These are representative sample records from related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Genital Warts: Complications  


... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Genital Warts Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Complications Cancer Some types of HPV can cause cervical cancer. Other types are associated ...


Genital Warts (HPV)  


... a group of viruses called HPV (short for human papillomavirus ). There are more than 100 types of HPV. ... is no cure that gets rid of the human papillomavirus completely. But treatments can reduce the number of ...


Genital Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection in Women  


Genital Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection in Women What is HPV? HPV is human papillomavirus. It is the most common viral sexually transmitted infection ... the external genital areas (vulva). How common is HPV? HPV is very common. Most men and women ...


Genital Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Native Women  


Genital Human Papillomavirus (HPV) At least 50% of sexually active women and men will get it. Most will not know ... possible effects of HPV. W hat is genital human papillomavirus (HPV)? HPV is a common virus. There are ...


Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Genital Warts: Symptoms  


... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Genital Warts Skip Content Marketing Share this: ... infected person. Like many sexually transmitted diseases, genital HPV infections often do not have signs and symptoms ...


Genital HPV Infection  


... HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI). HPV is a different virus than HIV and ... older. They are not recommended to screen men, adolescents, or women under the age of 30 years. ...


Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Genital Warts: Diagnosis  


... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Genital Warts Skip Content Marketing Share this: ... warts, you also should be examined for possible HPV infection of the cervix. Your healthcare provider can ...


Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Genital Warts  


... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Genital Warts Top Banner Content Area ... Warts Cause Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Prevention Complications Human Papillomavirus Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most ...


Genital and cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) types in relation to conjunctival squamous cell neoplasia: A case-control study in Uganda  

PubMed Central

Background We investigated the role of infection with genital and cutaneous human papillomavirus types (HPV) in the aetiology of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (which includes both conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and carcinoma) using data and biological material collected as part of a case-control study in Uganda. Results Among 81 cases, the prevalence of genital and cutaneous HPV types in tumour tissue did not differ significantly by histological grade of the lesion. The prevalence of genital HPV types did not differ significantly between cases and controls (both 38%; Odds ratio [OR] 1.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.4–2.7, p = 1.0). The prevalence of cutaneous HPV types was 22% (18/81) among cases and 3% (1/29) among controls (OR 8.0, 95% CI 1.0–169, p = 0.04). Conclusion We find no evidence of an association between genital HPV types and ocular surface squamous neoplasia. The prevalence of cutaneous HPV was significantly higher among cases as compared to controls. Although consistent with results from two other case-control studies, the relatively low prevalence of cutaneous HPV types among cases (which does not differ by histological grade of tumour) indicates that there remains considerable uncertainty about a role for cutaneous HPV in the aetiology of this tumour. PMID:18783604

de Koning, Maurits NC; Waddell, Keith; Magyezi, Joseph; Purdie, Karin; Proby, Charlotte; Harwood, Catherine; Lucas, Sebastian; Downing, Robert; Quint, Wim GV; Newton, Robert



Broad HPV distribution in the genital region of men from the HPV infection in men (HIM) study  

PubMed Central

The HPV infection in men (HIM) study examines the natural history of genital HPV infection in men. Genotyping methods used in this study identify 37 ?-HPV types; however, the viral type could not be identified in approximately 22% of male genital specimens that were HPV PCR positive. Our aim was to genotype HPV-unclassified specimens by sequencing PGMY09/11, GP5+/6+ or FAP59/64 PCR products. Using this approach we were able to detect 86 unique HPV types among 508 of 931 specimens analyzed. We report for the first time the presence of a broad range of ?-, ?- and ?-HPV at the male genitals. PMID:23722104

Sichero, Laura; Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Ferreira, Silvaneide; Sobrinho, Joao S.; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Galan, Lenice; Silva, Roberto C.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R.; Villa, Luisa L.





Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are common viruses that can cause warts. There are more than 100 types of HPV. Most are harmless, but about 30 types put ... either low-risk or high-risk. Low-risk HPV can cause genital warts. High-risk HPV can ...



E-print Network

genital to oral or anal contact. Sex toys and fingers can theoretically pass the HPV back and forth. 4 immune system, exposure to DES before birth, multiple sex partners, older age, long term use of oral contraceptives, high parity (5 or more full-term pregnancies), and smoking. 5. As with many STIs, there are often


Risk factors for genital HPV DNA in men resemble those found in women: a study of male attendees at a Danish STD clinic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Genital infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most important risk factor for cervical cancer. The male sexual partner is supposed to be the vector of the infection. However, the knowledge of risk factors for genital HPV DNA in men is limited. The objective of this paper is to study the risk factors for HPV infection

E I Svare; S K Kjaer



HPV16 and HPV18 in genital tumors: Significantly different levels of viral integration and correlation to tumor invasiveness.  


The integration of the high-risk HPV16 and HPV18 types into the cell genome is considered an important step in malignant transformation. The relationship between the physical status of the virus and clinical/pathological parameters was studied by type-specific and multiplex PCR for E6, E2, and E1 sequences in 86 genital tumors from different sites, consisting of 69 invasive carcinomas (including 5 microinvasive carcinomas), 9 carcinomas in situ, 6 severe dysplasias, and 2 moderate dysplasias. Forty tumors contained HPV16 (46.6%), 7 HPV18 (8.1%), and 39 both viruses (45.3%). HPV16 DNA was found either as pure integrant (35.4%), or pure episome (36.7%), or a mixture of both (27.8%). Conversely, all 46 lesions containing HPV18 showed pure integrated forms. The physical status of both types was not related to the tumor site, the tumor/node/metastasis stage, or the histological differentiation grade of the invasive carcinomas. HPV16 integration was significantly associated with invasiveness. Interestingly, in double infections when HPV16 coexisted with HPV18, its genome was found more frequently in episomal form than in single infections where, conversely, it was mostly integrated (P < 0.0001), suggesting a sort of competition for cell integration sites. The complete HPV18 integration, even in pre-neoplastic lesions, indicates a different behavior in genital transformation compared with HPV16 and may reflect a major aggressiveness of this viral type. In conclusion, virus typing in conjunction with the evaluation of the integration status may provide a better prognostic evaluation together with an improved diagnosis. PMID:12116007

Badaracco, Gianna; Venuti, Aldo; Sedati, Alfonso; Marcante, Maria Luisa



Prophylactic HPV vaccines: prospects for eliminating ano-genital cancer  

PubMed Central

Virtually all cases of cervical cancer and its precursor intra-epithelial lesions are a result of infection with one or other of a subset of genital human papillomaviruses (HPVs), suggesting that prevention of HPV infection by prophylactic vaccination would be a highly effective anticancer strategy. Two HPV L1 virus-like particle vaccines have been developed, a quadrivalent HPV16/18/6/11 product and a bivalent HPV16/18 product; both have been shown to be highly immunogenic with a good safety profile and 100% efficacy against HPV16/18-related high-grade cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN2/3), implying that they will be effective at preventing HPV16/18-related cervical cancer. PMID:17375045

Stanley, M



A novel type of human papillomavirus associated with genital neoplasias  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) in the development of genital neoplasias has been well documented1-5. The genomes of two HPV types, HPV16 and HPV18, have been found to be associated with about 70% of invasive carcinomas of the uterine cervix2,4,6. As, under non-stringent hybridization conditions, HPV DNA sequences have been detected in about 90% of cervical carcinomas4,6, it seems

Sylvie Beaudenon; Dina Kremsdorf; Odile Croissant; Stefania Jablonska; Simon Wain-Hobson; Gérard Orth



Male circumcision and the incidence and clearance of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men: the HPV Infection in men (HIM) cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Reported associations of male circumcision (MC) with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men have been inconsistent. Methods 4,033 healthy men were examined every six months for a median of 17.5 months. In each study visit, exfoliated cell specimens from the coronal sulcus/glans penis, penile shaft, and scrotum were collected and combined into one sample per person for HPV DNA detection. Samples were tested for 37 HPV types. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the association between MC and the incidence and clearance of HPV infections and specific genotypes. Results The overall incidence of new HPV infections did not differ by MC status (for any HPV, adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91-1.27). However, incidence was significantly lower among circumcised versus uncircumcised men for HPV types 58 (p?=?0.01), 68 (p?HPV types 39 (p?=?0.01) and 51 (p?=?0.02). Despite the lack of an overall association in the risk of HPV clearance by MC (for any HPV, aHR 0.95, 95% CI 0.88-1.02), median times to clearance were significantly shorter among circumcised than uncircumcised men for HPV types 33 (p?=?0.02) and 64 (p?=?0.04), and longer for HPV types 6 (p?genital HPV detection, except for certain HPV types. The use of a single combined sample from the penis and scrotum for HPV DNA detection likely limited our ability to identify a true effect of MC at the distal penis. PMID:24517172



Simultaneous detection and typing of genital human papillomavirus DNA using the polymerase chain reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple method has been developed for detecting a broad range of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) types using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We utilized two consensus sequence primer pairs within the E6 and E7 open reading frames to amplify HPV DNA; malignant HPV DNA (from HPV- 16, - 18, -31, -33, -52b and -58) was amplified using the pU-1M\\/

Yukako Fujinaga; Masamitu Shimada; Kazuhide Okazawa; Michio Fukushima; Ikunoshin Kato; Kei Fujinaga



Consistent Condom Use Reduces the Genital Human Papillomavirus Burden Among High-Risk Men: The HPV Infection in Men Study  

PubMed Central

Background.?Data supporting the efficacy of condoms against human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in males are limited. Therefore, we examined the effect of consistent condom use on genital HPV acquisition and duration of infection. Methods.?A prospective analysis was conducted within the HPV Infection in Men Study, a multinational HPV cohort study. Men who were recently sexually active (n = 3323) were stratified on the basis of sexual risk behaviors and partnerships. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, type-specific incidence of HPV infection and clearance were modeled for each risk group to assess independent associations with condom use. Results.?The risk of HPV acquisition was 2-fold lower among men with no steady sex partner who always used condoms, compared with those who never used condoms (hazard ratio, 0.54), after adjustment for country, age, race, education duration, smoking, alcohol, and number of recent sex partners. The probability of clearing an oncogenic HPV infection was 30% higher among nonmonogamous men who always used condoms with nonsteady sex partners, compared with men who never used condoms (hazard ratio, 1.29), after adjustment for country, age, race, education duration, marital status, smoking, alcohol, and number of recent sex partners. No protective effects of condom use were observed among monogamous men. Conclusions.?Condoms should be promoted in combination with HPV vaccination to prevent HPV infection in men. PMID:23644283

Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William; Papenfuss, Mary R.; Salmeron, Jorge J.; Quiterio, Manuel M.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Villa, Luisa L.; Giuliano, Anna R.



Detection of Human Papillomavirus Types 6 and 11 in Pubic and Perianal Hair from Patients with Genital Warts  

PubMed Central

Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6 and 11 are of clinical importance due to their role in the development of anogenital warts. A pilot study was performed to investigate whether DNAs from HPV types 6 and 11 are present in hairs plucked from the pubic and perianal regions and eyebrows of patients with genital warts at present and patients with a recent history of genital warts. Genital HPV DNA was detected in 9 of 25 (36%) pubic hair samples and in 11 of 22 (50%) perianal hair samples by the CPI/CPIIg PCR. After sequencing of 17 of 20 samples, HPV type 6 or 11 was detected in 6 of 25 (24%) hair samples from the pubis and 8 of 22 (36%) hair samples from the perianal region. These types were not detected in plucked eyebrow hairs. In contrast, the HPV types associated with epidermodysplasia verruciformis were detected in similar proportions (62%) in both samples of pubic and eyebrow hairs. Moreover, HPV type 6 and 11 DNAs were detected in pubic hairs plucked from two patients who had been successfully treated and who did not show any lesion at the time of hair collection; this finding is an argument that HPV DNA may persist in this region. The presence of genital HPV types in plucked pubic and perianal hair suggests that there is an endogenous reservoir for HPV which may play a role in the recurrences of genital warts. PMID:10364596

Boxman, Ingeborg L. A.; Hogewoning, Arjan; Mulder, Linda H. C.; Bavinck, Jan Nico Bouwes; ter Schegget, Jan



Detection of human papillomavirus types 6 and 11 in pubic and perianal hair from patients with genital warts.  


Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6 and 11 are of clinical importance due to their role in the development of anogenital warts. A pilot study was performed to investigate whether DNAs from HPV types 6 and 11 are present in hairs plucked from the pubic and perianal regions and eyebrows of patients with genital warts at present and patients with a recent history of genital warts. Genital HPV DNA was detected in 9 of 25 (36%) pubic hair samples and in 11 of 22 (50%) perianal hair samples by the CPI/CPIIg PCR. After sequencing of 17 of 20 samples, HPV type 6 or 11 was detected in 6 of 25 (24%) hair samples from the pubis and 8 of 22 (36%) hair samples from the perianal region. These types were not detected in plucked eyebrow hairs. In contrast, the HPV types associated with epidermodysplasia verruciformis were detected in similar proportions (62%) in both samples of pubic and eyebrow hairs. Moreover, HPV type 6 and 11 DNAs were detected in pubic hairs plucked from two patients who had been successfully treated and who did not show any lesion at the time of hair collection; this finding is an argument that HPV DNA may persist in this region. The presence of genital HPV types in plucked pubic and perianal hair suggests that there is an endogenous reservoir for HPV which may play a role in the recurrences of genital warts. PMID:10364596

Boxman, I L; Hogewoning, A; Mulder, L H; Bouwes Bavinck, J N; ter Schegget, J



HPV prevalence and type distribution in women with normal or abnormal Pap smear in Bulgaria.  


Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a well-known pathogen for lower genital tract neoplasias, yet little is known regarding HPV prevalence in Bulgaria. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HPV DNA and to determine HPV types distribution among women with normal and abnormal cytology. Cervical smears with different cytological diagnoses were collected from 355 Bulgarian patients. The cohort of patients selected is the biggest ever studied in this country. Using the Roche Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test, papillomavirus DNA was found in 217 out of the 355 samples, 164 of which had only one and 53 had more than one HPV type. The distribution of the viruses tested in 355 samples was as follows: (i) the most common type was HPV 16, which was found in 61 samples; (ii) the next most frequent HPV type was HPV 33, found in 14 of the samples. A high prevalence of HPV infection was observed in this study. As HPV infection has a high correlation with cervical cancer, this study emphasizes the need for both primary prevention of cervical cancer with HPV vaccines as well as secondary prevention with screening. Currently, two HPV vaccines are included in the National immunization schedule in Bulgaria. Thus, new clinical studies will benefit from patient stratification by the presence or absence of HPV, and by designing separate clinical trials specifically for HPV associated cancers. PMID:25059991

Grozdanov, Peter; Zlatkov, Victor; Ganchev, Gancho; Karagiosov, Ilko; Toncheva, Draga; Galabov, Angel S



Correlation between Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Type and Histology of Warts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty warts from different patients and of different clinical type were examined histologically and virologically. Eight lesions were found to be associated with human papillomavirus type 1 (HPV 1), 15 tumors were induced by HPV 2, HPV 3 was detected 4 times, RPV 4 twice, and HPV 6 eleven times. HPV 3, HPV 4, and HPV 6 induced warts revealed

Gerd Gross; Herbert Pfister; Manfred Hagedorn; Lutz Gissmann



Sulfated K5 Escherichia coli Polysaccharide Derivatives as Wide-Range Inhibitors of Genital Types of Human Papillomavirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genital human papillomaviruses (HPV) represent the most common sexually transmitted agents and are classified into low or high risk by their propensity to cause genital warts or cervical cancer, respectively. Topical microbicides against HPV may be a useful adjunct to the newly licensed HPV vaccine. A main objective in the development of novel microbicides is to block HPV entry into

David Lembo; Manuela Donalisio; Marco Rusnati; Antonella Bugatti; Maura Cornaglia; Paola Cappello; Mirella Giovarelli; Pasqua Oreste; Santo Landolfo



Therapeutic benefits of carbon dioxide (CO2) laser on single-site HPV lesions in the lower female genital tract  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous studies have shown contradictory variable percentages of recurrent HPV lesions, after various therapies. The present study therefore evaluates the effectiveness of CO2 laser vaporization in the treatment of single-site HPV lesions of the lower female genital tract in order to confirm the conviction that physical therapy alone, in agreement with some findings reported in the literature, is capable of guaranteeing a high cure rate in selected patients. From January 1995 to June 1996, seventy- five female patients were treated with CO2 laser vaporization for single-site genital HPV lesions, some of which were associated with low-grade intra-epithelial neoplasia. The success rate after 12 months proved to be 97%. The pre-existing clinical symptoms disappeared in all the patients treated. No complication in the vaporization procedure was encountered.

Urru, Giovanni; Moretti, Gianfranco



Association of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and herpes simplex virus type 2 serostatus with genital human papillomavirus infection in men: the HIM Study  

PubMed Central

Background Studies in women indicate that some sexually transmitted infections promote human papillomavirus (HPV) persistence and carcinogenesis. Little is known about this association in men, therefore we assessed whether Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) serostatus are associated with genital HPV prevalence, an early event in HPV related pathogenesis. Methods Genital exfoliated cells, first-void urine and blood from 3,971 men recruited in the USA, Mexico, and Brazil, were tested for HPV, CT, and HSV-2 antibodies, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association of CT infection and HSV-2 serostatus with four HPV outcomes (any, oncogenic, non-oncogenic only, and multiple infections). Results A total of 64 (1.6%) men were CT positive and 811 (20.4%) men were HSV-2 seropositive. After adjustment for potential confounders, CT was associated with any HPV (aOR 2.19, 95%CI: 1.13–4.24), oncogenic HPV (aOR 3.10, 95%CI: 1.53–6.28), and multiple HPV (aOR 3.43, 95%CI: 1.69-6.95) prevalence. HSV-2 serostatus was associated with any HPV (aOR 1.25, 95%CI: 1.02-1.52), non-oncogenic HPV only (aOR 1.38, 95%CI: 1.08-1.75), and multiple HPV (aOR 1.33, 95%CI: 1.06-1.68) prevalence. In analyses stratified by sexual behaviour, CT infection was significantly associated with HPV detection among men reporting ?2 recent sexual partners, while HSV-2 serostatus was significantly associated with HPV detection in men reporting 0-5 lifetime sexual partners. Conclusion In this population, CT infection and HSV-2 serostatus were associated with prevalent genital HPV infection. Future prospective studies should investigate whether these infections influence HPV acquisition and/or persistence. PMID:23680908

Alberts, Catharina Johanna; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; Papenfuss, Mary R.; da Silva, Roberto Jose Carvalho; Villa, Luisa Lina; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Nyitray, Alan G.; Giuliano, Anna R.



Warts in all body locations are caused by the human papilloma virus. Over 100 types of HPV have been  

E-print Network

of infection from a single act of unprotected intercourse with a partner with visible genital HPV. Although the virus in the anal areas. The Pap Test may detect hidden or subclinical HPV infections of the cervix in women and anal areas of both men and women. How is HPV Transmitted? The vast majority of genital HPV

Virginia Tech


Human Papillomaviruses and genital co-infections in gynaecological outpatients  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: High grade HPV infections and persistence are the strongest risk factors for cervical cancer. Nevertheless other genital microorganisms may be involved in the progression of HPV associated lesions. METHODS: Cervical samples were collected to search for human Papillomavirus (HPV), bacteria and yeast infections in gynaecologic outpatients. HPV typing was carried out by PCR and sequencing on cervical brush specimens.

Rosita Verteramo; Alessandra Pierangeli; Emanuela Mancini; Ettore Calzolari; Mauro Bucci; John Osborn; Rosa Nicosia; Fernanda Chiarini; Guido Antonelli; Anna Marta Degener



HPV and Men  


... HPV and Men - Fact Sheet What is Genital Human Papillomavirus (HPV)? Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common virus. Most sexually active ... 4636) TTY: (888) 232-6348 Contact CDC–INFO Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Facts & Brochures HPV Fact Sheet HPV & Oropharyngeal ...


Human Papillomavirus Types 6 and 11 DNA Sequences in Genital and Laryngeal Papillomas and in Some Cervical Cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human genital tumors as well as recurrent laryngeal papillomas were analyzed for the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) 6 and HPV 11 sequences. HPV 11 DNA was found in 7 of 14 laryngeal papillomas; in the 7 other tumors no HPV DNA was demonstrated. HPV 11 DNA was also found in all five atypical condylomata of the cervix included in

Lutz Gissmann; Lutz Wolnik; Hans Ikenberg; Ursula Koldovsky; Hans Georg Schnurch; Harald Zur Hausen



ClinicalStudy Strategies for Fostering HPV Vaccine Acceptance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaccines that protect against infection with the types of human papillomavirus (HPV) commonly associated with cervical cancer (HPV 16 and 18) and genital warts (HPV 6 and 11) are expected to become available in the near future. Because HPV vaccines are prophylactic, they must be administered prior to exposure to the virus, ideally during preadolescence or adolescence. The young age

Bernard Gonik


Prevalence and Determinants of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Infection in Male Genital Warts  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the prevalence and type distribution of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in genital warts of Korean men, and for the first time, to describe the risk factors associated with high-risk HPV infection in male genital warts. Materials and Methods In a single private clinic, 150 consecutive male patients with histopathologic-confirmed genital warts who underwent HPV genotyping by use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were included in this study. We detected HPV DNA in male genital warts and evaluated HPV type distribution, especially high-risk HPV types, by use of PCR. The associations between HPV prevalence and various characteristics, such as age, circumcision status, type of genital warts diagnosis (new vs. recurrent), number of lesions, site of lesions, and gross morphology, were assessed by use of unconditional multiple logistic regression. Results High-risk HPV types were detected in 31 cases (23.5%), and of these, 27 cases (20.5%) contained both high-risk and low-risk HPV types. The most frequently detected high-risk HPV types were HPV16 (6.8%), HPV33 (4.5%), HPV18 (2.3%), and HPV68 (2.3%). In particular, the prevalence of infection with HPV16 and/or HPV18 was 8.3% (11 of 132). In the multivariate analysis, lesions located at sites including the base of the penis or the pubic area, papular or mixed genital warts, and lack of circumcision significantly increased the association with high-risk HPV infection in male genital warts. Conclusions The prevalence of high-risk HPV infection was substantial in male genital warts. The site and morphology of lesions and circumcision status were significantly associated with the prevalence of high-risk HPV infection. PMID:24648877

Park, Sung Jin; Seo, Juhyung; Ha, Seong-Heon



HPV DNA test  


The HPV DNA test is used to check for high-risk HPV infection in women. HPV infection around the genitals is ... warts spread when you have sex. The HPV-DNA test is generally not recommended for detecting low- ...


HPV Treatment  


... Share Compartir Treatment Is there a treatment for HPV or related problems? There is no treatment for ... but there are treatments for the problems that HPV can cause: Visible genital warts may remain the ...


Genital human papillomavirus infection.  

PubMed Central

Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a common sexually transmitted disease that at the present time is not effectively controlled or treated. Many infections are inapparent and transient. However, some HPV infections result in persistent lesions that in some cases undergo carcinogenic progression. A subset of genital HPVs, designated high-risk types, are preferentially associated with high-grade dysplasias and carcinomas. About 90% of cervical cancers contain high-risk HPV DNA, most often HPV16. Development of a subunit vaccine against high-risk genital HPVs is a desirable and, it appears, an increasingly feasible long-term goal. The viral E6 and E7 oncoproteins are selectively maintained and expressed in progressed HPV tumors and could potentially be targets for therapeutic vaccines. The L1 major virion structural proteins have recently been shown to self-assemble into virus-like particles when expressed in insect cells. These particles might serve as the basis for a prophylactic vaccine to prevent genital HPV infection. Images PMID:8146136

Lowy, D R; Kirnbauer, R; Schiller, J T



Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Types Specific of Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis Detected in Warts Induced by HPV3 or HPV3Related Types in Immunosuppressed Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is characterized by an abnormal genetic predisposition to infection with specific types of human papillomavirus (HPV). Specific defects of the cell-mediated immunity and\\/or of the control of HPV infection in keratinocytes are assumed to be involved in the development of the disease. As a model to test this hypothesis, we have studied the prevalence of EV-specific HPV

Slavomir Obalek; Michel Favre; Jacek Szymanczyk; Joanna Misiewicz; Stefania Jablonska; Gérard Orth



Quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16, 18) recombinant vaccine (gardasil(®)): a review of its use in the prevention of premalignant anogenital lesions, cervical and anal cancers, and genital warts.  


Quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) [types 6, 11, 16, 18] recombinant vaccine (Gardasil(®); Silgard(®)) is composed of virus-like particles formed by self-assembly of recombinant L1 capsid protein from each of HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18. It is indicated for use from the age of 9 years as a two- or three-dose vaccination course over 6 months for the prevention of premalignant anogenital lesions, cervical and anal cancers, and genital warts caused by the vaccine HPV types. In placebo-controlled trials, quadrivalent HPV vaccine provided high-level protection against infection or disease caused by the vaccine HPV types over 2-4 years in females aged 15-45 years who were negative for the vaccine HPV types, and provided a degree of cross-protection against certain non-vaccine HPV types. The vaccine also provided high-level protection against persistent infection, anogenital precancerous lesions and genital warts caused by the vaccine HPV types over 3 years in susceptible males aged 16-26 years. Protection has been demonstrated for up to 8 years. In subjects who were negative for the vaccine HPV types, high seroconversion rates and high levels of anti-HPV antibodies were observed in females of all age ranges from 9 to 45 years and in males aged 9-26 years. The vaccine was generally well tolerated and was usually predicted to be cost effective in girls and young women. Therefore, quadrivalent HPV vaccine offers an effective means to substantially reduce the burden of HPV-related anogenital disease in females and males, particularly cervical cancer and genital warts. PMID:25022951

McCormack, Paul L



[Identification of genital papillomavirus using PCR].  


Over 20 different types of human papillomaviruses (HPV) are associated with tumoral lesions of the anogenital tract. Some of these lesions may become cancerous at a frequency which depends, among other risk factors, upon the type of HPV. Genital papillomaviruses with high oncogenic risk (HPV16, 18, 31, 33, 35 ...) are associated with the majority of cervical cancers and to a high proportion of high grade anogenital lesions, while HPV6 and HPV11 are most often associated with benign condylomas. The recently introduced PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) has distinctly simplified and improved detection and typing of genital HPVs. PCR detection of HPV has its place in epidemiologic studies and basic research, its application in daily clinical practise is, however, still controversial. For routine analysis, PCR serves more as a complementary tool to cytology. PMID:8209133

Sahli, R; Spuhler, S



Factors associated with the seroprevalence of 26 cutaneous and two genital human papillomavirus types in organ transplant patients.  


Viral skin infections are commonly present in organ transplant recipients (OTR). In this study, we aimed to identify factors associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in OTR. Patients with solid-organ transplants were recruited from the outpatient nephrology and dermatology clinics in five European countries. Only patients with no current or past skin cancer were included in this analysis. Serum samples were analysed for antibodies to the L1 proteins of 26 cutaneous and two genital HPV types from five phylogenetic genera (?, ?, ?, ? and ?). The most consistent association was found between recreational sun exposure and the seroprevalence of all tested genera, except ?. The antibody presence of any ? type was higher among people who had been transplanted at least 23 years prior to participation than in those who had been transplanted for less than 7 years. The prevalence of two ?-HPV types (60 and 65) and three ?-HPV types (15, 38 and 49) was associated with time since transplantation. The presence of a high number of warts was associated with the presence of any ?-PV or ?-PV types, and having greater than 50 keratotic skin lesions was almost significantly associated with the presence of antibodies to two or more ?-PV. Discrepancies in the results of the present study, as well as in previous reports, may depend on different methodologies and on geographical variations. Our results also indicate that further research with more standardized methods is needed to clarify the role of cutaneous HPV in OTR. PMID:21900419

Sampogna, F; Bavinck, J N Bouwes; Pawlita, M; Abeni, D; Harwood, C A; Proby, C M; Feltkamp, M C W; Euvrard, S; Naldi, L; Neale, R E; Nindl, I; Pfister, H; Quint, W G V; Waterboer, T



The burden and costs of prevention and management of genital disease caused by HPV in women: a population-based registry study in Finland.  


The aim of this study was to evaluate the total burden and health care provider costs of prevention, management and treatment of HP-related genital disease outcomes including all organized and opportunistic screening tests. Information about HPV-related disease outcomes in the Finnish female population of 2.7 million was obtained from nationwide population-based registry data. We estimated the incidence, health care resource use, health provider costs and life years lost due to cervical, vaginal and vulvar cancer and intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN, VaIN, VIN), cervical adenocarcinoma in situ, and external genital warts. The average annual disease burden of HPV-related genital disease in the female population of Finland comprises altogether 241 cases of cervical, vaginal and vulvar cancer, 2,898 new cases of CIN, 34,432 cases of minor cytological abnormalities, and almost 4,000 cases of external genital warts. The total annual costs of screening, further diagnostics and treatment of HPV-related genital disease were € 44.7 million of which the annual costs due to cervical cancer screening were € 22.4 million and due to diagnostics, management and treatment of HPV-related genital disease outcomes were € 22.3 million. The latter included € 8.4 million due to minor cervical abnormalities detected by the current cervical screening practice. The extensive opportunistic Pap testing fails to keep the incidence of cervical cancer from increasing among women aged 30-34. In addition opportunistic screening among this and younger age group detects a significant number of cytological abnormalities, most of which are probably treated unnecessarily. PMID:23463194

Salo, Heini; Leino, Tuija; Kilpi, Terhi; Auranen, Kari; Tiihonen, Petri; Lehtinen, Matti; Vänskä, Simopekka; Linna, Miika; Nieminen, Pekka



Acceptability of HPV vaccines and perceptions related to genital warts and penile/anal cancers among men who have sex with men in Hong Kong.  


Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk of contracting HIV and developing genital warts and penile/anal cancers. HPV vaccines are efficacious in preventing such HPV-related diseases among males and WHO recommends its use to young MSM. In a cross-sectional survey, 542 MSM were interviewed. After being briefed about the vaccines' efficacies and the market price, the prevalence of acceptability of HPV vaccination was 29.2%. Adjusted by significant background variables, perceived high/very high chances of contracting genital warts [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=2.04, 95%CI=1.11-3.72] and penile/anal cancers (AOR=1.89, 95%CI=1.09-3.29) among local MSM, perceived moderately high mortality rate of penile/anal cancers (AOR=1.78, 95%CI=1.13-2.81), fear toward penile/anal cancers (moderate: AOR=1.75, 95%CI=1.07-2.86; high/very high: AOR=1.82, 95%CI=1.13-2.92) and disagreement with the statement "MSM in general are not willing to take HPV vaccines" (AOR=1.82, 95%CI=1.24-2.68) were associated with the conditional acceptability. Acceptability of this new measure is reasonably high and there are rooms for improvement. Implementation trials to promote HPV vaccination by changing cognitions such as HPV-related risk perceptions, norms and perceptions toward anal/penile cancer are greatly warranted. PMID:23845815

Wang, Zixin; Mo, Phoenix K H; Lau, Joseph T F; Lau, Mason; Lai, Coco H Y



Perceptions of HPV, genital warts, and penile/anal cancer and high-risk sexual behaviors among men who have sex with men in Hong Kong.  


The prevalence of HIV and HPV is high among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. It is unclear whether cognitive and affective responses related to HPV and HPV-related diseases are negatively associated with HIV-related risk behaviors among MSM. This cross-sectional study interviewed 449 adult Chinese MSM in Hong Kong. The prevalence of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) and having had anal sex with more than one man in the last 6 months (multiple male sex partnerships) was 39.0 and 71.3 %, respectively. After adjusting for four significant background variables (education level, cohabitation with a man, exposure to HIV prevention materials, and HIV voluntary counseling and testing), variables negatively associated with UAI and/or multiple male sex partnerships included (1) correct HPV-related knowledge (AOR = 0.48-0.66), (2) perceived susceptibility (AOR = 0.32-0.55) and perceived severity (AOR = 0.12-0.60) related to HPV and HPV-related diseases, and (3) fear towards contracting genital warts and penile/anal cancer (AOR = 0.40-0.55). Perceived high chance of contracting HPV was positively associated with multiple partnerships (AOR = 4.74). It is possible to reduce HIV-related risk behaviors by increasing levels of knowledge, cognitions, and fear related to HPV and related diseases. It is important to integrate prevention of HIV with prevention of sexually transmitted infections. Such interventions are warranted. PMID:23982568

Lau, Joseph T F; Wang, Zixin; Lau, Mason; Lai, Coco H Y



Accumulation of RNA homologous to human papillomavirus type 16 open reading frames in genital precancers  

SciTech Connect

The accumulation of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16)-specific RNAs in tissue sections from biopsies of patients with genital precancers was studied by in situ hybridization with single-stranded /sup 35/S-labeled RNA. These analyses revealed that the most abundant early-region RNAs were derived from the E4 and E5 open reading frames (ORFs). RNAs homologous to the E6/E7 ORFs were also detected, whereas RNAs homologous to the intervening E1 ORF were not. This suggest that the E4 and E5 mRNAs are derived by splicing to the upstream E6/E7 ORFs, consistent with studies of HPV-11 in condylomata. Abundant RNAs homologous to the 5' portion of L1 were also detected. These RNAs were localized to the apical strata of the epithelium. HPV-16 RNAs accumulated in discrete regions of these lesions, and when present were most abundant in the upper cell layers of the precancerous epithelium. RNAs homologous to early ORFs were also detected in some germinal cells within the basal layer of the epithelium.

Crum, C.P.; Nuovo, G.; Friedman, D.; Silverstein, S.J.



Human Papillomavirus (HPV) types 101 and 103 Isolated from Cervicovaginal Cells Lack an E6 Open Reading Frame (ORF) and are Related to Gamma-Papillomaviruses  

PubMed Central

Complete genomes of HPV101 and HPV103 were PCR amplified and cloned from cervicovaginal cells of a 34-year-old female with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN 3) and a 30-year-old female with a normal Pap test, respectively. HPV101 and HPV103 contain 4 early genes (E7, E1, E2 and E4) and 2 late genes (L2 and L1), but both lack the canonical E6 ORF. Pairwise alignment similarity of the L1 ORF nucleotide sequences of HPV101 and HPV103 indicated that they are at least 30 % dissimilar to each other and all known PVs. However, similarities of the other ORFs (E7, E1, E2, and L2) indicated that HPV101 and HPV103 are most related to each other. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that these two types form a monophyletic clade, clustering together with the gamma- and pi-PV groups. These data demonstrated that HPV genomes closely related to papillomaviruses identified from cutaneous epithelia can be isolated from the genital mucosal region. Moreover, this is the first report of HPVs lacking an E6 ORF and phylogenetic evidence suggests this occurred subsequent to their emergence from the gamma-/pi-PVs. PMID:17125811

Chen, Zigui; Schiffman, Mark; Herrero, Rolando; DeSalle, Rob; Burk, Robert D.



More than 97% of human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV-16) was found with chrysotile asbestos & relatively smooth round tumor outline, and less than 3% was found with HPV-18 and tremolite asbestos & irregular sawtooth-like zigzag outline in breast cancer tissues in over 500 mammograms of female patients: their implications in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of breast cancer.  


In the past, Human Papillomavirus Type 16 (HPV-16) was considered to be the main cause of cancer in the oropharynx and genital organs. Cervical cancer of the uterus is the most well-known cancer associated with HPV-16. Among the oncogenic HPVs, types 16 and 18 are most responsible for the majority of the HPV-caused cancers. Recently, using EMF Resonance Phenomenon between 2 identical substances, we non-invasively measured HPV-16 and HPV-18 among 25 physicians and 25 dentists and found that all 50 have HPV-16 in oral cavities and oropharynx but not HPV-18. However most dentists have a stronger infection than physicians. Among them were 2 female dentists with breast cancer containing HPV-16 and strong infections of HPV-16 in the oral cavities and oropharynx. When the author checked their breast cancer positive areas as well as the mammograms of cancer positive areas, Chrysotile Asbestos co-existed with an infection of HPV-16. We then examined over 500 published mammograms of women with malignant breast cancer published by other institutes, and we found HPV-16 in more than 97% and HPV-18 in less than 3% of the breast cancer mammograms examined. Less than 0.4% of cases were found as a variety of combination of HPV-16 & HPV-18. We also discovered that breast cancer with HPV-16 always co-exists with increased Chrysotile Asbestos deposits, and the outline of the breast cancer positive area is a relatively smooth and round or oval shape, and breast cancer with HPV-18 always co-exists with increased Tremolite Asbestos, where the tumor outline is an irregular saw-tooth like zigzag pattern. Based on these findings, better methods of diagnosis, treatment and prevention with a vaccine can be developed. PMID:24494324

Omura, Yoshiaki; Jones, Marilyn K; Nihrane, Abdallah; Duvvi, Harsha; Shimotsuura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu



Transmission of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV) between Parents and Infant: a Prospective Study of HPV in Families in Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Finnish HPV Family Study is a prospective cohort study assessing the dynamics of human papilloma- virus (HPV) transmission between parents and infant. Serial genital and oral scrapings from 76 families, including mother, father, and infant, and semen samples were collected over 2 years of follow-up, analyzed by nested PCR, and confirmed by hybridization with 12 high-risk (HR) HPV types.

Marjut A. M. Rintala; Seija E Grenman; Mirja H. Puranen; Erika Isolauri; Ulla Ekblad; Pentti O. Kero; Stina M. Syrjanen



Nonisotopic Detection and Typing of Human Papillomavirus DNA in Genital Samples by the Line Blot Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The line blot assay, a gene amplification method that combines PCR with nonisotopic detection of amplified DNA, was evaluated for its ability to detect human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in genital specimens. Processed samples were amplified with biotin-labeled primers for HPV detection (primers MY09, MY11, and HMB01) and for b-globin detection (primers PC03 and PC04). Amplified DNA products were hybridized by




Chapter 3: HPV type-distribution in women with and without cervical neoplastic diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographical widespread data on human papillomavirus (HPV) type-distribution are essential for estimating the impact of HPV-16\\/18 vaccines on cervical cancer and cervical screening programmes. Epidemiological studies employing a variety of HPV typing protocols have been collated in meta-analyses. HPV-16\\/18 is estimated to account for 70% of all cervical cancers worldwide, although the estimated HPV-16\\/18 fraction is slightly higher in more

Gary Clifford; Silvia Franceschi; Mireia Diaz; Nubia Muñoz; Luisa Lina Villa



The HPV Vaccine: Framing the Arguments "for" and "against" Mandatory Vaccination of All Middle School Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV), the virus responsible for cervical cancer, is the most common viral sexually transmitted infection in the United States. A vaccine was approved in 2006 that is effective in preventing the types of HPV responsible for 70% of cervical cancers and 90% of genital warts. Proposals for routine and mandatory HPV

Vamos, Cheryl A.; McDermott, Robert J.; Daley, Ellen M.



Decline in in-patient treatments of genital warts among young Australians following the national HPV vaccination program  

PubMed Central

Background There has been a rapid decline in the number of young heterosexuals diagnosed with genital warts at outpatient sexual health services since the national human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program started in Australia in 2007. We assessed the impact of the vaccination program on the number of in-patient treatments for genital warts. Methods Data on in-patient treatments of genital warts in all private hospitals were extracted from the Medicare website. Medicare is the universal health insurance scheme of Australia. In the vaccine period (2007–2011) and pre-vaccine period (2000–2007) we calculated the percentage change in treatment numbers and trends in annual treatment rates in private hospitals. Australian population data were used to calculate rates. Summary rate ratios of average annual trends were determined. Results Between 2000 and 2011, 6,014 women and 936 men aged 15–44?years underwent in-patient treatment for genital warts in private hospitals. In 15–24?year old women, there was a significant decreasing trend in annual treatment rates of vulval/vaginal warts in the vaccine period (overall decrease of 85.3% in treatment numbers from 2007 to 2011) compared to no significant trend in the pre-vaccine period (summary rate ratio (SRR)?=?0.33, p?HPV vaccine program. The moderate decline in in-patient treatments for penile warts in men probably reflects herd immunity. PMID:23506489



HPV Test  


... Genital HPV is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in the world. According to the U.S. Centers ... test men who are at high risk for sexually transmitted diseases for HPV-related anal cancer. Such testing is ...


HPV and Cancer  


... vaccines is available in the NCI fact sheet Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines . 5. How are HPV infections detected? ... ER, Sternberg M, et al. Prevalence of genital human papillomavirus among females in the United States, the National ...


Lymphoproliferative Responses to Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Type 16 Proteins E6 and E7: Outcome of HPV Infection and Associated Neoplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 (HPV16) is a major cause of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Experiments were planned to evaluate the role of cell-mediated immunity (e.g., lympho- cyte proliferation) against HPV in the natural history of HPV-associated neoplasia and to identify antigenic se- quences of the HPV16 proteins E6 and E7 against which an immune response

Anna S. Kadish; Gloria Y. F. Ho; Robert D. Burk; Yuexian Wang; Seymour L. Romney; Richard Ledwidge; Ruth H. Angeletti



Understanding genital warts: epidemiology, pathogenesis, and burden of disease of human papillomavirus.  


As the most commonly sexually transmitted disease worldwide, human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. HPV infections most commonly affect young adults, women under 25 in particular. The most common risk factor for HPV infection in both sexes is a high number of lifetime sexual partners, whereas leading protective factors include circumcision, consistent condom use, and abstinence. Over 100 HPV types have been identified to date and are classified according to their level of oncogenic potential. HPV types 6 and 11 are responsible for approximately 90% of genital warts; HPV types 16 and 18 are responsible for 70% of invasive cervical cancers. External genital warts (EGWs) are the most common clinical manifestation of nononcogenic HPV infection. Coinfection with multiple HPV types is possible and may combine both low- and high-risk types, even in cases of genital warts. HPV infections are DNA viruses transmitted through skin-to-skin contact, invading the basal epithelial cells via microtears and evading the host immune response. Although non-life threatening, even low-risk HPV-type infections such as EGW carry a substantial psychosocial and economic burden. Stressors include the shame and embarrassment related to diagnosis, as well as the inconvenience and discomfort of treatment and the fear of recurrence, transmission, and the possible threat of cancer. Costs relate to routine screening for cervical cancer, treatment of genital warts, and the management and follow-up of malignancies. PMID:24388558

Bhatia, Neal; Lynde, Charles; Vender, Ronald; Bourcier, Marc



The Physical State of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 DNA in Benign and Malignant Genital Tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Cloned DNA from human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 was subjected to restriction enzyme analysis. A genome size of 7.8 + 0.1 kb was determined and restriction maps were prepared. Fragments of HPV 16 DNA were nick-translated and hybridized with fragments of HPV 6b DNA. The two genomes appeared to be colinear. The physical state of HPV 16 DNA in




Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Upper Genital Tract: Utility of p16INK4a Expression and HPV DNA Status in its Differential Diagnosis from Extended Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Primary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the upper genital tract, including the endometrium, fallopian tubes, and ovaries, is extremely rare. It must be distinguished from the mucosal extension of primary cervical SCC because determination of the primary tumor site is important for tumor staging. However, patients with SCC of the fallopian tubes or ovarian surface have often undergone prior hysterectomy with inadequate examination of the cervix, making it difficult to determine the primary site. Methods We compared histologic findings, p16INK4a expression, and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA status in four patients with primary SCC of the upper genital tract and five patients with primary cervical SCC extending to the mucosa of the upper genital tract. Results All five SCCs of cervical origin showed strong expression of p16INK4a, whereas all four SCCs of the upper genital tract were negative, although one showed weak focal staining. Three of the five cervical SCCs were positive for HPV16 DNA, whereas all four primary SCCs of the upper genital tract were negative for HPV DNA. Conclusions Although a thorough histological examination is important, immunonegativity for p16INK4a and negative for HPV DNA may be useful adjuncts in determining primary SCCs of the upper genital tract. PMID:24421848

Yoo, Su Hyun; Son, Eun-Mi; Sung, Chang Okh



Monoclonal Antibodies to HPV6 L1 Virus-like Particles Identify Conformational and Linear Neutralizing Epitopes on HPV11 in Addition to Type-Specific Epitopes on HPV6  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of 13 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was generated against HPV-6 L1 virus-like particles (VLPs), screened for reactivity to HPV-6 and HPV-11 L1 VLPs by ELISA, and tested for neutralization of HPV-11 infection. Both cross-reactive and type-specific epitopes were detected such that 4 of 13 MAbs reacted to surface conformational sites on HPV-6 L1 VLPs and the remaining 9 MAbs

Neil D. Christensen; Cynthia A. Reed; Nancy M. Cladel; Kathleen Hall; Gary S. Leiserowitz



Diseases caused by human papillomaviruses (HPV).  


Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are non-enveloped tumor viruses with a double stranded DNA approximately 8 kilobases in length. The viral genome is enclosed by a spherical capsid with icosahedral symmetry and a diameter of about 55 nm. More than 100 HPV types have been identified. They infect the squamous epithelia of skin and mucosa and usually cause benign papillomas or warts. Persistent infection with high-risk oncogenic HPV causes all cervical cancers, most anal cancers, and a subset of vulvar, vaginal, penile and oropharyngeal cancers. In recent years cutaneous beta-HPV types have been associated with the pathogenesis of non-melanoma skin cancers. Two prophylactic HPV vaccines based on virus-like particles (VLP) are licensed. These are up to 100% effective in preventing HPV 16 and HPV 18 infections and associated genital lesions in women, who have not been previously infected with these types. One vaccine also prevents genital warts caused by HPV 6 and HPV 11. PMID:19302229

Handisurya, Alessandra; Schellenbacher, Christina; Kirnbauer, Reinhard



Epidemiology of Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it is difficult to estimate the overall prevalence of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, current figures suggest that visible genital warts are present in approximately 1% of sexually active adults in the United States and that at least 15% have subclinical infection, as detected by HPV DNA assays. Genital HPV infection is thus extremely common. The highest rates of



Mining the Risk Types of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) by AdaCost  

E-print Network

Mining the Risk Types of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) by AdaCost S.-B. Park, S. Hwang, and B,shhwang,btzhang} Abstract. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is known as the main factor for cervical cancer, where the accuracy, which implies that most high-risk HPVs are found. 1 Introduction Human papillomavirus (HPV


The Elevated 10Year Risk of Cervical Precancer and Cancer in Women With Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Type 16 or 18 and the Possible Utility of Type-Specifi c HPV Testing in Clinical Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 cause 60% - 70% of cervical cancer worldwide, and other HPV types cause virtually all remaining cases. Pooled HPV testing for 13 oncogenic types, including HPV16 and 18, is currently used in clinical practice for triage of equivocal cytology and, in conjunction with Pap tests, is an option for general screening among

Michelle J. Khan; Philip E. Castle; Attila T. Lorincz; Sholom Wacholder; David R. Scott; Brenda B. Rush; Andrew G. Glass; Mark Schiffman


HPV Vaccine - Gardasil: What You Need to Know  


... 1 What is HPV? Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted virus in ... the problems it causes can be treated. 2 HPV vaccine: Why get vaccinated? The HPV vaccine you ...


Genital Herpes  


... two types of viruses. The viruses are called herpes simplex type 1 and herpes simplex type 2. How common is genital herpes? Genital ... herpes). It is important that you avoid getting herpes during pregnancy. If you are pregnant and have genital herpes, ...


Prevalence of cervical infection with HPV type 16 and 18 in Vietnam: implications for vaccine campaign  

PubMed Central

Background The Expanded Program on Immunization currently considers offering Human Papilomavirus vaccine on a routine basis in Vietnam. However, as the current available vaccine can prevent only two types HPV 16 and 18, before implementing a large-scale vaccine campaign we need information about the prevalence of infection with only HPV 16 and 18 in Viet Nam. This study was done in 5 large cities in Vietnam to estimate the prevalence of HPV 16 and/or 18 infections and to explore the distribution of other high risk types of HPV among married women in these provinces. Methods The study employed a cross-sectional design with multistage sampling. The sample size included 4500 married women in two rounds (aged ranged from 18-69 years old, median age: 40 year old). Participant were randomly selected, interviewed and given gynaecological examinations. HPV infection status (by real-time PCR kit using TaqMan probe) and HPV genotyping test (by Reverse dot blot) were done for all participants. Results The prevalence of cervical infection with HPV type 16 and/or 18 among married women in this study ranged from 3.1% to 7.4%. Many positive HPV cases (ranged from 24.5% to 56.8%) were infected with other type of high risk HPV which can lead to cervical cancer and cannot prevented by currently available vaccines. In addition to HPV 16 and/or 18, most common types of high risk HPV were types 58, 52, 35 and 45. Awareness about HPV and HPV vaccines was still low in the study samples. Discussion While it is relevant to implement an HPV vaccine campaign in Viet Nam, it is important to note that one can be infected with multiple types of HPV. Vaccination does not protected against all type of high risk HPV types. Future vaccine campaigns should openly disclose this information to women receiving vaccines. Conclusion High prevalence of infection with HPV high risk types was observed in this study. As HPV infection has a high correlation with cervical cancer, this study emphasizes the need for both primary prevention of cervical cancer with HPV vaccines as well as secondary prevention with screening. PMID:23374877




E-print Network

VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT HPV Vaccine Gardasil® What You Need to Know (Human 1 What is HPV? Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted virus

Plotkin, Joshua B.


HPV types, HIV and invasive cervical carcinoma risk in Kampala, Uganda: a case-control study  

PubMed Central

Background While the association of human papillomavirus (HPV) with cervical cancer is well established, the influence of HIV on the risk of this disease in sub-Saharan Africa remains unclear. To assess the risk of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC) associated with HIV and HPV types, a hospital-based case-control study was performed between September 2004 and December 2006 in Kampala, Uganda. Incident cases of histologically-confirmed ICC (N=316) and control women (N=314), who were visitors or care-takers of ICC cases in the hospital, were recruited. Blood samples were obtained for HIV serology and CD4 count, as well as cervical samples for HPV testing. HPV DNA detection and genotyping was performed using the SPF10/DEIA/LiPA25 technique which detects all mucosal HPV types by DEIA and identifies 25 HPV genotypes by LiPA version 1. Samples that tested positive but could not be genotyped were designated HPVX. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by logistic regression, adjusting for possible confounding factors. Results For both squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma of the cervix, statistically significantly increased ORs were found among women infected with HPV, in particular single HPV infections, infections with HPV16-related types and high-risk HPV types, in particular HPV16, 18 and 45. For other HPV types the ORs for both SCC and adenocarcinoma were not statistically significantly elevated. HIV infection and CD4 count were not associated with SCC or adenocarcinoma risk in our study population. Among women infected with high-risk HPV types, no association between HIV and SCC emerged. However, an inverse association with adenocarcinoma was observed, while decrease in CD4 count was not associated with ICC risk. Conclusions The ORs for SCC and adenocarcinoma were increased in women infected with HPV, in particular single HPV infections, infections with HPV16- and 18-related types, and high-risk HPV types, specifically HPV16, 18 and 45. HIV infection and CD4 count were not associated with SCC or adenocarcinoma risk, but among women infected with high-risk HPV types there was an inverse association between HIV infection and adenocarcinoma risk. These results suggest that HIV and CD4 count may have no role in the progression of cervical cancer. PMID:21702999



HPV and Cancer  


... message, please visit this page: About . Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Share Compartir HPV and Cancer Several types of cancer are associated with HPV: Cervical cancer : The most common HPV-associated cancer. ...


Influence of HPV type on prognosis in patients diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer.  


