogenesis. We analyzed promoter methylation of three candidate genes (p16, MGMT, and hMLH1) in 403 liquid-based cytology samples. Methylation was commonly identified in both benign and pathologic samples and correlated with higher lesion grade determined by cytological, colposcopical, or histological findings, with HPV DNA and mRNA positivity of specific HPV types and p16INK4A protein expression. Overall accuracy of methylation is much lower than traditional diagnostic tests ranking it as an ancillary technique with more data needed to identify the exact value of methylation status in cervical carcinogenesis. PMID:21747645

  16. Attribution of human papillomavirus types to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cancers in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Chan, Paul K S; Cheung, Tak-Hong; Li, Wai-Hon; Yu, Mei Y; Chan, May Y M; Yim, So-Fan; Ho, Wendy C S; Yeung, Apple C M; Ho, King-Man; Ng, H K

    2012-08-01

    The attribution of individual human papillomavirus (HPV) types to cervical neoplasia, especially intraepithelial lesions, varies ethnogeographically. Population-specific data are required for vaccine cost-effectiveness assessment and type replacement monitoring. HPV was detected from 2,790 Chinese women (444 invasive cervical cancers [ICC], 772 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN] grade 3, 805 CIN2 and 769 CIN1. The attribution of each HPV type found in multiple-type infections was approximated by the fractional contribution approach. Multiple-type infection was common and correlated inversely with lesion severity (54.7% for CIN1, 48.7% for CIN2, 46.2% for CIN3, 27.5% for ICC). Vaccine-covered high-risk types (HPV16/18) attributed to 59.5% of squamous cell carcinoma, 78.6% of adenocarcinoma, 35.9% of CIN3, 18.4% of CIN2 and 7.4% of CIN1. Distinct features compared to worldwide were a higher attribution of HPV52 and HPV58, and a much lower attribution of HPV45. Inclusion of HPV52 and HPV58 in future vaccines would provide the highest marginal increase in coverage with 11.7% for squamous cell carcinoma, 14.4% for CIN3, 22.6% for CIN2 and 17.7% for CIN1. The attribution of HPV types in southern China is different from elsewhere, which should be considered in prioritizing HPV types for vaccine and screening assay development. PMID:21976212

  17. Nucleic Acid Sequence-Based Amplification Assay for Human Papillomavirus mRNA Detection and Typing: Evidence for DNA Amplification?

    PubMed Central

    Boulet, Gaëlle A. V.; Micalessi, Isabel M.; Horvath, Caroline A. J.; Benoy, Ina H.; Depuydt, Christophe E.; Bogers, Johannes J.

    2010-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 mRNA has been proposed as a more specific marker for cervical dysplasia and cancer than HPV DNA. This study evaluated the RNA specificity of nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA)-based HPV detection using HPV DNA plasmids (HPV type 16 [HPV16], HPV18, HPV31, HPV33, and HPV45) and nucleic acid extracts of several cell lines, which were systematically subjected to enzymatic treatments with DNase and RNase. HPV plasmid dilutions (106 to 100 copies/?l) and nucleic acid extracts (total DNA, RNA-free DNA, total RNA, and DNA-free RNA) of unfixed and fixed (PreServCyt and SurePath) HaCaT, HeLa, and CaSki cells were tested with the NucliSENS EasyQ HPV test. The RNA-free DNA extracts of HeLa and CaSki cells could be amplified by HPV18 and -16 NASBA, respectively. Fixation of the cells did not influence NASBA. All HPV plasmids could be detected with NASBA. Based on the plasmid dilution series, a lower detection limit of 5 × 103 HPV DNA copies could be determined. Our study identified viral double-stranded DNA as a possible target for NASBA-based HPV detection. The differences in diagnostic accuracy between the NASBA-based tests and conventional HPV DNA detection assays seem to be attributable not to the more specific amplification of viral mRNA but to the limited type range and the lower analytical sensitivity for HPV DNA. PMID:20463156

  18. Prevaccination Distribution of Human Papillomavirus Types in Women Attending at Cervical Cancer Screening in Belgium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Arbyn; Ina Benoy; Cindy Simoens; Johannes Bogers; Philippe Beutels; Christophe Depuydt

