Sample records for genital hpv types

  1. Genital Warts (HPV)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Get Genital Warts If You've Had All the Shots? Talking to Your Partner About Condoms I Have Bumps On ... Warts. What Should I Do? Do I Have to Get All Three HPV Vaccine Shots? 5 Myths About STDs Can Getting the HPV Vaccine Help If I Already Have Genital ...

  2. GENITAL HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS (HPV) Dartmouth COOP

    E-print Network

    identified; 30 of them affect the genital tract. 3. All types of HPV are spread by SKIN TO SKIN contact. Risk factors for HPV including previous treatment for cancer or precancer, HIV infection, weakened. HPV is the only cause of cervical cancer. HPV may also be linked to cancer of the anus, vulva, vagina

  3. Genital Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Native Women

    MedlinePLUS

    Genital Human Papillomavirus (HPV) At least 50% of sexually active women and men will get it. Most will not ... possible effects of HPV. W hat is genital human papillomavirus (HPV)? HPV is a common virus. There ...

  4. Cutaneous human papillomavirus types detected on the surface of male external genital lesions: A case series within the HPV Infection in Men Study

    PubMed Central

    Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Messina, Jane L.; Stoler, Mark H.; Jukic, Drazen M.; Tommasino, Massimo; Gheit, Tarik; Rollison, Dana E.; Sichero, Laura; Sirak, Bradley A.; Ingles, Donna J.; Abrahamsen, Martha; Lu, Beibei; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPVs) may be associated with cutaneous epithelial lesions and non-melanoma skin cancers. No study has systematically evaluated the presence of genus beta [?]-HPV in male genital skin or external genital lesions (EGLs). Objectives To examine cutaneous ?-HPV types detected on the surface of EGLs in men and describe their presence prior to EGL development. Study design A retrospective case series was conducted among 69 men with pathologically confirmed EGLs (n=72) who participated in the HPV Infection in Men Study. Archived exfoliated cells collected from the surface of each EGL and normal genital skin specimens 6–12 months preceding EGL development were tested for ?-HPV DNA using a type-specific multiplex genotyping assay. Results ?-HPV DNA was detected on 61.1% of all EGLs, with types 38 (16.7%), 5 (15.3%), and 12 (12.5%) most commonly identified. HPV prevalence differed across pathological diagnoses, with the largest number of ?-HPV types detected on condylomas. Most ?-HPV types were detected on normal genital skin prior to EGL development, though the prevalence was lower on EGLs compared to preceding normal genital skin. Conclusions EGLs and the normal genital skin of men harbor a large number of ?-HPV types; however, it appears that ?-HPVs are unrelated to EGL development in men. Despite evidence to support a causal role in skin carcinogenesis at UVR-exposed sites, cutaneous HPV appears unlikely to cause disease at the UVR-unexposed genitals. PMID:24210970

  5. Genital HPV Infection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes HIV/AIDS & STDs ... Submit What's this? Submit Button STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes HIV/AIDS & STDs ...

  6. Genital and cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) types in relation to conjunctival squamous cell neoplasia: A case-control study in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    de Koning, Maurits NC; Waddell, Keith; Magyezi, Joseph; Purdie, Karin; Proby, Charlotte; Harwood, Catherine; Lucas, Sebastian; Downing, Robert; Quint, Wim GV; Newton, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Background We investigated the role of infection with genital and cutaneous human papillomavirus types (HPV) in the aetiology of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (which includes both conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and carcinoma) using data and biological material collected as part of a case-control study in Uganda. Results Among 81 cases, the prevalence of genital and cutaneous HPV types in tumour tissue did not differ significantly by histological grade of the lesion. The prevalence of genital HPV types did not differ significantly between cases and controls (both 38%; Odds ratio [OR] 1.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.4–2.7, p = 1.0). The prevalence of cutaneous HPV types was 22% (18/81) among cases and 3% (1/29) among controls (OR 8.0, 95% CI 1.0–169, p = 0.04). Conclusion We find no evidence of an association between genital HPV types and ocular surface squamous neoplasia. The prevalence of cutaneous HPV was significantly higher among cases as compared to controls. Although consistent with results from two other case-control studies, the relatively low prevalence of cutaneous HPV types among cases (which does not differ by histological grade of tumour) indicates that there remains considerable uncertainty about a role for cutaneous HPV in the aetiology of this tumour. PMID:18783604

  7. Broad HPV distribution in the genital region of men from the HPV infection in men (HIM) study

    PubMed Central

    Sichero, Laura; Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Ferreira, Silvaneide; Sobrinho, João S.; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Galan, Lenice; Silva, Roberto C.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R.; Villa, Luisa L.

    2013-01-01

    The HPV infection in men (HIM) study examines the natural history of genital HPV infection in men. Genotyping methods used in this study identify 37 ?-HPV types; however, the viral type could not be identified in approximately 22% of male genital specimens that were HPV PCR positive. Our aim was to genotype HPV-unclassified specimens by sequencing PGMY09/11, GP5+/6+ or FAP59/64 PCR products. Using this approach we were able to detect 86 unique HPV types among 508 of 931 specimens analyzed. We report for the first time the presence of a broad range of ?-, ?- and ?-HPV at the male genitals. PMID:23722104

  8. HPV

    MedlinePLUS

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are common viruses that can cause warts. There are more than 100 types of HPV. Most are harmless, but about 30 types put ... either low-risk or high-risk. Low-risk HPV can cause genital warts. High-risk HPV can ...

  9. Genital Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Concordance in Heterosexual Couples

    PubMed Central

    Nyitray, Alan G.; Menezes, Lynette; Lu, Beibei; Lin, Hui-Yi; Smith, Dan'elle; Abrahamsen, Martha; Papenfuss, Mary; Gage, Christine; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2012-01-01

    Background.?Few studies have assessed genital human papillomavirus (HPV) concordance and factors associated with concordance among asymptomatic heterosexual couples. Methods.?Genotyping for HPV was conducted with male and female sex partners aged 18–70 years from Tampa, Florida. Eligibility included no history of HPV-associated disease. Type-specific positive concordance (partners with ?1 genotype in common) and negative concordance (neither partner had HPV) were assessed for 88 couples. Factors associated with concordance were assessed with Fisher exact tests and tests for trend. Results.?Couples reported engaging in sexual intercourse for a median of 1.7 years (range, 0.1–49 years), and 75% reported being in the same monogamous relationship for the past 6 months. Almost 1 in 4 couples had type-specific positive concordance, and 35% had negative concordance for all types tested, for a total concordance of 59%. Concordance was not associated with monogamy. Type-specific positive concordance was associated with an increasing difference in partners’ lifetime number of sex partners and inversely associated with an increasing difference in age. Negative concordance was inversely associated with both the couple's sum of lifetime number of sex partners and the difference in the partners’ lifetime number of sex partners. Conclusions.?Genital HPV concordance was common. Viral infectiousness and number of sex partners may help explain concordance among heterosexual partners. PMID:22539815

  10. Identification of people at high risk of genital HPV infections.

    PubMed

    Oriel, J D

    1990-01-01

    Clinical and subclinical genital HPV infection is most prevalent in people aged 20-24 years. HPV-infected women have an earlier debut of sex activity, more partners and more casual relationships and STD than age-matched controls without HPV; although data are not available, the same risk factors probably operate in men. There is no evidence that the presence of non-genital warts affects the incidence of genital lesions. Between 50 and 70% of sex partners of individuals with condylomatous or non-condylomatous genital HPV infection also have lesions. Nothing is yet known about any relationship between infectivity and the number of lesions or their viral content. The infectivity of non-condylomatous HPV infection is uncertain. Immunological factors affect the clinical behaviour of genital warts, and immunosuppression, for example by drugs, radiation and possibly cigarette smoking and the use of oral contraceptives, may increase liability to genital HPV infection. The main risk factors appear to be young age, sexual promiscuity, intercourse with a partner with HPV disease and perhaps deficient immune responses. The identification of people at high risk requires careful clinical examination supplemented by the use of a magnification system, histology and cervical cytology. The identification of HPV genotypes in genital epithelia does not seem to be useful in this context, because they are present in a proportion of normal epithelia. PMID:2175938

  11. Gardasil 9 Vaccine Protects against Additional HPV Types

    Cancer.gov

    In a large randomized clinical trial, a new human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine effectively prevented infection and disease caused by nine high-risk HPV types, including seven types that cause cervical and other cancers—five of which were not covered by the previously available HPV vaccines—and two types that cause genital warts.

  12. Prevalence of high-risk HPV types and associated genital diseases in women born in 1988/89 or 1983/84 – results of WOLVES, a population-based epidemiological study in Wolfsburg, Germany

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background High-risk human papilloma virus (HR-HPV) infection is associated with the development of cervical cancer. HPV vaccination reduces the risk of developing malignant lesions and is expected to change the dynamics of HPV transmission. Data from non-vaccinated women may provide an important benchmark to allow the impact of HPV vaccination programs to be assessed. This study was designed to prospectively determine the changing dynamics of HR-HPV infection and associated genital diseases in young women, most of whom were non-vaccinated. Methods Data from a population-based cohort study, comprising women of two predefined birth cohorts (women born in 1983/84 or 1988/89), were analyzed between 19 October 2009 and 31 December 2010 to determine risk factors for high-risk HPV infection and the association between specific HR-HPV types and atypical Pap smear test results. HPV status was determined by Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) assay and genotyping. Results The prevalence of HR-HPV was 22.8% in the 1983/84 cohort (150/659) and 23.7% in the 1988/99 cohort (142/599). Only the number of sexual partners was a significant risk factor for HPV infection (odds ratios 22.687 and 6.124 for more than five versus one partner 84 cohort,/84 and 1988/89 cohorts, respectively) in multivariate analysis. HPV16 positive-women were significantly more likely to have abnormal Pap smears of any degree than HPV16-negative women (22.0% versus 3.61%, p?HPV16. In the 1988/89 cohort, the rate of HPV16 infection was significantly lower in vaccinated than non-vaccinated women (1.59% versus 8.88%; p?=?0.003). Conclusions HR-HPV infection was highly prevalent in both cohorts and associated with an increased risk of abnormal Pap smears and biopsy proven CIN2+. HPV16 infection was associated with a high risk of clinically relevant lesions. HPV vaccination significantly decreased the risk of HPV16 infection. PMID:23497108

  13. Seroprevalence of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Type 6 and 16 Vary by Anatomic Site of HPV Infection in Men

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Beibei; Viscidi, Raphael P.; Wu, Yougui; Nyitray, Alan G.; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; da Silva, Roberto J. Carvalho; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Quiterio, Manuel; Salmerón, Jorge; Smith, Danelle C.; Abrahamsen, Martha; Papenfuss, Mary; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2012-01-01

    Background It is largely unknown if anti-HPV serum antibody responses vary by anatomic site of infection in men. Methods This study assessed type-specific anti-HPV serum antibody prevalence associated with corresponding HPV DNA detection in the external genitalia and the anal canal of 1587 heterosexual men and 199 men who have sex with men (MSM). Results We observed that HPV 6 and 16 seroprevalence was higher in the presence of same HPV type infection in the anal canal compared to the presence in the external genitalia only, and among MSM compared to heterosexual men. Seropositivity to HPV 6 was strongly associated with HPV 6 DNA detection in the anal canal but not in the external genitalia alone among both heterosexual men (Adjusted Prevalence Ratio (APR), anal+/genital+ vs. anal-/genital-: 4.2 [95% CI: 11.7-10.5]; anal+/genital- vs. anal-/genital-: 7.9 [95% CI: 3.7-17.0]) and MSM (APR, anal+/genital+ vs. anal-/genital-: 5.6 [95% CI: 2.7-11.9]; anal+/genital- vs. anal-/genital-: 3.2 [95% CI: 2.1-4.9]). Similar associations between seropositivity to HPV 16 and anal HPV 16 DNA detection were only observed in MSM (anal+/genital+ vs. anal-/genital-: 3.1 [95% CI: 2.0-5.0]; anal+/genital- vs. anal-/genital-: 2.2 [95% CI: 1.3-3.5]). Conclusion Our data demonstrated that seroprevalence varied by anatomic site of HPV infection, suggesting differences in epithelium type present at these anatomic sites may be relevant. Impact Our finding is instrumental in advancing our understanding of immune mechanism involved in anatomic site-specific antibody response. PMID:22761306

  14. Male circumcision and the incidence and clearance of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men: the HPV Infection in men (HIM) cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Reported associations of male circumcision (MC) with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men have been inconsistent. Methods 4,033 healthy men were examined every six months for a median of 17.5 months. In each study visit, exfoliated cell specimens from the coronal sulcus/glans penis, penile shaft, and scrotum were collected and combined into one sample per person for HPV DNA detection. Samples were tested for 37 HPV types. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the association between MC and the incidence and clearance of HPV infections and specific genotypes. Results The overall incidence of new HPV infections did not differ by MC status (for any HPV, adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91-1.27). However, incidence was significantly lower among circumcised versus uncircumcised men for HPV types 58 (p?=?0.01), 68 (p?HPV types 39 (p?=?0.01) and 51 (p?=?0.02). Despite the lack of an overall association in the risk of HPV clearance by MC (for any HPV, aHR 0.95, 95% CI 0.88-1.02), median times to clearance were significantly shorter among circumcised than uncircumcised men for HPV types 33 (p?=?0.02) and 64 (p?=?0.04), and longer for HPV types 6 (p?genital HPV detection, except for certain HPV types. The use of a single combined sample from the penis and scrotum for HPV DNA detection likely limited our ability to identify a true effect of MC at the distal penis. PMID:24517172

  15. Risk factors for genital HPV DNA in men resemble those found in women: a study of male attendees at a Danish STD clinic

    PubMed Central

    Svare, E; Kjaer, S; Worm, A; Osterlind, A; Meijer, C; van den Brule, A J C

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: Genital infection with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most important risk factor for cervical cancer. The male sexual partner is supposed to be the vector of the infection. However, the knowledge of risk factors for genital HPV DNA in men is limited. The objective of this paper is to study the risk factors for HPV infection in men and to compare them with those found in women, including the study of whether there are different risk profiles for oncogenic and non-oncogenic HPV types. Methods: From a sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic in Denmark, 216 men were consecutively included. A personal interview was done and material for genital HPV DNA detection was obtained with swabs. HPV DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Odds ratios (OR) for HPV as well as for oncogenic and non-oncogenic types separately were computed with a 95% confidence interval (CI) by means of unconditional multiple logistic regresssion. Results: The most important predictors of any HPV were lifetime number of sex partners (OR = 4.3; 95% CI 1.4 to 13.1 for 25–39 v 1–9 partners), young age, and being uncircumcised. The most important risk factor for oncogenic HPV types was lifetime number of partners, whereas number of partners in the past year and ever having genital warts were risk factors for the non-oncogenic HPV types. Young age predicted risk of both oncogenic and non-oncogenic HPV types. Conclusions: Most risk factors for HPV DNA detection in men resemble those found in women. As in women, the risk factor profile for the oncogenic HPV types was different from that of the non-oncogenic HPV types. PMID:12238658

  16. Simultaneous detection and typing of genital human papillomavirus DNA using the polymerase chain reaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yukako Fujinaga; Masamitu Shimada; Kazuhide Okazawa; Michio Fukushima; Ikunoshin Kato; Kei Fujinaga

    1991-01-01

    A simple method has been developed for detecting a broad range of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) types using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We utilized two consensus sequence primer pairs within the E6 and E7 open reading frames to amplify HPV DNA; malignant HPV DNA (from HPV- 16, - 18, -31, -33, -52b and -58) was amplified using the pU-1M\\/

  17. Specific immunity to human papilloma virus (HPV) in patients with genital warts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Viac; M J Staquet; M Miguet; M Chabanon; J Thivolet

    1978-01-01

    A study of human papilloma virus (HPV) specific cellular and humoral immunity in 30 patients with genital warts is reported. By in vivo testing with purified, inactivated plantar wart virus, a cell-mediated immunity to HPV was determined in 60% of patients. Circulating antibodies, evaluated by immunofluorescence testing, were rare, but these increased after an intradermal test had been carried out,

  18. Warts in all body locations are caused by the human papilloma virus. Over 100 types of HPV have been

    E-print Network

    Virginia Tech

    Warts in all body locations are caused by the human papilloma virus. Over 100 types of HPV have area. HPV infection is, by far, the most common sexually transmitted disease (STD) with an estimated 1 of infection from a single act of unprotected intercourse with a partner with visible genital HPV. Although

  19. The Role of Social Support in Young Women's Communication About the Genital HPV Vaccine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aimee E. Miller-Ott; Wesley T. Durham

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the function of social support in communication about women's sexual health topics is an important avenue of research for communication scholars. The goal of the present study was to examine the role of social support in young women's communication about receiving or not receiving the genital HPV vaccine, Gardasil. In 10 focus groups, 52 female participants between ages 18

  20. Correlation between Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Type and Histology of Warts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerd Gross; Herbert Pfister; Manfred Hagedorn; Lutz Gissmann

    1982-01-01

    Forty warts from different patients and of different clinical type were examined histologically and virologically. Eight lesions were found to be associated with human papillomavirus type 1 (HPV 1), 15 tumors were induced by HPV 2, HPV 3 was detected 4 times, RPV 4 twice, and HPV 6 eleven times. HPV 3, HPV 4, and HPV 6 induced warts revealed

  1. Prevalence of Antibodies to Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Type 16 Virus-Like Particles in Relation to Cervical HPV Infection among College Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RAPHAEL P. VISCIDI; KAREN L. KOTLOFF; BARBARA CLAYMAN; KARIN RUSS; SHARON SHAPIRO; ANDKEERTI V. SHAH

    1997-01-01

    A human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) virus-like particle (VLP)-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure serum antibody to capsid proteins in 376 sexually active college women who were also screened for the presence of genital HPVs by PCR and interviewed for demographic and behavioral risk factors for HPV infection. The seroprevalence was 46% in women with HPV-16 DNA

  2. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) What you need to know

    E-print Network

    Krstic, Miroslav

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) What you need to know ­ What is HPV? HPV (human papillomavirus) is a common virus that affects both females and males.1 Most types of HPV are harmless, do not cause any symptoms, and go away on their own.1 About 30 types of HPV are known as genital HPV since they affect

  3. Human Papillomavirus Genital Infections among Men, China, 2007–2009

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhonghu; Liu, Ying; Sun, Yuan; Xi, Long Fu; Chen, Ke; Zhao, Yiqiang; Gao, Lei; Liu, Fangfang; Pan, Yaqi; Ning, Tao; Zhang, Lixin; Cai, Hong

    2013-01-01

    To determine prevalence of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among men in rural China, we analyzed genital swab specimens. Among 2,236 male residents of rural Henan Province, HPV infection prevalence was 17.5%. The most common oncogenic and nononcogenic types were HPV-16 and HPV-3, respectively. Infection was associated with younger age and multiple sex partners. PMID:23735236

  4. Genital and extra-genital warts increase the risk of asymptomatic genital human papillomavirus infection in men

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Brenda Y; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Goodman, Marc T; Wilkens, Lynne R; Thompson, Pamela J; Zhu, Xuemei; Tom, James; Ning, Lily

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the relationship of warts in different parts of the body and the risk of asymptomatic genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men. Methods We examined the relationship of self-reported genital and extra-genital warts with the subsequent acquisition of asymptomatic genital HPV infection in a cohort of 331 adult men. Participants were followed at 2-month intervals for up to 4 years. Past and current presence of warts was queried at study entry. At each visit, the external genitals were sampled for HPV DNA testing. Results Men who reported a history of genital warts, including current warts, were at increased risk of acquisition of asymptomatic HPV infection of the penis glans/corona, penis shaft and scrotum. The magnitude of these associations was greatest for HPV 6/11 infection. History of warts on the fingers, arms and trunk of the body was also associated with increased risk of genital HPV infection. Current presence of warts on the fingers and trunk specifically increased the risk of acquisition of HPV types not typically found on the genitals. Conclusions Men with a history of warts on the genitals, fingers, arms and trunk may be at increased risk for acquisition of new genital HPV infections. Warts may provide an efficient reservoir for the transmission of virions to the genitals through auto-inoculation. The potential for the spread of HPV throughout the body through auto-inoculation has important implications for prevention and control of HPV infection. PMID:21602516

  5. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection in pregnant women and mother-to-child transmission of genital HPV genotypes: a prospective study in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Studies on HPV infection in pregnant women and HPV transmission to the child have yielded inconsistent results. Methods To estimate mother-to-child HPV transmission we carried out a prospective cohort study that included 66 HPV-positive and 77 HPV-negative pregnant women and their offspring attending a maternity hospital in Barcelona. To estimate HPV prevalence and genotype distribution in pregnancy we also carried out a related screening survey of cervical HPV-DNA detection among 828 pregnant women. Cervical cells from the mother were collected at pregnancy (mean of 31 weeks) and at the 6-week post-partum visit. Exfoliated cells from the mouth and external genitalia of the infants were collected around birth, at the 6-week post-partum visit, and around 3, 6, 12, and 24 months of age. All samples were tested for HPV using PCR. Associations between potential determinants of HPV infection in pregnant women and of HPV positivity in infants were also explored by logistic regression modelling. Results Overall cervical HPV-DNA detection in pregnant women recruited in the HPV screening survey was 6.5% (54/828). Sexual behavior-related variables, previous histories of genital warts or sexually transmitted infections, and presence of cytological abnormalities were statistically significantly and positively associated with HPV DNA detection in pregnant women recruited in the cohort. At 418 infant visits and a mean follow-up time of 14 months, 19.7% of infants born to HPV-positive mothers and 16.9% of those born to HPV-negative mothers tested HPV positive at some point during infants' follow-up. The most frequently detected genotype both in infants and mothers was HPV-16, after excluding untyped HPV infections. We found a strong and statistically significant association between mother's and child's HPV status at the 6-week post-partum visit. Thus, children of mothers' who were HPV-positive at the post-partum visit were about 5 times more likely to test HPV-positive than children of corresponding HPV-negative mothers (p = 0.02). Conclusion This study confirms that the risk of vertical transmission of HPV genotypes is relatively low. HPV persistence in infants is a rare event. These data also indicate that vertical transmission may not be the sole source of HPV infections in infants and provides partial evidence for horizontal mother-to-child HPV transmission. PMID:19473489

  6. Integrative approach to diagnosis of genital human papillomaviruses (HPV) infection of female.

    PubMed

    Dunjic, Momir; Stanisic, Slavisa; Krstic, Dejan; Stanisic, Miodrag; Ignjatic, Z Jovanovic; Dunjic, Marija

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a virus from the papillomavirus family that is capable of infecting humans. Some types of HPVs cause warts, while others can lead to cancers of the cervix, vulva, vagina, penis, oropharynx and anus. High-risk human papillomavirus (hr HPV) has been detected in almost all cervical squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas. All patients examined by colposcopy. Cervical swab is routinely done and patients are screened with both HPV DNA by Real Time Polimerase Chain Reaction (RT PCR) testing and Pap testing. Pictures obtained by colposcopy were examined by indirect Bi-Digital O-Ring Test (BDORT) by using reference control substance (RCS): HPV 16, HPV 18, and Integrin ?5 ?1. BDORT was developed by Prof. Omura Y. of New York and received U.S. patent in 1993. For detection of HPV DNA we used RT PCR and standard Qiagen method which detect 18 types (16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 68, 6, 11, 42, 43, 44) of HPV from smear. From 63 patients where is BDORT indicated presence of HPV, in 49 patients (77.8%) RT PCR confirmed presence of HPV. From 63 patients in 54 patients (85.7%), we detected, by colposcopic exam, some kind of lesions associated with HPV infection. Results obtained by RT PCR: one type (1/18) of DNA HPV in 25 patients (51.02%), 2 types (2/18) in 15 patients (30.61%) and 3 types (3/18) in 9 patients (18.37%). Although BDORT results usually have higher sensitivity and detection rate is much higher, it can be used together with RT PCR in detection of HPV and cervical lesions associated with HPV infection. PMID:25693306

  7. HPV in genital cancers (at the exception of cervical cancer) and anal cancers.

    PubMed

    de Sanjosé, Silvia; Bruni, Laia; Alemany, Laia

    2014-10-30

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been firmly established as a central and necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer and it has been etiologically linked to other anogenital (vulva, vagina, anus and penis) and head and neck cancers, particularly oropharyngeal. Although being rare, the incidence of some of these cancers in some countries has increased in the last decades. HPV-related anogenital tumors share many risk factors with cervical cancer. The HPV aetiological contribution differs in each anatomical location reflecting differences in the natural history and viral tissue tropism. The highest prevalence of HPV DNA in cancers other than cervix has been described for anal, followed by vagina, penile and vulvar cancers. HPV16 has been described as the most common type detected in all cancer sites with different contributions being the highest in anal carcinoma (around 80% of HPV DNA positive anal cancers) and the lowest in vaginal cancers with a contribution similar to that found in cervical cancers (around 60%). Current HPV vaccines have already demonstrated their efficacy in preventing anogenital pre-neoplastic lesions caused by vaccine HPV types. HPV-based prevention tools like HPV vaccination and to a lesser extend screening (e.g. for anal cancer) can be useful measures for reducing the burden of these anogenital cancers. PMID:25455637

  8. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Archive STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus (HPV) ... 9877 STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus (HPV) ...

  9. Concordance of human papillomavirus types detected on the surface and in the tissue of genital lesions in men

    PubMed Central

    Anic, Gabriella M.; Messina, Jane L.; Stoler, Mark H.; Rollison, Dana E.; Stockwell, Heather; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Gage, Christine; Silva, Roberto Jose C.; Baggio, Maria L.; Salmerón, Jorge; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Swabbing the surface of a genital lesion to obtain a sample for HPV DNA testing is less invasive than a biopsy, but may not represent HPV types present in the lesion tissue. The objective of this study was to examine the concordance of HPV types detected in swab and biopsy samples from 165 genital lesions from men ages 18-70. Lesions included 90 condyloma, 10 penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN), 23 non-condyloma with a known histology, and 42 lesions with an undetermined histology. All lesions were sampled by swabbing the surface of the lesion with a pre-wetted Dacron swab and taking a shave biopsy. HPV genotyping was performed using Linear Array for swab samples and INNO-LiPA for biopsy samples. The kappa and McNemar statistics were used to compare the concordance of detecting HPV types in swab and biopsy samples. Both sampling methods had high agreement for detection of HPV DNA in condyloma (87.8% agreement) and PeIN (100% agreement). There was also high concordance for detection of HPV16 (kappa = 1.00) and HPV18 (kappa = 1.00) in PeIN, however, agreement was low to moderate for detecting HPV6 (kappa = 0.31) and HPV11 (kappa = 0.56) in condyloma. Low to moderate agreement was also observed between sampling methods for detecting individual HPV types in the non-condyloma and lesions with an indefinite histology. The results suggest that obtaining a biopsy in addition to swabbing the surface of a lesion may provide additional information about specific HVP types associated with male genital lesions. PMID:23852680

  10. Cervical Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection and HPV Type 16 Antibodies in South African Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dianne J. Marais; Debbie Constant; Bruce Allan; Henri Carrara; Margaret Hoffman; Samuel Shapiro; Chelsea Morroni; Anna-Lise Williamson

    2008-01-01

    There is a high incidence of cervical cancer in South African women. No large studies to assess human papillomavirus virus (HPV) infection or HPV type 16 (HPV-16) exposure have occurred in the region, a requirement for policy making with regards to HPV screening and the introduction of vaccines. Control women (n 1,003) enrolled in a case control study of hormonal

  11. Therapeutic benefits of carbon dioxide (CO2) laser on single-site HPV lesions in the lower female genital tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urru, Giovanni; Moretti, Gianfranco

    1998-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown contradictory variable percentages of recurrent HPV lesions, after various therapies. The present study therefore evaluates the effectiveness of CO2 laser vaporization in the treatment of single-site HPV lesions of the lower female genital tract in order to confirm the conviction that physical therapy alone, in agreement with some findings reported in the literature, is capable of guaranteeing a high cure rate in selected patients. From January 1995 to June 1996, seventy- five female patients were treated with CO2 laser vaporization for single-site genital HPV lesions, some of which were associated with low-grade intra-epithelial neoplasia. The success rate after 12 months proved to be 97%. The pre-existing clinical symptoms disappeared in all the patients treated. No complication in the vaporization procedure was encountered.

  12. Association of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and herpes simplex virus type 2 serostatus with genital human papillomavirus infection in men: the HIM Study

    PubMed Central

    Alberts, Catharina Johanna; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; Papenfuss, Mary R.; da Silva, Roberto José Carvalho; Villa, Luisa Lina; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Nyitray, Alan G.; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies in women indicate that some sexually transmitted infections promote human papillomavirus (HPV) persistence and carcinogenesis. Little is known about this association in men, therefore we assessed whether Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) serostatus are associated with genital HPV prevalence, an early event in HPV related pathogenesis. Methods Genital exfoliated cells, first-void urine and blood from 3,971 men recruited in the USA, Mexico, and Brazil, were tested for HPV, CT, and HSV-2 antibodies, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association of CT infection and HSV-2 serostatus with four HPV outcomes (any, oncogenic, non-oncogenic only, and multiple infections). Results A total of 64 (1.6%) men were CT positive and 811 (20.4%) men were HSV-2 seropositive. After adjustment for potential confounders, CT was associated with any HPV (aOR 2.19, 95%CI: 1.13–4.24), oncogenic HPV (aOR 3.10, 95%CI: 1.53–6.28), and multiple HPV (aOR 3.43, 95%CI: 1.69-6.95) prevalence. HSV-2 serostatus was associated with any HPV (aOR 1.25, 95%CI: 1.02-1.52), non-oncogenic HPV only (aOR 1.38, 95%CI: 1.08-1.75), and multiple HPV (aOR 1.33, 95%CI: 1.06-1.68) prevalence. In analyses stratified by sexual behaviour, CT infection was significantly associated with HPV detection among men reporting ?2 recent sexual partners, while HSV-2 serostatus was significantly associated with HPV detection in men reporting 0-5 lifetime sexual partners. Conclusion In this population, CT infection and HSV-2 serostatus were associated with prevalent genital HPV infection. Future prospective studies should investigate whether these infections influence HPV acquisition and/or persistence. PMID:23680908

  13. High-risk HPV types and head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Dominique S; Langevin, Scott M; Eliot, Melissa; Nelson, Heather H; Pawlita, Michael; McClean, Michael D; Kelsey, Karl T

    2014-10-01

    Although HPV16 has been strongly implicated in oropharyngeal carcinogenesis, the role of other high-risk HPV types in the etiology of head and neck cancer remains unclear. To date, few data exist addressing the nature of the association between antibodies to oncogenic proteins of non-HPV16 HPVs in relation to head and neck cancer. We examined the relationship between multiple HPV types (HPV6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58) and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) in a large population-based case-control study (1069 cases and 1107 controls). Serological measures for HPV types included antibodies to L1, E6 and/or E7. In a secondary analysis, we excluded HPV16 seropositive subjects to examine independent associations with other high-risk HPVs. All analyses were adjusted for age, race, sex, education, smoking and alcohol consumption. Statistically significant associations were observed for HPV16, 18, 33 and 52 and risk of HNSCC after mutually adjusting for HPV types. Among HPV16 seronegative subjects, elevated risks of HNSCC were observed for HPV18 E6 (OR = 4.19, 95% CI = 1.26-14.0), HPV33 E6 (OR = 7.96, 95% CI = 1.56-40.5) and HPV52 E7 (OR = 3.40, 95% CI = 1.16-9.99). When examined by tumor type, associations with HPV18 and HPV33 remained statistically significant for oropharyngeal cancer, and HPV52 was associated with oral cancer. In addition, magnitude of associations for HNSCC increased markedly with increasing number of seropositive high-risk HPV infections. High-risk HPV types, other than HPV16, are likely to be involved in the etiology of HNSCC. PMID:24615247

  14. Human Papillomavirus Types 6 and 11 DNA Sequences in Genital and Laryngeal Papillomas and in Some Cervical Cancers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lutz Gissmann; Lutz Wolnik; Hans Ikenberg; Ursula Koldovsky; Hans Georg Schnurch; Harald Zur Hausen

    1983-01-01

    Human genital tumors as well as recurrent laryngeal papillomas were analyzed for the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) 6 and HPV 11 sequences. HPV 11 DNA was found in 7 of 14 laryngeal papillomas; in the 7 other tumors no HPV DNA was demonstrated. HPV 11 DNA was also found in all five atypical condylomata of the cervix included in

  15. HPV DNA test

    MedlinePLUS

    The HPV DNA test is used to check for high-risk HPV infection in women. HPV infection around the genitals is ... warts spread when you have sex. The HPV-DNA test is generally not recommended for detecting low- ...

  16. Vaccine-Relevant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infections and Future Acquisition of High-Risk HPV Types in Men

    PubMed Central

    Rositch, Anne F.; Hudgens, Michael G.; Backes, Danielle M.; Moses, Stephen; Agot, Kawango; Nyagaya, Edith; Snijders, Peter J. F.; Meijer, Chris J. L. M.; Bailey, Robert C.; Smith, Jennifer S.

    2012-01-01

    Background.Little is known about type-specific associations between prevalent human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and risk of acquiring other HPV types in men. Data on natural clustering of HPV types are needed as a prevaccine distribution to which postvaccine data can be compared. Methods.Using data from a randomized controlled trial of male circumcision in Kisumu, Kenya, adjusted mean survival ratios were estimated for acquisition of any-HPV, high-risk (HR) HPV, and individual HR-HPV types among men uninfected as compared to those infected with vaccine-relevant HPV types 16, 18, 31, 45, 6, or 11 at baseline. Results.Among 1097 human immunodeficiency virus–negative, uncircumcised men, 2303 incident HPV infections were detected over 2534 person-years of follow-up. Although acquisition of individual HR-HPV types varied by baseline HPV type, there was no clear evidence of shorter times to acquisition among men without vaccine-relevant HPV-16, -18, -31, -45, -6, or -11 infections at baseline, as compared to men who did have these infections at baseline. Conclusions.These prospective data on combinations of HPV infections over time do not suggest the potential for postvaccination HPV type replacement. Future surveillance studies are needed to definitely determine whether elimination of HPV types by vaccination will alter the HPV type distribution in the population. PMID:22711906

  17. HPV genotypes concordance between sex partners.

    PubMed

    Benevolo, M; Mottolese, M; Marandino, F; Carosi, M; Diodoro, M G; Sentinelli, S; Visca, P; Rollo, F; Mariani, L; Vocaturo, G; Sindico, R; Di Giannuario, D; Perrone Donnorso, R; Pellicciotta, M; Vocaturo, A

    2007-12-01

    The HPV genotype concordance in the sexual couples could support the sexual viral transmission of HPV infection. The present study contains a case-report of a stable Italian sex couple harbouring the same five HPV genotypes in their genital samples. The female partner, affected by vulvar condilomatosis, evidenced positivity in her cervicovaginal scraping with high risk HPV DNA Hybrid Capture 2 test and was negative at liquid-based performed Pap Test and at colposcopic examination. The male partner was clinically healthy regarding his external genitalia. In both male and female genital scrapings, the following HPV genotypes were detected by means of a PCR-based assay: 6, 16, 53, 73 and 84. This considerably high genotype concordance does not appear to be casual and supports, in our opinion, the hypothesis that genital HPV types are sexually transmitted agents PMID:18365561

  18. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) DNA Copy Number Is Dependent on Grade of Cervical Disease and HPV Type

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID C. SWAN; RUTH ANN TUCKER; GUILLERMO TORTOLERO-LUNA; MICHELE FOLLEN MITCHELL; LOUISE WIDEROFF; ELIZABETH R. UNGER; ROSANE A. NISENBAUM; WILLIAM C. REEVES; JOSEPH P. ICENOGLE

    1999-01-01

    The association between human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA copy number and cervical disease was inves- tigated. Viral DNA copy number for the most common high-risk HPV types in cervical cancer (types 16, 18, 31, and 45) was determined in cervical cytobrush specimens from 149 women with high-grade cervical intraepi- thelial neoplasias (CIN II-CIN III), 176 with low-grade CIN (CIN I), and

  19. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Screening

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... HPV Screening Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes genital warts and cancers, such ...

  20. The burden and costs of prevention and management of genital disease caused by HPV in women: a population-based registry study in Finland.

    PubMed

    Salo, Heini; Leino, Tuija; Kilpi, Terhi; Auranen, Kari; Tiihonen, Petri; Lehtinen, Matti; Vänskä, Simopekka; Linna, Miika; Nieminen, Pekka

    2013-09-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the total burden and health care provider costs of prevention, management and treatment of HP-related genital disease outcomes including all organized and opportunistic screening tests. Information about HPV-related disease outcomes in the Finnish female population of 2.7 million was obtained from nationwide population-based registry data. We estimated the incidence, health care resource use, health provider costs and life years lost due to cervical, vaginal and vulvar cancer and intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN, VaIN, VIN), cervical adenocarcinoma in situ, and external genital warts. The average annual disease burden of HPV-related genital disease in the female population of Finland comprises altogether 241 cases of cervical, vaginal and vulvar cancer, 2,898 new cases of CIN, 34,432 cases of minor cytological abnormalities, and almost 4,000 cases of external genital warts. The total annual costs of screening, further diagnostics and treatment of HPV-related genital disease were € 44.7 million of which the annual costs due to cervical cancer screening were € 22.4 million and due to diagnostics, management and treatment of HPV-related genital disease outcomes were € 22.3 million. The latter included € 8.4 million due to minor cervical abnormalities detected by the current cervical screening practice. The extensive opportunistic Pap testing fails to keep the incidence of cervical cancer from increasing among women aged 30-34. In addition opportunistic screening among this and younger age group detects a significant number of cytological abnormalities, most of which are probably treated unnecessarily. PMID:23463194

  1. HPV Vaccine: Access and Use in the U.S.

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 2011). Genital HPV infection- Fact sheet. ? Return to text CDC. (2014). Genital HPV infection- Fact sheet. ? Return to text CDC. (2014). Human Papillomavirus Vaccination: Recommendations of the ...

  2. Accumulation of RNA homologous to human papillomavirus type 16 open reading frames in genital precancers

    SciTech Connect

    Crum, C.P.; Nuovo, G.; Friedman, D.; Silverstein, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    The accumulation of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16)-specific RNAs in tissue sections from biopsies of patients with genital precancers was studied by in situ hybridization with single-stranded /sup 35/S-labeled RNA. These analyses revealed that the most abundant early-region RNAs were derived from the E4 and E5 open reading frames (ORFs). RNAs homologous to the E6/E7 ORFs were also detected, whereas RNAs homologous to the intervening E1 ORF were not. This suggest that the E4 and E5 mRNAs are derived by splicing to the upstream E6/E7 ORFs, consistent with studies of HPV-11 in condylomata. Abundant RNAs homologous to the 5' portion of L1 were also detected. These RNAs were localized to the apical strata of the epithelium. HPV-16 RNAs accumulated in discrete regions of these lesions, and when present were most abundant in the upper cell layers of the precancerous epithelium. RNAs homologous to early ORFs were also detected in some germinal cells within the basal layer of the epithelium.

  3. HPV and Genital Warts among Peruvian Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender People: Knowledge,

    E-print Network

    Jones, Peter JS

    ; Published March 14, 2013 Copyright: Ã? 2013 Nuren~a et al. This is an open-access article distributed under content analysis. Results: While knowledge of HPV was limited, awareness of GW was common, particularly was mediated by peers, but stigma and apparent health services' inability to deal with GW limited the access

  4. Risk of cervical cancer associated with Chlamydia trachomatis antibodies by histology, HPV type and HPV cofactors.

    PubMed

    Madeleine, Margaret M; Anttila, Tarja; Schwartz, Stephen M; Saikku, Pekka; Leinonen, Maija; Carter, Joseph J; Wurscher, Michelle; Johnson, Lisa G; Galloway, Denise A; Daling, Janet R

    2007-02-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the central etiologic factor for cervical cancer, and prior studies suggested C. trachomatis may act as an HPV cofactor. We examined the C. trachomatis-cervical cancer association by serotype, histology, HPV type in the tumor, and other HPV cofactors. We conducted a population-based study in the Seattle-Puget Sound area of 302 women with invasive squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), 185 women with adenocarcinomas of the cervix (AC), and 318 HPV seropositive control women. The risk of SCC associated with antibodies to C. trachomatis was increased (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.2) but not for AC (OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.6-1.5). This association was independent of HPV type in the SCC tumor tissue. There was an association between specific serotypes of C. trachomatis and SCC for 6 of the 10 serotypes: B (OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.5-8.4), D (OR 2.1, 95% CI, 1.2-3.5), E (OR 2.4, 95% CI, 1.4-3.9), G (OR 3.0, 95% CI, 1.1-7.9), I (OR 4.2, 95% CI, 1.5-11.7), and J (OR 2.3, 95% CI, 1.0-5.1), but not for the 4 types (C, F, H, and K) that were present at very low prevalence in this population. There was an increased risk of SCC, but not AC, associated with antibodies to C. trachomatis that was not serotype specific. PMID:17096345

  5. Comparison of the performance of carcinogenic HPV typing of the Roche Linear Array and Qiagen LiquiChip® HPV assays

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is caused by high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV). DNA testing of such high-risk types of HPV could improve cervical screening.The aim of the study was to compare the sensitivities and positive predictive values of two commercially available typing assays (Qiagen LQ and Roche LA) and to comparatively assess the distribution of HPV types with these two assays. Methods The study population comprised 311 ASCUS + women with abnormal pap tests who were HCII positive and who were admitted to three European referral gynecology clinics between 2007 and 2010 (Madrid, Marseille and Milan). All patients underwent LQ and LA tests. Results The sensitivity of the two assays for HPV typing was 94% for LQ and 99% for LA (compared with HCII). The overall concordance between LQ and LA was 93%. The three prevalent genotypes, HPV16, HPV18, and HPV31, were identified with a high concordance using the two assays: kappa 0.93, 0.83, and 0.91, respectively. Mixed genotypes were more frequently detected by LA than by LQ: 52% vs. 18%, respectively (p < .0001). Conclusions These assays have a good clinical sensitivity for detecting HPV types in CIN2+ patients and allow the virus type to be detected in the same experiment. Our study revealed no significant difference between LQ and LA for CIN2+ or CIN3+ diagnosis, indicating similar distributions of HPV types and a mixed genotype detection that is higher for LA than for LQ. PMID:24156822

  6. Human papillomavirus DNA in the urogenital tracts of men with gonorrhoea, penile warts or genital dermatoses.

    PubMed Central

    Hillman, R J; Ryait, B K; Botcherby, M; Taylor-Robinson, D

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in urethral and urine specimens from men with and without sexually transmitted diseases. DESIGN--Prospective study. SETTING--Two London departments of genitourinary medicine PATIENTS--100 men with urethral gonorrhoea, 31 men with penile warts and 37 men with genital dermatoses. METHODS--Urethral and urine specimens were taken, HPV DNA extracted and then amplified using the polymerase chain reaction. HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31 and 33 were identified using Southern blotting followed by hybridisation. RESULTS--HPV DNA was detected in 18-31% of urethral swab specimens and in 0-14% of urine specimens. Men with penile warts had HPV detected in urethral swabs more often than did men in the other two clinical groups. "High risk" HPV types were found in 71-83% of swab specimens and in 73-80% of urine specimens containing HPV DNA. CONCLUSIONS--HPV is present in the urogenital tracts of men with gonorrhoea, penile warts and with genital dermatoses. In men with urethral gonorrhoea, detection of HPV in urethral specimens is not related to the number of sexual partners, condom usage, racial origin or past history of genital warts. HPV DNA in the urethral swab and urine specimens may represent different aspects of the epidemiology of HPV in the male genital tract. The preponderance of HPV types 16 and 18 in all three groups of men may be relevant to the concept of the "high risk male". Images PMID:8392967

  7. Decline in in-patient treatments of genital warts among young Australians following the national HPV vaccination program

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There has been a rapid decline in the number of young heterosexuals diagnosed with genital warts at outpatient sexual health services since the national human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination program started in Australia in 2007. We assessed the impact of the vaccination program on the number of in-patient treatments for genital warts. Methods Data on in-patient treatments of genital warts in all private hospitals were extracted from the Medicare website. Medicare is the universal health insurance scheme of Australia. In the vaccine period (2007–2011) and pre-vaccine period (2000–2007) we calculated the percentage change in treatment numbers and trends in annual treatment rates in private hospitals. Australian population data were used to calculate rates. Summary rate ratios of average annual trends were determined. Results Between 2000 and 2011, 6,014 women and 936 men aged 15–44?years underwent in-patient treatment for genital warts in private hospitals. In 15–24?year old women, there was a significant decreasing trend in annual treatment rates of vulval/vaginal warts in the vaccine period (overall decrease of 85.3% in treatment numbers from 2007 to 2011) compared to no significant trend in the pre-vaccine period (summary rate ratio (SRR)?=?0.33, p?HPV vaccine program. The moderate decline in in-patient treatments for penile warts in men probably reflects herd immunity. PMID:23506489

  8. The HPV Vaccine: Framing the Arguments "for" and "against" Mandatory Vaccination of All Middle School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vamos, Cheryl A.; McDermott, Robert J.; Daley, Ellen M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV), the virus responsible for cervical cancer, is the most common viral sexually transmitted infection in the United States. A vaccine was approved in 2006 that is effective in preventing the types of HPV responsible for 70% of cervical cancers and 90% of genital warts. Proposals for routine and mandatory HPV

  9. Chapter 3: HPV type-distribution in women with and without cervical neoplastic diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary Clifford; Silvia Franceschi; Mireia Diaz; Nubia Muñoz; Luisa Lina Villa

    2006-01-01

    Geographical widespread data on human papillomavirus (HPV) type-distribution are essential for estimating the impact of HPV-16\\/18 vaccines on cervical cancer and cervical screening programmes. Epidemiological studies employing a variety of HPV typing protocols have been collated in meta-analyses. HPV-16\\/18 is estimated to account for 70% of all cervical cancers worldwide, although the estimated HPV-16\\/18 fraction is slightly higher in more

  10. Male circumcision and prevalence of genital human papillomavirus infection in men: a multinational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Accumulated evidence from epidemiological studies and more recently from randomized controlled trials suggests that male circumcision (MC) may substantially protect against genital HPV infection in men. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between MC and genital HPV infection in men in a large multinational study. Methods A total of 4072 healthy men ages 18–70?years were enrolled in a study conducted in Brazil, Mexico, and the United States. Enrollment samples combining exfoliated cells from the coronal sulcus, glans penis, shaft, and scrotum were analyzed for the presence and genotyping of HPV DNA by PCR and linear array methods. Prevalence ratios (PR) were used to estimate associations between MC and HPV detection adjusting for potential confounders. Results MC was not associated with overall prevalence of any HPV, oncogenic HPV types or unclassified HPV types. However, MC was negatively associated with non-oncogenic HPV infections (PR 0.85, 95% confident interval: 0.76-0.95), in particular for HPV types 11, 40, 61, 71, and 81. HPV 16, 51, 62, and 84 were the most frequently identified genotypes regardless of MC status. Conclusions This study shows no overall association between MC and genital HPV infections in men, except for certain non-oncogenic HPV types for which a weak association was found. However, the lack of association with MC might be due to the lack of anatomic site specific HPV data, for example the glans penis, the area expected to be most likely protected by MC. PMID:23327450

  11. Minor Capsid Protein of Human Genital Papillomaviruses Contains Subdominant, Cross-Neutralizing Epitopes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard B. S. Roden; William H. Yutzy; Rosemary Fallon; Stephen Inglis; Douglas R. Lowy; John T. Schiller

    2000-01-01

    Vaccination with virus-like particles (VLP), comprising both L1 and L2 of human papillomavirus (HPV) genital types 6, 16, and 18, induces predominantly type-specific neutralizing antibodies. L2 polypeptide vaccines protect animals against experimental challenge with homologous papillomavirus and cross-reactive epitopes are present in HPV L2. To assess L2-specific cross-neutralization of HPV genotypes, sheep were immunized with purified, bacterially expressed HPV6, 16,

  12. Recent trends in type-specific HPV infection rates in the United States.

    PubMed

    Dickson, E L; Vogel, R I; Luo, X; Downs, L S

    2015-04-01

    SUMMARY This study examined recent trends in type-specific HPV infection rates in women referred for HPV typing as part of cervical cancer screening in the United States. HPV analyses were performed from March 2004 to March 2011. Women were aged 21-65 years at testing. The 18 most prevalent HPV types were analysed. Type-specific HPV infection rates were estimated in 3-month blocks. Lowess smoothing was used to examine time trends in infection rates for each HPV type, both combined, and separated by age group (younger women 21-30 years, older women 31-64 years). A total of 220914 women were included in the final analysis. The number of HPV tests performed on the younger age group increased, with the number of HPV infections and multiple type HPV infections decreasing. When separated by HPV type-specific analysis, the majority of HPV infection rates decreased; however, HPV types 61 and 83 increased. When analysing the older age group, there was a marked increase of the number of HPV tests. Overall, the rates of any HPV infection, as well as multiple type infections, were lower compared to the younger age group. The change in type-specific HPV rates in the older age group was minimal, with many rates remaining the same. In this population of women, overall rates of HPV infection decreased, while the number of HPV tests increased. Younger women had a more marked decrease in HPV infection rates, while for older women type-specific HPV infection rates appear consistent. PMID:25744667

  13. Circumcision and acquisition of HPV infection in young men

    PubMed Central

    VanBuskirk, Kelley; Winer, Rachel L.; Hughes, James P.; Feng, Qinghua; Arima, Yuzo; Lee, Shu-Kuang; Stern, Michael E.; O’Reilly, Sandra F.; Koutsky, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    Background The role of circumcision in male HPV acquisition is not clear. Methods Male university students (18–20 years of age) were recruited from 2003–2009 and followed tri-annually. Shaft/scrotum, glans, and urine samples were tested for 37 alpha HPV genotypes. Cox proportional hazards methods were used to evaluate the association between circumcision and HPV acquisition. Logistic regression was used to assess whether number of genital sites infected at incident HPV detection or site of incident detection varied by circumcision status. Results In 477 men, rates of acquiring clinically-relevant HPV types (high-risk types plus types 6 and 11) did not differ significantly by circumcision status (hazard ratio [HR] for uncircumcised relative to circumcised subjects: 0.9[95%CI:0.7–1.2]). However, compared to circumcised men, uncircumcised men were 10.1 (95%CI:2.9–35.6) times more likely to have the same HPV type detected in all 3 genital specimens than in a single genital specimen and were 2.7 (95%CI:1.6–4.5) times more likely to have an HPV-positive urine or glans specimen at first detection. Conclusions While the likelihood of HPV acquisition did not differ by circumcision status, uncircumcised men were more likely than circumcised men to have infections detected at multiple genital sites, which may have implications for HPV transmission. PMID:21992987

  14. Detection of oncogenic genital human papillomavirus (HPV) among HPV negative older and younger women after 7 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Brogaard, Kim Agerholm; Munk, Christian; Iftner, Thomas; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Kjaer, Susanne K

    2014-06-01

    The knowledge on risk factors of being human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive among older women is sparse. The aim was to determine the frequency of oncogenic HPV appearance after 7 years among initially HPV-negative women and to examine potential risk factors that influence the occurrence of HPV in older women using multiple logistic regression. For comparison, a younger cohort of women examined under identical study settings was included. This prospective cohort study comprised 1,577 older women (age 40-50 at enrolment) and 2,920 women aged 22-32. Participants were interviewed and underwent a gynecological examination at two time points (7 years apart). Cervical samples were tested for HPV using Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) and only women who tested HC2-negative at baseline were included. The HPV prevalence among older and younger women was 6.4% and 10.7%, respectively, and there was no "second peak" observed among older women. Recent sexual partners were a strong determinant of HPV appearance irrespective of age. Lifetime number of sexual partners was a significant risk factor for HPV appearance among older women, even after adjustment for recent sexual behavior. In addition, menopause was associated with a non-significantly increased risk of HPV appearance at follow-up. In conclusion, appearance of HPV in previously HPV-negative older women may be due to both recent sexual behavior and previous exposure that is, reactivation of a latent HPV infection. PMID:24610211

  15. Isolation of adenovirus type 19 from the male and female genital tracts.

    PubMed Central

    Harnett, G B; Newnham, W A

    1981-01-01

    During routine screening for genital herpes simplex virus infection in patients attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic adenovirus type 19 was isolated from both men and women. Peak incidences of genital infection with adenovirus type 19 corresponded with those of eye infection with the same virus in the general community. Thus, the relationship between genital and eye infection with adenovirus, the part played by genital infection in its dissemination, and the clinical symptoms it may produce need further study. PMID:7470836

  16. Infection with high-risk HPV types among female sex workers in northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Huyen Thi Thanh; Ishizaki, Azumi; Nguyen, Cuong Hung; Tran, Vuong Thi; Matsushita, Kaori; Saikawa, Kunikazu; Hosaka, Norimitsu; Pham, Hung Viet; Bi, Xiuqiong; Ta, Van Thanh; Van Pham, Thuc; Ichimura, Hiroshi

    2013-02-01

    Vaccines against two high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types, HPV-16, and HPV-18, are in use currently, with high efficacy for preventing infections with these HPV types and consequent cervical cancers. However, circulating HPV types can vary with geography and ethnicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HPV types and the association between HPV types and abnormal cervical cytology among female sex workers in Northern Vietnam. Cervical swabs and plasma samples were collected from 281 female sex workers at two health centers in Hanoi and Hai Phong in 2009. The HPV L1 gene was amplified by PCR using original and modified GP5(+)/6(+) primers. Amplified PCR products were genotyped by the microarray system GeneSquare (KURABO) and/or clonal sequencing. Of the 281 women, 139 (49.5%) were positive for HPV DNA. Among the HPV-positive samples, 339 strains and 29 different types were identified. Multiple-type and high risk-type HPV infections were found in 85 (61.2%) and 124 (89.2%) women, respectively. The most common genotype was HPV-52, followed by HPV-16, HPV-18, and HPV-58. Abnormal cervical cytology was detected in 3.2% (9/281) of the women, and all of these samples were positive for HPV-DNA. Age ?25 years and infection with human immunodeficiency virus were associated positively with HPV infection among the women while ever smoking was associated negatively. These results show that HPV-52 is most prevalent among female sex workers in Northern Vietnam, most of whom had normal cervical cytology. This information may be important for designing vaccination strategies in Vietnam. PMID:23161344

  17. Epidemiology of Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1997-01-01

    Although it is difficult to estimate the overall prevalence of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, current figures suggest that visible genital warts are present in approximately 1% of sexually active adults in the United States and that at least 15% have subclinical infection, as detected by HPV DNA assays. Genital HPV infection is thus extremely common. The highest rates of

  18. Monoclonal Antibodies to HPV6 L1 Virus-like Particles Identify Conformational and Linear Neutralizing Epitopes on HPV11 in Addition to Type-Specific Epitopes on HPV6

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil D. Christensen; Cynthia A. Reed; Nancy M. Cladel; Kathleen Hall; Gary S. Leiserowitz

    1996-01-01

    A set of 13 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was generated against HPV-6 L1 virus-like particles (VLPs), screened for reactivity to HPV-6 and HPV-11 L1 VLPs by ELISA, and tested for neutralization of HPV-11 infection. Both cross-reactive and type-specific epitopes were detected such that 4 of 13 MAbs reacted to surface conformational sites on HPV-6 L1 VLPs and the remaining 9 MAbs

  19. Depilatory cream vs. shaving: does it influence recurrences of genital warts?

    PubMed

    Kaptanoglu, Asli Feride; Duruk, Nazike

    2005-06-01

    Genital warts are common infections caused by human papilloma viruses (HPV). Although the diagnosis is straight forward and many different treatment choices are present, recurrences are almost inevitable. There are many factors influencing recurrences such as immunity, HPV types, sexual partnership, and hygiene. Hair removal methods may be an issue in recurrence. In this retrospective study, the recurrence rate of genital warts in 50 patients using depilatory creams or shaving as a regular hair removal method before and after treatment by electrocauterization were evaluated. Both methods showed no difference in recurrence rates. Therefore, no depilatory method can be advised as decreasing genital recurrence of genital warts. PMID:16035422

  20. The Elevated 10Year Risk of Cervical Precancer and Cancer in Women With Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Type 16 or 18 and the Possible Utility of Type-Specifi c HPV Testing in Clinical Practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle J. Khan; Philip E. Castle; Attila T. Lorincz; Sholom Wacholder; David R. Scott; Brenda B. Rush; Andrew G. Glass; Mark Schiffman

    Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 cause 60% - 70% of cervical cancer worldwide, and other HPV types cause virtually all remaining cases. Pooled HPV testing for 13 oncogenic types, including HPV16 and 18, is currently used in clinical practice for triage of equivocal cytology and, in conjunction with Pap tests, is an option for general screening among

  1. Mining the Risk Types of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) by AdaCost

    E-print Network

    Mining the Risk Types of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) by AdaCost S.-B. Park, S. Hwang, and B,shhwang,btzhang}@bi.snu.ac.kr Abstract. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is known as the main factor for cervical cancer, where the accuracy, which implies that most high-risk HPVs are found. 1 Introduction Human papillomavirus (HPV

  2. Evaluation of human papillomavirus type replacement postvaccination must account for diagnostic artifacts: masking of HPV52 by HPV16 in anogenital specimens.

    PubMed

    Tota, Joseph E; Ramanakumar, Agnihotram V; Villa, Luisa L; Richardson, Harriet; Burchell, Ann N; Koushik, Anita; Mayrand, Marie-Hélène; Coutlée, François; Franco, Eduardo L

    2015-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that, following a reduction in human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine-targeted genotypes, an increase in prevalence of other HPV types may occur due to reduced competition during natural infection. Any apparent postvaccination increase must be distinguished from diagnostic artifacts consequent to consensus PCR assays failing to detect HPV types present in low copy numbers in coinfected specimens (under the assumption that with a drop in vaccine-preventable types there may be increased detection of previously "masked" types). We reanalyzed anogenital specimens to evaluate unmasking of HPV52 that may be caused by elimination of HPV16. Using highly sensitive type-specific real-time HPV52 PCR, we retested 1,200 anogenital specimens (all HPV52 negative according to consensus PCR assays) from six epidemiologic studies (200 specimens/study; 100 HPV16(+)/study). Multivariate logistic regression, with adjustment for age and number of sexual partners, was used to evaluate the association between HPV16 positivity and detection of HPV52. In our pooled analysis (n = 1,196), the presence of HPV16 was positively associated with HPV52 detection [adjusted OR, 1.47; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.76-2.82]. In our separate (study specific) analyses, a statistically significant association was observed in one study that included HIV-infected males (HIPVIRG study; adjusted OR, 3.82; 95% CI, 1.19-12.26). We observed a positive association between HPV16 viral load (tertiles) and detection of HPV52 (P for trend = 0.003). These results indicate that diagnostic artifacts, resulting from unmasking of HPV52, may occur in some settings in the evaluation of HPV type replacement. Additional studies exploring the extent and severity of unmasking are needed. PMID:25277793

  3. VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT HPV Vaccine Gardasil

    E-print Network

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    VACCINE INFORMATION STATEMENT HPV Vaccine Gardasil® What You Need to Know (Human Papillomavirus.immunize.org/vis 1 What is HPV? Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted virus

  4. Prevalence of cervical infection with HPV type 16 and 18 in Vietnam: implications for vaccine campaign

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Expanded Program on Immunization currently considers offering Human Papilomavirus vaccine on a routine basis in Vietnam. However, as the current available vaccine can prevent only two types HPV 16 and 18, before implementing a large-scale vaccine campaign we need information about the prevalence of infection with only HPV 16 and 18 in Viet Nam. This study was done in 5 large cities in Vietnam to estimate the prevalence of HPV 16 and/or 18 infections and to explore the distribution of other high risk types of HPV among married women in these provinces. Methods The study employed a cross-sectional design with multistage sampling. The sample size included 4500 married women in two rounds (aged ranged from 18-69 years old, median age: 40 year old). Participant were randomly selected, interviewed and given gynaecological examinations. HPV infection status (by real-time PCR kit using TaqMan probe) and HPV genotyping test (by Reverse dot blot) were done for all participants. Results The prevalence of cervical infection with HPV type 16 and/or 18 among married women in this study ranged from 3.1% to 7.4%. Many positive HPV cases (ranged from 24.5% to 56.8%) were infected with other type of high risk HPV which can lead to cervical cancer and cannot prevented by currently available vaccines. In addition to HPV 16 and/or 18, most common types of high risk HPV were types 58, 52, 35 and 45. Awareness about HPV and HPV vaccines was still low in the study samples. Discussion While it is relevant to implement an HPV vaccine campaign in Viet Nam, it is important to note that one can be infected with multiple types of HPV. Vaccination does not protected against all type of high risk HPV types. Future vaccine campaigns should openly disclose this information to women receiving vaccines. Conclusion High prevalence of infection with HPV high risk types was observed in this study. As HPV infection has a high correlation with cervical cancer, this study emphasizes the need for both primary prevention of cervical cancer with HPV vaccines as well as secondary prevention with screening. PMID:23374877

  5. HPV Types and Variants Among Cervical Cancer Tumors in Three Regions of Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    KrennHrubec, Keris; Mrad, Karima; Sriha, Badreddine; Ben Ayed, Farhat; Bottalico, Danielle M.; Ostolaza, Janae; Smith, Benjamin; Tchaikovska, Tatyana; Soliman, Amr S.; Burk, Robert D.