While much is known about the influence of HPV type on the progression of pre-invasive cervical lesions, the impact of HPV type on cervical cancer prognosis is less evidenced. Thus, we assessed the impact of HPV type on the survival of women diagnosed with cervical cancer. A total of 370 cases of cervical cancer were assessed. Univariate analysis is presented using Kaplan-Meier survival curves and log-rank statistics and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were generated using age group, socio-economic deprivation, FIGO stage, differentiation and HPV type. HPV grouping was considered in a number of ways with particular reference to the presence or absence of HPV 16 and/or 18. In the univariate analysis, FIGO, age at diagnosis and treatment were associated with poorer survival (p?HPV 16 and/or 18 (p?=?0.0460). The 25% mortality time in the non-HPV 16/18 vs. HPV16/18 positive group was 615 days and 1,307 days respectively. An unadjusted Cox PH model based HPV16/18 vs. no HPV 16/18 resulted in a hazard ratio of 0.669 (0.450, 0.995). Adjusting for deprivation, FIGO and age group resulted in a hazard ratio of 0.609 (0.395, 0.941) p?=?0.025. These data indicate that cancers associated with HPV 16 and/or 18 do not confer worse survival compared to cancers associated with other types, and may indicate improved survival. Consequently, although HPV vaccine is likely to reduce the incidence of cervical cancer it may not indirectly improve cervical cancer survival by reducing the burden of those cancers caused by HPV16/18. PMID:24740764

Cuschieri, K; Brewster, D H; Graham, C; Nicoll, S; Williams, A R W; Murray, G I; Millan, D; Johannessen, I; Hardie, A; Cubie, H A



The next generation of HPV vaccines: nonavalent vaccine V503 on the horizon.  


HPV infection with 'high-risk' genotypes is associated with ano-genital and oropharyngeal cancers. Two currently licensed prophylactic HPV vaccines designed to prevent disease associated with HPV 16 and 18 are in use around the world. Both vaccines have very high efficacy for prevention of vaccine type-associated cervical precancers, preventing approximately 70% of these lesions. Quadrivalent HPV vaccine has also been shown to prevent HPV16/18-associated vaginal, vulvar and anal precancers, and HPV6/11-associated ano-genital warts. To broaden protection against HPV genotypes not in the current vaccines, 'second-generation' vaccines with additional genotypes are under development. Merck, Sharp and Dohme has submitted a Biologics License Application for its investigational nonavalent HPV vaccine V503 to the US FDA, with standard review being granted. The nonavalent HPV vaccine appears to be safe and effective in preventing persistent infection and precancerous lesions associated with HPV types 16/18/31/33/45/52/58, as well as genital warts related to HPV types 6 and 11. PMID:25256262

Chatterjee, Archana



Type-specific antiviral antibodies to genital human papillomavirus types in mothers and newborns.  


Type-specific antibodies to human papillomaviruses (HPVs) can be detected in most infected adult patients, and they have virus-neutralizing properties. However, there is a dearth of information on the seroprevalence of maternal and neonatal antibodies to HPV capsid antigens. Sera from 104 mothers, their newborns, and 3 twin pregnancies were analyzed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the presence of specific IgG, IgM, and IgA antibodies to virus-like particles of HPV-6, -11, -16, -18, and -31. Maternal IgG positivity rates to HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, and 31 were 23.1%, 2.9%, 8.7%, 5.8%, and 9.6%, respectively. Neonatal rates did not differ significantly, and individual IgG ELISA values of mothers and their infants and all paired twins showed a very high correlation. In contrast, nearly all IgM and IgA individual values in newborns were designated negative, whereas mothers' positivity rates ranged as high as 19.2%. Infants showed no HPV-related lesions at birth or at 4-year follow-up. Seven of 8 tested children lost IgG HPV antibodies in a follow-up examination. Similar anti-HPV IgG seropositivity in mothers and newborns and a lack of neonatal IgA and IgM together with twin and follow-up results indicate that neonatal IgG is not a sign of intrauterine HPV infection but, rather, maternofetal antibody transmission. PMID:18089599

Heim, Kurt; Hudelist, Gernot; Geier, Andrea; Szedenik, Hannes; Christensen, Neil D; Concin, Nicole; Bergant, Anton; Volgger, Birgit; Czerwenka, Klaus; Höpfl, Reinhard



A systematic analysis of human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 PDZ substrates identifies MAGI-1 as a major target of HPV type 16 (HPV-16) and HPV-18 whose loss accompanies disruption of tight junctions.  


The E6 proteins from high-risk, cancer-causing types of human papillomavirus (HPV) are characterized by the presence of a PDZ (PSD95/Dlg/ZO-1) binding motif in their extreme carboxy termini, through which they interact with a number of cellular PDZ domain-containing substrates. In order to ascertain how many of these are degraded by E6 in vivo, we performed an extensive analysis of the effects of E6 ablation on the expression levels of a number of previously reported E6 PDZ substrates. Using HPV type 16 (HPV-16)-positive CaSKi cells and HPV-18-positive HeLa cells, we have found that MAGI-1 is a major degradation target of both HPV-16 and HPV-18 E6. In contrast, hDlg, hScrib, PTPN3, TIP2, FAP1, and PSD95 all exhibit various degrees of susceptibility to E6-induced degradation, and a high degree of HPV type specificity is observed for certain substrates. We also show that E6 preferentially targets MAGI-1 within the nucleus and at membrane sites. One of the direct consequences of MAGI-1 degradation is a loss of tight-junction integrity, as determined by mislocalization of the tight-junction protein ZO-1. Ablation of E6 expression restores tight junctions, and this restoration is dependent on the presence of MAGI-1. These results demonstrate that oncogenic HPV E6 proteins disrupt cellular tight junctions through the degradation of MAGI-1, and they provide further evidence of how the PDZ binding potential of E6 can contribute to HPV-induced malignancy. PMID:21123374

Kranjec, Christian; Banks, Lawrence



Vulvar and vaginal HPV disease.  


Human papilloma virus is associated with a multitude of lower genital tract diseases in women in addition to cervical cancer, including genital warts, vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia, and some vulvar, vaginal, and anal cancers that are associated with oncogenic subtypes. The degree to which HPV manifests pathology depends on viral type, host immune response, and local environmental factors. This article reviews the evaluation and management of the following vulvar and vaginal human papilloma virus diseases: condyloma, vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia. Included is a brief discussion of the association with vulvar and vaginal cancer. PMID:23732036

Nelson, Erin L; Stockdale, Colleen K



The human papillomavirus type 18 (HPV18) E2 gene product is a repressor of the HPV18 regulatory region in human keratinocytes.  


The human papillomavirus type 18 (HPV18) long control region (LCR) harbors transcriptional promoter and enhancer elements. Recombinant plasmids bearing all or part of the HPV18 LCR cloned in enhancer or promoter configuration upstream of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene were transfected into human fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Although the HPV18 enhancer can function in the absence of E2 gene products in both fibroblasts and keratinocytes, the promoter activity of the HPV18 LCR is detectable in keratinocytes but not in fibroblasts, suggesting that it is tissue specific. This promoter activity was repressed in human keratinocytes not only by the bovine papillomavirus type 1 E2 gene product but also by the homologous HPV18 E2 gene product. The promoter involved in the HPV18 E2 repression is located within a 230-base-pair domain directly upstream of the E6 open reading frame of the HPV18 LCR and is probably the previously identified E6 promoter. Although one cannot rule out the possibility that this repressing effect is mediated by a truncated form of HPV18 E2 protein, as was previously demonstrated for bovine papillomavirus type 1, a more likely explanation would be that the full-length HPV18 E2 protein behaves as a repressor. Indeed, at the same doses at which it inhibits transcription from the homologous HPV18 LCR, the HPV18 E2 gene product activates transcription from constructs bearing E2-binding palindromes cloned in enhancer configuration upstream of a heterologous promoter. The fact that the homologous HPV18 E2 gene product acts as a transcriptional repressor of the HPV18 LCR suggests a possible explanation for the overexpression of E6 and E7 open reading frames in cervical carcinoma cells and in cell lines derived from them. PMID:2476572

Bernard, B A; Bailly, C; Lenoir, M C; Darmon, M; Thierry, F; Yaniv, M



Emergence of herpes simplex type 1 as the main cause of recurrent genital ulcerative disease in women in Northern Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Genital herpes is a common infection affecting some 20% of sexually active people. Although herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 can both establish genital latency, reactivation from the sacral ganglia favours HSV-2. Over the past decade the incidence of type 1 genital infection in women has greatly increased. Objectives: To determine whether the increased prevalence of HSV-1

P. V Coyle; H. J O'Neill; D. E Wyatt; C McCaughey; S Quah; M. O McBride



Inference of Type-Specific HPV Transmissibility, Progression and Clearance Rates: A Mathematical Modelling Approach  

PubMed Central

Quantifying rates governing the clearance of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and its progression to clinical disease, together with viral transmissibility and the duration of naturally-acquired immunity, is essential in estimating the impact of vaccination programmes and screening or testing regimes. However, the complex natural history of HPV makes this difficult. We infer the viral transmissibility, rate of waning natural immunity and rates of progression and clearance of infection of 13 high-risk and 2 non-oncogenic HPV types, making use of a number of rich datasets from Sweden. Estimates of viral transmissibility, clearance of initial infection and waning immunity were derived in a Bayesian framework by fitting a susceptible-infectious-recovered-susceptible (SIRS) transmission model to age- and type-specific HPV prevalence data from both a cross-sectional study and a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of primary HPV screening. The models fitted well, but over-estimated the prevalence of four high-risk types with respect to the data. Three of these types (HPV-33, -35 and -58) are among the most closely related phylogenetically to the most prevalent HPV-16. The fourth (HPV-45) is the most closely related to HPV-18; the second most prevalent type. We suggest that this may be an indicator of cross-immunity. Rates of progression and clearance of clinical lesions were additionally estimated from longitudinal data gathered as part of the same RCT. Our estimates of progression and clearance rates are consistent with the findings of survival analysis studies and we extend the literature by estimating progression and clearance rates for non-16 and non-18 high-risk types. We anticipate that such type-specific estimates will be useful in the parameterisation of further models and in developing our understanding of HPV natural history. PMID:23185383

Johnson, Helen C.; Elfstrom, K. Miriam; Edmunds, W. John



Determinants of Genital Human Papillomavirus Detection in a US Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the association of selected demographic and behavioral characteristics with the detection of low-risk, high-risk, and uncharacterized genital human papillomavirus (HPV) in women attending clinic for routine nonreferral gynecologic health care. Cervical speci- mens obtained from 3863 women 18-40 years old (mean, 28 years) with no history of high- grade cervical disease were analyzed for 38 HPV types.

Meifen Zhao



Population- and type-specific clustering of multiple HPV types across diverse risk populations in the Netherlands.  


In view of possible type replacement upon introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, we aimed to explore patterns of type-specific clustering across populations with various background infection risks. A total of 3,874 women from 3 cross-sectional studies in the Netherlands (in 2007-2009) provided vaginal self-samples, which were tested for 25 HPV genotypes by a sensitive molecular assay (SPF10 line probe assay, DDL Diagnostic Laboratory, Voorburg, the Netherlands). The number of concurrent HPV infections per woman was studied by Poisson regression. Associations between HPV types were investigated by generalized estimating equation analyses. The prevalence of any HPV type was 14% in a population-based study, 54% in a chlamydia screening intervention study, and 73% in a study among attendees of sexually transmitted infection clinics. Overall, multiple HPV infections were detected in 26% of the women. The number of concurrent HPV infections conformed to an overdispersed Poisson distribution, even after correction for known risk factors. Types differed significantly in their tendencies to be involved in coinfections, but no evidence for particular type-type interactions was found. Moreover, the strongest associations were observed in the lowest-risk population and vice versa.We found no indications of pairwise interactions, but our findings do suggest that clustering differs among HPV types and varies across risk groups. PMID:24714726

Mollers, Madelief; Vriend, Henrike J; van der Sande, Marianne A B; van Bergen, Jan E A M; King, Audrey J; Lenselink, Charlotte H; Bekkers, Ruud L M; Meijer, Chris J L M; de Melker, Hester E; Bogaards, Johannes A



Recurrent Genital Infection in the Guinea Pig: Differences between Herpes Simplex Types 1 and 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Recurrence rates of genital infections are significantly higher for he?es simplex virus (HSV) type 2 than HSV type 1. Reasons for this difference are not known. In this report, multiple strains of HSV-1 and HSV-2 were evaluated in the guinea-pig model. HSV-2 strains showed significantly higher genital lesion recurrence than HSV-1, including HSV-1 McKrae strain which is highly recurrent

Marie L. Landry; David Myerson; Cathy Bull



E4 Antibodies Facilitate Detection and Type-Assignment of Active HPV Infection in Cervical Disease  

PubMed Central

High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are the cause of nearly all cases of cervical cancer. Although the detection of HPV DNA has proved useful in cervical diagnosis, it does not necessarily predict disease presence or severity, and cannot conclusively identify the causative type when multiple HPVs are present. Such limitations may be addressed using complementary approaches such as cytology, laser capture microscopy, and/or the use of infection biomarkers. One such infection biomarker is the HPV E4 protein, which is expressed at high level in cells that are supporting (or have supported) viral genome amplification. Its distribution in lesions has suggested a role in disease staging. Here we have examined whether type-specific E4 antibodies may also allow the identification and/or confirmation of causal HPV-type. To do this, type-specific polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against three E4 proteins (HPV-16, -18, and -58) were generated and validated by ELISA and western blotting, and by immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining of epithelial rafts containing these individual HPV types. Type-specific detection of HPV and its associated disease was subsequently examined using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cervical intra-epithelial neoplasias (CIN, (n?=?247)) and normal controls (n?=?28). All koilocytotic CIN1 lesions showed type-specific E4 expression of their respective HPV types. Differences were noted amongst E4 expression patterns in CIN3. HPV-18 E4 was not detected in any of the 6 HPV-18 DNA-positive CIN3 lesions examined, whereas in HPV-16 and -58 CIN3, 28/37 (76%) and 5/9 (55.6%) expressed E4 respectively, usually in regions of epithelial differentiation. Our results demonstrate that type-specific E4 antibodies can be used to help establish causality, as may be required when multiple HPV types are detected. The unique characteristics of the E4 biomarker suggest a role in diagnosis and patient management particularly when used in combination. PMID:23226504

Marnane, Rebecca; Dewar, Vincent; Molijn, Anco; Quint, Wim; Van Hoof, Christine; Struyf, Frank; Colau, Brigitte; Jenkins, David; Doorbar, John



Human papillomavirus, genital warts, and vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related diseases, including cancers, low-grade neoplasia, genital warts, and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, have a substantial impact on public health. The increasing incidence of HPV infection and genital warts highlights the need for an effective strategy for the management of this disease. Immunization holds the promise of reducing the overall burden of clinical HPV-related diseases. A prophylactic quadrivalent HPV

Po-Ren Hsueh


Clinical features of external genital warts.  


External genital warts (EGWs) are a common sexually transmitted infection caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). Although over 100 HPV types have been identified, some of which are associated with cancer, EGWs are caused by noncancerous HPV subtypes 6 and 11. This cutaneous manifestation of HPV infection can be asymptomatic or produce warty lesions that may assume a cauliflower-like, flat, papular, or keratotic appearance. Physical symptoms may also accompany warts, such as pruritus, burning, pain, and obstruction. EGWs typically appear in anogenital areas, such as the vulva, penis, groin, perineum, perianal skin, or mucosal surfaces. EGWs are typically a transient type of infection that often spontaneously regresses without treatment, but long-term remission rates are currently unknown. Treatment is determined according to the size and number of lesions, which can cluster or develop at multiple sites. Because of the individual variability in disease, treatment should be determined on a case-by-case basis. Further investigation, such as a biopsy, may be advisable in cases of atypical lesions, lesions that are unresponsive to therapies, and immunocompromised individuals, who are essentially more susceptible to HPV infections and less responsive to treatment. Although HPV testing is available, it is not currently recommended for detection and HPV typing. Differential diagnoses may include normal skin variations, other infectious or inflammatory diseases, and cancerous growths. PMID:24388559

Lynde, Charles; Vender, Ronald; Bourcier, Marc; Bhatia, Neal



Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 as a Cause of Genital Herpes: Impact on Surveillance and Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared characteristics of patients who had herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 with characteristics of patients who had HSV-2, by use of data from a cross-sectional analysis. Data were collected in an urban sexually transmitted diseases clinic from patients who had positive genital HSV cultures. Overall, 17.1% (95% confidence interval (CI), 14.9%-19.3%) of 1145 genital HSV isolates obtained

Lois Downey; Connie Celum; Anna Wald



Comparison of the immunogenicity of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 vaccine and the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine for oncogenic non-vaccine types HPV-31 and HPV-45 in healthy women aged 18-45 years  

PubMed Central

Protection against oncogenic non-vaccine types (cross-protection) offered by human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines may provide a significant medical benefit. Available clinical efficacy data suggest the two licensed vaccines [HPV-16/18 vaccine, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals (GSK), and HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine, Merck and Co., Inc.,] differ in terms of protection against oncogenic non-vaccine HPV types -31/45. The immune responses induced by the two vaccines against these two non-vaccine HPV types (cross-reactivity) was compared in an observer-blind study up to Month 24 (18 mo postvaccination), in women HPV DNA-negative and seronegative prior to vaccination for the HPV type analyzed [HPV-010 (NCT00423046)]. Geometric mean antibody titers (GMTs) measured by pseudovirion-based neutralization assay (PBNA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA ) were similar between vaccines for HPV-31/45. Seropositivity rates for HPV-31 were also similar between vaccines; however, there was a trend for higher seropositivity with the HPV-16/18 vaccine (13.0–16.7%) vs. the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (0.0–5.0%) for HPV-45 with PBNA, but not ELISA . HPV-31/45 cross-reactive memory B-cell responses were comparable between vaccines. Circulating antigen-specific CD4+ T-cell frequencies were higher for the HPV-16/18 vaccine than the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine {HPV-31 [geometric mean ratio (GMR) = 2.0; p = 0.0002] and HPV-45 [GMR = 2.6; p = 0.0092]}, as were the proportion of T-cell responders (HPV-31, p = 0.0009; HPV-45, p = 0.0793). In conclusion, immune response to oncogenic non-vaccine HPV types -31/45 was generally similar for both vaccines with the exception of T-cell response which was higher with the HPV-16/18 vaccine. Considering the differences in cross-protective efficacy between the two vaccines, the results might provide insights into the underlying mechanism(s) of protection. PMID:22048172

Baron, Mira; Levin, Myron J; Chatterjee, Archana; Fox, Bradley; Scholar, Sofia; Rosen, Jeffrey; Chakhtoura, Nahida; Lebacq, Marie; van der Most, Robbert; Moris, Philippe; Giannini, Sandra L; Schuind, Anne; Datta, Sanjoy K; Descamps, Dominique



Impact of HPV infection in adolescent populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a significant source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The primary risk factors for acquiring HPV are generally associated with sexual activity. Evidence suggests that condoms provide some protection against infection and disease progression, but any genital contact is sufficient for HPV transmission. HPV is so common and transmissible that having just one sexual partner often results

Anna-Barbara Moscicki



Human papillomavirus DNA typing in the cervical specimens among women of Split and Dalmatian County.  


Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the main cause of cervical cancer, the second most common cancer in women worldwide. More than 200 types of HPV have been described, and within this range more than 40 types attack epithelium of genital tract. The types that were most commonly related to the development of cervical cancer are called high-risk types (HR HPV). There are very few studies about HPV prevalence in Croatia and there is an absolute lack of data for Split and Dalmatian County. Therefore, during a 6 month period, we routinely screened 570 women for HPV DNA at the Educational Public Health Institute of Split and Dalmatian County. HR HPV was detected in cervical exfoliated cells, by using Hybrid Capture 2 HPV DNA test. Out of the total number of tested women, 200 (35%) of them were positive to HR HPV Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based assays were employed for HR HPV genotyping in positive specimens. The following frequency was observed: HPV 16 in 10%, HPV 18 in 6.1%, HPV 31 in 2.6%, HPV 33 in 1.9%, HPV 52 in 1.4%, HPV 59 in 0.7%, HPV 45 in 0.4% specimens, while 11.9% of tested specimens currently remained untyped. It is necessary to expand this study to a larger number of women, in order to better evaluate genital HPV types distribution among women in this region. PMID:17598509

Kaliterna, Vanja; Andelinovi?, Simun; Pejkovi?, Lidija; Hofman, Irena Drmi?



Clinical and epidemiological correlations between the infection with HPV 16 and HPV 18 and female cervical lesions.  


A number of 66 specimens from female cervical lesions were examined for infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6, 11, 16, and 18 by nucleic acid hybridization in dot-blot techniques and 35 sera were tested by the immunodot-blot technique, in order to detect the presence of anti E4 and E7 HPV protein antibodies. The findings were compared with the histologic diagnosis. Fifty-six per cent of specimens contained HPV DNA sequences. In 47% of specimens from cervical carcinoma, HPV 11 was detected in 4 cases, HPV 16 in 21 cases, and HPV 18 in 7 cases. Serum antibodies against HPV 16 E4 and HPV 16 E7 occurred in all the cases of uterine carcinoma, in 4 of 10 cases of CIN I-II, and in 3 of 5 sera obtained from apparently healthy women. The analysis of risk factors disclosed the early onset of sexual activity, a relatively high number of births and abortions before the age of 22 years, the use of oral oestroprogestative contraceptive agents, the presence in anamnesis of genital infections with bacterial flora--Candida albicans, Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma, etc. Our results showed that HPV typing by nucleic acid hybridization was useful for differentiating low- from high-risk cervical lesions and also tried to elucidate the risk factors associated with HPV infections and progression to malignancy. PMID:9179967

Stoian, M; Repanovici, R; Corni?escu, F



Distribution of high and low risk HPV types by cytological status: a population based study from Italy  

PubMed Central

Background HPV type distribution by cytological status represents useful information to predict the impact of mass vaccination on screening programs. Methods women aged from 25 to 64 who attended cervical cancer screening in five different Italian regions were tested for HPV infection with Hybrid Capture II (HCII) low and high risk probes. Women repeating Pap-test upon unsatisfactory or positive results, or as a post-treatment and post-colposcopy follow-up analysis, were excluded from our study. High risk (HR) HPV positive samples were typed using GP5+/GP6+ primed PCR, followed by Reverse Line Blot for 18 high/intermediate risk HPV types, while low risk (LR) HPV positive samples were tested with type specific primers for HPV6 and HPV11. Results 3410 women had a valid HCII and Pap-test. The prevalence of HR and LR infections was 7.0% and 3.6%, 29.1% and 13.7%, 68.1% and 31.9%, 60.0% and 0.0%, 65.0% and 12.0%, for negative, ASC-US, L-SIL, ASC-H and H-SIL cytology, respectively. The fraction of ASC-US+ cytology due to HPV 16 and 18 ranged from 11.2 (HPV 16/18 alone) to 15.4% (including HPV 16/18 in co-infection with other virus strains), and that due to HPV 6 and 11 ranged from 0.2% (HPV 6/11 alone) to 0.7% (including HPV 6/11 in co-infection with other LR virus strains). Conclusions mass vaccination with bivalent or quadrivalent HPV vaccine would modestly impact on prevalence of abnormal Pap-test in screening. PMID:21247508



Methylation of twelve CpGs in human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) as an informative biomarker for the triage of women positive for HPV16 infection.  


An accurate biomarker for the follow-up of women positive for human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) DNA may improve the efficiency of cervical cancer prevention. Previously, we analyzed all 113 HPV16 CpGs in cervical cytology samples and discovered differential methylation at different stages of premalignancy. In the current study, we identified a methylation biomarker consisting of a panel of 12 HPV16 CpG sites in the E5, L2, and L1 open reading frames, and tested whether it fulfilled three necessary conditions of a prospective biomarker. A total of 33 cytology samples from North American and West African women with all grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and invasive cervical cancer (ICC) were analyzed by using DNA bisulfite sequencing. The results showed (i) a highly significant trend for increasing HPV16 biomarker methylation with increasing histologic severity (P < 0.0001), (ii) 100% sensitivity for ICC over a wide range of methylation cutoff scores; 80% detection of CIN3 at cutoff scores up to 39% methylation, and (iii) substantially lower detection of CIN2, from 0% to 71%, depending on the cutoff score. Our results support the prognostic potential of the HPV16 methylation biomarker for the triage to colposcopy of women with HPV16-positive screening tests and, eventually, for the management of women with HPV16-positive CIN2. PMID:24556390

Brandsma, Janet L; Harigopal, Malini; Kiviat, Nancy B; Sun, Ying; Deng, Yanhong; Zelterman, Daniel; Lizardi, Paul M; Shabanova, Veronika S; Levi, Angelique; Yaping, Tian; Hu, Xinyuan; Feng, Qinghua



Complex malformations of the female genital tract. New types and revision of classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Complex malformations of the female genital tract are often incorrectly identified, treated and reported, probably due to not considering the malformation as a cause of the clinical symptoms and neither the embryological origin of the different elements of the genitourinary tract. METHODS: Complex malformations are studied and classified, and new types are presented. The new types of complex malformations

Pedro Acien; Maribel Acien; Marisa Sanchez-Ferrer


Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 11 recombinant virus-like particles induce the formation of neutralizing antibodies and detect HPV-specific antibodies in human sera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombinant human papillomavirus type 11 (HPV-11) virus-like particles (VLPs) were tested for their ability to induce the formation of neutralizing antibodies, and were also tested for serodiagnostic capabilities in an ELISA in comparison with HPV-11 whole virions. VLPs, purified by CsC1 density gradient centrifugation from the cell-free supernatant of AcllLl-infected Sf9 suspension cell cultures, were used to immunize rabbits and

Robert C. Rose; R. C. Reichman; William Bonnez I



HPV types and cofactors causing cervical cancer in Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a hospital-based case-control study in Peru of 198 women with histologically confirmed cervical cancer (173 squamous cell carcinomas and 25 cases of adenocarcinoma\\/adenosquamous carcinoma) and 196 control women. Information on risk factors was obtained by personal interview. Using PCR-based assays on exfoliated cervical cells and biopsy specimens, HPV DNA was detected in 95.3% of women with squamous cell

C Santos; N Muñoz; S Klug; M Almonte; I Guerrero; M Alvarez; C Velarde; O Galdos; M Castillo; J Walboomers; C Meijer; E Caceres



Chlamydia trachomatis infection: implications for HPV status and cervical cancer.  


Genital Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infections have been identified as a major health problem concern. CT is associated with adverse effect on women reproduction and also associated with cervical hypertrophy and induction of squamous metaplasia, providing a possible relationship with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Infection by high-risk HPV types is crucial to the pathogenesis of invasive cervical cancer (ICC), but other co-variants/cofactors must be present for the development of malignancy. CT biological effect may damage the mucosal barrier, improving HPV infection, or may interfere in immune response and viral clearance supporting the persistence of HPV infection. Moreover, CT-related chronic cervical inflammation, decrease of lower genital tract antigen-presenting cells, inhibition of cell-mediated immunity, and anti-apoptotic capacity may influence the natural history of HPV infection, namely persistence progression or resolution. Although several epidemiological studies have stated a positive association involving CT and HPV-related cervical neoplastic lesions and/or cervical cancer (CC), the specific role of this bacterium in the pathogenesis of cervical neoplasia has not been completely clarified. The present review summarizes several studies on CT role in cervical cancer and suggests future research directions on HPV and CT interaction. PMID:24346121

Silva, Jani; Cerqueira, Fátima; Medeiros, Rui



The epidemiology of herpes simplex types 1 and 2 infection of the genital tract in Edinburgh 1978-1991  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION--The changing epidemiology of genital herpes in Edinburgh is described in relation to herpes simplex virus (HSV) Type 1 and herpes simplex virus Type 2 infection over a period of 14 years. METHODS--2018 episodes of genital herpes in 1794 patients over a 14 year period were assessed. Data on age, sex, sexual orientation, geographical origin and herpes antibodies were also

J D Ross; I W Smith; R A Elton



HPV vaccination in head and neck HPV-related pathologies.  


Recent data demonstrate that human papilloma virus (HPV) plays a role in pathologies other than ano-genital cancers, specifically head and neck malignancies, and non-cancerous conditions such as recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP). High-risk HPV16 and 18, and low risk HPV6 and 11 play the main role in HPV-related pathologies. As more and more information about the role of HPV infection in non-cervical diseases is amassed, additional questions about whether prophylactic HPV vaccines will effectively prevent these conditions are raised. HPV vaccination programs for the cervical pathology are being implemented worldwide. In the United States, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the quadrivalent HPV vaccine for girls in 2006 and for boys in 2011. These vaccination programs were aimed at the genital, HPV-related lesions, and there was not much recognition at that time of how HPV vaccination programs might affect oral HPV infection, which is a risk factor for the development of HPV-related head and neck cancers. Vaccination has proved to be a successful policy, and an extant recommendation is aimed at preventing HPV and associated cervical and other anogenital cancers with the routine use of HPV vaccines for males and females. However, HPV vaccines are presently not recommended for preventing oropharyngeal cancer (OPC), although they have been shown to be highly effective against the HPV strains that are most commonly found in the oropharynx. This review is aimed at presenting the evidence-based knowledge concerning HPV vaccination and highlighting the trials and strategies for vaccine administration in HPV-dependent head and neck pathologies. PMID:24981297

Wierzbicka, Ma?gorzata; Józefiak, Agata; Jackowska, Joanna; Szyd?owski, Jaros?aw; Go?dzicka-Józefiak, Anna



The Influence of Multiple Human Papillomavirus Types on the Risk of Genotype-Concordant Incident Infections of the Anus and Cervix: The Hawaii HPV Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

The influence of multiple human papillomavirus (HPV) types on detection of concordant incident HPV infections of the cervix or anus following infection at the other anatomic site was examined in a cohort of 897 women. Multiple HPV infections at the anus were not significantly associated with subsequent acquisition of a concordant cervical infection, whereas prior coinfections in the cervix increased risk of a new cervical HPV infection. Incident anal HPV infections following concordant cervical HPV infections increased significantly among women with preexisting cervical or anal coinfections. Potential synergy in acquisition of cervical and anal HPV infections has implications for prophylactic vaccine effectiveness. PMID:21208924

McDuffie, Katharine; Hernandez, Brenda Y.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Zhu, Xuemei; Thompson, Pamela J.; Killeen, Jeffrey; Kamemoto, Lori; Shvetsov, Yurii B.



Counseling Patients With Genital Warts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Counseling patients about any sexually transmitted disease (STD) is difficult, for both the physician and the patient, but a diagnosis of genital warts presents particular challenges. For many patients, being told that they have any STD comes as a shock. Although fear is a common reaction, the relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) and cancer has made the presence of genital



HPV Prevalence among Women from Appalachia: Results from the CARE Project  

PubMed Central

Background Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates are high among women from Appalachia, yet data do not exist on human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence among these women. We examined the prevalence of genital HPV among Appalachian women and identified correlates of HPV detection. Methods We report data from a case-control study conducted between January 2006 and December 2008 as part of the Community Awareness, Resources, and Education (CARE) Project. We examined HPV prevalence among 1116 women (278 women with abnormal Pap tests at study entry [cases], 838 women with normal Pap tests [controls]) from Appalachian Ohio. Analyses used multivariable logistic regression to identify correlates of HPV detection. Results The prevalence of HPV was 43.1% for any HPV type, 33.5% for high-risk HPV types, 23.4% for low-risk HPV types, and 12.5% for vaccine-preventable HPV types. Detection of any HPV type was more common among women who were ages 18–26 (OR?=?2.09, 95% CI: 1.26–3.50), current smokers (OR?=?1.86, 95% CI: 1.26–2.73), had at least five male sexual partners during their lifetime (OR?=?2.28, 95% CI: 1.56–3.33), or had multiple male sexual partners during the last year (OR?=?1.98, 95% CI: 1.25–3.14). Similar correlates were identified for detection of a high-risk HPV type. Conclusions HPV was prevalent among Appalachian women, with many women having a high-risk HPV type detected. Results may help explain the high cervical cancer rates observed among Appalachian women and can help inform future cervical cancer prevention efforts in this geographic region. PMID:24023700

Reiter, Paul L.; Katz, Mira L.; Ruffin, Mack T.; Hade, Erinn M.; DeGraffenreid, Cecilia R.; Patel, Divya A.; Paskett, Electra D.; Unger, Elizabeth R.



Identification of HLA-DR1- and HLA-DR15-restricted human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) and HPV18 E6 epitopes recognized by CD4+ T cells from healthy young women.  


Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, particularly with types 16 and 18, is causally associated with the development of cervical cancer. Prophylactic vaccines against HPV have recently been licensed and have the primary aim of protecting children against future HPV infection and cervical cancer. However, these vaccines are unlikely to be effective in women with pre-existing HPV infection and disease. Previous studies have suggested that HPV16 E6-specific CD4+ T cells play a role in controlling viral infection; however, the epitopes recognized by such T-cells have not been defined. In this study, we analysed T-cell responses against HPV16 and 18 in ten healthy young women in an age group (21-31) with a high prevalence of HPV infection and clearance. Five individuals made HPV E6 responses, from which five candidate T-cell epitopes (three HPV16 E6 and two HPV18 E6) were identified. More detailed characterization of epitopes from HPV16 E6(127-141) and HPV18 E6(43-57) revealed HLA-DRB1*01 and HLA-DRB1*15 restriction, respectively. Furthermore, generation of a T-cell line against HPV16 E6(127-141) demonstrated that this epitope could be presented after endogenous processing of soluble HPV16 E6 protein. Overall we demonstrate a powerful approach for defining novel CD4+ T-cell epitopes from two oncogenic HPV types. This approach could be applied to study populations in developing countries with a high incidence of cervical cancer. Such epitopes could provide a more precise way of investigating the role of natural and vaccine-induced T-cell responses against HPV in blood and at sites of disease. PMID:17412975

Gallagher, Kathleen M E; Man, Stephen



Long-term HPV type-specific risks for ASCUS and LSIL: A 14-year follow-up of a randomized primary HPV screening trial.  


Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections result in a significant burden of low-grade cervical lesions. Between 1997 and 2000, our randomized trial of primary HPV screening enrolled 12,527 women participating in population-based screening. Women between 32 and 38 years of age (median: 34, interquartile range: 33-37) were randomized to HPV and cytology double testing (intervention arm, n?=?6,257 enrolled, n?=?5,888 followed-up) or to cytology, with samples frozen for future HPV testing (control arm, n?=?6,270 enrolled, n?=?5,795 followed-up). We estimated the HPV type-specific, long-term absolute risks (AR), and population attributable proportions (PAR) for cytological diagnoses of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) and for histopathologically diagnosed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 (CIN1). The women were followed using comprehensive, nationwide register-based follow-up. During a mean follow-up time of 11.07 years, 886 ASCUS and LSIL lesions were detected, 448 in the intervention arm and 438 in the control arm. Poisson regression estimated the incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of low-grade lesions by HPV type. The IRRs were strongly dependent on follow-up time. The IRRs for ASCUS/LSIL associated with high-risk HPV positivity were 18.6 (95% CI: 14.9-23.4) during the first screening round, 4.1 (95% CI: 2.8-6.2) during the second, 2.6 (95% CI: 1.7-4.1) during the third, and 1.1 (95% CI: 0.7-1.8) for >9 years of follow-up, with similar declines seen for the individual types. Type 16 contributed consistently to the greatest proportion of ASCUS, LSIL, and CIN1 risk in the population (first screening round PAR: ASCUS: 15.5% (95% CI: 9.7-21.9), LSIL: 14.7% (95% CI: 8.0-20.9), and CIN1: 13.4% (95% CI: 3.2-22.5)), followed by type 31 [8.4% (95% CI: 4.2-12.5) for ASCUS to 17.3% (95% CI: 6.8-26.6) for CIN1]. In summary, most ASCUS/LSIL lesions associated with HPV infection are caused by new HPV infections and most lesions are found during the first screening round. PMID:24842156

Elfström, K Miriam; Smelov, Vitaly; Johansson, Anna L V; Eklund, Carina; Naucler, Pontus; Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen; Dillner, Joakim



Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 E7 protein bodies cause tumour regression in mice  

PubMed Central

Background Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the causative agents of cervical cancer in women, which results in over 250 000 deaths per year. Presently there are two prophylactic vaccines on the market, protecting against the two most common high-risk HPV types 16 and 18. These vaccines remain very expensive and are not generally affordable in developing countries where they are needed most. Additionally, there remains a need to treat women that are already infected with HPV, and who have high-grade lesions or cervical cancer. Methods In this paper, we characterize the immunogenicity of a therapeutic vaccine that targets the E7 protein of the most prevalent high-risk HPV - type 16 – the gene which has previously been shown to be effective in DNA vaccine trials in mice. The synthetic shuffled HPV-16 E7 (16E7SH) has lost its transforming properties but retains all naturally-occurring CTL epitopes. This was genetically fused to Zera®, a self-assembly domain of the maize ?-zein able to induce the accumulation of recombinant proteins into protein bodies (PBs), within the endoplasmic reticulum in a number of expression systems. Results High-level expression of the HPV 16E7SH protein fused to Zera® in plants was achieved, and the protein bodies could be easily and cost-effectively purified. Immune responses comparable to the 16E7SH DNA vaccine were demonstrated in the murine model, with the protein vaccine successfully inducing a specific humoral as well as cell mediated immune response, and mediating tumour regression. Conclusions The fusion of 16E7SH to the Zera® peptide was found to enhance the immune responses, presumably by means of a more efficient antigen presentation via the protein bodies. Interestingly, simply mixing the free PBs and 16E7SH also enhanced immune responses, indicating an adjuvant activity for the Zera® PBs. PMID:24885328



Clinical and Serological Outcome of Genital Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Type 2 Inoculation following Oral HSV Type 1 Infection in Guinea-pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The clinical and serological outcome of genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) inoculation in animals previously orally infected with HSV type 1 was evaluated. A prior HSV-1 oral infection modified the genital HSV-2 infection so that only four of 18 (22~) animals were initially symptomatic although all but one animal shed HSV-2 from the cervicovaginal area for at




Protective effect of an oral infection with Herpes simplex virus type 1 against subsequent genital infection with Herpes simplex virus type 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of whether oral Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection provides protection against subsequent genital infection by Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was investigated. Mice were used as models. Following conditions in man, both the oral and genital infections applied were noninjurious. Mice infected orally with HSV-1 were weakly protected against virus ‘take’ following vaginal challenge with

Bernhard Sturn; Karl-Eduard Schneweis



HPV Vaccine - Cervarix: What You Need to Know  


... 1 What is HPV? Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted virus ... because they won’t have been exposed to human papillomavirus. Once a girl or woman has been infected ...


Protect Yourself Against HPV | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  


... Human Papillomavirus Block this cervical-cancer causing virus More than ... active people get a genital infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV) at some point in their lives, but ...


Pattern of HPV infection in basal cell carcinoma and in perilesional skin biopsies from immunocompetent patients  

PubMed Central

Background The association between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) such as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is not yet fully understood. We analysed the prevalence and spectrum of cutaneous beta-HPV types and mucosal/genital HPV types in paired biopsies (tumour and corresponding perilesional skin) obtained from 50 BCC immunocompetent patients. A small group of SCC patients (n=9) was also included. We also evaluated some previously postulated risk factors for HPV infection in NMSC patients. Results All biopsies were negative for mucosal/genital HPV types. Overall, beta-HPV DNA was detected more often in SCC compared to BCC patients (78% vs 55% of total samples). The frequency of infection increased with the patient’s age [OR=4.88 (95% CI 1.29-18.39)]. There was no significant correlation between beta-HPV positivity and sex, skin type and UV exposure. The prevalence of beta-HPV species 1 types was significantly higher than those belonging to other beta-HPV species in biopsies from BCC (p=0.022) but not from SCC subjects (p=0.091). There was no significant difference in the overall prevalence of beta-HPV infection and the number of viral types between tumour lesions and perilesional skin. BCC samples were significantly more likely to be infected with beta-HPV species 1 types compared to perilesional skin (p=0.036) and showed a higher frequency of mixed infections (p=0.028). Conclusions These findings demonstrate that beta-HPV types belonging to species 1 are the most common HPV types detected in the skin of BCC patients. Moreover beta-1-HPV types and mixed infections are significantly more frequent in tumour samples than in healthy perilesional skin. Our results suggest that beta-1-HPVs as well as co-infection with more than one viral type could be important in NMSC and in particular in BCC. Further studies aimed to compare the biological activity of viral types in tumours and in healthy skin (viral replication and expression, interference of infection with cellular functions) are necessary to understand the role of HPV infection in skin cancer. PMID:23244448



Worldwide distribution of human papillomavirus types in cytologically normal women in the International Agency for Research on Cancer HPV prevalence surveys: a pooled analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The proportion of women infected with human papillomavirus (HPV) varies greatly across populations, as might the distribution of HPV types. We aimed to compare HPV-type distribution in representative samples of women from different world regions. METHODS: Women were randomly selected from the general population of 13 areas from 11 countries (Nigeria, India, Vietnam, Thailand, Korea, Colombia, Argentina, Chile, the

GM Clifford; S. Gallus; R Herrero; N. Munoz; P. J. F. Snijders; S Vaccarella; PTH Anh; C Ferreccio; N. T. Hieu; E Matos; M Molano; R. Rajkumar; G. Ronco; S de Sanjosé; HR Shin; S Sukvirach; JO Thomas; S Tunsakul; C. J. L. M. Meijer; S Franceschi



Overcoming Barriers to Adherence to HPV Vaccination Recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a critical factor in the development of cervical cancer and can lead to genital warts and other clinical sequelae. Two vac- cines against HPV have been developed recently that have shown to be safe and effective. The use of HPV vaccines holds promise for alleviating the bur- den of illness related to HPV infection. However, bar-

Amanda F. Dempsey; Matthew M. Davis


Overactive bladder after female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) type III.  


A 27-year-old Somali woman with type III a-b female genital mutilation/cutting, consulted because of slow micturition, voiding efforts, urgency and urge incontinence (overactive bladder). She also referred primary dysmenorrhoea and superficial dyspareunia making complete sexual intercourses impossible. We treated her by defibulation and biofeedback re-educative therapy. We also offered a multidisciplinary counselling. At 5 months follow-up, urgency and urge incontinence had resolved and she became pregnant. PMID:24096069

Abdulcadir, Jasmine; Dällenbach, Patrick



Genital warts  


Condylomata acuminata; Penile warts; Human papilloma virus (HPV); Venereal warts; Condyloma; HPV DNA test; Sexually transmitted disease (STD) - warts; Sexually transmitted infection (STI) - warts; LSIL-HPV; Low-grade dysplasia-HPV; HSIL- ...


HPV Vaccine and Pregnancy  


... from your health care provider. What is HPV? Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common infection that is ... infant outcomes in the clinical trials of a human papillomavirus type 6/11/16/18 vaccine: a combined ...


Efficacy of RG1-VLP Vaccination against Infections with Genital and Cutaneous Human Papillomaviruses  

PubMed Central

Licensed human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines, based on virus-like particles (VLPs) self-assembled from major capsid protein L1, afford type-restricted protection against HPV types 16/18/6/11 (or 16/18 for the bivalent vaccine), which cause 70% of cervical cancers (CxCas) and 90% of genital warts. However, they do not protect against less prevalent high-risk (HR) types causing 30% of CxCa, or cutaneous HPV. In contrast, vaccination with the minor capsid protein L2 induces low-level immunity to type-common epitopes. Chimeric RG1-VLP presenting HPV16 L2 amino acids 17–36 (RG1 epitope) within the DE-surface loop of HPV16 L1 induced cross-neutralizing antisera. We hypothesized that RG1-VLP vaccination protects against a large spectrum of mucosal and cutaneous HPV infections in vivo. Immunization with RG1-VLP adjuvanted with human-applicable alum-MPL (aluminum hydroxide plus 3-O-desacyl-4?-monophosphoryl lipid A) induced robust L2 antibodies (ELISA titers 2,500–12,500), which (cross-)neutralized mucosal HR HPV16/18/45/37/33/52/58/35/39/51/59/68/73/26/69/34/70, low-risk HPV6/11/32/40, and cutaneous HPV2/27/3/76 (titers 25–1,000) using native virion- or pseudovirion (PsV)-based assays, and a vigorous cytotoxic T lymphocyte response by enzyme-linked immunospot. In vivo, mice were efficiently protected against experimental vaginal challenge with mucosal HR PsV types HPV16/18/45/31/33/52/58/35/39/51/59/68/56/73/26/53/66/34 and low-risk HPV6/43/44. Enduring protection was demonstrated 1 year after vaccination. RG1-VLP is a promising next-generation vaccine with broad efficacy against all relevant mucosal and also cutaneous HPV types. PMID:23752042

Schellenbacher, Christina; Kwak, Kihyuck; Fink, Dieter; Shafti-Keramat, Saeed; Huber, Bettina; Jindra, Christoph; Faust, Helena; Dillner, Joakim; Roden, Richard B.S.; Kirnbauer, Reinhard



Efficacy of RG1-VLP vaccination against infections with genital and cutaneous human papillomaviruses.  


Licensed human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines, based on virus-like particles (VLPs) self-assembled from major capsid protein L1, afford type-restricted protection against HPV types 16/18/6/11 (or 16/18 for the bivalent vaccine), which cause 70% of cervical cancers (CxCas) and 90% of genital warts. However, they do not protect against less prevalent high-risk (HR) types causing 30% of CxCa, or cutaneous HPV. In contrast, vaccination with the minor capsid protein L2 induces low-level immunity to type-common epitopes. Chimeric RG1-VLP presenting HPV16 L2 amino acids 17-36 (RG1 epitope) within the DE-surface loop of HPV16 L1 induced cross-neutralizing antisera. We hypothesized that RG1-VLP vaccination protects against a large spectrum of mucosal and cutaneous HPV infections in vivo. Immunization with RG1-VLP adjuvanted with human-applicable alum-MPL (aluminum hydroxide plus 3-O-desacyl-4'-monophosphoryl lipid A) induced robust L2 antibodies (ELISA titers 2,500-12,500), which (cross-)neutralized mucosal HR HPV16/18/45/37/33/52/58/35/39/51/59/68/73/26/69/34/70, low-risk HPV6/11/32/40, and cutaneous HPV2/27/3/76 (titers 25-1,000) using native virion- or pseudovirion (PsV)-based assays, and a vigorous cytotoxic T lymphocyte response by enzyme-linked immunospot. In vivo, mice were efficiently protected against experimental vaginal challenge with mucosal HR PsV types HPV16/18/45/31/33/52/58/35/39/51/59/68/56/73/26/53/66/34 and low-risk HPV6/43/44. Enduring protection was demonstrated 1 year after vaccination. RG1-VLP is a promising next-generation vaccine with broad efficacy against all relevant mucosal and also cutaneous HPV types. PMID:23752042

Schellenbacher, Christina; Kwak, Kihyuck; Fink, Dieter; Shafti-Keramat, Saeed; Huber, Bettina; Jindra, Christoph; Faust, Helena; Dillner, Joakim; Roden, Richard B S; Kirnbauer, Reinhard



Prevalence of HPV high and low risk types in cervical samples from the Italian general population: a population based study  

PubMed Central

Background This multicenter study describes the type-specific prevalence of HPV infection in the general population from central and southern Italy, comparing the data with previously published Italian studies. Methods Women aged from 25 to 65 who attended cervical cancer screening in five different Italian regions were tested for HPV infection with Hybrid Capture II (HCII) low and high risk probes. Women repeating Pap-test upon unsatisfactory or positive results, or as a post-treatment and post-colposcopy follow-up analysis, were excluded from our study. High risk (HR) HPV positive samples were typed using GP5+/GP6+ primed PCR, followed by Reverse Line Blot for 18 high/intermediate risk HPV types, while low risk (LR) HPV positive samples were tested with type specific primers for HPV6 and HPV11. Results 3817 women had a valid HCII test: 350 of them (9.2%) were positive for HR probes, 160 (4.2%) for LR probes, while 57 women were positive for both. Multiple infections were detected in 97 HR HPV positive women. The most common types were HPV 16 (3%), 31 (1.2%), 51 (1%). HPV6 ranked fifth (0.6%), HPV18 ranked tenth (0.5%) and HPV11 sixteenth (0.3%). In Sardinia the prevalence of high-risk infection was 13%, significantly higher than the mean value (p < 0.00005). The distribution of the most frequent types did not significantly differ by centre (p = 0.187) and age (p = 0.085). Conclusions Because cervical cancer incidence and Pap test coverage is lower in southern than in northern Italy, a lower prevalence of high-risk infections in the general population was expected in the south. However, prevalence detected in this study for the south of the country is slightly but significantly higher than the rest of Italy. The consequence may be an epidemic of cervical cancer in the next decades if adequate screening programs are not implemented there. PMID:20646310



Genital Warts  

PubMed Central

External genital warts, also known as condylomata acuminata, are extremely common, with between 500,000 to one million new cases diagnosed each year in the United States alone. To date, more than 120 distinct subtypes of human papillomavirus have been identified. Human papillomavirus types 6 and 11 rarely give rise to cervical cancers, but are responsible for 90 percent of the cases of genital warts. The current treatment options are largely centered upon removal of the warts rather than elimination of the underlying viral infection. A wide range of therapies are presently in use, which are highly variable and can differ dramatically with respect to cost, side-effect profiles, dosing schedules, duration of treatment, and overall effectiveness. As of yet, no definitive therapy has emerged as the ideal standard of care in the treatment of genital warts, and therapy selection generally occurs in a patient-specific manner. PMID:22768354

Yanofsky, Valerie R.; Patel, Rita V.



Comparison of Different Assays To Assess Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Type 16- and 18-Specific Antibodies after HPV Infection and Vaccination  

PubMed Central

We compared the measurement of human papillomavirus (HPV)-specific serum antibody levels with the virus-like-particle multiplex immunoassay (VLP-MIA), competitive Luminex immunoassay (cLIA), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) L1-based MIA. Using a large panel of serum samples, these assays showed mutually good correlations for both naturally induced and vaccine-derived HPV-specific antibody levels. However, an adaptation of the GST L1-based MIA resulted in an improved correlation with both cLIA and VLP-MIA. PMID:23740920

Schepp, Rutger M.; Mollers, Madelief; Mooij, Sofie H.; Meijer, Chris J. L. M.; Berbers, Guy A. M.; van der Klis, Fiona R. M.



Epitope specificity and longevity of a vaccine-induced human T cell response against HPV18.  


Persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 and 18 infection can lead to pre-malignant and malignant diseases of the lower genital tract. Several lines of evidence suggest that T cell responses can control HPV infection. However, relative to other human viruses, strong effector memory T cell responses against HPV have been difficult to detect. We used an in vitro stimulation step prior to enzyme-linked immunospot assays to identify IFN-gamma-secreting T cells specific for HPV16 and 18 E6/E7 peptides. This allowed the detection of HPV-specific CD4+ T cells that were not evident in direct ex vivo assays. T cell responses against HPV16 or 18 peptides were detected in healthy volunteers (7/9) and patients with lower genital tract neoplasia (10/20). Importantly, this assay allowed tracking of vaccine-induced T cell responses in nine patients, following inoculation with a live recombinant vaccinia virus (HPV16 and 18 E6/E7, TA-HPV). Novel vaccine-induced T cell responses were demonstrated in five patients, but no clinical responses (lesion regressions) were seen. For one vaccinated patient, the T cell response was mapped to a single dominant HPV18 E7 epitope and this response was sustained for >3 years. Our data suggest that systemic memory T cells against HPV16 and 18, induced naturally or by TA-HPV vaccination, are relatively rare. Nevertheless, the assay system developed allowed estimation of magnitude, epitope specificity, and longevity of vaccine-induced CD4+ T cell responses. This will be useful for vaccine design and measurement of immunological endpoints in clinical trials. PMID:15623547

Smith, Kelly L; Tristram, Amanda; Gallagher, Kathleen M; Fiander, Alison N; Man, Stephen



The human papillomavirus type 18 (HPV18) replication protein E1 is a transcriptional activator when interacting with HPV18 E2.  