    Introduction: Before the introduction of vaccination against human papillomaviruses (HPV) as a new strategy of combating cervical cancer, it is required to describe the baseline prevalence of HPV infection as well as the distribution of the different HPV types in the population and among women with cervical lesions. Materials and Methods: Approximately 10,000 liquid cervical cell samples from women, resident

  19. Immunotherapy of genital warts with inosine pranobex (Imunovir): preliminary study.

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, K C; Scott, C S

    1986-01-01

    One hundred and sixty five heterosexual men and women with genital warts were treated with inosine pranobex (Imunovir) or conventional treatment, or both. Inosine pranobex was found to be more effective in lesions of longer duration, whereas conventional treatment was more effective in genital warts of a shorter duration. Supplementation of conventional treatment with inosine pranobex increased the success rate from 41% to 94%. Immunological studies in 134 patients with genital warts showed an increased number of B cells in 21% of peripheral blood samples. Absence of major defects among circulating lymphocytes suggested that patients with genital warts may have a local immune reaction. PMID:2429908

  20. Human papillomavirus type 16 DNA in periungual squamous cell carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Moy, R.L.; Eliezri, Y.D.; Bennett, R.G. (UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (USA)); Nuovo, G.J.; Siverstein, S. (UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (USA) Columbia Univ., New York, NY (USA)); Zitelli, J.A. (Montefiore Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (USA))

    1989-05-12

    Ten squamous cell carcinomas (in situ or invasive) of the fingernail region were analyzed for the presence of DNA sequences homologous to human papilloma-virus (HPV) by dot blot hybridization. In most patients, the lesions were verrucae of long-term duration that were refractory to conventional treatment methods. Eight of the lesions contained HPV DNA sequences, and in six of these the sequences were related to HPV 16 as deduced from low-stringency nucleic acid hybridization followed by low- and high-stringency washes. Furthermore, the restriction endonuclease digestion pattern of DNA isolated from four of these lesions was diagnostic of episomal HPV 16. The high-frequency association of HPV 16 with periungual squamous cell carcinoma is similar to that reported for HPV 16 with squamous cell carcinomas on mucous membranes at other sites, notably the genital tract. The findings suggest that HPV 16 may play an important role in the development of squamous cell carcinomas of the finger, most notably those lesions that are chronic and located in the periungual area.

  1. Antitumor effect of therapeutic HPV DNA vaccines with chitosan-based nanodelivery systems

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is the second-most-common cause of malignancies in women worldwide, and the oncogenic activity of the human papilloma virus types (HPV) E7 protein has a crucial role in anogenital tumors. In this study, we have designed a therapeutic vaccine based on chitosan nanodelivery systems to deliver HPV-16 E7 DNA vaccine, considered as a tumor specific antigen for immunotherapy of HPV-associated cervical cancer. We have developed a Nano-chitosan (NCS) as a carrier system for intramuscular administration using a recombinant DNA vaccine expressing HPV-16 E7 (NCS-DNA E7 vaccine). NCS were characterized in vitro for their gene transfection ability. Results The transfection of CS-pEGFP NPs was efficient in CHO cells and the expression of green fluorescent proteins was well observed. In addition, NCS-DNA E7 vaccine induced the strongest E7-specific CD8+ T cell and interferon ? responses in C57BL/6 mice. Mice vaccinated with NCS-DNA E7 vaccine were able to generate potent protective and therapeutic antitumor effects against challenge with E7-expressing tumor cell line, TC-1. Conclusions The strong therapeutic effect induced by the Chitosan-based nanodelivery suggest that nanoparticles may be an efficient carrier to improve the immunogenicity of DNA vaccination upon intramuscular administration and the platform could be further exploited as a potential cancer vaccine candidate in humans. PMID:25077570