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among Tunisian women, and the incidence rates vary by region. Three Tunisian registries report age-standardized rates of 6.3/105 in the central region, 5.4/105 in the north, and 2.7/105 in the south. High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types and their variants differ in carcinogenic potential and geographic distribution. The HPV type and variant distribution could be a factor in the differing rates between regions of Tunisia. Tumor tissue was collected from 142 Tunisian cervical cancer patients. Demographic and reproductive characteristics of the patients were abstracted from cancer registry and hospital records. HPV type and variant analyses were performed using PCR-based Luminex and dot-blot hybridization assays. Eighty-three percent of tumors were infected with at least one HPV type. European variants of HPV16/18 were the most prevalent in tumors from all three regions, with all HPV18 infections and 64% of HPV16 infections being of European lineage. A higher frequency of HPV16 was present in Northern Tunisia (80%) than in Central (68%) or Southern Tunisia (50%) (P = 0.02). HPV18/45 was significantly more common in adenocarcinomas (50%) than in squamous cell carcinomas (11%) (P = 0.004). Frequent infection with European HPV variants most likely reflects the history of European migration to Tunisia. In addition to the importance of understanding the variants of HPV in Tunisia, behavioral and cultural attitudes towards screening and age-specific infection rates should be investigated to aid the development of future vaccination and HPV screening programs and policies. PMID:21328380

  6. Determinants of Genital Human Papillomavirus Detection in a US Population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meifen Zhao

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated the association of selected demographic and behavioral characteristics with the detection of low-risk, high-risk, and uncharacterized genital human papillomavirus (HPV) in women attending clinic for routine nonreferral gynecologic health care. Cervical speci- mens obtained from 3863 women 18-40 years old (mean, 28 years) with no history of high- grade cervical disease were analyzed for 38 HPV types.

  7. The HPV-16 E5 protein represses expression of stress pathway genes XBP-1 and COX-2 in genital keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Sudarshan, Sawali R; Schlegel, Richard; Liu, Xuefeng

    2010-09-01

    The HPV-16 E5 protein resides in membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and modulates cell growth and viral replication. In order to help define its biological activities, we analyzed E5-induced changes in human keratinocyte gene expression. Our studies identified the downregulation of spliced XBP-1 transcripts, a key player in the ER stress response, as a biochemical marker of E5 expression. IRE1alpha, the endoribonuclease responsible for XBP-1 RNA splicing, was also downregulated. Furthermore, cDNA microarray analysis revealed the repression of COX-2, another member of the ER stress pathway. In contrast, these genes were not altered either by the low-risk HPV-6b E5, or a C-terminal HPV-16 E5 mutant, in which the histidine and alanine residues (conserved in high-risk HPVs) were replaced with tyrosine and isoleucine (conserved in low-risk HPVs). HPV-16 E5 was also able to lower COX-2 mRNA levels in cells co-expressing E6/E7, suggesting that it might exert similar activity during viral replication. Interestingly, the E6/E7 genes were independently able to lower COX-2 transcripts compared to vector cells, indicating that multiple pathways of COX-2 repression exist. COX-2 downregulation by E5 could be overcome by thapsigargin or tunicamycin treatments, which initiate ER stress via calcium fluxes and abnormal protein glycosylation respectively, making it unlikely that E5 specifically tempers these pathways. Overall, our data indicate that E5 represses the cellular ER stress response and suggest a potential role for E5 during productive HPV infection. PMID:20688044

  8. Multiple-type HPV infections: a cross-sectional analysis of the prevalence of specific types in 309,000 women referred for HPV testing at the time of cervical cytology

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Elizabeth L; Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Bliss, Robin L.; Downs, Levi S

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine the frequency of multiple type cervical HPV infections, and whether any types are involved in multiple type infections more or less frequently than might be expected if these infections occur randomly. Methods In this retrospective analysis of type-specific HPV testing, results from women 18-65 years old with samples collected between July 2007 and May 2011 were considered. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to model the presence of each of the 24 most prevalent HPV types, adjusting for one other HPV type, age, laboratory region, and age by region interactions. Results HPV infection was present in 74,543 of 309,471 women (24.1%) and 65,492 (21.1%) were positive for one of the top 24 most prevalent HPV types. The most common HPV type was HPV type 16, occurring in 4.1 of the entire sample%. 14,181 women were positive for 2 or more HPV types (4.6% of entire sample, 19.0% of HPV positive sample). Two-way HPV type comparisons were analyzed. Types 52, 53, 81, and 83 more likely to occur in multiple infections with other types, and types 16, 58, and 66 were less likely to occur in multiple infections with other types. HPV types 72 and 81 have the strongest positive relationship (OR=5.2, 95% CI: 3.6, 7.4). HPV types 33 and 66 have the strongest negative relationship (OR 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2, 0.6). Conclusions In this population, multiple type HPV infections were present in 4.6% of all women. Our findings suggest that there may be both competitive and cooperative interactions between HPV types. PMID:23970156

  9. Genital Herpes (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that's usually caused by the herpes simplex virus type ... cold sores around the mouth. In some cases, genital herpes causes blisters and pain in the genital ...

  10. HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and Share (PDF 1105 KB ) En Español HPV (human papillomavirus) is a sexually transmitted virus. It is passed on through genital contact (such as vaginal and anal sex). It is also passed on by skin-to- ...

  11. Mother-infant transfer of anti-human papillomavirus (HPV) antibodies following vaccination with the quadrivalent HPV (type 6/11/16/18) virus-like particle vaccine.

    PubMed

    Matys, Katie; Mallary, Sara; Bautista, Oliver; Vuocolo, Scott; Manalastas, Ricardo; Pitisuttithum, Punee; Saah, Alfred

    2012-06-01

    The exploratory immunogenicity objective of this analysis was to characterize the titer of vaccine human papillomavirus (HPV)-type immunoglobulins in both peripartum maternal blood and the cord blood of infants born to women who received blinded therapy. Data were derived from a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy study (protocol 019; NCT00090220). This study enrolled 3,819 women between the ages of 24 and 45 years from 38 international study sites between 18 June 2004 and 30 April 2005. Data in the current analysis are from subjects enrolled in Philippines and Thailand. For each of HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18, maternal anti-HPV was found in cord blood samples. Furthermore, HPV titers in cord blood samples were highly positively correlated with maternal HPV titers. Additionally, there were instances when anti-HPV antibodies were no longer detectable in maternal serum samples and yet were detected in matched cord blood samples. These results demonstrate that quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccine-induced antibodies cross the placenta and could potentially provide some benefit against vaccine-type HPV infection and related diseases such as recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. PMID:22518014

  12. Distribution of human papillomavirus types in the anogenital tract of females and males.

    PubMed

    Barzon, Luisa; Militello, Valentina; Pagni, Silvana; Franchin, Elisa; Dal Bello, Federico; Mengoli, Carlo; Palù, Giorgio

    2010-08-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection in both men and women, but there are limited data comparing the prevalence of HPV infection between genders and in different anogenital sites. This cross-sectional analysis describes the distribution of HPV types in the genital tract of 3,410 consecutive females and 1,033 males undergoing voluntary screening for HPV and referred to a single institution. The relationship between specific HPV types and the presence of anogenital lesions was examined. In both females and males, the overall prevalence of HPV infection was about 40%. A wide variety of HPV types was identified, but the prevalence of different types was remarkably similar in the two genders, even when considering different anatomical sites. HPV-6 was the most frequent (prevalence 13%) type in all anogenital sites in men followed by HPV-16 (7%), while HPV-16 was the most common type in women (about 6%), either in the cervix, vagina, or vulva, followed by HPV-6. In addition to HPV-16, HPV-58, HPV-33, HPV-31, and HPV-56 were the carcinogenic types detected most commonly and were significantly associated with high-grade squamous intraepithelial cervical lesions, while HPV-53 and HPV-66 were the most common among possibly carcinogenic types. In both genders, anogenital warts were associated with HPV-6 and HPV-11 infection, and, less frequently, with other types, like HPV-54, HPV-62, and HPV-66. These results show that genital HPV infection involves numerous HPV types, which have similar distribution patterns in females and males and in different anogenital anatomical sites. PMID:20572068

  13. Human papillomavirus, genital warts, and vaccines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Po-Ren Hsueh

    Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related diseases, including cancers, low-grade neoplasia, genital warts, and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis, have a substantial impact on public health. The increasing incidence of HPV infection and genital warts highlights the need for an effective strategy for the management of this disease. Immunization holds the promise of reducing the overall burden of clinical HPV-related diseases. A prophylactic quadrivalent HPV

  14. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 as a Cause of Genital Herpes: Impact on Surveillance and Prevention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lois Downey; Connie Celum; Anna Wald

    2000-01-01

    This study compared characteristics of patients who had herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 with characteristics of patients who had HSV-2, by use of data from a cross-sectional analysis. Data were collected in an urban sexually transmitted diseases clinic from patients who had positive genital HSV cultures. Overall, 17.1% (95% confidence interval (CI), 14.9%-19.3%) of 1145 genital HSV isolates obtained

  15. HPV vaccine (human papillomavirus) Cervarix - what you need to know

    MedlinePLUS

    ... taken in its entirety from the CDC HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Cervarix® Vaccine Information Statement: http://www.cdc. ... What is HPV? Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common ... in the United States. More than half of sexually active men ...

  16. E4 Antibodies Facilitate Detection and Type-Assignment of Active HPV Infection in Cervical Disease

    PubMed Central

    Marnane, Rebecca; Dewar, Vincent; Molijn, Anco; Quint, Wim; Van Hoof, Christine; Struyf, Frank; Colau, Brigitte; Jenkins, David; Doorbar, John

    2012-01-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are the cause of nearly all cases of cervical cancer. Although the detection of HPV DNA has proved useful in cervical diagnosis, it does not necessarily predict disease presence or severity, and cannot conclusively identify the causative type when multiple HPVs are present. Such limitations may be addressed using complementary approaches such as cytology, laser capture microscopy, and/or the use of infection biomarkers. One such infection biomarker is the HPV E4 protein, which is expressed at high level in cells that are supporting (or have supported) viral genome amplification. Its distribution in lesions has suggested a role in disease staging. Here we have examined whether type-specific E4 antibodies may also allow the identification and/or confirmation of causal HPV-type. To do this, type-specific polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies against three E4 proteins (HPV-16, -18, and -58) were generated and validated by ELISA and western blotting, and by immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining of epithelial rafts containing these individual HPV types. Type-specific detection of HPV and its associated disease was subsequently examined using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cervical intra-epithelial neoplasias (CIN, (n?=?247)) and normal controls (n?=?28). All koilocytotic CIN1 lesions showed type-specific E4 expression of their respective HPV types. Differences were noted amongst E4 expression patterns in CIN3. HPV-18 E4 was not detected in any of the 6 HPV-18 DNA-positive CIN3 lesions examined, whereas in HPV-16 and -58 CIN3, 28/37 (76%) and 5/9 (55.6%) expressed E4 respectively, usually in regions of epithelial differentiation. Our results demonstrate that type-specific E4 antibodies can be used to help establish causality, as may be required when multiple HPV types are detected. The unique characteristics of the E4 biomarker suggest a role in diagnosis and patient management particularly when used in combination. PMID:23226504

  17. Breast cancer and human papillomavirus infection: No evidence of HPV etiology of breast cancer in Indian women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suresh Hedau; Umesh Kumar; Showket Hussain; Shirish Shukla; Shailja Pande; Neeraj Jain; Abhishek Tyagi; Trivikram Deshpande; Dilafroze Bhat; Mohammad Muzaffar Mir; Sekhar Chakraborty; Y Mohan Singh; Rakesh Kumar; Kumaravel Somasundaram; Alok C Bharti; Bhudev C Das

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Two clinically relevant high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) types 16 and 18 are etiologically associated with the development of cervical carcinoma and are also reported to be present in many other carcinomas in extra-genital organ sites. Presence of HPV has been reported in breast carcinoma which is the second most common cancer in India and is showing a fast rising trend

  18. Sensitive HPV detection in oropharyngeal cancers

    E-print Network

    Winder, David M; Ball, Siolian L R; Vaughan, Katie; Hanna, Nashat; Woo, Yin Ling; Franzer, Jurgen-Theodor; Sterling, Jane C; Stanley, Margaret A; Sudhoff, Holger H; Goon, Peter K C

    2009-12-15

    Abstract Background Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the aetiological agents of certain benign and malignant tumours of skin and mucosae; the most important of which is cervical cancer. Also, the incidence of ano-genital warts, HPV-anal cancer...

  19. Genital Warts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Z Diseases and treatments E - H Genital warts Genital warts Also called condylomata acuminata Genital warts: The ... one visit to the dermatologist. Learn more about genital warts: Genital warts: Signs and symptoms Genital warts: ...

  20. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines: a Canadian update.

    PubMed

    Foerster, V; Murtagh, J

    2007-12-01

    A common sexually transmitted infection, human papillomavirus (HPV) has been linked to the development of cervical, anogenital, and head and neck cancers and genital warts. (2) Several randomized controlled trials have explored the efficacy and safety of two vaccines for primary prevention of infection by HPV types 16 and 18, those most commonly implicated in the development of cervical cancer. (3) An HPV vaccine, Gardasil, was approved in Canada in 2006, and a second vaccine, Cervarix, is undergoing Health Canada review. (4) Some unresolved questions about HPV vaccinations relate to the ideal age for immunization, duration of effect, immunization of women already infected, vaccination of males, implications for Papanicolaou (Pap) smear programs, barriers to uptake, need for monitoring and registries, cost effectiveness, and programs to ensure access for special populations. PMID:18062141

  1. HPV type distribution in invasive cervical cancers in Italy: pooled analysis of three large studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to describe the prevalence of HPV types in invasive cervical cancers in Italy from 1996 to 2008. Methods A pooled analysis of the three largest case series typed to date was performed. HPV typing was performed on paraffin-embedded slices. Molecular analyses were performed in four laboratories. Multivariate analyses were performed to test the associations between calendar time, age, and geographical area and the proportion of types 16/18. Results Out of 574 cancers, 24 (4.2%) were HPV negative. HPV 16 and 18 were responsible for 74.4% (378/508) and 80.3% (49/61) of the squamous cancers and adenocarcinomas, respectively. Other frequent types were 31 (9.5%), 45 (6.4%), and 58 (3.3%) for squamous cancers and 45 (13.3%), 31, 35, and 58 (5.0%) for adenocarcinomas. The proportion of HPV 16 and/or 18 decreased with age (p-value for trend <0.03), while it increased in cancers diagnosed in more recent years (p-value for trend?HPV 16/18 vaccine on cervical cancer will be greater for early onset cancers. In vaccinated women, screening could be started at an older age without reducing protection. PMID:23110797

  2. Comparison of HPV type distribution in high-grade cervical lesions and cervical cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Clifford, G M; Smith, J S; Aguado, T; Franceschi, S

    2003-07-01

    Particular types of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection may preferentially progress from high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) to squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix (SCC). We performed a meta-analysis of published data to compare HPV type distribution in HSIL and SCC. HPV16, 18 and 45 were each more prevalent in SCC than HSIL, whereas the reverse was true for other oncogenic types including HPV31, 33, 52 and 58. These data suggest that HSILs infected with HPV16, 18 and 45 preferentially progress to SCC. This may have implications for follow-up protocols of future HPV-based cervical cancer screening programmes and for HPV vaccine trials. PMID:12838308

  3. A portrait of single and multiple HPV type infections in Brazilian women of different age strata with squamous or glandular cervical lesions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer ranks third in prevalence and fourth as cause of death in women worldwide. In Brazil, 17,540 women were diagnosed in 2012 with the disease. Persistent infection with high-risk HPV types is a necessary condition for the development of pre-invasive and invasive cervical neoplasia. Currently, over 100 HPV types have been identified, but HPV16 and 18 are recognized as the mayor culprits in cervical carcinogenesis. Our objective was to assess the relationships between single- (ST) and multiple-type (MT) HPV infections with patients’ age and lesion pathological status. Methods 328 patients with either squamous or glandular intraepithelial or invasive cervical lesion were selected. All subjects were tested for HPV genotypes with reverse hybridization for 21 high- (hr-HPV) and 16 low-risk (lr-HPV) probes. Prevalence of ST and MT HPV infections was compared across histological types and age strata. Results 287 (87%) women had at least one HPV type detected and 149 (52%) had MT infections. The most prevalent HPV type was HPV16, present in 142 cases (49% of all HPV-positive cases), followed by HPV58, 52, 31, 35 and 33. HPV18, in single or multiple infections, occurred in 23 cases (8% of hr-HPV cases). Almost all glandular lesions were associated with HPV16 and 18 alone. Multiple infections were significantly more prevalent in squamous than in glandular lesion for HPV16 and 18 (P = 0.04 and 0.03 respectively). The prevalence of MT infections followed a bimodal distribution; peaking in women younger 29 years and in those aged 50 to 59. Conclusions Our data indicate that prevention strategies for pre-invasive and invasive squamous lesions should be focused on HPV16 and a few alpha-9 HPV types. It is clear to us that in young women, prophylaxis must cover a large amalgam of HPV types beyond classic HPV16 and 18. PMID:24751127

  4. Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 11 recombinant virus-like particles induce the formation of neutralizing antibodies and detect HPV-specific antibodies in human sera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert C. Rose; R. C. Reichman; William Bonnez I

    1994-01-01

    Recombinant human papillomavirus type 11 (HPV-11) virus-like particles (VLPs) were tested for their ability to induce the formation of neutralizing antibodies, and were also tested for serodiagnostic capabilities in an ELISA in comparison with HPV-11 whole virions. VLPs, purified by CsC1 density gradient centrifugation from the cell-free supernatant of AcllLl-infected Sf9 suspension cell cultures, were used to immunize rabbits and

  5. Chlamydia trachomatis infection: implications for HPV status and cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jani; Cerqueira, Fátima; Medeiros, Rui

    2014-04-01

    Genital Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infections have been identified as a major health problem concern. CT is associated with adverse effect on women reproduction and also associated with cervical hypertrophy and induction of squamous metaplasia, providing a possible relationship with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Infection by high-risk HPV types is crucial to the pathogenesis of invasive cervical cancer (ICC), but other co-variants/cofactors must be present for the development of malignancy. CT biological effect may damage the mucosal barrier, improving HPV infection, or may interfere in immune response and viral clearance supporting the persistence of HPV infection. Moreover, CT-related chronic cervical inflammation, decrease of lower genital tract antigen-presenting cells, inhibition of cell-mediated immunity, and anti-apoptotic capacity may influence the natural history of HPV infection, namely persistence progression or resolution. Although several epidemiological studies have stated a positive association involving CT and HPV-related cervical neoplastic lesions and/or cervical cancer (CC), the specific role of this bacterium in the pathogenesis of cervical neoplasia has not been completely clarified. The present review summarizes several studies on CT role in cervical cancer and suggests future research directions on HPV and CT interaction. PMID:24346121

  6. HPV types and cofactors causing cervical cancer in Peru

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Santos; N Muñoz; S Klug; M Almonte; I Guerrero; M Alvarez; C Velarde; O Galdos; M Castillo; J Walboomers; C Meijer; E Caceres

    2001-01-01

    We conducted a hospital-based case-control study in Peru of 198 women with histologically confirmed cervical cancer (173 squamous cell carcinomas and 25 cases of adenocarcinoma\\/adenosquamous carcinoma) and 196 control women. Information on risk factors was obtained by personal interview. Using PCR-based assays on exfoliated cervical cells and biopsy specimens, HPV DNA was detected in 95.3% of women with squamous cell

  7. Post Hoc Analysis of the PATRICIA Randomized Trial of the Efficacy of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 (HPV-16)/HPV-18 AS04-Adjuvanted Vaccine against Incident and Persistent Infection with Nonvaccine Oncogenic HPV Types Using an Alternative Multiplex Type-Specific PCR Assay for HPV DNA

    PubMed Central

    Colau, Brigitte; Wheeler, Cosette M.; Naud, Paulo; Garland, Suzanne; Quint, Wim; Chow, Song-Nan; Salmerón, Jorge; Lehtinen, Matti; Del Rosario-Raymundo, M. Rowena; Paavonen, Jorma; Teixeira, Júlio C.; Germar, Maria Julieta; Peters, Klaus; Skinner, S. Rachel; Limson, Genara; Castellsagué, Xavier; Poppe, Willy A. J.; Ramjattan, Brian; Klein, Terry D.; Schwarz, Tino F.; Chatterjee, Archana; Tjalma, Wiebren A. A.; Diaz-Mitoma, Francisco; Lewis, David J. M.; Harper, Diane M.; Molijn, Anco; van Doorn, Leen-Jan; David, Marie-Pierre; Dubin, Gary

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16)/HPV-18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine against cervical infections with HPV in the Papilloma Trial against Cancer in Young Adults (PATRICIA) was evaluated using a combination of the broad-spectrum L1-based SPF10 PCR-DNA enzyme immunoassay (DEIA)/line probe assay (LiPA25) system with type-specific PCRs for HPV-16 and -18. Broad-spectrum PCR assays may underestimate the presence of HPV genotypes present at relatively low concentrations in multiple infections, due to competition between genotypes. Therefore, samples were retrospectively reanalyzed using a testing algorithm incorporating the SPF10 PCR-DEIA/LiPA25 plus a novel E6-based multiplex type-specific PCR and reverse hybridization assay (MPTS12 RHA), which permits detection of a panel of nine oncogenic HPV genotypes (types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45, 52, 58, and 59). For the vaccine against HPV types 16 and 18, there was no major impact on estimates of vaccine efficacy (VE) for incident or 6-month or 12-month persistent infections when the MPTS12 RHA was included in the testing algorithm versus estimates with the protocol-specified algorithm. However, the alternative testing algorithm showed greater sensitivity than the protocol-specified algorithm for detection of some nonvaccine oncogenic HPV types. More cases were gained in the control group than in the vaccine group, leading to higher point estimates of VE for 6-month and 12-month persistent infections for the nonvaccine oncogenic types included in the MPTS12 RHA assay (types 31, 33, 35, 45, 52, 58, and 59). This post hoc analysis indicates that the per-protocol testing algorithm used in PATRICIA underestimated the VE against some nonvaccine oncogenic HPV types and that the choice of the HPV DNA testing methodology is important for the evaluation of VE in clinical trials. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00122681.) PMID:25540273

  8. Post Hoc Analysis of the PATRICIA Randomized Trial of the Efficacy of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 (HPV-16)/HPV-18 AS04-Adjuvanted Vaccine against Incident and Persistent Infection with Nonvaccine Oncogenic HPV Types Using an Alternative Multiplex Type-Specific PCR Assay for HPV DNA.

    PubMed

    Struyf, Frank; Colau, Brigitte; Wheeler, Cosette M; Naud, Paulo; Garland, Suzanne; Quint, Wim; Chow, Song-Nan; Salmerón, Jorge; Lehtinen, Matti; Del Rosario-Raymundo, M Rowena; Paavonen, Jorma; Teixeira, Júlio C; Germar, Maria Julieta; Peters, Klaus; Skinner, S Rachel; Limson, Genara; Castellsagué, Xavier; Poppe, Willy A J; Ramjattan, Brian; Klein, Terry D; Schwarz, Tino F; Chatterjee, Archana; Tjalma, Wiebren A A; Diaz-Mitoma, Francisco; Lewis, David J M; Harper, Diane M; Molijn, Anco; van Doorn, Leen-Jan; David, Marie-Pierre; Dubin, Gary

    2015-02-01

    The efficacy of the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16)/HPV-18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine against cervical infections with HPV in the Papilloma Trial against Cancer in Young Adults (PATRICIA) was evaluated using a combination of the broad-spectrum L1-based SPF10 PCR-DNA enzyme immunoassay (DEIA)/line probe assay (LiPA25) system with type-specific PCRs for HPV-16 and -18. Broad-spectrum PCR assays may underestimate the presence of HPV genotypes present at relatively low concentrations in multiple infections, due to competition between genotypes. Therefore, samples were retrospectively reanalyzed using a testing algorithm incorporating the SPF10 PCR-DEIA/LiPA25 plus a novel E6-based multiplex type-specific PCR and reverse hybridization assay (MPTS12 RHA), which permits detection of a panel of nine oncogenic HPV genotypes (types 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45, 52, 58, and 59). For the vaccine against HPV types 16 and 18, there was no major impact on estimates of vaccine efficacy (VE) for incident or 6-month or 12-month persistent infections when the MPTS12 RHA was included in the testing algorithm versus estimates with the protocol-specified algorithm. However, the alternative testing algorithm showed greater sensitivity than the protocol-specified algorithm for detection of some nonvaccine oncogenic HPV types. More cases were gained in the control group than in the vaccine group, leading to higher point estimates of VE for 6-month and 12-month persistent infections for the nonvaccine oncogenic types included in the MPTS12 RHA assay (types 31, 33, 35, 45, 52, 58, and 59). This post hoc analysis indicates that the per-protocol testing algorithm used in PATRICIA underestimated the VE against some nonvaccine oncogenic HPV types and that the choice of the HPV DNA testing methodology is important for the evaluation of VE in clinical trials. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00122681.). PMID:25540273

  9. HPV vaccine

    MedlinePLUS

    Vaccine - HPV; Immunization - HPV; Gardasil; Cervarix; HPV2; HPV4; Vaccine to prevent cervical cancer ... men Two vaccines called HPV2 (Cervarix) and HPV4 (Gardasil) are approved: Both vaccines protect against the two ...

  10. HPV Prevalence among Women from Appalachia: Results from the CARE Project

    PubMed Central

    Reiter, Paul L.; Katz, Mira L.; Ruffin, Mack T.; Hade, Erinn M.; DeGraffenreid, Cecilia R.; Patel, Divya A.; Paskett, Electra D.; Unger, Elizabeth R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates are high among women from Appalachia, yet data do not exist on human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence among these women. We examined the prevalence of genital HPV among Appalachian women and identified correlates of HPV detection. Methods We report data from a case-control study conducted between January 2006 and December 2008 as part of the Community Awareness, Resources, and Education (CARE) Project. We examined HPV prevalence among 1116 women (278 women with abnormal Pap tests at study entry [cases], 838 women with normal Pap tests [controls]) from Appalachian Ohio. Analyses used multivariable logistic regression to identify correlates of HPV detection. Results The prevalence of HPV was 43.1% for any HPV type, 33.5% for high-risk HPV types, 23.4% for low-risk HPV types, and 12.5% for vaccine-preventable HPV types. Detection of any HPV type was more common among women who were ages 18–26 (OR?=?2.09, 95% CI: 1.26–3.50), current smokers (OR?=?1.86, 95% CI: 1.26–2.73), had at least five male sexual partners during their lifetime (OR?=?2.28, 95% CI: 1.56–3.33), or had multiple male sexual partners during the last year (OR?=?1.98, 95% CI: 1.25–3.14). Similar correlates were identified for detection of a high-risk HPV type. Conclusions HPV was prevalent among Appalachian women, with many women having a high-risk HPV type detected. Results may help explain the high cervical cancer rates observed among Appalachian women and can help inform future cervical cancer prevention efforts in this geographic region. PMID:24023700

  11. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and their associations with squamous cell neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Syrjänen, K J

    1987-01-01

    Current data implicating an etiological role of Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in precancer lesions (intraepithelial neoplasia) and squamous cell carcinoma of both the genital tract and other sites (oral cavity, larynx, skin, esophagus, nasal cavity, bronchus) can be summarized as follows: a) HPV involvement in benign, precancer, and malignant genital squamous cell lesions has been demonstrated by morphological, immunohistochemical and DNA hybridization techniques; b) HPV infections in the genital tract are sexually transmitted (STD) and associated with the same risk factors as development of cervical carcinoma; c) natural history of cervical HPV lesions is equivalent to that of CIN, i.e. they are potentially progressive to carcinoma in situ; d) latent HPV infections exist in the genital tract of both sexes; e) animal models exist, where papillomaviruses induce malignant transformation; f) HPV 11 induces transformation of human squamous epithelium in vivo (nude mouse renal subcapsule assay); g) malignant transformation of HPV lesions seems to depend on virus type and the physical state of its DNA, i.e. whether or not integrated in the host cell DNA; h) malignant transformation most probably requires synergistic actions between HPV and chemical or physical carcinogens or other infectious agents; i) genetic disposition (at least in animals) significantly contributes to malignant transformation; j) immunological defence mechanisms of the host probably are capable of modifying the course of HPV infection (efficacy in man remains to be elucidated). Many details of the molecular mechanisms still remain to be clarified, however. No applicable model systems exist to elucidate these issues, or the mechanisms leading to the progression to invasive cancer. Improved tissue culture systems for in vitro differentiation of keratinocytes should help in elucidating the biology of papillomaviruses and their interaction with cell division and differentiation. PMID:2829787

  12. Risk of cervical HPV infection and prevalence of vaccine-type and other high-risk HPV types among sexually active teens and young women (13-26 years) enrolled in the VALHIDATE study.

    PubMed

    Orlando, Giovanna; Fasolo, Michela; Mazza, Francesca; Ricci, Elena; Esposito, Susanna; Frati, Elena; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo; Cetin, Irene; Gramegna, Maria; Rizzardini, Giuliano; Tanzi, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    HPV vaccination is expected to reduce the incidence of cervical cancer. The greatest and the earliest health gains will be ensured by high vaccine coverage among all susceptible people. The high costs and the risk of a reduced cost/effectiveness ratio in sexually active girls still represent the main obstacles for a more widespread use of HPV vaccination in many countries. Data on the rate, risk factors, and HPV types in sexually active women could provide information for the evaluation of vaccination policies extended to broader age cohorts. Sexually active women aged 13-26 years enrolled in an Italian cohort study were screened for cervical HPV infections; HPV-DNA positive samples were genotyped by InnoLipa HPV Genotyping Extra or by RFLP genotype analysis.: Among the 796 women meeting the inclusion criteria, 10.80% (95% CI 8.65-12.96) were HPV-DNA infected. Age>18 years, lifetime sexual partners>1, and history of STIs were associated to higher risk of HPV infection in the multivariable models adjusted for age, lifetime sexual partners, and time of sexual exposure. The global prevalence of the four HPV vaccine-types was 3.02% (95% CI 1.83-4.20) and the cumulative probability of infection from at least one vaccine-type was 12.82% in 26-years-old women and 0.78% in 18-years-old women.: Our data confirm most of the previously reported findings on the risk factors for HPV infections. The low prevalence of the HPV vaccine-types found may be useful for the evaluation of the cost/efficacy and the cost/effectiveness of broader immunization programs beyond the 12-years-old cohort. PMID:24423757

  13. Protective effect of an oral infection with Herpes simplex virus type 1 against subsequent genital infection with Herpes simplex virus type 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernhard Sturn; Karl-Eduard Schneweis

    1978-01-01

    The problem of whether oral Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection provides protection against subsequent genital infection by Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was investigated. Mice were used as models. Following conditions in man, both the oral and genital infections applied were noninjurious. Mice infected orally with HSV-1 were weakly protected against virus ‘take’ following vaginal challenge with

  14. Overactive bladder after female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) type III.

    PubMed

    Abdulcadir, Jasmine; Dällenbach, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    A 27-year-old Somali woman with type III a-b female genital mutilation/cutting, consulted because of slow micturition, voiding efforts, urgency and urge incontinence (overactive bladder). She also referred primary dysmenorrhoea and superficial dyspareunia making complete sexual intercourses impossible. We treated her by defibulation and biofeedback re-educative therapy. We also offered a multidisciplinary counselling. At 5 months follow-up, urgency and urge incontinence had resolved and she became pregnant. PMID:24096069

  15. HPV prophylactic vaccination: The first years and what to expect from now.

    PubMed

    Villa, Luisa Lina

    2011-06-28

    New prophylactic HPV vaccines have the power to prevent many HPV infections, thus reducing the burden of HPV-associated diseases. Two vaccines composed of HPV L1 proteins self assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs) have been developed: one containing VLPS of HPV types 6, 11, 16 and 18, while the other vaccine is composed of HPV 16 and 18 VLPs. Large phase II and III clinical trials to assess prophylactic efficacy have been conducted in which both HPV infection endpoints and disease endpoints were evaluated, particularly high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia--CIN2 or CIN3--as well as vulvar and vaginal intraepithelial neoplasias--VIN or VaIN--and genital warts for the quadrivalent vaccine. Very high efficacy rates were observed in different populations that included young women between 16 and 26 years of age, and older (up to 55). More recently, the quadrivalent vaccine has been shown to be efficacious in men to prevent genital and anal infection and disease caused by the types included in the vaccine. Based on demonstrated clinical efficacy and favorable safety profile, HPV prophylactic vaccine are being introduced worldwide aiming the reduction of the morbidity and mortality of tumors caused by HPV. From 2006 when first approved in the USA, hundreds of countries have licensed the HPV vaccines, a significant proportion of which are offering the vaccine to young women in national immunization programs supported by the government. The ultimate goal is to implement worldwide cervical cancer control programs to include HPV vaccination and screening with cytology and HPV DNA testing, particularly in less-developed countries where it is most needed. PMID:21190794

  16. Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 E7 protein bodies cause tumour regression in mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the causative agents of cervical cancer in women, which results in over 250 000 deaths per year. Presently there are two prophylactic vaccines on the market, protecting against the two most common high-risk HPV types 16 and 18. These vaccines remain very expensive and are not generally affordable in developing countries where they are needed most. Additionally, there remains a need to treat women that are already infected with HPV, and who have high-grade lesions or cervical cancer. Methods In this paper, we characterize the immunogenicity of a therapeutic vaccine that targets the E7 protein of the most prevalent high-risk HPV - type 16 – the gene which has previously been shown to be effective in DNA vaccine trials in mice. The synthetic shuffled HPV-16 E7 (16E7SH) has lost its transforming properties but retains all naturally-occurring CTL epitopes. This was genetically fused to Zera®, a self-assembly domain of the maize ?-zein able to induce the accumulation of recombinant proteins into protein bodies (PBs), within the endoplasmic reticulum in a number of expression systems. Results High-level expression of the HPV 16E7SH protein fused to Zera® in plants was achieved, and the protein bodies could be easily and cost-effectively purified. Immune responses comparable to the 16E7SH DNA vaccine were demonstrated in the murine model, with the protein vaccine successfully inducing a specific humoral as well as cell mediated immune response, and mediating tumour regression. Conclusions The fusion of 16E7SH to the Zera® peptide was found to enhance the immune responses, presumably by means of a more efficient antigen presentation via the protein bodies. Interestingly, simply mixing the free PBs and 16E7SH also enhanced immune responses, indicating an adjuvant activity for the Zera® PBs. PMID:24885328

  17. FDA licensure of quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV4, Gardasil) for use in males and guidance from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP).

    PubMed

    2010-05-28

    On October 16, 2009, the Food and Drug Administration licensed quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV4; Gardasil, Merck & Co. Inc.) for use in males aged 9 through 26 years for prevention of genital warts caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6 and 11. HPV4 had been licensed previously for use in females aged 9 through 26 years for prevention of HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18-related outcomes (i.e., vaginal, vulvar, and cervical precancers and cancers and genital warts). The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends routine vaccination of females at age 11 or 12 years and catch-up vaccination for females aged 13 through 26 years. On October 21, 2009, ACIP provided guidance that HPV4 may be given to males aged 9 through 26 years to reduce their likelihood of acquiring genital warts; ACIP does not recommend HPV4 for routine use among males. This report presents the ACIP policy statement and summarizes background data. Issues reviewed by ACIP included efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of the HPV4 vaccine in males, epidemiology of HPV and burden of HPV-associated diseases and cancers in males, cost-effectiveness of male vaccination, and programmatic considerations. PMID:20508594

  18. Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 101 and 103 isolated from cervicovaginal cells lack an E6 open reading frame (ORF)

    E-print Network

    DeSalle, Rob

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 101 and 103 isolated from cervicovaginal cells lack an E6 open reading frame (ORF) and are related to gamma-papillomaviruses Zigui Chen a , Mark Schiffman b , Rolando with the gamma- and pi-PV groups. These data demonstrated that HPV genomes closely related to papillomaviruses

  19. Human papillomavirus infections in Mexican women with normal cytology, precancerous lesions, and cervical cancer: Type-specific prevalence and HPV coinfections.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Lemarroy, Adriana; Vallejo-Ruiz, Verónica; Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I; Salgado-Bernabé, Manuel Eduardo; Ramos-González, Norma Patricia; Ortega-Cervantes, Laura; Arias-Flores, Rafael; Medina-Díaz, Irma M; Hernández-Garza, Fernando; Santos-López, Gerardo; Piña-Sánchez, Patricia

    2015-05-01

    The prevalence and genotype distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) provides the basis for designing HPV prevention programs. The prevalence rates of type-specific HPV and coinfections in samples of Mexican women were investigated in 822 women aged 18-87 years. HPV detection was performed using a Linear Array(TM) genotyping test. HPV infection was found in 12.4% of controls, 46.3% of those with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1, and 100% of those with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 or cervical cancer. HPV 16 was the most prevalent type in all diagnosis groups. The HPV types most frequently found in cervical cancers were 16, 18, 45, 52, 58, and 39; HPV types 16, 62, 51, 84, 18, 53, and CP6108 were the most prevalent in control women. Considering HPV-positive samples only, coinfections occurred most often in controls (63%) and were less frequent in those with cervical cancer (26%). The most frequent viral types in coinfections with HPV 16 in control women were HPV 62, 51, and 84; in women with cervical cancers, HPV 18, 39, and 70 were most common. In conclusion, in addition to HPV types 16 and 18, types 45, 39, 58, 52, and 71 were found in cervical cancers in Mexican women (78%); among them, only 65% were attributable to HPV types 16 and 18. Therefore, it is necessary to consider these viral types in the design of new vaccines, and to determine whether certain HPV types coinfecting with HPV 16 in precursor lesions determine tumor progression or regression. J. Med. Virol. 87:871-884, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25712774

  20. Genital Warts

    PubMed Central

    Yanofsky, Valerie R.; Patel, Rita V.

    2012-01-01

    External genital warts, also known as condylomata acuminata, are extremely common, with between 500,000 to one million new cases diagnosed each year in the United States alone. To date, more than 120 distinct subtypes of human papillomavirus have been identified. Human papillomavirus types 6 and 11 rarely give rise to cervical cancers, but are responsible for 90 percent of the cases of genital warts. The current treatment options are largely centered upon removal of the warts rather than elimination of the underlying viral infection. A wide range of therapies are presently in use, which are highly variable and can differ dramatically with respect to cost, side-effect profiles, dosing schedules, duration of treatment, and overall effectiveness. As of yet, no definitive therapy has emerged as the ideal standard of care in the treatment of genital warts, and therapy selection generally occurs in a patient-specific manner. PMID:22768354

  1. Worldwide distribution of human papillomavirus types in cytologically normal women in the International Agency for Research on Cancer HPV prevalence surveys: a pooled analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GM Clifford; S. Gallus; R Herrero; N. Munoz; P. J. F. Snijders; S Vaccarella; PTH Anh; C Ferreccio; N. T. Hieu; E Matos; M Molano; R. Rajkumar; G. Ronco; S de Sanjosé; HR Shin; S Sukvirach; JO Thomas; S Tunsakul; C. J. L. M. Meijer; S Franceschi

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The proportion of women infected with human papillomavirus (HPV) varies greatly across populations, as might the distribution of HPV types. We aimed to compare HPV-type distribution in representative samples of women from different world regions. METHODS: Women were randomly selected from the general population of 13 areas from 11 countries (Nigeria, India, Vietnam, Thailand, Korea, Colombia, Argentina, Chile, the

  2. Decreasing risk: impact of HPV vaccination on outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hymel, Pamela Ann

    2006-12-01

    Cervical cancer, caused by oncogenic types of human papillomavirus (HPV), remains a major health problem worldwide. The recent introduction of a quadrivalent vaccine (Gardasil), which targets HPV strains responsible for approximately 70% of cervical cancer cases and 90% of genital warts, has ushered in new hope of substantially reducing global prevalence of HPV disease. A further bivalent HPV vaccine (Cervarix) is in the offing. However, many issues still need to be addressed, including actual vaccine efficacy in preventing cervical cancer, public acceptance, use of the vaccine in men, vaccine access, costs, and impact of the vaccine on cervical cancer screening programs. This review analyzes some of these issues, and emphasizes the need for a coordinated effort of patients, parents, health professionals, hospitals, and policymakers to ensure successful implementation of vaccination programs in the United States. PMID:17203991

  3. [Investigation of HPV-DNA in cervical smear samples by two different methods: MY09/11 consensus PCR and type-specific real-time PCR].

    PubMed

    Sahiner, Fatih; Gümral, Ramazan; Sener, Kenan; Yi?it, Nuri; Dede, Murat; Yapar, Mehmet; Kubar, Ayhan

    2012-10-01

    Cervical cancer that has been proven to be associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) is the second most common cancer in women worldwide and is a leading cause of cancer deaths in women in developing countries. Cervical cancers can be detected in the early stages by screening programs since a long latency period exists between the beginning of HPV infection and the development of cervical cancer. HPV-DNA testing is widely used throughout the world and today is an important part of cervical cancer screening programs. In this study, we analyzed the presence of HPV-DNA in 356 cervical smear samples by two different methods which are MY09/11 consensus real-time polymerase chain reaction (Rt-PCR) and type-specific Rt-PCR. All samples were also tested by type-specific PCR, regardless of consensus PCR results. PCR analysis were performed using the type- specific primers and TaqMan probes that were designed for a total of 13 different HPV types; two low risk HPV and 11 high risk HPV types. A total of 142 different isolates, 95 being high risk HPV isolates, 39 low risk HPV isolates and eight unidentified isolates, were determined in 109 (30.6%) smear samples that were defined as HPV-DNA positive by at least one of the two methods. Frequencies of detection of high risk HPV types in HPV-positive samples were as follows respectively: HPV-16; 32 (33.7%), HPV-52; 12 (12.6%), HPV-58; 11 (11.6%), HPV-18; 7 (7.4%), HPV-31; 7 (7.4%), HPV-35; 7 (7.4%), HPV-68; 6 (6.3%), HPV-33; 4 (4.2%), HPV-82; 4 (4.2%), HPV-39; 3 (3.2%) and HPV-45; 2 (2.1%). Various cytologic atypia were reported in 84 (23.6%) smear samples according to the simultaneously performed cytopathologic examination. Single HPV type was detected in 72 (71.3%) and multiple HPV types were detected in 29 (28.7%) of 101 smear samples with the exception of the unidentified isolates by type-specific RtPCR. HPV-18, HPV-33 and HPV-35 had higher detection rates of 7.4, 3.7 and 3.0 fold in mixed infections than single ones, respectively. HPV-DNA could not be detected by MY09/11 consensus primers in 24 (23.8%) of 101 cervical smear samples that were accepted as HPV-DNA positive by type-specific PCR. Thus, investigation of the presence of HPV-DNA by only consensus primers would be insufficient for the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of HPV infections. Initial assessment of smear samples by using consensus primers and genotyping only positive samples seem to be the most practical strategy for the diagnosis and screening of HPV infections throughout the world. When this situation is taken into consideration, we think that the current prevalence data in our country and around the world must be updated by using large-scale studies that apply new generation screening and diagnostic tests. PMID:23188576

  4. Human Papillomavirus (HPV)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Adults can reduce their risk of HPV by limiting the number of partners they have. Condoms A condom should always be used because it lowers the risk of genital warts and cancer as well as other sexually transmitted infections. However, condoms do ...

  5. The HPV infection in males: an update.

    PubMed

    Giraldi, G; De Luca d'Alessandro, E

    2012-01-01

    The role of Human papillomavirus (HPV) in malignant and non-malignant genital diseases in females is well known and the corresponding epidemiological burden has been widely described, in males instead, less is known about the role of the virus in anal, penile and head and neck cancer, and the burden of malignant and non-malignant HPV-related diseases. There are many types of HPV that can infect the epithelium: some types can cause genital warts (low risk genotype), other types (high risk genotypes) can cause cancers of the penis, anus or oropharynx. Relative to females, males tend to be less knowledgeable about the infection: some may view its consequences as less likely and severe for themselves than for females, and thus could perceive vaccination as unnecessary. Including boys in the vaccination program generally exceeded conventional thresholds of good value for money, even under favorable conditions of vaccine protection and health benefits; however, uncertainty still exists in many areas that can either strengthen or attenuate the findings achieved. PMID:23234187

  6. Human papillomavirus type 16 E6-specific antitumor immunity is induced by oral administration of HPV16 E6-expressing Lactobacillus casei in C57BL\\/6 mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tae-Young Lee; Yang-Hyun Kim; Kyung-Soon Lee; Jeong-Ki Kim; Il-Han Lee; Jai-Myung Yang; Moon-Hee Sung; Jong-Sup Park; Haryoung Poo

    2010-01-01

    Given that local cell-mediated immunity (CMI) against the human papillomavirus type 16 E6 (HPV16 E6) protein is important\\u000a for eradication of HPV16 E6-expressing cancer cells in the cervical mucosa, the HPV16 E6 protein may be a target for the mucosal\\u000a immunotherapy of cervical cancer. Here, we expressed the HPV16 E6 antigen on Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) and investigated E6-specific CMI

  7. Genital warts

    MedlinePLUS

    Condylomata acuminata; Penile warts; Human papilloma virus (HPV); Venereal warts; Condyloma; HPV DNA test; Sexually transmitted disease (STD) - warts; Sexually transmitted infection (STI) - warts; LSIL-HPV; Low-grade dysplasia- ...

  8. Genital Warts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... transmitted disease (STD) caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). The warts are soft, moist, pink, or flesh- ... completely eliminate, the risk of catching or spreading HPV. HPV vaccines may help prevent some of the ...

  9. HPV and cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions: clinicopathological study.

    PubMed

    Corneanu, Lavinia Mihaela; St?nculescu, Diana; Corneanu, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study is to determine the evidence of HPV infection, by either HPV-DNA test or histopathological examination, in patients with abnormal PAP-smear, for further clinical management. In 6-month period, we retrospectively selected a number of 103 patients in 16-54 years range of age that were investigated by complex diagnostic techniques supporting the evidence of HPV infection. Initially, these patients were evaluated cytological using the Bethesda system for PAP-smear interpretation along with colposcopic examination. A number of these patients were orientated to HPV testing (PCR) or to biopsy with histopathological diagnostic intent. The net predominance of LSIL over HSIL cytodiagnostic class parallels with that of condyloma and CIN1 over CIN2 and CIN3 histodiagnostic and suggests that progression to high-grade intraepithelial squamous lesion is rare and the HPV infection remain mainly transitory. On the other side, the incidence and distribution of HPV types in cervical infections are high variable and may change over time, the cytological screening of sexual active female population remaining the most practical tool in detection of genital HPV infection. PMID:21424037

  10. Signature sequence validation of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) in clinical specimens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sin Hang Lee; Veronica S Vigliotti; Suri Pappu

    2010-01-01

    Aims Persistent infection indicated by detection of human papillomavirus 16 (HPV-16) on repeat testing over a period of time poses the greatest cervical cancer risk. However, variants of HPV-16, HPV-31 and HPV-33 may share several short sequence homologies in the hypervariable L1 gene commonly targeted for HPV genotyping. The purpose of this study was to introduce a robust laboratory procedure

  11. Signature sequence validation of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) in clinical specimens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sin Hang Lee; Veronica S Vigliotti; Suri Pappu

    2009-01-01

    AimsPersistent infection indicated by detection of human papillomavirus 16 (HPV-16) on repeat testing over a period of time poses the greatest cervical cancer risk. However, variants of HPV-16, HPV-31 and HPV-33 may share several short sequence homologies in the hypervariable L1 gene commonly targeted for HPV genotyping. The purpose of this study was to introduce a robust laboratory procedure to

  12. Pathogenic role of the eight probably/possibly carcinogenic HPV types 26, 53, 66, 67, 68, 70, 73 and 82 in cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Halec, Gordana; Alemany, Laia; Lloveras, Belen; Schmitt, Markus; Alejo, Maria; Bosch, Franz X; Tous, Sara; Klaustermeier, Jo Ellen; Guimerà, Nuria; Grabe, Niels; Lahrmann, Bernd; Gissmann, Lutz; Quint, Wim; Bosch, Francesc X; de Sanjose, Silvia; Pawlita, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Eight HPV types (HPV26, 53, 66, 67, 68, 70, 73 and 82) that are phylogenetically closely related to 12 WHO-defined high-risk (HR) HPV have been rarely but consistently identified as single HPV infections in about 3% of cervical cancer (CxCa) tissues. Due to lack of biological data, these types are referred to as probable/possible (p) HR-HPV. To analyse their biological activity in direct comparison to HR-HPV types, we selected 55 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) CxCa tissues harbouring single pHR-HPV infections (2-13 cases per type) and 266 tissues harbouring single HR-HPV (7-40 cases per type) from a worldwide, retrospective, cross-sectional study. Single HPV infection was verified by two genotyping methods. Presence of type-specific spliced E6*I mRNA transcripts and expression of cellular proteins indicative of HPV transformation were assessed in all cases. In 55 CxCa tissues with pHR-HPV, E6*I mRNA expression was 100%; high p16(INK4a) , 98%; low pRb, 96%; low CyD1, 93%; and low p53, 84%. Compared to HPV16 tissues as a reference, individual frequencies of these five markers did not differ significantly, either for any of the eight pHR-HPV and the 11 other HR types individually or for the groups of pHR and HR types without HPV16. We conclude that the eight pHR-HPV types, when present as a single infection in CxCa, are biologically active and affect the same cellular pathways as any of the fully recognized carcinogenic HR-HPV types. Therefore we have provided molecular evidence of carcinogenicity for types currently classified as probably/possibly carcinogenic. Although this evidence is crucial for HPV-type carcinogenicity classification, per se it is not sufficient for inclusion of these HPV types into population-wide primary and secondary prevention programmes. Such decisions have to include careful estimation of effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses. PMID:25043390

  13. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Oropharyngeal Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... supported by your browser. For this reason, some items on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this ... (HPV) can cause serious health problems, including genital warts and certain cancers. However, in most ...

  14. High frequency of genital human papillomavirus infections and related cervical dysplasia in adolescent girls in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Merckx, Mireille; Benoy, Ina; Meys, Joris; Depuydt, Christophe; Temmerman, Marleen; Weyers, Steven; Vanden Broeck, Davy

    2014-07-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are causally related to cervical cancer and a range of other diseases, both in adults and in minors. Information on the frequency of genital HPV infections in adolescents is sparse. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the genotype-specific distribution of HPV genotypes in patients younger than 18 years of age. This observational retrospective study included 4807 samples of patients presenting for opportunistic screening in Belgium between June 2006 and January 2012. For statistical analysis, only the first visits of patients were withheld, reducing the sample to 4180. Samples were collected in liquid-based cytology medium and analyzed using a series of genotype-specific real-time PCR reactions. Cytology was read with previous knowledge of HPV infection and scored using the Bethesda classification. The mean age was 16.9 years. Most youngsters had no complaints (88.4%), were using hormonal contraception (79.5%), and clinical examination did not show any abnormalities (96.0%). The overall HPV frequency was 15.7%, with the most frequently found types being HPV16 (16.7%), HPV51 (14.6%), HPV66 (10.4%), HPV31 (9.9%), and HPV39 (9.1%). More than one-third (39.0%) of the infected girls harbored an infection with at least two HPV genotypes. Cytological abnormalities were found in 8.2% of samples. L-SIL (4.2%) was most frequently observed, followed by ASC-US (3.6%), HSIL (0.3%), and ASC-H (0.1%). The severity of lesions worsened with increasing age. Our findings indicate that an aberrant HPV genotype profile can be found in adolescent girls; moreover, this group shows a high rate of cervical abnormalities. PMID:24858715

  15. Human papillomavirus type 16 E2-and L1-specific serological and T-cell responses in women with

    E-print Network

    Gaston, Kevin

    Human papillomavirus type 16 E2- and L1-specific serological and T-cell responses in women Accepted 13 May 2003 Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16)-associated vulval intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN/17). INTRODUCTION Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are extre- mely common in young, sexually active

  16. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) type as an important determinant of the natural history of HPV infections in uterine cervix

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Syrjanen; S. Parkkinen; R. MANTYJARVI; M. Vayrynen; S. Syrjanen; H. Holopainen; S. Saarikoski; O. Castren

    1985-01-01

    The present report summarizes our current observations on the natural history of cervical HPV (Human papillomavirus) infections, based on data from 418 women prospectively followed-up in our clinic for a mean of 20±15 (M±SD) months. On each attendance at the clinic (at 6-month intervals), the patients are subjected to colposcopy accompanied by PAP smears and\\/or punch biopsy, both being analysed

  17. Type-specific HPV and Pap test results among low-income, underserved women: providing insights into management strategies

    PubMed Central

    Saraiya, Mona; Benard, Vicki B.; Greek, April A.; Steinau, Martin; Patel, Sonya; Massad, L. Stewart; Sawaya, George F.; Unger, Elizabeth R.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The primary cervical cancer screening strategy for women over age 30 is high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) testing combined with Papanicolaou (Pap) testing (cotesting) every 5 years. This combination strategy is a preventive service that is required by the Affordable Care Act to be covered with no cost-sharing by most health insurance plans. The cotesting recommendation was made based entirely on prospective data from an insured population that may have a lower proportion of women with HPV positive and Pap negative results (ie, discordant results). The discordant group represents a very difficult group to manage. If the frequency of discordant results among underserved women is higher, health care providers may perceive the cotesting strategy to be a less favorable screening strategy than traditional Pap testing every 3 years. STUDY DESIGN The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Cervical Cancer Study was conducted at 15 clinics in 6 federally qualified health centers across Illinois. Providers at these clinics were given the option of cotesting for routine cervical cancer screening. Type-specific HPV detection was performed on residual extracts using linear array. RESULTS Pap test results were abnormal in 6.0% and HPV was positive in 7.2% of the underserved women screened in this study (mean age, 45.1 years). HPV prevalence decreased with age, from 10.3% among 30- to 39-year-olds to 4.5% among 50- to 60-year-olds. About 5% of the women had a combination of a positive HPV test and normal Pap test results; HPV 16/18 was identified in 14% of discordant women. CONCLUSION The rate of discordant results among underserved women was similar to those reported throughout the US in a variety of populations. Typing for HPV 16/18 appears to assist in the management in a small proportion of women with discordant results. PMID:24813971

  18. Alcohol consumption and prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among US men in the HIM (HPV in Men) Study

    PubMed Central

    Schabath, Matthew B.; Thompson, Zachary J.; Egan, Kathleen M.; Torres, B. Nelson; Nguyen, Anthony; Papenfuss, Mary R.; Abrahamsen, Martha E.; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Moderate alcohol consumption can impair host defense against viral infections. The objective of this cross-sectional analysis was to assess the association between alcohol intake and prevalent HPV infection among U.S. men enrolled in the HIM (HPV in Men) Study utilizing quantitative alcohol intake measured from a food frequency questionnaire. Methods The HIM study is a prospective, multinational study of the natural history of HPV infection. For this report we restricted our analyses to men from the US cohort (No. = 1,313). Samples from the corona of glans penis, penile shaft, and scrotum were combined for HPV DNA testing. Self-reported alcohol intake was quantified by grams of alcohol intake per day. Multivariable prevalence ratios (mPR) were used to assess the association between alcohol intake and HPV infections. Results Prevalent infections were significantly higher among men in the highest quartile of alcohol intake and multivariable models revealed that the highest quartile of alcohol intake was associated with significantly increased risks for any- (mPR=1.13; 95% CI 1.00–1.27) and oncogenic (mPR=1.35; 95% CI 1.08–1.68) HPV types. The fourth quartile of alcohol intake was associated with elevated risks for prevalent HPV infection across all strata of number of sexual partners and among never- and current smokers, but not among former smokers. Conclusions These results demonstrate that high intake of alcohol is associated with an increased risk for prevalent HPV infections among men. The biological role that alcohol plays in genital HPV infection remains understudied and limited epidemiologic data exist especially among men. PMID:25278617

  19. Human papillomavirus and other genital infections in indigenous women from Paraguay: a cross-sectional analytical study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of cervical cancer in Paraguay is among the highest in the world, with the human papillomavirus (HPV) being a necessary factor for cervical cancer. Knowledge about HPV infection among indigenous women is limited. This cross-sectional study analyzed the frequency of HPV and other genital infections in indigenous Paraguayan women of the Department of Presidente Hayes. Methods This study included 181 sexually active women without cervical lesions. They belonged to the following ethnicities: Maká (n?=?40); Nivaclé (n?=?23); Sanapaná (n?=?33); Enxet Sur (n?=?51) and Toba-Qom (n?=?34). The detection of HPV and other gynecological infectious microorganisms was performed by either molecular methods (for Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Chlamydia trachomatis), gram staining and/or culture (for Gardnerella vaginalis, Candida sp, Trichomonas vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae), serological methods (for Treponema pallidum, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]) or cytology (cervical inflammation). Results A high prevalence (41.4%) of women positive for at least one sexually transmitted infection (STI) was found (23.2% any-type HPV, 11.6% T pallidum, 10.5% T vaginalis, 9.9% C trachomatis and 0.6% HIV) with 12.2% having more than one STI. HPV infection was the most frequent, with 16.1% of women positive for high-risk HPV types. There was a statistically significant association observed between any-type HPV and C trachomatis (p?=?0.004), which indicates that the detection of one of these agents should suggest the presence of the other. There was no association between any-type HPV and other genital infections or cervical inflammation, suggesting that other mechanism could exist to favor infection with the virus. Conclusion This multidisciplinary work suggests that STIs are frequent, making it necessary to implement control measures and improve diagnosis in order to increase the number of cases detected, especially in populations with poor access to health centers. PMID:24206645

  20. Rates and Determinants of Oral Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection in Young Men

    PubMed Central

    Edelstein, Zoe R.; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Hawes, Stephen; Hughes, James P.; Feng, Qinghua; Stern, Michael E.; O’Reilly, Sandra; Lee, Shu-Kuang; Xi, Long Fu; Koutsky, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about rates and determinants of oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, an infection that is etiologically linked with oropharyngeal cancers. Methods A cohort of male university students (18–24 years of age) was examined every 4 months (212 men; 704 visits). Oral specimens were collected via gargle/rinse and swabbing of the oropharynx. Genotyping for HPV type 16 (HPV-16) and 36 other alpha-genus types was performed by PCR-based assay. Data on potential determinants was gathered via clinical examination, in-person questionnaire, and biweekly online diary. Hazard ratios (HR) were used to measure associations with incident infection. Results Prevalence of oral HPV infection at enrollment was 7.5% and 12-month cumulative incidence was 12.3% (95% confidence interval (CI): 7.0, 21.3). Prevalence of oral HPV-16 was 2.8% and 12-month cumulative incidence was 0.8% (CI: 0.1, 5.7). 28.6% of prevalent and none of incident oral HPV infections were detected more than once. In a multivariate model, incident oral HPV infection was associated with recent frequency of performing oral sex (?1 per week: HR=3.7; CI: 1.4, 9.8), recent anal sex with men (HR=42.9; CI: 8.8, 205.5), current infection with the same HPV type in the genitals (HR=6.2; CI: 2.4, 16.4) and hyponychium (HR=11.8, CI: 4.1; 34.2). Conclusions Although nearly 20% of sexually active male university students had evidence of oral HPV infection within 12 months, most infections were transient. HPV-16 was not common. Sexual contact and autoinoculation appeared to play independent roles in the transmission of alpha-genus HPV to the oral cavity of young men. PMID:23064535

  1. Prevalence of type-specific human papillomavirus infection among women in France: Implications for screening, vaccination, and a future generation of multivalent HPV vaccines.