The human papillomavirus type 18 E1 and E2 proteins are both required for the initiation of viral DNA replication. Whereas E2 is the major viral transcription regulator, E1 is the replication initiator protein. They interact with each other and with the origin sequences to initiate viral DNA replication. We show that the HPV18 E1 and E2 proteins, when bound to an origin sequence cloned upstream of a heterologous promoter, synergistically activate transcription. This synergy required binding of E2 to at least two binding sites, but was partially independent of E1 binding to the origin of replication. Transcriptional activation was observed even in the absence of replication of the target DNA. Only homologous E1 and E2 proteins binding to homologous origin sequences from BPV1 or HPV18 viruses could synergistically activate transcription. We show that the HPV18 E1 protein can activate transcription when targeted to the DNA by fusion of the complete polypeptide with the BPV1 E2 C-terminus dimerization/DNA binding domain, implying that HPV18 E1 is an intrinsic transcriptional activator, though less potent than E2. The interaction between E1 and E2 may form a transcriptionally active complex during initiation of viral DNA replication. PMID:9514974

Demeret, C; Goyat, S; Yaniv, M; Thierry, F



Analysis of risk-structured vaccination model for the dynamics of oncogenic and warts-causing HPV types.  


A new deterministic model is designed and used to assess the community-wide impact of mass vaccination of new sexually active individuals on the dynamics of the oncogenic and warts-causing HPV types. Rigorous qualitative analyses of the model, which incorporates the two currently available anti-HPV vaccines, reveal that it undergoes competitive exclusion when the reproduction of one HPV risk type (low/high) exceeds unity, while that of the other HPV risk type is less than unity. For the case when the reproduction numbers of the two HPV risk types (low/high) exceed unity, the two risk types co-exist. It is shown that the sub-model with the low-risk HPV types only has at least one endemic equilibrium whenever the associated reproduction threshold exceeds unity. Furthermore, this sub-model undergoes a re-infection-induced backward bifurcation under certain conditions. In the absence of the re-infection of recovered individuals and cancer-induced mortality in males, the associated disease-free equilibrium of the full (risk-structured) model is shown to be globally asymptotically stable whenever the reproduction number of the model is less than unity (that is, the full model does not undergo backward bifurcation under this setting). It is shown, via numerical simulations, that the use of the Gardasil vaccine could lead to the effective control of HPV in the community if the coverage rate is in the range of 73-95 % (84 %). If 70 % of the new sexually active susceptible females are vaccinated with the Gardasil vaccine, additionally vaccinating 34-56 % (45 %) of the new sexually active susceptible males can lead to the effective community-wide control (or elimination) of the HPV types. PMID:25033777

Alsaleh, Aliya A; Gumel, Abba B



HPV vaccine  


Vaccine - HPV; Immunization - HPV; Gardasil; Cervarix; HPV2; HPV4; Vaccine to prevent cervical cancer ... of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Committee Opinion No. 588: Human Papillomavirus Vaccination. Obstet Gynecol . 2014;123:712-8. American ...


Genital Warts  


... a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). The warts are soft, moist, pink, or flesh- ... completely eliminate, the risk of catching or spreading HPV. HPV vaccines may help prevent some of the ...


Genital Herpes  


What is genital herpes? Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) . Genital herpes is probably best known for ... Symptoms that precede the onset of a disease. Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD): A disease that is spread by sexual ...


Human papillomavirus type 16 E2-and L1-specific serological and T-cell responses in women with  

E-print Network

Human papillomavirus type 16 E2- and L1-specific serological and T-cell responses in women Accepted 13 May 2003 Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16)-associated vulval intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN/17). INTRODUCTION Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are extre- mely common in young, sexually active

Gaston, Kevin


Haemophilus influenzae type B genital infection and septicemia in pregnant woman: a case report  

PubMed Central

Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae) type B a non-motile, aerobic, gram negative cocobacillus is a commensal of upper respiratory tract. Genitourinary infection due to H. influenzae has been reported but bacteremia associated with such infection appears to be rare. We report a case of 19 years young primigravida with complaints of amenorrhea of 32 weeks and 5 days, pyrexia, abdominal pain and blood stained discharge per vaginum. H. influenzae type B was recovered from the genital tract as well as blood of the mother indicating maternal septicemia. Septicemia caused by H. influenzae type B in pregnant women following vaginal colonization and infection is rare. It has been reported in many parts of world over the years; to the best of our knowledge this is the first reported case from Nepal. H. influenzae should be considered as a potential maternal, fetal, and neonatal pathogen.

Supram, Hosuru Subramanya; Gokhale, Shishir; Bhatta, Dharm Raj; Sharma, JSS; Shrestha, Junu



The diagnosis of recent herpes simplex virus type 2 genital infections by the simplex-2 test.  


The prevalence of complement-fixing (CF) antibody against the AG-4 early antigen of herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 (HSV-2) was determined in patients with culture confirmed HSV-2 genital herpes and control groups using a commercial HSV-2 early antigen (Simplex-2; Gene Link Australia Ltd). Eighty seven per cent of 39 sera collected between 14 and 28 days after confirmed primary and recurrent HSV-2 infection were positive. In acute sera collected between 2-10 days after onset the Simplex-2 test was negative in all 90 patients with presumed primary infection but positive in 53% of 230 sera from recurrent infection. A specificity of 90-94.5% was obtained by testing 36 patients with recent proven HSV-1 infection and 331 control group patients. The Simplex-2 test may be useful in some cases of culture-negative, clinically suspected genital HSV-2 lesions only when sera are collected between 14-28 days after primary and recurrent infection. Its lack of specificity makes it unsuitable for the routine diagnosis of recent HSV-2 infection in the general population. PMID:1337770

Field, P R; Ho, D W; Cunningham, A L



HPV vaccine (human papillomavirus) Cervarix - what you need to know  


... taken in its entirety from the CDC HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Cervarix® Vaccine Information Statement: ... What is HPV? Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most ... in the United States. More than half of sexually active men and ...


Human papillomavirus and other genital infections in indigenous women from Paraguay: a cross-sectional analytical study  

PubMed Central

Background The incidence of cervical cancer in Paraguay is among the highest in the world, with the human papillomavirus (HPV) being a necessary factor for cervical cancer. Knowledge about HPV infection among indigenous women is limited. This cross-sectional study analyzed the frequency of HPV and other genital infections in indigenous Paraguayan women of the Department of Presidente Hayes. Methods This study included 181 sexually active women without cervical lesions. They belonged to the following ethnicities: Maká (n?=?40); Nivaclé (n?=?23); Sanapaná (n?=?33); Enxet Sur (n?=?51) and Toba-Qom (n?=?34). The detection of HPV and other gynecological infectious microorganisms was performed by either molecular methods (for Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Chlamydia trachomatis), gram staining and/or culture (for Gardnerella vaginalis, Candida sp, Trichomonas vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae), serological methods (for Treponema pallidum, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]) or cytology (cervical inflammation). Results A high prevalence (41.4%) of women positive for at least one sexually transmitted infection (STI) was found (23.2% any-type HPV, 11.6% T pallidum, 10.5% T vaginalis, 9.9% C trachomatis and 0.6% HIV) with 12.2% having more than one STI. HPV infection was the most frequent, with 16.1% of women positive for high-risk HPV types. There was a statistically significant association observed between any-type HPV and C trachomatis (p?=?0.004), which indicates that the detection of one of these agents should suggest the presence of the other. There was no association between any-type HPV and other genital infections or cervical inflammation, suggesting that other mechanism could exist to favor infection with the virus. Conclusion This multidisciplinary work suggests that STIs are frequent, making it necessary to implement control measures and improve diagnosis in order to increase the number of cases detected, especially in populations with poor access to health centers. PMID:24206645



Coexisting high-grade vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) and condyloma acuminatum: independent lesions due to different HPV types occurring in immunocompromised patients.  


The majority of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) is high-grade and is related to high-risk human papillomavirus (HRHPV) (most commonly HPV 16). It is considered to be the precursor of HRHPV-related vulvar squamous cell carcinoma. Vulvar condyloma acuminatum is low-risk HPV (LRHPV)-related (most commonly types 6 and 11) and has virtually no risk of neoplastic progression. While infection with multiple LRHPV and HRHPV types has been reported for cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions, coexisting vulvar condyloma and adjacent high-grade VIN have not been well characterized. Eleven cases of concurrent condyloma acuminatum and adjacent flat high-grade VIN and 3 cases of high-grade VIN with prominent condylomatous architecture were analyzed using immunohistochemical analysis of p16 expression, in situ hybridization (ISH) for HPV detection [HPV 6/11, HPV 16, HPV 18, and HPV wide spectrum (types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45, 51, 52) probes], and HPV typing by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method (in select cases). All patients had underlying immunosuppressive conditions (human immunodeficiency virus infection or posttransplant therapy). Among the 11 cases of concurrent high-grade VIN and condyloma, the lesions were directly adjacent to one another in 5 cases (with 2 of these demonstrating an intimate admixture of lesions), and in 6 cases the lesions were found in separate tissue sections from the same specimen. Diffuse/strong p16 expression was seen in all high-grade VIN lesions, whereas patchy/weak staining was found in all condylomata. All condylomata contained HPV 6 or 11 as detected by ISH. HRHPV was detected in all of the accompanying high-grade VIN lesions. Ten contained HPV 16 (9 by ISH, 1 by PCR), with the remaining case containing multiple HPV types by PCR. All condylomatous high-grade VIN lesions demonstrated diffuse/strong p16 expression and had evidence of HRHPV (1 with HPV 16 by ISH, 1 with HPV 18 by ISH, and 1 with multiple HPV types by PCR), with no detection of HPV 6 or 11 by ISH. The restriction of LRHPV to condylomatous components and HRHPV to high-grade VIN components of adjacent lesions suggests these are independent lesions caused by different HPV types. Diffuse p16 expression can highlight small foci of high-grade VIN, which may be overlooked in more abundant condylomatous tissue from immunosuppressed patients. The presence of only HRHPV in those VIN lesions with high-grade cytologic features but prominent condylomatous architecture supports their classification as forms of pure high-grade VIN and distinguishes them from condyloma acuminatum. PMID:23026935

Maniar, Kruti P; Ronnett, Brigitte M; Vang, Russell; Yemelyanova, Anna



HPV Vaccine  


... Is HPV and Why Is It a Problem? Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually ... 15 minutes after each shot. Protecting Yourself Against HPV For people who are having sex, condoms offer ...


Type specific persistence of high risk human papillomavirus (HPV) as indicator of high grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions in young women: population based prospective follow up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To investigate the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the development of cervical neoplasia in women with no previous cervical cytological abnormalities; whether the presence of virus DNA predicts development of squamous intraepithelial lesion; and whether the risk of incident squamous intraepithelial lesions differs with repeated detection of the same HPV type versus repeated detection of different types. Design

Susanne K Kjaer; Edith I Svare; Birthe L Thomsen



Incidence and clearance of genital human papillomavirus infection in men (HIM): a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) cause genital warts and cancers in men. The natural history of HPV infection in men is largely unknown, and that information is needed to inform prevention strategies. The goal in this study was to estimate incidence and clearance of type-specific genital HPV infection in men, and to assess the associated factors. Methods Men (aged 18–70 years), residing in Brazil, Mexico, and the USA, who were HIV negative and reported no history of cancer were recruited from the general population, universities, and organised health-care systems. They were assessed every 6 months for a median follow-up of 27·5 months (18·0–31·2). Specimens from the coronal sulcus, glans penis, shaft, and scrotum were obtained for the assessment of the status of HPV genotypes. Findings In 1159 men, the incidence of a new genital HPV infection was 38·4 per 1000 person months (95% CI 34·3–43·0). Oncogenic HPV infection was significantly associated with having a high number of lifetime female sexual partners (hazard ratio 2·40, 1·38–4·18, for at least 50 partners vs not more than one partner), and number of male anal-sexual partners (2·57, 1·46–4·49, for at least three male partners vs no recent partners). Median duration of HPV infection was 7·52 months (6·80–8·61) for any HPV and 12·19 months (7·16–18·17) for HPV 16. Clearance of oncogenic HPV infection decreased in men with a high number of lifetime female partners (0·49, 0·31–0·76, for at least 50 female partners vs not more than one partner), and in men in Brazil (0·71, 0·56–0·91) and Mexico (0·73, 0·57–0·94) compared with the USA. Clearance of oncogenic HPV was more rapid with increasing age (1·02, 1·01–1·03). Interpretation The data from this study are useful for the development of realistic cost-effectiveness models for male HPV vaccination internationally. Funding National Cancer Institute. PMID:21367446

Giuliano, Anna R; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Fulp, William; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano, Eduardo; Papenfuss, Mary R; Abrahamsen, Martha; Salmeron, Jorge; Anic, Gabriella M; Rollison, Dana E; Smith, Danelle



Disturbed Patterns of Immunocompetent Cells in Usual-Type Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genital infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is usually transient, as the immune system is capable of eliminating the virus. When immunity ''fails'' andthe infection persists, vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) may develop. In this study, we examinedthe distribution of inflammatory cells in 51 patients with HPV-associatedusual-type VIN andin 19 healthy controls. Frozen vulvar tissue samples were testedfor the presence of HPV-DNA,

Manon van Seters; Ilse Beckmann; Claudia Heijmans-Antonissen; Marc van Beurden; Patricia C. Ewing; Freek J. Zijlstra; Theo J. M. Helmerhorst; Alex KleinJan


Integrating Clinical, Community, and Policy Perspectives on HPV Vaccination  

PubMed Central

Infection with genital human papillomavirus (HPV) may cause anogenital cancers, oropharyngeal cancers, anogenital warts, and respiratory papillomas. Two prophylactic vaccines (a bivalent and a quadrivalent vaccine) are now licensed and currently in use in a number of countries. Both vaccines prevent infection with HPV-16 and HPV-18, which together cause approximately 70% of cervical cancers, and clinical trials have demonstrated 90%-100% efficacy in preventing precancerous cervical lesions attributable to HPV-16 and HPV-18. One vaccine also prevents HPV-6 and HPV-11, which cause 90% of genital warts. A growing literature describes associations between psychosocial, interpersonal, organizational, and societal factors that influence HPV vaccination acceptability. This paper summarizes the current literature and presents an integrated perspective, taking into account these diverse influences. The resulting integrated model can be used as a heuristic tool for organizing factors at multiple levels to guide intervention development and future research. PMID:20001821

Fernandez, Maria E.; Allen, Jennifer D.; Mistry, Ritesh; Kahn, Jessica A.



Abnormalities of cornified cell envelopes isolated from human papillomavirus type 11-infected genital epithelium.  


Keratinocytes are the predominant cells in human skin. As keratinocytes differentiate, the nuclei are lost and the cornified cell envelope (CCE) develops, forming a covalently cross-linked, insoluble structure under the cell membrane. Layers of anuclear CCEs in the stratum corneum provide a barrier against water loss and mechanical damage and are a first line of immunologic defense. Infection of keratinocytes with human papillomaviruses (HPVs) induces proliferation and abnormalities including retention of nuclei in the stratum corneum and perinuclear halo formation. For effective transmission, HPV virions must be released from the CCE, a normally very durable structure. Therefore, it is likely that HPV infection affects the CCE in a manner that would facilitate virion release. To investigate the effects of HPV 11 infection on morphology and fragility, CCEs were purified from infected and uninfected epithelium. CCEs isolated from uninfected epithelium were smooth, cuboidal, and sonicated into long coiled structures. In contrast, CCEs from HPV 11-infected epithelium were irregular in size and shape, with rough edges, and sonicated into small fragments. In addition, the thickness of CCEs from HPV 11-infected tissue was 65% that of uninfected epithelium. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that in contrast to uninfected epithelium, loricrin, the major component of the CCE, was abnormally distributed in the differentiated layers of HPV 11-infected epithelium. We conclude that in addition to the previously described epithelial abnormalities induced by HPV, the CCE is also affected by infection in ways that may facilitate transmission of virus from person to person. PMID:10814571

Brown, D R; Bryan, J T



Differential effects of human papillomavirus type 6, 16, and 18 DNAs on immortalization and transformation of human cervical epithelial cells  

SciTech Connect

The human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are associated with specific benign and malignant lesions of the skin and mucosal epithelia. Cloned viral DNAs from HPV types 6b, 16, and 18 associated with different pathological manifestations of genital neoplasia in vivo were introduced into primary human cervical epithelial cells by electroporation. Cells transfected with HPV16 or HPV18 DNA acquired indefinite lifespans, distinct morphological alterations, and anchorage-independent growth (HPV18), and contain integrated transcriptionally active viral genomes. HPV6b or plasmid electroporated cells senesced at low passage. The alterations in growth and differentiation of the cells appear to reflect the progressive oncogenic processes that result in cervical carcinoma in vivo.

Pecoraro, G.; Morgan, D.; Defendi, V. (New York Univ. Medical Center, NY (USA))



Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 101 and 103 isolated from cervicovaginal cells lack an E6 open reading frame (ORF)  

E-print Network

Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 101 and 103 isolated from cervicovaginal cells lack an E6 open to their emergence from the gamma-/pi-PVs. © 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Keywords: Human papillomavirus reading frame (ORF) and are related to gamma-papillomaviruses Zigui Chen a , Mark Schiffman b , Rolando

DeSalle, Rob


Integration of HPV16 and HPV18 DNA in vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective.Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) is a premalignant disease of the lower genital tract. The increased occurrence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection seems to be associated with the increasing frequency of VIN. Integration of HPV DNA into host chromosome has been hypothesized to be a critical step in the carcinogenesis of cervical neoplasia resulting in altered expression of two viral

Peter Hillemanns; Xiuli Wang



Human papillomavirus type-specific prevalence in women referred for colposcopic examination in Beijing.  


Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with several disorders of the genital tract, skin, and oropharynx. This study investigated the prevalence of infection by 37 HPV genotypes among women of the Beijing area in China. Cervical specimens from 1,082 patients and 165 healthy controls were tested for HPV genotypes using a chip hybridization assay. Based on the local pathology, patients were divided into cervicitis and cervical lesion groups. Overall HPV infection rates were 30.5% for the cervicitis group and 78.4% for the cervical lesion group; whereas infection rates for high-risk HPV types (i.e., those associated with cervical cancers) were 24.0% and 73.4%, respectively. The most common HPV genotypes were HPV 52, 16, 81, 58, and 18 in healthy controls, HPV 52, 61, 55, 16, and 53 in those with cervicitis, HPV 52, 16, 33, 39, and 58 in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1, HPV 16, 58, 31, 52, and 33 in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or grade 3, and HPV 16, 33, 18, 52, and 58 in cervical cancer. Established high-risk HPV showed two peaks, in patients aged 30-34 and 55-79 years. In Beijing, HPV 16, 52, 58, and 33 are the most prevalent HPV types in women with cervical lesions, which should affect development of a cervical cancer vaccination for local use. J. Med. Virol. 86:1937-1943, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25132373

Ding, Xiurong; Liu, Zhizhong; Su, Jianrong; Yan, Donghui; Sun, Wei; Zeng, Zhaoying



Genital herpes  


... spread from the mouth to the genitals during oral sex. HSV-2 most often causes genital herpes. HSV- ... herpes is to avoid all sexual contact, including oral sex. Being in a long-term, mutually monogamous relationship ...


Genital Herpes  


... around the mouth) can transmit the virus through oral sex to another person's genitals. Genital herpes is a ... intercourse (vaginal, oral, or anal sex). Girls receiving oral sex should have their partners use dental dams as ...


Genital Herpes  


... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Understanding Genital Herpes Cause Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Prevention Complications Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease. According to the Centers for Disease Control and ...


Genital Herpes  


... Herpes - CDC Fact Sheet Herpes is a common sexually transmitted disease (STD) that any sexually active person can get. ... plain language for individuals with general questions about sexually transmitted diseases. What is genital herpes? Genital herpes is an ...


Patterns of Human Papillomavirus Types in Multiple Infections: An Analysis in Women and Men of the High Throughput Human Papillomavirus Monitoring Study  

PubMed Central

Background To evaluate the pattern of co-infection of human papillomavirus (HPV) types in both sexes in Sweden. Methods Cell samples from genital swabs, first-void urine, and genital swabs immersed in first-void urine were collected in the present cross-sectional High Throughput HPV Monitoring study. Overall, 31,717 samples from women and 9,949 from men (mean age 25) were tested for 16 HPV types using mass spectrometry. Multilevel logistic regression was used to estimate the expected number of multiple infections with specific HPV types, adjusted for age, type of sample, and accounting for correlations between HPV types due to unobserved risk factors using sample-level random effects. Bonferroni correction was used to allow for multiple comparisons (120). Results Observed-to-expected ratio for any multiple infections was slightly above unity in both sexes, but, for most 2-type combinations, there was no evidence of significant departure from expected numbers. HPV6/18 was found more often and HPV51/68 and 6/68 less often than expected. However, HPV68 tended to be generally underrepresented in co-infections, suggesting a sub-optimal performance of our testing method for this HPV type. Conclusions We found no evidence for positive or negative clustering between HPV types included in the current prophylactic vaccines and other untargeted oncogenic types, in either sex. PMID:23977090

Vaccarella, Salvatore; Soderlund-Strand, Anna; Franceschi, Silvia; Plummer, Martyn; Dillner, Joakim



Genotyping of 27 Human Papillomavirus Types by Using L1 Consensus PCR Products by a Single-Hybridization, Reverse Line Blot Detection Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amplification of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA by L1 consensus primer systems (e.g., MY09\\/11 or GP5 1 \\/6 1 ) can detect as few as 10 to 100 molecules of HPV targets from a genital sample. However, genotype determination by dot blot hybridization is laborious and requires at least 27 separate hybridizations for substantive HPV-type discrimination. A reverse blot method was




HPV Infections among MSM in Shenzhen, China  

PubMed Central

Background An increasing incidence of anal cancer among men, especially men who have sex with men (MSM) suggests a need to better understand anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among this group. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among MSM in Shenzhen, China. Blood was collected for HIV serological testing and syphilis serological screening, and anal swabs were collected for HPV genotyping. Difference of HPV prevalence between HIV seropositive and HIV seronegative MSM was assessed by chi-square test. Factors associated with anal canal HPV infection were assessed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results A total of 408 MSM were recruited. HIV and HPV prevalence were 6.9% and 36.4%, respectively. HPV was detected in the anal canal in 71.4% of the HIV-positive MSM and in 33.8% of the HIV-negative MSM (P<0.001). Oncogenic types were seen more often in anal specimens of HIV-positive MSM than in specimens of HIV-negative MSM (P?=?0.001). The HPV genotypes detected most frequently were HPV06 (8.2%), HPV16 (7.2%), HPV11 (6.4%), HPV18 (4.7%), HPV58 (4.7%), and HPV52 (4.2%). Conclusions In this study, HIV positive MSM had a higher burden of HPV infection, especially oncogenic HPV infection. HPV types 52 and 58 were as popular as those types designed for the currently available vaccine (HPV6, 11, 16, 18). PMID:24801331

Zhang, Dong-Yan; Yin, Yue-Ping; Feng, Tie-Jian; Hong, Fu-Chang; Jiang, Ning; Wang, Bao-Xi; Chen, Xiang-Sheng



Is male intent to be vaccinated against HPV a function of the promotion message?  


We aimed to determine whether the type of outcome expectation, stemming from HPV vaccination, would have any effect on young men's HPV vaccine intent. We recruited young men (18-24 years of age) from two university campuses (n = 150). After answering a series of questions they were randomly assigned to one of three information conditions (all delivered by computer): (1) how women may benefit from men's HPV vaccination, (2) preventing genital warts and (3) preventing head and neck cancers. Intent to be vaccinated against HPV in the next 12 months was assessed before and after receiving the informational session corresponding to the assigned condition. A repeated-measures t-test indicated that a significant increase in young men's intent to be vaccinated after they received the assigned information (t = 9.48, [147], P = 0.0001). However, the increase in intent to be vaccinated did not vary by group assignment as there were no significant differences in mean intent scores between the three groups (F = 0.59, [2/144], P = 0.56). Information that promotes the outcome expectations of protecting women from cervical cancer, preventing genital warts for men and preventing head and neck cancers for men may be equally effective in promoting increased intent for HPV vaccine acceptance among young university men. PMID:21680669

DiClemente, R J; Crosby, R A; Salazar, L F; Nash, R; Younge, S



Inaccuracy of certain commercial enzyme immunoassays in diagnosing genital infections with herpes simplex virus types 1 or 2.  


Type-specific serologic results may be inaccurate if not based on glycoprotein G (gG). Commercial tests based on crude antigen (Zeus Scientific, Raritan, NJ; Wampole Laboratories, Cranbury, NJ; DiaSorin, Stillwater, MN) and one using gG-1 and gG-2 (Focus Technologies, Cypress, CA) were compared with Western blot on serum samples from patients with culture-documented first symptomatic episodes of genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 (n = 17) or HSV-2 (n = 49) infection or recurrent genital episodes (HSV-1, 30; HSV-2, 49). Concordance with Western blot results was 56% for Zeus, 63% for Wampole, 52% to 54% for DiaSorin, and 83% for Focus. Sensitivity and specificity, respectively, for HSV-1 were 77% and 53% (Zeus), 91% and 35% (Wampole), 98% and 8% (DiaSorin), 94% and 70% (DiaSorin predominant antibody), and 83% and 90% (Focus); for HSV-2 they were 88% and 81% (Zeus), 92% and 83% (Wampole), 96% and 54% (DiaSorin), 38% and 98% (DiaSorin predominant antibody), and 98% and 96% (Focus). Type-specific serologic testing for HSV should be performed with gG-based tests for accurate diagnosis of symptomatic genital herpes. PMID:14671972

Morrow, Rhoda Ashley; Friedrich, David



T-helper epitopes of the E7 transforming protein of cervical cancer associated human papillomavirus type 18 (HPV18).  


The presence of T-helper epitopes within the E7 transforming protein of human papillomavirus type 18 (HPV18) was sought using a series of overlapping synthetic 15-20 mer peptides spanning the entire 105 amino acid sequence of this protein. Two H-2k restricted T-helper epitopes were defined, comprising 44VNHQHLPARRA55 and 81DDLRAFQQLF90 as the minimal T proliferative epitopes. Peptides containing these epitopes were able to provide cognate help to B epitopes from HPV18E7 protein for production of antibody to this protein in vivo in CBA/CaH mice. No H-2b or H-2d restricted epitopes were demonstrable, and in H-2d mice this was associated with poor antibody response to the E7 protein. There is no "promiscuous" T-helper epitope in HPV18 E7 comparable to the 49DRAHYNI55 sequence in HPV16 E7, and restricted T-helper epitope availability may be a determinant of poor immune responses to this protein after natural infection. PMID:7542826

Fernando, G J; Tindle, R W; Frazer, I H



Detection of human papillomavirus DNA in genital lesions by using a modified commercially available in situ hybridization assay.  

PubMed Central

A modified, commercially available DNA-DNA in situ hybridization test that uses biotinylated probes for the identification of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA types 6/11, 16/18, and 31/33/35 was evaluated. HPV DNA was detected in 314 of 787 (40%) histologically abnormal genital biopsy specimens by using the ViraType in situ assay (Life Technologies, Gaithersburg, Md.), in which the hybridization time was increased from 2 to 16 h. Ninety percent of positive condyloma acuminata specimens contained HPV type 6/11 DNA. The prevalences of HPV DNA for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia I, II, and III lesions by this in situ hybridization test were 42, 54, and 55%, respectively. The combined prevalence of HPV type 16/18 and 31/33/35 DNAs increased with the severity of the lesion, while the prevalence of type 6/11 DNA decreased. HPV type 6/11 DNA was found only in 1 of 16 (6%) positive cervical intraepithelial neoplasia III specimens. HPV type 16/18 and 31/33/35 DNA was detected in 11 of 16 (69%) and 4 of 16 (25%) in situ hybridization-positive cervical intraepithelial neoplasia III specimens, respectively. Thus, the observation that certain "higher-risk" HPV genotypes are associated with upper-grade cervical precancer lesions was confirmed by this commercial hybridization system. In general, the assay was found to be well suited for use in the clinical laboratory. The ViraType in situ procedure modified for a longer hybridization time may be helpful in identifying lesions containing higher-risk HPV strains. PMID:1653262

Meyer, M P; Markiw, C A; Matuscak, R R; Saker, A; McIntyre-Seltman, K; Amortegui, A J



Breast cancer and human papillomavirus infection: No evidence of HPV etiology of breast cancer in Indian women  

PubMed Central

Background Two clinically relevant high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) types 16 and 18 are etiologically associated with the development of cervical carcinoma and are also reported to be present in many other carcinomas in extra-genital organ sites. Presence of HPV has been reported in breast carcinoma which is the second most common cancer in India and is showing a fast rising trend in urban population. The two early genes E6 and E7 of HPV type 16 have been shown to immortalize breast epithelial cells in vitro, but the role of HPV infection in breast carcinogenesis is highly controversial. Present study has therefore been undertaken to analyze the prevalence of HPV infection in both breast cancer tissues and blood samples from a large number of Indian women with breast cancer from different geographic regions. Methods The presence of all mucosal HPVs and the most common high-risk HPV types 16 and 18 DNA was detected by two different PCR methods - (i) conventional PCR assays using consensus primers (MY09/11, or GP5+/GP6+) or HPV16 E6/E7 primers and (ii) highly sensitive Real-Time PCR. A total of 228 biopsies and corresponding 142 blood samples collected prospectively from 252 patients from four different regions of India with significant socio-cultural, ethnic and demographic variations were tested. Results All biopsies and blood samples of breast cancer patients tested by PCR methods did not show positivity for HPV DNA sequences in conventional PCRs either by MY09/11 or by GP5+/GP6+/HPV16 E6/E7 primers. Further testing of these samples by real time PCR also failed to detect HPV DNA sequences. Conclusions Lack of detection of HPV DNA either in the tumor or in the blood DNA of breast cancer patients by both conventional and real time PCR does not support a role of genital HPV in the pathogenesis of breast cancer in Indian women. PMID:21247504



Identification of a novel human papillomavirus (HPV97) related to HPV18 and HPV45.  


Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 97 was identified and the genome was cloned from cervicovaginal cells of a Costa Rican woman with a normal Pap smear. The HPV97 L1 open reading frame (ORF) was most closely related to HPV45 (84% identity) and HPV18 (79% identity), placing it into the high-risk alpha7 species. Ectopic expression of the HPV97 E6 and E7 proteins significantly decreased steady state p53 and pRb levels using an in vitro cotransfection assay, respectively. These data suggest that HPV97 shares a most recent common ancestor with HPV18 and HPV45 and should be evaluated in cancer specimens from different geographic populations. PMID:17351898

Chen, Zigui; Fu, Leiping; Herrero, Rolando; Schiffman, Mark; Burk, Robert D



Accelerating HPV Vaccine Uptake: Urgency for Action to Prevent Cancer: Home

Human papillomaviruses (HPV) cause most cases of cervical cancer and large proportions of vaginal, vulvar, anal, penile, and oropharyngeal cancers. HPV also causes genital warts and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. HPV vaccines could dramatically reduce the incidence of HPV-associated cancers and other conditions among both females and males, but uptake of the vaccines has fallen short of target levels. The President's Cancer Panel finds underuse of HPV vaccines a serious but correctable threat to progress against cancer.


Papillomaviral Infections of the Female Genital Tract  

PubMed Central

The human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common organism to infect the human genital tract, affecting as much as half, or more, of the sexually active population. This virus has become widely recognized through the well publicized relationship with genital tract neoplasia and through new diagnostic technologies, such as monoclonal antibody analysis, DNA hybridization, and the polymerase chain reaction. This paper describes the full spectrum of HPV infections, starting with pathogenesis and continuing to clinical manifestations, and discusses significance, diagnosis, and management. PMID:21221347

Munro, Malcolm G.



Men's Perceptions and Knowledge of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection and Cervical Cancer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors assessed young men's knowledge and perceptions of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection to identify factors that predict intention to make positive behavioral changes. Male university students aged 18 to 25 years completed a self-report instrument to assess knowledge and perceptions of genital HPV infection. If diagnosed with…

McPartland, Tara S.; Weaver, Bethany A.; Lee, Shu-Kuang; Koutsky, Laura A.



HPV antibody levels and clinical efficacy following administration of a prophylactic quadrivalent HPV vaccine.  


The efficacy of the quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is thought to be mediated by humoral immunity. We evaluated the correlation between quadrivalent HPV vaccine-induced serum anti-HPV responses and efficacy. 17,622 women were vaccinated at day 1, and months 2 and 6. At day 1 and at 6-12 months intervals for up to 48 months, subjects underwent Papanicolaou and genital HPV testing. No immune correlate of protection could be found due to low number of cases. Although 40% of vaccine subjects were anti-HPV 18 seronegative at end-of-study, efficacy against HPV 18-related disease remained high (98.4%; 95% CI: 90.5-100.0) despite high attack rates in the placebo group. These results suggest vaccine-induced protection via immune memory, or lower than detectable HPV 18 antibody titers. PMID:18930097

Joura, Elmar A; Kjaer, Susanne K; Wheeler, Cosette M; Sigurdsson, Kristján; Iversen, Ole-Erik; Hernandez-Avila, Mauricio; Perez, Gonzalo; Brown, Darron R; Koutsky, Laura A; Tay, Eng Hseon; García, Patricia; Ault, Kevin A; Garland, Suzanne M; Leodolter, Sepp; Olsson, Sven-Eric; Tang, Grace W K; Ferris, Daron G; Paavonen, Jorma; Lehtinen, Matti; Steben, Marc; Bosch, Xavier; Dillner, Joakim; Kurman, Robert J; Majewski, Slawomir; Muñoz, Nubia; Myers, Evan R; Villa, Luisa L; Taddeo, Frank J; Roberts, Christine; Tadesse, Amha; Bryan, Janine; Lupinacci, Lisa C; Giacoletti, Katherine E D; Lu, Shuang; Vuocolo, Scott; Hesley, Teresa M; Haupt, Richard M; Barr, Eliav



Isolation of a novel human papillomavirus (type 51) from a cervical condyloma  

SciTech Connect

The authors cloned the DNA from a novel human papillomavirus (HPV) present in a cervical condyloma. When DNA from this isolate was hybridized at high stringency with HPV types 1 through 50 (HPV-1 through HPV-50), it showed weak homology with HPV-6 and -16 and stronger homology with HPV-26. A detailed restriction endonuclease map was prepared which showed marked differences from the maps for other HPVs that have been isolated from the female genital tract. Reassociation kinetic analysis revealed that HPV-26 and this new isolate were less than 10% homologous; hence, the new isolate is a noel strain of HPV. The approximate positions of the open reading frames of the new strain were surmised by hybridization with probes derived from individual open reading frames of HPV-16. In an analysis of 175 genital biopsies from patients with abnormal Papanicolaou smears, sequences hybridizing under highly stringent conditions to probes from this novel HPV type were found in 4.2, 6.1, and 2.4% of biopsies containing normal squamous epithelium, condylomata, and intraepithelial neoplasia, respectively. In addition, sequences homologous to probes from this novel isolate were detected in one of five cervical carcinomas examined.

Nuovo, G.J.; Crum, C.P.; Levine, R.U.; Silverstein, S.J. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (USA)); De Villiers, E.M. (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (West Germany))



Numerical simulation of a two-sex human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a major cause of cervical cancer, precancerous lesions, cancer and other disease. HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection. Although HPV virus primarily affects woman but it can also affects man because it cause of cancer of the anus, vulva, vagina, penis and some other cancers. HPV vaccines now used to prevent cervical cancer and genital warts because the vaccine protect against four types of HPV that most commonly cause disease are types 6, 11, 16, and 18. This paper is sequel work of Elbasha (2008). Difference with Elbasha (2008) are give alternative proof global stability, numerical simulation and interpretation. Global stability of the equilibrium on the model of a two-sex HPV vaccination were explored by using Lyapunov. Although we use the same lyapunov function, we use the largest invariant set to proof the global stability. The result show that the global stability of the equilibrium depends on the effective reproduction number (R). If R < 1 then the infection-free equilibrium is asymptotically stable globally. If R > 1 then endemic equilibrium have globally asymptotically stable properties. Then equilibrium proceed with the interpretation of numerical simulation.

Suryani, I.; Adi-Kusumo, F.



Pap and HPV Testing  


... infection with oncogenic, or high-risk, types of human papillomavirus, or HPV. There are about 12 high-risk ... cancer risk for women undergoing concurrent testing for human papillomavirus and cervical cytology: A population-based study in ...


The quality of life of patients with genital warts: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Genital warts, which are caused by infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), are one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in Europe. Although genital warts are commonly perceived as a non-serious condition, treatment is often long, of varying effectiveness and the recurrence rate is high. Very few studies have been performed on the personal consequences of genital warts. The

Gitte Lee Mortensen; Helle K Larsen



Genital injury  


Genital injury in young girls may be caused by placing items into the vagina. Young girls (usually less than 4 years of age) may ... assault. The health care provider should ask the girl how the ... In young boys, common causes of genital injury include: Having ...


Randomization Modeling to Ascertain Clustering Patterns of Human Papillomavirus Types Detected in Cervicovaginal Samples in the United States  

PubMed Central

Detection of multiple human papillomavirus (HPV) types in the genital tract is common. Associations among HPV types may impact HPV vaccination modeling and type replacement. The objectives were to determine the distribution of concurrent HPV type infections in cervicovaginal samples and examine type-specific associations. We analyzed HPV genotyping results from 32,245 cervicovaginal specimens collected from women aged 11 to 83 years in the United States from 2001 through 2011. Statistical power was enhanced by combining 6 separate studies. Expected concurrent infection frequencies from a series of permutation models, each with increasing fidelity to the real data, were compared with the observed data. Statistics were computed based on the distributional properties of the randomized data. Concurrent detection occurred more than expected with 0 or ?3 HPV types and less than expected with 1 and 2 types. Some women bear a disproportionate burden of the HPV type prevalence. Type associations were observed that exceeded multiple hypothesis corrected significance. Multiple HPV types were detected more frequently than expected by chance and associations among particular HPV types were detected. However vaccine-targeted types were not specifically affected, supporting the expectation that current bivalent/quadrivalent HPV vaccination will not result in type replacement with other high-risk types. PMID:24367553

Querec, Troy David; Gurbaxani, Brian Mohan; Unger, Elizabeth Robinson



Interaction of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 capsid proteins with HPV DNA requires an intact L2 N-terminal sequence.  

PubMed Central

Encapsidation of papillomavirus DNA involves DNA-protein and protein-protein interactions. We sought to define the role of each human papillomavirus (HPV) capsid protein in HPV DNA encapsidation. HPV16 major (L1) and minor (L2) capsid proteins purified from recombinant vaccinia virus-infected cells were compared for their ability to bind nucleic acids. L2 protein, but not L1 protein, could bind HPV DNA. To map the DNA-binding region of L2, a series of truncated or point-mutated L2 protein open reading frames were used to show that only the N terminal of L2 was required for L2-DNA binding. This interaction depends critically on charged amino acids (Lys or Arg) in the first 12 amino acids of the N terminal of the protein. Several techniques were used to show that L2 interaction with DNA did not require specific DNA sequences. We propose that HPV L2 protein may play a major role in papillomavirus capsid assembly by introducing HPV DNA to the virus particles formed by the self assembly of the L1 major structural protein. Images PMID:8289365

Zhou, J; Sun, X Y; Louis, K; Frazer, I H



Should male circumcision be advocated for genital cancer prevention?  


The recent policy statement by the Cancer Council of Australia on infant circumcision and cancer prevention and the announcement that the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine will be made available for boys in Australia prompted us to provide an assessment of genital cancer prevention. While HPV vaccination of boys should help reduce anal cancer in homosexual men and cervical cancer in women, it will have little or no impact on penile or prostate cancer. Male circumcision can reduce cervical, penile and possibly prostate cancer. Promotion of both HPV vaccination and male circumcision will synergistically maximize genital cancer prevention. PMID:23167429

Morris, Brian J; Mindel, Adrian; Tobian, Aaron Ar; Hankins, Catherine A; Gray, Ronald H; Bailey, Robert C; Bosch, Xavier; Wodak, Alex D



Should Male Circumcision be Advocated for Genital Cancer Prevention?  

PubMed Central

The recent policy statement by the Cancer Council of Australia on infant circumcision and cancer prevention and the announcement that the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine will be made available for boys in Australia prompted us to provide an assessment of genital cancer prevention. While HPV vaccination of boys should help reduce anal cancer in homosexual men and cervical cancer in women, it will have little or no impact on penile or prostate cancer. Male circumcision can reduce cervical, penile and possibly prostate cancer. Promotion of both HPV vaccination and male circumcision will synergistically maximize genital cancer prevention. PMID:23167429

Morris, Brian J; Mindel, Adrian; Tobian, Aaron AR; Hankins, Catherine A; Gray, Ronald H; Bailey, Robert C; Bosch, Xavier; Wodak, Alex D



Detection of human papillomavirus type 6/11 DNA in conjunctival papillomas by in situ hybridization with radioactive probes  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-three conjunctival papillomas and 28 conjunctival dysplasias were examined for human papillomavirus (HPV)-DNA sequences by in situ hybridization with nick-translated /sup 35/S-labeled HPV probes. Adjacent paraffin sections were hybridized with HPV type 2, 6, 16, and 18 probes at Tm - 17 degrees C. Fifteen tissues, all papillomas, displayed positive hybridization with the HPV-6 probe. Infection with HPV-6 (or the closely related HPV-11) appeared to be responsible for most of the conjunctival papillomas of children and young adults. The presence of genital tract HPV-6 in these lesions suggests that some of the infections were acquired during passage through an infected birth canal. The lack of hybridization in adult conjunctival dysplasias indicates either that HPVs are not associated with this condition or that the probes and the technique utilized were not adequate for demonstration of this association.

McDonnell, P.J.; McDonnell, J.M.; Kessis, T.; Green, W.R.; Shah, K.V.



Herpes simplex virus type 2 detection by culture and polymerase chain reaction and relationship to genital symptoms and cervical antibody status during the third trimester of pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to define the frequency of asymptomatic herpes simplex virus type 2 shedding by culture and polymerase chain reaction and to correlate our findings with cervical anti–herpes simplex virus type 2 immunoglobulin A production.STUDY DESIGN: Women who were seropositive for herpes simplex virus type 2 collected daily genital tract samples during the third trimester for culture and

Kim A. Boggess; D. Heather Watts; Ann C. Hobson; Rhoda L. Ashley; Zane A. Brown; Lawrence Corey



Genital herpes complicating pregnancy.  


Approximately 22% of pregnant women are infected with herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2, and 2% of women will acquire HSV during pregnancy. Remarkably, up to 90% of these women are undiagnosed because they are asymptomatic or have subtle symptoms attributed to other vulvovaginal disorders. Diagnosis of genital herpes relies on laboratory confirmation with culture or polymerase chain reaction assay of genital lesions and type-specific glycoprotein G-based serologic testing. Neonatal herpes is the most severe complication of genital HSV infection and is caused by contact with infected genital secretions at the time of labor. Maternal acquisition of HSV in the third trimester of pregnancy carries the highest risk of neonatal transmission. Despite advances in the diagnosis and treatment of neonatal herpes, little change in the incidence or serious sequelae from this infection has occurred. As such, prevention of the initial neonatal infection is critically important. Obstetricians are in a unique position to prevent vertical HSV transmission by identifying women with genital lesions at the time of labor for cesarean delivery, prescribing antiviral suppressive therapy as appropriate, and avoiding unnecessary invasive intrapartum procedures in women with genital herpes. Enhanced prevention strategies include identification of women at risk for HSV acquisition during pregnancy by testing women and possibly their partners for HSV antibodies and providing counseling to prevent transmission to women in late pregnancy. PMID:16199646

Brown, Zane A; Gardella, Carolyn; Wald, Anna; Morrow, Rhoda Ashley; Corey, Lawrence



The epidemiology of genital human papillomavirus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical and subclinical human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are the most common sexually transmitted infections in the world, and most sexually-active individuals are likely to be exposed to HPV infection during their lifetimes. More than 40 genotypes of HPV infect the epithelial lining of the anogenital tract and other mucosal areas of the body; of these, 13–18 types are considered to

Helen Trottier; Eduardo L. Franco



Racial differences in the incidence and clearance of human papillomavirus (HPV): The HPV in Men (HIM) Study  

PubMed Central

Background This analysis assessed the acquisition (incidence) and persistence (clearance) of HPV infection by self-reported race among men in The HPV in Men (HIM) Study, a multinational prospective study of the natural history of genital HPV infections. Methods Self-reported race was categorized as White, Black, Asian/Pacific Islander (PI), or multiple and mixed race. Genital samples were combined for HPV DNA testing and categorized by any-, oncogenic-, and non-oncogenic HPV infections. Results Asian/PI race had significantly the lowest incidence of any-, oncogenic-, and non-oncogenic HPV infection (P < 0.001). In multivariable analyses Asian/PI race was associated with a lower probability of acquiring any- (HR=0.63; 95% CI 0.42–0.95) and non-oncogenic HPV infection (HR=0.61; 95% CI 0.40–0.93) when compared to Whites. No significant associations were evident for Asian/PI race for clearance. Multiple and mixed race was significantly associated with lower probability of acquiring non-oncogenic HPV infection (HR=0.83; 95% CI 0.69–0.99) and borderline significant associations were observed for any HPV (HR=0.91) and oncogenic infections (HR=0.92). Multiple and mixed race was associated with a lower probability of clearing any- (HR=0.92; 95% CI 0.84–1.00) and oncogenic HPV infections (HR=0.85; 95% CI 0.75–0.95). Conclusion Asian/PI race had the lowest incidence of HPV and exhibited a lower probability of acquiring new HPV infections. Multiple and mixed race had the second lowest incidence of infection and was associated with a lower probability of acquiring and clearing a HPV infection. Impact Race-specific differences in HPV infection could be due to behavior, innate genetic differences, or circulating intratypic HPV variants. PMID:23872745

Schabath, Matthew B.; Villa, Luisa L.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William J.; Akogbe, Gabriel O.; Abrahamsen, Martha E.; Papenfuss, Mary R.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Salmeron, Jorge; Quiterio, Manuel; Giuliano, Anna R.



An unusual, giant and benign condyloma acuminatum lesion on the genital area for more than a decade  

PubMed Central

Condyloma acuminatum, is a rare sexually transmitted disease. The virus responsible for condyloma is human papillomavirus.HPV-6 and HPV-11 are the most commonly detected HPV genotypes, but at least 20 other HPV genotypes have occasionally been found in genital wart tissue specimens. In fact genital HPV infection is common among sexually active populations. This disease may occur at any age after puberty and always seen in the mucosal area. It is characterized by slow growth. We reported here a case of a 42-year-old female patient with a 12 year history of a condyloma acuminatum lesion in her genitalia area without any medical treatment.

Aminimoghaddam, Soheila; Badakhsh, Mohammad Hossein; Taftachi, Farrokh; Nejadisalami, Forough; Mahmoudzadeh, Fatemeh



Cellular distribution of tumour suppressor protein p53 and high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV)-18 E6 fusion protein in wild-type p53 cell lines.  


Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are very important pathogens that can be classified as high- and low-risk types based on the lesions they cause. Mucosal high-risk HPV E6 can target and degrade the tumour suppressor p53, hence it is recognized as the major cause of cervical cancer, however, due to a lack of reliable anti-E6 antibodies, the distribution of high-risk HPV E6 protein remains elusive. The present study, therefore, used a mammalian green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression system to express GFP-18 E6 fusion proteins in wild-type p53 cells, SMMC-7721 and HCT116, in order to trace the location and expression of HPV E6 and p53 protein. Following transfection, expression of GFP-18 E6 was found to be located in the nucleus, and endogenous wild-type p53 was also located there with GFP-18 E6. PMID:18831896

Sun, L; Zhang, G; Li, Z; Lei, T; Huang, C; Song, T; Si, L



The Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus Genotypes in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers of Nonimmunosuppressed Individuals Identifies High-Risk Genital Types as Possible Risk Factors1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonmelanoma skin cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignant disease in Caucasians. Known risk factors include fair skin, sun exposure, male gender, advancing age, and the presence of solar keratosis. No viral risk factors have been established thus far. To examine the association between nonmelanoma skin cancer and infection with human papilloma virus (HPV) types, we performed a retrospective study

Angelika Iftner; Stefanie J. Klug; Claus Garbe; Andreas Blum; Alice Stancu; Sharon P. Wilczynski; Thomas Iftner



High-Throughput Profiling of the Humoral Immune Responses Against Thirteen Human Papillomavirus Types by Proteome Microarrays  

PubMed Central

We have developed microarrays with all eight proteins encoded by 13 different human papillomavirus types associated with anogenital cancer (HPV-16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45, 53), genital warts (HPV-6, 11), or skin lesions (HPV-1, 2, 4, 5). We analyzed the seroprevalence of antibodies in 546 patients, which had either cervical carcinomas, or precursor lesions, or which were asymptomatic. All patient groups contained sera ranging from high reactivity against multiple HPV proteins to low or no reactivity. Computational analyses showed the E7 proteins of carcinogenic HPV types as significantly more reactive in cancer patients compared to asymptomatic individuals and discriminating between cancer and HSIL or LSIL patients. Antibodies against E4 and E5 had the highest seroprevalence, but did not exhibit differential reactivity relative to pathology. Our study introduces a new approach to future evaluation of the overall antigenicity of HPV proteins and cross-reaction between homologous proteins. PMID:20554302

Luevano, Martha; Bernard, Hans-Ulrich; Barrera-Saldaña, Hugo A.; Trevino, Victor; Garcia-Carranca, Alejandro; Villa, Luisa L.; Monk, Bradley J.; Tan, Xiaolin; Davies, D. Huw; Felgner, Phil L.; Kalantari, Mina



HPV vaccine shown to also protect against oral HPV infection

Women who received a vaccine targeting two types of the human papilloma virus (HPV) that cause 70 percent of cervical cancers had the added benefit of protection against oral HPV infection, which can lead to cancer of the tonsils and throat (oropharyngeal cancer). The results were published July 17, 2013, in PLOS ONE.


The potential role of HPV vaccination in the prevention of infectious complications of pregnancy.  


There is now incontrovertible evidence that HPV is the cause of almost all cases of genital warts, cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer. Moreover the current review of the recent literature on HPV in relation to pregnancy found strong indications that HPV plays an important role in adverse outcomes of pregnancy. HPV may contribute to infertility and may increase the risk of miscarriage. Recent studies indicate a significant rate of vertical transmission of HPV between mother and child but whether the mode of delivery makes a difference to the risk of transmission remains unknown. HPV infection appears to be correlated with both spontaneous preterm birth and preterm prelabor rupture of the membranes. PMID:25084626

Bonde, Ulla; Joergensen, Jan Stener; Mogensen, Ole; Lamont, Ronald F



Premalignant lesions of the lower female genital tract: cervix, vagina and vulva.  


