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1

Genital HPV Infection  

MedlinePLUS

... STDs) Share Compartir Genital HPV Infection - Fact Sheet Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted ... other cancers including cancer of the vulva, vagina, penis, or anus. It can also cause cancer in ...

2

Genital Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Native Women  

MedlinePLUS

Genital Human Papillomavirus (HPV) At least 50% of sexually active women and men will get it. Most will not ... possible effects of HPV. W hat is genital human papillomavirus (HPV)? HPV is a common virus. There ...

3

Cutaneous human papillomavirus types detected on the surface of male external genital lesions: A case series within the HPV Infection in Men Study  

PubMed Central

Background Cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPVs) may be associated with cutaneous epithelial lesions and non-melanoma skin cancers. No study has systematically evaluated the presence of genus beta [?]-HPV in male genital skin or external genital lesions (EGLs). Objectives To examine cutaneous ?-HPV types detected on the surface of EGLs in men and describe their presence prior to EGL development. Study design A retrospective case series was conducted among 69 men with pathologically confirmed EGLs (n=72) who participated in the HPV Infection in Men Study. Archived exfoliated cells collected from the surface of each EGL and normal genital skin specimens 6–12 months preceding EGL development were tested for ?-HPV DNA using a type-specific multiplex genotyping assay. Results ?-HPV DNA was detected on 61.1% of all EGLs, with types 38 (16.7%), 5 (15.3%), and 12 (12.5%) most commonly identified. HPV prevalence differed across pathological diagnoses, with the largest number of ?-HPV types detected on condylomas. Most ?-HPV types were detected on normal genital skin prior to EGL development, though the prevalence was lower on EGLs compared to preceding normal genital skin. Conclusions EGLs and the normal genital skin of men harbor a large number of ?-HPV types; however, it appears that ?-HPVs are unrelated to EGL development in men. Despite evidence to support a causal role in skin carcinogenesis at UVR-exposed sites, cutaneous HPV appears unlikely to cause disease at the UVR-unexposed genitals. PMID:24210970

Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Messina, Jane L.; Stoler, Mark H.; Jukic, Drazen M.; Tommasino, Massimo; Gheit, Tarik; Rollison, Dana E.; Sichero, Laura; Sirak, Bradley A.; Ingles, Donna J.; Abrahamsen, Martha; Lu, Beibei; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R.

2013-01-01

4

Pathogenesis of genital HPV infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical, subclinical, and latent human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are distinguished from HPV-associated neoplasia. Besides HPV additional cofactors are necessary to transform HPV infected tissue to intraepithelial or invasive neoplasia. Risk factors for the presence of HPV are high number of sexual partners, early cohabitarche, young age at first delivery, suppression and alteration of immune status, young age and hormonal influences.

A Schneider

1993-01-01

5

Genital HPV infection and related lesions in men  

PubMed Central

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is highly prevalent in men and there is an interest in further understanding the relationship between HPV infection and disease in men, including the development of genital warts, penile intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive penile carcinomas. Genital warts are caused by HPV 6/11 and are the most common clinical manifestation of HPV in men. Though they are benign and not associated with mortality, they are a source of psychosocial distress and physical discomfort. HPV infection can also develop into invasive penile carcinoma which is associated with morbidity and mortality. Approximately 40% of invasive penile carcinomas are attributable to HPV with HPV 16, 18, and 6/11 being the genotypes most commonly detected in penile tumors. Penile carcinomas of the basaloid and warty histologic subtypes are most likely to test positive for HPV. In addition to HPV infection, the risk factors most strongly associated with penile cancer are lack of neonatal circumcision, phimosis (the inability of uncircumcised men to fully retract the foreskin), and anogenital warts. Male vaccination with the quadrivalent HPV vaccine that protects against HPV 6/11/16/18 has been shown to significantly reduce HPV-associated anogenital infection and disease in men. If the quadrivalent vaccine is successfully disseminated to large segments of the young male population, there is the potential for substantial reduction in genital HPV infection and related lesions in men. PMID:21962470

Anic, Gabriella M.; Giuliano, Anna R.

2012-01-01

6

HPV Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... against the types of HPV that cause most cervical cancers. One of these vaccines (Gardasil) also protects against ... HPV-related diseases, such as genital warts and cervical cancer. But HPV can infect areas that are not ...

7

Male circumcision and the incidence and clearance of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men: the HPV Infection in men (HIM) cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Reported associations of male circumcision (MC) with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men have been inconsistent. Methods 4,033 healthy men were examined every six months for a median of 17.5 months. In each study visit, exfoliated cell specimens from the coronal sulcus/glans penis, penile shaft, and scrotum were collected and combined into one sample per person for HPV DNA detection. Samples were tested for 37 HPV types. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the association between MC and the incidence and clearance of HPV infections and specific genotypes. Results The overall incidence of new HPV infections did not differ by MC status (for any HPV, adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91-1.27). However, incidence was significantly lower among circumcised versus uncircumcised men for HPV types 58 (p?=?0.01), 68 (p?HPV types 39 (p?=?0.01) and 51 (p?=?0.02). Despite the lack of an overall association in the risk of HPV clearance by MC (for any HPV, aHR 0.95, 95% CI 0.88-1.02), median times to clearance were significantly shorter among circumcised than uncircumcised men for HPV types 33 (p?=?0.02) and 64 (p?=?0.04), and longer for HPV types 6 (p?genital HPV detection, except for certain HPV types. The use of a single combined sample from the penis and scrotum for HPV DNA detection likely limited our ability to identify a true effect of MC at the distal penis. PMID:24517172

2014-01-01

8

Simultaneous detection and typing of genital human papillomavirus DNA using the polymerase chain reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple method has been developed for detecting a broad range of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) types using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We utilized two consensus sequence primer pairs within the E6 and E7 open reading frames to amplify HPV DNA; malignant HPV DNA (from HPV- 16, - 18, -31, -33, -52b and -58) was amplified using the pU-1M\\/

Yukako Fujinaga; Masamitu Shimada; Kazuhide Okazawa; Michio Fukushima; Ikunoshin Kato; Kei Fujinaga

1991-01-01

9

HPV and Genital Warts among Peruvian Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender People: Knowledge,  

E-print Network

morbidity and mortality in both men and women via cervical cancer, penile and anal cancer, oropharyngeal cancer and genital warts (GW) [1]. In many countries HPV prevalence is similar among men and women,

Jones, Peter JS

10

HPV type infection in different anogenital sites among HIV-positive Brazilian women  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) types, and risk factors for HPV positivity across cervix, vagina and anus, we conducted a study among 138 women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Goal Compare the prevalence of different HPV types and the risk factors for HPV positivity in three sites. Results The most frequently detected HPV types in all sites were, in decreasing order, HPV16, 53, 18, 61 and 81. Agreement between the cervix and vagina was good (kappa 0.60 – 0.80) for HPV16 and 53 and excellent (Kappa > 0.80) for HPV18 and 61. HPV positivity was inversely associated with age for all combinations including the anal site. Conclusion In HIV positive women, HPV18 is the most spread HPV type found in combinations of anal and genital sites. The relationship of anal to genital infection has implications for the development of anal malignancies. Thus, the efficacy of the current HPV vaccine may be considered not only for the cervix, but also for prevention of HPV18 anal infection among immunossuppressed individuals. PMID:18341690

Gonçalves, Maria Alice G; Randi, Giorgia; Arslan, Annie; Villa, Luisa L; Burattini, Marcelo N; Franceschi, Silvia; Donadi, Eduardo Antonio; Massad, Eduardo

2008-01-01

11

HPV prevalence and type distribution in women with normal or abnormal Pap smear in Bulgaria.  

PubMed

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a well-known pathogen for lower genital tract neoplasias, yet little is known regarding HPV prevalence in Bulgaria. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HPV DNA and to determine HPV types distribution among women with normal and abnormal cytology. Cervical smears with different cytological diagnoses were collected from 355 Bulgarian patients. The cohort of patients selected is the biggest ever studied in this country. Using the Roche Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test, papillomavirus DNA was found in 217 out of the 355 samples, 164 of which had only one and 53 had more than one HPV type. The distribution of the viruses tested in 355 samples was as follows: (i) the most common type was HPV 16, which was found in 61 samples; (ii) the next most frequent HPV type was HPV 33, found in 14 of the samples. A high prevalence of HPV infection was observed in this study. As HPV infection has a high correlation with cervical cancer, this study emphasizes the need for both primary prevention of cervical cancer with HPV vaccines as well as secondary prevention with screening. Currently, two HPV vaccines are included in the National immunization schedule in Bulgaria. Thus, new clinical studies will benefit from patient stratification by the presence or absence of HPV, and by designing separate clinical trials specifically for HPV associated cancers. PMID:25059991

Grozdanov, Peter; Zlatkov, Victor; Ganchev, Gancho; Karagiosov, Ilko; Toncheva, Draga; Galabov, Angel S

2014-11-01

12

Correlation between Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Type and Histology of Warts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty warts from different patients and of different clinical type were examined histologically and virologically. Eight lesions were found to be associated with human papillomavirus type 1 (HPV 1), 15 tumors were induced by HPV 2, HPV 3 was detected 4 times, RPV 4 twice, and HPV 6 eleven times. HPV 3, HPV 4, and HPV 6 induced warts revealed

Gerd Gross; Herbert Pfister; Manfred Hagedorn; Lutz Gissmann

1982-01-01

13

Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a common sexually transmitted disease that at the present time is not effectively controlled or treated. Many infections are inapparent and transient. However, some HPV infections result in persistent lesions that in some cases undergo carcinogenic progression. A subset of genital HPVs, designated high-risk types, are preferentially associated with high-grade dysplasias and carcinomas. About

Douglas R. Lowy; Reinhard Kirnbauer; John T. Schiller

1994-01-01

14

Genital warts and other HPV infections: established and novel therapies.  

PubMed

Wart therapies involve methods of targeted lesion destruction, as well as selective immunologic modification. While there are several therapeutic options, no treatment has been proven to be superior in terms of clinical clearance or recurrence. Controlled trials comparing treatments are currently lacking. Many factors are used in the selection of treatment. Variables that should be taken into account include but are not limited to the morphology of the lesions such as thickness and size, quantity, anatomic location, human papilloma virus (HPV) classification, immunocompromized or immune competent status, as well as the preferences of the patient and the provider, cost and availability. No current treatment completely eradicates the human papillomavirus virus. The availability of vaccinations against HPV infection is contributing to the decreasing incidence of this disease. This contribution highlights conventional therapies, off-label treatment strategies including combination therapies, and prophylaxis for condylomata acuminata. PMID:24559567

Fathi, Ramin; Tsoukas, Maria M

2014-01-01

15

Detection and quantitation of HPV in genital and oral tissues and fluids by real time PCR  

PubMed Central

Background Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) remain a serious world health problem due to their association with anogenital/oral cancers and warts. While over 100 HPV types have been identified, a subset is associated with malignancy. HPV16 and 18 are the most prevalent oncogenic types, while HPV6 and 11 are most commonly responsible for anogenital warts. While other quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays detect oncogenic HPV, there is no single tube assay distinguishing the most frequent oncogenic types and the most common types found in warts. Results A Sybr Green-based qPCR assay was developed utilizing degenerate primers to the highly conserved HPV E1 theoretically detecting any HPV type. A single tube multiplex qPCR assay was also developed using type-specific primer pairs and TaqMan probes that allowed for detection and quantitation of HPV6,11,16,18. Each HPV type was detected over a range from 2 × 101 to 2 × 106copies/reaction providing a reliable method of quantitating type-specific HPV in 140 anogenital/cutaneous/oral benign and malignant specimens. 35 oncogenic and low risk alpha genus HPV types were detected. Concordance was detected in previously typed specimens. Comparisons to the gold standard detected an overall sensitivity of 89% (95% CI: 77% - 96%) and specificity of 90% (95%CI: 52% - 98%). Conclusion There was good agreement between the ability of the qPCR assays described here to identify HPV types in malignancies previously typed using standard methods. These novel qPCR assays will allow rapid detection and quantitation of HPVs to assess their role in viral pathogenesis. PMID:20723234

2010-01-01

16

HPV in genital cancers (at the exception of cervical cancer) and anal cancers.  

PubMed

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been firmly established as a central and necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer and it has been etiologically linked to other anogenital (vulva, vagina, anus and penis) and head and neck cancers, particularly oropharyngeal. Although being rare, the incidence of some of these cancers in some countries has increased in the last decades. HPV-related anogenital tumors share many risk factors with cervical cancer. The HPV aetiological contribution differs in each anatomical location reflecting differences in the natural history and viral tissue tropism. The highest prevalence of HPV DNA in cancers other than cervix has been described for anal, followed by vagina, penile and vulvar cancers. HPV16 has been described as the most common type detected in all cancer sites with different contributions being the highest in anal carcinoma (around 80% of HPV DNA positive anal cancers) and the lowest in vaginal cancers with a contribution similar to that found in cervical cancers (around 60%). Current HPV vaccines have already demonstrated their efficacy in preventing anogenital pre-neoplastic lesions caused by vaccine HPV types. HPV-based prevention tools like HPV vaccination and to a lesser extend screening (e.g. for anal cancer) can be useful measures for reducing the burden of these anogenital cancers. PMID:25455637

de Sanjosé, Silvia; Bruni, Laia; Alemany, Laia

2014-10-30

17

College health providers' knowledge, attitudes, and management practices of genital HPV infection.  

PubMed

This comparative survey of college health providers explored nurse practitioners' (N = 73) and physicians' (N = 70) knowledge, attitudes, and management practices related to genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in females. Both groups had adequate knowledge of basic issues of HPV epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Divergent attitudes and management practices were reported among the providers, with generally low agreement with national STD treatment guidelines published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Generally, providers tended to practice a more aggressive management approach on several aspects of HPV infection than recommended by the CDC guidelines. The one major exception reported by the majority of providers was the conservative use of colposcopy for identifying subclinical HPV infection in patients with external genital warts, a finding consistent with CDC guidelines. The availability of colposcopy within a provider's health center was found to be associated with the reported use of colposcopy. Recommendation for future research and implications for college health and advanced nursing practice are addressed. PMID:8734630

Linnehan, M J; Andrews, S; Groce, N E

1996-05-01

18

HPV  

MedlinePLUS

... of cervical cancer screening. Correct usage of latex condoms greatly reduces, but does not eliminate, the risk of catching or spreading HPV. Vaccines can protect against several types of HPV, including some that can cause cancer. NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

19

Efficacy of the HPV-16/18 AS04-Adjuvanted Vaccine Against Low-Risk HPV Types (PATRICIA Randomized Trial): An Unexpected Observation  

PubMed Central

Background.?Public Health England has reported a decrease of up to 20.8% in new diagnoses of external genital warts (GWs) among women aged <19 years since the national vaccination program with the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine began in 2008. A post hoc analysis of the phase III PATRICIA (PApilloma TRIal against Cancer In young Adults) trial (NCT00122681) was performed to ascertain whether protection against low-risk HPV types was apparent. Methods.?Vaccine efficacy (VE) at 48 months was assessed against 6-month persistent infection (6MPI) with low-risk HPV types in the total vaccinated cohort (TVC) and in the TVC naive (for 25 HPV types tested) populations. Results.?In the TVC naive cohort, VE against 6MPI (95% confidence interval) was 34.5% (11.3 to 51.8) for HPV-6/11, 34.9% (9.1 to 53.7) for HPV-6, 30.3% (?45.0 to 67.5) for HPV-11, and 49.5% (21.0 to 68.3) for HPV-74. Conclusions.?The HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine appears to have moderate efficacy against persistent infections with a number of low-risk HPV types (HPV-6/11/74), which are responsible for the majority of external GWs, and recently, antibody and cell-mediated immune response to HPV-6/11 have been observed. These findings may help to explain the decrease in external GW diagnoses seen in England. PMID:24092907

Szarewski, Anne; Skinner, S. Rachel; Garland, Suzanne M.; Romanowski, Barbara; Schwarz, Tino F.; Apter, Dan; Chow, Song-Nan; Paavonen, Jorma; Del Rosario-Raymundo, M. Rowena; Teixeira, Julio C.; De Carvalho, Newton S.; Castro-Sanchez, Maria; Castellsagué, Xavier; Poppe, Willy A. J.; De Sutter, Philippe; Huh, Warner; Chatterjee, Archana; Tjalma, Wiebren A.; Ackerman, Ronald T.; Martens, Mark; Papp, Kim A.; Bajo-Arenas, Jose; Harper, Diane M.; Torné, Aureli; David, Marie-Pierre; Struyf, Frank; Lehtinen, Matti; Dubin, Gary

2013-01-01

20

Therapeutic benefits of carbon dioxide (CO2) laser on single-site HPV lesions in the lower female genital tract  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous studies have shown contradictory variable percentages of recurrent HPV lesions, after various therapies. The present study therefore evaluates the effectiveness of CO2 laser vaporization in the treatment of single-site HPV lesions of the lower female genital tract in order to confirm the conviction that physical therapy alone, in agreement with some findings reported in the literature, is capable of guaranteeing a high cure rate in selected patients. From January 1995 to June 1996, seventy- five female patients were treated with CO2 laser vaporization for single-site genital HPV lesions, some of which were associated with low-grade intra-epithelial neoplasia. The success rate after 12 months proved to be 97%. The pre-existing clinical symptoms disappeared in all the patients treated. No complication in the vaporization procedure was encountered.

Urru, Giovanni; Moretti, Gianfranco

1998-01-01

21

Prevalence and Determinants of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Infection in Male Genital Warts  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the prevalence and type distribution of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in genital warts of Korean men, and for the first time, to describe the risk factors associated with high-risk HPV infection in male genital warts. Materials and Methods In a single private clinic, 150 consecutive male patients with histopathologic-confirmed genital warts who underwent HPV genotyping by use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were included in this study. We detected HPV DNA in male genital warts and evaluated HPV type distribution, especially high-risk HPV types, by use of PCR. The associations between HPV prevalence and various characteristics, such as age, circumcision status, type of genital warts diagnosis (new vs. recurrent), number of lesions, site of lesions, and gross morphology, were assessed by use of unconditional multiple logistic regression. Results High-risk HPV types were detected in 31 cases (23.5%), and of these, 27 cases (20.5%) contained both high-risk and low-risk HPV types. The most frequently detected high-risk HPV types were HPV16 (6.8%), HPV33 (4.5%), HPV18 (2.3%), and HPV68 (2.3%). In particular, the prevalence of infection with HPV16 and/or HPV18 was 8.3% (11 of 132). In the multivariate analysis, lesions located at sites including the base of the penis or the pubic area, papular or mixed genital warts, and lack of circumcision significantly increased the association with high-risk HPV infection in male genital warts. Conclusions The prevalence of high-risk HPV infection was substantial in male genital warts. The site and morphology of lesions and circumcision status were significantly associated with the prevalence of high-risk HPV infection. PMID:24648877

Park, Sung Jin; Seo, Juhyung; Ha, Seong-Heon

2014-01-01

22

Influence of Evidence Type and Narrative Type on HPV Risk Perception and Intention to Obtain the HPV Vaccine.  

PubMed

This research examines the influence of evidence type (statistical, narrative, or hybrid) and narrative type (first-person or third-person) on risk perception about human papillomavirus (HPV) and behavioral intention to get the HPV vaccine. In total, 174 college students who had not received the HPV vaccine participated in a controlled experiment. Results show that the hybrid message containing both statistical and narrative descriptions of HPV resulted in greater perceived risk of getting HPV than either of the messages containing just one type of evidence-statistical or narrative. Moreover, the first-person narrative message led to greater risk perception about HPV than the third-person narrative message. Both evidence type and narrative type had an indirect effect on intention to get the HPV vaccine free of cost through HPV risk perception. Implications of the findings for vaccine risk communication are discussed. PMID:25061715

Nan, Xiaoli; Dahlstrom, Michael F; Richards, Adam; Rangarajan, Sarani

2015-03-01

23

HPV DNA test  

MedlinePLUS

The HPV DNA test is used to check for high-risk HPV infection in women. HPV infection around the genitals is ... warts spread when you have sex. The HPV-DNA test is generally not recommended for detecting low- ...

24

HPV and Genital Warts among Peruvian Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender People: Knowledge, Attitudes and Treatment Experiences  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies have assessed the epidemiology of HPV infection among MSM, but no qualitative studies have specifically assessed how HPV and genital warts (GW) affect South American men who have sex with men (MSM) and male-to-female transgendered women (TG). This study explored the knowledge, attitudes and experiences of Peruvian MSM and TG regarding HPV and GW. Methods We performed a qualitative study consisting of fifteen in-depth interviews and three focus groups carried out in Lima, Peru with diverse MSM and TG groups, including sex workers. Resulting data were analyzed by applying a systematic comparative and descriptive content analysis. Results While knowledge of HPV was limited, awareness of GW was common, particularly among TG persons and sex workers. Still, few participants recognized that GW are sexually transmitted, and many had problems differentiating between GW and other STI/anogenital conditions. Stigmatizing experiences were common during sexual encounters with people who had visible GW. Shame, emotional and physical troubles, and embarrassing sexual experiences were reported by individuals with GW. Search for treatment was mediated by peers, but stigma and apparent health services’ inability to deal with GW limited the access to effective medical care. Conclusions In Peru, public health interventions should strengthen services for HPV/GW management and increase accurate knowledge of the transmission, treatment, and sequelae of HPV/GW in MSM and TG populations. PMID:23516536

Nureña, César R.; Brown, Brandon; Galea, Jerome T.; Sánchez, Hugo; Blas, Magaly M.

2013-01-01

25

Detection of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 DNA in Consecutive Genital Samples Does Not Always Represent Persistent Infection as Determined by Molecular Variant Analysis  

PubMed Central

Persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection of the uterine cervix is a risk factor for progression to high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. Detection in consecutive genital samples of HPV-16 DNA, a frequently encountered HPV type, may represent persistent infection or reinfection. We undertook a study using PCR–single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and sequencing of PCR products (PCR-sequencing) to determine if consecutive HPV-16-positive samples contained the same HPV-16 variant. Fifty women (36 human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] seropositive, 14 HIV seronegative) had at least two consecutive genital specimens obtained at 6-month intervals that contained HPV-16 DNA as determined by a consensus L1 PCR assay. A total of 144 samples were amplified with two primer pairs for SSCP analysis of the entire long control region. Fifteen different SSCP patterns were identified in our population, while 22 variants were identified by PCR-sequencing. The most frequent SSCP pattern was found in 75 (53%) samples from 27 (54%) women. The SSCP patterns obtained from consecutive specimens were identical for 46 (92%) of 50 women, suggesting persistent infection. Four women exhibited in consecutive specimens different HPV-16 SSCP patterns that were all confirmed by PCR-sequencing. The additional information on the nature of persistent infection provided by molecular variant analysis was useful for 6% of women, since three of the four women who did not have identical consecutive specimens would have been misclassified as having persistent HPV-16 infection on the basis of HPV typing. PMID:10970388

Mayrand, Marie-Hélène; Coutlée, François; Hankins, Catherine; Lapointe, Normand; Forest, Pierre; de Ladurantaye, Manon; Roger, Michel

2000-01-01

26

[Developments in HPV vaccination].  

PubMed

Vaccination against the human papilloma virus (HPV) has been included in the national Vaccination Programme of the Netherlands for 12-year-old girls since 2010. Vaccination coverage for the birth cohort of 1997 was 56.; there is a gradual increase in uptake. Continuous safety monitoring brought no new unknown serious side effects to light; many girls suffered from transient symptoms such as painful arm, fatigue and headache. After the current vaccines that protect against HPV types 2 and 4 types, respectively and induce some cross protection, vaccines are being developed that can induce broader protection. HPV vaccination of 12-year-old girls is cost-effective, even for relatively low vaccination coverage. The potential protection of HPV vaccination extends beyond prevention of cervical cancer by preventing other oncological manifestations of HPV infection in women as well as men and genital warts. The preventive HPV vaccines do not appear to be effective in treating existing abnormalities. PMID:23171565

de Melker, Hester; Kenter, Gemma; van Rossum, Tekla; Conyn-van Spaendonck, Marina

2012-01-01

27

Genital warts: Incidence, medical management and costs in France  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among all HPV-related diseases, genital warts (GW) are the most common clinical manifestation of lower genital tract HPV infection. The incidence of GW is about 1\\/1000 sexually active individuals per year. Despite any treatment, however, recurrence rates are high 20–30%. It is well established that GWs are caused predominantly (90%) by HPV types 6 and 11. This major disease burden

Joseph Monsonego; Gabrielle Breugelmans; Stephane Bouee; Vanessa Remy

2006-01-01

28

Quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16, 18) recombinant vaccine (gardasil(®)): a review of its use in the prevention of premalignant anogenital lesions, cervical and anal cancers, and genital warts.  

PubMed

Quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) [types 6, 11, 16, 18] recombinant vaccine (Gardasil(®); Silgard(®)) is composed of virus-like particles formed by self-assembly of recombinant L1 capsid protein from each of HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18. It is indicated for use from the age of 9 years as a two- or three-dose vaccination course over 6 months for the prevention of premalignant anogenital lesions, cervical and anal cancers, and genital warts caused by the vaccine HPV types. In placebo-controlled trials, quadrivalent HPV vaccine provided high-level protection against infection or disease caused by the vaccine HPV types over 2-4 years in females aged 15-45 years who were negative for the vaccine HPV types, and provided a degree of cross-protection against certain non-vaccine HPV types. The vaccine also provided high-level protection against persistent infection, anogenital precancerous lesions and genital warts caused by the vaccine HPV types over 3 years in susceptible males aged 16-26 years. Protection has been demonstrated for up to 8 years. In subjects who were negative for the vaccine HPV types, high seroconversion rates and high levels of anti-HPV antibodies were observed in females of all age ranges from 9 to 45 years and in males aged 9-26 years. The vaccine was generally well tolerated and was usually predicted to be cost effective in girls and young women. Therefore, quadrivalent HPV vaccine offers an effective means to substantially reduce the burden of HPV-related anogenital disease in females and males, particularly cervical cancer and genital warts. PMID:25022951

McCormack, Paul L

2014-07-01

29

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Screening  

MedlinePLUS

... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... Associated Cancers Gynecologic Cancers HPV Screening Share Compartir Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes genital warts and cancers, such ...

30

HPV Test  

MedlinePLUS

... Cervical Cancer Screening Guidelines (2011) Elsewhere On The Web Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Genital HPV Infection - CDC Fact Sheet Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Making Sense of Your Pap & HPV Test Results American Social Health Association: HPV American Cancer ...

31

Perceptions of HPV, genital warts, and penile/anal cancer and high-risk sexual behaviors among men who have sex with men in Hong Kong.  

PubMed

The prevalence of HIV and HPV is high among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. It is unclear whether cognitive and affective responses related to HPV and HPV-related diseases are negatively associated with HIV-related risk behaviors among MSM. This cross-sectional study interviewed 449 adult Chinese MSM in Hong Kong. The prevalence of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) and having had anal sex with more than one man in the last 6 months (multiple male sex partnerships) was 39.0 and 71.3 %, respectively. After adjusting for four significant background variables (education level, cohabitation with a man, exposure to HIV prevention materials, and HIV voluntary counseling and testing), variables negatively associated with UAI and/or multiple male sex partnerships included (1) correct HPV-related knowledge (AOR = 0.48-0.66), (2) perceived susceptibility (AOR = 0.32-0.55) and perceived severity (AOR = 0.12-0.60) related to HPV and HPV-related diseases, and (3) fear towards contracting genital warts and penile/anal cancer (AOR = 0.40-0.55). Perceived high chance of contracting HPV was positively associated with multiple partnerships (AOR = 4.74). It is possible to reduce HIV-related risk behaviors by increasing levels of knowledge, cognitions, and fear related to HPV and related diseases. It is important to integrate prevention of HIV with prevention of sexually transmitted infections. Such interventions are warranted. PMID:23982568

Lau, Joseph T F; Wang, Zixin; Lau, Mason; Lai, Coco H Y

2014-05-01

32

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) types 101 and 103 Isolated from Cervicovaginal Cells Lack an E6 Open Reading Frame (ORF) and are Related to Gamma-Papillomaviruses  

PubMed Central

Complete genomes of HPV101 and HPV103 were PCR amplified and cloned from cervicovaginal cells of a 34-year-old female with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN 3) and a 30-year-old female with a normal Pap test, respectively. HPV101 and HPV103 contain 4 early genes (E7, E1, E2 and E4) and 2 late genes (L2 and L1), but both lack the canonical E6 ORF. Pairwise alignment similarity of the L1 ORF nucleotide sequences of HPV101 and HPV103 indicated that they are at least 30 % dissimilar to each other and all known PVs. However, similarities of the other ORFs (E7, E1, E2, and L2) indicated that HPV101 and HPV103 are most related to each other. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that these two types form a monophyletic clade, clustering together with the gamma- and pi-PV groups. These data demonstrated that HPV genomes closely related to papillomaviruses identified from cutaneous epithelia can be isolated from the genital mucosal region. Moreover, this is the first report of HPVs lacking an E6 ORF and phylogenetic evidence suggests this occurred subsequent to their emergence from the gamma-/pi-PVs. PMID:17125811

Chen, Zigui; Schiffman, Mark; Herrero, Rolando; DeSalle, Rob; Burk, Robert D.

2007-01-01

33

More than 97% of human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV-16) was found with chrysotile asbestos & relatively smooth round tumor outline, and less than 3% was found with HPV-18 and tremolite asbestos & irregular sawtooth-like zigzag outline in breast cancer tissues in over 500 mammograms of female patients: their implications in diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of breast cancer.  

PubMed

In the past, Human Papillomavirus Type 16 (HPV-16) was considered to be the main cause of cancer in the oropharynx and genital organs. Cervical cancer of the uterus is the most well-known cancer associated with HPV-16. Among the oncogenic HPVs, types 16 and 18 are most responsible for the majority of the HPV-caused cancers. Recently, using EMF Resonance Phenomenon between 2 identical substances, we non-invasively measured HPV-16 and HPV-18 among 25 physicians and 25 dentists and found that all 50 have HPV-16 in oral cavities and oropharynx but not HPV-18. However most dentists have a stronger infection than physicians. Among them were 2 female dentists with breast cancer containing HPV-16 and strong infections of HPV-16 in the oral cavities and oropharynx. When the author checked their breast cancer positive areas as well as the mammograms of cancer positive areas, Chrysotile Asbestos co-existed with an infection of HPV-16. We then examined over 500 published mammograms of women with malignant breast cancer published by other institutes, and we found HPV-16 in more than 97% and HPV-18 in less than 3% of the breast cancer mammograms examined. Less than 0.4% of cases were found as a variety of combination of HPV-16 & HPV-18. We also discovered that breast cancer with HPV-16 always co-exists with increased Chrysotile Asbestos deposits, and the outline of the breast cancer positive area is a relatively smooth and round or oval shape, and breast cancer with HPV-18 always co-exists with increased Tremolite Asbestos, where the tumor outline is an irregular saw-tooth like zigzag pattern. Based on these findings, better methods of diagnosis, treatment and prevention with a vaccine can be developed. PMID:24494324

Omura, Yoshiaki; Jones, Marilyn K; Nihrane, Abdallah; Duvvi, Harsha; Shimotsuura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu

2013-01-01

34

Human papillomavirus DNA in the urogenital tracts of men with gonorrhoea, penile warts or genital dermatoses.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To assess the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in urethral and urine specimens from men with and without sexually transmitted diseases. DESIGN--Prospective study. SETTING--Two London departments of genitourinary medicine PATIENTS--100 men with urethral gonorrhoea, 31 men with penile warts and 37 men with genital dermatoses. METHODS--Urethral and urine specimens were taken, HPV DNA extracted and then amplified using the polymerase chain reaction. HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31 and 33 were identified using Southern blotting followed by hybridisation. RESULTS--HPV DNA was detected in 18-31% of urethral swab specimens and in 0-14% of urine specimens. Men with penile warts had HPV detected in urethral swabs more often than did men in the other two clinical groups. "High risk" HPV types were found in 71-83% of swab specimens and in 73-80% of urine specimens containing HPV DNA. CONCLUSIONS--HPV is present in the urogenital tracts of men with gonorrhoea, penile warts and with genital dermatoses. In men with urethral gonorrhoea, detection of HPV in urethral specimens is not related to the number of sexual partners, condom usage, racial origin or past history of genital warts. HPV DNA in the urethral swab and urine specimens may represent different aspects of the epidemiology of HPV in the male genital tract. The preponderance of HPV types 16 and 18 in all three groups of men may be relevant to the concept of the "high risk male". Images PMID:8392967

Hillman, R J; Ryait, B K; Botcherby, M; Taylor-Robinson, D

1993-01-01

35

Epitope specificity and longevity of a vaccine-induced human T cell response against HPV18  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 and 18 infection can lead to pre-malignant and malignant diseases of the lower genital tract. Several lines of evidence suggest that T cell responses can control HPV infection. However, relative to other human viruses, strong effector memory T cell responses against HPV have been difficult to detect. We used an in vitro stimulation step

Kelly L. Smith; Amanda Tristram; Kathleen M. Gallagher; Alison N. Fiander; Stephen Man

2004-01-01

36

The HPV Vaccine: Framing the Arguments "for" and "against" Mandatory Vaccination of All Middle School Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV), the virus responsible for cervical cancer, is the most common viral sexually transmitted infection in the United States. A vaccine was approved in 2006 that is effective in preventing the types of HPV responsible for 70% of cervical cancers and 90% of genital warts. Proposals for routine and mandatory HPV

Vamos, Cheryl A.; McDermott, Robert J.; Daley, Ellen M.

2008-01-01

37

Circumcision and acquisition of HPV infection in young men  

PubMed Central

Background The role of circumcision in male HPV acquisition is not clear. Methods Male university students (18–20 years of age) were recruited from 2003–2009 and followed tri-annually. Shaft/scrotum, glans, and urine samples were tested for 37 alpha HPV genotypes. Cox proportional hazards methods were used to evaluate the association between circumcision and HPV acquisition. Logistic regression was used to assess whether number of genital sites infected at incident HPV detection or site of incident detection varied by circumcision status. Results In 477 men, rates of acquiring clinically-relevant HPV types (high-risk types plus types 6 and 11) did not differ significantly by circumcision status (hazard ratio [HR] for uncircumcised relative to circumcised subjects: 0.9[95%CI:0.7–1.2]). However, compared to circumcised men, uncircumcised men were 10.1 (95%CI:2.9–35.6) times more likely to have the same HPV type detected in all 3 genital specimens than in a single genital specimen and were 2.7 (95%CI:1.6–4.5) times more likely to have an HPV-positive urine or glans specimen at first detection. Conclusions While the likelihood of HPV acquisition did not differ by circumcision status, uncircumcised men were more likely than circumcised men to have infections detected at multiple genital sites, which may have implications for HPV transmission. PMID:21992987

VanBuskirk, Kelley; Winer, Rachel L.; Hughes, James P.; Feng, Qinghua; Arima, Yuzo; Lee, Shu-Kuang; Stern, Michael E.; O’Reilly, Sandra F.; Koutsky, Laura A.

2011-01-01

38

Minor Capsid Protein of Human Genital Papillomaviruses Contains Subdominant, Cross-Neutralizing Epitopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaccination with virus-like particles (VLP), comprising both L1 and L2 of human papillomavirus (HPV) genital types 6, 16, and 18, induces predominantly type-specific neutralizing antibodies. L2 polypeptide vaccines protect animals against experimental challenge with homologous papillomavirus and cross-reactive epitopes are present in HPV L2. To assess L2-specific cross-neutralization of HPV genotypes, sheep were immunized with purified, bacterially expressed HPV6, 16,

Richard B. S. Roden; William H. Yutzy; Rosemary Fallon; Stephen Inglis; Douglas R. Lowy; John T. Schiller

2000-01-01

39

A six-year experience with anal cytology in women with HPV in the lower genital tract: utility, limitations, and clinical correlation.  

PubMed

This study assessed the utility and limitations of anal cytology as a screening method for women infected with human papilloma virus (HPV) in the lower genital tract. Furthermore, this study aimed to establish risk factors for pathological anal cytology/biopsy findings, the prevalence of anatomopathological lesions associated with positive anal brushings, and the frequency of concomitant lesions of the lower genital tract. A cross-sectional, retrospective, descriptive study in 207 women with HPV-associated lesions of the lower genital tract and 25 women with immunosuppression was carried out. Anal cytology, high resolution anoscopy, and biopsy of suspicious lesions were performed. In total, 232 anal brushings were performed: 184 (79.3%) were negative, 24 (10.34%) showed atypical squamous cells of undeterminated significance, 18 (7.7%) showed low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, and 6 (2.6%) showed high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. Cytohistological correlation was obtained for 70 cases. The sensitivity of anal cytology in detecting intraepithelial lesions was 70%, whereas the specificity was 93%. The sensitivity of the method for detecting high-grade lesions (84%) was higher, than that for detecting low-grade lesions (66%). The most frequently associated pathology was vulvar lesion. It is important to perform anal brushings in women who have had lower genital tract biopsies for HPV-associated lesions due to the high prevalence of anal lesions in such patients. Anal cytology is useful for detecting high-grade lesions but the sensitivity for detecting low-grade lesions is low. It is of the utmost importance to perform high-resolution anoscopy and biopsy in women with suspicious lesions in order to confirm the pathology. PMID:24166879

Cardinal, L H; Carballo, P; Lorenzo, M C Cabral; García, A; Suzuki, V; Tatti, S; Vighi, S; Díaz, L B

2014-05-01

40

Studies on the prevalence of oncogenic HPV types among Lithuanian women with cervical pathology.  

PubMed

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main cause of cervical cancer. Therefore, the detection of oncogenic HPV types is important in predicting the risk of cervical cancer. The aim of the current study was to estimate the prevalence of 16 carcinogenic and potentially carcinogenic HPV types in the study group of Lithuanian women with various grades of cervical pathology in comparison to healthy women. A total of 824 cervical specimens were investigated for HPV DNA: 547 specimens of women with abnormal cytology and 277 specimens of healthy women. Cytological diagnosis was confirmed by histology. For the detection of HPV infection, HPV DNA was amplified by PCR using three different primer systems. HPV DNA was detected in 67.6% of specimens collected from women with abnormal cytology and 24.2% of specimens collected from healthy women. The frequency of HPV-positive specimens correlated with the severity of cervical pathology: it ranged from 50.0% in the subgroup of atypical squamous cells to 80.6% in cervical cancer. In cases confirmed by histology the frequency of HPV-positive specimens ranged from 68.6% in the subgroup of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 to 89.2% in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or carcinoma in situ. HPV DNA-positive samples were further investigated for the presence of 16 HPV types by multiplex PCR. The most common HPV type was HPV 16 (detected in 42.3% of HPV-positive specimens) followed by HPV 31 (10.1%), HPV 33 (8.2%), and HPV 56 (5.7%). In contrast, the frequency of HPV 18 was lower as compared to other countries. J. Med. Virol. 87:461-471, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25196501

Simanaviciene, Vaida; Gudleviciene, Zivile; Popendikyte, Violeta; Dekaminaviciute, Dovile; Stumbryte, Ausra; Rubinaite, Vilija; Zvirbliene, Aurelija

2015-03-01

41

The Elevated 10Year Risk of Cervical Precancer and Cancer in Women With Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Type 16 or 18 and the Possible Utility of Type-Specifi c HPV Testing in Clinical Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 cause 60% - 70% of cervical cancer worldwide, and other HPV types cause virtually all remaining cases. Pooled HPV testing for 13 oncogenic types, including HPV16 and 18, is currently used in clinical practice for triage of equivocal cytology and, in conjunction with Pap tests, is an option for general screening among

Michelle J. Khan; Philip E. Castle; Attila T. Lorincz; Sholom Wacholder; David R. Scott; Brenda B. Rush; Andrew G. Glass; Mark Schiffman

42

Mining the Risk Types of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) by AdaCost  

E-print Network

Mining the Risk Types of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) by AdaCost S.-B. Park, S. Hwang, and B,shhwang,btzhang}@bi.snu.ac.kr Abstract. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is known as the main factor for cervical cancer, where the accuracy, which implies that most high-risk HPVs are found. 1 Introduction Human papillomavirus (HPV

43

Detecting HPV in cutaneous lesions using anti-HPV antibody immunohistochemistry.  

PubMed

Most condyloma are diagnosed clinically (without a biopsy) or histopathologically (if biopsied) without any ancillary testing. In some cases, additional confirmation of productive infection by human papillomavirus (HPV) or typing of HPV is desired, and in situ hybridization (ISH) is the most commonly used test. However, ISH is not readily available in most laboratories and only detects certain genital subtypes of HPV. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of an anti-HPV antibody, in 25 lesions (both HPV induced and non-HPV induced) mostly from the genital region, with comparison to results with ISH and findings on hematoxylin and eosin staining. The sensitivity and specificity for the anti-HPV antibody used in this study are 90.9% and 85.7%, respectively, compared with ISH. Immunohistochemistry with this anti-HPV antibody, like ISH, was generally positive in cases showing koilocytes/koilocytotic atypia (86%). Immunohistochemical staining also detected productive infection with HPV in 23% (3 of 13) of cases without koilocytes/koilocytotic atypia. Thus, although staining is generally positive in cases with diagnostic findings of koilocytes/koilocytotic atypia in hematoxylin and eosin sections, immunohistochemistry can detect HPV in some cases without koilocytes/koilocytotic atypia. PMID:23051627

Wititsuwannakul, Jade; Klump, Vincent R; McNiff, Jennifer M; Ko, Christine J

2013-05-01

44

Mandating the HPV vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. HPV is the underlying cause of cervical cancer, a malignant tumor of the female genital tract. Each year, cervical cancer is newly diagnosed in approximately 10,000 women, and over 3,000 women die from the malignancy. In addition, HPV is implicated as a cause of other cancers involving the genital tract, male and female, and the head and neck. ^

Taylor Lowe Hartley

2008-01-01

45

Evaluation of Human Papillomavirus Type Replacement Postvaccination Must Account for Diagnostic Artifacts: Masking of HPV52 by HPV16 in Anogenital Specimens.  

PubMed

It has been hypothesized that, following a reduction in human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine-targeted genotypes, an increase in prevalence of other HPV types may occur due to reduced competition during natural infection. Any apparent postvaccination increase must be distinguished from diagnostic artifacts consequent to consensus PCR assays failing to detect HPV types present in low copy numbers in coinfected specimens (under the assumption that with a drop in vaccine-preventable types there may be increased detection of previously "masked" types). We reanalyzed anogenital specimens to evaluate unmasking of HPV52 that may be caused by elimination of HPV16. Using highly sensitive type-specific real-time HPV52 PCR, we retested 1,200 anogenital specimens (all HPV52 negative according to consensus PCR assays) from six epidemiologic studies (200 specimens/study; 100 HPV16(+)/study). Multivariate logistic regression, with adjustment for age and number of sexual partners, was used to evaluate the association between HPV16 positivity and detection of HPV52. In our pooled analysis (n = 1,196), the presence of HPV16 was positively associated with HPV52 detection [adjusted OR, 1.47; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.76-2.82]. In our separate (study specific) analyses, a statistically significant association was observed in one study that included HIV-infected males (HIPVIRG study; adjusted OR, 3.82; 95% CI, 1.19-12.26). We observed a positive association between HPV16 viral load (tertiles) and detection of HPV52 (P for trend = 0.003). These results indicate that diagnostic artifacts, resulting from unmasking of HPV52, may occur in some settings in the evaluation of HPV type replacement. Additional studies exploring the extent and severity of unmasking are needed. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 24(1); 286-90. ©2014 AACR. PMID:25277793

Tota, Joseph E; Ramanakumar, Agnihotram V; Villa, Luisa L; Richardson, Harriet; Burchell, Ann N; Koushik, Anita; Mayrand, Marie-Hélène; Coutlée, François; Franco, Eduardo L

2015-01-01

46

Prevalence of cervical infection with HPV type 16 and 18 in Vietnam: implications for vaccine campaign  

PubMed Central

Background The Expanded Program on Immunization currently considers offering Human Papilomavirus vaccine on a routine basis in Vietnam. However, as the current available vaccine can prevent only two types HPV 16 and 18, before implementing a large-scale vaccine campaign we need information about the prevalence of infection with only HPV 16 and 18 in Viet Nam. This study was done in 5 large cities in Vietnam to estimate the prevalence of HPV 16 and/or 18 infections and to explore the distribution of other high risk types of HPV among married women in these provinces. Methods The study employed a cross-sectional design with multistage sampling. The sample size included 4500 married women in two rounds (aged ranged from 18-69 years old, median age: 40 year old). Participant were randomly selected, interviewed and given gynaecological examinations. HPV infection status (by real-time PCR kit using TaqMan probe) and HPV genotyping test (by Reverse dot blot) were done for all participants. Results The prevalence of cervical infection with HPV type 16 and/or 18 among married women in this study ranged from 3.1% to 7.4%. Many positive HPV cases (ranged from 24.5% to 56.8%) were infected with other type of high risk HPV which can lead to cervical cancer and cannot prevented by currently available vaccines. In addition to HPV 16 and/or 18, most common types of high risk HPV were types 58, 52, 35 and 45. Awareness about HPV and HPV vaccines was still low in the study samples. Discussion While it is relevant to implement an HPV vaccine campaign in Viet Nam, it is important to note that one can be infected with multiple types of HPV. Vaccination does not protected against all type of high risk HPV types. Future vaccine campaigns should openly disclose this information to women receiving vaccines. Conclusion High prevalence of infection with HPV high risk types was observed in this study. As HPV infection has a high correlation with cervical cancer, this study emphasizes the need for both primary prevention of cervical cancer with HPV vaccines as well as secondary prevention with screening. PMID:23374877

2013-01-01

47

Genital Warts  

MedlinePLUS

Genital warts are a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). The warts are soft, moist, pink, or flesh-colored bumps. ... or many of these bumps. In women, the warts usually occur in or around the vagina, on ...

48

The next generation of HPV vaccines: nonavalent vaccine V503 on the horizon.  

PubMed

HPV infection with 'high-risk' genotypes is associated with ano-genital and oropharyngeal cancers. Two currently licensed prophylactic HPV vaccines designed to prevent disease associated with HPV 16 and 18 are in use around the world. Both vaccines have very high efficacy for prevention of vaccine type-associated cervical precancers, preventing approximately 70% of these lesions. Quadrivalent HPV vaccine has also been shown to prevent HPV16/18-associated vaginal, vulvar and anal precancers, and HPV6/11-associated ano-genital warts. To broaden protection against HPV genotypes not in the current vaccines, 'second-generation' vaccines with additional genotypes are under development. Merck, Sharp and Dohme has submitted a Biologics License Application for its investigational nonavalent HPV vaccine V503 to the US FDA, with standard review being granted. The nonavalent HPV vaccine appears to be safe and effective in preventing persistent infection and precancerous lesions associated with HPV types 16/18/31/33/45/52/58, as well as genital warts related to HPV types 6 and 11. PMID:25256262

Chatterjee, Archana

2014-11-01

49

Long-term HPV type-specific risks of high-grade cervical intraepithelial lesions: A 14-year follow-up of a randomized primary HPV screening trial.  

PubMed

Quantitative knowledge of the long-term human papillomavirus (HPV) type-specific risks for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasias Grades 2 and 3 (CIN2 and CIN3) is useful for estimating the effect of elimination of specific HPV types and clinical benefits of screening for specific HPV types. We estimated HPV type-specific risks for CIN2 and CIN3 using a randomized primary HPV screening trial followed up for 14.6 years using comprehensive, nationwide registers. Poisson regression estimated cumulative incidences, population attributable proportions (PAR) and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of high-grade lesions by baseline HPV type, with censoring at date of first CIN2/3 or last registered cytology. Multivariate analysis adjusted for coinfections. IRRs were highest during the first screening round, but continued to be high throughout follow-up (IRRs for CIN3 associated with high-risk (HR) HPV positivity were 226.9, 49.3, 17.7 and 10.3 during the first, second and third screening round and for >9 years of follow-up, respectively). Increased long-term risks were found particularly for HPV Types 16, 18 and 31 and for CIN3+ risks. HPV16/18/31/33 had 14-year cumulative incidences for CIN3+ above 28%, HPV35/45/52/58 had 14 year risks between 14% and 18% and HPV39/51/56/59/66/68 had risks <10%. HPV16 contributed to the greatest proportion of CIN2+ (first round PAR 36%), followed by Types 31, 52, 45 and 58 (7-11%). HPV16/18/31/33/45/52/58 together contributed 73.9% of CIN2+ lesions and all HR types contributed 86.9%. In summary, we found substantial differences in risks for CIN2 and CIN3 between different oncogenic HPV types. These differences may be relevant for both clinical management and design of preventive strategies. PMID:25043476

Smelov, Vitaly; Elfström, K Miriam; Johansson, Anna L V; Eklund, Carina; Naucler, Pontus; Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen; Dillner, Joakim

2015-03-01

50

Age of Child, More than HPV Type, Is Associated with Clinical Course in Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis  

PubMed Central

Background RRP is a devastating disease in which papillomas in the airway cause hoarseness and breathing difficulty. The disease is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) 6 or 11 and is very variable. Patients undergo multiple surgeries to maintain a patent airway and in order to communicate vocally. Several small studies have been published in which most have noted that HPV 11 is associated with a more aggressive course. Methodology/Principal Findings Papilloma biopsies were taken from patients undergoing surgical treatment of RRP and were subjected to HPV typing. 118 patients with juvenile-onset RRP with at least 1 year of clinical data and infected with a single HPV type were analyzed. HPV 11 was encountered in 40% of the patients. By our definition, most of the patients in the sample (81%) had run an aggressive course. The odds of a patient with HPV 11 running an aggressive course were 3.9 times higher than that of patients with HPV 6 (Fisher's exact p?=?0.017). However, clinical course was more closely associated with age of the patient (at diagnosis and at the time of the current surgery) than with HPV type. Patients with HPV 11 were diagnosed at a younger age (2.4y) than were those with HPV 6 (3.4y) (p?=?0.014). Both by multiple linear regression and by multiple logistic regression HPV type was only weakly associated with metrics of disease course when simultaneously accounting for age. Conclusions/Significance Abstract The course of RRP is variable and a quarter of the variability can be accounted for by the age of the patient. HPV 11 is more closely associated with a younger age at diagnosis than it is associated with an aggressive clinical course. These data suggest that there are factors other than HPV type and age of the patient that determine disease course. PMID:18509465

Buchinsky, Farrel J.; Donfack, Joseph; Derkay, Craig S.; Choi, Sukgi S.; Conley, Stephen F.; Myer, Charles M.; McClay, John E.; Campisi, Paolo; Wiatrak, Brian J.; Sobol, Steven E.; Schweinfurth, John M.; Tsuji, Domingos H.; Hu, Fen Z.; Rockette, Howard E.; Ehrlich, Garth D.; Post, J. Christopher

2008-01-01

51

Differential dependence on host cell glycosaminoglycans for infection of epithelial cells by high-risk HPV types.  

PubMed

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the leading cause of cervical cancer world-wide. Here, we show that native HPV particles produced in a differentiated epithelium have developed different strategies to infect the host. Using biochemical inhibition assays and glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-negative cells, we show that of the four most common cancer-causing HPV types, HPV18, HPV31, and HPV45 are largely dependent on GAGs to initiate infection. In contrast, HPV16 can bind and enter through a GAG-independent mechanism. Infections of primary human keratinocytes, natural host cells for HPV infections, support our conclusions. Further, this renders the different virus types differentially susceptible to carrageenan, a microbicide targeting virus entry. Our data demonstrates that ordered maturation of papillomavirus particles in a differentiating epithelium may alter the virus entry mechanism. This study should facilitate a better understanding of the attachment and infection by the main oncogenic HPV types, and development of inhibitors of HPV infection. PMID:23861898

Cruz, Linda; Meyers, Craig

2013-01-01

52

Genital Warts (HPV)  

MedlinePLUS

... is abstinence (the decision not to have sex). Teens who do have sex can get some protection by properly using a latex condom every time they have any kind of sex (vaginal, oral, or anal sex). Condoms are a good defense against warts, ...

53

HPV Types and Variants Among Cervical Cancer Tumors in Three Regions of Tunisia  

PubMed Central

Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among Tunisian women, and the incidence rates vary by region. Three Tunisian registries report age-standardized rates of 6.3/105 in the central region, 5.4/105 in the north, and 2.7/105 in the south. High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types and their variants differ in carcinogenic potential and geographic distribution. The HPV type and variant distribution could be a factor in the differing rates between regions of Tunisia. Tumor tissue was collected from 142 Tunisian cervical cancer patients. Demographic and reproductive characteristics of the patients were abstracted from cancer registry and hospital records. HPV type and variant analyses were performed using PCR-based Luminex and dot-blot hybridization assays. Eighty-three percent of tumors were infected with at least one HPV type. European variants of HPV16/18 were the most prevalent in tumors from all three regions, with all HPV18 infections and 64% of HPV16 infections being of European lineage. A higher frequency of HPV16 was present in Northern Tunisia (80%) than in Central (68%) or Southern Tunisia (50%) (P = 0.02). HPV18/45 was significantly more common in adenocarcinomas (50%) than in squamous cell carcinomas (11%) (P = 0.004). Frequent infection with European HPV variants most likely reflects the history of European migration to Tunisia. In addition to the importance of understanding the variants of HPV in Tunisia, behavioral and cultural attitudes towards screening and age-specific infection rates should be investigated to aid the development of future vaccination and HPV screening programs and policies. PMID:21328380

KrennHrubec, Keris; Mrad, Karima; Sriha, Badreddine; Ben Ayed, Farhat; Bottalico, Danielle M.; Ostolaza, Janae; Smith, Benjamin; Tchaikovska, Tatyana; Soliman, Amr S.; Burk, Robert D.

2014-01-01

54

The human papillomavirus type 18 (HPV18) E2 gene product is a repressor of the HPV18 regulatory region in human keratinocytes.  

PubMed Central

The human papillomavirus type 18 (HPV18) long control region (LCR) harbors transcriptional promoter and enhancer elements. Recombinant plasmids bearing all or part of the HPV18 LCR cloned in enhancer or promoter configuration upstream of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene were transfected into human fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Although the HPV18 enhancer can function in the absence of E2 gene products in both fibroblasts and keratinocytes, the promoter activity of the HPV18 LCR is detectable in keratinocytes but not in fibroblasts, suggesting that it is tissue specific. This promoter activity was repressed in human keratinocytes not only by the bovine papillomavirus type 1 E2 gene product but also by the homologous HPV18 E2 gene product. The promoter involved in the HPV18 E2 repression is located within a 230-base-pair domain directly upstream of the E6 open reading frame of the HPV18 LCR and is probably the previously identified E6 promoter. Although one cannot rule out the possibility that this repressing effect is mediated by a truncated form of HPV18 E2 protein, as was previously demonstrated for bovine papillomavirus type 1, a more likely explanation would be that the full-length HPV18 E2 protein behaves as a repressor. Indeed, at the same doses at which it inhibits transcription from the homologous HPV18 LCR, the HPV18 E2 gene product activates transcription from constructs bearing E2-binding palindromes cloned in enhancer configuration upstream of a heterologous promoter. The fact that the homologous HPV18 E2 gene product acts as a transcriptional repressor of the HPV18 LCR suggests a possible explanation for the overexpression of E6 and E7 open reading frames in cervical carcinoma cells and in cell lines derived from them. PMID:2476572

Bernard, B A; Bailly, C; Lenoir, M C; Darmon, M; Thierry, F; Yaniv, M

1989-01-01

55

Multiple-type HPV infections: a cross-sectional analysis of the prevalence of specific types in 309,000 women referred for HPV testing at the time of cervical cytology  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine the frequency of multiple type cervical HPV infections, and whether any types are involved in multiple type infections more or less frequently than might be expected if these infections occur randomly. Methods In this retrospective analysis of type-specific HPV testing, results from women 18-65 years old with samples collected between July 2007 and May 2011 were considered. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to model the presence of each of the 24 most prevalent HPV types, adjusting for one other HPV type, age, laboratory region, and age by region interactions. Results HPV infection was present in 74,543 of 309,471 women (24.1%) and 65,492 (21.1%) were positive for one of the top 24 most prevalent HPV types. The most common HPV type was HPV type 16, occurring in 4.1 of the entire sample%. 14,181 women were positive for 2 or more HPV types (4.6% of entire sample, 19.0% of HPV positive sample). Two-way HPV type comparisons were analyzed. Types 52, 53, 81, and 83 more likely to occur in multiple infections with other types, and types 16, 58, and 66 were less likely to occur in multiple infections with other types. HPV types 72 and 81 have the strongest positive relationship (OR=5.2, 95% CI: 3.6, 7.4). HPV types 33 and 66 have the strongest negative relationship (OR 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2, 0.6). Conclusions In this population, multiple type HPV infections were present in 4.6% of all women. Our findings suggest that there may be both competitive and cooperative interactions between HPV types. PMID:23970156

Dickson, Elizabeth L; Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Bliss, Robin L.; Downs, Levi S

2013-01-01

56

Oncogenic and nononcogenic human genital papillomaviruses generate the E7 mRNA by different mechanisms.  