    PubMed

    Monsonego, Joseph; Zerat, Laurent; Syrjänen, Kari; Zerat, Jean-Claude; Smith, Jennifer S; Halfon, Philippe

    2012-07-27

    To assess human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and genotype distribution by age and cervical cytology/histology status among women undergoing routine gynecological examinations, and to discuss the possible impact on preventive strategies. Liquid-based cytology (LBC) samples were tested for HPV DNA, mRNA, and HPV genotypes. Women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or greater (ASC-US+) and/or at least one positive HPV test were referred to colposcopy. Those with normal colposcopy results had biopsies taken at the 6 and 12 O'clock positions of the normal transformation zone. Of the 5002 women, 515 (10.3%) were <25 and 4487 (89.7%) were ?25years old. Overall HPV prevalence varied between 10.1% and 16.1% depending on the assay. Risk factors for HPV infection included greater number of recent sexual partners, history of abnormal cervical pathology, age <25years, and smoking. HPV prevalence increased with the cytological and histological severity of cervical lesions. Prevalence of HPV 16/18 was 5.2% and 2.7% in women <25 and ?25years old, respectively. HPV 16 was the type most strongly associated with a diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or higher (CIN3+) (odds ratio=11.64 vs. HPV 16 absent, P<0.001). A high proportion of high-grade cervical lesions (60.6% of genotyping assay-positive CIN2+) were associated with HPV types 31, 33, 45, 52, or 58. These data indicate that almost all young women could benefit from HPV prophylactic vaccination, but confirm the need for continued cervical screening and highlight the potential benefit of future vaccines targeting a wider range of HPV types. PMID:22713720

  2. Multiple Neoplastic Lesions of the Lower Genital Tract in a Human Papilloma Virus-Infected Kidney-Pancreas Allograft Recipient: A Case Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Bobrowska; P. Kami?ski; A. Cyganek; J. Jabiry-Zieniewicz; L. Bablok; M. Durlik; P. Fiedor

    2005-01-01

    States of immunodeficiency are associated with an increased rate of certain cancers. Immunosuppressed allograft recipients are at high risk of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)-related de novo malignancies. A female pancreas plus kidney transplant patient developed multiple genital malignancies within 6 years. The genome of human papilloma virus type 16 was detected in malignant lesions obtained from surgical procedures. All detected

  3. Immunologic responses following administration of a vaccine targeting human papillomavirus Types 6, 11, 16, and 18

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luisa L. Villa; Kevin A. Ault; Anna R. Giuliano; Ronaldo L. R. Costa; Carlos A. Petta; Rosires P. Andrade; Darron R. Brown; Alex Ferenczy; Diane M. Harper; Laura A. Koutsky; Robert J. Kurman; Matti Lehtinen; Christian Malm; Sven-Eric Olsson; Brigitte M. Ronnett; Finn Egil Skjeldestad; Margareta Steinwall; Mark H. Stoler; Cosette M. Wheeler; Frank J. Taddeo; Jimmy Yu; Lisa Lupinacci; Radha Railkar; Rocio Marchese; Mark T. Esser; Janine Bryan; Kathrin U. Jansen; Heather L. Sings; Gretchen M. Tamms; Alfred J. Saah; Eliav Barr

    2006-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection causes cervical cancer and genital warts. Young women (1106) were randomized to receive one of three formulations of a quadrivalent HPV (Types 6\\/11\\/16\\/18) L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine or one of two placebo formulations. The goal was to assess vaccine safety and immunogenicity in baseline HPV 6\\/11\\/16 or 18-naïve and previously infected subjects. All three formulations

  4. Type specific persistence of high risk human papillomavirus (HPV) as indicator of high grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions in young women: population based prospective follow up study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susanne K Kjaer; Edith I Svare; Birthe L Thomsen

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the development of cervical neoplasia in women with no previous cervical cytological abnormalities; whether the presence of virus DNA predicts development of squamous intraepithelial lesion; and whether the risk of incident squamous intraepithelial lesions differs with repeated detection of the same HPV type versus repeated detection of different types. Design

  5. Methylation of HPV18, HPV31, and HPV45 Genomes and Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 3

    PubMed Central

    Wentzensen, Nicolas; Sun, Chang

    2012-01-01

    Background Persistent infections with carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types are the necessary cause of cervical cancer. We recently demonstrated that the HPV16 genome is strongly methylated in cervical precancer compared with transient infections. However, the extent of methylation in other HPV types and its role in progression to cancer is poorly understood. Methods We analyzed whole-genome methylation patterns of the three next most carcinogenic HPV genotypes: HPV31 (closely related to HPV16), and two other closely related types, HPV18 and HPV45. DNA was extracted from cervical cytology specimens from 92 women with precancer and 96 women infected with HPV31, HPV18, or HPV45, but who had no cytological or histological abnormalities. After bisulfite modification, genome-wide pyrosequencing was performed covering 80–106 sites. We calculated differences in median methylation, odds ratios, areas under the curve, and Spearman rank correlation coefficients for methylation levels between different sites. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results For all three HPV types, we observed strongly elevated methylation levels at multiple CpG sites in the E2, L2, and L1 regions among women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 compared with women with transient infections. We observed high correlation of methylation patterns between phylogenetically related types. The highest areas under the curve were 0.81 for HPV31, 0.85 for HPV18, and 0.98 for HPV45. Differential methylation patterns in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 patients with multiple infections suggest that methylation can clarify which of the infections is causal. Conclusions Carcinogenic HPV DNA methylation indicates transforming HPV infections. Our findings show that methylation of carcinogenic HPV types is a general phenomenon that warrants development of diagnostic assays. PMID:23093560

  6. Integrating Clinical, Community, and Policy Perspectives on HPV Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, María E.; Allen, Jennifer D.; Mistry, Ritesh; Kahn, Jessica A.

    2010-01-01

    Infection with genital human papillomavirus (HPV) may cause anogenital cancers, oropharyngeal cancers, anogenital warts, and respiratory papillomas. Two prophylactic vaccines (a bivalent and a quadrivalent vaccine) are now licensed and currently in use in a number of countries. Both vaccines prevent infection with HPV-16 and HPV-18, which together cause approximately 70% of cervical cancers, and clinical trials have demonstrated 90%-100% efficacy in preventing precancerous cervical lesions attributable to HPV-16 and HPV-18. One vaccine also prevents HPV-6 and HPV-11, which cause 90% of genital warts. A growing literature describes associations between psychosocial, interpersonal, organizational, and societal factors that influence HPV vaccination acceptability. This paper summarizes the current literature and presents an integrated perspective, taking into account these diverse influences. The resulting integrated model can be used as a heuristic tool for organizing factors at multiple levels to guide intervention development and future research. PMID:20001821

  7. Differential effects of human papillomavirus type 6, 16, and 18 DNAs on immortalization and transformation of human cervical epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pecoraro, G.; Morgan, D.; Defendi, V. (New York Univ. Medical Center, NY (USA))

    1989-01-01

    The human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are associated with specific benign and malignant lesions of the skin and mucosal epithelia. Cloned viral DNAs from HPV types 6b, 16, and 18 associated with different pathological manifestations of genital neoplasia in vivo were introduced into primary human cervical epithelial cells by electroporation. Cells transfected with HPV16 or HPV18 DNA acquired indefinite lifespans, distinct morphological alterations, and anchorage-independent growth (HPV18), and contain integrated transcriptionally active viral genomes. HPV6b or plasmid electroporated cells senesced at low passage. The alterations in growth and differentiation of the cells appear to reflect the progressive oncogenic processes that result in cervical carcinoma in vivo.

  8. Elimination of high-risk human papillomavirus type HPV16 infection by ‘Praneem’ polyherbal tablet in women with early cervical intraepithelial lesions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shirish Shukla; Alok C. Bharti; Showket Hussain; Sutapa Mahata; Suresh Hedau; Uma Kailash; Veena Kashyap; Suresh Bhambhani; Meera Roy; Swaraj Batra; G. P. Talwar; Bhudev C. Das

    2009-01-01

    Purpose  ‘Praneem’, a polyherbal formulation developed by us, has successfully completed Phase II efficacy study for treatment of abnormal\\u000a vaginal discharge due to reproductive tract infections that act as co-factors for HPV persistence. In the present study we\\u000a evaluated potential anti-HPV activity of Praneem in women infected with high risk HPV type 16.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Twenty women molecularly diagnosed positive for HPV16 infection

  9. Genital oncogenic human papillomavirus infection: a short review on the mode of transmission.

    PubMed

    Tay, S K

    1995-07-01

    The most common oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPVs) detected in the female lower genital tract are HPV types 16 and 18. They are ancient viruses which have evolved with mankind over the last 200 000 years. The identification of their roles in the development of carcinoma of the uterine cervix in the last decade fills the gap between the long-sought link between sexual behaviour and risk of cervical cancer. Indeed, epidemiological, clinical and sophisticated molecular studies employing the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing techniques have established the sexual transmissibility of these viruses. However, there is also compelling evidence indicating that these viruses can be transmitted through non-sexual routes. These include vertical transmission when an infant passes through the HPV-infected birth canal of the mother during vaginal delivery, and transmission by formites contaminated by HPV-infected cells. The long latent phase of HPV infection poses difficulties for accurate identification of the route of infection in an individual patient. Genital oncogenic HPV infection in a woman should not be treated as a venereal disease exclusively, and such patients should be counselled appropriately. PMID:8849195

  10. A new surveillance gynecological network to assess the incidence and prevalence of genital warts in the Italian female population: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Suligoi, B; Salfa, M C; Mariani, L; Corsini, D; Timelli, L; Fattorini, G; Vittori, G

    2013-10-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the etiologic agent of genital warts. Genital warts are transmitted through sexual contacts and caused in about 90% of the cases by HPV types 6 and 11. Worldwide, several million cases of genital warts occur each year both in females and males. In Italy, genital warts are not subject to mandatory notification; the only available data come from the sentinel surveillance system for sexually transmitted infections (STI), which show that external genital warts represent the most frequent STI in Italy. However, these data are not suitable for estimates of incidence and prevalence of single STI in the general population. To obtain more reliable data on the epidemiology of genital warts in the female population at large, we implemented a network of local gynecologists reporting essential data on all women visited throughout one year and detailed data on women who were diagnosed with genital warts. In order to organize and create this network, a partnership between the Italian National Institute of Health and the Italian Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics was constituted to implement the start-up and management of this pilot and unique project in Europe. The present paper intends to present the methods used to build and implement this surveillance network of local gynecologists. PMID:24096294

  11. Analysis of genomic sequences of 95 papillomavirus types: uniting typing, phylogeny, and taxonomy.

    PubMed Central

    Chan, S Y; Delius, H; Halpern, A L; Bernard, H U

    1995-01-01

    Our aim was to study the phylogenetic relationships of all known papillomaviruses (PVs) and the possibility of establishing a supratype taxonomic classification based on this information. Of the many detectably homologous segments present in PV genomes, a 291-bp segment of the L1 gene is notable because it is flanked by the MY09 and MY11 consensus primers and contains highly conserved amino acid residues which simplify sequence alignment. We determined the MY09-MY11 sequences of human PV type 20 (HPV-20), HPV-21, HPV-22, HPV-23, HPV-24, HPV-36, HPV-37, HPV-38, HPV-48, HPV-50, HPV-60, HPV-70, HPV-72, HPV-73, ovine (sheep) PV, bovine PV type 3 (BPV-3), BPV-5, and BPV-6 and created a database which now encompasses HPV-1 to HPV-70, HPV-72, HPV-73, seven yet untyped HPV genomes, and 15 animal PV types. Three additional animal PVs were analyzed on the basis of other sequence data. We constructed phylogenies based on partial L1 and E6 gene sequences and distinguished five major clades that we call supergroups. One of them unites 54 genital PV types, which can be further divided into eleven groups. The second supergroup has 24 types and unites most PVs that are typically found in epidermodysplasia verruciformis patients but also includes several types typical of other cutaneous lesions, like HPV-4. The third supergroup unites the six known ungulate fibropapillomaviruses, the fourth includes the cutaneous ungulate PVs BPV-3, BPV-4, and BPV-6, and the fifth includes HPV-1, HPV-41, HPV-63, the canine oral PV, and the cottontail rabbit PV. The chaffinch PV and two rodent PVs, Micromys minutus PV and Mastomys natalensis PV, are left ungrouped because of the relative isolation of each of their lineages. Within most supergroups, groups formed on the basis of cladistic principles unite phenotypically similar PV types. We discuss the basis of our classification, the concept of the PV type, speciation, PV-host evolution, and estimates of their rates of evolution. PMID:7707535

  12. Type-Specific HPV Prevalence in Cervical Cancer and High-Grade Lesions in Latin America and the Caribbean: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ciapponi, Agustín; Bardach, Ariel; Glujovsky, Demián; Gibbons, Luz; Picconi, María Alejandra

    2011-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is a major public health problem in Latin America and the Caribbean (LA&C), showing some of the highest incidence and mortality rates worldwide. Information on HPV type distribution in high-grade cervical lesions (HSIL) and invasive cervical cancer (ICC) is crucial to predict the future impact of HPV16/18 vaccines and screening programmes, and to establish an appropriate post-vaccinal virologic surveillance. The aim was to assess the prevalence of HPV types in HSIL and ICC in studies in LA&C. Methods and Findings We performed a systematic review, following the MOOSE guidelines for systematic reviews of observational studies, and the PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Inclusion criteria were at least ten cases of HSIL/ICC, and HPV-type elicitation. The search, without language restrictions, was performed in MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, LILACS from inception date to December 2009, proceedings, reference lists and consulting experts. A meta-analysis was performed using arc-sine transformations to stabilize the variance of simple proportions. Seventy-nine studies from 18 countries were identified, including 2446 cases of HSIL and 5540 of ICC. Overall, 46.5% of HSIL cases harbored HPV 16 and 8.9% HPV18; in ICC, 53.2% of cases harbored HPV 16 and13.2% HPV 18. The next five most common types, in decreasing frequency, were HPV 31, 58, 33, 45, and 52. Study's limitations comprise the cross-sectional design of most included studies and their inherent risk of bias, the lack of representativeness, and variations in the HPV type-specific sensitivity of different PCR protocols. Conclusions This study is the broadest summary of HPV type distribution in HSIL and ICC in LA&C to date. These data are essential for local decision makers regarding HPV screening and vaccination policies. Continued HPV surveillance would be useful, to assess the potential for changing type-specific HPV prevalence in the post-vaccination era in Latin America. PMID:21991313

  13. Production of L1 protein from different types of HPV in Pichia pastoris using an integrative vector.

    PubMed

    Coimbra, E C; Gomes, F B; Campos, J F; D'arc, M; Carvalho, J C; Mariz, F C; Jesus, A L S; Stocco, R C; Beçak, W; Freitas, A C

    2011-12-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease in the world and is related to the etiology of cervical cancer. The most common high-risk HPV types are 16 and 18; however, the second most prevalent type in the Midwestern region of Brazil is HPV-33. New vaccine strategies against HPV have shown that virus-like particles (VLP) of the major capsid protein (L1) induce efficient production of antibodies, which confer protection against the same viral type. The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris is an efficient and inexpensive expression system for the production of high levels of heterologous proteins stably using a wild-type gene in combination with an integrative vector. It was recently demonstrated that P. pastoris can produce the HPV-16 L1 protein by using an episomal vector associated with the optimized L1 gene. However, the use of an episomal vector is not appropriate for protein production on an industrial scale. In the present study, the vectors were integrated into the Pichia genome and the results were positive for L1 gene transcription and protein production, both intracellularly and in the extracellular environment. Despite the great potential for expression by the P. pastoris system, our results suggest a low yield of L1 recombinant protein, which, however, does not make this system unworkable. The achievement of stable clones containing the expression cassettes integrated in the genome may permit optimizations that could enable the establishment of a platform for the production of VLP-based vaccines. PMID:22030867

  14. Genotyping of 27 Human Papillomavirus Types by Using L1 Consensus PCR Products by a Single-Hybridization, Reverse Line Blot Detection Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. E. GRAVITT; C. L. PEYTON; R. J. APPLE; C. M. WHEELER

    1998-01-01

    Amplification of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA by L1 consensus primer systems (e.g., MY09\\/11 or GP5 1 \\/6 1 ) can detect as few as 10 to 100 molecules of HPV targets from a genital sample. However, genotype determination by dot blot hybridization is laborious and requires at least 27 separate hybridizations for substantive HPV-type discrimination. A reverse blot method was

  15. Papillomaviral Infections of the Female Genital Tract

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Malcolm G.

    1992-01-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common organism to infect the human genital tract, affecting as much as half, or more, of the sexually active population. This virus has become widely recognized through the well publicized relationship with genital tract neoplasia and through new diagnostic technologies, such as monoclonal antibody analysis, DNA hybridization, and the polymerase chain reaction. This paper describes the full spectrum of HPV infections, starting with pathogenesis and continuing to clinical manifestations, and discusses significance, diagnosis, and management. PMID:21221347

  16. Development and evaluation of multiplexed immunoassay for detection of antibodies to HPV vaccine types.

    PubMed

    Panicker, G; Rajbhandari, I; Gurbaxani, B M; Querec, T D; Unger, E R

    2015-02-01

    Reliable antibody based-assays are needed to evaluate the immunogenicity of current vaccines, impact of altered dosing schemes or of new vaccine formulations. An ideal assay platform would allow multiplex type-specific detection with minimal sample requirement. We used the Meso Scale Discovery (MSD) electrochemiluminescence based detection platform to develop a multiplex direct virus-like particle (VLP) ELISA to detect antibodies to HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 with a protocol developed for detection using the SI 6000 imager (M4ELISA). MSD prepared the plates in the 7-spot/well format, using the purified VLPs (4 spots) and PBS+BSA pH7.4 (3 blank spots). Three-point titrations and the parallel line method were used to calculate antibody levels. Dynamic range, precision, and stability of pre-printed plates were determined using a panel of previously characterized sera. Cut-off values using children's sera were established using 99% RLU limits based on the 4-parameter Johnson Su best fit curve. Results of the M4ELISA were compared to competitive Luminex Immunoassay (cLIA) on n=4454 sera from a predominantly unvaccinated cohort. Using a VLP coating concentration of 80?g/ml with BSA provided the most robust RLU signal for all types. The dynamic range of the assay was about 1000 fold, with assay variability under 25% for each of the four vaccine types. Long-term stability of the plates extended to about 7months from the time plates was received in the laboratory after printing. There was moderate agreement (?=0.38-0.54) between M4ELISA and cLIA, with antibody detection for each of the 4 types more frequent with M4ELISA. Quantitative analysis however showed a good correlation between concordant samples by both assays (??0.6). The MSD platform shows promise for simultaneous quantitation of the antibody responses to four HPV vaccine types in a high-throughput manner. PMID:25554636

  17. HPV prevalence and concordance in the cervix and oral cavity of pregnant women.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, E M; Ritchie, J M; Yankowitz, J; Wang, D; Turek, L P; Haugen, T H

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This investigation examined human papillomavirus (HPV) in pregnant women in order to characterize viral prevalence, types and concordance between infection in the cervix and in the oral cavity. METHODS: A total of 577 pregnant women seeking routine obstetric care were evaluated for HPV infection in their cervix during gestation and immediately before delivery, and in the oral cavity during gestation. Male partners present during the gestational clinic visit also provided a specimen from their oral cavity. HPV assessment was performed by PCR, dot blot hybridization and DNA sequencing. A sexual and health questionnaire was completed by the pregnant women. RESULTS: HPV prevalence in women was 29% in the cervix and 2.4% in the oral cavity. Among those with both gestational and delivery specimens, 35% were infected at least once and 20% had infection at both intervals. At delivery, 68% of infected women had an oncogenic HPV type in the cervix. There was no type-specific HPV concordance between the two cervical specimens, nor cervical and oral results in women, nor with cervical and oral findings between partners. CONCLUSION: The lack of association in HPV positivity and types between the cervix and oral cavity in these women suggests that self-inoculation is uncommon. This source of infection does not appear to be from oral contact with a current male partner, since there also was no concordance between partners. These results suggest either other modes of HPV transmission or differences in susceptibility to HPV infection or its clearance in the oral cavity and genital mucosa. PMID:15739817

  18. HPV Infections among MSM in Shenzhen, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dong-Yan; Yin, Yue-Ping; Feng, Tie-Jian; Hong, Fu-Chang; Jiang, Ning; Wang, Bao-Xi; Chen, Xiang-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Background An increasing incidence of anal cancer among men, especially men who have sex with men (MSM) suggests a need to better understand anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among this group. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among MSM in Shenzhen, China. Blood was collected for HIV serological testing and syphilis serological screening, and anal swabs were collected for HPV genotyping. Difference of HPV prevalence between HIV seropositive and HIV seronegative MSM was assessed by chi-square test. Factors associated with anal canal HPV infection were assessed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results A total of 408 MSM were recruited. HIV and HPV prevalence were 6.9% and 36.4%, respectively. HPV was detected in the anal canal in 71.4% of the HIV-positive MSM and in 33.8% of the HIV-negative MSM (P<0.001). Oncogenic types were seen more often in anal specimens of HIV-positive MSM than in specimens of HIV-negative MSM (P?=?0.001). The HPV genotypes detected most frequently were HPV06 (8.2%), HPV16 (7.2%), HPV11 (6.4%), HPV18 (4.7%), HPV58 (4.7%), and HPV52 (4.2%). Conclusions In this study, HIV positive MSM had a higher burden of HPV infection, especially oncogenic HPV infection. HPV types 52 and 58 were as popular as those types designed for the currently available vaccine (HPV6, 11, 16, 18). PMID:24801331

  19. Detection of human papillomavirus types in balanitis xerotica obliterans and other penile conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Lau, P W; Cook, N; Andrews, H; Bracka, A; Myint, S H

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6, 11, 16 and 18 in foreskin biopsies from patients with balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO) and other penile conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS--Foreskin biopsy specimens from 24 patients with penile lesions and 5 control patients were analysed by type-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS--HPV6 or HPV16 were not detected in patients with BXO. HPV6 was detected in 2 controls. CONCLUSIONS--Genital papillomaviruses do not have a strong association with BXO. Images PMID:7590713

  20. Accelerating HPV Vaccine Uptake: Urgency for Action to Prevent Cancer: Home

    Cancer.gov

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) cause most cases of cervical cancer and large proportions of vaginal, vulvar, anal, penile, and oropharyngeal cancers. HPV also causes genital warts and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. HPV vaccines could dramatically reduce the incidence of HPV-associated cancers and other conditions among both females and males, but uptake of the vaccines has fallen short of target levels. The President's Cancer Panel finds underuse of HPV vaccines a serious but correctable threat to progress against cancer.

  1. Men's Perceptions and Knowledge of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection and Cervical Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPartland, Tara S.; Weaver, Bethany A.; Lee, Shu-Kuang; Koutsky, Laura A.

    2005-01-01

    The authors assessed young men's knowledge and perceptions of genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection to identify factors that predict intention to make positive behavioral changes. Male university students aged 18 to 25 years completed a self-report instrument to assess knowledge and perceptions of genital HPV infection. If diagnosed with…

  2. Prevalence of High-Risk HPV Types and Abnormal Cervical Cytology in American Indian/Alaska Native Women, 2003–2005

    PubMed Central

    Alfonsi, Grace A.; Datta, S. Deblina; Mickiewicz, Theresa; Koutsky, Laura A.; Ghanem, Khalil; Hagensee, Michael; Kerndt, Peter; Hsu, Katherine; Weinstock, Hillard; Shlay, Judith C.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives We described prevalence estimates of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV), HPV types 16 and 18, and abnormal Papanicolaou (Pap) smear tests among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) women compared with women of other races/ethnicities. Methods A total of 9,706 women presenting for cervical screening in a sentinel network of 26 clinics (sexually transmitted disease, family planning, and primary care) received Pap smears and HR-HPV type-specific testing. We compared characteristics of 291 women self-identified as AI/AN with other racial/ethnic minority groups. Results In our population, AI/AN and non-Hispanic white (NHW) women had similar age- and clinic-adjusted prevalences of HR-HPV (29.1%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 23.9, 34.3 for AI/AN women vs. 25.8%, 95% CI 24.4, 27.2 for NHW women), HPV 16 and 18 (6.7%, 95% CI 3.9, 9.6 for AI/AN women vs. 8.8%, 95% CI 7.9, 9.7 for NHW women), and abnormal Pap smear test results (16%, 95% CI 11.7, 20.3 for AI/AN women vs. 14.9%, 95% CI 13.7, 16.0 for NHW women). AI/AN women had a higher prevalence of HR-HPV than Hispanic women, and a similar prevalence of HPV 16 and 18 as compared with Hispanic and African American women. Conclusions We could not demonstrate differences in the prevalence of HR-HPV, HPV 16 and 18, or abnormal Pap smear test results between AI/AN and NHW women. This finding should improve confidence in the benefit of HPV vaccine and Pap smear screening in the AI/AN population as an effective strategy to reduce rates of cervical cancer. PMID:21553660

  3. HPV Vaccine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & ... Asthma Concussions Smart Snacking HPV Vaccine KidsHealth > Teens > Sexual Health > STDs & Other Infections > HPV Vaccine Print A A ...

  4. Isolation of a novel human papillomavirus (type 51) from a cervical condyloma

    SciTech Connect

    Nuovo, G.J.; Crum, C.P.; Levine, R.U.; Silverstein, S.J. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (USA)); De Villiers, E.M. (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (West Germany))

    1988-04-01

    The authors cloned the DNA from a novel human papillomavirus (HPV) present in a cervical condyloma. When DNA from this isolate was hybridized at high stringency with HPV types 1 through 50 (HPV-1 through HPV-50), it showed weak homology with HPV-6 and -16 and stronger homology with HPV-26. A detailed restriction endonuclease map was prepared which showed marked differences from the maps for other HPVs that have been isolated from the female genital tract. Reassociation kinetic analysis revealed that HPV-26 and this new isolate were less than 10% homologous; hence, the new isolate is a noel strain of HPV. The approximate positions of the open reading frames of the new strain were surmised by hybridization with probes derived from individual open reading frames of HPV-16. In an analysis of 175 genital biopsies from patients with abnormal Papanicolaou smears, sequences hybridizing under highly stringent conditions to probes from this novel HPV type were found in 4.2, 6.1, and 2.4% of biopsies containing normal squamous epithelium, condylomata, and intraepithelial neoplasia, respectively. In addition, sequences homologous to probes from this novel isolate were detected in one of five cervical carcinomas examined.

  5. Indole3Carbinol Prevents Cervical Cancer in Human Papilloma Virus Type 16 (HPV16) Transgenic Mice1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liang Jin; Mei Qi; Da-Zhi Chen; Ann Anderson; Gaung-Yu Yang; Jeffrey M. Arbeit; Karen J. Auborn

    1999-01-01

    Mice that express transgenes for human papillomavirus type 16 under a keratin 14 promoter (K14-HPV16 mice) develop cervical cancer when they are given 17b-estradiol chronically. We asked whether the antiestro- genic phytochemical indole-3-carbinol (I3C), found in cruciferous vegeta- bles, administered at physiological doses, would prevent the cervical- vaginal cancer that is promoted in these mice by high doses of estrogen.

  6. Numerical simulation of a two-sex human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryani, I.; Adi-Kusumo, F.

    2014-02-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a major cause of cervical cancer, precancerous lesions, cancer and other disease. HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection. Although HPV virus primarily affects woman but it can also affects man because it cause of cancer of the anus, vulva, vagina, penis and some other cancers. HPV vaccines now used to prevent cervical cancer and genital warts because the vaccine protect against four types of HPV that most commonly cause disease are types 6, 11, 16, and 18. This paper is sequel work of Elbasha (2008). Difference with Elbasha (2008) are give alternative proof global stability, numerical simulation and interpretation. Global stability of the equilibrium on the model of a two-sex HPV vaccination were explored by using Lyapunov. Although we use the same lyapunov function, we use the largest invariant set to proof the global stability. The result show that the global stability of the equilibrium depends on the effective reproduction number (R). If R < 1 then the infection-free equilibrium is asymptotically stable globally. If R > 1 then endemic equilibrium have globally asymptotically stable properties. Then equilibrium proceed with the interpretation of numerical simulation.

  7. Knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) and HPV vaccination: an international comparison.

    PubMed

    Marlow, Laura A V; Zimet, Gregory D; McCaffery, Kirsten J; Ostini, Remo; Waller, Jo

    2013-01-21

    Since vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) became available, awareness of HPV has dramatically increased. Implementation of a vaccine program varies internationally yet no studies have explored the influence this has on the public's knowledge of HPV. The present study aimed to explore differences in awareness of HPV and HPV knowledge across three countries: The US, UK and Australia. Participants (n=2409) completed a validated measure of HPV knowledge as part of an online survey. There were higher levels of HPV awareness among men and women in the US than the UK and Australia. Being male and having a lower educational level was associated with lower HPV awareness in all three countries. Awareness of HPV vaccine was higher in women from the US than the UK and Australia. Women in the US scored significantly higher on general HPV knowledge (on a 15-item scale) than women in the UK and Australia, but there were no between country differences in HPV vaccine knowledge (on a 6-item scale). When asked about country-specific vaccine availability, participants in the US were less able to identify the correct answers than participants in the UK and Australia. More than half of participants did not know: HPV can cause genital warts; most sexually active people will get HPV at some point in their life; or HPV doesn't usually need treatment. Pharmaceutical advertising campaigns could explain why awareness of HPV and HPV vaccine is higher in the US and this has helped to get some important messages across. Significant gaps in HPV knowledge remain across all three countries. PMID:23246310

  8. Randomization Modeling to Ascertain Clustering Patterns of Human Papillomavirus Types Detected in Cervicovaginal Samples in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Querec, Troy David; Gurbaxani, Brian Mohan; Unger, Elizabeth Robinson

    2013-01-01

    Detection of multiple human papillomavirus (HPV) types in the genital tract is common. Associations among HPV types may impact HPV vaccination modeling and type replacement. The objectives were to determine the distribution of concurrent HPV type infections in cervicovaginal samples and examine type-specific associations. We analyzed HPV genotyping results from 32,245 cervicovaginal specimens collected from women aged 11 to 83 years in the United States from 2001 through 2011. Statistical power was enhanced by combining 6 separate studies. Expected concurrent infection frequencies from a series of permutation models, each with increasing fidelity to the real data, were compared with the observed data. Statistics were computed based on the distributional properties of the randomized data. Concurrent detection occurred more than expected with 0 or ?3 HPV types and less than expected with 1 and 2 types. Some women bear a disproportionate burden of the HPV type prevalence. Type associations were observed that exceeded multiple hypothesis corrected significance. Multiple HPV types were detected more frequently than expected by chance and associations among particular HPV types were detected. However vaccine-targeted types were not specifically affected, supporting the expectation that current bivalent/quadrivalent HPV vaccination will not result in type replacement with other high-risk types. PMID:24367553

  9. High risk HPV types 18 and 16 are potent modulators of oral squamous cell carcinoma phenotypes in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicole Reddout; Todd Christensen; Anthony Bunnell; Dayne Jensen; Devin Johnson; Susan O'Malley; Karl Kingsley

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been confirmed as the primary etiological factor that transforms cervical epithelia into cancer. The presence of HPV in oral cancers suggests that HPV may play a similar role in transforming the oral epithelia. A high degree of variability in the prevalence of HPV in oral cancers has been found, however, raising questions regarding its role

  10. First episodes of genital herpes in a Swedish STD population: a study of epidemiology and transmission by the use of herpes simplex virus (HSV) typing and specific serology

    PubMed Central

    Lowhagen, G; Tunback, P; Andersson, K; Bergstrom, T; Johannisson, G

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the proportion of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV type 2 (HSV-2) in first episodes of genital herpes. To evaluate the use of HSV specific serology for classifying first episodes of genital herpes and for defining HSV serostatus in the patients' sexual partners. Methods: 108 consecutive patients with first episodes of genital herpes seen at three STD clinics in Sweden from 1995 to 1999 were included in the study. HSV culture and typing were performed and serum was tested for antibodies against a type common HSV antigen and a type specific HSV-2 antigen, glycoprotein G2 (gG2). A structured interview including questions about sexual behaviour and sexual partners was taken. "Steady" partners were offered a blood test for HSV serology and counselling. Results: Of 108 patients, 11 had a negative HSV culture. Of the 97 who were HSV culture positive, 44% (43/97) were typed as HSV-1 and 56% (54/97) as HSV-2. For 86 of these 97 patients, HSV serology from the initial visit was available. Of 52 primary infections, thus initially seronegative, 64% were HSV-1 infections and of 19 female primary infections 16 (84%) were HSV-1. In 17% the first episode of genital herpes corresponded to the first clinical recurrence of an infection acquired earlier in life. There was a significant correlation between having orogenital sex and being infected with HSV-1 and also a history of labial herpes in the partner. Only 20% of partners of patients with an HSV-2 infection had a history of genital herpes. Conclusions: Almost half of first episodes of genital herpes are caused by HSV-1. In young women with a primary genital infection, HSV-1 is much more frequent than HSV-2. Besides HSV typing, we found specific HSV serology of value for classifying first episodes and for diagnosing a subclinical HSV-2 infection in partners. Anamnestic data supported the suggestion that the orogenital route of transmission was common in genital HSV-1 infections. Key Words: genital herpes; herpes simplex virus PMID:10961194

  11. Epidemiology of HPV genotypes in Uganda and the role of the current preventive vaccines: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Limited data are available on the distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in the general population and in invasive cervical cancer (ICC) in Uganda. Yet, with the advent of preventive HPV vaccines that target HPV 16 and 18 responsible for causing about 70% of ICC cases in the world, such information is crucial to predict how vaccination and HPV-based screening will influence prevention of ICC. Methods To review the distribution of HPV infection and prevalent genotypes, electronic databases (e.g. PubMed/MEDLINE and HINARI) were searched for peer reviewed English articles on HPV infection up to November 30, 2010. Eligible studies were selected according to the following criteria: DNA-confirmed cervical or male genital HPV prevalence and genotypes, HPV incidence estimates and HPV seroprevalence among participants. Results Twenty studies were included in the review. Among HIV negative adult women, the prevalence of HR-HPV infections ranged from 10.2% -40.0% compared to 37.0% -100.0% among HIV positive women. Among HIV positive young women aged below 25 years, the prevalence of HR-HPV genotypes ranged from 41.6% -75.0% compared to 23.7% -67.1% among HIV negative women. Multiple infections with non vaccine HR-HPV genotypes were frequent in both HIV positive and HIV negative women. The main risk factors for prevalent HPV infections were age, lifetime number of sexual partners and HIV infection. Incident infections with HR-HPV genotypes were more frequent among adult HIV positive than HIV negative women estimated at 17.3 and 7.0 per 100 person-years, respectively. Similarly, incident HR-HPV among young women aged below 25 years were more frequent among HIV positive (40.0 per 100 person-years) than HIV negative women (20.3 per 100 person-years) women. The main risk factor for incident infection was HIV infection. HPV 16 and 18 were the most common genotypes in ICC with HPV 16/18 contributing up to 73.5% of cases with single infections. Among uncircumcised adult HIV positive males, HR-HPV prevalence ranged from 55.3% -76.6% compared to 38.6% -47.6% in HIV negative males. Incident and multiple HR-HPV infections were frequent in HIV positive males. Being uncircumcised was the main risk factor for both prevalent and incident HPV infection. Conclusion Infections with HR-HPV genotypes were very common particularly among HIV positive individuals and young women irrespective of HIV status. Given the high prevalence of HIV infection, HPV-associated conditions represent a major public health burden in Uganda. However, although the most common HPV genotypes in ICC cases in Uganda were those targeted by current preventive vaccines, there were a large number of individuals infected with other HR-HPV genotypes. Technology allowing, these other HR-HPV types should be considered in the development of the next generation of vaccines. PMID:21749691

  12. Dermatologic manifestations of HPV in HIV-infected individuals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachel H. Gormley; Carrie L. Kovarik

    2009-01-01

    Dermatologic human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in HIV patients manifests as both anogenital and nongenital skin disease.\\u000a Anogenital HPV-related disease includes benign condyloma acuminata, the most common cutaneous manifestation of genital HPV\\u000a infection; intermediate malignancy or premalignant conditions including giant condyloma acuminata (also called Buschke-Loewenstein\\u000a tumor), anal intraepithelial neoplasia, penile intraepithelial neoplasia, and vaginal or vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia;\\u000a and frankly malignant

  13. Detection of human papillomavirus type 6/11 DNA in conjunctival papillomas by in situ hybridization with radioactive probes

    SciTech Connect

    McDonnell, P.J.; McDonnell, J.M.; Kessis, T.; Green, W.R.; Shah, K.V.

    1987-11-01

    Twenty-three conjunctival papillomas and 28 conjunctival dysplasias were examined for human papillomavirus (HPV)-DNA sequences by in situ hybridization with nick-translated /sup 35/S-labeled HPV probes. Adjacent paraffin sections were hybridized with HPV type 2, 6, 16, and 18 probes at Tm - 17 degrees C. Fifteen tissues, all papillomas, displayed positive hybridization with the HPV-6 probe. Infection with HPV-6 (or the closely related HPV-11) appeared to be responsible for most of the conjunctival papillomas of children and young adults. The presence of genital tract HPV-6 in these lesions suggests that some of the infections were acquired during passage through an infected birth canal. The lack of hybridization in adult conjunctival dysplasias indicates either that HPVs are not associated with this condition or that the probes and the technique utilized were not adequate for demonstration of this association.

  14. Male Genital Lichen Sclerosus

    PubMed Central

    Bunker, Christopher Barry; Shim, Tang Ngee

    2015-01-01

    Male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease responsible for male sexual dyspareunia and urological morbidity. An afeared complication is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis. The precise etiopathogenesis of MGLSc remains controversial although genetic, autoimmune and infective (such as human papillomavirus (HPV) hepatitis C (HCV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Borrelia) factors have been implicated: Consideration of all the evidence suggests that chronic exposure of susceptible epithelium to urinary occlusion by the foreskin seems the most likely pathomechanism. The mainstay of treatment is topical ultrapotent corticosteroid therapy. Surgery is indicated for cases unresponsive to topical corticosteroid therapy, phimosis, meatal stenosis, urethral stricture, carcinoma in situ (CIS) and squamous cell carcinoma.

  15. Male genital lichen sclerosus.

    PubMed

    Bunker, Christopher Barry; Shim, Tang Ngee

    2015-01-01

    Male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease responsible for male sexual dyspareunia and urological morbidity. An afeared complication is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis. The precise etiopathogenesis of MGLSc remains controversial although genetic, autoimmune and infective (such as human papillomavirus (HPV) hepatitis C (HCV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Borrelia) factors have been implicated: Consideration of all the evidence suggests that chronic exposure of susceptible epithelium to urinary occlusion by the foreskin seems the most likely pathomechanism. The mainstay of treatment is topical ultrapotent corticosteroid therapy. Surgery is indicated for cases unresponsive to topical corticosteroid therapy, phimosis, meatal stenosis, urethral stricture, carcinoma in situ (CIS) and squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25814697

  16. The epidemiology of genital human papillomavirus infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen Trottier; Eduardo L. Franco

    2006-01-01

    Clinical and subclinical human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are the most common sexually transmitted infections in the world, and most sexually-active individuals are likely to be exposed to HPV infection during their lifetimes. More than 40 genotypes of HPV infect the epithelial lining of the anogenital tract and other mucosal areas of the body; of these, 13–18 types are considered to

  17. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for the prevention of HPV 16/18 induced cervical cancer and its precursors

    PubMed Central

    Damm, Oliver; Nocon, Marc; Roll, Stephanie; Vauth, Christoph; Willich, Stefan; Greiner, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Essential precondition for the development of cervical cancer is a persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. The majority - approximately 70% - of cervical carcinomas is caused by two high-risk HPV types (16 and 18). Recently, two vaccines have been approved to the German market with the potential to induce protection against HPV 16 and HPV 18 among additional low-risk virus types. Objectives To analyse whether HPV vaccination is effective with regard to the reduction of cervical cancer and precursors of cervical carcinoma (CIN), respectively? Does HPV vaccination represent a cost-effective alternative or supplement to present screening practice? Are there any differences concerning cost-effectiveness between the two available vaccines? Should HPV vaccination be recommended from a health economic point of view? If so, which recommendations can be conveyed with respect to a (re)organization of the German vaccination strategy? Which ethical, social and legal implications have to be considered? Methods Based on a systematic literature review, randomized controlled trials (RCT) looking at the effectiveness of HPV vaccination for the prevention of cervical carcinoma and its precursors - cervical intraepithelial neoplasia - have been identified. In addition, health economic models were identified to address the health economic research questions. Quality assessment of medical and economic literature was assured by application of general assessment standards for the systematic and critical appraisal of scientific studies. Results Vaccine efficacy in prevention of CIN 2 or higher lesions in HPV 16 or HPV 18 negative women, who received all vaccination doses, ranges between 98% and 100%. Side effects of the vaccination are mainly associated with injection site reactions (redness, turgor, pain). No significant differences concerning serious complications between the vaccination- and the placebo-groups were reported. Results of base case scenarios in the identified health economic modeling analyses range from approximately 3,000 Euro to 40,000 Euro per additional QALY (QALY = Quality-adjusted life year) and approximately 9,000 Euro to 65,000 Euro per additional life year (LYG), respectively. Discussion The included studies show that both available HPV vaccines are effective in preventing HPV 16 and HPV 18 infections and probable resulting premalignant lesions of the cervix. However, the duration of protection is currently unclear. With regard to side effects, the vaccination can be considered as secure. Nevertheless, the number of cases within the clinical studies is not sufficient to determine the occurrence of rarely occurring (severe) adverse events in a reliable way. A reduction in the incidence and induced mortality through cervical cancer in Germany is not only depending on the vaccine’s clinical efficacy. Effects of the new technology on the overall participation rate in screening programs and the resulting vaccination rate and immunization status are also important factors. The results of identified health economic models vary substantially due to the heterogeneity of methodological approaches as well as chosen input parameters. However, almost all model-based analyses reached the conclusion that the implementation of a vaccination with lifelong protection can be considered as cost-effective, if the present screening practice continues. A comparison of the two vaccines shows, that the cost effectiveness ratios are more favorable with the quadrivalent vaccine than with the bivalent alternative when considering QALY as primary outcome parameter. The reason for this finding might be that in the case of the quadrivalent vaccine the prevention of genital warts can also be incorporated into the analysis. Variations of the duration of protection as well as the discounting rate were identified as the primary influencing factors of cost-effectiveness results. Conclusion Implementation of HPV vaccination might lead to a reduction of cervical cancer in immunized women. However, uptake of immunization should

  18. Safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16, 18) L1 virus-like-particle vaccine in Latin American women.

    PubMed

    Perez, Gonzalo; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Hernandez-Avila, Mauricio; García, Patricia J; Muñoz, Nubia; Villa, Luisa L; Bryan, Janine; Taddeo, Frank J; Lu, Shuang; Esser, Mark T; Vuocolo, Scott; Sattler, Carlos; Barr, Eliav

    2008-03-15

    The prevalence of HPV infection in Latin America is among the highest in the world. A quadrivalent (types 6/11/16/18) human papillomavirus L1 virus-like-particle vaccine has been shown to be 95-100% effective in preventing HPV 6/11/16/18-related cervical and genital disease in women naive to vaccine HPV types. A total of 6,004 female subjects aged 9-24 were recruited from Brazil, Mexico, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala and Peru. Subjects were randomized to immunization with intramuscular (deltoid) injections of HPV vaccine or placebo at enrollment (day 1), month 2 and month 6. Among vaccinated subjects in the per-protocol population from Latin America, quadrivalent HPV vaccine was 92.8 and 100% effective in preventing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and external genital lesions related to vaccine HPV types, respectively. These data support vaccination of adolescents and young adults in the region, which is expected to greatly reduce the burden of cervical and genital cancers, precancers and genital warts. PMID:18000825

  19. Human papillomaviruses: are we ready to type?

    PubMed Central

    Roman, A; Fife, K H

    1989-01-01

    The issue of determining which human papillomavirus (HPV) is present in a clinical specimen (typing specimens for HPVs) is receiving attention because HPVs cause condyloma acuminata and are associated with the continuum of disease which ranges from dysplasia to invasive genital cancer. Morphological inspection of precancerous lesions is not sufficient to determine which lesions will progress and which will not. A number of research tools based primarily on deoxyribonucleic acid hybridization have been developed. These permit identification and typing of HPV in genital tract scrapings or biopsies. Some HPV types (e.g., HPV-16 and HPV-18) have been identified in high-grade dysplasias and carcinomas more commonly than other types (e.g., HPV-6) and have been designated "high risk" types for cervical cancer. Thus, the question arises whether HPV typing would improve patient management by providing increased sensitivity for detection of patients at risk or by providing a prognostic indicator. In this review, the available typing methods are reviewed from the standpoint of their sensitivity, specificity, and ease of application to large-scale screening programs. Data implicating HPVs in the genesis of genital tract cancers are reviewed, as is the association of specific HPV types with specific outcomes. We conclude that there is currently no simple, inexpensive assay for HPV types, although such assays may be developed in the future. Analysis of the typing data indicates that, while HPV types can be designated high risk and low risk, these designations are not absolute and thus the low-risk group should not be ignored. In addition, interpretation of the data is complicated by finding high-risk types in individuals with no indication of disease. Insufficient data exist to indicate whether knowledge of the presence of a given HPV type is a better prognostic indicator than cytological or histological results. Thus, more research is needed before it can be determined whether typing information will augment the method currently in use for deciding treatment regimen and whether it warrants widespread use. Images PMID:2539898

  20. The Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus Genotypes in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancers of Nonimmunosuppressed Individuals Identifies High-Risk Genital Types as Possible Risk Factors1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angelika Iftner; Stefanie J. Klug; Claus Garbe; Andreas Blum; Alice Stancu; Sharon P. Wilczynski; Thomas Iftner

    2003-01-01

    Nonmelanoma skin cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignant disease in Caucasians. Known risk factors include fair skin, sun exposure, male gender, advancing age, and the presence of solar keratosis. No viral risk factors have been established thus far. To examine the association between nonmelanoma skin cancer and infection with human papilloma virus (HPV) types, we performed a retrospective study

  1. Racial differences in the incidence and clearance of human papillomavirus (HPV): The HPV in Men (HIM) Study

    PubMed Central

    Schabath, Matthew B.; Villa, Luisa L.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William J.; Akogbe, Gabriel O.; Abrahamsen, Martha E.; Papenfuss, Mary R.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Salmerón, Jorge; Quiterio, Manuel; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2013-01-01

    Background This analysis assessed the acquisition (incidence) and persistence (clearance) of HPV infection by self-reported race among men in The HPV in Men (HIM) Study, a multinational prospective study of the natural history of genital HPV infections. Methods Self-reported race was categorized as White, Black, Asian/Pacific Islander (PI), or multiple and mixed race. Genital samples were combined for HPV DNA testing and categorized by any-, oncogenic-, and non-oncogenic HPV infections. Results Asian/PI race had significantly the lowest incidence of any-, oncogenic-, and non-oncogenic HPV infection (P < 0.001). In multivariable analyses Asian/PI race was associated with a lower probability of acquiring any- (HR=0.63; 95% CI 0.42–0.95) and non-oncogenic HPV infection (HR=0.61; 95% CI 0.40–0.93) when compared to Whites. No significant associations were evident for Asian/PI race for clearance. Multiple and mixed race was significantly associated with lower probability of acquiring non-oncogenic HPV infection (HR=0.83; 95% CI 0.69–0.99) and borderline significant associations were observed for any HPV (HR=0.91) and oncogenic infections (HR=0.92). Multiple and mixed race was associated with a lower probability of clearing any- (HR=0.92; 95% CI 0.84–1.00) and oncogenic HPV infections (HR=0.85; 95% CI 0.75–0.95). Conclusion Asian/PI race had the lowest incidence of HPV and exhibited a lower probability of acquiring new HPV infections. Multiple and mixed race had the second lowest incidence of infection and was associated with a lower probability of acquiring and clearing a HPV infection. Impact Race-specific differences in HPV infection could be due to behavior, innate genetic differences, or circulating intratypic HPV variants. PMID:23872745

  2. HPV-16 RNA processing.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    To understand human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) gene regulation, it is necessary to understand HPV-16 RNA processing. HPV-16 encodes multiple 5'- and 3'-splice sites and two polyadenylation signals pAE and pAL (Figure 1). The major 3'-splice site on the HPV-16 genome (SA3358) is used for generation of E6, E7, E4, L1 and L2 mRNAs. It encodes a suboptimal splice signal but is under control of a strong enhancer that renders SA3358 one of the most efficiently used splice sites on the HPV-16 genome. Thereby SA3358 indirectly blocks HPV-16 late gene expression. The early polyA signal is also under control of the early UTR sequence and multiple RNA elements in the L2 coding region that interact with hnRNP H. The two splice sites SD3632 and SA5639 are used exclusively by late mRNAs and are under control of multiple splicing silencer elements. The silencers at SA5639 are located in the L1 coding region and interact with hnRNP A1. So far, only polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB) has been shown to induce late gene expression. PMID:18508629

  3. HPV vaccine shown to also protect against oral HPV infection

    Cancer.gov

    Women who received a vaccine targeting two types of the human papilloma virus (HPV) that cause 70 percent of cervical cancers had the added benefit of protection against oral HPV infection, which can lead to cancer of the tonsils and throat (oropharyngeal cancer). The results were published July 17, 2013, in PLOS ONE.

  4. Influence of Physiologic Folate Deficiency on Human Papillomavirus Type 16 (HPV16)-harboring Human Keratinocytes in Vitro and in Vivo*

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Suhong; Tang, Ying-Sheng; Khan, Rehana A.; Zhang, Yonghua; Kusumanchi, Praveen; Stabler, Sally P.; Jayaram, Hiremagalur N.; Antony, A?ok C.

    2012-01-01

    Although HPV16 transforms infected epithelial tissues to cancer in the presence of several co-factors, there is insufficient molecular evidence that poor nutrition has any such role. Because physiological folate deficiency led to the intracellular homocysteinylation of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein E1 (hnRNP-E1) and activated a nutrition-sensitive (homocysteine-responsive) posttranscriptional RNA operon that included interaction with HPV16 L2 mRNA, we investigated the functional consequences of folate deficiency on HPV16 in immortalized HPV16-harboring human (BC-1-Ep/SL) keratinocytes and HPV16-organotypic rafts. Although homocysteinylated hnRNP-E1 interacted with HPV16 L2 mRNA cis-element, it also specifically bound another HPV16 57-nucleotide poly(U)-rich cis-element in the early polyadenylation element (upstream of L2?L1 genes) with greater affinity. Together, these interactions led to a profound reduction of both L1 and L2 mRNA and proteins without effects on HPV16 E6 and E7 in vitro, and in cultured keratinocyte monolayers and HPV16-low folate-organotypic rafts developed in physiological low folate medium. In addition, HPV16-low folate-organotypic rafts contained fewer HPV16 viral particles, a similar HPV16 DNA viral load, and a much greater extent of integration of HPV16 DNA into genomic DNA when compared with HPV16-high folate-organotypic rafts. Subcutaneous implantation of 18-day old HPV16-low folate-organotypic rafts into folate-replete immunodeficient mice transformed this benign keratinocyte-derived raft tissue into an aggressive HPV16-induced cancer within 12 weeks. Collectively, these studies establish a likely molecular linkage between poor folate nutrition and HPV16 and predict that nutritional folate and/or vitamin-B12 deficiency, which are both common worldwide, will alter the natural history of HPV16 infections and also warrant serious consideration as reversible co-factors in oncogenic transformation of HPV16-infected tissues to cancer. PMID:22351779

  5. Genital warts.

    PubMed

    Steben, Marc; Garland, Suzanne M

    2014-10-01

    Anogenital warts (AGWs) are a very common disease. They are caused mostly by low-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) 6 and 11, particularly the former. Clinical presentation is mostly of growths in the areas of friction of the anogenital region. The treatment is classified as patient/home applied or administered by a professional. In cases with atypical presentations or resistance to recommended therapies, great care should be taken to establish a differential diagnosis taking into account normal anatomical variations, infectious etiologies, precancers and cancers, as well as benign dermatological growths. The prevention of AGWs can be achieved by the use of the quadrivalent prophylactic HPV vaccine administered prior to sexual debut, as well as the meticulous use of condoms. Where coverage of the quadrivalent vaccine has been high, marked reductions in AGWs are being seen in young women of vaccine-eligible age, as well as in young males (as herd immunity effect). PMID:25155525

  6. Human Papillomavirus Risk Type Classification from Protein Sequences Using

    E-print Network

    is compared with previous methods in accuracy and F1-score, and it has showed better performance. Also of cancer death among women worldwide. Epidemiologic studies have shown that the association of genital, and there is no deterministic method to expect the risk type for unknown or new HPVs. Since the HPV classification is important

  7. HPV Genotyping 9G Membrane Test

    PubMed Central

    Sayyed, Danishmalik Rafiq; Song, Keum-Soo; Nimse, Satish Balasaheb; An, Heejung; Kim, Junghoon; Kim, Taisun

    2013-01-01

    The results of the genital human papillomavirus (HPV) detection in 439 cervical samples by cervical cytology were compared with sequencing analysis and a newly developed HPV genotyping 9G membrane test. The excellent sensitivity and specificity of the HPV genotyping 9G membrane test was assured by a signal to noise ratio of more than 300 and a target hybridization to non-target hybridization ratio of 300 ~ 400 at 25 °C. The final results can be obtained in 29 min by simple loading of the hybridization and washing solutions and scanning the membranes without any drying steps or special handling. The 100% identical results of the HPV genotyping 9G membrane test with sequencing results in 439 clinical samples demonstrate significant clinical application for this test. HPV genotyping 9G membrane tests can identify and discriminate five HR-HPV genotypes which are prevalent in almost 87% of cervical cancer cases. Its simple handling makes the HPV genotyping 9G membrane test a very convenient platform for accurate HPV genotyping. PMID:24284877

  8. High HPV Infection Prevalence in Men from Infertile Couples and Lack of Relationship between Seminal HPV Infection and Sperm Quality

    PubMed Central

    Golob, Barbara; Verdenik, Ivan; Kolbezen Simoniti, Mojca; Vrta?nik Bokal, Eda; Zorn, Branko

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the most frequently sexually transmitted viruses and etiological agents of several human cancers. Controversial results of the role of HPV in infertile population on sperm parameters have been published. The aim of this study was to estimate the type-specific prevalence of HPV DNA infection of the external genitalia and semen in 340 Slovenian men from infertile couples and to establish the relationship between seminal HPV DNA infection and abnormal sperm parameters. Self-taken swabs of the entire penile surface and semen samples were collected, and HPV detection and genotyping were performed. HPV DNA was detected in 37.12% of external genitalia and in 13.61% of semen samples with high HPV type concordance of both sampling sites. The most prevalent HPV types in the male external genitalia were HPV-CP6108 and HPV-84. The most prevalent HPV types in semen were HPV-53 and HPV-CP6108. The prevalence of HPV infection between normozoospermic men and men with abnormal sperm parameters did not differ significantly. Sperm quality did not differ significantly between men with seminal HPV infection and uninfected men. In conclusion, the men from infertile couples are equally susceptible to HPV infection regardless of their fertile potential; seminal HPV infection does not impair sperm quality. PMID:24809062

  9. HPV Prevention

    MedlinePLUS

    ... vaccine has also been shown to protect against anal, vaginal and vulvar cancers. Both vaccines are recommended ... Gardasil) protects males against most genital warts and anal cancers. This vaccine is recommended for boys aged ...

  10. HPV-Associated Cancers Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Prevelence and Types in Cancer Lesions Related Links Statistics for Other Types of Cancer Breast Cervical Colorectal ( ... Vaginal and Vulvar Cancer Home HPV-Associated Cancers Statistics Based on data from 2006–2010, about 33, ...

  11. Human Pappilomavirus (HPV) induced cancers and prevention by immunization.

    PubMed

    Khaliq, Sheikh Abdul; Shyum Naqvi, Syed Baqir; Fatima, Anab

    2012-10-01

    Incidences of different types of cancer are increasing in Pakistan, among which cancer of Cervix and Respiratory pappilomatosis are of great concern because of their association with human Pappilomavirus (HPV). Cervical cancers typically distress women of middle age or older; however it may affect women in any age after the puberty. Two serotypes of HPV (16 & 18) accounts 70% of cervical cancer cases, while HPV (6 & 11) are considered low-risk viruses associated with genital warts (Condyloma acuminata) and Respiratory pappilomatosis in both gender. Generally, there is transient role of HPV in human body and are removed by immune system in or around 1 year. Data from different Pakistani hospitals provides sound evidence for increasing trends of cervical cancer, which is, being developing country imperative for us. As the cost of cancer management is increasing day by day with poor survival rate and its burden is borne by patient, their family or society in-large, so if screening or prevention is possible then there would be need to identify target population for screening and vaccination. By quality adjusted life year (QALY) measurement, the data from different sources indicates that adolescent age is the appropriate target population and is cost effective for vaccination. Two vaccines manufactured by recombinant DNA technology are licensed in some parts of the world for prevention of HPV related cancers, however both have certain advantage over another, as one of the vaccines contains viral like proteins of two HPV serotypes 16 & 18 and provide additional cross protection against HPV type 13 and 45 with 100% seroprotection, while the other vaccine, being quadrivalent offers protection against four serotypes 6, 11, 16 and 18. Both vaccines tolerability and safety profiles are similar and acceptable, however bivalent vaccine appears to provide long-lasting immunity by the development of memory B-cells hypothetically due to difference of adsorbing agent used by manufacturer, on the other hand, quadrivalent vaccine offers protection against cervical cancer but also offers additional protection against Condyloma acuminata and respiratory Pappilomatosis. As these vaccines are new in the market and initial trials indicate availability of antibodies for up to around 5 years i.e. why it is controversial at the moment that whether booster dose is recommended or not, however it is assumed that, there is no harm to have booster dose at 5th year of vaccination. PMID:23009992

  12. Long-term Persistence of Oral Human Papillomavirus Type 16: The HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study.

    PubMed

    Pierce Campbell, Christine M; Kreimer, Aimée R; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fulp, William; O'Keefe, Michael T; Ingles, Donna J; Abrahamsen, Martha; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R

    2015-03-01

    Persistent infection with oral HPV16 is believed to drive the development of most oropharyngeal cancers. However, patterns of oral HPV16 persistence remain understudied, particularly among HIV-negative individuals. Oral HPV16 persistence was evaluated among 1,626 participants of the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study. Twenty-three oral HPV16-positive men who provided an oral gargle sample on ?2 study visits were included in the analysis. Archived oral samples from all follow-up visits were tested for HPV16 using Linear Array and INNO-LiPA detection methods. Persistence was evaluated using consecutive HPV16-positive visits held approximately 6 months apart and using the Kaplan-Meier method. Oral HPV16-positive men were aged 18 to 64 years [median, 36 years; interquartile range (IQR), 25-42] and were followed for a median of 44.4 months (IQR, 29.9-49.5). Of 13 incident infections, 4 (30.8%) persisted ?12 months, 1 (10.0%) persisted ?24 months, and none persisted ?36 months [median infection duration, 7.3 months; 95% confidence interval (CI), 6.4-NA)]. Of 10 prevalent infections, 9 (90.0%) persisted ?12 months, 8 (80.0%) persisted ?24 months, 4 (57.1%) persisted ?36 months, and 2 (40.0%) persisted ?48 months (median infection duration, NA). Twelve-month persistence of incident infections increased significantly with age (Ptrend = 0.028). Prevalent oral HPV16 infections in men persisted longer than newly acquired infections, and persistence appeared to increase with age. These findings may explain the high prevalence of oral HPV observed at older ages. Understanding oral HPV16 persistence will aid in the identification of men at high-risk of developing HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer. Cancer Prev Res; 8(3); 190-6. ©2015 AACR. PMID:25575501

  13. Sequence Imputation of HPV16 Genomes for Genetic Association Studies

    E-print Network

    DeSalle, Rob

    Sequence Imputation of HPV16 Genomes for Genetic Association Studies Benjamin Smith1 , Zigui Chen1 type 16 (HPV16) causes over half of all cervical cancer and some HPV16 variants are more oncogenic than others. The genetic basis for the extraordinary oncogenic properties of HPV16 compared to other HPVs

  14. Protect Yourself Against HPV | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Protect Yourself Against HPV Protect Yourself Against HPV Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table of Contents Find Out More MedlinePlus www.medlineplus.gov Type "HPV" in the Search box. National Cancer Institute —HPV ...

  15. Exploring the Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs, and Communication Preferences of the General Public regarding HPV: Findings from CDC Focus Group Research and Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Allison L.; Shepeard, Hilda

    2007-01-01

    Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted virus in the United States, causing genital warts, cervical cell abnormalities, and cervical cancer in women. To inform HPV education efforts, 35 focus groups were conducted with members of the general public, stratified by gender, race/ethnicity, and urban/rural…

  16. HPV infection, anal intra-epithelial neoplasia (AIN) and anal cancer: current issues

    E-print Network

    Stanley, Margaret A; Winder, David M; Sterling, Jane C; Goon, Peter K C

    2012-09-08

    Abstract Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is well known as the major etiological agent for ano-genital cancer. In contrast to cervical cancer, anal cancer is uncommon, but is increasing steadily in the community over the last few decades...

  17. Application of a multiplex PCR to cervical cells collected by a paper smear for the simultaneous detection of all mucosal human papillomaviruses (HPVs) and typing of high-risk HPV types 16 and 18.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Shirish; Bharti, Alok C; Mahata, Sutapa; Hussain, Showket; Hedau, Suresh; Sharma, Rajyashri; Pillai, M Radhakrishna; Krishna, Sudhir; Chiplunkar, Shubhada; Tongaonkar, Hemant; Das, Bhudev C

    2010-11-01

    A simple paper smear (PS) method for dry collection and storage of cervical specimens was employed to develop an easy multiplex (MPX) PCR for simultaneous detection of generic human papillomaviruses (HPVs) as well as typing of the high-risk HPV-16 and -18, the two clinically most important HPV genotypes, which are responsible for more than 80?% of cervical cancers. Multiplexing was performed with a small amount of DNA eluted by boiling from a single PS punch in a single tube and using a mixture of four pairs of primers specific for the HPV L1 consensus sequence, HPV-16, HPV-18 and the ?-globin gene. Sixty HPV-positive biopsies and corresponding PS specimens from cervical cancer patients as well as cervical smears from 100 healthy women with or without abnormal cytology were collected both as PSs and in PBS. Detection of HPV DNA from cervical biopsies collected in PBS and corresponding cervical scrapes on a PS or in PBS by conventional and MPX-PCR showed a concordance of 100?% and adequacy of 93?%. A similar comparative study in cervical scrapes from normal women also revealed 100?% concordance. The technique was validated in a multicentric study at four different national laboratories. PSs collected by different centres showed variable adequacy (73-82?%) but the use of multiple PS discs for DNA extraction significantly increased the adequacy. Integration of PSs with MPX-PCR for the detection and typing of HPVs is a highly convenient, efficient, simple and cost-effective method for large-scale clinico-epidemiological studies and is also suitable for HPV vaccine monitoring programmes in resource-poor settings. PMID:20688948

  18. Mechanisms of decreased expression of transforming growth factor-beta receptor type I at late stages of HPV16-mediated transformation.