Premalignant lesions of the lower female genital tract encompassing the cervix, vagina and vulva are variably common and many, but by no means all, are related to infection by human papillomavirus (HPV). In this review, pathological aspects of the various premalignant lesions are discussed, mainly concentrating on new developments. The value of ancillary studies, mainly immunohistochemical, is discussed at the appropriate points. In the cervix, the terminology and morphological features of premalignant glandular lesions is covered, as is the distinction between adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and early invasive adenocarcinoma, which may be very problematic. A spectrum of benign, premalignant and malignant cervical glandular lesions exhibiting gastric differentiation is emerging with lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia (LEGH), including so-called atypical LEGH, representing a possible precursor of non HPV-related cervical adenocarcinomas exhibiting gastric differentiation; these include the cytologically bland adenoma malignum and the morphologically malignant gastric type adenocarcinoma. Stratified mucin producing intraepithelial lesion (SMILE) is a premalignant cervical lesion with morphological overlap between cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and AIS and which is variably regarded as a form of reserve cell dysplasia or stratified AIS. It is now firmly established that there are two distinct types of vulval intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) with a different pathogenesis, molecular events, morphological features and risk of progression to squamous carcinoma. These comprise a more common HPV-related usual type VIN (also referred to as classic, undifferentiated, basaloid, warty, Bowenoid type) and a more uncommon differentiated (simplex) type which is non-HPV related and which is sometimes associated with lichen sclerosus. The former has a relatively low risk of progression to HPV-related vulval squamous carcinoma and the latter a high risk of progression to non-HPV related vulval squamous carcinoma. Various aspects of vulval Paget's disease are also discussed. PMID:23442737

McCluggage, W Glenn



Genital injuries in adults.  


The examination of the rape victim should focus on the therapeutic, forensic and psychological needs of the individual patient. One aspect will be an examination for ano-genital injuries. From a medical perspective, they tend to be minor and require little in the way of treatment. They must be considered when assessing the risk of blood-borne viruses and the need for prophylaxis. From a forensic perspective, an understanding of genital injury rates, type of injury, site and healing may assist the clinician to interpret the findings in the context of the allegations that have been made. There are many myths and misunderstandings about ano-genital injuries and rape. The clinician has a duty to dispel these. PMID:23219384

White, Catherine



High HPV Infection Prevalence in Men from Infertile Couples and Lack of Relationship between Seminal HPV Infection and Sperm Quality  

PubMed Central

Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the most frequently sexually transmitted viruses and etiological agents of several human cancers. Controversial results of the role of HPV in infertile population on sperm parameters have been published. The aim of this study was to estimate the type-specific prevalence of HPV DNA infection of the external genitalia and semen in 340 Slovenian men from infertile couples and to establish the relationship between seminal HPV DNA infection and abnormal sperm parameters. Self-taken swabs of the entire penile surface and semen samples were collected, and HPV detection and genotyping were performed. HPV DNA was detected in 37.12% of external genitalia and in 13.61% of semen samples with high HPV type concordance of both sampling sites. The most prevalent HPV types in the male external genitalia were HPV-CP6108 and HPV-84. The most prevalent HPV types in semen were HPV-53 and HPV-CP6108. The prevalence of HPV infection between normozoospermic men and men with abnormal sperm parameters did not differ significantly. Sperm quality did not differ significantly between men with seminal HPV infection and uninfected men. In conclusion, the men from infertile couples are equally susceptible to HPV infection regardless of their fertile potential; seminal HPV infection does not impair sperm quality. PMID:24809062

Golob, Barbara; Verdenik, Ivan; Kolbezen Simoniti, Mojca; Vrtacnik Bokal, Eda; Zorn, Branko



The four steps in the prevention of human papillomavirus-associated neoplasia: considerations for preventive measures, screening, disease impact, and potential overtreatments in HPV-related pathology.  


There is no cure currently available for HPV infections, although ablative and excisional treatments of some dysplasias often result in a clinical and virological cure. Effective control measures of HPV-associated cancers rely on the prevention at four different levels. Apart from sexual abstinence, primary prevention is realized through vaccines targeting the most frequent HPV types: negative attitudes towards HPV vaccination and high costs are the main obstacles. The aim of secondary prevention is to detect precancerous changes before they develop into invasive cancer, while tertiary prevention involves actual treatment of high-grade lesions: in many countries routine screening with cytology is being challenged with HPV DNA testing. Quaternary prevention comprehends those actions adopted to mitigate or avoid unnecessary or excessive medical interventions, and may well be addressed in avoiding treatments for low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia. Though some gynecologists commonly recommend treatment for low-grade disease and women tend to prefer active management if not properly informed, harms arising from unnecessary treatments, increased costs, work overload for second-level health services, and induced psychosocial distress are causing on-going problems. Prevention efforts of genital HPV-associated cancers should concentrate in: (1) enhancing primary prevention through vaccination of all eligible subjects, (2) achieving high levels of adherence to routine screening programs, (3) treating precancerous lesions, and (4) monitoring current guidelines recommendations to avoid overtreatments. Novel research projects should be designed to study the delicate mechanisms of immune response to HPV. PMID:23974280

Liverani, Carlo A



Genital Herpes  

PubMed Central

The author reviews the prevalence of genital herpes, outlines the typical clinical courses of the disease in its primary and recurrent forms. He discusses the physical, psychological and social effects of this sexually transmitted disease and provides three protocols for the use of oral acyclovir in its treatment. PMID:21263803

Scappatura, F. Philip



Genital Herpes  


... a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by a herpes simplex virus (HSV). It can cause sores on your genital or rectal area, buttocks, and thighs. You can get it from having sex, even oral sex. ... of herpes are called outbreaks. You usually get sores near ...


Human Papillomavirus (HPV)  


... Preventable Diseases > Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Health Issues Listen Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Article Body According to the Centers ... Control and Prevention, there is an epidemic of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the United States. HPV is ...


E7 Oncoprotein of Novel Human Papillomavirus Type 108 Lacking the E6 Gene Induces Dysplasia in Organotypic Keratinocyte Cultures ?  

PubMed Central

The genome organization of the novel human papillomavirus type 108 (HPV108), isolated from a low-grade cervical lesion, deviates from those of other HPVs in lacking an E6 gene. The three related HPV types HPV103, HPV108, and HPV101 were isolated from cervicovaginal cells taken from normal genital mucosa (HPV103) and low-grade (HPV108) and high-grade cervical (HPV101) intraepithelial neoplasia (Z. Chen, M. Schiffman, R. Herrero, R. DeSalle, and R. D. Burk, Virology 360:447-453, 2007, and this report). Their unusual genome organization, against the background of considerable phylogenetic distance from the other HPV types usually associated with lesions of the genital tract, prompted us to investigate whether HPV108 E7 per se is sufficient to induce the above-mentioned clinical lesions. Expression of HPV108 E7 in organotypic keratinocyte cultures increases proliferation and apoptosis, focal nuclear polymorphism, and polychromasia. This is associated with irregular intra- and extracellular lipid accumulation and loss of the epithelial barrier. These alterations are linked to HPV108 E7 binding to pRb and inducing its decrease, an increase in PCNA expression, and BrdU incorporation, as well as increased p53 and p21CIP1 protein levels. A delay in keratin K10 expression, increased expression of keratins K14 and K16, and loss of the corneal proteins involucrin and loricrin have also been noted. These modifications are suggestive of infection by a high-risk papillomavirus. PMID:19153227

Nobre, Rui Jorge; Herráez-Hernández, Elsa; Fei, Jian-Wei; Langbein, Lutz; Kaden, Sylvia; Gröne, Hermann-Josef; de Villiers, Ethel-Michele



Human papillomavirus type 26 infection causing multiple invasive squamous cell carcinomas of the fingernails in an AIDS patient under highly active antiretroviral therapy.  


Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the nail unit is a rare disorder. An association with high-risk genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been reported. We report a 28-year-old human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected bisexual man who had multiple invasive SCC of the fingers, infected with the rare type HPV 26. Classification of HPV 26 as high- or intermediate-risk type has been uncertain, due to its rare presence in cervical cancer. Despite successful treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the patient developed extensive hyperkeratotic nailbed proliferations of all fingers. Tumours were refractory to treatment and invaded into adjacent tissues. X-rays of the hands demonstrated bone invasion, necessitating amputation of distal phalanges of several fingers. Histologically, highly differentiated preinvasive and invasive verrucous SCCs were identified. Molecular DNA typing identified HPV 26 in the SCCs and in some premalignant lesions. By in situ hybridization HPV 26 DNA was detected in numerous tumour cells, indicating productive infection with high-level amplification of the viral genome. In the remaining proliferations, high-risk HPV type 58, cutaneous HPVs and a putative new HPV type were identified. HPV 26 infection appears to be causally involved in the development of SCC of the nail unit in this immunosuppressed patient. Timely evaluation of chronic verrucous nailbed tumours is recommended, especially in immunocompromised patients. Identification of HPV 26, besides known high-risk HPV types, may identify patients at risk for developing SCC of the nailbed and possibly at other locations. PMID:17634082

Handisurya, A; Rieger, A; Bankier, A; Koller, A; Salat, A; Stingl, G; Kirnbauer, R



HPV16, HPV18, and HIV infection may influence cervical cytokine intralesional levels.  


Infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) is considered to be the major risk to cervical cancer. This study analyzed the influence of HPV infection on cytokine intralesional levels in cervical lesion in the presence or not of HIV infection. Cervical biopsies from 42 women were studied. HPV detection and typing were performed using amplified DNA hybridized with sequence-specific primers, and cytokine intralesional levels were detected using ELISA. HPV16+ biopsies exhibited increased IFN-gamma and IL-10 when compared to HPV16- (P = 0.03 and 0.04, respectively). HPV18+ biopsies exhibited decreased TNF-alpha (P = 0.009) and IFN- gamma (P = 0.01) when compared to HPV18-. In accordance to HIV status, HIV-/HPV16+ patients exhibited increased IFN-gamma when compared to those presenting HIV-/HPV16- (P = 0.007). HIV-/HPV18+ patients presented decreased IFN-gamma when compared to HIV-/HPV18- (P = 0.02). These results suggest that the presence of HPV16 infection may influence cervical lesion installation, and irrespective of HIV status, HPV18 infection may be more aggressive than HPV-16. PMID:15780879

Fernandes, Ana Paula M; Gonçalves, Maria Alice G; Duarte, Geraldo; Cunha, Fernando Q; Simões, Renata T; Donadi, Eduardo A



The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) 16 E2 Protein Induces Apoptosis in the Absence of Other HPV Proteins and via a  

E-print Network

The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) 16 E2 Protein Induces Apoptosis in the Absence of Other HPV Proteins, Manchester M20 9BX, United Kingdom The human papillomavirus (HPV) E2 protein regu- lates viral gene. However, some papillomavirus types are associated with cancer. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV)1

Gaston, Kevin


Evolution and Taxonomic Classification of Alphapapillomavirus 7 Complete Genomes: HPV18, HPV39, HPV45, HPV59, HPV68 and HPV70  

PubMed Central

Background The species Alphapapillomavirus 7 (alpha-7) contains human papillomavirus genotypes that account for 15% of invasive cervical cancers and are disproportionately associated with adenocarcinoma of the cervix. Complete genome analyses enable identification and nomenclature of variant lineages and sublineages. Methods The URR/E6 region was sequenced to screen for novel variants of HPV18, 39, 45, 59, 68, 70, 85 and 97 from 1147 cervical samples obtained from multiple geographic regions that had previously been shown to contain an alpha-7 HPV isolate. To study viral heterogeneity, the complete 8 kb genome of 128 isolates, including 109 sequenced for this analysis, were annotated and analyzed. Viral evolution was characterized by constructing phylogenic trees using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian algorithms. Global and pairwise alignments were used to calculate total and ORF/region nucleotide differences; lineages and sublineages were assigned using an alphanumeric system. The prototype genome was assigned to the A lineage or A1 sublineage. Results The genomic diversity of alpha-7 HPV types ranged from 1.1% to 6.7% nucleotide sequence differences; the extent of genome-genome pairwise intratype heterogeneity was 1.1% for HPV39, 1.3% for HPV59, 1.5% for HPV45, 1.6% for HPV70, 2.1% for HPV18, and 6.7% for HPV68. ME180 (previously a subtype of HPV68) was designated as the representative genome for HPV68 sublineage C1. Each ORF/region differed in sequence diversity, from most variable to least variable: noncoding region 1 (NCR1) / noncoding region 2 (NCR2) > upstream regulatory region (URR) > E6 / E7 > E2 / L2 > E1 / L1. Conclusions These data provide estimates of the maximum viral genomic heterogeneity of alpha-7 HPV type variants. The proposed taxonomic system facilitates the comparison of variants across epidemiological and molecular studies. Sequence diversity, geographic distribution and phylogenetic topology of this clinically important group of HPVs suggest an independent evolutionary history for each type. PMID:23977318

Chen, Zigui; Schiffman, Mark; Herrero, Rolando; DeSalle, Rob; Anastos, Kathryn; Segondy, Michel; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V.; Gravitt, Patti E.; Hsing, Ann W.; Burk, Robert D.



Exploring the Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs, and Communication Preferences of the General Public regarding HPV: Findings from CDC Focus Group Research and Implications for Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted virus in the United States, causing genital warts, cervical cell abnormalities, and cervical cancer in women. To inform HPV education efforts, 35 focus groups were conducted with members of the general public, stratified by gender, race/ethnicity, and urban/rural…

Friedman, Allison L.; Shepeard, Hilda



Chapter 17: Genital Human Papillomavirus Infections—Current and Prospective Therapies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many therapies are available for the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated disease, particularly exter- nal genital warts. However, at present, these therapies aim to remove the lesion rather than specifically target HPV infec- tion. When disease and infection are local, as in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), excisional therapies remov- ing lesion and transformation-susceptible cells are highly ef- fective. However, when

Margaret Stanley


Pregnancy Complications: Genital Herpes  


... Home > Pregnancy > Pregnancy Complications > Genital herpes and pregnancy Pregnancy complications Pregnancy complications may need special medical care. ... been added to your dashboard . Genital herpes and pregnancy Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (also ...


Update on the treatment of genital warts.  


This review summarizes new treatments from the last seven years employed for the treatment of genital warts caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). Imquimod 3.75% is a new agent with fewer side effects and perhaps a better dosing schedule than imquimod 5%, but is not more effective. Sinecatechins/Polyphenon E 15%, a novel extract from green tea can be effective against genital warts but requires three times a day dosing and is not more effective than existing treatments; the treatment course is 12-16 weeks. Photodynamic therapy combined with other destructive modalities might increase the cure rate for genital warts. The quadrivalent vaccine against HPV 6, 11, 16, 18 is decreasing the incidence of warts in the western world but the evidence does not support vaccination as a treatment for those already infected by HPV. Hyperthermia and immunomodulators might be positive additions to the armamentarium of clinicians. In sum, there are new tools that physicians can use but none is really a great advance over what was available a decade ago. PMID:24011309

Scheinfeld, Noah



Simultaneous PCR Detection ofHaemophilus ducreyi,Treponema pallidum, and Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 from Genital Ulcers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiplex PCR (M-PCR) assay with colorimetric detection was devised for the simultaneous amplification of DNA targets fromHaemophilus ducreyi,Treponema pallidum, and herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2. By using target-specific oligonucleotides in a microwell format, 298 genital ulcer swab specimens collected in New Orleans during three intervals from 1992 through 1994 were evaluated. The results of the M-PCR




Testing for HPV  


... HPV test, what does it mean? Testing for HPV What’s the difference between a Pap test and an HPV test? A Pap test is used to find ... HPV is found. Should I be tested for HPV? If you are a woman under age 30 ...


Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2, Genital Ulcers and HIV1 Disease Progression in Postpartum Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundCo-infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) has been associated with increased HIV-1 RNA levels and immune activation, two predictors of HIV-1 progression. The impact of HSV-2 on clinical outcomes among HIV-1 infected pregnant women is unclear.MethodsHIV-1 infected pregnant women in Nairobi were enrolled antenatally and HSV-2 serology was obtained. HIV-1 RNA and CD4 count were serially measured for

Alison C. Roxby; Alison L. Drake; Grace John-Stewart; Elizabeth R. Brown; Daniel Matemo; Phelgona A. Otieno; Carey Farquhar; Virginia J. Vitzthum



HPV and Cancer  


... vaccine. HPV and Cancer HPV is short for Human Papillomavirus, a common virus. In the United States each ... Administration (FDA). These studies continue to show that HPV vaccines are safe. The most common side effects ...


Cervical HPV Infection in Female Sex Workers: A Global Perspective  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Approximately 291 million women worldwide are HPV DNA carriers. Studies have indicated that having multiple sexual partners may lead to higher HPV transmission. Thus female sex workers (FSWs) may be at greater risk of infection compared to the general population. Herein we review publications with data on FSW cervical HPV test results. We also examine variations of HPV prevalence and risk behaviors by region. Knowledge of prevalent HPV types in FSWs may lead to improved prevention measures and assist in understanding vaccination in high-risk groups. Methods: We conducted a review of the literature by searching PUBMED using the terms “prostitution” or “female sex workers”, “human papillomavirus” or “HPV”, and “prevalence” or “PCR” to find articles. We excluded studies without HPV testing or HPV type specific results, or unconventional HPV testing. Results: A total of 35 peer-reviewed publications were included in our review. High risk HPV types 16 and 18 ranged from 1.1-38.9‰ in prevalence. In addition to high-risk HPV types, newer studies reported non-carcinogenic HPV types also of high prevalence. The most prevalent HPV types reported among FSWs included HPV 6 (11.5%), 16 (38.9%), 18 (23.1%), 31 (28.4%), 52 (32.7%), and 58 (26.0%). Conclusions: Female sex workers have an overall high prevalence of HPV infection of high-risk types as evident through various testing methods. FSWs are thought to be at increased risk of cervical cancer because of high HPV exposure. This highlights the need for HPV and cervical prevention campaigns tailored to FSWs. PMID:24511334

Soohoo, Melissa; Blas, Magaly; Byraiah, Gita; Carcamo, Cesar; Brown, Brandon



Phylogenetic analysis of 48 papillomavirus types and 28 subtypes and variants: a showcase for the molecular evolution of DNA viruses.  

PubMed Central

Papillomaviruses are attractive models for studying the molecular evolution of DNA viruses because of the large number of isolates that exhibit genomic diversity and host species and tissue specificity. To examine their relationship, we selected two amino acid sequences, one of 52 residues within the early gene E1 and the other of 44 residues within the late gene L1, which allowed insertion- and deletion-free alignment of all accessible papillomavirus sequences. We constructed phylogenetic trees from the amino acid and corresponding nucleotide sequences from 28 published and 20 newly determined animal and human papillomavirus (HPV) genomic sequences by using distance matrix, maximum-likelihood, and parsimony methods. The trees agreed in all important topological aspects. One major branch with two clearly separated clusters contained 11 HPV types associated with epidermodysplasia verruciformis. A second major branch had all the papillomaviruses involved in genital neoplasia and, in distant relationship, the cutaneous papillomaviruses HPV type 2a (HPV-2a), HPV-3, and HPV-10 as well as the "butcher's" papillomavirus HPV-7 and two simian papillomaviruses. Four artiodactyl (even-toed hoofed mammal) papillomaviruses, the cottontail rabbit papillomavirus, and avian (chaffinch) papillomavirus type 1 formed a third major branch. Last, four papillomaviruses exhibited little affinity to any of these three branches; these were the cutaneous types HPV-1a, HPV-4, and HPV-41 and B-group bovine papillomavirus type 4. The phylogeny suggests that some branches of papillomavirus evolution are restricted to particular target tissues and that a general process of long-term papillomavirus-host coevolution has occurred. This latter hypothesis is still conjectural because of bias in the current data base for human types and the paucity of animal papillomavirus sequences. The comparison of evolutionary distances for the most closely related types with those of 28 subtypes and variants of HPV-2, HPV-5, HPV-6, HPV-16, and HPV-18 supports the type as a natural taxonomic unit, with subtypes and variants being expressions of minor intratype genomic diversity similar to that found in the natural populations of all biological species. An exception to this seems to be HPV-2c, which has an evolutionary distance from HPV-2a of the intertype magnitude and may eventually have to be regarded as a distinct type. We describe an experimental approach that estimates the taxonomic and phylogenetic positions of newly identified papillomaviruses without viral isolation and complete genomic sequencing.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1326639

Chan, S Y; Bernard, H U; Ong, C K; Chan, S P; Hofmann, B; Delius, H



Second-generation prophylactic HPV vaccines: successes and challenges.  


The role of HPV as the causative factor in cervical cancer has led to the development of the HPV vaccines Gardasil and Cervarix. These vaccines effectively protect against two HPV types associated with 70% of cervical cancer cases. Despite this success, researchers continue to develop second-generation HPV vaccines to protect against more HPV types and allow increased uptake in developing countries. While a reformulated vaccine based on the current technology is currently in clinical trials, another strategy consists of targeting highly conserved epitopes in the minor capsid protein of HPV, L2. Vaccines targeting L2 induce broadly neutralizing antibodies, capable of blocking infection by a wide range of HPV types. Several vaccine designs have been developed to optimize the display of L2 epitopes to the immune system and to reduce the cost of manufacture and distribution. L2-based vaccines show considerable promise as a potential next-generation HPV vaccine. PMID:24350614

Tyler, Mitchell; Tumban, Ebenezer; Chackerian, Bryce



Regression of Established Human Papillomavirus Type 16 (HPV-16) Immortalized Tumors In Vivo by Vaccinia Viruses Expressing Different Forms of HPV-16 E7 Correlates with Enhanced CD8+ T-Cell Responses That Home to the Tumor Site  

PubMed Central

Using vaccinia virus as a live vector, we show that the expression of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E7 fused to a nonhemolytic portion of the Listeria monocytogenes virulence factor, listeriolysin O (LLO), induces an immune response that causes the regression of established HPV-16 immortalized tumors in C57BL/6 mice. The vaccinia virus construct expressing LLO fused to E7 (VacLLOE7) was compared with two previously described vaccinia virus constructs: one that expresses unmodified E7 (VacE7) and another that expresses E7 in a form designed to direct it to intracellular lysosomal compartments and improve major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted responses (VacSigE7LAMP-1). C57BL/6 mice bearing established HPV-16 immortalized tumors of 5 or 8 mm were treated with each of these vaccines. Fifty percent of the mice treated with VacLLOE7 remained tumor free 2 months after tumor inoculation, whereas 12 to 25% of the mice were tumor free after treatment with VacSigE7LAMP-1 (depending on the size of the tumor). No mice were tumor free in the group given VacE7. Compared to VacE7, VacSigE7LAMP-1 and VacLLOE7 resulted in increased numbers of H2-Db-specific tetramer-positive CD8+ T cells in mouse spleens that produced gamma interferon and tumor necrosis factor alpha upon stimulation with RAHYNIVTF peptide. In addition, the highest frequency of tetramer-positive T cells was seen in the tumor sites of mice treated with VacLLOE7. An increased efficiency of E7-specific lysis by splenocytes from mice immunized with VacLLOE7 was also observed. These results indicate that the fusion of E7 with LLO not only enhances antitumor therapy by improving the tumoricidal function of E7-specific CD8+ T cells but may also increase the number of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in the tumor, the principle site of antigen expression. PMID:11559797

Lamikanra, Abigail; Pan, Zhen-Kun; Isaacs, Stuart N.; Wu, Tzyy-Choou; Paterson, Yvonne



Awareness of Diagnosis and Knowledge of HPV in Women Patients: Data from a Multi-Site Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Persistent infection with high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with cervical and other anogenital cancers. Purpose: This paper reports results of awareness of an HPV diagnosis and HPV knowledge from a multi-site study of HPV knowledge, attitudes and behavior, and the impact of an HPV diagnosis on women and their…

McCree, Donna Hubbard; Daley, Ellen M.; Gorbach, Pamina; Hamm, Robert M.; Sharpe, Patricia A.; Brandt, Heather M.; McFarlane, Mary; Kerndt, Peter; McDermott, Robert J.; Perrin, Karen M.; St. Lawrence, Janet S.



Chapter 2: The burden of HPV-related cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of current evidence regarding human papillomavirus (HPV) and cancer, this chapter provides estimates of the global burden of HPV-related cancers, and the proportion that are actually “caused” by infection with HPV types, and therefore potentially preventable. We also present trends in incidence and mortality of these cancers in the past, and consider their likely future evolution.

D. Maxwell Parkin; Freddie Bray



HPV testing in primary screening of older women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain types of the human papilloma virus (HPV) are well established as the primary cause of cervical cancer. Several studies have shown that HPV testing can improve the detection rate of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), but these have been carried out primarily in younger women. In this study we evaluated the role of HPV testing as an adjunct to

J Cuzick; E Beverley; L Ho; G Terry; H Sapper; I Mielzynska; A Lorincz; W-K Chan; T Krausz; P Soutter



Understanding HPV Disease and Prevention: A Guide for School Nurses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) causes 99.7% of all cervical cancers. HPV Types 16 and 18 are responsible for approximately 77% of cases, and peak prevalence occurs in females younger than 25 years of age. The recent implementation of HPV vaccination provides females with the opportunity to prevent infection. School nurses are advocates of…

Lockwood-Rayermann, Suzy; McIntyre, Susan J.



Nasal immunization of mice with peptide having a cross-neutralization epitope on minor capsid protein L2 of human papillomavirus type 16 elicit systemic and mucosal antibodies.  


A common cross-neutralization epitope for human papillomavirus types 6 and 16 (HPV 6 and 16) is present in the region of amino acids (aa) 108-120 of HPV-16 minor capsid protein, L2. We nasally immunized Balb/c mice with a synthetic peptide with the 13 aa HPV 16 L2 sequence, and examined the antibodies elicited. ELISA showed that the immunization induced predominantly IgG and IgA antibodies cross-binding to L1/L2-capsids of HPVs 6, 16, and 18 in sera and in vaginal secretions, respectively. The serum containing the IgG antibody and the vaginal wash containing the IgA antibody neutralized HPV 16 pseudovirions and HPV 11 authentic virions, as shown by surrogate infectivity assays. From their cross-binding activity for HPV 16 and 18, the peptide-induced antibodies can probably cross-neutralize most of the genital HPVs. The peptide-induced neutralizing activity in vaginal wash was comparable to that induced by nasally immunization with HPV 16 L1-capsids. Unlike Balb/c, C57BL/10, which has different MHC class II, did not respond to the peptide immunization, but aa substitutions in the peptide to fulfill the requirement for the C57BL/10 agretope rendered the modified peptides immunogenic. The results provide a basis for development of a peptide vaccine against broad-spectrum of genital HPVs for humans. PMID:11163673

Kawana, K; Kawana, Y; Yoshikawa, H; Taketani, Y; Yoshiike, K; Kanda, T



Quantifying the Decisional Satisfaction to Accept or Reject the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine: A Preference for Cervical Cancer Prevention  

PubMed Central

Objective Only a portion of the US population is willing to consider HPV vaccination to date. The primary aim of this study is to determine the decisional satisfaction associated with HPV vaccination. Study Design This is a prospective survey conducted at an urban college where women 18–26 years old completed a decisional satisfaction survey about their HPV vaccine experience. Results Regardless of the decision to accept or reject HPV vaccination, the decisional satisfaction was very high (mean 5-item score?=?21.2 (SD 3.8)). Women without HPV vaccination were decisionally neutral significantly more often than those already vaccinated; 22% were decisionally neutral for the option to accept HPV vaccination at that visit. Cervical cancer prevention was preferred significantly more often than genital wart prevention in all analyses. Conclusions Targeting those who are decisionally neutral about HPV vaccination may result in a higher uptake of HPV vaccination. PMID:24551110

Harper, Diane M.; Irons, Billy B.; Alexander, Natalie M.; Comes, Johanna C.; Smith, Melissa S.; Heutinck, Melinda A.; Handley, Sandra M.; Ahern, Debra A.



Management of external genital warts.  


Genital warts affect 1% of the sexually active U.S. population and are commonly seen in primary care. Human papillomavirus types 6 and 11 are responsible for most genital warts. Warts vary from small, flat-topped papules to large, cauliflower-like lesions on the anogenital mucosa and surrounding skin. Diagnosis is clinical, but atypical lesions should be confirmed by histology. Treatments may be applied by patients, or by a clinician in the office. Patient-applied treatments include topical imiquimod, podofilox, and sinecatechins, whereas clinician-applied treatments include podophyllin, bichloroacetic acid, and trichloroacetic acid. Surgical treatments include excision, cryotherapy, and electrosurgery. The quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine is active against virus subtypes that cause genital warts in men and women. Additionally, male circumcision may be effective in decreasing the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, human papillomavirus, and herpes simplex virus. PMID:25251091

Karnes, Jonathan B; Usatine, Richard P



Development and evaluation of a liquid bead microarray assay for genotyping genital human papillomaviruses.  


We developed a liquid bead microarray (LBMA) assay for genotyping genital human papillomaviruses (HPVs) based on the MY09-MY11-HMB01 PCR system and the reverse line blot (RLB) assay probe sequences. Using individual HPV plasmids, we were able to detect as few as 50 copies per reaction. In two separate retrospective studies, the LBMA assay was compared to the RLB assay and to the Hybrid Capture II (hc2) assay. Testing was performed without knowledge of other assay results. In the first study, 614 cervical swab samples (enriched for HPV infection) from 160 young women were tested for HPV DNA, and 360 (74.8%) type-specific HPV infections were detected by both assays, 71 (14.8%) by the LBMA assay only, and 50 (10.4%) by the RLB assay only. Type-specific agreement for the two assays was excellent (99.1%; kappa=0.85; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.82 to 0.88). Samples with discrepant LBMA and RLB test results tended to have low viral loads by a quantitative type-specific PCR assay. In the second study, cervical swab samples from 452 women (including 54 women with histologically confirmed cervical-intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse [>or= CIN2]) were tested initially by the hc2 and subsequently by the LBMA assay. The estimated sensitivities for >or= CIN2 were similar for the LBMA and hc2 assays (98.4% [95% CI, 95.0 to 100%] and 95.6% [95% CI, 89.2 to 100%], respectively). The percentages of negative results among 398 women without >or= CIN2 were similar for the LBMA and hc2 assays (45% and 50%, respectively). The repeat test reproducibility for 100 samples was 99.1% (kappa=0.92; 95% CI, 0.90 to 0.95). We conclude that the new LBMA assay will be useful for clinical and epidemiological research. PMID:19144800

Feng, Qinghua; Cherne, Stephen; Winer, Rachel L; Balasubramanian, Akhila; Lee, Shu-Kuang; Hawes, Stephen E; Kiviat, Nancy B; Koutsky, Laura A



HPV Vaccine - Questions and Answers  


... prevents infection with the most harmful kinds of human papillomavirus (also called HPV). HPV vaccine is safe, effective, ... VFC program . Related Pages HPV Vaccine main page Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Topics Top of Page Images and logos ...


[Cancers of the oral and genital mucosa].  


Squamous cell carcinomas account for over 90 % of cancers of the oral cavity in France. Alcohol and tobacco are the main risk factors. Delay in diagnosis is unfortunately frequent. The management of the cancer is based on surgery, possibly associated to radiation therapy and chemotherapy. The survival rate at 5 years does not exceed 30-40%. We hope to see a decrease in the number of oral cancer thanks to the development of preventive medicine (alcohol and tobacco cessation and early detection of potentially malignant lesions). Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma is a rare disease which traditionally affect elderly woman but continues to rise in incidence especially in younger women. There are at least 2 forms of genital squamous cell carcinoma. The most common form is found on older women arising in a background of lichen sclerosus and the second is associated with "high risk" human papillomavirus infection affecting younger women. A biopsy is usually required for diagnosis. Attempts to reduce genital cancer must focus on treating precursor lesions, namely lichen sclerosus and HPV-related intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN and PIN). Most genital cancer occur on undiagnosed or untreated lichens sclerosus, vulvar inspection when women attend for their cervical smears or seeking about significance of any chronic genital symptom by a clinical examination. PMID:24167879

Dehen, Laure; Schwob, Emilie; Pascal, Francis



The genital herpes problem in pregnancy.  


Genital herpes is a common sexually transmitted infection. In reproductive age it involves the additional risk of vertical transmission to the neonate. Rates of transmission are affected by the viral type and whether the infection around delivery is primary or recurrent. Neonatal herpes is a rare but very severe complication of genital herpes infection and is caused by contact with infected genital secretions at the time of labor. Maternal acquisition of herpes simplex virus (HSV) in the third trimester of pregnancy carries the highest risk of neonatal transmission. Prevention of neonatal herpes depends on preventing acquisition of genital HSV infection during late pregnancy and avoiding exposure of the infant to herpetic lesions during delivery. Uninfected woman should be counselled about the need of avoiding sexual contact during the third trimester. Elective caesarean section before the onset of labor is the choice mode of delivery for women with genital lesions or with prodromal symptoms near the term, even if it offers only a partial protection against neonatal infection. Antiviral suppressive therapy is used from 36 weeks of gestation until delivery in pregnant women with recurrences to prevent genital lesions at the time of labor so reducing the need of caesarean sections. Currently, routine maternal serologic screening is not yet recommended. Because most mothers of infants who acquire neonatal herpes lack histories of clinically evident genital herpes, researchers should focus on the recognition of asymptomatic primary genital HSV infections. PMID:23007251

Guerra, B; Puccetti, C; Cervi, F



Comparative immunogenicity and safety of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 vaccine and HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine  

PubMed Central

In this observer-blind study (NCT00423046), women (N = 1,106), stratified by age (18–26, 27–35, 36–45 y), were randomized (1:1) to receive the HPV-16/18 vaccine (Cervarix®, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Months 0, 1, 6) or the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (Gardasil® Merck and Co., Inc., Months 0, 2, 6). Month 7 results were previously reported; we now report Month 24 results. In the according-to-protocol cohort for immunogenicity (seronegative and DNA-negative at baseline for HPV type analyzed), seropositivity rates of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) [pseudovirion-based neutralization assay] were, across all age strata, 100% (HPV-16/18 vaccine) and 97.5–100% (HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine) for HPV-16, and 99.0–100% (HPV-16/18 vaccine) and 72.3–84.4% (HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine) for HPV-18. Corresponding geometric mean titers (GMTs) were 2.4–5.8-fold higher for HPV-16 and 7.7–9.4-fold higher for HPV-18 with the HPV-16/18 vaccine vs. the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine; HPV-16 and HPV-18 GMTs were significantly higher with the HPV-16/18 vaccine than the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (p < 0.0001) in the total vaccinated cohort (received ?1 vaccine dose, irrespective of baseline sero/DNA-status). Similar results were obtained using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA ). Positivity rates and GMTs of antigen-specific IgG antibodies in cervicovaginal secretions (ELISA) were not significantly different between vaccines. At Month 24, CD4+ T-cell responses for HPV-16 and HPV-18 were higher with the HPV-16/18 vaccine; memory B-cell response was higher for HPV-18 with the HPV-16/18 vaccine and similar between vaccines for HPV-16. Both vaccines were generally well tolerated. Although an immunological correlate of protection has not been defined, differences in the magnitude of immune response between vaccines may represent determinants of duration of protection. PMID:22048173

Baron, Mira; Levin, Myron J; Chatterjee, Archana; Fox, Bradley; Scholar, Sofia; Rosen, Jeffrey; Chakhtoura, Nahida; Meric, Dorothee; Dessy, Francis J; Datta, Sanjoy K; Descamps, Dominique; Dubin, Gary



Characterization of Human Papillomavirus Type 154 and Tissue Tropism of Gammapapillomaviruses  

PubMed Central

The novel human papillomavirus type 154 (HPV154) was characterized from a wart on the crena ani of a three-year-old boy. It was previously designated as the putative HPV type FADI3 by sequencing of a subgenomic FAP amplicon. We obtained the complete genome by combined methods including rolling circle amplification (RCA), genome walking through an adapted method for detection of integrated papillomavirus sequences by ligation-mediated PCR (DIPS-PCR), long-range PCR, and finally by cloning of four overlapping amplicons. Phylogenetically, the HPV154 genome clustered together with members of the proposed species Gammapapillomavirus 11, and demonstrated the highest identity in L1 to HPV136 (68.6%). The HPV154 was detected in 3% (2/62) of forehead skin swabs from healthy children. In addition, the different detection sites of 62 gammapapillomaviruses were summarized in order to analyze their tissue tropism. Several of these HPV types have been detected from multiple sources such as skin, oral, nasal, and genital sites, suggesting that the gammapapillomaviruses are generalists with a broader tissue tropism than previously appreciated. The study expands current knowledge concerning genetic diversity and tropism among HPV types in the rapidly growing gammapapillomavirus genus. PMID:24551244

Ure, Agustin Enrique; Forslund, Ola



Antiviral medication in sexually transmitted diseases. Part I: HSV, HPV.  


Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in the world and important cause of morbidity and mortality. Especially STDs of viral etiology are difficult to cure. In many cases the antiviral therapy can relieve the symptoms but not eliminate the virus. During the past decades, considerable progress has been made in the development of antiviral drugs. One of the oldest antiviral medications is acyclovir (ACV). It is approved to treat initial and recurrent genital herpes and as a suppressive therapy in severe recurrent genital infections as well. Drug resistance to ACV and related drugs is seen among immunocompromised hosts, including human immunodeficiency virus HIV-infected patients. Resistant infections can be managed by second-line drugs - foscarnet or cidofovir- but they are more toxic than ACV. In case of HPV there is not known specific target for the medication and that is why the substances used in human papilloma virus HPV infection therapy are either antimitotics or immunomodulators. The Part I review focuses on mechanisms of actions and mechanisms of resistance to antiviral agents used in a treatment of the genital herpes and genital HPV infection. In Part II we will show the therapeutic options in other sexually transmitted infections: hepatitis B, C and HIV. PMID:24032509

Mlynarczyk-Bonikowska, Beata; Majewska, Anna; Malejczyk, Magdalena; Mlynarczyk, Grazyna; Majewski, Slawomir



HPV (Human Papillomavirus)  


... papillomavirus test for primary cervical cancer screening HPV (human papillomavirus) Print and Share (PDF 1105 KB ) En Español HPV (human papillomavirus) is a sexually transmitted virus. It is passed ...


Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Screening  


... message, please visit this page: About . Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Share Compartir Screening Cervical cancer is the easiest ... and then every three years after that. The HPV test checks for the virus that can cause ...


Understanding Cancer Series: HPV Vaccine

Donna Kerrigan, M.S. Jeanne Kelly The Hollen Team Explains the science behind the development of a new vaccine against high-risk types of human papillomaviruses, which can lead to cervical cancer over time. The HPV vaccine is based on virus-like particles (VLPs). VLPs, like real human papillomaviruses, have the same outer protein coat; unlike real human papillomaviruses, VLPs carry no genetic material inside. The VLP-based vaccine prevents HPV infections from triggering cervical cancer by inducing a strong protective immune response.


HPV Cancer Prevention  


HPV CANCER PREVENTION Preteens have a higher immune response to HPV vaccine than older teens. While there is very little risk of exposure ... HPV VACCINE IS BEST AT 11-12 YEARS Preteens need three vaccines at 11 or 12. They ...


Risk of precancer determined by HPV genotype combinations in women with minor cytologic abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Background Studies suggest that testing for individual HPV genotypes can improve risk stratification in women with minor cytological abnormalities. We evaluated genotyping for HPV16, HPV16/18, and HPV16/18/45 in carcinogenic HPV-positive women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) cytology. Methods For women enrolled in the ASCUS-LSIL Triage Study (ALTS), we calculated the age-stratified (<30 and 30+ years) positivity, and cumulative risk over two years of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse (CIN3+) when testing positive or negative for three genotype combinations: HPV16, HPV16/18, and HPV16/18/45. Results Among women with ASCUS cytology, HPV16 positivity was 17.1% and increased to 22.0% (P<.001) for HPV16/18 and 25.6% (P<.001) for HPV16/18/45. Among women with LSIL cytology, HPV16 positivity was 21.1% and increased to 30.0% (P<.001) for HPV16/18 and 34.0% (P=.017) for HPV16/18/45. Regardless of cytology and age group, the greatest risk difference between test-positives and test-negatives was observed for HPV16 with decreasing risk stratification for HPV16/18 and HPV16/18/45. However, testing negative for any of the three combinations while being positive for another carcinogenic type still implied a 2-year risk of CIN3+ of 7.8% or greater. Conclusions Although genotyping for HPV16, 18, and 45 provided additional risk stratification in carcinogenic HPV-positive women with minor cytological abnormalities, the risk among genotype-negative women was still high enough to warrant immediate colposcopy referral. Impact HPV genotyping in HPV-positive women with minor cytological abnormalities will likely not alter clinical management. Adding HPV45 to genotyping assays is not warranted. PMID:23603204

Gage, Julia C.; Schiffman, Mark; Solomon, Diane; Wheeler, Cosette M.; Gravitt, Patti E.; Castle, Philip E.; Wentzensen, Nicolas



Comparison of the basal and glucocorticoid-inducible activities of the upstream regulatory regions of HPV18 and HPV31 in multiple epithelial cell lines.  


Steroid hormone receptors have been shown to bind to response elements in the upstream regulatory region (URR) of human papillomavirus (HPV) in a ligand-dependent manner to affect viral promoter activity. To better understand how the enhancer activity of the URR differs between high risk HPV types, we chose to compare the basal and glucocorticoid-dependent activities of the URRs of HPV18 and HPV31. We found that the URR of HPV18 is a stronger enhancer than the URR of HPV31 in six different cell lines of epithelial origin. Furthermore, the activity of the URR of HPV31 was not inducible by the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (dex) in any cell line tested, while the URR of HPV18 was dex-inducible in the majority of these lines. These studies indicate significant differences between the URRs of high risk HPV types. PMID:12642092

Bromberg-White, Jennifer L; Meyers, Craig



The pathobiology and mechanisms of infection of HPV.  


There are more than 120 types of low-risk and high-risk human papillomaviruses, all of which are epitheliotropic. HPV infection may be latent, or active in a subclinical form or a symptomatic form, the latter manifesting as benign or malignant neoplasms. In basal cells with non-productive HPV infection some early HPV proteins are expressed independently of cell maturation: the productive cycle of HPV replication depends upon specific cellular factors of the maturation of the infected keratinocytes. In HPV-mediated oncogenesis, the combined pathobiological effects of E6 and E7 oncoproteins of high-risk HPV culminate in cellular genomic instability and transformation of persistently infected cells, that progress to the development of a malignant phenotype. In this article we provide insights into the stages of HPV infection, and into the viral genomic organization and replicative cycle. PMID:20496845

Wood, N H; Khammissa, R A G; Chikte, U M E; Meyerov, R; Lemmer, J; Feller, L



Parents' Knowledge, Risk Perception and Willingness to Allow Young Males to Receive Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines in Uganda.  


The Ministry of Health in Uganda in collaboration with the Program for Appropriate Technology for Health (PATH) supported by Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation in 2008-2009 vaccinated approximately 10,000 girls with the bivalent humanpapilloma virus (HPV) vaccine. We assessed parent's knowledge, risk perception and willingness to allow son(s) to receive HPV vaccines in future through a cross-sectional survey of secondary school boys aged 10-23 years in 4 districts. 377 questionnaires were distributed per district and 870 were used in analysis. Parents that had ever heard about cervical cancer and HPV vaccines; those who would allow daughter(s) to be given the vaccine and those who thought that HPV infection was associated with genital warts were more willing to allow son(s) to receive the HPV vaccine. Unwilling parents considered HPV vaccination of boys unimportant (p?=?0.003), believed that only females should receive the vaccine (p?=?0.006), thought their son(s) couldn't contract HPV (p?=?0.010), didn't know about HPV sexual transmissibility (p?=?0.002), knew that males could not acquire HPV (p?=?0.000) and never believed that the HPV vaccines could protect against HPV (p?=?0.000). Acceptance of HPV vaccination of daughters and likelihood of recommending HPV vaccines to son(s) of friends and relatives predicted parental willingness to allow sons to receive HPV vaccines. Probable HPV vaccination of boys is a viable complement to that of girls. Successfulness of HPV vaccination relies on parental acceptability and sustained sensitization about usefulness of HPV vaccines even for boys is vital. PMID:25203053

Muhwezi, Wilson Winstons; Banura, Cecily; Turiho, Andrew Kampikaho; Mirembe, Florence



Parents' Knowledge, Risk Perception and Willingness to Allow Young Males to Receive Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines in Uganda  

PubMed Central

The Ministry of Health in Uganda in collaboration with the Program for Appropriate Technology for Health (PATH) supported by Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation in 2008–2009 vaccinated approximately 10,000 girls with the bivalent humanpapilloma virus (HPV) vaccine. We assessed parent's knowledge, risk perception and willingness to allow son(s) to receive HPV vaccines in future through a cross-sectional survey of secondary school boys aged 10–23 years in 4 districts. 377 questionnaires were distributed per district and 870 were used in analysis. Parents that had ever heard about cervical cancer and HPV vaccines; those who would allow daughter(s) to be given the vaccine and those who thought that HPV infection was associated with genital warts were more willing to allow son(s) to receive the HPV vaccine. Unwilling parents considered HPV vaccination of boys unimportant (p?=?0.003), believed that only females should receive the vaccine (p?=?0.006), thought their son(s) couldn't contract HPV (p?=?0.010), didn't know about HPV sexual transmissibility (p?=?0.002), knew that males could not acquire HPV (p?=?0.000) and never believed that the HPV vaccines could protect against HPV (p?=?0.000). Acceptance of HPV vaccination of daughters and likelihood of recommending HPV vaccines to son(s) of friends and relatives predicted parental willingness to allow sons to receive HPV vaccines. Probable HPV vaccination of boys is a viable complement to that of girls. Successfulness of HPV vaccination relies on parental acceptability and sustained sensitization about usefulness of HPV vaccines even for boys is vital. PMID:25203053

Muhwezi, Wilson Winstons; Banura, Cecily; Turiho, Andrew Kampikaho; Mirembe, Florence



Immunohistochemical staining of Langerhans cells in HPV-positive and HPV-negative cases of oral squamous cells carcinoma  

PubMed Central

The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) has been strongly implicated in development of some cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, the immunological system somehow reacts against the presence of this virus. Among the cells involved in such mechanism of defense Langerhans cells (LC) stand out, which are responsible for processing and presenting antigens. Objectives The purposes of this study were to investigate the presence of HPV DNA and to evaluate the immunohistochemical reactivity for Langerhans cells between HPV-positive and HPV-negative OSCC. Twenty-seven cases of OSSC were evaluated. Material and Methods DNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded tissue samples and amplified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for the detection of HPV DNA. Viral typing was performed by dot blot hybridization. Immunohistochemistry was performed by the Streptavidin-biotin technique. Results From the 27 cases, 9 (33.3%) were HPV-positive and 18 (66.0%) HPV-negative. HPV 18 was the most prevalent viral type (100% cases) and infection with HPV-16 (co-infection) was detected in only 1 case. In the OSCC specimens examined, immunoreactivity to S-100 antibody was detected in all cases, with a mean number of 49.48±30.89 Langerhans cells positive for immunostaining. The mean number of immunostained Langerhans cells was smaller in the HPV-positive cases (38 cells/case) than in the HPV-negative cases (42.5 cells/case), but this difference was not significant (p=0.38). Conclusions The low frequency of detection of HPV DNA in OSCC indicates a possible participation of the virus in the development and progression of only a subgroup of these tumors. There was no association between the immunohistochemical labeling for Langerhans cells (S-100+) and HPV infection of in OSSC. These findings suggest that the presence of HPV in such OSCC cases could not alter the immunological system, particularly the Langerhans cells. PMID:21710097

PEREIRA, Karuza Maria Alves; SOARES, Rosilene Calazans; OLIVEIRA, Marcio Campos; PINTO, Leao Pereira; COSTA, Antonio de Lisboa Lopes



Cellular immune responses to HPV-18, -31, and -53 in healthy volunteers immunized with recombinant HPV-16 L1 virus-like particles  

SciTech Connect

Human papillomavirus-like particles (HPV VLP) are candidate vaccines that have shown to be efficacious in reducing infection and inducing robust antiviral immunity. Neutralizing antibodies generated by vaccination are largely type-specific, but little is known about the type-specificity of cellular immune responses to VLP vaccination. To determine whether vaccination with HPV-16 L1VLP induces cellular immunity to heterologous HPV types (HPV-18, HPV-31, and HPV-53), we examined proliferative and cytokine responses in vaccine (n = 11) and placebo (n = 5) recipients. Increased proliferative and cytokine responses to heterologous types were observed postvaccination in some individuals. The proportion of women responding to heterologous types postvaccination (36%-55%) was lower than that observed in response to HPV-16 (73%). Response to HPV-16 VLP predicted response to other types. The strongest correlations in response were observed between HPV-16 and HPV-31, consistent with their phylogenetic relatedness. In summary, PBMC from HPV-16 VLP vaccine recipients can respond to L1VLP from heterologous HPV types, suggesting the presence of conserved T cell epitopes.

Pinto, Ligia A. [HPV Immunology Laboratory, SAIC-Frederick, Inc./NCI-Frederick, Frederick Building 469, Room 120, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States)]. E-mail:; Viscidi, Raphael [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Harro, Clayton D. [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Kemp, Troy J. [HPV Immunology Laboratory, SAIC-Frederick, Inc./NCI-Frederick, Frederick Building 469, Room 120, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); Garcia-Pineres, Alfonso J. [HPV Immunology Laboratory, SAIC-Frederick, Inc./NCI-Frederick, Frederick Building 469, Room 120, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); Trivett, Matthew [HPV Immunology Laboratory, SAIC-Frederick, Inc./NCI-Frederick, Frederick Building 469, Room 120, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); Demuth, Franklin [Information Management Services, Silver Spring, MD (United States); Lowy, Douglas R. [Laboratory of Cellular Oncology, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD (United States); Schiller, John T. [Laboratory of Cellular Oncology, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD (United States); Berzofsky, Jay A. [Vaccine Branch, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD (United States); Hildesheim, Allan [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, NIH, Bethesda, MD (United States)



HPV-Associated Cancers Statistics  


... message, please visit this page: About . Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-Associated Cancers HPV-Associated Cancers Basic Information ... in Women Ages 30 and Older Cervical cancer Human papillomavirus (HPV) Cervical cancer screening tests What your Pap ...


Transcriptional regulatory elements in the noncoding region of human papillomavirus type 6  

SciTech Connect

The structure and function of the transcriptional regulatory region of human papillomavirus type 6 (HPV-6) has been investigated. To investigate tissue specific gene expression, a sensitive method to detect and localize HPV-6 viral DNA, mRNA and protein in plastic-embedded tissue sections of genital and respiratory tract papillomata by using in situ hybridization and immunoperoxidase assays has been developed. This method, using ultrathin sections and strand-specific {sup 3}H labeled riboprobes, offers the advantages of superior morphological preservation and detection of viral genomes at low copy number with good resolution, and the modified immunocytochemistry provides better sensitivity. The results suggest that genital tract epithelium is more permissive for HPV-6 replication than respiratory tract epithelium. To study the tissue tropism of HPV-6 at the level of regulation of viral gene expression, the polymerase chain reaction was used to isolate the noncoding region (NCR) of HPV-6 in independent isolates. Nucleotide sequence analysis of molecularly cloned DNA identified base substitutions, deletions/insertions and tandem duplications. Transcriptional regulatory elements in the NCR were assayed in recombinant plasmids containing the bacterial gene for chloramphenicol acetyl transferase.

Wu, Tzyy-Choou.