  2. Simple and convenient chromatography-based methods for purifying the pseudovirus of human papillomavirus type 58

    Microsoft Academic Search

    So Young Kim; Hyoung Jin Kim; Hong-Jin Kim

    2011-01-01

    The currently available purification protocol for human papillomavirus (HPV) pseudovirus (PsV), as a substitute for the native HPV virion, utilizes Optiprep gradients (OG), which require costly equipment such as ultracentrifuges, and 4–7h of working time, and cannot cope with large PsV samples. To develop a convenient method for purifying HPV type 58 PsV (HPV58 PsV) we have examined the use

  3. Evidence of the causal role of human papillomavirus type 58 in an oropharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Baboci, Lorena; Boscolo-Rizzo, Paolo; Holzinger, Dana; Bertorelle, Roberta; Biasini, Lorena; Michel, Angelika; Schmitt, Markus; Spinato, Giacomo; Bussani, Rossana; Alemany, Laia; Tirelli, Giancarlo; Da Mosto, Maria Cristina; Del Mistro, Annarosa; Pawlita, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Persistent human papillomavirus infection (HPV) is recognized as an important etiologic factor for a subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), especially those arising from the oropharynx. Whereas HPV16 accounts for the majority of HPV DNA-positive oropharyngeal SCC, infections with other mucosal high-risk HPV types are quite rare and biological data demonstrating their causal involvement are insufficient. Here we present the first case of an oropharyngeal SCC driven by HPV type 58. A 69-year-old Caucasian woman presented with an enlarged and firm left tonsil. A computed tomography scan showed a left tonsillar mass, extending to the soft palate and the glossotonsillar sulcus. The patient underwent extended radical tonsillectomy and ipsilateral selective neck dissection. Pathology confirmed an infiltrating, poorly differentiated SCC of the left tonsil with node metastasis (pT2N1). Adjuvant external beam radiation therapy (60 Grays (Gy)) was administered. After 1 year of follow-up, the patient is well with no evidence of cancer recurrence. HPV analyses of the tumor tissue by BSGP5+/6+?-PCR/MPG, targeting 51 mucosal HPV types, showed single positivity for HPV type 58. Presence of HPV58 E6*I RNA demonstrated biological activity of the virus in the tumor tissue, and presence of serum antibodies to HPV58 oncoproteins E6 and E7 indicated presence of an HPV58-driven cancer. Overexpression of cellular protein p16INK4a and reduced expression of pRb, two cellular markers for HPV-induced cell transformation, were observed. Exons 4-10 of TP53 showed no mutations or polymorphisms. The presence of HPV58 as single HPV infection in combination with a broad variety of direct and indirect markers of HPV transformation provides comprehensive evidence that this oropharyngeal SCC was driven by HPV58. PMID:24220072

  4. Evidence of the causal role of human papillomavirus type 58 in an oropharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Persistent human papillomavirus infection (HPV) is recognized as an important etiologic factor for a subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), especially those arising from the oropharynx. Whereas HPV16 accounts for the majority of HPV DNA-positive oropharyngeal SCC, infections with other mucosal high-risk HPV types are quite rare and biological data demonstrating their causal involvement are insufficient. Here we present the first case of an oropharyngeal SCC driven by HPV type 58. A 69-year-old Caucasian woman presented with an enlarged and firm left tonsil. A computed tomography scan showed a left tonsillar mass, extending to the soft palate and the glossotonsillar sulcus. The patient underwent extended radical tonsillectomy and ipsilateral selective neck dissection. Pathology confirmed an infiltrating, poorly differentiated SCC of the left tonsil with node metastasis (pT2N1). Adjuvant external beam radiation therapy (60 Grays (Gy)) was administered. After 1 year of follow-up, the patient is well with no evidence of cancer recurrence. HPV analyses of the tumor tissue by BSGP5+/6+??PCR/MPG, targeting 51 mucosal HPV types, showed single positivity for HPV type 58. Presence of HPV58 E6*I RNA demonstrated biological activity of the virus in the tumor tissue, and presence of serum antibodies to HPV58 oncoproteins E6 and E7 indicated presence of an HPV58-driven cancer. Overexpression of cellular protein p16INK4a and reduced expression of pRb, two cellular markers for HPV-induced cell transformation, were observed. Exons 4–10 of TP53 showed no mutations or polymorphisms. The presence of HPV58 as single HPV infection in combination with a broad variety of direct and indirect markers of HPV transformation provides comprehensive evidence that this oropharyngeal SCC was driven by HPV58. PMID:24220072