    PubMed

    Hypes, Melissa K; Pirisi, Lucia; Creek, Kim E

    2009-09-18

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signaling is disrupted in many cancers, including cervical cancer, leading to TGF-beta resistance. Although initially sensitive, human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) immortalized human keratinocytes (HKc/HPV16) become increasingly resistant to the growth inhibitory effects of TGF-beta during in vitro progression to a differentiation resistant phenotype (HKc/DR). We have previously shown that loss of TGF-beta sensitivity in HKc/DR is attributed to decreased expression of TGF-beta receptor type I (TGF-beta RI), while the levels of TGF-beta receptor type II (TGF-beta RII) remain unchanged. The present study explored molecular mechanisms leading to reduced TGF-beta RI expression in HKc/DR. Using TGF-beta RI and TGF-beta RII promoter reporter constructs, we determined that acute expression of the HPV16 oncogenes E6 and E7 decreased the promoter activity of TGF-beta RI and TGF-beta RII by about 50%. However, promoter activity of TGF-beta RI is decreased to a greater extent than TGF-beta RII as HKc/HPV16 progress to HKc/DR. Reduced TGF-beta RI expression in HKc/DR was found not to be linked to mutations within the TGF-beta RI promoter or to promoter methylation. Electrophoretic mobility shift and supershift assays using probes encompassing Sp1 binding sites in the TGF-beta RI promoter found no changes between HKc/HPV16 and HKc/DR in binding of the transcription factors Sp1 or Sp3 to the probes. Also, Western blots determined that protein levels of Sp1 and Sp3 remain relatively unchanged between HKc/HPV16 and HKc/DR. Overall, these results demonstrate that mutations in or hypermethylation of the TGF-beta RI promoter, along with altered levels of Sp1 or Sp3, are not responsible for the reduced expression of TGF-beta RI we observe in HKc/DR. Rather the HPV16 oncogenes E6 and E7 themselves exhibit an inhibitory effect on TGF-beta receptor promoter activity. PMID:19344999

  19. Women’s Knowledge of HPV and Their Perceptions of Physician Educational Efforts Regarding HPV and Cervical Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Megan Cermak; Randall Cottrell; Judy Murnan

    2010-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) was one of the most common sexually transmitted infections in women of child-bearing age in the\\u000a US. It was estimated that nearly three out of every four American women between the ages of 15 and 49 would be infected with\\u000a genital HPV over the course of their lifetime. Human papillomavirus was present in almost 100% of cervical

  20. Testing for HPV

    MedlinePLUS

    ... HPV test, what does it mean? Testing for HPV What’s the difference between a Pap test and an HPV test? A Pap test is used to find ... HPV is found. Should I be tested for HPV? If you are a woman under age 30 ...

  1. Intravaginal immunization with HPV vectors induces tissue-resident CD8+ T cell responses

    PubMed Central

    Çuburu, Nicolas; Graham, Barney S.; Buck, Christopher B.; Kines, Rhonda C.; Pang, Yuk-Ying S.; Day, Patricia M.; Lowy, Douglas R.; Schiller, John T.

    2012-01-01

    The induction of persistent intraepithelial CD8+ T cell responses may be key to the development of vaccines against mucosally transmitted pathogens, particularly for sexually transmitted diseases. Here we investigated CD8+ T cell responses in the female mouse cervicovaginal mucosa after intravaginal immunization with human papillomavirus vectors (HPV pseudoviruses) that transiently expressed a model antigen, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) M/M2, in cervicovaginal keratinocytes. An HPV intravaginal prime/boost with different HPV serotypes induced 10-fold more cervicovaginal antigen-specific CD8+ T cells than priming alone. Antigen-specific T cell numbers decreased only 2-fold after 6 months. Most genital antigen-specific CD8+ T cells were intra- or subepithelial, expressed ?E-integrin CD103, produced IFN-? and TNF-?, and displayed in vivo cytotoxicity. Using a sphingosine-1-phosphate analog (FTY720), we found that the primed CD8+ T cells proliferated in the cervicovaginal mucosa upon HPV intravaginal boost. Intravaginal HPV prime/boost reduced cervicovaginal viral titers 1,000-fold after intravaginal challenge with vaccinia virus expressing the CD8 epitope M2. In contrast, intramuscular prime/boost with an adenovirus type 5 vector induced a higher level of systemic CD8+ T cells but failed to induce intraepithelial CD103+CD8+ T cells or protect against recombinant vaccinia vaginal challenge. Thus, HPV vectors are attractive gene-delivery platforms for inducing durable intraepithelial cervicovaginal CD8+ T cell responses by promoting local proliferation and retention of primed antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. PMID:23143305

  2. HPV Vaccine and Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... or visit us online at: www.OTISpregnancy.org . HPV Vaccine and Pregnancy This sheet talks about the ... advice from your health care provider. What is HPV? Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common infection ...

  3. HPV and Men

    MedlinePLUS

    ... time in their life. Although most HPV infections go away on their own without causing problems, HPV ... me? Most of the time HPV infections completely go away and don’t cause any health problems. ...

  4. Induction of immune memory following administration of a prophylactic quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6\\/11\\/16\\/18 L1 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sven-Eric Olsson; Luisa L. Villa; Ronaldo L. R. Costa; Carlos A. Petta; Rosires P. Andrade; Christian Malm; Ole-Erik Iversen; John Høye; Margareta Steinwall; Grete Riis-Johannessen; Agneta Andersson-Ellstrom; Kristina Elfgren; Geo von Krogh; Matti Lehtinen; Jorma Paavonen; Gretchen M. Tamms; Katherine Giacoletti; Lisa Lupinacci; Mark T. Esser; Scott C. Vuocolo; Alfred J. Saah; Eliav Barr

    2007-01-01

    BackgroundThe duration of protection afforded by vaccines represents a critical test of their utility as public health interventions. Some vaccines induce long-term immunity, while others require booster doses. Vaccines that induce long-term protection are usually characterized by the generation of immune memory. Recent trials of a quadrivalent (types 6, 11, 16, 18) human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine have demonstrated high efficacy

  5. Therapeutic HPV DNA vaccines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken Lin; Elena Roosinovich; Barbara Ma; Chien-Fu Hung; T.-C. Wu

    2010-01-01

    It is now well established that most cervical cancers are causally associated with HPV infection. This realization has led\\u000a to efforts to control HPV-associated malignancy through prevention or treatment of HPV infection. Currently, commercially\\u000a available HPV vaccines are not designed to control established HPV infection and associated premalignant and malignant lesions.\\u000a To treat and eradicate pre-existing HPV infections and associated

  6. Genital and Urinary Tract Defects

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Genital and urinary tract defects Genital and urinary tract ... of waste and extra fluids. What problems can genital and urinary tract defects cause? Genital and urinary ...

  7. Effects of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Glycoprotein Vaccines and CLDC Adjuvant on Genital Herpes Infection in the Guinea Pig

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, David I; Earwood, Julie D.; Bravo, Fernando J.; Cohen, Gary H; Eisenberg, Roselyn J; Clark, Jennifer R.; Fairman, Jeffrey; Cardin, Rhonda D.

    2011-01-01

    Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are common but results from vaccine trials with HSV-2 glycoprotein D (gD) have been disappointing. We therefore compared a similar HSV gD2 vaccine, to a further truncated gD2 vaccine, to a vaccine with gD2 plus gB2 and gH2/gL2 and to a vaccine with only gB2 and gH2/gL2 in a guinea pig model of genital herpes. All vaccines were administered with cationic liposome-DNA complexes (CLDC) as an adjuvant. All vaccines significantly decreased the severity of acute genital disease and vaginal virus replication compared to the placebo group. The majority of animals in all groups developed at least one episode of recurrent disease but the frequency of recurrent disease was significantly reduced by each vaccine compared to placebo. No vaccine was significantly more protective than gD2 alone for any of the parameters described above. No vaccine decreased recurrent virus shedding. When protection against acute infection of dorsal root ganglia and the spinal cord was evaluated all vaccines decreased the per cent of animal with detectable virus and the quantity of virus but again no vaccine was significantly more protective than another. Improvements in HSV-2 vaccines may require inclusion of more T cell targets, more potent adjuvants or live virus vaccines. PMID:21238569

  8. Oxidative stress and HPV carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    De Marco, Federico

    2013-02-01

    Extensive experimental work has conclusively demonstrated that infection with certain types of human papillomaviruses, the so-called high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV), represent a most powerful human carcinogen. However, neoplastic growth is a rare and inappropriate outcome in the natural history of HPV, and a number of other events have to concur in order to induce the viral infection into the (very rare) neoplastic transformation. From this perspective, a number of putative viral, host, and environmental co-factors have been proposed as potential candidates. Among them oxidative stress (OS) is an interesting candidate, yet comparatively underexplored. OS is a constant threat to aerobic organisms being generated during mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, as well as during inflammation, infections, ionizing irradiation, UV exposure, mechanical and chemical stresses. Epithelial tissues, the elective target for HPV infection, are heavily exposed to all named sources of OS. Two different types of cooperative mechanisms are presumed to occur between OS and HPV: I) The OS genotoxic activity and the HPV-induced genomic instability concur independently to the generation of the molecular damage necessary for the emergence of neoplastic clones. This first mode is merely a particular form of co-carcinogenesis; and II) OS specifically interacts with one or more molecular stages of neoplastic initiation and/or progression induced by the HPV infection. This manuscript was designed to summarize available data on this latter hypothesis. Experimental data and indirect evidences on promoting the activity of OS in viral infection and viral integration will be reviewed. The anti-apoptotic and pro-angiogenetic role of NO (nitric oxide) and iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase) will be discussed together with the OS/HPV cooperation in inducing cancer metabolism adaptation. Unexplored/underexplored aspects of the OS interplay with the HPV-driven carcinogenesis will be highlighted. The aim of this paper is to stimulate new areas of study and innovative approaches. PMID:23403708

  9. HPV detection and measurement of HPV-16, telomerase, and survivin transcripts in colposcopy clinic patients

    PubMed Central

    Lanham, S; Herbert, A; Watt, P

    2001-01-01

    Aims—To determine whether the detection of high risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types is more predictive for high grade CIN than the current cervical smear test, and whether the production and measurement of HPV type 16 (HPV-16) and cellular survivin and telomerase transcripts can be used to discriminate between cervical HPV infections that self cure and those that induce high grade lesions. Methods—Three hundred and fifty four cervical smear samples from women attending the colposcopy clinic were tested by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of HPV. Transcripts for HPV-16 E6, E6*I, E6*II, E7, and L1 as well as cellular survivin, telomerase RNA component, and telomerase reverse transcriptase were measured using fluorogenic probe (Taqman) assays. Results—Referral smear grades of severe or moderate showed greater positive predictive values for CIN 2/3 than did the detection of high or moderate risk HPV types. HPV-16 transcripts from E6, E6*I, E6*II, and E7 showed high predictive values for CIN 2/3, but low sensitivity. The telomerase RNA component was detected in 53 of 57 samples and telomerase reverse transcriptase was only detected in one sample, whereas survivin transcripts were detected in 40% of samples. Conclusions—The detection of HPV-16 or cellular survivin or telomerase transcripts did not accurately predict the grade of CIN in the samples. The detection of HPV risk types correlated well with the grade of CIN; however, the referral grade smear was the most accurate predictor of the severity of the lesion. Of the 35 different HPV types detected, 18 are not included in the HPV hybrid capture II commercial test kit. The use of such kits would have missed HPV infection in 4.3% of clinic patients with CIN 2/3 lesions and 15.4% with CIN 0/1. Key Words: human papillomavirus type 16 • survivin • telomerase • CIN • transcripts • Taqman PMID:11304848

  10. Nuclear proto-oncogene products transactivate the human papillomavirus type 16 promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Nürnberg, W.; Artuc, M.; Vorbrueggen, G.; Kalkbrenner, F.; Moelling, K.; Czarnetzki, B. M.; Schadendorf, D.

    1995-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 and 18 viral genomes are frequently detected in cervical and penile cancer biopsies. Although this strongly suggests a prominent role for HPV infection in the development of genital cancer, other genetic or environmental factors are also involved. Genital cancer is postulated to result from loss of cellular control functions, which leads to an unregulated expression of HPV oncogenic proteins. In our study, we determined the trans-activating properties of nuclear proto-oncogene proteins c-Fos, c-Jun and c-Myc on P97 enhancer/promoter activity of HPV16. Using a CAT-reporter construct containing the HPV16 enhancer/promoter element, we investigated the trans-activating effects of c-Fos, c-Jun, c-Myc, and E2 in cervical HT-3 cells. c-Fos and c-Jun overexpression resulted in a 3.3- and 3.1-fold up-regulation of CAT activity. Only 2-fold induction was determined by co-transfection with c-myc and the viral transcription factor E2. Based on these findings, we investigated the expression of HPV DNA (16 and 18) as well as nuclear proto-oncogenes (c-fos, c-jun and c-myc) in nine cervical cancers by in situ hybridisation. In six out of nine carcinomas, HPV16 and/or HPV18 DNA was detectable. All tumours showed an intense and homogeneous expression of c-fos and c-jun mRNA, while the signal for c-myc was detectable only in four specimens. These data suggest that deregulation of nuclear proto-oncogene expression may contribute to an overexpression of HPV-derived oncogenic proteins (E6 and E7), which is generally hypothesised to be an important step in the malignant transformation of HPV-associated tumours. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7734293

  11. Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) genomes integrated in head and neck cancers and in HPV-16-immortalized human keratinocyte clones express chimeric virus-cell mRNAs similar to those found in cervical cancers.

    PubMed

    Lace, Michael J; Anson, James R; Klussmann, Jens P; Wang, Dong Hong; Smith, Elaine M; Haugen, Thomas H; Turek, Lubomir P

    2011-02-01

    Many human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive high-grade lesions and cancers of the uterine cervix harbor integrated HPV genomes expressing the E6 and E7 oncogenes from chimeric virus-cell mRNAs, but less is known about HPV integration in head and neck cancer (HNC). Here we compared viral DNA status and E6-E7 mRNA sequences in HPV-16-positive HNC tumors to those in independent human keratinocyte cell clones derived from primary tonsillar or foreskin epithelia immortalized with HPV-16 genomes. Three of nine HNC tumors and epithelial clones containing unintegrated HPV-16 genomes expressed mRNAs spliced from HPV-16 SD880 to SA3358 and terminating at the viral early gene p(A) signal. In contrast, most integrated HPV genomes in six HNCs and a set of 31 keratinocyte clones expressed HPV-16 major early promoter (MEP)-initiated mRNAs spliced from viral SD880 directly to diverse cellular sequences, with a minority spliced to SA3358 followed by a cellular DNA junction. Sequence analysis of chimeric virus-cell mRNAs from HNC tumors and keratinocyte clones identified viral integration sites in a variety of chromosomes, with some located in or near growth control genes, including the c-myc protooncogene and the gene encoding FAP-1 phosphatase. Taken together, these findings support the hypothesis that HPV integration in cancers is a stochastic process resulting in clonal selection of aggressively expanding cells with altered gene expression of integrated HPV genomes and potential perturbations of cellular genes at or near viral integration sites. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that this selection also takes place and can be studied in primary human keratinocytes in culture. PMID:21123375

  12. Human Papillomavirus Type 16 (HPV-16) Genomes Integrated in Head and Neck Cancers and in HPV-16-Immortalized Human Keratinocyte Clones Express Chimeric Virus-Cell mRNAs Similar to Those Found in Cervical Cancers ?

    PubMed Central

    Lace, Michael J.; Anson, James R.; Klussmann, Jens P.; Wang, Dong Hong; Smith, Elaine M.; Haugen, Thomas H.; Turek, Lubomir P.

    2011-01-01

    Many human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive high-grade lesions and cancers of the uterine cervix harbor integrated HPV genomes expressing the E6 and E7 oncogenes from chimeric virus-cell mRNAs, but less is known about HPV integration in head and neck cancer (HNC). Here we compared viral DNA status and E6-E7 mRNA sequences in HPV-16-positive HNC tumors to those in independent human keratinocyte cell clones derived from primary tonsillar or foreskin epithelia immortalized with HPV-16 genomes. Three of nine HNC tumors and epithelial clones containing unintegrated HPV-16 genomes expressed mRNAs spliced from HPV-16 SD880 to SA3358 and terminating at the viral early gene p(A) signal. In contrast, most integrated HPV genomes in six HNCs and a set of 31 keratinocyte clones expressed HPV-16 major early promoter (MEP)-initiated mRNAs spliced from viral SD880 directly to diverse cellular sequences, with a minority spliced to SA3358 followed by a cellular DNA junction. Sequence analysis of chimeric virus-cell mRNAs from HNC tumors and keratinocyte clones identified viral integration sites in a variety of chromosomes, with some located in or near growth control genes, including the c-myc protooncogene and the gene encoding FAP-1 phosphatase. Taken together, these findings support the hypothesis that HPV integration in cancers is a stochastic process resulting in clonal selection of aggressively expanding cells with altered gene expression of integrated HPV genomes and potential perturbations of cellular genes at or near viral integration sites. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that this selection also takes place and can be studied in primary human keratinocytes in culture. PMID:21123375

  13. Prevalence of HPV and variation of HPV 16/HPV 18 E6/E7 genes in cervical cancer in women in South West China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lijuan; Yang, Hongying; Wu, Kun; Shi, Xinan; Ma, Shaohui; Sun, Qiangming

    2014-11-01

    Genetic variations of High-Risk HPV E6/E7 may be associated with the development of cervical cancer in specific geographic regions. Few data have been reported about the HPV prevalence and E6/E7 variants among cervical cancer patients in Southwest China. This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of HPV and E6/E7 variants of most prevalent HPV among cervical cancer patients in Southwest China. After genotyping, E6/E7 genes of most prevalent HR HPV samples were sequenced and analyzed. Phylogenetic trees were then constructed, followed by an analysis of the diversity of secondary structure and selection pressures. HPV 16 (73.8%) and HPV 18 (16.4%) are the most prevalent infection types among cervical cancer patients, followed by HPV 58, HPV 56 and HPV 59, which is different from the high HPV 58 infection rate of outpatients in this region. Eighteen single nucleotide changes were observed in HPV 16 E6 with 13/18 non-synonymous mutations (5 in beta sheet and 2 in alpha helix). Ten single nucleotide changes were identified among HPV 16 E7 with 3/10 non-synonymous mutations. Three single nucleotide changes were observed in HPV 18 E6 with one non-synonymous mutation, and only one synonymous mutation was identified in HPV 18 E7. HPV 16 E6-D25E, E7-N29S and E7-T846C (S95S) exhibited a prevalent linkage mutation. The phylogenetic tree demonstrates that European and Asian lineages were the main patterns. This study may help understand the intrinsic geographical relatedness and oncogenic potential of HR HPV and contributes further to research of diagnostic, therapeutic and therapeutic vaccine strategy. PMID:25111286

  14. Divergence of reiterated sequences in a series of genital isolates of herpes simplex virus type 1 from individual patients.

    PubMed

    Umene, Kenichi; Kawana, Takashi

    2003-04-01

    Both serotypes of herpes simplex virus (HSV), HSV-1 and HSV-2, are aetiological agents of genital herpes, although genital herpes caused by HSV-1 recurs less frequently. The HSV-1 genome contains a number of short, tandemly repeated sequences, and some reiterated sequences can serve as sensitive markers for the differentiation of HSV-1 strains. In the present study, variation in reiterations (assumed to be due to different copy numbers of tandemly repeated sequences) was examined in HSV-1 isolates from genital lesions from the same individual. Six sets (three primary-recurrence sets and three multiple-recurrence sets) of HSV-1 isolates were analysed: the primary-recurrence set consisted of two isolates (one isolated at a primary episode and the other at a recurrent episode) from the same individual; the multiple-recurrence set consisted of plural isolates from different episodes of recurrence in the same individual. Variations in length of the major DNA fragment, containing reiteration I (within the a sequence) and/or reiteration IV (within introns of genes US1 and US12), were detected between isolates of each multiple-recurrence set, but not of the primary-recurrence set. Thus, HSV-1 isolates of multiple-recurrence sets are assumed to have diverged more widely within each set than those of primary-recurrence sets, probably because of more rounds of virus DNA replication. This divergence of reiterations seems to indicate a forward step in the division of HSV-1 from a common ancestor into different lineages. PMID:12655092

  15. MassARRAY Spectrometry Is More Sensitive than PreTect HPV-Proofer and Consensus PCR for Type-Specific Detection of High-Risk Oncogenic Human Papillomavirus Genotypes in Cervical Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Partha; Chandna, Puneet; Bamezai, R. N. K.; Siddiqi, Maqsood; Saranath, Dhananjaya; Lear, Adrian; Ratnam, Sam

    2011-01-01

    Type-specific detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) is indicated for better risk stratification and clinical management of women testing positive for HPV and for epidemiologic surveillance. MassARRAY spectrometry (MassARRAY; Sequenom) is a novel method for type-specific detection of 15 high-risk oncogenic HPV types: HPV-16, -18, -31, -33, -35, -39, -45, -51, -52, -56, -58, -59, -66, -68, and -73. PreTect HPV-Proofer (Proofer; Norchip) is a type-specific assay that detects E6/E7 mRNA from five high-risk oncogenic HPV types: HPV-16, -18, -31, -33, and -45. The performance of these tests for type-specific identification of HPV was assessed with cervical specimens from 192 cases of cervical cancer in comparison with consensus MY09/MY11 PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing (consensus PCR). The overall HPV detection rates were 94.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 91.7, 97.9), 83.3% (95% CI, 78.1, 88.5), and 86.5% (95% CI, 81.7, 91.3) for MassARRAY, Proofer, and consensus PCR, respectively. All tests were negative in six (3.1%) of the 192 cases. Considering only the specimens that contained at least one of the five types targeted by Proofer, the detection rates were 96.6%, 91.4%, and 86.9% for MassARRAY, Proofer, and consensus PCR, respectively. MassARRAY detected multiple infections in 14.1%, Proofer detected multiple infections in 3.6%, and consensus PCR failed to detect any multiple infections. The agreement was highest at 86.0% (kappa = 0.76) between MassARRAY and Proofer and lowest at 81.8% (kappa = 0.69) between Proofer and consensus PCR. In conclusion, MassARRAY is a highly sensitive and accurate method for type-specific detection of oncogenic HPV in cervical cancer, with Proofer showing impressive performance. PMID:21813716

  16. Awareness of Diagnosis and Knowledge of HPV in Women Patients: Data from a Multi-Site Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCree, Donna Hubbard; Daley, Ellen M.; Gorbach, Pamina; Hamm, Robert M.; Sharpe, Patricia A.; Brandt, Heather M.; McFarlane, Mary; Kerndt, Peter; McDermott, Robert J.; Perrin, Karen M.; St. Lawrence, Janet S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Persistent infection with high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with cervical and other anogenital cancers. Purpose: This paper reports results of awareness of an HPV diagnosis and HPV knowledge from a multi-site study of HPV knowledge, attitudes and behavior, and the impact of an HPV diagnosis on women and their…

  17. Clinicopathological Implications of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) L1 Capsid Protein Immunoreactivity in HPV16-Positive Cervical Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung-Jong; Lee, Ah-Won; Kang, Chang-Suk; Park, Jong-Sup; Park, Dong-Choon; Ki, Eun-Young; Lee, Keun-Ho; Yoon, Joo-Hee; Hur, Soo-Young; Kim, Tae-Jung

    2014-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of human papilloma virus (HPV) L1 capsid protein in abnormal cervical cytology with HPV16 infection and analyze its association with cervical histopathology in Korean women. Material and Methods: We performed immunocytochemistry for HPV L1 in 475 abnormal cervical cytology samples from patients with HPV16 infections using the Cytoactiv® HPV L1 screening set. We investigated the expression of HPV L1 in cervical cytology samples and compared it with the results of histopathological examination of surgical specimens. Results: Of a total of 475 cases, 188 (39.6%) were immunocytochemically positive and 287 (60.4%) negative for HPV L1. The immunocytochemical expression rates of HPV L1 in atypical squamous cells of unknown significance (ASCUS), low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), and cancer were 21.8%, 59.7%, 19.1%, and 0.0%, respectively. LSIL exhibited the highest rate of HPV L1 positivity. Of a total of 475 cases, the multiple-type HPV infection rate, including HPV16, in HPV L1-negative cytology samples was 27.5%, which was significantly higher than that in HPV L1-positive cytology samples (p = 0.037). The absence of HPV L1 expression in ASCUS and LSIL was significantly associated with high-grade (?cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN] 2) than low-grade (?CIN1) histopathology diagnoses (p < 0.05), but was not significantly different between HPV16 single and multiple-type HPV infections (p > 0.05). On the other hand, among 188 HPV L1-positive cases, 30.6% of multiple-type HPV infections showed high-grade histopathology diagnoses (?CIN3), significantly higher than the percentage of HPV16 single infections (8.6%) (p = 0.0004) Conclusions: Our study demonstrates that the expression of HPV L1 is low in advanced dysplasia. Furthermore, the absence of HPV L1 in HPV16-positive low-grade cytology (i.e., ASCUS and LSIL) is strongly associated with high-grade histopathology diagnoses. The multiplicity of HPV infections may have an important role in high-grade histopathology diagnoses (?CIN3) in HPV L1-positive cases. PMID:24396289

  18. Understanding HPV Disease and Prevention: A Guide for School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood-Rayermann, Suzy; McIntyre, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    Oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) causes 99.7% of all cervical cancers. HPV Types 16 and 18 are responsible for approximately 77% of cases, and peak prevalence occurs in females younger than 25 years of age. The recent implementation of HPV vaccination provides females with the opportunity to prevent infection. School nurses are advocates of…

  19. Chapter 2: The burden of HPV-related cancers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Maxwell Parkin; Freddie Bray

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of current evidence regarding human papillomavirus (HPV) and cancer, this chapter provides estimates of the global burden of HPV-related cancers, and the proportion that are actually “caused” by infection with HPV types, and therefore potentially preventable. We also present trends in incidence and mortality of these cancers in the past, and consider their likely future evolution.

  20. HPV testing in primary screening of older women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Cuzick; E Beverley; L Ho; G Terry; H Sapper; I Mielzynska; A Lorincz; W-K Chan; T Krausz; P Soutter

    1999-01-01

    Certain types of the human papilloma virus (HPV) are well established as the primary cause of cervical cancer. Several studies have shown that HPV testing can improve the detection rate of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), but these have been carried out primarily in younger women. In this study we evaluated the role of HPV testing as an adjunct to

  1. Quantifying the Decisional Satisfaction to Accept or Reject the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine: A Preference for Cervical Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Diane M.; Irons, Billy B.; Alexander, Natalie M.; Comes, Johanna C.; Smith, Melissa S.; Heutinck, Melinda A.; Handley, Sandra M.; Ahern, Debra A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Only a portion of the US population is willing to consider HPV vaccination to date. The primary aim of this study is to determine the decisional satisfaction associated with HPV vaccination. Study Design This is a prospective survey conducted at an urban college where women 18–26 years old completed a decisional satisfaction survey about their HPV vaccine experience. Results Regardless of the decision to accept or reject HPV vaccination, the decisional satisfaction was very high (mean 5-item score?=?21.2 (SD 3.8)). Women without HPV vaccination were decisionally neutral significantly more often than those already vaccinated; 22% were decisionally neutral for the option to accept HPV vaccination at that visit. Cervical cancer prevention was preferred significantly more often than genital wart prevention in all analyses. Conclusions Targeting those who are decisionally neutral about HPV vaccination may result in a higher uptake of HPV vaccination. PMID:24551110

  2. Cutaneous HPV and skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Accardi, Rosita; Gheit, Tarik

    2014-10-22

    Papillomaviruses (HPVs) are small non-enveloped icosahedral viruses that infect the keratinocytes of skin and mucosa. The cutaneous HPV types are represented mainly by the beta and gamma genera, which are widely present in the skin of normal individuals. More than 40 beta-HPV types and 50 gamma-HPV types have been isolated, and these numbers are continuously growing. The main cause of non-melanoma skin cancer is exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). However, cutaneous HPVs that belong to the beta genus may act as a co-carcinogen with UVR. The association between beta-HPVs and skin cancer was first reported in patients with epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV), who frequently develop cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) on sun-exposed areas. Isolation of HPVs from the lesions suggested that HPVs might act as a co-carcinogen with UVR in EV patients. Beta-HPVs may also play a role in cutaneous SCC in immunocompromised non-EV and in immunocompetent individuals. Several studies have reported an association of viral DNA and/or antibodies to beta HPV types with SCC. Interestingly, HPV prevalence and viral load decrease during skin carcinogenesis, being significantly higher in actinic keratosis than in SCC, suggesting that the virus may play a role in the early stages of tumour development (the "hit-and-run" hypothesis). Concordantly, in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that E6 and E7 from certain cutaneous HPV types display transforming activities, further confirming their potential role in carcinogenesis. PMID:25451638

  3. Significance of HPV-58 Infection in Women Who Are HPV-Positive, Cytology-Negative and Living in a Country with a High Prevalence of HPV-58 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Song, Joon Seon; Kim, Eun Ju; Choi, Jene; Gong, Gyungyub; Sung, Chang Ohk

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Cervical cytology and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA co-testing is recommended as a screening method for detecting cervical lesions. However, for women who are HPV-positive but cytology-negative, the appropriate management and significance of HPV-58 infection remain unknown. Methods This study of prevalent HPV detected at baseline with a median follow-up of 3.2 years evaluated the risk factors associated with cervical abnormalities and assessed the significance of HPV-58 infection. A total of 265 women were enrolled. All high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) that were detected by cytology were confirmed by histology. Histological diagnoses of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2/3 were classified as HSIL. Women were classified into four groups according to the HPV genotype that was detected at their first visit: HPV-58 (n?=?27), HPV-16 (n?=?52; 3 women had HPV-58 co-infection), ten other high risk (HR) types (n?=?79), or low/undetermined risk types (n?=?107). Results Of 265 women, 20 (7.5%) had HSIL on their follow-up examinations. There were significant differences in the cumulative incidence of HSIL between the four groups (p<0.001). The 5-year cumulative incidence rates of HSIL were 34.0% (95% CI: 17.3–59.8%) in HPV-58 positive cases, 28.0% (95% CI: 13.8–51.6) in HPV-16 positive cases, 5.5% (95% CI: 2.1–14.0%) in one of the ten other types of HR-HPV positive cases, and 0% in women with low/undetermined risk HPV. When seen in women with HR-HPV (n?=?158), persistent HPV infection was a significant factor associated with the development of HSIL (hazard ratio?=?15.459, 95% CI: 2.042–117.045). Women with HPV-58 had a higher risk (hazard ratio?=?5.260, 95% CI: 1.538–17.987) for the development of HSIL than women with HPV-16 (hazard ratio?=?3.822, 95% CI: 1.176–12.424) in comparison with women with other types of HR-HPV. Conclusion HPV-58 has a high association with the development of HSIL in women who are HPV-positive and cytology-negative. PMID:23505548

  4. HPV Vaccine Effective Against Infection at Multiple Sites, Provides Partial Protection in Women with Previous Infections

    Cancer.gov

    A new study from NCI researchers finds that the HPV vaccine protects young women from infection with high-risk HPV types at the three primary anatomic sites where persistent HPV infections can cause cancer. The multi-site protection also was observed at lower levels in previously HPV-exposed women.

  5. Barriers to HPV vaccination

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... MedlinePlus Pages HPV Immunization Sexually Transmitted Diseases Teen Sexual Health Transcript Concern over whether the HPV vaccine promotes unsafe sexual activity is one reason experts say vaccination rates ...

  6. Immunity in the female genital tract after intravaginal vaccination of mice with an attenuated strain of herpes simplex virus type 2.

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, M R; Smiley, J R; Leslie, P; Brais, J; Rudzroga, H E; Bienenstock, J

    1984-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 is a common human venereal pathogen which causes lethal neurological illness after intravaginal inoculation into BALB/cJ mice. To investigate whether an attenuated, nonlethal strain of this virus would confer immunity after inoculation of mice, we constructed a strain containing a partial deletion of the thymidine kinase gene, which is necessary for viral replication and spread in sensory ganglia. Unlike its wild-type counterpart, this deletion-containing strain of herpes simplex virus type 2 caused mild clinical disease and was not lethal when studied in an age-dependent murine model of intravaginal infection. Furthermore, after intravaginal infection, the deletion-containing strain could not be isolated from sensory ganglia at a time when wild-type virus was abundant. Of greater significance, intravaginal inoculation with the deletion-containing strain rendered mice completely resistant to rechallenge with a 10-fold 50% lethal dose of wild-type virus. These results suggest that a strain of herpes simplex virus type 2 containing a deletion of the thymidine kinase gene will be useful in studying the cellular basis of mucosal immunity in the genital tract. Images PMID:6088797

  7. Prevalent Serum Antibody Is Not a Marker of Immune Protection against Acquisition of Oncogenic HPV16 in Men

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Beibei; Viscidi, Raphael P.; Wu, Yougui; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Nyitray, Alan G.; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Carvalho da Silva, Roberto J.; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Quiterio, Manuel; Salmeron, Jorge; Smith, Danelle C.; Abrahamsen, Martha E.; Papenfuss, Mary R.; Stockwell, Heather G.; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2012-01-01

    In women, naturally induced anti–human papilloma virus (HPV) serum antibodies are a likely marker of host immune protection against subsequent HPV acquisition and progression to precancerous lesions and cancers. However, it is unclear whether the same is the case in men. In this study, we assessed the risk of incident genital infection and 6-month persistent genital infection with HPV16 in relation to baseline serostatus in a cohort of 2,187 men over a 48-month period. Genital swabs were collected every 6 months and tested for HPV presence. Incidence proportions by serostatus were calculated at each study visit to examine whether potential immune protection attenuated over time. Overall, incidence proportions did not differ statistically between baseline seropositive and seronegative men at any study visit or over the follow-up period. The risk of incident and 6-month persistent infection was not associated with baseline serostatus or baseline serum antibody levels in the cohort. Our findings suggest that baseline HPV seropositivity in men is not associated with reduced risk of subsequent HPV16 acquisition. Thus, prevalent serum antibodies induced by prior infection may not be a suitable marker for subsequent immune protection against genital HPV16 acquisition in men. PMID:22123925

  8. HIV associated high-risk HPV infection among Nigerian women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In developed countries, the incidence of cervical cancer has remained stable in HIV+?women but the prevalence and multiplicity of high-risk HPV (hrHPV) infection, a necessary cause of cervical cancer, appears different comparing HIV+?to HIV- women. Little is known about HIV and HPV co-infection in Africa. Methods We enrolled women presenting at our cervical cancer screening program in Abuja, Nigeria between April and August 2012, and collected information on demographic characteristics, risk factors of HPV infection and samples of exfoliated cervical cells. We used Roche Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test® to characterize prevalent HPV and logistic regression models to estimate the association between HIV and the risk of hrHPV infection. Results There were 278 participants, 54% (151) were HIV+, 40% (111) were HIV-, and 6% (16) had unknown HIV status. Of these, data from 149 HIV+?and 108 HIV- women were available for analysis. The mean ages (±SD) were 37.6 (±7.7) years for HIV+?and 36.6 (±7.9) years for HIV- women (p-value?=?0.34). Among the HIV+?women, HPV35 (8.7%) and HPV56 (7.4%) were the most prevalent hrHPV, while HPV52 and HPV68 (2.8%, each) were the most prevalent hrHPV types among HIV- women. The multivariate prevalence ratio for any hrHPV and multiple hrHPV infections were 4.18 (95% CI 2.05 – 8.49, p-value <0.0001) and 6.6 (95% CI 1.49 – 29.64, p-value 0.01) respectively, comparing HIV?+?to HIV- women, adjusted for age, and educational level. Conclusions HIV infection was associated with increased risk of any HPV, hrHPV and multiple HPV infections. Oncogenic HPV types 35, 52, 56 and 68 may be more important risk factors for cervical pre-cancer and cancer among women in Africa. Polyvalent hrHPV vaccines meant for African populations should protect against other hrHPV types, in addition to 16 and 18. PMID:24192311

  9. The quality of life of patients with genital warts: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Genital warts, which are caused by infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), are one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in Europe. Although genital warts are commonly perceived as a non-serious condition, treatment is often long, of varying effectiveness and the recurrence rate is high. Very few studies have been performed on the personal consequences of genital warts. The aim of this qualitative study, set in Denmark, was to examine the ways in which genital warts may affect patients' quality of life. Methods To obtain an in-depth understanding of patients' perceptions of genital warts, we used qualitative focus-group interviews with five men and five women aged between 18 and 30 years who had genital warts. The interview guide was based on a literature review that identified important issues and questions. The data were analysed using a medical anthropological approach. Results Patients' experiences were related to cultural conceptions of venereal diseases and the respective identities and sexuality of the sexes. The disease had negative psychological and social effects both for men and for women and it affected their sex and love lives, in particular. The psychological burden of the disease was increased by the uncertain timeline and the varying effectiveness of treatment. We identified a need for more patient information about the disease and its psycho-sexual aspects. Conclusions The men and women participating in this study considered their quality of life to be significantly lowered because of genital warts. The experiences described by the participants give insights that may be valuable in treatment and counselling. The quadrivalent HPV vaccine that has now been added to the childhood vaccination programme for girls in Denmark for the prevention of cervical cancer can also prevent 90% of cases of genital warts. Our results suggest that HPV vaccination could considerably reduce the largely unacknowledged psychological and social burden associated with genital warts, in men as well as women. PMID:20205944

  10. Supporting women after genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Alison

    Female genital mutilation is a common practice in many cultures, and has a range of complications. Many women in the UK have undergone the procedure and many girls are at risk. This article discusses the types of FGM and its complications, and explains how nurses can identify those who have had or are at risk of FGM and either offer support or specialist referral. PMID:24881177

  11. Human Papillomavirus Genotype Distribution in Czech Women and Men with Diseases Etiologically Linked to HPV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth Tachezy; Jana Smahelova; Martina Salakova; Marc Arbyn; Lukas Rob; Petr Skapa; Tomas Jirasek; Eva Hamsikova

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundThe HPV prevalence and genotype distribution are important for the estimation of the impact of HPV-based cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination on the incidence of diseases etiologically linked to HPVs. The HPV genotype distribution varies across different geographical regions. Therefore, we investigated the type-specific HPV prevalence in Czech women and men with anogenital diseases.MethodsWe analyzed 157 squamous cell carcinoma

  12. Therapeutic Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines: A Novel Approach

    PubMed Central

    Kawana, Kei; Adachi, Katsuyuki; Kojima, Satoko; Kozuma, Shiro; Fujii, Tomoyuki

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second largest cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide, and it occurs following persistent infection, sometimes for decades, with a specific subset of human papillomavirus (HPV) types; the approximately 13 oncogenic subtypes. Prophylactic vaccines against HPV infections hold promise for cost-effective reductions in the incidence of cervical cancer, but this may not be enough. Two prophylactic HPV vaccines are presently available and both contain L1 virus-like particles (VLPs) derived from the HPV subtypes most frequently associated with cervical cancer, HPV-16 and -18. Since the L1-VLP vaccines can only effectively prevent infection by the specific HPV subtype against which the vaccine was developed, cervical cancers caused by high-risk HPV subtypes other than HPV-16 and -18 may still occur in recipients of the current HPV vaccines. Furthermore, HPV vaccination coverage for adolescents is insufficient in most countries and therefore even HPV-16 and -18 infections are unlikely to be fully eradicated using the existing strategies. The development of HPV therapeutic vaccines remains essential. Many therapeutic vaccines aimed at clearing HPV-related cervical lesions have been developed and tested in patients with HPV16-positive cervical intraepithelial lesions (CIN) or cervical cancers. To date, definitive clinical efficacy and appropriate immunological responses have never been demonstrated for cervical neoplasia although promising results have been reported in patients with vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia. Here we discuss shortcomings of previous HPV therapeutic vaccine candidates and propose a novel vaccination strategy that leverages newly gained knowledge about mucosal immunity and the induction of mucosal immune responses. PMID:23341862

  13. Human papillomavirus type 26 infection causing multiple invasive squamous cell carcinomas of the fingernails in an AIDS patient under highly active antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Handisurya, A.; Rieger, A.; Bankier, A.; Koller, A.; Salat, A.; Stingl, G.; Kirnbauer, R.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the nail unit is a rare disorder. An association with high-risk genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been reported. We report a 28-year-old human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected bisexual man who had multiple invasive SCC of the fingers, infected with the rare type HPV 26. Classification of HPV 26 as high- or intermediate-risk type has been uncertain, due to its rare presence in cervical cancer. Despite successful treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the patient developed extensive hyperkeratotic nailbed proliferations of all fingers. Tumours were refractory to treatment and invaded into adjacent tissues. X-rays of the hands demonstrated bone invasion, necessitating amputation of distal phalanges of several fingers. Histologically, highly differentiated preinvasive and invasive verrucous SCCs were identified. Molecular DNA typing identified HPV 26 in the SCCs and in some premalignant lesions. By in situ hybridization HPV 26 DNA was detected in numerous tumour cells, indicating productive infection with high-level amplification of the viral genome. In the remaining proliferations, high-risk HPV type 58, cutaneous HPVs and a putative new HPV type were identified. HPV 26 infection appears to be causally involved in the development of SCC of the nail unit in this immunosuppressed patient. Timely evaluation of chronic verrucous nailbed tumours is recommended, especially in immunocompromised patients. Identification of HPV 26, besides known high-risk HPV types, may identify patients at risk for developing SCC of the nailbed and possibly at other locations. PMID:17634082

  14. HPV vaccine cross-protection: Highlights on additional clinical benefit.

    PubMed

    De Vincenzo, Rosa; Ricci, Caterina; Conte, Carmine; Scambia, Giovanni

    2013-09-01

    Prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are administered in vaccination programs, targeted at young adolescent girls before sexual exposure, and in catch-up programs for young women in some countries. All the data indicate that HPV-virus-like particles (VLPs) effectively prevent papillomavirus infections with a high level of antibodies and safety. Since non-vaccine HPV types are responsible for about 30% of cervical cancers, cross-protection would potentially enhance primary cervical cancer prevention efforts. High levels of specific neutralizing antibodies can be generated after immunization with HPV VLPs. Immunity to HPV is type-specific. However, if we consider the phylogenetic tree including the different HPV types, we realize that a certain degree of cross-protection is possible, due to the high homology of some viral types with vaccine ones. The assessment of cross-protective properties of HPV vaccines is an extremely important matter, which has also increased public health implications and could add further value to their preventive potential. The impact of cross-protection is mostly represented by a reduction of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia CIN2-3 more than what expected. In this article we review the mechanisms and the effectiveness of Bivalent (HPV-16/-18) and Quadrivalent (HPV-6/-11/-16/-18) HPV vaccine cross-protection, focusing on the critical aspects and the potential biases in clinical trials, in order to understand how cross-protection could impact on clinical outcomes and on the new perspectives in post-vaccine era. PMID:23747835

  15. Detection of immunoglobulin M antibodies to glycoprotein G-2 by western blot (immunoblot) for diagnosis of initial herpes simplex virus type 2 genital infections.

    PubMed Central

    Ho, D W; Field, P R; Irving, W L; Packham, D R; Cunningham, A L

    1993-01-01

    Western blots (immunoblots) for the detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies specific for herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 in patients' sera were developed. The locations of the type-specific glycoprotein G (gpG-2) of HSV-2 (92- and 140-kDa forms) and glycoprotein C of HSV-1 (gpC-1), which carries mostly type-specific antigenic epitopes, were checked with specific monoclonal antibodies. Western blot assays for IgM antibody to gpC-1 or gpG-2 were performed after depletion of IgG by precipitation with anti-human IgG. In patients with primary HSV-2 genital infections, seroconversion of IgM and IgG antibodies to both the 92- and 140-kDa forms of gpG-2 was observed, although both antibodies appeared in convalescent-phase serum after the first week. IgM and IgG antibodies to low-molecular-size polypeptides (40 to 65 kDa) were the first antibodies observed in patients with primary infection, but these antibodies were cross-reactive with HSV-1 and HSV-2. However, in patients with recurrent HSV-2 infections, IgG antibodies to both forms of gpG-2 and the low-molecular-size polypeptides were found no matter how early after onset the patient was bled, and IgM to gpG-2 did not appear. In patients with nonprimary initial genital HSV-2 infections, IgG antibody to HSV-1 was demonstrated in the first serum specimen, and HSV-2-specific IgM was found in 39% of the serum specimens. Hence, the Western blot assay can be used to test for IgM antibody to gpG-2, allowing for the retrospective diagnosis of inital HSV-2 infections and its use as a supplementary test to the gpG-2 IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays developed elsewhere. In contrast, IgM antibody to gpG-2 is not usually detected in patients with recurrent HSV-2 infections. Images PMID:7508453

  16. Parents' Knowledge, Risk Perception and Willingness to Allow Young Males to Receive Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Muhwezi, Wilson Winstons; Banura, Cecily; Turiho, Andrew Kampikaho; Mirembe, Florence

    2014-01-01

    The Ministry of Health in Uganda in collaboration with the Program for Appropriate Technology for Health (PATH) supported by Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation in 2008–2009 vaccinated approximately 10,000 girls with the bivalent humanpapilloma virus (HPV) vaccine. We assessed parent's knowledge, risk perception and willingness to allow son(s) to receive HPV vaccines in future through a cross-sectional survey of secondary school boys aged 10–23 years in 4 districts. 377 questionnaires were distributed per district and 870 were used in analysis. Parents that had ever heard about cervical cancer and HPV vaccines; those who would allow daughter(s) to be given the vaccine and those who thought that HPV infection was associated with genital warts were more willing to allow son(s) to receive the HPV vaccine. Unwilling parents considered HPV vaccination of boys unimportant (p?=?0.003), believed that only females should receive the vaccine (p?=?0.006), thought their son(s) couldn't contract HPV (p?=?0.010), didn't know about HPV sexual transmissibility (p?=?0.002), knew that males could not acquire HPV (p?=?0.000) and never believed that the HPV vaccines could protect against HPV (p?=?0.000). Acceptance of HPV vaccination of daughters and likelihood of recommending HPV vaccines to son(s) of friends and relatives predicted parental willingness to allow sons to receive HPV vaccines. Probable HPV vaccination of boys is a viable complement to that of girls. Successfulness of HPV vaccination relies on parental acceptability and sustained sensitization about usefulness of HPV vaccines even for boys is vital. PMID:25203053

  17. Performance evaluation of Anyplex™II HPV28 detection kit in a routine diagnostic setting: Comparison with the HPV Sign® Genotyping Test.

    PubMed

    Marcuccilli, Fabbio; Farchi, Francesca; Mirandola, Walter; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Paba, Pierpaolo; Bonanno, Elena; Perno, Carlo Federico; Ciotti, Marco

    2015-06-01

    Anyplex™II HPV28 is a new PCR assay designed for HPV genotyping. It can detect 28 HPV types including 19 high-risk and 9 low-risk types. This study evaluated the performance of Anyplex™II HPV28 on 123 fresh cervical samples screened in parallel with HPV Sign® Genotyping Test. Of the 123 samples screened, 93 were positive, 15 negative, and 15 discordant. The total number of HPV positive samples combined was 108: 38 single infections and 70 multiple infections. The agreement between the two tests was 87.8%, ?=0.592. Genotype specific agreement was strong for HPV 16 (k=0.761), HPV 18 (k=0.674), and HPV 35 (k=0.796). Sensitivity and specificity of Anyplex™II HPV28 assay using HPV Sign® Genotyping Test as reference was 84.8% and 94%; conversely, sensitivity and specificity of HPV Sign® Genotyping Test was 29% and 99.5%. Anyplex™II HPV28 assay is a sensitive and specific assay suitable for HPV genotyping but requires clinical validation. PMID:25724435

  18. Genital herpes simplex.

    PubMed Central

    Tummon, I. S.; Dudley, D. K.; Walters, J. H.

    1981-01-01

    Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the herpes simplex virus. Following the initial infection the virus becomes latent in the sacral ganglia. Approximately 80% of patients are then subject to milder but unpredictable recurrences and may shed the virus even when they are asymptomatic. The disorder causes concern because genital herpes in the mother can result in rare but catastrophic neonatal infection and because of a possible association between genital herpes and cancer of the cervix. No effective treatment is as yet available. Weekly monitoring for virus by cervical culture from 32 weeks' gestation is recommended for women with a history of genital herpes and for those whose sexual partner has such a history. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 PMID:7020907

  19. Genital Warts (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... prescription medication or other medical procedures, such as freezing or laser treatments. A teen who is being treated for genital warts also should be tested for other STDs, and should have time alone with the doctor to openly discuss issues ...

  20. Genital fixed drug eruptions.

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, V H; Gangwani, O P

    1986-01-01

    Twenty nine patients with genital fixed drug eruptions were studied during one year. In 15 the genitalia were exclusively affected, whereas the other 14 had cutaneous lesions in addition. It was striking that those whose lesions were exclusively genital reported for consultation much earlier. Drug history was the mainstay of diagnosis. Provocation tests with graded doses of the suspected drug(s) were undertaken in all cases. Tetracycline was the commonest causative drug, followed by oxyphenbutazone and acetylsalicylic acid. Images PMID:3949352

  1. Cellular immune responses to HPV-18, -31, and -53 in healthy volunteers immunized with recombinant HPV-16 L1 virus-like particles

    SciTech Connect

    Pinto, Ligia A. [HPV Immunology Laboratory, SAIC-Frederick, Inc./NCI-Frederick, Frederick Building 469, Room 120, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States)]. E-mail: lpinto@ncifcrf.gov; Viscidi, Raphael [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Harro, Clayton D. [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Kemp, Troy J. [HPV Immunology Laboratory, SAIC-Frederick, Inc./NCI-Frederick, Frederick Building 469, Room 120, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); Garcia-Pineres, Alfonso J. [HPV Immunology Laboratory, SAIC-Frederick, Inc./NCI-Frederick, Frederick Building 469, Room 120, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); Trivett, Matthew [HPV Immunology Laboratory, SAIC-Frederick, Inc./NCI-Frederick, Frederick Building 469, Room 120, Frederick, MD 21702 (United States); Demuth, Franklin [Information Management Services, Silver Spring, MD (United States); Lowy, Douglas R. [Laboratory of Cellular Oncology, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD (United States); Schiller, John T. [Laboratory of Cellular Oncology, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD (United States); Berzofsky, Jay A. [Vaccine Branch, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD (United States); Hildesheim, Allan [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, NIH, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2006-09-30

    Human papillomavirus-like particles (HPV VLP) are candidate vaccines that have shown to be efficacious in reducing infection and inducing robust antiviral immunity. Neutralizing antibodies generated by vaccination are largely type-specific, but little is known about the type-specificity of cellular immune responses to VLP vaccination. To determine whether vaccination with HPV-16 L1VLP induces cellular immunity to heterologous HPV types (HPV-18, HPV-31, and HPV-53), we examined proliferative and cytokine responses in vaccine (n = 11) and placebo (n = 5) recipients. Increased proliferative and cytokine responses to heterologous types were observed postvaccination in some individuals. The proportion of women responding to heterologous types postvaccination (36%-55%) was lower than that observed in response to HPV-16 (73%). Response to HPV-16 VLP predicted response to other types. The strongest correlations in response were observed between HPV-16 and HPV-31, consistent with their phylogenetic relatedness. In summary, PBMC from HPV-16 VLP vaccine recipients can respond to L1VLP from heterologous HPV types, suggesting the presence of conserved T cell epitopes.

  2. Transcriptional regulatory elements in the noncoding region of human papillomavirus type 6

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Tzyy-Choou.

    1989-01-01

    The structure and function of the transcriptional regulatory region of human papillomavirus type 6 (HPV-6) has been investigated. To investigate tissue specific gene expression, a sensitive method to detect and localize HPV-6 viral DNA, mRNA and protein in plastic-embedded tissue sections of genital and respiratory tract papillomata by using in situ hybridization and immunoperoxidase assays has been developed. This method, using ultrathin sections and strand-specific {sup 3}H labeled riboprobes, offers the advantages of superior morphological preservation and detection of viral genomes at low copy number with good resolution, and the modified immunocytochemistry provides better sensitivity. The results suggest that genital tract epithelium is more permissive for HPV-6 replication than respiratory tract epithelium. To study the tissue tropism of HPV-6 at the level of regulation of viral gene expression, the polymerase chain reaction was used to isolate the noncoding region (NCR) of HPV-6 in independent isolates. Nucleotide sequence analysis of molecularly cloned DNA identified base substitutions, deletions/insertions and tandem duplications. Transcriptional regulatory elements in the NCR were assayed in recombinant plasmids containing the bacterial gene for chloramphenicol acetyl transferase.

  3. Low Rate of Detection of Mucosal High-Risk-Type Human Papillomavirus in Korean Patients with Extragenital Bowen's Disease and Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Especially in Digital Cases

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hye-Rim; Kim, Kwang Ho; Seo, Jinwon; Kim, Dong Hoon; Kwon, Mi Jung

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been demonstrated in some of the nonmelanoma skin cancers as well as in precancerous lesions. Multiple infections of mucosal high-risk HPV may contribute to the onset of digital Bowen's disease through, if any, digital-genital transmission. We screened for the presence of the mucosal HPV DNA in patients with extragenital Bowen's disease (n = 30), squamous cell carcinoma (n = 11), bowenoid papulosis (n = 9), verrucous carcinoma (n = 1), actinic keratosis (n = 5), and basal cell carcinoma (n = 5). We used a PANArray HPV Genotyping Chip for high-risk and low-risk mucosal types. Genotyping data was confirmed using a conventional direct DNA sequencing method. Two cases of extragenital Bowen's disease were positive for types 16 and 33 of mucosal HPV, respectively. None of the squamous cell carcinoma cases were positive. Neither patients with digital Bowen's disease (n = 5) nor those with squamous cell carcinoma (n = 3) showed any mucosal high-risk HPV. Mucosal high-risk HPV DNA was confirmed in 5 (55.6%) of the 9 patients with bowenoid papulosis. HPV 16 was most prevalent (n = 3), while the DNA of HPVs 35 and 67 was detected in one sample for each of the two types. Our study demonstrated that two (6.7%) of the patients with 30 extragenital Bowen's disease were positive for types 16 and 33 of mucosal HPV, respectively. HPVs belonging to the mucosal high-risk group may participate in the development of extragenital Bowen's disease. However, we could not find any relationship between the mucosal high-risk HPV and Bowen's disease or squamous cell carcinoma in the fingers. PMID:24024191

  4. Infection and integration of high-risk human papillomavirus in HPV-associated cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chu-Yi; Li, Fan; Zeng, Yi; Tang, Min-Zhong; Huang, Yulu; Li, Jin-Tao; Zhong, Ru-Gang

    2015-04-01

    High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPV) have been associated with many human cancers in clinical studies. Integration of HPV into the human genome is a suspected etiological factor in the induction of some HPV-associated cancers. The characteristics of HPV integration in certain HPV-integrated cancer cells remain unclear. In this study, ten HPV-associated carcinoma cell lines were evaluated for the presence, genotype, and integration status of HPV by nested polymerase chain reaction. The HPV genome did not insert in the genome of a mammary cancer cell line (MCF7), adrenal neuroblastoma cell line (NH-6), or three esophageal carcinoma cell lines (KYSE150, KYSE450 and KYSE140). HPV type 18 DNA did infect cell lines of tongue cancer (Tca83), hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep G2), and lung carcinoma (A549), but the HPV type 18 genes were not transcribed into mRNA. However, HPV type 18 integrated into the genomes of the esophageal carcinoma cell lines EC9706 and EC109, and the integration sites for both cell lines were in loci 8q24, which is a gene desert area adjacent to fragile sites. We speculate that HPV transcripts are more likely to integrate near highly susceptible fragile sites. This study suggests that HPV integration is still a significant issue that needs to be fully examined and can possibly be used as individualized biomarkers for the early diagnosis of HPV-related cancers. PMID:25750043

  5. Potential Anti-HPV and Related Cancer Agents from Marine Resources: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shi-Xin; Zhang, Xiao-Shuang; Guan, Hua-Shi; Wang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the studies on the prevention and treatment of human papillomavirus (HPV) which is closely related to the cervical cancer and other genital diseases are attracting more and more attention all over the world. Marine-derived polysaccharides and other bioactive compounds have been shown to possess a variety of anti-HPV and related cancer activities. This paper will review the recent progress in research on the potential anti-HPV and related cancer agents from marine resources. In particular, it will provide an update on the anti-HPV actions of heparinoid polysaccharides and bioactive compounds present in marine organisms, as well as the therapeutic vaccines relating to marine organisms. In addition, the possible mechanisms of anti-HPV actions of marine bioactive compounds and their potential for therapeutic application will also be summarized in detail. PMID:24705500

  6. Characterization of Two Novel Gammapapillomaviruses, HPV179 and HPV184, Isolated from Common Warts of a Renal-Transplant Recipient

    PubMed Central

    Hošnjak, Lea; Kocjan, Boštjan J.; Pirš, Branko; Seme, Katja; Poljak, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Gammapapillomavirus (Gamma-PV) is a diverse and rapidly expanding PV-genus, currently consisting of 76 fully characterized human papillomavirus (HPV) types. In this study, DNA genomes of two novel HPV types, HPV179 and HPV184, obtained from two distinct facial verrucae vulgares specimens of a 64 year-old renal-transplant recipient, were fully cloned, sequenced and characterized. HPV179 and HPV184 genomes comprise 7,228-bp and 7,324-bp, respectively, and contain four early (E1, E2, E6 and E7) and two late genes (L1 and L2); the non-coding region is typically positioned between L1 and E6 genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the L1 nucleotide sequence placed both novel types within the Gamma-PV genus: HPV179 was classified as a novel member of species Gamma-15, additionally containing HPV135 and HPV146, while HPV184 was classified as a single member of a novel species Gamma-25. HPV179 and HPV184 type-specific quantitative real-time PCRs were further developed and used in combination with human beta-globin gene quantitative real-time PCR to determine the prevalence and viral load of the novel types in the patient’s facial warts and several follow-up skin specimens, and in a representative collection, a total of 569 samples, of HPV-associated benign and malignant neoplasms, hair follicles and anal and oral mucosa specimens obtained from immunocompetent individuals. HPV179 and HPV184 viral loads in patients’ facial warts were estimated to be 2,463 and 3,200 genome copies per single cell, respectively, suggesting their active role in the development of common warts in organ-transplant recipients. In addition, in this particular patient, both novel types had established a persistent infection of the skin for more than four years. Among immunocompetent individuals, HPV179 was further detected in low-copy numbers in a few skin specimens, indicating its cutaneous tissue tropism, while HPV184 was further detected in low-copy numbers in one mucosal and a few skin specimens, suggesting its dual tissue tropism. PMID:25748516

  7. Characterization of Two Novel Gammapapillomaviruses, HPV179 and HPV184, Isolated from Common Warts of a Renal-Transplant Recipient.

    PubMed

    Hošnjak, Lea; Kocjan, Boštjan J; Pirš, Branko; Seme, Katja; Poljak, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Gammapapillomavirus (Gamma-PV) is a diverse and rapidly expanding PV-genus, currently consisting of 76 fully characterized human papillomavirus (HPV) types. In this study, DNA genomes of two novel HPV types, HPV179 and HPV184, obtained from two distinct facial verrucae vulgares specimens of a 64 year-old renal-transplant recipient, were fully cloned, sequenced and characterized. HPV179 and HPV184 genomes comprise 7,228-bp and 7,324-bp, respectively, and contain four early (E1, E2, E6 and E7) and two late genes (L1 and L2); the non-coding region is typically positioned between L1 and E6 genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the L1 nucleotide sequence placed both novel types within the Gamma-PV genus: HPV179 was classified as a novel member of species Gamma-15, additionally containing HPV135 and HPV146, while HPV184 was classified as a single member of a novel species Gamma-25. HPV179 and HPV184 type-specific quantitative real-time PCRs were further developed and used in combination with human beta-globin gene quantitative real-time PCR to determine the prevalence and viral load of the novel types in the patient's facial warts and several follow-up skin specimens, and in a representative collection, a total of 569 samples, of HPV-associated benign and malignant neoplasms, hair follicles and anal and oral mucosa specimens obtained from immunocompetent individuals. HPV179 and HPV184 viral loads in patients' facial warts were estimated to be 2,463 and 3,200 genome copies per single cell, respectively, suggesting their active role in the development of common warts in organ-transplant recipients. In addition, in this particular patient, both novel types had established a persistent infection of the skin for more than four years. Among immunocompetent individuals, HPV179 was further detected in low-copy numbers in a few skin specimens, indicating its cutaneous tissue tropism, while HPV184 was further detected in low-copy numbers in one mucosal and a few skin specimens, suggesting its dual tissue tropism. PMID:25748516

  8. Acceptability of HPV Vaccine for Males and Preferences for Future Education Programs Among Appalachian Residents

    PubMed Central

    Reiter, Paul L.; Oldach, Benjamin R.; Randle, Katherine E.; Katz, Mira L.