Association of HIV infection with distribution and viral load of HPV types in Kenya: a survey with 820 female sex workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) and HIV are each responsible for a considerable burden of disease. Interactions between these infections pose substantial public health challenges, especially where HIV prevalence is high and HPV vaccine coverage low. METHODS: Between July 2005 and January 2006, a cross-sectional community-based survey in Mombasa, Kenya, enrolled female sex workers using snowball sampling. After interview and a

Davy Vanden Broeck; Matthew F Chersich; Annalene Nel; Wim Delva; Kishor Mandaliya; Christophe E Depuydt; Patricia Claeys; John-Paul Bogers; Marleen Temmerman



Low Rate of Detection of Mucosal High-Risk-Type Human Papillomavirus in Korean Patients with Extragenital Bowen's Disease and Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Especially in Digital Cases  

PubMed Central

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been demonstrated in some of the nonmelanoma skin cancers as well as in precancerous lesions. Multiple infections of mucosal high-risk HPV may contribute to the onset of digital Bowen's disease through, if any, digital-genital transmission. We screened for the presence of the mucosal HPV DNA in patients with extragenital Bowen's disease (n = 30), squamous cell carcinoma (n = 11), bowenoid papulosis (n = 9), verrucous carcinoma (n = 1), actinic keratosis (n = 5), and basal cell carcinoma (n = 5). We used a PANArray HPV Genotyping Chip for high-risk and low-risk mucosal types. Genotyping data was confirmed using a conventional direct DNA sequencing method. Two cases of extragenital Bowen's disease were positive for types 16 and 33 of mucosal HPV, respectively. None of the squamous cell carcinoma cases were positive. Neither patients with digital Bowen's disease (n = 5) nor those with squamous cell carcinoma (n = 3) showed any mucosal high-risk HPV. Mucosal high-risk HPV DNA was confirmed in 5 (55.6%) of the 9 patients with bowenoid papulosis. HPV 16 was most prevalent (n = 3), while the DNA of HPVs 35 and 67 was detected in one sample for each of the two types. Our study demonstrated that two (6.7%) of the patients with 30 extragenital Bowen's disease were positive for types 16 and 33 of mucosal HPV, respectively. HPVs belonging to the mucosal high-risk group may participate in the development of extragenital Bowen's disease. However, we could not find any relationship between the mucosal high-risk HPV and Bowen's disease or squamous cell carcinoma in the fingers. PMID:24024191

Park, Hye-Rim; Kim, Kwang Ho; Seo, Jinwon; Kim, Dong Hoon; Kwon, Mi Jung



The epidemiological and economic impact of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus (hpv) vaccine in Estonia  

PubMed Central

Background This analysis assessed the epidemiological and economic impact of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV4: 6/11/16/18) vaccination in Estonia. Methods A dynamic transmission model was used to assess the epidemiological and economic impact of the routine vaccination of 12-year-old girls with a HPV4 vaccine in preventing cervical cancer, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grades 1, 2 and 3 and genital warts. Results The model projected that at year 100, HPV4 vaccination would lead to a reduction of HPV 16/18 related cervical cancer incidence and deaths by over 97% and the incidence of HPV 6/11 related genital warts among Estonian women and men by over 94% and 81%, respectively. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of the HPV4 vaccination strategy was € 4,889 per QALY gained over a time horizon of 100 years. Conclusions Routine vaccination of 12-year-old girls with HPV4 vaccine appears to be cost-effective in Estonia, in addition to providing both short term and long term health gains. PMID:23819789



Comparison of Two Commercial Assays for Detection of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in Cervical Scrape Specimens: Validation of the Roche AMPLICOR HPV Test as a Means To Screen for HPV Genotypes Associated with a Higher Risk of Cervical Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) types are a necessary cause for the development of cervical disorders. Women with persistent HR HPV infections have an increased risk of developing high-grade cervical lesions, compared with those who have no or low-risk HPV infections. Therefore, implementation of HPV detection into cervical screening programs might identify women at risk of cervical cancer. Several

Maaike A. P. C. van Ham; Judith M. J. E. Bakkers; Gonneke K. Harbers; Wim G. V. Quint; Leon F. A. G. Massuger; Willem J. G. Melchers


[Female genital mutilation].  


Female genital mutilation is a collective name for all traditional practices concerning the cutting of the female genitals. Approximately 130 million are genitally cut worldwide, more than 100 million live in Africa. Annually, 2 million girls are at risk of being circumcised. FGM is deeply rooted in culture, tradition, religion and the identity. Hence, the struggle against FGM must be a combined effort of law enforcement, targeted information- and sensibilization campaigns, education and training activities for various target groups that aim at establishing behavioural changes. PMID:11436419

Leye, E; Temmerman, M



Potential Anti-HPV and Related Cancer Agents from Marine Resources: An Overview  

PubMed Central

Recently, the studies on the prevention and treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV) which is closely related to the cervical cancer and other genital diseases are attracting more and more attention all over the world. Marine-derived polysaccharides and other bioactive compounds have been shown to possess a variety of anti-HPV and related cancer activities. This paper will review the recent progress in research on the potential anti-HPV and related cancer agents from marine resources. In particular, it will provide an update on the anti-HPV actions of heparinoid polysaccharides and bioactive compounds present in marine organisms, as well as the therapeutic vaccines relating to marine organisms. In addition, the possible mechanisms of anti-HPV actions of marine bioactive compounds and their potential for therapeutic application will also be summarized in detail. PMID:24705500

Wang, Shi-Xin; Zhang, Xiao-Shuang; Guan, Hua-Shi; Wang, Wei



Acceptability of HPV vaccine for males and preferences for future education programs among Appalachian residents.  


Appalachia is a geographic region with several disparities related to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, yet little is known about acceptability of HPV vaccine for males among Appalachian residents. HPV vaccine acceptability and preferences for future HPV vaccine education programs were examined among residents of Appalachian Ohio. Focus groups and in-depth interviews were conducted with Appalachian Ohio residents between July and October 2011. Participants (n = 102 from 24 focus groups and 5 in-depth interviews) included four key stakeholder groups: health care providers, community leaders, parents with adolescent sons, and young adult men ages 18 to 26 years. Support for vaccinating males against HPV was high among participants, despite low awareness and knowledge about HPV vaccine for males. Participants reported three categories of potential barriers to vaccinating males against HPV: concerns about vaccine safety and side effects, access to care and vaccination logistics, and gender and cultural issues. Participants reported that HPV vaccine was viewed as being only for females in their communities and that receiving the vaccine may be emasculating or embarrassing to males. Participants suggested that future HPV vaccine education programs mainly target parents, include basic information about HPV-related diseases and HPV vaccine (e.g., number of doses, cost), and present the vaccine as having the potential to prevent cancer (as opposed to preventing genital warts). Acceptability of HPV vaccine for males was high among residents of Appalachian Ohio. Future HPV vaccine education programs in Appalachia should address common potential barriers to vaccination and help destigmatize vaccination among males. PMID:24085197

Reiter, Paul L; Oldach, Benjamin R; Randle, Katherine E; Katz, Mira L



Genital Warts (Condyloma Acuminata)  


... is spread by skin-to-skin contact during sexual activity; there does not need to be vaginal or ... having few sexual partners, or by abstaining from sexual activity. Unfortunately, condoms do not completely protect against HPV, ...


Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Ty21a Expressing Human Papillomavirus Type 16 L1 as a Potential Live Vaccine against Cervical Cancer and Typhoid Fever?  

PubMed Central

Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines based on L1 virus-like particles (VLPs) can prevent HPV-induced genital neoplasias, the precursors of cervical cancer. However, most cervical cancers occur in developing countries, where the implementation of expensive vaccines requiring multiple injections will be difficult. A live Salmonella-based vaccine could be a lower-cost alternative. We previously demonstrated that high HPV type 16 (HPV16)-neutralizing titers are induced after a single oral immunization of mice with attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains expressing a codon-optimized version of HPV16 L1 (L1S). To allow the testing of this type of vaccine in women, we constructed a new L1-expressing plasmid, kanL1S, and tested kanL1S recombinants of three Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi vaccine strains shown to be safe in humans, i.e., Ty21a, the actual licensed typhoid vaccine, and two highly immunogenic typhoid vaccine candidates, Ty800 and CVD908-htrA. In an intranasal mouse model of Salmonella serovar Typhi infection, Ty21a kanL1S was unique in inducing HPV16-neutralizing antibodies in serum and genital secretions, while anti-Salmonella responses were similar to those against the parental Ty21a vaccine. Electron microscopy examination of Ty21a kanL1S lysates showed that L1 assembled in capsomers and capsomer aggregates but not well-ordered VLPs. Comparison to the neutralizing antibody response induced by purified HPV16 L1 VLP immunizations in mice suggests that Ty21a kanL1S may be an effective prophylactic HPV vaccine. Ty21a has been widely used against typhoid fever in humans with a remarkable safety record. These finds encourage clinical testing of Ty21a kanL1S as a combined typhoid fever/cervical cancer vaccine with the potential for worldwide application. PMID:17687110

Fraillery, Dominique; Baud, David; Pang, Susana Yuk-Ying; Schiller, John; Bobst, Martine; Zosso, Nathalie; Ponci, Françoise; Nardelli-Haefliger, Denise



Fewer Doses of HPV Vaccine Result in Immune Response Similar to Three-Dose Regimen  


... NCI scientists report that two doses of a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, trademarked as Cervarix, resulted in similar serum ... against two of the most carcinogenic types of HPV (16 and 18), compared to a standard three ...


Tobacco Tied to Higher Risk of Oral HPV Infection, Study Finds  


... to an increased risk of infection with oral human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16), a virus that can cause ... day can increase the risk of infection with HPV by almost one-third, according to the study. ...


Genital Herpes Complications  


... ocular herpes. Ocular herpes is usually caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 but sometimes by HSV-2. It can occasionally result in serious eye disease, including blindness. Pregnancy and Babies A woman who has genital herpes ...


Genital sores - female  


... DC. Neoplastic diseases of the vulva. In: Lentz GM, Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, Katz VL, eds . Comprehensive ... Mosby Elsevier; 2012:chap 30. Eckert L, Lentz GM. Infections of the lower genital tract. In: Lentz ...


The location of endogenous wild-type p53 protein in 293T and HEK293 cells expressing low-risk HPV-6E6 fusion protein with GFP.  


The mechanism underlining human papillomaviruses (HPVs) causing cancer has been studied extensively, and it was concluded that the high-risk HPVs' E6 targeted and degraded tumor suppressor protein p53, leading to infected cells malignant transformation. In contrast, the low-risk HPVs only cause proliferative but non-invasive lesions of infected epithelia. Therefore, we hypothesized that low-risk HPVs' E6 might interact with p53 in a different pattern. We used a mammalian green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression system to express HPV-18E6 and HPV-6E6 fusion proteins in wild-type (wt) p53 cell lines, 293T and HEK293 cells, to investigate the traffic and location of E6s and p53. The results indicated GFP-18E6 was mainly expressed in nucleus, whereas GFP-6E6 was expressed exclusively in cytoplasm. Endogenous wt p53 was shown to be localized in the nuclei of cells transfected with GFP- 18E6. Interestingly, for the first time, we observed that p53 was trapped in the cytoplasm and never translocated into the cell nuclei transfected with GFP-6E6. In conclusion, HPV-6E6 was responsible for the cytoplasmic localization of p53. Therefore, our experiments provide a new insight into the pathogenesis of HPV. PMID:20213049

Sun, Lina; Shen, Xinxin; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Ge; Wei, Jianchun; Zhang, Huijuan; Zhang, Enming; Ma, Fengqin



Human immunodeficiency virus acquisition associated with genital ulcer disease and herpes simplex virus type 2 infection: a nested case-control study in Rakai, Uganda.  


To assess the timing of symptomatic genital ulcer disease (GUD) relative to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroconversion, we studied 248 case subjects who underwent HIV seroconversion and 496 HIV-negative control subjects, at 3 interview visits conducted at 10-month intervals: visit 1, before HIV acquisition; visit 2, after seroconversion; and visit 3, 10 months after detection of seroconversion. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), for HIV acquisition, were estimated by logistic regression. HIV load was measured by RNA-polymerase chain reaction, and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) serologic testing used HerpeSelect EIA with Western blot confirmation. The OR of HSV-2 seropositivity associated with HIV acquisition was 1.7 (95% CI, 1.2-2.4). Prevalence of GUD was increased among case subjects, at visits 2 (OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.9-5.3) and 3 (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.1-3.9). HIV load was increased in HSV-2-seropositive case subjects, compared with that in HSV-2-seronegative subjects, at 5 (P=.04) and 15 (P=.02) months after seroconversion. HIV acquisition is associated with HSV-2 seropositivity, and GUD is increased after seroconversion. HIV load is increased in HSV-2-positive subjects who seroconverted, suggesting a role for treatment of HSV-2 infection in HSV-2-seropositive, dually infected individuals. PMID:14624374

Serwadda, David; Gray, Ronald H; Sewankambo, Nelson K; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Chen, Michael Z; Quinn, Thomas C; Lutalo, Tom; Kiwanuka, Noah; Kigozi, Godfrey; Nalugoda, Fred; Meehan, Mary P; Ashley Morrow, Rhoda; Wawer, Maria J



Genetic characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in blood and genital secretions: evidence for viral compartmentalization and selection during sexual transmission.  


To explore the mechanism of sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), we compared HIV-1 gp120 sequences in longitudinal samples from five acute seroconvertors with those from their corresponding sexual partners (transmitters). We used a quantitative homoduplex tracking assay to compare the overall genetic composition of HIV-1 quasispecies in each transmission pair and to track the transmitted viruses during the acute and asymptomatic stages of HIV-1 infection. In the chronically infected transmitters, HIV-1 variants in genital secretions differed from those in blood and variants in cells differed from those in cell-free plasma, indicating remarkable sequence heterogeneity in these subjects as well as compartmentalization of the virus in different bodily sites. Conversely, two of five seroconvertors had only a few related variants and three of five harbored only one viral population, indicating that in these subjects the transmitted viruses were typically homogeneous. Transmitted viruses were evident in the donor's seminal plasma (one of five cases) and even more so in their seminal cells (three of five cases), suggesting that both cell-associated and cell-free viruses can be transmitted. In every pair studied, the transmitted variant(s) represents only a minor population in the semen of the corresponding transmitter, thereby providing evidence that HIV-1 selection indeed occurs during sexual transmission. PMID:8627789

Zhu, T; Wang, N; Carr, A; Nam, D S; Moor-Jankowski, R; Cooper, D A; Ho, D D



Genetic characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in blood and genital secretions: evidence for viral compartmentalization and selection during sexual transmission.  

PubMed Central

To explore the mechanism of sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), we compared HIV-1 gp120 sequences in longitudinal samples from five acute seroconvertors with those from their corresponding sexual partners (transmitters). We used a quantitative homoduplex tracking assay to compare the overall genetic composition of HIV-1 quasispecies in each transmission pair and to track the transmitted viruses during the acute and asymptomatic stages of HIV-1 infection. In the chronically infected transmitters, HIV-1 variants in genital secretions differed from those in blood and variants in cells differed from those in cell-free plasma, indicating remarkable sequence heterogeneity in these subjects as well as compartmentalization of the virus in different bodily sites. Conversely, two of five seroconvertors had only a few related variants and three of five harbored only one viral population, indicating that in these subjects the transmitted viruses were typically homogeneous. Transmitted viruses were evident in the donor's seminal plasma (one of five cases) and even more so in their seminal cells (three of five cases), suggesting that both cell-associated and cell-free viruses can be transmitted. In every pair studied, the transmitted variant(s) represents only a minor population in the semen of the corresponding transmitter, thereby providing evidence that HIV-1 selection indeed occurs during sexual transmission. PMID:8627789

Zhu, T; Wang, N; Carr, A; Nam, D S; Moor-Jankowski, R; Cooper, D A; Ho, D D



Human Papillomavirus Deoxyribonucleic Acid may not be Detected in Non-genital Benign Papillomatous Skin Lesions by Polymerase Chain Reaction  

PubMed Central

Background: Papillomatosis is a known histopathologic pattern usually seen in human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and verruca vulgaris is the typical example. This pattern is also detected in some other benign cutaneous lesions such as nevus sebaceous (NS), seborrheic keratosis (SK), trichilemmoma (TL) and inverted follicular keratosis (IFK). The association between papillomatous lesions and HPV infection is questionable. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of HPV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in non-genital benign papillomatous skin lesions (NS, SK, TL and IFK) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Materials and Methods: A total of 100 specimens of non-genital NS, SK, TL and IFK were retrieved from archives of Dermatopathology Department of Razi Hospital, between 2003 and 2010. The conventional PCR using consensus GP5+/GP6+ primer and hydroxymethylbilane synthase gene as inner control was performed. Results: PCR for HPV DNA revealed no positive results in any of 28 seborrheic keratosis (SK), 28 nevus sebaceous (NS), 28 inverted follicular keratosis (IFK) and 13 trichilemmoma (TL) studied specimens. Conclusion: Papillomatosis is usually a characteristic pattern of HPV infection. However, we found no association between HPV infection and non-genital benign papillomatous lesions. PMID:25071248

Kambiz, Kamyab Hesari; Kaveh, Davoodi; Maede, Damavandi; Hossein, Ayatollahi; Nessa, Aghazadeh; Ziba, Rahbar; Alireza, Ghanadan



The role of vaccines in the control of STDs: HPV vaccines.  

PubMed Central

Prophylactic vaccines for genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection have been shown to be feasible in animal models, and suitable vaccine material based on virus-like particles can be produced in bulk at reasonable cost. Initiation of phase III clinical trials will follow definition of trial outcome measures through further epidemiological studies, and development of assays of host protective immunity. Vaccines could in principle eliminate HPV-related disease, as the human race is the only natural host for the relevant papillomaviruses (PVs). Therapeutic vaccines for genital HPV infection are also possible, but have not yet been demonstrated as feasible in practice because the choice of vaccine antigens is difficult, the method of their optimal delivery is uncertain, and the nature of the relevant antiviral immunity is unknown. PV species specificity will require trials to be conducted in man, which will slow definition of an ideal vaccine. PMID:9038634

Frazer, I H



REVIEW Open Access Diagnosis of genital herpes simplex virus  

E-print Network

REVIEW Open Access Diagnosis of genital herpes simplex virus infection in the clinical laboratory Jérôme LeGoff1* , Hélène Péré2,3 and Laurent Bélec2,3 Abstract Since the type of herpes simplex virus antiviral therapy. Keywords: Herpes simplex virus, Genital herpes, Diagnosis Introduction Key structure

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Patterns of genital injury in female sexual assault victims  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: New colposcopic protocols allow examiners to better document genital trauma in rape victims. We report our findings on the locations and types of genital injury seen in female assault victims versus women engaging in consensual sex.STUDY DESIGN: Physical examinations were performed on 311 rape victims seen by San Luis Obispo County's Suspected Abuse Response Team between 1985 and 1993

Laura Slaughter; Carl R. V. Brown; Sharon Crowley; Roxy Peck



HIV Type 2 Protease, Reverse Transcriptase, and Envelope Viral Variation in the PBMC and Genital Tract of ARV-Naive Women in Senegal  

PubMed Central

Abstract Unique viral variants and resistance mutations may occur in the genital tract of HIV-2 ARV-naive infected women. We sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed protease (PR), reverse transcriptase (RT), and envelope (ENV) from PBMC and genital tract samples from four ARV-naive women in Senegal. HIV-2 protease polymorphisms that predict HIV-1 protease inhibitor (PI) resistance were common. Two subjects had protease mutations (T77I and I64V) in genital tract samples that were not found in PBMCs. One subject had the HIV-2 reverse transcriptase M184I mutation in CVL DNA (but not PBMCs) that is known to confer 3TC/FTC resistance in HIV-2. In another subject, the reverse transcriptase A62V mutation was also found in CVL-RNA but not PBMCs. We found no significant difference in ENV variants between PBMCs and the genital tract. HIV-2 RT and PR mutations in the genital tract of ARV-naive females may have implications for transmitted HIV-2 resistance and ARV therapy. PMID:18544024

Hawes, Stephen E.; Wong, Kim G.; Raugi, Dana N.; Agne, Habibatou D.; Critchlow, Cathy W.; Kiviat, Nancy B.; Sow, Papa Salif



Identification of human papillomavirus type 18 transforming genes in immortalized and primary cells.  


The selective retention and expression of the E6-E7 region of human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 in cervical carcinomas suggests that these viral sequences play a role in the development of genital neoplasia. Each of three possible gene products, E6, E6*, and E7, from this region of HPV-18 were examined for transforming properties in several types of rodent cells. We have found that in immortalized fibroblasts, both E6 and E7 (but not E6*) are capable of inducing anchorage-independent growth. In rat embryo cells, the HPV-18 E7 open reading frame was an effective immortalizing agent and complemented an activated ras oncogene for transformation. In both immortalized and primary cells, transformation was observed when the HPV-18 sequences were expressed from either the HPV-18 promoter or a heterologous promoter. The E6-E7 region is not, however, the sole transforming domain of HPV-18, since another portion of the early region, possibly E5, also exhibited transforming capability in immortalized fibroblasts. The development of human cervical carcinomas may therefore involve a series of steps involving multiple viral and cellular gene products. PMID:2536832

Bedell, M A; Jones, K H; Grossman, S R; Laimins, L A



Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Oropharyngeal Cancer  


... Papillomavirus (HPV) Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Share Compartir Human papillomavirus (HPV) and Oropharyngeal Cancer - Fact Sheet Human papillomavirus (HPV) can cause serious health problems, including ...


Anal, Penile, and Oral High-Risk HPV Infections and HPV Seropositivity in HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Men Who Have Sex with Men  

PubMed Central

The effects of single or multiple concordant HPV infections at various anatomical sites on type-specific HPV seropositivity are currently unknown. In this cross-sectional study we assessed whether high-risk HPV infections at various anatomical sites (i.e., anal canal, penile shaft, and oral cavity), as well as concordant infections at multiple anatomical sites, were associated with type-specific seropositivity in HIV-positive and HIV-negative MSM. MSM aged ?18 years were recruited in Amsterdam, the Netherlands (2010–2011). Baseline anal, penile, and oral samples were analyzed for HPV DNA and genotyped using a highly sensitive PCR and reverse line blot assay. Virus-like particle (VLP) based multiplex immunoassay was used to asses HPV-specific serum antibodies against L1 VLPs. The associations between HPV infections and type-specific seropositivity of seven high-risk HPV types (7-hrHPV: types 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58) were estimated using logistic regression analyses with generalized estimating equations. We found that 86% of 306 HIV-positive MSM and 62% of 441 HIV-negative MSM were seropositive for at least one 7-hrHPV type. 69% of HIV-positive and 41% of HIV-negative MSM were infected with at least one 7-hrHPV type at the anus, penis, or oral cavity. In multivariable analyses, 7-hrHPV seropositivity was associated with type-specific anal (and not penile) 7-hrHPV infection, and did not significantly increase with a higher number of infected anatomical sites. Oral 7-hrHPV infection showed a positive, albeit non-significant, association with seropositivity. In conclusion, seropositivity among MSM appears to be largely associated with anal HPV infection, irrespective of additionally infected anatomical sites. PMID:24651691

Mollers, Madelief; Snijders, Peter J. F.; Speksnijder, Arjen G. C. L.; King, Audrey J.; de Vries, Henry J. C.; van Eeden, Arne; van der Klis, Fiona R. M.; de Melker, Hester E.; van der Sande, Marianne A. B.; van der Loeff, Maarten F. Schim



HPV 16 and cigarette smoking as risk factors for high-grade cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is well established as the etiologic agent for cervical intra- epithelial neoplasia (CIN), little is known about the cofactors involved in the development of high-grade lesions or the progression of low-grade to high-grade lesions. In our study of HPV-infected women with CIN (163 CIN I, 51 CIN II and 44 CIN III), women with

Gloria Y. F. Ho; Anna S. Kadish; Robert D. Burk; Jayasri Basu; Prabhudas R. Palan; Magdy Mikhail; Seymour L. Romney



Study of Infectious Virus Production from HPV18/16 Capsid Chimeras  

PubMed Central

Using the HPV18 genome as the backbone, we exchanged the HPV18 L2 or L1 genes with those of HPV16. The intertypical exchange of HPV18 L1 with the HPV16 L1 produced genomes that efficiently replicated and produced infectious virus. Genomes containing an intertypical exchange of HPV18 L2 for the HPV16 L2 failed to produce infectious virus in multiple independently derived cell lines. Using chimeric constructs of individual capsid proteins, we identified a type-specific domain at the N-terminus of the HPV18L1 capsid protein, which interferes with its ability to cooperate with the HPV16 L2 protein to form infectious viral particles. Deletion of this domain allows for the cooperation of the HPV18 L1 protein and HPV 16 L2 protein and production of infectious progeny. Additionally, cooperation of this N-terminal HPV18 L1 deletion mutant protein with the wild type HPV18 L2 protein efficiently replicates infectious virus but changes occur in the viral structure. PMID:20598725

Chen, Horng-Shen; Bromberg-White, Jennifer; Conway, Michael J.; Alam, Samina; Meyers, Craig



Study of infectious virus production from HPV18/16 capsid chimeras.  


Using the HPV18 genome as the backbone, we exchanged the HPV18 L2 or L1 genes with those of HPV16. The intertypical exchange of HPV18 L1 with the HPV16 L1 produced genomes that efficiently replicated and produced infectious virus. Genomes containing an intertypical exchange of HPV18 L2 for the HPV16 L2 failed to produce infectious virus in multiple independently derived cell lines. Using chimeric constructs of individual capsid proteins, we identified a type-specific domain at the N-terminus of the HPV18L1 capsid protein, which interferes with its ability to cooperate with the HPV16 L2 protein to form infectious viral particles. Deletion of this domain allows for the cooperation of the HPV18 L1 protein and HPV16 L2 protein and production of infectious progeny. In addition, cooperation of this N-terminal HPV18 L1 deletion mutant protein with the wild-type HPV18 L2 protein efficiently replicates infectious virus but changes occur in the viral structure. PMID:20598725

Chen, Horng-Shen; Bromberg-White, Jennifer; Conway, Michael J; Alam, Samina; Meyers, Craig



Detection of human papillomavirus 16 and 18 DNA in epithelial lesions of the lower genital tract by in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction: cervical scrapes are not substitutes for biopsies.  

PubMed Central

Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 in 66 women with histologically documented lesions of the genital tract and 64 control cohorts were investigated. The efficacies of in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in detecting HPV 16 and 18 DNA were analyzed. In order to assess the usefulness of replacing biopsies with cervical scrapes, the two samples were compared by PCR. The prevalence rates of HPV infection by PCR were 59.1 and 10.9% in patients and controls, respectively. PCR was three times more sensitive than in situ hybridization (52.6 versus 17.8%). However, the need to improve PCR sensitivity by subsequent dot blot hybridization reduced one of the main advantages of PCR, i.e., expeditious diagnosis. Cervical scrapes were less sensitive than biopsies (13.6 versus 53%), although with four (6.1%) patients with intraepithelial neoplasias, HPV DNA was identified only by means of cervical scraping. We conclude that obtaining biopsy specimens and cervical scraping are complementary sampling procedures. Images PMID:8385153

Margall, N; Matias-Guiu, X; Chillon, M; Coll, P; Alejo, M; Nunes, V; Quilez, M; Rabella, N; Prats, G; Prat, J



Human Papillomavirus (HPV) 6, 11, 16, and 18 Seroprevalence Is Associated with Sexual Practice and Age: Results from the Multinational HPV Infection in Men Study (HIM Study)  

PubMed Central

Background Few human papillomavirus (HPV) serology studies have evaluated type-specific seroprevalence of vaccine HPV types in men. This study investigates seroprevalence of HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18, and associated risk factors in men residing in three countries (United States, Mexico, and Brazil). Methods Data from 1,477 men aged 18 to 70 enrolled in the HPV Infection in Men Study (HIM Study) were analyzed. Serum antibody testing was performed with virus-like particle-based ELISA. Potential risk factors were assessed for individual HPV types by the use of logistic regression. Results Overall, HPV-6, 11, 16, and 18 seroprevalence was 14.8%, 17.3%, 11.2%, and 5.8%, respectively. Thirty-four percent of men were seropositive to one or more HPV types. When examined by sexual practice, 31.2% of men who had sex with women, 65.6% of men who had sex with men (MSM), and 59.4% of men who had sex with both men and women (MSMW) were seropositive to one or more HPV types. Seroprevalence increased with age among young-to-middle-aged men with significant upward age trends observed for HPV 11, 16, and 18. Men with multiple lifetime male anal sex partners were 2 to 4 times more likely to be HPV 6 or 11 seropositive and 3 to 11 times more likely to be HPV 16 or 18 seropositive. Conclusion Our data indicate that exposures to vaccine HPV types were common in men and highly prevalent among MSM and MSMW. Impact Our study provides strong evidence that the practice of same-sex anal intercourse is an independent risk factor for seroprevalence of individual vaccine HPV types. Examination of antibody responses to HPV infections at various anatomic sites in future studies is needed to elaborate on the mechanism. PMID:21378268

Lu, Beibei; Viscidi, Raphael P.; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Wu, Yougui; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Carvalho da Silva, Roberto J.; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Quiterio, Manuel; Salmeron, Jorge; Smith, Danelle C.; Abrahamsen, Martha; Papenfuss, Mary; Stockwell, Heather G.; Giuliano, Anna R.



Self-assembly of in vitro-translated human papillomavirus type 16 L1 capsid protein into virus-like particles and antigenic reactivity of the protein.  

PubMed Central

The human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) L1 capsid protein is the major component of the HPV virion. We prepared L1 protein of HPV-16 in a cell-free system. The L1 gene was cloned in an expression plasmid and transcribed and translated in vitro in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate. The expressed protein had the molecular mass (55 kDa) expected for the L1 protein, and it assembled into virus-like particles that closely resembled papillomavirus virions. The protein retained conformational epitopes, as evidenced by its reactivity with monoclonal antibodies which recognize only intact viral particles. In radioimmunoprecipitation assays with sera from college women grouped by their genital tract HPV DNA status, high reactivity was found in 68% of HPV-16 DNA-positive women, in 23% of women with other HPVs, and in 19% of HPV-negative women. In comparison, none of the sera of children were reactive. The results of the radioimmunoprecipitation assays showed a significant correlation with results obtained with the same sera in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with virus-like particles produced in baculovirus (chi-square test for linear trend, P = 0.0023). Although the amounts of L1 protein obtained are small, the ability to produce virus-like particles by in vitro translation may be useful in the study of virus assembly, virus binding, and the immunological response to HPV infection. PMID:8914767

Iyengar, S; Shah, K V; Kotloff, K L; Ghim, S J; Viscidi, R P



Evaluation of multiplex real-time PCR for detection of Haemophilus ducreyi, Treponema pallidum, herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 in the diagnosis of genital ulcer disease in the Rakai District, Uganda  

PubMed Central

Objective: To develop a real-time PCR assay that reliably and accurately detects the predominant sexually transmitted aetiological agents of genital ulcer disease (GUD) (Haemophilus ducreyi, Treponema pallidum and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2)) and to assess the use of real-time PCR diagnostic testing in a rural African field site. Methods: Two multiplex real-time PCR reactions were used to detect H ducreyi/and HSV-1/HSV-2 in ulcer swabs from 100 people with symptomatic genital ulcers in rural Rakai, Uganda. Results were compared with syphilis, HSV-1 and HSV-2 serology. Results: Of 100 GUD samples analysed from 43 HIV positive and 57 HIV negative individuals, 71% were positive for one or more sexually transmitted infection (STI) pathogens by real-time PCR (61% for HSV-2, 5% for T pallidum, 3% for HSV-1, 1% for H ducreyi and 1% for dual H ducreyi/HSV-2). The frequency of HSV in genital ulcers was 56% (32/57) in HIV negative individuals and 77% (33/43) in HIV positive individuals (p=0.037). Assay reproducibility was evaluated by repeat PCR testing in the USA with 96% agreement (?=0.85). Conclusions: STI pathogens were detected in the majority of GUD swab samples from symptomatic patients in Rakai, Uganda, by real-time PCR. HSV-2 was the predominant cause of genital ulcers. Real-time PCR technology can provide sensitive, rapid and reproducible evaluation of GUD aetiology in a resource-limited setting. PMID:19066198

Suntoke, T R; Hardick, A; Tobian, A A R; Mpoza, B; Laeyendecker, O; Serwadda, D; Opendi, P; Gaydos, C A; Gray, R H; Wawer, M J; Quinn, T C; Reynolds, S J



College Women's Perception and Knowledge of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Cervical Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are one of the most common types of sexually transmitted infections in the United States. The highest rates of HPV infection are found in adult's ages 18-28 years. This study utilizes the Health Belief Model to assess knowledge and perception of HPV infection and cervical cancer in college-age women and their intent to reduce their numbers

Ricardo Lopez; Shari McMahan



The etiologic role of HPV in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma fine tuned  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: High-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) plays a role in the development of a subset of vulvar squamous cell carcinomas. Uncertainty exists about the true impact of HPV in this tumor type because conflicting reports have been published with diverging prevalence rates. This study was done to fine tune the role of high-risk HPV infection in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma

H. P. van de Nieuwenhof; L. C. L. T. van Kempen; J. A. de Hullu; R. L. M. Bekkers; J. Bulten; W. J. G. Melchers; L. F. A. G. Massuger



HPV Vaccine Acceptance in a Clinic-Based Sample of Women in the Rural South  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a very common sexually transmitted infection linked to cervical disease. Vaccines for some types of HPV were in development at the time of the study. Purpose: The study examined HPV vaccine acceptability among underserved women in a rural region of the southeastern U.S. with high rates of cervical cancer…

Brandt, Heather M.; Sharpe, Patricia A.; McCree, Donna H.; Wright, Marcie S.; Davis, Jennifer; Hutto, Brent E.



Genital Herpes (Beyond the Basics)  


... cold sore on an infected person's lip during oral sex; in this case, genital herpes may be due ... be avoided any time genital ulcers are present. Oral sex should be avoided if there are ulcers or ...


Genome-wide gene expression profiles of HPV-positive and HPV-negative oropharyngeal cancer: potential implications for treatment choices  

PubMed Central

Objective To study the difference in gene expression between human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive and HPV-negative oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Design We used Affymetrix U133 plus 2.0 arrays to examine gene expression profiles of OSCC and normal oral tissue. HPV DNA was detected using PCR followed by the Roche Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test, and the differentially expressed genes were analyzed to examine their potential biological roles using the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis Software (IPA 5.0). Subjects Tumor tissue from 119 primary OSCC patients and normal oral tissue from 35 patients without cancer, all of whom were treated at three University of Washington-affiliated medical centers. Results HPV DNA was found in 41 of 119 (34.5%) tumors and 2 of 35 (5.7%) normal tissue samples, with 39 of 43 HPV being HPV type 16; there was a higher prevalence of HPV DNA in oropharyngeal cancer (23 of 31) than in oral cavity cancer (18 of 88). We found no significant difference in gene expression between HPV-positive and HPV-negative oral cavity cancer but found 446 probe sets (347 known genes) differentially expressed between HPV-positive and HPV-negative oropharyngeal cancer. The most prominent functions of these genes are DNA replication, DNA repair, and cell cycle. Some genes differentially expressed between HPV-positive and HPV-negative oropharyngeal cancer (e.g., TYMS, STMN1, CCND1 and RBBP4) are involved in chemotherapy or radiation sensitivity. Conclusion These results suggest that differences in the biology of HPV-positive and HPV-negative oropharyngeal cancer may have implications for the management of patients with these different tumors. PMID:19221247

Lohavanichbutr, Pawadee; Houck, John; Fan, Wenhong; Yueh, Bevan; Mendez, Eduardo; Futran, Neal; Doody, David R.; Upton, Melissa P.; Farwell, D. Gregory; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Zhao, Lue Ping; Chen, Chu



[Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis of the vulva associated with basal cell carcinoma in a patient with vaginal condyloma acuminatum and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia harboring HPV, type 42].  


The occurrence of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the vulva is rare. We report the case of a 79-year-old woman with a medical history of intravaginal condyloma acuminatum and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia 3 (VaIN 3) who presented with a solitary whitish lesion sized 8x5 mm with a central desquamation located on the right labium majus. Histopathologic examination revealed a typical superficial and nodular BCC. Additionally, there were multiple remarkable foci of epidermolytic hyperkeratosis (EH). These foci both merged with superficial BCC or were sharply demarcated from the tumor. Retrospective molecular-biological examination of all the available material revealed HPV type 42 in both condyloma acuminatum and VaIN 3 specimen but not in the BCC associated with EH. To our best knowledge, involvement of the lower female genitalia by EH is a rare finding with six cases published to date. Awareness of EH in this location and its distinction is important because it may be potentially misinterpreted as a viral condyloma. Keywords: vulva - basal cell carcinoma - epidermolytic hyperkeratosis - human papillomavirus. PMID:24758505

Kacerovská, Denisa; Michal, Michal; Kašpírková, Jana; Kazakov, Dmitry V



In situ human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in South African and British patients: evidence for putative HPV integration in vivo.  

PubMed Central

In South Africa asymptomatic wart virus infection diagnosed by morphological criteria occurs in 16-20% of all ethnic groups; the incidence in black women is 66%. To identify human papillomavirus (HPV) types the prevalence of HPV in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in South African women (n = 72) with age matched British women (n = 73) was compared by non-isotopic in situ hybridisation (NISH) using digoxigenin labelled probes for HPV 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33 and 35 on archival biopsy specimens. A higher proportion of British biopsy specimens (68%) contained HPV than those from South Africa (50%) in CIN 2 and 3; this difference was due to HPV 16. Thirty six per cent of the positive biopsy specimens from South African women also contained HPV 33/35 compared with 16% in the United Kingdom. There was no difference in HPV detection with age in either group. These data indicate that HPV types vary geographically, with "minor" HPV types being more common in South Africa. Three qualitatively distinct NISH signals were observed; a diffuse (type 1) signal in superficial cells, mainly koilocytes; a punctate signal (type 2) in basal/"undifferentiated" cells in CIN 3; and combined type 1 and 2 signals in CIN with wart virus infection (type 3). The punctate signal may represent HPV integration. Images PMID:1646237

Cooper, K; Herrington, C S; Graham, A K; Evans, M F; McGee, J O



Nonspecific genital ulcers.  


Recent intervention of nonspecific genital ulcers has added refreshing dimensions to genital ulcer disease. It was considered pertinent to dwell on diverse clinical presentation and diagnostic strategies. It seems to possess spectrum. It includes infective causes, Epstein Bar Virus, tuberculosis, Leishmaniasis, HIV/AIDS related ulcers and amoebiasis. Noninfective causes are immunobullous disorders, aphthosis, Behcet's disease (BD), inflammatory bowel disease, lichen planus and lichen sclerosis et atrophicus, drug reactions, premalignant and malignant conditions, pyoderma gangrenosum, and hidradenitis suppurativa. The diagnostic features and treatment option of each disorder are succinctly outlined for ready reference. PMID:24559562

Sehgal, Virendra N; Pandhi, Deepika; Khurana, Ananta



Comprehensive comparison of the interaction of the E2 master regulator with its cognate target DNA sites in 73 human papillomavirus types by sequence statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mucosal human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are etio- logical agents of oral, anal and genital cancer. Properties of high- and low-risk HPV types cannot be reduced to discrete molecular traits. The E2 protein regulates viral replication and transcription through a finely tuned interaction with four sites at the upstream regulatory region of the genome. A computational study of the E2-DNA interaction in

Ignacio E. Sanchez; Mariano Dellarole; Kevin Gaston; Gonzalo de Prat Gay



Integrative analyses reveal novel strategies in HPV11,-16 and -45 early infection  

PubMed Central

The interaction between human papillomavirus (HPV) and host cells is not well understood. We investigate the early stage of HPV infections by global expression profiling in a cell model, in which HaCaT cells were transfected with HPV11, HPV16 or HPV45 genomes. We report the differential expression of genes not previously implicated in HPV biology, such as the PSG family and ANKRD1, and of genes implicated in the biology of other viruses, e.g. MX1, IFI44 and DDX60. Carcinogenesis-related genes, e.g. ABL2, MGLL and CYR61, were upregulated by high-risk HPV16 and -45. The integrative analysis revealed the suppression of DNA repair by HPV11 and -16, and downregulation of cytoskeleton genes by all HPV types. Various signalling pathways were affected by the HPVs: IL-2 by HPV11; JAK-STAT by HPV16; and TGF-?, NOTCH and tyrosine kinase signalling by HPV45. This study uncovered novel strategies employed by HPV to establish infection and promote uncontrolled growth. PMID:22808421

Kaczkowski, Bogumil; Rossing, Maria; Andersen, Ditte K.; Dreher, Anita; Morevati, Marya; Visser, Melissa A.; Winther, Ole; Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Norrild, Bodil



Genotypic mapping of HPV and assessment of EBV prevalence in endocervical lesions.  

PubMed Central

AIMS: To examine the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in low grade glandular intraepithelial lesions of the cervix, adenocarcinoma with high grade glandular intraepithelial lesions combined, and adenocarcinomas; and to perform a genotyping mapping analysis of endocervical carcinomas to determine the extent of HPV infections in such lesions. MATERIAL: Archival paraffin wax embeded material from the files of the departments of pathology, National Maternity Hospital, Dublin, and University College Cork, Ireland. METHODS: HPV prevalence was examined using type specific HPV PCR, general primer HPV PCR (pan HPV screen), nonisotopic in situ hybridisation (NISH), and PCR in situ hybridisation (PCR-ISH). In situ hybridisation was performed using fluorescein labelled oligonucleotide cocktail for eber transcripts of EBV. Genotypic analysis was performed, in all cases where possible, using a grid system. RESULTS: HPV 16 and 18 were predominantly identified in low grade glandular intraepithelial lesions, high grade glandular intraepithelial lesions, and adenocarcinomas, with HPV prevalence increasing with grade of dysplasia. EBV was only identified in subepithelial lymphocytes in a minority of cases. No link could be shown between HPV and EBV in endocervical lesions. HPV infection was not clonal in endocervical cancer and coexistent adjacent cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, where present, tended to show a similar HPV type. CONCLUSIONS: The restriction of HPV types 16 and 18 to endocervical lesions suggests that their effect is restricted and specific to endocervical mucosa, but the mechanism of interaction is currently unknown. Images PMID:9462238

O'Leary, J J; Landers, R J; Crowley, M; Healy, I; Kealy, W F; Hogan, J; Cullinane, C; Kelehan, P; Doyle, C T



Genotypes and prevalence of HPV single and multiple concurrent infections in women with HSIL.  


The contribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) types to the carcinogenesis of cervical cancer has been established for a long time. However, the role of phylogenetically related and rare variants remains uncertain, as well as the influence of concurrent multiple HPV genotypes infection. We aimed at studying the prevalence of several HPV genotypes infecting women with single versus concurrent multiple HPV genotypes infection with a HSIL diagnosis in a cervical cytology. We conducted a cross-sectional study using Thin-Prep(®) liquid-based cervical cytology specimens with the diagnosis of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL), in which HPV genotype was sequentially tested. Genotypes were determined with a PapilloCheck(®) system, a DNA-Chip for the type-specific identification of 18 high-risk and six low-risk types of HPV. Of the total study population, 176 cases had a diagnosis of HSIL and positive HPV genotyping result, being HPV16 the most prevalent genotype (48.86%; 95%CI: 41.58-56.19) followed by HPV31 (14.20%; 95%CI: 9.75-20.18). Concurrent multiple HPV genotypes were detected in 36.93% (95%CI: 30.15-44.27) of the patients. The prevalence of the 10 most common HPV genotypes detected varied significantly according to the presence of single vs. concurrent multiple HPV genotypes (P?=?0.022). Moreover, women with concurrent multiple HPV genotypes were on average 3.53 (95%CI: 0.43-6.64) years younger than women with single genotype infection. Our results suggest that women with multiple genotype HPV infection differ in terms of age and distribution of the most prevalent HPV genotypes. Additionally, we provide further evidence of the predominance of HPV16 in HSIL lesions of the uterine cervix. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2014;42:919-923. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24623593

Beca, Francisco; Pinheiro, Jorge; Rios, Elisabete; Pontes, Patricia; Amendoeira, Isabel



A quadrivalent HPV vaccine induces humoral and cellular immune responses in WHIM immunodeficiency syndrome.  


WHIM-syndrome is an inherited immunodeficiency disorder with abnormal susceptibility to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and diseases. We determined safety and immunogenicity to a quadrivalent HPV vaccine in WHIM-syndrome by detection of HPV-specific antibodies and lymphoproliferation. In virus-like-particle (VLP)-ELISA, a WHIM patient showed antibody titers up to 400 for HPV-6/11/16/18, whereas immuno-competent controls developed titers of 6400-25,600. In pseudovirion assays, the patient's neutralization titers ranged from 20 to 400 to the four HPV vaccine types, while titers of 1600-25,600 were detected in healthy vaccinees. Specific proliferation of PBMC of the WHIM patient to the HPV vaccine was demonstrated. This first report on response to HPV vaccination in WHIM-immunodeficiency highlights that patients with WHIM-syndrome, and probably other immunodeficiencies, may benefit from HPV immunoprophylaxis. PMID:20472031

Handisurya, Alessandra; Schellenbacher, Christina; Reininger, Bärbel; Koszik, Frieder; Vyhnanek, Philipp; Heitger, Andreas; Kirnbauer, Reinhard; Förster-Waldl, Elisabeth



Characterization of Two Types of Human Papillomaviruses in Lesions of Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) found in lesions of 11 patients suffering from epidermodysplasia verruciformis were compared to HPV type 1 (HPV-1) and HPV type 2 (HPV-2) previously characterized in plantar and common warts, respectively. Complementary RNAs (cRNAs) to HPV-1, HPV-2, and viruses obtained from two patients with epidermodysplasia verruciformis (J.D. HPV and J.K. HPV) were used in cRNA\\\\cdot DNA filter hybridization

Gerard Orth; Stefania Jablonska; Michel Favre; Odile Croissant; Maria Jarzabek-Chorzelska; Genowefa Rzesa



Pseudovirion-binding and neutralizing antibodies to cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPV) correlated with the presence of HPV DNA in skin.  


Whereas the antibody response to the anogenital human papillomaviruses (HPVs) is known to be mainly type-specific, correlated with the presence of viral DNA and mainly directed to conformational epitopes of the virion, it is not known if this applies also to the antibody response to cutaneous HPVs. For 434 non-immunosuppressed patients with skin lesions (squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma of the skin, actinic keratosis and benign skin lesions), we compared HPV DNA status with seroreactivity to HPV pseudovirions (PsV) and to GST-L1 fusion proteins from HPV types -5, -6, -15, -16, -32 and -38. Biopsies from the skin lesions were tested for the presence of HPV DNA using three different PCR methods, with typing by sequencing. Serum samples from subjects with HPV DNA-positive biopsies and randomly selected serum samples from subjects with HPV DNA-negative biopsies were also tested with neutralization assays with HPV5, -38 and -76 PsV. Agreement of the three serological methods varied from poor to moderate. Type-specific seroprevalences among patients positive for the same type of HPV DNA (sensitivity of serology) was improved with the PsV-based method (mean of 40%, maximum 63%) compared with the GST-L1 method (mean of 20%, maximum of 25%). Neutralization was the most sensitive assay for HPV38 (50%). In summary, cutaneous HPVs also appear to induce a type-specific antibody response that correlates with the presence of HPV DNA and that can be detected with improved sensitivity using PsV-based serology. PMID:23343629

Faust, Helena; Andersson, Kristin; Forslund, Ola; Dillner, Joakim



Modulation of HPV18 and BPV1 transcription in human keratinocytes by simian virus 40 large T antigen and adenovirus type 5 E1A antigen.  


Transcription of early open reading frames initiated from the long control region (LCR) of HPV18 and BPV1 is known to be modulated by homologous and heterologous papillomarvirus E2 gene products. Using CAT constructs transfected into normal human keratinocytes, we show that SV40 large T antigen activates transcription from the LCR of both viruses, whereas Ad5-E1a antigen represses transcription from the HPV18-LCR but activates transcription from BPV1-LCR. Experiments using constructs containing subfragments of the HPV18-LCR cloned in enhancer configuration ahead of the SV40 early promoter or the HSV1-Tk promoter suggest that the effect of Ad5-E1a antigen on HPV18 transcription is probably due to a repression of the enhancer function of the LCR. The mechanism of transcription stimulation by SV40 large T antigen is less clear. The 230 bp Rsa1-Rsa1 central domain of the HPV18-LCR seems involved both in transcriptional stimulation by SV40 large T antigen and transcriptional inhibition by adenovirus E1a antigen. PMID:2155243

Bernard, B A; Bailly, C; Lenoir, M C; Darmon, M Y



Female genital mutilation.  


Female genital mutilation, also misleadingly known as female circumcision, is usually performed on girls ranging in from 1 week to puberty. Immediate physical complications include severe pain, shock, infection, bleeding, acute urinary infection, tetanus, and death. Longterm problems include chronic pain, difficulties with micturition and menstruation, pelvic infection leading to infertility, and prolonged and obstructed labor during childbirth. An estimated 80 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation. In Britain alone an estimated 10,000 girls are currently at risk. Religious, cultural, medical, and moral grounds rationalize the custom which is practiced primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab world, Malaysia, Indonesia, and among migrant populations in Western countries. According to WHO it is correlated with poverty, illiteracy, and the low status of women. Women who escape mutilation are not sought in marriage. WHO, the UN Population Fund, the UN Children's Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child have issued declarations on the eradication of female genital mutilation. In Britain, local authorities have intervened to prevent parents from mutilating their daughters. In 1984, the Inter-African Committee Against Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting Women and Children was established to work toward eliminating female genital mutilation and other damaging customs. National committees in 26 African countries coordinate projects run by local people using theater, dance, music, and storytelling for communication. In Australia, Canada, Europe, and the US women have organized to prevent the practice among vulnerable migrants and refugees. PMID:8400925

Ladjali, M; Rattray, T W; Walder, R J



Healing of Genital Injuries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Child sexual abuse as well as accidental trauma may cause acute injuries in the anogenital area. Most data on residual findings following genital trauma come from longitudinal studies of children who have been sexually assaulted, undergone surgical procedures, or experienced accidental trauma. Like injuries in other part parts of the body, such…

Berkowitz, Carol D.



HPV infection and p16 expression in carcinomas of the minor salivary glands.  


The correlation between p16 upregulation and high-risk HPV infection is well known in head and neck squamous cell cancer. However, no information is available on rare carcinomas of the minor salivary glands. We analyzed 38 samples of minor salivary gland malignancies. p16 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry, HPV DNA by using in situ hybridization to detect low (type 6 and 11) and high (type 16 and 18) risk HPV types. In 71% of samples p16 expression was found. Low-risk HPV DNA could not be detected in any of the samples, whereas high-risk HPV DNA was found in two samples of mucoepidermoid carcinoma, which also showed the highest immunoreactivity with p16. HPV infection does not seem to be a common event in minor salivary gland carcinoma. Upregulation of p16 is present in the majority of cases but only diffuse staining correlates with HPV 16 and 18 infections. PMID:22207527

Brunner, Markus; Koperek, Oskar; Wrba, Fritz; Erovic, Boban M; Heiduschka, Gregor; Schoppper, Christian; Thurnher, Dietmar



Prevalence and Correlates of Genital Warts in Kenyan Female Sex Workers  

PubMed Central

Background Our goal in the present study was to investigate the prevalence and correlates of genital warts in a population of female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya. Because of the high prevalence of HIV-1 in this population, we were particularly interested in the association between HIV-1 infection and genital warts. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of the prevalence and correlates of genital warts among high-risk women in Mombasa, Kenya. Between 2001 and 2007, 1182 women were enrolled, of whom 613 (51.4%) were HIV-1-seropositive. Chi square tests and logistic regression were used to examine the associations between genital warts and potential correlates. Results Genital warts were identified on clinical examination in 27 (2.3%) women. Women who were HIV-1-seropositive were nearly 8 times as likely to have genital warts compared to HIV-1-seronegative women (OR 7.69, 95% CI 2.30–25.6). Conclusion Understanding the prevalence and correlates of genital warts will help to determine whether coverage for the wart-inducing subtypes 6 and 11 in an HPV vaccine is an important consideration in resource-limited countries. PMID:23060082

Kavanaugh, Barbara E.; Odem-Davis, Katherine; Jaoko, Walter; Estambale, Benson; Kiarie, James N.; Masese, Linnet N.; Deya, Ruth; Manhart, Lisa E.; Graham, Susan M.; McClelland, R. Scott



Status of HPV Vaccine in the ICSN Countries

Australia has approved the HPV vaccine. Brazil has approved the HPV vaccine. Canada has approved the HPV vaccine. Denmark has approved the HPV vaccine. Finland has not approved the HPV vaccine. France has approved the HPV vaccine. Germany has approved the HPV vaccine. Hungary has the HPV vaccine under review. Iceland has approved the HPV vaccine. Italy has approved the HPV vaccine. Ireland has not approved the HPV vaccine. Japan has the HPV vaccine under review.


Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection among Women in Bangladesh: Findings from a Population-Based Survey  

PubMed Central

Background There has been no population-based study on human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence or its genotypes in Bangladesh; a country eligible for GAVI funding for HPV vaccine. Methods We used baseline survey data of a prospective cohort study that was conducted in one urban and one rural area of Bangladesh. A total of 997 urban and 905 rural married women, aged 13 to 64 years, were enrolled in the baseline during July-December, 2011. Information was collected on socio-demographic characteristics and potential risk factors for HPV infection followed by gynecological examination and collection of endocervical samples using the cervical cytobrush (Digene cervical sampler). HPV DNA testing was done by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) using a consensus primer set. Results Prevalence of any HPV infection was 7.7% with no significant difference between urban and rural women. Most common high-risk genotypes were HPV16, HPV66, HPV18, HPV45, HPV31 and HPV53. Urban women working as housemaids or garment workers were at higher risk of any HPV infection (OR?=?2.15, 95% CI: 1.13–4.11) compared to housewives. Rural women whose husband lived overseas were almost two times more likely to have any HPV infection (OR?=?1.93; 95% CI 1.05–3.55) compared to women whose husbands lived with them. Conclusion The prevalence of HPV infection among Bangladeshi women is similar to other regions of Asia. However, type-specific patterns are different. The study findings will inform the formulation of HPV vaccination policies in Bangladesh, monitoring the impact of vaccination programmes, and the identification of target populations for screening. PMID:25271836

Nahar, Quamrun; Sultana, Farhana; Alam, Anadil; Islam, Jessica Yasmine; Rahman, Mustafizur; Khatun, Fatema; Alam, Nazmul; Dasgupta, Sushil Kanta; Marions, Lena; Ashrafunnessa; Kamal, Mohammed; Cravioto, Alejandro; Reichenbach, Laura



HPV prevalence at enrollment and baseline results from the Carolina Women's Care Study, a longitudinal study of HPV persistence in women of college age  

PubMed Central

Background Cervical cancer, a rare outcome of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, disproportionately affects African American women, who are about twice more likely than European American women to die of the disease. Most cervical HPV infections clear in about one year. However, in some women HPV persists, posing a greater risk for cervical dysplasia and cancer. The Carolina Women’s Care Study (CWCS) was conducted to explore the biological, genetic, and lifestyle determinants of persistent HPV infection in college-aged European American and African American women. This paper presents the initial results of the CWCS, based upon data obtained at enrollment. Methods Freshman female students attending the University of South Carolina were enrolled in the CWCS and followed until graduation with biannual visits, including two Papanicolaou tests, cervical mucus collection, and a questionnaire assessing lifestyle factors. We recruited 467 women, 293 of whom completed four or more visits for a total of 2274 visits. Results and conclusion CWCS participants were 70% European American, 24% African American, 3% Latina/Hispanic, and 3% Asian. At enrollment, 32% tested positive for any HPV. HPV16 infection was the most common (18% of infections). Together, HPV16, 66, 51, 52, and 18 accounted for 58% of all HPV infections. Sixty-four percent of all HPV-positive samples contained more than one HPV type, with an average of 2.2 HPV types per HPV-positive participant. We found differences between African American and European American women in the prevalence of HPV infection (38.1% African American, 30.7% European American) and abnormal Papanicolaou test results (9.8% African-American, 5.8% European American). While these differences did not reach statistical significance at enrollment, as the longitudinal data of this cohort are analyzed, the sample size will allow us to confirm these results and compare the natural history of HPV infection in college-aged African American and European American women. PMID:23861602

Banister, Carolyn E; Messersmith, Amy R; Chakraborty, Hrishikesh; Wang, Yinding; Spiryda, Lisa B; Glover, Saundra H; Pirisi, Lucia; Creek, Kim E



Reduction in HPV 16/18 prevalence in sexually active young women following the introduction of HPV immunisation in England?  

PubMed Central

Background Reduction in the prevalence of vaccine type HPV infection in young women is an early indication of the impact of the HPV immunisation programme and a necessary outcome if the subsequent impact on cervical cancer is to be realised. Methods Residual vulva-vaginal swab (VVS) specimens from young women aged 16–24 years undergoing chlamydia screening in community sexual health services (formerly known as family planning clinics), general practice (GP), and youth clinics in 2010–2012 were submitted from 10 laboratories in seven regions around England. These specimens were linked to demographic and sexual behaviour data reported with the chlamydia test, anonymised, and tested for type-specific HPV DNA using a multiplex PCR and Luminex-based genotyping test. Estimated immunisation coverage was calculated and findings were compared to a baseline survey conducted prior to the introduction of HPV immunisation in 2008. Results A total of 4664 eligible specimens were collected and 4178 had a valid test result. The post-immunisation prevalence of HPV 16/18 infection was lowest in this youngest age group (16–18 years) and increased with age. This increase with age was a reversal of the pattern seen prior to immunisation and was inversely associated with estimates of age-specific immunisation coverage (65% for 16–18 year olds). The prevalence of HPV 16/18 infection in the post-immunisation survey was 6.5% amongst 16–18 year olds, compared to 19.1% in the similar survey conducted prior to the introduction of HPV immunisation. Conclusions These findings are the first indication that the national HPV immunisation programme is successfully preventing HPV 16/18 infection in sexually active young women in England. The reductions seen suggest, for the estimated coverage, high vaccine effectiveness and some herd-protection benefits. Continued surveillance is needed to determine the effects of immunisation on non-vaccine HPV types. PMID:24211166

Mesher, D.; Soldan, K.; Howell-Jones, R.; Panwar, K.; Manyenga, P.; Jit, M.; Beddows, S.; Gill, O.N.



Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis: HPV Genotypes and Risk of High-Grade Laryngeal Neoplasia  

PubMed Central

Patients with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) in Norway treated between 1987 and 2009 were recruited to this cohort study. They were followed from disease onset and data recorded until January 2012. Here, we describe the distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes, the prevalence of multiple HPV infections, and the risk of high-grade laryngeal neoplasia and respiratory tract invasive carcinoma in a large cohort of patients with RRP. We also examined whether HPV genotype, gender, age or clinical course are risk factors for this development. Clinical records and histological specimens were reviewed. Using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded biopsies, HPV genotyping were performed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays identifying 15 HPV types. HPV-negative specimens were analyzed by metagenomic sequencing. Paraffin blocks were available in 224/238 patients. The DNA quality was approved in 221/224 cases. HPV DNA was detected in 207/221 patients and all were HPV 6 or HPV 11 positive, comprising HPV 6 in 133/207, HPV 11 in 40/207 cases and HPV 6/11 in 15/207 cases. Co-infection with one or two high-risk HPV types together with HPV 6 or HPV 11 was present in 19/207 patients. Metagenomic sequencing of 14 HPV-negative specimens revealed HPV 8 in one case. In total, 39/221 patients developed high-grade laryngeal neoplasia. 8/221 patients developed carcinoma of the respiratory tract (six patients with laryngeal carcinoma and two patients with lung carcinoma). High-grade laryngeal neoplasias were found more frequently in HPV-negative versus HPV-positive patients, (RR?=?2.35, 95% CI 1.1, 4.99), as well as respiratory tract carcinomas (RR?=?48, 95% CI 10.72, 214.91). In summary, the majority of RRP were associated with HPV 6 and/or 11. HPV-negative RRP biopsies occurred more frequently in adult-onset patients, and were associated with an increased risk of laryngeal neoplasia and carcinoma in the respiratory tract. PMID:24918765

Omland, Turid; Lie, Kathrine A.; Akre, Harriet; Sandlie, Lars Erik; Jebsen, Peter; Sandvik, Leiv; Nymoen, Dag Andre; Bzhalava, Davit; Dillner, Joakim; Brøndbo, Kjell



HPV Genotype Distribution in Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia among HIV-Infected Women in Pune, India  

PubMed Central

Background The distribution of HPV genotypes, their association with rigorously confirmed cervical precancer endpoints, and factors associated with HPV infection have not been previously documented among HIV-infected women in India. We conducted an observational study to expand this evidence base in this population at high risk of cervical cancer. Methods HIV-infected women (N?=?278) in Pune, India underwent HPV genotyping by Linear Array assay. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) disease ascertainment was maximized by detailed assessment using cytology, colposcopy, and histopathology and a composite endpoint. Results CIN2+ was detected in 11.2% while CIN3 was present in 4.7% participants. HPV genotypes were present in 52.5% (146/278) and ‘carcinogenic’ HPV genotypes were present in 35.3% (98/278) HIV-infected women. ‘Possibly carcinogenic’ and ‘non/unknown carcinogenic’ HPV genotypes were present in 14.7% and 29.5% participants respectively. Multiple (?2) HPV genotypes were present in half (50.7%) of women with HPV, while multiple ‘carcinogenic’ HPV genotypes were present in just over a quarter (27.8%) of women with ‘carcinogenic’ HPV. HPV16 was the commonest genotype, present in 12% overall, as well as in 47% and 50% in CIN2+ and CIN3 lesions with a single carcinogenic HPV infection, respectively. The carcinogenic HPV genotypes in declining order of prevalence overall included HPV 16, 56, 18, 39, 35, 51, 31, 59, 33, 58, 68, 45 and 52. Factors independently associated with ‘carcinogenic’ HPV type detection were reporting ?2 lifetime sexual partners and having lower CD4+ count. HPV16 detection was associated with lower CD4+ cell counts and currently receiving combination antiretroviral therapy. Conclusion HPV16 was the most common HPV genotype, although a wide diversity and high multiplicity of HPV genotypes was observed. Type-specific attribution of carcinogenic HPV genotypes in CIN3 lesions in HIV-infected women, and etiologic significance of concurrently present non/unknown carcinogenic HPV genotypes await larger studies. PMID:22723879

Mane, Arati; Nirmalkar, Amit; Risbud, Arun R.; Vermund, Sten H.; Mehendale, Sanjay M.; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V.



Sequential Acquisition of Human Papillomavirus Infection of the Anus and Cervix: The Hawaii HPV Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Relatively little is known about the epidemiology of anal HPV infection among healthy women and its relation to cervical HPV infection. Methods The association of an incident cervical (or anal) HPV infection with the subsequent risk of a genotype-concordant incident anal (or cervical) HPV infection was examined through a longitudinal cohort study of 751sexually-active women. Age-adjusted hazard ratios, obtained using Cox regression, served as measures of relative risk (RR). Results The RR of acquiring an anal HPV infection after a cervical HPV infection with the same genotype was 20.5 (95% CI: 16.3-25.7); and the RR of acquiring a cervical HPV infection following an anal HPV infection with the same genotype was 8.8 (95% CI: 6.4-12.2) compared to women without a preceding anal/cervical HPV infection with a concordant genotype. RRs varied by phylogenetic species, with ?3/?15 and ?1/?8/?10 types having a greater likelihood than other types of infecting the anus among women with a preceding same-type infection at the cervix. Conclusions It appears common for anal and cervical HPV infections to occur consecutively. The high degree of genotype-specific concordance suggests that the cervix (vagina) and anus may serve as reservoirs for HPV infection at the other anatomic site. PMID:20307204

Goodman, Marc T.; Shvetsov, Yurii B.; McDuffie, Katharine; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Zhu, Xuemei; Thompson, Pamela J.; Ning, Lily; Killeen, Jeffrey; Kamemoto, Lori; Hernandez, Brenda Y.



Effect of HPV assay choice on perceived prevalence in a population-based sample.  


Human papillomavirus (HPV) immunization programs clearly have considerable potential to reduce HPV-associated disease; they are also resource-intense; so, it is essential that their effectiveness is determined accurately and in a timely way. Measuring circulating HPV types in a population can provide an early measure of vaccine impact. We assessed the impact of HPV assay on the observed population prevalence of HPV in women who provided samples as part of a National HPV Immunisation Surveillance Exercise. A total of 1145 liquid-based cytology samples, 326 self-taken swabs, and 371 urine samples were tested with a line-blot assay (the Digene reverse hybridization HPV genotyping assay) and a luminex-based assay (the Mulitmetrix HPV genotyping assay). Assay agreement was determined for the different sample types. Positivity (according to assay) was compared at different levels ranging from positive for HPV 16 and/or 18 to positive for any one of the 18 HPV types common to both assays. The luminex assay consistently detected a higher prevalence of HPV--up to 10% for HPV types common to both assays. In addition, disagreement for HPV 16 and/or 18 was observed in around 9% of the overall sample, with an associated ? score of 0.74. These data indicate that assay choice has a significant impact on observed prevalence of HPV, including vaccine types. The impact of any change of assay during longitudinal surveillance programs should thus be taken into account to avoid confounding the assessment of any vaccine-induced changes. PMID:23628819

Cuschieri, Kate; Kavanagh, Kim; Sinka, Katy; Robertson, Chris; Cubie, Heather; Moore, Catherine; Donaghy, Martin



Association of HPV infection and Chlamydia trachomatis seropositivity in cases of cervical neoplasia in Midwest Brazil.  


High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is considered the main etiological agent for cervical neoplasia. However, the presence of a single type HPV infection alone is unlikely to be sufficient to cause cervical cancer. There is epidemiologic evidence suggesting that HPV and Chlamydia trachomatis play a central role in the etiology of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and subsequent cervical cancer. To evaluate the HPV prevalence and the seropositivity for C. trachomatis in women referred to the colposcopy clinic due to an abnormal cervical smear and to examine the effect of this association on the severity of cervical neoplasia. Following enrollment, 131 patients underwent colposcopy and biopsies when necessary. HPV DNA was detected by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and genotyping was performed by reverse line-blot hybridization assay. C. trachomatis seropositivity was tested by ELISA for the detection of IgG antibodies. The prevalence of HPV infection was 86.3%. Seropositivity for C. trachomatis was 26%. Thirty-one women (27.4%) were positive for C. trachomatis antibodies and HPV-DNA. The most prevalent HPV type in C. trachomatis-seropositive women were HPV 16 (51.6%) and this HPV type was present mainly in neoplasia cases. Positivity for HPV, particularly HPV types 16 and 18, and C. trachomatis seropositivity was significantly associated with a diagnosis of high grade neoplasia. Borderline significance was observed after adjustment for HPV. C. trachomatis seropositivity is associated with high grade neoplasia in women infected with HPV, mainly when the types 16 and 18 were involved. PMID:22585734

da Silva Barros, Narriman Kennia; Costa, Maria Cecília; Alves, Rosane Ribeiro Figueiredo; Villa, Luísa Lina; Derchain, Sophie Françoise Mauricette; Zeferino, Luiz Carlos; Dos Santos Carneiro, Megmar Aparecida; Rabelo-Santos, Silvia Helena



Women Have a Preference for Their Male Partner to Be HPV Vaccinated  

PubMed Central

Background Peer influence and social networking can change female adolescent and young adult behavior. Peer influence on preferences for male human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has not been documented. The primary aim of this study was to determine if women had preferences about male sexual partner HPV vaccination receipt. Methods and Findings A prospective survey of women 18–26 years of age was conducted at an urban university student health clinic. Education about the two HPV vaccines, cervical cancer and genital warts was provided. Women self-reported their demographic and medical history data, as well as their own preferences for HPV vaccine and their preferences for their male partner HPV vaccine using a 5 point Likert scale. 601 women, mean age of 21.5 years (SD 2.4), participated between 2011 and 2012. Nearly 95% of respondents were heterosexual; condoms and contraceptives were used in over half of the population. Regardless of the woman's vaccination status, women had significantly higher (strongly agree/agree) preferences for the male partner being vaccinated with HPV4 than not caring if he was vaccinated (63.6% vs. 13.1%, p<0.001). This preference was repeated for sexual risk factors and past reproductive medical history. Women who received HPV4 compared to those choosing HPV2 had a significantly lower proportion of preferences for not caring if the male partner was vaccinated (13% vs. 22%, p?=?0.015). Conclusions Women preferred a HPV vaccinated male partner. Peer messaging might change the male HPV vaccination uptake. PMID:24828237

Harper, Diane Medved; Alexander, Natalie Marya; Ahern, Debra Ann; Comes, Johanna Claire; Smith, Melissa Smith; Heutinck, Melinda Ann; Handley, Sandra Martin



Estimation of HPV prevalence in young women in Scotland; monitoring of future vaccine impact  

PubMed Central

Background Estimation of pre-immunisation prevalence of HPV and distribution of HPV types is fundamental to understanding the subsequent impact of HPV vaccination. We describe the type specific prevalence of HPV in females aged 20–21 in Scotland who attended or defaulted from cervical screening using three specimen types; from attenders liquid based cytology and from defaulters urine or self-taken swabs. Methods Residual liquid based cytology samples (n?=?2148), collected from women aged 20–21 attending for their first smear were genotyped for HPV. A sample (n?=?709) from women who had defaulted from screening was also made available for HPV testing through the use of postal testing kits (either urine samples (n?=?378) or self-taken swabs (n?=?331)). Estimates of prevalence weighted by deprivation, and for the postal testing kit, also by reminder status and specimen type were calculated for each HPV type. The distribution of HPV types were compared between specimen types and the occurrence of multiple high-risk infections examined. The influence of demographic factors on high-risk HPV positivity and multiple infections was examined via logistic regression. Results The prevalence of any HPV in young women aged 20–21 was 32.2% for urine, 39.5% for self-taken swab, and 49.4% for LBC specimens. Infection with vaccine specific types (HPV 16, 18) or those associated with cross-protection (HPV 31, 33, 45, 51) was common. Individuals were more likely to test positive for high-risk HPV if they resided in an area of high deprivation or in a rural area. The overall distribution of HPV types did not vary between defaulters and attenders. Multiple infections occurred in 48.1% of high-risk HPV positive individuals. Excluding vaccine types the most common pairing was HPV 56 and 66. Conclusions Understanding of the pre-immunisation prevalence of HPV in young women puts Scotland in a prime position to assess the early effect of vaccination as the first highly vaccinated cohorts of individuals enter the screening programme. Differences in results with different specimen types must be taken into account when monitoring the impact of vaccination programmes. PMID:24188790



Genotyping of 27 human papillomavirus types by using L1 consensus PCR products by a single-hybridization, reverse line blot detection method.  


Amplification of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA by L1 consensus primer systems (e.g., MY09/11 or GP5(+)/6(+)) can detect as few as 10 to 100 molecules of HPV targets from a genital sample. However, genotype determination by dot blot hybridization is laborious and requires at least 27 separate hybridizations for substantive HPV-type discrimination. A reverse blot method was developed which employs a biotin-labeled PCR product hybridized to an array of immobilized oligonucleotide probes. By the reverse blot strip analysis, genotype discrimination of multiple HPV types can be accomplished in a single hybridization and wash cycle. Twenty-seven HPV probe mixes, two control probe concentrations, and a single reference line were immobilized to 75- by 6-mm nylon strips. Each individual probe line contained a mixture of two bovine serum albumin-conjugated oligonucleotide probes specific to a unique HPV genotype. The genotype spectrum discriminated on this strip includes the high-risk, or cancer-associated, HPV genotypes 16, 18, 26, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 55, 56, 58, 59, 68 (ME180), MM4 (W13B), MM7 (P291), and MM9 (P238A) and the low-risk, or non-cancer-associated, genotypes 6, 11, 40, 42, 53, 54, 57, 66, and MM8 (P155). In addition, two concentrations of beta-globin probes allowed for assessment of individual specimen adequacy following amplification. We have evaluated the performance of the strip method relative to that of a previously reported dot blot format (H. M. Bauer et al., p. 132-152, in C. S. Herrington and J. O. D. McGee (ed.), Diagnostic Molecular Pathology: a Practical Approach, (1992), by testing 328 cervical swab samples collected in Digene specimen transport medium (Digene Diagnostics, Silver Spring, Md.). We show excellent agreement between the two detection formats, with 92% concordance for HPV positivity (kappa = 0.78, P < 0.001). Nearly all of the discrepant HPV-positive samples resulted from weak signals and can be attributed to sampling error from specimens with low concentrations (<1 copy/microliter) of HPV DNA. The primary advantage of the strip-based detection system is the ability to rapidly genotype HPVs present in genital samples with high sensitivity and specificity, minimizing the likelihood of misclassification. PMID:9738060

Gravitt, P E; Peyton, C L; Apple, R J; Wheeler, C M



Dendritic cell-based tumor vaccine for cervical cancer I: in vitro stimulation with recombinant protein-pulsed dendritic cells induces specific T cells to HPV16 E7 or HPV18 E7  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeHuman papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 and 18 are the most prevalent genotypes in cervical cancers. The viral oncoproteins E6 and E7 are considered to be tumor-specific targets for immunotherapy. HPV E7 antigen-loaded dendritic cells (DC) were evaluated as cellular tumor vaccine.MethodsAutologous monocyte-derived DCs loaded with recombinant HPV16 or HPV18 E7 oncoprotein were used to induce in vitro a specific T

Marion Nonn; Manuela Schinz; Klaus Zumbach; Michael Pawlita; Achim Schneider; Matthias Dürst; Andreas M. Kaufmann



Interaction between polymorphisms of the Human Leukocyte Antigen and HPV16 Variants on the risk of invasive cervical cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Persistent infection with oncogenic types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is the major risk factor for invasive cervical cancer (ICC), and non-European variants of HPV-16 are associated with an increased risk of persistence and ICC. HLA class II polymorphisms are also associated with genetic susceptibility to ICC. Our aim is to verify if these associations are influenced by HPV-16 variability.

Patricia S de Araujo Souza; Paulo C Maciag; Karina B Ribeiro; Maria Luiza Petzl-Erler; Eduardo L Franco; Luisa L Villa



Gaps in detailed knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) and the HPV vaccine among medical students in Scotland  

PubMed Central

Background A vaccination programme targeted against human papillomavirus (HPV) types16 and 18 was introduced in the UK in 2008, with the aim of decreasing incidence of cervical disease. Vaccine roll out to 12–13 year old girls with a catch-up programme for girls aged up to 17 years and 364 days was accompanied by a very comprehensive public health information (PHI) campaign which described the role of HPV in the development of cervical cancer. Methods A brief questionnaire, designed to assess acquisition of knowledge of HPV infection and its association to cervical cancer, was administered to two different cohorts of male and female 1st year medical students (school leavers: 83% in age range 17–20) at a UK university. The study was timed so that the first survey in 2008 immediately followed a summer's intensive PHI campaign and very shortly after vaccine roll-out (150 students). The second survey was exactly one year later over which time there was a sustained PHI campaign (213 students). Results We addressed three research questions: knowledge about three specific details of HPV infection that could be acquired from PHI, whether length of the PHI campaign and/or vaccination of females had any bearing on HPV knowledge, and knowledge differences between men and women regarding HPV. No female student in the 2008 cohort had completed the three-dose vaccine schedule compared to 58.4% of female students in 2009. Overall, participants’ knowledge regarding the sexually transmitted nature of HPV and its association with cervical cancer was high in both year groups. However, in both years, less than 50% of students correctly identified that HPV causes over 90% of cases of cervical cancer. Males gave fewer correct answers for these two details in 2009. In 2008 only around 50% of students recognised that the current vaccine protects against a limited subset of cervical cancer-causing HPV sub-types, although there was a significant increase in correct response among female students in the 2009 cohort compared to the 2008 cohort. Conclusions This study highlights a lack of understanding regarding the extent of protection against cervical cancer conferred by the HPV vaccine, even among an educated population in the UK who could have a vested interest in acquiring such knowledge. The intensive PHI campaign accompanying the first year of HPV vaccination seemed to have little effect on knowledge over time. This is one of the first studies to assess detailed knowledge of HPV in both males and females. There is scope for continued improvements to PHI regarding the link between HPV infection and cervical cancer. PMID:23521847



HPV16 synthetic long peptide (HPV16-SLP) vaccination therapy of patients with advanced or recurrent HPV16-induced gynecological carcinoma, a phase II trial  

PubMed Central

Background Human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV16)-induced gynecological cancers, in particular cervical cancers, are found in many women worldwide. The HPV16 encoded oncoproteins E6 and E7 are tumor-specific targets for the adaptive immune system permitting the development of an HPV16-synthetic long peptide (SLP) vaccine with an excellent treatment profile in animal models. Here, we determined the toxicity, safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of the HPV16 SLP vaccine in patients with advanced or recurrent HPV16-induced gynecological carcinoma. Methods Patients with HPV16-positive advanced or recurrent gynecological carcinoma (n?=?20) were subcutaneously vaccinated with an HPV16-SLP vaccine consisting of a mix of 13 HPV16 E6 and HPV16 E7 overlapping long peptides in Montanide ISA-51 adjuvant. The primary endpoints were safety, toxicity and tumor regression as determined by RECIST. In addition, the vaccine-induced T-cell response was assessed by proliferation and associated cytokine production as well as IFN?-ELISPOT. Results No systemic toxicity beyond CTCAE grade II was observed. In a few patients transient flu-like symptoms were observed. In 9 out of 16 tested patients vaccine-induced HPV16-specific proliferative responses were detected which were associated with the production of IFN?, TNF?, IL-5 and/or IL-10. ELISPOT analysis revealed a vaccine-induced immune response in 11 of the 13 tested patients. The capacity to respond to the vaccine was positively correlated to the patient’s immune status as reflected by their response to common recall antigens at the start of the trial. Median survival was 12.6 ± 9.1?months. No regression of tumors was observed among the 12 evaluable patients. Nineteen patients died of progressive disease. Conclusions The HPV16-SLP vaccine was well tolerated and induced a broad IFN?-associated T-cell response in patients with advanced or recurrent HPV16-induced gynecological carcinoma but neither induced tumor regression nor prevented progressive disease. We, therefore, plan to use this vaccine in combination with chemotherapy and immunomodulation. PMID:23557172



Genital prolapse in women  

PubMed Central

Introduction Prolapse of the uterus or vagina is usually the result of loss of pelvic support, and causes mainly non-specific symptoms. It may affect over half of women aged 50 to 59 years, but spontaneous regression may occur. Risks of genital prolapse increase with advancing parity and age, increasing weight of the largest baby delivered, and hysterectomy. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-surgical treatments in women with genital prolapse? What are the effects of surgical treatments in women with anterior vaginal wall prolapse? What are the effects of surgical treatments in women with posterior vaginal wall prolapse? What are the effects of surgical treatments in women with upper vaginal wall prolapse? What are the effects of using different surgical materials in women with genital prolapse? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to August 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 15 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: abdominal Burch colposuspension; abdominal sacral colpopexy; abdominal sacrohysteropexy; anterior colporrhaphy with mesh reinforcement; laparoscopic surgery; mesh or synthetic grafts; native (autologous) tissue; open abdominal surgery; pelvic floor muscle exercises; posterior colporrhaphy (with or without mesh reinforcement); posterior intravaginal slingplasty (infracoccygeal sacropexy); sacrospinous colpopexy (vaginal sacral colpopexy); sutures; traditional anterior colporrhaphy; transanal repair; ultralateral anterior colporrhaphy alone or with cadaveric fascia patch; vaginal hysterectomy; vaginal oestrogen; vaginal pessaries; and vaginal sacrospinous colpopexy. PMID:22414610



Genital burns and vaginal delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obstetric complications may result from burn scarring in the genital area. Women in developing countries typically squat around cooking fires, and burns are common. This recent case in Nepal describes obstructed labor in a young woman whose genital area had extensive scarring from a cooking fire injury. Proper antenatal assessment by health care providers can reduce the risk to mothers

R. Pant; V. Manandhar; F. Wittgenstein; J. A. Fortney; C. Fukushima



Comparisons of high-risk cervical HPV infections in Caribbean and US populations  

PubMed Central

Background Disparities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates exist among women of African ancestry (African-American, African-Caribbean and African). Persistent cervical infection with Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with cervical dysplasia and if untreated, could potentially progress to invasive cervical cancer. Very few studies have been conducted to examine the true prevalence of HPV infection in this population. Comparisons of cervical HPV infection and the type-specific distribution of HPV were performed between cancer-free Caribbean and US women. Results The Caribbean population consisted of 212 women from Tobago and 99 women from Jamaica. The US population tested, consisted of 82 women from Pittsburgh. The majority of the US subjects was Caucasian, 74% (61/82) while 12% (10/82) and 13% (11/82) were African-American or other ethnic groups, respectively. The age-adjusted prevalence of any HPV infection among women from Tobago was 35%, while for Jamaica, it was 81% (p < 0.0001). The age-adjusted prevalence of HPV infection for Caribbean subjects was not statistically significantly different from the US (any HPV: 47% vs. 39%, p > 0.1; high-risk HPVs: 27% vs. 25%, p > 0.1); no difference was observed between US-Blacks and Jamaicans (any HPV: 92% vs. 81%, p > 0.1; high-risk HPV: 50% vs. 53%, p > 0.1). However, US-Whites had a lower age-adjusted prevalence of HPV infections compared to Jamaican subjects (any HPV: 29% vs. 81%, p < 0.0001; high-risk HPV: 20% vs. 53%, p < 0.001). Subjects from Jamaica, Tobago, and US-Blacks had a higher proportion of high-risk HPV infections (Tobago: 20%, Jamaica: 58%, US-Blacks: 40%) compared to US-Whites (15%). Similar observations were made for the presence of infections with multiple high-risk HPV types (Tobago: 12%, Jamaica: 43%, US-Blacks: 30%, US-Whites: 8%). Although we observed similar prevalence of HPV16 infections among Caribbean and US-White women, there was a distinct distribution of high-risk HPV types when comparisons were made between the ethnic groups. Conclusion The higher prevalence of cervical HPV infections and multiple high-risk infections in Caribbean and US-Black women may contribute to the high incidence and prevalence of cervical cancer in these populations. Evaluation of a larger sample size is currently ongoing to confirm the distinct distribution of HPV types between ethnic groups. PMID:19208214

Ragin, Camille C; Watt, Angela; Markovic, Nina; Bunker, Clareann H; Edwards, Robert P; Eckstein, Stacy; Fletcher, Horace; Garwood, David; Gollin, Susanne M; Jackson, Maria; Patrick, Alan L; Smikle, M; Taioli, Emanuela; Wheeler, Victor W; Wilson, Jacque B; Younger, N; McFarlane-Anderson, Norma



Detection and Analysis of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in Breast Cancer Patients by an Effective Method of HPV Capture  

PubMed Central

Despite an increase in the number of molecular epidemiological studies conducted in recent years to evaluate the association between human papillomavirus (HPV) and the risk of breast carcinoma, these studies remain inconclusive. Here we aim to detect HPV DNA in various tissues from patients with breast carcinoma using the method of HPV capture combined with massive paralleled sequencing (MPS). To validate the confidence of our methods, 15 cervical cancer samples were tested by PCR and the new method. Results showed that there was 100% consistence between the two methods.DNA from peripheral blood, tumor tissue, adjacent lymph nodes and adjacent normal tissue were collected from seven malignant breast cancer patients, and HPV type 16(HPV16) was detected in 1/7, 1/7, 1/7and 1/7 of patients respectively. Peripheral blood, tumor tissue and adjacent normal tissue were also collected from two patients with benign breast tumor, and 1/2, 2/2 and 2/2 was detected to have HPV16 DNA respectively. MPS metrics including mapping ratio, coverage, depth and SNVs were provided to characterize HPV in samples. The average coverage was 69% and 61.2% for malignant and benign samples respectively. 126 SNVs were identified in all 9 samples. The maximum number of SNVs was located in the gene of E2 and E4 among all samples. Our study not only provided an efficient method to capture HPV DNA, but detected the SNVS, coverage, SNV type and depth. The finding has provided further clue of association between HPV16 and breast cancer. PMID:24614680

Liu, Xiao; Lv, Yonggang; Wu, Jinghua; Zhuang, Xuehan; Zhang, Juliang; Zhao, Yi; Huang, Haodong; Fan, Jing; Yao, Qing; He, Chenyang; Zhang, Xiuqing; Huang, Chen; Chen, Jianghao; Wang, Ling



HPV Vaccine Information for Young Women  


... STDs) Share Compartir HPV Vaccine Information For Young Women - Fact Sheet Two vaccines are available to prevent ... warts at any point in time. Which girls/women should receive HPV vaccination? HPV vaccination is recommended ...


Frequently Asked Questions about HPV Vaccine Safety  


... go to learn more about HPV vaccines? Are human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines safe? There have been many studies ... available in the United States? There are two human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines that are licensed for use in ...


Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Signs and Symptoms  


... message, please visit this page: About . Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Share Compartir Signs and Symptoms What are the signs, symptoms and potential health consequences of HPV? Most people with HPV do not develop symptoms ...


Correlation between ebv co-infection and HPV16 genome integrity in Tunisian cervical cancer patients  

PubMed Central

Infection with high risk Human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is necessary but not sufficient to cause cervical carcinoma. This study explored whether multiple HR-HPV or coinfection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) influence the integration status of HPV16 genome. The presence and typing of HPV in a series of 125 cervical specimens were assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the specific primers for the HPV L1 region. As for EBV infection, the viral EBNA1 gene was used for its detection through PCR amplification. Disruption of the HPV E2 gene was assessed by amplification of the entire E2 gene with single set of primers, while E2 transcripts were evaluated by a reverse transcription PCR method (RT-PCR). The overall prevalence of HPVDNA was of 81.8% in cervical cancers versus 26.9% in benign lesions. In HPV positive cases, HPV16 and HPV18 were the most prevalent types, followed by HPV types 33, 31. EBV EBNA1 prevalence was statistically more frequent in cervical carcinomas than in benign lesions (29.5%, vs 9.6%; P=0.01). No viral infection was detected in healthy control women. The uninterrupted E2 gene was correlated with the presence of E2 transcripts originating from the HPV episomal forms. It was observed that integration was more common in HPV18 and EBV coinfection. The presence of EBV caused a five-fold [OR= 5; CI= 1.15-21.8; P = 0.04] increase in the risk of HPV16 genome integration in the host genome. This study indicates that EBV infection is acting as a cofactor for induction of cervical cancer by favoring HPVDNA integration. PMID:24031886

Kahla, Saloua; Oueslati, Sarra; Achour, Mongia; Kochbati, Lotfi; Chanoufi, Mohamed Badis; Maalej, Mongi; Oueslati, Ridha



Genomic diversity of low-risk human papillomavirus genotypes HPV 40, HPV 42, HPV 43, and HPV 44.  


In order to investigate the genomic diversity of low-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes, a total of 108 isolates of HPV 40, HPV 42, HPV 43, or HPV 44, obtained from anal swabs or tissue specimens of patients with anogenital warts, and cervical swabs of women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of different grades, were analyzed. The characterization of genomic variants was established by sequencing one third of the viral genome and analysis of three different genomic regions: L1, LCR, and E6. Maximum variant divergence accounted for 0.4-1.1% of the investigated genomic segments. Several novel, potentially important nucleotide substitutions, deletions, and insertions are described. Altogether, among 14 HPV 40 isolates, a total of nine different genomic variants were identified, composed of eight L1, five LCR, and four E6 genomic variants. Among 49 HPV 42 isolates, a total of 30 genomic variants were identified, composed of 20 L1, 18 LCR, and four E6 genomic variants. Among 10 HPV 43 isolates, distributed into two major genomic variant lineages with clearly defined nucleotide signatures, three genomic variants were identified, composed of three L1, two LCR, and two E6 genomic variants. Among 35 HPV 44 isolates, a total of eight HPV 44 and 11 subtype HPV 44 genomic variants were identified, composed of 13 L1, 14 LCR, and 6 E6 genomic variants. A similar level of genomic diversity of HPV 44 and its subtype was identified in our geographic region as has been reported previously on isolates collected worldwide. PMID:24155245

Maver, Polona J; Kocjan, Boštjan J; Seme, Katja; Poljak, Mario



Molekulare Diagnostik der HPV Infektion  

PubMed Central

Carcinogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV) cause the majority of cervical cancers and other anogentical cancers. Large randomized trials have shown that HPV testing can be efficiently used for primary cervical cancer screening. Other applications include the triage of abnormal cytology results and the follow-up of women after treatment. Many assays have been developed to measure DNA, RNA, and proteins of HPV. The various tests can have very different applications. It is important to validate HPV assays before they are implemented in screening or clinical care. PMID:21845360

Wentzensen, PD Dr. med. Nicolas



Reactivity of human sera in a sensitive, high-throughput pseudovirus-based papillomavirus neutralization assay for HPV16 and HPV18.  


Sensitive high-throughput neutralization assays, based upon pseudoviruses carrying a secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) reporter gene, were developed and validated for human papillomavirus (HPV)16, HPV18, and bovine papillomavirus 1 (BPV1). SEAP pseudoviruses were produced by transient transfection of codon-modified papillomavirus structural genes into an SV40 T antigen expressing line derived from 293 cells, yielding sufficient pseudovirus from one flask for thousands of titrations. In a 96-well plate format, in this initial characterization, the assay was reproducible and appears to be as sensitive as, but more specific than, a standard papillomavirus-like particle (VLP)-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The neutralization assay detected type-specific HPV16 or HPV18 neutralizing antibodies (titers of 160-10240) in sera of the majority of a group of women infected with the corresponding HPV type, but not in virgin women. Sera from HPV16 VLP vaccinees had high anti-HPV16 neutralizing titers (mean: 45000; range: 5120-163840), but no anti-HPV18 neutralizing activity. The SEAP pseudovirus-based neutralization assay should be a practical method for quantifying potentially protective antibody responses in HPV natural history and prophylactic vaccine studies. PMID:15051381

Pastrana, Diana V; Buck, Christopher B; Pang, Yuk-Ying S; Thompson, Cynthia D; Castle, Philip E; FitzGerald, Peter C; Krüger Kjaer, Susanne; Lowy, Douglas R; Schiller, John T



Berberine modulates AP1 activity to suppress HPV transcription and downstream signaling to induce growth arrest and apoptosis in cervical cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background-  Specific types of high risk Human papillomaviruses (HR-HPVs) particularly, HPV types 16 and 18 cause cervical cancer and while\\u000a the two recently developed vaccines against these HPV types are prophylactic in nature, therapeutic options for treatment\\u000a and management of already existing HPV infection are not available as yet. Because transcription factor, Activator Protein-1\\u000a (AP-1) plays a central role in HPV-mediated

Sutapa Mahata; Alok C Bharti; Shirish Shukla; Abhishek Tyagi; Syed A Husain; Bhudev C Das



Female genital cutting: clinical and cultural guidelines.  


Clinical guidelines for managing women who have undergone female genital cutting are essential in providing appropriate and culturally competent care. The objectives of this study were to review the literature, describe the types of female genital cutting, evaluate its immediate and long-term complications, and provide clinical guidelines for managing women who have undergone this procedure. We conducted an extensive literature search on the MEDLINE database (1966-2003) for articles pertaining to female circumcision/genital mutilation/cutting. The search was extended further by citations in these journals not identified in MEDLINE. National and international nongovernmental organizations provided articles not available in American libraries. The author has developed guidelines based on personal experience and recommendations from the literature. The major inclusion criteria limited the search to: 1) English language, 2) medical journals, 3) WHO publications, 4) medical society publications, 5) case studies and statistical data on medical complications, 6) infertility and sexual issues, 7) U.S. legal practice, and 8) deinfibulation. The exclusion criteria pertained to articles: 1) reviewing the literature, 2) lacking epidemiologic data, 3) addressing political and ethical issues, and 4) discussing international concerns. Immediate complications include hemorrhage, infection, urinary dysfunction, shock, or death. Long-term complications include urinary complications, scarring, pain, infection, and infertility. Obstetric complications include lacerations, wound infections, postpartum hemorrhage, and sepsis. Fetal complications are rarely seen in Western countries. Women who have undergone female genital cutting can experience complications. Practitioners must recognize the type of circumcision, ensure cultural competency, and provide appropriate clinical care. PMID:15024227

Nour, Nawal M



Failure to demonstrate human papillomavirus (HPV) involvement in Bowen’s disease of the skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the aetiology of extragenital Bowen’s disease (EBD), a series of 91 cases\\u000a were analysed using in situ hybridization (ISH) with whole genomic DNA probes of HPV types 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 11, 12, 15, 16,\\u000a 18, 26, 36, 37, 39, 42, 55 and 59. No HPV DNA was found in

S. Lu; K. Syrjänen; V. K. Havu; S. Syrjänen



Oncogenic potential of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and its relation with cervical cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common cause of cervical cancer. Cervical cancer being the second most common cancer\\u000a after lung cancer, affecting women of different age groups; has a prevalence of about 20% in young sexually active women.\\u000a Among different types of HPV, HPV16 the major strain causing this cancer and is sexually transmitted had been unnoticed for\\u000a decades.

Rabia Faridi; Amreen Zahra; Khalida Khan; Muhammad Idrees



[Use of polymerase chain reaction with L1 consensus primer for detection of HPV16 and HPV18 in cervical cancer tissues].  


Biopsy materials of cervical carcinoma including 20 cervical adenocarcinomas and 20 squamous cell carcinomas were collected. A rapid method for determining HPV type was developed, based on DdeI restriction enzymes analysis within the L1 region of HPV, amplified by PCR using consensus primers. The results indicated that HPV type 16 was detected more often in squamous cell carcinomas than in adenocarcinomas (80% vs 15%, P < 0.001), conversely, HPV type 18 was detected significantly more often in adenocarcinoma tissues (45% vs 5%, P < 0.001). These differences may reflect the presence of different virus receptors in cancer cells with different morphologic potential, or, they may indicate that the specific HPV infection actually plays a direct role in the process of carcinogenesis. PMID:7924857

Zhao, F X; Liu, S Y; Si, J Y



Perceptions and acceptability of HPV vaccination among parents of young adolescents: a multicenter national survey in China.  


Prophylactic HPV vaccines target young adolescents to prevent related cervical lesions and even genital warts prior to onset of sexual activity. Parental consent is often essential for success of vaccination program for this age group. We conducted a national multicenter study to explore the acceptability of HPV vaccination among parents of young adolescents and associated factors in relevant parent decision making in China. A total of 2899 parents of young adolescents (11-17 years) participated in the survey between November 28, 2011 and May 9, 2012, but four were excluded from analysis because of inconsistencies in their given information in the questionnaire. Mothers accounted for 62.8% of the parent participants. The mean age of the parents was 40.40 (standard deviation, 4.68) years. Only 36.2% of the parents accepted the vaccine for their children. Knowledge about HPV and HPV vaccine was a positive correlate with HPV vaccination acceptability (Ptrend=0.003). Grade of child (Ptrend=0.015), prior vaccination experience outside the National Expanded Program on Immunization (OR: 1.43; 95%CI: 1.19-1.72), fear of cervical cancer and/or genital warts (OR: 2.47; 95%CI: 2.00-3.05), and prior consultation regarding HPV vaccine information (OR: 2.35; 95%CI: 1.57-3.52) were also positively associated with higher HPV vaccine acceptability. The acceptability was lower in mothers (OR: 0.45; 95%CI: 0.37-0.54) and who had better education (Ptrend=0.009). 57.3% of the parents agreed that the most appropriate venue for HPV vaccination was the local center for disease prevention and control. In conclusion, our study indicates a low acceptability of HPV vaccination among parents of young adolescents in China. We understand there are many challenges in implementing HPV vaccination program. Our findings will serve as valuable references for future HPV vaccination policies and campaigns after HPV vaccines are approved in China. PMID:23707446

Zhang, Shao-Kai; Pan, Xiong-Fei; Wang, Shao-Ming; Yang, Chun-Xia; Gao, Xiao-Hong; Wang, Zeng-Zhen; Li, Man; Ren, Ze-Fang; Zhao, Fang-Hui; Qiao, You-Lin



Genital herpes - self-care  


... 2010 Dec17;59(RR-12):1-110. Lentz GM, Eckert LO. Infections of the lower genital tracts: ... toxic shock syndrome, endometritis, and salpingitis. In: Lentz GM, Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, Katz VL, eds. Comprehensive ...


HPV-associated oral warts.  


Human papillomavirus (HPV) is strictly epitheliotropic, infecting stratified squamous cutaneous and mucosal epithelial cells. Oral HPV infection may be subclinical or putatively associated with benign or malignant oral neoplasms. The benign HPV-associated oral lesions, focal epithelial hyperplasia (Heck disease), oral squamous cell papilloma, oral verruca vulgaris (common wart) and oral condyloma acuminatum, are collectively referred to as oral warts. Oral warts are usually asymptomatic, may be persistent or uncommonly, may regress spontaneously. HPV-associated oral warts have a prevalence of 0.5% in the general population, occur in up to 5% of HIV-seropositive subjects, and in up to 23% of HIV-seropositive subjects on highly active antiretroviral therapy. This paper is a clinico-pathological review of HPV-associated oral warts. PMID:21608502

Feller, L; Khammissa, R A G; Wood, N H; Marnewick, J C; Meyerov, R; Lemmer, J



Female genital mutilation: an overview.  


The literature on female genital mutilation (also known as female circumcision) within a feminist theoretical context is discussed. Issues of culture, politics and religion in the literature will be examined in relation to feminist thought and the paper will also assess the effects of female genital mutilation on women's health and status within developing societies. Parallels with other similar practices in developed and developing countries will be drawn and policy strategies discussed. PMID:8858427

Wright, J



Genital burns and vaginal delivery.  


Obstetric complications may result from burn scarring in the genital area. Women in developing countries typically squat around cooking fires, and burns are common. This recent case in Nepal describes obstructed labor in a young woman whose genital area had extensive scarring from a cooking fire injury. Proper antenatal assessment by health care providers can reduce the risk to mothers and infants of the consequences of a birth canal damaged or obstructed by burn scarring. PMID:7556863

Pant, R; Manandhar, V; Wittgenstein, F; Fortney, J A; Fukushima, C



An overview of genital warts.  


Genital warts are a common sexually transmitted infection that is particularly prevalent in young people. Although the warts are usually painless and rarely cause any long-term health problems, they can cause significant psychological distress and relationship problems for those affected. This article provides an overview of genital warts to enable nurses to guide people in the prevention and treatment of the infection. PMID:24517695

Richards, Sara


Impact of HPV infection on the development of head and neck cancer  

PubMed Central

Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is considered to be a distinct clinical entity with better prognosis than the classical tobacco- and alcohol-associated tumors. The increasing incidence of this neoplasia during the last decades highlights the need to better understand the role of HPV in the development of these cancers. Although the proportion of HNSCC attributed to HPV varies considerably according to anatomical site, overall approximately 25% of all HNSCC are HPV-DNA positive, and HPV-16 is by far the most prevalent type. In this review we discuss the existing evidence for a causal association between HPV infection and HNSCC at diverse anatomical head and neck subsites. PMID:23532264

Betiol, J.; Villa, L.L.; Sichero, L.



Detection and typing of human papilloma virus by multiplex PCR with type-specific primers.  


The primary underlying cause of cervical cancer is infection with one or more high-risk (HR) types of the human papilloma virus (HPV). Detection and typing of HPV have been commonly carried out by PCR-based assays, where HPV detection and typing are two separate procedures. Here, we present a multiplex PCR-based HPV typing assay that detects 20 HPV types (15 HR, 3 probably HR and 2 low risk) using type-specific primers and agarose gel electrophoresis. 46 cervical, urethral, and biopsy samples were analyzed by both Multiplex PCR and PGMY09/11 consensus PCR, and results were compared. 611 samples were further analyzed by Multiplex PCR, 282 were positive for HR HPV, and 101 showed multiple HR HPV infections. The relatively ease and economic accessibility of the method and its improved ability to detect high-risk HPV types in multiple HPV-infected samples make it an attractive option for HPV testing. PMID:23724318

Romero-Pastrana, Francisco



[Azithromycin and genital infections].  


The lower genital tract infections due to Chlamydia trachomatis are frequent, essentially occurring in young patients, with possible complications and severe sequela, particularly in women where the sterility risk is one of the major consequences. If an effective treatment could be systematically proposed, a good compliance (easy administration and good toleration) is one of the key factor to success. In this context, the azithromycin displays numerous advantages. The azithromycin in vitro activity on Chl. trachomatis strains is permanent with MIC comprised between 0.06 and 0.125 micrograms/ml, with an activity equivalent to those of other macrolides, to tetracyclines and quinolones. Different animal models allow to demonstrate the curative activity of the azithromycin administered as a single dose, at dosage regimen equivalent to those used in man, and a prophylactic activity on the salpingitis onset in provoked Chl. trachomatis infections. Several comparative clinical studies with azithromycin administered as a 1 g single dose displayed very satisfactory results with 98% of bacterial eradication, identical to those obtained with reference treatment. On the other hand, restrictions to the product use are a less constant activity against Neisseria gonorrhoeae and a lack of efficacy on Mycoplasma hominis. The efficacy on Treponema pallidum remains to be clinically tested. PMID:8539079

Micoud, M; Pépin, L F



Preferential risk of HPV16 for squamous cell carcinoma and of HPV18 for adenocarcinoma of the cervix compared to women with normal cytology in The Netherlands.  


We present the type-distribution of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types in women with normal cytology (n=1467), adenocarcinoma in situ (ACIS) (n=61), adenocarcinoma (n=70), and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (n=83). Cervical adenocarcinoma and ACIS were significantly more frequently associated with HPV18 (OR(MH) 15.0; 95% CI 8.6-26.1 and 21.8; 95% CI 11.9-39.8, respectively) than normal cytology. Human papillomavirus16 was only associated with adenocarcinoma and ACIS after exclusion of HPV18-positive cases (OR(MH) 6.6; 95% CI 2.8-16.0 and 9.4; 95% CI 2.8-31.2, respectively). For SCC, HPV16 prevalence was elevated (OR(MH) 7.0; 95% CI 3.9-12.4) compared to cases with normal cytology, and HPV18 prevalence was only increased after exclusion of HPV16-positive cases (OR(MH) 4.3; 95% CI 1.6-11.6). These results suggest that HPV18 is mainly a risk factor for the development of adenocarcinoma whereas HPV16 is associated with both SCC and adenocarcinoma. PMID:16404371

Bulk, S; Berkhof, J; Bulkmans, N W J; Zielinski, G D; Rozendaal, L; van Kemenade, F J; Snijders, P J F; Meijer, C J L M



Warts and All: HPV in Primary Immunodeficiencies  

PubMed Central

Infection with human papilloma virus (HPV) is almost universal and eventually asymptomatic, but pathologic infection with HPV is severe, recurrent, and recalcitrant to therapy. It is also an underappreciated manifestation of primary immunodeficiency. Mutations in EVER1, EVER2, GATA2, CXCR4, and DOCK8 are typically associated with extensive HPV infections, whereas several other primary immune defects have severe HPV much less frequently. We review immunodeficiencies with severe HPV infections and the mechanisms underlying them. PMID:23036745

Leiding, Jennifer W.; Holland, Steven M.