  5. Human Papillomavirus Type 31b Infection of Human Keratinocytes Does Not Require Heparan Sulfate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicole A. Patterson; Jessica L. Smith; Michelle A. Ozbun

    2005-01-01

    Oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are difficult to study experimentally as they replicate at low levels in vivo. This has precluded the purification of high-risk HPV virions from in vivo lesions. Virus-like particles (VLPs) and pseudovirions from low- and high-risk HPV types can emulate various aspects of HPV virion attachment and infections. These studies suggest that HPV infection is mediated by

  6. The Need for Cervical Cancer Control in HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Women from Romania by Primary Prevention and by Early Detection Using Clinically Validated HPV/DNA Tests

    PubMed Central

    Ursu, Ramona Gabriela; Onofriescu, Mircea; Luca, Alexandru; Prisecariu, Liviu Jany; S?lceanu, Silvia Olivia; Nemescu, Drago?; Iancu, Lumini?a Smaranda

    2015-01-01

    Background In Romania, a country with no organized national surveillance program regarding cervical cancer, the early diagnosis of HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) infections is a major requirement, especially in HIV-infected women. The objective of this study was to determine the HPV prevalence and type distribution in young HIV-positive women and to assess the difference in the risk factors for developing cervical cancer compared to those of HIV-negative women. Method We conducted one cross-sectional cohort study from June 2013–September 2014, including 1,032 women: 992 HIV- women who were 36.5 years old (limits: 17 ÷ 84) and 40 HIV + women who were 22.9 years old (limits: 17 ÷ 30) with iatrogenic HIV infected. We detected HPV types with the Linear Array HPV Genotyping test (Roche, Romania). Results DNA/HPV was detected in 18/40 (45%) of the HIV+ patients and in 350/992 (35.2%) of the HIV- patients (OR = 1.5, 95%CI 0.76÷2.96). After age adjustment, the overall HPV prevalence was 51.6% in HIV+ versus 63.2% in HIV- women aged under 25, and 22.2% in HPV+ versus 47.2% in HIV- women aged 25–34. We detect HIV being a risk factor for acquiring multiple HPV type infections (OR = 2.30, 95% CI 0.88÷5.97). The eight most common HPV types (high-risk, and low-risk) for women below age 30, HIV+ / - were: HPV 16, 18, 31, 51, 58, 68, and 6 and 82 respectively. To assess the risk factors of HIV-positive women for acquiring HPV infection, we analyzed the CD4/?L, ARN/HIV copies/?L, the age group, the number of sexual partners, smoking, and the type of HPV infection (single versus multiple infections). We found that the number of sexual partners and smoking are statistically significant risk factors. Conclusion Even though there are no significant differences regarding the prevalence of HPV infection in HIV + versus HIV – patients, multiple infections were more frequent in the first group. In our study group young HIV-infected patients under HAART therapy, high number of sexual partners (more than 3) and smoking were detected to be risk factors. Future organized screening for HPV infection using sensitive and specific methods are necessary at the national level in Romania. PMID:26186361

  7. Prevalence and distribution of single and multiple HPV infections in cytologically abnormal cervical samples from Italian women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Gargiulo; M. A. De Francesco; C. Schreiber; G. Ciravolo; F. Salinaro; B. Valloncini; N. Manca

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of single and multiple HPV infections was assessed over a cohort of 213 women with cytological abnormalities and its association with cervical neoplasia established. Roche linear array HPV genotyping test was used to identify HPV genotypes. The most prevalent HPV genotypes in cervical cancer samples were HPV16 (61.2%), HPV52 (16.1%), HPV18 (12.9%) and HPV 31 (9.6%). Multiple HR

  8. Long-term persistence of systemic and mucosal immune response to HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in preteen/adolescent girls and young women.