    2014-01-01

    Appalachia is a geographic region with several disparities related to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, yet little is known about acceptability of HPV vaccine for males among Appalachian residents. HPV vaccine acceptability and preferences for future HPV vaccine education programs were examined among residents of Appalachian Ohio. Focus groups and in-depth interviews were conducted with Appalachian Ohio residents between July and October 2011. Participants (n = 102 from 24 focus groups and 5 in-depth interviews) included four key stakeholder groups: health care providers, community leaders, parents with adolescent sons, and young adult men ages 18 to 26 years. Support for vaccinating males against HPV was high among participants, despite low awareness and knowledge about HPV vaccine for males. Participants reported three categories of potential barriers to vaccinating males against HPV: concerns about vaccine safety and side effects, access to care and vaccination logistics, and gender and cultural issues. Participants reported that HPV vaccine was viewed as being only for females in their communities and that receiving the vaccine may be emasculating or embarrassing to males. Participants suggested that future HPV vaccine education programs mainly target parents, include basic information about HPV-related diseases and HPV vaccine (e.g., number of doses, cost), and present the vaccine as having the potential to prevent cancer (as opposed to preventing genital warts). Acceptability of HPV vaccine for males was high among residents of Appalachian Ohio. Future HPV vaccine education programs in Appalachia should address common potential barriers to vaccination and help destigmatize vaccination among males. PMID:24085197

  9. Patterns of genital injury in female sexual assault victims

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Slaughter; Carl R. V. Brown; Sharon Crowley; Roxy Peck

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: New colposcopic protocols allow examiners to better document genital trauma in rape victims. We report our findings on the locations and types of genital injury seen in female assault victims versus women engaging in consensual sex.STUDY DESIGN: Physical examinations were performed on 311 rape victims seen by San Luis Obispo County's Suspected Abuse Response Team between 1985 and 1993

  10. REVIEW Open Access Diagnosis of genital herpes simplex virus

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    replace viral culture as the gold standard for the diagnosis of genital herpes in people with active--an immunofluorescence test or enzyme immunoassay from samples from symptomatic patients­could be employed, but HSV type antiviral therapy. Keywords: Herpes simplex virus, Genital herpes, Diagnosis Introduction Key structure

  11. Fewer doses of HPV vaccine result in immune response similar to three-dose regimen

    Cancer.gov

    NCI scientists report that two doses of a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, trademarked as Cervarix, resulted in similar serum antibody levels against two of the most carcinogenic types of HPV (16 and 18), compared to a standard three dose regimen.

  12. Erythroplasia of Queyrat: Coinfection with Cutaneous Carcinogenic Human Papillomavirus Type 8 and Genital Papillomaviruses in a Carcinoma In Situ

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrike Wieland; Sandra Jurk; Sönke Weißenborn; Thomas Krieg; Herbert Pfister; Andreas Ritzkowsky

    2000-01-01

    SummaryErythroplasia of Queyrat is a carcinoma in situ that mainly occurs on the glans penis, the prepuce, or the urethral meatus of elderly males. Up to 30% progress to squamous cell carcinoma. The cause of erythroplasia of Queyrat is largely unknown. Human papillomavirus type 16 DNA has previously been detected only in very few distinctly characterized patients. We have investigated

  13. HPV-16 E2 contributes to induction of HPV-16 late gene expression by inhibiting early polyadenylation

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Cecilia; Somberg, Monika; Li, Xiaoze; Backström Winquist, Ellenor; Fay, Joanna; Ryan, Fergus; Pim, David; Banks, Lawrence; Schwartz, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    We provide evidence that the human papillomavirus (HPV) E2 protein regulates HPV late gene expression. High levels of E2 caused a read-through at the early polyadenylation signal pAE into the late region of the HPV genome, thereby inducing expression of L1 and L2 mRNAs. This is a conserved property of E2 of both mucosal and cutaneous HPV types. Induction could be reversed by high levels of HPV-16 E1 protein, or by the polyadenylation factor CPSF30. HPV-16 E2 inhibited polyadenylation in vitro by preventing the assembly of the CPSF complex. Both the N-terminal and hinge domains of E2 were required for induction of HPV late gene expression in transfected cells as well as for inhibition of polyadenylation in vitro. Finally, overexpression of HPV-16 E2 induced late gene expression from a full-length genomic clone of HPV-16. We speculate that the accumulation of high levels of E2 during the viral life cycle, not only turns off the expression of the pro-mitotic viral E6 and E7 genes, but also induces the expression of the late HPV genes L1 and L2. PMID:22617423

  14. HPV 16 and cigarette smoking as risk factors for high-grade cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gloria Y. F. Ho; Anna S. Kadish; Robert D. Burk; Jayasri Basu; Prabhudas R. Palan; Magdy Mikhail; Seymour L. Romney

    1998-01-01

    Although genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is well established as the etiologic agent for cervical intra- epithelial neoplasia (CIN), little is known about the cofactors involved in the development of high-grade lesions or the progression of low-grade to high-grade lesions. In our study of HPV-infected women with CIN (163 CIN I, 51 CIN II and 44 CIN III), women with

  15. Evaluation of the detection of 14 high-risk human papillomaviruses with HPV 16 and HPV 18 genotyping for cervical cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    BIAN, MEI-LU; CHENG, JIAO-YING; MA, LI; CONG, XIAO; LIU, JUN; CHEN, YING; CHEN, XI

    2013-01-01

    The American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (ASCCP) suggests that women ?30 years old, with a negative cytopathological test but a positive high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) test should undergo HPV 16 and HPV 18 genotyping. If this test is positive, immediate cervical pathology is required. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and clinical value of testing for 14 HR HPVs with HPV 16 and HPV 18 genotyping for cervical cancer (CC) screening. A total of 424 females from the China-Japan Friendship Hospital were selected and randomly divided into two groups (A and B). All participants underwent two different testing methods: the liquid-based cytology test (LCT) and a HPV DNA test. For the HPV DNA test, participants in group A underwent the hybrid capture II (HC-II) testing method while participants in group B were tested using the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR; HBRT-H14) method. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade II or greater using HBRT-H14 were 96.30, 78.17, 23.21 and 99.68%, respectively. In Group B, compared with other HR HPV types, HPV 16 and HPV 18 infection led to the increased possibility of cervical lesions graded CIN II or higher (8.11 and 51.28%, respectively). A significant difference in the rates of CC and CIN II or higher was observed among women who were i) infected with HPV 16 and/or HPV 18, ii) infected with other HR HPV types and iii) diagnosed as negative for HR HPV infection (?2=93.976, P=0.0001). In conclusion, HBRT-H14 is applicable for CC screening with the advantage of genotyping for HPV 16 and HPV 18, which may help to improve triage management for women with negative cytology. PMID:24223668

  16. Female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Ladjali, M; Rattray, T W; Walder, R J

    1993-08-21

    Female genital mutilation, also misleadingly known as female circumcision, is usually performed on girls ranging in from 1 week to puberty. Immediate physical complications include severe pain, shock, infection, bleeding, acute urinary infection, tetanus, and death. Longterm problems include chronic pain, difficulties with micturition and menstruation, pelvic infection leading to infertility, and prolonged and obstructed labor during childbirth. An estimated 80 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation. In Britain alone an estimated 10,000 girls are currently at risk. Religious, cultural, medical, and moral grounds rationalize the custom which is practiced primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab world, Malaysia, Indonesia, and among migrant populations in Western countries. According to WHO it is correlated with poverty, illiteracy, and the low status of women. Women who escape mutilation are not sought in marriage. WHO, the UN Population Fund, the UN Children's Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child have issued declarations on the eradication of female genital mutilation. In Britain, local authorities have intervened to prevent parents from mutilating their daughters. In 1984, the Inter-African Committee Against Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting Women and Children was established to work toward eliminating female genital mutilation and other damaging customs. National committees in 26 African countries coordinate projects run by local people using theater, dance, music, and storytelling for communication. In Australia, Canada, Europe, and the US women have organized to prevent the practice among vulnerable migrants and refugees. PMID:8400925

  17. Genital Problems in Infants

    MedlinePLUS

    ... tight to pull back? Yes This condition is called PHIMOSIS. See your child's doctor. No 5. Is it difficult to tell the sex of your infant at birth or shortly after? AMBIGUOUS GENITALIA is a birth defect in which the genitals are not ...

  18. Genital Problems in Men

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Do you have a painless sore on the shaft or head of your penis? Yes This may be a symptom of GENITAL ... BALANITIS, an infection of the head of the penis. See your doctor. Depending ... or semen, or pain with ejaculation? Yes You may have PROSTATITIS, an ...

  19. Genital lesions following bestiality.

    PubMed

    Mittal, A; Shenoi, S D; Kumar, K B; Sharma, P V

    2000-01-01

    A 48-year-old man presented with painful genital lesions with history of bestiality and abnor-mal sexual behaviour. Examination revealed multiple irregular tender ulcers and erosions, with phimosis and left sided tender inguinal adenopathy. VDRL, TPHA, HIV-ELISA were negative. He was treated with ciprofloxacin 500mg b.d. along with saline compresses with complete resolution. PMID:20877040

  20. Characterisation of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in the Azorean population, Terceira island

    PubMed Central

    Dutra, Isa; Santos, Margarida R; Soares, Marta; Couto, Ana R; Bruges-Armas, Maria; Teixeira, Fernando; Monjardino, Luísa; Hodgson, Shirley; Bruges-Armas, Jácome

    2008-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus detection is very important for the evaluation of prevention strategies in cervical cancer. In the Azorean population, the virus prevalence has never been studied, and there is no data available to preview a successful outcome with HPV vaccination. In this article, our objective is to characterise the HPV genotypes in Terceira Island, contributing for the epidemiological knowledge on the virus infection. Results Cervical samples were collected from 289 women aged 16–81 in the Gynaecological Outpatient Clinic of the Hospital de Santo Espírito de Angra do Heroísmo (HSEAH). HPV DNA was amplified by Polymerase Chain Reaction using the general consensus primers PGMYO9/PGMY11. Commercially available Papillomavirus Clinical Arrays® kits (Genomica) were used to perform HPV genotyping. 30 women were HPV positive, with a median age of 41 years old. Our results show that the overall HPV prevalence was 10.49%. Seventeen genotypes were identified, including 58.82% high risk, 17.65% low risk and 23.53% undetermined risk. Conclusion Unlike other epidemiological studies, HPV31 was the most frequent type (26.67%) in Terceira Island, followed by HPV16 (10.00%), HPV51, HPV53, HPV70 and HPV82 (6.67%). Further studies are needed to investigate if the HPV types found in our population are associated with the risk of progression to high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or cervical cancer. PMID:18426589

  1. Analytical performance of newly developed multiplex human papillomavirus genotyping assay using Luminex xMAP™ technology (Mebgen™ HPV Kit).

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Satoru; Kato, Kana; Abe, Yukiko; Hara, Hirotaka; Kubota, Hiroshi; Kubushiro, Kaneyuki; Kawahara, Ei; Inoue, Masaki

    2014-08-01

    Regional differences in human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes and the presence of mixed HPV infections may affect adversely the efficacy of the HPV vaccine. Therefore, a simple and high-throughput HPV genotyping system is required. Recently, a novel HPV genotyping kit (the Mebgen™ HPV kit) was developed. This kit uses multiplex PCR and Luminex xMAP™ technology to detect 13 types of high-risk HPVs and an internal control in a 96-well format. In the present study, the analytical performance of the kit was examined using HPV plasmid DNA. All 13 types of HPVs were detected with a minimum detection sensitivity of 250 copies/test, and highly specific signals were observed. HPV 16 plasmid was detected in samples containing mixtures with other HPV-type plasmids in ratios ranging from 1:1 to 1:1000. No cross reactivity was observed with DNA from 27 types of other infectious microbes. A clinical evaluation was carried out using cervical samples from 356 patients with persistent abnormal smears diagnosed at mass public health screenings for cervical cancer. The samples were preserved in Tacas™ medium until analysis. HPV was detected in 162 (45.5%) samples including 110 (67.9%) with single infections and 52 (32.1%) with multiple infections. The type distribution of the 13 high-risk HPVs was as follows: 28.4% HPV 16, 11.7% HPV 18, 6.8% HPV 31, 3.1% HPV 33, 3.7% HPV 35, 9.3% HPV 39, 1.9% HPV 45, 8.6% HPV 51, 37.0% HPV 52, 9.3% HPV 56, 16.7% HPV 58, 3.7% HPV 59, and 1.9% HPV 68. To evaluate sample stability over time, changes in the detection of HPV DNA derived from HeLa and SiHa cells were measured in 3 types of liquid-based cytology media. HPV DNA was detected in Tacas and Thinprep™ samples after storage at 4°C or 30°C for 4 weeks and within 1 week of collection in Surepath™ samples. These results suggest that this newly developed HPV genotyping kit is suitable for use in both clinical applications and large-scale epidemiological studies. PMID:24768623

  2. Genetic variability in L1 and L2 genes of HPV-16 and HPV-58 in Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yaofei; Yang, Hongying; Wu, Kun; Yang, Lijuan; Chen, Junying; Huang, Xinwei; Pan, Yue; Ruan, Youqing; Zhao, Yujiao; Shi, Xinan; Sun, Qiangming; Li, Qihan

    2013-01-01

    HPV account for most of the incidence of cervical cancer. Approximately 90% of anal cancers and a smaller subset (<50%) of other cancers (oropharyngeal, penile, vaginal, vulvar) are also attributed to HPV. The L1 protein comprising HPV vaccine formulations elicits high-titre neutralizing antibodies and confers type restricted protection. The L2 protein is a promising candidate for a broadly protective HPV vaccine. In our previous study, we found the most prevalent high-risk HPV infectious serotypes were HPV-16 and HPV-58 among women of Southwest China. To explore gene polymorphisms and intratypic variations of HPV-16 and HPV-58 L1/L2 genes originating in Southwest China, HPV-16 (L1: n = 31, L2: n = 28) and HPV-58 (L1: n = 21, L2: n = 21) L1/L2 genes were sequenced and compared to others described and submitted to GenBank. Phylogenetic trees were then constructed by Neighbor-Joining and the Kimura 2-parameters methods (MEGA software), followed by an analysis of the diversity of secondary structure. Then selection pressures acting on the L1/L2 genes were estimated by PAML software. Twenty-nine single nucleotide changes were observed in HPV-16 L1 sequences with 16/29 non-synonymous mutations and 13/29 synonymous mutations (six in alpha helix and two in beta turns). Seventeen single nucleotide changes were observed in HPV-16 L2 sequences with 8/17 non-synonymous mutations (one in beta turn) and 9/17 synonymous mutations. Twenty-four single nucleotide changes were observed in HPV-58 L1 sequences with 10/24 non-synonymous mutations and 14/24 synonymous mutations (eight in alpha helix and four in beta turn). Seven single nucleotide changes were observed in HPV-58 L2 sequences with 4/7 non-synonymous mutations and 3/7 synonymous mutations. The result of selective pressure analysis showed that most of these mutations were of positive selection. This study may help understand the intrinsic geographical relatedness and biological differences of HPV-16/HPV-58 and contributes further to research on their infectivity, pathogenicity, and vaccine strategy. PMID:23372836

  3. Genetic Variability in L1 and L2 Genes of HPV-16 and HPV-58 in Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Yaofei; Yang, Hongying; Wu, Kun; Yang, Lijuan; Chen, Junying; Huang, Xinwei; Pan, Yue; Ruan, Youqing; Zhao, Yujiao; Shi, Xinan; Sun, Qiangming; Li, Qihan

    2013-01-01

    HPV account for most of the incidence of cervical cancer. Approximately 90% of anal cancers and a smaller subset (<50%) of other cancers (oropharyngeal, penile, vaginal, vulvar) are also attributed to HPV. The L1 protein comprising HPV vaccine formulations elicits high-titre neutralizing antibodies and confers type restricted protection. The L2 protein is a promising candidate for a broadly protective HPV vaccine. In our previous study, we found the most prevalent high-risk HPV infectious serotypes were HPV-16 and HPV-58 among women of Southwest China. To explore gene polymorphisms and intratypic variations of HPV-16 and HPV-58 L1/L2 genes originating in Southwest China, HPV-16 (L1: n?=?31, L2: n?=?28) and HPV-58 (L1: n?=?21, L2: n?=?21) L1/L2 genes were sequenced and compared to others described and submitted to GenBank. Phylogenetic trees were then constructed by Neighbor-Joining and the Kimura 2-parameters methods (MEGA software), followed by an analysis of the diversity of secondary structure. Then selection pressures acting on the L1/L2 genes were estimated by PAML software. Twenty-nine single nucleotide changes were observed in HPV-16 L1 sequences with 16/29 non-synonymous mutations and 13/29 synonymous mutations (six in alpha helix and two in beta turns). Seventeen single nucleotide changes were observed in HPV-16 L2 sequences with 8/17 non-synonymous mutations (one in beta turn) and 9/17 synonymous mutations. Twenty-four single nucleotide changes were observed in HPV-58 L1 sequences with 10/24 non-synonymous mutations and 14/24 synonymous mutations (eight in alpha helix and four in beta turn). Seven single nucleotide changes were observed in HPV-58 L2 sequences with 4/7 non-synonymous mutations and 3/7 synonymous mutations. The result of selective pressure analysis showed that most of these mutations were of positive selection. This study may help understand the intrinsic geographical relatedness and biological differences of HPV-16/HPV-58 and contributes further to research on their infectivity, pathogenicity, and vaccine strategy. PMID:23372836

  4. HPV Vaccine Acceptance in a Clinic-Based Sample of Women in the Rural South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Heather M.; Sharpe, Patricia A.; McCree, Donna H.; Wright, Marcie S.; Davis, Jennifer; Hutto, Brent E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a very common sexually transmitted infection linked to cervical disease. Vaccines for some types of HPV were in development at the time of the study. Purpose: The study examined HPV vaccine acceptability among underserved women in a rural region of the southeastern U.S. with high rates of cervical cancer…

  5. Direct sequencing of HPV DNA detected in gynaecologic outpatients in Rome, Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosita Verteramo; Alessandra Pierangeli; Ettore Calzolari; Alfredo Patella; Nadia Recine; Emanuela Mancini; Valentina Marcone; Raffaele Masciangelo; Mauro Bucci; Guido Antonelli; Anna Marta Degener

    2006-01-01

    In order to assess the frequency of different human papillomavirus (HPV) types in Rome and the association between HPV and behavioural characteristics, we tested cervical scrapes of a population of sexually active women referring to university clinics for routine gynaecologic care. The presence of HPV DNA was revealed by polymerase chain reaction on two genome regions (L1 and E6\\/E7) followed

  6. HUMAN T CELL RESPONSES TO HPV 16 E2 GENERATED WITH MONOCYTE-DERIVED DENDRITIC CELLS

    E-print Network

    Gaston, Kevin

    Persistent infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 has been implicated in the etiology of cervical-associated dis- eases. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Key words: human papillomavirus (HPV); E2 protein; dendritic cells neoplasia (CIN); cervical cancer; vaccines Persistent infection with oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV

  7. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... distribution. Neither of these HPV vaccines has been proven to provide complete protection against persistent infection with ... get these vaccines? Both Gardasil and Cervarix are proven to be effective only if given before infection ...

  8. Pap and HPV Testing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... time to treat them while also reducing the detection of HPV infections that would have gone away ... testing to Pap testing may also improve the detection of glandular cell abnormalities, including adenocarcinoma of the ...

  9. HPV and Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ER, Sternberg M, et al. Prevalence of genital human papillomavirus among females in the United States, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2006. Journal of Infectious Diseases ...

  10. Persistent genital arousal and restless genitalia: sexual dysfunction or subtype of vulvodynia?

    PubMed

    Markos, A R; Dinsmore, Wallace

    2013-11-01

    We conducted a literature review of patients' conditions described under persistent genital arousal disorder and restless genital syndrome, vulvodynia and male genital skin pain of unknown aetiology (penoscrotodynia). Our aim is to improve the understanding of the condition, unify nomenclature and promote evidence-based practice. The most prominent symptom in persistent genital arousal disorder and restless genital syndrome is a spontaneous, unwelcomed, intrusive and distressing vulval sensation. There are similarities between the clinical presentation of vulvodynia, penoscrotodynia, persistent genital arousal disorder and restless genital syndrome patients. The aetiology of persistent genital arousal disorder and restless genital syndrome, similar to vulvodynia, could be better explained in terms of neuro-vascular dysfunction, genital peripheral neuropathy and/or dysfunctional micro-vascular arterio-venous shunting. Erythromelalgia lends itself to explain some cases of restless genital syndrome, who have concurrent restless legs syndrome; and therefore draw parallels with the red scrotum syndrome. The published literature supports the concept of classifying restless genital syndrome as a sub-type of vulvodynia rather than sexual dysfunction. PMID:23970620

  11. Efficiency of MY09/11 consensus PCR in the detection of multiple HPV infections.

    PubMed

    ?ahiner, Fatih; Kubar, Ayhan; Gümral, Ramazan; Ard?ç, Medine; Yi?it, Nuri; ?ener, Kenan; Dede, Murat; Yapar, Mehmet

    2014-09-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing has become an important component of cervical cancer screening programs. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficiency of MY09/11 consensus polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of multiple HPV infections. For this purpose, MY09/11 PCR was compared to an original TaqMan-based type-specific real-time PCR assay, which can detect 20 different HPV types. Of the 654 samples, 34.1% (223/654) were HPV DNA positive according to at least one method. The relative sensitivities of MY09/11 PCR and type-specific PCR were 80.7% (180/223) and 97.8% (218/223), respectively. In all, 352 different HPV isolates (66 low-risk and 286 high-risk or probable high-risk types) were identified in 218 samples, but 5 samples, which were positive by consensus PCR only, could not be genotyped. The distribution of the 286 high-risk or probable high-risk HPVs were as follows: 24.5% HPV-16, 8.4% HPV-52, 7.7% HPV-51, 6.3% HPV-39, 6.3% HPV-82, 5.6% HPV-35, 5.6% HPV-58, 5.6% HPV-66, 5.2% HPV-18, 5.2% HPV-68, and 19.6% the other 8 types. A single HPV type was detected in 57.3% (125/218) of the genotyped samples, and multiple HPV types were found in the remaining 42.7% (93/218). The false-negative rates of MY09/11 PCR were found to be 17.4% in single infections, 23.3% in multiple infections, and 34.6% in multiple infections that contained 3 or more HPV types, with the condition that the low-risk types HPV-6 and HPV-11 be considered as a monotype. These data suggest that broad-range PCR assays may lead to significant data loss and that type-specific PCR assays can provide accurate and reliable results during cervical cancer screening. PMID:24953539

  12. Evaluation of a Radionovela to Promote HPV Vaccine Awareness and Knowledge Among Hispanic Parents

    PubMed Central

    Coronado, Gloria D.; Rodriguez, Hector P.; Thompson, Beti

    2014-01-01

    Hispanic women have more than a 1.5-fold increased cervical cancer incidence and mortality compared to non-Hispanic white women in the United States. The Centers for Disease Control recommends the HPV vaccine for females at ages 11 and 12 years, though it is approved for females aged 9–26 to protect against the primary types of high-risk HPV (HPV-16 and HPV-18) that cause approximately 70% of cervical cancer cases. Few culturally-tailored Spanish HPV vaccine awareness programs have been developed. This study evaluates the efficacy of a Spanish radionovela as an educational tool. Rural Hispanic parents of daughters aged 9–17 (n = 88; 78 mothers and 10 fathers) were randomized to listen to the HPV vaccine radionovela or to another public service announcement. Participants completed a 30 min pretest posttest questionnaire. Parents who listened to the HPV radionovela (intervention group) scored higher on six knowledge and belief items. They were more likely to confirm that HPV is a common infection (70% vs. 48%, P = .002), to deny that women are able to detect HPV (53% vs. 31%, P = .003), to know vaccine age recommendations (87% vs. 68%, P = .003), and to confirm multiple doses (48% vs. 26%, P = .03) than control group parents. The HPV vaccine radionovela improved HPV and HPV vaccine knowledge and attitudes. Radionovela health education may be an efficacious strategy to increase HPV vaccine awareness among Hispanic parents. PMID:21452030

  13. Integrative analyses reveal novel strategies in HPV11,-16 and -45 early infection

    PubMed Central

    Kaczkowski, Bogumil; Rossing, Maria; Andersen, Ditte K.; Dreher, Anita; Morevati, Marya; Visser, Melissa A.; Winther, Ole; Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Norrild, Bodil

    2012-01-01

    The interaction between human papillomavirus (HPV) and host cells is not well understood. We investigate the early stage of HPV infections by global expression profiling in a cell model, in which HaCaT cells were transfected with HPV11, HPV16 or HPV45 genomes. We report the differential expression of genes not previously implicated in HPV biology, such as the PSG family and ANKRD1, and of genes implicated in the biology of other viruses, e.g. MX1, IFI44 and DDX60. Carcinogenesis-related genes, e.g. ABL2, MGLL and CYR61, were upregulated by high-risk HPV16 and -45. The integrative analysis revealed the suppression of DNA repair by HPV11 and -16, and downregulation of cytoskeleton genes by all HPV types. Various signalling pathways were affected by the HPVs: IL-2 by HPV11; JAK-STAT by HPV16; and TGF-?, NOTCH and tyrosine kinase signalling by HPV45. This study uncovered novel strategies employed by HPV to establish infection and promote uncontrolled growth. PMID:22808421

  14. The prevalence and genotype of human papillomavirus on cervical samples from an Irish female population with external genital warts.

    PubMed

    Cremin, Suzanne; Menton, John F; Canier, Lydie; Horgan, Mary; Fanning, Liam J

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the cervical genotype profile of females who presented to an STI Clinic with external genital warts (EGW); and to determine the potential vaccine coverage prior to the uptake of the HPV vaccines. Sixty-one cervical scrapings were taken from females aged 18-35 y who had external genital warts or a history of external genital warts. The resulting 50 samples that were positive for HPV-DNA were subjected to genotype identification. Forty-six of these samples had detectable genotypes by LIPA analysis and most (78%, 36/46) had multiple low risk (LR) and high risk (HR) genotypes on the cervix. Twenty-five of these samples (54%) had more than 1 HR genotype. Of the 36 patients who had any HR genotypes, 18 (50%) were identified to have the most oncogenic HPV genotypes, namely 16 and 18. Three of these samples had both 16 and 18 on the cervix. The presence of multiple HR genotypes on the majority of cervical samples from a self-referred population of females with EGW is presented. This study is of importance since persistent HR-HPV is the necessary risk factor in the development of precancerous and cancerous lesions of the cervix. Gardisil, the quadrivalent HPV vaccine would have been useful in the prevention of 28% (13/46) of these infections. PMID:22777095

  15. HPV Vaccine Information for Young Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in time. Which girls/women should receive HPV vaccination? HPV vaccination is recommended for 11 and 12 ... help prevent fainting and injuries. Why is HPV vaccination only recommended for women through age 26? HPV ...

  16. A quadrivalent HPV vaccine induces humoral and cellular immune responses in WHIM immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Handisurya, Alessandra; Schellenbacher, Christina; Reininger, Bärbel; Koszik, Frieder; Vyhnanek, Philipp; Heitger, Andreas; Kirnbauer, Reinhard; Förster-Waldl, Elisabeth

    2010-07-01

    WHIM-syndrome is an inherited immunodeficiency disorder with abnormal susceptibility to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and diseases. We determined safety and immunogenicity to a quadrivalent HPV vaccine in WHIM-syndrome by detection of HPV-specific antibodies and lymphoproliferation. In virus-like-particle (VLP)-ELISA, a WHIM patient showed antibody titers up to 400 for HPV-6/11/16/18, whereas immuno-competent controls developed titers of 6400-25,600. In pseudovirion assays, the patient's neutralization titers ranged from 20 to 400 to the four HPV vaccine types, while titers of 1600-25,600 were detected in healthy vaccinees. Specific proliferation of PBMC of the WHIM patient to the HPV vaccine was demonstrated. This first report on response to HPV vaccination in WHIM-immunodeficiency highlights that patients with WHIM-syndrome, and probably other immunodeficiencies, may benefit from HPV immunoprophylaxis. PMID:20472031

  17. Characterization of Two Types of Human Papillomaviruses in Lesions of Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerard Orth; Stefania Jablonska; Michel Favre; Odile Croissant; Maria Jarzabek-Chorzelska; Genowefa Rzesa

    1978-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) found in lesions of 11 patients suffering from epidermodysplasia verruciformis were compared to HPV type 1 (HPV-1) and HPV type 2 (HPV-2) previously characterized in plantar and common warts, respectively. Complementary RNAs (cRNAs) to HPV-1, HPV-2, and viruses obtained from two patients with epidermodysplasia verruciformis (J.D. HPV and J.K. HPV) were used in cRNA\\\\cdot DNA filter hybridization

  18. mRNA sequencing of novel cell lines from human papillomavirus type-16 related vulval intraepithelial neoplasia: consequences of expression of HPV16 E4 and E5.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Dean; Onions, Tiffany; Raybould, Rachel; Flynn, Áine; Tristram, Amanda; Meyrick, Sian; Giles, Peter; Ashelford, Kevin; Hibbitts, Samantha; Fiander, Alison; Powell, Ned

    2014-09-01

    Vulval intraepithelial neoplasia is a precursor of vulval cancer and is commonly caused by infection with Human Papillomavirus (HPV). Development of topical treatments for vulval intraepithelial neoplasia requires appropriate in vitro models. This study evaluated the feasibility of primary culture of vulval intraepithelial neoplasia biopsy tissue to produce cell lines for use as in vitro models. A potentially immortal cell line was produced which gave rise to three monoclonal lines. These lines were characterized for HPV genomic integration and for viral gene expression using ligation-mediated PCR and quantitative PCR. Distinct patterns of viral integration and gene expression were observed among the three lines. Integration and expression data were validated using deep sequencing of mRNA. Gene ontology analyses of these data also demonstrated that expression of the HPV16 E4 and E5 proteins resulted in substantial changes in the composition of the cell membrane and extracellular space, associated with alterations in cell adhesion and differentiation. These data illustrate the diverse patterns of HPV gene expression potentially present within a single lesion. The derived cell lines provide useful models to investigate the biology of vulval intraepithelial neoplasia and the interactions between different HPV gene products and potential therapeutic agents. PMID:24898764

  19. Improved Amplification of Genital Human Papillomaviruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. E. GRAVITT; C. L. PEYTON; T. Q. ALESSI; C. M. WHEELER; F. COUTLEE; A. HILDESHEIM

    system (McNemar's x2 5 17.2; P < 0.001). The proportion of multiple infections detected increased with the PGMY09\\/11 system (40.0 versus 33.8% of positive infections). HPV types 26, 35, 42, 45, 52, 54, 55, 59, 66, 73, and MM7 were detected at least 25% more often with the PGMY09\\/11 system. The PGMY09\\/11 primer system affords an increase in type-specific amplification

  20. Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection among Women in Bangladesh: Findings from a Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Nahar, Quamrun; Sultana, Farhana; Alam, Anadil; Islam, Jessica Yasmine; Rahman, Mustafizur; Khatun, Fatema; Alam, Nazmul; Dasgupta, Sushil Kanta; Marions, Lena; Ashrafunnessa; Kamal, Mohammed; Cravioto, Alejandro; Reichenbach, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Background There has been no population-based study on human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence or its genotypes in Bangladesh; a country eligible for GAVI funding for HPV vaccine. Methods We used baseline survey data of a prospective cohort study that was conducted in one urban and one rural area of Bangladesh. A total of 997 urban and 905 rural married women, aged 13 to 64 years, were enrolled in the baseline during July-December, 2011. Information was collected on socio-demographic characteristics and potential risk factors for HPV infection followed by gynecological examination and collection of endocervical samples using the cervical cytobrush (Digene cervical sampler). HPV DNA testing was done by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) using a consensus primer set. Results Prevalence of any HPV infection was 7.7% with no significant difference between urban and rural women. Most common high-risk genotypes were HPV16, HPV66, HPV18, HPV45, HPV31 and HPV53. Urban women working as housemaids or garment workers were at higher risk of any HPV infection (OR?=?2.15, 95% CI: 1.13–4.11) compared to housewives. Rural women whose husband lived overseas were almost two times more likely to have any HPV infection (OR?=?1.93; 95% CI 1.05–3.55) compared to women whose husbands lived with them. Conclusion The prevalence of HPV infection among Bangladeshi women is similar to other regions of Asia. However, type-specific patterns are different. The study findings will inform the formulation of HPV vaccination policies in Bangladesh, monitoring the impact of vaccination programmes, and the identification of target populations for screening. PMID:25271836

  1. March 2008The Monthly InSTALLment Brought to you by the UHS Health Promotion Office 110 Anderson Tower 273-5775

    E-print Network

    Mahon, Bradford Z.

    Tower · 273-5775 H.P.V. & Y.O.U. Questions Commonly Asked "What is HPV?" Short for human papillomavirus, HPV refers to a group of viruses that live in the epithelial cells found on the surface of the skin types of HPV, which include genital and non-genital types. "How is HPV spread?" About 60 types of HPV

  2. How Many Cancers Are Linked with HPV Each Year?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Vaginal Cancer HPV-Associated Penile Cancer HPV-Associated Anal Cancer HPV-Associated Oropharyngeal Cancers Rates by State HPV-Associated Anal Cancer HPV-Associated Cervical Cancer HPV-Associated Oropharyngeal ...

  3. HPV Vaccine - Questions and Answers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... least some protection from the vaccine. Q: Should boys get HPV vaccine too? A: One HPV vaccine—the quadrivalent vaccine called Gardasil—is also for boys. This vaccine helps prevent boys from getting infected ...

  4. Status of HPV Vaccine in the ICSN Countries

    Cancer.gov

    Australia has approved the HPV vaccine. Brazil has approved the HPV vaccine. Canada has approved the HPV vaccine. Denmark has approved the HPV vaccine. Finland has not approved the HPV vaccine. France has approved the HPV vaccine. Germany has approved the HPV vaccine. Hungary has the HPV vaccine under review. Iceland has approved the HPV vaccine. Italy has approved the HPV vaccine. Ireland has not approved the HPV vaccine. Japan has the HPV vaccine under review.

  5. Comparison of the Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV with Genomica HPV Clinical Array for the detection of human papillomavirus DNA.

    PubMed

    Sias, Catia; Garbuglia, Anna Rosa; Piselli, Pierluca; Cimaglia, Claudia; Lapa, Daniele; Del Nonno, Franca; Baiocchini, Andrea; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria

    2013-11-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified as the major cause of cervical cancer worldwide and HPV DNA testing is recommended in primary cervical cancer screening. Several molecular tests for detection/typing of HPV DNA with different sensitivity and specificity are commercially available. The present study compared the performance of the Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV assay and the Genomica HPV Clinical Array CLART2 in 78 specimens (63 cervical smears and 15 rectal/urethral swabs).The typing results of the Genomica assay were in absolute agreement with each of the four possible result categories of the Abbott assay (HPV16, HPV18, Other HR HPV, not detected) in 87.2% (68/78) of the samples, with a Cohen' kappa agreement coefficient for every HR type of 0.62 (95% CI: 0.39-0.85), higher in cervical swabs (k = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.50-0.99) than in rectal/urethral swabs (k = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.00-0.82). There was an excellent agreement of the Genomica results with those of Abbott in cervical samples harbored HPV single infection (100% agreement). Nonetheless, both methods may lose sensitivity for detecting HPV types in multiple infections, giving discordant results (10/78). This underlines the importance of establishing the analytical sensitivity in HPV type detection in single and multiple HPV infections. In rectal/urethral swabs, 5 of 15 (33%) discordant cases were observed, most of which became compatible when the Genomica assay was performed starting from nucleic acid extracted with the Abbott m2000sp system. These results suggest that nucleic extraction based on the magnetic beads technique is suitable for HPV DNA detection in urethral/rectal swabs. PMID:23398447

  6. High prevalence of HPV in non-cervical sites of women with abnormal cervical cytology

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are causally associated with ano-genital and a subset of head and neck cancers. Rising incidence of HPV+ anal cancers and head and neck cancers have now been demonstrated in the developed world over the last decade. The majority of published data on HPV prevalence at the anal and oro-pharyngeal sites are from studies of higher-risk populations. There is a paucity of data on the prevalence of HPV at non-cervical sites in lower risk, non-HIV+ women and this study was designed to provide initial pilot data on a population of women recalled for colposcopy as part of the UK cervical screening programme. Methods 100 non-HIV+ women with abnormal cervical cytology, attending clinic for colposcopic examination were recruited. Swabs from the oro-pharyngeal, anal and cervical sites were taken and DNA extracted. HPV detection and genotyping were performed using a standardised, commercially available PCR-line blot assay, which is used to genotype 37 HPV subtypes known to infect the ano-genital and oro-pharyngeal areas. Strict sampling and laboratory precautions were taken to prevent cross-contamination. Results There was a very high prevalence of HPV infection at all three sites: 96.0%, 91.4% and 92.4% at the cervix, anus and oro-pharynx, respectively. Multiple HPV subtype infections were dominant at all 3 mucosal sites. At least one or more HR genotype was present at both the cervix/anus in 39/52 (75.0%) patients; both the cervix/oro-pharynx in 48/56 (85.7%) patients; and both the anus/oro-pharynx in 39/52 (75.0%) patients. HPV 16 infection was highly dominant across all mucosal sites, with over a 2-fold increase over the next most prevalent subtype (HPV 31). Conclusions Women with abnormal smears have widespread infection with high-risk HPV at the cervical, anal and oro-pharyngeal mucosal sites and may represent a higher risk population for HPV disease in the future. PMID:22047498

  7. Genital prolapse in women

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Prolapse of the uterus or vagina is usually the result of loss of pelvic support, and causes mainly non-specific symptoms. It may affect over half of women aged 50 to 59 years, but spontaneous regression may occur. Risks of genital prolapse increase with advancing parity and age, increasing weight of the largest baby delivered, and hysterectomy. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-surgical treatments in women with genital prolapse? What are the effects of surgical treatments in women with anterior vaginal wall prolapse? What are the effects of surgical treatments in women with posterior vaginal wall prolapse? What are the effects of surgical treatments in women with upper vaginal wall prolapse? What are the effects of using different surgical materials in women with genital prolapse? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 14 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: abdominal Burch colposuspension; abdominal sacral colpopexy; abdominal sacrohysteropexy; anterior colporrhaphy with mesh reinforcement; laparoscopic surgery; mesh or synthetic grafts; native (autologous) tissue; open abdominal surgery; pelvic floor muscle exercises; posterior colporrhaphy (with or without mesh reinforcement); posterior intravaginal slingplasty (infracoccygeal sacropexy); sacrospinous colpopexy (vaginal sacral colpopexy); sutures; traditional anterior colporrhaphy; transanal repair; ultralateral anterior colporrhaphy alone or with cadaveric fascia patch; vaginal hysterectomy; vaginal oestrogen; vaginal pessaries; and vaginal sacrospinous colpopexy. PMID:21726473

  8. Genital prolapse in women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Prolapse of the uterus or vagina is usually the result of loss of pelvic support, and causes mainly non-specific symptoms. It may affect over half of women aged 50 to 59 years, but spontaneous regression may occur. Risks of genital prolapse increase with advancing parity and age, increasing weight of the largest baby delivered, and hysterectomy. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-surgical treatments in women with genital prolapse? What are the effects of surgical treatments in women with anterior vaginal wall prolapse? What are the effects of surgical treatments in women with posterior vaginal wall prolapse? What are the effects of surgical treatments in women with upper vaginal wall prolapse? What are the effects of using different surgical materials in women with genital prolapse? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to August 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 15 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: abdominal Burch colposuspension; abdominal sacral colpopexy; abdominal sacrohysteropexy; anterior colporrhaphy with mesh reinforcement; laparoscopic surgery; mesh or synthetic grafts; native (autologous) tissue; open abdominal surgery; pelvic floor muscle exercises; posterior colporrhaphy (with or without mesh reinforcement); posterior intravaginal slingplasty (infracoccygeal sacropexy); sacrospinous colpopexy (vaginal sacral colpopexy); sutures; traditional anterior colporrhaphy; transanal repair; ultralateral anterior colporrhaphy alone or with cadaveric fascia patch; vaginal hysterectomy; vaginal oestrogen; vaginal pessaries; and vaginal sacrospinous colpopexy. PMID:22414610

  9. Oxidative stress in HPV-driven viral carcinogenesis: redox proteomics analysis of HPV-16 dysplastic and neoplastic tissues.

    PubMed

    De Marco, Federico; Bucaj, Elona; Foppoli, Cesira; Fiorini, Ada; Blarzino, Carla; Filipi, Kozeta; Giorgi, Alessandra; Schininà, Maria Eugenia; Di Domenico, Fabio; Coccia, Raffaella; Butterfield, D Allan; Perluigi, Marzia

    2012-01-01

    Genital infection by high risk Human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV), although recognized as the main etio-pathogenetic factor of cervical cancer, is not per se sufficient to induce tumour development. Oxidative stress (OS) represents an interesting and under-explored candidate as a promoting factor in HPV-initiated carcinogenesis. To gain insight into the role of OS in cervical cancer, HPV-16 positive tissues were collected from patients with invasive squamous cervical carcinoma, from patients with High Grade dysplastic HPV lesions and from patients with no clinical evidence of HPV lesions. After virological characterization, modulation of proteins involved in the redox status regulation was investigated. ERp57 and GST were sharply elevated in dysplastic and neoplastic tissues. TrxR2 peaked in dysplastic samples while iNOS was progressively reduced in dysplastic and neoplastic samples. By redox proteomic approach, five proteins were found to have increased levels of carbonyls in dysplastic samples respect to controls namely: cytokeratin 6, actin, cornulin, retinal dehydrogenase and GAPDH. In carcinoma samples the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase A, ERp57, serpin B3, Annexin 2 and GAPDH were found less oxidized than in dysplastic tissues. HPV16 neoplastic progression seems associated with increased oxidant environment. In dysplastic tissues the oxidative modification of DNA and proteins involved in cell morphogenesis and terminal differentiation may provide the conditions for the neoplastic progression. Conversely cancer tissues seem to attain an improved control on oxidative damage as shown by the selective reduction of carbonyl adducts on key detoxifying/pro-survival proteins. PMID:22470562

  10. Preventive and therapeutic HPV vaccines.

    PubMed

    Monie, Archana; Hung, Chien-Fu; Wu, T-C

    2007-12-01

    Cervical cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in women worldwide and HPV infection is responsible for the development of this cancer. Effective vaccination against HPV represents an opportunity for the control of cervical cancer. The newly licensed preventive HPV vaccine in the US, Gardasil, has both a good safety profile and clinical efficacy against the HPV genotypes from which it was derived. However, this vaccine can only protect against up to 70 to 80% of cervical cancer and also lacks therapeutic efficacy against established HPV infection and HPV-associated lesions. Thus, the future of HPV vaccination needs to focus on the development of a new generation of preventive and therapeutic vaccines that are capable of protecting against most cervical cancers. PMID:18058574

  11. Dermoscopic and Clinical Features of Pigmented Skin Lesions of the Genital Area*

    PubMed Central

    Cengiz, Fatma Pelin; Emiroglu, Nazan; Wellenhof, Rainer Hofmann

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The dermoscopic features of vulvar melanosis lesions are well known. To our knowledge, there are only a few case reports about dermoscopic features of pigmented genital lesions in male patients. OBJECTIVE To evaluate dermoscopic and clinical characteristics of benign lesions of the genital area in both males and females, and to assess the distinguishing dermoscopic criteria of vulvar melanosis and atypical melanocytic nevi of the genital type. METHODS 68 patients with pigmented genital lesions were included in this observational study (28 male and 40 female). A punch biopsy was taken from all pigmented lesions and histopathological examination was performed on all specimens. RESULTS We histopathologically diagnosed: genital melanosis in 40 lesions, atypical melanocytic nevi of the genital type in 15 lesions, melanocytic nevi in 9 lesions, seborrheic keratosis in 4 lesions. The most frequent locations were the glans penis (19 patients, 67.9%) in males and the labia minora (19 patients, 47.5%) in females. The mean age of patients with atypical nevi (28,6 ± 11,36) was significantly lower than the mean age of patients with genital melanosis (47,07 ± 15,33). CONCLUSIONS Parallel pattern is prominent in genital melanosis, ring-like pattern is only observed in genital melanosis. Most pigmented lesions on the genital area are solitary. Blue-white veil and irregular dots are only observed in AMNGT. According to these results, we propose that histopathological examination is performed, especially if blue-white veil and irregular dots are found by dermoscopy.

  12. International standardization and classification of human papillomavirus types.

    PubMed

    Bzhalava, Davit; Eklund, Carina; Dillner, Joakim

    2015-02-01

    Established Human Papillomavirus (HPV) types, up to HPV202, belong to 49 species in five genera. International standardization in classification and quality standards for HPV type designation and detection is ensured by the International HPV Reference Center. The center i) receives clones of potentially novel HPV types, re-clones and re-sequences them. If confirmed, an HPV type number is assigned and posted on www.hpvcenter.se. ii) distributes reference clone samples, for academic research, under Material Transfer Agreements agreed with the originator. iii) provides preliminary checking of whether new sequences represent novel types iv) issues international proficiency panels for HPV genotyping. The rate of HPV type discovery is increasing, probably because of metagenomic sequencing. ?-genus today contains 79HPV types and 27 species, surpassing ? and ? genera with 65 and 51HPV types, respectively. Regular issuing of proficiency panels based on HPV reference clones has resulted in global improvement of HPV genotyping services. PMID:25577151

  13. HPV and Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... P also known as A s parents, you do everything you can to protect your children’s health for now ... program at www.cdc.gov/Features/VFCprogram/ Whether you have ... abnormal Pap smears and had to have further testing. I was told I had the kind of HPV that can ...

  14. Impfung gegen HPV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Grubert; K. Friese

    2003-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Dass humanpathogene Papillomviren das ursächliche Agens bei der Entstehung von Zervixkarzinomen sind, ist heute aufgrund vieler epidemiologischer und experimenteller Studien unbestritten. Im dem Maße, in dem sich in den vergangenen Jahren die virale Grundlage des Zervixkarzinoms immer klarer darstellte, wuchs auch die Hoffnung, in absehbarer Zeit Impfstoffe zum Schutz vor HPV-Infektionen und den damit assoziierten Erkrankungen zur Verfügung zu

  15. Natural History of Progression of HPV Infection to Cervical Lesion or Clearance: Analysis of the Control Arm of the Large, Randomised PATRICIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Jaisamrarn, Unnop; Castellsagué, Xavier; Garland, Suzanne M.; Naud, Paulo; Palmroth, Johanna; Del Rosario-Raymundo, Maria Rowena; Wheeler, Cosette M.; Salmerón, Jorge; Chow, Song-Nan; Apter, Dan; Teixeira, Julio C.; Skinner, S. Rachel; Hedrick, James; Szarewski, Anne; Romanowski, Barbara; Aoki, Fred Y.; Schwarz, Tino F.; Poppe, Willy A. J.; Bosch, F. Xavier; de Carvalho, Newton S.; Germar, Maria Julieta; Peters, Klaus; Paavonen, Jorma; Bozonnat, Marie-Cecile; Descamps, Dominique; Struyf, Frank; Dubin, Gary O.; Rosillon, Dominique; Baril, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Background The control arm of PATRICIA (PApillomaTRIal against Cancer In young Adults, NCT00122681) was used to investigate the risk of progression from cervical HPV infection to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or clearance of infection, and associated determinants. Methods and Findings Women aged 15-25 years were enrolled. A 6-month persistent HPV infection (6MPI) was defined as detection of the same HPV type at two consecutive evaluations over 6 months and clearance as ?2 type-specific HPV negative samples taken at two consecutive intervals of approximately 6 months following a positive sample. The primary endpoint was CIN grade 2 or greater (CIN2+) associated with the same HPV type as a 6MPI. Secondary endpoints were CIN1+/CIN3+ associated with the same HPV type as a 6MPI; CIN1+/CIN2+/CIN3+ associated with an infection of any duration; and clearance of infection. The analyses included 4825 women with 16,785 infections (3363 womenwith 6902 6MPIs). Risk of developing a CIN1+/CIN2+/CIN3+ associated with same HPV type as a 6MPI varied with HPV type and was significantly higher for oncogenic versus non-oncogenic types. Hazard ratios for development of CIN2+ were 10.44 (95% CI: 6.96-15.65), 9.65 (5.97-15.60), 5.68 (3.50-9.21), 5.38 (2.87-10.06) and 3.87 (2.38-6.30) for HPV-16, HPV-33, HPV-31, HPV-45 and HPV-18, respectively. HPV-16 or HPV-33 6MPIs had ~25-fold higher risk for progression to CIN3+. Previous or concomitant HPV infection or CIN1+ associated with a different HPV type increased risk. Of the different oncogenic HPV types, HPV-16 and HPV-31 infections were least likely to clear. Conclusions Cervical infections with oncogenic HPV types increased the risk of CIN2+ and CIN3+. Previous or concomitant infection or CIN1+ also increased the risk. HPV-16 and HPV-33 have by far the highest risk of progression to CIN3+, and HPV-16 and HPV-31 have the lowest chance of clearance. PMID:24260180

  16. [Prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in Belém, Pará State, Brazil, in the oral cavity of individuals without clinically diagnosable injuries].

    PubMed

    Araújo, Marizeli Viana de Aragão; Pinheiro, Helder Henrique Costa; Pinheiro, João de Jesus Viana; Quaresma, Juarez Antônio Simões; Fuzii, Hellen Thais; Medeiros, Rita Catarina

    2014-05-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to determine HPV prevalence in the oral cavity of individuals without clinically diagnosable lesions and to identify the respective HPV types. A total of 166 samples were analyzed from patients 18 years or older in the State of Pará, Brazil. Samples were collected by sterile brush scraping in the oral cavity. HPV detection used polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Infected samples were typed as HPV 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 52, and 58. HPV was present in 40 samples (24.1%). Three samples (7.5%) were positive for HPV 6, five (12.5%) for HPV 18, and one (2.5%) for HPV 58. PMID:24936827

  17. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Glycoprotein H Interacts with Integrin ?v?3 To Facilitate Viral Entry and Calcium Signaling in Human Genital Tract Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cheshenko, Natalia; Trepanier, Janie B.; González, Pablo A.; Eugenin, Eliseo A.; Jacobs, William R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Herpes simplex virus (HSV) entry requires multiple interactions at the cell surface and activation of a complex calcium signaling cascade. Previous studies demonstrated that integrins participate in this process, but their precise role has not been determined. These studies were designed to test the hypothesis that integrin ?v?3 signaling promotes the release of intracellular calcium (Ca2+) stores and contributes to viral entry and cell-to-cell spread. Transfection of cells with small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting integrin ?v?3, but not other integrin subunits, or treatment with cilengitide, an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) mimetic, impaired HSV-induced Ca2+ release, viral entry, plaque formation, and cell-to-cell spread of HSV-1 and HSV-2 in human cervical and primary genital tract epithelial cells. Coimmunoprecipitation studies and proximity ligation assays indicated that integrin ?v?3 interacts with glycoprotein H (gH). An HSV-2 gH-null virus was engineered to further assess the role of gH in the virus-induced signaling cascade. The gH-2-null virus bound to cells and activated Akt to induce a small Ca2+ response at the plasma membrane, but it failed to trigger the release of cytoplasmic Ca2+ stores and was impaired for entry and cell-to-cell spread. Silencing of integrin ?v?3 and deletion of gH prevented phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and the transport of viral capsids to the nuclear pore. Together, these findings demonstrate that integrin signaling is activated downstream of virus-induced Akt signaling and facilitates viral entry through interactions with gH by activating the release of intracellular Ca2+ and FAK phosphorylation. These findings suggest a new target for HSV treatment and suppression. IMPORTANCE Herpes simplex viruses are the leading cause of genital disease worldwide, the most common infection associated with neonatal encephalitis, and a major cofactor for HIV acquisition and transmission. There is no effective vaccine. These epidemiological findings underscore the urgency to develop novel HSV treatment or prevention strategies. This study addresses this gap by further defining the signaling pathways the virus usurps to enter human genital tract epithelial cells. Specifically, the study defines the role played by integrins and by the viral envelope glycoprotein H in entry and cell-to-cell spread. This knowledge will facilitate the identification of new targets for the development of treatment and prevention. PMID:24942591

  18. Gaps in detailed knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) and the HPV vaccine among medical students in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A vaccination programme targeted against human papillomavirus (HPV) types16 and 18 was introduced in the UK in 2008, with the aim of decreasing incidence of cervical disease. Vaccine roll out to 12–13 year old girls with a catch-up programme for girls aged up to 17 years and 364 days was accompanied by a very comprehensive public health information (PHI) campaign which described the role of HPV in the development of cervical cancer. Methods A brief questionnaire, designed to assess acquisition of knowledge of HPV infection and its association to cervical cancer, was administered to two different cohorts of male and female 1st year medical students (school leavers: 83% in age range 17–20) at a UK university. The study was timed so that the first survey in 2008 immediately followed a summer's intensive PHI campaign and very shortly after vaccine roll-out (150 students). The second survey was exactly one year later over which time there was a sustained PHI campaign (213 students). Results We addressed three research questions: knowledge about three specific details of HPV infection that could be acquired from PHI, whether length of the PHI campaign and/or vaccination of females had any bearing on HPV knowledge, and knowledge differences between men and women regarding HPV. No female student in the 2008 cohort had completed the three-dose vaccine schedule compared to 58.4% of female students in 2009. Overall, participants’ knowledge regarding the sexually transmitted nature of HPV and its association with cervical cancer was high in both year groups. However, in both years, less than 50% of students correctly identified that HPV causes over 90% of cases of cervical cancer. Males gave fewer correct answers for these two details in 2009. In 2008 only around 50% of students recognised that the current vaccine protects against a limited subset of cervical cancer-causing HPV sub-types, although there was a significant increase in correct response among female students in the 2009 cohort compared to the 2008 cohort. Conclusions This study highlights a lack of understanding regarding the extent of protection against cervical cancer conferred by the HPV vaccine, even among an educated population in the UK who could have a vested interest in acquiring such knowledge. The intensive PHI campaign accompanying the first year of HPV vaccination seemed to have little effect on knowledge over time. This is one of the first studies to assess detailed knowledge of HPV in both males and females. There is scope for continued improvements to PHI regarding the link between HPV infection and cervical cancer. PMID:23521847

  19. HPV-Active Head and Neck Cancer and Ethnic Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Weinberger, Paul M.; Merkley, Mark A.; Khichi, Sunny S.; Lee, Jeffrey L.; Psyrri, Amanda; Jackson, Lana L.; Dynan, William S.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS Mortality for black males with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is twice that of white males or females. Human papillomavirus (HPV)-active HNSCC, defined by the concurrent presence of high-risk type HPV DNA and host cell p16INK4a expression, is associated with decreased mortality. We hypothesized that prevalence of this HPV-active disease class would be lower in black HNSCC patients compared to white patients. STUDY DESIGN Multi-institutional retrospective cohort analysis. METHODS Real-time PCR was used to evaluate for high-risk HPV DNA presence. Immunohistochemistry for p16INK4a protein was used as a surrogate marker for HPV oncoprotein activity. Patients were classified as HPV-negative (HPV DNA-negative, p16INK4a low), HPV-inactive (HPV DNA-positive, p16INK4a low) and HPV-active (HPV DNA-positive, p16INK4a high). Overall survival and recurrence rates were compared by Fisher’s exact test and Kaplan-Meier analysis. RESULTS There were 140 patients with HNSCC who met inclusion criteria. Self-reported ethnicity was white (115), black (25), and other (0). Amplifiable DNA was recovered from 102/140 patients. The presence of HPV DNA and the level of p16INK4a expression were determined and the results were used to classify these patients as HPV-negative (44), HPV-inactive (33) and HPV-active (25). Patients with HPV-active HNSCC had improved overall 5-year survival (59.7%) compared to HPV-negative and HPV-inactive patients (16.9%) (P=0.003). Black patients were less likely to have HPV-active disease (0%) compared to white patients (21%), P=0.017. CONCLUSIONS The favorable HPV-active disease class is less common in black than in white patients with HNSCC, which appears to partially explain observed ethnic health disparities. PMID:20564751

  20. Clinical Evaluation of A New Model of Self-Obtained Method for the Assessment of Genital Human Papilloma Virus Infection in an Underserved Population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chi-Chang Chang; Chih-Jen Tseng; Wei-wei Liu; Smita Jain; Shang-Gwo Horng; Yung-Kuei Soong; Swei Hsueh; Chia C. Pao

    Background: We designed a self-sampling method to collect exfoliated genital cells for human papilloma virus (HPV) detection. The aim was to assess whether it was suitable as an assistant tool for the early detection of cervical pre-cancer and cancer in a special category of the women who are not frequently screened for cervical cancer. Methods: We compared the results of

  1. Cost-effectiveness of vaccination with a quadrivalent HPV vaccine in Germany using a dynamic transmission model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Persistent infections with human papillomavirus (HPV) are a necessary cause of cervical cancer and are responsible for important morbidity in men and women. Since 2007, HPV vaccination has been recommended and funded for all girls aged 12 to 17 in Germany. A previously published cost-effectiveness analysis, using a static model, showed that a quadrivalent HPV vaccination programme for 12-year-old girls in Germany would be cost effective. Here we present the results from a dynamic transmission model that can be used to evaluate the impact and cost-effectiveness of different vaccination schemas. Methods We adapted a HPV dynamic transmission model, which has been used in other countries, to the German context. The model was used to compare a cervical cancer screening only strategy with a strategy of combining vaccination of females aged 12–17 years old and cervical cancer screening, based on the current recommendations in Germany. In addition, the impact of increasing vaccination coverage in this cohort of females aged 12–17 years old was evaluated in sensitivity analysis. Results The results from this analysis show that the current quadrivalent HPV vaccination programme of females ages 12 to 17 in Germany is cost-effective with an ICER of 5,525€/QALY (quality adjusted life year). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) increased to 10,293€/QALY when the vaccine effects on HPV6/11 diseases were excluded. At steady state, the model predicted that vaccinating girls aged 12 to 17 could reduce the number of HPV 6/11/16/18-related cervical cancers by 65% and genital warts among women and men by 70% and 48%, respectively. The impact on HPV-related disease incidence and costs avoided would occur relatively soon after initiating the vaccine programme, with much of the early impact being due to the prevention of HPV6/11-related genital warts. Conclusions These results show that the current quadrivalent HPV vaccination and cervical cancer screening programmes in Germany will substantially reduce the incidence of cervical cancer, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and genital warts. The evaluated vaccination strategies were all found to be cost-effective. Future analyses should include more HPV-related diseases. PMID:23009387

  2. Prevalence of HPV 16 and HPV 18 Lineages in Galicia, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Sonia; Cid, Ana; Iñarrea, Amparo; Pato, Mónica; Lamas, María José; Couso, Bárbara; Gil, Margarita; Álvarez, María Jesús; Rey, Sonia; López-Miragaya, Isabel; Melón, Santiago; de Oña, María

    2014-01-01

    Genetic variants of human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 (HPV16/18) could differ in their cancer risk. We studied the prevalence and association with high-grade cervical lesions of different HPV16/18 variant lineages in a case-control study including 217 cases (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or grade 3 or worse: CIN2 or CIN3+) and 116 controls (no CIN2 or CIN3+ in two-year follow-up). HPV lineages were determined by sequencing the long control region (LCR) and the E6 gene. Phylogenetic analysis of HPV16 confirmed that isolates clustered into previously described lineages: A (260, 87.5%), B (4, 1.3%), C (8, 2.7%), and D (25, 8.4%). Lineage D/lineage A strains were, respectively, detected in 4/82 control patients, 19/126 CIN3+ cases (OR?=?3.1, 95%CI: 1.0–12.9, p?=?0.04), 6/1 glandular high-grade lesions (OR?=?123, 95%CI: 9.7–5713.6, p<0.0001), and 4/5 invasive lesions (OR?=?16.4, 95%CI: 2.2–113.7, p?=?0.002). HPV18 clustered in lineages A (32, 88.9%) and B (4, 11.1%). Lineage B/lineage A strains were respectively detected in 1/23 control patients and 2/5 CIN3+ cases (OR?=?9.2, 95%CI: 0.4–565.4, p?=?0.12). In conclusion, lineages A of HPV16/18 were predominant in Spain. Lineage D of HPV16 was associated with increased risk for CIN3+, glandular high-grade lesions, and invasive lesions compared with lineage A. Lineage B of HPV18 may be associated with increased risk for CIN3+ compared with lineage A, but the association was not significant. Large well-designed studies are needed before the application of HPV lineage detection in clinical settings. PMID:25111834

  3. Genital manifestations of tropical diseases

    PubMed Central

    Richens, J

    2004-01-01

    Genital symptoms in tropical countries and among returned travellers can arise from a variety of bacterial, protozoal, and helminthic infections which are not usually sexually transmitted. The symptoms may mimic classic sexually transmitted infections (STIs) by producing ulceration (for example, amoebiasis, leishmaniasis), wart-like lesions (schistosomiasis), or lesions of the upper genital tract (epididymo-orchitis caused by tuberculosis, leprosy, and brucellosis; salpingitis as a result of tuberculosis, amoebiasis, and schistosomiasis). A variety of other genital symptoms less suggestive of STI are also seen in tropical countries. These include hydrocele (seen with filariasis), which can be no less stigmatising than STI, haemospermia (seen with schistosomiasis), and hypogonadism (which may occur in lepromatous leprosy). This article deals in turn with genital manifestations of filariasis, schistosomiasis, amoebiasis, leishmaniasis, tuberculosis and leprosy and gives clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:14755029

  4. Genital Herpes (Beyond the Basics)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... have lesions around the anus without having had anal sex. Likelihood of recurrence — Genital herpes recurs frequently ... is most often transmitted between partners during oral, anal, or vaginal sex. It is also possible for ...

  5. Genital herpes - self-care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... helps keep your immune system strong. Eat healthy foods. Good nutrition also helps your immune system stay ... 2010 Dec17;59(RR-12):1-110. Lentz GM, Eckert LO. Infections of the lower genital tracts: ...