PubMed Central

A new promoter located within E6 was mapped in human papillomavirus type 6b (HPV6b)- and HPV11-containing benign genital condylomata (genital warts). The RNA transcribed from this promoter represented the major RNA species colinear with open reading frames E6 and E7 and can encode the E7 protein. No equivalent promoter was active in HPV16-containing cancers and cancer-derived cell lines. In those, the major transcripts contained one of two different introns within E6 and the RNAs could encode two different E6 proteins and E7. Images PMID:2536845

Smotkin, D; Prokoph, H; Wettstein, F O

1989-01-01

57

HPV vaccine (human papillomavirus) Cervarix - what you need to know  

MedlinePLUS

... taken in its entirety from the CDC HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Cervarix® Vaccine Information Statement: http://www.cdc. ... What is HPV? Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common ... in the United States. More than half of sexually active men ...

58

Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection in children and adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human papilloma viruses (HPV) are common pathogens associated with a wide range of cutaneous and mucosal infections in childhood.\\u000a Different HPV types can cause common warts, genital warts, low-grade as well as high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions.\\u000a Anogenital warts represent an issue with legal and clinical implications and evaluation of children for the possibility of\\u000a sexual abuse should be considered in

Ioannis N. Mammas; George Sourvinos; Demetrios A. Spandidos

2009-01-01

59

Immunophenotyping of HPV Types 16 and 18 among Sudanese Patients with Oral Lesions  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study was to screen patients with oral lesions for the presence of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) types 16 and 18. Methods Sixty patients aged between 11-80 years with a mean age of 46 years were examined using immunohistological techniques. All samples were retrieved from RICK during the period from August 2009 to August 2010. Out of 60 patients, 50 had Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas (OSCCs) and the remaining ten had benign oral lesions, included as internal control. Results Of the 50 patients with OSCCs, 10 (20%) showed positive immunohistochemical results for HPV types 16 and 18 of which 50% were detected among males and 50% were demonstrated among females. The ten positive findings were Immunophenotyped as follows: five were positive with HPV type 16, four with type 18 and one was positive for HPV types 16 and18. All patients with benign oral lesions were negative for HPV immunohistochemistry. Conclusion The study suggests the role of HPV 16 and 18 in the etiology of oral cancers in different parts of Sudan. However, the use of molecular techniques such as PCR are needed to confirm the results of immunohistochemistry in the role of the HPV in developing of OSCC in Sudan. PMID:22811767

Ginawi, Ibrahim A. M.; Mahgoub, Ebtihag A.; Ahmed, Hussain G.

2012-01-01

60

Genital and extra-genital warts increase the risk of asymptomatic genital human papillomavirus infection in men  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo evaluate the relationship of warts in different parts of the body and the risk of asymptomatic genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men.MethodsWe examined the relationship of self-reported genital and extra-genital warts with the subsequent acquisition of asymptomatic genital HPV infection in a cohort of 331 adult men. Participants were followed at 2-month intervals for up to 4 years.

Brenda Y Hernandez; Yurii B Shvetsov; Marc T Goodman; Lynne R Wilkens; Pamela J Thompson; Xuemei Zhu; James Tom; Lily Ning

2011-01-01

61

HPV Cancer Prevention  

MedlinePLUS

... PREVENTION Preteens have a higher immune response to HPV vaccine than older teens. While there is very little ... 20 minutes of every day, all year long. HPV vaccine protects against HPV types that most commonly cause ...

62

HPV Vaccine and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... or visit us online at: www.OTISpregnancy.org . HPV Vaccine and Pregnancy This sheet talks about the risks ... onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (JORRP). What is the HPV vaccine? The HPV vaccine provides protection against some types ...

63

Sensitive HPV detection in oropharyngeal cancers  

E-print Network

Abstract Background Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the aetiological agents of certain benign and malignant tumours of skin and mucosae; the most important of which is cervical cancer. Also, the incidence of ano-genital warts, HPV-anal cancer...

Winder, David M; Ball, Siolian L R; Vaughan, Katie; Hanna, Nashat; Woo, Yin Ling; Franzer, Jurgen-Theodor; Sterling, Jane C; Stanley, Margaret A; Sudhoff, Holger H; Goon, Peter K C

2009-12-15

64

Clinical and epidemiological correlations between the infection with HPV 16 and HPV 18 and female cervical lesions.  

PubMed

A number of 66 specimens from female cervical lesions were examined for infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6, 11, 16, and 18 by nucleic acid hybridization in dot-blot techniques and 35 sera were tested by the immunodot-blot technique, in order to detect the presence of anti E4 and E7 HPV protein antibodies. The findings were compared with the histologic diagnosis. Fifty-six per cent of specimens contained HPV DNA sequences. In 47% of specimens from cervical carcinoma, HPV 11 was detected in 4 cases, HPV 16 in 21 cases, and HPV 18 in 7 cases. Serum antibodies against HPV 16 E4 and HPV 16 E7 occurred in all the cases of uterine carcinoma, in 4 of 10 cases of CIN I-II, and in 3 of 5 sera obtained from apparently healthy women. The analysis of risk factors disclosed the early onset of sexual activity, a relatively high number of births and abortions before the age of 22 years, the use of oral oestroprogestative contraceptive agents, the presence in anamnesis of genital infections with bacterial flora--Candida albicans, Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma, etc. Our results showed that HPV typing by nucleic acid hybridization was useful for differentiating low- from high-risk cervical lesions and also tried to elucidate the risk factors associated with HPV infections and progression to malignancy. PMID:9179967

Stoian, M; Repanovici, R; Corni?escu, F

1995-01-01

65

HPV type distribution in invasive cervical cancers in Italy: pooled analysis of three large studies  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this study is to describe the prevalence of HPV types in invasive cervical cancers in Italy from 1996 to 2008. Methods A pooled analysis of the three largest case series typed to date was performed. HPV typing was performed on paraffin-embedded slices. Molecular analyses were performed in four laboratories. Multivariate analyses were performed to test the associations between calendar time, age, and geographical area and the proportion of types 16/18. Results Out of 574 cancers, 24 (4.2%) were HPV negative. HPV 16 and 18 were responsible for 74.4% (378/508) and 80.3% (49/61) of the squamous cancers and adenocarcinomas, respectively. Other frequent types were 31 (9.5%), 45 (6.4%), and 58 (3.3%) for squamous cancers and 45 (13.3%), 31, 35, and 58 (5.0%) for adenocarcinomas. The proportion of HPV 16 and/or 18 decreased with age (p-value for trend <0.03), while it increased in cancers diagnosed in more recent years (p-value for trend?HPV 16/18 vaccine on cervical cancer will be greater for early onset cancers. In vaccinated women, screening could be started at an older age without reducing protection. PMID:23110797

2012-01-01

66

Genital Warts  

MedlinePLUS

... Diseases and treatments E - H Genital warts Genital warts Also called condylomata acuminata Genital warts: The warts ... visit to the dermatologist. Learn more about genital warts: Genital warts: Signs and symptoms Genital warts: Who ...

67

Distribution of high and low risk HPV types by cytological status: a population based study from Italy  

PubMed Central

Background HPV type distribution by cytological status represents useful information to predict the impact of mass vaccination on screening programs. Methods women aged from 25 to 64 who attended cervical cancer screening in five different Italian regions were tested for HPV infection with Hybrid Capture II (HCII) low and high risk probes. Women repeating Pap-test upon unsatisfactory or positive results, or as a post-treatment and post-colposcopy follow-up analysis, were excluded from our study. High risk (HR) HPV positive samples were typed using GP5+/GP6+ primed PCR, followed by Reverse Line Blot for 18 high/intermediate risk HPV types, while low risk (LR) HPV positive samples were tested with type specific primers for HPV6 and HPV11. Results 3410 women had a valid HCII and Pap-test. The prevalence of HR and LR infections was 7.0% and 3.6%, 29.1% and 13.7%, 68.1% and 31.9%, 60.0% and 0.0%, 65.0% and 12.0%, for negative, ASC-US, L-SIL, ASC-H and H-SIL cytology, respectively. The fraction of ASC-US+ cytology due to HPV 16 and 18 ranged from 11.2 (HPV 16/18 alone) to 15.4% (including HPV 16/18 in co-infection with other virus strains), and that due to HPV 6 and 11 ranged from 0.2% (HPV 6/11 alone) to 0.7% (including HPV 6/11 in co-infection with other LR virus strains). Conclusions mass vaccination with bivalent or quadrivalent HPV vaccine would modestly impact on prevalence of abnormal Pap-test in screening. PMID:21247508

2011-01-01

68

"High risk" HPV types are frequently detected in potentially malignant and malignant oral lesions, but not in normal oral mucosa.  

PubMed

Studies on the involvement of the human papillomavirus (HPV) in initiation and progression of oral neoplasia have generated conflicting results. The observed discrepancy is attributable mainly to the varying sensitivity of the applied methodologies and to epidemiologic factors of the examined patient groups. To evaluate the role of HPV in oral carcinogenesis, we analyzed 53 potentially neoplastic and neoplastic oral lesions consisting of 29 cases of hyperplasia, 5 cases of dysplasia, and 19 cases of squamous cell carcinomas, as well as 16 oral specimens derived from healthy individuals. A highly sensitive nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was used, along with type-specific PCR, restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, dot blotting, and nonisotopic in situ hybridization. Nested PCR revealed the presence of HPV DNA in 48 of the 53 (91%) pathologic samples analyzed, whereas none (0%) of the normal specimens was found to be infected. Positivity for HPV was independent of histology and the smoking habits of the analyzed group of patients. At least one "high risk" type, such as HPV 16, 18, and 33, was detected by type-specific PCR in 47 (98%) infected specimens, whereas only 1 (2%) squamous cell carcinoma was solely infected by a "low risk" type (HPV 6). HPV 16 was the prevailing viral type, being present in 71% of infected cases. Single HPV 16 and HPV 18 infections were confirmed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. HPV 58 was detected by dot blotting in three hyperplastic lesions. HPV positivity and genotyping were further confirmed, and the physical status of this virus was evaluated by nonisotopic in situ hybridization. Diffuse and punctate signals, indicative of the episomal and integrative pattern of HPV infection, were observed for low- and high-risk types, respectively. Our findings are suggestive of an early involvement of high-risk HPV types in oral carcinogenesis. PMID:10874669

Bouda, M; Gorgoulis, V G; Kastrinakis, N G; Giannoudis, A; Tsoli, E; Danassi-Afentaki, D; Foukas, P; Kyroudi, A; Laskaris, G; Herrington, C S; Kittas, C

2000-06-01

69

PDZRN3/LNX3 Is a Novel Target of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 (HPV-16) and HPV-18 E6.  

PubMed

High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) E6 proteins have a C-terminal PDZ binding motif through which they bind, and target for proteasome-mediated degradation, a number of PDZ-containing cellular targets. Recent studies have suggested that the RING-containing ubiquitin-protein ligase PDZRN3 might also be an HPV E6 target. In this analysis, we show that HPV-16 and HPV-18 E6 can target PDZRN3 in a PDZ- and proteasome-dependent manner and provide a connection between the HPV life cycle and differentiation-related STAT signaling. PMID:25355882

Thomas, Miranda; Banks, Lawrence

2015-01-15

70

Isolation and characterization of human papillomavirus type 6-specific T cells infiltrating genital warts.  

PubMed Central

The potential role of T cells in the control of human papillomavirus type 6 (HPV-6) infections is an appealing premise, but their actual role has been sparsely investigated. Since HPV-6 infections are confined to the epithelium, such an investigation should focus on the T cells present at the site of infection (i.e., the warts). Therefore, we isolated wart-infiltrating lymphocytes (WIL) from patients with clinically diagnosed anogenital warts. These WIL were characterized by their phenotype and their specificity for E7 and L1 proteins of HPV-6. The phenotype of WIL varied drastically from patient to patient, as determined by their expression of CD4, CD8, T-cell receptor alpha/beta chain (TCR alpha beta), and TCR gamma delta. Despite this heterogeneity in phenotype, HPV-6 E7 and/or L1-specific WIL, as determined by lymphoproliferation, could be isolated from more than 75% of the patients studied. Among all L1 peptides recognized by WIL, peptides 311-330 and 411-430 were the most consistently detected, with seven of nine patients for whom L1 peptide reactivity was observed responding to at least one of them. Moreover, the HPV-6 epitopic peptides recognized by WIL differed to some extent from those recognized by peripheral T cells. PMID:9261360

Hong, K; Greer, C E; Ketter, N; Van Nest, G; Paliard, X

1997-01-01

71

Type III female genital mutilation: Clinical implications and treatment by carbon dioxide laser surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine clinical implications of type III female genital mutilation and to evaluate the use of carbon dioxide laser surgery to restore vulvar opening and to treat associated epithelial inclusion cysts. Study design: Twenty-five infibulated patients underwent carbon dioxide laser treatment. Seven of the women (28%) were pregnant, between 10 and 37 weeks

Carlo Penna; M. Grazia Fallani; Massimiliano Fambrini; Elisa Zipoli; Mauro Marchionni

2002-01-01

72

Post Hoc Analysis of the PATRICIA Randomized Trial of the Efficacy of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 (HPV-16)/HPV-18 AS04-Adjuvanted Vaccine against Incident and Persistent Infection with Nonvaccine Oncogenic HPV Types Using an Alternative Multiplex Type-Specific PCR Assay for HPV DNA.  

PubMed

The efficacy of the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16)/HPV-18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine against cervical infections with HPV in the Papilloma Trial against Cancer in Young Adults (PATRICIA) was evaluated using a combination of the broad-spectrum L1-based SPF10 PCR-DNA enzyme immunoassay (DEIA)/line probe assay (LiPA25) system with type-specific PCRs for HPV-16 and -18. Broad-spectrum PCR assays may underestimate the presence of HPV genotypes present at relatively low concentrations in multiple infections, due to competition between genotypes. Therefore, samples were retrospectively reanalyzed using a testing algorithm incorporating the SPF10 PCR-DEIA/LiPA25 plus a novel E6-based multiplex type-specific PCR and reverse hybridization assay (MPTS12 RHA), which permits detection of a panel of nine oncogenic HPV genotypes (types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45, 52, 58, and 59). For the vaccine against HPV types 16 and 18, there was no major impact on estimates of vaccine efficacy (VE) for incident or 6-month or 12-month persistent infections when the MPTS12 RHA was included in the testing algorithm versus estimates with the protocol-specified algorithm. However, the alternative testing algorithm showed greater sensitivity than the protocol-specified algorithm for detection of some nonvaccine oncogenic HPV types. More cases were gained in the control group than in the vaccine group, leading to higher point estimates of VE for 6-month and 12-month persistent infections for the nonvaccine oncogenic types included in the MPTS12 RHA assay (types 31, 33, 35, 45, 52, 58, and 59). This post hoc analysis indicates that the per-protocol testing algorithm used in PATRICIA underestimated the VE against some nonvaccine oncogenic HPV types and that the choice of the HPV DNA testing methodology is important for the evaluation of VE in clinical trials. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00122681.). PMID:25540273

Struyf, Frank; Colau, Brigitte; Wheeler, Cosette M; Naud, Paulo; Garland, Suzanne; Quint, Wim; Chow, Song-Nan; Salmerón, Jorge; Lehtinen, Matti; Del Rosario-Raymundo, M Rowena; Paavonen, Jorma; Teixeira, Júlio C; Germar, Maria Julieta; Peters, Klaus; Skinner, S Rachel; Limson, Genara; Castellsagué, Xavier; Poppe, Willy A J; Ramjattan, Brian; Klein, Terry D; Schwarz, Tino F; Chatterjee, Archana; Tjalma, Wiebren A A; Diaz-Mitoma, Francisco; Lewis, David J M; Harper, Diane M; Molijn, Anco; van Doorn, Leen-Jan; David, Marie-Pierre; Dubin, Gary

2015-02-01

73

Post Hoc Analysis of the PATRICIA Randomized Trial of the Efficacy of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 (HPV-16)/HPV-18 AS04-Adjuvanted Vaccine against Incident and Persistent Infection with Nonvaccine Oncogenic HPV Types Using an Alternative Multiplex Type-Specific PCR Assay for HPV DNA  

PubMed Central

The efficacy of the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16)/HPV-18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine against cervical infections with HPV in the Papilloma Trial against Cancer in Young Adults (PATRICIA) was evaluated using a combination of the broad-spectrum L1-based SPF10 PCR-DNA enzyme immunoassay (DEIA)/line probe assay (LiPA25) system with type-specific PCRs for HPV-16 and -18. Broad-spectrum PCR assays may underestimate the presence of HPV genotypes present at relatively low concentrations in multiple infections, due to competition between genotypes. Therefore, samples were retrospectively reanalyzed using a testing algorithm incorporating the SPF10 PCR-DEIA/LiPA25 plus a novel E6-based multiplex type-specific PCR and reverse hybridization assay (MPTS12 RHA), which permits detection of a panel of nine oncogenic HPV genotypes (types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45, 52, 58, and 59). For the vaccine against HPV types 16 and 18, there was no major impact on estimates of vaccine efficacy (VE) for incident or 6-month or 12-month persistent infections when the MPTS12 RHA was included in the testing algorithm versus estimates with the protocol-specified algorithm. However, the alternative testing algorithm showed greater sensitivity than the protocol-specified algorithm for detection of some nonvaccine oncogenic HPV types. More cases were gained in the control group than in the vaccine group, leading to higher point estimates of VE for 6-month and 12-month persistent infections for the nonvaccine oncogenic types included in the MPTS12 RHA assay (types 31, 33, 35, 45, 52, 58, and 59). This post hoc analysis indicates that the per-protocol testing algorithm used in PATRICIA underestimated the VE against some nonvaccine oncogenic HPV types and that the choice of the HPV DNA testing methodology is important for the evaluation of VE in clinical trials. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00122681.) PMID:25540273

Colau, Brigitte; Wheeler, Cosette M.; Naud, Paulo; Garland, Suzanne; Quint, Wim; Chow, Song-Nan; Salmerón, Jorge; Lehtinen, Matti; Del Rosario-Raymundo, M. Rowena; Paavonen, Jorma; Teixeira, Júlio C.; Germar, Maria Julieta; Peters, Klaus; Skinner, S. Rachel; Limson, Genara; Castellsagué, Xavier; Poppe, Willy A. J.; Ramjattan, Brian; Klein, Terry D.; Schwarz, Tino F.; Chatterjee, Archana; Tjalma, Wiebren A. A.; Diaz-Mitoma, Francisco; Lewis, David J. M.; Harper, Diane M.; Molijn, Anco; van Doorn, Leen-Jan; David, Marie-Pierre; Dubin, Gary

2014-01-01

74

Facile, Comprehensive, High-Throughput Genotyping of Human Genital Papillomaviruses Using Spectrally Addressable Liquid Bead Microarrays  

PubMed Central

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the worldwide cause of carcinoma of the uterine cervix, a cancer that is the second most common neoplasm in women, resulting in nearly 250,000 deaths a year. The magnitude of the risk of cancer after HPV infection, however, is virus type-specific. Over 40 HPV types can infect the genital tract. Comprehensive, high-throughput typing assays for HPV, however, are not currently available. Blending multiplex PCR and multiplex hybridization using spectrally addressable liquid bead microarrays we have developed a high-throughput, fast, single-tube-typing assay capable of simultaneously typing 45 HPV. The overall incidence of HPV in 429 women tested using this new assay was 72.2% for those with squamous intraepithelial lesions, 51.5% for those with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and 15.4% for women with normal cytology, respectively. This compared well with the incidence of HPV detected by a parallel non-typing generic high-risk assay. The new assay detected a wide spectrum of HPV types and a high incidence of mixed infections. We believe our assay may find widespread applications in areas requiring virus type-specific information, such as in epidemiological studies, cancer screening programs, monitoring therapeutic interventions, and evaluating the efficacy of HPV vaccine trials. PMID:15681477

Wallace, Jan; Woda, Bruce A.; Pihan, German

2005-01-01

75

HPV Prevalence among Women from Appalachia: Results from the CARE Project  

PubMed Central

Background Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates are high among women from Appalachia, yet data do not exist on human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence among these women. We examined the prevalence of genital HPV among Appalachian women and identified correlates of HPV detection. Methods We report data from a case-control study conducted between January 2006 and December 2008 as part of the Community Awareness, Resources, and Education (CARE) Project. We examined HPV prevalence among 1116 women (278 women with abnormal Pap tests at study entry [cases], 838 women with normal Pap tests [controls]) from Appalachian Ohio. Analyses used multivariable logistic regression to identify correlates of HPV detection. Results The prevalence of HPV was 43.1% for any HPV type, 33.5% for high-risk HPV types, 23.4% for low-risk HPV types, and 12.5% for vaccine-preventable HPV types. Detection of any HPV type was more common among women who were ages 18–26 (OR?=?2.09, 95% CI: 1.26–3.50), current smokers (OR?=?1.86, 95% CI: 1.26–2.73), had at least five male sexual partners during their lifetime (OR?=?2.28, 95% CI: 1.56–3.33), or had multiple male sexual partners during the last year (OR?=?1.98, 95% CI: 1.25–3.14). Similar correlates were identified for detection of a high-risk HPV type. Conclusions HPV was prevalent among Appalachian women, with many women having a high-risk HPV type detected. Results may help explain the high cervical cancer rates observed among Appalachian women and can help inform future cervical cancer prevention efforts in this geographic region. PMID:24023700

Reiter, Paul L.; Katz, Mira L.; Ruffin, Mack T.; Hade, Erinn M.; DeGraffenreid, Cecilia R.; Patel, Divya A.; Paskett, Electra D.; Unger, Elizabeth R.

2013-01-01

76

[Vaccines as an agent for immunization against HPV].  

PubMed

Considered a highly prevalent infection throughout the world, the human papillomavirus (HPV) is a DNA virus that infects the genital mucosa and has high carcinogenic potential, being related to an increased risk of lower genital tract lesions, such as cervical cancer. This cancer is responsible for the deaths of about 231,000 women per year worldwide, which means that HPV is a major problem for public health. Knowing that the most effective and cost-effective way to control an infectious disease is the development of vaccines, two prophylactic vaccines have been developed and approved in Brazil, one of which is bivalent and the other is tetravalent. This review of the literature seeks to present the characteristics of the HPV virus, types of vaccines available on the market, their indications and contraindications, their adverse effects, their effectiveness, their geometric mean titer (GMT) and their cost-effectiveness. PMID:25184585

Zardo, Geisa Picksius; Farah, Flávia Peixoto; Mendes, Fernanda Gabriela; Franco, Camila Ament Giuliani Dos Santos; Molina, Giseli Vieira Machado; Melo, Gislaine Nochetti de; Kusma, Solena Ziemer

2014-09-01

77

Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 E7 protein bodies cause tumour regression in mice  

PubMed Central

Background Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the causative agents of cervical cancer in women, which results in over 250 000 deaths per year. Presently there are two prophylactic vaccines on the market, protecting against the two most common high-risk HPV types 16 and 18. These vaccines remain very expensive and are not generally affordable in developing countries where they are needed most. Additionally, there remains a need to treat women that are already infected with HPV, and who have high-grade lesions or cervical cancer. Methods In this paper, we characterize the immunogenicity of a therapeutic vaccine that targets the E7 protein of the most prevalent high-risk HPV - type 16 – the gene which has previously been shown to be effective in DNA vaccine trials in mice. The synthetic shuffled HPV-16 E7 (16E7SH) has lost its transforming properties but retains all naturally-occurring CTL epitopes. This was genetically fused to Zera®, a self-assembly domain of the maize ?-zein able to induce the accumulation of recombinant proteins into protein bodies (PBs), within the endoplasmic reticulum in a number of expression systems. Results High-level expression of the HPV 16E7SH protein fused to Zera® in plants was achieved, and the protein bodies could be easily and cost-effectively purified. Immune responses comparable to the 16E7SH DNA vaccine were demonstrated in the murine model, with the protein vaccine successfully inducing a specific humoral as well as cell mediated immune response, and mediating tumour regression. Conclusions The fusion of 16E7SH to the Zera® peptide was found to enhance the immune responses, presumably by means of a more efficient antigen presentation via the protein bodies. Interestingly, simply mixing the free PBs and 16E7SH also enhanced immune responses, indicating an adjuvant activity for the Zera® PBs. PMID:24885328

2014-01-01

78

Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 101 and 103 isolated from cervicovaginal cells lack an E6 open reading frame (ORF)  

E-print Network

Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 101 and 103 isolated from cervicovaginal cells lack an E6 open reading frame (ORF) and are related to gamma-papillomaviruses Zigui Chen a , Mark Schiffman b , Rolando with the gamma- and pi-PV groups. These data demonstrated that HPV genomes closely related to papillomaviruses

DeSalle, Rob

79

Prevalence of HPV high and low risk types in cervical samples from the Italian general population: a population based study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This multicenter study describes the type-specific prevalence of HPV infection in the general population from central and southern Italy, comparing the data with previously published Italian studies. METHODS: Women aged from 25 to 65 who attended cervical cancer screening in five different Italian regions were tested for HPV infection with Hybrid Capture II (HCII) low and high risk probes.

Paolo Giorgi Rossi; Simonetta Bisanzi; Irene Paganini; Angela Di Iasi; Claudio Angeloni; Aurora Scalisi; Rosalba Macis; Maria Teresa Pini; Francesco Chini; Francesca Maria Carozzi

2010-01-01

80

Decreasing risk: impact of HPV vaccination on outcomes.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer, caused by oncogenic types of human papillomavirus (HPV), remains a major health problem worldwide. The recent introduction of a quadrivalent vaccine (Gardasil), which targets HPV strains responsible for approximately 70% of cervical cancer cases and 90% of genital warts, has ushered in new hope of substantially reducing global prevalence of HPV disease. A further bivalent HPV vaccine (Cervarix) is in the offing. However, many issues still need to be addressed, including actual vaccine efficacy in preventing cervical cancer, public acceptance, use of the vaccine in men, vaccine access, costs, and impact of the vaccine on cervical cancer screening programs. This review analyzes some of these issues, and emphasizes the need for a coordinated effort of patients, parents, health professionals, hospitals, and policymakers to ensure successful implementation of vaccination programs in the United States. PMID:17203991

Hymel, Pamela Ann

2006-12-01

81

Genital Herpes  

MedlinePLUS

What is genital herpes? Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) . Genital herpes is probably best known for the sores and blisters ... do not see a sore. How does genital herpes infection occur? The herpes virus can pass through ...

82

Efficacy of RG1-VLP Vaccination against Infections with Genital and Cutaneous Human Papillomaviruses  

PubMed Central

Licensed human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines, based on virus-like particles (VLPs) self-assembled from major capsid protein L1, afford type-restricted protection against HPV types 16/18/6/11 (or 16/18 for the bivalent vaccine), which cause 70% of cervical cancers (CxCas) and 90% of genital warts. However, they do not protect against less prevalent high-risk (HR) types causing 30% of CxCa, or cutaneous HPV. In contrast, vaccination with the minor capsid protein L2 induces low-level immunity to type-common epitopes. Chimeric RG1-VLP presenting HPV16 L2 amino acids 17–36 (RG1 epitope) within the DE-surface loop of HPV16 L1 induced cross-neutralizing antisera. We hypothesized that RG1-VLP vaccination protects against a large spectrum of mucosal and cutaneous HPV infections in vivo. Immunization with RG1-VLP adjuvanted with human-applicable alum-MPL (aluminum hydroxide plus 3-O-desacyl-4?-monophosphoryl lipid A) induced robust L2 antibodies (ELISA titers 2,500–12,500), which (cross-)neutralized mucosal HR HPV16/18/45/37/33/52/58/35/39/51/59/68/73/26/69/34/70, low-risk HPV6/11/32/40, and cutaneous HPV2/27/3/76 (titers 25–1,000) using native virion- or pseudovirion (PsV)-based assays, and a vigorous cytotoxic T lymphocyte response by enzyme-linked immunospot. In vivo, mice were efficiently protected against experimental vaginal challenge with mucosal HR PsV types HPV16/18/45/31/33/52/58/35/39/51/59/68/56/73/26/53/66/34 and low-risk HPV6/43/44. Enduring protection was demonstrated 1 year after vaccination. RG1-VLP is a promising next-generation vaccine with broad efficacy against all relevant mucosal and also cutaneous HPV types. PMID:23752042

Schellenbacher, Christina; Kwak, Kihyuck; Fink, Dieter; Shafti-Keramat, Saeed; Huber, Bettina; Jindra, Christoph; Faust, Helena; Dillner, Joakim; Roden, Richard B.S.; Kirnbauer, Reinhard

2013-01-01

83

Detection of adeno-associated virus type 2 sequences in the human genital tract.  

PubMed Central

Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a defective parvovirus with unknown pathogenicity. It requires helper functions for its normal replication in human tissue and therefore is not readily isolated from clinical specimens. We have used the PCR method to examine the following clinical samples for the presence of AAV sequences: (i) 15 nasopharyngeal aspirates from symptomatic patients, (ii) 7 swab or fluid specimens from vesicles of patients suspected of having varicella-zoster virus infections, (iii) 21 human papilloma virus-positive genital biopsy specimens, (iv) 61 genital swab specimens from women suspected of having herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection examined either directly or following propagation in tissue culture, (v) 62 samples of first-trimester aborted material, including 38 samples from spontaneous abortions and 24 samples from induced abortions, (vi) 11 samples of chorionic villi taken from women undergoing genetic prenatal diagnosis, and (vii) three lots of cultured human embryonic cells. AAV sequences were detected only in samples taken from the genital tracts of women suspected of having HSV infection and not in any of the other types of samples. Samples from 11 patients were positive for AAV: for 4 patients the original swab sample was positive, for 4 patients the cultured swab sample was positive, and for 3 patients both the original swab samples and the cultures were positive. Five of the 11 patients were infected with HSV. Our study demonstrates the presence of AAV in the female genital tract. However, in contrast to a previous report (E. Tobiasch, M. Rabreau, K. Geletneky, S. Larue-Charlus, F. Severin, N. Becker, and J. R. Schlehofer, J. Med. Virol. 44:215-222, 1994), we did not find solid evidence of its replication in maternal or embryonal tissues from the first trimester of pregnancy. The questions of a potential pathogenic etiology of AAV and the interaction with HSV remain open. PMID:8968883

Friedman-Einat, M; Grossman, Z; Mileguir, F; Smetana, Z; Ashkenazi, M; Barkai, G; Varsano, N; Glick, E; Mendelson, E

1997-01-01

84

Prevalence of HPV high and low risk types in cervical samples from the Italian general population: a population based study  

PubMed Central

Background This multicenter study describes the type-specific prevalence of HPV infection in the general population from central and southern Italy, comparing the data with previously published Italian studies. Methods Women aged from 25 to 65 who attended cervical cancer screening in five different Italian regions were tested for HPV infection with Hybrid Capture II (HCII) low and high risk probes. Women repeating Pap-test upon unsatisfactory or positive results, or as a post-treatment and post-colposcopy follow-up analysis, were excluded from our study. High risk (HR) HPV positive samples were typed using GP5+/GP6+ primed PCR, followed by Reverse Line Blot for 18 high/intermediate risk HPV types, while low risk (LR) HPV positive samples were tested with type specific primers for HPV6 and HPV11. Results 3817 women had a valid HCII test: 350 of them (9.2%) were positive for HR probes, 160 (4.2%) for LR probes, while 57 women were positive for both. Multiple infections were detected in 97 HR HPV positive women. The most common types were HPV 16 (3%), 31 (1.2%), 51 (1%). HPV6 ranked fifth (0.6%), HPV18 ranked tenth (0.5%) and HPV11 sixteenth (0.3%). In Sardinia the prevalence of high-risk infection was 13%, significantly higher than the mean value (p < 0.00005). The distribution of the most frequent types did not significantly differ by centre (p = 0.187) and age (p = 0.085). Conclusions Because cervical cancer incidence and Pap test coverage is lower in southern than in northern Italy, a lower prevalence of high-risk infections in the general population was expected in the south. However, prevalence detected in this study for the south of the country is slightly but significantly higher than the rest of Italy. The consequence may be an epidemic of cervical cancer in the next decades if adequate screening programs are not implemented there. PMID:20646310

2010-01-01

85

The HPV infection in males: an update.  

PubMed

The role of Human papillomavirus (HPV) in malignant and non-malignant genital diseases in females is well known and the corresponding epidemiological burden has been widely described, in males instead, less is known about the role of the virus in anal, penile and head and neck cancer, and the burden of malignant and non-malignant HPV-related diseases. There are many types of HPV that can infect the epithelium: some types can cause genital warts (low risk genotype), other types (high risk genotypes) can cause cancers of the penis, anus or oropharynx. Relative to females, males tend to be less knowledgeable about the infection: some may view its consequences as less likely and severe for themselves than for females, and thus could perceive vaccination as unnecessary. Including boys in the vaccination program generally exceeded conventional thresholds of good value for money, even under favorable conditions of vaccine protection and health benefits; however, uncertainty still exists in many areas that can either strengthen or attenuate the findings achieved. PMID:23234187

Giraldi, G; De Luca d'Alessandro, E

2012-01-01

86

Genital human Papillomavirus infection in patients with autoimmune inflammatory diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment advances achieved over the last few years have radically changed the management of patients with autoimmune inflammatory diseases requiring conventional or biological immunosuppressive therapy. These diseases and the drugs used to treat them increase the rate of infections, including genital infections due to the human Papillomavirus (HPV). Genital HPV infections have been extensively studied in organ transplant recipients, HIV-infected

François Aubin; Mickaël Martin; Eve Puzenat; Nadine Magy-Bertrand; Michel Segondy; Didier Riethmuller; Daniel Wendling

2011-01-01

87

Low Prevalence of Oral and Nasal Human Papillomavirus in Employees Performing CO2-laser Evaporation of Genital Warts or Loop Electrode Excision Procedure of Cervical Dysplasia.  

PubMed

Risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) transmission during laser vaporisation of genital warts or loop electrode excision procedure is controversial. An oral rinse, a nasal swabs, history of HPV related diseases and data on HPV exposure were collected from 287 employees at departments of dermato-venerology and gynaecology in Denmark. A mucosal HPV type was found among 5.8% of employees with experience of laser treatment of genital warts as compared to 1.7% of those with no experience (p?=?0.12). HPV prevalence was not higher in employees participating in electrosurgical treatment or cryotherapy of genital warts, or loop electrode excision procedure compared with those who did not. HPV 6 or 11 were not detected in any samples. Hand warts after the age of 24 years was more common among dermatology than among non-dermatology personnel (18% vs. 8.0%, p?=?0.03). Mucosal HPV types are infrequent in the oral and nasal cavity of health care personnel, however, employees at departments of dermato-venereology are at risk of acquiring hand warts. PMID:24941064

Kofoed, Kristian; Norrbom, Christina; Forslund, Ola; Møller, Charlotte; Frøding, Ligita P; Pedersen, Anders Elm; Markauskas, Algirdas; Blomberg, Maria; Baumgartner-Nielsen, Jane; Madsen, Jakob Torp; Strauss, Gitte; Madsen, Klaus G; Sand, Carsten

2015-01-15

88

The use of nested polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism for the detection and typing of mucosal human papillomaviruses in samples containing low copy numbers of viral DNA.  

PubMed

Mucosal human papillomaviruses (HPVs) that infect the genital area have also been shown to infect the oral cavity. In this study a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method was developed on a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product to identify ten high risk HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45, 51, 52, 58 and 59 as well as the low risk HPV 11. HPV DNA was detected in 23/31 (74%) of buccal specimens using a sensitive nested PCR employing degenerate consensus primers (Williamson and Rybicki, 1991). Consensus PCR using the PGMy09/11 primers. was able to detect HPV in only 29% of the specimens that had tested positive using the nested HPV PCR primers. HPV 11 type specific primers detected HPV 11 DNA in only 66% of the specimens showing HPV 11 DNA by means of nested PCR and RFLP. A Genbank search revealed that the PCR primers could detect a wide range of mucosal HPV types including types HPV 70, 72 and 73 which have all been isolated from immunocompromised patients. Of the 23 buccal specimens that were positive for HPV DNA, 13 were single infections, five were dual infections and three were triple infections. The HPV types identified by RFLP were: HPV 11 (18/23), HPV 18 (8/23), HPV 16 (3/23), and HPV 33 (1/23). HPV 13 (2/23) was identified by direct sequencing of the inner amplicon of the PCR product. PMID:12176153

Kay, Patti; Meehan, Kathleen; Williamson, Anna-Lise

2002-08-01

89

HPV vaccine  

MedlinePLUS

Vaccine - HPV; Immunization - HPV; Gardasil; Cervarix; HPV2; HPV4; Vaccine to prevent cervical cancer ... and Gynecologists. Committee Opinion No. 588: Human Papillomavirus Vaccination. Obstet Gynecol . 2014;123:712-8. American Academy ...

90

Human papillomavirus type 16 E2-and L1-specific serological and T-cell responses in women with  

E-print Network

Human papillomavirus type 16 E2- and L1-specific serological and T-cell responses in women Accepted 13 May 2003 Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16)-associated vulval intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN/17). INTRODUCTION Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are extre- mely common in young, sexually active

Gaston, Kevin

91

HPV - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Armenian (???????) Farsi (?????) Hmong (Hmoob) Khmer (Khmer) Oromo (Afaan Oromo) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Tagalog ( ... for Disease Control and Prevention Return to top Oromo (Afaan Oromo) Genital Warts/HPV English Biqiltuwwan Dhagna- ...

92

Genital Herpes  

MedlinePLUS

... Herpes Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Share Compartir Genital Herpes - CDC Fact Sheet Herpes is a common sexually transmitted disease (STD) that ... questions about sexually transmitted diseases. What is genital herpes? Genital herpes is an STD caused by two ...

93

Genital Herpes  

MedlinePLUS

... and TB Prevention Division of STD Prevention Genital Herpes – CDC Fact Sheet Herpes is a common sexually transmitted disease (STD) that ... still spread to sexual partners. What is genital herpes? Genital herpes is an STD caused by two ...

94

Genital warts  

MedlinePLUS

Condylomata acuminata; Penile warts; Human papilloma virus (HPV); Venereal warts; Condyloma; HPV DNA test; Sexually transmitted disease (STD) - warts; Sexually transmitted infection (STI) - warts; LSIL- ...

95

Erythroplasia of queyrat: coinfection with cutaneous carcinogenic human papillomavirus type 8 and genital papillomaviruses in a carcinoma in situ.  

PubMed

Erythroplasia of Queyrat is a carcinoma in situ that mainly occurs on the glans penis, the prepuce, or the urethral meatus of elderly males. Up to 30% progress to squamous cell carcinoma. The cause of erythroplasia of Queyrat is largely unknown. Human papillomavirus type 16 DNA has previously been detected only in very few distinctly characterized patients. We have investigated 12 paraffin-embedded biopsies from eight patients with penile erythroplasia of Queyrat and control biopsies of inflammatory penile lesions, of genital Bowen's disease, and of premalignant/malignant cervical or vulvar lesions by 10 different polymerase chain reaction protocols for the presence of cutaneous and genital/mucosal human papillomaviruses. Human papillomavirus typing was performed by sequencing (cloned) polymerase chain reaction products. Human papillomavirus DNA was detected in all erythroplasia of Queyrat patients and in none of the controls with inflammatory penile lesions. The rare cutaneous carcinogenic epidermodysplasia verruciformis-associated human papillomavirus type 8 was present in all erythroplasia of Queyrat patients and the genital high-risk human papillomavirus type 16 in seven of eight patients (88%). In addition to human papillomavirus type 8 and human papillomavirus type 16, four patients carried the genital carcinogenic human papillomavirus type 39 and/or type 51. All human papillomavirus type 8 sequences found in erythroplasia of Queyrat showed some polymorphism among each other and differed in specific nucleotide exchanges from the human papillomavirus type 8 reference sequence. Viral load determinations (human papillomavirus copies/beta-globin gene copies) by realtime polymerase chain reactions showed that the human papillomavirus type 16 levels in the erythroplasia of Queyrat biopsies were one to five orders of magnitude higher than the human papillomavirus type 8 levels. Human papillomavirus type 8 was not detected in cervical or vulvar precancerous and cancerous lesions and in Bowen's disease lesions that carried genital human papillomavirus types. The data suggest that in erythroplasia of Queyrat, in contrast to other genital neoplasias, a coinfection with human papillomavirus type 8 and carcinogenic genital human papillomavirus types occurs. The presence or absence of human papillomavirus type 8 might help to distinguish between penile erythroplasia of Queyrat and Bowen's diseases. PMID:10951274

Wieland, U; Jurk, S; Weissenborn, S; Krieg, T; Pfister, H; Ritzkowsky, A

2000-09-01

96

Adenovirus types 2, 8, and 37 associated with genital infections in patients attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic.  

PubMed Central

Adenoviruses (Ads) are an important cause of respiratory illness, conjunctivitis, and gastroenteritis, but they are seldom recognized as a potential cause of sexually transmitted disease. We performed virus cultures on approximately 7,000 patients attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic or other health department clinics for the evaluation of genital ulcers, urethritis, or conjunctivitis. Ads were isolated from genital or conjunctival specimens obtained from 23 (0.33%) patients. Among the 20 Ad-positive men, 15 (75%) had urethritis, 12 (60%) had conjunctivitis, and 10 (50%) had both. All three Ad-positive women had vaginal discharge and genital ulcers or fissures. Ad isolates from 17 patients were available for serotyping. Ad type 37 was isolated from 14 patients, Ad type 8 was isolated from 2 patients, and Ad type 2 was isolated from 1 patient. In three of the Ad type 37 cases, Ad was recovered from both urethral and conjunctival specimens. One of the Ad type 8 cases had conjunctivitis, but the Ad type 2 case did not. Ads, particularly type 37, may be a sexually transmissible cause of genital ulcers, urethritis, and conjunctivitis. PMID:8567914

Swenson, P D; Lowens, M S; Celum, C L; Hierholzer, J C

1995-01-01

97

Estimation of the incidence of genital warts and the cost of illness in Germany: A cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary cause of cervical cancer. HPV is also responsible for benign condylomata acuminata, also known as genital warts. We assessed the incidence of genital warts in Germany and collected information on their management to estimate the annual cost of disease. METHODS: This was a multi-centre observational (cross-sectional) study of genital warts in Germany. Data

Peter Hillemanns; J Gabrielle Breugelmans; Friederike Gieseking; Stève Bénard; Emilie Lamure; Kavi J Littlewood; Karl U Petry

2008-01-01

98

High prevalence of HPV in non-cervical sites of women with abnormal cervical cytology  

E-print Network

Abstract Background Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are causally associated with ano-genital and a subset of head and neck cancers. Rising incidence of HPV+ anal cancers and head and neck cancers have now been demonstrated in the developed world over...

Crawford, Robin; Grignon, Anne-Laure; Kitson, Sarah; Winder, David M; Ball, Siolian L R; Vaughan, Katie; Stanley, Margaret A; Sterling, Jane C; Goon, Peter K C

2011-11-02

99

Coexisting high-grade vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) and condyloma acuminatum: independent lesions due to different HPV types occurring in immunocompromised patients.  

PubMed

The majority of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) is high-grade and is related to high-risk human papillomavirus (HRHPV) (most commonly HPV 16). It is considered to be the precursor of HRHPV-related vulvar squamous cell carcinoma. Vulvar condyloma acuminatum is low-risk HPV (LRHPV)-related (most commonly types 6 and 11) and has virtually no risk of neoplastic progression. While infection with multiple LRHPV and HRHPV types has been reported for cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions, coexisting vulvar condyloma and adjacent high-grade VIN have not been well characterized. Eleven cases of concurrent condyloma acuminatum and adjacent flat high-grade VIN and 3 cases of high-grade VIN with prominent condylomatous architecture were analyzed using immunohistochemical analysis of p16 expression, in situ hybridization (ISH) for HPV detection [HPV 6/11, HPV 16, HPV 18, and HPV wide spectrum (types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45, 51, 52) probes], and HPV typing by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method (in select cases). All patients had underlying immunosuppressive conditions (human immunodeficiency virus infection or posttransplant therapy). Among the 11 cases of concurrent high-grade VIN and condyloma, the lesions were directly adjacent to one another in 5 cases (with 2 of these demonstrating an intimate admixture of lesions), and in 6 cases the lesions were found in separate tissue sections from the same specimen. Diffuse/strong p16 expression was seen in all high-grade VIN lesions, whereas patchy/weak staining was found in all condylomata. All condylomata contained HPV 6 or 11 as detected by ISH. HRHPV was detected in all of the accompanying high-grade VIN lesions. Ten contained HPV 16 (9 by ISH, 1 by PCR), with the remaining case containing multiple HPV types by PCR. All condylomatous high-grade VIN lesions demonstrated diffuse/strong p16 expression and had evidence of HRHPV (1 with HPV 16 by ISH, 1 with HPV 18 by ISH, and 1 with multiple HPV types by PCR), with no detection of HPV 6 or 11 by ISH. The restriction of LRHPV to condylomatous components and HRHPV to high-grade VIN components of adjacent lesions suggests these are independent lesions caused by different HPV types. Diffuse p16 expression can highlight small foci of high-grade VIN, which may be overlooked in more abundant condylomatous tissue from immunosuppressed patients. The presence of only HRHPV in those VIN lesions with high-grade cytologic features but prominent condylomatous architecture supports their classification as forms of pure high-grade VIN and distinguishes them from condyloma acuminatum. PMID:23026935

Maniar, Kruti P; Ronnett, Brigitte M; Vang, Russell; Yemelyanova, Anna

2013-01-01

100

Coexisting High-grade Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia (VIN) and Condyloma Acuminatum - Independent Lesions Due to Different HPV Types Occurring in Immunocompromised Patients  

PubMed Central

The majority of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) is high-grade and is related to high-risk human papillomavirus (HRHPV) (most commonly HPV16). It is considered to be the precursor of HRHPV-related vulvar squamous cell carcinoma. Vulvar condyloma acuminatum is low-risk HPV (LRHPV)-related (most commonly types 6 and 11) and has virtually no risk of neoplastic progression. While infection with multiple LR- and HRHPV types has been reported for cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions, coexisting vulvar condyloma and adjacent high-grade VIN have not been well characterized. Eleven cases of concurrent condyloma acuminatum and adjacent flat high-grade VIN and three cases of high-grade VIN with prominent condylomatous architecture were analyzed using immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of p16 expression, in situ hybridization (ISH) for HPV detection (HPV6/11, HPV16, HPV 18, and HPV WS [types 6,11,16,18,31,33,35,45,51,52] probes), and HPV typing by PCR-based method (in select cases). All patients had underlying immunosuppressive conditions (human immunodeficiency virus infection or post-transplant therapy). Among the 11 cases of concurrent high-grade VIN and condyloma, the lesions were directly adjacent to one another in 5 cases (with 2 of these demonstrating an intimate admixture of lesions), and in 6 cases were found in separate tissue sections from the same specimen. Diffuse/strong p16 expression was seen in all high-grade VIN lesions, whereas patchy/weak staining was found in all condylomata. All condylomata contained HPV 6 or 11 as detected by ISH. All of the accompanying high-grade VIN lesions had HRHPV detected. Ten contained HPV 16 (9 by ISH, 1 by PCR), with the remaining case containing multiple HPV types by PCR. All condylomatous high-grade VIN lesions demonstrated diffuse/strong p16 expression and had evidence of HRHPV (one with HPV 16 by ISH, one with HPV 18 by ISH, and one with multiple HPV types by PCR), with no detection of HPV 6 or 11 by ISH. The restriction of LRHPV to condylomatous components and HRHPV to high-grade VIN components of adjacent lesions suggests these are independent lesions caused by different HPV types. Diffuse p16 expression can highlight small foci of high-grade VIN which may be overlooked in more abundant condylomatous tissue from immunosuppressed patients. The presence of only HRHPV in those VIN lesions with high-grade cytologic features but prominent condylomatous architecture supports their classification as forms of pure high-grade VIN and distinguishes them from condyloma acuminatum. PMID:23026935

Maniar, Kruti P.; Ronnett, Brigitte M.; Vang, Russell; Yemelyanova, Anna

2012-01-01

101

HPV-associated diseases.  

PubMed

Nearly 200 distinct human papilloma viruses (HPVs) have now been recognized, and each is associated with a specific set of clinical lesions. They are associated with a spectrum of diseases, from benign verrucae vulgares and condylomata acuminata to the malignancies of the cervix, vulva, anus, and penis. Disease associated with HPV can be divided into skin and mucosal lesion of the genital and extragenital regions. The relationship between HPV and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is important clinically, because NMSC is the most common form of malignancy among fair-skinned populations. HPVs have also been detected in skin tags, lichen sclerosus, seborrheic keratoses, actinic keratoses, epidermal cysts, psoriatic plaques, and plucked hairs, but cutaneous HPV can be found on healthy skin. PMID:24559558

Ljubojevic, Suzana; Skerlev, Mihael

2014-01-01

102

Differential effects of human papillomavirus type 6, 16, and 18 DNAs on immortalization and transformation of human cervical epithelial cells  

SciTech Connect

The human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are associated with specific benign and malignant lesions of the skin and mucosal epithelia. Cloned viral DNAs from HPV types 6b, 16, and 18 associated with different pathological manifestations of genital neoplasia in vivo were introduced into primary human cervical epithelial cells by electroporation. Cells transfected with HPV16 or HPV18 DNA acquired indefinite lifespans, distinct morphological alterations, and anchorage-independent growth (HPV18), and contain integrated transcriptionally active viral genomes. HPV6b or plasmid electroporated cells senesced at low passage. The alterations in growth and differentiation of the cells appear to reflect the progressive oncogenic processes that result in cervical carcinoma in vivo.

Pecoraro, G.; Morgan, D.; Defendi, V. (New York Univ. Medical Center, NY (USA))

1989-01-01

103

Genital Herpes (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that's usually caused by the herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2), although it also can be caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1), which normally causes ...

104

Men’s beliefs about HPV-related disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

While human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with genital warts, anal cancer, and oral cancer, limited research\\u000a has examined what men think causes these diseases. We sought to examine knowledge and beliefs about HPV-related disease among\\u000a gay and bisexual men, who are at high risk for HPV infection and HPV-related cancers, and compare them to heterosexual men.\\u000a We conducted an

Noel T. Brewer; Terence W. Ng; Annie-Laurie McRee; Paul L. Reiter

2010-01-01

105

Genital Herpes  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Genital Herpes Information for adults A A A This image displays a grouping of blisters on the buttocks in a patient with herpes simplex. Overview Genital herpes is a recurrent, lifelong ...

106

Type-Specific HPV Prevalence in Cervical Cancer and High-Grade Lesions in Latin America and the Caribbean: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Cervical cancer is a major public health problem in Latin America and the Caribbean (LA&C), showing some of the highest incidence and mortality rates worldwide. Information on HPV type distribution in high-grade cervical lesions (HSIL) and invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is crucial to predict the future impact of HPV16/18 vaccines and screening programmes, and to establish an appropriate post-vaccinal virologic surveillance. The aim was to assess the prevalence of HPV types in HSIL and ICC in studies in LA&C. Methods and Findings We performed a systematic review, following the MOOSE guidelines for systematic reviews of observational studies, and the PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Inclusion criteria were at least ten cases of HSIL/ICC, and HPV-type elicitation. The search, without language restrictions, was performed in MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, LILACS from inception date to December 2009, proceedings, reference lists and consulting experts. A meta-analysis was performed using arc-sine transformations to stabilize the variance of simple proportions. Seventy-nine studies from 18 countries were identified, including 2446 cases of HSIL and 5540 of ICC. Overall, 46.5% of HSIL cases harbored HPV 16 and 8.9% HPV18; in ICC, 53.2% of cases harbored HPV 16 and13.2% HPV 18. The next five most common types, in decreasing frequency, were HPV 31, 58, 33, 45, and 52. Study's limitations comprise the cross-sectional design of most included studies and their inherent risk of bias, the lack of representativeness, and variations in the HPV type-specific sensitivity of different PCR protocols. Conclusions This study is the broadest summary of HPV type distribution in HSIL and ICC in LA&C to date. These data are essential for local decision makers regarding HPV screening and vaccination policies. Continued HPV surveillance would be useful, to assess the potential for changing type-specific HPV prevalence in the post-vaccination era in Latin America. PMID:21991313

Ciapponi, Agustín; Bardach, Ariel; Glujovsky, Demián; Gibbons, Luz; Picconi, María Alejandra

2011-01-01

107

Efficacy, duration of immunity and cross protection after HPV vaccination: a review of the evidence.  

PubMed

The efficacy and immunogenicity of HPV vaccines has proven excellent in several phase 2 and phase 3 trials involving tens of thousand women. A decrease in antibody titres was observed in follow-up studies of vaccinees, with initial sharp decline reaching a plateau in the longer term. Only few subjects lost their antibodies during the 5-6 years after vaccination. However, no breakthrough disease occurred even in those subjects. The administration of a challenge dose of quadrivalent vaccine at month 60 of follow-up resulted in a strong anamnestic response. The mechanism by which vaccination confers protection and the reasons for continuing vaccine efficacy remain to be elucidated. The same applies to the possibility of inducing an anamnestic response following viral challenge via genital mucosa. Data strongly suggest that both vaccines can have a variable level of cross protection against HPV types genetically and antigenically-closely related to vaccine types. Demonstration of cross protection against combined endpoints (CIN2/3 and AIS) for combined HPV types, and, as a single type, for HPV-31, has been reached for the quadrivalent vaccine, and there is evidence of cross protection against HPV 31 and 45 persistent infections (as single types) for the bivalent vaccine. Assays used for antibody detection were different for the two vaccines, and standardisation of methods for anti-HPV L1 protein detection is presently underway. The possibility to use universally accepted tests for antibody measurement would make comparison between vaccines and among different studies much easier. PMID:19480962

Bonanni, Paolo; Boccalini, Sara; Bechini, Angela

2009-05-29

108

A new surveillance gynecological network to assess the incidence and prevalence of genital warts in the Italian female population: lessons learned.  

PubMed

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the etiologic agent of genital warts. Genital warts are transmitted through sexual contacts and caused in about 90% of the cases by HPV types 6 and 11. Worldwide, several million cases of genital warts occur each year both in females and males. In Italy, genital warts are not subject to mandatory notification; the only available data come from the sentinel surveillance system for sexually transmitted infections (STI), which show that external genital warts represent the most frequent STI in Italy. However, these data are not suitable for estimates of incidence and prevalence of single STI in the general population. To obtain more reliable data on the epidemiology of genital warts in the female population at large, we implemented a network of local gynecologists reporting essential data on all women visited throughout one year and detailed data on women who were diagnosed with genital warts. In order to organize and create this network, a partnership between the Italian National Institute of Health and the Italian Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics was constituted to implement the start-up and management of this pilot and unique project in Europe. The present paper intends to present the methods used to build and implement this surveillance network of local gynecologists. PMID:24096294

Suligoi, B; Salfa, M C; Mariani, L; Corsini, D; Timelli, L; Fattorini, G; Vittori, G

2013-10-01

109

HPV Infections among MSM in Shenzhen, China  

PubMed Central

Background An increasing incidence of anal cancer among men, especially men who have sex with men (MSM) suggests a need to better understand anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among this group. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among MSM in Shenzhen, China. Blood was collected for HIV serological testing and syphilis serological screening, and anal swabs were collected for HPV genotyping. Difference of HPV prevalence between HIV seropositive and HIV seronegative MSM was assessed by chi-square test. Factors associated with anal canal HPV infection were assessed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results A total of 408 MSM were recruited. HIV and HPV prevalence were 6.9% and 36.4%, respectively. HPV was detected in the anal canal in 71.4% of the HIV-positive MSM and in 33.8% of the HIV-negative MSM (P<0.001). Oncogenic types were seen more often in anal specimens of HIV-positive MSM than in specimens of HIV-negative MSM (P?=?0.001). The HPV genotypes detected most frequently were HPV06 (8.2%), HPV16 (7.2%), HPV11 (6.4%), HPV18 (4.7%), HPV58 (4.7%), and HPV52 (4.2%). Conclusions In this study, HIV positive MSM had a higher burden of HPV infection, especially oncogenic HPV infection. HPV types 52 and 58 were as popular as those types designed for the currently available vaccine (HPV6, 11, 16, 18). PMID:24801331

Zhang, Dong-Yan; Yin, Yue-Ping; Feng, Tie-Jian; Hong, Fu-Chang; Jiang, Ning; Wang, Bao-Xi; Chen, Xiang-Sheng

2014-01-01

110

Papillomaviral Infections of the Female Genital Tract  

PubMed Central

The human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common organism to infect the human genital tract, affecting as much as half, or more, of the sexually active population. This virus has become widely recognized through the well publicized relationship with genital tract neoplasia and through new diagnostic technologies, such as monoclonal antibody analysis, DNA hybridization, and the polymerase chain reaction. This paper describes the full spectrum of HPV infections, starting with pathogenesis and continuing to clinical manifestations, and discusses significance, diagnosis, and management. PMID:21221347

Munro, Malcolm G.