    PubMed

    Petäjä, Tiina; Pedersen, Court; Poder, Airi; Strauss, Gitte; Catteau, Gregory; Thomas, Florence; Lehtinen, Matti; Descamps, Dominique

    2011-11-01

    Vaccination against oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types is one key intervention for cervical cancer prevention. This follow-up study assessed the persistence of the systemic and mucosal immune responses together with the safety profile of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine administered to young women aged 10-25 years. Serum and cervicovaginal secretion (CVS) samples were collected at prespecified time-points during the 48-month follow-up period. Anti-HPV-16/18 antibody levels in serum and CVS were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). At Month 48, all subjects remained seropositive for serum anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibodies. As previously observed, anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibodies levels (ELISA Units/mL) were higher in subjects vaccinated at the age of 10-14 years (2862.2 and 940.8) compared to subjects vaccinated at the age of 15-25 years (1186.2 and 469.8). Moreover, anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibodies in CVS were still detectable for subjects aged 15-25 years (84.1% and 69.7%, respectively). There was a strong correlation between serum and CVS anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibodies levels (correlation coefficients = 0.84 and 0.90 at Month 48, respectively) supporting the hypothesis of transudation or exudation of serum immunoglobulin G antibodies through the cervical epithelium. The HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine had a clinically acceptable safety profile. In conclusion, this follow-up study shows that the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine administered to preteen/adolescents girls and young women induces long-term systemic and mucosal immune response and has a clinically acceptable safety profile up to 4 years after the first vaccine dose. PMID:21190190

  9. Integration of HPV6 and Downregulation of AKR1C3 Expression Mark Malignant Transformation in a Patient with Juvenile-Onset Laryngeal Papillomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Kolligs, Jutta; Vent, Julia; Stenner, Markus; Wieland, Ulrike; Silling, Steffi; Drebber, Uta; Speel, Ernst-Jan M.; Klussmann, Jens Peter

    2013-01-01

    Juvenile-onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is associated with low risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6 and 11. Malignant transformation has been reported solely for HPV11-associated RRP in 2–4% of all RRP-cases, but not for HPV6. The molecular mechanisms in the carcinogenesis of low risk HPV-associated cancers are to date unknown. We report of a female patient, who presented with a laryngeal carcinoma at the age of 24 years. She had a history of juvenile-onset RRP with an onset at the age of three and subsequently several hundred surgical interventions due to multiple recurrences of RRP. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or bead-based hybridization followed by direct sequencing identified HPV6 in tissue sections of previous papilloma and the carcinoma. P16INK4A, p53 and pRb immunostainings were negative in all lesions. HPV6 specific fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed nuclear staining suggesting episomal virus in the papilloma and a single integration site in the carcinoma. Integration-specific amplification of papillomavirus oncogene transcripts PCR (APOT-PCR) showed integration in the aldo-keto reductase 1C3 gene (AKR1C3) on chromosome 10p15.1. ArrayCGH detected loss of the other gene copy as part of a deletion at 10p14-p15.2. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry of the protein AKR1C3 showed a marked reduction of its expression in the carcinoma. In conclusion, we identified a novel molecular mechanism underlying a first case of HPV6-associated laryngeal carcinoma in juvenile-onset RRP, i.e. that HPV6 integration in the AKR1C3 gene resulted in loss of its expression. Alterations of AKR1C gene expression have previously been implicated in the tumorigenesis of other (HPV-related) malignancies. PMID:23437342