  6. HPV vaccine stimulates cytotoxic activity of killer dendritic cells and natural killer cells against HPV-positive tumour cells

    PubMed Central

    Van den Bergh, Johan M J; Guerti, Khadija; Willemen, Yannick; Lion, Eva; Cools, Nathalie; Goossens, Herman; Vorsters, Alex; Van Tendeloo, Viggo F I; Anguille, Sébastien; Van Damme, Pierre; Smits, Evelien L J M

    2014-01-01

    Cervarix™ is approved as a preventive vaccine against infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV) strains 16 and 18, which are causally related to the development of cervical cancer. We are the first to investigate in vitro the effects of this HPV vaccine on interleukin (IL)-15 dendritic cells (DC) as proxy of a naturally occurring subset of blood DC, and natural killer (NK) cells, two innate immune cell types that play an important role in antitumour immunity. Our results show that exposure of IL-15 DC to the HPV vaccine results in increased expression of phenotypic maturation markers, pro-inflammatory cytokine production and cytotoxic activity against HPV-positive tumour cells. These effects are mediated by the vaccine adjuvant, partly through Toll-like receptor 4 activation. Next, we demonstrate that vaccine-exposed IL-15 DC in turn induce phenotypic activation of NK cells, resulting in a synergistic cytotoxic action against HPV-infected tumour cells. Our study thus identifies a novel mode of action of the HPV vaccine in boosting innate immunity, including killing of HPV-infected cells by DC and NK cells. PMID:24979331

  7. Therapy of pediatric genital diseases.

    PubMed

    Fiorillo, Loretta

    2004-01-01

    Infants and children have special issues with regard to genital disease. Infants are incontinent, and have an increase in local irritation and infection risk. In addition, the adult sex hormones which enhance the health of genital skin are deficient. Also, the choice of therapy must be modified to take into account the more fragile nature of prepubertal skin, the tolerance of children to painful treatments, and the lack of experience of some medications in children. PMID:14756896

  8. Assessing the burden of HPV-related cancers in Appalachia

    PubMed Central

    Reiter, Paul L.; Fisher, James L.; Hudson, Alana G.; Tucker, Thomas C.; Plascak, Jesse J.; Paskett, Electra D.

    2013-01-01

    Appalachia is a geographic region with existing cancer disparities, yet little is known about its burden of HPV-related cancers outside of cervical cancer. We assessed the burden of HPV-related cancers in three Appalachian states and made comparisons to non-Appalachian regions. We examined 1996–2008 cancer registry data for Ohio, Kentucky, West Virginia and the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) 9 program. For each gender, we calculated age-adjusted incidence rates per 100,000 population for each HPV-related cancer type (cervical, vaginal, vulvar, penile, anal and oral cavity and pharyngeal cancers) and all HPV-related cancers combined. Incidence rates among females for all HPV-related cancers combined were higher in Appalachian Kentucky [24.6 (95% CI: 23.5–25.7)], West Virginia [22.8 (95% CI: 22.0–23.6)] and Appalachian Ohio [21.9 (95% CI: 21.0–22.8)] than SEER 9 [18.8 (95% CI: 18.6–19.0)]. Similar disparities were found among females when examining cervical and vulvar cancers separately. Among males, Appalachian [21.3 (95% CI: 20.2–22.4)] and non-Appalachian [21.9 (95% CI: 21.2–22.7)] Kentucky had higher incidence rates for all HPV-related cancers combined than SEER 9 [18.3 (95% CI: 18.1–18.6)]. The incidence rate of all HPV-related cancers combined was higher among males from Appalachian Ohio compared with those from non-Appalachian Ohio [17.6 (95% CI: 16.8–18.5) vs. 16.3 (95% CI: 16.0–16.6)]. Our study suggests that HPV-related cancer disparities exist in Appalachia beyond the known high cervical cancer incidence rates. These results have important public health implications by beginning to demonstrate the potential impact that widespread HPV vaccination could have in Appalachia. PMID:23143774

  9. Berberine modulates AP1 activity to suppress HPV transcription and downstream signaling to induce growth arrest and apoptosis in cervical cancer cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sutapa Mahata; Alok C Bharti; Shirish Shukla; Abhishek Tyagi; Syed A Husain; Bhudev C Das

    2011-01-01

    Background-  Specific types of high risk Human papillomaviruses (HR-HPVs) particularly, HPV types 16 and 18 cause cervical cancer and while\\u000a the two recently developed vaccines against these HPV types are prophylactic in nature, therapeutic options for treatment\\u000a and management of already existing HPV infection are not available as yet. Because transcription factor, Activator Protein-1\\u000a (AP-1) plays a central role in HPV-mediated

  10. Zip-related genital injury

    PubMed Central

    Bagga, Herman S.; Tasian, Gregory E.; McGeady, James; Blaschko, Sarah D.; McCulloch, Charles E.; McAninch, Jack W.; Breyer, Benjamin N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the epidemiology of genital injuries caused by trouser zips and to educate both consumers and the caregivers of patients who sustain such injuries. Patients and Methods The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System, a dataset validated to provide a probability sample of patients who present to emergency departments (EDs) in the USA with injuries, was analysed to characterize zip-related genital injuries occurring between 2002 and 2010. A total of 523 cases were analysed to obtain national estimates. Results Between 2002 and 2010, an estimated 17 616 patients presented to US EDs with trouser zip injuries to the genitals. The penis was almost always the only genital organ involved. Zip injuries represented nearly one-fifth of all penile injuries. Amongst adults, zips were the most frequent cause of penile injuries. Annual zip-related genital injury incidence remained stable over the study period. Conclusions Zip-related genital injuries a3ect both paediatric and adult cohorts. Practitioners should be familiar with various zip-detachment strategies for these populations. PMID:23490164

  11. Identification and functional validation of HPV-mediated hypermethylation in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus-positive (HPV+) head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) represents a distinct clinical and epidemiological condition compared with HPV-negative (HPV-) HNSCC. To test the possible involvement of epigenetic modulation by HPV in HNSCC, we conducted a genome-wide DNA-methylation analysis. Methods Using laser-capture microdissection of 42 formalin-fixed paraffin wax-embedded (FFPE) HNSCCs, we generated DNA-methylation profiles of 18 HPV+ and 14 HPV- samples, using Infinium 450 k BeadArray technology. Methylation data were validated in two sets of independent HPV+/HPV- HNSCC samples (fresh-frozen samples and cell lines) using two independent methods (Infinium 450 k and whole-genome methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (MeDIP-seq)). For the functional analysis, an HPV- HNSCC cell line was transduced with lentiviral constructs containing the two HPV oncogenes (E6 and E7), and effects on methylation were assayed using the Infinium 450 k technology. Results and discussion Unsupervised clustering over the methylation variable positions (MVPs) with greatest variation showed that samples segregated in accordance with HPV status, but also that HPV+ tumors are heterogeneous. MVPs were significantly enriched at transcriptional start sites, leading to the identification of a candidate CpG island methylator phenotype in a sub-group of the HPV+ tumors. Supervised analysis identified a strong preponderance (87%) of MVPs towards hypermethylation in HPV+ HNSCC. Meta-analysis of our HNSCC and publicly available methylation data in cervical and lung cancers confirmed the observed DNA-methylation signature to be HPV-specific and tissue-independent. Grouping of MVPs into functionally more significant differentially methylated regions identified 43 hypermethylated promoter DMRs, including for three cadherins of the Polycomb group target genes. Integration with independent expression data showed strong negative correlation, especially for the cadherin gene-family members. Combinatorial ectopic expression of the two HPV oncogenes (E6 and E7) in an HPV- HNSCC cell line partially phenocopied the hypermethylation signature seen in HPV+ HNSCC tumors, and established E6 as the main viral effector gene. Conclusions Our data establish that archival FFPE tissue is very suitable for this type of methylome analysis, and suggest that HPV modulates the HNSCC epigenome through hypermethylation of Polycomb repressive complex 2 target genes such as cadherins, which are implicated in tumor progression and metastasis. PMID:23419152

  12. A novel multiplex real-time PCR assay for the detection and quantification of HPV16/18 and HSV1/2 in cervical cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Youyun; Cao, Xuan; Tang, Jingfeng; Zhou, Li; Gao, Yinglin; Wang, Jiangping; Zheng, Yi; Yin, Shanshan; Wang, Yefu

    2012-04-01

    Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), particularly HPV16 and HPV18, is the main cause of invasive cervical cancer, although other factors such as herpes simplex virus (HSV) may act in conjunction with HPV in this context. To explore the possibility of developing a system for rapid diagnosis and clinical screening of cervical cancer, we developed a multiplex real-time PCR assay that can simultaneously detect and quantify HPV16/18 and HSV1/2. To evaluate its possibilities and practical uses, 177 samples collected from patients with suspected HPV and HSV infection in exfoliated cervical cells, genital herpes or labial herpes were tested by multiplex real-time PCR and compared with results obtained by DNA sequencing. Each virus was detected over a range from 1.0 × 10(1) to 1.0 × 10(7) copies/reaction. The clinical sensitivity was 100% for HPV16/18 and HSV1/2. The clinical specificity was 97.1% for HPV16, 98.1% for HPV18, 97.0% for HSV1 and 96.0% for HSV2. The kappa value was 0.96 for HPV16, 0.92 for HPV18, 0.94 for HSV1 and 0.93 for HSV2, when DNA sequencing was used as the reference standard. In summary, this novel multiplex real-time PCR allows the rapid and specific detection of HPV16/18 and HSV1/2, as well as coinfection with HPV and HSV, in clinical samples. In the future, this multiplex real-time PCR assay will assist in cervical cancer screening, viral treatment evaluation and epidemiological studies in which high throughput analysis is required. PMID:22293505

  13. Application of shRNA-containing herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)-based gene therapy for HSV-2-induced genital herpes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhihong; Xiang, Yang; Wei, Zhun; Yu, Bo; Shao, Yong; Zhang, Jie; Yang, Hong; Li, Manmei; Guan, Ming; Wan, Jun; Zhang, Wei

    2013-11-01

    HSV-1-based vectors have been widely used to achieve targeted delivery of genes into the nervous system. In the current study, we aim to use shRNA-containing HSV-1-based gene delivery system for the therapy of HSV-2 infection. Guinea pigs were infected intravaginally with HSV-2 and scored daily for 100 days for the severity of vaginal disease. HSV-2 shRNA-containing HSV-1 was applied intravaginally daily between 8 and 14 days after HSV-2 challenge. Delivery of HSV-2 shRNA-containing HSV-1 had no effect on the onset of disease and acute virus shedding in animals, but resulted in a significant reduction in both the cumulative recurrent lesion days and the number of days with recurrent disease. Around half of the animals in the HSV-2 shRNA group did not develop recurrent disease 100 days post HSV-2 infection. In conclusion, HSV-2 shRNA-containing HSV-1 particles are effective in reducing the recurrence of genital herpes caused by HSV-2. PMID:23845900

  14. Comparison of Human Papillomavirus Detection by Aptima HPV and cobas HPV Tests in a Population of Women Referred for Colposcopy following Detection of Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance by Pap Cytology.

    PubMed

    Castle, Philip E; Eaton, Barbara; Reid, Jennifer; Getman, Damon; Dockter, Janel

    2015-04-01

    Few studies have compared the cobas HPV test to the Aptima HPV assay (AHPV) and the Aptima HPV 16 18/45 genotype assay (AHPV GT) for high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) detection, clinical performance in detecting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2) or more severe (CIN2+) diagnoses, and risk stratification by partial HPV genotyping. The cobas HPV test is a DNA test that separately and concurrently detects HPV16, HPV18, and a pool of 12 other hrHPV types. AHPV is an RNA test for a pool of 14 hrHPV genotypes, and AHPV GT is an RNA test run on AHPV-positive results to detect HPV16 separately from HPV18 and HPV45, which are detected together. In a population of patients (n = 988) referred for colposcopy because of a cervical Pap cytology result of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US), a cervical scrape specimen was taken, placed into a ThinPrep Pap test vial containing PreservCyt liquid cytology medium, and tested in a blinded fashion with cobas and AHPV and with AHPV GT for AHPV-positive results. The final diagnoses were based on a consensus panel review of the biopsy specimen histology. AHPV and cobas were equally sensitive for CIN2+ diagnoses (89.4% each; P = 1.000), and AHPV was more specific than cobas (63.1% versus 59.3%; P ? 0.001). The percent total agreement, percent positive agreement, and kappa value were 90.9%, 81.1%, and 0.815, respectively. Risk stratification using partial HPV genotyping was similar for the two assays. AHPV and AHPV GT had similar sensitivity and risk stratification to cobas HPV, but they were more specific than cobas HPV. PMID:25653409

  15. High-risk hpv infection in sexually active and non active young women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zana Bumbuliene; Jonas Alisauskas; Agne Sepetiene

    2011-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of high-risk HPV infection before first vaginal intercourse and after initiation of sexual activity\\u000a in 14-22 years old girls, to find which HPV types occur most commonly. During the gynecologic exam cervical swabs were collected.\\u000a Specimens were tested using Hybrid Capture 2 DNA test. In positive samples digene HPV genotyping test was performed. Subjects\\u000a included 264

  16. Epidemiological Aspects of Genital Warts in Romania – a 2012 Retrospective Survey

    PubMed Central

    SALAVASTRU, Carmen Maria; NICULESCU, Mihaela Cristina; ZOTA, Alexandra; NICOLA, Gheorghe; MORARIU, Horia Silviu; SOLOVAN, Caius; PATRASCU, Virgil; POPOVICI, Georgeta; VLADUTA, Raluca; PANDURU, Mihaela; TIPLICA, George-Sorin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Genital infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) has become one of the most frequently viral sexually transmitted diseases. The infection may remain asymptomatic, may take the form of external genital warts and may give raise to cervical cancers. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of the patients with genital warts addressing to five tertiary referral dermato-venereological units in Romania (where patients from several counties are referred) and to compare the results with the out-patient data reported by all Romanian hospitals. Material and methods: Data regarding patients with external genital warts who addressed to the hospital emergency rooms, in five tertiary referral dermato-venerological units in Romania (Bucharest, Timisoara, Craiova, Constanta, Târgu-Mures) were collected for the year 2012. For comparison there have been used data collected by the National School of Public Health, Management and Professional Development, during the same year. Outcomes: Data reported at national level in 2012 included 952 patients (731 women and 221 men) with 26 males under 20 years of age and 251 female patients in the age group 0-20 years. In the overall population (males and females combined) the total number of genital warts cases registered at the hospital emergency rooms in the five centers, in the year 2012, was 266 patients (119 men and 147 women) with 4 girls under 14 years of age and 6 male patients in the age group 0-14 years. Conclusions: The high prevalence of the infection with HPV, the costs of treatment and the psychological impact prove that prevention of the disease is the most important step for decreasing the incidence of this disease. General measures for patients awareness regarding the disease and its complications need to be completed with the recommendation for vaccination. A closer monitoring of patients would provide information for a strategic national approach leading to a better outcome. PMID:25705269

  17. Analytic and Clinical Performance of cobas HPV Testing in Anal Specimens from HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Follansbee, Stephen; Borgonovo, Sylvia; Tokugawa, Diane; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V.; Chen, Jie; Lorey, Thomas S.; Gage, Julia C.; Fetterman, Barbara; Boyle, Sean; Sadorra, Mark; Tang, Scott Dahai; Darragh, Teresa M.; Castle, Philip E.

    2014-01-01

    Anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are common, and the incidence of anal cancer is high in HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). To evaluate the performance of HPV assays in anal samples, we compared the cobas HPV test (cobas) to the Roche Linear Array HPV genotyping assay (LA) and cytology in HIV-infected MSM. Cytology and cobas and LA HPV testing were conducted for 342 subjects. We calculated agreement between the HPV assays and the clinical performance of HPV testing and HPV genotyping alone and in combination with anal cytology. We observed high agreement between cobas and LA, with cobas more likely than LA to show positive results for HPV16, HPV18, and other carcinogenic types. Specimens testing positive in cobas but not in LA were more likely to be positive for other markers of HPV-related disease compared to those testing negative in both assays, suggesting that at least some of these were true positives for HPV. cobas and LA showed high sensitivities but low specificities for the detection of anal intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3 (AIN2/3) in this population (100% sensitivity and 26% specificity for cobas versus 98.4% sensitivity and 28.9% specificity for LA). A combination of anal cytology and HPV genotyping provided the highest accuracy for detecting anal precancer. A higher HPV load was associated with a higher risk of AIN2/3 with HPV16 (Ptrend < 0.001), HPV18 (Ptrend = 0.07), and other carcinogenic types (Ptrend < 0.001). We demonstrate that cobas can be used for HPV detection in anal cytology specimens. Additional tests are necessary to identify men at the highest risk of anal cancer among those infected with high-risk HPV. PMID:24899025

  18. Female genital mutilation in Djibouti.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, M; Ollé-Goig, J E

    2012-12-01

    The practice of female genital mutilation (we will use the latest definition adopted by WHO/UNFP: female genital mutilation/cutting or FGM/C) is still widespread in 28 African countries. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that more than two million females undergo some form of genital mutilation every year. Its negative health impact and its ethical and human rights aspects have been discussed and attempts to eliminate it have been the objectives of several meetings promoted by national and international organisations thanks to an increased awareness related to FGM/C in those countries practicing it and also, maybe due to the number of Africans migrating to industrialized countries. We review the present situation in Djibouti, a small country in the Horn of Africa, where 98 % of the female population has suffered different forms of FGM/C. PMID:23515242

  19. Levels of immunoglobulin G antibodies against defined epitopes of the L1 and L2 capsid proteins of human papillomavirus type 6 are elevated in men with a history of condylomata acuminata.

    PubMed Central

    Wikström, A; Eklund, C; Von Krogh, G; Lidbrink, P; Dillner, J

    1992-01-01

    Sera from 159 men attending the sexually transmitted disease clinic at Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden, were analyzed for the presence of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG antibodies to a panel of synthetic peptides derived from the E2, L1, and L2 regions of the human papillomavirus types 1 (HPV 1), 6, 8, 11, 16, 18, 31, and 33. The study subjects were divided into three groups: (i) asymptomatic men with no history of genital warts who served as controls, (ii) men with visible condylomata, and (iii) men who had previously been afflicted with condylomata. There were no significant differences in antibody titers for any of the HPV 6- or 11-derived peptides among patients with current condylomata and the controls. For the peptide from L1 of HPV 6, there was an increase in the IgG titers among men with previous condylomata compared with the titers for the controls (52% versus 27% seropositivity; P less than 0.05). Also, for the peptide from L2 of HPV 6, there was an increase in the IgG titers among men who had been afflicted with condylomata previously (P less than 0.05). Increased IgA antibody titers against an HPV 16-derived peptide and an HPV 18-derived peptide were also detected. For the peptides from L1 and L2 of HPV 6, the study was extended to an additional group of 127 males attending the sexually transmitted disease clinic at Huddinge Hospital in southern Stockholm. Again, significantly increased antibody levels were detected only for IgG and only among asymptomatic men with a history of condylomata (P < 0.01 for the L1 peptide and P < 0.05 for the L2 peptide). The results suggest that the IgG response against the late proteins of HPV 6 reflects mainly previous exposure to the virus rather than ongoing viral disease. PMID:1378454

  20. Rapid identification of HPV 16 and 18 by multiplex nested PCR-immunochromatographic test.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yung-Bin; Li, Yi-Shuan; Chan, Err-Cheng

    2015-02-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 are known to be high-risk viruses that cause cervical cancer. An HPV rapid testing kit that could help physicians to make early and more informed decisions regarding patient care is needed urgently but not yet available. This study aimed to develop a multiplex nested polymerase chain reaction-immunochromatographic test (PCR-ICT) for the rapid identification of HPV 16 and 18. A multiplex nested PCR was constructed to amplify the HPV 16 and 18 genotype-specific L1 gene fragments and followed by ICT which coated with antibodies to identify rapidly the different PCR products. The type-specific gene regions of high-risk HPV 16 and 18 could be amplified successfully by multiplex nested PCR at molecular sizes of approximately 99 and 101bp, respectively. The capture antibodies raised specifically against the moleculars labeled on the PCR products could be detected simultaneously both HPV 16 and 18 in one strip. Under optimal conditions, this PCR-ICT assay had the capability to detect HPV in a sample with as low as 100 copies of HPV viral DNA. The PCR-ICT system has the advantage of direct and simultaneous detection of two high-risk HPV 16 and 18 DNA targets in one sample, which suggested a significant potential of this assay for clinical application. PMID:25446515

  1. Natural History of Cutaneous Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection in Men: The HIM Study

    PubMed Central

    Hampras, Shalaka S.; Giuliano, Anna R.; Lin, Hui-Yi; Fisher, Kate J.; Abrahamsen, Martha E.; Sirak, Bradley A.; Iannacone, Michelle R.; Gheit, Tarik; Tommasino, Massimo; Rollison, Dana E.

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Little is known about the natural history of cutaneous HPV. A sub-cohort of 209 men with no NMSC history, initially enrolled in the HPV infection in men (HIM) study, were followed for a median of 12.6 months. Epidemiological data were collected through self-administered questionnaires. Cutaneous HPV DNA was measured in normal skin swabs (SS) and eyebrow hairs (EB) for 25 and 16 HPV types in genera ? and ?, respectively. Any ? HPV infection was more prevalent in SS (67.3%) compared to EB (56.5%, p?=?0.04). Incidence in SS was higher than 20 per 1,000 person-months for HPV types 4, 5, 23, 38 and 76. Median duration of persistence of ? and ? HPV infection was 8.6 and 6.1 months in EB, respectively, and 11.3 months and 6.3 months, in SS, respectively. Older age (>44 years vs. 18-30 years) was significantly associated with prevalent (SS OR?=?3.0, 95% CI?=?1.2–7.0) and persistent ? HPV infection (EB OR?=?6.1, 95% CI?=?2.6–14.1). History of blistering sunburn was associated with prevalent (OR?=?2.8, 95% CI?=?1.3–5.8) and persistent (OR?=?2.3, 95% CI?=?1.2–4.6) ? HPV infection in SS. Cutaneous HPV is highly prevalent in men, with age and blistering sunburn being significant risk factors for cutaneous ? HPV infection. PMID:25198694

  2. HPV16 early gene E5 specifically reduces miRNA-196a in cervical cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chanzhen; Lin, Jianfei; Li, Lianqin; Zhang, Yonggang; Chen, Weiling; Cao, Zeyi; Zuo, Huancong; Chen, Chunling; Kee, Kehkooi

    2015-01-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16, which is responsible for greater than 50% of cervical cancer cases, is the most prevalent and lethal HPV type. However, the molecular mechanisms of cervical carcinogenesis remain elusive, particularly the early steps of HPV infection that may transform normal cervical epithelium into a pre-neoplastic state. Here, we report that a group of microRNAs (microRNAs) were aberrantly decreased in HPV16-positive normal cervical tissues, and these groups of microRNAs are further reduced in cervical carcinoma. Among these miRNAs, miR196a expression is the most reduced in HPV16-infected tissues. Interestingly, miR196a expression is low in HPV16-positive cervical cancer cell lines but high in HPV16-negative cervical cancer cell lines. Furthermore, we found that only HPV16 early gene E5 specifically down-regulated miRNA196a in the cervical cancer cell lines. In addition, HoxB8, a known miR196a target gene, is up-regulated in the HPV16 cervical carcinoma cell line but not in HPV18 cervical cancer cell lines. Various doses of miR196a affected cervical cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis. Altogether, these results suggested that HPV16 E5 specifically down-regulates miR196a upon infection of the human cervix and initiates the transformation of normal cervix cells to cervical carcinoma. PMID:25563170

  3. P16(INK4A) immunostaining is a strong indicator for high-risk-HPV-associated oropharyngeal carcinomas and dysplasias, but is unreliable to predict low-risk-HPV-infection in head and neck papillomas and laryngeal dysplasias.

    PubMed

    Mooren, Jeroen J; Gültekin, Sibel E; Straetmans, Jos M J A A; Haesevoets, Annick; Peutz-Kootstra, Carine J; Huebbers, Christian U; Dienes, Hans P; Wieland, Ulrike; Ramaekers, Frans C S; Kremer, Bernd; Speel, Ernst-Jan M; Klussmann, Jens P

    2014-05-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a risk factor for the development of benign and malignant mucosal head and neck lesions. P16(INK4A) is often used as a surrogate marker for HPV-infection, although there is still controversy with respect its reliability. Our aim was to determine if p16(INK4A) overexpression can accurately predict both high-risk and low-risk-HPV-presence in (pre)malignant and benign head and neck lesions. P16(INK4A) immunohistochemistry was performed on paraffin-embedded tissue sections of 162 oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCC), 14 tonsillar and 23 laryngeal dysplasias, and 20 tonsillar and 27 laryngeal papillomas. PCR, enzyme-immunoassay and FISH analysis were used to assess HPV-presence and type. Of the 162 OPSCC and 14 tonsillar dysplasias, 51 (31%) and 10 (71%) were HPV16-positive, respectively. All tonsillar papillomas were HPV-negative and four laryngeal dysplasias and 26 laryngeal papillomas were positive for HPV6 or -11. P16(INK4A) immunohistochemistry revealed a strong nuclear and cytoplasmic staining in 50 out of 51 HPV16-positive and 5 out of 111 HPV-negative OPSCC (p < 0.0001) and in all HPV16-positive tonsillar dysplasias, whereas highly variable staining patterns were detected in the papillomas and laryngeal dysplasias, irrespective of the HPV-status. In addition, the latter lesions generally showed a higher nuclear than cytoplasmic p16(INK4A) immunostaining intensity. In conclusion, our data show that strong nuclear and cytoplasmic p16(INK4A) overexpression is a reliable surrogate indicator for HPV16 in OPSCC and (adjacent) dysplasias. For HPV6 or -11-positive and HPV-negative benign and premalignant lesions of the tonsil and larynx, however, p16(INK4A) immunostaining is highly variable and cannot be recommended to predict HPV-presence. PMID:24127203

  4. A Role for MicroRNA-155 Expression in Microenvironment Associated to HPV-Induced Carcinogenesis in K14-HPV16 Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Isabel; Gil da Costa, Rui M; Ribeiro, Joana; Sousa, Hugo; Bastos, Margarida; Rocha, Ana Faustino Carlos; Oliveira, Paula A; Medeiros, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus cause a number of diseases most notably cervical cancer. K14-HPV16 transgenic mice expressing the HPV16 early genes in squamous epithelial cells provide a suitable experimental model for studying these diseases. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that play an important role in regulating gene expression and have been suggested to play an important role in cancer development. The role of miR-155 in cancer remains controversial and there is limited evidence linking this miRNA to HPV- associated diseases. We hypothesized that miR-155 expression modulates each tissue's susceptibility to develop HPV-associated carcinogenesis. In this study, we analyzed miR-155 expression in ear and chest skin samples from 22-26 weeks old, female K14-HPV16 transgenic (HPV16+/-) and wild-type (HPV-/-) mice. Among wild-type mice the expression of miR-155 was lower in ear skin compared with chest skin (p = 0.028). In transgenic animals, in situ carcinoma was present in all ear samples whereas chest tissues only showed epidermal hyperplasia. Furthermore, in hyperplastic chest skin samples, miR-155 expression was lower than in normal chest skin (p = 0,026). These results suggest that miR-155 expression may modulate the microenvironmental susceptibility to cancer development and that high miR155 levels may be protective against the carcinogenesis induced by HPV16. PMID:25625305

  5. A Role for MicroRNA-155 Expression in Microenvironment Associated to HPV-Induced Carcinogenesis in K14-HPV16 Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Paiva, Isabel; Gil da Costa, Rui M.; Ribeiro, Joana; Sousa, Hugo; Bastos, Margarida; Rocha, Ana Faustino Carlos; Oliveira, Paula A; Medeiros, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus cause a number of diseases most notably cervical cancer. K14-HPV16 transgenic mice expressing the HPV16 early genes in squamous epithelial cells provide a suitable experimental model for studying these diseases. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that play an important role in regulating gene expression and have been suggested to play an important role in cancer development. The role of miR-155 in cancer remains controversial and there is limited evidence linking this miRNA to HPV- associated diseases. We hypothesized that miR-155 expression modulates each tissue’s susceptibility to develop HPV-associated carcinogenesis. In this study, we analyzed miR-155 expression in ear and chest skin samples from 22-26 weeks old, female K14-HPV16 transgenic (HPV16+/-) and wild-type (HPV-/-) mice. Among wild-type mice the expression of miR-155 was lower in ear skin compared with chest skin (p = 0.028). In transgenic animals, in situ carcinoma was present in all ear samples whereas chest tissues only showed epidermal hyperplasia. Furthermore, in hyperplastic chest skin samples, miR-155 expression was lower than in normal chest skin (p = 0,026). These results suggest that miR-155 expression may modulate the microenvironmental susceptibility to cancer development and that high miR155 levels may be protective against the carcinogenesis induced by HPV16. PMID:25625305

  6. Dermatoses of the Male Genital Area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfred R. Eichmann

    2005-01-01

    This is an overview of dermatoses which are predominantly seen in the genital area. Five large groups of dermatoses can be distinguished: inflammatory dermatoses without any causative organism, infections and dermatoses originating from cutaneous appendages, precancerous lesions, pigmented lesions and genital pruritus. The etiology, causative factors, clinical features and newer treatment options are considered. Because of local environmental factors, genital

  7. HPV16L1-attenuated Shigella recombinant vaccine induced strong vaginal and systemic immune responses in guinea pig model.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaofei; Wang, Depu; Liang, Fengli; Fu, Ling; Guo, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Though human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines based on L1 virus-like particles (VLPs) have excellent protective effect against HPV-induced cervical cancer, they are too expensive to be afforded by the developing countries, where most cases of cervical cancer occur. A live bacterial-based vaccine could be an inexpensive alternative. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential value of live attenuated Shigella. flexneri 2a sc602 strain-based HPV16L1 as a high-efficiency, low-cost HPV16L1 mucosal vaccine. Recombinant sc602/L1 vaccine induced high L1-specific systemic and mucosal immune responses as well as cell-mediated Th1 and Th2 immune responses in guinea pig model. Sc602/L1 vaccine induced higher L1-specific IgG and IgA antibodies as well as HPV16-neutralizing antibodies in genital region in sc602/L1 mucosal immunized animals than in L1 intramuscular immunized animals. Though both are via mucosal delivery, immunized sc602/L1 vaccine by rectum route induced higher L1-specific IgA and IgG titers in genital region than by conjunctiva route. In addition, sc602/L1 also strongly increased L1-specific IFN-? and IL-4 expression, implying its effect on cell-mediated immune response. HPV16L1 was expressed in sc602 bacteria and their biologic characteristics were detected by immunoblot, electron microscope and HeLa cell invasion assay. Guinea pigs were immunized with sc602L1 through conjunctiva (i.c.) or rectum (i.r.). Mucosal and systemic immune responses were detected by ELISA, ELISPOT and Neutralization activity assays. Strong mucosal and systemic immune responses were induced by sc602/L1 vaccine. This study provides evidence that sc602/L1 vaccine may have protective effect on HPV infection. PMID:25483698

  8. HPV prevalence and genotypes in different histological subtypes of cervical adenocarcinoma, a worldwide analysis of 760 cases.

    PubMed

    Pirog, Edyta C; Lloveras, Belen; Molijn, Anco; Tous, Sara; Guimerà, Núria; Alejo, Maria; Clavero, Omar; Klaustermeier, Joellen; Jenkins, David; Quint, Wim Gv; Xavier Bosch, Francesc; Alemany, Laia; de Sanjosé, Silvia

    2014-12-01

    The goal of our study was to provide comprehensive data on the worldwide human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution in patients with invasive cervical adenocarcinoma in correlation with histologic tumor subtypes, geographical location, patients' age, and duration of sample storage. Paraffin-embedded samples of 760 cervical adenocarcinoma cases were collected worldwide. A three-level pathology review of cases was performed to obtain consensus histologic diagnoses and 682 cases were determined to be eligible for further analysis. HPV DNA detection and genotyping was performed using SPF-10/DEIA/LiPA(25) system (version 1). Classic cervical adenocarcinoma accounted for 83.1% of cases, while rare histological variants accounted for a few percent of cases individually. HPV positivity varied significantly between the different histologic tumor subtypes. Classic cervical adenocarcinoma showed high HPV positivity (71.8%), while other adenocarcinoma types had significantly lower HPV prevalence (endometrioid 27.3%, serous 25%, clear cell 20%, not otherwise specified 13.9%, and minimal deviation 8.3%). In all, 91.8% of HPV-positive tumors showed the presence of a single viral type and in 7% of cases multiple viral types were detected. Three HPV genotypes, HPV 16, 18, and 45, dominated in all adenocarcinomas and together accounted for 94.1% of HPV-positive tumors. HPV16 was the most common and found in 50.9% of HPV-positive cases, followed by HPV18 (31.6%) and HPV45 (11.6%). HPV prevalence varied depending on geographical region, patient age, and sample storage time. Tumors from older patients and tumor samples with longer storage time showed lower HPV prevalence. Our results indicate that HPV vaccines may prevent up to 82.5% (HPV16/18) and up to 95.3% (9-valent vaccine) of HPV-positive cervical adenocarcinomas, mostly the classic type. HPV testing and vaccination will not provide full coverage for a very small subset of classical adenocarcinomas and most of the rare tumor variants such as clear cell, serous, endometrioid, and minimal deviation. PMID:24762548

  9. Genital ulcers in women: clinical, microbiologic and histopathologic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Christiane Maria Moreira; Giraldo, Paulo César; Gomes, Francis de Assis Moraes; Amaral, Rose; Passos, Mauro Romero Leal; Gonçalves, Ana Katherine da Silveira

    2007-04-01

    Female genital ulcer is a disease that affects a large number of women, and its etiologic diagnosis can be difficult. The disease may increase the risk of acquiring HIV. Genital ulcer may be present in sexually transmitted diseases (STD)--syphilis, chancroid, genital herpes, donovanosis, lymphogranuloma venereum; and other non-STD disorders (NSTD)--Behçet's syndrome, pemphigus, Crohn's disease, erosive lichen planus and others. This study evaluated the clinical-histopathologic-microbiologic characteristics of female genital ulcers. A cross-sectional descriptive prospective study was conducted during a six-month period to investigate the first 53 women without a definitive diagnosis, seeking medical care for genital ulcers at a genital infections outpatient facility in a university hospital. A detailed and specific history was taken, followed by a dermatologic and gynecologic examination. In addition to collecting material from the lesions for microbiologic study, a biopsy of the ulcer was performed for histopathologic investigation. The average age of the patients was 32.7 years, 56.6% had junior high school education and higher education. The most frequent etiology was herpetic lesion, followed by auto-immune ulcers. At the time of their first consultation, around 60% of the women were using inadequate medication that was inconsistent with the final diagnosis. Histologic diagnosis was conclusive in only 26.4% of the patients (14/53). Cure was obtained in 99% of the cases after proper therapy. The female genital ulcers studied were equally distributed between sexually transmitted and non-sexually transmitted causes. Herpes was the most frequent type of genital ulcer, affecting women indiscriminately, mostly between the ages of 20 and 40 years. The etiologic diagnosis of herpetic ulcers is difficult to make even when various diagnostic methods are applied. It is imperative that NSTD should be included in the differential diagnoses of female genital ulcers. The histopathologic exam is not a diagnostic tool in the majority of cases and should not be considered the gold standard test, being of little value in cases of NSTD and STD ulcers. PMID:17625773

  10. Fewer doses of HPV vaccine result in immune response similar to three-dose regimen

    Cancer.gov

    NCI scientists report that two doses of a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, trademarked as Cervarix, resulted in similar serum antibody levels against two of the most carcinogenic types of HPV (16 and 18), compared to a standard three dose regimen. The results appeared in the November 2013 issue of Cancer Prevention Research.

  11. What School Nurses Need to Know about Cervical Cancer, HPV, and the New Vaccine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrhardt, Jeanie

    2007-01-01

    At least 12,000 women are diagnosed with cervical cancer each year in the United States, accounting for at least 4,000 deaths. Worldwide, cervical cancer is the second most common type of cancer among women. The human papilloma virus (HPV) has been linked to at least 70% of all cervical cancer. HPV can be divided into 2 categories: (a) low risk,…

  12. Papillomavirus Capsid Protein Expression in Escherichia coli: Purification and Assembly of HPV11

    E-print Network

    Harrison, Stephen C.

    Papillomavirus Capsid Protein Expression in Escherichia coli: Purification and Assembly of HPV11 proteins of human papillomavirus (HPV) types 11 and 16 were puri®ed and analyzed for structural integrity for vaccine design. # 2001 Academic Press Keywords: human papillomavirus; virus assembly; virus capsids

  13. Male genital tuberculosis in Siberians.

    PubMed

    Kulchavenya, Ekaterina; Khomyakov, Victor

    2006-02-01

    To study the epidemiology and the clinical picture of male genital tuberculosis in Siberia, Russia. Five hundred and fourteen patients with genitourinary tuberculosis were enrolled in the study: 414 had kidney tuberculosis only, 100 had genital involvement. The clinical picture and structure of genital tuberculosis were investigated: 42 had tuberculosis of scrotal organs and 58 had tuberculosis of the prostate. Urinary cultures, urinalysis, three-glass test, and investigation of the prostate secretion, Mycobacteria culture, and susceptibility testing were performed in all 514 patients. 33.6% of all patients earlier suffered from pulmonary or extrapulmonary tuberculosis and were successfully cured. In 61.9% nephrotuberculosis was diagnosed alongside with an orchiepididymitis. In 30.9% of patients bilateral epididymorchitis was diagnosed. Mycobacteriuria was present in 38.1%. Scrotal fistula was found in 11.9%. In 66.7% the symptoms appeared acutely. Half of the patients with prostate tuberculosis complained of dysuria, 23 (39.6%) had perineal pain, 34 (58.6%) had flank pain. Leucocytes in urine were present in 49 (84.5%) patients, and in prostatic secretion in 45 (77.6%) patients. Erythrocytes in urine were present in 31 (53.4%) patients, and in prostatic secretions in 17 (29.3%) patients. Male genital tuberculosis has no specific pathognomonic signs. Using a special algorithm for the management of patients with prostatitis or epididymitis is recommended. PMID:16429302

  14. HPV Infection in Cervical and Other Cancers in Saudi Arabia: Implication for Prevention and Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Alsbeih, Ghazi

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is closely associated with cervical cancer that the incidence of this tumor is regarded as a surrogate marker for HPV infection in countries lacking epidemiological studies. HPV is also implicated in subsets of anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers. Although cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide, its reported incidence is low in Saudi Arabia, ranking number 12 between all cancers in females and accounts only for 2.4% of all new cases, despite the lack of national screening programs. However, the limited available studies from Saudi Arabia indicate that HPV prevalence and genotypes’ distribution in invasive cervical cancer show similar pattern as in the world. Cytology screening (Pap smear) and HPV vaccinations are the two preventive measures against cervical cancer. The two available vaccines are effective against the two most common HPV genotypes (HPV-16 and -18). Since 92% of cervical tumors in the Kingdom are infected with HPV of which 78% are HPV-16 and -18 genotypes, vaccination is expected to protect against more than two-third of cervical cancers in Saudi Arabia. Nevertheless, due to its low incidence (2.1/100,000 women), a proper cost-effectiveness analysis is required to justify the implementation of a costly vaccine bearing in mind that HPV could potentially be associated with about 3% of all cancers. However, further studies are needed to ascertain the real prevalence of HPV at the population level at large, its association with various types of cancers, and also the impact of local tradition and emerging behavioral trends that could affect HPV transmission and consequently the effectiveness of applying national vaccination program. PMID:24744990

  15. Oral Sex and HPV: Population Based Indications.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Anupam; Verma, Veerendra

    2015-03-01

    Human pappilloma virus (HPV) is well established in etiology of uterine cervical cancers, but its role in head and neck cancer is strongly suggested through many epidemiological and laboratory studies. Although HPV-16 induced oropharyngeal cancer is a distinct molecular entity, its role at other sub-sites (oral cavity, larynx, nasopharynx, hypopharynx) is less well established. Oral sex is supposedly the most commonly practiced unnatural sex across the globe and may prove to be a potential transmitting link between cancers of the uterine cervix and the oropharynx in males particularly in those 10-15% non-smokers. In India with the second largest population (higher population density than China) the oral sex is likely to be a common 'recreation-tool' amongst the majority (poor) and with the concurrent highly prevalent bad cervical/oral hygiene the HPV is likely to synergize other carcinogens. Hence in accordance (or coincidently), in India the cervical cancer happens to be the commonest cancer amongst females while oral/oropharyngeal cancer amongst males. Oral sex as a link between these two cancer types, can largely be argued considering a poor level of evidence in the existing literature. The modern world has even commercialized oral sex in the form of flavored condoms. The inadequate world literature currently is of a low level of evidence to conclude such a relationship because no such specific prospective study has been carried out and also due to wide (and unpredictable) variety of sexual practices, such a relationship can only be speculated. This article briefly reviews the existing literature on various modes and population based indications for HPV to be implicated in head and neck cancer with reference to oral sexual practice. PMID:25621245

  16. HPV 16 Is Related to the Progression of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 2: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Loffredo D'Ottaviano, Maria Gabriela; Andreoli, Maria Antonieta; Costa, Maria Cecília; Rabelo-Santos, Silvia H.; Villa, Luisa Lina; Zeferino, Luiz Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To describe the acquisition, persistence, and clearance of HPV infection in women with CIN 2 followed up for 12 months. Methods. Thirty-seven women with CIN 2 biopsy, who have proven referral to cervical smear showing low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and tested for HPV, were followed up for one year with cervical smear, colposcopy, and HPV test every three months. HPV DNA was detected by the polymerase chain reaction and genotyping by reverse line blot hybridization assay. Results. CIN 2 regression rate was 49% (18/37), persistence as CIN 1 or CIN 2 was 22% (8/37), and progression to CIN 3 was 29% (11/37). Multiple HPV types were observed at admission in 41% (15/37) of cases. HPV 16 was detected at admission in 58% (11/19) of the cases that persisted/progressed and in 39% (7/18) of the cases that regressed. HPV 16 was considered possibly causal in 67% (10/15) of the cases that persisted or progressed and in 10% (1/10) of the cases that regressed (P = 0.01). Conclusion. Multiple HPV infections were frequently detected among women with CIN 2 at admission and during the followup. The CIN 2 associated with HPV 16 was more likely to persist or to progress to CIN 3. PMID:24369469

  17. Current trends in the etiology and diagnosis of HPV-related head and neck cancers.

    PubMed

    Chai, Ryan C; Lambie, Duncan; Verma, Mukesh; Punyadeera, Chamindie

    2015-04-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is a major risk factor for a distinct subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The current review summarizes the epidemiology of HNSCC and the disease burden, the infectious cycle of HPV, the roles of viral oncoproteins, E6 and E7, and the downstream cellular events that lead to malignant transformation. Current techniques for the clinical diagnosis of HPV-associated HNSCC will also be discussed, that is, the detection of HPV DNA, RNA, and the HPV surrogate marker, p16 in tumor tissues, as well as HPV-specific antibodies in serum. Such methods do not allow for the early detection of HPV-associated HNSCC and most cases are at an advanced stage upon diagnosis. Novel noninvasive approaches using oral fluid, a clinically relevant biological fluid, allow for the detection of HPV and cellular alterations in infected cells, which may aid in the early detection and HPV-typing of HNSCC tumors. Noninvasive diagnostic methods will enable early detection and intervention, leading to a significant reduction in mortality and morbidity associated with HNSCC. PMID:25644715

  18. Current trends in the etiology and diagnosis of HPV-related head and neck cancers

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Ryan C; Lambie, Duncan; Verma, Mukesh; Punyadeera, Chamindie

    2015-01-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is a major risk factor for a distinct subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The current review summarizes the epidemiology of HNSCC and the disease burden, the infectious cycle of HPV, the roles of viral oncoproteins, E6 and E7, and the downstream cellular events that lead to malignant transformation. Current techniques for the clinical diagnosis of HPV-associated HNSCC will also be discussed, that is, the detection of HPV DNA, RNA, and the HPV surrogate marker, p16 in tumor tissues, as well as HPV-specific antibodies in serum. Such methods do not allow for the early detection of HPV-associated HNSCC and most cases are at an advanced stage upon diagnosis. Novel noninvasive approaches using oral fluid, a clinically relevant biological fluid, allow for the detection of HPV and cellular alterations in infected cells, which may aid in the early detection and HPV-typing of HNSCC tumors. Noninvasive diagnostic methods will enable early detection and intervention, leading to a significant reduction in mortality and morbidity associated with HNSCC. PMID:25644715

  19. HPV binding assay to Laminin-332/integrin ?6?4 on human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Brendle, Sarah A; Christensen, Neil D

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) have been shown to bind to Laminin-332 (Ln-332) on the extracellular matrix (ECM) secreted by human keratinocytes. The assay described here is an important tool to study HPV receptor binding to the ECM. The assay can also be modified to study the receptors required for HPV infection and for binding to tissues. We previously showed that Ln-332 is essential for the binding of HPV11 to human keratinocytes and that infectious entry of HPV11 requires ?6?4 integrin for the transfer of HPV11 from ECM to host cells (Culp et al., J Virol 80:8940-8950, 2006). We also demonstrated that several of the high-risk HPV types (16, 18, 31 and 45) bind to Ln-332 and/or other components of the ECM in vitro (Broutian et al., J Gen Virol 91:531-540, 2010). The exact binding and internalization mechanism(s) for HPV are still under investigation. A better understanding of these mechanisms will aid in the design of therapeutics against HPVs and ultimately help prevent many cancers. In this chapter, we describe the HPV binding assay to Ln-332/integrin ?6?4 on human keratinocytes (ECM). We also present data and suggestions for modifying the assay for testing the specificity of HPV for receptors (by blocking receptors) and binding to human tissues (basement membrane, BM) in order to study binding mechanisms. PMID:25348297

  20. HPV genotyping and site of viral integration in cervical cancers in Indian women.

    PubMed

    Das, Poulami; Thomas, Asha; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Shrivastava, Shyam K; Deodhar, Kedar; Mulherkar, Rita

    2012-01-01

    Persistent HPV infection plays a major role in cervical cancer. This study was undertaken to identify HPV types in a cohort of Indian women with locally advanced cervical cancer as well as to determine the physical state and/or site of viral integration in the host genome. Pretreatment biopsies (n?=?270) from patients were screened for HPV infection by a high throughput HPV genotyping assay based on luminex xMAP technology as well as MY09/11 PCR and SPF1/2 PCR. Overall HPV positivity was observed to be 95%, with HPV16 being most common (63%) followed by infection with HPV18. Integration status of the virus was identified using Amplification of Papillomavirus Oncogene Transcripts (APOT) assay in a subset of samples positive for HPV16 and/or HPV18 (n?=?86) and with an adequate follow-up. The data was correlated with clinical outcome of the patients. Integration of the viral genome was observed in 79% of the cases and a preference for integration into the chromosomal loci 1p, 3q, 6q, 11q, 13q and 20q was seen. Clinical data revealed that the physical state of the virus (integrated or episomal) could be an important prognostic marker for cervical cancer. PMID:22815898

  1. The genital tract immune milieu: an important determinant of HIV susceptibility and secondary transmission.

    PubMed

    Kaul, R; Pettengell, C; Sheth, P M; Sunderji, S; Biringer, A; MacDonald, K; Walmsley, S; Rebbapragada, A

    2008-01-01

    HIV is generally sexually acquired across the genital or rectal mucosa after exposure to the genital secretions of an HIV-infected partner. Most exposures to HIV do not result in infection, likely due to protection afforded by an intact mucosal epithelium, as well as by innate and adaptive mucosal immune factors present in the genital tract. Another important mucosal determinant of transmission may be the number and activation status of potential HIV target cells, including CCR5/CD4+ T cells and DC-SIGN+ dendritic cells. The simultaneous presence of other genital infections, including classical sexually transmitted infections (STIs), can enhance HIV susceptibility either by breaching the epithelial barrier, recruiting HIV target cells to the genital tract, or by generating a pro-inflammatory local immune milieu. In HIV-infected individuals, genital co-infections increase HIV levels in the genital secretions, thereby increasing secondary sexual transmission. Co-infections that act as important HIV cofactors include human cytomegalovirus (CMV), Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2), Neisseria gonorrhoeae and many others. Strategies focused on genital co-infections, such as vaccines, microbicides and suppressive therapy, are feasible in the short term and have the potential to curb the pandemic. PMID:17395270

  2. Perspectives for Preventive and Therapeutic HPV Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ken; Doolan, Kimberley; Hung, Chien-Fu; Wu, T-C

    2010-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cause of female cancer death worldwide. Persistent infection with `high risk' HPV genotypes is the major etiological factor in cervical cancer and thus effective vaccination against HPV provides an opportunity to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with HPV. The FDA has approved two preventive vaccines to limit the spread of HPV. However, these are unlikely to impact upon HPV prevalence and cervical cancer rates for many years. Furthermore, preventive vaccines do not exert therapeutic effects on pre-existing HPV infections and HPV-associated lesions. In order to further impact upon the burden of HPV infections worldwide, therapeutic vaccines are being developed. These vaccines aim to generate a cell-mediated immune response to infected cells. This review discusses current preventive and therapeutic HPV vaccines and their future directions. PMID:20123582

  3. An Examination of Health Providers' HPV Vaccination Behaviors, Perceived Barriers, and Supports: A Four State Analysis.

    E-print Network

    McCave, Emily

    2009-12-08

    This study's main research asked which combination of predictors, including type of health provider, type of state policy initiative, overall barriers scores, and overall supports scores, is most predictive of HPV vaccination ...

  4. Translation of the human papillomavirus type 16 E7 oncoprotein from bicistronic mRNA is independent of splicing events within the E6 open reading frame.

    PubMed Central

    Stacey, S N; Jordan, D; Snijders, P J; Mackett, M; Walboomers, J M; Arrand, J R

    1995-01-01

    In this study we investigated the translational capacities of bicistronic and spliced mRNAs originating from the E6 and E7 regions of the high-risk genital human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) and the low-risk HPV-11. For HPV-16 it was found, unexpectedly, that E7 protein could be translated from full-length bicistronic E6-E7 mRNAs. E6*I and E6*II splicing events were not required for E7 synthesis, nor did splicing increase the efficiency of E7 translation significantly. In cells, E7 synthesis from all known naturally occurring mRNA structures was very inefficient compared with that from synthetic monocistronic controls, suggesting that HPV-16 employs translational mechanisms to restrict E7 protein levels. For HPV-11, only RNAs initiated at the P264 promoter, located within the E6 open reading frame, were capable of providing an efficient template for E7 synthesis. P264-initiated mRNAs were as efficient in vivo as monocistronic controls, suggesting that the low-risk HPV-11 does not limit E7 synthesis by translational mechanisms. A detailed analysis of HPV-16 templates by using site-directed mutagenesis showed that the majority of ribosomes which ultimately translate E7 have not reinitiated after translating some or all of the upstream open reading frames. The data support a model in which the failure of 40S ribosomal initiation complexes to recognize the E6 AUG renders them capable of proceeding efficiently to translate E7. PMID:7474122

  5. Genetically modified cellular vaccines against human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16)-associated tumors: adjuvant treatment of minimal residual disease after surgery/chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bubenik, J; Simova, J

    2009-09-01

    Local recurrences at the site of tumor resection or after chemotherapy, as well as distant micrometastases represent major problems in oncology. Therapeutic strategies based on insertion of immunostimulatory genes into the genome of tumor cells followed by vaccination with the resulting genetically modified and irradiated cellular vaccines represent a new potential prospect for the treatment of cancer patients. These strategies are based on the presumption that many, if not all tumors, possess cell surface antigens capable of being recognized by defence effectors of the immune system, as well as on the presumption that local treatment of primary tumors can, due to its immunizing potential, result also in the inhibition of distant metastases. Genetically modified cellular vaccines were found to be efficient against cancer both in experimental models and in tumor-bearing patients. It was also shown in various systems that the efficacy of conventional therapeutic modalities can be supported by adjuvant administration of genetically modified vaccines, as well as by depletion of immunosuppressive immunocyte subsets. The purpose of this review was to summarize and evaluate the results obtained with the administration of genetically modified cellular vaccines as well as with depletion of immunosuppressive immunocytes performed as treatment of minimal residual disease after surgery / chemotherapy in the experimental model of murine tumors mimicking human HPV16-associated neoplasms. The prospects and limitations of these adjuvant immunotherapeutic modalities are discussed. PMID:19785061

  6. Implication of high risk Human papillomavirus HR-HPV infection in prostate cancer in Indian population- A pioneering case-control analysis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Neha; Hussain, Showket; Kakkar, Nandita; Singh, Shrawan K.; Sobti, Ranbir C.; Bharadwaj, Mausumi

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer with sexual history as a consistent risk factor. This is the pioneering study that evaluates the frequency of HPV infection in prostate cancer in India. Ninety five (95) histopathologically confirmed cancer and fifty five (55) BPH from Indian population were analyzed for HPV infection using a pair of consensus sequence primer followed by type specific PCRs for both high-risk and low-risk HPV types. The data demonstrate HPV infection in 41% of prostate tumor biopsies and 20% in BPH. Subsequent PCR- based HPV typing using type - specific primers revealed 32% were infected with HPV type 16 whereas 6% were found to be positive for HPV type 18, while in BPH controls only 5% of the BPH controls were infected with HPV 16 and this difference was highly significant (p = 0.0004). Significant proportion of HPV infected (74%) cases belonged to stage III and IV (p < 0.001) with a high Gleason score ?8 (p = 0.003). The study represents for the first time the incidence of HPV infection in prostate cancer in Indian population and strengthens the hypothesis that HPV infection could be one of the co factor associated with progression of prostate cancer. PMID:25592643

  7. Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Treated With Radiotherapy or Radiochemotherapy: Prognostic Role of TP53 and HPV Status

    SciTech Connect

    Fallai, Carlo, E-mail: carlo.fallai@istitutotumori.mi.i [Radiation Oncology Department, Fondazione IRCCS, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan (Italy); Perrone, Federica [Pathology Department, Fondazione IRCCS, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan (Italy); Licitra, Lisa [Medical Oncology Department, Fondazione IRCCS, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan (Italy); Pilotti, Silvana [Pathology Department, Fondazione IRCCS, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan (Italy); Locati, Laura; Bossi, Paolo [Medical Oncology Department, Fondazione IRCCS, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan (Italy); Orlandi, Ester; Palazzi, Mauro; Olmi, Patrizia [Radiation Oncology Department, Fondazione IRCCS, Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan (Italy)

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: To study the prognostic value of the TP53 mutation and human papilloma virus (HPV) status in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). Methods and materials: The TP53 mutation and HPV status were analyzed in 78 cases of locoregionally advanced OPSCC. The possible correlation of these factors with locoregiownal control, relapse-free survival, disease-specific survival, and overall survival (OS) was also investigated. Results: Of these 78 cases, 22 had disruptive and 22 had non-disruptive (silent) TP53 mutations; the remaining 34 cases had wild-type (WT) TP53. HPV 16 DNA was found in 9 cases (11%), but all HPV-positive (HPV+) cases carried a functional p53 protein, except for 1 case that had a silent mutation. HPV+ patients fared better than HPV-negative (HPV-) patients in terms of all survival parameters, with highly statistically significant differences between the groups. Specifically, no distant metastases were observed in the HPV+ patients, whereas they occurred in 17% of the HPV- patients. However, no difference was observed between the WT TP53 and mutation group, even when this was analyzed in terms of disruptive and non-disruptive mutations. Regardless, treatment with chemotherapy nearly doubled the 5-year OS rates, both in the mutation (42% vs. 22%) and WT (30 vs. 16%) group, but only the mutation group showed improvement in all survival parameters. In addition, the second tumor-free 5-year survival rate was 72% in HPV- cases, but no second tumors were observed in HPV+ and WT p53 cases. Conclusions: Patients with HPV+ OPSCC have an excellent prognosis after radiochemotherapy, but cisplatin-based chemotherapy may not confer a satisfactory outcome, especially in WT cases, thereby justifying the additional or alternative use of taxanes and epidermal growth factor receptors inhibitors. Uncommon distant metastases and second tumors in the HPV+ group may be cause for clinicians to review the follow-up policies in these patients.

  8. Characteristics of Memory B Cells Elicited by a Highly Efficacious HPV Vaccine in Subjects with No Pre-existing Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Erin M.; Smith, Robin A.; Simonich, Cassandra A.; Niyonzima, Nixon; Carter, Joseph J.; Galloway, Denise A.

    2014-01-01

    Licensed human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines provide near complete protection against the types of HPV that most commonly cause anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers (HPV 16 and 18) when administered to individuals naive to these types. These vaccines, like most other prophylactic vaccines, appear to protect by generating antibodies. However, almost nothing is known about the immunological memory that forms following HPV vaccination, which is required for long-term immunity. Here, we have identified and isolated HPV 16-specific memory B cells from female adolescents and young women who received the quadrivalent HPV vaccine in the absence of pre-existing immunity, using fluorescently conjugated HPV 16 pseudoviruses to label antigen receptors on the surface of memory B cells. Antibodies cloned and expressed from these singly sorted HPV 16-pseudovirus labeled memory B cells were predominantly IgG (>IgA>IgM), utilized diverse variable genes, and potently neutralized HPV 16 pseudoviruses in vitro despite possessing only average levels of somatic mutation. These findings suggest that the quadrivalent HPV vaccine provides an excellent model for studying the development of B cell memory; and, in the context of what is known about memory B cells elicited by influenza vaccination/infection, HIV-1 infection, or tetanus toxoid vaccination, indicates that extensive somatic hypermutation is not required to achieve potent vaccine-specific neutralizing antibody responses. PMID:25330199

  9. Simultaneous Amplification and Identification of 25 Human Papillomavirus Types with Templex Technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Han; David C. Swan; Sharon J. Smith; Shanjuan H. Lum; Susan E. Sefers; Elizabeth R. Unger; Yi-Wei Tang

    2006-01-01

    The majority of existing human papillomavirus (HPV) genotyping assays are based on multiplex PCR using consensus or degenerate primers. We developed a Templex HPV assay that simultaneously detects and identifies 25 common HPV genotypes in a single-tube reaction using type-specific primers for the HPV-specific E6 and E7 genes. The analytical sensitivities of the Templex assay for HPV type 16 (HPV-16),

  10. Seroepidemiology and high negativity of IgG antibodies against human papillomavirus (HPV) Type 6, 11, 16, and 18 virus-like particles in women of childbearing age in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okonko, Iheanyi Omezuruike; Ofoedu, Valentina; Okerentugba, Phillip O; Frank-Peterside, Nnenna

    2015-01-01

    This study reports the seroepidemiology and high negativity of IgG antibodies against the most common low- and high-risk HPVs among sexually active women of childbearing age in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. A total of 182 consented women (age range 19-45 years) were consecutively recruited to participate in the study. Using a Performa specifically designed for this study, pertinent socio-demographic/behavioral data were collected. Five 5 mL blood samples were also collected (aseptically) from each woman. Plasma of each sample was assayed for HPV-6/11/16/18 virus-like particles using a HPV IgG ELISA kit (Dia.Pro). The study showed a high overall anti-HPV seronegativity of 95.1% among these women. High group-specific seronegativity was also observed which ranged from 90.0 -100.0%. None of the variables evaluated showed statistical association with the HPV seronegativity. This study further confirmed the presence of HPV and susceptibility of a large population of women in their childbearing age to infections with these four HPV genotypes in Nigeria. Our findings therefore advocate for routine and early screening and clinical evaluation of all women of childbearing age for HPV- infection and -related manifestations. PMID:24824952

  11. Oral Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection among Unvaccinated High-Risk Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    D’Souza, Gypsyamber; Kluz, Nicole; Wentz, Alicia; Youngfellow, Renee M.; Griffioen, Anne; Stammer, Emily; Guo, Yingshi; Xiao, Weihong; Gillison, Maura L.

    2014-01-01

    Oral HPV infection, the cause of most oropharyngeal cancer in the U.S., is not well studied among high-risk young adults. Men (n = 340) and women (n = 270) aged 18–25 years attending Baltimore County STD clinics were recruited if they declined HPV vaccination. Each participant had a 30-second oral rinse and gargle sample tested for 37 types of HPV DNA, and a risk-factor survey. Factors associated with prevalent infection were explored using log binomial regression. Men had higher prevalence of any oral HPV (15.3% vs. 7.8%, p = 0.004) and vaccine-type oral HPV (i.e., HPV16/18/6/11: 5.0% vs. 1.1%, p = 0.007) infection than women. In multivariate analysis, male gender (aPR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.10–3.39), number of recent oral sex partners (p-trend = 0.013) and having ever performed oral sex on a woman (aPR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.06–2.82) were associated with increased oral HPV prevalence. Performing oral sex on a woman may confer higher risk of oral HPV acquisition than performing oral sex on a man. PMID:25256827

  12. Duplex Real-time PCR assay and SYBR green I melting curve analysis for molecular identification of HPV genotypes 16, 18, 31, 35, 51 and 66.