Female genital mutilation in Britain.  


The practice of female genital mutilation predates the founding of both Christianity and Islam. Though largely confined among Muslims, the operation is also practiced in some Christian communities in Africa such that female genital mutilation takes place in various forms in more than twenty African countries, Oman, Yemen, the United Arab Emirates, and by some Muslims in Malaysia and Indonesia. In recent decades, ethnic groups which practice female genital mutilation have immigrated to Britain. The main groups are from Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, and Yemen. In their own countries, an estimated 80% of women have had the operation. Female genital mutilation has been illegal in Britain since 1985, but it is practiced illegally or children are sent abroad to undergo the operation typically at age 7-9 years. It is a form of child abuse which poses special problems. The authors review the history of female genital mutilation and describe its medical complications. Assuming that the size of the population in Britain of ethnic groups which practice or favor female genital mutilation remains more or less unchanged, adaptation and acculturation will probably cause the practice to die out within a few generations. Meanwhile, there is much to be done. A conspiracy of silence exists in medical circles as well as widespread ignorance. Moreover, none of a number of well-known obstetric and pediatric textbooks mentions female genital mutilation, while the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children has neither information nor instructional material. It is high time that the problem was more widely and openly discussed. PMID:7787654

Black, J A; Debelle, G D



A combination of DNA vaccines targeting human papillomavirus type 16 E6 and E7 generates potent antitumor effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infects large numbers of women worldwide and is present in more than 99% of all cervical cancers. HPV E6 and E7 are two viral oncoproteins that are consistently expressed in HPV infections and HPV-associated malignancies. We have previously developed DNA vaccines encoding calreticulin (CRT) linked either to HPV type 16 (HPV-16) E6 or to HPV-16 E7, both

S Peng; T T Tomson; C Trimble; L He; C-F Hung; T-C Wu



Epidemiology and Natural History of Human Papillomavirus Infections and Type-Specific Implications in Cervical Neoplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence in women with normal cytology at any given point in time is approximately 10% indicating that HPV is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections. HPV-16 is consistently the most common type and HPV-18 the second with some minor regional differences. Furthermore, across the spectrum of cervical lesions, HPV-16 is consistently the most common

F. Xavier Bosch; Ann N. Burchell; Mark Schiffman; Anna R. Giuliano; Silvia de Sanjose; Laia Bruni; Guillermo Tortolero-Luna; Susanne Kruger Kjaer; Nubia Muñoz



HPV Infection in Cervical and Other Cancers in Saudi Arabia: Implication for Prevention and Vaccination  

PubMed Central

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is closely associated with cervical cancer that the incidence of this tumor is regarded as a surrogate marker for HPV infection in countries lacking epidemiological studies. HPV is also implicated in subsets of anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers. Although cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide, its reported incidence is low in Saudi Arabia, ranking number 12 between all cancers in females and accounts only for 2.4% of all new cases, despite the lack of national screening programs. However, the limited available studies from Saudi Arabia indicate that HPV prevalence and genotypes’ distribution in invasive cervical cancer show similar pattern as in the world. Cytology screening (Pap smear) and HPV vaccinations are the two preventive measures against cervical cancer. The two available vaccines are effective against the two most common HPV genotypes (HPV-16 and -18). Since 92% of cervical tumors in the Kingdom are infected with HPV of which 78% are HPV-16 and -18 genotypes, vaccination is expected to protect against more than two-third of cervical cancers in Saudi Arabia. Nevertheless, due to its low incidence (2.1/100,000 women), a proper cost-effectiveness analysis is required to justify the implementation of a costly vaccine bearing in mind that HPV could potentially be associated with about 3% of all cancers. However, further studies are needed to ascertain the real prevalence of HPV at the population level at large, its association with various types of cancers, and also the impact of local tradition and emerging behavioral trends that could affect HPV transmission and consequently the effectiveness of applying national vaccination program. PMID:24744990

Alsbeih, Ghazi



What School Nurses Need to Know about Cervical Cancer, HPV, and the New Vaccine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At least 12,000 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer each year in the United States, accounting for at least 4,000 deaths. Worldwide, cervical cancer is the second most common type of cancer among women. The human papilloma virus (HPV) has been linked to at least 70% of all cervical cancer. HPV can be divided into 2 categories: (a) low risk,…

Ehrhardt, Jeanie



Fewer doses of HPV vaccine result in immune response similar to three-dose regimen

NCI scientists report that two doses of a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, trademarked as Cervarix, resulted in similar serum antibody levels against two of the most carcinogenic types of HPV (16 and 18), compared to a standard three dose regimen. The results appeared in the November 2013 issue of Cancer Prevention Research.


Statement from the National Cancer Institute on FDA Approval of the HPV Vaccine

Nearly two decades ago, researchers at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and other institutions began searching for the underlying causes of cervical cancer. That scientific quest led to today's approval by the Food and Drug Administration of the vaccine Gardasil?, which protects against infection from the two types of human papillomavirus (HPV) that cause the majority of cervical cancers worldwide. HPV en Español


HPV 16 Is Related to the Progression of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 2: A Case Series  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To describe the acquisition, persistence, and clearance of HPV infection in women with CIN 2 followed up for 12 months. Methods. Thirty-seven women with CIN 2 biopsy, who have proven referral to cervical smear showing low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and tested for HPV, were followed up for one year with cervical smear, colposcopy, and HPV test every three months. HPV DNA was detected by the polymerase chain reaction and genotyping by reverse line blot hybridization assay. Results. CIN 2 regression rate was 49% (18/37), persistence as CIN 1 or CIN 2 was 22% (8/37), and progression to CIN 3 was 29% (11/37). Multiple HPV types were observed at admission in 41% (15/37) of cases. HPV 16 was detected at admission in 58% (11/19) of the cases that persisted/progressed and in 39% (7/18) of the cases that regressed. HPV 16 was considered possibly causal in 67% (10/15) of the cases that persisted or progressed and in 10% (1/10) of the cases that regressed (P = 0.01). Conclusion. Multiple HPV infections were frequently detected among women with CIN 2 at admission and during the followup. The CIN 2 associated with HPV 16 was more likely to persist or to progress to CIN 3. PMID:24369469

Loffredo D'Ottaviano, Maria Gabriela; Andreoli, Maria Antonieta; Costa, Maria Cecilia; Rabelo-Santos, Silvia H.; Villa, Luisa Lina; Zeferino, Luiz Carlos



HPV 16 Is Related to the Progression of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 2: A Case Series.  


Purpose. To describe the acquisition, persistence, and clearance of HPV infection in women with CIN 2 followed up for 12 months. Methods. Thirty-seven women with CIN 2 biopsy, who have proven referral to cervical smear showing low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and tested for HPV, were followed up for one year with cervical smear, colposcopy, and HPV test every three months. HPV DNA was detected by the polymerase chain reaction and genotyping by reverse line blot hybridization assay. Results. CIN 2 regression rate was 49% (18/37), persistence as CIN 1 or CIN 2 was 22% (8/37), and progression to CIN 3 was 29% (11/37). Multiple HPV types were observed at admission in 41% (15/37) of cases. HPV 16 was detected at admission in 58% (11/19) of the cases that persisted/progressed and in 39% (7/18) of the cases that regressed. HPV 16 was considered possibly causal in 67% (10/15) of the cases that persisted or progressed and in 10% (1/10) of the cases that regressed (P = 0.01). Conclusion. Multiple HPV infections were frequently detected among women with CIN 2 at admission and during the followup. The CIN 2 associated with HPV 16 was more likely to persist or to progress to CIN 3. PMID:24369469

Loffredo D'Ottaviano, Maria Gabriela; Discacciati, Michelle Garcia; Andreoli, Maria Antonieta; Costa, Maria Cecília; Termini, Lara; Rabelo-Santos, Silvia H; Villa, Luisa Lina; Zeferino, Luiz Carlos



The relationship between HPV16 and expression of CD44v6, nm23H1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has high incidence in Shaanxi Province of China. More and more researches indicated that human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) might play an important role in carcinogenesis of ESCC but the relationship between HPV16 and CD44v6, nm23H1 has not been elucidated. HPV16 was detected by amplifying HPV16 E6 gene through polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

W.-K. Liu; Y.-L. Chu; F. Zhang; P. Chen; F. Cheng; H. Wang; Y.-Y. Jia; T.-Y. Ma



Female genital cutting: a persisting practice.  


More than 130 million women worldwide have undergone female genital cutting (FGC). FGC occurs in parts of Africa and Asia, in societies with various cultures and religions. Reasons for the continuing practice of FGC include rite of passage, preserving chastity, ensuring marriageability, religion, hygiene, improving fertility, and enhancing sexual pleasure for men. The World Health Organization has classified FGC into 4 types depending on the extent of tissue removed. Immediate complications include hemorrhage, infection, sepsis, and death. Long-term complications include pain, scarring, urinary issues, and poor obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Efforts are being made nationally and internationally to eradicate this practice. PMID:19015765

Nour, Nawal M



Female Genital Cutting: A Persisting Practice  

PubMed Central

More than 130 million women worldwide have undergone female genital cutting (FGC). FGC occurs in parts of Africa and Asia, in societies with various cultures and religions. Reasons for the continuing practice of FGC include rite of passage, preserving chastity, ensuring marriageability, religion, hygiene, improving fertility, and enhancing sexual pleasure for men. The World Health Organization has classified FGC into 4 types depending on the extent of tissue removed. Immediate complications include hemorrhage, infection, sepsis, and death. Long-term complications include pain, scarring, urinary issues, and poor obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Efforts are being made nationally and internationally to eradicate this practice. PMID:19015765

Nour, Nawal M



Managing external genital warts: practical aspects of treatment and prevention.  


Rising rates of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in recent decades, including external genital warts (EGWs), underscore the need for effective management of this common sexually transmitted disease. Although treatment is a vital aspect that aims primarily to resolve physical symptoms, health care providers must also address the psychosocial burden that typically accompanies diagnosis, treatment, remission, and recurrence. Education and counseling are integral components of care to address the cascade of negative emotional reactions that follow diagnosis, which often include anger, shame, stigma, frustration, and fear. Health care providers should offer patient information that is clear and simple, both verbally and in written form. Research to date has shown that information is most helpful when it is conveyed in a supportive tone and avoids stigmatization. Treatment decisions should consider the patient's preferences and the clinician's ability to offer certain therapies. A locally relevant algorithm and an individualized treatment approach are recommended by various treatment guidelines to improve the chances of compliance and treatment success. Given that success rates are variable, monitoring treatment is also necessary to gauge the patient's response to treatment, local reactions, and the potential need to switch treatments. Patients diagnosed with EGWs should also be screened for other sexually transmitted diseases because coinfection is common. Vaccination is becoming an increasingly important aspect of prevention strategies for HPV infections and should be considered for eligible patients. PMID:24388561

Bourcier, Marc; Bhatia, Neal; Lynde, Charles; Vender, Ronald



Economic and humanistic burden of external genital warts.  


External genital warts (EGW) are a sexually transmitted infection caused by various strains of human papillomavirus (HPV). Several studies have described the direct and indirect costs of EGW, while others have reported on the burden of EGW in terms of the impact on the quality of life (QOL) of patients. The arrival of a quadrivalent HPV vaccine that protects against both cervical cancer and EGW requires a proper understanding of the impact of vaccines on costs and QOL. Using pre-defined search terms and inclusion/exclusion criteria, we performed a systematic review of the economic and humanistic burden of EGW. The focus of our review was on literature describing the direct and indirect costs of EGW per episode of care (EoC) or per year, as well as the impact of EGW on disease-specific, generic, or preference-based QOL measures. We also reviewed the literature on the national economic burden of EGW from the perspectives of different countries. Other aspects of EGW management that can inform economic modelling studies, such as length of EoC, number of physician visits and indirect costs, were also explored. Our review sheds light on the high economic and humanistic burden of EGW and important differences in the costs between men and women, as well as the differences in health resource utilization and costs across countries. Our study also highlights the dearth of information on the impact of EGW on the QOL and productivity of patients. PMID:22201520

Raymakers, Adam J N; Sadatsafavi, Mohsen; Marra, Fawziah; Marra, Carlo A



Absence of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Detection in Endocervical Adenocarcinoma with Gastric Morphology and Phenotype  

PubMed Central

A subset of endocervical-type mucinous adenocarcinomas (ACs) of the uterine cervix exhibit a gastric phenotype and morphology, as reported in cases of minimal deviation AC in which the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) has been rarely detected. To investigate the HPV-independent pathway of carcinogenesis in cases of gastric-type AC, we investigated the common high-risk HPV (hr-HPV) status in 52 nonsquamous cell carcinomas, using a PCR-based typing method and immunohistochemistry of p16INK4a (a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that is overexpressed in both cancerous and precancerous cervical tissue, making it an ideal biomarker for cervical cancer cases). Using novel morphological criteria, seven of 52 (13.5%) carcinomas were designated as gastric-type ACs, all of which were negative for both hr-HPV DNA and p16INK4a. Nongastric-type ACs were frequently positive for both hr-HPV DNA (90%, 28/31) and p16INK4a (94%, 29/31) with adenosquamous and neuroendocrine carcinomas demonstrating the presence of hr-HPV DNA in 86% (6/7) and 83% (5/6) of cases, respectively. In these two types of carcinoma, 86% (6/7) and 100% (6/6) were positive for p16INK4a, respectively. Our data suggests that gastric-type AC appears to represent an oncogenic hr-HPV–independent neoplasm and therefore is a potential pitfall of HPV DNA testing and vaccination. PMID:20829441

Kusanagi, Yasuki; Kojima, Atsumi; Mikami, Yoshiki; Kiyokawa, Takako; Sudo, Tamotsu; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Nishimura, Ryuichiro



Replication interference between human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 mediated by heterologous E1 helicases  

PubMed Central

Background Co-infection of multiple genotypes of human papillomavirus (HPV) is commonly observed among women with abnormal cervical cytology, but how different HPVs interact with each other in the same cell is not clearly understood. A previous study using cultured keratinocytes revealed that genome replication of one HPV type is inhibited by co-existence of the genome of another HPV type, suggesting that replication interference occurs between different HPV types when co-infected; however, molecular mechanisms underlying inter-type replication interference have not been fully explored. Methods Replication interference between two most prevalent HPV types, HPV16 and HPV18, was examined in HPV-negative C33A cervical carcinoma cells co-transfected with genomes of HPV16 and HPV18 together with expression plasmids for E1/E2 of both types. Levels of HPV16/18 genome replication were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Physical interaction between HPV16/18 E1s was assessed by co-immunoprecipitation assays in the cell lysates. Results The replication of HPV16 and HPV18 genomes was suppressed by co-expression of E1/E2 of heterologous types. The interference was mediated by the heterologous E1, but not E2. The oligomerization domain of HPV16 E1 was essential for HPV18 replication inhibition, whereas the helicase domain was dispensable. HPV16 E1 co-precipitated with HPV18 E1 in the cell lysates, and an HPV16 E1 mutant Y379A, which bound to HPV18 E1 less efficiently, failed to inhibit HPV18 replication. Conclusions Co-infection of a single cell with both HPV16 and HPV18 results in replication interference between them, and physical interaction between the heterologous E1s is responsible for the interference. Heterooligomers composed of HPV16/18 E1s may lack the ability to support HPV genome replication. PMID:24456830



Presence of Human Papilloma Virus Type 16 DNA Sequences in Human Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of human papillomaviruses (HPV) has been shown to be associated with the development and progression of invasive cancers of the genital tract, skin, and head and neck. In this study we analyzed 37 human nonmelanoma skin cancers (21 squamous cell carcinomas and 16 basal cell carcinomas) for the presence of HPV sequences. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was

William E. Pierceall; Leonard H. Goldberg; Honnavara N. Ananthaswamy



High-risk and multiple human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in cancer-free Jamaican women  

PubMed Central

Background Vaccines, that target human papillomavirus (HPV) high risk genotypes 16 and 18, have recently been developed. This study was aimed at determining genotypes commonly found in high-risk and multiple-HPV infections in Jamaican women. Two hundred and fifty three (253) women were enrolled in the study. Of these, 120 pregnant women, aged 15–44 years, were recruited from the Ante Natal Clinic at the University Hospital of the West Indies and 116 non-pregnant, aged 19–83, from a family practice in Western Jamaica. Cervical cell samples were collected from the women and HPV DNA was detected using Polymerase Chain Reaction and Reverse Line Hybridization. HPV genotypes were assessed in 236 women. Data were collected from January 2003 to October 2006. Results HPV DNA was detected in 87.7% (207/236) and of these 80.2% were positive for high-risk types. The most common high-risk HPV types were: HPV 45 (21.7%), HPV 58 (18.8%), HPV 16 (18.4%), HPV 35 (15.0%), HPV 18 (14.5%), HPV 52 (12.0%) and HPV 51(11.1%). Other high-risk types were present in frequencies of 1.4% – 7.2%. Multivariate regression analyses showed that bacterial vaginosis predicted the presence of multiple infections (OR 3.51; CI, 1.26–9.82) and that alcohol use (OR 0.31; CI, 0.15–0.85) and age at first sexual encounter (12–15 years: OR 3.56; CI, 1.41–9.12; 16–19 years, OR 3.53, CI, 1.22–10.23) were significantly associated with high risk infections. Cervical cytology was normal in the majority of women despite the presence of high-risk and multiple infections. Conclusion HPV genotype distribution in this group of Jamaican women differs from the patterns found in Europe, North America and some parts of Asia. It may be necessary therefore to consider development of other vaccines which target genotypes found in our and similar populations. HPV genotyping as well as Pap smears should be considered. PMID:19208202

Watt, Angela; Garwood, David; Jackson, Maria; Younger, Novie; Ragin, Camille; Smikle, Monica; Fletcher, Horace; McFarlane-Anderson, Norma



High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA sequences in metaplastic breast carcinomas of Mexican women  

PubMed Central

Background Metaplastic carcinoma, an uncommon subtype of breast cancer, is part of the spectrum of basal-like, triple receptor-negative breast carcinomas. The present study examined 20 surgical specimens of metaplastic breast carcinomas, for the presence of high-risk Human papillomavirus (HPV), which is suspected to be a potential carcinogenic agent for breast carcinoma. Methods Mastectomy specimens from patients harboring metaplastic breast carcinoma, as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), and who attended the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia in Mexico City, were retrieved from the files of the Department of Pathology accumulated during a 16-year period (1995–2008). Demographic and clinical information was obtained from patients’ medical records. DNA was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumors and HPV type-specific amplification was performed by means of Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Quantitative Real-time (RT) PCR was conducted in HPV positive cases. Statistically, the association of continuous or categorical variables with HPV status was tested by the Student t, the Chi square, or Fisher’s exact tests, as appropriate. Results High-risk HPV DNA was detected in eight (40%) of 20 metaplastic breast carcinomas: seven (87.5%) HPV-16 and one (12.5%) HPV-18. Mean age of patients with HPV-positive cases was 49 years (range 24–72 years), the same as for HPV-negative cases (range, 30–73 years). There were not striking differences between HPV?+?and HPV– metaplastic carcinomas regarding clinical findings. Nearly all cases were negative for estrogen, progesterone and Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), but positive for Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Conclusions High-risk HPV has been strongly associated with conventional breast carcinomas, although the subtle mechanism of neoplastic transformation is poorly understood. In Mexican patients, the prevalence of HPV infection among metaplastic breast carcinomas is higher than in non-metaplastic ones, as so the HPV viral loads; notwithstanding, HPV viral loads show wide variation and remain even lower than cervical and other non-cervical carcinomas, making it difficult to assume that HPV could play a key role in breast carcinogenesis. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the meaning of the presence of high-risk HPVDNA in breast carcinomas. PMID:24083491



Emollients on the genital area.  


Emollients are known to lubricate, moisturize and soothe the skin. Prior to their incorporation into feminine hygiene pads, thorough premarket toxicological testing is conducted to evaluate their safety and effectiveness via in-use clinical settings. Product testing has been conducted on various body sites proven previously to be valid and reliable, such as the arm and popliteal fossa and, more recently, the genital area. Several clinical studies have confirmed the safety and efficacy of emollient-containing feminine hygiene products, which have also been shown to provide dermatological benefits in the genital area. PMID:21325844

Farage, Miranda A; Warren, Raphael



Cellular immunity induced by a novel HPV18 DNA vaccine encoding an E6/E7 fusion consensus protein in mice and rhesus macaques.  


Human papilloma-virus (HPV) infection is the major cause of cervical cancer. HPV18 is the most prevalent high-risk HPV after type 16 that accounts for the largest number of cervical cancer cases worldwide. Currently, although prophylactic vaccines have been developed, there is still an urgent need to develop therapeutic HPV vaccines for targeting tumors post-infection. In this study, we utilize a novel multi-phase strategy for HPV18 antigen development with the goal of increasing anti-HPV18 cellular immunity. Our data show that this construct can induce strong cellular immune responses against HPV18 E6 and E7 antigens in a murine model. Moreover, when applied to rhesus monkeys, this construct is also able to elicit cellular immunity. These data suggest such DNA immunogens are candidates for further study in the eventual context of immunotherapy for HPV-associated cancers. PMID:18455277

Yan, Jian; Harris, Kristina; Khan, Amir S; Draghia-Akli, Ruxandra; Sewell, Duane; Weiner, David B



Identification of the human papillomavirus type 6b L1 open reading frame protein in condylomas and corresponding antibodies in human sera.  

PubMed Central

Genital warts (condylomata acuminata) are among the most frequent sexually transmitted infections. Human papillomavirus type 6 (HPV-6), which is etiologically related to a majority of these lesions, has not been propagated in tissue culture. We generated two forms of HPV-6 viral antigens: a chemically synthesized oligopeptide (referred to as the C-terminal synthetic peptide) corresponding to residues 482 to 495 of the 500-amino-acid-long L1 open reading frame (ORF), and a bacterially expressed 54-kilodalton (kDa) fusion protein containing the N-terminal 13 amino acids encoded by the lambda bacteriophage cII gene followed by one vector-insert junctional residue and 462 amino acids of the L1 ORF sequence (residues 39 to 500). The cII-L1 fusion protein was specifically recognized by an antipeptide serum directed against the N-terminal 13 amino acids derived from the cII gene, an antiserum raised against the C-terminal synthetic peptide, and a genus-specific serum prepared by immunization with disrupted viral capsids. The 54-kDa fusion protein was purified, and the sequence of its first 36 amino acids was determined and found to be as predicted by the DNA sequence. Both the genus-specific anticapsid serum and the antiserum raised against the fusion protein identified authentic L1 ORF proteins in HPV-1-induced (58 kDa) and HPV-6/11-induced (56 kDa) papillomas. The synthetic peptide antiserum recognized the 56- to 58-kDa protein in HPV-6-induced warts, but not in HPV-1- or HPV-11-infected specimens. Using the fusion protein as antigen in immunoassays, we were able to detect the corresponding antibodies in human sera. Images PMID:3039162

Li, C C; Shah, K V; Seth, A; Gilden, R V



Prevalence of anal HPV infection in solid-organ transplant patients prior to immunosuppression.  


Patients that undergo organ transplantation have a high risk of developing various malignancies, depending on the duration and magnitude of immunosuppressive therapy. Among others, a 10-fold increased relative risk has been reported for the development of anal cancer. There is a strong association between persistent infection with high-risk mucosal types of human papillomavirus (HPV) and anogenital neoplasia. In this study we analysed the prevalence of anal HPV infection in organ transplant patients before starting immunosuppressive therapy. In a university transplant unit, patients ( n=60, 40 male, 20 female) that were undergoing solid-organ transplantation (kidney, liver) for the first time were routinely screened for anal HPV infection. Anal swabs were obtained within 24 h after transplantation and analysed for the presence of mucosal-type HPV DNA by liquid DNA/RNA hybridization [hybrid capture (HC) 2 test]. Overall, some type of HPV DNA was detected in 14/60 (23.3%) patients; 9/60 (15%) were positive for high-risk HPV and 8/60 (13.4%) were positive for low-risk HPV, and 3/60 (5%) were positive for both types. Prevalence of HPV infection tended to be higher in patients that were receiving liver transplants than in those receiving kidney transplants (29.4% vs. 20.9%), but the difference did not reach statistical significance. In our series of organ transplant patients the prevalence of previous HPV infection (23.3%) before immunosuppressive therapy was started was higher than that found in previous epidemiological studies or in a control group. In particular, there was a high rate (15%) of infection with oncogenic HPV types. These findings have important implications on screening and surveillance policies in this patient group at risk of developing neoplasias, including anal cancer. PMID:15349721

Roka, Sebastian; Rasoul-Rockenschaub, Susanne; Roka, Julia; Kirnbauer, Reinhard; Mühlbacher, Ferdinand; Salat, Andreas



Female genital mutilation: cultural awareness and clinical considerations.  


Clinicians in the United States are increasingly encountering girls and women who have undergone female genital mutilation. To foster a more trusting relationship with such patients, health care providers must have an accurate understanding of the cultural background surrounding this practice, a working knowledge of the different types of female genital mutilation procedures that may be encountered, and an awareness of both the acute and long-term complications. Some of these complications are potentially fatal, and the correct clinical diagnosis can be lifesaving. PMID:17336823

Braddy, Cathleen M; Files, Julia A



Characteristics of Memory B Cells Elicited by a Highly Efficacious HPV Vaccine in Subjects with No Pre-existing Immunity  

PubMed Central

Licensed human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines provide near complete protection against the types of HPV that most commonly cause anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers (HPV 16 and 18) when administered to individuals naive to these types. These vaccines, like most other prophylactic vaccines, appear to protect by generating antibodies. However, almost nothing is known about the immunological memory that forms following HPV vaccination, which is required for long-term immunity. Here, we have identified and isolated HPV 16-specific memory B cells from female adolescents and young women who received the quadrivalent HPV vaccine in the absence of pre-existing immunity, using fluorescently conjugated HPV 16 pseudoviruses to label antigen receptors on the surface of memory B cells. Antibodies cloned and expressed from these singly sorted HPV 16-pseudovirus labeled memory B cells were predominantly IgG (>IgA>IgM), utilized diverse variable genes, and potently neutralized HPV 16 pseudoviruses in vitro despite possessing only average levels of somatic mutation. These findings suggest that the quadrivalent HPV vaccine provides an excellent model for studying the development of B cell memory; and, in the context of what is known about memory B cells elicited by influenza vaccination/infection, HIV-1 infection, or tetanus toxoid vaccination, indicates that extensive somatic hypermutation is not required to achieve potent vaccine-specific neutralizing antibody responses. PMID:25330199

Scherer, Erin M.; Smith, Robin A.; Simonich, Cassandra A.; Niyonzima, Nixon; Carter, Joseph J.; Galloway, Denise A.



Characteristics of Memory B Cells Elicited by a Highly Efficacious HPV Vaccine in Subjects with No Pre-existing Immunity.  


Licensed human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines provide near complete protection against the types of HPV that most commonly cause anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers (HPV 16 and 18) when administered to individuals naive to these types. These vaccines, like most other prophylactic vaccines, appear to protect by generating antibodies. However, almost nothing is known about the immunological memory that forms following HPV vaccination, which is required for long-term immunity. Here, we have identified and isolated HPV 16-specific memory B cells from female adolescents and young women who received the quadrivalent HPV vaccine in the absence of pre-existing immunity, using fluorescently conjugated HPV 16 pseudoviruses to label antigen receptors on the surface of memory B cells. Antibodies cloned and expressed from these singly sorted HPV 16-pseudovirus labeled memory B cells were predominantly IgG (>IgA>IgM), utilized diverse variable genes, and potently neutralized HPV 16 pseudoviruses in vitro despite possessing only average levels of somatic mutation. These findings suggest that the quadrivalent HPV vaccine provides an excellent model for studying the development of B cell memory; and, in the context of what is known about memory B cells elicited by influenza vaccination/infection, HIV-1 infection, or tetanus toxoid vaccination, indicates that extensive somatic hypermutation is not required to achieve potent vaccine-specific neutralizing antibody responses. PMID:25330199

Scherer, Erin M; Smith, Robin A; Simonich, Cassandra A; Niyonzima, Nixon; Carter, Joseph J; Galloway, Denise A



Oral Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection among Unvaccinated High-Risk Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Oral HPV infection, the cause of most oropharyngeal cancer in the U.S., is not well studied among high-risk young adults. Men (n = 340) and women (n = 270) aged 18–25 years attending Baltimore County STD clinics were recruited if they declined HPV vaccination. Each participant had a 30-second oral rinse and gargle sample tested for 37 types of HPV DNA, and a risk-factor survey. Factors associated with prevalent infection were explored using log binomial regression. Men had higher prevalence of any oral HPV (15.3% vs. 7.8%, p = 0.004) and vaccine-type oral HPV (i.e., HPV16/18/6/11: 5.0% vs. 1.1%, p = 0.007) infection than women. In multivariate analysis, male gender (aPR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.10–3.39), number of recent oral sex partners (p-trend = 0.013) and having ever performed oral sex on a woman (aPR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.06–2.82) were associated with increased oral HPV prevalence. Performing oral sex on a woman may confer higher risk of oral HPV acquisition than performing oral sex on a man. PMID:25256827

D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Kluz, Nicole; Wentz, Alicia; Youngfellow, Renee M.; Griffioen, Anne; Stammer, Emily; Guo, Yingshi; Xiao, Weihong; Gillison, Maura L.



Female Genital Mutilations in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Codes and ratings for female genital mutilations, virginity tests, premarital sex norms, and female initiation rites are presented for the 115 cultural clusters on the continent of Africa. Documenting the prevalence of these characteristics within clusters comprising sampling provinces is crucial for research on the pattern of variability both in Africa and in the world. In addition to the 11

Karen Paige Ericksen



Vemurafenib cooperates with HPV to promote initiation of cutaneous tumors.  


Treatment with RAF inhibitors such as vemurafenib causes the development of cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (cSCC) or keratoacanthomas as a side effect in 18% to 30% of patients. It is known that RAF inhibitors activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and stimulate growth of RAS-mutated cells, possibly accounting for up to 60% of cSCC or keratoacanthoma lesions with RAS mutations, but other contributing events are obscure. To identify such events, we evaluated tumors from patients treated with vemurafenib for the presence of human papilloma virus (HPV) DNA and identified 13% to be positive. Using a transgenic murine model of HPV-driven cSCC (K14-HPV16 mice), we conducted a functional test to determine whether administration of RAF inhibitors could promote cSCC in HPV-infected tissues. Vemurafenib treatment elevated MAPK markers and increased cSCC incidence from 22% to 70% in this model. Furthermore, 55% of the cSCCs arising in vemurafenib-treated mice exhibited a wild-type Ras genotype, consistent with the frequency observed in human patients. Our results argue that HPV cooperates with vemurafenib to promote tumorigenesis, in either the presence or absence of RAS mutations. PMID:24523442

Holderfield, Matthew; Lorenzana, Edward; Weisburd, Ben; Lomovasky, Lisa; Boussemart, Lise; Lacroix, Ludovic; Tomasic, Gorana; Favre, Michel; Vagner, Stephan; Robert, Caroline; Ghoddusi, Majid; Daniel, Dylan; Pryer, Nancy; McCormick, Frank; Stuart, Darrin



Highly potent and specific siRNAs against E6 or E7 genes of HPV16- or HPV18-infected cervical cancers.  


Infection with high-risk types (type 16 or type 18) of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) increases a patient's risk of cervical cancer. Given the importance of the cervix and the severe side effects resulting from traditional cancer therapies, this study aimed to achieve targeted inhibition of viral oncogenes in tumor cells using small interfering RNAs (siRNA). To accomplish this, we developed nine siRNAs against either the E6 or E7 genes of HPV-16 or HPV-18 in several combinations, yielding siRNAs targeting 16E6, 16E7, 18E6 and 18E7. We measured the effectiveness of the siRNAs by examining E6 or E7 mRNA expression after transfection of the siRNAs into HPV-positive CaSki (HPV-16) or HeLa (HPV-18) cell lines. We found that the HPV-siRNAs significantly reduced cell growth and colony formation in both cell lines. Flow cytometry analysis revealed a significant increase in apoptosis. The siRNAs had no effect on cell growth, colony formation or apoptosis in HPV-negative C33A cells, demonstrating a lack of off-target effects. In addition, an in vivo xenograft study showed that intra-tumoral injection of the siRNAs reduced tumor growth in BALB/c nude mice. In conclusion, we have developed highly specific and potent HPV-siRNAs that successfully suppress tumor growth and induce apoptosis in HPV-positive cervical cancer cells. siRNA treatment has potential for further development as an adjuvant therapy for cervical cancer. PMID:20885450

Chang, J T-C; Kuo, T-F; Chen, Y-J; Chiu, C-C; Lu, Y-C; Li, H-F; Shen, C-R; Cheng, A-J



ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION Prevalence of HPV Infection  

E-print Network Context Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is estimated to be the most com- mon sexually, PhD Sonya S. Patel, BS Lauri E. Markowitz, MD H UMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS (HPV) is estimated to be the most

Arnold, Jonathan


Mucosal swabs detect HPV in laryngeal papillomatosis patients but not family members.  


Seven patients, aged 2-7 years, with active recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) attending the University of Michigan Pediatric Otolaryngology Clinic were studied to determine if human papillomavirus (HPV) is harbored in sites of the upper aerodigestive tract other than in the laryngeal papilloma itself. We also determined if close family members had detectable virus in their oral cavities. Noninvasive swabs of buccal mucosa, posterior pharynx, nasal vestibule, and tonsillar pillar of patients, as well as buccal mucosa and posterior pharyngeal swabs of family members were studied. Swabs of the patients' papillomas served as the positive controls. HPV was detected using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and Southern hybridization techniques. Six of seven patients had detectable HPV in papilloma and endolaryngeal swabs. Four were HPV type 6, and two were HPV type 11. The patient whose swab was negative for HPV was found to be biopsy negative for papilloma 3 weeks after a single laser excision which was performed 6 months prior to the endolaryngeal swab. HPV types 16, 18 and 31 were not found in any of the patients. No swabs from other sites in patients or family members were HPV positive despite the presence of adequate DNA in the swabbed material for successful amplification of beta-actin sequences. The absence of HPV (other than in the papilloma itself) in the upper aerodigestive tract of patients and caregivers is consistent with the absence of reported cases of horizontal transmission to siblings or other family members. The findings are also consistent with the conventional view that juvenile respiratory HPV is transmitted vertically from vaginal condylomas in the mother. PMID:10906514

Sun, J D; Weatherly, R A; Koopmann, C F; Carey, T E



HPV E6 and MAGUK protein interactions: determination of the molecular basis for specific protein recognition and degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has recently been shown that the high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 proteins can target the PDZ-domain containing proteins, Dlg, MUPP-1, MAGI-1 and hScrib for proteasome-mediated degradation. However, the E6 proteins from HPV-16 and HPV-18 (the two most common high-risk virus types) differ in their ability to target these proteins in a manner that correlates with their malignant potential. To

Miranda Thomas; Britt Glaunsinger; David Pim; Ron Javier; Lawrence Banks



Development of Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies for Oncogenic Human Papillomavirus Types 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58  

PubMed Central

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the etiological agent for all cervical cancers, a significant number of other anogenital cancers, and a growing number of head and neck cancers. Two licensed vaccines offer protection against the most prevalent oncogenic types, 16 and 18, responsible for approximately 70% of cervical cancer cases worldwide and one of these also offers protection against types 6 and 11, responsible for 90% of genital warts. The vaccines are comprised of recombinantly expressed major capsid proteins that self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) and prevent infection by eliciting neutralizing antibodies. Adding the other frequently identified oncogenic types 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58 to a vaccine would increase the coverage against HPV-induced cancers to approximately 90%. We describe the generation and characterization of panels of monoclonal antibodies to these five additional oncogenic HPV types, and the selection of antibody pairs that were high affinity and type specific and recognized conformation-dependent neutralizing epitopes. Such characteristics make these antibodies useful tools for monitoring the production and potency of a prototype vaccine as well as monitoring vaccine-induced immune responses in the clinic. PMID:24574536

Brown, Martha J.; Seitz, Hanna; Towne, Victoria; Muller, Martin



Acceptance Of The HPV Vaccine Among Women, Parents, Community Leaders, and Healthcare Providers In Ohio Appalachia  

PubMed Central

To assess HPV vaccine acceptability, focus groups of women (18–26 years), parents, community leaders, and healthcare providers were conducted throughout Ohio Appalachia. Themes that emerged among the 23 focus groups (n=114) about the HPV vaccine were: barriers (general health and vaccine specific), lack of knowledge (cervical cancer and HPV), cultural attitudes, and suggestions for educational materials and programs. Important Appalachian attitudes included strong family ties, privacy, conservative views, and lack of trust of outsiders to the region. There are differences in HPV vaccine acceptability among different types of community members highlighting the need for a range of HPV vaccine educational materials/programs to be developed that are inclusive of the Appalachian culture. PMID:19389447

Katz, Mira L.; Reiter, Paul L.; Heaner, Sarah; Ruffin, Mack T.; Post, Douglas M.; Paskett, Electra D.



Acceptance of the HPV vaccine among women, parents, community leaders, and healthcare providers in Ohio Appalachia.  


To assess HPV vaccine acceptability, focus groups of women (18-26 years), parents, community leaders, and healthcare providers were conducted throughout Ohio Appalachia. Themes that emerged among the 23 focus groups (n=114) about the HPV vaccine were: barriers (general health and vaccine specific), lack of knowledge (cervical cancer and HPV), cultural attitudes, and suggestions for educational materials and programs. Important Appalachian attitudes included strong family ties, privacy, conservative views, and lack of trust of outsiders to the region. There are differences in HPV vaccine acceptability among different types of community members highlighting the need for a range of HPV vaccine educational materials/programs to be developed that are inclusive of the Appalachian culture. PMID:19389447

Katz, Mira L; Reiter, Paul L; Heaner, Sarah; Ruffin, Mack T; Post, Douglas M; Paskett, Electra D



Female genital mutilation in Iraqi Kurdistan: description and associated factors.  


The high prevalence of female genital mutilation has been a concern in Iraqi Kurdistan. This study was undertaken to estimate its prevalence and describe factors associated with its occurrence. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken from March to April 2011 of females aged up to 20 years using interviews and clinical examination. The survey included 1,508 participants with mean age of 13.5 years (SD 5.6). Overall female genital mutilation prevalence was 23%, and the mean age at which it had been performed was 4.6 years (SD 2.4). Type I (partial or total removal of the clitoris) comprised 76% of those who had had female genital mutilation; in 79% of cases the decision to perform it was made by the mother; and in 54% of cases it was performed by traditional birth attendants/midwives. Women aged 16 years and over were more likely to have had female genital mutilation compared to children aged below 6 years (OR 11.9, p < .001). Children of uneducated mothers were eight times as likely to have had genital mutilation compared to children of mothers with over nine years of education (OR 8.0, p < .001). Among women aged 17 years and younger, 34% of those who were married had been circumcised versus 17% of those who were not married (p < .001). Participants residing in the northeast of Kurdistan region were more likely to have been circumcised. The study results show that female genital mutilation is a frequent practice in Iraqi Kurdistan. Attention and intervention is needed to address this aspect of the well-being of girls and women. PMID:23937728

Saleem, Rozhgar A; Othman, Nasih; Fattah, Fattah H; Hazim, Luma; Adnan, Berivan



From Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Detection to Cervical Cancer Prevention in Clinical Practice.  


The newly gained knowledge of the viral etiology in cervical carcinogenesis has prompted industrial interests in developing virology-based tools for cervical cancer prevention. Due to the long incubation period from viral infection to developing an invasive cancer, a process whose outcome is influenced by numerous life-style and genetic factors, the true efficacy of the genotype-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines in cervical cancer prevention cannot be determined for another 30 years. Most HPV DNA test kits designed to replace the traditional Papanicolaou (Pap) smears for precancer detection lack the analytical sensitivity and specificity to comprehensively detect all potentially carcinogenic HPVs and to perform reliable genotyping. The authors implemented the classic nested PCR and Sanger DNA-sequencing technology for routine HPV testing. The results showed a true negative HPV PCR invariably indicates the absence of precancerous cells in the cytology samples. However, 80.5% of single positive HPV-16 tests and 97.3% of single positive HPV-18 tests were associated with a negative or a largely self-reversible Pap cytology. Routine sensitive and reliable HPV type-specific or perhaps even variant-specific methods are needed to address the issues of persistence of HPV infection if a virology-based primary cervical screen is used to replace the Pap cytology screening paradigm. PMID:25279452

Lee, Sin Hang; Vigliotti, Jessica S; Vigliotti, Veronica S; Jones, William



Absence of HPV Infection Is Associated with Smoker Patients with Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the survival of patients with SCC of the oropharynx, according to the presence of HPV and tobacco consumption. A total of 37 patients were followed up for at least 5 years after being diagnosed with SCC of the oropharynx. The biopsy tissue was submitted to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and in situ hybridization (ISH) methods for broad determination of HPV presence, to identify the presence of high-risk viruses (16 and 18). 12 of the 37 (32.4%) samples were HPV positive, whereas the two specific types of virus were identified in two samples for HPV-16 and in no samples for HPV-18. We observed no significant effect of the virus in survival analysis, irrespective of tobacco consumption. The level of tobacco consumption was significantly higher in the group of HPV-negative patients (P = 0.0283), in which all the patients in this group were smokers. Therefore, HPV did not change the survival of patients with SCC of the oropharynx in this study, indicating that factors other than tobacco need to be studied in conjunction with it, and the level of tobacco consumption is significantly higher in the group of HPV-negative patients.

Soares, Glaucia Resende; Demathe, Adriana; Mattar, Neivio Jose; Biasoli, Eder Ricardo; Miyahara, Glauco Issamu



Generation and characterization of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against baculo-expressed HPV 16 VLPs  

PubMed Central

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the well-known second most cause of cervical cancer in women worldwide. According to the WHO survey, 70% of the total cervical cancers are associated with types HPV 16 and 18. Presently used prophylactic vaccine for HPV contains mainly capsid protein of L1 virus like particles (VLPs). Correct folding of VLPs and display of neutralizing epitopes are the major constraint for VLP-based vaccines. Further, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) play a vital role in developing therapeutics and diagnostics. mAbs are also useful for the demonstration of VLP conformation, virus typing and product process assessment as well. In the present study, we have explored the usefulness of mAbs generated against sf-9 expressed HPV 16 VLPs demonstrated as type-specific and conformational dependent against HPV 16 VLPs by ELISA. High affinity and high pseudovirion neutralization titer of mAbs indicated their potential for the development of prophylactic vaccines for HPV. Also, the type-specific and conformational reactivity of the mAbs to HPV 16 VLPs in sf-9 cells by immunofluorescence assay proved their diagnostic potential. PMID:24678406

Vidyasagar, P.; Rajan, S.; Praveen, A.; Srikanth, A.; Abhinay, G.; Siva Kumar, V.; Verma, R. R.; Rajendra, L.



Marketing HPV Vaccine Implications for Adolescent Health and Medical Professionalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new vaccine against 4 types of human papillomavirus (HPV), Gardasil, like other immunizations appears to be a cost-effective intervention with the potential to enhance both adolescent health and the quality of their adult lives. However, the messages and the methods by which the vaccine was marketed present important challenges to physician practice and medical pro- fessionalism. By making the

Sheila M. Rothman; David J. Rothman



Testing and Genotyping of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus by the cobas HPV Test and the Hybrid Capture 2 High-Risk HPV DNA Test Using Cervical and Vaginal Samples  

PubMed Central

The accurate detection and typing of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) are critical for cervical cancer screening. The Hybrid Capture 2 (hc2) and cobas HPV tests showed high agreement for cervical samples (94.4%, ? = 0.72, n = 693) and moderate agreement for vaginal samples (? = 0.62, n = 108). The HPV16 and HPV18 results were highly consistent between the cobas and Linear Array tests (? ? 0.96, n = 197). Three hc2-negative vaginal samples were repeatedly invalid by the cobas test due to ?-globin control failures, highlighting amplification control benefits. No cross-contamination was detected in a challenge experiment. PMID:24554756

Pyne, Michael T.; Law, Christian; Hillyard, David R.



Causes, Viruses: HPV, Galloway clip 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Professor Galloway explains that there are many HPVs that infect the genital tract and a set of those cause benign genital warts but another set is able to cause lesions that will go on and progress to cervical or other anal-genital cancers.



Modeling the impact of quadrivalent HPV vaccination on the incidence of Pap test abnormalities in the United States  

PubMed Central

Background We present data on Pap test results and HPV prevalence from the HPV Sentinel Surveillance project, a multiyear surveillance project enrolling women from a diverse set of 26 clinics throughout the US from 2003 to 2005. We use mathematical modeling to illustrate the potential timing and magnitude of decreases in Pap test abnormalities in sexually transmitted disease (STD), family planning, and primary care clinics in the US as a result of HPV vaccination. Methods The probability of an abnormal Pap result was based on three factors: (1) infection with HPV 16/18, or both; (2) infection with high-risk HPV types other than HPV 16/18; and (3) infection with HPV 6/11, or both. We estimated the relative reduction in the probability of an abnormal Pap result over the first 25 years of a female-only, quadrivalent HPV vaccination program, compared to a scenario of no HPV vaccination in which the probability of abnormal Pap results was assumed constant. Results The probability of an abnormal Pap result ranged from 7.0% for the lowest risk group (those without any high-risk HPV types and without HPV 6/11) to 45.2% for the highest risk group (those with HPV 16/18 and at least one other high-risk HPV type). Estimated reductions in abnormal Pap results among women in the 21- to 29-year age group were 0.8%, 10.2%, and 11.3% in years 5, 15, and 25 of the vaccine program respectively, in the lower vaccine coverage scenario, and 7.4%, 21.4%, and 22.2%, respectively, in the higher coverage scenario. Conclusions Our results suggest that HPV vaccination will have a discernable impact on the probability of Pap abnormalities, but the timing and magnitude of the reduction will depend substantially on vaccine coverage and the degree of cross-protection against high risk HPV types other than HPV 16/18. PMID:23664991

Chesson, Harrell W.; Flagg, Elaine W.; Koutsky, Laura; Hsu, Katherine; Unger, Elizabeth R.; Shlay, Judith C.; Kerndt, Peter; Ghanem, Khalil G.; Zenilman, Jonathan M.; Hagensee, Michael; Weinstock, Hillard; Datta, S. Deblina



Human Papillomavirus Risk Type Classification from Protein Sequences Using  

E-print Network

Human Papillomavirus Risk Type Classification from Protein Sequences Using Support Vector Machines by the human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with the development of cervical cancer. HPV can be classified human papillo- mavirus (HPV) with cervical cancer is strong, independent of other risk factors [1]. HPV


Female genital mutilations - a testimony.  


In Djibouti, the prevalence of female genital mutilations (FGMs) amounts to 98% and the practice is still in use. When I left, in 1999, I knew I would involve myself in the fight against FGMs and I describe here the outcome of an obstacle course of more than ten years duration. This paper is written on behalf of innumerable women, who could give you a similar account. PMID:23205512

Youssouf, Samia



Human Papillomavirus (HPV) What you need to know  

E-print Network

the genital area.1 Some types are high risk2 and can cause cervical cancer or abnormal cells in the lining to become precancers or cervical cancer.1 Many cervical precancers (changes that could lead to cancer lining the cervix that can lead to precancers and even turn into cervical cancer later in life.1

Krstic, Miroslav


Evaluation of a prototype real-time PCR assay for carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) detection and simultaneous HPV genotype 16 (HPV16) and HPV18 genotyping.  


Results from a prototype real-time PCR assay that separately detected human papillomavirus genotype 16 (HPV16), HPV18, and 12 other carcinogenic HPV genotypes in aggregate (cobas 4800 HPV test) and results from a PCR assay that detects 37 HPV genotypes individually (Linear Array) were compared using a convenience sample of cervical specimens (n = 531). The percentage of total agreement between the two assays was 94.7% (95% confidence interval, 92.5 to 96.5%). The Linear Array test was more likely than cobas 4800 HPV test to test positive for the 12 other carcinogenic HPV genotypes among women without evidence of cervical disease (P = 0.004). PMID:19675214

Castle, Philip E; Sadorra, Mark; Lau, Tiffany; Aldrich, Carrie; Garcia, Francisco A R; Kornegay, Janet



The biology and significance of human papillomavirus infections in the genital tract.  

PubMed Central

A variety of human papillomavirus (HPV) types infect the anogenital mucosa, giving rise to lesions that differ in clinical appearance, histology, and risk of malignant progression. Certain high-risk types (HPVs 16, 18, 31, 33, 35 and 39) have a strong association with high-grade epithelial neoplasia and invasive carcinomas of the anogenital tract. Cancer appears to have a multifactorial etiology, and HPV infection alone is probably insufficient for malignant transformation. The consistent association between HPV infection and anogenital cancers emphasizes, however, that the sexually transmitted papillomaviruses may have a necessary role in carcinogenesis. Hence, there is a prospect that vaccination programs may one day allow public health control of HPV infection, thereby eliminating an important risk factor. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 PMID:2847433

Reid, R.; Campion, M. J.



A Potentially Oncogenic Human Papillomavirus (HPV5) Found in Two Renal Allograft Recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have observed 2 immunosuppressed renal allograft recipients with skin lesions induced by human papillomavirus type 5 (HPV-5). One recipient had multiple pityriasis versicolor-like (PV-like) skin lesions on his arms and trunk, and multiple Bowenoid in-situ skin cancers. The other had 2 warty lesions on the back of her fingers. Structural antigens of human papillomavirus type 5 (HPV-5) were identified

Marvin Lutzner; Odile Croissant; Marie-Françoise Ducasse; Henri Kreis; Jean Crosnier; Gérard Orth



A prospective, open, comparative study of 5% potassium hydroxide solution versus cryotherapy in the treatment of genital warts in men*  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Genital warts are caused by human papillomavirus infection and represent one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases. Many infections are transient but the virus may recur, persist, or become latent. To date, there is no effective antiviral treatment to eliminate HPV infection and most therapies are aimed at the destruction of visible lesions. Potassium hydroxide is a strong alkali that has been shown to be safe and effective for the treatment of genital warts and molluscum contagiosum. Cryotherapy is considered one of the most established treatments for genital warts. No comparative trials have been reported to date on the use of potassium hydroxide for genital warts. OBJECTIVE A prospective, open-label, randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare topical potassium hydroxide versus cryotherapy in the treatment of genital warts affecting immunocompetent, sexually active men. METHODS Over a period of 10 months, 48 patients were enrolled. They were randomly divided into two groups and selected on an alternative basis for either potassium hydroxide therapy or cryotherapy. While response to therapy did not differ substantially between both treatment modalities, side effects such as local pain and post-treatment hypopigmentation were considerably more prevalent in the groups treated using cryotherapy. RESULT In our study, potassium hydroxide therapy proved to be at least as effective as cryotherapy and offered the benefit of a better safety profile. CONCLUSION Topical 5% potassium hydroxide presents an effective, safe, and low-cost treatment modality for genital warts in men and should be included in the spectrum of therapies for genital warts. PMID:24770498

Camargo, Caio Lamunier de Abreu; Belda, Walter; Fagundes, Luiz Jorge; Romiti, Ricardo



Health-related quality of life in Indian patients with three viral sexually transmitted infections: herpes simplex virus-2, genital human papilloma virus and HIV  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundHealth-related quality of life (HRQOL) has not been studied in Indian patients with viral sexually transmitted infections (STIs): herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) and genital human papilloma virus (HPV) infections. Furthermore, there is no reported study that compares HRQOL among these two viral STIs and HIV.MethodsAll consenting adults with any of the three viral infections attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic

Rama Raj; Vishnubhatla Sreenivas; Manju Mehta; Somesh Gupta



Cross-protective vaccine efficacy of the bivalent HPV vaccine against HPV31 is associated with humoral immune responses  

PubMed Central

Background: We investigated the role of antibody responses as potential mechanism for the cross-protective vaccine-efficacies (VE) observed from randomized clinical trials of the HPV16/18 bivalent vaccine. Results: HPV31 cases had lower HPV16 antibody levels than controls (OR4th quartile compared with 1st quartile = 0.63; 95%CI: 0.36–1.08; p-trend = 0.03). HPV31 cases were also less likely to have detectable HPV31 neutralization, and HPV16 avidity than controls. No statistically significant differences by HPV18 antibody or HPV45 neutralization were observed among HPV45 cases and controls. Protection against HPV58 was not associated with any of the markers, confirming the specificity of our findings. Methods: Samples are from three-dose HPV vaccine recipients from the Costa Rica HPV16/18 vaccine trial. Women with a new HPV31, HPV45, or HPV58 infections over four years of follow-up were compared with randomly selected control women—with no new infection with HPV31/45/58—with respect to HPV16 and HPV18 antibody, HPV31, HPV45, and HPV58 neutralization, and HPV16 avidity. Conclusions: High HPV16 levels and avidity, and the ability to neutralize HPV31 were associated with protection against newly detected HPV31 infections, suggesting that the partial VE demonstrated for HPV31 is likely to be mediated at least in part through antibodies induced by HPV16/18 vaccination. PMID:23571174

Safaeian, Mahboobeh; Kemp, Troy J.; Pan, David Yuanji; Porras, Carolina; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Schiffman, Mark; Cortes, Bernal; Katki, Hormuzd; Wacholder, Sholom; Schiller, John T.; Gonzalez, Paula; Penrose, Kerri; Lowy, Douglas R.; Quint, Wim; van Doorn, Leen-Jan; Herrero, Rolando; Hildesheim, Allan; Pinto, Ligia A.