  10. Transgenic tobacco expressed HPV16-L1 and LT-B combined immunization induces strong mucosal and systemic immune responses in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hongli, Liu; Xukui, Li; Ting, Lei; Wensheng, Li; Lusheng, Si; Jin, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although there are two HPV vaccines have been used to prevent cervical cancer, the cost limits their application in developing countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential value of plant-based HPV16L1 and LTB proteins as a high-efficiency, low-cost and easy-to-use HPV16L1 oral vaccine. Results: Transgenic plant-derived HPV16L1 and LTB were identified, which display potent immunogenicity and biologic activity. Higher levels of specific IgG and IgA levels of HPV16L1 were induced when mice were immunized with L1 combined with LTB by the oral route. The stimulation index (SI) of spleen cells from the L1/LTB-immunized group was significantly higher than that in the L1-immunized group (p < 0.05). The percentage of IFN-?+/IL-4+ CD4+ T cells from the L1/LTB group was clearly increased compared with that in the L1 and control groups (p < 0.05). Methods: Plant-expressed HPV16L1 and LTB proteins were extracted from transgenic tobacco leaves, and their biologic characteristics and activity were examined with electron microscopy and GM1-binding assays respectively. Mice were immunized orally with either HPV16L1 or LTB alone or in combination. Induced mucosal and systemic immune responses were detected by ELISA, Hemagglutination inhibition (HAI), lymphocyte proliferation assays and flow cytometry analysis. Conclusion: Strong mucosal and systemic immune responses were induced by transgenic tobacco derived HPV16-L1 and LTB combined immunization. This study will lay the foundation for the development of a new type of vaccine to decrease HPV16 infections, which may lead to the prevention of cervical cancer. PMID:23108357

  11. A Review of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection and HPV Vaccine-Related Attitudes and Sexual Behaviors among College-Aged Women in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratanasiripong, Nop T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and HPV vaccine-related attitudes among college-aged women and the relationship between HPV vaccine uptake and subsequent sexual behaviors. Methods: PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Google Scholar searches were performed from 2006, the date after the first HPV vaccine became available, to…

  12. Determinants of seropositivity among HPV16\\/18 DNA positive young women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolina Porras; Christina Bennett; Mahboobeh Safaeian; Sarah Coseo; Ana Cecilia Rodríguez; Paula González; Martha Hutchinson; Silvia Jiménez; Mark E Sherman; Sholom Wacholder; Diane Solomon; Leen-Jan van Doorn; Catherine Bougelet; Wim Quint; Mark Schiffman; Rolando Herrero; Allan Hildesheim

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Not all women infected with HPV-16\\/18 have detectable levels of HPV-16\\/18 antibodies, those who seroconvert develop low antibody levels, and seroconversion occurs typically several months post-infection. We evaluated determinants of seropositivity among 646 women infected with HPV-16 and\\/or HPV-18. METHODS: Data are from the enrollment visit of the NCI-sponsored Costa Rica HPV Vaccine Trial. Sera were tested for HPV-16\\/18

  13. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution in women with cervical lesions: a cross-sectional study in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer ranks second among all cancers reported in Sri Lankan women. This study assessed the prevalence and type-distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) among Sri Lankan women with invasive cervical cancer (ICC) and pre-cancerous lesions. Methods 114 women aged 21 years and above, hospitalized in the National Cancer Institute, Sri Lanka with a diagnosis of ICC or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2/3 were prospectively enrolled between October 2009 and September 2010 (110430/NCT01221987). The cervical biopsy or excision specimens collected during routine clinical procedures were subjected to histopathological review. DNA was extracted from samples with a confirmed histological diagnosis and was amplified using polymerase chain reaction and HPV DNA was detected using Enzyme Immuno Assay. HPV positive samples were typed using reverse hybridization Line Probe Assay. Results Of the cervical samples collected, 93.0% (106/114) had a histologically confirmed diagnosis of either ICC (98/106) or CIN 2/3 (8/106). Among all ICC cases, squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed in the majority of women (81.6% [80/98]). HPV prevalence among ICC cases was 84.7% (83/98). The HPV types most commonly detected in ICC cases with single HPV infection (98.8% [82/83]) were HPV-16 (67.3%) and HPV-18 (9.2%). Infection with multiple HPV types was recorded in a single case (co-infection of HPV-16 and HPV-59). Conclusions HPV was prevalent in most women with ICC in Sri Lanka; HPV-16 and HPV-18 were the predominantly detected HPV types. An effective prophylactic vaccine against the most prevalent HPV types may help to reduce the burden of ICC disease. PMID:24558979

  14. Expression of Mucosal Homing Receptor a4b7 Is Associated with Enhanced Migration to the Chlamydia-Infected Murine Genital Mucosa In Vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RAYMOND A. HAWKINS; ROGER G. RANK; KATHLEEN A. KELLY