    PubMed

    Tsakogiannis, D; Papacharalampous, M; Toska, E; Kyriakopoulou, Z; Dimitriou, T G; Ruether, I G A; Komiotis, D; Markoulatos, P

    2015-02-01

    Long-term infection with high-risk HPV genotypes is the leading cause of cervical cancer. In the present study a Duplex Real-time PCR assay was developed in order to identify HPV types 16, 18, 31, 35, 51 and 66 in three reactions, through SYBR green I melting curve analysis. The method utilizes type-specific primer sets that allowed the amplification of highly conserved regions of L1 gene. Reconstitution experiments were conducted by using HPV DNA plasmids in order to determine the sensitivity of the assay. The newly designed assay has a limit of detection of 10 copies per reaction. The most prevalent HPV genotype in single and in multiple HPV infections was HPV16 followed by HPV18, HPV51, HPV31, HPV35 and HPV66. The proposed method is a simple, specific, sensitive and cost-effective assay that can be easily incorporated in small and medium size laboratories for the rapid identification of the most clinically important HPV genotypes. PMID:25281890

  13. Isolated itching of the genitals.

    PubMed

    Pomares, Christelle; Marty, Pierre; Delaunay, Pascal

    2014-04-01

    A 38-year-old man, returned from Ivory Coast 2 months ago and presented with a 3-month history of pruritus exclusively on the scrotum. Itching was continuous during the day and no pruritus was described in his wife and son. Clinical examination of the genitals revealed several nodules on the scrotum, a chancrous lesion was seen on the penis, and multiple excoriations were noted. Dermoscopy exam with a dermatoscope of the whole body was performed and no papules, nodules, or burrow were found. Microscopic examination of several superficial skin samples obtained by scraping in the peri-genital area revealed one adult of Sarcoptes scabiei. The patient and his relatives were successfully treated with Ivermectin 200 ?g/kg with a second dose 2 weeks later. Very rare cases are described on localized scabies (scalp, feet) and they mainly occurred in an immunocompromised patient unlike this patient who does not have any immunosuppression. PMID:24696404

  14. [Genital autoaggression. An unusual presentation].

    PubMed

    Nuñez Mora, C; Mayor Arenal, M; Tabernero Gómez, A; Cárcamo Valor, P I; Martínez-Piñeiro Carames, J A

    1998-01-01

    Self-injuries are relatively common and usually consist in incisive injuries on the penis and the scrotum. This paper presents one case of genital self-injury by injection of petrol on the back of the penis. A description is offered of the clinical form of presentation, as well as the good evolution following medical treatment. Finally, a revision of likely complications is included. PMID:9580266

  15. Female genital mutilations - a testimony.

    PubMed

    Youssouf, Samia

    2013-02-01

    In Djibouti, the prevalence of female genital mutilations (FGMs) amounts to 98% and the practice is still in use. When I left, in 1999, I knew I would involve myself in the fight against FGMs and I describe here the outcome of an obstacle course of more than ten years duration. This paper is written on behalf of innumerable women, who could give you a similar account. PMID:23205512

  16. A real-time PCR approach based on SPF10 primers and the INNO-LiPA HPV genotyping extra assay for the detection and typing of human papillomavirus.

    PubMed

    Micalessi, M Isabel; Boulet, Gaëlle A; Bogers, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    A highly sensitive SPF10 real-time PCR was developed to achieve simultaneous amplification and detection of the human papillomavirus (HPV) target. That way, LiPA analysis of the HPV-negative samples can be avoided, reducing workload and cost. Here, we describe in detail a SYBR Green I-based real-time PCR assay based on SPF10 primers using the LightCycler(®) 480 system to generate and detect HPV amplicons, which are compatible with the LiPA assay. PMID:25348295

  17. Development of an AS04-adjuvanted HPV vaccine with the adjuvant system approach.

    PubMed

    Garçon, Nathalie; Morel, Sandra; Didierlaurent, Arnaud; Descamps, Dominique; Wettendorff, Martine; Van Mechelen, Marcelle

    2011-08-01

    A novel human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has been formulated with virus-like particles of the L1 protein of HPV-16 and HPV-18, and the Adjuvant System 04 (AS04). AS04 is a combination of the toll-like receptor 4 agonist monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and aluminum hydroxide. The AS04-adjuvanted HPV vaccine induces a high and sustained immune response against HPV, including high levels of neutralizing antibodies at the cervical mucosa in women aged 15-55 years. Recently, the mechanism of action of AS04 has been evaluated in vitro in human cells and in vivo in mice and the data provide evidence for the molecular and cellular basis of the observed immunogenicity, efficacy, and safety profile of this formulation. In this review, we discuss how the results of GlaxoSmithKline's clinical studies on immunogenicity, protection, and reactogenicity with the AS04-adjuvanted HPV vaccine are supported by the observed mechanism of action for the adjuvant. The adjuvant activity of AS04, as measured by enhanced antibody response to HPV antigens, was found to be strictly dependent on AS04 and the HPV antigens being injected at the same intramuscular site within 24 hours of each other. The addition of MPL to aluminum salt enhances humoral and cell-mediated response by rapidly triggering a local and transient cytokine response that leads to an increased activation of antigen-presenting cells and results in an improved presentation of antigen to CD4+ T cells. The added value of MPL in AS04 for an HPV vaccine was demonstrated in clinical studies by high vaccine-elicited antibody responses and the induction of high levels of memory B cells. The vaccine elicits cross protection against some other oncogenic HPV types (specifically HPV-31, -33, and -45) not contained in the vaccine. The localized and transient nature of the innate immune response supports the acceptable safety profile observed in clinical studies. PMID:21815697

  18. [Asynchronous development of the genital tract in the snail, Helix aspersa, during growth and reproduction].

    PubMed

    Bride, J; Gomot, L

    1991-01-01

    During the growth of laboratory-raised Helix aspersa, the development of the albumen gland and spermoviduct was studied in relation to age, weight and different stages of reproduction such as mating and egg-laying. The results showed that the population can be divided into 2 categories because of different growth rates and asynchronous development of the genital tract. The fast-growing snails are larger and reach sexual maturity (female type maturity) in a shorter period than slow growing snails (male type maturity). During growth, the maturation of the genital tract was not directly proportional to the weight of the animal. Within each class of similar weight and age of population, 2 groups were identified; in one group, the genital tract was significantly less developed than in the other. This asynchrony of genital tract development could still be found between mating partners of the same weight, the genital tract could be 3 times smaller in one than in the other partner. However, this difference disappeared between mating and egg-laying. These observations suggest: that asynchronous development of the genital tract could be a strategy for the developing population of Helix aspersa; and that (a) mating factor(s) is (are) involved in the regulation of the growth and function of the genital tract. PMID:2043263

  19. Survey of diagnostic services for genital herpes in fourteen countries in Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Domeika, Marius; Babayan, Karen; Ismailov, Rashad; Shimanskaya, Iryna; Chudomirova, Krasimira; Brilene, Tatjana; Kvlividze, Oleg; Deak, Judith; Askarova, Gulsum; Mamajeva, Galina; Kucinskiene, Vesta; Frigo, Natalia; Savicheva, Alevtina; Krasnoselskich, Tatiana; Mavrov, Gennadiy; Kasymov, Olim; Izvekova, Olga; Unemo, Magnus; Ballard, Ronald Campbell

    2011-05-01

    This paper reports survey-based data on the diagnosis and management of genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in 14 countries of the Eastern European Network for Sexual and Reproductive Health (EE SRH). Only 43% of the countries could provide the number of genital HSV cases recorded at national level. Eighty-six percent of countries employed syndromic management in cases of genital ulcer disease. Most countries performed type-specific and/or non-type-specific enzyme immunoassays to detect HSV antibodies. Non-type-specific serology for diagnostic purposes should be actively discouraged. Direct detection methods for HSV, such as PCR, antigen detection and culture, are available in the region, but their usage was extremely low. Their use in Eastern European countries should be actively promoted. The availability of laboratory services must be improved, and countries in the region should implement consensus recommendations for the laboratory diagnosis of genital HSV infections in order to improve clinical practice. PMID:21369687

  20. HPV - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... JavaScript. HPV - Multiple Languages Amharic (amarunya) Armenian (???????) Farsi (?????) Hmong (Hmoob) Khmer (Khmer) Oromo (Afaan Oromo) ... Action Coalition; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Farsi (?????) Human Papillomavirus HPV Vaccine Cervarix English (Farsi) ...

  1. Typing of urogenital, maternal, and neonatal isolates of Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae in correlation with clinical source of isolation and evidence for a genital specificity of H. influenzae biotype IV.

    PubMed Central

    Quentin, R; Musser, J M; Mellouet, M; Sizaret, P Y; Selander, R K; Goudeau, A

    1989-01-01

    Over a period of 6 years, 114 strains of Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae were isolated from genital, mother-infant, or neonatal infections. Their serotypes, biotypes, antibiotic resistance phenotypes, and outer membrane protein (OMP) electrophoretic patterns were characterized and correlated with the various clinical outcomes. Genital H. influenzae and H. parainfluenzae appeared to behave mostly as opportunistic pathogens; for instance, 62% of the cases of endometritis or pelvic inflammatory disease were related to the presence of an intrauterine device. However, as seen clearly in one case, the strains may be sexually transmitted. The analysis of OMP patterns proved to be a very convenient method to seek evidence for the sexual origin of the infection. H. influenzae was more often involved in complicated genital infections than was H. parainfluenzae. Nontypeable and biotype II H. influenzae strains were the more frequent isolates, except in pelvic inflammatory diseases, in which biotype I prevailed, and in mother-infant infections, in which one-fourth of the cases were due to biotype IV. Characterization of H. influenzae isolates did not support a general concept of specific genital strains. However, strains of biotype IV clearly stood out with two characteristics: (i) a peritrichous fimbriation and (ii) a very peculiar homogeneous OMP pattern comprising an OMP of molecular weight approximately 18,000 unique to this biotype. These characteristics were also found in H. influenzae biotype IV strains isolated from genital infections in the United States and used as controls. H. influenzae biotype IV strains may thus correspond to a group somewhat adapted to the genital tract. Images PMID:2584379

  2. Raman chemical mapping reveals site of action of HIV protease inhibitors in HPV16 E6 expressing cervical carcinoma cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong-Hyun Kim; Roger M. Jarvis; J. William Allwood; Gavin Batman; Rowan E. Moore; Emma Marsden-Edwards; Lynne Hampson; Ian N. Hampson; Royston Goodacre

    2010-01-01

    It has been shown that the HIV protease inhibitors indinavir and lopinavir may have activity against the human papilloma virus\\u000a (HPV) type 16 inhibiting HPV E6-mediated proteasomal degradation of p53 in cultured cervical carcinoma cells. However, their\\u000a mode and site of action is unknown. HPV-negative C33A cervical carcinoma cells and the same cells stably transfected with\\u000a E6 (C33AE6) were exposed

  3. A Coding Variant in TMC8 (EVER2) Is Associated with High Risk HPV Infection and Head and Neck Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Caihua; Kelsey, Karl T.; McClean, Michael D.; Christensen, Brock C.; Marsit, Carmen J.; Karagas, Margaret R.; Waterboer, Tim; Pawlita, Michael; Nelson, Heather H.

    2015-01-01

    HPV infection is a causal agent in many epithelial cancers, yet our understanding of genetic susceptibility to HPV infection and resultant cancer risk is limited. Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis is a rare condition of extreme susceptibility to cutaneous HPV infection primarily attributable to mutations in TMC6 and TMC8. Genetic variation in the TMC6/TMC8 region has been linked to beta-type HPV infection and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, cervical cancer, HPV persistence and progression to cervical cancer. Here, we have tested the hypothesis that the common TMC8 SNP rs7208422 is associated with high-risk HPV infection and risk of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Seropositivity to the HPV L1 protein (HPV16, 18, 11, 31, 33, 35, 45, 52, 58) was measured in 514 cases and 452 population-based controls. Genotype was significantly associated with seropositivity to HPV18 L1 (OR TT vs AA = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.22–0.99) and borderline significantly associated with HPV16 L1 (OR TT vs AA = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.22–1.17). There was a consistent inverse association between TMC8 genotype and infection with other HPV types, including statistically significant associations for HPV31 and HPV52. Consistent with these results, the variant T genotype was associated with a reduced risk of HNSCC (ORAT: 0.63, 95% CI 0.45–0.89, ORTT: 0.54, 95% CI 0.36–0.81), even among subjects seronegative for all HPV types (ORAT: 0.71, 95% CI 0.45–1.11, ORTT: 0.54, 95% CI 0.31–0.93). Our data indicate that common genetic variation in TMC8 is associated with high-risk HPV infection and HNSCC etiology. PMID:25853559

  4. New Concepts for Translational Head and Neck Oncology: Lessons from HPV-Related Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Kostareli, Efterpi; Holzinger, Dana; Hess, Jochen

    2012-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is well established as an etiological agent responsible for a number of pathologies affecting the stratified epithelia of skin and anogenital sites. More recently, the infection by (mucosal) high-risk HPV types has also been found to be causally associated with squamous cell carcinoma in the head and neck region (HNSCC), especially in the oropharynx. Intriguingly, HPV-related oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCC) represent a distinct clinical entity compared to HPV-negative tumors with particular regard to treatment–response and survival outcome. The association between HPV infection and OPSCC may therefore have important implications for the prevention and/or treatment of OPSCC. The improved survival of patients with HPV-related tumors also raises the question, as to whether a better understanding of the underlying differences may help to identify new therapeutic concepts that could be used in targeted therapy for HPV-negative and improved therapy for HPV-positive cancers. This review summarizes the most recent advances in our understanding of the molecular principles of HPV-related OPSCC, mainly based on functional genomic approaches, but also emphasizes the significant role played by the tumor microenvironment, especially the immune system, for improved clinical outcome and differential sensitivity of HPV-related tumors to current treatment options. PMID:22655271

  5. Characterization of the plasma membrane localization and orientation of HPV16 E5 for cell-cell fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Lulin [Department of Cell Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73126 (United States); Ceresa, Brian P., E-mail: brian-ceresa@oushc.ed [Department of Cell Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73126 (United States)

    2009-10-10

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a non-enveloped DNA virus with an approx 8000 base pair genome. Infection with certain types of HPV is associated with cervical cancer, although the molecular mechanism by which HPV induces carcinogenesis is poorly understood. Three genes encoded by HPV16 are regarded as oncogenic - E5, E6, and E7. The role of E5 has been controversial. Expression of HPV16 E5 causes cell-cell fusion, an event that can lead to increased chromosomal instability, particularly in the presence of cell cycle checkpoint inhibitors like HPV16 E6 and E7. Using biochemical and cell biological assays to better understand HPV16 E5, we find that HPV16 E5 localizes to the plasma membrane with an intracellular amino terminus and an extracellular carboxyl-terminus. Further, HPV16 E5 must be expressed on both cells for cell fusion to occur. When the extracellular epitope of HPV16 E5 is targeted with an antibody, the number of bi-nucleated cells decreases.

  6. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Genotyping: Automation and Application in Routine Laboratory Testing

    PubMed Central

    Torres, M; Fraile, L; Echevarria, JM; Hernandez Novoa, B; Ortiz, M

    2012-01-01

    A large number of assays designed for genotyping human papillomaviruses (HPV) have been developed in the last years. They perform within a wide range of analytical sensitivity and specificity values for the different viral types, and are used either for diagnosis, epidemiological studies, evaluation of vaccines and implementing and monitoring of vaccination programs. Methods for specific genotyping of HPV-16 and HPV-18 are also useful for the prevention of cervical cancer in screening programs. Some commercial tests are, in addition, fully or partially automated. Automation of HPV genotyping presents advantages such as the simplicity of the testing procedure for the operator, the ability to process a large number of samples in a short time, and the reduction of human errors from manual operations, allowing a better quality assurance and a reduction of cost. The present review collects information about the current HPV genotyping tests, with special attention to practical aspects influencing their use in clinical laboratories. PMID:23248734

  7. Acceptance Of The HPV Vaccine Among Women, Parents, Community Leaders, and Healthcare Providers In Ohio Appalachia

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Mira L.; Reiter, Paul L.; Heaner, Sarah; Ruffin, Mack T.; Post, Douglas M.; Paskett, Electra D.

    2009-01-01

    To assess HPV vaccine acceptability, focus groups of women (18–26 years), parents, community leaders, and healthcare providers were conducted throughout Ohio Appalachia. Themes that emerged among the 23 focus groups (n=114) about the HPV vaccine were: barriers (general health and vaccine specific), lack of knowledge (cervical cancer and HPV), cultural attitudes, and suggestions for educational materials and programs. Important Appalachian attitudes included strong family ties, privacy, conservative views, and lack of trust of outsiders to the region. There are differences in HPV vaccine acceptability among different types of community members highlighting the need for a range of HPV vaccine educational materials/programs to be developed that are inclusive of the Appalachian culture. PMID:19389447

  8. Influence of patient's relationship status and HPV history on physicians’ decisions to recommend HPV vaccination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory D. Zimet; Nathan W. Stupiansky; Thomas W. Weiss; Susan L. Rosenthal; Margaret B. Good; Michelle D. Vichnin

    2011-01-01

    This study asked whether physicians would prioritize HPV vaccination on the basis of a young woman's relationship status and HPV history (i.e., abnormal Pap test, HPV infection or HPV-related disease). Eight hundred physicians identified as HPV vaccinators in a US claims database were surveyed. Prioritization was assessed on a 0–10 rating scale (from extremely low to extremely high priority). Physicians

  9. From Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Detection to Cervical Cancer Prevention in Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sin Hang; Vigliotti, Jessica S.; Vigliotti, Veronica S.; Jones, William

    2014-01-01

    The newly gained knowledge of the viral etiology in cervical carcinogenesis has prompted industrial interests in developing virology-based tools for cervical cancer prevention. Due to the long incubation period from viral infection to developing an invasive cancer, a process whose outcome is influenced by numerous life-style and genetic factors, the true efficacy of the genotype-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines in cervical cancer prevention cannot be determined for another 30 years. Most HPV DNA test kits designed to replace the traditional Papanicolaou (Pap) smears for precancer detection lack the analytical sensitivity and specificity to comprehensively detect all potentially carcinogenic HPVs and to perform reliable genotyping. The authors implemented the classic nested PCR and Sanger DNA-sequencing technology for routine HPV testing. The results showed a true negative HPV PCR invariably indicates the absence of precancerous cells in the cytology samples. However, 80.5% of single positive HPV-16 tests and 97.3% of single positive HPV-18 tests were associated with a negative or a largely self-reversible Pap cytology. Routine sensitive and reliable HPV type-specific or perhaps even variant-specific methods are needed to address the issues of persistence of HPV infection if a virology-based primary cervical screen is used to replace the Pap cytology screening paradigm. PMID:25279452

  10. Ethical analysis of HPV vaccine policy options

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard K. Zimmerman

    2006-01-01

    Vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) may soon be licensed. In contrast to most vaccine-preventable diseases, which are transmitted by air or casual contact, HPV is primarily transmitted by sexual contact. An analysis that applies ethical theories, such as utilitarianism, rule of double effect, and principlism, is needed for policy considerations. These analyses reveal that HPV vaccination can be recommended universally,

  11. Causes, Viruses: HPV, Galloway clip 1

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-12-26

    Professor Galloway explains that there are many HPVs that infect the genital tract and a set of those cause benign genital warts but another set is able to cause lesions that will go on and progress to cervical or other anal-genital cancers.

  12. HPV Genotypes Predict Survival Benefits From Concurrent Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy in Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chun-Chieh [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Science, Chang Gung University, School of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Lai, Chyong-Huey [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Huang, Yi-Ting [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Chao, Angel; Chou, Hung-Hsueh [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Hong, Ji-Hong, E-mail: jihong@adm.cgmh.org.tw [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Science, Chang Gung University, School of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To study the prognostic value of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in patients with advanced cervical cancer treated with radiation therapy (RT) alone or concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT). Methods and Materials: Between August 1993 and May 2000, 327 patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage III/IVA or stage IIB with positive lymph nodes) were eligible for this study. HPV genotypes were determined using the Easychip Registered-Sign HPV genechip. Outcomes were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and the Cox proportional hazards model. Results: We detected 22 HPV genotypes in 323 (98.8%) patients. The leading 4 types were HPV16, 58, 18, and 33. The 5-year overall and disease-specific survival estimates for the entire cohort were 41.9% and 51.4%, respectively. CCRT improved the 5-year disease-specific survival by an absolute 9.8%, but this was not statistically significant (P=.089). There was a significant improvement in disease-specific survival in the CCRT group for HPV18-positive (60.9% vs 30.4%, P=.019) and HPV58-positive (69.3% vs 48.9%, P=.026) patients compared with the RT alone group. In contrast, the differences in survival with CCRT compared with RT alone in the HPV16-positive and HPV-33 positive subgroups were not statistically significant (P=.86 and P=.53, respectively). An improved disease-specific survival was observed for CCRT treated patients infected with both HPV16 and HPV18, but these differenced also were not statistically significant. Conclusions: The HPV genotype may be a useful predictive factor for the effect of CCRT in patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. Verifying these results in prospective trials could have an impact on tailoring future treatment based on HPV genotype.

  13. The HPV E2-Host Protein-Protein Interactions: A Complex Hijacking of the Cellular Network

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Mandy; Demeret, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Over 100 genotypes of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) have been identified as being responsible for unapparent infections or for lesions ranging from benign skin or genital warts to cancer. The pathogenesis of HPV results from complex relationships between viral and host factors, driven in particular by the interplay between the host proteome and the early viral proteins. The E2 protein regulates the transcription, the replication as well as the mitotic segregation of the viral genome through the recruitment of host cell factors to the HPV regulatory region. It is thereby a pivotal factor for the productive viral life cycle and for viral persistence, a major risk factor for cancer development. In addition, the E2 proteins have been shown to engage numerous interactions through which they play important roles in modulating the host cell. Such E2 activities are probably contributing to create cell conditions appropriate for the successive stages of the viral life cycle, and some of these activities have been demonstrated only for the oncogenic high-risk HPV. The recent mapping of E2-host protein-protein interactions with 12 genotypes representative of HPV diversity has shed some light on the large complexity of the host cell hijacking and on its diversity according to viral genotypes. This article reviews the functions of E2 as they emerge from the E2/host proteome interplay, taking into account the large-scale comparative interactomic study. PMID:23341853

  14. Genetics Home Reference: Hand-foot-genital syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Hand-foot-genital syndrome On this page: Description Genetic changes ... Glossary definitions Reviewed April 2008 What is hand-foot-genital syndrome? Hand-foot-genital syndrome is a ...

  15. Comparative immunogenicity and safety of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 vaccine and HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine: follow-up from months 12-24 in a Phase III randomized study of healthy women aged 18-45 years.

    PubMed

    Einstein, Mark H; Baron, Mira; Levin, Myron J; Chatterjee, Archana; Fox, Bradley; Scholar, Sofia; Rosen, Jeffrey; Chakhtoura, Nahida; Meric, Dorothée; Dessy, Francis J; Datta, Sanjoy K; Descamps, Dominique; Dubin, Gary

    2011-12-01

    In this observer-blind study (NCT00423046), women (N=1,106), stratified by age (18-26, 27-35, 36-45 y), were randomized (1:1) to receive the HPV-16/18 vaccine (Cervarix®, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Months 0, 1, 6) or the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (Gardasil® Merck & Co., Inc., Months 0, 2, 6). Month 7 results were previously reported; we now report Month 24 results. In the according-to-protocol cohort for immunogenicity (seronegative and DNA-negative at baseline for HPV type analyzed), seropositivity rates of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) [pseudovirion-based neutralization assay] were, across all age strata, 100% (HPV-16/18 vaccine) and 97.5-100% (HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine) for HPV-16, and 99.0-100% (HPV-16/18 vaccine) and 72.3-84.4% (HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine) for HPV-18. Corresponding geometric mean titers (GMTs) were 2.4-5.8-fold higher for HPV-16 and 7.7-9.4-fold higher for HPV-18 with the HPV-16/18 vaccine versus the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine; HPV-16 and HPV-18 GMTs were significantly higher with the HPV-16/18 vaccine than the HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine (p< 0.0001) in the total vaccinated cohort (received ?1 vaccine dose, irrespective of baseline sero/DNA-status). Similar results were obtained using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Positivity rates and GMTs of antigen-specific IgG antibodies in cervicovaginal secretions (ELISA) were not significantly different between vaccines. At Month 24, CD4? T-cell responses for HPV-16 and HPV-18 were higher with the HPV-16/18 vaccine; memory B-cell response was higher for HPV-18 with the HPV-16/18 vaccine and similar between vaccines for HPV-16. Both vaccines were generally well tolerated. Although an immunological correlate of protection has not been defined, differences in the magnitude of immune response between vaccines may represent determinants of duration of protection. PMID:22048173

  16. Prevalence of Lower Genital Tract Infections Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)–Seropositive and High?Risk HIV?Seronegative Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph W. Hogan; Dora Warren; Robert S. Klein; Jeffrey Peipert; Paula Schuman; Scott Holmberg; Jean Anderson; Ellie Schoenbaum; David Vlahov; Kenneth H. Mayer

    1999-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess whether the prevalence of lower genital tract infections among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive women was higher than among high-risk HIV-seronegative women at their baseline visit for the HIV Epidemiology Research Study. Results were available for 851 HIV-seropositive and 434 HIV-seronegative women. Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection was more prevalent among HIV-seropositive women (64% vs.

  17. Moffitt researchers participate in HPV international phase 2/3 trial

    Cancer.gov

    A pivotal international phase 2/3 clinical trial involving Moffitt Cancer Center faculty demonstrated that vaccination with Gardasil 9 protects against nine HPV types, seven of which cause most cases of cervical, vulvar, and vaginal disease.

  18. Specific effect of estradiol on the genital mucosal antibody response in chlamydial ocular and genital infections.

    PubMed

    Rank, R G; Barron, A L

    1987-09-01

    Estradiol treatment of female guinea pigs was found to alter the course of genital, but not ocular, infection with the chlamydial agent of guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA responses in genital secretions of genitally infected animals were delayed by estradiol treatment, but neither response in the eye resulting from either ocular or genital infection was affected. However, the appearance of IgG in the genital tract after ocular infection was markedly inhibited in estradiol-treated guinea pigs. PMID:3623706

  19. Combined analysis of HPV DNA, p16, p21 and p53 to predict prognosis in patients with stage IV hypopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ernoux-Neufcoeur, Perle; Arafa, Mohammad; Decaestecker, Christine; Duray, Anaëlle; Remmelink, Myriam; Leroy, Xavier; Herfs, Michael; Somja, Joan; Depuydt, Christophe E.; Delvenne, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Purpose We examined p16, p21 and p53 expression in combination with the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA as molecular markers to predict survival in patients with stage IV hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HSCC). Methods Paraffin-embedded tumours from HSCC patients (n = 75) were evaluated for p16, p21 and p53 expression by immunohistochemistry. HPV DNA was detected by GP5+/6+ consensus PCR and subsequent genotyping by E6/E7 type-specific PCR for HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, 66 and 68. Results Among the 61 specimens that tested positive for the ?-globin, HPV typing identified 50 patients with high-risk (hr) HPV types. HPV 16E7 DNA was detected in 74% (37 cases) of these specimens. Twelve patients were found to be infected with multiple HPV types. However, the presence of hrHPV DNA was not found to correlate with the proportion of disease-free patients. The 5-year disease-free survival rate was 73% in p53? tumours versus 48% in p53+ tumours (P = 0.008). Conclusion In our series of patients with stage IV HSCC, the hrHPV+ subgroup had a similar prognosis (in terms of recurrence risk) as the HPV? subgroup. p53 overexpression was associated with a worse prognosis. PMID:20376678

  20. [Update on HPV-induced oropharyngeal cancer].

    PubMed

    Preuss, S F; Klussmann, J-P; Semrau, R; Huebbers, C

    2011-10-01

    Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is associated with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in 30-40% of all cases in Germany. The use of PCR and?/?or in situ hybridisation to detect HPV in tumour tissue is used in combination with p16 immunohistochemistry to reliably distinguish HPV-related and HPV-unrelated OSCC. The distinct biological behaviour of the HPV-related subset of OSCC results in a more favourable prognosis. This might be the result of a greater response to chemotherapy and radiotherapy as seen in recent studies. Ongoing and future clinical trials will stratify for HPV status. If the results of these prospective, randomized trials are consistent with the preliminary results of recent studies, HPV status will be of enormous clinical relevance in the future. PMID:21956679

  1. Cell mediated immunity induced in mice by HPV 16 L1 virus-like particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine Dupuy; Dominique Buzoni-Gate; Antoine Touze; Pierre Le Cann; Daniel Bout; Pierre Coursaget

    1997-01-01

    Recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 L1 virus-like particles (VLPs) expressed in the baculovirus system were used to investigate the cellular immune response to human papillomavirus type 16. The cell-mediated immune response was evaluated through immunization of mice with HPV 16 L1 virus-like particles using a lymphoproliferation assay and cytokine production and cytometric analysis of lymphocyte subsets. A significant proliferative

  2. A Potentially Oncogenic Human Papillomavirus (HPV5) Found in Two Renal Allograft Recipients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marvin Lutzner; Odile Croissant; Marie-Françoise Ducasse; Henri Kreis; Jean Crosnier; Gérard Orth

    1980-01-01

    We have observed 2 immunosuppressed renal allograft recipients with skin lesions induced by human papillomavirus type 5 (HPV-5). One recipient had multiple pityriasis versicolor-like (PV-like) skin lesions on his arms and trunk, and multiple Bowenoid in-situ skin cancers. The other had 2 warty lesions on the back of her fingers. Structural antigens of human papillomavirus type 5 (HPV-5) were identified

  3. Genital Cutting and Western Discourses on Sexuality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KIRSTEN BELL

    2005-01-01

    This article explores dominant discourses surrounding male and female genital cutting. Over a similar period of time, these genital operations have separately been subjected to scrutiny and criticism. However, al- though critiques of female circumcision have been widely taken up, gen- eral public opinion toward male circumcision remains indifferent. This difference cannot merely be explained by the natural attributes and

  4. Disseminated herpesvirus infection. Association with primary genital herpes in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Young, E J; Killam, A P; Greene, J F

    1976-06-21

    A patient with primary herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 genital infection had dissemination in the 37th week of her first pregnancy. This was manifested by severe hepatitis, pancreatitis, and genital lesions. Temporary improvement followed the delivery of a healthy infant by cesarean section. Encephalitis became evident on the third postpartum day, and recovery was complicated by profound bradycardia, possibly due to viral myocarditis. Vidarabine was administered for seven days, and the patient survived with only mild neurologic sequellae. To our knowledge, this the fourth reported case of disseminated herpesvirus infection in pregnancy and the first due to HSV type 2. Pregnancy must be considered as a possible predisposing factor in dissemination of primary HSV infection. PMID:178938

  5. Female genital mutilation among Iraqi Kurdish women: a cross-sectional study from Erbil city

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Iraqi Kurdistan region is one of the areas where female genital mutilation is reportedly widely practiced but inadequately studied. The aim of this study was to determine (i) the prevalence of female genital mutilation among Muslim Kurdish women in Erbil city, (ii) the patterns and types of female genital mutilation, (iii) the factors associated with this practice and (iv) women’s knowledge and attitudes towards this practice. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in the primary health care centers and the Maternity Teaching Hospital in Erbil city, involving 1987 women aged 15–49 years. Data were obtained about female genital mutilation status and knowledge and perception towards this practice. The participants were clinically examined to verify the self-reported female genital mutilation status. Results The self-reported prevalence of female genital mutilation was 70.3%, while it was 58.6% according to clinical examination of the women’s genitalia. The most common type of female genital mutilation was type I (99.6%) and the most common age at which mutilation was performed was 4–7 years (60.2%). This practice was mostly performed by traditional birth attendants (72.5%). Only 6.4% of mutilated women reported having complications after mutilation, most commonly bleeding (3.6%). The practice was more reported among housewives (OR?=?3.3), those women whose mothers were mutilated (OR?=?15.1) or with unknown mutilation status (OR?=?7.3) and those women whose fathers were illiterate (OR?=?1.4) or could only read and write (OR?=?1.6). The common reasons for practicing female genital mutilation were cultural tradition (46.7%) and dictate of religion (38.9%). Only 30% of the participants were aware about the health consequences of female genital mutilation. More than one third (36.6%) of the women support the practice and 34.5% have intention to mutilate their daughters. Conclusions Prevalence of female genital mutilation among Muslim Kurdish women in Erbil city is very high; although, most cases are of type I. There is clear lack of knowledge about the health consequences of female genital mutilation and a relatively important segment of women support this practice. Custom or tradition and dictate of religion are the main reasons for this practice that need further in-depth exploration. PMID:24010850

  6. Tumourigenesis Driven by the Human Papillomavirus Type 16 Asian-American E6 Variant in a Three-Dimensional Keratinocyte Model

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Robert; Togtema, Melissa; Lambert, Paul F.; Zehbe, Ingeborg

    2014-01-01

    Infection with a transforming human papillomavirus (HPV) such as type 16 (of species Alphapapillomavirus 9) causes ano-genital and oral tumours via viral persistence in human squamous cell epithelia. Epidemiological studies showed that the naturally occurring HPV16 Asian-American (AA) variant (sublineage D2/D3) is found more often than the European Prototype (EP) (sublineage A1) in high-grade cervical neoplasia and tumours compared to non-cancer controls. Just three amino acid changes within the early gene, E6, of HPV16 AA have been linked to this augmented tumourigenicity. The AAE6 variant's greater immortalizing and transforming potential over EPE6 has recently been confirmed in retrovirally-transduced keratinocytes expressing the E6 gene only. However, the tumourigenic role of the full-length viral genome of HPV16 has not yet been addressed with regard to these E6 variants. To investigate this process in the context of these two HPV16 E6 genotypes, an organotypic tissue culture model was used to simulate the HPV infectious life cycle. The AAE6 variant demonstrated an enhanced ability over EPE6 to drive the viral life cycle toward tumourigenesis, as evidenced phenotypically—by a more severe grade of epithelial dysplasia with higher proliferation and deregulated differentiation, and molecularly—by high viral oncogene E6 and E7 expression, but lack of productive viral life cycle markers. In contrast, EPE6 had low E6 and E7 but high E1?E4 expression, indicative of a productive life cycle. We suggest increased viral integration into the host genome for AAE6 as one possible mechanism for these observed differences from EPE6. Additionally, we found downstream effects on immortalization and host innate immune evasion. This study highlights how minor genomic variations in transforming viruses can have a significant affect on their tumourigenic ability. PMID:24983759

  7. Efficacy of Vaccination against HPV infections to prevent cervical cancer in France Laureen Ribassin-Majed1, 2

    E-print Network

    Efficacy of Vaccination against HPV infections to prevent cervical cancer in France Laureen Pères, 75006 Paris, France Keywords : Human papillomavirus; vaccine; cervical cancer; modelling Human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 cause 70% of cervical cancers, and currently two vaccines protecting against

  8. Female genital tract shedding of CXCR4-tropic HIV Type 1 is associated with a majority population of CXCR4-tropic HIV Type 1 in blood and declining CD4(+) cell counts.

    PubMed

    Haaland, Richard E; Sullivan, Sharon T; Evans-Strickfaden, Tammy; Lennox, Jeffrey L; Hart, Clyde E

    2012-11-01

    This study compared HIV-1 genotypes shed over time (?3.5 years) in the vaginal secretions (VS) and blood plasma (BP) of 15 chronically infected women. Analysis of predicted coreceptor tropism (CCR5=R5, CXCR4=X4) for quasispecies shedding revealed three patterns: (1) viral quasispecies shed in both VS and BP were restricted to R5-tropism at all time points, (2) quasispecies shed in VS were restricted to R5-tropism at all time points but X4 quasispecies were identified in the BP at one or more time points, and (3) quasispecies shed in matched VS and BP both contained X4-tropic viruses. Overall, the frequency of X4 quasispecies circulation in VS was 2-fold less than in BP and detection of X4 virus in VS was more likely to occur when X4 quasispecies comprised more than 50% of BP viruses (p=0.01) and when declines in blood CD4(+) lymphocyte levels were the greatest (p=0.038). Additionally, the mean number of predicted N-glycosylation sites between matched VS and BP samples was strongly correlated (r=0.86, p<0.0001) with glycosylation densities in the following order (VS R5=BP R5 > BP X4 > VS X4). The X4 glycosylation densities may result from compartmentalization pressures in the female genital tract or the delayed appearance of these viruses in VS. Our results suggest that the presence of X4 virus in VS is associated with a threshold population of X4 quasispecies in BP, which are increasing during the HIV-induced failure of the human immune system. PMID:22369497

  9. Human Papillomavirus Type 16 and Immune Status in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Seropositive Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Howard D. Strickler; Joel M. Palefsky; Keerti V. Shah; Kathryn Anastos; Robert S. Klein; Howard Minkoff; Ann Duerr; L. Stewart Massad; David D. Celentano; Charles Hall; Melissa Fazzari; Susan Cu-Uvin; Melanie Bacon; Paula Schuman; Alexandra M. Levine; Amanda J. Durante; Stephen Gange; Sandra Melnick; Robert D. Burk

    2003-01-01

    Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 is etio- logically associated with approximately half of all cervical cancers. It is important, therefore, to determine the charac- teristics that distinguish HPV16 from other HPV types. A preliminary result based on cross-sectional baseline data in the Women's Interagency Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Study (WIHS) suggested that the prevalence of HPV16 might have a

  10. TGF-? Regulation of Gene Expression at Early and Late Stages of HPV16-Mediated Transformation of Human Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kowli, Sangeeta; Velidandla, Rupa; Creek, Kim E.; Pirisi, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    In our in vitro model for HPV16-mediated transformation, HPV16-immortalized human keratinocytes (HKc/HPV16) give rise to differentiation resistant, premalignant cells (HKc/DR). HKc/DR, but not HKc/HPV16, are resistant to growth inhibition by transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?), due to a partial loss of TGF-? receptor type I. We show that TGF-? activates a Smad-responsive reporter construct in HKc/DR to about 50% of the maximum levels of activation observed in HKc/HPV16. To investigate the functional significance of residual TGF-? signaling in HKc/DR, we compared gene expression profiles elicited by TGF-? treatment of HKc/HPV16 and HKc/DR on Agilent 44k human whole genome microarrays. TGF-? altered the expression of cell cycle and MAP kinase pathway genes in HKc/HPV16, but not in HKc/DR. However, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) responses to TGF-? were comparable in HKc/HPV16 and HKc/DR, indicating that the signaling pathways through which TGF-? elicits growth inhibition diverge from those that induce EMT in HPV16-transformed cells. PMID:24210100

  11. Immunization with an HPV-16 L1-based chimeric virus-like particle containing HPV-16 E6 and E7 epitopes elicits long-lasting prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy in an HPV-16 tumor mice model.

    PubMed

    Monroy-García, Alberto; Gómez-Lim, Miguel Angel; Weiss-Steider, Benny; Hernández-Montes, Jorge; Huerta-Yepez, Sara; Rangel-Santiago, Jesús F; Santiago-Osorio, Edelmiro; Mora García, María de Lourdes

    2014-02-01

    HPV L1-based virus-like particles vaccines (VLPs) efficiently induce temporary prophylactic activity through the induction of neutralizing antibodies; however, VLPs that can provide prophylactic as well as therapeutic properties for longer periods of time are needed. For this purpose, we generated a novel HPV 16 L1-based chimeric virus-like particle (cVLP) produced in plants that contains a string of T-cell epitopes from HPV 16 E6 and E7 fused to its C-terminus. In the present study, we analyzed the persistence of specific IgG antibodies with neutralizing activity induced by immunization with these cVLPs, as well as their therapeutic potential in a tumor model of C57BL/6 mice. We observed that these cVLPs induced persistent IgG antibodies for over 12 months, with reactivity and neutralizing activity for VLPs composed of only the HPV-16 L1 protein. Efficient protection for long periods of time and inhibition of tumor growth induced by TC-1 tumor cells expressing HPV-16 E6/E7 oncoproteins, as well as significant tumor reduction (57 %), were observed in mice immunized with these cVLPs. Finally, we discuss the possibility that chimeric particles of the type described in this work may be the basis for developing HPV prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines with high efficacy. PMID:23990055

  12. Deconstructing Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Knowledge: Objective and Perceived Knowledge in Males' Intentions to Receive the HPV Vaccine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krawczyk, Andrea; Stephenson, Ellen; Perez, Samara; Lau, Elsa; Rosberger, Zeev

    2013-01-01

    Background: The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine was recently approved for men. To effectively tailor HPV education efforts toward men, it is important to understand what men know about HPV and how this knowledge relates to their decision to receive the vaccine. This study examines how objective HPV knowledge, objective HPV vaccine knowledge,…

  13. Assessment of HPV 16 and HPV 18 antibody responses by pseudovirus neutralization, Merck cLIA and Merck total IgG LIA immunoassays in a reduced dosage quadrivalent HPV vaccine trial.

    PubMed

    Krajden, Mel; Cook, Darrel; Yu, Amanda; Chow, Ron; Su, Qiang; Mei, Wendy; McNeil, Shelly; Money, Deborah; Dionne, Marc; Palefsky, Joel; Karunakaran, Karuna; Kollmann, Tobias; Ogilvie, Gina; Petric, Martin; Dobson, Simon

    2014-01-23

    We assessed HPV 16 and 18 antibody responses of female subjects enrolled in a 2- vs. 3-dose quadrivalent HPV (Q-HPV) vaccine trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00501137) using the Merck competitive Luminex (cLIA) and total IgG Luminex (TIgG) immunoassays, and a pseudovirus neutralizing antibody (PsV NAb) assay. Subjects were enrolled in one of three groups: (1) 9-13yr, 2 doses of Q-HPV at 0, 6 months (n=259); (2) 9-13yr, 3 doses at 0, 2, 6 months (n=260); and (3) 16-26yr, 3 doses at 0, 2, 6 months (n=305). Sera were collected from all subjects at baseline, months 7 and 24, and from half the subjects at months 18 and 36. High correlation was observed between all three assays. At month 36, HPV 16 antibodies remained detectable in all subjects by all assays, whereas 86.4%, 99.6% and 100% of subjects respectively were HPV 18 cLIA, TIgG and PsV NAb (partial neutralization endpoint) seropositive. The proportion seropositive for HPV 18 by cLIA at 36 months was not significantly different for 2-dose girls vs. 3-dose adults (85.9% vs. 79.4%; p=0.51), whereas the proportion for 3-dose girls was significantly higher than for 3-dose adults (95.3% vs. 79.4%; p<0.01). The HPV 18 seropositive proportions by the TIgG and PsV NAb (partial neutralization endpoint) assays were the same for all subjects. High baseline HPV 16 and HPV 18 seropositivity was observed for the TIgG assay and it is unclear if all the detected TIgG antibodies are type-specific and/or neutralizing. For the PsV NAb assay, 90% and partial neutralization geometric mean titres were consistently 2-8-fold higher than for 100% neutralization, which enabled detection of HPV 18 NAb in subjects who lost detectable cLIA antibodies over time. We conclude that the PsV NAb assay is more sensitive than the cLIA, and likely more specific than the TIgG assay. PMID:24055350

  14. HPV-related methylation signature predicts survival in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Kostareli, Efterpi; Holzinger, Dana; Bogatyrova, Olga; Hielscher, Thomas; Wichmann, Gunnar; Keck, Michaela; Lahrmann, Bernd; Grabe, Niels; Flechtenmacher, Christa; Schmidt, Christopher R.; Seiwert, Tanguy; Dyckhoff, Gerhard; Dietz, Andreas; Höfler, Daniela; Pawlita, Michael; Benner, Axel; Bosch, Franz X.; Plinkert, Peter; Plass, Christoph; Weichenhan, Dieter; Hess, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    High-risk types of human papilloma virus (HPV) are increasingly associated with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). Strikingly, patients with HPV-positive OPSCC are highly curable with ionizing radiation and have better survival compared with HPV-negative patients, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. We applied an array-based approach to monitor global changes in CpG island hypermethylation between HPV-negative and HPV-positive OPSCCs and identified a specific pattern of differentially methylated regions that critically depends on the presence of viral transcripts. HPV-related alterations were confirmed for the majority of candidate gene promoters by mass spectrometric, quantitative methylation analysis. There was a significant inverse correlation between promoter hypermethylation of ALDH1A2, OSR2, GATA4, GRIA4, and IRX4 and transcript levels. Interestingly, Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that a combined promoter methylation pattern of low methylation levels in ALDH1A2 and OSR2 promoters and high methylation levels in GATA4, GRIA4, and IRX4 promoters was significantly correlated with improved survival in 3 independent patient cohorts. ALDH1A2 protein levels, determined by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays, confirmed the association with clinical outcome. In summary, our study highlights specific alterations in global gene promoter methylation in HPV-driven OPSCCs and identifies a signature that predicts the clinical outcome in OPSCCs. PMID:23635773

  15. HPV-related methylation signature predicts survival in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Kostareli, Efterpi; Holzinger, Dana; Bogatyrova, Olga; Hielscher, Thomas; Wichmann, Gunnar; Keck, Michaela; Lahrmann, Bernd; Grabe, Niels; Flechtenmacher, Christa; Schmidt, Christopher R; Seiwert, Tanguy; Dyckhoff, Gerhard; Dietz, Andreas; Höfler, Daniela; Pawlita, Michael; Benner, Axel; Bosch, Franz X; Plinkert, Peter; Plass, Christoph; Weichenhan, Dieter; Hess, Jochen

    2013-06-01

    High-risk types of human papilloma virus (HPV) are increasingly associated with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). Strikingly, patients with HPV-positive OPSCC are highly curable with ionizing radiation and have better survival compared with HPV-negative patients, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. We applied an array-based approach to monitor global changes in CpG island hypermethylation between HPV-negative and HPV-positive OPSCCs and identified a specific pattern of differentially methylated regions that critically depends on the presence of viral transcripts. HPV-related alterations were confirmed for the majority of candidate gene promoters by mass spectrometric, quantitative methylation analysis. There was a significant inverse correlation between promoter hypermethylation of ALDH1A2, OSR2, GATA4, GRIA4, and IRX4 and transcript levels. Interestingly, Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that a combined promoter methylation pattern of low methylation levels in ALDH1A2 and OSR2 promoters and high methylation levels in GATA4, GRIA4, and IRX4 promoters was significantly correlated with improved survival in 3 independent patient cohorts. ALDH1A2 protein levels, determined by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays, confirmed the association with clinical outcome. In summary, our study highlights specific alterations in global gene promoter methylation in HPV-driven OPSCCs and identifies a signature that predicts the clinical outcome in OPSCCs. PMID:23635773

  16. Lifestyle and socio-demographic factors associated with high-risk HPV infection in UK women

    PubMed Central

    Cotton, S C; Sharp, L; Seth, R; Masson, L F; Little, J; Cruickshank, M E; Neal, K; Waugh, N

    2007-01-01

    The world age-standardised prevalence of high-risk HPV (hrHPV) infection among 5038 UK women aged 20–59 years, with a low-grade smear during 1999–2002, assessed for eligibility for TOMBOLA (Trial Of Management of Borderline and Other Low-grade Abnormal smears) was 34.2%. High-risk HPV prevalence decreased with increasing age, from 61% at ages 20–24 years to 14–15% in those over 50 years. The age-standardised prevalence was 15.1, 30.7 and 52.7%, respectively, in women with a current normal, borderline nuclear abnormalities (BNA) and mild smear. In overall multivariate analyses, tertiary education, previous pregnancy and childbirth were associated with reduced hrHPV infection risk. Risk of infection was increased in non-white women, women not married/cohabiting, hormonal contraceptives users and current smokers. In stratified analyses, current smear status and age remained associated with hrHPV infection. Data of this type are relevant to the debate on human papillomavirus (HPV) testing in screening and development of HPV vaccination programmes. PMID:17519896

  17. Characterization of HPV and host genome interactions in primary head and neck cancers.

    PubMed

    Parfenov, Michael; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Gehlenborg, Nils; Freeman, Samuel S; Danilova, Ludmila; Bristow, Christopher A; Lee, Semin; Hadjipanayis, Angela G; Ivanova, Elena V; Wilkerson, Matthew D; Protopopov, Alexei; Yang, Lixing; Seth, Sahil; Song, Xingzhi; Tang, Jiabin; Ren, Xiaojia; Zhang, Jianhua; Pantazi, Angeliki; Santoso, Netty; Xu, Andrew W; Mahadeshwar, Harshad; Wheeler, David A; Haddad, Robert I; Jung, Joonil; Ojesina, Akinyemi I; Issaeva, Natalia; Yarbrough, Wendell G; Hayes, D Neil; Grandis, Jennifer R; El-Naggar, Adel K; Meyerson, Matthew; Park, Peter J; Chin, Lynda; Seidman, J G; Hammerman, Peter S; Kucherlapati, Raju

    2014-10-28

    Previous studies have established that a subset of head and neck tumors contains human papillomavirus (HPV) sequences and that HPV-driven head and neck cancers display distinct biological and clinical features. HPV is known to drive cancer by the actions of the E6 and E7 oncoproteins, but the molecular architecture of HPV infection and its interaction with the host genome in head and neck cancers have not been comprehensively described. We profiled a cohort of 279 head and neck cancers with next generation RNA and DNA sequencing and show that 35 (12.5%) tumors displayed evidence of high-risk HPV types 16, 33, or 35. Twenty-five cases had integration of the viral genome into one or more locations in the human genome with statistical enrichment for genic regions. Integrations had a marked impact on the human genome and were associated with alterations in DNA copy number, mRNA transcript abundance and splicing, and both inter- and intrachromosomal rearrangements. Many of these events involved genes with documented roles in cancer. Cancers with integrated vs. nonintegrated HPV displayed different patterns of DNA methylation and both human and viral gene expressions. Together, these data provide insight into the mechanisms by which HPV interacts with the human genome beyond expression of viral oncoproteins and suggest that specific integration events are an integral component of viral oncogenesis. PMID:25313082

  18. Female genital mutilation in Greece.

    PubMed

    Vrachnis, N; Salakos, N; Iavazzo, C; Iliodromiti, Z; Bakalianou, K; Kouiroukidou, P; Creatsas, G

    2012-01-01

    The number of migrants and refugees with a female genital mutilation (FGM) living in Greece is rising. This study explores the characteristics and psychosexual issues of women with FGM who were examined in the 2nd Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Athens Medical School, Greece during the year 2009. The women were asked to fill out an anonymous questionnaire asking for demographic data, obstetric history, current complaints, and psychosexual problems. The results are presented and discussed, as FGM is a new reality for Greece. Healthcare providers have to familiarize themselves with issues related to FGM and improve their skills in transcultural care, so as to manage and support women with FGM adequately. PMID:23157041

  19. Sociodemographic and clinical factors of women with HPV and their association with HIV 1

    PubMed Central

    Gaspar, Joice; Quintana, Silvana Maria; Reis, Renata Karina; Gir, Elucir

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to identify the association between HIV-seropositive or HIV-seronegative status and the sociodemographic and clinical variables of women with genital HPV infection. METHOD: cross-sectional, retrospective study in a reference service in Ribeirão Preto. A total of 824 women undergoing HIV testing who had high or low grade cervical intraepithelial lesions or condylomatous genital lesions caused by HPV were studied. The chi-square test and logistic regression analysis with the calculation of the odds ratio and a confidence interval of 95% were conducted to verify the association. RESULTS: a higher probability of seropositivity was identified for non-white women; with low education; widowed; who consumed alcohol, tobacco or illicit drugs; with hepatitis C; who had multiple partners; and that worked as prostitutes. CONCLUSION: the increasing impairment of women due to sexually transmitted infections, considering the influence of the socioeconomic and behavioral context on the course of these infections, highlights the importance of public policies that establish intervention strategies involving the prevention, early diagnosis and timely treatment of these diseases, so that there is the promotion of quality of life in this population. PMID:25806634

  20. High-risk HPV infection after five years in a population-based cohort of Chilean women

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The need to review cervical cancer prevention strategies has been triggered by the availability of new prevention tools linked to human papillomavirus (HPV): vaccines and screening tests. To consider these innovations, information on HPV type distribution and natural history is necessary. This is a five-year follow-up study of gynecological high-risk (HR) HPV infection among a Chilean population-based cohort of women. Findings A population-based random sample of 969 women from Santiago, Chile aged 17 years or older was enrolled in 2001 and revisited in 2006. At both visits they answered a survey on demographics and sexual history and provided a cervical sample for HPV DNA detection (GP5+/6+ primer-mediated PCR and Reverse line blot genotyping). Follow-up was completed by 576 (59.4%) women; 45 (4.6%) refused participation; most losses to follow-up were women who were unreachable, no longer eligible or had missing samples. HR-HPV prevalence increased by 43%. Incidence was highest in women < 20 years of age (19.4%) and lowest in women > 70 (0%); it was three times higher among women HR-HPV positive versus HPV negative at baseline (25.5% and 8.3%; OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.8-8.0). Type-specific persistence was 35.3%; it increased with age, from 0% in women < 30 years of age to 100% in women > 70. An enrollment Pap result ASCUS or worse was the only risk factor for being HR-HPV positive at both visits. Conclusions HR-HPV prevalence increased in the study population. All HR-HPV infections in women < 30 years old cleared, supporting the current recommendation of HR-HPV screening for women > 30 years. PMID:22087645

  1. HPV vaccine (human papillomavirus) Gardasil - what you need to know

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is taken in its entirety from the CDC HPV Gardasil® Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/hpv-gardasil.html CDC review information for HPV Gardasil® ...

  2. Preventing Cervical Cancer: The Development of HPV Vaccines

    Cancer.gov

    Cervical cancer can be prevented with HPV vaccines. NCI-supported researchers helped establish HPV as a cause of cervical cancer. They also helped create the first HPV vaccines, were involved in the vaccine trials, and contribute to ongoing studies.

  3. HPV vaccine: immersed in controversy.

    PubMed

    Ohri, Linda K

    2007-11-01

    There has been substantial media coverage of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine since the Food and Drug Administration approved Gardasil (Merck & Co., Inc.) on June 8, 2006. The most vocal complaints maintain that its use will promote promiscuity among teenagers, and condemn proposed mandated use for school entry. Some also question evidence for the vaccine's safety. There have been concerns raised by both providers and patients regarding financial barriers to access. Still others argue that additional populations could benefit who have not been included in current recommendations. Clarification of these issues is essential to advance optimal use of this important new vaccine. There is strong evidence to support HPV vaccine as an effective, safe, and efficient public health measure. School mandates are valuable tools to reduce disparities in availability of immunizations. The time has come to consider universal funding as a means to improve access to all recommended vaccines. PMID:17848419

  4. Asking Mom: Formative Research for an HPV Vaccine Campaign Targeting Mothers of Adolescent Girls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Autumn Shafer; Joan R. Cates; Sandra J. Diehl; Miriam Hartmann

    2011-01-01

    Vaccination against the types of human papillomavirus (HPV) that cause about 70% of cervical cancers is approved for use in girls and women between 9 and 26 years of age and recommended routinely in 11–12-year-old girls. This article reports on the systematic theory-based formative research conducted to develop HPV vaccine messages for a campaign targeting racially diverse mothers of nonvaccinated

  5. High HPV genetic diversity in women infected with HIV1 in Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Cerqueira; D. de S. Moraes; G. N. L. Camara; F. A. Amaral; C. N. R. Oyama; M. Q. C. dos Santos; C. R. F. Martins

    2007-01-01

    Summary.  The present study on genetic diversity of human papillomaviruses in women infected by HIV in Brazil describes the frequency,\\u000a the genotypes, and five new variants of HPV. One hundred fifty cervical smears of HIV-positive women were subjected to cytological\\u000a examination, and the DNA samples obtained were assayed by MY09\\/MY11 amplification, followed by RFLP typing. The overall HPV-DNA-positive\\u000a rate was 42.7%.

  6. The E2F5 repressor is an activator of E6/E7 transcription and of the S-phase entry in HPV18-associated cells.

    PubMed

    Teissier, S; Pang, C L; Thierry, F

    2010-09-01

    High-risk papillomavirus type 18 (HPV18) is one of the less represented HPV types in low-grade lesions of the anogenital tract, whereas it occupies the second place in cervical cancer, where it can be found in 16% of the cases worldwide, after HPV16 present in 54% of them. These epidemiological data indicate that HPV18 infection is more prone to carcinogenic progression. The main oncogenic proteins, E6 and E7 of HPV18, are functionally comparable to the homologous proteins of the other high-risk viruses, including HPV16. In this work, we investigated the possibility that the higher oncogenic potential of HPV18 might be due to transcriptional regulation of the E6/E7 oncogenes. By comparing the E6/E7 promoter and enhancer sequences of the mucosal HPV genomes, we identified E2F binding sites specific for HPV18. The E2F family of transcription factors contains activators (E2F1-3) and repressors (E2F4-8) that regulate the transcription of S-phase and mitotic genes and thereby have a crucial role in cell-cycle progression. Surprisingly, we identified E2F5 as a direct activator of HPV18 E6/E7 transcription by sequential silencing of E2F members in HeLa cells. In addition, we could show that E2F5 positively regulates S-phase entry in HeLa cells and that this activation of the cell cycle by a member of the E2F repressor family is specific for HPV18-expressing cells. Diverting the function of E2F5 from a cell-cycle repressor into an activator might contribute to the higher oncogenic potential of HPV18 when compared with other high-risk HPV types. PMID:20639900

  7. Human papillomavirus type distribution in vulval intraepithelial neoplasia determined using PapilloCheck DNA Microarray.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Dean; Rai, Nirmala; Rowlands, Gareth; Hibbitts, Sam; Jones, Joanne; Tristram, Amanda; Fiander, Alison; Powell, Ned

    2011-08-01

    Vulval intraepithelial neoplasia is a precursor of vulval carcinoma, and is frequently associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Estimates of HPV prevalence in vulval intraepithelial neoplasia vary widely in the UK. The objective of this study was to assess HPV infection in a sample of women with vulval intraepithelial neoplasia, confirmed histologically, and determine the proportion of disease associated with HPV types targeted by prophylactic HPV vaccines. HPV infection was assessed in biopsies from 59 patients using the Greiner Bio-One PapilloCheck® DNA chip assay. Valid results were obtained for 54 cases. HPV infection was present in 43 of the 54 cases (79.6%: 95% CI 67.1-88.2%). The most common HPV types were HPV 16 (33/54: 61.1%), HPV 33 (8/54: 14.8%), HPV 6 (5/54: 9.3%), and HPV 42 (3/54: 5.6%). The mean age of HPV positive women was significantly less than the mean age of HPV negative women. This is the largest UK series of vulval intraepithelial neoplasia in which HPV type has been investigated, and 34/54 (63.0%, 95% CI: 49.6-78.6%) cases were associated with HPV 16/18, which are targeted by current prophylactic HPV vaccines. PMID:21618551

  8. Racial Differences in HPV Knowledge, HPV Vaccine Acceptability, and Related Beliefs among Rural, Southern Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cates, Joan R.; Brewer, Noel T.; Fazekas, Karah I.; Mitchell, Cicely E.; Smith, Jennifer S.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Because cervical cancer mortality in the United States is twice as high among black women as white women and higher in rural areas, providing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine to rural black adolescents is a high priority. Purpose: To identify racial differences in knowledge and attitudes about HPV, cervical cancer, and the HPV vaccine…

  9. Properties of HPV-positive and HPV-negative anal carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Williams, G R; Lu, Q L; Love, S B; Talbot, I C; Northover, J M

    1996-12-01

    Evidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) can be found in up to 85 per cent of anal carcinomas. In the vulva, a discrete subset of HPV-positive carcinomas which show koilocytic morphology and distinct clinical features has recently been identified (warty carcinoma). The morphological and prognostic features of HPV-positive and HPV-negative anal carcinomas were compared in this study of the tumour distribution of HPV DNA. Vulval and anal neoplasia are similar in many ways and we have also looked to see if their similarity extends to 'warty' morphology in relation to HPV status. Thirty-five resection specimens of anal carcinoma were examined with biotin-labelled probes for HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 DNA, using a non-isotopic in situ hybridization (ISH) technique. No tumour was found to contain HPV 6, 11, or 18. Twenty-four (72 per cent) showed positivity for HPV 16 DNA. Staining was homogeneous and independent of local squamous, basaloid, or ductal differentiation. The majority of tumours showed staining suggestive of episomal, non-productive HPV infection. HPV-positive tumours were more likely to occur in the anal canal than perianally and to show a mixed squamous and basaloid appearance. No difference between the two groups was found in patient age, presence of adjacent dysplasia, ductal differentiation, or prognosis. There was no correlation between condylomatous tumour morphology and HPV 16 DNA positivity; thus, a subset equivalent to vulval warty carcinoma could not be identified. PMID:9014857

  10. High prevalence of hpv multiple genotypes in women with persistent chlamydia trachomatis infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chlamydia trachomatis interaction with HR-HPV types has highlighted a central role in cervical cancer development. The aim of this study was to investigate HPV prevalence and genotypes distribution in women at risk for C. trachomatis infection and negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy. Methods 1071 cervical swabs were tested for C. trachomatis by Real Time PCR and genotyping by ompA gene sequencing. Additionally, a quantitative Real time-PCR was performed to assess the expression of the C. trachomatis Hsp60–encoding gene (Ct604 portion), linked to a persistent status of infection. HPV infection and genotypes was investigated in C. trachomatis positive women using Luminex technology. Results C. trachomatis infection was detected in 53 out of 1071 (4.5%) samples, of which the 53% resulted positive for Hsp60 gene expression. The overall prevalence of HPV infection in C. trachomatis positive samples was of 60.4% (32/53): in 37.5% of samples was present a single genotype, while multiple genotypes infections were found in the 62.5% of them. Among women with a C. trachomatis chronic infection, 68% were HPV co-infected and the 79% showed multiple genotypes. Should be noted that levels of C. trachomatis Hsp60 expression in HPV co-infected women were significantly lower compared to women infected only with C. trachomatis. The C. trachomatis serotype F was found in the majority of samples, independently of HPV infection. Conclusions A high prevalence of HPV multiple infections have been found in young women affected with a C. trachomatis chronic infection. These observations suggested that the expression of CHSP60-1, interfering with both apoptotic and cellular senescence pathways, may promote a favourable local microenvironment for HPV infection. PMID:25621003

  11. DEK promotes HPV-positive and -negative head and neck cancer cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Adams, A K; Hallenbeck, G E; Casper, K A; Patil, Y J; Wilson, K M; Kimple, R J; Lambert, P F; Witte, D P; Xiao, W; Gillison, M L; Wikenheiser-Brokamp, K A; Wise-Draper, T M; Wells, S I

    2015-02-12

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide, and patient outcomes using current treatments remain poor. Tumor development is etiologically associated with tobacco or alcohol use and/or human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. HPV-positive HNSCCs, which frequently harbor wild-type p53, carry a more favorable prognosis and are a biologically distinct subgroup when compared with their HPV-negative counterparts. HPV E7 induces expression of the human DEK gene, both in vitro and in vivo. In keratinocytes, DEK overexpression is sufficient for causing oncogenic phenotypes in the absence of E7. Conversely, DEK loss results in cell death in HPV-positive cervical cancer cells at least in part through p53 activation, and Dek knockout mice are relatively resistant to the development of chemically induced skin papillomas. Despite the established oncogenic role of DEK in HPV-associated cervical cancer cell lines and keratinocytes, a functional role of DEK has not yet been explored in HNSCC. Using an established transgenic mouse model of HPV16 E7-induced HNSCC, we demonstrate that Dek is required for optimal proliferation of E7-transgenic epidermal cells and for the growth of HNSCC tumors. Importantly, these studies also demonstrate that DEK protein is universally upregulated in both HPV-positive and -negative human HNSCC tumors relative to adjacent normal tissue. Furthermore, DEK knockdown inhibited the proliferation of HPV-positive and -negative HNSCC cells, establishing a functional role for DEK in human disease. Mechanistic studies reveal that attenuated HNSCC cell growth in response to DEK loss was associated with reduced expression of the oncogenic p53 family member, ?Np63. Exogenous ?Np63 expression rescued the proliferative defect in the absence of DEK, thereby establishing a functional DEK-?Np63 oncogenic pathway that promotes HNSCC. Taken together, our data demonstrate that DEK stimulates HNSCC cellular growth and identify ?Np63 as a novel DEK effector. PMID:24608431

  12. High sustained efficacy of a prophylactic quadrivalent human papillomavirus types 6\\/11\\/16\\/18 L1 virus-like particle vaccine through 5 years of follow-up

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L L Villa; R L R Costa; C A Petta; R P Andrade; J Paavonen; O-E Iversen; S-E Olsson; J Høye; M Steinwall; G Riis-Johannessen; A Andersson-Ellstrom; K Elfgren; G von Krogh; M Lehtinen; C Malm; G M Tamms; K Giacoletti; L Lupinacci; R Railkar; F J Taddeo; J Bryan; M T Esser; H L Sings; A J Saah; E Barr

    2006-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes cervical, vulvar, and vaginal cancers, precancerous dysplasia, and genital warts. We report data for the longest efficacy evaluation to date of a prophylactic HPV vaccine. In total, 552 women (16–23 years) were enrolled in a randomised, placebo-controlled study of a quadrivalent HPV 6\\/11\\/16\\/18 L1 virus-like-particle vaccine with vaccination at months 0, 2, and 6. At regular

  13. HPV vaccine: Current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sushil; Biswas, Manash; Jose, Tony

    2015-04-01

    HPV Vaccine was introduced to prevent cervical cancer known to be caused by infection with one or more of the high risk subtypes of the Human papilloma virus (HPV). Since introduction, trials have proven its efficacy in preventing Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) beyond doubt and its effectiveness in preventing cervical cancer though presumptive is reasonably certain as per mathematical modelling. It also prevents other HPV related anogenital and oropharyngeal malignancies in both sexes. HPV vaccines have courted many controversies related to its efficacy, safety, ideal age of vaccination, use in HPV infected individuals and use in males. The currently available vaccines are based on L1 Viral like particles (VLP) and hence highly species specific, thermolabile, costly and are purely prophylactic. The quest for a cheaper, thermostable and broad spectrum vaccine has led to many newer prophylactic vaccines. Therapeutic vaccines were born out of the inescapable necessity considering high HPV related morbidity projected in the non HPV naïve population. Therapeutic vaccines would immediately reduce this burden and also help in the management of HPV related cancers alone or as part of combination strategies. Ongoing research is aimed at a total control over HPV related malignancies in the near future. PMID:25859081

  14. Ethical analysis of HPV vaccine policy options.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Richard K

    2006-05-29

    Vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) may soon be licensed. In contrast to most vaccine-preventable diseases, which are transmitted by air or casual contact, HPV is primarily transmitted by sexual contact. An analysis that applies ethical theories, such as utilitarianism, rule of double effect, and principlism, is needed for policy considerations. These analyses reveal that HPV vaccination can be recommended universally, including at ages 11-12 years. However, given concerns for autonomy, justice, as not all persons are at risk, and non-maleficence, HPV vaccine should not be mandated for school entry. Economic justice indicates a need to provide vaccination for the disadvantaged. PMID:16603278

  15. [The male genital in legal medicine].