Genetics Home Reference: Hand-foot-genital syndrome  


... PubMed Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Hand-foot-genital syndrome On this page: Description Genetic ... names Glossary definitions Reviewed April 2008 What is hand-foot-genital syndrome? Hand-foot-genital syndrome is ...


A single element mediates glucocorticoid hormone response of HPV18 with no functional interactions with AP1 or hbrm.  


We determined that the human papillomavirus type 18 (HPV18) regulatory region contains one functional GRE sequence that interacts with the glucocorticoid receptor. This sequence conferred a moderate hormonal activation to the HPV18 P105 promoter. Two modulators of glucocorticoid hormone activity, AP1 and hbrm, both involved in P105 transcription, were found not to interfere with this hormonal activation. PMID:8599228

Medina-Martinez, O; Morales-Peza, N; Yaniv, M; García-Carrancá, A; Thierry, F



Comparison of HPV detection technologies: Hybrid capture 2, PreTect HPV-Proofer and analysis of HPV DNA viral load in HPV16, HPV18 and HPV33 E6/E7 mRNA positive specimens.  


Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing using molecular methods in liquid based cytology (LBC) specimens may be useful as an adjunct to cervical screening by cytology. We compared the positivity rate of the commercially available HPV DNA method hybrid capture 2 (hc2) and the commercially available E6/E7 mRNA method PreTect HPV-Proofer in cytological specimens (n=299). LBC specimens collected (n=299) represented the following cervical cytological disease categories: Normal (n=60), borderline nuclear abnormalities (BNA) (n=34), CIN1 (n=121), CIN2 (n=60), CIN3 (n=24). Overall, 69% (205/299) of the cases were positive by hc2 and 38% (112/299) of the cases were positive by PreTect HPV-Proofer. Concordance rates between the two tests were highest in the high-grade cytology cases (CIN2: 67% and CIN3: 83%) and the normal cytology cases (88%) and lowest in the BNA and CIN1 categories (56% and 52%). HPV DNA viral load analyses were carried out on HPV16 (n=55), HPV18 (n=9) and HPV33 (n=13) samples that were positive by PreTect HPV-Proofer. The sensitivity and specificity of PreTect HPV-Proofer and the hc2 DNA test for the detection of high-grade cytology (i.e. CIN2+) were 71.4% and 75.8% vs 100% and 43.7%, respectively. The relatively low detection rate observed by PreTect HPV-Proofer in the whole range of cytological positive cases, combined with a relatively higher specificity and PPV, suggests that PreTect HPV-Proofer may be more useful than hc2 for triage and in predicting high-grade disease. PMID:18955086

Keegan, Helen; Mc Inerney, Jamie; Pilkington, Loretto; Grønn, Petter; Silva, Ivan; Karlsen, Frank; Bolger, Noel; Logan, Catriona; Furuberg, Liv; O'Leary, John; Martin, Cara



Tumourigenesis Driven by the Human Papillomavirus Type 16 Asian-American E6 Variant in a Three-Dimensional Keratinocyte Model  

PubMed Central

Infection with a transforming human papillomavirus (HPV) such as type 16 (of species Alphapapillomavirus 9) causes ano-genital and oral tumours via viral persistence in human squamous cell epithelia. Epidemiological studies showed that the naturally occurring HPV16 Asian-American (AA) variant (sublineage D2/D3) is found more often than the European Prototype (EP) (sublineage A1) in high-grade cervical neoplasia and tumours compared to non-cancer controls. Just three amino acid changes within the early gene, E6, of HPV16 AA have been linked to this augmented tumourigenicity. The AAE6 variant's greater immortalizing and transforming potential over EPE6 has recently been confirmed in retrovirally-transduced keratinocytes expressing the E6 gene only. However, the tumourigenic role of the full-length viral genome of HPV16 has not yet been addressed with regard to these E6 variants. To investigate this process in the context of these two HPV16 E6 genotypes, an organotypic tissue culture model was used to simulate the HPV infectious life cycle. The AAE6 variant demonstrated an enhanced ability over EPE6 to drive the viral life cycle toward tumourigenesis, as evidenced phenotypically—by a more severe grade of epithelial dysplasia with higher proliferation and deregulated differentiation, and molecularly—by high viral oncogene E6 and E7 expression, but lack of productive viral life cycle markers. In contrast, EPE6 had low E6 and E7 but high E1?E4 expression, indicative of a productive life cycle. We suggest increased viral integration into the host genome for AAE6 as one possible mechanism for these observed differences from EPE6. Additionally, we found downstream effects on immortalization and host innate immune evasion. This study highlights how minor genomic variations in transforming viruses can have a significant affect on their tumourigenic ability. PMID:24983759

Jackson, Robert; Togtema, Melissa; Lambert, Paul F.; Zehbe, Ingeborg



[Biology of epidermodysplasia verruciformis-associated HPV].  


The genus betapapillomavirus (betaPV) presently comprises more than 40 virus types including the so-called epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV)-associated HPV, which were originally detected in EV-patients by Southern blot hybridization. BetaPV are ubiquitous in the general population and frequently establish themselves already during the first weeks of life. Hair follicles are regarded as natural reservoir. About 25% of betaPV detected in adults persist for at least 9 months. Due to very low virus production, seroconversion against betaPV starts sluggishly. Hyperproliferation of keratinocytes in psoriasis patients or after severe burns stimulates virus replication. Massive virus replication only occurs in EV-patients, associated with the induction of disseminated skin lesions with a high risk of malignant conversion. In 75% of EV-patients this can be put down to homozygous, inactivating mutations in the genes EVER1 or EVER2. A transgenic mouse model substantiated the crucial role of increased HPV8 oncogene expression, induced by UV-irradiation or wounding, for tumor induction. PMID:21113568

Pfister, H



HPV-DNA is not detectable in outgrowing cells from explant cultures of skin lesions established at the air-liquid-interface.  


Keratinocyte cultures established from HPV containing skin cancers were described earlier to lose their HPV DNA after passaging in vitro. A different approach was therefore used in this study. Explant cultures were generated by depositing small pieces of various benign and (pre)malignant skin specimens of renal transplant recipients and non-immunosuppressed patients on fibroblast-populated collagen lattices or on de-epidermized dermis. Subsequently, the cultures were maintained at the air-liquid interface. At various time points, samples were collected for both HPV analysis, using a nested PCR approach, and morphology. The outgrowing keratinocytes developed into multilayered epithelial structures showing terminal differentiation. No histological differences were observed between cultures established from HPV positive and negative lesions. Eighteen biopsy specimens were tested for their HPV content before and after culture. Before culture 11 out of these skin specimens contained DNA of the Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis-related HPV types (EV-HPV). Comparison of the HPV types detected in two different parts of the same skin specimen before culture was strongly suggestive for a non-homogeneous distribution of EV-HPV in the lesions. From the explant cultures derived from the 11 HPV-positive biopsies, 31 samples from the originally explanted pieces of tissue and 38 samples from the outgrowing multilayered epithelial sections were collected. HPV DNA was detected in 10 of the 31 and in 3 of the 38 samples (Chi-square test, P = 0.01), respectively. These results indicate that EV-HPV positive keratinocytes do not efficiently proliferate or lose their HPV DNA in this culture system or EV-HPV DNA is present in only a few basal cells, making it improbable that these cells are located at the outgrowing margins. PMID:10861634

Boxman, I L; Mulder, L H; Vermeer, B J; Bavinck, J N; ter Schegget, J; Ponec, M



Higher Risk Perception of HIV than of Chlamydia and HPV among Secondary School Students in Two German Cities  

PubMed Central

Background Chlamydia and genital human papillomavirus (HPV) are the two most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among teens and young adults in industrialised countries. The majority of adolescents, however, have limited or no knowledge of these infections. Within the context of a cross-sectional survey on awareness and knowledge of sexually transmitted infections, secondary school students attending the 8th grade and above in Bremen and Bremerhaven, two cities in northern Germany, were asked to rate the risk of peers to get infected with HIV, HPV or chlamydia. Methods Between October and December 2011, students aged 12–20 years completed an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire at their school. In addition to answering questions on awareness and knowledge of sexually transmitted infections, all students were also asked to rate the risk of peers to get infected with HIV, HPV or chlamydia. Furthermore, those reporting ever having sexual intercourse were asked to rate their own risk of getting infected with each of the three infections. Results 1,148 students, 55% female, completed the questionnaire. 27% of the students reported having had sexual intercourse. 68% of all students rated the risk of same-aged students to get infected with HIV/AIDS as high/medium. The corresponding proportions for HPV and chlamydia were 19 and 25% respectively. Those reporting ever having sexual intercourse generally perceived their own risk of getting infected with HIV, chlamydia or HPV as lower than that of their peers. Conclusion Generally, the risk of getting infected with HIV was perceived as being higher than that of getting infected with HPV or chlamydia, most likely due to the fact that the students were more aware of HIV than of the other two infections. Efforts should be made to improve awareness and knowledge of HPV and chlamydia among school going adolescents, and to make them realize that these are common infections that are preventable. PMID:23637872

Samkange-Zeeb, Florence; Pöttgen, Saskia; Zeeb, Hajo



HPV-18 transformed cells fail to arrest in G1 in response to quercetin treatment.  


Previous work with primary human keratinocytes demonstrated that quercetin, a potent mutagen found in high levels in bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum), arrested cells in G1 with concomitant elevation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (cdki) p27Kip1. Expression of the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E6 and E7 oncoproteins, under transcriptional control of a heterologous promoter, in transformed keratinocytes failed to abrogate this arrest [Beniston, R., Campo, M.S., 2003. Quercetin elevates p27Kip1 and arrests both primary and HPV-16 E6/E7 transformed human keratinocytes in G1. Oncogene 22, 5504-5514]. Given the link between papillomavirus infection, bracken fern in the diet and cancer of the oesophagus in humans, we wished to investigate further whether cells transformed by the whole genome of HPV-16 or HPV-18, with E6 and E7 under the transcriptional control of their respective homologous promoters, would be similarly arrested in G1 by quercetin. In agreement with earlier work, quercetin arrested HPV-16 transformed cells in G1 with an increase in the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1. However, HPV-18 transformed cells did not arrest after quercetin treatment. The failure of HPV-18 transformed cells to arrest in G1 was linked to the up-regulation of the HPV-18 long control region (LCR) by quercetin, maintaining high expression of the viral transforming proteins. Transcriptional up-regulation of the HPV-18 LCR was mediated by a "quercetin responsive element" homologous to the one identified previously in the bovine papillomavirus type 4 (BPV-4) LCR. PMID:15763151

Beniston, R G; Campo, M S



Deconstructing Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Knowledge: Objective and Perceived Knowledge in Males' Intentions to Receive the HPV Vaccine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine was recently approved for men. To effectively tailor HPV education efforts toward men, it is important to understand what men know about HPV and how this knowledge relates to their decision to receive the vaccine. This study examines how objective HPV knowledge, objective HPV vaccine knowledge,…

Krawczyk, Andrea; Stephenson, Ellen; Perez, Samara; Lau, Elsa; Rosberger, Zeev



HPV prevalence and genetic predisposition to cervical cancer in Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

Background Cervical cancer incidence is low in Saudi Arabian women, suggesting low prevalence to HPV infection due to environmental, cultural and genetic differences. Therefore, we investigated HPV prevalence and genotype distribution in cervical cancer as well as the association with 9 genetic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): CDKN1A (p21) C31A, TP53 C72G, ATM G1853A, HDM2 promoter T309G, HDM2 A110G, LIG4 A591G, XRCC1 G399A, XRCC3 C241T and TGF?1 T10C, presumed to predispose to cancer. Methods One hundred cervical cancer patients (90 squamous cell carcinoma and 10 adenocarcinoma) and 100 age/sex-matched controls were enrolled. SNPs were genotyped by direct sequencing and HPV was detected and typed in tumors using the HPV Linear Array Test. Results Eighty-two cases (82%) were positive for HPV sequences. Seven HPV genotypes were present as single infections (16, 18, 31, 45, 56, 59, 73) and five double infections (16/18, 16/39, 16/70, 35/52, 45/59) were detected. Most common genotypes were HPV-16 (71%), 31 (7%), and 18, 45, 73 (4% each). Only XRCC1 SNP was significantly associated with cervical cancer (P=0.02, OD=1.69; 95% CI= 1.06–2.66). However, nested analysis revealed a preponderance of HPV-positivity in patients harboring the presumed risk allele TP53 G (P=0.06). Both XRCC1 and TP53 SNPs tended to deviate from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE; P=0.03-0.07). Conclusions HPV prevalence (82%) in cervical cancer is at the lower range of the worldwide estimation (85 - 99%). While XRCC1 G399A was significantly associated with cervical cancer, TP53 G72C showed borderline association only in HPV-positive patients. Deviation from HWE in HPV-positive patients indicates co-selection, hence implicating the combination of HPV and SNPs in cancer predisposition. Thus, SNPs could be more relevant biomarkers of susceptibility to cervical cancer when associated with HPV infection. PMID:23642098



Diagnosis of genital herpes: the role and place of HSV testing in clinical practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genital herpes is caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and HSV-2. It is an underdiagnosed and undertreated sexually transmitted\\u000a infection characterised by latency followed by reactivation. The seroprevalence of both types of HSV varies throughout Europe,\\u000a and HSV-1 is an increasing cause of genital herpes. Transmission is through skin-to-skin contact, and neonatal herpes resulting\\u000a from transmission during delivery is a

Anders Strand



Characterization of HPV and host genome interactions in primary head and neck cancers.  


Previous studies have established that a subset of head and neck tumors contains human papillomavirus (HPV) sequences and that HPV-driven head and neck cancers display distinct biological and clinical features. HPV is known to drive cancer by the actions of the E6 and E7 oncoproteins, but the molecular architecture of HPV infection and its interaction with the host genome in head and neck cancers have not been comprehensively described. We profiled a cohort of 279 head and neck cancers with next generation RNA and DNA sequencing and show that 35 (12.5%) tumors displayed evidence of high-risk HPV types 16, 33, or 35. Twenty-five cases had integration of the viral genome into one or more locations in the human genome with statistical enrichment for genic regions. Integrations had a marked impact on the human genome and were associated with alterations in DNA copy number, mRNA transcript abundance and splicing, and both inter- and intrachromosomal rearrangements. Many of these events involved genes with documented roles in cancer. Cancers with integrated vs. nonintegrated HPV displayed different patterns of DNA methylation and both human and viral gene expressions. Together, these data provide insight into the mechanisms by which HPV interacts with the human genome beyond expression of viral oncoproteins and suggest that specific integration events are an integral component of viral oncogenesis. PMID:25313082

Parfenov, Michael; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Gehlenborg, Nils; Freeman, Samuel S; Danilova, Ludmila; Bristow, Christopher A; Lee, Semin; Hadjipanayis, Angela G; Ivanova, Elena V; Wilkerson, Matthew D; Protopopov, Alexei; Yang, Lixing; Seth, Sahil; Song, Xingzhi; Tang, Jiabin; Ren, Xiaojia; Zhang, Jianhua; Pantazi, Angeliki; Santoso, Netty; Xu, Andrew W; Mahadeshwar, Harshad; Wheeler, David A; Haddad, Robert I; Jung, Joonil; Ojesina, Akinyemi I; Issaeva, Natalia; Yarbrough, Wendell G; Hayes, D Neil; Grandis, Jennifer R; El-Naggar, Adel K; Meyerson, Matthew; Park, Peter J; Chin, Lynda; Seidman, J G; Hammerman, Peter S; Kucherlapati, Raju



Adolescent and young adult HPV vaccination in Australia: achievements and challenges.  


Australia commenced an ongoing school based government funded human papillomaviruses (HPV) (cervical cancer prevention) vaccination program in April 2007 for adolescent females aged 12-13 years. In addition, up to December 31, 2009, a catch-up program for young females 13-26 years of age was offered: a school-based vaccination program was used to offer HPV vaccine to girls enrolled in school (14-17 years), and general practitioners or other community health provider offered vaccine to young women aged 18-26 years. To date, only the quadrivalent vaccine (HPV 6/11/16/18) has been utilized in the funded program. Acceptance of the vaccine is high with coverage of 3 doses of the HPV vaccine in the school age cohort around 70%, and just over 30% in the older age cohort. Since the vaccination program was initiated, a reduction in new cases of genital warts of 73% among vaccine eligible age females has been evidenced in STI clinics across Australia. A reduction of 44% of new cases in young males (not a part of the free program) was also documented during this same time period, suggesting significant herd immunity. Similarly, in the state of Victoria, a small but significant decrease in high grade abnormalities in Pap screening findings has been reported in young women<18 years for the period 2007-9, as compared to pre-vaccination. Challenges for the future include how we can sustain and improve HPV vaccination coverage in young Australian women, while maintaining cervical cancer screening participation and reviewing cervical cancer screening methods. PMID:21962468

Garland, Suzanne M; Skinner, S Rachel; Brotherton, Julia M L



Health consequences of female genital mutilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) is no longer confined to African countries where still every year 2 million girls at a young age are currently subjected to surgical ablation of parts of their external genital organs. Health professionals in Western countries, especially midwives and gynaecologists, are regularly confronted not only with the sequelae of excision and infibulation but

Marcel Reyners



Age-specific occurrence of HPV16- and HPV18-related cervical cancer.  


The age-specific occurrence of cervical cancer related to human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes HPV16 and HPV18, the two targeted by current HPV vaccines, is not well described. We therefore used data from two large, tissue-based HPV genotyping studies of cervical cancer, one conducted in New Mexico (n = 744) and an International study restricted to cancers (n = 1,729) from Europe, North America, and Australia to represent those regions with widely available cervical cancer screening facilities. HPV results were categorized as HPV16- or HPV18-positive (HPV16/18) versus other HPV genotype. We observed a decreasing proportion of HPV16/18-positive cancers with increasing age in the International study (Ptrend < 0.001) and New Mexico study (Ptrend < 0.001). There was no heterogeneity in the relationship between age of diagnosis and the proportion of HPV16/18-positive cancers between studies (P = 0.8). Combining results from the two studies (n = 2,473), the percentages of HPV16/18-positive cases were 77.0% [95% confidence interval (CI): 75.1%-78.9%] for women less than 65 years old and 62.7% [95% confidence interval (CI): 58.4%-66.9%] for women aged 65 and older (P < 0.001). In women who are under the age of 25 and have been vaccinated before becoming sexually active, the cervical cancer incidence is expected to be approximately 3.5 per million by 2020. HPV vaccination against HPV16/18 may have a greater impact on cervical cancers in women under 65 than in women aged 65 and older. These data will inform the age-specific impact of HPV vaccination and its integration with cervical cancer screening activities. PMID:23632816

de Sanjose, Silvia; Wheeler, Cosette M; Quint, Wim G V; Hunt, William C; Joste, Nancy E; Alemany, Laia; Xavier Bosch, F; Myers, Evan R; Castle, Philip E



HPV vaccine (human papillomavirus) Gardasil - what you need to know  


... is taken in its entirety from the CDC HPV Gardasil® Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): CDC review information for HPV Gardasil® ...


How Many Cancers Are Linked with HPV Each Year?  


... message, please visit this page: About . Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-Associated Cancers HPV-Associated Cancers Basic Information ... in Women Ages 30 and Older Cervical cancer Human papillomavirus (HPV) Cervical cancer screening tests What your Pap ...


Preventing Cervical Cancer: The Development of HPV Vaccines

Cervical cancer can be prevented with HPV vaccines. NCI-supported researchers helped establish HPV as a cause of cervical cancer. They also helped create the first HPV vaccines, were involved in the vaccine trials, and contribute to ongoing studies.


The E2F5 repressor is an activator of E6/E7 transcription and of the S-phase entry in HPV18-associated cells.  


High-risk papillomavirus type 18 (HPV18) is one of the less represented HPV types in low-grade lesions of the anogenital tract, whereas it occupies the second place in cervical cancer, where it can be found in 16% of the cases worldwide, after HPV16 present in 54% of them. These epidemiological data indicate that HPV18 infection is more prone to carcinogenic progression. The main oncogenic proteins, E6 and E7 of HPV18, are functionally comparable to the homologous proteins of the other high-risk viruses, including HPV16. In this work, we investigated the possibility that the higher oncogenic potential of HPV18 might be due to transcriptional regulation of the E6/E7 oncogenes. By comparing the E6/E7 promoter and enhancer sequences of the mucosal HPV genomes, we identified E2F binding sites specific for HPV18. The E2F family of transcription factors contains activators (E2F1-3) and repressors (E2F4-8) that regulate the transcription of S-phase and mitotic genes and thereby have a crucial role in cell-cycle progression. Surprisingly, we identified E2F5 as a direct activator of HPV18 E6/E7 transcription by sequential silencing of E2F members in HeLa cells. In addition, we could show that E2F5 positively regulates S-phase entry in HeLa cells and that this activation of the cell cycle by a member of the E2F repressor family is specific for HPV18-expressing cells. Diverting the function of E2F5 from a cell-cycle repressor into an activator might contribute to the higher oncogenic potential of HPV18 when compared with other high-risk HPV types. PMID:20639900

Teissier, S; Pang, C L; Thierry, F



HPV modulation of host immune responses.  


Host immune responses to HPV are generally low-level because the virus, being confined to basal epithelial cells is shielded from the circulating immune cells during initial stages of infection. In this location there is only a limited expression of viral proteins. Other factors contributing to the low level of host immunity are that HPV infection is non-lytic (does not cause death of the infected cell); that a functionally active immune response is generated only at later stages of HPV infection, in post-mitotic suprabasal keratinocytes where all viral genes are expressed; and that only in suprabasal keratinocytes has the HPV DNA been sufficiently amplified to be detected by the host immune-surveillance cells. In addition to the natural low-level immune responses towards HPV, HPV also employs several mechanisms to down-regulate innate and cell-mediated immunity, thus facilitating host immune evasion and persistent infection. The environment, lifestyle, the genetic make-up of the host, and the viral genomic characteristics can also influence the persistence of HPV infection, and consequential diseases. Persistent infection with high-risk HPV is associated with increased risk of developing HPV-mediated premalignancy and malignancy. It is not clear if the natural humoral immune response as opposed to vaccination is effective in eliminating primary HPV infection or in preventing progression of infection; but after initial infection, the host develops HPV-specific T cell immune responses that appear to be capable of clearing established infection, of protecting against progression of early HPV-associated intraepithelial neoplastic lesions to squamous cell carcinoma, and of preventing reinfection. PMID:20879650

Feller, L; Wood, N H; Khammissa, R A G; Chikte, U M E; Meyerov, R; Lemmer, J



Racial Differences in HPV Knowledge, HPV Vaccine Acceptability, and Related Beliefs among Rural, Southern Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Because cervical cancer mortality in the United States is twice as high among black women as white women and higher in rural areas, providing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine to rural black adolescents is a high priority. Purpose: To identify racial differences in knowledge and attitudes about HPV, cervical cancer, and the HPV vaccine…

Cates, Joan R.; Brewer, Noel T.; Fazekas, Karah I.; Mitchell, Cicely E.; Smith, Jennifer S.



A Humanized Mouse Model of HPV-Associated Pathology Driven by E7 Expression  

PubMed Central

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causative agent of human cervical cancer and has been associated with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma development. Although prophylactic vaccines have been developed, there is a need to develop new targeted therapies for individuals affected with malignant infected lesions in these locations, which must be tested in appropriate models. Cutaneous beta HPV types appear to be involved in skin carcinogenesis. Virus oncogenicity is partly achieved by inactivation of retinoblastoma protein family members by the viral E7 gene. Here we show that the E7 protein of cutaneous beta HPV5 binds pRb and promotes its degradation. In addition, we described an in vivo model of HPV-associated disease in which artificial human skin prepared using primary keratinocytes engineered to express the E7 protein is engrafted onto nude mice. Expression of E7 in the transplants was stably maintained for up to 6 months, inducing the appearance of lesions that, in the case of HPV16 E7, histologically resembled human anogenital lesions caused by oncogenic HPVs. Moreover, it was confirmed through biomarker expression analysis via immunodetection and/or quantitative PCR from mRNA and miRNA that the 16E7-modified engrafted skin shares molecular features with human HPV-associated pretumoral and tumoral lesions. Finally, our findings indicate a decrease of the in vitro capacity of HPV5 E7 to reduce pRb levels in vivo, possibly explaining the phenotypical differences when compared with 16E7-grafts. Our model seems to be a valuable platform for basic research into HPV oncogenesis and preclinical testing of HPV-associated antitumor therapies. PMID:22911850

Buitrago-Perez, Agueda; Hachimi, Mariam; Duenas, Marta; Lloveras, Belen; Santos, Almudena; Holguin, Almudena; Duarte, Blanca; Santiago, Juan Luis; Akgul, Baki; Rodriguez-Peralto, Jose L.; Storey, Alan; Ribas, Catalina; Larcher, Fernando; del Rio, Marcela; Paramio, Jesus M.; Garcia-Escudero, Ramon



Cervical squamous dysplasias and carcinomas with immunodetectable p53 frequently contain HPV.  


Studies using cervical carcinoma cell lines usually show mutated p53 in cases without detectable HPV, and wild-type p53 in cases with detectable HPV. These findings suggest that loss of p53 function, either by mutation or by binding to HPV E6, is required for cervical carcinogenesis. Because mutated p53 is usually detectable immunohistochemically, one would predict an inverse relationship between the presence of HPV and detectable p53. In this study we examined 88 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded clinical specimens of cervix for the presence of HPV and p53 expression. All cases were studied for the presence of p53 using immunohistochemical methods. The antibody used was mouse monoclonal PAb1801 (Biogenex). The presence of HPV was detected by PCR. Twenty-six specimens showed foci of p53 expression (0/7 normal, 1/8 (13%) condylomas, 1/6 (17%) CIN I, 3/7 (43%) CIN II, 6/20 (30%) CIN III, 13/22 (59%) SCC, 2/5 (40%) adenosquamous carcinomas, and 0/13 adenocarcinomas). p53 expression was more frequent in SCC than with CIN (P = 0.026). HPV was present in 15 of 24 cases with detectable p53 and 22 of 48 cases without detectable p53. No correlation was seen between HPV status and detection of p53. With the exception of one case, p53 expression was seen in less than 10% of cells. p53 expression was not detected in any of the 13 adenocarcinomas examined (P = 0.0016 vs SCC). Our results show that alterations of p53 may play a role in the pathogenesis of cervical squamous carcinoma. However, p53 expression was neither sufficient nor required for cervical carcinogenesis, irrespective of HPV status. PMID:7672694

Mittal, K R; Lin, O; Chan, W; Goswami, S; Demopoulos, R I



Human papillomavirus prevalence among indigenous and non-indigenous Australian women prior to a national HPV vaccination program  

PubMed Central

Background Indigenous women in Australia have a disproportionate burden of cervical cancer despite a national cervical screening program. Prior to introduction of a national human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination program, we determined HPV genotype prevalence by Indigenous status and residence in remote areas. Methods We recruited women aged 17 to 40 years presenting to community-based primary health services for routine Pap screening across Australia. A liquid-based cytology (LBC) cervical specimen was tested for HPV DNA using the AMPLICOR HPV-DNA test and a PGMY09/11-based HPV consensus PCR; positive specimens were typed by reverse hybridization. We calculated age-adjusted prevalence by weighting to relevant population data, and determined predictors of HPV-DNA positivity by age, Indigenous status and area of residence using logistic regression. Results Of 2152 women (655 Indigenous), prevalence of the high-risk HPV genotypes was similar for Indigenous and non-Indigenous women (HPV 16 was 9.4% and 10.5%, respectively; HPV 18 was 4.1% and 3.8%, respectively), and did not differ by age group. In younger age groups, the prevalence of other genotypes also did not differ, but in those aged 31 to 40 years, HPV prevalence was higher for Indigenous women (35% versus 22.5%; P < 0.001), specifically HPV clades ?5 (OR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.1 to 4.3) and ?7, excluding type 18 (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.3). In multivariate analysis, detection of any HPV genotype was strongly associated with smoking and Pap-test abnormalities, with both risk factors more common among Indigenous women. Conclusion Although we found no difference in the prevalence of HPV16/18 among Australian women by Indigenous status or, for Indigenous women, residence in remote regions, differences were found in the prevalence of risk factors and some other HPV genotypes. This reinforces the importance of cervical screening as a complement to vaccination for all women, and the value of baseline data on HPV genotype prevalence by Indigenous status and residence for the monitoring of vaccine impact. PMID:21910918



Meta-Analysis on Prevalence and Attribution of Human Papillomavirus Types 52 and 58 in Cervical Neoplasia Worldwide  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate the prevalence and attribution of two non-vaccine-covered HPV types (HPV52 and HPV58) across the world. Methods Meta-analysis on studies reported in English and Chinese between 1994 and 2012. Results The pooled prevalence and attribution rates of HPV52 and HPV58 in invasive cervical cancers were significantly higher in Eastern Asia compared to other regions (HPV52 prevalence: 5.7% vs. 1.8–3.6%, P<0.001; HPV52 attribution: 3.7% vs. 0.2–2.0%; HPV58 prevalence: 9.8% vs. 1.1–2.5%, P<0.001; HPV58 attribution: 6.4% vs. 0.7–2.2%, P<0.001). Oceania has an insufficient number of studies to ascertain the prevalence of HPV52. Within Eastern Asia, the attribution of HPV58 to invasive cervical cancer was 1.8-fold higher than that of HPV52. Similarly, HPV52 and HPV58 shared a higher prevalence and attribution among cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in Eastern Asia. In contrast to the classical high-risk type, HPV16, the prevalence and attribution of HPV52 and HPV58 decreased with increasing lesion severity. Thus, HPV52 and HPV58 behave as an “intermediate-risk” type. Conclusion The attribution of HPV52 and HPV58 to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cancer in Eastern Asia were respectively 2.5–2.8 and 3.7–4.9 folds higher than elsewhere. Changes in the attributed disease fraction can serve as a surrogate marker for cross-protection or type replacement following widespread use of HPV16/18-based vaccines. This unique epidemiology should be considered when designing HPV screening assays and vaccines for Eastern Asia. PMID:25229350

Chan, Paul K. S.; Ho, Wendy C. S.; Chan, Martin C. W.; Wong, Martin C. S.; Yeung, Apple C. M.; Chor, Josette S. Y.; Hui, Mamie



[Ethics and reproductive health: the issue of HPV vaccination].  


The ethics of reproductive health covers a wide field of different issues, from the ethical dimensions of assisted reproduction, life of newborns with disabilities to the never-ending debate on the ethical aspects of abortion. Furthermore, increasing attention is paid to the ethical dimensions of using stem cells taken from human embryos, the creation of cloned embryos of patients for possible self-healing, and the increasingly present issue of reproductive cloning. Development of vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) has introduced new ethical aspects related to reproductive health and the need for a consensus of clinical and public-healthcare population. Today immunization with HPV vaccine is a measure for the primary prevention of cervical cancer and it provides effective protection against certain types of viruses included in the vaccine. The most often mentioned issues of discussions on ethical concerns about HPV vaccination are the recommended age of girls who should be informed and vaccinated (12-14 years), attitudes and fears of parents concerning discussion with their preadolescent daughters on issues important for their future sexual behavior, dilemma on the vaccination of boys and the role of the chosen pediatrician in providing information on the vaccination. In Serbia, two HPV vaccines have been registered but the vaccination is not compulsory. Up-till-now there has been no researches on the attitudes of physicians and parents about HPV vaccination. Nevertheless, it is very important to initiate education of general and medical public about the fact that the availability of vaccine, even if we disregard all aforementioned dilemmas, does not lead to the neglect of other preventive strategies against cervical cancer, primarily screening. The National Program for Cervical Cancer Prevention involves organized screening, i.e. regular cytological examinations of the cervical smear of all women aged 25-69 years, every three years, regardless of the vaccination status. PMID:23539924

Mateji?, Bojana; Kesi?, Vesna



Definition of an HPV18/45 cross-reactive human T-cell epitope after DNA immunisation of HLA-A2/KB transgenic mice.  


Although human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 are the most common types associated with cervical cancer worldwide, other related HPV types such as HPV 35, 45 and 58 have significant prevalence in geographically distinct populations. For development of global prophylactic and therapeutic vaccine strategies, it is important to study immune responses against these viruses and to define the degree of cross-reactivity between related HPV types. To investigate the potential for T cell cross-reactivity after vaccination, HLA-A2/Kb transgenic mice were immunised with DNA plasmid constructs containing HPV18 and 45 E6 and E7. Splenocytes from immunised mice were tested in direct ELIspot assays against overlapping pools of HPV 18 peptides. Immunisation with either HPV18 or HPV45 E6 DNA produced dominant T cell responses against an epitope (KCIDFYSRI) that was shared between HPV18 and HPV45. This peptide was shown to bind to HLA-A*0201 but not Db or Kb molecules on the cell surface. Furthermore this peptide was shown to be immunogenic in vitro to human T cells from 2 out of 3 HLA-A2+ healthy donors. Collectively, these results demonstrate that HPV 18 and 45 E6 DNA vaccines are immunogenic in mice and demonstrate that cross-reactive T cell responses against closely related HPV types can be induced in vivo. The use of the HLA-A2/Kb transgenic mice allowed definition of an HLA-A*0201 binding peptide epitope that would have been rejected on the basis of predicted major histocompatibility complex binding affinity. PMID:16353149

McCarthy, Corinna; Youde, Sarah J; Man, Stephen



Dense Genotyping of Immune-Related Loci Identifies Variants Associated with Clearance of HPV among HIV-Positive Women in the HIV Epidemiology Research Study (HERS)  

PubMed Central

Persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is a necessary and causal factor of cervical cancer. Most women naturally clear HPV infections; however, the biological mechanisms related to HPV pathogenesis have not been clearly elucidated. Host genetic factors that specifically regulate immune response could play an important role. All HIV-positive women in the HIV Epidemiology Research Study (HERS) with a HR-HPV infection and at least one follow-up biannual visit were included in the study. Cervicovaginal lavage samples were tested for HPV using type-specific HPV hybridization assays. Type-specific HPV clearance was defined as two consecutive HPV-negative tests after a positive test. DNA from participants was genotyped for 196,524 variants within 186 known immune related loci using the custom ImmunoChip microarray. To assess the influence of each single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) with HR-HPV clearance, the Cox proportional hazards model with the Wei-Lin-Weissfeld approach was used, adjusting for CD4+ count, low risk HPV (LR-HPV) co-infection, and relevant confounders. Three analytical models were performed: race-specific (African Americans (n?=?258), European Americans (n?=?87), Hispanics (n?=?55), race-adjusted combined analysis, and meta-analysis of pooled independent race-specific analyses. Women were followed for a median time of 1,617 days. Overall, three SNPs (rs1112085, rs11102637, and rs12030900) in the MAGI-3 gene and one SNP (rs8031627) in the SMAD3 gene were associated with HR-HPV clearance (p<10?6). A variant (rs1633038) in HLA-G were also significantly associated in African American. Results from this study support associations of immune-related genes, having potential biological mechanism, with differential cervical HR-HPV infection outcomes. PMID:24918582

Sudenga, Staci L.; Wiener, Howard W.; King, Caroline C.; Rompalo, Anne M.; Cu-Uvin, Susan; Klein, Robert S.; Shah, Keerti V.; Sobel, Jack D.; Jamieson, Denise J.; Shrestha, Sadeep



Dense genotyping of immune-related loci identifies variants associated with clearance of HPV among HIV-positive women in the HIV epidemiology research study (HERS).  


Persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is a necessary and causal factor of cervical cancer. Most women naturally clear HPV infections; however, the biological mechanisms related to HPV pathogenesis have not been clearly elucidated. Host genetic factors that specifically regulate immune response could play an important role. All HIV-positive women in the HIV Epidemiology Research Study (HERS) with a HR-HPV infection and at least one follow-up biannual visit were included in the study. Cervicovaginal lavage samples were tested for HPV using type-specific HPV hybridization assays. Type-specific HPV clearance was defined as two consecutive HPV-negative tests after a positive test. DNA from participants was genotyped for 196,524 variants within 186 known immune related loci using the custom ImmunoChip microarray. To assess the influence of each single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) with HR-HPV clearance, the Cox proportional hazards model with the Wei-Lin-Weissfeld approach was used, adjusting for CD4+ count, low risk HPV (LR-HPV) co-infection, and relevant confounders. Three analytical models were performed: race-specific (African Americans (n = 258), European Americans (n = 87), Hispanics (n = 55), race-adjusted combined analysis, and meta-analysis of pooled independent race-specific analyses. Women were followed for a median time of 1,617 days. Overall, three SNPs (rs1112085, rs11102637, and rs12030900) in the MAGI-3 gene and one SNP (rs8031627) in the SMAD3 gene were associated with HR-HPV clearance (p<10(-6)). A variant (rs1633038) in HLA-G were also significantly associated in African American. Results from this study support associations of immune-related genes, having potential biological mechanism, with differential cervical HR-HPV infection outcomes. PMID:24918582

Sudenga, Staci L; Wiener, Howard W; King, Caroline C; Rompalo, Anne M; Cu-Uvin, Susan; Klein, Robert S; Shah, Keerti V; Sobel, Jack D; Jamieson, Denise J; Shrestha, Sadeep



Oral HPV infection in a clinic-based sample of Hispanic men  

PubMed Central

Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated to the pathogenesis of various cancers, such as oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, which has a high incidence in Puerto Rican men. Despite the burden of oral cancer in Puerto Rico, little is known about the epidemiology of oral HPV infection, particularly in high-risk men. Therefore, this study is aimed at determining the prevalence of oral HPV infection, the genotype distribution and correlates associated with oral HPV infection in men of at least 16 years of age attending a sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic in Puerto Rico. Methods A cross-sectional study consisting of 205 men was conducted. Participants provided a 30-second oral rinse and gargle with mouthwash. Following DNA extraction, HPV genotyping was performed in all samples using Innogenetics Line Price Assay (INNO-LiPA). A questionnaire was administered, which included a demographic, behavioral and a clinical assessment. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis were used to characterize the study sample. Variables that achieved statistical significance in the bivariate analysis (p?HPV prevalence among men was 20.0% (95.0%CI?=?14.8%-26.1%) and of HPV type 16 was 2.4% (95.0%CI?=?0.8%-5.6%). Oral HPV prevalence significantly increased over increasing age categories (p-trend?=?0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that oral HPV was independently associated with number of sexual partners (adjusted OR?=?1.02; 95%CI?=?1.01-1.03) and lifetime use of cigarettes (adjusted OR?=?3.00; 95%CI?=?0.98-9.16). Conclusions Oral HPV among the sampled men in the STI clinic was high, regardless of the HIV status or sexual behavior. Interventions in STI clinics should include screening for HPV in the oral cavity for the early detection and reduction of long-term consequences of oral HPV infection, such as oropharyngeal cancer. PMID:24460642



Detection and Typing of Human Papillomavirus Nucleic Acids in Biological Fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the etiologic agents of cancer of the uterine cervix and several other neoplasias. Detection of HPV infection will improve the sensitivity of primary and secondary screening of cervical cancer. The clinical indications for the use of HPV tests will have to consider the natural history of HPV infection and diseases, and the multiplicity of types involved.

François Coutlée; Marie-Hélène Mayrand; Michel Roger; Eduardo L. Franco



[Treatment of genital prolapse in very old women].  


An until recently mobile woman of 86 years developed problems with independent living because of a genital total prolapse. After treatment by high perineoplasty she was once more able to resume her social activities. In very old women a genital prolapse can lead to significant morbidity due to hygienic problems and increase of social loneliness due to impairment of mobility. Use of a pessary is rarely an acceptable solution because of ulceration of the vaginal wall. Surgery can be modified because preservation of vaginal function is hardly necessary after the age of eighty. Efficient control of complaints can be achieved by Labhardt high perineoplasty or Le Fort partial colpocleisis. Before such types of operation cytology and ultrasonography of the uterus must be performed to exclude a malignancy with reasonable certainty. Both operations can be done under local anaesthesia with very short hospitalization. PMID:9550793

Lammes, F B



Ritualistic female genital mutilation: current status and future outlook.  


Ritualistic sexual mutilation of females dates back to the fifth century B.C. This traditional practice is a social as well as a health issue that affects the physical and mental well being of the women who undergo it. Although practiced mostly in African countries north of the equator and the Middle-East, concern has recently been expressed that female genital mutilation is also being practiced in the U.S., Europe, and other western countries by immigrants from these countries. This review describes the various types of female genital mutilation and presents the historical and cultural background of the tradition, outlines the medical, psychological and sexual problems, and discusses the current status and future outlook for this tradition, emphasizing social, medical, and legislative aspects. PMID:9326757

Elchalal, U; Ben-Ami, B; Gillis, R; Brzezinski, A



[Colorimetric detection of HPV6 and HPV16 by loop mediated isothermal amplification].  


A simple, rapid and sensitive colorimetric loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method was established to detect HPV6 and HPV 16 respectively. The method employed a set of four specially designed primers that recognized six distinct sequences of HPV6-E6 or HPV16-E7 for amplification of nucleic acid under isothermal conditions at 63 degrees C for one hour. The amplification process of LAMP was monitored by the addition of HNB (hydroxy naphthol blue) dye prior to amplification. A positive reaction was indicated by a color change from violet to sky blue and confirmed by real-time turbidimeter and agarose electrophoresis. Thirteen cervical swab samples having single infection with 13 different HPV genotypes were examined to evaluate the specificity. A serial dilution of a cloned plasmid containing HPV-E6 or HPV-E7 gene was examined to evaluate the sensitivity. The results showed that no cross-reaction with other HPV genotypes was observed. The colorimetric LAMP assay could achieve a sensitivity of 1000 copies, 10-20 times lower than that of real-time PCR. The assay was further evaluated with 62 clinical specimens and consistent results were obtained compared with the detection using Kai Pu HPV Genotyping Kit. We concluded that this colorimetric LAMP assay had potential usefulness for the rapid screening of the HPV6 or HPV16 infection in the laboratories and hospitals of provincial and municipal region in China. PMID:21462508

Lu, Chun-bin; Luo, Le; Yang, Meng-jie; Nie, Kai; Wang, Miao; Ma, Xue-Jun



Cellular immune response in genital herpes simplex virus infection.  


We studied the relations between the cellular immune response, pre-existing complement-fixing antibody and virus type with duration of virus excretion in genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. Thirty-six patients (seven with HSV-1 and 29 with HSV-2) with genital herpes underwent serologic testing, sequential viral cultures and weekly determination of lymphocyte-transformation stimulation index with inactivated HSV antic n. The duration of virus excretion was shortest in those with pre-existing complement-fixing antibody, was unrelated to virus type, and was inversely correlated with the magnitude of the mean peak stimulation index (r = -0.69, P less than 0.001). Prolonged virus excretion occurred in patients with a delayed and diminished peak index. Recurrent episodes had a higher peak index (29.4 compared to 14.5) (P less than 0.02), an earlier development of the peak during recurrences (9.1 vs. 25.8 days) (P less than 0.01) and a briefer duration of viral shedding than initial episodes. Thus, the temporal course and magnitude of the stimulation index correlate with and may determine the duration of genital HSV infection. PMID:211414

Corey, L; Reeves, W C; Holmes, K K



HPV-16E6 can induce multiple site phosphorylation of p53.  


Modulation of the activity of tumor suppressor p53 is a key event in the replication of many viruses. They could manipulate p53 function through modification of phosphorylation for their own purpose. However, there are scarce data on the relationship between high risk human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 protein and p53 phosphorylation status. Therefore, we used a mammalian green fluorescence protein (GFP) expression system to express HPV-16E6 with GFP fusion proteins in wild-type p53 cell lines, 293T, MCF-7, and SMMC-7721 to trace the traffic and subcellular location of E6 protein. By immunoblotting, we determined the positive phosphorylated sites of p53 in the context of HPV-16E6. Using immunofluorescence techniques, we observed the distribution of phosphorylated p53 in all the cells we used. In conclusion, HPV-16E6 was predominantly located in nuclei of wild-type p53 cells, and it was able to induce phosphorylation of p53 at multiple sites, such as Ser15, Ser20, and Ser392. The level and time of these phosphorylated sites of p53 were different in HPV-16E6 expressing cells. Furthermore, the phosphorylated p53 was localized in the nuclei together with HPV-16E6. PMID:19148510

Zhang, Ge; Sun, Lina; Li, Zongfang; Si, Lusheng; Song, Tusheng; Huang, Chen; Zhang, Wanggang



Human papillomavirus infection in Bhutan at the moment of implementation of a national HPV vaccination programme  

PubMed Central

Background Cervical cancer is the most common female cancer in Bhutan, the first low/middle-income country to implement a national human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme. Methods To provide a robust baseline for future evaluations of vaccine effectiveness, cervical cell specimens were obtained from 2,505 women aged 18–69 years from the general population, and biopsies from 211 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) and 112 invasive cervical cancer (ICC) cases. Samples were tested for HPV using GP5+/6+ PCR. Results Among the general population, HPV prevalence was 26%, being highest (33%) in women ?24 years, but remaining above 15% in all age-groups. Determinants of HPV included age, marital status, and number of sexual partners. Among the eight percent with cytological abnormalities, 24 CIN3 and 4 ICC were histologically confirmed. Even after additional testing with a sensitive E7 PCR, no infections with vaccine-targeted HPV types were detected in the few vaccinated women (n?=?34) compared to 6% prevalence in unvaccinated women of similar age (p?=?0?·?215). Conclusion Based upon type-specific prevalence among biopsies, at least 70% of ICC in Bhutan are theoretically preventable by HPV16/18 vaccination, but screening programmes should be expanded among older women, who have an important underlying burden of CIN3 and ICC. PMID:25047665



Female genital mutilation in Greece.  


The number of migrants and refugees with a female genital mutilation (FGM) living in Greece is rising. This study explores the characteristics and psychosexual issues of women with FGM who were examined in the 2nd Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Athens Medical School, Greece during the year 2009. The women were asked to fill out an anonymous questionnaire asking for demographic data, obstetric history, current complaints, and psychosexual problems. The results are presented and discussed, as FGM is a new reality for Greece. Healthcare providers have to familiarize themselves with issues related to FGM and improve their skills in transcultural care, so as to manage and support women with FGM adequately. PMID:23157041

Vrachnis, N; Salakos, N; Iavazzo, C; Iliodromiti, Z; Bakalianou, K; Kouiroukidou, P; Creatsas, G



Strategies for continuous evaluation of the benefit-risk profile of HPV-16/18-AS04-adjuvanted vaccine.  


The HPV types 16/18-AS04-adjuvanted cervical cancer vaccine, Cervarix(®) (HPV-16/18-vaccine, GlaxoSmithKline, Belgium) was first approved in 2007 and is licensed in 134 countries for the prevention of persistent infection, premalignant cervical lesions and cervical cancer caused by oncogenic HPV. Benefit-risk status requires continual re-evaluation as vaccine uptake increases, as the epidemiology of the disease evolves and as new information becomes available. This paper provides an example of benefit-risk considerations and risk-management planning. Evaluation of the benefit-risk of HPV-16/18-vaccine post-licensure includes studies with a range of designs in many countries and in collaboration with national public agencies and regulatory authorities. The strategy to assess benefit versus risk will continue to evolve and adapt to the changing HPV-16/18-vaccine market. PMID:25219284

Angelo, Maria-Genalin; Taylor, Sylvia; Struyf, Frank; Tavares Da Silva, Fernanda; Arellano, Felix; David, Marie-Pierre; Dubin, Gary; Rosillon, Dominique; Baril, Laurence



DNA Methylation Profiling across the Spectrum of HPV-Associated Anal Squamous Neoplasia  

PubMed Central

Background Changes in host tumor genome DNA methylation patterns are among the molecular alterations associated with HPV-related carcinogenesis. However, there is little known about the epigenetic changes associated specifically with the development of anal squamous cell cancer (SCC). We sought to characterize broad methylation profiles across the spectrum of anal squamous neoplasia. Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty-nine formalin-fixed paraffin embedded samples from 24 patients were evaluated and included adjacent histologically normal anal mucosa (NM; n?=?3), SCC-in situ (SCC-IS; n?=?11) and invasive SCC (n?=?15). Thirteen women and 11 men with a median age of 44 years (range 26–81) were included in the study. Using the SFP10 LiPA HPV-typing system, HPV was detected in at least one tissue from all patients with 93% (27/29) being positive for high-risk HPV types and 14 (93%) of 15 invasive SCC tissues testing positive for HPV 16. Bisulfite-modified DNA was interrogated for methylation at 1,505 CpG loci representing 807 genes using the Illumina GoldenGate Methylation Array. When comparing the progression from normal anal mucosa and SCC-IS to invasive SCC, 22 CpG loci representing 20 genes demonstrated significant differential methylation (p<0.01). The majority of differentially methylated gene targets occurred at or close to specific chromosomal locations such as previously described HPV methylation “hotspots” and viral integration sites. Conclusions We have identified a panel of differentially methlylated CpG loci across the spectrum of HPV-associated squamous neoplasia of the anus. To our knowledge, this is the first reported application of large-scale high throughput methylation analysis for the study of anal neoplasia. Our findings support further investigations into the role of host-genome methylation in HPV-associated anal carcinogenesis with implications towards enhanced diagnosis and screening strategies. PMID:23226306

Riggs, Bridget; Eschrich, Steven; Elahi, Abul; Qu, Xiaotao; Ajidahun, Abidemi; Berglund, Anders; Coppola, Domenico; Grady, William M.; Giuliano, Anna R.