    2000-01-01

    The CD4 T helper cell type 1 (Th1) response is essential for the resolution of chlamydial genital infection in mice. However, not all Th1 clones are equally protective in eradicating the infection. Since oral immuni- zation regimens produce protective immunity, we evaluated the role of the mucosa-associated homing receptor, a4b7, in trafficking to the genital mucosa. Using a panel of

  15. Differences in immunoregulatory cytokine expression patterns in the systemic and genital tract compartments of HIV1-infected commercial sex workers in Benin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Lajoie; J Poudrier; M Massinga-Loembe; F Guédou; C Agossa-Gbenafa; A-C Labbé; M Alary; M Roger

    2008-01-01

    Initial exposure to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) during heterosexual transmission occurs in the genital tract. Although much of the literature on the immune response to HIV-1 infection is based on studies performed at the systemic level, our understanding of tissue-specific immunity is lacking. Levels of both genital mucosal and blood interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor

  16. Prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in oral cavity and oropharynx.

    PubMed

    Castro, Therezita Peixoto Patury Galvão; Bussoloti Filho, Ivo

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the oral cavity and oropharynx has not yet been as well studied as its infection of the vaginal tract. However, new study are emerge after the development of molecular biology techniques. The objective of this study is to show the prevalence of HPV in the oral cavity and the oropharynx. An ample bibliographic review was done showing a prevalence of HPV 6, 11 in a normal oral mucous membrane (latent infection). In oral benign lesions associated with HPV, a prevalence of HPV 6 and 11 was observed in squamous cell papilloma (SCP) and condylomas acuminatum, while HPV 2 and 57 were more prevalent in verruca vulgaris lesions. As for focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) and oral cancer, especially squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), the prevalence was of HPV 13 and 32, and HPV 16, respectively. The last findings are, nonetheless, controversial. The last findings are, nonetheless, controversial. Showed also discrepancy result the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in normal oral mucous (latent infection) and in oral cancer, however evidenced confirmatory result in oral benign lesions associated with virus. PMID:16951865

  17. DCCPS: BRP: PCRB: Key Initiatives: HPV and Cervical Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    This study seeks to develop sensitive, specific, and inexpensive approaches to cervical cancer screening as alternatives to the traditional Pap test and cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing.

  18. Female genital mutilation: strategies for eradication.

    PubMed

    Hosken, F P

    1998-03-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a term applied to genital cutting that can vary from a nick on the clitoris to total excision of all external genital tissue and closure of the vulva. FGM is practiced in many African countries, in some parts of the Arab peninsula and Persian Gulf, in some groups in Indonesia and Malaysia, and among immigrants in Western countries. The practice has been outlawed in the most European countries and in the US. The US legislation also requires all African countries receiving US aid to begin education programs to eradicate FGM mutilation. The first international recommendations to abolish FGM were made in 1979, and the Inter-African Committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children (IAC) was formed in 1984. The IAC, which gained worldwide support at the 1985 UN Conference for women, has affiliated committees in 26 African countries. The IAC supports its affiliates by offering training, networking opportunities, and resources and by holding a major conference every 3 years. The fourth IAC conference, in 1997 in Dakar, attracted about 90 delegates, including two women from Japan and one from the US. The IAC is working to eradicate all forms of traditionally condoned violence against women and girls, including FGM, child marriage, food taboos, and force feeding. Efforts to reach rural populations rely on distribution of childbirth picture books that explain the biological facts of reproduction and then describe the effects of FGM on women's health. These include immediate complications (including death), long-term complications, pregnancy-associated problems, and psychosexual and psychological problems. PMID:12222522