1992-01-01

111

Men's Perceptions and Knowledge of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection and Cervical Cancer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors assessed young men's knowledge and perceptions of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection to identify factors that predict intention to make positive behavioral changes. Male university students aged 18 to 25 years completed a self-report instrument to assess knowledge and perceptions of genital HPV infection. If diagnosed with…

McPartland, Tara S.; Weaver, Bethany A.; Lee, Shu-Kuang; Koutsky, Laura A.

2005-01-01

112

HPV antibody levels and clinical efficacy following administration of a prophylactic quadrivalent HPV vaccine.  

PubMed

The efficacy of the quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is thought to be mediated by humoral immunity. We evaluated the correlation between quadrivalent HPV vaccine-induced serum anti-HPV responses and efficacy. 17,622 women were vaccinated at day 1, and months 2 and 6. At day 1 and at 6-12 months intervals for up to 48 months, subjects underwent Papanicolaou and genital HPV testing. No immune correlate of protection could be found due to low number of cases. Although 40% of vaccine subjects were anti-HPV 18 seronegative at end-of-study, efficacy against HPV 18-related disease remained high (98.4%; 95% CI: 90.5-100.0) despite high attack rates in the placebo group. These results suggest vaccine-induced protection via immune memory, or lower than detectable HPV 18 antibody titers. PMID:18930097

Joura, Elmar A; Kjaer, Susanne K; Wheeler, Cosette M; Sigurdsson, Kristján; Iversen, Ole-Erik; Hernandez-Avila, Mauricio; Perez, Gonzalo; Brown, Darron R; Koutsky, Laura A; Tay, Eng Hseon; García, Patricia; Ault, Kevin A; Garland, Suzanne M; Leodolter, Sepp; Olsson, Sven-Eric; Tang, Grace W K; Ferris, Daron G; Paavonen, Jorma; Lehtinen, Matti; Steben, Marc; Bosch, Xavier; Dillner, Joakim; Kurman, Robert J; Majewski, Slawomir; Muñoz, Nubia; Myers, Evan R; Villa, Luisa L; Taddeo, Frank J; Roberts, Christine; Tadesse, Amha; Bryan, Janine; Lupinacci, Lisa C; Giacoletti, Katherine E D; Lu, Shuang; Vuocolo, Scott; Hesley, Teresa M; Haupt, Richard M; Barr, Eliav

2008-12-01

113

Numerical simulation of a two-sex human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a major cause of cervical cancer, precancerous lesions, cancer and other disease. HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection. Although HPV virus primarily affects woman but it can also affects man because it cause of cancer of the anus, vulva, vagina, penis and some other cancers. HPV vaccines now used to prevent cervical cancer and genital warts because the vaccine protect against four types of HPV that most commonly cause disease are types 6, 11, 16, and 18. This paper is sequel work of Elbasha (2008). Difference with Elbasha (2008) are give alternative proof global stability, numerical simulation and interpretation. Global stability of the equilibrium on the model of a two-sex HPV vaccination were explored by using Lyapunov. Although we use the same lyapunov function, we use the largest invariant set to proof the global stability. The result show that the global stability of the equilibrium depends on the effective reproduction number (R). If R < 1 then the infection-free equilibrium is asymptotically stable globally. If R > 1 then endemic equilibrium have globally asymptotically stable properties. Then equilibrium proceed with the interpretation of numerical simulation.

Suryani, I.; Adi-Kusumo, F.

2014-02-01

114

HPV Vaccine  

MedlinePLUS

... Why Is It a Problem? How Does the Vaccine Work? Side Effects Protecting Yourself Against HPV What Is HPV and ... when having sex. Side Effects Most of the side effects that people get from the HPV vaccine are minor. They may include swelling or pain ...

115

Pregnancy Complications: Genital Herpes  

MedlinePLUS

... page It's been added to your dashboard . Genital herpes and pregnancy Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted ... the United States has genital herpes. Can genital herpes cause complications during pregnancy? Yes. Genital herpes can ...

116

The re-infection rate of high-risk HPV and the recurrence rate of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) usual type after surgical treatment  

PubMed Central

Summary Background VIN usual type appears to be related to the HPV’s oncogenic types. The aim of this prospective multicenter study was to evaluate the re-infection rate of high-risk HPV and the recurrence rate of VIN usual type after surgical treatment. Material/Methods The study enrolled 103 women affected by VIN usual type. They underwent wide local excision by CO2 laser. The patients were investigated by clinical evaluation and HPV DNA test 6 months after surgical treatment, and then were followed-up at 12, 18, 24, and 36 months. The recurrences were treated with re-excision. Results The rate of HPV infection after surgical treatment was 34% at 6 months, 36.9% at 12 months, 40% at 18 months, 41.7% at 24 months and 44.7% at 36 months. The mean time from HPV infection to the development of VIN was 18.8 months. Conclusions HPV testing in the follow-up of VIN usual type patients might be useful for identifying those patients with a higher risk of recurrence after surgical treatment, although more studies are needed. These preliminary data suggest that the test, in addition to clinical examination, can improve the efficacy of the follow-up. PMID:21873951

Frega, Antonio; Sopracordevole, Francesco; Scirpa, Paolo; Biamonti, Alberto; Lorenzon, Laura; Scarani, Simona; De Sanctis, Luana; Pacchiarotti, Arianna; Moscarini, Massimo; French, Deborah

2011-01-01

117

Human papillomavirus infection and filaggrin expression in paraffin-embedded biopsy specimens of extragenital Bowen's disease and genital bowenoid papulosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Cutaneous Bowen's disease (BD) and genital bowenoid papulosis (BP) are considered as precancerous or cancerous lesions that are sometimes infected with human papillomavirus (HPV). We studied retrospectively paraffin-embedded sections of 11 samples of cutaneous BD and 6 samples of genital BP from the general population for HPV infection and filaggrin expression. Using in situ hybridization with biotinylated probes of

I. Guerin-Reverchon; Y. Chardonnet; J. Viac; B. Chouvet; M. C. Chignol; J. Thivolet

1990-01-01

118

What Women in the United States Virgin Islands Still Want and Need to Know About HPV, Cervical Cancer, and Condom Use  

PubMed Central

Cervical cancer is an infection-related cancer caused primarily by the human papilloma virus. Sexual behavior is a primary risk factor for contracting the genital type of the HPV. While studies have shown that vertical transmission, horizontal transmission, and transmission of the HPV following contact with infected secretions without sexual intercourse are possible, they are not common. The incidence of cervical cancer in the Caribbean is the third highest in the world. This report describes the outcomes of a cross-sectional, mixed methods, exploratory study undertaken to examine questions and concerns about HPV transmission, physical examination, cervical cancer screening, and HPV/cervical cancer risk management among a targeted group of single, unmarried women in the U.S. Virgin Islands. Analysis of the data revealed that the women had many questions and concerns about the origin of HPV infection and cervical cancer, HPV and cervical cancer risk factors, HPV and cervical cancer screening, and HPV and cervical cancer prevention and risk management. Results of the study are used to suggest opportunities for nurses to respond to the questions and concerns posed by the women through the University of the Virgin Islands and within community-based settings. PMID:20857773

Underwood, Sandra Millon; Ramsay-Johnson, Edith; Browne, Lois; Caines, Natasha; Dean, Ashanti; Duval, Samantha; Ivalis, Ruth; Lawrence, Nishel D.; Lewis, Nicole; Mulkanen, Meseret; Pogson, Shenella; Stuard, Princess-Onesha; Randolph, Benita; Riley, Shalini; Ruiz, Melanie; Russ, Jori; Averhart, LaCreessha; De Castro, Tyra; Dockery, Rashida

2011-01-01

119

High Risk HPV Contamination of Endocavity Vaginal Ultrasound Probes: An Underestimated Route of Nosocomial Infection?  

PubMed Central

Background Endocavity ultrasound is seen as a harmless procedure and has become a common gynaecological procedure. However without correct disinfection, it may result in nosocomial transmission of genito-urinary pathogens, such as high-risk Human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV). We aimed to evaluate the currently recommended disinfection procedure for covered endocavity ultrasound probes, which consists of “Low Level Disinfection” (LLD) with “quaternary ammonium compounds” containing wipes. Methods From May to October 2011 swabs were taken from endovaginal ultrasound probes at the Gynecology Department of the Lyon University Hospital. During the first phase (May–June 2011) samples were taken after the ultrasound examination and after the LLD procedure. In a second phase (July–October 2011) swab samples were collected just before the probe was used. All samples were tested for the presence of human DNA (as a marker for a possible transmission of infectious pathogens from the genital tract) and HPV DNA with the Genomica DNA microarray (35 different HPV genotypes). Results We collected 217 samples before and 200 samples after the ultrasound examination. The PCR was inhibited in two cases. Human DNA was detected in 36 (18%) post-examination samples and 61 (28%) pre-examination samples. After the ultrasound LLD procedure, 6 (3.0%) samples contained HR-HPV types (16, 31, 2×53 and 58). Similarly, HPV was detected in 6 pre-examination samples (2.7%). Amongst these 4 (1.9%) contained HR-HPV (types 53 and 70). Conclusion Our study reveals that a considerable number of ultrasound probes are contaminated with human and HR-HPV DNA, despite LLD disinfection and probe cover. In all hospitals, where LLD is performed, the endovaginal ultrasound procedure must therefore be considered a source for nosocomial HR-HPV infections. We recommend the stringent use of high-level disinfectants, such as glutaraldehyde or hydrogen peroxide solutions. PMID:23110191

Casalegno, Jean-sebastien; Le Bail Carval, Karine; Eibach, Daniel; Valdeyron, Marie-Laure; Lamblin, Gery; Jacquemoud, Hervé; Mellier, Georges; Lina, Bruno; Gaucherand, Pascal; Mathevet, Patrice; Mekki, Yahia

2012-01-01

120

Genital injury  

MedlinePLUS

... It is important to rule out sexual abuse, rape, and assault. The health care provider should ask the girl how the object was placed there. In young boys, common causes of genital injury include: Having the toilet seat ...

121

Genital herpes  

MedlinePLUS

... disease, even if you do not have symptoms. Condoms are the best way to protect against catching genital herpes during sexual activity: Using a condom correctly and consistently helps prevent spread of the ...

122

Genital Herpes  

MedlinePLUS

Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by a herpes simplex virus (HSV). It can cause sores on ... also infect their babies during childbirth. Symptoms of herpes are called outbreaks. You usually get sores near ...

123

Genital Herpes  

MedlinePLUS

... surefire way to prevent genital herpes is abstinence . Teens who do have sex must properly use a latex condom every time they have any form of sexual intercourse (vaginal, oral, or anal sex). Girls receiving oral sex should have their ...

124

Genital infection with herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in women from natal, Brazil.  

PubMed

Objective. To evaluate the prevalence of HSV-1 and HSV-2 in pregnant and nonpregnant women, testing the correlation between DNA of the viruses with colposcopic and/or cytological changes, and evaluate association with sociodemographic characteristics and sexual activity. Methods. Included in this study were 106 pregnant and 130 nonpregnant women treated at primary health care units of Natal, Brazil, in the period 2010-2011. The patients were examined by colposcopy, and two cervical specimens were collected: one for cytology examination and another for analysis by PCR for detection of HSV-1 and HSV-2. Results. HSV-1 alone was detected in 16.0% of pregnant and 30.0% of nonpregnant women. For HSV-2, these rates were 12.3% and 15.5%, respectively. HSV-2 had a higher correlation with cytology and/or colposcopy changes than HSV-1 did. Genital HSV-1 infection was not associated with any of the variables tested, whereas HSV-2 infection was associated with ethnicity, marital status, and number of sexual partners. Conclusions. The prevalence of HSV-1 was higher than that observed for HSV-2 in both pregnant and nonpregnant women. The genital infection by HSV-2 was higher in women with changed colposcopy and/or cytology, and it was associated with ethnicity, marital status, and number of sexual partners. PMID:25006480

Miranda, Cleine Aglacy Nunes; Lima, Erika Galvão; de Lima, Diego Breno Soares; Cobucci, Ricardo Ney Oliveira; Cornetta, Maria da Conceição de Mesquita; Fernandes, Thales Allyrio Araújo de Medeiros; de Azevedo, Paulo Roberto Medeiros; de Azevedo, Jenner Chrystian Veríssimo; de Araújo, Josélio Maria Galvão; Fernandes, José Veríssimo

2014-01-01

125

Genital Infection with Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 in Women from Natal, Brazil  

PubMed Central

Objective. To evaluate the prevalence of HSV-1 and HSV-2 in pregnant and nonpregnant women, testing the correlation between DNA of the viruses with colposcopic and/or cytological changes, and evaluate association with sociodemographic characteristics and sexual activity. Methods. Included in this study were 106 pregnant and 130 nonpregnant women treated at primary health care units of Natal, Brazil, in the period 2010-2011. The patients were examined by colposcopy, and two cervical specimens were collected: one for cytology examination and another for analysis by PCR for detection of HSV-1 and HSV-2. Results. HSV-1 alone was detected in 16.0% of pregnant and 30.0% of nonpregnant women. For HSV-2, these rates were 12.3% and 15.5%, respectively. HSV-2 had a higher correlation with cytology and/or colposcopy changes than HSV-1 did. Genital HSV-1 infection was not associated with any of the variables tested, whereas HSV-2 infection was associated with ethnicity, marital status, and number of sexual partners. Conclusions. The prevalence of HSV-1 was higher than that observed for HSV-2 in both pregnant and nonpregnant women. The genital infection by HSV-2 was higher in women with changed colposcopy and/or cytology, and it was associated with ethnicity, marital status, and number of sexual partners. PMID:25006480

Miranda, Cleine Aglacy Nunes; Lima, Érika Galvão; de Lima, Diego Breno Soares; Cobucci, Ricardo Ney Oliveira; Cornetta, Maria da Conceição de Mesquita; Fernandes, Thales Allyrio Araújo de Medeiros; de Azevedo, Paulo Roberto Medeiros; de Azevedo, Jenner Chrystian Veríssimo; de Araújo, Josélio Maria Galvão; Fernandes, José Veríssimo

2014-01-01

126

HPV Reflex Testing in Menopausal Women  

PubMed Central

Objective. To determine the frequency of high risk (HR) HPV and intraepithelial neoplasia following ASCUS pap cytology screens in menopausal women. Study Design. Following IRB approval, we performed a retrospective review of all cases of ASCUS pap tests, HPV results, and relevant clinical-pathologic data in women age 50 or over from November 2005 to January 2007 within a tertiary care center. Statistical analyses were performed in EXCEL. Results. 344 patients were analyzed for a total of 367 screening pap tests. 25.29% (87/344) patients were HR HPV positive, with greater percentages of HR HPV cases occurring in women age 65–74. Within HR HPV cases, 79.3% (69/87) underwent colposcopy. 27.5% (19/69) biopsy proven lesions were discovered, including cervical, vulvar or vaginal (intraepithelial neoplasia). Within the negative HR HPV group 3.1% (8/257) patients were diagnosed with dysplasia or carcinoma. Within both HR HPV positive and negative groups, patients with no prior history of lower genital tract lesions or cancer were identified. Conclusion. Reflex HPV testing plays an important role in ASCUS triage in menopausal women. Pap test screening and HPV testing should not be limited to women of reproductive age as they may aid in the diagnosis of intraepithelial neoplasia in women of older age. PMID:21559191

Ko, Emily M.; Tambouret, Rosemary; Wilbur, David; Goodman, Annekathryn

2011-01-01

127

Genital Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection in Women  

MedlinePLUS

... gone. Using condoms during sexual intercourse and dental dams during oral sex may also help to reduce the spread of infection. However, condoms or dams may not always completely prevent the spread of ...

128

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Genital Warts  

MedlinePLUS

... Last Reviewed October 21, 2010 Stay Connected: Home | Contact Us | Help | Site Map | Accessibility | Privacy Policy | Disclaimer | Website Links & Policies | FOIA | Employee Emergency Information | Temas de Salud

129

Premalignant lesions of the lower female genital tract: cervix, vagina and vulva.  

PubMed

Premalignant lesions of the lower female genital tract encompassing the cervix, vagina and vulva are variably common and many, but by no means all, are related to infection by human papillomavirus (HPV). In this review, pathological aspects of the various premalignant lesions are discussed, mainly concentrating on new developments. The value of ancillary studies, mainly immunohistochemical, is discussed at the appropriate points. In the cervix, the terminology and morphological features of premalignant glandular lesions is covered, as is the distinction between adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and early invasive adenocarcinoma, which may be very problematic. A spectrum of benign, premalignant and malignant cervical glandular lesions exhibiting gastric differentiation is emerging with lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia (LEGH), including so-called atypical LEGH, representing a possible precursor of non HPV-related cervical adenocarcinomas exhibiting gastric differentiation; these include the cytologically bland adenoma malignum and the morphologically malignant gastric type adenocarcinoma. Stratified mucin producing intraepithelial lesion (SMILE) is a premalignant cervical lesion with morphological overlap between cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and AIS and which is variably regarded as a form of reserve cell dysplasia or stratified AIS. It is now firmly established that there are two distinct types of vulval intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) with a different pathogenesis, molecular events, morphological features and risk of progression to squamous carcinoma. These comprise a more common HPV-related usual type VIN (also referred to as classic, undifferentiated, basaloid, warty, Bowenoid type) and a more uncommon differentiated (simplex) type which is non-HPV related and which is sometimes associated with lichen sclerosus. The former has a relatively low risk of progression to HPV-related vulval squamous carcinoma and the latter a high risk of progression to non-HPV related vulval squamous carcinoma. Various aspects of vulval Paget's disease are also discussed. PMID:23442737

McCluggage, W Glenn

2013-04-01

130

The potential role of HPV vaccination in the prevention of infectious complications of pregnancy.  

PubMed

There is now incontrovertible evidence that HPV is the cause of almost all cases of genital warts, cervical dysplasia and cervical cancer. Moreover the current review of the recent literature on HPV in relation to pregnancy found strong indications that HPV plays an important role in adverse outcomes of pregnancy. HPV may contribute to infertility and may increase the risk of miscarriage. Recent studies indicate a significant rate of vertical transmission of HPV between mother and child but whether the mode of delivery makes a difference to the risk of transmission remains unknown. HPV infection appears to be correlated with both spontaneous preterm birth and preterm prelabor rupture of the membranes. PMID:25084626

Bonde, Ulla; Joergensen, Jan Stener; Mogensen, Ole; Lamont, Ronald F

2014-11-01

131

HPV vaccine shown to also protect against oral HPV infection  

Cancer.gov

Women who received a vaccine targeting two types of the human papilloma virus (HPV) that cause 70 percent of cervical cancers had the added benefit of protection against oral HPV infection, which can lead to cancer of the tonsils and throat (oropharyngeal cancer). The results were published July 17, 2013, in PLOS ONE.

132

Genital injuries in adults.  

PubMed

The examination of the rape victim should focus on the therapeutic, forensic and psychological needs of the individual patient. One aspect will be an examination for ano-genital injuries. From a medical perspective, they tend to be minor and require little in the way of treatment. They must be considered when assessing the risk of blood-borne viruses and the need for prophylaxis. From a forensic perspective, an understanding of genital injury rates, type of injury, site and healing may assist the clinician to interpret the findings in the context of the allegations that have been made. There are many myths and misunderstandings about ano-genital injuries and rape. The clinician has a duty to dispel these. PMID:23219384

White, Catherine

2013-02-01

133

A multiplex real-time PCR-platform integrated into automated extraction method for the rapid detection and measurement of oncogenic HPV type-specific viral DNA load from cervical samples.  

PubMed

The persistent infection with most frequent high-risk (HR)-HPV types (HPV-16, -18, -31, -33, -45, -52, and -58) is considered to be the true precursor of neoplastic progression. HR-HPV detection and genotyping is the most effective and accurate approach in screening of the early cervical lesions and cervical cancer, although also the HR-HPV DNA load is considered an ancillary marker for persistent HPV infection. Here, it is described an in-house multiplex quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR)-based typing system for the rapid detection and quantitation of the most common HR-HPV genotypes from cervical cytology screening tests. First, a separate qPCR assay to quantify a single-copy gene is recommended prior to screening (prescreening assay) to verify the adequate cellularity of the sample and the quality of DNA extracted and to normalize the HPV copy number per genomic DNA equivalent in the sample. Subsequently, to minimize the number of reactions, two multiplex qPCR assays (first line screening) are performed to detect and quantify HPV-16, -18, -31, -33, -45, -52, and -58 (HPV-18 and -45 are measured together by single-fluorophore). In addition, a multiplex qPCR assay specific for HPV-18 and HPV-45 is also available to type precisely the samples found to be positive for one of the two strains. Finally, two nucleic acid extraction methods are proposed by using a 96-well plate format: one manual method (supported by centrifuge or by vacuum) and one automated method integrated into a robotic liquid handler workstation to minimize material and hands-on time. In conclusion, this system provides a reliable high-throughput method for the rapid detection and quantitation of HR-HPV DNA load in cervical samples. PMID:24740223

Broccolo, Francesco

2014-01-01

134

E7 Oncoprotein of Novel Human Papillomavirus Type 108 Lacking the E6 Gene Induces Dysplasia in Organotypic Keratinocyte Cultures ?  

PubMed Central

The genome organization of the novel human papillomavirus type 108 (HPV108), isolated from a low-grade cervical lesion, deviates from those of other HPVs in lacking an E6 gene. The three related HPV types HPV103, HPV108, and HPV101 were isolated from cervicovaginal cells taken from normal genital mucosa (HPV103) and low-grade (HPV108) and high-grade cervical (HPV101) intraepithelial neoplasia (Z. Chen, M. Schiffman, R. Herrero, R. DeSalle, and R. D. Burk, Virology 360:447-453, 2007, and this report). Their unusual genome organization, against the background of considerable phylogenetic distance from the other HPV types usually associated with lesions of the genital tract, prompted us to investigate whether HPV108 E7 per se is sufficient to induce the above-mentioned clinical lesions. Expression of HPV108 E7 in organotypic keratinocyte cultures increases proliferation and apoptosis, focal nuclear polymorphism, and polychromasia. This is associated with irregular intra- and extracellular lipid accumulation and loss of the epithelial barrier. These alterations are linked to HPV108 E7 binding to pRb and inducing its decrease, an increase in PCNA expression, and BrdU incorporation, as well as increased p53 and p21CIP1 protein levels. A delay in keratin K10 expression, increased expression of keratins K14 and K16, and loss of the corneal proteins involucrin and loricrin have also been noted. These modifications are suggestive of infection by a high-risk papillomavirus. PMID:19153227

Nobre, Rui Jorge; Herráez-Hernández, Elsa; Fei, Jian-Wei; Langbein, Lutz; Kaden, Sylvia; Gröne, Hermann-Josef; de Villiers, Ethel-Michele

2009-01-01

135

HPV-Associated Cancers Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... Prevelence and Types in Cancer Lesions Related Links Statistics for Other Types of Cancer Breast Cervical Colorectal ( ... Vaginal and Vulvar Cancer Home HPV-Associated Cancers Statistics Based on data from 2006–2010, about 33, ...

136

HPV and Men  

MedlinePLUS

... HPV. Because HPV is so common and usually invisible, the only sure way to prevent it is ... Treatment Vaccine Monitoring Archive HPV & Men Fact Sheet Web Cast: HPV and Cervical Cancer - 2005 STDs Home ...

137

Human Papillomavirus (HPV)  

MedlinePLUS

... Preventable Diseases > Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Health Issues Listen Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Article Body According to the Centers ... Control and Prevention, there is an epidemic of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the United States. HPV is ...

138

Human Pappilomavirus (HPV) induced cancers and prevention by immunization.  

PubMed

Incidences of different types of cancer are increasing in Pakistan, among which cancer of Cervix and Respiratory pappilomatosis are of great concern because of their association with human Pappilomavirus (HPV). Cervical cancers typically distress women of middle age or older; however it may affect women in any age after the puberty. Two serotypes of HPV (16 & 18) accounts 70% of cervical cancer cases, while HPV (6 & 11) are considered low-risk viruses associated with genital warts (Condyloma acuminata) and Respiratory pappilomatosis in both gender. Generally, there is transient role of HPV in human body and are removed by immune system in or around 1 year. Data from different Pakistani hospitals provides sound evidence for increasing trends of cervical cancer, which is, being developing country imperative for us. As the cost of cancer management is increasing day by day with poor survival rate and its burden is borne by patient, their family or society in-large, so if screening or prevention is possible then there would be need to identify target population for screening and vaccination. By quality adjusted life year (QALY) measurement, the data from different sources indicates that adolescent age is the appropriate target population and is cost effective for vaccination. Two vaccines manufactured by recombinant DNA technology are licensed in some parts of the world for prevention of HPV related cancers, however both have certain advantage over another, as one of the vaccines contains viral like proteins of two HPV serotypes 16 & 18 and provide additional cross protection against HPV type 13 and 45 with 100% seroprotection, while the other vaccine, being quadrivalent offers protection against four serotypes 6, 11, 16 and 18. Both vaccines tolerability and safety profiles are similar and acceptable, however bivalent vaccine appears to provide long-lasting immunity by the development of memory B-cells hypothetically due to difference of adsorbing agent used by manufacturer, on the other hand, quadrivalent vaccine offers protection against cervical cancer but also offers additional protection against Condyloma acuminata and respiratory Pappilomatosis. As these vaccines are new in the market and initial trials indicate availability of antibodies for up to around 5 years i.e. why it is controversial at the moment that whether booster dose is recommended or not, however it is assumed that, there is no harm to have booster dose at 5th year of vaccination. PMID:23009992

Khaliq, Sheikh Abdul; Shyum Naqvi, Syed Baqir; Fatima, Anab

2012-10-01

139

Exploring the Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs, and Communication Preferences of the General Public regarding HPV: Findings from CDC Focus Group Research and Implications for Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted virus in the United States, causing genital warts, cervical cell abnormalities, and cervical cancer in women. To inform HPV education efforts, 35 focus groups were conducted with members of the general public, stratified by gender, race/ethnicity, and urban/rural…

Friedman, Allison L.; Shepeard, Hilda

2007-01-01

140

Genital warts.  

PubMed

Anogenital warts (AGWs) are a very common disease. They are caused mostly by low-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) 6 and 11, particularly the former. Clinical presentation is mostly of growths in the areas of friction of the anogenital region. The treatment is classified as patient/home applied or administered by a professional. In cases with atypical presentations or resistance to recommended therapies, great care should be taken to establish a differential diagnosis taking into account normal anatomical variations, infectious etiologies, precancers and cancers, as well as benign dermatological growths. The prevention of AGWs can be achieved by the use of the quadrivalent prophylactic HPV vaccine administered prior to sexual debut, as well as the meticulous use of condoms. Where coverage of the quadrivalent vaccine has been high, marked reductions in AGWs are being seen in young women of vaccine-eligible age, as well as in young males (as herd immunity effect). PMID:25155525

Steben, Marc; Garland, Suzanne M

2014-10-01

141

HPV infection, anal intra-epithelial neoplasia (AIN) and anal cancer: current issues  

E-print Network

Abstract Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is well known as the major etiological agent for ano-genital cancer. In contrast to cervical cancer, anal cancer is uncommon, but is increasing steadily in the community over the last few decades...

Stanley, Margaret A; Winder, David M; Sterling, Jane C; Goon, Peter K C

2012-09-08

142

Effect of prenatal vitamin supplementation on lower-genital levels of HIV type 1 and interleukin type 1 beta at 36 weeks of gestation.  

PubMed

Micronutrient status has been associated with shedding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in the lower-genital tract in observational studies. We examined the effect of vitamin supplements on genital HIV-1 shedding and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta ), a cytokine marker of vaginal inflammation and promotion of HIV-1 infection. Consenting HIV-1-infected pregnant women were randomized to receive daily supplementation with vitamin A and/or multivitamins B-complex, C, and E with use of a factorial design. Cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) specimens were obtained shortly before delivery. Significantly more women who received vitamin A had detectable levels of HIV-1 in CVL (74.8%), compared with those who did not receive vitamin A (65.1%) (P=.04, by multivariate analysis). Multivitamin B-complex, C, and E had no effect on the risk of viral shedding. Our results raise concern about the use of vitamin A supplements by HIV-1-infected women. Use of prenatal multivitamin supplements (including vitamins B-complex, C, and E) should be continued despite the lack of effect on HIV-1 transmission because of previously reported positive effects on maternal health and pregnancy outcomes. PMID:14986257

Fawzi, Wafaie; Msamanga, Gernard; Antelman, Gretchen; Xu, Chong; Hertzmark, Ellen; Spiegelman, Donna; Hunter, David; Anderson, Deborah

2004-03-01

143

Chapter 17: Genital Human Papillomavirus Infections—Current and Prospective Therapies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many therapies are available for the treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated disease, particularly exter- nal genital warts. However, at present, these therapies aim to remove the lesion rather than specifically target HPV infec- tion. When disease and infection are local, as in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), excisional therapies remov- ing lesion and transformation-susceptible cells are highly ef- fective. However, when

Margaret Stanley

144

“High Risk” HPV Types Are Frequently Detected in Potentially Malignant and Malignant Oral Lesions, But Not in Normal Oral Mucosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on the involvement of the human papillomavirus (HPV) in initiation and progression of oral neoplasia have generated conflicting results. The observed discrepancy is attributable mainly to the varying sensitivity of the applied methodologies and to epidemiologic factors of the examined patient groups. To evaluate the role of HPV in oral carcinogenesis, we analyzed 53 potentially neoplastic and neoplastic oral

Martha Bouda; Vassilis G. Gorgoulis; Nikos G. Kastrinakis; Athina Giannoudis; Efthymia Tsoli; Despina Danassi-Afentaki; Periklis Foukas; Aspasia Kyroudi; George Laskaris; C. Simon Herrington; Christos Kittas; Gorgoulis Vassilis

2000-01-01

145

ARTICLES Clonal History of Papillomavirus-Induced Dysplasia in the Female Lower Genital Tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Dysplastic lesions of the vagina or the vulva often occur in women who have a previous history of cervical dysplasia. Most lesions in the female lower genital tract are induced by infections with high-risk oncogenic human papil- lomaviruses (HR-HPVs), including HPV16 and HPV18. HR-HPV genomes frequently integrate into host cell chromo- somes at random sites. We analyzed viral integration

Svetlana Vinokurova; Nicolas Wentzensen; Jens Einenkel; Ruediger Klaes; Corina Ziegert; Peter Melsheimer; Heike Sartor; Lars-Christian Horn; Michael Höckel; Magnus von Knebel Doeberitz

146

Reducing HPV-associated Cancer Globally  

PubMed Central

Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers are a major worldwide public health concern. Virtually all cervical cancer is HPV-related, with 70% caused by HPV16 and -18. Variable proportions of certain non-cervical cancers (e.g., anal, vulvar, oropharyngeal) are HPV-related; over 90% of the HPV-related ones are related to HPV16, -18. The HPV-related cancers are dominated by cervical cancer in the developing world, where cervical cancer screening is limited. In this setting, widespread uptake of current HPV vaccines by adolescent girls could reduce this cancer's incidence and mortality by approximately two-thirds, with cost-effective screening programs of adult women having the potential to reduce mortality more rapidly. In the industrialized world, non-cervical HPV-related cancers, especially oropharyngeal, are rapidly increasing, and now rival the incidence of cervical cancer, whose rates continue to decline thanks to established cervical screening programs. Therefore, reducing HPV-associated non-cervical cancers with HPV vaccination has greater importance in the industrialized world, especially since there are no approved screening programs for these cancers. Preventing the substantial number of non-cervical HPV cancers in men will require either “herd” immunity through high vaccination rates in females or male vaccination. Current HPV vaccination can complement cervical screening in protecting against cervical cancer and may permit the safe reduction of screening intensity in industrialized countries. Second-generation HPV vaccines (active against a broader array of cervical cancer–related HPV types) could prevent an even higher proportion of cervical precancer and cancer and might permit further reductions in screening intensity. PMID:22219162

Lowy, Douglas R.; Schiller, John T.

2012-01-01

147

The comparison of the effect of LTR72 and MF59 adjuvants on mouse humoral response to intranasal immunisation with human papillomavirus type 6b (HPV-6b) virus-like particles.  

PubMed

Infections with genital human papillomaviruses (HPV) are likely to be neutralised more efficiently if a mucosal immune response can be elicited at the viral entry site. Local IgA antibodies are highly induced when antigens are co-administered with mucosal adjuvants, such as cholera toxin (CT) and Escherichia coli heat labile enterotoxin (LT) which, however, are not expected to have wide application because of their pronounced toxicity. We have immunised mice intranasally with HPV-6b virus-like particles (VLPs) and a genetically modified LT-derived molecule with only residual toxicity, LTR72, and compared the humoral responses with those obtained following systemic immunisation with VLPs and the MF59 adjuvant. Titration of anti-HPV antibodies in sera and vaginal secretions established that LTR72 was able to elicit higher serum and mucosal IgA titers, in addition to IgG serum levels, comparable to those obtained by parenteral immunisation. These results confirm the potential of toxin-derived adjuvants and extend their use in combination with HPV antigens. PMID:11137233

Greer, C E; Petracca, R; Buonamassa, D T; Di Tommaso, A; Gervase, B; Reeve, R L; Ugozzoli, M; Van Nest, G; De Magistris, M T; Bensi, G

2000-12-01

148

Does intention to recommend HPV vaccines impact HPV vaccination rates?  

PubMed

Despite recommendations for routine vaccination, HPV vaccination rates among adolescent females have remained low. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to determine whether clinician intention to recommend HPV vaccines predicts HPV vaccine series initiation among previously unvaccinated 11 to 18 year-old girls (N=18,083) who were seen by a pediatric clinician (N=105) from a large primary care network within 3 years of vaccine introduction. We used multivariable logistic regression with generalized estimating equations, Cox Regression and standardized survival curves to measure the association between clinician intention and time to and rate of first HPV vaccine receipt among eligible females. All models adjusted for patient age, race/ethnicity, payor category, visit type, and practice location. Eighty-5 percent of eligible 11 to 12 year-old and 95% of 13 to 18 year-old girls were seen by a provider reporting high intention to recommend HPV vaccines. However, only 30% of the cohort initiated the HPV vaccine series and the mean number of days from first eligible visit to series initiation was 190 (95% C.I. 184.2, 195.4). After adjusting for covariates, high clinician intention was modestly associated with girls' likelihood of HPV vaccine series initiation (OR 1.36; 95 % C.I. 1.07, 1.71) and time to first HPV vaccination (HR 1.22; 95% 1.06, 1.40). Despite high intention to vaccinate among this cohort of pediatric clinicians, overall vaccination rates for adolescent girls remained low. These findings support ongoing efforts to develop effective strategies to translate clinician intention into timely HPV vaccine receipt. PMID:25483470

Feemster, Kristen A; Middleton, Maria; Fiks, Alexander G; Winters, Sarah; Kinsman, Sara B; Kahn, Jessica A

2014-01-01

149

HPV Awareness and Willingness to HPV Vaccination among High-Risk Men attending an STI Clinic in Puerto Rico  

PubMed Central

Objective An HPV vaccine has been approved for men aged 9 to 26 in the US for the prevention of genital warts and anal cancer. The purpose of this study is to describe 1) HPV vaccine awareness, 2) willingness to get the HPV vaccine and 3) perceived susceptibility to HPV-related cancers and genital warts among men 18–26 years old who attend an STI clinic in San Juan, Puerto Rico (PR). Methods A cross-sectional pilot study consisting of 206 HIV+/HIV? men. For purpose of this analysis, only those participants aged ?26 years old were included in this analysis (n=46). Results None of the study participants had been vaccinated against HPV. Fewer than a third knew about the HPV vaccine (28.3%). However, more than half (76.9%) were willing to be vaccinated against HPV. Information sources about the HPV vaccine included their female sexual partners (13.0%), a female sexual partner who received the vaccine (8.7%) and a male sexual partner (2.2%). Most participants reported that the main reason that would increase their willingness to get vaccinated was if a physician recommend the vaccine (95.7%). Perceived susceptibility was low, particularly for anal and oral cancer. Conclusion This pilot study shows poor awareness of the HPV vaccine, although willingness to getting the HPV vaccine was high among those who knew about the vaccine. Future studies should try to evaluate this paradox and study in depth willingness and barriers to vaccination among male sub-groups, such as men who have sex with men (MSM). These studies should also evaluate predictors of uptake of the HPV vaccine among men in this and other STI clinics in PR, in order to develop interventions to increase male vaccination. PMID:23844472

Colón-López, Vivian; Del Toro-Mejías, Lizbeth M.; Ortiz, Ana P.; Tortolero-Luna, Guillermo; Palefsky, Joel M.

2013-01-01

150

Pre-vaccination prevalence of infections with 25 non-high-risk human papillomavirus types among 1,000 Slovenian women in cervical cancer screening.  

PubMed

Cervical infections with non-high-risk human papillomavirus (non-HR-HPV) types have been associated with genital warts and a fraction of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. The pre-vaccination prevalence of cervical infections with 25 non-HR-HPV types has been estimated, regardless of and without the coexistence of infection with HR-HPV types among Slovenian women 20-64 years old in cervical cancer screening, overall and according to age and cytology result. One thousand cervical specimens selected randomly from 4,455 specimens collected in 2010 in the Slovenian HPV prevalence survey were tested with Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test. Prevalence of cervical infections with any of the 25 non-HR-HPV types was 10.0% (95% CI: 8.1-11.9%) and with exclusively non-HR-HPV types 4.5% (95% CI: 3.2-5.8%). Prevalence of infections with any non-HR-HPV types among women with normal cytology was 8.8%, with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance 30.4%, with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions 60.0%, and with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions 7.7%. Non-HR-HPV types without coexisting HR-HPV types were found in 4.0% of women with normal cytology, 26.1% with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, 6.7% with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, and none with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. Non-HR-HPV type cervical infections without coexisting HR-HPV infections were common among Slovenian women in cervical cancer screening with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, while rare in those with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or worse. J. Med. Virol. 86: 1772-1779, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24978445

U?akar, Veronika; Poljak, Mario; Oštrbenk, Anja; Klavs, Irena

2014-10-01

151

Cervical HPV Infection in Female Sex Workers: A Global Perspective  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Approximately 291 million women worldwide are HPV DNA carriers. Studies have indicated that having multiple sexual partners may lead to higher HPV transmission. Thus female sex workers (FSWs) may be at greater risk of infection compared to the general population. Herein we review publications with data on FSW cervical HPV test results. We also examine variations of HPV prevalence and risk behaviors by region. Knowledge of prevalent HPV types in FSWs may lead to improved prevention measures and assist in understanding vaccination in high-risk groups. Methods: We conducted a review of the literature by searching PUBMED using the terms “prostitution” or “female sex workers”, “human papillomavirus” or “HPV”, and “prevalence” or “PCR” to find articles. We excluded studies without HPV testing or HPV type specific results, or unconventional HPV testing. Results: A total of 35 peer-reviewed publications were included in our review. High risk HPV types 16 and 18 ranged from 1.1-38.9‰ in prevalence. In addition to high-risk HPV types, newer studies reported non-carcinogenic HPV types also of high prevalence. The most prevalent HPV types reported among FSWs included HPV 6 (11.5%), 16 (38.9%), 18 (23.1%), 31 (28.4%), 52 (32.7%), and 58 (26.0%). Conclusions: Female sex workers have an overall high prevalence of HPV infection of high-risk types as evident through various testing methods. FSWs are thought to be at increased risk of cervical cancer because of high HPV exposure. This highlights the need for HPV and cervical prevention campaigns tailored to FSWs. PMID:24511334

Soohoo, Melissa; Blas, Magaly; Byraiah, Gita; Carcamo, Cesar; Brown, Brandon

2013-01-01

152

HPV vaccination's second act: promotion, competition, and compulsion.  

PubMed

Developments regarding human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines will transform HPV vaccination in the United States while simultaneously raising several new policy and ethical concerns. Policymakers, vaccine manufacturers, and the public health community must now respond to the presence of competing vaccines that are similar but distinct, particularly with respect to genital wart prevention and the benefits of vaccinating males. This work arises in the shadow of the contentious introduction of the HPV vaccine Gardasil (Merck & Co, Inc, Whitehouse Station, NJ) in 2006, particularly the opposition to efforts in many states to require the vaccine for school attendance. I review the current status of HPV vaccine policy in the United States and examine issues of public health ethics and policy central to ongoing and future HPV vaccination programs. PMID:20724671

Schwartz, Jason L

2010-10-01

153

HPV Vaccination's Second Act: Promotion, Competition, and Compulsion  

PubMed Central

Developments regarding human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines will transform HPV vaccination in the United States while simultaneously raising several new policy and ethical concerns. Policymakers, vaccine manufacturers, and the public health community must now respond to the presence of competing vaccines that are similar but distinct, particularly with respect to genital wart prevention and the benefits of vaccinating males. This work arises in the shadow of the contentious introduction of the HPV vaccine Gardasil (Merck & Co, Inc, Whitehouse Station, NJ) in 2006, particularly the opposition to efforts in many states to require the vaccine for school attendance. I review the current status of HPV vaccine policy in the United States and examine issues of public health ethics and policy central to ongoing and future HPV vaccination programs. PMID:20724671

2010-01-01

154

Increasing HPV vaccination series completion rates via text message reminders.  

PubMed

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most frequently diagnosed sexually transmitted infection in the United States. It is associated with the development of cervical, anal-genital, and oral-pharyngeal cancers. The rate of HPV infection among adolescents and young adults in the United States remains high, and completion rates of an HPV vaccine series remain low. At an urban pediatric clinic, adolescent and young adult participants aged 11 to 22 years (n = 37) received text message reminders for their second and third dose of HPV vaccine over an 8-month study period. Of the participants receiving text message reminders, 14% completed the vaccine series at the optimal time, whereas 0% of an interested group (n = 43) and only 3% of a standard care group (n = 232) completed the vaccine series at the optimal time. Findings support the use of text message reminders to improve HPV vaccine series completion rates in a pediatric practice. PMID:24200295

Matheson, Elaine C; Derouin, Anne; Gagliano, Martha; Thompson, Julie A; Blood-Siegfried, Jane

2014-01-01

155

HPV (Human Papillomavirus)  

MedlinePLUS

... papillomavirus test for primary cervical cancer screening HPV (human papillomavirus) Print and Share (PDF 1105 KB ) En Español HPV (human papillomavirus) is a sexually transmitted virus. It is ...

156

Oxidative Stress and HPV Carcinogenesis  

PubMed Central

Extensive experimental work has conclusively demonstrated that infection with certain types of human papillomaviruses, the so-called high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV), represent a most powerful human carcinogen. However, neoplastic growth is a rare and inappropriate outcome in the natural history of HPV, and a number of other events have to concur in order to induce the viral infection into the (very rare) neoplastic transformation. From this perspective, a number of putative viral, host, and environmental co-factors have been proposed as potential candidates. Among them oxidative stress (OS) is an interesting candidate, yet comparatively underexplored. OS is a constant threat to aerobic organisms being generated during mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, as well as during inflammation, infections, ionizing irradiation, UV exposure, mechanical and chemical stresses. Epithelial tissues, the elective target for HPV infection, are heavily exposed to all named sources of OS. Two different types of cooperative mechanisms are presumed to occur between OS and HPV: I) The OS genotoxic activity and the HPV-induced genomic instability concur independently to the generation of the molecular damage necessary for the emergence of neoplastic clones. This first mode is merely a particular form of co-carcinogenesis; and II) OS specifically interacts with one or more molecular stages of neoplastic initiation and/or progression induced by the HPV infection. This manuscript was designed to summarize available data on this latter hypothesis. Experimental data and indirect evidences on promoting the activity of OS in viral infection and viral integration will be reviewed. The anti-apoptotic and pro-angiogenetic role of NO (nitric oxide) and iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) will be discussed together with the OS/HPV cooperation in inducing cancer metabolism adaptation. Unexplored/underexplored aspects of the OS interplay with the HPV-driven carcinogenesis will be highlighted. The aim of this paper is to stimulate new areas of study and innovative approaches. PMID:23403708

De Marco, Federico

2013-01-01

157

Nuclear proto-oncogene products transactivate the human papillomavirus type 16 promoter.  

PubMed Central

Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 and 18 viral genomes are frequently detected in cervical and penile cancer biopsies. Although this strongly suggests a prominent role for HPV infection in the development of genital cancer, other genetic or environmental factors are also involved. Genital cancer is postulated to result from loss of cellular control functions, which leads to an unregulated expression of HPV oncogenic proteins. In our study, we determined the trans-activating properties of nuclear proto-oncogene proteins c-Fos, c-Jun and c-Myc on P97 enhancer/promoter activity of HPV16. Using a CAT-reporter construct containing the HPV16 enhancer/promoter element, we investigated the trans-activating effects of c-Fos, c-Jun, c-Myc, and E2 in cervical HT-3 cells. c-Fos and c-Jun overexpression resulted in a 3.3- and 3.1-fold up-regulation of CAT activity. Only 2-fold induction was determined by co-transfection with c-myc and the viral transcription factor E2. Based on these findings, we investigated the expression of HPV DNA (16 and 18) as well as nuclear proto-oncogenes (c-fos, c-jun and c-myc) in nine cervical cancers by in situ hybridisation. In six out of nine carcinomas, HPV16 and/or HPV18 DNA was detectable. All tumours showed an intense and homogeneous expression of c-fos and c-jun mRNA, while the signal for c-myc was detectable only in four specimens. These data suggest that deregulation of nuclear proto-oncogene expression may contribute to an overexpression of HPV-derived oncogenic proteins (E6 and E7), which is generally hypothesised to be an important step in the malignant transformation of HPV-associated tumours. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7734293

Nürnberg, W.; Artuc, M.; Vorbrueggen, G.; Kalkbrenner, F.; Moelling, K.; Czarnetzki, B. M.; Schadendorf, D.

1995-01-01

158

Second-generation prophylactic HPV vaccines: successes and challenges.  

PubMed

The role of HPV as the causative factor in cervical cancer has led to the development of the HPV vaccines Gardasil and Cervarix. These vaccines effectively protect against two HPV types associated with 70% of cervical cancer cases. Despite this success, researchers continue to develop second-generation HPV vaccines to protect against more HPV types and allow increased uptake in developing countries. While a reformulated vaccine based on the current technology is currently in clinical trials, another strategy consists of targeting highly conserved epitopes in the minor capsid protein of HPV, L2. Vaccines targeting L2 induce broadly neutralizing antibodies, capable of blocking infection by a wide range of HPV types. Several vaccine designs have been developed to optimize the display of L2 epitopes to the immune system and to reduce the cost of manufacture and distribution. L2-based vaccines show considerable promise as a potential next-generation HPV vaccine. PMID:24350614

Tyler, Mitchell; Tumban, Ebenezer; Chackerian, Bryce

2014-02-01

159

Human Papillomavirus Type 16 E6/E7-Specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes for Adoptive Immunotherapy of HPV-Associated Malignancies  

PubMed Central

Vaccines prevent HPV-associated cancer but, although these tumors express foreign, viral antigens (E6 and E7 proteins), they have little benefit in established malignancies, likely due to negative environmental cues that block tumor recognition and induce T cell anergy in vivo. We postulated that we could identify mechanisms by which ex vivo stimulation of T cells could reactivate and expand tumor-directed T-cell lines from HPV-positive cancer patients for subsequent adoptive immunotherapy. A total of 68 patients with HPV-associated cancers were studied. Peripheral blood T cells were stimulated with monocyte-derived dendritic cells loaded with pepmixes (peptide libraries of 15-mers overlapping by 11 amino-acids) spanning E6/E7, in the presence or absence of specific accessory cytokines. The resulting T-cell lines were further expanded with pepmix-loaded activated B-cell blasts. IFN? release and cytotoxic responses to E6/E7 were assessed. We successfully reactivated and expanded (>1200-fold) E6/E7-specific T cells from 8/16 cervical and 33/52 oropharyngeal cancer patients. The presence of the cytokines IL-6, -7, -12 and -15 is critical for this process. These T cell lines possess the desirable characteristics of polyclonality, multiple T-cell subset representation (including the memory compartment) and a TH1 bias, and may eliminate E6/E7-positive targets. In conclusion, we have shown it is possible to robustly generate HPV16 E6/E7-directed T-cell lines from patients with HPV16-associated cancers. Because our technique is scalable and good-manufacturing-procedures compliant, these lines could be used for adoptive cellular immunotherapy of patients with HPV16-positive cancers. PMID:23211628

Ramos, Carlos A.; Narala, Neeharika; Vyas, Gayatri M.; Leen, Ann M.; Gerdemann, Ulrike; Sturgis, Erich M.; Anderson, Matthew L.; Savoldo, Barbara; Heslop, Helen E.; Brenner, Malcolm K.; Rooney, Cliona M.

2012-01-01

160

HPV frequency in penile carcinoma of Mexican patients: important contribution of HPV16 European variant  

PubMed Central

The role of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in penile carcinoma (PeC) is currently reported and about half of the PeC is associated with HPV16 and 18. We used a PCR-based strategy by using HPV general primers to analyze 86 penile carcinomas paraffin-embedded tissues. Some clinical data, the histological subtype, growth pattern, and differentiation degree were also collected. The amplified fragments were then sequenced to confirm the HPV type and for HPV16/18 variants. DNA samples were also subjected to relative real time PCR for hTERC gene copy number. Some clinical data were also collected. Global HPV frequency was 77.9%. Relative contributions was for HPV16 (85%), 31 (4.4%), 11 (4.4%), 58, 33, 18, and 59 (1.4% each one). Sequence analysis of HPV16 identified European variants and Asian-American (AAb-c) variants in 92% and in 8% of the samples, respectively. Furthermore hTERC gene amplification was observed in only 17% of the cases. Our results suggest that some members of HPV A9 group (represented by HPV16, 58, and 31) are the most frequent among PeC patients studied with an important contribution from HPV16 European variant. The hTERC gene amplification could be poorly related to penile epithelial tissue. PMID:23826423

López-Romero, Ricardo; Iglesias-Chiesa, Candela; Alatorre, Brenda; Vázquez, Karla; Piña-Sánchez, Patricia; Alvarado, Isabel; Lazos, Minerva; Peralta, Raúl; González-Yebra, Beatriz; Romero, AnaE; Salcedo, Mauricio

2013-01-01

161

Evaluation of the polyclonal ELISA HPV serology assay as a biomarker for HPV exposure  

PubMed Central

Background Seropositivity to HPV16 and 18 antibodies is used as a measure of cumulative HPV exposure and as a stratifier of HPV exposure for vaccine efficacy analyses. Overall performance of these assays, as a measure of HPV exposure, has not been evaluated. Methods Using data from the enrollment phase of the HPV16/18 vaccine trial in Costa Rica, we evaluated the performance of the polyclonal ELISA HPV16 and 18 serological assays as a measure of HPV exposure. Biological (for eg. HPV infection at the cervix) and behavioral characteristics (for eg. lifetime number of sexual partners) with known associations with current and past HPV infection were used to define cases and controls (HPV exposed vs. not exposed). Pre-vaccination serum was measured for antibodies against HPV16 and HPV18 by ELISA; cervical samples were tested for HPV DNA using PCR SPF10/LiPA25. ELISA results were analyzed using receiver-operator-characteristic curves (ROC); performance was evaluated at the manufacturer set cutpoint (HPV16 =8, HPV18 =7) and at cutpoints chosen to optimize sensitivity and specificity (HPV16 =34, HPV18 =60). Results Defining cases as type-specific HPV DNA positive with high-grade abnormal cytolzogy (i.e. combined molecular and microscopic markers of infection), HPV16-ELISA gave sensitivity that was lower at the optimal cutpoint than the manufacturer cutpoint (62.2 compared with 75.7, respectively; p=0.44). However, specificity was higher (85.3 compared with 70.4, respectively; p<0.0001). Similarly, HPV18-ELISA gave sensitivity that was lower at the optimal cutpoint than the manufacturer cutpoint (34.5 compared with 51.7, respectively; p=0.40), with higher specificities (94.9 compared with 72.6, respectively; p<0.0001). Conclusions Modifying cutpoints did not improve the low sensitivity. The low sensitivity of this assay does not support its use for risk stratification or clinical settings. PMID:21934576

Coseo, Sarah E.; Porras, Carolina; Dodd, Lori E.; Hildesheim, Allan; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Schiffman, Mark; Herrero, Rolando; Wacholder, Sholom; Gonzalez, Paula; Sherman, Mark E.; Jimenez, Silvia; Solomon, Diane; Bougelet, Catherine; van Doorn, Leen-Jan; Quint, Wim; Safaeian, Mahboobeh

2011-01-01

162

Concomitance of oncogenic HPV types, CHEK2 gene mutations, and CYP1B1 gene polymorphism as an increased risk factor for malignancy  

PubMed Central

Introduction Urinary bladder carcinoma ranks the fourth position in malignancy incidence rates in men (6.1%) and the 17th position in women (1.6%). In general, neoplastic diseases should be approached from two perspectives: prevention with implementation of prophylactic measures and early diagnostics. Prophylactics is possible in the preclinical phase of neoplasm, being both justified and plausible in patients from high–risk groups. Thus, it is particularly important to select such groups, not only by referring to environmental carcinogenic factors (occupational and extra–occupational) but also from genetic predisposition, which may be conductive for neoplasm formation. The mutations / polymorphisms of CHEK2 and CYP1B1 genes predispose to neoplasm via multiorgan mechanisms, while the human papilloma virus (HPV) may participate in the neoplastic transformation as an environmental factor. Material and methods 131 patients with diagnosed urinary bladder cancer were qualified to the study. Mutations/polymorphisms of CHEK2 (IVS2 + 1G > A gene, 1100delC, del5395, I157T) and CYP1B1– 355T/T were identified by the PCR in DNA isolated directly from the tumor and from peripheral blood. The ELISA test was used for the studies of 37 HPV genotypes in DNA, isolated tumour tissue. Results 11 mutations of CHEK2 gene were found, 355T/T polymorphism if CYP1B1 gene occurred in 18 patients (12.9%). Oncogenic HPV was found in 36 (29.3%), out of 123 examined patients. Conclusions The concomitance of CHEK2 gene mutations or 355T/T polymorphism of CYP1B1 gene and the presence of oncogenic HPV types statistically significantly correlates with histological malignancy grades of urinary bladder carcinoma. PMID:24578981

Constantinou, Maria; Pietrusi?ski, Micha?; K?pczy?ski, ?ukasz; J?drzejczyk, Adam; Ro?niecki, Marek; Marks, Piotr; Ka?u?ewski, Bogdan

2013-01-01

163

The use of nested polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism for the detection and typing of mucosal human papillomaviruses in samples containing low copy numbers of viral DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mucosal human papillomaviruses (HPVs) that infect the genital area have also been shown to infect the oral cavity. In this study a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method was developed on a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product to identify ten high risk HPV types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45, 51, 52, 58 and 59 as well as the

Patti Kay; Kathleen Meehan; Anna-Lise Williamson

2002-01-01

164

Prevalence of HPV and variation of HPV 16/HPV 18 E6/E7 genes in cervical cancer in women in South West China.  

PubMed

Genetic variations of High-Risk HPV E6/E7 may be associated with the development of cervical cancer in specific geographic regions. Few data have been reported about the HPV prevalence and E6/E7 variants among cervical cancer patients in Southwest China. This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of HPV and E6/E7 variants of most prevalent HPV among cervical cancer patients in Southwest China. After genotyping, E6/E7 genes of most prevalent HR HPV samples were sequenced and analyzed. Phylogenetic trees were then constructed, followed by an analysis of the diversity of secondary structure and selection pressures. HPV 16 (73.8%) and HPV 18 (16.4%) are the most prevalent infection types among cervical cancer patients, followed by HPV 58, HPV 56 and HPV 59, which is different from the high HPV 58 infection rate of outpatients in this region. Eighteen single nucleotide changes were observed in HPV 16 E6 with 13/18 non-synonymous mutations (5 in beta sheet and 2 in alpha helix). Ten single nucleotide changes were identified among HPV 16 E7 with 3/10 non-synonymous mutations. Three single nucleotide changes were observed in HPV 18 E6 with one non-synonymous mutation, and only one synonymous mutation was identified in HPV 18 E7. HPV 16 E6-D25E, E7-N29S and E7-T846C (S95S) exhibited a prevalent linkage mutation. The phylogenetic tree demonstrates that European and Asian lineages were the main patterns. This study may help understand the intrinsic geographical relatedness and oncogenic potential of HR HPV and contributes further to research of diagnostic, therapeutic and therapeutic vaccine strategy. PMID:25111286

Yang, Lijuan; Yang, Hongying; Wu, Kun; Shi, Xinan; Ma, Shaohui; Sun, Qiangming

2014-11-01

165

Awareness of Diagnosis and Knowledge of HPV in Women Patients: Data from a Multi-Site Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Persistent infection with high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with cervical and other anogenital cancers. Purpose: This paper reports results of awareness of an HPV diagnosis and HPV knowledge from a multi-site study of HPV knowledge, attitudes and behavior, and the impact of an HPV diagnosis on women and their…

McCree, Donna Hubbard; Daley, Ellen M.; Gorbach, Pamina; Hamm, Robert M.; Sharpe, Patricia A.; Brandt, Heather M.; McFarlane, Mary; Kerndt, Peter; McDermott, Robert J.; Perrin, Karen M.; St. Lawrence, Janet S.

2010-01-01

166

Understanding HPV Disease and Prevention: A Guide for School Nurses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) causes 99.7% of all cervical cancers. HPV Types 16 and 18 are responsible for approximately 77% of cases, and peak prevalence occurs in females younger than 25 years of age. The recent implementation of HPV vaccination provides females with the opportunity to prevent infection. School nurses are advocates of…

Lockwood-Rayermann, Suzy; McIntyre, Susan J.

2009-01-01

167

Quantifying the Decisional Satisfaction to Accept or Reject the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine: A Preference for Cervical Cancer Prevention  

PubMed Central

Objective Only a portion of the US population is willing to consider HPV vaccination to date. The primary aim of this study is to determine the decisional satisfaction associated with HPV vaccination. Study Design This is a prospective survey conducted at an urban college where women 18–26 years old completed a decisional satisfaction survey about their HPV vaccine experience. Results Regardless of the decision to accept or reject HPV vaccination, the decisional satisfaction was very high (mean 5-item score?=?21.2 (SD 3.8)). Women without HPV vaccination were decisionally neutral significantly more often than those already vaccinated; 22% were decisionally neutral for the option to accept HPV vaccination at that visit. Cervical cancer prevention was preferred significantly more often than genital wart prevention in all analyses. Conclusions Targeting those who are decisionally neutral about HPV vaccination may result in a higher uptake of HPV vaccination. PMID:24551110

Harper, Diane M.; Irons, Billy B.; Alexander, Natalie M.; Comes, Johanna C.; Smith, Melissa S.; Heutinck, Melinda A.; Handley, Sandra M.; Ahern, Debra A.

2014-01-01

168

[Cancers of the oral and genital mucosa].  

PubMed

Squamous cell carcinomas account for over 90 % of cancers of the oral cavity in France. Alcohol and tobacco are the main risk factors. Delay in diagnosis is unfortunately frequent. The management of the cancer is based on surgery, possibly associated to radiation therapy and chemotherapy. The survival rate at 5 years does not exceed 30-40%. We hope to see a decrease in the number of oral cancer thanks to the development of preventive medicine (alcohol and tobacco cessation and early detection of potentially malignant lesions). Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma is a rare disease which traditionally affect elderly woman but continues to rise in incidence especially in younger women. There are at least 2 forms of genital squamous cell carcinoma. The most common form is found on older women arising in a background of lichen sclerosus and the second is associated with "high risk" human papillomavirus infection affecting younger women. A biopsy is usually required for diagnosis. Attempts to reduce genital cancer must focus on treating precursor lesions, namely lichen sclerosus and HPV-related intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN and PIN). Most genital cancer occur on undiagnosed or untreated lichens sclerosus, vulvar inspection when women attend for their cervical smears or seeking about significance of any chronic genital symptom by a clinical examination. PMID:24167879

Dehen, Laure; Schwob, Emilie; Pascal, Francis

2013-09-01

169

Cutaneous HPV and skin cancer.  

PubMed

Papillomaviruses (HPVs) are small non-enveloped icosahedral viruses that infect the keratinocytes of skin and mucosa. The cutaneous HPV types are represented mainly by the beta and gamma genera, which are widely present in the skin of normal individuals. More than 40 beta-HPV types and 50 gamma-HPV types have been isolated, and these numbers are continuously growing. The main cause of non-melanoma skin cancer is exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). However, cutaneous HPVs that belong to the beta genus may act as a co-carcinogen with UVR. The association between beta-HPVs and skin cancer was first reported in patients with epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV), who frequently develop cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) on sun-exposed areas. Isolation of HPVs from the lesions suggested that HPVs might act as a co-carcinogen with UVR in EV patients. Beta-HPVs may also play a role in cutaneous SCC in immunocompromised non-EV and in immunocompetent individuals. Several studies have reported an association of viral DNA and/or antibodies to beta HPV types with SCC. Interestingly, HPV prevalence and viral load decrease during skin carcinogenesis, being significantly higher in actinic keratosis than in SCC, suggesting that the virus may play a role in the early stages of tumour development (the "hit-and-run" hypothesis). Concordantly, in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that E6 and E7 from certain cutaneous HPV types display transforming activities, further confirming their potential role in carcinogenesis. PMID:25451638

Accardi, Rosita; Gheit, Tarik

2014-10-22

170

Seroprevalence of HPV vaccine types 6, 11, 16 and 18 in HIV-infected women from South Africa, Brazil and Botswana  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMany resource limited settings (RLS) suffer from high rates of both cervical cancer and HIV. Limited HPV serology data are available from RLS; such data could help describe local patterns of HPV infection and predict vaccine efficacy.

C. Firnhaber; D. Evans; R. Friedman-Khalili; S. Willliams; P. Michelow; K. Matlhagela; C. Wester; B. Grinsztejn; S. Lockman

2011-01-01

171

Papanicolaou test screening and prevalence of genital human papillomavirus among women who have sex with women.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine frequency of and attitudes toward Papanicolaou (Pap) test screening in women who have sex with women (WSW) and to determine prevalence of genital human papillomavirus (HPV). METHODS: Women were eligible if they reported having engaged in sex with another woman in the preceding year Medical and sexual histories were obtained. Cervical specimens for Pap tests and cervical and vaginal specimens for HPV DNA testing were collected. RESULTS: HPV DNA was detected in 31 of 248 WSW (13%). Women who had never had sex with men were less likely to have undergone pelvic examinations and had fewer recent Pap tests. Reasons for not undergoing Pap tests included lack of insurance, previous adverse experiences, and belief that Pap tests were unnecessary. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the occurrence of genital HPV, WSW do not receive adequate Pap test screening. Pap test screening recommendations should not differ for WSW, regardless of sexual history with men. PMID:11392939

Marrazzo, J M; Koutsky, L A; Kiviat, N B; Kuypers, J M; Stine, K

2001-01-01

172

HPV and Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Anal cancer : About 91% are linked to HPV. Oropharyngeal cancers (cancers of the back of the throat, including ... Cancers Basic Information About Gynecologic Cancers HPV and Oropharyngeal Cancer - Fact Sheet Cervical Cancer Screening Guidelines [2 pages] ...

173

Genital herpes - self-care  

MedlinePLUS

Herpes - genital -self-care; Herpes simplex - genital - self-care; Herpesvirus 2 - self-care; HSV-2 - self-care ... worried after finding out that you have genital herpes . But know that you are not alone. Millions ...

174

High prevalence of HPV 16 in South African women with cancer of the cervix and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.  

PubMed

Despite the high prevalence of cervical cancer and cervical neoplasias in South Africa, few studies have been performed in this region to establish which human papillomavirus (HPV) types are associated with the development of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia lesions and cervical cancer. To investigate these prevalence rates, punch biopsies were obtained from 56 women with cervical cancer and 141 women with histologically diagnosed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or 3 lesions. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using consensus degenerate PCR primers was performed for the detection of HPV DNA and HPV typing was done by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Forty-seven (94%) of the cervical cancer and 114 (88%) of the cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2/3 biopsies were positive for HPV DNA. The prevalence rates of the HPV types detected in the cervical cancer biopsies were HPV 16 (82%), HPV 18, (10%), HPV 33 (10%), HPV 31 (2%), HPV 58 (2%), HPV 35 (2%), and HPV 59 (2%). The cervical intraepithelial neoplasia lesions contained HPV 16 (56.6%), HPV 33 (14%), HPV 31 (10.9%), HPV X (7%), HPV 52 (3.9), HPV 58 (3.1%), HPV 35 (2.3%), HPV 18 (1.6%), HPV 11 (0.8%). Five of the nine fragments that were not typed by the RFLP, designated HPV-X, were sequenced to give HPV6 (1/5), HPV 26 (2/5), HPV 68 (1/5), and candHPV 87 (1/5). HPV 58 was detected in one cervical cancer biopsy and four biopsies from cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 lesions and was shown to be a previously described variant [Williamson and Rybicki (1991) J. Med. Virol. 33:165-171]. In addition, a cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 lesion was shown to harbour HPV type HAN2294 (cand HPV 87). The results of this study indicate that cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2/3 are largely associated with HPV 16 infection in this group of South African women and, therefore, an effective HPV 16 based vaccine should prevent the development of cervical cancer in a large proportion of women from this region of South Africa. PMID:12938202

Kay, Patti; Soeters, Robbert; Nevin, James; Denny, Lynette; Dehaeck, Catherine M C; Williamson, Anna-Lise

2003-10-01

175

Comparison of SPF10 real-time PCR and conventional PCR in combination with the INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra assay for the detection and typing of human papillomavirus in cervical samples.  

PubMed

The novel SPF10 real-time PCR assay allows the simultaneous amplification and detection of the HPV target. That way, LiPA analysis of the HPV-negative samples can be avoided, reducing workload and cost. This study aims to evaluate the performance of the SPF10 real-time PCR in combination with the LiPA assay for HPV detection and typing in cervical samples. Thirty-nine cervical samples were subjected to the SPF10 conventional PCR in combination with the LiPA assay. Subsequently, the SPF10 real-time PCR was performed to enable the comparison between the SPF10 conventional and the real-time PCR results. In case of discrepancy, the samples were subjected to the CLART HPV2 assay. As a result, 27 out of 39 samples were identified as HPV-positive by the SPF10 real-time PCR and were genotyped further by the LiPA assay. Twenty samples (74.1%) showed an absolute agreement between the conventional and real-time SPF10 PCR (concordant), three (11.1%) displayed additional or fewer types (compatible), two (7.4%) did not show any similarity between both assays (discordant) and the remaining two (7.4%) were LiPA-negative. The two assays showed an excellent strength of agreement for individual (?=0.932) and multiple genotype detection (?=0.834). In conclusion, the two SPF10 PCR methods are comparable. Therefore, the SPF10 real-time PCR with subsequent LiPA could be used for the detection and genotyping of HPV in cervical samples. PMID:23978605

Micalessi, M I; Boulet, G A; Pillet, S; Jacquet, J; Pozzetto, B; Bogers, J J; Bourlet, T

2013-12-01

176

Polymorphism of the capsid L1 gene of human papillomavirus types 31, 33, and 35.  

PubMed

The L1 gene encodes for the major capsid protein of human papillomaviruses (HPV). There is limited information on the polymorphism of L1 for types related to HPV-16. This report explores the polymorphism of L1 in phylogenetically related types 31, 33, and 35 compared to HPV-16. Genital specimens collected from 732 HIV-seropositive and 323 HIV-seronegative women were screened for HPV DNA with consensus L1 PCR. Cervical samples positive for HPV-16 (n = 74), HPV-31 (n = 78), HPV-33 (n = 37), and HPV-35 (n = 58) were further characterized by PCR-sequencing of the complete L1 gene. The number of nucleotide substitutions within L1 ranged from 19 for HPV-33 to 52 for HPV-31. The ratio of the number of variants/number of isolates tested was higher for HPV-31 (56.4%, P = 0.05) and HPV-35 (60.3%, P = 0.04) compared to HPV-16 (40.5%), while this ratio was lower for HPV-33 (24.3%), although not significantly (P = 0.14). The maximal distance between HPV variants was greater in the five putative surface-exposed loops of L1 than in sequences outside the loops (P < 0.01). Synonymous variations were encountered in 1.7% (95% CI 1.1-2.3) of nucleotides inside the L1 loops and 2.4% (95% CI1.2-3.7) of nucleotides outside the L1 loops. Non-synonymous variations were encountered in 1.8% (95% CI 1.1-2.5) of nucleotides within the L1 loops and 0.2% (95% CI 0-0.4) of nucleotides outside the loops. dN/dS ratios were below 1.0 in extra-loop and intra-loop regions, but they were lower in extra-loop regions. These results suggest that sequences within and outside the hypervariable loops of L1 were under selective constraint. PMID:20513080

Cornut, Gilbert; Gagnon, Simon; Hankins, Catherine; Money, Deborah; Pourreaux, Karina; Franco, Eduardo L; Coutlée, François

2010-07-01

177

Development of AAVLP(HPV16/31L2) Particles as Broadly Protective HPV Vaccine Candidate  

PubMed Central

The human papillomavirus (HPV) minor capsid protein L2 is a promising candidate for a broadly protective HPV vaccine yet the titers obtained in most experimental systems are rather low. Here we examine the potential of empty AAV2 particles (AAVLPs), assembled from VP3 alone, for display of L2 epitopes to enhance their immunogenicity. Insertion of a neutralizing epitope (amino acids 17–36) from L2 of HPV16 and HPV31 into VP3 at positions 587 and 453, respectively, permitted assembly into empty AAV particles (AAVLP(HPV16/31L2)). Intramuscularly vaccination of mice and rabbits with AAVLP(HPV16/31L2)s in montanide adjuvant, induced high titers of HPV16 L2 antibodies as measured by ELISA. Sera obtained from animals vaccinated with the AAVLP(HPV16/31L2)s neutralized infections with several HPV types in a pseudovirion infection assay. Lyophilized AAVLP(HPV16/31L2) particles retained their immunogenicity upon reconstitution. Interestingly, vaccination of animals that were pre-immunized with AAV2 - simulating the high prevalence of AAV2 antibodies in the population - even increased cross neutralization against HPV31, 45 and 58 types. Finally, passive transfer of rabbit antisera directed against AAVLP(HPV16/31L2)s protected naïve mice from vaginal challenge with HPV16 pseudovirions. In conclusion, AAVLP(HPV16/31L2) particles have the potential as a broadly protective vaccine candidate regardless of prior exposure to AAV. PMID:22761884

Nieto, Karen; Weghofer, Margit; Sehr, Peter; Ritter, Mirko; Sedlmeier, Sebastian; Karanam, Balasubramanyam; Seitz, Hanna; Müller, Martin; Kellner, Markus; Hörer, Markus; Michaelis, Uwe; Roden, Richard B. S.; Gissmann, Lutz; Kleinschmidt, Jürgen A.

2012-01-01

178

Immunohistochemical staining of Langerhans cells in HPV-positive and HPV-negative cases of oral squamous cells carcinoma  

PubMed Central

The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) has been strongly implicated in development of some cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, the immunological system somehow reacts against the presence of this virus. Among the cells involved in such mechanism of defense Langerhans cells (LC) stand out, which are responsible for processing and presenting antigens. Objectives The purposes of this study were to investigate the presence of HPV DNA and to evaluate the immunohistochemical reactivity for Langerhans cells between HPV-positive and HPV-negative OSCC. Twenty-seven cases of OSSC were evaluated. Material and Methods DNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded tissue samples and amplified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for the detection of HPV DNA. Viral typing was performed by dot blot hybridization. Immunohistochemistry was performed by the Streptavidin-biotin technique. Results From the 27 cases, 9 (33.3%) were HPV-positive and 18 (66.0%) HPV-negative. HPV 18 was the most prevalent viral type (100% cases) and infection with HPV-16 (co-infection) was detected in only 1 case. In the OSCC specimens examined, immunoreactivity to S-100 antibody was detected in all cases, with a mean number of 49.48±30.89 Langerhans cells positive for immunostaining. The mean number of immunostained Langerhans cells was smaller in the HPV-positive cases (38 cells/case) than in the HPV-negative cases (42.5 cells/case), but this difference was not significant (p=0.38). Conclusions The low frequency of detection of HPV DNA in OSCC indicates a possible participation of the virus in the development and progression of only a subgroup of these tumors. There was no association between the immunohistochemical labeling for Langerhans cells (S-100+) and HPV infection of in OSSC. These findings suggest that the presence of HPV in such OSCC cases could not alter the immunological system, particularly the Langerhans cells. PMID:21710097

PEREIRA, Karuza Maria Alves; SOARES, Rosilene Calazans; OLIVEIRA, Márcio Campos; PINTO, Leão Pereira; COSTA, Antônio de Lisboa Lopes

2011-01-01

179

Cellular immune responses to HPV-18, -31, and -53 in healthy volunteers immunized with recombinant HPV-16 L1 virus-like particles  

SciTech Connect

Human papillomavirus-like particles (HPV VLP) are candidate vaccines that have shown to be efficacious in reducing infection and inducing robust antiviral immunity. Neutralizing antibodies generated by vaccination are largely type-specific, but little is known about the type-specificity of cellular immune responses to VLP vaccination. To determine whether vaccination with HPV-16 L1VLP induces cellular immunity to heterologous HPV types (HPV-18, HPV-31, and HPV-53), we examined proliferative and cytokine responses in vaccine (n = 11) and placebo (n = 5) recipients. Increased proliferative and cytokine responses to heterologous types were observed postvaccination in some individuals. The proportion of women responding to heterologous types postvaccination (36%-55%) was lower than that observed in response to HPV-16 (73%). Response to HPV-16 VLP predicted response to other types. The strongest correlations in response were observed between HPV-16 and HPV-31, consistent with their phylogenetic relatedness. In summary, PBMC from HPV-16 VLP vaccine recipients can respond to L1VLP from heterologous HPV types, suggesting the presence of conserved T cell epitopes.

Pinto, Ligia A. [HPV Immunology Laboratory, SAIC-Frederick, Inc./NCI-Frederick, Frederick Building 469, Room 120, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States)]. E-mail: lpinto@ncifcrf.gov; Viscidi, Raphael [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Harro, Clayton D. [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Kemp, Troy J. [HPV Immunology Laboratory, SAIC-Frederick, Inc./NCI-Frederick, Frederick Building 469, Room 120, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); Garcia-Pineres, Alfonso J. [HPV Immunology Laboratory, SAIC-Frederick, Inc./NCI-Frederick, Frederick Building 469, Room 120, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); Trivett, Matthew [HPV Immunology Laboratory, SAIC-Frederick, Inc./NCI-Frederick, Frederick Building 469, Room 120, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); Demuth, Franklin [Information Management Services, Silver Spring, MD (United States); Lowy, Douglas R. [Laboratory of Cellular Oncology, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD (United States); Schiller, John T. [Laboratory of Cellular Oncology, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD (United States); Berzofsky, Jay A. [Vaccine Branch, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD (United States); Hildesheim, Allan [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, NIH, Bethesda, MD (United States)

2006-09-30

180

Transcriptional regulatory elements in the noncoding region of human papillomavirus type 6  

SciTech Connect

The structure and function of the transcriptional regulatory region of human papillomavirus type 6 (HPV-6) has been investigated. To investigate tissue specific gene expression, a sensitive method to detect and localize HPV-6 viral DNA, mRNA and protein in plastic-embedded tissue sections of genital and respiratory tract papillomata by using in situ hybridization and immunoperoxidase assays has been developed. This method, using ultrathin sections and strand-specific {sup 3}H labeled riboprobes, offers the advantages of superior morphological preservation and detection of viral genomes at low copy number with good resolution, and the modified immunocytochemistry provides better sensitivity. The results suggest that genital tract epithelium is more permissive for HPV-6 replication than respiratory tract epithelium. To study the tissue tropism of HPV-6 at the level of regulation of viral gene expression, the polymerase chain reaction was used to isolate the noncoding region (NCR) of HPV-6 in independent isolates. Nucleotide sequence analysis of molecularly cloned DNA identified base substitutions, deletions/insertions and tandem duplications. Transcriptional regulatory elements in the NCR were assayed in recombinant plasmids containing the bacterial gene for chloramphenicol acetyl transferase.

Wu, Tzyy-Choou.

1989-01-01

181

Detection of immunoglobulin M antibodies to glycoprotein G-2 by western blot (immunoblot) for diagnosis of initial herpes simplex virus type 2 genital infections.  

PubMed Central

Western blots (immunoblots) for the detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies specific for herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 in patients' sera were developed. The locations of the type-specific glycoprotein G (gpG-2) of HSV-2 (92- and 140-kDa forms) and glycoprotein C of HSV-1 (gpC-1), which carries mostly type-specific antigenic epitopes, were checked with specific monoclonal antibodies. Western blot assays for IgM antibody to gpC-1 or gpG-2 were performed after depletion of IgG by precipitation with anti-human IgG. In patients with primary HSV-2 genital infections, seroconversion of IgM and IgG antibodies to both the 92- and 140-kDa forms of gpG-2 was observed, although both antibodies appeared in convalescent-phase serum after the first week. IgM and IgG antibodies to low-molecular-size polypeptides (40 to 65 kDa) were the first antibodies observed in patients with primary infection, but these antibodies were cross-reactive with HSV-1 and HSV-2. However, in patients with recurrent HSV-2 infections, IgG antibodies to both forms of gpG-2 and the low-molecular-size polypeptides were found no matter how early after onset the patient was bled, and IgM to gpG-2 did not appear. In patients with nonprimary initial genital HSV-2 infections, IgG antibody to HSV-1 was demonstrated in the first serum specimen, and HSV-2-specific IgM was found in 39% of the serum specimens. Hence, the Western blot assay can be used to test for IgM antibody to gpG-2, allowing for the retrospective diagnosis of inital HSV-2 infections and its use as a supplementary test to the gpG-2 IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays developed elsewhere. In contrast, IgM antibody to gpG-2 is not usually detected in patients with recurrent HSV-2 infections. Images PMID:7508453

Ho, D W; Field, P R; Irving, W L; Packham, D R; Cunningham, A L

1993-01-01

182

A Population-based Study of HPV Genotype Prevalence in the United States: Baseline Measures Prior to Mass HPV Vaccination  

PubMed Central

Currently, two prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines targeting HPV 16 and 18 have been shown to be highly efficacious for preventing precursor lesions, although the effectiveness of these vaccines in real world clinical settings must still be determined. Toward this end, an ongoing statewide surveillance program was established in New Mexico to assess all aspects of cervical cancer preventive care. Given that the reduction in cervical cancer incidence is expected to take several decades to manifest, a systematic population-based measurement of HPV type-specific prevalence employing an age- and cytology-stratified sample of 47,617 women attending for cervical screening was conducted prior to widespread HPV vaccination. A well-validated PCR method for 37 HPV genotypes was used to test liquid-based cytology specimens. The prevalence for any of the 37 HPV types was 27.3% overall with a maximum of 52% at age 20 years followed by a rapid decline at older ages. The HPV 16 prevalence in women aged ? 20 years, 21-29 years, or ? 30 years was 9.6%, 6.5%, and 1.8%, respectively. The combined prevalence of HPV 16 and 18 in these age groups was 12.0%, 8.3% and 2.4%, respectively. HPV 16 and/or HPV 18 were detected in 54.5% of high-grade squamous intraepithelial (cytologic) lesions (HSIL) and in 25.0% of those with low-grade SIL (LSIL). These baseline data enable estimates of maximum HPV vaccine impact across time and provide critical reference measurements important to assessing clinical benefits and potential harms of HPV vaccination including increases in non-vaccine HPV types (i.e., type replacement). PMID:22532127

Wheeler, Cosette M.; Hunt, William C.; Cuzick, Jack; Langsfeld, Erika; Pearse, Amanda; Robertson, Michael; Shearman, Catherine A.; Castle, Philip E.

2013-01-01

183

Overexpression of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 oncoproteins promotes angiogenesis via enhancing HIF-1? and VEGF expression in non-small cell lung cancer cells.  

PubMed

HPV-16 infection may play an important role in the development of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) among never-smokers. Due to the critical role of angiogenesis in NSCLC development, we describe here the effect of HPV-16 oncoproteins on angiogenesis in NSCLC and the underlying mechanisms. We found that overexpression of HPV-16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins in NSCLC cells significantly promoted angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo, and correspondingly, an enhanced expression of HIF-1? and VEGF, important pro-angiogenic factors in tumor angiogenesis. Meanwhile, overexpression of HPV-16 oncoproteins also led to HIF-1?-dependent increases in the secretion of several other pro-angiogenic factors, including IL-8. Our findings suggest that HPV-16 oncoproteins contribute to the development of NSCLC possibly by promoting HIF-1?/VEGF-mediated tumor angiogenesis. PMID:21868151

Li, Gang; He, Li; Zhang, Erying; Shi, Jingli; Zhang, Qunzhou; Le, Anh D; Zhou, Keyuan; Tang, Xudong

2011-12-01

184

Star-PAP controls HPV E6 regulation of p53 and sensitizes cells to VP-16.  

PubMed

Cervical cancer is the most common genital malignancy and the high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV type 16, 18 and 31, and so on) are major agents for its cause. A key switch for the onset of cervical cancers by HPVs is the cellular degradation of the tumor-suppressor p53 that is mediated by the HPV-generated E6 protein. E6 forms a complex with the E3 ubiquitin-ligase E6-associated protein (E6AP) leading to p53 degradation. The components that control E6 expression and the mechanisms for regulation of the expression in host cells remain undefined. Here we show that the nuclear noncanonical poly(A) polymerase (PAP) speckle targeted PIPKI? regulated PAP (Star-PAP) controls E6 mRNA polyadenylation and expression and modulates wild-type p53 levels as well as cell cycle profile in high-risk HPV-positive cells. In the absence of Star-PAP, treatment of cells with the chemotherapeutic drug VP-16 dramatically reduced E6 and increased p53 levels. This diminished both cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth required for cancer progression, indicating a synergism between VP-16 treatment and the loss of Star-PAP. This identifies Star-PAP as a potential drug target for the treatment of HPV-positive cancer cells. These data provide a mechanistic basis for increasing the sensitivity and efficiency of chemotherapy in the treatment of cancers that have low levels of wild-type p53. PMID:23416977

Li, W; Anderson, R A

2014-02-13

185

Genital herpes simplex.  

PubMed Central

Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the herpes simplex virus. Following the initial infection the virus becomes latent in the sacral ganglia. Approximately 80% of patients are then subject to milder but unpredictable recurrences and may shed the virus even when they are asymptomatic. The disorder causes concern because genital herpes in the mother can result in rare but catastrophic neonatal infection and because of a possible association between genital herpes and cancer of the cervix. No effective treatment is as yet available. Weekly monitoring for virus by cervical culture from 32 weeks' gestation is recommended for women with a history of genital herpes and for those whose sexual partner has such a history. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 PMID:7020907

Tummon, I. S.; Dudley, D. K.; Walters, J. H.

1981-01-01

186

Genital sores - female  

MedlinePLUS

... DC. Neoplastic diseases of the vulva. In: Lentz GM, Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, Katz VL, eds . Comprehensive ... Mosby Elsevier; 2012:chap 30. Eckert L, Lentz GM. Infections of the lower genital tract. In: Lentz ...

187

Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence in youth and cervical HPV prevalence in women attending a youth clinic in Sweden, a follow up-study 2013-2014 after gradual introduction of public HPV vaccination.  

PubMed

Abstract During 2009-2011, we reported that the oral and cervical prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) was high by international standards at 9.3% and 74%, respectively, in youth aged 15-23 years attending a youth clinic in Stockholm. After gradual introduction of public HPV vaccination during 2007-2012, between 2013 and 2014, when 73% of the women were HPV-vaccinated, but not necessarily before their sexual debut, oral HPV prevalence had dropped to 1.4% as compared with 9.3% in 2009-2011 (p < 0.00001). Cervical HPV prevalence was high and common cervical high-risk types were HPV51, 56, 59, 73, 16, 39, 52, and 53. However, it was shown that HPV16, 31, and 70 were significantly less common among HPV-vaccinated women than among those who had not received the vaccine. PMID:25378085

Grün, Nathalie; Ährlund-Richter, Andreas; Franzén, Joar; Mirzaie, Leila; Marions, Lena; Ramqvist, Torbjörn; Dalianis, Tina

2015-01-01

188

Genetic characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in blood and genital secretions: evidence for viral compartmentalization and selection during sexual transmission.  

PubMed Central

To explore the mechanism of sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), we compared HIV-1 gp120 sequences in longitudinal samples from five acute seroconvertors with those from their corresponding sexual partners (transmitters). We used a quantitative homoduplex tracking assay to compare the overall genetic composition of HIV-1 quasispecies in each transmission pair and to track the transmitted viruses during the acute and asymptomatic stages of HIV-1 infection. In the chronically infected transmitters, HIV-1 variants in genital secretions differed from those in blood and variants in cells differed from those in cell-free plasma, indicating remarkable sequence heterogeneity in these subjects as well as compartmentalization of the virus in different bodily sites. Conversely, two of five seroconvertors had only a few related variants and three of five harbored only one viral population, indicating that in these subjects the transmitted viruses were typically homogeneous. Transmitted viruses were evident in the donor's seminal plasma (one of five cases) and even more so in their seminal cells (three of five cases), suggesting that both cell-associated and cell-free viruses can be transmitted. In every pair studied, the transmitted variant(s) represents only a minor population in the semen of the corresponding transmitter, thereby providing evidence that HIV-1 selection indeed occurs during sexual transmission. PMID:8627789

Zhu, T; Wang, N; Carr, A; Nam, D S; Moor-Jankowski, R; Cooper, D A; Ho, D D

1996-01-01

189

Human Papillomavirus Deoxyribonucleic Acid may not be Detected in Non-genital Benign Papillomatous Skin Lesions by Polymerase Chain Reaction  

PubMed Central

Background: Papillomatosis is a known histopathologic pattern usually seen in human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and verruca vulgaris is the typical example. This pattern is also detected in some other benign cutaneous lesions such as nevus sebaceous (NS), seborrheic keratosis (SK), trichilemmoma (TL) and inverted follicular keratosis (IFK). The association between papillomatous lesions and HPV infection is questionable. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of HPV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in non-genital benign papillomatous skin lesions (NS, SK, TL and IFK) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Materials and Methods: A total of 100 specimens of non-genital NS, SK, TL and IFK were retrieved from archives of Dermatopathology Department of Razi Hospital, between 2003 and 2010. The conventional PCR using consensus GP5+/GP6+ primer and hydroxymethylbilane synthase gene as inner control was performed. Results: PCR for HPV DNA revealed no positive results in any of 28 seborrheic keratosis (SK), 28 nevus sebaceous (NS), 28 inverted follicular keratosis (IFK) and 13 trichilemmoma (TL) studied specimens. Conclusion: Papillomatosis is usually a characteristic pattern of HPV infection. However, we found no association between HPV infection and non-genital benign papillomatous lesions. PMID:25071248

Kambiz, Kamyab Hesari; Kaveh, Davoodi; Maede, Damavandi; Hossein, Ayatollahi; Nessa, Aghazadeh; Ziba, Rahbar; Alireza, Ghanadan

2014-01-01

190

CD43-, but not CD43+, IL-10-producing CD1dhiCD5+ B cells suppress type 1 immune responses during Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infection.  

PubMed

Regulatory B (Breg) cells are known to modulate immune responses through predominantly interleukin-10 (IL-10)-dependent mechanisms and can be hypothetically divided into innate and adaptive subsets based on the nature of their activating signals. However, the specific role of different Breg subsets in modulating immune responses remains ambiguous. Here we have shown that Chlamydia induces IL-10-producing splenic B-cell populations consisting of CD43(+) and CD43(-) subsets of IgM(hi)IgD(lo) innate-like B (ILB) cells in vitro. While CD43(+)IL-10-producing B cells displayed innate type features and were readily induced by Chlamydia via Toll-like-receptor (TLR) signaling, CD43(-)IL-10-producing B cells required additional B-cell activating factor (BAFF)-mediated signals from dendritic cells (DCs) for their differentiation and activation, thereby classifying them as adaptive type Bregs. Importantly, CD43(-), but not CD43(+), IL-10-producing ILB cells displayed bona fide Breg activity by potently suppressing interferon-? (IFN-?) production in vitro in an IL-10-dependent manner. Furthermore, a novel CD43(-)CD1d(hi)CD5(+) IL-10-producing Breg population was predominantly induced by Chlamydia genital infection in vivo. Correspondingly, mixed bone marrow chimeric mice with B-cell-specific IL-10 deficiency exhibited significantly increased type 1 immune responses, decreased bacterial burden, and reduced oviduct pathology upon infection. Our data demonstrate for the first time a distinct role for CD43(-)CD1d(hi)CD5(+)-adaptive Bregs over CD43(+) innate counterparts in controlling mucosal responses against intracellular bacterial infection. PMID:24938746

Moore-Connors, J M; Kim, H S; Marshall, J S; Stadnyk, A W; Halperin, S A; Wang, J

2015-01-01

191

Signs of genital trauma in adolescent rape victims examined acutely  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Adolescent females are the most frequent victims of sexual assault, but studies to document the presence of genital findings in patients examined within 72 hours, using magnification and dye, have not been published. This study was designed to document the frequency and types of genital injuries in adolescent women following acute sexual assault, using chart and photograph review.Methods: A

Joyce A. Adams; Barbara Girardin; Diana Faugno

2000-01-01

192

Therapeutic HPV DNA vaccines  

PubMed Central

Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been associated with several human cancers, including cervical cancer, vulvar cancer, vaginal and anal cancer, and a subset of head and neck cancers. The identification of HPV as an etiological factor for HPV-associated malignancies creates the opportunity for the control of these cancers through vaccination. Currently, the preventive HPV vaccine using HPV virus-like particles has been proven to be safe and highly effective. However, this preventive vaccine does not have therapeutic effects, and a significant number of people have established HPV infection and HPV-associated lesions. Therefore, it is necessary to develop therapeutic HPV vaccines to facilitate the control of HPV-associated malignancies and their precursor lesions. Among the various forms of therapeutic HPV vaccines, DNA vaccines have emerged as a potentially promising approach for vaccine development due to their safety profile, ease of preparation and stability. However, since DNA does not have the intrinsic ability to amplify or spread in transfected cells like viral vectors, DNA vaccines can have limited immunogenicity. Therefore, it is important to develop innovative strategies to improve DNA vaccine potency. Since dendritic cells (DCs) are key players in the generation of antigen-specific immune responses, it is important to develop innovative strategies to modify the properties of the DNA-transfected DCs. These strategies include increasing the number of antigen-expressing/antigen-loaded DCs, improving antigen processing and presentation in DCs, and enhancing the interaction between DCs and T cells. Many of the studies on DNA vaccines have been performed on preclinical models. Encouraging results from impressive preclinical studies have led to several clinical trials. PMID:19722895

Monie, Archana; Tsen, Shaw-Wei D; Hung, Chien-Fu; Wu, T-C

2009-01-01

193

Genotyping of Human Papillomaviruses by a Novel One-Step Typing Method with Multiplex PCR and Clinical Applications?  

PubMed Central

We describe here a rapid, high-throughput genotyping procedure that allows the simultaneous detection of 16 high- and low-risk genital human papillomavirus (HPV) types by multiplex PCR in a single reaction tube. Multiplex PCR is based on the amplification of HPV DNA by sets of HPV genotype-specific primers, and the genotypes of HPV are visually identified by the sizes of amplicons after they are separated by capillary electrophoresis. The procedure does not include a hybridization step with HPV-specific probes and is rapid and labor-saving. We detected all 16 HPV genotypes (types 16, 58, 52, 51, 56, 31, 18, 39, 66, 59, 6, 33, 30, 35, 45, and 11) with a high sensitivity and a high degree of reproducibility. By using this newly developed method, we conducted a pilot study to examine the correlation between the prevalence and genotype distributions of HPV and the cytological group classifications for 547 cervical samples. Compared with the group of samples considered normal (14.7%), there was a significant increase in the prevalence of HPV in women with atypical squamous cells of unknown significance (61.3%), low-grade intraepithelial lesions (75.8%), and high-grade intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) (82.2%). The prevalence and distribution of type 58 were correlated with cytological malignancies, with the highest prevalence in women with HSILs. In conclusion, the novel multiplex PCR method described appears to be highly suitable not only for the screening of cervical cancer precursor lesions but also for the characterization of genotype distributions in large-scale epidemiological studies and HPV vaccination trials. PMID:18234872

Nishiwaki, Morie; Yamamoto, Tomohiro; Tone, Somako; Murai, Taichi; Ohkawara, Tatsuya; Matsunami, Takakuni; Koizumi, Motoiki; Takagi, Yoshitake; Yamaguchi, Jun; Kondo, Nobuo; Nishihira, Jun; Horikawa, Takeharu; Yoshiki, Takashi

2008-01-01

194

Anal, penile, and oral high-risk HPV infections and HPV seropositivity in HIV-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men.  

PubMed

The effects of single or multiple concordant HPV infections at various anatomical sites on type-specific HPV seropositivity are currently unknown. In this cross-sectional study we assessed whether high-risk HPV infections at various anatomical sites (i.e., anal canal, penile shaft, and oral cavity), as well as concordant infections at multiple anatomical sites, were associated with type-specific seropositivity in HIV-positive and HIV-negative MSM. MSM aged ? 18 years were recruited in Amsterdam, the Netherlands (2010-2011). Baseline anal, penile, and oral samples were analyzed for HPV DNA and genotyped using a highly sensitive PCR and reverse line blot assay. Virus-like particle (VLP) based multiplex immunoassay was used to asses HPV-specific serum antibodies against L1 VLPs. The associations between HPV infections and type-specific seropositivity of seven high-risk HPV types (7-hrHPV: types 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58) were estimated using logistic regression analyses with generalized estimating equations. We found that 86% of 306 HIV-positive MSM and 62% of 441 HIV-negative MSM were seropositive for at least one 7-hrHPV type. 69% of HIV-positive and 41% of HIV-negative MSM were infected with at least one 7-hrHPV type at the anus, penis, or oral cavity. In multivariable analyses, 7-hrHPV seropositivity was associated with type-specific anal (and not penile) 7-hrHPV infection, and did not significantly increase with a higher number of infected anatomical sites. Oral 7-hrHPV infection showed a positive, albeit non-significant, association with seropositivity. In conclusion, seropositivity among MSM appears to be largely associated with anal HPV infection, irrespective of additionally infected anatomical sites. PMID:24651691

van Rijn, Vera M; Mooij, Sofie H; Mollers, Madelief; Snijders, Peter J F; Speksnijder, Arjen G C L; King, Audrey J; de Vries, Henry J C; van Eeden, Arne; van der Klis, Fiona R M; de Melker, Hester E; van der Sande, Marianne A B; van der Loeff, Maarten F Schim

2014-01-01

195

Erythroplasia of Queyrat: Coinfection with Cutaneous Carcinogenic Human Papillomavirus Type 8 and Genital Papillomaviruses in a Carcinoma In Situ  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryErythroplasia of Queyrat is a carcinoma in situ that mainly occurs on the glans penis, the prepuce, or the urethral meatus of elderly males. Up to 30% progress to squamous cell carcinoma. The cause of erythroplasia of Queyrat is largely unknown. Human papillomavirus type 16 DNA has previously been detected only in very few distinctly characterized patients. We have investigated

Ulrike Wieland; Sandra Jurk; Sönke Weißenborn; Thomas Krieg; Herbert Pfister; Andreas Ritzkowsky

2000-01-01

196

Codon 72 polymorphism of p53 and HPV type 16 E6 variants as risk factors for patients with squamous epithelial lesion of the uterine cervix.  

PubMed

The Arg/Arg genotype versus Arg/Pro or Pro/Pro at codon 72 of the p53 gene in association with human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 E6 variants has been implicated as a risk marker in cervical neoplasia. However, research on this topic has produced controversial results. The association of p53 codon 72 polymorphism alone and in combination with specific HPV 16 E6 variants with risk of developing squamous intraepithelial cervical lesion has been investigated in low and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and in HPV-negative controls from an Italian population. The data obtained showed statistically significant different distribution of p53 genotypes between healthy controls and precursor lesions, with the p53 arginine homozygous increased in high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. The T350G HPV 16 variant was the most frequent variant observed in the analyzed group of Italian women, showing a slight decreasing with the severity of the lesion. At the same time, the number of the prototype T350 slightly increased with the severity of the cytological lesions. In conclusion, p53 arginine homozygous was found to be increased in high-grade lesions, supporting the results of previous investigations indicating that HPV-positive patients with p53 Arg/Arg have an increased risk of developing pre-cancerous lesions. In addition, T350G HPV 16 variant was over-represented in p53 Arg homozygous women with cervical lesions. When p53 genotype and HPV 16 variants are considered together, no difference emerges between cases and controls so is not possible to assess that the oncogenic effect of HPV 16 T350G variant may be influenced by the p53 genotype. PMID:23124863

Burroni, E; Bisanzi, S; Sani, C; Puliti, D; Carozzi, F

2013-01-01

197

Type-specific incidence, clearance and predictors of cervical human papillomavirus infections (HPV) among young women: a prospective study in Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: While infections with human papillomavirus (HPV) are highly prevalent among sexually active young women in Uganda, information on incidence, clearance and their associated risk factors is sparse. To estimate the incidence, prevalence and determinants of HPV infections, we conducted a prospective follow-up study among 1,275 women aged 12-24 years at the time of recruitment. Women answered a questionnaire and

Cecily Banura; Sven Sandin; Leen-Jan van Doorn; Wim Quint; Bernhard Kleter; Fred Wabwire-Mangen; Edward K Mbidde; Elisabete Weiderpass

2010-01-01

198

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Oropharyngeal Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Papillomavirus (HPV) Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Share Compartir Human papillomavirus (HPV) and Oropharyngeal Cancer - Fact Sheet Human papillomavirus (HPV) can cause serious health problems, including ...

199

HUMAN T CELL RESPONSES TO HPV 16 E2 GENERATED WITH MONOCYTE-DERIVED DENDRITIC CELLS  

E-print Network

Persistent infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 has been implicated in the etiology of cervical-associated dis- eases. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Key words: human papillomavirus (HPV); E2 protein; dendritic cells neoplasia (CIN); cervical cancer; vaccines Persistent infection with oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV

Gaston, Kevin

200

HPV Vaccine Acceptance in a Clinic-Based Sample of Women in the Rural South  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a very common sexually transmitted infection linked to cervical disease. Vaccines for some types of HPV were in development at the time of the study. Purpose: The study examined HPV vaccine acceptability among underserved women in a rural region of the southeastern U.S. with high rates of cervical cancer…

Brandt, Heather M.; Sharpe, Patricia A.; McCree, Donna H.; Wright, Marcie S.; Davis, Jennifer; Hutto, Brent E.

2009-01-01

201

148?HPV, HIV, and Cancer: A Global Challenge  

PubMed Central

The seminal discovery that human papillomavirus (HPV) infection causes cervical cancer provides an opportunity for prevention by vaccination and new screening approaches. Approximately 600,000 new cancer cases per year are attributable to HPV worldwide of which about half million in less developed countries (de Martel et al, Lancet Oncology, 2012). These cancers include all cervical cancers, the vast majority of anal cancers and approximately half of cancers of the vulva, vagina, and penis. In the head and neck, HPV is clearly involved in a fraction of cancer of the oropharynx that varies between 10% and 70% by geographic area and the burden of cancer caused by tobacco use. Most HPV infection is harmless and clears spontaneously but persistent infection with high risk HPV (notably type 16) is one of the most powerful human carcinogens. HPV disrupts normal cell cycle control promoting uncontrolled cell division and the accumulation of genetic damage. Two effective prophylactic vaccines composed of HPV-16/18 and HPV-16/18/6/11 virus like particles have been introduced in many developed countries as a primary prevention strategy. HPV testing is clinically valuable for secondary prevention in triaging low grade cytology and as a test of cure following treatment. More sensitive than cytology, primary screening by HPV testing could allow screening intervals to be extended. If these prevention strategies can be implemented in developing countries, many thousands of lives could be saved. HIV-positive individuals are at increased risk of HPV infection and cancer sites associated with HPV. cART and cervical screening may avoid an increase in cervical cancer in sub-Saharan cancer.

Franceschi, Silvia

2014-01-01

202

Evaluation of a radionovela to promote HPV vaccine awareness and knowledge among Hispanic parents.  

PubMed

Hispanic women have more than a 1.5-fold increased cervical cancer incidence and mortality compared to non-Hispanic white women in the United States. The Centers for Disease Control recommends the HPV vaccine for females at ages 11 and 12 years, though it is approved for females aged 9-26 to protect against the primary types of high-risk HPV (HPV-16 and HPV-18) that cause approximately 70% of cervical cancer cases. Few culturally-tailored Spanish HPV vaccine awareness programs have been developed. This study evaluates the efficacy of a Spanish radionovela as an educational tool. Rural Hispanic parents of daughters aged 9-17 (n = 88; 78 mothers and 10 fathers) were randomized to listen to the HPV vaccine radionovela or to another public service announcement. Participants completed a 30 min pretest posttest questionnaire. Parents who listened to the HPV radionovela (intervention group) scored higher on six knowledge and belief items. They were more likely to confirm that HPV is a common infection (70% vs. 48%, P = .002), to deny that women are able to detect HPV (53% vs. 31%, P = .003), to know vaccine age recommendations (87% vs. 68%, P = .003), and to confirm multiple doses (48% vs. 26%, P = .03) than control group parents. The HPV vaccine radionovela improved HPV and HPV vaccine knowledge and attitudes. Radionovela health education may be an efficacious strategy to increase HPV vaccine awareness among Hispanic parents. PMID:21452030

Kepka, Deanna; Coronado, Gloria D; Rodriguez, Hector P; Thompson, Beti

2011-12-01

203

Comparison of Hybribio GenoArray and Roche Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Linear Array for HPV Genotyping in Anal Swab Samples.  

PubMed

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is causally associated with anal cancer, as HPV DNA is detected in up to 90% of anal intraepithelial neoplasias and anal cancers. With the gradual increase of anal cancer rates, there is a growing need to establish reliable and clinically relevant methods to detect anal cancer precursors. In resource-limited settings, HPV DNA detection is a potentially relevant tool for anal cancer screening. Here, we evaluated the performance of the Hybribio GenoArray (GA) for genotyping HPV in anal samples, against the reference standard Roche Linear Array (LA). Anal swab samples were obtained from sexually active men who have sex with men. Following DNA extraction, each sample was genotyped using GA and LA. The overall interassay agreement, type-specific, and single and multiple genotype agreements were evaluated by kappa statistics and McNemar's ?(2) tests. Using GA and LA, 68% and 76% of samples were HPV DNA positive, respectively. There was substantial interassay agreements for the detection of all HPV genotypes (? = 0.70, 86% agreement). Although LA was able to detect more genotypes per sample, the interassay agreement was acceptable (? = 0.53, 63% agreement). GA had poorer specific detection of HPV genotypes 35, 42, and 51 (? < 0.60). In conclusion, GA and LA showed good interassay agreement for the detection of most HPV genotypes in anal samples. However, the detection of HPV DNA in up to 76% of anal samples warrants further evaluation of its clinical significance. PMID:25502520

Low, Huey Chi; Silver, Michelle I; Brown, Brandon J; Leng, Chan Yoon; Blas, Magaly M; Gravitt, Patti E; Woo, Yin Ling

2015-02-01

204

Human Papillomavirus (HPV)  

MedlinePLUS

... Regular Pap tests Regular Pap tests (also called Pap smears) are still an important way to prevent cervical cancer, even for females who have had the HPV vaccine. A Pap test is a simple test done in the ...

205

Characterization of Two Types of Human Papillomaviruses in Lesions of Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) found in lesions of 11 patients suffering from epidermodysplasia verruciformis were compared to HPV type 1 (HPV-1) and HPV type 2 (HPV-2) previously characterized in plantar and common warts, respectively. Complementary RNAs (cRNAs) to HPV-1, HPV-2, and viruses obtained from two patients with epidermodysplasia verruciformis (J.D. HPV and J.K. HPV) were used in cRNA\\\\cdot DNA filter hybridization

Gerard Orth; Stefania Jablonska; Michel Favre; Odile Croissant; Maria Jarzabek-Chorzelska; Genowefa Rzesa

1978-01-01

206

HPV Vaccine Information for Young Women  

MedlinePLUS

... in time. Which girls/women should receive HPV vaccination? HPV vaccination is recommended with either vaccine for ... help prevent fainting and injuries. Why is HPV vaccination only recommended for women through age 26? HPV ...

207

Female genital mutilation.  

PubMed

Female genital mutilation, also misleadingly known as female circumcision, is usually performed on girls ranging in from 1 week to puberty. Immediate physical complications include severe pain, shock, infection, bleeding, acute urinary infection, tetanus, and death. Longterm problems include chronic pain, difficulties with micturition and menstruation, pelvic infection leading to infertility, and prolonged and obstructed labor during childbirth. An estimated 80 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation. In Britain alone an estimated 10,000 girls are currently at risk. Religious, cultural, medical, and moral grounds rationalize the custom which is practiced primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab world, Malaysia, Indonesia, and among migrant populations in Western countries. According to WHO it is correlated with poverty, illiteracy, and the low status of women. Women who escape mutilation are not sought in marriage. WHO, the UN Population Fund, the UN Children's Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child have issued declarations on the eradication of female genital mutilation. In Britain, local authorities have intervened to prevent parents from mutilating their daughters. In 1984, the Inter-African Committee Against Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting Women and Children was established to work toward eliminating female genital mutilation and other damaging customs. National committees in 26 African countries coordinate projects run by local people using theater, dance, music, and storytelling for communication. In Australia, Canada, Europe, and the US women have organized to prevent the practice among vulnerable migrants and refugees. PMID:8400925

Ladjali, M; Rattray, T W; Walder, R J

1993-08-21

208

Oral HPV Infection and Sexuality: A Cross-Sectional Study in Women  

PubMed Central

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the main risk factor for cervical cancers and is associated with close to 36% of oropharyngeal cancers. There is increasing evidence that oral HPV transmission is related to sexual behavior but to our knowledge studies that involve women who have sex with women have not been performed. We examined the prevalence of oral HPV according to sexual behavior among a population-based sample of 118 women and have made some inferences of possible predictors of oral HPV infection. Women were categorized as heterosexual (history of vaginal sex and/or oral sex with males only, n = 75), bisexual (history of vaginal sex and oral sex with females, n = 32) and other (no history of vaginal sex but oral sex with females [homosexuals], virgins and women with incomplete sexual exposure data, n = 11) The prevalence of oral HPV infection was 12/118 (10.2%) for the overall study population and was not significantly different between heterosexual and bisexual women (10.7% (8/75) vs. 12.5% (4/32), p = 0.784). There was no oral HPV detected among homosexual women, virgins or among women where sexual exposure was unknown. Never smokers were more likely to be oral HPV+ compared to former smokers (Adjusted Odds Ratio (Adj OR) = 0.1, 95% CI, 0.0–1.1) and there was no difference in risk between never smokers and current smokers (Adj OR = 0.7, 95% CI, 0.1–4.6). Twenty-five percent (3/12) of oral HPV+ women had a history of HPV and/or genital warts compared to 9% (10/106) of oral HPV-women (p = 0.104). For the women with a history of vaginal sex (n = 110), oral HPV status was statistically significantly different according to oral sex exposure (p = 0.039). A higher proportion of oral HPV-positive women reported that they had no history of oral sex exposure compared to oral HPV-negative women (4/12, 33% vs. 7/98, 8%). The prevalence of cervical HPV infection did not vary between heterosexuals and bisexuals (35.7% (25/70) vs. 35.5% (11/31), p-value 0.411) and for all other women the cervical HPV prevalence was significantly lower (11.1%, 1/9). Our study suggests that smoking and sexual behavior involving males rather than female partners may be possible predictors of oral HPV infection in women. Further studies with larger sample size are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:21747715

Ragin, Camille; Edwards, Robert; Larkins-Pettigrew, Margaret; Taioli, Emanuela; Eckstein, Stacy; Thurman, Natalie; Bloome, Jessica; Markovic, Nina

2011-01-01

209

Reduced Prevalence of Oral Human Papillomavirus (HPV) 4 Years after Bivalent HPV Vaccination in a Randomized Clinical Trial in Costa Rica  

PubMed Central

Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, particularly with type 16, causes a growing fraction of oropharyngeal cancers, whose incidence is increasing, mainly in developed countries. In a double-blind controlled trial conducted to investigate vaccine efficacy (VE) of the bivalent HPV 16/18 vaccine against cervical infections and lesions, we estimated VE against prevalent oral HPV infections 4 years after vaccination. Methods and Findings A total of 7,466 women 18–25 years old were randomized (1?1) to receive the HPV16/18 vaccine or hepatitis A vaccine as control. At the final blinded 4-year study visit, 5,840 participants provided oral specimens (91·9% of eligible women) to evaluate VE against oral infections. Our primary analysis evaluated prevalent oral HPV infection among all vaccinated women with oral and cervical HPV results. Corresponding VE against prevalent cervical HPV16/18 infection was calculated for comparison. Oral prevalence of identifiable mucosal HPV was relatively low (1·7%). Approximately four years after vaccination, there were 15 prevalent HPV16/18 infections in the control group and one in the vaccine group, for an estimated VE of 93·3% (95% CI?=?63% to 100%). Corresponding efficacy against prevalent cervical HPV16/18 infection for the same cohort at the same visit was 72·0% (95% CI?=?63% to 79%) (p versus oral VE?=?0·04). There was no statistically significant protection against other oral HPV infections, though power was limited for these analyses. Conclusions HPV prevalence four years after vaccination with the ASO4-adjuvanted HPV16/18 vaccine was much lower among women in the vaccine arm compared to the control arm, suggesting that the vaccine affords strong protection against oral HPV16/18 infection, with potentially important implications for prevention of increasingly common HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancer. ClinicalTrials.gov, Registry number NCT00128661 PMID:23873171

Herrero, Rolando; Quint, Wim; Hildesheim, Allan; Gonzalez, Paula; Struijk, Linda; Katki, Hormuzd A.; Porras, Carolina; Schiffman, Mark; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Solomon, Diane; Jimenez, Silvia; Schiller, John T.; Lowy, Douglas R.; van Doorn, Leen-Jan; Wacholder, Sholom; Kreimer, Aimée R.

2013-01-01

210

Persistent genital arousal and restless genitalia: sexual dysfunction or subtype of vulvodynia?  

PubMed

We conducted a literature review of patients' conditions described under persistent genital arousal disorder and restless genital syndrome, vulvodynia and male genital skin pain of unknown aetiology (penoscrotodynia). Our aim is to improve the understanding of the condition, unify nomenclature and promote evidence-based practice. The most prominent symptom in persistent genital arousal disorder and restless genital syndrome is a spontaneous, unwelcomed, intrusive and distressing vulval sensation. There are similarities between the clinical presentation of vulvodynia, penoscrotodynia, persistent genital arousal disorder and restless genital syndrome patients. The aetiology of persistent genital arousal disorder and restless genital syndrome, similar to vulvodynia, could be better explained in terms of neuro-vascular dysfunction, genital peripheral neuropathy and/or dysfunctional micro-vascular arterio-venous shunting. Erythromelalgia lends itself to explain some cases of restless genital syndrome, who have concurrent restless legs syndrome; and therefore draw parallels with the red scrotum syndrome. The published literature supports the concept of classifying restless genital syndrome as a sub-type of vulvodynia rather than sexual dysfunction. PMID:23970620

Markos, A R; Dinsmore, Wallace

2013-11-01

211

HPV Vaccine - Questions and Answers  

MedlinePLUS

... the HPV vaccine was introduced. Q: How long will the HPV vaccine last? A: Protection provided by ... the ability to provide protection over time. Q: Will the vaccine require a booster? A: Currently in ...