  19. Female genital mutilation: an injury, physical and mental harm.

    PubMed

    Utz-Billing, I; Kentenich, H

    2008-12-01

    This article gives an overview over the huge topic of 'female genital mutilation' (FGM). FGM means non-therapeutic, partial or complete removal or injury of each of the external female genitals. It concerns about 130 million women around the world. FGM is performed in about 30 countries, most of which are located in Africa. Four types of FGM are distinguished: type I stands for the removal of the clitoral foreskin, type II means the removal of the clitoris with partial or total excision of the labia minora. Type III is the extreme type of FGM. Not only the clitoris but also the labia minora and majora were removed. The orificium vaginae is sewn up, leaving only a small opening for urine or menstruation blood. Other types like pricking, piercing of clitoris or vulva, scraping of the vagina, etc. were defined as type IV of FGM. The mentioned reasons for FGM are: encouragement of the patriarchal family system, method for birth control, guarantee of moral behaviour and faithfulness to the husband, protection of women from suspicions and disgrace, initiation ritual, symbol of feminity and beauty, hygienic, health and economic advantages. Acute physical consequences of FGM include bleeding, wound infections, sepsis, shock, micturition problems and fractures. Chronic physical problems like anemia, infections of the urinary tract, incontinence, infertility, pain, menstruation problems and dyspareunia are frequent. Women also have a higher risk for HIV infections. During pregnancy and delivery, examinations and vaginal application of medicine are more difficult. Women have a higher risk for a prolonged delivery, wound infections, a postpartum blood loss of more than 500 mL, perineal tears, a resuscitation of the infant and an inpatient perinatal death. Mental consequences after FGM include the feelings of incompleteness, fear, inferiority and suppression. Women report chronic irritability and nightmares. They have a higher risk for psychiatric and psychosomatic diseases. FGM carried out by doctors, nurses or midwives is also called medicalisation of FGM and is definitely unacceptable. Regarding human rights, FGM refuses women the right of freedom from bodily harm. Specific laws that ban FGM exist in many countries in Europe, Africa, USA, Canada, New Zealand and Australia. PMID:19065392

  20. The Aptima HPV Assay Fulfills the Cross-Sectional Clinical and Reproducibility Criteria of International Guidelines for Human Papillomavirus Test Requirements for Cervical Screening

    PubMed Central

    Hesselink, A. T.; van Kemenade, F. J.; Iftner, T.; Berkhof, J.; Topal, F.; Agard, D.; Meijer, C. J. L. M.; Snijders, P. J. F.

    2013-01-01

    The Aptima HPV assay (Hologic Gen-Probe, San Diego, CA) is an FDA-approved assay for detecting human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 mRNA from 14 high-risk HPV types. This study evaluated the clinical performance of the Aptima HPV assay for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 2 or worse (CIN2+), relative to the high-risk HPV GP5+/GP6+ PCR, in a cross-sectional clinical equivalence analysis using the noninferiority score test with cervical samples from population-based screening, i.e., 69 cervical scraping samples from women with CIN2+ and 843 from women without evidence of CIN2+. In addition, intralaboratory reproducibility over time and interlaboratory agreement of the Aptima HPV assay results were assessed with another set of 548 cervical samples. The Aptima HPV assay showed a clinical sensitivity for CIN2+ of 94.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 85.5 to 97.8%) and a clinical specificity for CIN2+ of 94.5% (95% CI, 92.8 to 95.9%); by comparison, these figures were 97.1% (95% CI, 89.1 to 99.3%) (67/69 samples) and 93.6% (95% CI, 91.7 to 95.0%) (785/839 samples), respectively, for GP5+/GP6+ PCR. The clinical sensitivity and specificity of the Aptima HPV assay were noninferior to those of GP5+/GP6+ PCR (P = 0.039 and 0.00016, respectively). In addition, high reproducibility of the Aptima HPV assay, as reflected by the intralaboratory reproducibility over time of 96.0% (95% CI, 94.4 to 97.3%) (526/548 samples; kappa = 0.89) and interlaboratory agreement of 96.7% (95% CI, 95.4 to 98.1%) (531/548 samples; kappa = 0.91), was found. Altogether, these data show that the Aptima HPV assay meets the cross-sectional clinical and reproducibility criteria of the international guidelines for HPV test requirements for cervical screening. Longitudinal data are needed to ensure that the long-term negative predictive value of this mRNA assay is similar to those of validated HPV DNA tests. PMID:23985912