212

Status of HPV Vaccine in the ICSN Countries  

Cancer.gov

Australia has approved the HPV vaccine. Brazil has approved the HPV vaccine. Canada has approved the HPV vaccine. Denmark has approved the HPV vaccine. Finland has not approved the HPV vaccine. France has approved the HPV vaccine. Germany has approved the HPV vaccine. Hungary has the HPV vaccine under review. Iceland has approved the HPV vaccine. Italy has approved the HPV vaccine. Ireland has not approved the HPV vaccine. Japan has the HPV vaccine under review.

213

A new medical treatment with botulinum toxin in persistent genital arousal disorder: successful treatment of two cases.  

PubMed

Persistent genital arousal disorder is described in a spontaneous, persistent, and uncontrollable genital arousal in women, with or without orgasm or genital engorgement, unrelated to any feelings of sexual desire. This study aimed to argue that application of Botulinum toxin in the periclitoral region in order to block the dorsal nerve of the clitoris might decrease symptoms of persistent genital arousal disorder. The authors presented 2 cases, in which application of Botulinum toxin resulted in improvement of the symptoms of persistent genital arousal disorder. Botulinum toxin type A treatment protocol is seen as a promising application for the persistent genital arousal disorder. However, further controlled studies in large samples are needed. PMID:24168013

Nazik, Hakan; Api, Murat; Aytan, Hakan; Narin, Raziye

2014-01-01

214

Global Improvement in Genotyping of Human Papillomavirus DNA: the 2011 HPV LabNet International Proficiency Study  

PubMed Central

Accurate and internationally comparable human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA genotyping is essential for HPV vaccine research and for HPV surveillance. The HPV Laboratory Network (LabNet) has designed international proficiency studies that can be issued regularly and in a reproducible manner. The 2011 HPV genotyping proficiency panel contained 43 coded samples composed of purified plasmids of 16 HPV types (HPV6, -11, -16, -18, -31, -33, -35, -39, -45, -51, -52, -56, -58, -59, -66, -68a, and -68b) and 3 extraction controls. Tests that detected 50 IU of HPV16 and HPV18 and 500 genome equivalents for the other 14 HPV types in both single and multiple infections were considered proficient. Ninety-six laboratories worldwide submitted 134 data sets. Twenty-five different HPV genotyping assay methods were used, including the Linear Array, line blot/INNO-LiPA, PapilloCheck, and PCR Luminex assays. The major oncogenic HPV types, HPV16 and HPV18, were proficiently detected in 97.0% (113/116) and 87.0% (103/118) of the data sets, respectively. In 2011, 51 data sets (39%) were 100% proficient for the detection of at least one HPV type, and 37 data sets (28%) were proficient for all 16 HPV types; this was an improvement over the panel results from the 2008 and 2010 studies, when <25 data sets (23% and 19% for 2008 and 2010, respectively) were fully proficient. The improvement was also evident for the 54 laboratories that had also participated in the previous proficiency studies. In conclusion, a continuing global proficiency program has documented worldwide improvement in the comparability and reliability of HPV genotyping assay performances. PMID:24478473

Eklund, Carina; Forslund, Ola; Wallin, Keng-Ling

2014-01-01

215

Improved Amplification of Genital Human Papillomaviruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

system (McNemar's x2 5 17.2; P < 0.001). The proportion of multiple infections detected increased with the PGMY09\\/11 system (40.0 versus 33.8% of positive infections). HPV types 26, 35, 42, 45, 52, 54, 55, 59, 66, 73, and MM7 were detected at least 25% more often with the PGMY09\\/11 system. The PGMY09\\/11 primer system affords an increase in type-specific amplification

P. E. GRAVITT; C. L. PEYTON; T. Q. ALESSI; C. M. WHEELER; F. COUTLEE; A. HILDESHEIM

216

Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis: HPV Genotypes and Risk of High-Grade Laryngeal Neoplasia  

PubMed Central

Patients with recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) in Norway treated between 1987 and 2009 were recruited to this cohort study. They were followed from disease onset and data recorded until January 2012. Here, we describe the distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes, the prevalence of multiple HPV infections, and the risk of high-grade laryngeal neoplasia and respiratory tract invasive carcinoma in a large cohort of patients with RRP. We also examined whether HPV genotype, gender, age or clinical course are risk factors for this development. Clinical records and histological specimens were reviewed. Using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded biopsies, HPV genotyping were performed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays identifying 15 HPV types. HPV-negative specimens were analyzed by metagenomic sequencing. Paraffin blocks were available in 224/238 patients. The DNA quality was approved in 221/224 cases. HPV DNA was detected in 207/221 patients and all were HPV 6 or HPV 11 positive, comprising HPV 6 in 133/207, HPV 11 in 40/207 cases and HPV 6/11 in 15/207 cases. Co-infection with one or two high-risk HPV types together with HPV 6 or HPV 11 was present in 19/207 patients. Metagenomic sequencing of 14 HPV-negative specimens revealed HPV 8 in one case. In total, 39/221 patients developed high-grade laryngeal neoplasia. 8/221 patients developed carcinoma of the respiratory tract (six patients with laryngeal carcinoma and two patients with lung carcinoma). High-grade laryngeal neoplasias were found more frequently in HPV-negative versus HPV-positive patients, (RR?=?2.35, 95% CI 1.1, 4.99), as well as respiratory tract carcinomas (RR?=?48, 95% CI 10.72, 214.91). In summary, the majority of RRP were associated with HPV 6 and/or 11. HPV-negative RRP biopsies occurred more frequently in adult-onset patients, and were associated with an increased risk of laryngeal neoplasia and carcinoma in the respiratory tract. PMID:24918765

Omland, Turid; Lie, Kathrine A.; Akre, Harriet; Sandlie, Lars Erik; Jebsen, Peter; Sandvik, Leiv; Nymoen, Dag Andre; Bzhalava, Davit; Dillner, Joakim; Brøndbo, Kjell

2014-01-01

217

Women Have a Preference for Their Male Partner to Be HPV Vaccinated  

PubMed Central

Background Peer influence and social networking can change female adolescent and young adult behavior. Peer influence on preferences for male human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has not been documented. The primary aim of this study was to determine if women had preferences about male sexual partner HPV vaccination receipt. Methods and Findings A prospective survey of women 18–26 years of age was conducted at an urban university student health clinic. Education about the two HPV vaccines, cervical cancer and genital warts was provided. Women self-reported their demographic and medical history data, as well as their own preferences for HPV vaccine and their preferences for their male partner HPV vaccine using a 5 point Likert scale. 601 women, mean age of 21.5 years (SD 2.4), participated between 2011 and 2012. Nearly 95% of respondents were heterosexual; condoms and contraceptives were used in over half of the population. Regardless of the woman's vaccination status, women had significantly higher (strongly agree/agree) preferences for the male partner being vaccinated with HPV4 than not caring if he was vaccinated (63.6% vs. 13.1%, p<0.001). This preference was repeated for sexual risk factors and past reproductive medical history. Women who received HPV4 compared to those choosing HPV2 had a significantly lower proportion of preferences for not caring if the male partner was vaccinated (13% vs. 22%, p?=?0.015). Conclusions Women preferred a HPV vaccinated male partner. Peer messaging might change the male HPV vaccination uptake. PMID:24828237

Harper, Diane Medved; Alexander, Natalie Marya; Ahern, Debra Ann; Comes, Johanna Claire; Smith, Melissa Smith; Heutinck, Melinda Ann; Handley, Sandra Martin

2014-01-01

218

Integrating epidemiology, psychology, and economics to achieve HPV vaccination targets.  

PubMed

Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines provide an opportunity to reduce the incidence of cervical cancer. Optimization of cervical cancer prevention programs requires anticipation of the degree to which the public will adhere to vaccination recommendations. To compare vaccination levels driven by public perceptions with levels that are optimal for maximizing the community's overall utility, we develop an epidemiological game-theoretic model of HPV vaccination. The model is parameterized with survey data on actual perceptions regarding cervical cancer, genital warts, and HPV vaccination collected from parents of vaccine-eligible children in the United States. The results suggest that perceptions of survey respondents generate vaccination levels far lower than those that maximize overall health-related utility for the population. Vaccination goals may be achieved by addressing concerns about vaccine risk, particularly those related to sexual activity among adolescent vaccine recipients. In addition, cost subsidizations and shifts in federal coverage plans may compensate for perceived and real costs of HPV vaccination to achieve public health vaccination targets. PMID:19015536

Basu, Sanjay; Chapman, Gretchen B; Galvani, Alison P

2008-12-01

219

International standardization and classification of human papillomavirus types.  

PubMed

Established Human Papillomavirus (HPV) types, up to HPV202, belong to 49 species in five genera. International standardization in classification and quality standards for HPV type designation and detection is ensured by the International HPV Reference Center. The center i) receives clones of potentially novel HPV types, re-clones and re-sequences them. If confirmed, an HPV type number is assigned and posted on www.hpvcenter.se. ii) distributes reference clone samples, for academic research, under Material Transfer Agreements agreed with the originator. iii) provides preliminary checking of whether new sequences represent novel types iv) issues international proficiency panels for HPV genotyping. The rate of HPV type discovery is increasing, probably because of metagenomic sequencing. ?-genus today contains 79HPV types and 27 species, surpassing ? and ? genera with 65 and 51HPV types, respectively. Regular issuing of proficiency panels based on HPV reference clones has resulted in global improvement of HPV genotyping services. PMID:25577151

Bzhalava, Davit; Eklund, Carina; Dillner, Joakim

2015-02-01

220

Human Immunodeficiency Viruses Appear Compartmentalized to the Female Genital Tract in Cross-Sectional Analyses but Genital Lineages Do Not Persist Over Time  

PubMed Central

Background.?Whether unique human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV) genotypes occur in the genital tract is important for vaccine development and management of drug resistant viruses. Multiple cross-sectional studies suggest HIV is compartmentalized within the female genital tract. We hypothesize that bursts of HIV replication and/or proliferation of infected cells captured in cross-sectional analyses drive compartmentalization but over time genital-specific viral lineages do not form; rather viruses mix between genital tract and blood. Methods.?Eight women with ongoing HIV replication were studied during a period of 1.5 to 4.5 years. Multiple viral sequences were derived by single-genome amplification of the HIV C2-V5 region of env from genital secretions and blood plasma. Maximum likelihood phylogenies were evaluated for compartmentalization using 4 statistical tests. Results.?In cross-sectional analyses compartmentalization of genital from blood viruses was detected in three of eight women by all tests; this was associated with tissue specific clades containing multiple monotypic sequences. In longitudinal analysis, the tissues-specific clades did not persist to form viral lineages. Rather, across women, HIV lineages were comprised of both genital tract and blood sequences. Conclusions.?The observation of genital-specific HIV clades only in cross-sectional analysis and an absence of genital-specific lineages in longitudinal analyses suggest a dynamic interchange of HIV variants between the female genital tract and blood. PMID:23315326

Bull, Marta E.; Heath, Laura M.; McKernan-Mullin, Jennifer L.; Kraft, Kelli M.; Acevedo, Luis; Hitti, Jane E.; Cohn, Susan E.; Tapia, Kenneth A.; Holte, Sarah E.; Dragavon, Joan A.; Coombs, Robert W.; Mullins, James I.; Frenkel, Lisa M.

2013-01-01

221

Molecular epidemiology and genotype distribution of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) among Arab women in the state of Qatar.  

PubMed

BackgroundHuman Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection is the major cause of cervical cancer worldwide. With limited data available on HPV prevalence in the Arab countries, this study aimed to identify the prevalence and genotypic distribution of HPV in the State of Qatar.Methods3008 cervical samples, exclusively of women with Arabic origin residing in Qatar were collected from the Women¿s Hospital and Primary Health Care Corporation in Doha, State of Qatar. HPV DNA detection was done using GP5+/6+ primers based real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay followed by the usage of HPV type specific primers based RT- PCR reactions and Sanger sequencing for genotype identification.ResultsSimilar prevalence rates of HPV infection was identified in both Qatari and non-Qatari women at 6.2% and 5.9% respectively. HPV prevalence rate of 5.8% and 18.4% was identified in women with normal cytology and in women with abnormal cytology respectively. HPV 81, 11 and 16, in decreasing order were the most commonly identified genotypes. HPV 81 was the most frequent low-risk genotype among women with both normal (74.0%) and abnormal (33.3%) cytology. HPV 16 (4.6%) was identified as the predominant high-risk HPV genotype among women with normal cytology and HPV 16, HPV 18, and HPV 56 (22.2% each) were the most common identified high-risk genotypes in women with abnormal cytology.ConclusionsThe overall HPV prevalence in Arab women in Qatar was identified as 6.1% with an increased HPV prevalence seen in women with abnormal cytology results and no significant trends seen with age. In contrast to Western countries, we report a varied genotypic profile of HPV with a high prevalence of low-risk HPV genotype 81 among the Arab women residing in Qatar. PMID:25424736

Bansal, Devendra; Elmi, Asha A; Skariah, Sini; Haddad, Pascale; Abu-Raddad, Laith J; Al Hamadi, Aysha H; Mohamed-Nady, Nady; Affifi, Nahla M; Ghedira, Randa; Hassen, Elham; Al-Thani, Asma; Al-Ansari, Afaf; Sultan, Ali A

2014-11-26

222

AKT1 Loss Correlates with Episomal HPV16 in Vulval Intraepithelial Neoplasia  

PubMed Central

Anogenital malignancy has a significant association with high-risk mucosal alpha-human papillomaviruses (alpha-PV), particularly HPV 16 and 18 whereas extragenital SCC has been linked to the presence of cutaneous beta and gamma–HPV types. Vulval skin may be colonised by both mucosal and cutaneous (beta-, mu-, nu- and gamma-) PV types, but there are few systematic studies investigating their presence and their relative contributions to vulval malignancy. Dysregulation of AKT, a serine/threonine kinase, plays a significant role in several cancers. Mucosal HPV types can increase AKT phosphorylation and activity whereas cutaneous HPV types down-regulate AKT1 expression, probably to weaken the cornified envelope to promote viral release. We assessed the presence of mucosal and cutaneous HPV in vulval malignancy and its relationship to AKT1 expression in order to establish the corresponding HPV and AKT1 profile of normal vulval skin, vulval intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) and vulval squamous cell carcinoma (vSCC). We show that HPV16 is the principle HPV type present in VIN, there were few detectable beta types present and AKT1 loss was not associated with the presence of these cutaneous HPV. We show that HPV16 early gene expression reduced AKT1 expression in transgenic mouse epidermis. AKT1 loss in our VIN cohort correlated with presence of high copy number, episomal HPV16. Maintained AKT1 expression correlated with low copy number, an increased frequency of integration and increased HPV16E7 expression, a finding we replicated in another untyped cohort of vSCC. Since expression of E7 reflects tumour progression, these findings suggest that AKT1 loss associated with episomal HPV16 may have positive prognostic implications in vulval malignancy. PMID:22685591

Gibbon, Karen; Byrne, Carolyn R.; Arbeit, Jeffrey M.; Harwood, Catherine A.; O'Shaughnessy, Ryan F. L.

2012-01-01

223

Candidate microbicide PPCM blocks human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in cell and tissue cultures and prevents genital herpes in a murine model.  

PubMed

A structurally novel candidate microbicide, PPCM, which is formed from the reaction of D,L-mandelic acid with sulfuric acid, provides activity against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) and is not cytotoxic. The objectives of the current studies were to comprehensively evaluate the activity of PPCM in cell and explant cultures, explore the possibility of combining PPCM with HIV-specific reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and evaluate the efficacy of a formulated gel against genital herpes in a murine model. PPCM inhibited infection by laboratory and clinical R5 and X4 clade B and clade C HIV strains in cell culture. Ectocervical and endocervical tissue explants exposed to HIV-1(BaL) in the presence of PPCM were protected (50% inhibitory concentrations [IC(50)] of 3.9 microg/ml for ectocervix and 3.1 microg/ml for endocervix), and transfer of virus to target T cells via migratory cells was significantly impaired (IC(50) of 35.7 microg/ml for ectocervix and 54.6 microg/ml for endocervix). The drug also blocked infection by cell-associated virus. Combinations of PPCM with UC-781 or PMPA in vitro exhibited additive anti-HIV activity. PPCM was incorporated into stable, low-pH gel formulations at concentrations of 0.4% and 4%. Both gels prevented genital herpesvirus infection in mice, even when virus was introduced in human seminal plasma. The abilities of PPCM to inhibit primary HIV isolates, reduce infection by cell-associated virus, and transfer of HIV from migratory to T cells, combined with the complete protection provided by formulated gel against genital herpes, indicate that this drug is an excellent candidate for inclusion in a combination microbicide and would provide protection against both HIV and HSV. PMID:18434407

Mesquita, Pedro M M; Wilson, Sarah S; Manlow, Philippe; Fischetti, Lucia; Keller, Marla J; Herold, Betsy C; Shattock, Robin J

2008-07-01

224

Serum antibody response to Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections detected by a novel ELISA technique based on denatured recombinant HPV16 L1, L2, E4, E6 and E7 proteins  

PubMed Central

Background Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the primary etiological agents of cervical cancer and are also involved in the development of other tumours (skin, head and neck). Serological survey of the HPV infections is important to better elucidate their natural history and to disclose antigen determinants useful for vaccine development. At present, the analysis of the HPV-specific antibodies has not diagnostic value for the viral infections, and new approaches are needed to correlate the antibody response to the disease outcome. The aim of this study is to develop a novel ELISA, based on five denatured recombinant HPV16 proteins, to be used for detection HPV-specific antibodies. Methods The HPV16 L1, L2, E4, E6 and E7 genes were cloned in a prokaryotic expression vector and expressed as histidine-tagged proteins. These proteins, in a denatured form, were used in ELISA as coating antigens. Human sera were collected from women with abnormal PAP smear enrolled during an ongoing multicenter HPV-PathogenISS study in Italy, assessing the HPV-related pathogenetic mechanisms of progression of cervical cancer precursor lesions. Negative human sera were collected from patients affected by other infectious agents. All the HPV-positive sera were also subjected to an avidity test to assess the binding strength in the antigen-antibody complexes. Results Most of the sera showed a positive reactivity to the denatured HPV16 proteins: 82% of the sera from HPV16 infected women and 89% of the sera from women infected by other HPV genotypes recognised at least one of the HPV16 proteins. The percentages of samples showing reactivity to L1, L2 and E7 were similar, but only a few serum samples reacted to E6 and E4. Most sera bound the antigens with medium and high avidity index, suggesting specific antigen-antibody reactions. Conclusion This novel ELISA, based on multiple denatured HPV16 antigens, is able to detect antibodies in women infected by HPV16 and it is not genotype-specific, as it detects antibodies also in women infected by other genital HPVs. The assay is easy to perform and has low cost, making it suitable for monitoring the natural history of HPV infections as well as for detecting pre-existing HPV antibodies in women who receive VLP-based HPV vaccination. PMID:17150135

Di Bonito, Paola; Grasso, Felicia; Mochi, Stefania; Accardi, Luisa; Donà, Maria Gabriella; Branca, Margherita; Costa, Silvano; Mariani, Luciano; Agarossi, Alberto; Ciotti, Marco; Syrjänen, Kari; Giorgi, Colomba

2006-01-01

225

Natural History of Anal vs Oral HPV Infection in HIV-Infected Men and Women  

PubMed Central

Background.?Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected individuals are at greater risk for human papillomavirus (HPV)–associated anal than oropharyngeal cancers. The prevalence of anal vs oral HPV infections is higher in this population, but whether this is explained by higher incidence or persistence is unknown. Methods.?Oral rinse and anal swab samples were collected semiannually from 404 HIV-infected adults in Baltimore, Maryland. Samples were tested for 37 HPV types using PGMY09/11 primers and reverse line-blot hybridization. Risk factors for HPV persistence were explored using adjusted Wei-Lin-Weissfeld models. Results.?The prevalence (84% vs 28%), incidence (145 vs 31 per 1000 person-months), and 12-month persistence (54% vs 29%) were higher for anal vs oral HPV infections, respectively (each P < .001). Heterosexual men had lower incidence of anal HPV than men who have sex with men and women, but a higher incidence of oral HPV infection (test of interaction P < 0.001). In adjusted analyses, risk factors for HPV persistence included prevalent vs incident (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 4.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.5–4.8) and anal vs oral HPV infections (aHR = 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2–1.9). Conclusions.?The higher incidence and persistence of anal vs oral HPV infections likely contributes to the higher burden of anal as compared to oral HPV-associated cancers in HIV-infected individuals. PMID:23596319

Beachler, Daniel C.; D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Sugar, Elizabeth A.; Xiao, Wiehong; Gillison, Maura L.

2013-01-01

226

HPV16 synthetic long peptide (HPV16-SLP) vaccination therapy of patients with advanced or recurrent HPV16-induced gynecological carcinoma, a phase II trial  

PubMed Central

Background Human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV16)-induced gynecological cancers, in particular cervical cancers, are found in many women worldwide. The HPV16 encoded oncoproteins E6 and E7 are tumor-specific targets for the adaptive immune system permitting the development of an HPV16-synthetic long peptide (SLP) vaccine with an excellent treatment profile in animal models. Here, we determined the toxicity, safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of the HPV16 SLP vaccine in patients with advanced or recurrent HPV16-induced gynecological carcinoma. Methods Patients with HPV16-positive advanced or recurrent gynecological carcinoma (n?=?20) were subcutaneously vaccinated with an HPV16-SLP vaccine consisting of a mix of 13 HPV16 E6 and HPV16 E7 overlapping long peptides in Montanide ISA-51 adjuvant. The primary endpoints were safety, toxicity and tumor regression as determined by RECIST. In addition, the vaccine-induced T-cell response was assessed by proliferation and associated cytokine production as well as IFN?-ELISPOT. Results No systemic toxicity beyond CTCAE grade II was observed. In a few patients transient flu-like symptoms were observed. In 9 out of 16 tested patients vaccine-induced HPV16-specific proliferative responses were detected which were associated with the production of IFN?, TNF?, IL-5 and/or IL-10. ELISPOT analysis revealed a vaccine-induced immune response in 11 of the 13 tested patients. The capacity to respond to the vaccine was positively correlated to the patient’s immune status as reflected by their response to common recall antigens at the start of the trial. Median survival was 12.6 ± 9.1?months. No regression of tumors was observed among the 12 evaluable patients. Nineteen patients died of progressive disease. Conclusions The HPV16-SLP vaccine was well tolerated and induced a broad IFN?-associated T-cell response in patients with advanced or recurrent HPV16-induced gynecological carcinoma but neither induced tumor regression nor prevented progressive disease. We, therefore, plan to use this vaccine in combination with chemotherapy and immunomodulation. PMID:23557172

2013-01-01

227

A retrospective analysis of the costs and management of genital warts in Italy  

PubMed Central

Background In Italy the prevalence of genital warts in women (15–64 years) is approximately 0.6% with an incidence of 0.4% per year. Treatments for GW are usually long, with moderate success and high costs. The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic-therapeutic pathway, duration and setting of treatment, costs of episodes of condyloma in a population attending a regional STI clinic in Piedmont. Methods This was a retrospective observational study conducted using medical records of outpatients who first visited the STI Clinic of San Lazzaro Dermatological Hospital in 2008. The patients’ medical histories were analysed for episodes that occurred and were cleared in 18 months following the initial visit. Data on screening methods for STIs, type of diagnosis for condyloma, treatment type, treatment setting, and anatomic lesion site were obtained from medical records. The costs were calculated for each episode. Results A total of 450 episodes were analysed (297 men,153 women). The most frequently affected anatomic site was the genital area (74%) in both genders. With regard to treatment setting, 78.44% of patients received outpatient treatment at the STI clinic, 4% were treated at home, and 0.22% were hospitalised; 11.11% were treated in multiple settings. The mean number of treatments per episode was 2.03; although many patients received only 1 treatment (n?=?207, 46%), exspecially cryotherapy or diathermy coagulation (64.73% versus 28.02% of episodes, respectively). The mean episode duration was 80.74 days. The mean cost (in 2011 euros) for an episode was €158.46?±?257.77; the mean costswere €79.13?±?57.40 for diagnosis and €79.33?±?233.60 for treatment. The mean cost for treatment in a STI-Clinic setting was €111.39?±?76.72, that for home treatment was €160.88?±?95.69, and that for hospital care was €2825.94. Conclusions The treatment of and associated costs for genital warts are significant. Several factors affect the cost, and internal STI clinic protocols, such as the 6 month window used to consider a recurrence or new diagnosis, create bias. Nonetheless, our findings how costs similar to those reported in the international literature and should be considered when deciding on which HPV vaccination programs should be provided by the public health system. PMID:24106891

2013-01-01

228

Prevalence of HPV 16 and HPV 18 Lineages in Galicia, Spain  

PubMed Central

Genetic variants of human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 (HPV16/18) could differ in their cancer risk. We studied the prevalence and association with high-grade cervical lesions of different HPV16/18 variant lineages in a case-control study including 217 cases (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or grade 3 or worse: CIN2 or CIN3+) and 116 controls (no CIN2 or CIN3+ in two-year follow-up). HPV lineages were determined by sequencing the long control region (LCR) and the E6 gene. Phylogenetic analysis of HPV16 confirmed that isolates clustered into previously described lineages: A (260, 87.5%), B (4, 1.3%), C (8, 2.7%), and D (25, 8.4%). Lineage D/lineage A strains were, respectively, detected in 4/82 control patients, 19/126 CIN3+ cases (OR?=?3.1, 95%CI: 1.0–12.9, p?=?0.04), 6/1 glandular high-grade lesions (OR?=?123, 95%CI: 9.7–5713.6, p<0.0001), and 4/5 invasive lesions (OR?=?16.4, 95%CI: 2.2–113.7, p?=?0.002). HPV18 clustered in lineages A (32, 88.9%) and B (4, 11.1%). Lineage B/lineage A strains were respectively detected in 1/23 control patients and 2/5 CIN3+ cases (OR?=?9.2, 95%CI: 0.4–565.4, p?=?0.12). In conclusion, lineages A of HPV16/18 were predominant in Spain. Lineage D of HPV16 was associated with increased risk for CIN3+, glandular high-grade lesions, and invasive lesions compared with lineage A. Lineage B of HPV18 may be associated with increased risk for CIN3+ compared with lineage A, but the association was not significant. Large well-designed studies are needed before the application of HPV lineage detection in clinical settings. PMID:25111834

Pérez, Sonia; Cid, Ana; Iñarrea, Amparo; Pato, Mónica; Lamas, María José; Couso, Bárbara; Gil, Margarita; Álvarez, María Jesús; Rey, Sonia; López-Miragaya, Isabel; Melón, Santiago; de Oña, María

2014-01-01

229

Berberine modulates AP1 activity to suppress HPV transcription and downstream signaling to induce growth arrest and apoptosis in cervical cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background-  Specific types of high risk Human papillomaviruses (HR-HPVs) particularly, HPV types 16 and 18 cause cervical cancer and while\\u000a the two recently developed vaccines against these HPV types are prophylactic in nature, therapeutic options for treatment\\u000a and management of already existing HPV infection are not available as yet. Because transcription factor, Activator Protein-1\\u000a (AP-1) plays a central role in HPV-mediated

Sutapa Mahata; Alok C Bharti; Shirish Shukla; Abhishek Tyagi; Syed A Husain; Bhudev C Das

2011-01-01

230

Assessing the burden of HPV-related cancers in Appalachia  

PubMed Central

Appalachia is a geographic region with existing cancer disparities, yet little is known about its burden of HPV-related cancers outside of cervical cancer. We assessed the burden of HPV-related cancers in three Appalachian states and made comparisons to non-Appalachian regions. We examined 1996–2008 cancer registry data for Ohio, Kentucky, West Virginia and the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) 9 program. For each gender, we calculated age-adjusted incidence rates per 100,000 population for each HPV-related cancer type (cervical, vaginal, vulvar, penile, anal and oral cavity and pharyngeal cancers) and all HPV-related cancers combined. Incidence rates among females for all HPV-related cancers combined were higher in Appalachian Kentucky [24.6 (95% CI: 23.5–25.7)], West Virginia [22.8 (95% CI: 22.0–23.6)] and Appalachian Ohio [21.9 (95% CI: 21.0–22.8)] than SEER 9 [18.8 (95% CI: 18.6–19.0)]. Similar disparities were found among females when examining cervical and vulvar cancers separately. Among males, Appalachian [21.3 (95% CI: 20.2–22.4)] and non-Appalachian [21.9 (95% CI: 21.2–22.7)] Kentucky had higher incidence rates for all HPV-related cancers combined than SEER 9 [18.3 (95% CI: 18.1–18.6)]. The incidence rate of all HPV-related cancers combined was higher among males from Appalachian Ohio compared with those from non-Appalachian Ohio [17.6 (95% CI: 16.8–18.5) vs. 16.3 (95% CI: 16.0–16.6)]. Our study suggests that HPV-related cancer disparities exist in Appalachia beyond the known high cervical cancer incidence rates. These results have important public health implications by beginning to demonstrate the potential impact that widespread HPV vaccination could have in Appalachia. PMID:23143774

Reiter, Paul L.; Fisher, James L.; Hudson, Alana G.; Tucker, Thomas C.; Plascak, Jesse J.; Paskett, Electra D.

2013-01-01

231

Gene chip technology used in the detection of HPV infection in esophageal cancer of Kazakh Chinese in Xinjiang Province.  

PubMed

This study was aimed to screen human papillomavirus (HPV) types associated with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma of Kazakh in Xinjiang using the gene chip technique and study the clinical significance of this application. The DNAs were collected from esophageal squamous cell carcinoma tissues and healthy esophageal mucosa of Kazakh adults in Xinjiang, and amplified firstly using HPV MY09/11 and then using HPV G5+/6+ to screen positive HPV specimens. These positive specimens were further detected by the gene chip technique to screen highly pathogenic HPV types. After determination with nested PCR amplification with HPV MY09/11 and G5+/6+, the infection rate of HPV was 66.67% in the esophageal squamous cell carcinoma group and 12.12% in the healthy control group. By testing the positive HPV specimens from the esophageal squamous cell carcinoma group, the infection rate of HPV16 was 97.72% and the co-infection rate of HPV16 and HPV18 was 2.27%. HPV16 infection may be involved in the development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Xinjiang Hazakh adults. PMID:24939296

Chen, Wei-gang; Yang, Chun-mei; Xu, Li-hong; Zhang, Ning; Liu, Xiao-yan; Ma, Yun-gui; Huo, Xiao-ling; Han, Yu-sheng; Tian, De-an; Zheng, Yong

2014-06-01

232

Genital Tract, Cord Blood, and Amniotic Fluid Exposures of Seven Antiretroviral Drugs during and after Pregnancy in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected Women?  

PubMed Central

The objective of the study was to measure antiretroviral exposures in four physiological compartments during pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum. This prospective, open-label, longitudinal study collected paired blood plasma (BP) and genital tract (GT) aspirates antepartum, at delivery, and up to 12 weeks postpartum. Antiretroviral cord BP and amniotic fluid concentrations were also measured. Drug concentrations were analyzed by validated high-performance liquid chromatography/UV and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry methods, with secondary compartment concentrations presented as the percentage of BP. Fourteen women taking lamivudine plus zidovudine and either lopinavir-ritonavir (n = 7), nelfinavir (n = 6), or nevirapine (n = 1) were enrolled; four also received tenofovir. GT penetration relative to BP was highest for the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors compared to the protease inhibitors and nevirapine. Only antepartum nelfinavir GT penetration was significantly higher than in the second trimester (geometric mean ratio [GMR], 179.3) or third trimester (GMR, 41.9). Compared to nonpregnant historical controls, antepartum GT penetration was significantly lower (P < 0.05) for zidovudine (GMR, 0.25) and lopinavir (GMR, 0.03); postpartum lopinavir GT penetration continued to be significantly lower (GMR, 0.27). Cord BP exposures were highest for lamivudine and tenofovir (?100%), with cord BP levels of the remaining drugs ranging from 49 to 86% of that of the respective BP level. Amniotic exposures for lamivudine, zidovudine, tenofovir, and nelfinavir were ?100%, nevirapine exposure was 53%, and lopinavir and ritonavir exposures were ?6% that of BP. We conclude that GT, cord BP, and amniotic fluid exposures vary within and between antiretroviral drug classes and biologic sites. Measurement of antiretroviral exposure in maternal genital secretions, cord BP, and amniotic fluid may be needed to identify signals of subtherapeutic or supratherapeutic drug exposure. PMID:19307360

Yeh, Rosa F.; Rezk, Naser L.; Kashuba, Angela D. M.; Dumond, Julie B.; Tappouni, Hiba L.; Tien, Hsiao-Chuan; Chen, Ya-Chi; Vourvahis, Manoli; Horton, Amanda L.; Fiscus, Susan A.; Patterson, Kristine B.

2009-01-01

233

The new human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine: pros and cons for pediatric and adolescent health.  

PubMed

The new human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is a research breakthrough for pediatric/adolescent health to prevent cervical cancer and related morbidity. The annual heath care cost for the treatment of cervical cancer and genital warts is estimated to be more than three billion dollars a year. The new HPV vaccine has incredible potential to improve reproductive health promotion, reduce health care costs, and close health care disparity gaps. However, issues both for and against the new HPV vaccine, including mandating vaccination, high cost of the vaccine, the short duration of protection offered, and the perceived promotion of sexual activity, cause confusion. Pediatric nurses, including those in advanced practice, benefit by understanding the pros and cons of these issues in advocating for their patients. PMID:19051848

Thomas, Tami L

2008-01-01

234

Detection of systemic and mucosal HPV-specific IgG and IgA antibodies in adolescent girls one and two years after HPV vaccination  

PubMed Central

The bivalent HPV16/18 vaccine induces high antibody concentrations in serum while data about antibody responses in the cervix are limited. In this study, we investigated pre- and post-vaccination antibody responses against seven high-risk HPV types by detection of IgG and IgA HPV-specific antibodies in cervical secretion samples (CVS) and serum. From an HPV vaccine monitoring study CVS and serum samples were available (pre-vaccination (n = 297), one year (n = 211) and two years (n = 141) post-dose-one vaccination) from girls aged 14–16 y. The girls were vaccinated with the bivalent HPV vaccine at months 0, 1 and 6. CVS was self-sampled using a tampon. Samples were tested for HPV-specific antibodies (HPV16/18/31/33/45/52/58) by a VLP-based multiplex immunoassay. Post-vaccination, IgG and IgA antibody levels for HPV16/18 were detectable in CVS and amounted to 2% and 1% of the IgG and IgA antibody levels observed in serum, respectively. The antibody levels remained constant between one and two years after vaccination. The correlation between CVS and serum was similar for IgG and IgA vaccine-derived antibody levels for HPV16 (rs = 0.58, rs = 0.54) and HPV18 (rs = 0.50, rs = 0.55). Vaccine-derived IgG antibody levels against cross-reactive HPV types in CVS and in serum were highest for HPV45. No IgA cross-reactive antibody responses could be detected in CVS. Post-vaccination, HPV16/18 IgG and IgA antibodies are not only detectable in serum but also in CVS. The correlation of HPV16/18 IgG antibody levels between serum and CVS suggests that vaccine induced HPV antibodies transudate and/or exudate from the systemic circulation to the cervical mucosa to provide protection against HPV infections. PMID:23149693

Scherpenisse, Mirte; Mollers, Madelief; Schepp, Rutger M.; Meijer, Chris J.L.M.; de Melker, Hester E.; Berbers, Guy A.M.; van der Klis, Fiona R.M.

2013-01-01

235

Detection of HPV infection in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: a practical proposal.  

PubMed

Detecting human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is clinically relevant, but there is no agreement about the most appropriate methodology. We have studied 64 oropharyngeal carcinomas using p16 immunohistochemistry, HPV DNA in situ hybridisation (ISH) and HPV DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by pyrosequencing. We have also evaluated a new assay, RNAscope, designed to detect HPV E6/E7 RNA transcripts. Using a threshold of 70 % labelled tumour cells, 21 cases (32.8 %) were p16 positive. Of these, 19 cases scored positive with at least one HPV detection assay. Sixteen cases were positive by HPV DNA-ISH, and 18 cases were positive using the E6/E7 RNAscope assay. By PCR and pyrosequencing, HPV16 was detected in 15 cases, while one case each harboured HPV33, 35 and 56. All p16-negative cases were negative using these assays. We conclude that p16 expression is a useful surrogate marker for HPV infection in HNSCC with a high negative predictive value and that p16-positive cases should be further evaluated for HPV infection, preferably by PCR followed by type determination. Using RNase digestion experiments, we show that the RNAscope assay is not suitable for the reliable discrimination between E6/E7 RNA transcripts and viral DNA. PMID:23503925

Dreyer, Johannes H; Hauck, Franziska; Oliveira-Silva, Michelle; Barros, Mario Henrique M; Niedobitek, Gerald

2013-04-01

236

Prevalence and Risk Factors for Oral HPV Infection in Young Australians  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV)–associated head and neck cancers is increasing, but the prevalence of oral HPV infection in the wider community remains unknown. We sought to determine the prevalence of, and identify risk factors for, oral HPV infection in a sample of young, healthy Australians. For this study, we recruited 307 Australian university students (18–35 years). Participants reported anonymously about basic characteristics, sexual behaviour, and alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs use. We collected oral rinse samples from all participants for HPV testing and typing. Seven of 307 (2.3%) students tested positive for oral HPV infection (3 HPV-18, one each of HPV-16, -67, -69, -90), and six of them were males (p?=?0.008). Compared to HPV negative students, those with oral HPV infection were more likely to have received oral sex from more partners in their lifetime (p?=?0.0004) and in the last year (p?=?0.008). We found no statistically significant associations with alcohol consumption, smoking or numbers of partners for passionate kissing or sexual intercourse. In conclusion, oral HPV infection was associated with male gender and receiving oral sex in our sample of young Australians. PMID:24637512

Antonsson, Annika; Cornford, Michelle; Perry, Susan; Davis, Marcia; Dunne, Michael P.; Whiteman, David C.

2014-01-01

237

Prevalence and risk factors for oral HPV infection in young Australians.  

PubMed

The prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated head and neck cancers is increasing, but the prevalence of oral HPV infection in the wider community remains unknown. We sought to determine the prevalence of, and identify risk factors for, oral HPV infection in a sample of young, healthy Australians. For this study, we recruited 307 Australian university students (18-35 years). Participants reported anonymously about basic characteristics, sexual behaviour, and alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs use. We collected oral rinse samples from all participants for HPV testing and typing. Seven of 307 (2.3%) students tested positive for oral HPV infection (3 HPV-18, one each of HPV-16, -67, -69, -90), and six of them were males (p?=?0.008). Compared to HPV negative students, those with oral HPV infection were more likely to have received oral sex from more partners in their lifetime (p?=?0.0004) and in the last year (p?=?0.008). We found no statistically significant associations with alcohol consumption, smoking or numbers of partners for passionate kissing or sexual intercourse. In conclusion, oral HPV infection was associated with male gender and receiving oral sex in our sample of young Australians. PMID:24637512

Antonsson, Annika; Cornford, Michelle; Perry, Susan; Davis, Marcia; Dunne, Michael P; Whiteman, David C

2014-01-01

238

Genital Herpes (Beyond the Basics)  

MedlinePLUS

... for sexually transmitted infections (The Basics) Patient information: Syphilis (The Basics) Patient information: Urethritis (The Basics) Prevention ... those that also produce genital ulcers, such as syphilis and chancroid. Several diagnostic tests may also be ...

239

Case-control study of vulvar vestibulitis risk associated with genital infections.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk of vulvar vestibulitis syndrome (VVS) associated with genital infections in a case-control study. METHODS: Diagnosed cases with VVS (n = 69) and age-frequency-matched healthy controls (n = 65) were enrolled from gynecology clinics in a university medical hospital during 1999. They were compared for potential risk factors and symptoms of disease. RESULTS: VVS cases had a significantly higher risk of physician-reported bacterial vaginosis (BV) (odds ratio, OR = 9.4), Candida albicans (OR = 5.7), pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) (OR = 11.2), trichomoniasis (OR = 20.6), and vulvar dysplasia (OR = l5.7) but no risk associated with human papillomavirus (HPV), ASCUS, cervical dysplasia, genital warts, chlamydia, genital herpes or gonorrhea. Genital symptoms reported significantly more often with VVS included vulvar burning (91 vs. 12%), dyspareunia (81 vs. 15%), vulvar itching (68 vs. 23%) and dysuria (54 vs. 19%) (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: A history of genital infections is associated with an increased risk of VVS. Long-term follow-up case-control studies are needed to elucidate etiologic mechanisms, methods for prevention and effective treatment. PMID:12648313

Smith, Elaine M; Ritchie, Justine M; Galask, Rudolph; Pugh, Erica E; Jia, Jian; Ricks-McGillan, Joan

2002-01-01

240

Detection and Typing of Human Papilloma Virus by Multiplex PCR with Type-Specific Primers  

PubMed Central

The primary underlying cause of cervical cancer is infection with one or more high-risk (HR) types of the human papilloma virus (HPV). Detection and typing of HPV have been commonly carried out by PCR-based assays, where HPV detection and typing are two separate procedures. Here, we present a multiplex PCR-based HPV typing assay that detects 20 HPV types (15 HR, 3 probably HR and 2 low risk) using type-specific primers and agarose gel electrophoresis. 46 cervical, urethral, and biopsy samples were analyzed by both Multiplex PCR and PGMY09/11 consensus PCR, and results were compared. 611 samples were further analyzed by Multiplex PCR, 282 were positive for HR HPV, and 101 showed multiple HR HPV infections. The relatively ease and economic accessibility of the method and its improved ability to detect high-risk HPV types in multiple HPV-infected samples make it an attractive option for HPV testing. PMID:23724318

Romero-Pastrana, Francisco

2012-01-01

241

Time to clearance of human papillomavirus infection by type and human immunodeficiency virus serostatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is central to cervical carcinogenesis. Certain high-risk types, such as HPV16, may be more persistent than other HPV types, and type-specific HPV persistence may differ by HIV serostatus. This study evaluated the association between HPV type and clearance of HPV infections in 522 HIV-seropositive and 279 HIV-seronega- tive participants in the HIV Epidemiology

Jill E. Koshiol; Jane C. Schroeder; Denise J. Jamieson; Stephen W. Marshall; Ann Duerr; Charles M. Heilig; Keerti V. Shah; Robert S. Klein; Susan Cu-Uvin; Paula Schuman; David Celentano; Jennifer S. Smith

2006-01-01

242

Age-specific prevalence of HPV genotypes in cervical cytology samples with equivocal or low-grade lesions  

PubMed Central

Background: To define the spectrum of human papillomavirus (HPV) types and establish an age limit for triage HPV testing in atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). Materials and methods: 343 liquid-based cytological samples from the population-based screening programme with minor abnormalities were subjected to HPV genotyping (Linear Array, Roche, Basel, Switzerland). Results: High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) was found in 71% of LSIL and 49% of ASCUS cases (P<0.001). High-risk human papillomavirus prevalence was age-dependent in LSIL (P=0.01), with decreasing prevalence until the age of 50 years, followed by a slight increase. Human papillomavirus type 16 was the most common HR-HPV, found in 23% of HPV-positive women. Human papillomavirus type 18 was the sixth most common, found in 9.9% (P<0.001). An age-dependent quadratic trend was observed for multiple infections (P=0.01) with a trough at about 42 years. The most common HR-HPV types to show a coinfection with HPV16 (clade 9) were HPV39 (28%), 45 (38%), and 59 (46%), belonging to HPV18 clade 7. The frequency of low-risk (LR) vs probable HR and HR-HPV also followed an age-dependent quadratic trend. Conclusions: After the age of 25 years, HR-HPV prevalence is similar in LSIL and ASCUS cases, motivating a low age limit for triage HPV testing. Multiple infections and LR/HR-HPV dominance are age-dependent. Genotyping in longitudinal design is needed to elucidate the importance of multiple infections in cancer progression and in cross-protection from vaccination. PMID:19623178

Brismar-Wendel, S; Froberg, M; Hjerpe, A; Andersson, S; Johansson, B

2009-01-01

243

Review: current knowledge on the role of HPV antibodies after natural infection and vaccination: implications for monitoring an HPV vaccination programme.  

PubMed

In 2006/2007, two vaccines were licensed against two of the most common HPV types that cause about 70% of cervical cancers. Clinical trials show that vaccinated individuals develop high levels of neutralizing antibodies. Although these data suggest that serum antibodies are the mode of action against HPV infection, it is uncertain whether immune responses generated by vaccination are similar to those induced by a natural infection. In this review, the current knowledge of humoral immune responses after natural infection and vaccination is described. Serosurveillance can be used as a monitoring tool to study vaccine uptake, the impact of HPV16/18 vaccination on other HPV types, dynamics of HPV infection and herd-immunity. In addition, factors that contribute to a higher seroresponse after a natural infection, which are summarized in this article (a persistent DNA infection, increased viral load, immunosuppression and high sexual risk behavior), can help to interpret these indirect effects better. PMID:23722396

Mollers, Madelief; Vossen, Jeanique M; Scherpenisse, Mirte; van der Klis, Fiona R M; Meijer, Chris J L M; de Melker, Hester E

2013-08-01

244

Age considerations when vaccinating against HPV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines have been shown to be both highly effective and safe, and there is now considerable enthusiasm among healthcare providers to use the vaccines to reduce the burden of HPV-associated disease in women. When considering who should be vaccinated, it is important that providers understand the complex relationships between age and HPV infections. HPV infections and cervical

Thomas C. Wright Jr; Warner K. Huh; Bradley J. Monk; Jennifer S. Smith; Kevin Ault; Thomas J. Herzog

2008-01-01

245

Rapid identification of HPV 16 and 18 by multiplex nested PCR-immunochromatographic test.  

PubMed

Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 are known to be high-risk viruses that cause cervical cancer. An HPV rapid testing kit that could help physicians to make early and more informed decisions regarding patient care is needed urgently but not yet available. This study aimed to develop a multiplex nested polymerase chain reaction-immunochromatographic test (PCR-ICT) for the rapid identification of HPV 16 and 18. A multiplex nested PCR was constructed to amplify the HPV 16 and 18 genotype-specific L1 gene fragments and followed by ICT which coated with antibodies to identify rapidly the different PCR products. The type-specific gene regions of high-risk HPV 16 and 18 could be amplified successfully by multiplex nested PCR at molecular sizes of approximately 99 and 101bp, respectively. The capture antibodies raised specifically against the moleculars labeled on the PCR products could be detected simultaneously both HPV 16 and 18 in one strip. Under optimal conditions, this PCR-ICT assay had the capability to detect HPV in a sample with as low as 100 copies of HPV viral DNA. The PCR-ICT system has the advantage of direct and simultaneous detection of two high-risk HPV 16 and 18 DNA targets in one sample, which suggested a significant potential of this assay for clinical application. PMID:25446515

Kuo, Yung-Bin; Li, Yi-Shuan; Chan, Err-Cheng

2015-02-01

246

P16(INK4A) immunostaining is a strong indicator for high-risk-HPV-associated oropharyngeal carcinomas and dysplasias, but is unreliable to predict low-risk-HPV-infection in head and neck papillomas and laryngeal dysplasias.  

PubMed

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a risk factor for the development of benign and malignant mucosal head and neck lesions. P16(INK4A) is often used as a surrogate marker for HPV-infection, although there is still controversy with respect its reliability. Our aim was to determine if p16(INK4A) overexpression can accurately predict both high-risk and low-risk-HPV-presence in (pre)malignant and benign head and neck lesions. P16(INK4A) immunohistochemistry was performed on paraffin-embedded tissue sections of 162 oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCC), 14 tonsillar and 23 laryngeal dysplasias, and 20 tonsillar and 27 laryngeal papillomas. PCR, enzyme-immunoassay and FISH analysis were used to assess HPV-presence and type. Of the 162 OPSCC and 14 tonsillar dysplasias, 51 (31%) and 10 (71%) were HPV16-positive, respectively. All tonsillar papillomas were HPV-negative and four laryngeal dysplasias and 26 laryngeal papillomas were positive for HPV6 or -11. P16(INK4A) immunohistochemistry revealed a strong nuclear and cytoplasmic staining in 50 out of 51 HPV16-positive and 5 out of 111 HPV-negative OPSCC (p < 0.0001) and in all HPV16-positive tonsillar dysplasias, whereas highly variable staining patterns were detected in the papillomas and laryngeal dysplasias, irrespective of the HPV-status. In addition, the latter lesions generally showed a higher nuclear than cytoplasmic p16(INK4A) immunostaining intensity. In conclusion, our data show that strong nuclear and cytoplasmic p16(INK4A) overexpression is a reliable surrogate indicator for HPV16 in OPSCC and (adjacent) dysplasias. For HPV6 or -11-positive and HPV-negative benign and premalignant lesions of the tonsil and larynx, however, p16(INK4A) immunostaining is highly variable and cannot be recommended to predict HPV-presence. PMID:24127203

Mooren, Jeroen J; Gültekin, Sibel E; Straetmans, Jos M J A A; Haesevoets, Annick; Peutz-Kootstra, Carine J; Huebbers, Christian U; Dienes, Hans P; Wieland, Ulrike; Ramaekers, Frans C S; Kremer, Bernd; Speel, Ernst-Jan M; Klussmann, Jens P

2014-05-01

247

A Role for MicroRNA-155 Expression in Microenvironment Associated to HPV-Induced Carcinogenesis in K14-HPV16 Transgenic Mice  

PubMed Central

Human Papillomavirus cause a number of diseases most notably cervical cancer. K14-HPV16 transgenic mice expressing the HPV16 early genes in squamous epithelial cells provide a suitable experimental model for studying these diseases. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that play an important role in regulating gene expression and have been suggested to play an important role in cancer development. The role of miR-155 in cancer remains controversial and there is limited evidence linking this miRNA to HPV- associated diseases. We hypothesized that miR-155 expression modulates each tissue’s susceptibility to develop HPV-associated carcinogenesis. In this study, we analyzed miR-155 expression in ear and chest skin samples from 22-26 weeks old, female K14-HPV16 transgenic (HPV16+/-) and wild-type (HPV-/-) mice. Among wild-type mice the expression of miR-155 was lower in ear skin compared with chest skin (p = 0.028). In transgenic animals, in situ carcinoma was present in all ear samples whereas chest tissues only showed epidermal hyperplasia. Furthermore, in hyperplastic chest skin samples, miR-155 expression was lower than in normal chest skin (p = 0,026). These results suggest that miR-155 expression may modulate the microenvironmental susceptibility to cancer development and that high miR155 levels may be protective against the carcinogenesis induced by HPV16. PMID:25625305

Paiva, Isabel; Gil da Costa, Rui M.; Ribeiro, Joana; Sousa, Hugo; Bastos, Margarida; Rocha, Ana Faustino Carlos; Oliveira, Paula A; Medeiros, Rui

2015-01-01

248

[Guidelines for application of molecular tests identyfying HR HPV DNA in the prevention of cervical cancer. Statement of experts from PGS (PTG) and NCLD (KIDL)].  

PubMed

DNA from high risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV-HR) is detected in virtually all cervical cancer samples. Most of HPV infections are transient, some persist and lead to development of neoplastics or even cervical cancer lesions. Cervical cancer screening programs are designed to detect early precancerous changes, which should decrease the cancer morbidity and mortality and reduce the costs of diagnosis and treatment. The most effective are screening programs that use cytological and HPV testing. Screening with this method are proven to reduce both the incidence and mortality from cervical cancer WOMEN AGED 21-29 YEARS: HPV testing should not be used to screen women aged 21-29 years, either as a stand-alone test or as a cotest with cytology DNA HPV HR testing in this group of women is recommended in diagnostics ofASCUS. Women DNA HPV positive with ASCUS should be referred to colposcopy WOMEN AGED 30-65 YEARS: Screening by HPV testing alone is not recommended. Women should be screened with cytology and HPV testing every 5 years or cytology alone every 3 years (acceptable). DNA HPV HR /+/, PAP /-/: Two options are recommended. Option 1: 12-months follow-up with contesting (PAP and DNA HPV HR tests). Option 2: Test for HPV16 or HPV16/18 genotypes. If HPV16 or HPV16/18 positive: refer to colposcopy If HPV16 or HPV16/18 negative:12-months follow-up with cotesting. DNA HPV HR /-/, ASC-US: Repetition of cytology in 12 moths is recommended. WOMEN AGED >65 YEARS: No screening is recommended following adequate negative prior to screening. Women with a history of CIN2 or a more severe diagnosis should continue routine screening for at least 20 years. WOMEN HPV VACCINATED: Follow age-specific recommendations (same as unvaccinated women). REQUIREMENTS OF DNA HPV HR TESTS IN CERVICAL SCREENING: The DNA HPV tests used in cervical screening should detect as much as possible of 14 HPV HR types (16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66 i 68) and genotyping HPV 16/18. Candidates' tests should have control of DNA HPV purification and amplification processes and be preserved against contaminations. Clinical sensitivity for CIN 2 + should be no less than 90%. HPV tests and specimen collection system should fulfill the requirements of the act on medical devices. PMID:23819408

2013-05-01

249

Female genital mutilation in Britain.  

PubMed

The practice of female genital mutilation predates the founding of both Christianity and Islam. Though largely confined among Muslims, the operation is also practiced in some Christian communities in Africa such that female genital mutilation takes place in various forms in more than twenty African countries, Oman, Yemen, the United Arab Emirates, and by some Muslims in Malaysia and Indonesia. In recent decades, ethnic groups which practice female genital mutilation have immigrated to Britain. The main groups are from Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, and Yemen. In their own countries, an estimated 80% of women have had the operation. Female genital mutilation has been illegal in Britain since 1985, but it is practiced illegally or children are sent abroad to undergo the operation typically at age 7-9 years. It is a form of child abuse which poses special problems. The authors review the history of female genital mutilation and describe its medical complications. Assuming that the size of the population in Britain of ethnic groups which practice or favor female genital mutilation remains more or less unchanged, adaptation and acculturation will probably cause the practice to die out within a few generations. Meanwhile, there is much to be done. A conspiracy of silence exists in medical circles as well as widespread ignorance. Moreover, none of a number of well-known obstetric and pediatric textbooks mentions female genital mutilation, while the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children has neither information nor instructional material. It is high time that the problem was more widely and openly discussed. PMID:7787654

Black, J A; Debelle, G D

1995-06-17

250

Warts and All: HPV in Primary Immunodeficiencies  

PubMed Central

Infection with human papilloma virus (HPV) is almost universal and eventually asymptomatic, but pathologic infection with HPV is severe, recurrent, and recalcitrant to therapy. It is also an underappreciated manifestation of primary immunodeficiency. Mutations in EVER1, EVER2, GATA2, CXCR4, and DOCK8 are typically associated with extensive HPV infections, whereas several other primary immune defects have severe HPV much less frequently. We review immunodeficiencies with severe HPV infections and the mechanisms underlying them. PMID:23036745

Leiding, Jennifer W.; Holland, Steven M.

2012-01-01

251

The role of inflammation in HPV infection of the Oesophagus  

PubMed Central

Background Several human cancers are known to be associated with inflammation and/or viral infections. However, the influence of tumour-related inflammation on viral uptake is largely unknown. In this study we used oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) as a model system since this type of cancer is associated with chronic irritation, inflammation and viral infections. Although still debated, the most important viral infection seems to be with Human Papillomavirus (HPV). The present study focused on a possible correlation between inflammation, OSCC development and the influence of HPV infection. Methods A total of 114 OSCC biopsies and corresponding normal tissue were collected at Groote Schuur Hospital and Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa), that were subjected to RNA and DNA isolation. RNA samples were analysed by quantitative Light Cycler RT-PCR for the expression of selected genes involved in inflammation and infection, while conventional PCR was performed on the DNA samples to assess the presence of integrated viral DNA. Further, an in vitro infection assay using HPV pseudovirions was established to study the influence of inflammation on viral infectivity using selected cell lines. Results HPV DNA was found in about 9% of OSCC patients, comprising predominantly the oncogenic type HPV18. The inflammatory markers IL6 and IL8 as well as the potential HPV receptor ITGA6 were significantly elevated while IL12A was downregulated in the tumour tissues. However, none of these genes were expressed in a virus-dependent manner. When inflammation was mimicked with various inflammatory stimulants such as benzo-?-pyrene, lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan in oesophageal epithelial cell lines in vitro, HPV18 pseudovirion uptake was enhanced only in the benzo-?-pyrene treated cells. Interestingly, HPV pseudovirion infectivity was independent of the presence of the ITGA6 receptor on the surface of the tested cells. Conclusion This study showed that although the carcinogen benzo-?-pyrene facilitated HPV pseudovirion uptake into cells in culture, HPV infectivity was independent of inflammation and seems to play only a minor role in oesophageal cancer. PMID:23570247

2013-01-01

252

Current Status of HPV Vaccines  

PubMed Central

Cervical cancer is the second largest cause of cancer deaths in women worldwide, with ~500,000 diagnoses and 274,000 deaths annually. It remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality despite effective screening tools and treatments for its precursor high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Increased understanding of cervical pathogenesis has led to the identification of human papillomavirus (HPV) as the etiological agent for cervical cancer and the development of preventive and therapeutic vaccines targeting HPV antigens for the control of cervical cancer. Herein, we discuss the current status of HPV vaccines. PMID:20677402

Ma, Barbara; Roden, Richard; Wu, T.C.

2010-01-01

253

Fatal Fast-Evolution of Nasopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in an HIV Patient with EBV and HPV (-16 AND -33) in Blood Serum  

PubMed Central

Our case illustrates the first report of an HIV-infected patient with a nasopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma with viremia by one Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and seropositivity by two high risk oncogenic human papilloma viruses (HPV)-types (HPV-16 and HPV-33), previous to his death. This patient presented a fatal fast-evolution. PMID:18923693

Sirera, Guillem; Videla, Sebastià; Romeu, Joan; Cañadas, MariPaz; Fernández, Maria-Teresa; Balo, Susana; Cirauqui, Beatriz; Darwich, Laila; Rey-Joly, Celestino; Clotet, Bonaventura

2008-01-01

254

Fatal fast-evolution of nasopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in an HIV patient with EBV and HPV (-16 AND -33) in blood serum.  

PubMed

Our case illustrates the first report of an HIV-infected patient with a nasopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma with viremia by one Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and seropositivity by two high risk oncogenic human papilloma viruses (HPV)-types (HPV-16 and HPV-33), previous to his death. This patient presented a fatal fast-evolution. PMID:18923693

Sirera, Guillem; Videla, Sebastià; Romeu, Joan; Cañadas, Maripaz; Fernández, Maria-Teresa; Balo, Susana; Cirauqui, Beatriz; Darwich, Laila; Rey-Joly, Celestino; Clotet, Bonaventura

2008-01-01

255

Papillomavirus Capsid Protein Expression in Escherichia coli: Purification and Assembly of HPV11  

E-print Network

Papillomavirus Capsid Protein Expression in Escherichia coli: Purification and Assembly of HPV11 proteins of human papillomavirus (HPV) types 11 and 16 were puri®ed and analyzed for structural integrity for vaccine design. # 2001 Academic Press Keywords: human papillomavirus; virus assembly; virus capsids

Harrison, Stephen C.

256

Statement from the National Cancer Institute on FDA Approval of the HPV Vaccine  

Cancer.gov

Nearly two decades ago, researchers at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and other institutions began searching for the underlying causes of cervical cancer. That scientific quest led to today's approval by the Food and Drug Administration of the vaccine Gardasil?, which protects against infection from the two types of human papillomavirus (HPV) that cause the majority of cervical cancers worldwide. HPV en Español

257

What School Nurses Need to Know about Cervical Cancer, HPV, and the New Vaccine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At least 12,000 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer each year in the United States, accounting for at least 4,000 deaths. Worldwide, cervical cancer is the second most common type of cancer among women. The human papilloma virus (HPV) has been linked to at least 70% of all cervical cancer. HPV can be divided into 2 categories: (a) low risk,…

Ehrhardt, Jeanie

2007-01-01

258

Fewer doses of HPV vaccine result in immune response similar to three-dose regimen  

Cancer.gov

NCI scientists report that two doses of a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, trademarked as Cervarix, resulted in similar serum antibody levels against two of the most carcinogenic types of HPV (16 and 18), compared to a standard three dose regimen. The results appeared in the November 2013 issue of Cancer Prevention Research.

259

HPV Infection in Cervical and Other Cancers in Saudi Arabia: Implication for Prevention and Vaccination  

PubMed Central

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is closely associated with cervical cancer that the incidence of this tumor is regarded as a surrogate marker for HPV infection in countries lacking epidemiological studies. HPV is also implicated in subsets of anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers. Although cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide, its reported incidence is low in Saudi Arabia, ranking number 12 between all cancers in females and accounts only for 2.4% of all new cases, despite the lack of national screening programs. However, the limited available studies from Saudi Arabia indicate that HPV prevalence and genotypes’ distribution in invasive cervical cancer show similar pattern as in the world. Cytology screening (Pap smear) and HPV vaccinations are the two preventive measures against cervical cancer. The two available vaccines are effective against the two most common HPV genotypes (HPV-16 and -18). Since 92% of cervical tumors in the Kingdom are infected with HPV of which 78% are HPV-16 and -18 genotypes, vaccination is expected to protect against more than two-third of cervical cancers in Saudi Arabia. Nevertheless, due to its low incidence (2.1/100,000 women), a proper cost-effectiveness analysis is required to justify the implementation of a costly vaccine bearing in mind that HPV could potentially be associated with about 3% of all cancers. However, further studies are needed to ascertain the real prevalence of HPV at the population level at large, its association with various types of cancers, and also the impact of local tradition and emerging behavioral trends that could affect HPV transmission and consequently the effectiveness of applying national vaccination program. PMID:24744990

Alsbeih, Ghazi

2014-01-01

260

In situ hybridization signal patterns in recurrent laryngeal squamous papillomas indicate that HPV integration occurs at an early stage.  

PubMed

Laryngeal papillomas are benign tumors that frequently recur and can compromise airways. We investigated HPV genotype, physical status, and protein expression in juveniles versus adults. Thirty-five laryngeal papilloma specimens were obtained from ten juveniles (1-16 years) and eleven adults (24-67 years). In cases of recurrent papillomatosis (7 juveniles, 7 adults), the first and last papillomas were assayed. HPV type was determined by GP5+/6+ PCR and dot blot hybridization. In situ hybridization (ISH) was performed on 34 specimens; the data were recorded in terms of diffuse (episomal HPV) and punctate (integrated HPV) signal patterns. Immunohistochemistry for the HPV L1 capsid protein, a marker of HPV productive status, was performed on 32 samples. All samples tested HPV positive: HPV 11 in 2/10 (20.0%) juveniles and 5/11 (45.5%) adults; HPV 6 in 7/10 (70%) juveniles and 5/11 (45.5%) adults; and HPV 6/11 double infection was noted in one juvenile and one adult. ISH signals (punctate ± diffuse) were detected among 7/10 (70.0%) juveniles and 7/11 (63.6%) adults. L1 staining was detected in 1/9 (11.1%) juveniles and 6/10 (60.0%) adults (P = 0.06). These data support the idea that integration of low-risk HPV types into the cell genome is an early and common event in the etiology of juvenile and adult recurrent laryngeal papillomas. Productive HPV infections may be more common in adults; accordingly, constant laryngeal re-infection by HPV shed from a productive lesion may contribute to adult recurrent lesions, whereas the mechanism of papilloma recurrence in juveniles may be more attributable to HPV integration. PMID:22052184

Brooks, Erin Grace; Evans, Mark Francis; Adamson, Christine Stewart-Crawford; Peng, Zhihua; Rajendran, Vanitha; Laucirica, Rodolfo; Cooper, Kumarasen

2012-03-01

261

Papillomas of the external ear canal: report of ten cases in Chinese patients with HPV in situ hybridization.  

PubMed

Squamous papilloma is a benign exophytic proliferation which can occur occasionally in the external ear canal. It is widely assumed that the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is an etiologic factor of papillomas. Available techniques for detection of HPV genomes include immunohistochemistry, Southern blot hybridization, in situ hybridization (ISH), and polymerase chain reaction. To our knowledge, HPV typing has not been reported on tissue sections of papillomas in the external ear canal. We report HPV ISH analysis in ten cases of papillomas, involving the external ear canal in Chinese patients. These papilloma excrescences were less than 1 cm in diameter, and were benign morphologically. Automated HPV ISH analysis was performed for the hybridization of DNA probes, including both low-risk and high-risk HPV subtypes. HPV ISH results revealed that seven out of ten cases were positive for low-risk HPV (6, 11), three cases demonstrated no hybridization for low-risk HPV probe, and none of the cases revealed any detection of high-risk HPV (16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 51, 52, 56, 58, and 66). On follow-up after 18-29 months (average 24.5 months), eight patients were doing well, with no local recurrence after excision. Two patients were lost to follow-up. Our results confirm that benign papillomas of the external ear canal are associated with low-risk HPV infection with benign behavior and neither recurrence nor high grade dysplasia. PMID:20596973

Wang, Shuyi; Yee, Herman; Wen, Hannah Y; Wang, Beverly Y

2009-09-01

262

Papillomas of the External Ear Canal: Report of Ten cases in Chinese Patients with HPV In Situ Hybridization  

PubMed Central

Squamous papilloma is a benign exophytic proliferation which can occur occasionally in the external ear canal. It is widely assumed that the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is an etiologic factor of papillomas. Available techniques for detection of HPV genomes include immunohistochemistry, Southern blot hybridization, in situ hybridization (ISH), and polymerase chain reaction. To our knowledge, HPV typing has not been reported on tissue sections of papillomas in the external ear canal. We report HPV ISH analysis in ten cases of papillomas, involving the external ear canal in Chinese patients. These papilloma excrescences were less than 1 cm in diameter, and were benign morphologically. Automated HPV ISH analysis was performed for the hybridization of DNA probes, including both low-risk and high-risk HPV subtypes. HPV ISH results revealed that seven out of ten cases were positive for low-risk HPV (6, 11), three cases demonstrated no hybridization for low-risk HPV probe, and none of the cases revealed any detection of high-risk HPV (16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 51, 52, 56, 58, and 66). On follow-up after 18–29 months (average 24.5 months), eight patients were doing well, with no local recurrence after excision. Two patients were lost to follow-up. Our results confirm that benign papillomas of the external ear canal are associated with low-risk HPV infection with benign behavior and neither recurrence nor high grade dysplasia. PMID:20596973

Wang, Shuyi; Yee, Herman; Wen, Hannah Y.

2009-01-01

263

HPV binding assay to Laminin-332/integrin ?6?4 on human keratinocytes.  

PubMed

Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) have been shown to bind to Laminin-332 (Ln-332) on the extracellular matrix (ECM) secreted by human keratinocytes. The assay described here is an important tool to study HPV receptor binding to the ECM. The assay can also be modified to study the receptors required for HPV infection and for binding to tissues. We previously showed that Ln-332 is essential for the binding of HPV11 to human keratinocytes and that infectious entry of HPV11 requires ?6?4 integrin for the transfer of HPV11 from ECM to host cells (Culp et al., J Virol 80:8940-8950, 2006). We also demonstrated that several of the high-risk HPV types (16, 18, 31 and 45) bind to Ln-332 and/or other components of the ECM in vitro (Broutian et al., J Gen Virol 91:531-540, 2010). The exact binding and internalization mechanism(s) for HPV are still under investigation. A better understanding of these mechanisms will aid in the design of therapeutics against HPVs and ultimately help prevent many cancers. In this chapter, we describe the HPV binding assay to Ln-332/integrin ?6?4 on human keratinocytes (ECM). We also present data and suggestions for modifying the assay for testing the specificity of HPV for receptors (by blocking receptors) and binding to human tissues (basement membrane, BM) in order to study binding mechanisms. PMID:25348297

Brendle, Sarah A; Christensen, Neil D

2015-01-01

264

HPV DNA and Pap smear test results in cases with and without cervical pathology  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of the study was to determine the HPV prevalance and its relation to Pap smear, colposcopy and colposcopy directed biopsy in our region of Eskisehir, Turkey. Material and Methods A total of 615 women who applied to the outpatient clinic between December 2009 and December 2010 constituted our study population. All patients underwent pelvic examination and Pap smear sampling. Patients who had pathological cervical appearance or Pap smear results of ASCUS, AGUS, LSIL or HSIL were referred to colposcopy. Cervical samples for HPV DNA were taken from the patients before Pap smear sampling during the routine examination or before the colposcopic evaluation. Results Twenty six of 615 patients (4%) were HPV positive. Of these 26 patients, 12 were positive for HPV type 16, 3 for type 18, 3 for type 51, 2 for type 6, 1 for type 52, 1 for type 33, 1 for type 16 and type 31, 1 for type 6 and 52, 1 for type 56 and 90, 1 for type 39 and 66. In 4 patients with cervical cancer, and in 3 of 4 CIN III cases both HPV DNA and Pap smear were positive. In the Pap smear examination of 615 patients, cytology revealed 35 ASCUS (5.6%) 4 AGUS (0.6%), 2 CIN I (0.3%) results who were negative for HPV DNA. These patients with abnormal cytology (n=41) underwent colposcopy directed biopsy, there were 3 CIN I and 1 CIN III and all the other cervical biopsy results of these patients were benign (inflammation, chronic cervicitis). Conclusion HPV positivity in our hospital setting is low which is compatible with other studies in Turkey. In positive HPV cases there is a good correlation between HPV type and positive cervical biopsy results. PMID:24627668

Özalp, Sabit Sinan; Us, Tercan; Arslan, Emine; Öge, Tufan; Ka?ifo?lu, Nilgün

2012-01-01

265

Oral Sex and HPV: Population Based Indications.  

PubMed

Human pappilloma virus (HPV) is well established in etiology of uterine cervical cancers, but its role in head and neck cancer is strongly suggested through many epidemiological and laboratory studies. Although HPV-16 induced oropharyngeal cancer is a distinct molecular entity, its role at other sub-sites (oral cavity, larynx, nasopharynx, hypopharynx) is less well established. Oral sex is supposedly the most commonly practiced unnatural sex across the globe and may prove to be a potential transmitting link between cancers of the uterine cervix and the oropharynx in males particularly in those 10-15% non-smokers. In India with the second largest population (higher population density than China) the oral sex is likely to be a common 'recreation-tool' amongst the majority (poor) and with the concurrent highly prevalent bad cervical/oral hygiene the HPV is likely to synergize other carcinogens. Hence in accordance (or coincidently), in India the cervical cancer happens to be the commonest cancer amongst females while oral/oropharyngeal cancer amongst males. Oral sex as a link between these two cancer types, can largely be argued considering a poor level of evidence in the existing literature. The modern world has even commercialized oral sex in the form of flavored condoms. The inadequate world literature currently is of a low level of evidence to conclude such a relationship because no such specific prospective study has been carried out and also due to wide (and unpredictable) variety of sexual practices, such a relationship can only be speculated. This article briefly reviews the existing literature on various modes and population based indications for HPV to be implicated in head and neck cancer with reference to oral sexual practice. PMID:25621245

Mishra, Anupam; Verma, Veerendra

2015-03-01

266

Gene expression profiling in male genital lichen sclerosus  

PubMed Central

Male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc) has a bimodal distribution in boys and men. It is associated with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The pathogenesis of MGLSc is unknown. HPV and autoimmune mechanisms have been mooted. Anti extracellular matrix protein (ECM)1 antibodies have been identified in women with GLSc. The gene expression pattern of LSc is unknown. Using DNA microarrays we studied differences in gene expression in healthy and diseased prepuces obtained at circumcision in adult males with MGLSc (n = 4), paediatric LSc (n = 2) and normal healthy paediatric foreskin (n = 4). In adult samples 51 genes with significantly increased expression and 87 genes with significantly reduced expression were identified; paediatric samples revealed 190 genes with significantly increased expression and 148 genes with significantly reduced expression. Concordance of expression profiles between adult and paediatric samples indicates the same disease process. Functional analysis revealed increased expression in the adult and child MGSLc samples in the immune response/cellular defence gene ontology (GO) category and reduced expression in other categories including genes related to squamous cancer. No specific HPV, autoimmune or squamous carcinogenesis-associated gene expression patterns were found. ECM1 and CABLES1 expression were significantly reduced in paediatric and adult samples respectively. PMID:21718371

Edmonds, Emma; Barton, Geraint; Buisson, Sandrine; Francis, Nick; Gotch, Frances; Game, Laurence; Haddad, Munther; Dinneen, Michael; Bunker, Chris

2011-01-01

267

Dermatoses of the Male Genital Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is an overview of dermatoses which are predominantly seen in the genital area. Five large groups of dermatoses can be distinguished: inflammatory dermatoses without any causative organism, infections and dermatoses originating from cutaneous appendages, precancerous lesions, pigmented lesions and genital pruritus. The etiology, causative factors, clinical features and newer treatment options are considered. Because of local environmental factors, genital

Alfred R. Eichmann

2005-01-01

268

Implication of high risk Human papillomavirus HR-HPV infection in prostate cancer in Indian population- A pioneering case-control analysis  

PubMed Central

Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer with sexual history as a consistent risk factor. This is the pioneering study that evaluates the frequency of HPV infection in prostate cancer in India. Ninety five (95) histopathologically confirmed cancer and fifty five (55) BPH from Indian population were analyzed for HPV infection using a pair of consensus sequence primer followed by type specific PCRs for both high-risk and low-risk HPV types. The data demonstrate HPV infection in 41% of prostate tumor biopsies and 20% in BPH. Subsequent PCR- based HPV typing using type - specific primers revealed 32% were infected with HPV type 16 whereas 6% were found to be positive for HPV type 18, while in BPH controls only 5% of the BPH controls were infected with HPV 16 and this difference was highly significant (p = 0.0004). Significant proportion of HPV infected (74%) cases belonged to stage III and IV (p < 0.001) with a high Gleason score ?8 (p = 0.003). The study represents for the first time the incidence of HPV infection in prostate cancer in Indian population and strengthens the hypothesis that HPV infection could be one of the co factor associated with progression of prostate cancer. PMID:25592643

Singh, Neha; Hussain, Showket; Kakkar, Nandita; Singh, Shrawan K.; Sobti, Ranbir C.; Bharadwaj, Mausumi

2015-01-01

269

Implication of high risk Human papillomavirus HR-HPV infection in prostate cancer in Indian population- A pioneering case-control analysis.  

PubMed

Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer with sexual history as a consistent risk factor. This is the pioneering study that evaluates the frequency of HPV infection in prostate cancer in India. Ninety five (95) histopathologically confirmed cancer and fifty five (55) BPH from Indian population were analyzed for HPV infection using a pair of consensus sequence primer followed by type specific PCRs for both high-risk and low-risk HPV types. The data demonstrate HPV infection in 41% of prostate tumor biopsies and 20% in BPH. Subsequent PCR- based HPV typing using type - specific primers revealed 32% were infected with HPV type 16 whereas 6% were found to be positive for HPV type 18, while in BPH controls only 5% of the BPH controls were infected with HPV 16 and this difference was highly significant (p = 0.0004). Significant proportion of HPV infected (74%) cases belonged to stage III and IV (p < 0.001) with a high Gleason score ?8 (p = 0.003). The study represents for the first time the incidence of HPV infection in prostate cancer in Indian population and strengthens the hypothesis that HPV infection could be one of the co factor associated with progression of prostate cancer. PMID:25592643

Singh, Neha; Hussain, Showket; Kakkar, Nandita; Singh, Shrawan K; Sobti, Ranbir C; Bharadwaj, Mausumi

2015-01-01

270

Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Treated With Radiotherapy or Radiochemotherapy: Prognostic Role of TP53 and HPV Status  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To study the prognostic value of the TP53 mutation and human papilloma virus (HPV) status in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). Methods and materials: The TP53 mutation and HPV status were analyzed in 78 cases of locoregionally advanced OPSCC. The possible correlation of these factors with locoregiownal control, relapse-free survival, disease-specific survival, and overall survival (OS) was also investigated. Results: Of these 78 cases, 22 had disruptive and 22 had non-disruptive (silent) TP53 mutations; the remaining 34 cases had wild-type (WT) TP53. HPV 16 DNA was found in 9 cases (11%), but all HPV-positive (HPV+) cases carried a functional p53 protein, except for 1 case that had a silent mutation. HPV+ patients fared better than HPV-negative (HPV-) patients in terms of all survival parameters, with highly statistically significant differences between the groups. Specifically, no distant metastases were observed in the HPV+ patients, whereas they occurred in 17% of the HPV- patients. However, no difference was observed between the WT TP53 and mutation group, even when this was analyzed in terms of disruptive and non-disruptive mutations. Regardless, treatment with chemotherapy nearly doubled the 5-year OS rates, both in the mutation (42% vs. 22%) and WT (30 vs. 16%) group, but only the mutation group showed improvement in all survival parameters. In addition, the second tumor-free 5-year survival rate was 72% in HPV- cases, but no second tumors were observed in HPV+ and WT p53 cases. Conclusions: Patients with HPV+ OPSCC have an excellent prognosis after radiochemotherapy, but cisplatin-based chemotherapy may not confer a satisfactory outcome, especially in WT cases, thereby justifying the additional or alternative use of taxanes and epidermal growth factor receptors inhibitors. Uncommon distant metastases and second tumors in the HPV+ group may be cause for clinicians to review the follow-up policies in these patients.

Fallai, Carlo, E-mail: carlo.fallai@istitutotumori.mi.i [Radiation Oncology Department, Fondazione IRCCS, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan (Italy); Perrone, Federica [Pathology Department, Fondazione IRCCS, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan (Italy); Licitra, Lisa [Medical Oncology Department, Fondazione IRCCS, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan (Italy); Pilotti, Silvana [Pathology Department, Fondazione IRCCS, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan (Italy); Locati, Laura; Bossi, Paolo [Medical Oncology Department, Fondazione IRCCS, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan (Italy); Orlandi, Ester; Palazzi, Mauro; Olmi, Patrizia [Radiation Oncology Department, Fondazione IRCCS, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan (Italy)

2009-11-15

271

HPV involvement in OSCC: Correlation of PCR results with light microscopic features  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The study evaluated pathognomic histopathological features with the help of light microscopy for detecting the integration of human papillomavirus (HPV) (type 16 and 18) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Materials and Methods: Forty-five histopathologically diagnosed cases of OSCC were evaluated for the presence of E6/E7 protein of HPV (16 + 18) with the help of nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Both HPV-positive and -negative cases were evaluated for four histological features: Koilocytes, dyskeratosis, invasion, and alteration of collagen. Results: Fischer's exact test showed significant difference (P < 0.01%) for the presence of koilocytes and dyskeratosis, whereas no difference was observed for invasion and alteration in collagen between HPV-positive and -negative OSCC. Conclusion: The presence of koilocytes and dyskeratosis at light microscopic level can be used as a marker for the presence of HPV (type 16 and 18) in OSCC. PMID:24250078

Khangura, Rajbir Kaur; Sengupta, Shamindra; Sircar, Keya; Sharma, Bhudev; Singh, Sanjeet; Rastogi, Varun

2013-01-01

272

Oral Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection among Unvaccinated High-Risk Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Oral HPV infection, the cause of most oropharyngeal cancer in the U.S., is not well studied among high-risk young adults. Men (n = 340) and women (n = 270) aged 18–25 years attending Baltimore County STD clinics were recruited if they declined HPV vaccination. Each participant had a 30-second oral rinse and gargle sample tested for 37 types of HPV DNA, and a risk-factor survey. Factors associated with prevalent infection were explored using log binomial regression. Men had higher prevalence of any oral HPV (15.3% vs. 7.8%, p = 0.004) and vaccine-type oral HPV (i.e., HPV16/18/6/11: 5.0% vs. 1.1%, p = 0.007) infection than women. In multivariate analysis, male gender (aPR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.10–3.39), number of recent oral sex partners (p-trend = 0.013) and having ever performed oral sex on a woman (aPR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.06–2.82) were associated with increased oral HPV prevalence. Performing oral sex on a woman may confer higher risk of oral HPV acquisition than performing oral sex on a man. PMID:25256827

D’Souza, Gypsyamber; Kluz, Nicole; Wentz, Alicia; Youngfellow, Renee M.; Griffioen, Anne; Stammer, Emily; Guo, Yingshi; Xiao, Weihong; Gillison, Maura L.

2014-01-01

273

Surface Conformational and Linear Epitopes on HPV16 and HPV18 L1 Virus-like Particles as Defined by Monoclonal Antibodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A panel of 24 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was generated against human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 L1 virus-like particles (VLPs). The MAbs were screened for reactivity to a variety of VLPs prepared from HPV-6, -11, -16, -18, -31, -33, -35, and -45, cottontail rabbit papillomavirus, bovine papillomavirus type 1, and a set of 35 overlapping 20-amino-acid peptides spanning the

Neil D. Christensen; Joakim Dillner; Carina Eklund; Joseph J. Carter; Gregory C. Wipf; Cynthia A. Reed; Nancy M. Cladel; Denise A. Galloway

1996-01-01

274

A real-time PCR approach based on SPF10 primers and the INNO-LiPA HPV genotyping extra assay for the detection and typing of human papillomavirus.  

PubMed

A highly sensitive SPF10 real-time PCR was developed to achieve simultaneous amplification and detection of the human papillomavirus (HPV) target. That way, LiPA analysis of the HPV-negative samples can be avoided, reducing workload and cost. Here, we describe in detail a SYBR Green I-based real-time PCR assay based on SPF10 primers using the LightCycler(®) 480 system to generate and detect HPV amplicons, which are compatible with the LiPA assay. PMID:25348295

Micalessi, M Isabel; Boulet, Gaëlle A; Bogers, Johannes

2015-01-01

275

A chlamydial type III-secreted effector protein (Tarp) is predominantly recognized by antibodies from humans infected with Chlamydia trachomatis and induces protective immunity against upper genital tract pathologies in mice  

PubMed Central

Chlamydia trachomatis genome is predicted to encode a type III secretion system consisting of more than forty open reading frames (ORFs). To test whether these ORFs are expressed and immunogenic during chlamydial infection in humans, we expressed 55 chlamydial ORFs covering all putative type III secretion components plus control molecules as fusion proteins and measured the reactivity of these fusion proteins with antibodies from patients infected with C. trachomatis in the urogenital tract (24 antisera) or in the ocular tissue (8 antisera). Forty-five of the 55 proteins were recognized by at least one of the 32 human antisera, suggesting that these proteins are both expressed and immunogenic during chlamydial infection in humans. Tarp, a putative type III secretion effector protein, was identified as a novel immunodominant antigen due to its reactivity with the human antisera at high frequency and titer. The expression and immunogenicity of Tarp were confirmed in cell culture and mouse systems. Tarp was mainly associated with the infectious form of chlamydial organisms and became undetectable between 13 and 24 hours during the infection cycle in cell culture. Mice intravaginally infected with C. muridarum developed Tarp-specific humoral and cellular immune responses. More importantly, immunization of mice with Tarp induced Th1-dominant immunity that significantly reduced the shedding of live organisms from the lower genital tract and attenuated inflammatory pathologies in the fallopian tube tissues. These observations have demonstrated that Tarp, an immunodominant antigen identified by human antisera, can induce protective immunity against chlamydial infection and pathology in mice. PMID:19428908

Wang, Jie; Chen, Lili; Chen, Fan; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Yingqian; Baseman, Joel; Perdue, Sondra; Yeh, I-Tien; Shain, Rochelle; Holland, Martin; Bailey, Robin; Mabey, David; Yu, Ping; Zhong, Guangming

2009-01-01

276

Screening for high risk human papilloma virus (HR-HPV) subtypes, among Sudanese patients with oral lesions  

PubMed Central

HR-HPV subtypes are strongly linked to etiology of many human cancers including oral cancer. The epidemiology of infection with different HPV genotypes greatly varies in different countries. The aim of this study was to identify and genotype the HR-HPV subtypes in oral tissues obtained from Sudanese patients with oral lesions. In this retrospective study 200 patients with oral lesions were screened by molecular methods (PCR) for the presence of HR-HPV subtypes. Of the 200 patients, 100/200 were patients with oral cancer (ascertained as case group) and 100/200 were patients with non-neoplastic oral lesions (ascertained as control group). Out of the 200 patients, 12/200 (6%) were found with HR-HPV infection. Of the 12 positive patients, 8/12 (66.7%) were among cases and the remaining 4/12 (33.3%) were among control group. The distribution of different genotypes was: type HPV 16 6/12 (50%), HPV18 4/12 (34%), HPV 31 1/12 (8%) and HPV 33 1/12 (8%). In view of these findings, HPV particularly subtypes 16 and 18 play a role in the etiology of oral cancer in the Sudan. PMID:23641304

Babiker, Ali Yousif; Eltom, Faris Margani; Abdalaziz, Mohamed S; Rahmani, Arshad; Abusail, Saadalnour; Ahmed, Hussain Gadelkareem

2013-01-01

277

Understanding differences in predictions of HPV vaccine effectiveness: A comparative model-based analysis.  

PubMed

Mathematical models of HPV vaccine effectiveness and cost-effectiveness have produced conflicting results. The aim of this study was to use mathematical models to compare and isolate the impact of the assumptions most commonly made when modeling the effectiveness of HPV vaccines. Our results clearly show that differences in how we model natural immunity, herd immunity, partnership duration, HPV types, and waning of vaccine protection lead to important differences in the predicted effectiveness of HPV vaccines. These results are important and useful to assist modelers/health economists in choosing the appropriate level of complexity to include in their models, provide epidemiologists with insight on key data necessary to increase the robustness of model predictions, and help decision makers better understand the reasons underlying conflicting results from HPV models. PMID:20573580

Van de Velde, Nicolas; Brisson, Marc; Boily, Marie-Claude

2010-07-26

278

Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in upper respiratory tract mucosa in a group of pre-school children.  

PubMed

introduction. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a group of DNA viruses which is an etiological factor of many benign and malignant diseases of the upper respiratory tract mucosa, female genital tract and the skin. HPV infection is considered a sexually-transmitted infection, but can also be transmitted by non-sexual routes, including perinatal vertical transmission, physical contact, iatrogenic infection and autoinoculation. Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis (RRP) in children is connected with HPV infection transmitted vertically from mother to child during the passage of the foetus through an infected birth canal. objective. The aim of this study was to establish the level of Human Papillomaviruses carrier state in upper respiratory tract mucosa in healthy pre-school children, and to identify potential risk factors for HPV infection. materials and method. After obtaining consent from their parents, 97 pre-school children were examined - 51 girls and 46 boys between the ages of 3 - 5 years; average age - 4 years and 5 months. 68 children were urban dwellers and 29 came from a rural environment. A questionnaire with detailed history was taken including parents' and child`s personal data, as well as perinatal risk factors in pregnancy. Socio-demographic information was also obtained, including the standard of living, and chosen environmental factors. Routine ENT examination was performed. Exfoliated oral squamous cells were collected from swabs and analysed for the presence of DNA papillomaviruses by polymerase chain reaction. results. The presence of HPV in the respiratory tract in children was detected in 19.6% cases. 'High oncogenic potential' HPVs, such as HPV-16 and HPV-18, were not observed in squamous cell mucosa of the respiratory tract in the children. No significant differences were observed between the HPV carrier state in urban and rural inhabitants. PMID:25528927

Szyd?owski, Jaroslaw; Jonczyk-Potoczna, Katarzyna; Pucher, Beata; Buraczy?ska-Andrzejewska, Beata; Prauzi?ska, Magdalena; Kolasi?ska-Lip?ska, Jagoda; Krauss, Hanna; Pi?tek, Jacek; ?ukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta

2014-11-26

279

From Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Detection to Cervical Cancer Prevention in Clinical Practice  

PubMed Central

The newly gained knowledge of the viral etiology in cervical carcinogenesis has prompted industrial interests in developing virology-based tools for cervical cancer prevention. Due to the long incubation period from viral infection to developing an invasive cancer, a process whose outcome is influenced by numerous life-style and genetic factors, the true efficacy of the genotype-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines in cervical cancer prevention cannot be determined for another 30 years. Most HPV DNA test kits designed to replace the traditional Papanicolaou (Pap) smears for precancer detection lack the analytical sensitivity and specificity to comprehensively detect all potentially carcinogenic HPVs and to perform reliable genotyping. The authors implemented the classic nested PCR and Sanger DNA-sequencing technology for routine HPV testing. The results showed a true negative HPV PCR invariably indicates the absence of precancerous cells in the cytology samples. However, 80.5% of single positive HPV-16 tests and 97.3% of single positive HPV-18 tests were associated with a negative or a largely self-reversible Pap cytology. Routine sensitive and reliable HPV type-specific or perhaps even variant-specific methods are needed to address the issues of persistence of HPV infection if a virology-based primary cervical screen is used to replace the Pap cytology screening paradigm. PMID:25279452

Lee, Sin Hang; Vigliotti, Jessica S.; Vigliotti, Veronica S.; Jones, William

2014-01-01

280

Identification of T- and B-cell epitopes of the E7 protein of human papillomavirus type 16.  

PubMed Central

There is strong evidence implicating human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) in the genesis of human genital cancer. Viral DNA has been identified in invasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix and in cell lines derived from cervical carcinomas. These sequences are actively transcribed, and translation products corresponding to the early (E)-region genes have been identified. The most abundant viral protein is the E7 protein, which has been shown to possess transforming activity for both established and primary cells. In addition, it has been shown to bind to a cellular tumor suppressor, the retinoblastoma gene product (pRb-105). In view of these properties, we have undertaken the immunological analysis of this protein and have identified four T-cell epitopes and three B-cell epitopes by using a series of overlapping peptides spanning the entire HPV16 E7 sequence. Two of the B-cell epitopes were recognized by antisera from mice with three different murine (H-2) haplotypes (k, d, and s) immunized with two different E7 fusion proteins and from Fischer rats seeded with baby rat kidney cells transformed by HPV16 E7 and ras. A third B-cell epitope was recognized by antisera from CBA mice seeded with HPV16 E7-expressing L cells. Two regions of the protein contain common B- and T-cell epitopes, one of which appears to be particularly immunodominant. Images PMID:1714516

Comerford, S A; McCance, D J; Dougan, G; Tite, J P

1991-01-01

281

Validation of methods for oropharyngeal cancer HPV status determination in US cooperative group trials.  

PubMed

Tumor human papillomavirus (HPV) status is a prognostic factor for oropharyngeal cancer, but classification methods are not standardized. Here we validate the HPV classification methods used in US cooperative group trials. Tumor DNA and RNA purified from 240 paraffin-embedded oropharyngeal cancers diagnosed from 2000 to 2009 were scored as evaluable if positive for DNA and mRNA controls by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Eighteen high-risk (HR) HPV types were detected in tumors by consensus PCR, followed by HR-HPV E6/7 oncogene expression analysis by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR. The sensitivity (S), specificity (SP), and positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) of p16 expression detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and HPV16 detected by in situ hybridization (ISH) were evaluated in comparison with HR-HPV E6/7 oncogene expression. Interrater agreement among 3 pathologists was evaluated by ? statistics. Of 235 evaluable tumors, 158 (67%; 95% confidence interval, 61.2-73.3) were positive for HR-HPV E6/7 oncogene expression [HPV type 16 (92%), 18 (3%), 33 (3%), 35 (1%), or 58 (1%)]. p16 IHC had high sensitivity (S 96.8%, SP 83.8%, PPV 92.7%, and NPV 92.5%), whereas HPV16 ISH had high specificity (S 88.0%, SP 94.7%, PPV 97.2%, and NPV 78.9%) for HR-HPV oncogene expression. Interrater agreement was excellent for p16 (?=0.95 to 0.98) and HPV16 ISH (?=0.83 to 0.91). Receiver operating curve analysis determined the cross-product of p16 intensity score and percentage of tumor staining to optimally discriminate HR-HPV E6/7-positive and HR-HPV E6/7-negative tumors. p16 IHC and HPV16 ISH assays show excellent performance, with high sensitivity and specificity, respectively. A new validated H-score for p16 IHC assessment is proposed. Appropriate assay choice depends on clinical implications of a false-positive or false-negative test. PMID:22743284

Jordan, Richard C; Lingen, Mark W; Perez-Ordonez, Bayardo; He, Xin; Pickard, Robert; Koluder, Michael; Jiang, Bo; Wakely, Paul; Xiao, Weihong; Gillison, Maura L

2012-07-01

282

Inactivation of p53 Rescues the Maintenance of High Risk HPV DNA Genomes Deficient in Expression of E6  

PubMed Central

The human papillomavirus DNA genome undergoes three distinct stages of replication: establishment, maintenance and amplification. We show that the HPV16 E6 protein is required for the maintenance of the HPV16 DNA genome as an extrachromosomal, nuclear plasmid in its natural host cell, the human keratinocyte. Based upon mutational analyses, inactivation of p53 by E6, but not necessarily E6-mediated degradation of p53, was found to correlate with the ability of E6 to support maintenance of the HPV16 genome as a nuclear plasmid. Inactivation of p53 with dominant negative p53 rescued the ability of HPV16 E6STOP and E6SAT mutant genomes to replicate as extrachromosomal genomes, though not to the same degree as observed for the HPV16 E6 wild-type (WT) genome. Inactivation of p53 also rescued the ability of HPV18 and HPV31 E6-deficient genomes to be maintained at copy numbers comparable to that of HPV18 and HPV31 E6WT genomes at early passages, though upon further passaging copy numbers for the HPV18 and 31 E6-deficient genomes lessened compared to that of the WT genomes. We conclude that inactivation of p53 is necessary for maintenance of HPV16 and for HPV18 and 31 to replicate at WT copy number, but that additional functions of E6 independent of inactivating p53 must also contribute to the maintenance of these genomes. Together these results suggest that re-activation of p53 may be a possible means for eradicating extrachromosomal HPV16, 18 or 31 genomes in the context of persistent infections. PMID:24204267

Lorenz, Laurel D.; Rivera Cardona, Jessenia; Lambert, Paul F.

2013-01-01

283

Female Genital Mutilation  

MedlinePLUS

... types. Clitoridectomy: partial or total removal of the clitoris (a small, sensitive and erectile part of the ... the prepuce (the fold of skin surrounding the clitoris). Excision: partial or total removal of the clitoris ...

284

Classification and nomenclature system for Human Alphapapillomavirus variants: general features, nucleotide landmarks and assignment of HPV6 and HPV11 isolates to variant lineages  

PubMed Central

Background Papillomaviruses constitute a family of viruses that can be classified into genera, species and types based on their viral genome heterogeneity. Currently circulating infectious human Alphapapillomaviruses (alpha-PVs) constitute a set of viral genomes that have evolved from archaic times and display features of host co-speciation. Viral variants are more recently evolved genomes that require a standardized classification and nomenclature. Objectives To describe a system for the classification and nomenclature of HPV viral variants and provide landmarks for the numbering of nucleotide positions. Methods The complete 8 kb genomes of the alpha-9 species group and HPV6 and 11 types, collected from isolates throughout the world were obtained from published reports and GenBank. Complete genomes for each HPV type were aligned using the E1 start codon and sequence divergence was calculated by global and pairwise alignments using the MUSCLE program. Phylogenetic trees were constructed from the aligned sequences using a maximum likelihood method (RAxML). Results Pairwise comparisons of nucleotide differences between complete genomes of each type from alpha-9 HPV isolates (HPV16, 31, 33, 35, 52, 58 and 67) revealed a trimodal distribution. Maximum heterogeneity for variants within a type varied from 0.6%-2.3%. Nucleotide differences of approximately 1.0%-10.0% and 0.5%-1.0% of the complete genomes were used to define variant lineages and sublineages, respectively. Analysis of 43 HPV6 complete genomes indicated the presence of 2 variant lineages, whereas 32 HPV11 isolates were highly similar and clustered into 2 sublineages. A table was constructed of the human alpha-PV landmark nucleotide sequences for future reference and alignments. Conclusions A proposed nomenclature system for viral variants and coordination of nucleotide positions will facilitate the comparison of variants across geographic regions and amongst different populations. In addition, this system will facilitate study of pathogenic, tissue tropism and functional differences amongst variant lineages of and polymorphisms within HPV variants. PMID:22131111

Burk, R. D.; Chen, Z.; Harari, A.; Smith, B. C.; Kocjan, B. J.; Maver, P. J.; Poljak, M.

2013-01-01

285

The HPV E2-Host Protein-Protein Interactions: A Complex Hijacking of the Cellular Network  

PubMed Central

Over 100 genotypes of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) have been identified as being responsible for unapparent infections or for lesions ranging from benign skin or genital warts to cancer. The pathogenesis of HPV results from complex relationships between viral and host factors, driven in particular by the interplay between the host proteome and the early viral proteins. The E2 protein regulates the transcription, the replication as well as the mitotic segregation of the viral genome through the recruitment of host cell factors to the HPV regulatory region. It is thereby a pivotal factor for the productive viral life cycle and for viral persistence, a major risk factor for cancer development. In addition, the E2 proteins have been shown to engage numerous interactions through which they play important roles in modulating the host cell. Such E2 activities are probably contributing to create cell conditions appropriate for the successive stages of the viral life cycle, and some of these activities have been demonstrated only for the oncogenic high-risk HPV. The recent mapping of E2-host protein-protein interactions with 12 genotypes representative of HPV diversity has shed some light on the large complexity of the host cell hijacking and on its diversity according to viral genotypes. This article reviews the functions of E2 as they emerge from the E2/host proteome interplay, taking into account the large-scale comparative interactomic study. PMID:23341853

Muller, Mandy; Demeret, Caroline

2012-01-01

286

Cleavage/Alteration of Interleukin-8 by Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 in the Female Lower Genital Tract  

PubMed Central

Objective Interleukin-8 (IL-8, CXCL8) plays important roles in immune responses at mucosal sites including in the lower genital tract. Since several types of bacteria produce proteases that cleave IL-8 and many types of bacteria can be present in lower genital tract microbiota, we assessed genital fluids for IL-8 cleavage/alteration. Study Design Genital fluids collected by lavage from 200 women (23 HIV-seronegative and 177 HIV-seropositive) were tested for IL-8 cleavage/alteration by ELISA. Results IL-8 cleaving/altering activity was observed in fluids from both HIV-positive (28%) and HIV-negative women (35%). There was no clear relationship between the activity and the types of bacteria present in the lower genital tract as determined by high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Protease inhibitors specific for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) reduced the activity and a multiplex assay that detects both inactive and active MMPs showed the presence of multiple MMPs, including MMP-1, -3, -7, -8, -9, -10 and -12 in genital secretions from many of the women. The IL-8-cleaving/altering activity significantly correlated with active MMP-9 as well as with cleavage of a substrate that is acted on by several active MMPs. Conclusions These studies show that multiple MMPs are present in the genital tract of women and strongly suggest that MMP-9 in genital secretions can cleave IL-8 at this mucosal site. These studies suggest that MMP-mediated cleavage of IL-8 can modulate inflammatory responses in the lower genital tract. PMID:25611319

Zariffard, M. Reza; Anastos, Kathryn; French, Audrey L.; Munyazesa, Elisaphane; Cohen, Mardge; Landay, Alan L.; Spear, Gregory T.

2015-01-01

287

Causes, Viruses: HPV, Galloway clip 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Professor Galloway explains that there are many HPVs that infect the genital tract and a set of those cause benign genital warts but another set is able to cause lesions that will go on and progress to cervical or other anal-genital cancers.

2009-12-26

288

Isolated itching of the genitals.  

PubMed

A 38-year-old man, returned from Ivory Coast 2 months ago and presented with a 3-month history of pruritus exclusively on the scrotum. Itching was continuous during the day and no pruritus was described in his wife and son. Clinical examination of the genitals revealed several nodules on the scrotum, a chancrous lesion was seen on the penis, and multiple excoriations were noted. Dermoscopy exam with a dermatoscope of the whole body was performed and no papules, nodules, or burrow were found. Microscopic examination of several superficial skin samples obtained by scraping in the peri-genital area revealed one adult of Sarcoptes scabiei. The patient and his relatives were successfully treated with Ivermectin 200 ?g/kg with a second dose 2 weeks later. Very rare cases are described on localized scabies (scalp, feet) and they mainly occurred in an immunocompromised patient unlike this patient who does not have any immunosuppression. PMID:24696404

Pomares, Christelle; Marty, Pierre; Delaunay, Pascal

2014-04-01

289

Epidemiology of HPV infection and current status of cervical cancer prevention in Greece: final results of the LYSISTRATA cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess the overall prevalence of the human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and distribution of high-risk HPV (hrHPV) types in Greece and evaluate the participation of women in primary and secondary cervical cancer prevention. This was a prospective, cross-sectional study carried out between October 2005 and January 2011 in Greece; 5379 women filled out the study questionnaire anonymously. 5107 women underwent cervical HPV-DNA testing, either by Hybrid Capture 2, followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism-PCR, or by the Abbott Real-Time High-Risk HPV test. Overall, 5.8% (295/5107) of women were positive for hrHPV infection. The most common hrHPV type was HPV-16 (24.8% among infected women; 1.4% overall), followed by HPV types 31, 35, 53, 18, 51, 56, 58, 52, 39, 66, 45, 33, 59, and 68. In respect to primary prevention of cervical cancer, acceptance of anti-HPV vaccination appeared to decrease over time (from 85-89.9% annually during 2005-2008 to 64.4-60.5% during 2009-2010, P<0.001). In respect to secondary prevention, only 30.3% of women had regular (annually for more than 5 years) Pap smears; regular gynecologic examinations, Papanicolaou testing, and knowledge of HPV were all associated with various demographic parameters (age, education, place of residence, occupation, and income). The prevalence of hrHPV infection in Greece is similar to that in other European countries; the most common type is HPV-16. The initially relatively high acceptance of HPV vaccination decreased after licensing of the vaccine. Demographic parameters appear to influence participation in cervical cancer screening. PMID:24977385

Agorastos, Theodoros; Chatzistamatiou, Kimon; Zafrakas, Menelaos; Siamanta, Vagia; Katsamagkas, Taxiarchis; Constantinidis, Theodoros C; Lampropoulos, Alexandros F

2014-09-01

290

Sources of HPV vaccine hesitancy in parents  

PubMed Central

Despite strong national recommendations to vaccinate adolescents against the human papillomavirus (HPV), only 14% of teenage girls completed all 3 doses in 2010. Parental hesitancy may be one of the strongest reasons behind this low uptake rate. This review investigates sources of parental hesitancy including parental concerns associated with vaccinations in general, parental knowledge as a basis of HPV vaccine hesitancy, social qualms parents may have with regards to the HPV vaccine, and parental attitudes toward allowing their sons to be vaccinated against HPV. By better understanding these sources of hesitancy, we can focus research efforts towards addressing them in an attempt to improve HPV vaccine uptake. PMID:23982270

Patel, Pooja R; Berenson, Abbey B

2013-01-01

291

Cell mediated immunity induced in mice by HPV 16 L1 virus-like particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 L1 virus-like particles (VLPs) expressed in the baculovirus system were used to investigate the cellular immune response to human papillomavirus type 16. The cell-mediated immune response was evaluated through immunization of mice with HPV 16 L1 virus-like particles using a lymphoproliferation assay and cytokine production and cytometric analysis of lymphocyte subsets. A significant proliferative

Catherine Dupuy; Dominique Buzoni-Gate; Antoine Touze; Pierre Le Cann; Daniel Bout; Pierre Coursaget

1997-01-01

292

HPV mRNA and p16 detection as biomarkers for the improved diagnosis of cervical neoplasia  

PubMed Central

HPV infection of the genital tract is very common and normally follows a benign clinical course, however in an unfortunate minority of infected individuals it can cause disease which sometimes leads to cancer. It is accepted that HPV DNA testing has a role in the management of cervical disease both in a pre and post vaccination era, however to improve the specificity of this approach, there is a requirement to develop and validate tools/assays that can identify women at risk for progressive disease. There is evidence to suggest that detection of viral gene expression both directly and indirectly may constitute a more specific approach for delineating clinically significant infection compared with HPV DNA based assays. HPV oncogene expression and evidence of its deregulation can be monitored through direct detection of viral mRNA transcripts or through detection of the cellular protein p16. For both approaches, commercial assays have been introduced and numerous studies have been conducted. The present article describes the scientific theory underpinning these approaches, their amenability to routine-diagnostic specimens/settings and the clinical data that has been garnered through their application thus far. Currently, there is promising data indicating that HPV mRNA and p16 might play an important role in future cervical cancer screening scenarios. Still, large randomized studies are necessary to confirm the preliminary data PMID:18842994

Cuschieri, Kate; Wentzensen, Nicolas

2010-01-01

293

Genetics Home Reference: Hand-foot-genital syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... PubMed Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Hand-foot-genital syndrome On this page: Description Genetic ... names Glossary definitions Reviewed April 2008 What is hand-foot-genital syndrome? Hand-foot-genital syndrome is ...

294

Recombinant HPV16L1-attenuated Shigella live vector vaccine induced strong vaginal and systemic immune responses in guinea pigs model.  

PubMed

Background: Though human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines based on L1 virus-like particles (VLPs) have excellent protective effect against HPV-induced cervical cancer, they are too expensive to be afforded by the developing countries, where most cases of cervical cancer occur. A live bacterial-based vaccine could be an inexpensive alternative. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential value of live attenuated Shigella. flexneri 2a sc602 strain-based HPV16L1 as a high-efficiency, low-cost HPV16L1 mucosal vaccine. Results: Recombinant sc602/L1 vaccine induced high L1-specific systemic and mucosal immune responses as well as cell-mediated Th1 and Th2 immune responses in guinea pig model. Sc602/L1 vaccine induced higher L1-specific IgG and IgA antibodies as well as HPV16-neutralizing antibodies in genital region in sc602/L1 mucosal immunized animals than in L1 intramuscular immunized animals. Though both are via mucosal delivery, immunized sc602/L1 vaccine by rectum route induced higher L1-specific IgA and IgG titers in genital region than by conjunctiva route. In addition, sc602/L1 also strongly increased L1-specific IFN-? and IL-4 expression, implying its effect on cell-mediated immune response. Methods: HPV16L1 was expressed in sc602 bacteria and their biologic characteristics were detected by immunoblot, electron microscope and HeLa cell invasion assay. Guinea pigs were immunized with sc602L1 through conjunctiva (i.c.) or rectum (i.r.). Mucosal and systemic immune responses were detected by ELISA, ELISPOT and Neutralization activity assays. Conclusion: Strong mucosal and systemic immune responses were induced by sc602/L1 vaccine. This study provides evidence that sc602/L1 vaccine may have protective effect on HPV infection. PMID:25483698

Yan, Xiaofei; Wang, Depu; Liang, Fengli; Fu, Ling; Guo, Cheng

2014-11-01

295

Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine (Gardasil)  

MedlinePLUS

... is important to get HPV vaccine before any sexual contact takes place. Also, response to the vaccine is better at this age than at older ages. Catch-Up Vaccination:This vaccine is recommended for the following people who have not completed the 3-dose series: Females 13 through 26 ...

296

Tumourigenesis Driven by the Human Papillomavirus Type 16 Asian-American E6 Variant in a Three-Dimensional Keratinocyte Model  

PubMed Central

Infection with a transforming human papillomavirus (HPV) such as type 16 (of species Alphapapillomavirus 9) causes ano-genital and oral tumours via viral persistence in human squamous cell epithelia. Epidemiological studies showed that the naturally occurring HPV16 Asian-American (AA) variant (sublineage D2/D3) is found more often than the European Prototype (EP) (sublineage A1) in high-grade cervical neoplasia and tumours compared to non-cancer controls. Just three amino acid changes within the early gene, E6, of HPV16 AA have been linked to this augmented tumourigenicity. The AAE6 variant's greater immortalizing and transforming potential over EPE6 has recently been confirmed in retrovirally-transduced keratinocytes expressing the E6 gene only. However, the tumourigenic role of the full-length viral genome of HPV16 has not yet been addressed with regard to these E6 variants. To investigate this process in the context of these two HPV16 E6 genotypes, an organotypic tissue culture model was used to simulate the HPV infectious life cycle. The AAE6 variant demonstrated an enhanced ability over EPE6 to drive the viral life cycle toward tumourigenesis, as evidenced phenotypically—by a more severe grade of epithelial dysplasia with higher proliferation and deregulated differentiation, and molecularly—by high viral oncogene E6 and E7 expression, but lack of productive viral life cycle markers. In contrast, EPE6 had low E6 and E7 but high E1?E4 expression, indicative of a productive life cycle. We suggest increased viral integration into the host genome for AAE6 as one possible mechanism for these observed differences from EPE6. Additionally, we found downstream effects on immortalization and host innate immune evasion. This study highlights how minor genomic variations in transforming viruses can have a significant affect on their tumourigenic ability. PMID:24983759

Jackson, Robert; Togtema, Melissa; Lambert, Paul F.; Zehbe, Ingeborg

2014-01-01

297

Human Papillomavirus Type 16 and Immune Status in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Seropositive Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 is etio- logically associated with approximately half of all cervical cancers. It is important, therefore, to determine the charac- teristics that distinguish HPV16 from other HPV types. A preliminary result based on cross-sectional baseline data in the Women's Interagency Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Study (WIHS) suggested that the prevalence of HPV16 might have a

Howard D. Strickler; Joel M. Palefsky; Keerti V. Shah; Kathryn Anastos; Robert S. Klein; Howard Minkoff; Ann Duerr; L. Stewart Massad; David D. Celentano; Charles Hall; Melissa Fazzari; Susan Cu-Uvin; Melanie Bacon; Paula Schuman; Alexandra M. Levine; Amanda J. Durante; Stephen Gange; Sandra Melnick; Robert D. Burk

2003-01-01

298

Measurement of the Humoral Immune Response following an Incident Human Papillomavirus Type 16 or 18 Infection in Young Women by a Pseudovirion-Based Neutralizing Antibody Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have evaluated a neutralizing antibody assay which uses human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 (HPV-16) and HPV-18 pseudovirions carrying a secretory alkaline phosphatase reporter gene and which can potentially measure functionally relevant HPV type-specific neutralizing antibodies. The reproducibility of the assay was excellent; for HPV-16, the intra- and interassay kappa values were 0.95 and 0.90, respectively; and for HPV-18, the

Jane Steele; Stuart Collins; Kaisheng Wen; Gordon Ryan; Christothea Constandinou-Williams; Ciaran B. J. Woodman

2008-01-01

299

Efficacy of Vaccination against HPV infections to prevent cervical cancer in France Laureen Ribassin-Majed1, 2  

E-print Network

Efficacy of Vaccination against HPV infections to prevent cervical cancer in France Laureen Pères, 75006 Paris, France Keywords : Human papillomavirus; vaccine; cervical cancer; modelling Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 cause 70% of cervical cancers, and currently two vaccines protecting against

300

TGF-? Regulation of Gene Expression at Early and Late Stages of HPV16-Mediated Transformation of Human Keratinocytes  

PubMed Central

In our in vitro model for HPV16-mediated transformation, HPV16-immortalized human keratinocytes (HKc/HPV16) give rise to differentiation resistant, premalignant cells (HKc/DR). HKc/DR, but not HKc/HPV16, are resistant to growth inhibition by transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?), due to a partial loss of TGF-? receptor type I. We show that TGF-? activates a Smad-responsive reporter construct in HKc/DR to about 50% of the maximum levels of activation observed in HKc/HPV16. To investigate the functional significance of residual TGF-? signaling in HKc/DR, we compared gene expression profiles elicited by TGF-? treatment of HKc/HPV16 and HKc/DR on Agilent 44k human whole genome microarrays. TGF-? altered the expression of cell cycle and MAP kinase pathway genes in HKc/HPV16, but not in HKc/DR. However, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) responses to TGF-? were comparable in HKc/HPV16 and HKc/DR, indicating that the signaling pathways through which TGF-? elicits growth inhibition diverge from those that induce EMT in HPV16-transformed cells. PMID:24210100

Kowli, Sangeeta; Velidandla, Rupa; Creek, Kim E.; Pirisi, Lucia

2013-01-01

301

Progesterone Increases Susceptibility and Decreases Immune Responses to Genital Herpes Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depo-provera, a long-acting progestational formulation, is widely used to facilitate infection of sexually transmitted diseases in animal models. We have previously reported that hormone treatments change suscep- tibility and immune responses to genital tract infections. In this study we compared the changes in suscepti- bility of mice to genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) after Depo-provera or a saline

Charu Kaushic; Ali A. Ashkar; Lesley A. Reid; Kenneth L. Rosenthal

2003-01-01

302

Deconstructing Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Knowledge: Objective and Perceived Knowledge in Males' Intentions to Receive the HPV Vaccine  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine was recently approved for men. To effectively tailor HPV education efforts toward men, it is important to understand what men know about HPV and how this knowledge relates to their decision to receive the vaccine. This study examines how objective HPV knowledge, objective HPV vaccine knowledge,…

Krawczyk, Andrea; Stephenson, Ellen; Perez, Samara; Lau, Elsa; Rosberger, Zeev

2013-01-01

303

Leishmaniasis in the genital area.  

PubMed

Two patients from the gold mines of Bolivar State, Venezuela, presenting cutaneous leishmaniasis in the genital region, an unusual location, are described. The first patient showed an ulcerated lesion of the glans penis. Leishmanin skin test was positive. A biopsy specimen revealed a granulomatous infiltrate containing Leishmania parasites. In the second patient, Leishmanin skin test was positive, HIV and VDRL were negative. Leishmania parasites were present in a biopsy of an ulcerated lesion in the scrotum, with an indurated base, infiltrative borders with an yellowish exudate. Patients were treated with meglumine antimoniate and the lesions healed. PMID:12048548

Cabello, Ismery; Caraballo, Alejandro; Millan, Yaneth

2002-01-01

304

Assessment of HPV 16 and HPV 18 antibody responses by pseudovirus neutralization, Merck cLIA and Merck total IgG LIA immunoassays in a reduced dosage quadrivalent HPV vaccine trial.  

PubMed

We assessed HPV 16 and 18 antibody responses of female subjects enrolled in a 2- vs. 3-dose quadrivalent HPV (Q-HPV) vaccine trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00501137) using the Merck competitive Luminex (cLIA) and total IgG Luminex (TIgG) immunoassays, and a pseudovirus neutralizing antibody (PsV NAb) assay. Subjects were enrolled in one of three groups: (1) 9-13yr, 2 doses of Q-HPV at 0, 6 months (n=259); (2) 9-13yr, 3 doses at 0, 2, 6 months (n=260); and (3) 16-26yr, 3 doses at 0, 2, 6 months (n=305). Sera were collected from all subjects at baseline, months 7 and 24, and from half the subjects at months 18 and 36. High correlation was observed between all three assays. At month 36, HPV 16 antibodies remained detectable in all subjects by all assays, whereas 86.4%, 99.6% and 100% of subjects respectively were HPV 18 cLIA, TIgG and PsV NAb (partial neutralization endpoint) seropositive. The proportion seropositive for HPV 18 by cLIA at 36 months was not significantly different for 2-dose girls vs. 3-dose adults (85.9% vs. 79.4%; p=0.51), whereas the proportion for 3-dose girls was significantly higher than for 3-dose adults (95.3% vs. 79.4%; p<0.01). The HPV 18 seropositive proportions by the TIgG and PsV NAb (partial neutralization endpoint) assays were the same for all subjects. High baseline HPV 16 and HPV 18 seropositivity was observed for the TIgG assay and it is unclear if all the detected TIgG antibodies are type-specific and/or neutralizing. For the PsV NAb assay, 90% and partial neutralization geometric mean titres were consistently 2-8-fold higher than for 100% neutralization, which enabled detection of HPV 18 NAb in subjects who lost detectable cLIA antibodies over time. We conclude that the PsV NAb assay is more sensitive than the cLIA, and likely more specific than the TIgG assay. PMID:24055350

Krajden, Mel; Cook, Darrel; Yu, Amanda; Chow, Ron; Su, Qiang; Mei, Wendy; McNeil, Shelly; Money, Deborah; Dionne, Marc; Palefsky, Joel; Karunakaran, Karuna; Kollmann, Tobias; Ogilvie, Gina; Petric, Martin; Dobson, Simon

2014-01-23

305

Characterization of HPV and host genome interactions in primary head and neck cancers.  

PubMed

Previous studies have established that a subset of head and neck tumors contains human papillomavirus (HPV) sequences and that HPV-driven head and neck cancers display distinct biological and clinical features. HPV is known to drive cancer by the actions of the E6 and E7 oncoproteins, but the molecular architecture of HPV infection and its interaction with the host genome in head and neck cancers have not been comprehensively described. We profiled a cohort of 279 head and neck cancers with next generation RNA and DNA sequencing and show that 35 (12.5%) tumors displayed evidence of high-risk HPV types 16, 33, or 35. Twenty-five cases had integration of the viral genome into one or more locations in the human genome with statistical enrichment for genic regions. Integrations had a marked impact on the human genome and were associated with alterations in DNA copy number, mRNA transcript abundance and splicing, and both inter- and intrachromosomal rearrangements. Many of these events involved genes with documented roles in cancer. Cancers with integrated vs. nonintegrated HPV displayed different patterns of DNA methylation and both human and viral gene expressions. Together, these data provide insight into the mechanisms by which HPV interacts with the human genome beyond expression of viral oncoproteins and suggest that specific integration events are an integral component of viral oncogenesis. PMID:25313082

Parfenov, Michael; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Gehlenborg, Nils; Freeman, Samuel S; Danilova, Ludmila; Bristow, Christopher A; Lee, Semin; Hadjipanayis, Angela G; Ivanova, Elena V; Wilkerson, Matthew D; Protopopov, Alexei; Yang, Lixing; Seth, Sahil; Song, Xingzhi; Tang, Jiabin; Ren, Xiaojia; Zhang, Jianhua; Pantazi, Angeliki; Santoso, Netty; Xu, Andrew W; Mahadeshwar, Harshad; Wheeler, David A; Haddad, Robert I; Jung, Joonil; Ojesina, Akinyemi I; Issaeva, Natalia; Yarbrough, Wendell G; Hayes, D Neil; Grandis, Jennifer R; El-Naggar, Adel K; Meyerson, Matthew; Park, Peter J; Chin, Lynda; Seidman, J G; Hammerman, Peter S; Kucherlapati, Raju

2014-10-28

306

Lifestyle and socio-demographic factors associated with high-risk HPV infection in UK women  

PubMed Central

The world age-standardised prevalence of high-risk HPV (hrHPV) infection among 5038 UK women aged 20–59 years, with a low-grade smear during 1999–2002, assessed for eligibility for TOMBOLA (Trial Of Management of Borderline and Other Low-grade Abnormal smears) was 34.2%. High-risk HPV prevalence decreased with increasing age, from 61% at ages 20–24 years to 14–15% in those over 50 years. The age-standardised prevalence was 15.1, 30.7 and 52.7%, respectively, in women with a current normal, borderline nuclear abnormalities (BNA) and mild smear. In overall multivariate analyses, tertiary education, previous pregnancy and childbirth were associated with reduced hrHPV infection risk. Risk of infection was increased in non-white women, women not married/cohabiting, hormonal contraceptives users and current smokers. In stratified analyses, current smear status and age remained associated with hrHPV infection. Data of this type are relevant to the debate on human papillomavirus (HPV) testing in screening and development of HPV vaccination programmes. PMID:17519896

Cotton, S C; Sharp, L; Seth, R; Masson, L F; Little, J; Cruickshank, M E; Neal, K; Waugh, N

2007-01-01

307

Female genital mutilation among Iraqi Kurdish women: a cross-sectional study from Erbil city  

PubMed Central

Background Iraqi Kurdistan region is one of the areas where female genital mutilation is reportedly widely practiced but inadequately studied. The aim of this study was to determine (i) the prevalence of female genital mutilation among Muslim Kurdish women in Erbil city, (ii) the patterns and types of female genital mutilation, (iii) the factors associated with this practice and (iv) women’s knowledge and attitudes towards this practice. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in the primary health care centers and the Maternity Teaching Hospital in Erbil city, involving 1987 women aged 15–49 years. Data were obtained about female genital mutilation status and knowledge and perception towards this practice. The participants were clinically examined to verify the self-reported female genital mutilation status. Results The self-reported prevalence of female genital mutilation was 70.3%, while it was 58.6% according to clinical examination of the women’s genitalia. The most common type of female genital mutilation was type I (99.6%) and the most common age at which mutilation was performed was 4–7 years (60.2%). This practice was mostly performed by traditional birth attendants (72.5%). Only 6.4% of mutilated women reported having complications after mutilation, most commonly bleeding (3.6%). The practice was more reported among housewives (OR?=?3.3), those women whose mothers were mutilated (OR?=?15.1) or with unknown mutilation status (OR?=?7.3) and those women whose fathers were illiterate (OR?=?1.4) or could only read and write (OR?=?1.6). The common reasons for practicing female genital mutilation were cultural tradition (46.7%) and dictate of religion (38.9%). Only 30% of the participants were aware about the health consequences of female genital mutilation. More than one third (36.6%) of the women support the practice and 34.5% have intention to mutilate their daughters. Conclusions Prevalence of female genital mutilation among Muslim Kurdish women in Erbil city is very high; although, most cases are of type I. There is clear lack of knowledge about the health consequences of female genital mutilation and a relatively important segment of women support this practice. Custom or tradition and dictate of religion are the main reasons for this practice that need further in-depth exploration. PMID:24010850

2013-01-01

308

Experiential Interventions for Clients with Genital Herpes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores potential benefits of incorporating concepts and interventions from experimental therapy to help clients with psychosocial difficulties in learning to live with genital herpes. Recommends experimental counseling of two-chair dialog, empty chair, and metaphor for helping clients with emotional sequelae of genital herpes. Presents case…

Cummings, Anne L.

1999-01-01

309

Predictors of Genital Pain in Young Women  

PubMed Central

Despite the high prevalence of genital pain in healthy young adult women, limited research has addressed genital pain during intercourse using contemporary models of multidimensional sexual function. The objectives of this study were threefold: (1) to identify differences in sexual functioning in women who experience genital pain compared to pain free women; (2) to identify predictors of sexual functioning in women with and without genital pain; and (3) to identify predictors of sexual satisfaction in women with and without genital pain. Sexually active female undergraduates (n = 651) were administered the Female Sexual Function Index and the Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory. We evaluated the sexual factors that impact the sexual function of women with any pain (including high and low pain groups) versus women with no history of pain. Women with genital pain reported greater rates of sexual dysfunction as compared to pain-free women; however, sexual functioning in the high versus low pain groups was distinguished primarily by vaginal lubrication. Women in the high pain group showed negative correlations between domains of sexual satisfaction and genital pain frequency and intensity that were not found in the low pain group. For pain-free women, intercourse played a strong role in sexual satisfaction, whereas non-intercourse sexual behavior was central to sexual satisfaction in women who reported pain. The evaluation of levels of genital pain may provide insight into the mechanisms underlying the impairment of sexual function, sexual behavior, and sexual satisfaction. PMID:17674182

Farmer, Melissa A.; Meston, Cindy M.

2010-01-01

310

Correlation between HPV sperm infection and male infertility  

PubMed Central

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases which comprises a group of small DNA viruses that infect both cutaneous and mucous squamous epithelia. Liquid bead microarray technology (LBMA) were used to evaluate 24 HPV genotypes in confirmed fertile and infertile males of North China so that the effects of HPV infection on semen parameters and relationship with male infertility could be discussed. A total of 1138 subjects were recruited in this study; 142 were HPV-positive (12.48%). Among 523 confirmed fertile males, only 35 were HPV-positive (6.70%), and two of them had multiple infections. Among 615 infertile males, 107 were HPV-positive (17.4%), and 29 of them had multiple infections. Infertile males had a relatively high HPV infection rate compared with confirmed fertile males. Sperm progressive motility (PR) and the normal morphology rate were significantly decreased in HPV-positive subjects. HPV-45, HPV-52, HPV-18, HPV-59 and HPV-16 infections were more frequently in infertile males. Hence, HPV infection is closely related to male infertility which will decrease sperm PR and morphology. HPV-45, HPV-52, HPV-18, HPV-59 and HPV-16 infection seems to be major risk factors. PMID:23603919

Yang, Yang; Jia, Chan-Wei; Ma, Yan-Min; Zhou, Li-Ying; Wang, Shu-Yu

2013-01-01

311

High-risk HPV infection after five years in a population-based cohort of Chilean women  

PubMed Central

Background The need to review cervical cancer prevention strategies has been triggered by the availability of new prevention tools linked to human papillomavirus (HPV): vaccines and screening tests. To consider these innovations, information on HPV type distribution and natural history is necessary. This is a five-year follow-up study of gynecological high-risk (HR) HPV infection among a Chilean population-based cohort of women. Findings A population-based random sample of 969 women from Santiago, Chile aged 17 years or older was enrolled in 2001 and revisited in 2006. At both visits they answered a survey on demographics and sexual history and provided a cervical sample for HPV DNA detection (GP5+/6+ primer-mediated PCR and Reverse line blot genotyping). Follow-up was completed by 576 (59.4%) women; 45 (4.6%) refused participation; most losses to follow-up were women who were unreachable, no longer eligible or had missing samples. HR-HPV prevalence increased by 43%. Incidence was highest in women < 20 years of age (19.4%) and lowest in women > 70 (0%); it was three times higher among women HR-HPV positive versus HPV negative at baseline (25.5% and 8.3%; OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.8-8.0). Type-specific persistence was 35.3%; it increased with age, from 0% in women < 30 years of age to 100% in women > 70. An enrollment Pap result ASCUS or worse was the only risk factor for being HR-HPV positive at both visits. Conclusions HR-HPV prevalence increased in the study population. All HR-HPV infections in women < 30 years old cleared, supporting the current recommendation of HR-HPV screening for women > 30 years. PMID:22087645

2011-01-01

312

[Surgical treatment of clitoral cysts complicating female genital mutilation].  

PubMed

We report the surgical management of eight vulvar tumors occurred at the waning of female genital mutilation practiced in childhood. Patients were aged 19 to 38 years. It was essentially excision type 2. Surgical excision of the labia minora with a refund without clitoral plasty gave satisfactory aesthetic and functional results. Histological examination of these tumors showed a single cyst containing keratin without inflammatory reaction. PMID:24440129

Diouf, A A; Mbaye, M; Gueye, M; Coly, A N; Moreira, P; Moreau, J C; Diouf, A

2014-04-01

313

The integration of HR-HPV increases the expression of cyclins A and E in cytologies with and without low-grade lesions  

PubMed Central

Background: Cyclin-A and cyclin-E are regulators of G1–S phase of normal cell cycle. Integration of human papilloma virus high-risk (HR-HPV) could alter this mechanism, and its overexpression has been associated with poor prognosis in cervical cancer. Aim: To determine the expression of cyclin-A and cyclin-E, types of HR-HPV and physical state of DNA in cytologies with the diagnosis of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). Materials and Methods: 115 cytological specimens in liquid base (liquid-PREP™) were analyzed. 25 specimens were with no signs of SIL (NSIL) and without HPV; 30 with NSIL with low-risk HPV (LR-HPV); 30 with NSIL with HR-HPV; and 30 with both LSIL and HR-HPV. The expression of cyclins was evaluated by immunocytochemistry; and the detection of viral DNA was done by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLPs) for genotyping or sequencing of HPV. The physical state of HPV was evaluated by in situ hybridization with amplification with tyramide. Results: In the cytologies NSIL with LR-HPV, the expression of cyclin-A and cyclin-E was found respectively in 23.3% and 33.3% of the specimens. Among the specimens of NSIL with HR-HPV, 33.3% expressed cyclin-A and 40% cyclin-E, while 100% of the LSILs expressed the 2 cyclins. On the other hand, 100% of the samples NSIL with LR-HPV presented an episomal pattern. Of the specimens of NSIL with HR-HPV, 56.6% exhibited an episomal pattern, 23.3% integrated and 20%, mixed. Among the LSILs, 90% were mixed and 10% integrated. Conclusions: The cyclins A and E are present in the LSILs that occur predominantly in mixed state in the presence of HR-HPV. PMID:23661932

Zubillaga-Guerrero, MI; Illades-Aguiar, B; Leyva-Vazquez, MA; Flores-Alfaro, E; Castañeda-Saucedo, E; Muñoz-Valle, JF; Alarcón-Romero, LC

2013-01-01

314

HPV-Associated Oropharyngeal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity  

MedlinePLUS

... Cancer Home HPV-Associated Oropharyngeal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Some cancers of the oropharynx (back ... by HPV. HPV-Associated Oropharyngeal Cancer Rates by Race, Ethnicity, and Sex, United States, 2004–2008 The ...

315

Preventing Cervical Cancer: The Development of HPV Vaccines  

Cancer.gov

Cervical cancer can be prevented with HPV vaccines. NCI-supported researchers helped establish HPV as a cause of cervical cancer. They also helped create the first HPV vaccines, were involved in the vaccine trials, and contribute to ongoing studies.

316

Position paper—HPV and the primary prevention of cancer; improving vaccine uptake by paediatricians  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large proportion of sexually active adults are infected with the human papillomaviruses (HPVs). Although largely asymptomatic,\\u000a some types of HPVs (HPV-16, HPV-18) which infect the genitalia are known to cause cancers, including cervical cancer. Cervical\\u000a cancer is an important public health concern and is the second most clinically important cancer to breast cancer in women\\u000a aged 15–44 years. Until recently,

José Ramet; Diego van Esso; Zsofia Meszner

2011-01-01

317

Influence of HIV-1 and/or HIV-2 infection and CD4 count on cervical HPV DNA detection in women from Senegal, West Africa  

PubMed Central

Background HIV infection is associated with greater risk of precancerous lesions and cervical cancer in women. However, several factors remain unclarified regarding the association between HIV infection and HPV detection, especially among those with HIV type 2 versus type 1 infection and severely immunocompromised persons. Objectives To evaluate HPV overall and type-specific detection among HIV-infected and uninfected women in Senegal. Study Design Detection of HPV DNA for 38 genotypes in cervical swabs using PCR-based methods was evaluated in HIV-positive (n=467) and HIV-negative (n=2139) women participating in studies in Senegal. Among HIV-1 and/or HIV-2 positive women, CD4 counts were assessed. Adjusted multivariable prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated. Results The prevalence of any HPV DNA and multiple HPV types was greater among HIV-infected individuals (78.2% and 62.3%, respectively) compared with HIV-negative women (27.1% and 11.6%). This trend was also seen for HPV types 16 and 18 (13.1% and 10.9%) compared to HIV-negative women (2.2% and 1.7%). HIV-infected women with CD4 cell counts less than 200 cells/µl had a higher likelihood of any HPV detection (PRa 1.30; 95% CI 1.07–1.59), multiple HPV types (PRa 1.52; 95% CI 1.14–2.01), and HPV-16 (PRa 9.00; 95% CI 1.66–48.67), but not HPV-18 (PRa 1.20, 95% CI 0.45–3.24) compared to those with CD4 counts 500 cells/µl or above. Conclusion HIV-infected women, especially those most severely immunocompromised, are more likely to harbor HPV. Measures to prevent initial HPV infection and subsequent development of cervical cancer through focused screening efforts should be implemented in these high risk populations. PMID:24210330

Hanisch, RA; Sow, PS; Toure, M; Dem, A; Dembele, B; Toure, P; Winer, RL; Hughes, JP; Gottlieb, GS; Feng, Q; Kiviat, NB; Hawes, SE

2014-01-01

318

DEK promotes HPV-positive and -negative head and neck cancer cell proliferation.  

PubMed

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide, and patient outcomes using current treatments remain poor. Tumor development is etiologically associated with tobacco or alcohol use and/or human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. HPV-positive HNSCCs, which frequently harbor wild-type p53, carry a more favorable prognosis and are a biologically distinct subgroup when compared with their HPV-negative counterparts. HPV E7 induces expression of the human DEK gene, both in vitro and in vivo. In keratinocytes, DEK overexpression is sufficient for causing oncogenic phenotypes in the absence of E7. Conversely, DEK loss results in cell death in HPV-positive cervical cancer cells at least in part through p53 activation, and Dek knockout mice are relatively resistant to the development of chemically induced skin papillomas. Despite the established oncogenic role of DEK in HPV-associated cervical cancer cell lines and keratinocytes, a functional role of DEK has not yet been explored in HNSCC. Using an established transgenic mouse model of HPV16 E7-induced HNSCC, we demonstrate that Dek is required for optimal proliferation of E7-transgenic epidermal cells and for the growth of HNSCC tumors. Importantly, these studies also demonstrate that DEK protein is universally upregulated in both HPV-positive and -negative human HNSCC tumors relative to adjacent normal tissue. Furthermore, DEK knockdown inhibited the proliferation of HPV-positive and -negative HNSCC cells, establishing a functional role for DEK in human disease. Mechanistic studies reveal that attenuated HNSCC cell growth in response to DEK loss was associated with reduced expression of the oncogenic p53 family member, ?Np63. Exogenous ?Np63 expression rescued the proliferative defect in the absence of DEK, thereby establishing a functional DEK-?Np63 oncogenic pathway that promotes HNSCC. Taken together, our data demonstrate that DEK stimulates HNSCC cellular growth and identify ?Np63 as a novel DEK effector. PMID:24608431

Adams, A K; Hallenbeck, G E; Casper, K A; Patil, Y J; Wilson, K M; Kimple, R J; Lambert, P F; Witte, D P; Xiao, W; Gillison, M L; Wikenheiser-Brokamp, K A; Wise-Draper, T M; Wells, S I

2015-02-12

319

High prevalence of hpv multiple genotypes in women with persistent chlamydia trachomatis infection  

PubMed Central

Background Chlamydia trachomatis interaction with HR-HPV types has highlighted a central role in cervical cancer development. The aim of this study was to investigate HPV prevalence and genotypes distribution in women at risk for C. trachomatis infection and negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy. Methods 1071 cervical swabs were tested for C. trachomatis by Real Time PCR and genotyping by ompA gene sequencing. Additionally, a quantitative Real time-PCR was performed to assess the expression of the C. trachomatis Hsp60–encoding gene (Ct604 portion), linked to a persistent status of infection. HPV infection and genotypes was investigated in C. trachomatis positive women using Luminex technology. Results C. trachomatis infection was detected in 53 out of 1071 (4.5%) samples, of which the 53% resulted positive for Hsp60 gene expression. The overall prevalence of HPV infection in C. trachomatis positive samples was of 60.4% (32/53): in 37.5% of samples was present a single genotype, while multiple genotypes infections were found in the 62.5% of them. Among women with a C. trachomatis chronic infection, 68% were HPV co-infected and the 79% showed multiple genotypes. Should be noted that levels of C. trachomatis Hsp60 expression in HPV co-infected women were significantly lower compared to women infected only with C. trachomatis. The C. trachomatis serotype F was found in the majority of samples, independently of HPV infection. Conclusions A high prevalence of HPV multiple infections have been found in young women affected with a C. trachomatis chronic infection. These observations suggested that the expression of CHSP60-1, interfering with both apoptotic and cellular senescence pathways, may promote a favourable local microenvironment for HPV infection.

2014-01-01

320

Serum antibodies to the HPV16 proteome as biomarkers for head and neck cancer  

PubMed Central

Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 is associated with oropharyngeal carcinomas (OPC). Antibodies (Abs) to HPV16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins have been detected in patient sera; however, Abs to other early HPV-derived proteins have not been well explored. Methods: Antibodies to the HPV16 proteome were quantified using a novel multiplexed bead assay, using C-terminal GST-fusion proteins captured onto Luminex beads. Sera were obtained from untreated patients with OPC (N=40), partners of patients with HPV16+ OPC (N=11), and healthy controls (N=50). Results: Oropharyngeal carcinomas patients with known virus-like capsid particle+ Abs had elevated serum Abs to HPV16 E1, E2, E4, E6, and E7, and L1 antibody levels, but not E5. The ratios of specific median fluorescence intensity to p21-GST compared with controls were E1: 50.7 vs 2.1; E4: 14.6 vs 1.3; E6: 11.3 vs 2.4; E7: 43.1 vs 2.6; and L1: 10.3 vs 2.6 (each P?0.01). In a validation cohort, HPV16 E1, E2, and E7 antibody levels were significantly elevated compared with healthy control samples (P?0.02) and partners of OPC patients (P?0.01). Conclusion: Patients with HPV16+ OPC have detectable Abs to E1, E2, and E7 proteins, which are potential biomarkers for HPV-associated OPC. PMID:21654689

Anderson, K S; Wong, J; D'Souza, G; Riemer, A B; Lorch, J; Haddad, R; Pai, S I; Longtine, J; McClean, M; LaBaer, J; Kelsey, K T; Posner, M

2011-01-01

321

Human papillomavirus prevalence among indigenous and non-indigenous Australian women prior to a national HPV vaccination program  

PubMed Central

Background Indigenous women in Australia have a disproportionate burden of cervical cancer despite a national cervical screening program. Prior to introduction of a national human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination program, we determined HPV genotype prevalence by Indigenous status and residence in remote areas. Methods We recruited women aged 17 to 40 years presenting to community-based primary health services for routine Pap screening across Australia. A liquid-based cytology (LBC) cervical specimen was tested for HPV DNA using the AMPLICOR HPV-DNA test and a PGMY09/11-based HPV consensus PCR; positive specimens were typed by reverse hybridization. We calculated age-adjusted prevalence by weighting to relevant population data, and determined predictors of HPV-DNA positivity by age, Indigenous status and area of residence using logistic regression. Results Of 2152 women (655 Indigenous), prevalence of the high-risk HPV genotypes was similar for Indigenous and non-Indigenous women (HPV 16 was 9.4% and 10.5%, respectively; HPV 18 was 4.1% and 3.8%, respectively), and did not differ by age group. In younger age groups, the prevalence of other genotypes also did not differ, but in those aged 31 to 40 years, HPV prevalence was higher for Indigenous women (35% versus 22.5%; P < 0.001), specifically HPV clades ?5 (OR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.1 to 4.3) and ?7, excluding type 18 (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.3). In multivariate analysis, detection of any HPV genotype was strongly associated with smoking and Pap-test abnormalities, with both risk factors more common among Indigenous women. Conclusion Although we found no difference in the prevalence of HPV16/18 among Australian women by Indigenous status or, for Indigenous women, residence in remote regions, differences were found in the prevalence of risk factors and some other HPV genotypes. This reinforces the importance of cervical screening as a complement to vaccination for all women, and the value of baseline data on HPV genotype prevalence by Indigenous status and residence for the monitoring of vaccine impact. PMID:21910918

2011-01-01

322

Properties of HPV-positive and HPV-negative anal carcinomas.  

PubMed

Evidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) can be found in up to 85 per cent of anal carcinomas. In the vulva, a discrete subset of HPV-positive carcinomas which show koilocytic morphology and distinct clinical features has recently been identified (warty carcinoma). The morphological and prognostic features of HPV-positive and HPV-negative anal carcinomas were compared in this study of the tumour distribution of HPV DNA. Vulval and anal neoplasia are similar in many ways and we have also looked to see if their similarity extends to 'warty' morphology in relation to HPV status. Thirty-five resection specimens of anal carcinoma were examined with biotin-labelled probes for HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 DNA, using a non-isotopic in situ hybridization (ISH) technique. No tumour was found to contain HPV 6, 11, or 18. Twenty-four (72 per cent) showed positivity for HPV 16 DNA. Staining was homogeneous and independent of local squamous, basaloid, or ductal differentiation. The majority of tumours showed staining suggestive of episomal, non-productive HPV infection. HPV-positive tumours were more likely to occur in the anal canal than perianally and to show a mixed squamous and basaloid appearance. No difference between the two groups was found in patient age, presence of adjacent dysplasia, ductal differentiation, or prognosis. There was no correlation between condylomatous tumour morphology and HPV 16 DNA positivity; thus, a subset equivalent to vulval warty carcinoma could not be identified. PMID:9014857

Williams, G R; Lu, Q L; Love, S B; Talbot, I C; Northover, J M

1996-12-01

323

Racial Differences in HPV Knowledge, HPV Vaccine Acceptability, and Related Beliefs among Rural, Southern Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Context: Because cervical cancer mortality in the United States is twice as high among black women as white women and higher in rural areas, providing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine to rural black adolescents is a high priority. Purpose: To identify racial differences in knowledge and attitudes about HPV, cervical cancer, and the HPV vaccine…

Cates, Joan R.; Brewer, Noel T.; Fazekas, Karah I.; Mitchell, Cicely E.; Smith, Jennifer S.

2009-01-01

324

Meta-Analysis on Prevalence and Attribution of Human Papillomavirus Types 52 and 58 in Cervical Neoplasia Worldwide  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate the prevalence and attribution of two non-vaccine-covered HPV types (HPV52 and HPV58) across the world. Methods Meta-analysis on studies reported in English and Chinese between 1994 and 2012. Results The pooled prevalence and attribution rates of HPV52 and HPV58 in invasive cervical cancers were significantly higher in Eastern Asia compared to other regions (HPV52 prevalence: 5.7% vs. 1.8–3.6%, P<0.001; HPV52 attribution: 3.7% vs. 0.2–2.0%; HPV58 prevalence: 9.8% vs. 1.1–2.5%, P<0.001; HPV58 attribution: 6.4% vs. 0.7–2.2%, P<0.001). Oceania has an insufficient number of studies to ascertain the prevalence of HPV52. Within Eastern Asia, the attribution of HPV58 to invasive cervical cancer was 1.8-fold higher than that of HPV52. Similarly, HPV52 and HPV58 shared a higher prevalence and attribution among cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in Eastern Asia. In contrast to the classical high-risk type, HPV16, the prevalence and attribution of HPV52 and HPV58 decreased with increasing lesion severity. Thus, HPV52 and HPV58 behave as an “intermediate-risk” type. Conclusion The attribution of HPV52 and HPV58 to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cancer in Eastern Asia were respectively 2.5–2.8 and 3.7–4.9 folds higher than elsewhere. Changes in the attributed disease fraction can serve as a surrogate marker for cross-protection or type replacement following widespread use of HPV16/18-based vaccines. This unique epidemiology should be considered when designing HPV screening assays and vaccines for Eastern Asia. PMID:25229350

Chan, Paul K. S.; Ho, Wendy C. S.; Chan, Martin C. W.; Wong, Martin C. S.; Yeung, Apple C. M.; Chor, Josette S. Y.; Hui, Mamie

2014-01-01

325

Immunogenicity assessment of HPV16/18 vaccine using the glutathione S-transferase L1 multiplex serology assay.  

PubMed

The glutathione S-transferase (GST)-L1 multiplex serology assay has favorable properties for use in clinical trials and epidemiologic studies, including low cost, high throughput capacity, and low serum volume requirement. Therefore, we evaluated the GST-L1 assay as a measure of HPV16/18 vaccine immunogenicity. Our study population included 65 women selected from the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial who received the bivalent HPV16/18 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine at the recommended 0/1/6-month schedule. We tested replicate serum samples from months 0/1/12 (i.e., after 0/1/3 doses) by GST-L1 and 3 other commonly used serology assays, VLP-ELISA, SEAP-NA, and cLIA. We calculated the percentage of women seropositive by GST-L1 by time point and HPV type (14 HPV types), and compared GST-L1 to other assays using Spearman rank correlation coefficients. After 1 vaccine dose, seropositivity by GST-L1 was 40% each for HPV16 and HPV18, increasing to 100% and 98%, respectively, after 3 doses. Seropositivity after 3 doses ranged from 32% to 69% for HPV types 31/33/45, for which partial vaccine efficacy is reported, though increases also occurred for types with no evidence for cross-protection (e.g., HPV77). GST-L1 correlated best after 3 doses with VLP-ELISA (HPV16 and HPV18 each ? = 0.72) and SEAP-NA (HPV16 ? = 0.65, HPV18 ? = 0.71) (all P < 0.001); correlation was lower with cLIA. The GST-L1 is suitable for evaluating HPV16/18 vaccine immunogenicity after 3 vaccine doses, although in contrast to other assays it may classify some samples as HPV16/18 seronegative. The assay's utility is limited for lower antibody levels such as after receipt of 1 dose. PMID:25483632

Robbins, Hilary A; Waterboer, Tim; Porras, Carolina; Kemp, Troy J; Pawlita, Michael; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Wacholder, Sholom; Gonzalez, Paula; Schiller, John T; Lowy, Douglas R; Esser, Mark; Matys, Katie; Poncelet, Sylviane; Herrero, Rolando; Hildesheim, Allan; Pinto, Ligia A; Safaeian, Mahboobeh

2014-10-01

326

Dense Genotyping of Immune-Related Loci Identifies Variants Associated with Clearance of HPV among HIV-Positive Women in the HIV Epidemiology Research Study (HERS)  

PubMed Central

Persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is a necessary and causal factor of cervical cancer. Most women naturally clear HPV infections; however, the biological mechanisms related to HPV pathogenesis have not been clearly elucidated. Host genetic factors that specifically regulate immune response could play an important role. All HIV-positive women in the HIV Epidemiology Research Study (HERS) with a HR-HPV infection and at least one follow-up biannual visit were included in the study. Cervicovaginal lavage samples were tested for HPV using type-specific HPV hybridization assays. Type-specific HPV clearance was defined as two consecutive HPV-negative tests after a positive test. DNA from participants was genotyped for 196,524 variants within 186 known immune related loci using the custom ImmunoChip microarray. To assess the influence of each single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) with HR-HPV clearance, the Cox proportional hazards model with the Wei-Lin-Weissfeld approach was used, adjusting for CD4+ count, low risk HPV (LR-HPV) co-infection, and relevant confounders. Three analytical models were performed: race-specific (African Americans (n?=?258), European Americans (n?=?87), Hispanics (n?=?55), race-adjusted combined analysis, and meta-analysis of pooled independent race-specific analyses. Women were followed for a median time of 1,617 days. Overall, three SNPs (rs1112085, rs11102637, and rs12030900) in the MAGI-3 gene and one SNP (rs8031627) in the SMAD3 gene were associated with HR-HPV clearance (p<10?6). A variant (rs1633038) in HLA-G were also significantly associated in African American. Results from this study support associations of immune-related genes, having potential biological mechanism, with differential cervical HR-HPV infection outcomes. PMID:24918582

Sudenga, Staci L.; Wiener, Howard W.; King, Caroline C.; Rompalo, Anne M.; Cu-Uvin, Susan; Klein, Robert S.; Shah, Keerti V.; Sobel, Jack D.; Jamieson, Denise J.; Shrestha, Sadeep

2014-01-01

327

Dense genotyping of immune-related loci identifies variants associated with clearance of HPV among HIV-positive women in the HIV epidemiology research study (HERS).  

PubMed

Persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is a necessary and causal factor of cervical cancer. Most women naturally clear HPV infections; however, the biological mechanisms related to HPV pathogenesis have not been clearly elucidated. Host genetic factors that specifically regulate immune response could play an important role. All HIV-positive women in the HIV Epidemiology Research Study (HERS) with a HR-HPV infection and at least one follow-up biannual visit were included in the study. Cervicovaginal lavage samples were tested for HPV using type-specific HPV hybridization assays. Type-specific HPV clearance was defined as two consecutive HPV-negative tests after a positive test. DNA from participants was genotyped for 196,524 variants within 186 known immune related loci using the custom ImmunoChip microarray. To assess the influence of each single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) with HR-HPV clearance, the Cox proportional hazards model with the Wei-Lin-Weissfeld approach was used, adjusting for CD4+ count, low risk HPV (LR-HPV) co-infection, and relevant confounders. Three analytical models were performed: race-specific (African Americans (n = 258), European Americans (n = 87), Hispanics (n = 55), race-adjusted combined analysis, and meta-analysis of pooled independent race-specific analyses. Women were followed for a median time of 1,617 days. Overall, three SNPs (rs1112085, rs11102637, and rs12030900) in the MAGI-3 gene and one SNP (rs8031627) in the SMAD3 gene were associated with HR-HPV clearance (p<10(-6)). A variant (rs1633038) in HLA-G were also significantly associated in African American. Results from this study support associations of immune-related genes, having potential biological mechanism, with differential cervical HR-HPV infection outcomes. PMID:24918582

Sudenga, Staci L; Wiener, Howard W; King, Caroline C; Rompalo, Anne M; Cu-Uvin, Susan; Klein, Robert S; Shah, Keerti V; Sobel, Jack D; Jamieson, Denise J; Shrestha, Sadeep

2014-01-01

328

Age-specific occurrence of HPV16- and HPV18-related cervical cancer  

PubMed Central

The age-specific of occurrence of cervical cancer related to human papillomavirus genotypes HPV16 and HPV18, the two targeted by current HPV vaccines, is not well described. We therefore used data from two large, tissue-based HPV genotyping studies of cervical cancer, one conducted in New Mexico (USA) (n = 744) and an international study restricted to cancers (n = 1,729) from Europe, North America, and Australia to represent those regions with widely available cervical cancer screening facilities. HPV results were categorized as HPV16 or HPV18 positive (HPV16/18) versus other HPV genotype. We observed a decreasing proportion of HPV16/18-positive cancers with increasing age in the international study (ptrend < 0.001) and New Mexico study (ptrend < 0.001). There was no heterogeneity in the relationship between age of diagnosis and the proportion of HPV16/18-positive cancers between studies (p = 0.8). Combining results from the two studies (n = 2,473), the percentages of HPV16/18-positive cases were 77.0% (95%CI: 75.1%-78.9%) for women less than 65 years old and 62.7% (95%CI: 58.4%-66.9%) for women aged 65 and older (p < 0.001). In women who are under the age of 25 and have been vaccinated before becoming sexually active, the cervical cancer incidence is expected to be approximately 3.5 per million by 2020. HPV vaccination against HPV16/18 may have a greater impact on cervical cancers in women under 65 than in women aged 65 and older. These data will inform the age-specific impact of HPV vaccination and its integration with cervical cancer screening activities. PMID:23632816

Quint, Wim G. V.; Hunt, William C.; Joste, Nancy E.; Alemany, Laia; Bosch, F. Xavier; Myers, Evan R.; Castle, Philip E.

2014-01-01

329

Detection and Typing of Human Papillomavirus Nucleic Acids in Biological Fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the etiologic agents of cancer of the uterine cervix and several other neoplasias. Detection of HPV infection will improve the sensitivity of primary and secondary screening of cervical cancer. The clinical indications for the use of HPV tests will have to consider the natural history of HPV infection and diseases, and the multiplicity of types involved.

François Coutlée; Marie-Hélène Mayrand; Michel Roger; Eduardo L. Franco

2009-01-01

330

Oral HPV infection in a clinic-based sample of Hispanic men  

PubMed Central

Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated to the pathogenesis of various cancers, such as oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, which has a high incidence in Puerto Rican men. Despite the burden of oral cancer in Puerto Rico, little is known about the epidemiology of oral HPV infection, particularly in high-risk men. Therefore, this study is aimed at determining the prevalence of oral HPV infection, the genotype distribution and correlates associated with oral HPV infection in men of at least 16 years of age attending a sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic in Puerto Rico. Methods A cross-sectional study consisting of 205 men was conducted. Participants provided a 30-second oral rinse and gargle with mouthwash. Following DNA extraction, HPV genotyping was performed in all samples using Innogenetics Line Price Assay (INNO-LiPA). A questionnaire was administered, which included a demographic, behavioral and a clinical assessment. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis were used to characterize the study sample. Variables that achieved statistical significance in the bivariate analysis (p?HPV prevalence among men was 20.0% (95.0%CI?=?14.8%-26.1%) and of HPV type 16 was 2.4% (95.0%CI?=?0.8%-5.6%). Oral HPV prevalence significantly increased over increasing age categories (p-trend?=?0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that oral HPV was independently associated with number of sexual partners (adjusted OR?=?1.02; 95%CI?=?1.01-1.03) and lifetime use of cigarettes (adjusted OR?=?3.00; 95%CI?=?0.98-9.16). Conclusions Oral HPV among the sampled men in the STI clinic was high, regardless of the HIV status or sexual behavior. Interventions in STI clinics should include screening for HPV in the oral cavity for the early detection and reduction of long-term consequences of oral HPV infection, such as oropharyngeal cancer. PMID:24460642

2014-01-01

331

Prevalence of HPV infection and other risk factors in a Fijian population  

PubMed Central

Background Cancer is among the leading contributors to morbidity and mortality in the Pacific, but the magnitude of the problem and the potential for prevention have not been comprehensively studied. Over the past decade, cervical cancer has been the most common cancer among women in Fiji with an age standardised cervical cancer incidence rate of 51 per 100,000. This rate is among the highest in the South Pacific region and in the world. This high cervical cancer incidence rate is likely linked to the low cervical screening rate, but it points also to the possibility of a high burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Methods We conducted a population-based survey in Fiji to provide information on human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence, and the distribution of individual HPV types in a Fijian health-sub-district. We included 1,261 women aged between 16 and 64 years. A general primer GP5+/6+?mediatedpolymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was used for HPV testing of 44 HPV types. Results The crude HPV prevalence in 1,244 women with an adequate HPV sample was 24.0% (95% confidence interval (CI), 21.7-26.4%) and the corresponding age standardised prevalence was 25.5% (95% CI, 23.1-28.1%). The prevalence of high-risk HPV types was 13.6% (95% CI, 11.8-15.6%). Among 1,192 women with adequate cytological results, 13 (1.1%) showed cervical abnormalities, the majority of which were high-grade intraepithelial lesions or worse. HPV prevalence declined from 35.8% in women aged <25 years to 18.6% in those aged 55–64 years of age. After adjustment, the only variables significantly associated with HPV-positivity were age (ranging from odds ratio (OR) 0.57 (95% CI, 0.36-0.89) for 25–34 year-old-women to OR 0.43 (95% CI, 0.20-0.89) for 55–64 year-old-women) and ‘husband’s extramarital sexual relationships’ (OR 1.69; 95% CI, 1.17-2.34). Conclusion These findings on HPV provide key information for future policy decisions on the most appropriate methods of cervical cancer prevention in Fiji and in the Pacific region. PMID:24891876

2014-01-01

332

Control of Cervicovaginal HPV-16 E7-Expressing Tumors by the Combination of Therapeutic HPV Vaccination and Vascular Disrupting Agents  

PubMed Central

Abstract Antigen-specific immunotherapy and vascular disrupting agents, such as 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA), have emerged as attractive approaches for the treatment of cancers. In the current study, we tested the combination of DMXAA treatment with therapeutic human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E7 peptide-based vaccination for their ability to generate E7-specific CD8+ T-cell immune responses, as well as their ability to control E7-expressing tumors in a subcutaneous and a cervicovaginal tumor model. We found that the combination of DMXAA treatment with E7 long peptide (amino acids 43–62) vaccination mixed with polyriboinosinic:polyribocytidylic generated significantly stronger E7-specific CD8+ T-cell immune responses and antitumor effects compared with treatment with DMXAA alone or HPV peptide vaccination alone in the subcutaneous model. Additionally, we found that the DMXAA-mediated enhancement of E7-specific CD8+ T-cell immune responses generated by the therapeutic HPV peptide-based vaccine was dependent on the timing of administration of DMXAA. Treatment with DMXAA in tumor-bearing mice was also shown to lead to increased dendritic cell maturation and increased production of inflammatory cytokines in the tumor. Furthermore, we observed that the combination of DMXAA with HPV-16 E7 peptide vaccination generated a significant enhancement in the antitumor effects in the cervicovaginal TC-1 tumor growth model, which closely resembles the tumor microenvironment of cervical cancer. Taken together, our data demonstrated that administration of the vascular disrupting agent, DMXAA, enhances therapeutic HPV vaccine-induced cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses and antitumor effects against E7-expressing tumors in two different locations. Our study has significant implications for future clinical translation. PMID:21128743

Zeng, Qi; Peng, Shiwen; Monie, Archana; Yang, Ming; Pang, Xiaowu; Hung, Chien-Fu

2011-01-01

333

Human papillomavirus infection in Bhutan at the moment of implementation of a national HPV vaccination programme  

PubMed Central

Background Cervical cancer is the most common female cancer in Bhutan, the first low/middle-income country to implement a national human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme. Methods To provide a robust baseline for future evaluations of vaccine effectiveness, cervical cell specimens were obtained from 2,505 women aged 18–69 years from the general population, and biopsies from 211 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) and 112 invasive cervical cancer (ICC) cases. Samples were tested for HPV using GP5+/6+ PCR. Results Among the general population, HPV prevalence was 26%, being highest (33%) in women ?24 years, but remaining above 15% in all age-groups. Determinants of HPV included age, marital status, and number of sexual partners. Among the eight percent with cytological abnormalities, 24 CIN3 and 4 ICC were histologically confirmed. Even after additional testing with a sensitive E7 PCR, no infections with vaccine-targeted HPV types were detected in the few vaccinated women (n?=?34) compared to 6% prevalence in unvaccinated women of similar age (p?=?0?·?215). Conclusion Based upon type-specific prevalence among biopsies, at least 70% of ICC in Bhutan are theoretically preventable by HPV16/18 vaccination, but screening programmes should be expanded among older women, who have an important underlying burden of CIN3 and ICC. PMID:25047665

2014-01-01

334

Strategies for continuous evaluation of the benefit-risk profile of HPV-16/18-AS04-adjuvanted vaccine.  

PubMed

The HPV types 16/18-AS04-adjuvanted cervical cancer vaccine, Cervarix(®) (HPV-16/18-vaccine, GlaxoSmithKline, Belgium) was first approved in 2007 and is licensed in 134 countries for the prevention of persistent infection, premalignant cervical lesions and cervical cancer caused by oncogenic HPV. Benefit-risk status requires continual re-evaluation as vaccine uptake increases, as the epidemiology of the disease evolves and as new information becomes available. This paper provides an example of benefit-risk considerations and risk-management planning. Evaluation of the benefit-risk of HPV-16/18-vaccine post-licensure includes studies with a range of designs in many countries and in collaboration with national public agencies and regulatory authorities. The strategy to assess benefit versus risk will continue to evolve and adapt to the changing HPV-16/18-vaccine market. PMID:25219284

Angelo, Maria-Genalin; Taylor, Sylvia; Struyf, Frank; Tavares Da Silva, Fernanda; Arellano, Felix; David, Marie-Pierre; Dubin, Gary; Rosillon, Dominique; Baril, Laurence

2014-11-01

335

DNA Methylation Profiling across the Spectrum of HPV-Associated Anal Squamous Neoplasia  

PubMed Central

Background Changes in host tumor genome DNA methylation patterns are among the molecular alterations associated with HPV-related carcinogenesis. However, there is little known about the epigenetic changes associated specifically with the development of anal squamous cell cancer (SCC). We sought to characterize broad methylation profiles across the spectrum of anal squamous neoplasia. Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty-nine formalin-fixed paraffin embedded samples from 24 patients were evaluated and included adjacent histologically normal anal mucosa (NM; n?=?3), SCC-in situ (SCC-IS; n?=?11) and invasive SCC (n?=?15). Thirteen women and 11 men with a median age of 44 years (range 26–81) were included in the study. Using the SFP10 LiPA HPV-typing system, HPV was detected in at least one tissue from all patients with 93% (27/29) being positive for high-risk HPV types and 14 (93%) of 15 invasive SCC tissues testing positive for HPV 16. Bisulfite-modified DNA was interrogated for methylation at 1,505 CpG loci representing 807 genes using the Illumina GoldenGate Methylation Array. When comparing the progression from normal anal mucosa and SCC-IS to invasive SCC, 22 CpG loci representing 20 genes demonstrated significant differential methylation (p<0.01). The majority of differentially methylated gene targets occurred at or close to specific chromosomal locations such as previously described HPV methylation “hotspots” and viral integration sites. Conclusions We have identified a panel of differentially methlylated CpG loci across the spectrum of HPV-associated squamous neoplasia of the anus. To our knowledge, this is the first reported application of large-scale high throughput methylation analysis for the study of anal neoplasia. Our findings support further investigations into the role of host-genome methylation in HPV-associated anal carcinogenesis with implications towards enhanced diagnosis and screening strategies. PMID:23226306

Riggs, Bridget; Eschrich, Steven; Elahi, Abul; Qu, Xiaotao; Ajidahun, Abidemi; Berglund, Anders; Coppola, Domenico; Grady, William M.; Giuliano, Anna R.; Shibata, David

2012-01-01

336

Specific-Pathogen-Free Pigs as an Animal Model for Studying Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Infection  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate pigs as a large-animal model for female genital infection with two Chlamydia trachomatis human serovar E strains. Sixteen-week-old specific-pathogen-free female pigs (gilts) were intravaginally infected with the trachoma type E reference strain Bour or the urogenital serovar E strain 468. Several conclusions can be drawn from our findings on the pathogenicity of a primary C.?trachomatis genital infection in gilts. First of all, we demonstrated that the serovar E strains Bour and 468 could ascend in the genital tract of gilts. The serovar E strains could replicate in the superficial columnar cervical epithelium and in the superficial epithelial layer of the uterus, which are known to be the specific target sites for a C.?trachomatis genital infection in women. Second, inflammation and pathology occurred at the replication sites. Third, the organisms could trigger a humoral immune response, as demonstrated by the presence of immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG, and IgA in both serum and genital secretion samples. Our findings imply that the pig model might be useful for studying the pathology, pathogenesis, and immune response to a C.?trachomatis infection of the genital system. PMID:16299329

Vanrompay, Daisy; Hoang, Thi Q. T.; De Vos, Liselotte; Verminnen, Kristel; Harkinezhad, Taher; Chiers, Koen; Morré, Servaas A.; Cox, Eric

2005-01-01

337

Mapping of HPV transcripts in four human cervical lesions using RNAseq suggests quantitative rearrangements during carcinogenic progression.  

PubMed

Two classes of Human papillomaviruses (HPV) infect the anogenital track: high risk viruses that are associated with risk of cervical cancer and low risk types that drive development of benign lesions, such as condylomas. In the present study, we established quantitative transcriptional maps of the viral genome in clinical lesions associated with high risk HPV16 or low risk HPV6b. Marked qualitative and quantitative changes in the HPV16 transcriptome were associated with progression from low to high grade lesions. Specific transcripts encoding essential regulatory proteins such as E7, E2, E1^E4 and E5 were identified. We also identified intrinsic differences between the HPV6b-associated condyloma transcript map and that of the HPV16-associated low grade CIN specifically regarding promoter usage. Characterization and quantification of HPV transcripts in patient samples thus establish the impact of viral transcriptional regulation on the status of HPV-associated lesions and may therefore help in defining new biologically-relevant prognosis markers. PMID:25092457

Chen, Jinmiao; Xue, Yuezhen; Poidinger, Michael; Lim, Thimothy; Chew, Sung Hock; Pang, Chai Ling; Abastado, Jean-Pierre; Thierry, Françoise

2014-08-01

338

Human papillomavirus type 16 and 18 in primary lung cancers—a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. A possible carcinogenic role of human papillomavirus (HPV) has been investigated for >20 years and has major clinical and public health implications. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the prevalence of HPV16 and HPV18 in primary lung cancers (2435 subjects from 37 published studies). The overall HPV prevalence ranged from 0.0 to 78.3% with large heterogeneity across geographic regions and histological tissue types. A higher proportion, 50% (7/14), of the European studies reported low or no HPV prevalence (0–10%) compared with the Asian studies, 22% (4/18). When the analysis was limited to HPV16 and HPV18 prevalence, a higher prevalence in Asia (HPV16?=?11.6% and HPV18?=?8.8%) than in Europe (HPV16?=?3.5% and HPV18?=?3.6%) was observed. Studies using HPV-specific primers resulted in higher prevalence rates than consensus HPV primers (HPV16: Asia?=?13% and Europe?=?6%; HPV18: Asia?=?13% and Europe?=?5%). Further studies are needed to elucidate the role of HPV in lung carcinogenesis with careful thought given to study design and laboratory detection methods for a more accurate assessment of HPV status in lung tumors. PMID:19620233

Srinivasan, Malini; Taioli, Emanuela; C.Ragin, Camille

2009-01-01

339

Risk factors for oral HPV infection among a high prevalence population of HIV-positive and at-risk HIV-negative adults  

PubMed Central

Introduction Human papillomavirus (HPV) is an important risk factor for oropharyngeal cancer. Individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have higher oral HPV prevalence but the risk factors for oral HPV infection are not well understood for either HIV-positive or HIV-negative individuals. Methods This study was nested within the MACS (men) and WIHS (women) cohorts. Exfoliated oral epithelial cells were collected from 379 HIV-positive and 266 at-risk HIV-negative individuals using a rinse and gargle with Scope™ mouthwash. Samples were tested for 36 types of HPV DNA using PGMY09/11 consensus primers and reverse line blot hybridization. Risk factors for oral HPV infection were explored using logistic regression with generalized estimating equations (GEE) in this cross-sectional analysis. Results Prevalent oral HPV infection was common (34%), including HPV16 infection in 5.7% of participants. HIV-positive individuals had increased odds of prevalent oral HPV infection compared to HIV-negative individuals (aOR=2.1, 95%CI=1.6–2.8). Risk factors for prevalent oral HPV differed in HIV-positive and HIV-negative participants. Among HIV-negative individuals, higher number of recent oral sex or rimming partners were strong risk factors for prevalent oral HPV infection (each p-trend<0.01). In contrast, among HIV-positive individuals lower CD4 T-cell count (p-trend<0.001) and higher number of lifetime sexual partners (p-trend=0.03) were strong risk factors. Conclusions Oral HPV prevalence was elevated in HIV-positive individuals after controlling for differences in cigarette smoking and sexual behavior, supporting the possibility that HIV may affect the natural history of oral HPV. Impact Immunosuppression may contribute to increased persistence or progression of oral HPV infection. PMID:22045700

Beachler, Daniel C.; Weber, Kathleen M.; Margolick, Joseph B.; Strickler, Howard D.; Cranston, Ross D.; Burk, Robert D.; Wiley, Dorothy J.; Minkoff, Howard; Reddy, Susheel; Stammer, Emily E.; Gillison, Maura L.; D’Souza, Gypsyamber

2011-01-01

340

Frequently Asked Questions about HPV Vaccine Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... the safety of HPV vaccines in the United States. An overview of these studies can be found here http://www.cdc.gov/vaccinesafety/Vaccines/HPV/Index.html#data . One study found an increased risk for fainting (also known as syncope). However, ...

341

Herpes Simplex (Cold Sores and Genital Herpes)  

MedlinePLUS

... 19, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 508 Herpes Simplex (Cold Sores and Genital Herpes) WHAT IS HERPES? HSV AND HIV HOW IS HSV TRANSMITTED? HOW IS HERPES TREATED? CAN HERPES BE PREVENTED? THE BOTTOM LINE ...

342

Comparison of the GenoFlow Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Test and the Linear Array Assay for HPV Screening in an Asian Population  

PubMed Central

High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) DNA detection in cervical cytology samples is useful for primary screening of cervical cancer and for triage of patients with equivocal cytological findings. The GenoFlow HPV array test (GF assay; Diagcor Bioscience Inc., Hong Kong) was recently developed to detect 33 HPV genotypes by a “flowthrough” hybridization technology. In this study, we assessed the analytical sensitivity and reproducibility of the GF assay and compared its genotyping results with those of the Linear Array (LA) assay (Roche Molecular Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN), using 400 archived liquid-based cytology samples representing the full range of cytology findings. Genotyping findings of the GF and LA assays were concordant or compatible for 93.44% of tested samples, with a good (? = 0.797) to very good (? = 0.812) strength of agreement for assay-common and oncogenic HPV types, respectively. The two assays showed good (? = 0.635) agreement in detecting infections with multiple HPV genotypes. The lowest detection limits of the GF assay for HPV16 and HPV18 were 25 copies and 20 copies, respectively. Repeat testing of 60 samples by use of two different lots of the GF assay revealed no discordant results, suggesting good reproducibility of the assay. Both assays achieved approximately 80% and 100% sensitivity for identifying cases of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) with subsequent detection of LSIL+ and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or higher (HSIL+) in 2 years, respectively. Among ASC-US samples, the GF assay achieved the highest specificity (23.08%) for indicating subsequent identification of HSIL compared with the LA (19.23%) and Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) (8.97%) assays. The GF and LA assays showed significant discrepancy in detecting HPV genotypes 11, 26, 39, 52, and 66. More sensitive detection of HPV52 by GF assay offers an advantage in regions where HPV52 is more prevalent. The sensitivity of the GF assay for detecting patients with HSIL+ was noninferior to that of the LA assay. PMID:22337983

Wong, Oscar Gee-Wan; Lo, C. K.; Chow, Joanne N. K.; Tsun, Obe K. L.; Szeto, Elaine; Liu, Stephanie S.; Ngan, Hextan Y. S.

2012-01-01

343

A novel fusion protein-based vaccine comprising a cell penetrating and immunostimulatory peptide linked to human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 E7 antigen generates potent immunologic and anti-tumor responses in mice.  

PubMed

The ultimate success of cancer vaccination is dependent upon the generation of tumor-specific CTLs. In this study, we designed and evaluated a novel fusion protein comprising a cell penetrating and immunostimulatory peptide corresponding to residues 32-51 of the Limulus polyphemus protein (LALF(32-51)) linked to human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 E7 antigen (LALF(32-51)-E7). We demonstrated that LALF(32-51) penetrates the cell membrane and delivers E7 into cells. In a preclinical model of HPV16-induced cervical carcinoma we showed that vaccination with adjuvant-free LALF(32-51)-E7 fusion protein significantly improves the presentation of E7-derived peptides to T-cells in vitro and induces suppression of tumor growth. PMID:21145912

Granadillo, Milaid; Vallespi, Maribel G; Batte, Aileen; Mendoza, Osmany; Soria, Yordanka; Lugo, Victoria M; Torrens, Isis

2011-01-29

344

Angiokeratoma of vulva mimicking genital warts.  

PubMed

Angiokeratoma of vulva is a relatively rare lesion which is occasionally misdiagnosed as melanoma, pyogenic granuloma, seborrheic keratosis, or genital warts. We report a case of vulvar angiokeratomas which were diagnosed and managed as genital warts. All asymptomatic dull red-colored papules over vulva should be subjected to astute clinical and histological examination to diagnose angiokeratoma and differentiate it from other lesions. PMID:25404845

Dhawan, Amit Kumar; Pandhi, Deepika; Goyal, Surbhi; Bisherwal, Kavita

2014-12-01

345

Surgical repair of genital prolapse after hemipelvectomy.  

PubMed

A patient is presented who had hemipelvectomy for fibrosarcoma of the left upper femur, subsequently was delivered of two term infants vaginally, and came to us 11 years after hemipelvectomy because of genital prolapse. The technical difficulties involved in repair and the innovations used to overcome these difficulties are discussed. We have been unable to find a report of genital prolapse associated with hemipelvectomy anywhere in the English literature. PMID:1200071

Inmon, W B; Bledsoe, J W

1975-12-01

346

Understanding HPV tests and their appropriate applications.  

PubMed

Greater understanding of the role played by human papillomavirus (HPV) in the causation of disease has led to the development of an increasing number of HPV tests with different characteristics. The bewildering choice facing healthcare professionals and providers is daunting. Clearly, HPV testing is no longer simply of research interest, but can provide information that can be used for individual patient management and at the population level for cervical screening and vaccine surveillance. This review aims to provide the background to the development of HPV tests, to explain the different technologies and to discuss the challenges of the application of these optimally in the varied contexts of disease management. Few HPV tests are approved for clinical use and it is important that clinicians understand which test can be utilized, in what circumstances, with what specimens and the meaning of the report issued. HPV testing is no longer applicable only to cervical disease, and we have suggested additional areas, such as the oropharynx, in which HPV testing services might be implemented in the near future. New tests will continue to emerge and we have identified some of the indirect measures of HPV activity, or biomarkers, that could help in the risk stratification of HPV infection and associated disease. The challenges relating to the optimal application of the various HPV technologies are compounded by the lack of evidence regarding their performance in vaccinated populations. Currently published work, including modelling studies, has been undertaken in non-immunized populations. We therefore end by addressing the issues regarding appropriate strategies and tests for immunized populations. PMID:23998275

Cubie, H A; Cuschieri, K

2013-10-01

347

Rapid genotyping of carcinogenic human papillomavirus by loop-mediated isothermal amplification using a new automated DNA test (Clinichip HPV™).  

PubMed

This study was designed to evaluate the Clinichip HPV test, a new DNA test that detects carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) rapidly by loop-mediated isothermal amplification and performs genotyping of all 13 carcinogenic types using automated DNA chip technology with an assay time 2.5h. Using this test, 247 Japanese women (109 with normal cytology, 43 with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1, 60 with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3 and 35 with invasive cervical cancer) were tested for carcinogenic HPV genotypes. The results were compared to those obtained by the polymerase chain reaction-amplified DNA sequencing using 13 type-specific primers. Overall, there was very good agreement for the detection of carcinogenic HPV between the Clinichip test and direct sequencing, with 95.5% total agreement and a kappa value of 0.91. Comparison of the detection of individual HPV types shows that the overall agreement was also high (range: 96.8-100%). In women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse, the detection rate of carcinogenic HPV was 95.7% by both the Clinichip test and the direct-sequencing method, indicating complete agreement between the two methods. In conclusion, it was found that the Clinichip test is a promising new laboratory method for genotyping of carcinogenic HPV. PMID:23219807

Satoh, Toyomi; Matsumoto, Koji; Fujii, Takuma; Sato, Osamu; Gemma, Nobuhiro; Onuki, Mamiko; Saito, Hiroshi; Aoki, Daisuke; Hirai, Yasuo; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki

2013-03-01

348

Sensitive HPV genotyping based on the flow-through hybridization and gene chip.  

PubMed

Persistent infection of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) has been recognized as the direct cause of cervical carcinoma. Therefore, detection and genotyping of HPV are important to cervical-cancer screening. In this study, we have evaluated the efficacy of flow-through hybridization and gene chip (HybriMax) on HPV genotyping through comparison of the results with Hybrid Capture II (HC-II) and in situ hybridization (ISH). 591 women were classified into 6 groups according to their histological diagnoses. The overall accordance rate on 13 types of HPV genotypes between HybriMax and HC-II were 92.5% and 100% in the cancer group. The overall accordance was excellent with the Kappa index (KI) of 0.814. The value of KI in each group was 0.750 (normal cytological diagnosis), 0.781 (chronic cervicitis), 0.80 (condyloma acuminatum), 0.755 (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) I), 0.723 (CIN II), and 0.547 (CIN III) (0.75 > KI > 0.4, good; KI ? 0.75, excellent). The 10 most common HPV subtype detected by HybriMax were 16, 52/58, 18, 33, 31, 81, 53, 68, and 66 in patients, and 16, 68, 18, 52, 58, 11, 53, 31/39, and 33 in normal controls. In conclusion, HybriMax is an efficient method for HPV genotyping and more suitable for clinical use. PMID:23193367

Tao, Pingping; Zheng, Weiping; Wang, Yungen; Bian, Mei-Lu

2012-01-01

349

Incidence and prognostic impact of high-risk HPV tumor infection in cervical esophageal carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Cervical esophageal carcinoma (CEC) is an uncommon malignancy. Limited data supports the use of definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) as primary treatment. Furthermore, the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) tumor infection in CEC remains unknown. This study retrospectively analyzes both outcomes of CEC patients treated with CRT and the incidence and potential role of HPV tumor infection in CEC lesions. Methods A total of 37 CEC patients were treated with definitive CRT at our institution between 1987 and 2013. Of these, 19 had tumor samples available for high-risk HPV (types 16 and 18) pathological analysis. Results For all patients (n=37), 5-year overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and loco-regional control (LRC) rates were 34.1%, 40.2%, and 65.6%, respectively. On pathological analysis, 1/19 (5.3%) patients had an HPV-positive lesion. Conclusions Definitive CRT provides disease-related outcomes comparable to surgery. Moreover, HPV tumor infection in CEC is uncommon and its prognostic role is unclear. Our data contribute to the construction of an anatomical map of HPV tumor infection in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the upper aerodigestive tract, and suggest a steep drop in viral infection rates at sites distal to the oropharynx, including the cervical esophagus. PMID:25436117

Ludmir, Ethan B.; Palta, Manisha; Zhang, Xuefeng; Wu, Yuan; Willett, Christopher G.

2014-01-01

350

A placebo-controlled randomized HPV16 synthetic long-peptide vaccination study in women with high-grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of an HPV16 E6/E7 synthetic overlapping long-peptide vaccine to stimulate the HPV16-specific T-cell response, to enhance the infiltration of HPV16-specific type 1 T cells into the lesions of patients with HPV16+ high-grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and HPV clearance. This was a placebo-controlled randomized phase II study in patients with HPV16-positive HSIL. HPV16-specific T-cell responses were determined pre- and post-vaccination by ELISPOT, proliferation assay and cytokine assays in PBMC and HSIL-infiltrating lymphocytes, and delayed-type hypersensitivity skin tests. Motivational problems of this patient group to postpone treatment of their premalignant lesions affected the inclusion rates and caused the study to stop prematurely. Of the accrued patients, 4 received a placebo and 5 received 1-2 vaccinations. Side effects mainly were flu-like symptoms and injection site reactions. A strong HPV-specific IFN?-associated T-cell response was detected by ELISPOT in all vaccinated patients. The outcome of the skin tests correlated well with the ELISPOT analysis. The cytokine profile associated with HPV16-specific proliferation varied from robust type 1 to dominant type 2 responses. No conclusions could be drawn on vaccine-enhanced T-cell infiltration of the lesion, and there was no HPV clearance at the time of LEEP excision. Thus, vaccination of HSIL patients results in increased HPV16-specific T-cell immunity. Further development of this type of treatment relies on the ability to motivate patients and in the reduction in the side effects. PMID:22684521

de Vos van Steenwijk, Peggy J; Ramwadhdoebe, Tamara H; Löwik, Margriet J G; van der Minne, Caroline E; Berends-van der Meer, Dorien M A; Fathers, Lorraine M; Valentijn, A Rob P M; Oostendorp, Jaap; Fleuren, Gert Jan; Hellebrekers, Bart W J; Welters, Marij J P; van Poelgeest, Mariette I; Melief, Cornelis J M; Kenter, Gemma G; van der Burg, Sjoerd H

2012-09-01

351

Lactobacillus-dominated cervicovaginal microbiota associated with reduced HIV/STI prevalence and genital HIV viral load in African women.  

PubMed

Cervicovaginal microbiota not dominated by lactobacilli may facilitate transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), as well as miscarriages, preterm births and sepsis in pregnant women. However, little is known about the exact nature of the microbiological changes that cause these adverse outcomes. In this study, cervical samples of 174 Rwandan female sex workers were analyzed cross-sectionally using a phylogenetic microarray. Furthermore, HIV-1 RNA concentrations were measured in cervicovaginal lavages of 58 HIV-positive women among them. We identified six microbiome clusters, representing a gradient from low semi-quantitative abundance and diversity dominated by Lactobacillus crispatus (cluster R-I, with R denoting 'Rwanda') and L. iners (R-II) to intermediate (R-V) and high abundance and diversity (R-III, R-IV and R-VI) dominated by a mixture of anaerobes, including Gardnerella, Atopobium and Prevotella species. Women in cluster R-I were less likely to have HIV (P=0.03), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2; P<0.01), and high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV; P<0.01) and had no bacterial STIs (P=0.15). Statistically significant trends in prevalence of viral STIs were found from low prevalence in cluster R-I, to higher prevalence in clusters R-II and R-V, and highest prevalence in clusters R-III/R-IV/R-VI. Furthermore, only 10% of HIV-positive women in clusters R-I/R-II, compared with 40% in cluster R-V, and 42% in clusters R-III/R-IV/R-VI had detectable cervicovaginal HIV-1 RNA (Ptrend=0.03). We conclude that L. crispatus-dominated, and to a lesser extent L. iners-dominated, cervicovaginal microbiota are associated with a lower prevalence of HIV/STIs and a lower likelihood of genital HIV-1 RNA shedding. PMID:24599071

Borgdorff, Hanneke; Tsivtsivadze, Evgeni; Verhelst, Rita; Marzorati, Massimo; Jurriaans, Suzanne; Ndayisaba, Gilles F; Schuren, Frank H; van de Wijgert, Janneke H H M

2014-09-01

352

Human papillomavirus type 18 chimeras containing the L2/L1 capsid genes from evolutionarily diverse papillomavirus types generate infectious virus  

PubMed Central

Papillomaviruses (PVs) comprise a large family of viruses infecting nearly all vertebrate species, with more than 100 human PVs identified. Our previous studies showed that a mutant chimera HPV18/16 genome, consisting of the upper regulatory region and early ORFs of HPV18 and the late ORFs of HPV16, was capable of producing infectious virus in organotypic raft cultures. We were interested in determining whether the ability of this chimeric genome to produce infectious virus was the result of HPV18 and HPV16 being similarly oncogenic, anogenital types and whether more disparate PV types could also interact functionally. To test this we created a series of HPV18 chimeric genomes where the ORFs for the HPV18 capsid genes were replaced with the capsid genes of HPV45, HPV39, HPV33, HPV31, HPV11, HPV6b, HPV1a, CRPV, and BPV1. All chimeras were able to produce infectious chimeric viral particles, although with lower infectivity than wild-type HPV18. Steps in the viral life cycle and characteristics of the viral particles were examined to identify potential causes for the decrease in infectivity. PMID:21762735

Bowser, Brian S.; Chen, Horng-Shen; Conway, Michael J.; Christensen, Neil D.; Meyers, Craig

2011-01-01

353

Adenoassociated virus type 2-induced inhibition of the human papillomavirus type 18 promoter in transgenic mice.  

PubMed

The epithelium of the cervix uteri has been reported to be frequently coinfected with both human papillomaviruses (HPV) and helper virus-dependent adenoassociated viruses (AAV). Seroepidemiological data suggest that AAV infection could inhibit cervical cancer that is caused by specific ("high-risk") types of papillomaviruses. In vitro, infection with AAV type 2 (AAV-2) or transfection of AAV-2 early (rep) genes has been shown to inhibit transformation by papillomaviruses. To analyze the effects of AAV on HPV in vivo, we studied the influence of AAV-2 infection on the promoter activity of high-risk HPV type 18 (HPV-18) in mice, transgenic for sequences of the upstream regulatory region (URR) of HPV-18 controlling transcription of the reporter gene, lacZ. Transgenic animals (or tongue cells thereof, explanted and grown in culture) were treated with dexamethasone to induce the HPV-18 promoter. Simultaneously they were (i) infected with AAV, (ii) inoculated with AAV virus-like particles (VLPs; empty capsids), or (iii) mock infected. Inoculation with AAV-2 or VLPs inhibited activation of the HPV-18 promoter. In vitro, in baby hamster kidney cells transfected with the HPV-18-lacZ construct, tissue extracts from AAV-infected animals suppressed the HPV-18 URR to a similar extent as AAV infection did. Down-regulation of the HPV-18 promoter was less efficient with extracts from animals inoculated with VLPs and was not observed with extracts from uninfected or dexamethasone-treated animals. This indicates that AAV induces cellular factor(s) in vivo capable of mediating down-regulation of the HPV-18 promoter also in cells in vitro. In contrast, promoters of the low-risk HPV types (HPV-6, HPV-11) were not influenced by AAV infection as opposed to promoters of the high-risk types (HPV-18 and HPV-16). PMID:11853410

Walz, Christian M; Correa-Ochoa, Margarita M; Müller, Martin; Schlehofer, Jörg R

2002-02-01

354

The carcinogenicity of human papillomavirus types reflects viral evolution  

E-print Network

The carcinogenicity of human papillomavirus types reflects viral evolution Mark Schiffmana Available online 3 May 2005 Abstract Persistent infections with carcinogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV suggest that persis- tent infections with carcinogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV) cause virtually all

DeSalle, Rob

355

Human Papillomavirus Risk Type Classification from Protein Sequences Using  

E-print Network

Human Papillomavirus Risk Type Classification from Protein Sequences Using Support Vector Machines by the human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with the development of cervical cancer. HPV can be classified

356

Frequency of L-SIL and H-SIL Findings in HPV Positive Women  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Cervical carcinoma is one of the leading health issues for women throughout the world. In 90% of the cases cervical carcinoma develops after development of invasive lesions of the uterine cervix or 10-15 years before they are diagnosed using cytological screening–Papanicolau test. Infection with human papilloma virus is considered to be the basic etiological cause of development of CIN and cervical carcinoma. Goal: Of this research was to determine frequency and type of abnormal cytological results in HPV positive and HPV negative patients. Material and Methods: Research is descriptive analytical, comparative and partly epidemiological, of mostly clinically applicable character. Used data included information on total number of examinations, type of exam, results of cytological and pathohistological diagnostics, HPV findings in cervix smear and HPV type in the period between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2011. Results: During the period of analysis total number of Pap tests was 6376 (43.33%), in comparison to other exams 7828 (56.67%). For this period total number of L-SIL and H-SIL (PAPA III) was 395 (6.20%), in comparison to other results 5894 (92.44%). After analysis largest subset of HPV positive patients had pathohistological diagnosis of CIN I that is 250 (43.10%) of them, then CIN II with 162 (27.93%) patients, CIN III with 149 (25.69) and 3 (0.52%) patients had CIS while 16 (2.76%) had a clear test result. We can conclude there is a statistically significant margin of frequency between positive HPV results in relation to diagnosis. Highest percentage of L-SIL and H-SIL (PAPA III) test results was in 2010 and was 9.5%, and lowest in 2009 with 4.34%. Largest number of patients, 43.0%, with HPV positive results after cervical smear had pathohistological diagnosis of CIN I. PMID:24944529

Asotic, Amir; Taric, Suada; Asotic, Jasminka

2014-01-01

357

Genital Chlamydia trachomatis: an update.  

PubMed

Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of curable bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide. It manifests primarily as urethritis in males and endocervicitis in females. Untreated chlamydial infection in man can cause epididymitis and proctitis. Though most women with Chlamydia infection are asymptomatic or have minimal symptoms, some develop salpingitis, endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy and tubal factor infertility. It is associated with an increased risk for the transmission or acquisition of HIV and is also attributed to be a risk factor for the development of cervical carcinoma. Early diagnosis and treatment of infected individuals is required to prevent the spread of the disease and severe sequelae. Traditionally, tissue culture was considered the gold standard for the diagnosis. However, with the availability of newer diagnostic techniques particularly molecular methods which are not only highly sensitive and specific but are cost-effective also, the diagnosis has became fast and easy. The purpose of this review is to study the various aspects of genital C. trachomatis infection. Also the advances related to the clinical picture, various diagnostic modalities, prevention, treatment, drug resistance and control measures will be dealt with. PMID:24135174

Malhotra, Meenakshi; Sood, Seema; Mukherjee, Anjan; Muralidhar, Sumathi; Bala, Manju

2013-09-01

358

The evolution of male genitalia: patterns of genetic variation and covariation in the genital sclerites of the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus.  

PubMed

Three main hypotheses, have been invoked to explain divergent genital evolution, the lock and key, pleiotropy, and sexual selection hypotheses, each of which make different predictions about how genital traits are inherited. Here we used a half-sib breeding design to examine the patterns of genetic variation and covariation between male genital sclerites, and their covariance with general body morphology in the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus. We found CV(A)'s and CV(P)'s were similar for both genital and general morphological traits and that CV(R)'s were large for both trait types. We found that male genital sclerites were negatively genetically correlated with general morphological traits. Variation in male genital morphology has direct implications for a male's fertilization success and the resulting sexual selection acting on male genitalia is predicted to maintain high levels of additive genetic variance. Contrary to this prediction, we found that individual genital sclerites all had low levels of additive genetic variance and large maternal and environmental sources of variation. Our data suggest that the genital sclerites in O. taurus are not inherited independently but as a genetically integrated unit. More importantly, the way the different sclerites function to influence male fertilization success reflects this genetic integration. Even though levels of V(A) in individual genital sclerites may be low, there may still be sufficient V(A) in multivariate trait space for selection to generate evolutionary change in the overall morphology of male genitalia. PMID:16135123

House, C M; Simmons, L W

2005-09-01

359

A papillomavirus-like particle (VLP) vaccine displaying HPV16 L2 epitopes induces cross-neutralizing antibodies to HPV11  

PubMed Central

Peptides of the papillomavirus L2 minor capsid protein can induce antibodies (Ab) that neutralize a broad range of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes. Unfortunately, L2 is antigenically subdominant to L1 in the virus capsid. To induce a strong anti-L2 Ab response with cross-neutralizing activity to other mucosal types, chimeric virus-like particles (VLP) were generated in which HPV16 L2 neutralization epitopes (comprising L2 residues 69–81 or 108–120) are inserted within an immunodominant surface loop (between residues 133 and 134) of the L1 major capsid protein of bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV1). These chimeras self-assembled into pentameric capsomers, or complete VLP similar to wild type (wt) L1 protein. Immunization of rabbits with assembled particle preparations induced L2-specific serum Ab with titers 10-fold higher than those induced by cognate synthetic L2 peptides coupled to KLH. Antisera to both chimeric proteins partially neutralized HPV16 pseudovirions, confirming that both HPV16 L2 peptides define neutralization epitopes. When analyzed for the ability to cross-neutralize infection by authentic HPV11 virions, using detection of early viral RNA by RT-PCR-assays as the readout, immune serum to chimeric protein comprising L2 residues 69–81, but not 108–120, was partially neutralizing. In addition, mouse-antiserum induced by vaccinations with synthetic L2 peptide 108–120, but not 69–81, was partially neutralizing in this assay. Induction of cross-neutralization Ab by L2 epitopes displayed on chimeric VLP represents a possible strategy for the generation of broad-spectrum vaccines to protect against relevant mucosal HPV and associated neoplasia. PMID:17239496

Slupetzky, Katharina; Gambhira, Ratish; Culp, Timothy D.; Shafti-Keramat, Saeed; Schellenbacher, Christina; Christensen, Neil D.; Roden, Richard B.S.; Kirnbauer, Reinhard

2014-01-01

360

Prevention of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical cancer in China: how does HPV vaccination bring about benefits to Chinese women?  

PubMed

Cervical cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths among women in the world and more than 85% of cervical cancer cases occur in women living in developing countries. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the major cause of cervical cancer. Since 2006, two prophylactic vaccines against the high-risk strains of HPV have been developed and approved in more than 100 countries around the world. However, in China, HPV vaccines are still under clinical trials for government approval. In this paper feasibility and justification of HPV vaccine introduction into China is examined by reviewing experiences in both developed and developing countries where the vaccination program has been implemented. The vaccination program has showed significant cost-effectiveness and great health and economic impacts on cervical cancer prevention and control in both high-income and middle- and low-income countries. On the other hand, based on the lessons from both developed and developing countries, secondary prevention alone cannot fully play a role to reduce the incidence and the disease burden, and neither does the vaccination program. The epidemiological characteristics in China suggest an urgent need to introduce the vaccines and the geographically diversified prevalence of oncogenic HPV types as well as socioeconomic status also highlight the importance of region-driven approaches for cervical cancer prevention and control by integration of a screening and vaccination program. PMID:24056165

Liu, Xiaoyan; Feng, Aihua; Cui, Yimeng; Tobe, Ruoyan Gai

2013-08-01

361

The internet's role in HPV vaccine education.  

PubMed

The internet is the second most popular source, after healthcare providers, of information regarding human papillomavirus (HPV). These online searches usually begin with the user entering generic terms in the search engine, and then reading the first few results that the engine returns. Unfortunately, research shows that much of this information obtained about the HPV vaccine is inaccurate and incomplete. In this review, we summarize the literature pertaining to online information concerning the HPV vaccine and review concerns related to obtaining online medical information. Finally, we propose possible solutions medical providers can employ in their everyday practice to help their patients obtain accurate information through their online searches. PMID:24553151

Patel, Pooja R; Berenson, Abbey B

2014-05-01

362

HPV Vaccine Decision Correlates 1 Running head: COLLEGE WOMEN’S INTENTIONS TO OBTAIN THE HPV VACCINE Correlates of College Women’s HPV Vaccination Decisions  

E-print Network

The current study assessed correlates of college age women’s HPV vaccination decisions. Two hundred and eighty-two college women completed an online survey examining perceived severity of HPV, perceived susceptibility to HPV, knowledge of HPV and the vaccine, and contact with a physician. The hypothesis was supported as results displayed women who were vaccinated had more correct responses regarding knowledge than those women who were not vaccinated. The hypothesis regarding knowledge in the “plan to vaccinate ” group and the “do not plan to vaccinate ” group was supported. Consistent with our hypothesis, women who plan to vaccinate perceive HPV to be more serious and perceive themselves to be more susceptible to HPV than those who do not plan to vaccinate. These results suggest that knowledge, perceived severity of HPV, perceived susceptibility of HPV, and discussion with a physician play a large role in obtaining or intending to obtain the HPV vaccine. Further research must be conducted regarding the benefits and drawbacks of the HPV vaccine. HPV Vaccine Decision Correlates 3 Correlates of College Women’s HPV Vaccination Decisions Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is considered to be the most common sexually transmitted

Laura A. Voith; Mcnair Scholar; Jessica L. Barnack; Diane M. Reddy

363

A high and increasing HPV prevalence in tonsillar cancers in Eastern Denmark, 2000-2010: The largest registry-based study to date.  

PubMed

The aim was to explore whether the incidence of tonsillar squamous cell carcinomas (TSCCs) increased in Eastern Denmark, 2000-2010, and whether human papillomavirus (HPV) could explain the increase, and to assess the association of HPV prevalence with gender, age, and origin (i.e., the certainty of tonsillar tumor origin). We applied HPV DNA PCR and p16 immunohistochemistry to all TSCCs registered in the Danish Head and Neck Cancer Group (DAHANCA) and in the Danish Pathology Data Bank (n?=?632). Pathologists reviewed and subdivided the tumors into two groups: specified and nonspecified TSCCs. Approximately 10% of HPV-positive tumors was genotyped by amplicon next-generation sequencing. The overall crude incidence of TSCCs increased significantly (2.7% per year) and was explained by an increasing incidence of HPV-positive TSCCs (4.9% per year). The overall HPV prevalence was 58%, with HPV16 being the predominant HPV type. In multivariate analysis, the HPV prevalence was associated with age (<55 vs. >60 years) (OR, 1.72; 95% CI 1.13-2.63) and origin (nonspecified vs. specified TSCCs) (OR, 0.15; 95% CI 0.11-0.22). The association of HPV prevalence with origin increased over time in specified TSCCs (OR per year, 1.10; 95% CI 1.01-1.19), whereas no change over time was observed among nonspecified TSCCs (OR per year, 0.99; 95% CI 0.90-1.08). In conclusion, the observed increase in the number of HPV-positive TSCCs can explain the increasing number of TSCCs in Eastern Denmark, 2000-2010. HPV prevalence was associated with younger age (<55 years) and a high certainty of tonsillar tumor origin. PMID:25283302

Garnaes, Emilie; Kiss, Katalin; Andersen, Luise; Therkildsen, Marianne H; Franzmann, Maria B; Filtenborg-Barnkob, Bettina; Hoegdall, Estrid; Krenk, Lene; Josiassen, Michael; Lajer, Christel B; Specht, Lena; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Friis-Hansen, Lennart; Nielsen, Finn C; Kjaer, Susanne K; Norrild, Bodil; von Buchwald, Christian

2015-05-01

364

Detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in archival specimens of benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic cancer using a highly sensitive nested PCR method.  

PubMed

Human papillomavirus is thought to be an etiological factor for urological tumors such as penile cancer. However, there is much conflicting data surrounding prostatic cancer. We recently established a highly sensitive nested PCR method with consensus human papillomavirus (HPV) primers for the detection of many high-risk HPV types. HPV DNA from the long-control region (LCR) to E7 open reading frame was amplified with first primer pairs and subsequently amplified with second internal E6-E7 primers. Our nested PCR method could detect HPV16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 52, 58 and some undetermined HPV DNAs. Using this method, we investigated the existence of HPV DNA in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue of the prostate. We found HPV DNA in three of 71 specimens of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and in none of 38 prostatic carcinomas. These three samples were infected with HPV 16. These results suggest that HPV is not a causal factor for prostatic cancer and BPH. PMID:9694597

Noda, T; Sasagawa, T; Dong, Y; Fuse, H; Namiki, M; Inoue, M

1998-01-01

365

Awareness, knowledge and attitudes related to HPV infection and vaccine among non-obstetrician-gynecologist healthcare providers  

PubMed Central

Objective This study was designed to evaluate the awareness, knowledge and attitudes of healthcare providers related to HPV infection and vaccine. Material and Methods A total of 311 healthcare providers working in specialties other than obstetrics and gynecology at the Dr. Lutfi K?rdar Kartal Education and Research Hospital as physicians (n=142) or non-physician healthcare providers (n=169) were included in the present study. A questionnaire developed by researchers based on literature and including items concerning socio-demographic features, awareness of HPV infection and vaccine, attitudes related to HPV vaccine and regular gynecological controls and knowledge about HPV infection was applied to participants via a face to face interview method. Each correct answer was scored as one to decide the level of knowledge and awareness. Results The frequency of parenthood was lower and the ratio of males was higher in the physician group compared to the non-physician group. Awareness of virus mediated cancer (p=0.01), human papilloma virus (p=0.0001), cervical cancer, HPV vaccine, and types of HPV vaccine was significantly higher in the physician group. While consent levels for vaccine administration for themselves were similar for physician and non-physician subjects, the frequency of subjects favoring vaccine administration for their offspring was significantly higher among physicians (p<0.001 for daughters, p<0.05 for sons). HPV-related level of knowledge in the physicians was significantly higher when compared to the non-physician staff (p<0.001). Conclusion Physicians were more competent regarding the relation of HPV infection to cervical cancer and more aware of the presence and types of HPV vaccines which may lead to a higher degree of willingness for vaccination when compared with non-physician healthcare providers. PMID:24591889

Naki, M. Murat; Çelik, Hasniye; Api, Olu?; Toprak, Sad?k; Özerden, Erdem; Ünal, Orhan

2010-01-01

366

Role of human papillomavirus in penile cancer, penile intraepithelial squamous cell neoplasias and in genital warts.  

PubMed

Using PCR, the overall prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in penile carcinoma is about 40-45%, which is similar to the detection rate of HPV-DNA in vulvar carcinoma (50%). In analogy to vulvar cancer two different pathways of penile carcinogenesis seem to exist. In contrast to basaloid and warty penile cancers which are regularly HPV-associated (about 80-100%), only a part of keratinizing and verrucous penile carcinomas appear to be related with HPV (33-35%). Penile intraepithelial neoplasias comprising Bowen's disease, erythroplasia of Queyrat and bowenoid papulosis are precursor lesions of basaloid and warty carcinomas of the penis. Precursors of keratinizing carcinomas and verrucous carcinomas are not established. Whether lichen sclerosus and squamous-cell hyperplasia precede penile keratinizing carcinoma is a matter of discussion. Giant condylomata acuminata may precede the development of verrucous carcinomas in some cases. Since high risk HPVs are more frequently found in verrucous carcinomas than in giant condylomas, HPV typing may be a helpful diagnostic step to differentiate giant condyloma from verrucous carcinoma. PMID:12838415

Gross, G; Pfister, H

2004-02-01

367

Acceptability of HPV Vaccines and Associations with Perceptions Related to HPV and HPV Vaccines Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Hong Kong  

PubMed Central

HPV vaccines are available to men but there are few studies investigating the acceptability of HPV vaccines among men who have sex with men (MSM), a high risk group. We assessed the intention to take up HPV vaccines among MSM in Hong Kong and the associated factors related to cognitions on HPV and HPV vaccines, basing on the Health Belief Model (n?=?542). The acceptability of HPV vaccines was 20% (unconditional on efficacies and price), 29.2% (conditional on efficacies and market price), 51.7% (conditional on efficacies and discounted price) and 79.1% (conditional on efficacies and free price). Adjusting for background variables, composite scores of perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived barriers and cue to actions were significantly associated with acceptability of HPV vaccines conditional on specific efficacies and the market price. Acceptability of HPV vaccines was highly price sensitive. Future studies need to use conditional measures. Implementation and translational researches are warranted. PMID:23451188

Lau, Joseph T. F.; Wang, Zixin; Kim, Jean H.; Lau, Mason; Lai, Coco H. Y.; Mo, Phoenix K. H.

2013-01-01

368

High sustained efficacy of a prophylactic quadrivalent human papillomavirus types 6/11/16/18 L1 virus-like particle vaccine through 5 years of follow-up  

PubMed Central

Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes cervical, vulvar, and vaginal cancers, precancerous dysplasia, and genital warts. We report data for the longest efficacy evaluation to date of a prophylactic HPV vaccine. In total, 552 women (16–23 years) were enrolled in a randomised, placebo-controlled study of a quadrivalent HPV 6/11/16/18 L1 virus-like-particle vaccine with vaccination at months 0, 2, and 6. At regular intervals through 3 years, subjects underwent gynaecologic examination, cervicovaginal sampling for HPV DNA, serum anti-HPV testing, and Pap testing, with follow-up biopsy as indicated. A subset of 241 subjects underwent two further years of follow-up. At 5 years post enrolment, the combined incidence of HPV 6/11/16/18-related persistent infection or disease was reduced in vaccine-recipients by 96% (two cases vaccine versus 46 placebo). There were no cases of HPV 6/11/16/18-related precancerous cervical dysplasia or genital warts in vaccine recipients, and six cases in placebo recipients (efficacy=100%; 95% CI:12–100%). Through 5 years, vaccine-induced anti-HPV geometric mean titres remained at or above those following natural infection. In conclusion, a prophylactic quadrivalent HPV vaccine was effective through 5 years for prevention of persistent infection and disease caused by HPV 6/11/16/18. This duration supports vaccination of adolescents and young adults, which is expected to greatly reduce the burden of cervical and genital cancers, precancerous dysplasia, and genital warts. PMID:17117182

Villa, L L; Costa, R L R; Petta, C A; Andrade, R P; Paavonen, J; Iversen, O-E; Olsson, S-E; Høye, J; Steinwall, M; Riis-Johannessen, G; Andersson-Ellstrom, A; Elfgren, K; Krogh, G von; Lehtinen, M; Malm, C; Tamms, G M; Giacoletti, K; Lupinacci, L; Railkar, R; Taddeo, F J; Bryan, J; Esser, M T; Sings, H L; Saah, A J; Barr, E

2006-01-01

369

Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Nonavalent Vaccine  

Cancer.gov

This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) nonavalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

370

HPV: immune response to infection and vaccination  

E-print Network

coat protein L1 is protective suggesting that this would be an effective prophylactic vaccine strategy. The current prophylactic HPV VLP vaccines are delivered i.m. circumventing the intra-epithelial immune evasion strategies. These vaccines generate...

Stanley, Margaret A

2010-10-20

371

Vaccine Reduces HPV Infections in Young Men  

Cancer.gov

An international randomized clinical trial has shown that the vaccine Gardasil can reduce the incidence of anogenital human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in young men 16 to 26 years of age at the time of vaccination.

372

Interferon-inducible protein, P56, inhibits HPV DNA replication by binding to the viral protein E1  

PubMed Central

Type I interferon (IFN) inhibits, by an unknown mechanism, the replication of human papillomaviruses (HPV), which are major human pathogens, Here, we present evidence that P56 (a protein), the expression of which is strongly induced by IFN, double-stranded RNA and viruses, mediates the anti-HPV effect of IFN. Ectopic expression of P56 inhibited HPV DNA replication and its ablation in IFN-treated cells alleviated the inhibitory effect of IFN on HPV DNA replication. Protein–protein interaction and mutational analyses established that the antiviral effect of P56 was mediated by its direct interaction with the DNA replication origin-binding protein E1 of several strains of HPV, through the tetratricopeptide repeat 2 in the N-terminal region of P56 and the C-terminal region of E1. In vivo, the interaction with P56, a cytoplasmic protein, caused translocation of E1 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. In vitro, recombinant P56, or a small fragment derived from it, inhibited the DNA helicase activity of E1 and E1-mediated HPV DNA replication. These observations delineate the molecular mechanism of IFN's antiviral action against HPV. PMID:19008854

Terenzi, Fulvia; Saikia, Paramananda; Sen, Ganes C

2008-01-01

373

Can You Get Genital Herpes from a Cold Sore?  

MedlinePLUS

... Get Genital Herpes From a Cold Sore? KidsHealth > Teens > Q&A > Birth Control, Pregnancy & STDs > Can You Get Genital Herpes From a Cold Sore? Print A A A Text Size ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC ...

374

Plastics' Chemical May Affect Baby Boys' Genital Development  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Plastics' Chemical May Affect Baby Boys' Genital Development Link between ... 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Exposure to a common plastics' chemical during pregnancy may have effects on genital development ...

375

Cervical Mucus Antibodies against Human Papillomavirus Type 16, 18, and 33 Capsids in Relation to Presence of Viral DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate whether cervical mucus antibodies against human papillomavirus (HPV) capsids are asso- ciated with the detection of HPV DNA or HPV-related cytological diagnoses, 611 samples of cervical secretions from 359 women referred to a colposcopy clinic were tested by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the presence of immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies against HPV capsids of HPV type 16, 18,

ZHAOHUI WANG; BENGT-GORAN HANSSON; OLA FORSLUND; LENA DILLNER; MARTIN SAPP; JOHN T. SCHILLER; BENGT BJERRE; ANDJOAKIM DILLNER

1996-01-01

376

HPV and CSC in HNSCC cisplatin resistance.  

PubMed

Cisplatin (DNA intercalator), a standard chemotherapy drug often used to treat head and neck squamous cellular carcinoma (HNSCC) has very low response rates in recurrent disease of HNSCC, this is a major clinical problem today. However, a valuable window to look in to the underlying molecular aspects of a favorable and unfavorable cisplatin response is offered by a distinct disease entity in HNSCC - HPV+ OPSCC. It responds far more favorably to cisplatin than non-HPV driven HNSCC. Another intriguing aspect of head and neck cancer biology is the emergence of the CD44+ cancer stem cell - the tumor initiating population that in all likelihood is the root cause of therapeutic resistance. The critical question is, are there any differences between the CD44+ CSC population of an HPV+ OPSCC and a non-HPV HNSCC? In this regard, the inverse relation between EGFR levels and HPV status in OPSCC may be a common thread that connects the better response rates of HPV+ OPSCC with the contribution of CD44+ stem cells of HNSCC to chemoresistance. PMID:25553363

Modur, Vishnu; Thomas-Robbins, K; Rao, Krishna

2015-01-01

377

Differential In Vitro Immortalization Capacity of Eleven, Probable High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Types  

PubMed Central

Epidemiological studies identified 12 high-risk HPV (hrHPV) types and 8 probable/possible hrHPV types that display different cancer risks. Functional studies on transforming properties of hrHPV are mainly limited to HPV16 and -18, which induce immortalization of human foreskin keratinocytes (HFKs) by successive bypass of two proliferative life span barriers, senescence and crisis. Here, we systematically compared the in vitro immortalization capacities, as well as influences on p53, pRb, hTERT, growth behavior, and differentiation capacity, of nine hrHPV types (HPV16, -18, -31, -33, -35, -45, -51, -52, and -59), and two probable hrHPV types (HPV66 and -70). By retroviral transduction, the respective E6/E7 coding sequences were expressed in HFKs from two or three independent donors. Reduced p53 levels and low-level hTERT expression in early-passage cells, as seen in HPV16-, -31-, -33-, and -35-, and to a lesser extent HPV18-transduced HFKs, was associated with continuous growth and an increased immortalization capacity. Less frequent immortalization by HPV45 and -51 and immortalization by HPV66 and -70 was preceded by an intervening period of strongly reduced growth (crisis) without prior increase in hTERT expression. Immortalization by HPV59 was also preceded by a period crisis, despite the onset of low hTERT expression at early passage. HPV52 triggered an extended life span but failed to induce immortality. Variations in p53 and pRb levels were not correlated with differences in alternative E6/E7 mRNA splicing in all hrHPV-transduced HFKs. On collagen rafts, transductants showed disturbed differentiation reminiscent of precancerous lesions. In conclusion, in vitro oncogenic capacities differ between the established hrHPV types, and both some established and probable hrHPV types display weak or moderate immortalization potential. PMID:24257607

Schütze, Denise M.; Snijders, Peter J. F.; Bosch, Leontien; Kramer, Duco; Meijer, Chris J. L. M.

2014-01-01

378

Phase II trial of imiquimod and HPV therapeutic vaccination in patients with vulval intraepithelial neoplasia  

PubMed Central

Background: Vulval intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) is a premalignant condition, which is frequently associated with type HPV16 infection, and multifocal disease has high rates of surgical treatment failure. Methods: We report a phase II clinical trial of the topical immunomodulator, imiquimod, for 8 weeks, followed by 3 doses (weeks 10, 14 and 18) of therapeutic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination (TA-CIN, fusion protein HPV16 E6E7L2) in 19 women with VIN grades 2 and 3. Histology and HPV testing of biopsies were performed at weeks 0, 10, 20 and 52. Intralesional infiltration of T-cell subsets and lymphocyte proliferation for HPV systemic immune responses were also assessed. Results: Lesion response (complete regression of VIN on histology) was observed in 32% (6 out of 19) of women at week 10, increasing to 58% (11 out of 19) at week 20 and 63% (12 out of 19) at week 52. At this time, 36% (5 out of 14) of lesions showed HPV16 clearance and 79% (15 out of 19) of women were symptom free. At week 20, after treatment with imiquimod and vaccination, there was significantly increased local infiltration of CD8 and CD4 T cells in lesion responders; in contrast, non-responders (persistent VIN by histology) showed an increased density of T regulatory cells. After vaccination, only lesion responders had significantly increased lympho-proliferation to the HPV vaccine antigens. Conclusion: The therapeutic effect of treatment depends on the differential immune response of responders and non-responders with affect locally and systemically. PMID:20234368

Daayana, S; Elkord, E; Winters, U; Pawlita, M; Roden, R; Stern, P L; Kitchener, H C

2010-01-01

379

High-risk HPV nucleic acid detection kit–the careHPV test –a new detection method for screening  

PubMed Central

This study assessed the clinical accuracy of the correlation between the careHPV test and the HC2 test, as well as the correlation between the careHPV test and the HPV-PCR test. From September 21 to December 31, 2009, 419 cervical specimens from women, 30–49 years, were collected. All women were assessed by Digene HC2 High-Risk HPV DNA Test (HC2), careHPV test, and HPV-PCR. The concordance rate between careHPV and HC2 was 93.81% and between careHPV and HPV-PCR 88.12%. The sensitivity and specificity of the careHPV test to detect cancers of equal or greater severity than CIN 2 were 85.71% and 83.15% respectively. Results from careHPV, HC2, and HPV-PCR were highly consistent. The careHPV test has good sensitivity and specificity for the detection of HPV infection and is a promising primary screening method for cervical cancer in low-resource regions. PMID:24736475

Ying, Hong; Jing, Fang; Fanghui, Zhao; Youlin, Qiao; Yali, Hu

2014-01-01

380

Nip the HPV encoded evil in the cancer bud: HPV reshapes TRAILs and signaling landscapes  

PubMed Central

HPV encoded proteins can elicit ectopic protein–protein interactions that re-wire signaling pathways, in a mode that promotes malignancy. Moreover, accumulating data related to HPV is now providing compelling substantiation of a central role played by HPV in escaping immunosurveillance and impairment of apoptotic response. What emerges is an intricate network of Wnt, TGF, Notch signaling cascades that forms higher-order ligand–receptor complexes routing downstream signaling in HPV infected cells. These HPV infected cells are regulated both extracellularly by ligand receptor axis and intracellularly by HPV encoded proteins and impair TRAIL mediated apoptosis. We divide this review into different sections addressing how linear signaling pathways integrate to facilitate carcinogenesis and compounds that directly or indirectly reverse these aberrant interactions offer new possibilities for therapy in cancer. Although HPV encoded proteins mediated misrepresentation of pathways is difficult to target, improved drug-discovery platforms and new technologies have facilitated the discovery of agents that can target dysregulated pathways in HPV infected cervical cancer cells, thus setting the stage for preclinical models and clinical trials. PMID:23773282

2013-01-01

381

Knowledge of HPV, Perception of Risk, and Intent to Obtain HPV Vaccination among Male University Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Human papillomavirus (HPV), the most common sexually transmitted virus in the world, is associated with almost all cases of cervical cancer. It is also related to vulvar, vaginal, penile, anal, and oropharyngeal cancer. HPV vaccination is recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for both boys and girls. Unfortunately,…

Larsen, Dawn

2014-01-01

382

Type distribution of human papillomavirus among adult women diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer (stage 1b or higher) in New Zealand  

PubMed Central

Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the necessary cause of cervical cancer. Published data on the epidemiology of HPV in women with invasive cervical cancer (ICC) in New Zealand (NZ) are limited. This cross-sectional study investigated the distribution of high-risk and low-risk HPV types in cervical specimens collected from women throughout NZ who had been diagnosed with ICC between 2004 and 2010. Methods Women aged ?18 years, with ICC International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage Ib or greater were identified from the five tertiary public hospitals in NZ regularly treating women with ICC. Women were enrolled in the study only after obtaining informed consent. Stored, formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded cervical specimens were retrieved and histopathologically reviewed to confirm the diagnosis of ICC. Cervical specimens were tested for HPV using polymerase chain reaction-short fragment10; HPV DNA was detected using DNA enzyme immunoassay and typed by reverse hybridization line probe assay. Results 242 women were enrolled and ICC was histologically confirmed in 227 samples. HPV infection was detected in 88.5% (n?=?201; 95% CI: 83.7–92.4) of women with ICC; high-risk HPV types were detected in 87.2% of women. The most commonly detected HPV types were HPV-16 (51.1%) and HPV-18 (20.7%), followed by HPV-31 (4.0%), HPV-45 and HPV-52 (3.1% each). Overall, HPV distribution was highest (94.3%) in women aged 30–39 years at diagnosis and a higher distribution of HPV-16 (68.8%) was observed in women younger than 30 years. The overall distribution of HPV types between Maori and non-Maori women were similar. HPV-positive women with ICC stage II or greater were less likely to be infected with HPV-16/18 (P?=?0.002) or HPV-18 (P?=?0.029) compared with the other high-risk types. Single type infection and multiple infections were detected in 93.5% and 5.5% of women, respectively. Conclusions HPV-16, HPV-18, HPV-31, HPV-45 and HPV-52 were the most commonly detected high-risk HPV types. Findings from the study fill an important data gap on HPV type distribution from NZ which will help facilitate better understanding of the epidemiology of HPV in NZ women. Clinical trial registration NCT01328028. PMID:25000939

2014-01-01

383

Evolution and Taxonomic Classification of Human Papillomavirus 16 (HPV16)-Related Variant Genomes  

E-print Network

Evolution and Taxonomic Classification of Human Papillomavirus 16 (HPV16)-Related Variant Genomes of Medicine, Bronx, New York, United States of America Abstract Background: Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16 and Taxonomic Classification of Human Papillomavirus 16 (HPV16)-Related Variant Genomes: HPV31, HPV33, HPV35

DeSalle, Rob

384

Female genital schistosomiasis as an evidence of a neglected cause for reproductive ill-health: a retrospective histopathological study from Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Schistosomiasis affects the reproductive health of women. Described sequelae are ectopic pregnancy, infertility, abortion, and cervical lesions and symptoms mimicking cervical cancer and STIs. There are indications that cervical schistosomiasis lesions could become co-factors for viral infection such as HIV and HPV. Methods In a retrospective descriptive histopathological study clinical specimens sent between 1999 and 2005 to the pathology department of a consultant hospital in Tanzania were reviewed to analyse the occurrence and features of schistosomiasis in female genital organs. Results During the study period, schistosomiasis was histopathologically diagnosed in 423 specimens from different organs (0.7% of all specimens examined in the study period), out of those 40% were specimens from female and male organs. The specimens were sent from 24 hospitals in 13 regions of mainland Tanzania. Female genital schistosomiasis was diagnosed in 125 specimens from 111 patients. The main symptoms reported were bleeding disorders (48%), ulcer (17%), tumor (20%), lower abdominal pain (11%) and infertility (7%). The majority of cases with genital schistosomiasis were diagnosed in cervical tissue (71 cases). The confirmation of cervical cancer was specifically requested for 53 women, but the diagnosis could only be verified for 13 patients (25%), in 40 cases only severe cervical schistosomiasis was diagnosed. Vulval/labial schistosomiasis was seen in specimens from young women. Infertility was reported in four patients with schistosomiasis of the Fallopian tubes. Conclusion Genital schistosomiasis adds to the disease burden of women in all age groups. Pathological consequences due to the involvement of different genital organs can be damaging for the affected women. Clinical unawareness of genital schistosomiasis can lead to misdiagnosis and therefore false and ineffective therapy. In endemic areas cervical schistosomiasis should be considered as differential diagnosis of cancer. PMID:16928276

Swai, Britta; Poggensee, Gabriele; Mtweve, Sabina; Krantz, Ingela

2006-01-01

385

Identification of promiscuous HPV16-derived T helper cell epitopes for therapeutic HPV vaccine design.  

PubMed

Cervical carcinoma and several other human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced malignancies are a global public health problem, thus novel treatment modalities are urgently needed. Immunotherapy is an attractive option for treatment of HPV infection and HPV-mediated premalignant and malignant lesions. However, previous approaches--focusing on the induction of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells (CTLs)--have as yet not yielded clinical successes. Since CD4+ T cells have been shown to be crucial for the induction and maintenance of CTL responses, and more recently to be also important for direct anti-tumor immunity, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II-restricted epitopes are intensively investigated to improve the efficacy of peptide-based HPV immunotherapy. We here present an approach to identify promiscuous HPV16-derived CD4+ T helper epitopes, which are capable of inducing T cell immunity in a large proportion of the population. To this end, we combined HLA class II epitope prediction servers with in vitro immunological evaluation to identify HPV16 E2-, E5-, E6-, and E7-derived CD4+ T cell epitopes. Candidate selected HPV16-derived epitopes were found to be restricted by up to nine HLA-DR molecules. Furthermore, they were found to induce frequent and robust HPV16 peptide-specific Th1 responses in healthy donors, as monitored by interferon (IFN)-? ELISPOT and cytokine secretion assays. Moreover, these selected peptides also induced specific IFN-? T cell responses in blood from HPV16+ CIN2/3 and cervical carcinoma patients. We thus conclude that the identified T helper epitopes are valuable candidates for the development of a comprehensive therapeutic HPV vaccine. PMID:24824905

Grabowska, Agnieszka K; Kaufmann, Andreas M; Riemer, Angelika B

2015-01-01

386

Genital injuries following sexual assault of women with and without prior sexual intercourse experience  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: The literature on sexual assault has not directly addressed the question of genital injuries in women without prior sexual intercourse experience. Given the paucity of research and the current importance of physical evidence in the criminal justice system, this study was designed to document the type and site of genital injuries from sexual assault in women without and with prior sexual intercourse experience. METHODS: The charts were reviewed of 132 women who had been sexually assaulted and had sought medical treatment at the Sexual Assault Care Centre (SACC), Women's College Hospital, Toronto, within 10 days after the assault. Half (66) of the women reported that, at the time of the assault, they had no prior sexual intercourse experience. The Sexual Assault Evidence Kit in each patient's file was reviewed to ascertain the type and location of genital injuries. Types of injuries were classified into 3 categories (nonperforating soft-tissue injuries, lacerations or current bleeding) and locations into 6 categories (labia majora and minora, posterior fourchette and introitus, hymen, vagina, cervix, and anus). RESULTS: Significantly more women without than with prior sexual intercourse experience had visible genital injuries (65.2% v. 25.8%, p < 0.01). However, of the women without prior experience, only 9.1% had hymenal perforation. Analyses of the data for only women with genital injuries indicated no difference between those without and those with prior sexual intercourse experience in the overall mean number of injured sites (1.65 and 1.47 respectively) or in the mean number of sites with nonperforating soft-tissue injuries (0.349 and 0.706), lacerations (0.953 and 0.471) and bleeding (0.279 and 0.294). INTERPRETATION: The results suggest that genital injuries are more common in women without prior sexual intercourse experience but that substantial proportions of all women, regardless of their prior sexual experience at the time of assault, will not have visible genital injuries. Emergency department staff and members of the criminal justice system need to be aware of the variable presentation of genital trauma related to sexual assault in women with and without prior sexual intercourse experience. PMID:9679484

Biggs, M; Stermac, L E; Divinsky, M

1998-01-01

387

WT1 expression in the female genital tract.  

PubMed

The Wilms tumor gene 1 (WT1) has been reported in normal tissues and many neoplasms of the female genital tract. This review discusses WT1 expression in the female genital tract and its potential utility in the differential diagnosis of neoplasms that occur at this location. WT1 is of value in the differential diagnosis of synchronous serous carcinomas arising in the ovary/fallopian tube/peritoneum and endometrium, as strong WT1 positivity in both tumors points toward an extrauterine origin. In addition, WT1 can be used to distinguish sex cord stromal tumors (WT1 positive) from endometrioid carcinomas (OECs). WT1 expression is not helpful in the differential diagnosis of ovarian serous carcinomas (OSCs) and transitional carcinomas, as both are typically positive and has limited value in the distinction of serous tumors arising in the ovary/fallopian tube/peritoneum from mesotheliomas. WT1 is also not helpful to differentiate small cell carcinoma of hypercalcemic type from juvenile granulosa cell tumor, a common diagnostic problem. Intra-abdominal desmoplastic round cell tumor reacts to WT1 (C-terminal) in contrast to all other tumors discussed which helps to separate this rare tumor from most other small round cell tumors that may involve, primarily or secondarily, the ovary with the exception of small cell carcinoma of hypercalcemic type that typically reacts with the N-terminal of WT1. PMID:21993272

Bárcena, Carmen; Oliva, Esther

2011-11-01

388

Estimating the long-term effects of HPV vaccination in Germany.  

PubMed

In Germany, vaccination against the most oncogenic HPV types 16/18 is recommended by the Standing Committee on Vaccination (STIKO) for 12-17 year old girls since March 2007. We developed a dynamic mathematical model for the natural history and transmission of HPV infections to estimate the impact of vaccination on incidence and mortality of cervical cancer and its pre-stages, and on anogenital warts. We focused on an extensive model calibration to epidemiologic data for all stages of the natural history model as well as on a detailed implementation of cervical cancer screening modalities in Germany. Our model predicts first a substantial reduction of cervical cancer incidence and mortality over the next 30 years, which is mainly attributable to an increase in screening participation in the 1990s and not to HPV vaccination, followed by a further reduction attributable to vaccination. Over the next 100 years, HPV vaccination will prevent approximately 37% of cervical cancer cases even if vaccination coverage is only 50% (as currently observed in Germany). Consideration of cross-protection results in a further reduction of approximately 7% of all cervical cancer cases for the bivalent and about 5% for the quadrivalent vaccine in our model. Vaccination of boys was only reasonable if moderate to high vaccination coverage in girls was not achieved. Strategies should be implemented in Germany to increase HPV vaccination coverage among girls thereby making better use of the demonstrated benefits of the vaccine. PMID:23518405

Horn, J; Damm, O; Kretzschmar, M E E; Deleré, Y; Wichmann, O; Kaufmann, A M; Garbe, E; Krämer, A; Greiner, W; Mikolajczyk, R T

2013-05-01

389

Female genital mutilation in eastern Ethiopia.  

PubMed

In Ethiopians at large, women and men are caught in a vicious circle of erroneous expectations and a mute consensus that maintains female genital mutilation (FGM). We have shown clear signs of erosion of this practice and the potential for further influence and change. PMID:10963253

Missailidis, K; Gebre-Medhin, M

2000-07-01

390

Genital candidiasis: topical management with clotrimazole.  

PubMed

Clotrimazole was administered in the form of 100 mg tablets to patients with vaginal candidiasis, and in the form of a 1% solution to patients with cutaneous candidiasis of the genital and perigenital areas. The clinical and mycological response observed and the excellent tolerance and lack of side effects indicate that clotrimazole may be proposed as a treatment for candidiasis. PMID:1017256

Robertson, W H; Soto, T G; Ramer, G; Myers, R P; Montes, L F

1976-04-01

391

Psychosocial Treatment for Recurrent Genital Herpes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assigned 21 individuals with recurrent genital herpes to psychosocial intervention, social support, or waiting-list control conditions. Those receiving psychosocial intervention (herpes simplex virus information, relaxation training, stress management instructions, and an imagery technique) reported significantly greater reductions in herpes…

Longo, David J.; And Others

1988-01-01

392

[Genital prolapse and urinary incontinence: a review].  

PubMed

Genital prolapse frequently coexists with lower urinary tract symptoms. The first difficulty is to detect occult incontinence masked by the prolapsed organs. Rates of detection are not the same with the different clinical maneuvers (manual, pessary, cotton swab, speculum, etc.). The second difficulty is to choose a management strategy. Through a recent analysis of the literature, this paper suggests recommendations. PMID:24260842

Hermieu, Jean-François; Le Guilchet, Thomas

2013-01-01

393

THE EFFECT OF GENITAL PROLAPSE ON VOIDING  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeWe determined whether genital prolapse causes obstruction that may be relieved by a vaginal pessary as well as the degree to which voiding difficulty, urethral hypermobility, bladder outlet obstruction, occult stress incontinence, detrusor instability and impaired detrusor contractility are associated with prolapse.

LAURI J. ROMANZI; DAVID C. CHAIKIN; JERRY G. BLAIVAS

1999-01-01

394

Genital Evolution: Why Are Females Still Understudied?  

PubMed Central

The diversity, variability, and apparent rapid evolution of animal genitalia are a vivid focus of research in evolutionary biology, and studies exploring genitalia have dramatically increased over the past decade. These studies, however, exhibit a strong male bias, which has worsened since 2000, despite the fact that this bias has been exp