    PubMed

    Albrecht, K; Schultheiss, D

    2006-02-01

    Pathomorphological findings for the male genital are an exception among forensic cases. In earlier publications they were usually published as individual cases. A significant percentage are the so-called fertility- and potency medical certificates, which are usually commissioned for doubtful paternity cases. Old forensic writings about genital injuries distinguish--apart from the necessity of a complete dissection--between "deadly as such" and "accidentally deadly" injuries. Another group consists of reports about self-inflicted genital mutilation, e.g. among prison inmates or soldiers of the last world wars to become an invalid. When it was necessary to identify a corpse, e.g. in cases of progressive decomposition, Merkel recommended in 1945 the representation of the so-called "Schnepfenkopf" (snipe head; colliculus seminalis) in the lesser pelvis. In this article a medical and forensic review of forensically relevant findings of the male genital is presented and illustrated with historical cases. PMID:16308712

  16. On reduced relatives with genitive subjects

    E-print Network

    Krause, Cornelia (Cornelia Ann), 1972-

    2001-01-01

    What is the place of relatives with genitive subjects in a typology of relative clauses? Are they full or reduced, headed or free relatives? Can they appear pre- and postnominally? Can they be head-internal relatives? Are ...

  17. Immunogenicity assessment of HPV16/18 vaccine using the glutathione S-transferase L1 multiplex serology assay.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Hilary A; Waterboer, Tim; Porras, Carolina; Kemp, Troy J; Pawlita, Michael; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Wacholder, Sholom; Gonzalez, Paula; Schiller, John T; Lowy, Douglas R; Esser, Mark; Matys, Katie; Poncelet, Sylviane; Herrero, Rolando; Hildesheim, Allan; Pinto, Ligia A; Safaeian, Mahboobeh

    2014-01-01

    The glutathione S-transferase (GST)-L1 multiplex serology assay has favorable properties for use in clinical trials and epidemiologic studies, including low cost, high throughput capacity, and low serum volume requirement. Therefore, we evaluated the GST-L1 assay as a measure of HPV16/18 vaccine immunogenicity. Our study population included 65 women selected from the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial who received the bivalent HPV16/18 virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine at the recommended 0/1/6-month schedule. We tested replicate serum samples from months 0/1/12 (i.e., after 0/1/3 doses) by GST-L1 and 3 other commonly used serology assays, VLP-ELISA, SEAP-NA, and cLIA. We calculated the percentage of women seropositive by GST-L1 by time point and HPV type (14 HPV types), and compared GST-L1 to other assays using Spearman rank correlation coefficients. After 1 vaccine dose, seropositivity by GST-L1 was 40% each for HPV16 and HPV18, increasing to 100% and 98%, respectively, after 3 doses. Seropositivity after 3 doses ranged from 32% to 69% for HPV types 31/33/45, for which partial vaccine efficacy is reported, though increases also occurred for types with no evidence for cross-protection (e.g., HPV77). GST-L1 correlated best after 3 doses with VLP-ELISA (HPV16 and HPV18 each ? = 0.72) and SEAP-NA (HPV16 ? = 0.65, HPV18 ? = 0.71) (all P < 0.001); correlation was lower with cLIA. The GST-L1 is suitable for evaluating HPV16/18 vaccine immunogenicity after 3 vaccine doses, although in contrast to other assays it may classify some samples as HPV16/18 seronegative. The assay's utility is limited for lower antibody levels such as after receipt of 1 dose. PMID:25483632

  18. [Ethics and reproductive health: the issue of HPV vaccination].

    PubMed

    Mateji?, Bojana; Kesi?, Vesna

    2013-01-01

    The ethics of reproductive health covers a wide field of different issues, from the ethical dimensions of assisted reproduction, life of newborns with disabilities to the never-ending debate on the ethical aspects of abortion. Furthermore, increasing attention is paid to the ethical dimensions of using stem cells taken from human embryos, the creation of cloned embryos of patients for possible self-healing, and the increasingly present issue of reproductive cloning. Development of vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) has introduced new ethical aspects related to reproductive health and the need for a consensus of clinical and public-healthcare population. Today immunization with HPV vaccine is a measure for the primary prevention of cervical cancer and it provides effective protection against certain types of viruses included in the vaccine. The most often mentioned issues of discussions on ethical concerns about HPV vaccination are the recommended age of girls who should be informed and vaccinated (12-14 years), attitudes and fears of parents concerning discussion with their preadolescent daughters on issues important for their future sexual behavior, dilemma on the vaccination of boys and the role of the chosen pediatrician in providing information on the vaccination. In Serbia, two HPV vaccines have been registered but the vaccination is not compulsory. Up-till-now there has been no researches on the attitudes of physicians and parents about HPV vaccination. Nevertheless, it is very important to initiate education of general and medical public about the fact that the availability of vaccine, even if we disregard all aforementioned dilemmas, does not lead to the neglect of other preventive strategies against cervical cancer, primarily screening. The National Program for Cervical Cancer Prevention involves organized screening, i.e. regular cytological examinations of the cervical smear of all women aged 25-69 years, every three years, regardless of the vaccination status. PMID:23539924

  19. Smoking and Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection in the HPV in Men (HIM) Study

    PubMed Central

    Schabath, Matthew B.; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Salmerón, Jorge; Quiterio, Manuel; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2011-01-01

    Background The influence of smoking on the natural history of HPV infection in men is not well-understood. Smoking could influence the incidence and persistence of HPV infections by suppressing local immune function, increase cellular proliferation, up-regulate pro-inflammatory factors, or cause host DNA damage resulting in increased susceptible to infection. The purpose of this analysis is to assess prevalent HPV infections by smoking status in men, and to determine baseline risk of HPV infection associated with smoking. Methods The HPV in Men (HIM) study is a multinational prospective study of the natural history of HPV infections in men. Samples from the coronal sulcus, glans penis, shaft, and scrotum were combined for HPV DNA testing. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between smoking and any-, oncogenic-, and non-oncogenic HPV infections. Results Our analyses revealed that current smoking was associated with an increased risk of any HPV infection (OR = 1.19; 95% CI 1.01 – 1.41) and oncogenic HPV infection (OR = 1.24; 95% CI 1.05 – 1.47). However, the association between smoking and any HPV infection (OR = 1.35; 95% CI 1.05 – 1.73) and oncogenic HPV infection (OR = 1.46; 95% CI 1.11 – 1.92) was only evident among men reporting fewer lifetime sexual partners. Discussion These results suggest that current smokers with the fewest number of sexual partners are associated with an increased risk for oncogenic HPV infection. Impact The relationship between smoking and HPV infection remains understudied in men; these data sheds new light on the interplay between smoking, sexual activity, and risk of HPV infection. PMID:22016473

  20. Comparison of long-term immunogenicity and safety of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine and HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine in healthy women aged 18-45 years: End-of-study analysis of a Phase III randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Einstein, Mark H; Takacs, Peter; Chatterjee, Archana; Sperling, Rhoda S; Chakhtoura, Nahida; Blatter, Mark M; Lalezari, Jacob; David, Marie-Pierre; Lin, Lan; Struyf, Frank; Dubin, Gary

    2014-01-01

    The observer-blind, randomized, age-stratified, head-to-head study (NCT00423046) comparing immunogenicity and safety of HPV-16/18 and HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccines in healthy women aged 18-45 y was completed. Five y after vaccination, in subjects from the Month 60 according-to-protocol cohort (seronegative and DNA negative for HPV type analyzed at baseline), serum neutralizing antibody (nAb) responses induced by HPV-16/18 vaccine remained 7.8-fold (18-26-y stratum), 5.6-fold (27-35-y stratum) and 2.3-fold (36-45-y stratum) higher than those induced by HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine for HPV-16. For HPV-18, the fold differences were 12.1, 13.0 and 7.8, respectively. At Month 60, all (100%) subjects in HPV-16/18 vaccine group and the majority (95.7%-97.5%) in HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine group were seropositive for HPV-16. For HPV-18, the majority (98.1%-100%) of subjects in HPV-16/18 vaccine group were seropositive; however, seropositivity rates in HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine group decreased considerably (61.1%-76.9%) across the 3 age strata. In the total vaccinated cohort (received ? 1 dose regardless of baseline HPV serostatus and DNA status), geometric mean titers for anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18 nAb were higher in HPV-16/18 vaccine group than in HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine group. Based on the 5-y data, piece-wise and modified power-law models predicted a longer durability of nAb response for HPV-16/18 vaccine compared to HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine. Beyond the differences apparent between the vaccines in terms of immunogenicity and modeled persistence of antibody responses, comparative studies including clinical endpoints would be needed to determine whether differences exist in duration of vaccine-induced protection. PMID:25483701

  1. Dense Genotyping of Immune-Related Loci Identifies Variants Associated with Clearance of HPV among HIV-Positive Women in the HIV Epidemiology Research Study (HERS)

    PubMed Central

    Sudenga, Staci L.; Wiener, Howard W.; King, Caroline C.; Rompalo, Anne M.; Cu-Uvin, Susan; Klein, Robert S.; Shah, Keerti V.; Sobel, Jack D.; Jamieson, Denise J.; Shrestha, Sadeep

    2014-01-01

    Persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is a necessary and causal factor of cervical cancer. Most women naturally clear HPV infections; however, the biological mechanisms related to HPV pathogenesis have not been clearly elucidated. Host genetic factors that specifically regulate immune response could play an important role. All HIV-positive women in the HIV Epidemiology Research Study (HERS) with a HR-HPV infection and at least one follow-up biannual visit were included in the study. Cervicovaginal lavage samples were tested for HPV using type-specific HPV hybridization assays. Type-specific HPV clearance was defined as two consecutive HPV-negative tests after a positive test. DNA from participants was genotyped for 196,524 variants within 186 known immune related loci using the custom ImmunoChip microarray. To assess the influence of each single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) with HR-HPV clearance, the Cox proportional hazards model with the Wei-Lin-Weissfeld approach was used, adjusting for CD4+ count, low risk HPV (LR-HPV) co-infection, and relevant confounders. Three analytical models were performed: race-specific (African Americans (n?=?258), European Americans (n?=?87), Hispanics (n?=?55), race-adjusted combined analysis, and meta-analysis of pooled independent race-specific analyses. Women were followed for a median time of 1,617 days. Overall, three SNPs (rs1112085, rs11102637, and rs12030900) in the MAGI-3 gene and one SNP (rs8031627) in the SMAD3 gene were associated with HR-HPV clearance (p<10?6). A variant (rs1633038) in HLA-G were also significantly associated in African American. Results from this study support associations of immune-related genes, having potential biological mechanism, with differential cervical HR-HPV infection outcomes. PMID:24918582

  2. Diagnosis and management of genital ulcers.

    PubMed

    Roett, Michelle A; Mayor, Mejebi T; Uduhiri, Kelechi A

    2012-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus infection and syphilis are the most common causes of genital ulcers in the United States. Other infectious causes include chancroid, lymphogranuloma venereum, granuloma inguinale (donovanosis), secondary bacterial infections, and fungi. Noninfectious etiologies, including sexual trauma, psoriasis, Behçet syndrome, and fixed drug eruptions, can also lead to genital ulcers. Although initial treatment of genital ulcers is generally based on clinical presentation, the following tests should be considered in all patients: serologic tests for syphilis and darkfield microscopy or direct fluorescent antibody testing for Treponema pallidum, culture or polymerase chain reaction test for herpes simplex virus, and culture for Haemophilus ducreyi in settings with a high prevalence of chancroid. No pathogen is identified in up to 25 percent of patients with genital ulcers. The first episode of herpes simplex virus infection is usually treated with seven to 10 days of oral acyclovir (five days for recurrent episodes). Famciclovir and valacyclovir are alternative therapies. One dose of intramuscular penicillin G benzathine is recommended to treat genital ulcers caused by primary syphilis. Treatment options for chancroid include a single dose of intramuscular ceftriaxone or oral azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, or erythromycin. Lymphogranuloma venereum and donovanosis are treated with 21 days of oral doxycycline. Treatment of noninfectious causes of genital ulcers varies by etiology, and ranges from topical wound care for ulcers caused by sexual trauma to consideration of subcutaneous pegylated interferon alfa-2a for ulcers caused by Behçet syndrome. PMID:22335265

  3. Human Papilloma Virus prevalence and type-specific relative contribution in invasive cervical cancer specimens from Italy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer represents an important global public health problem. It is the 2nd most common cancer among women worldwide. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is now well-established as a necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer (ICC) development. Only a few studies on HPV prevalence and type-specific distribution in ICC have been conducted in Italy. Aim To describe the prevalence of HPV and the HPV type-specific distribution in ICC cases identified in Rome, Italy. Methods 140 paraffin embedded tissue blocks of primary ICC diagnosed between 2001 and 2006 were identified at the Regina Elena Cancer Institute in Rome (Italy). HPV was detected through amplification of HPV DNA using SPF-10 HPV broad-spectrum primers followed by DEIA and then genotyping by LiPA25 (version 1). Results 134 cases were considered suitable for HPV DNA detection after histological evaluation; and overall, 90.3% (121/134) HPV prevalence was detected. 111 cases had a single HPV type, 4 cases had an uncharacterized type (HPVX) and 6 cases had multiple HPV infections. The five most common single HPV types among positive cases were: HPV16 (71/121; 58.7%), HPV18 (12/121; 9.9%), HPV31, HPV45 and HPV58 (5/121; 4.1% each). 2 (1.5%) of the single infections and 2 (1.5%) of the multiple infections contained low risk types. Statistically significant differences in the relative contribution of HPV18 were found when comparing squamous cell carcinomas with adenocarcinomas. Conclusions HPV16 and HPV18 accounted for almost 70% of all the HPV positive ICC cases. The study provides baseline information for further evaluation on the impact of recently introduced HPV vaccines in Italy. PMID:20525370

  4. Oncogenic potential of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and its relation with cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common cause of cervical cancer. Cervical cancer being the second most common cancer after lung cancer, affecting women of different age groups; has a prevalence of about 20% in young sexually active women. Among different types of HPV, HPV16 the major strain causing this cancer and is sexually transmitted had been unnoticed for decades. Keeping in mind the multiple risk factors related with cervical cancer such as early age sexual activities, teenage pregnancies, smoking, use of oral contraceptives, having multiple sex partners, hormone replacement therapies and various other unknown factors lead to the onset of the disease. Awareness for various diagnostic procedures such as Pap smears screening prove to be an effective way in eradicating the oncogenic potential of HPV. PMID:21635792

  5. A study of HPV 1, 2 and 4 antibody prevalence in patients presenting for treatment with cutaneous warts to general practitioners in N. Ireland.

    PubMed Central

    Steele, K.; Shirodaria, P. V.; Pfister, H.; Pollock, B.; Fuchs, P.; Merrett, J. D.; Irwin, W. G.; Simpson, D. I.

    1988-01-01

    Three hundred and seventy-six patients attending their general practitioner with cutaneous warts at five health centres in Northern Ireland were screened for human papilloma virus (HPV) types 1 and 2 IgM antibody using an indirect immunofluorescence test. Eight-eight (23.4%) patients were positive for HPV type 1 IgM and 156 (41.5%) for HPV type 2 IgM. HPV 1 IgM antibody was significantly more likely to be associated with plantar warts than warts elsewhere (P less than 0.0001). HPV 2 IgM was present in 45 (34.1%) patients with plantar warts and 99 (45.6%) patients with warts at other sites (P = 0.1). Evidence of multiple infection by HPV types 1 and 2 was demonstrated by the finding of HPV 1 and 2 IgM antibodies in the sera of 16 (4.3%). HPV 4 was found in only 1 out of 30 biopsies and HPV 4 IgM was undetectable in 50 randomly chosen sera. Images Fig. 1 PMID:2850937

  6. Prevalence of HPV infection and other risk factors in a Fijian population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cancer is among the leading contributors to morbidity and mortality in the Pacific, but the magnitude of the problem and the potential for prevention have not been comprehensively studied. Over the past decade, cervical cancer has been the most common cancer among women in Fiji with an age standardised cervical cancer incidence rate of 51 per 100,000. This rate is among the highest in the South Pacific region and in the world. This high cervical cancer incidence rate is likely linked to the low cervical screening rate, but it points also to the possibility of a high burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Methods We conducted a population-based survey in Fiji to provide information on human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence, and the distribution of individual HPV types in a Fijian health-sub-district. We included 1,261 women aged between 16 and 64 years. A general primer GP5+/6+?mediatedpolymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was used for HPV testing of 44 HPV types. Results The crude HPV prevalence in 1,244 women with an adequate HPV sample was 24.0% (95% confidence interval (CI), 21.7-26.4%) and the corresponding age standardised prevalence was 25.5% (95% CI, 23.1-28.1%). The prevalence of high-risk HPV types was 13.6% (95% CI, 11.8-15.6%). Among 1,192 women with adequate cytological results, 13 (1.1%) showed cervical abnormalities, the majority of which were high-grade intraepithelial lesions or worse. HPV prevalence declined from 35.8% in women aged <25 years to 18.6% in those aged 55–64 years of age. After adjustment, the only variables significantly associated with HPV-positivity were age (ranging from odds ratio (OR) 0.57 (95% CI, 0.36-0.89) for 25–34 year-old-women to OR 0.43 (95% CI, 0.20-0.89) for 55–64 year-old-women) and ‘husband’s extramarital sexual relationships’ (OR 1.69; 95% CI, 1.17-2.34). Conclusion These findings on HPV provide key information for future policy decisions on the most appropriate methods of cervical cancer prevention in Fiji and in the Pacific region. PMID:24891876

  7. [Colorimetric detection of HPV6 and HPV16 by loop mediated isothermal amplification].

    PubMed

    Lu, Chun-bin; Luo, Le; Yang, Meng-jie; Nie, Kai; Wang, Miao; Ma, Xue-Jun

    2011-01-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive colorimetric loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method was established to detect HPV6 and HPV 16 respectively. The method employed a set of four specially designed primers that recognized six distinct sequences of HPV6-E6 or HPV16-E7 for amplification of nucleic acid under isothermal conditions at 63 degrees C for one hour. The amplification process of LAMP was monitored by the addition of HNB (hydroxy naphthol blue) dye prior to amplification. A positive reaction was indicated by a color change from violet to sky blue and confirmed by real-time turbidimeter and agarose electrophoresis. Thirteen cervical swab samples having single infection with 13 different HPV genotypes were examined to evaluate the specificity. A serial dilution of a cloned plasmid containing HPV-E6 or HPV-E7 gene was examined to evaluate the sensitivity. The results showed that no cross-reaction with other HPV genotypes was observed. The colorimetric LAMP assay could achieve a sensitivity of 1000 copies, 10-20 times lower than that of real-time PCR. The assay was further evaluated with 62 clinical specimens and consistent results were obtained compared with the detection using Kai Pu HPV Genotyping Kit. We concluded that this colorimetric LAMP assay had potential usefulness for the rapid screening of the HPV6 or HPV16 infection in the laboratories and hospitals of provincial and municipal region in China. PMID:21462508

  8. Apoptosis induced by an antagonist peptide against HPV16 E7 in vitro and in vivo via restoration of p53

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caiping GuoKewei; Kewei Liu; Yi Zheng; Haibo Luo; Hongbo Chen; Laiqiang Huang

    2011-01-01

    Human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV16) E7 is a viral oncoprotein that is believed to play a major role in cervical neoplasia.\\u000a A novel antagonist peptide against HPV16 E7 was previously selected by phage display screening and the selected peptide was\\u000a found to have anti-tumor efficacy against HPV16-positive cervical carcinoma through induction of cell cycle arrest. In the\\u000a current study,

  9. Induction of antitumor immunity in vivo following delivery of a novel HPV16 DNA vaccine encoding an E6\\/E7 fusion antigen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Yan; Dawn K. Reichenbach; Natasha Corbitt; David A. Hokey; Mathura P. Ramanathan; Kibwei A. McKinney; David B. Weiner; Duane Sewell

    2009-01-01

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) infection is associated with a majority of cervical cancers and a significant proportion of head and neck cancers. Here, we describe a novel-engineered DNA vaccine that encodes a HPV-16 consensus E6\\/E7 fusion gene (pConE6E7) with the goal of increasing its antitumor cellular immunity. Compared to an early stage HPV-16 E7 DNA vaccine (pE7), this construct

  10. Risk messages about HPV, cervical cancer, and the HPV vaccine gardasil in North American news magazines.

    PubMed

    Abdelmutti, Nazek; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

    2010-09-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine (Gardasil) is a significant advancement in reducing women's risk for cervical cancer. Public opinion of the vaccine can be influenced by the mass media. We used content analysis to assess the discussion of risks, fear-inducing messages about HPV, cervical cancer, and the HPV vaccine in four high circulating North American news magazines from January 2006 to December 2007. Risk messages about HPV and cervical cancer focused on threatening illness or injury. Reporting on the HPV vaccine emphasized it being poorly understood by science. News magazine articles on the HPV vaccine and cervical cancer included fear-inducing messages. Cancer educators need to be aware of media reporting in order to alleviate fears that the public may experience about the HPV vaccine. PMID:20232189

  11. In North America, Some Ovarian Cancers Express the Oncogenes of Preventable Human Papillomavirus HPV-18.

    PubMed

    Roos, Patrick; Orlando, Paul A; Fagerstrom, Richard M; Pepper, John W

    2015-01-01

    Some researchers in other regions have recommended human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination to reduce risk of ovarian cancer, but not in North America, where evidence has previously suggested no role for HPV in ovarian cancer. Here we use a large sample of ovarian cancer transcriptomes (RNA-Seq) from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database to address whether HPV is involved with ovarian cancer in North America. We estimate that a known high-risk type of HPV (type 18) is present and active in 1.5% of cases of ovarian epithelial cancers in the US and Canada. Our detection methods were verified by negative and positive controls, and our sequence matches indicated high validity, leading to strong confidence in our conclusions. Our results indicate that previous reports of zero prevalence of HPV in North American cases of ovarian cancer should not be considered conclusive. This is important because currently used vaccines protect against the HPV-18 that is active in ovarian tumors and, therefore, may reduce risk in North America of cancers of the ovaries as well as of the cervix and several other organ sites. PMID:25721614

  12. Human papillomavirus infection in Bhutan at the moment of implementation of a national HPV vaccination programme

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer is the most common female cancer in Bhutan, the first low/middle-income country to implement a national human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme. Methods To provide a robust baseline for future evaluations of vaccine effectiveness, cervical cell specimens were obtained from 2,505 women aged 18–69 years from the general population, and biopsies from 211 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) and 112 invasive cervical cancer (ICC) cases. Samples were tested for HPV using GP5+/6+ PCR. Results Among the general population, HPV prevalence was 26%, being highest (33%) in women ?24 years, but remaining above 15% in all age-groups. Determinants of HPV included age, marital status, and number of sexual partners. Among the eight percent with cytological abnormalities, 24 CIN3 and 4 ICC were histologically confirmed. Even after additional testing with a sensitive E7 PCR, no infections with vaccine-targeted HPV types were detected in the few vaccinated women (n?=?34) compared to 6% prevalence in unvaccinated women of similar age (p?=?0?·?215). Conclusion Based upon type-specific prevalence among biopsies, at least 70% of ICC in Bhutan are theoretically preventable by HPV16/18 vaccination, but screening programmes should be expanded among older women, who have an important underlying burden of CIN3 and ICC. PMID:25047665

  13. In North America, Some Ovarian Cancers Express the Oncogenes of Preventable Human Papillomavirus HPV-18

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Patrick; Orlando, Paul A.; Fagerstrom, Richard M.; Pepper, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Some researchers in other regions have recommended human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination to reduce risk of ovarian cancer, but not in North America, where evidence has previously suggested no role for HPV in ovarian cancer. Here we use a large sample of ovarian cancer transcriptomes (RNA-Seq) from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database to address whether HPV is involved with ovarian cancer in North America. We estimate that a known high-risk type of HPV (type 18) is present and active in 1.5% of cases of ovarian epithelial cancers in the US and Canada. Our detection methods were verified by negative and positive controls, and our sequence matches indicated high validity, leading to strong confidence in our conclusions. Our results indicate that previous reports of zero prevalence of HPV in North American cases of ovarian cancer should not be considered conclusive. This is important because currently used vaccines protect against the HPV-18 that is active in ovarian tumors and, therefore, may reduce risk in North America of cancers of the ovaries as well as of the cervix and several other organ sites. PMID:25721614

  14. DNA Methylation Profiling across the Spectrum of HPV-Associated Anal Squamous Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Riggs, Bridget; Eschrich, Steven; Elahi, Abul; Qu, Xiaotao; Ajidahun, Abidemi; Berglund, Anders; Coppola, Domenico; Grady, William M.; Giuliano, Anna R.; Shibata, David

    2012-01-01

    Background Changes in host tumor genome DNA methylation patterns are among the molecular alterations associated with HPV-related carcinogenesis. However, there is little known about the epigenetic changes associated specifically with the development of anal squamous cell cancer (SCC). We sought to characterize broad methylation profiles across the spectrum of anal squamous neoplasia. Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty-nine formalin-fixed paraffin embedded samples from 24 patients were evaluated and included adjacent histologically normal anal mucosa (NM; n?=?3), SCC-in situ (SCC-IS; n?=?11) and invasive SCC (n?=?15). Thirteen women and 11 men with a median age of 44 years (range 26–81) were included in the study. Using the SFP10 LiPA HPV-typing system, HPV was detected in at least one tissue from all patients with 93% (27/29) being positive for high-risk HPV types and 14 (93%) of 15 invasive SCC tissues testing positive for HPV 16. Bisulfite-modified DNA was interrogated for methylation at 1,505 CpG loci representing 807 genes using the Illumina GoldenGate Methylation Array. When comparing the progression from normal anal mucosa and SCC-IS to invasive SCC, 22 CpG loci representing 20 genes demonstrated significant differential methylation (p<0.01). The majority of differentially methylated gene targets occurred at or close to specific chromosomal locations such as previously described HPV methylation “hotspots” and viral integration sites. Conclusions We have identified a panel of differentially methlylated CpG loci across the spectrum of HPV-associated squamous neoplasia of the anus. To our knowledge, this is the first reported application of large-scale high throughput methylation analysis for the study of anal neoplasia. Our findings support further investigations into the role of host-genome methylation in HPV-associated anal carcinogenesis with implications towards enhanced diagnosis and screening strategies. PMID:23226306

  15. Female genital cutting: impact on women's health.

    PubMed

    Nour, Nawal M

    2015-01-01

    More than 130 million women worldwide have undergone female genital cutting (FGC). FGC is practiced in parts of Africa and Asia, in societies with various cultures and religions. Reasons for the continuing practice of FGC include rite of passage, preserving chastity, ensuring marriageability, religion, hygiene, improving fertility, and enhancing sexual pleasure for men. The World Health Organization has classified FGC into four types depending on the extent of tissue removed. Immediate complications include hemorrhage, infection, sepsis, and death. Long-term complications include pain, scarring, urinary issues, and poor obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Efforts are being made nationally and internationally to eradicate this practice. In December 2012, the UN General Assembly accepted a resolution on the elimination of FGC. Although it is illegal to perform FGC in the United States, women from countries where the practice occurs have been and are still immigrating here. Many enter as refugees from war-torn, famine-stricken, or politically unstable countries. They bring along with them their cultural pride, health complications, and fears of being judged when visiting a health provider. A deeper understanding of the history, cultural beliefs, medical complications, and methods of surgical reconstruction is necessary to provide culturally and linguistically competent care to this unique group of women. PMID:25565511

  16. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis: An update

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Meenakshi; Sood, Seema; Mukherjee, Anjan; Muralidhar, Sumathi; Bala, Manju

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of curable bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide. It manifests primarily as urethritis in males and endocervicitis in females. Untreated chlamydial infection in man can cause epididymitis and proctitis. Though most women with Chlamydia infection are asymptomatic or have minimal symptoms, some develop salpingitis, endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy and tubal factor infertility. It is associated with an increased risk for the transmission or acquisition of HIV and is also attributed to be a risk factor for the development of cervical carcinoma. Early diagnosis and treatment of infected individuals is required to prevent the spread of the disease and severe sequelae. Traditionally, tissue culture was considered the gold standard for the diagnosis. However, with the availability of newer diagnostic techniques particularly molecular methods which are not only highly sensitive and specific but are cost-effective also, the diagnosis has became fast and easy. The purpose of this review is to study the various aspects of genital C. trachomatis infection. Also the advances related to the clinical picture, various diagnostic modalities, prevention, treatment, drug resistance and control measures will be dealt with. PMID:24135174

  17. University Students' Knowledge and Awareness of HPV

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eva Yacobi; Colleen Tennant; Jeanne Ferrante; Naazneen Pal; Richard Roetzheim

    1999-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of university students regarding the human papillomavirus (HPV).Methods. A random sample of 500 university students was mailed a self-administered questionnaire that elicited their knowledge and awareness about HPV and compared their knowledge and attitudes with those of other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Among the 480 deliverable

  18. Incarcerated women's HPV awareness, beliefs, and experiences.

    PubMed

    Pankey, Tyson; Ramaswamy, Megha

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore incarcerated women's awareness, beliefs, and experiences with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and vaccination. Design/methodology/approach - Researchers conducted focus groups with 45 incarcerated women in an urban Midwestern US jail to assess how women talked about their Papanicolaou (Pap) test screening and abnormal Pap test follow-up experiences. Some focus group questions specifically assessed individual awareness, beliefs, and experiences with HPV infection and vaccination. Based on these data, the authors described participants' awareness of HPV, as well as used open coding to ultimately extract themes related to beliefs and experiences with HPV infection and vaccine. Findings - While all 45 participants reported experiencing an abnormal Pap test event within the last five years, only two-thirds of participants (n=30) reported having heard of the HPV infection. Several themes emerged from the analysis of the data: the women's beliefs about cause and severity of HPV; frustration with age requirements of the vaccine; varied experiences with vaccinations for themselves and their children; the impact of media exposure on knowledge; and desire for more HPV infection and vaccine information. Originality/value - Incarcerated women's awareness and limited experiences with HPV infection and vaccination may be a barrier to adequate screening and cervical cancer prevention. This study has implications for the development of cervical health education for this high-risk group of women, who are four to five times as likely to have cervical cancer as non-incarcerated women. PMID:25751707

  19. Genetic variability of HPV-58 E6 and E7 genes in Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lijuan; Yang, Hongying; Chen, Junying; Huang, Xinwei; Pan, Yue; Li, Duo; Ding, Xiaojie; Wu, Kun; Shi, Xinan; Fu, Juanjuan; Shi, Haijing; Ma, Shaohui; Sun, Qiangming

    2014-01-01

    HPV accounts for most of incidence of cervical cancer. Genetic variations of E6 and E7 may be associated with the development of cervical cancer in specific geographic regions. HPV-58 has been found to be a relatively prevalent high-risk HPV among southwest Chinese women. To explore gene intratypic variations and polymorphisms of HPV-58 E6 and E7 genes originating in Southwest China, a total of 2000 scraped cell samples were collected for DNA extraction and HPV typing. Then, the E6 and E7 genes of HPV-58 (n=22) were sequenced and compared to others submitted to GenBank, followed by an analysis of the diversity of secondary structure by DNASTAR software. Phylogenetic trees were then constructed by Neighbor-Joining and the Kimura 2-parameters methods, followed by an analysis of selection pressures acting on the E6/E7 genes by PAML software. 22 were HPV-58 positive among 215 high-risk types' samples. The nucleotide variation rate of E6 was 86.36% (19/22) among the 22 HPV-58 E6 sequences studied. 4 single nucleotide changes were identified among the E6 sequences with 3/4 synonymous mutations (C187T, A260C, C307T) and 1/4 non-synonymous mutations (A388C, from Lys to Asn, in alpha helix). The most common mutations of E6 genes are the C307T and A388C. 8 single nucleotide changes were identified among the HPV-58 E7 sequences with 2/8 synonymous mutations (T726C, T744G) and 6/8 non-synonymous mutations (G599A, C632T, G694A, G760A, G761A, T803C). The nucleotide variation rate of E7 was 72.73% (17/22). The most common mutations of E7 genes are C632T, G694A, T744G, G760A (from Gly to Ser, in turn), G761A and T803C. The phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that all HPV-58 E6/E7 variants identified belonged to the Southeast Asia lineage. There was no evidence of positive selection in the sequence alignment of HPV-58 E6 and E7 genes. PMID:24368255

  20. Lactobacillus-dominated cervicovaginal microbiota associated with reduced HIV/STI prevalence and genital HIV viral load in African women.

    PubMed

    Borgdorff, Hanneke; Tsivtsivadze, Evgeni; Verhelst, Rita; Marzorati, Massimo; Jurriaans, Suzanne; Ndayisaba, Gilles F; Schuren, Frank H; van de Wijgert, Janneke H H M

    2014-09-01

    Cervicovaginal microbiota not dominated by lactobacilli may facilitate transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), as well as miscarriages, preterm births and sepsis in pregnant women. However, little is known about the exact nature of the microbiological changes that cause these adverse outcomes. In this study, cervical samples of 174 Rwandan female sex workers were analyzed cross-sectionally using a phylogenetic microarray. Furthermore, HIV-1 RNA concentrations were measured in cervicovaginal lavages of 58 HIV-positive women among them. We identified six microbiome clusters, representing a gradient from low semi-quantitative abundance and diversity dominated by Lactobacillus crispatus (cluster R-I, with R denoting 'Rwanda') and L. iners (R-II) to intermediate (R-V) and high abundance and diversity (R-III, R-IV and R-VI) dominated by a mixture of anaerobes, including Gardnerella, Atopobium and Prevotella species. Women in cluster R-I were less likely to have HIV (P=0.03), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2; P<0.01), and high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV; P<0.01) and had no bacterial STIs (P=0.15). Statistically significant trends in prevalence of viral STIs were found from low prevalence in cluster R-I, to higher prevalence in clusters R-II and R-V, and highest prevalence in clusters R-III/R-IV/R-VI. Furthermore, only 10% of HIV-positive women in clusters R-I/R-II, compared with 40% in cluster R-V, and 42% in clusters R-III/R-IV/R-VI had detectable cervicovaginal HIV-1 RNA (Ptrend=0.03). We conclude that L. crispatus-dominated, and to a lesser extent L. iners-dominated, cervicovaginal microbiota are associated with a lower prevalence of HIV/STIs and a lower likelihood of genital HIV-1 RNA shedding. PMID:24599071

  1. Baseline prevalence and type distribution of human papillomavirus in healthy Chinese women aged 18-25 years enrolled in a clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fang-Hui; Zhu, Feng-Cai; Chen, Wen; Li, Juan; Hu, Yue-Mei; Hong, Ying; Zhang, Yi-Ju; Pan, Qin-Jing; Zhu, Jia-Hong; Zhang, Xun; Chen, Yong; Tang, Haiwen; Zhang, Helen; Durand, Christelle; Datta, Sanjoy K; Struyf, Frank; Bi, Dan

    2014-12-01

    Baseline human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence and type distribution were evaluated in young Chinese women enrolled in a clinical trial of an HPV vaccine (ClinicalTrials.gov registration NCT00779766). Cervical specimens and blood samples were collected at baseline from women aged 18-25 years (n?=?6,051) from four sites across Jiangsu province. Cervical specimens were tested for HPV DNA by SPF10 PCR-DEIA-LiPA25 version 1, and HPV-16/18 type-specific polymerase chain reaction. Anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18 antibody titres were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. At baseline, 15.3% of women were DNA positive for any of 14 HPV high-risk (hr) types (HPV-16/18/31/33/35/39/45/51/52/56/58/59/66/68). The most commonly detected hrHPV types in cervical specimens were HPV-52 (4.0%) and HPV-16 (3.7%). High-risk HPV DNA-positivity increased with severity of cytological abnormalities: 39.3% in atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, 85.0% in low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and 97.8% in high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). The hrHPV types most frequently detected in HSIL were HPV-16 (63.0%), HPV-18 (17.4%), HPV-52 (17.4%), HPV-58 (15.2%) and HPV-33 (15.2%). The hrHPV types most frequently detected in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2+ were HPV-16 (66.1%), HPV-33 (16.1%), HPV-52 (16.1%), HPV-58 (14.5%) and HPV-51 (11.3%). Multiple hrHPV infections were reported for 24.4% of hrHPV DNA positive women. Regardless of baseline HPV DNA status, 30.5% and 16.0% of subjects were initially seropositive for anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18, respectively. In conclusion, the high baseline seropositivity rate and intermediate prevalence of cervical hrHPV types in Chinese women aged 18-25 years underlines the importance of early HPV vaccination in this population. PMID:24740547

  2. Optical Detection of Human Papillomavirus Type 16 and Type 18 by Sequence Sandwich Hybridization With Oligonucleotide-Functionalized Au Nanoparticles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sz-Hau Chen; Kun-I Lin; Chuan-Yi Tang; Sheng-Lung Peng; Yao-Chen Chuang; Yi-Rou Lin; Jui-Ping Wang; Chih-Sheng Lin

    2009-01-01

    The importance of detecting and subtyping human papillomaviruses (HPVs) in clinical and epidemiological studies has been well addressed. In detecting the most common types of HPV, type 16 (HPV-16) and type 18 (HPV-18), in the cervical mucous of patients in a simple and rapid manner, the assay of a label- free colorimetric DNA sensing method based on sequence sandwich hybridization

  3. Sinecatechins 10% ointment: a green tea extract for the treatment of external genital warts.

    PubMed

    Gupta, A K; Daigle, D

    2015-02-01

    External genital warts (EGWs) resulting from the human papilloma virus (HPV) are a common sexually transmitted infection and cause significant impairments in patient quality of life and sexual well-being. Therapeutic options for EGWs can be providerassisted, but many patients opt for treatment that can be applied at home. Sinecatechins 10% ointment is a new botanically based patient-administered therapy for EGWs. It is comprised of >85% catechins, green tea polyphenols that have been shown to possess antioxidant, antiproliferative, antiviral, and antitumor properties. Phase III trials of sinecatechins 10% ointment have demonstrated higher efficacy and lower recurrence rates compared to currently available patient-applied treatments. Therefore, sinecatechins 10% ointment presents an alternative self-administered topical treatment for EGWs. PMID:25807215

  4. Guidance on management of asymptomatic neonates born to women with active genital herpes lesions.

    PubMed

    Kimberlin, David W; Baley, Jill

    2013-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection of the neonate is uncommon, but genital herpes infections in adults are very common. Thus, although treating an infant with neonatal herpes is a relatively rare occurrence, managing infants potentially exposed to HSV at the time of delivery occurs more frequently. The risk of transmitting HSV to an infant during delivery is determined in part by the mother's previous immunity to HSV. Women with primary genital HSV infections who are shedding HSV at delivery are 10 to 30 times more likely to transmit the virus to their newborn infants than are women with recurrent HSV infection who are shedding virus at delivery. With the availability of commercial serological tests that reliably can distinguish type-specific HSV antibodies, it is now possible to determine the type of maternal infection and, thus, further refine management of infants delivered to women who have active genital HSV lesions. The management algorithm presented herein uses both serological and virological studies to determine the risk of HSV transmission to the neonate who is delivered to a mother with active herpetic genital lesions and tailors management accordingly. The algorithm does not address the approach to asymptomatic neonates delivered to women with a history of genital herpes but no active lesions at delivery. PMID:23359576

  5. Guidance on Management of Asymptomatic Neonates Born to Women With Active Genital Herpes Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Kimberlin, David W.; Baley, Jill; Brady, Michael T.; Byington, Carrie L.; Davies, H. Dele; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Glode, Mary P.; Jackson, Mary Anne; Keyserling, Harry L.; Maldonado, Yvonne A.; Murray, Dennis L.; Orenstein, Walter A.; Schutze, Gordon E.; Willoughby, Rodney E.; Zaoutis, Theoklis E.; Papile, Lu-Ann; Bhutani, Vinod K.; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Cummings, James; Kumar, Praveen; Polin, Richard A.; Tan, Rosemarie C.; Wang, Kasper S.; Watterberg, Kristi L.

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection of the neonate is uncommon, but genital herpes infections in adults are very common. Thus, although treating an infant with neonatal herpes is a relatively rare occurrence, managing infants potentially exposed to HSV at the time of delivery occurs more frequently. The risk of transmitting HSV to an infant during delivery is determined in part by the mother’s previous immunity to HSV. Women with primary genital HSV infections who are shedding HSV at delivery are 10 to 30 times more likely to transmit the virus to their newborn infants than are women with recurrent HSV infection who are shedding virus at delivery. With the availability of commercial serological tests that reliably can distinguish type-specific HSV antibodies, it is now possible to determine the type of maternal infection and, thus, further refine management of infants delivered to women who have active genital HSV lesions. The management algorithm presented herein uses both serological and virological studies to determine the risk of HSV transmission to the neonate who is delivered to a mother with active herpetic genital lesions and tailors management accordingly. The algorithm does not address the approach to asymptomatic neonates delivered to women with a history of genital herpes but no active lesions at delivery. PMID:23359576

  6. Differences in methylation profiles between HPV-positive and HPV-negative oropharynx squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    van Kempen, Pauline MW; Noorlag, Rob; Braunius, Weibel W; Stegeman, Inge; Willems, Stefan M; Grolman, Wilko

    2014-01-01

    Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is associated with human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV-positive OPSCC is considered a distinct molecular entity with a better prognosis than HPV-negative cases of OPSCC. However, the exact pathogenic mechanisms underlying the differences in clinical and molecular behavior between HPV-positive and HPV-negative OPSCC remain poorly understood. Epigenetic events play an important role in the development of cancer. Hypermethylation of DNA in promoter regions and global hypomethylation are 2 epigenetic changes that have been frequently observed in human cancers. It is suggested that heterogeneous epigenetic changes play a role in the clinical and biological differences between HPV-positive and HPV-negative tumors. Unraveling the differences in methylation profiles of HPV-associated OPSCC may provide for promising clinical applications and may pave the road for personalized cancer treatment. This systematic review aims to assess the current state of knowledge regarding differences in promoter hypermethylation and global methylation between HPV-positive and HPV-negative OPSCC. PMID:24169583

  7. Public knowledge and attitudes towards Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charlotte Walsh; Aradhana Gera; Meeraj Shah; Amit Sharma; Judy E Powell; Sue Wilson

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccine has undergone successful trials and has recently been approved for use for the primary prevention of cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to determine knowledge and attitudes towards HPV vaccination. METHODS: Semi-structured interview and questionnaire delivered in a street survey. Standardised HPV-related statements used to measure HPV knowledge and attitudes to vaccination.

  8. HPV 9G DNA Chip: 100% Clinical Sensitivity and Specificity

    PubMed Central

    An, Heejung; Song, Keum-Soo; Nimse, Satish Balasaheb; Kim, Junghoon; Nguyen, Van-Thuan; Ta, Van-Thao; Sayyed, Danishmalik Rafiq

    2012-01-01

    We describe a novel HPV 9G DNA chip test for the accurate and reliable genotyping of human papillomavirus (HPV). The HPV 9G DNA chip test established its efficiency in terms of a signal-to-background ratio (SBR) of 200, which is 50 times superior to commercial HPV DNA chips, and 100% target-specific hybridization at 25°C. We compared the genotyping results for the 439 clinical samples by the HPV 9G DNA chip test with the sequencing results for the MY11/GP6+ (M2) primer set-mediated PCR products. The discrimination of HPV genotypes in the 151 HPV-positive clinical samples by the HPV 9G DNA chip test were 100% identical with the sequencing analysis. The clinical sensitivities of HPV genotyping by the HPV 9G DNA chip test and a commercial HPV DNA chip test were 100% and 88%, respectively. However, the clinical specificities of HPV genotyping by the HPV 9G DNA chip test and the commercial HPV DNA chip test were 100% and 94%, respectively. The 100% clinical sensitivity and specificity of the HPV 9G DNA chip test make it a promising diagnostic tool for HPV genotyping. PMID:22170909

  9. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Upregulates the Cellular Deubiquitinase UCHL1 to Suppress the Keratinocyte's Innate Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, Craig; Biryukov, Jennifer L.; Alam, Samina; Backendorf, Claude; Jha, Veena; Offringa, Rienk; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B.; Melief, Cornelis J. M.; Guardavaccaro, Daniele; Boer, Judith M.; van der Burg, Sjoerd H.

    2013-01-01

    Persistent infection of basal keratinocytes with high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) may cause cancer. Keratinocytes are equipped with different pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) but hrHPV has developed ways to dampen their signals resulting in minimal inflammation and evasion of host immunity for sustained periods of time. To understand the mechanisms underlying hrHPV's capacity to evade immunity, we studied PRR signaling in non, newly, and persistently hrHPV-infected keratinocytes. We found that active infection with hrHPV hampered the relay of signals downstream of the PRRs to the nucleus, thereby affecting the production of type-I interferon and pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. This suppression was shown to depend on hrHPV-induced expression of the cellular protein ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1) in keratinocytes. UCHL1 accomplished this by inhibiting tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3) K63 poly-ubiquitination which lead to lower levels of TRAF3 bound to TANK-binding kinase 1 and a reduced phosphorylation of interferon regulatory factor 3. Furthermore, UCHL1 mediated the degradation of the NF-kappa-B essential modulator with as result the suppression of p65 phosphorylation and canonical NF-?B signaling. We conclude that hrHPV exploits the cellular protein UCHL1 to evade host innate immunity by suppressing PRR-induced keratinocyte-mediated production of interferons, cytokines and chemokines, which normally results in the attraction and activation of an adaptive immune response. This identifies UCHL1 as a negative regulator of PRR-induced immune responses and consequently its virus-increased expression as a strategy for hrHPV to persist. PMID:23717208

  10. Molecular and evolutionary analysis of HPV16 E6 and E7 genes in Greek women.

    PubMed

    Tsakogiannis, D; Papadopoulou, A; Kontostathi, G; Ruether, I G A; Kyriakopoulou, Z; Dimitriou, T G; Orfanoudakis, G; Markoulatos, P

    2013-11-01

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) non-European variants have been associated with persistent infection and cervical cancer development, while the L83V variant of the E6 gene has been correlated with the progression of cervical malignancy. The present study investigated the presence of the HPV16 L83V variant in Greek women. Molecular evolutionary analysis of the HPV16 E6 and E7 oncogenes was conducted in order to estimate the evolution of the HPV16 genome in the Greek population. The E6 L83V variant was found in 78.2?% of high- and 64.28?% of low-grade specimens. Moreover, the prototype and E6 L83V variants were both prevalent in high- and low-grade malignancies in Greek women. Selective pressure analysis of the individual amino acid residues of HPV16 sequences from the Greek population indicates that codon 83 of the E6 protein, as well as codon 85 of the E7 protein, are undergoing positive selection. Novel sequence variations were recorded within the E6 and E7 genes in cervical samples, characterized as (T350G) European variants. However, no signal of intratypic recombination event was identified within the E6-E7 region. Molecular and evolutionary analyses of HPV16 genomes from distinct geographical locations might provide valuable information about viral evolution and oncogenecity. PMID:23946477

  11. Effects of a narrative HPV vaccination intervention aimed at reaching college women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hopfer, Suellen

    2012-04-01

    This longitudinal study reports on the development and evaluation of a narrative intervention aimed at increasing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among college women. The prevention of HPV is a public health priority due to its pervasiveness and relationship to cervical cancer, the second leading cause of cancer deaths among women worldwide. Pilot work utilizing culture-centric narrative theory guided development of the intervention content. Exemplification theory led to hypotheses comparing communication sources of the narrative messages (peer only, medical expert only, or a combination of the two source types) in a four-arm randomized controlled trial (N?=?404; 18-26 year olds). The combined peer-expert narrative intervention nearly doubled vaccination compared to controls (22% vs. 12%). The pragmatic goal of increasing HPV vaccination and the theoretical predictions about message source were supported. As predicted, the inclusion of peer and medical expert sources plays a critical role in promoting HPV vaccination among college women. Furthermore, the intervention increased HPV vaccination by increasing vaccine self-efficacy and intent. Theoretical and practical implications for designing effective HPV vaccine messages are discussed. PMID:21993613

  12. Human papillomavirus types and recurrent cervical warts

    SciTech Connect

    Nuovo, G.J. (Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center, New York, NY (USA)); Pedemonte, B.M. (Harlem Hospital Medical Center, New York, NY (USA))

    1990-03-02

    The authors analyzed cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CINs) detected after cryotherapy to determine if recurrence is associated with the same human papillomavirus (HPV) type found in the original lesion. Eight women had detectable HPV DNA in CINs that occurred after ablation of another CIN, and for each patient the HPV type in the pretreatment lesion was different from that in the CIN that appeared after cryotherapy. This compares with 12 women who had HPV detected in two or more CINs present at the same time, 11 of whom had the same HPv type noted. they concluded that although multiple, simultaneous CINs in a woman often contain the same HPV type, recurrent CINs that occur after cryotherapy contain an HPV type different from that present in the pretreatment lesion.

  13. Impact of vaccination with Cervarix (trade mark) on subsequent HPV-16/18 infection and cervical disease in women 15-25 years of age.

    PubMed

    Harper, Diane M

    2008-09-01

    Cervical cancer of both squamous and adenocarcinoma types is considered virtually 100% attributable to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. HPV-16 and -18 are the predominant types worldwide accounting for over 70% of all cervical cancer. Persistent oncogenic HPV infection has been confirmed as one key determinant in the development of cervical precancer (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN] 2+) and cervical cancer. The impact of prophylactic HPV vaccination on the reduction of virological and cytohistological outcomes related to HPV-16 and -18 has been evaluated in clinical trials with the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted cervical cancer vaccine (Cervarixtrade mark) through a Phase IIb study with a long-term follow-up of efficacy up to 5.5 years, and a large Phase III trial in women 15-25 years of age. These individual studies include populations with different underlying risk factors, each of which shows high efficacy against both HPV-16/18 persistent infections and CIN2+. When the two studies are combined and the respective populations are evaluated, vaccine efficacy against HPV-16 and -18-related CIN2+ remains at 100%. As this vaccine is used over time in universal prophylactic HPV-16/18 vaccination of girls and women, reductions in cervical cancers at both the individual and public health levels will be appreciated. PMID:18649932

  14. Prevalence and Genetic Variability in Capsid L1 Gene of Rare Human Papillomaviruses (HPV) Found in Cervical Lesions of Women from North-East Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gurgel, Ana Pavla Almeida Diniz; Chagas, Bárbara Simas; do Amaral, Carolina Maria Medeiros; Albuquerque, Eugênia Maria Bezerra; Serra, Ivi Gonçalves Soares Santos; Silva Neto, Jacinto da Costa; Muniz, Maria Tereza Cartaxo; de Freitas, Antonio Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and genetic variability of the capsid L1 gene of rare HPV genotypes that were found in the cervical lesions of women from North-East Brazil. A total number of 263 patients were included in this study. HPV detection was performed using PCR followed by direct sequencing of MY09/11, as well as type-specific PCR to detect the Alpha-9 species. Epitope prediction was performed to determine whether or not the genetic variants are inserted in B-cell and T-cell epitopes. The prevalence of rare HPV types in cervical lesions was found to be 9.47%. The rare HPV genotypes that were detected were HPV-53, 54, 56, 61, 62, 66, 70, and 81. The genetic variability in the L1 gene of rare HPV types involved thirty nucleotide changes, eight of which were detected for the first time in this study. Moreover, some of these variants are embedded in B-cell or T-cell epitope regions. The results of this research suggest that rare HPV types might be involved in cervical lesions and some of these variants can be found in B-cell and T-cell epitopes. Data on the prevalence and variability of rare HPV types will assist in clarifying the role of these viruses in carcinogenesis. PMID:23865057

  15. Can You Get Genital Herpes from a Cold Sore?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Get Genital Herpes From a Cold Sore? KidsHealth > Teens > Q&A > Birth Control, Pregnancy & STDs > Can You Get Genital Herpes From a Cold Sore? Print A A A Text Size ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC ...

  16. New Concepts in Understanding Genital Herpes

    PubMed Central

    Schiffer, Joshua T.; Corey, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    Herpes Simplex Virus-2 (HSV-2) is a lifelong infection that causes recurrent genital ulcers and on rare occasions, disseminated and visceral disease. Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) infection is an increasingly important cause of genital ulcers as well. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are the most common cause of genital ulcers in adults but acquisition and chronic infection are more commonly asymptomatic than symptomatic. Both the symptomatic and asymptomatic forms of HSV are of clinical consequence for several reasons. HSV-2 infection enhances HIV-1 acquisition, as well as transmission. In addition, both sexual and perinatal transmission can occur during asymptomatic viral shedding. Perinatal transmission is of particular concern because neonatal HSV infection results in severe morbiditiy to the newborn. Antiviral medicines are effective for limiting recurrence duration and decreasing transmission likelihood, though no available intervention completely prevents transmission. This highlights the importance of laboratory diagnostics for this lifelong infection, as well as the need for an HSV vaccine. PMID:19857385

  17. Use of Sno Strip Filter-Paper Wicks for Collection of Genital-Tract Samples Allows Reproducible Determination of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) RNA Viral Load with a Commercial HIV-1 Viral Load Assay

    PubMed Central

    Sherlock, Christopher H.; Lott, Paula M.; Money, Deborah M.; Merrick, Linda; Arikan, Yasemin; Remple, Valencia P.; Craib, Kevin; Burdge, David R.

    2006-01-01

    To assess the reproducibility of measurements of cervical and vaginal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral load, 92 duplicate cervical and 88 duplicate vaginal samples were collected from 13 HIV-infected women using Sno Strip filter-paper wicks. RNA was eluted from the strips, extracted, and assayed using a modified protocol for the Roche Cobas Amplicor HIV-1 Monitor assay. Pearson's correlation coefficient (R), coefficient of determination (D), and Bland-Altman plots (BA) were used to compare paired log10-transformed viral loads. Analysis of duplicate same-site samples showed good reproducibility (cervix: R = 0.72, D = 52%, BA = 89% within range; vagina: R = 0.72, D = 51%, BA = 87% within range); paired cervix/vagina measurements showed moderate correlation only (R = 0.56; D = 31.3%). Standardized sample collection and simple modification of the Roche Cobas Amplicor HIV-1 Monitor assay allows reproducible measurement of genital viral load. PMID:16517908

  18. Value of human papillomavirus typing for detection of anal cytological abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Livia Bravo; Marinho, Larissa Cardoso; Barbosa, Tânia Wanderley Paes; Velasco, Lara Franciele Ribeiro; Costa, Patrícia Godoy Garcia; Carneiro, Fabiana Pirani; de Oliveira, Paulo Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to evaluate anal cytology and human papillomavirus (HPV) typing in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Materials and Methods: Anal samples were collected from 61 patients (44 men and 17 women) and analyzed by PapilloCheck test and conventional cytology. Results: Of all anal samples, 37.7% had cytological abnormalities, 47.54% were negative and 14.75% were unsatisfactory. High-risk HPV, multiple high-risk HPV and HPV 16 infection was detected in 91.13%, 78.26% and 47.82% of the samples with cytological abnormalities and in 47.54%, 6.89% and 3.44% of the negative samples, respectively. High-risk HPV infection was significantly more frequent in anal samples with cytological abnormalities than in negative samples (P = 0.0005, Fisher's test), particularly multiple high-risk HPV infection (P < 0.0001) and HPV 16 infection (P = 0.0002). Conclusions: High-risk HPV, multiple high-risk HPV and HPV 16 infections are significantly associated with anal cytological abnormalities. Furthermore, the frequency of HPV infection in anal cytological samples suggests that high-risk HPV detection has high sensitivity, but low specificity for detection of anal cytological abnormalities, but multiple high-risk HPV typing and HPV 16 typing have a lower sensitivity and high specificity. Results suggest that HPV typing may be useful as an adjunct to cytology to screen patients for high-resolution anoscopy and biopsy. PMID:24339460

  19. The internet's role in HPV vaccine education.

    PubMed

    Patel, Pooja R; Berenson, Abbey B

    2014-05-01

    The internet is the second most popular source, after healthcare providers, of information regarding human papillomavirus (HPV). These online searches usually begin with the user entering generic terms in the search engine, and then reading the first few results that the engine returns. Unfortunately, research shows that much of this information obtained about the HPV vaccine is inaccurate and incomplete. In this review, we summarize the literature pertaining to online information concerning the HPV vaccine and review concerns related to obtaining online medical information. Finally, we propose possible solutions medical providers can employ in their everyday practice to help their patients obtain accurate information through their online searches. PMID:24553151

  20. HPV Vaccine: How Far have We Achieved?

    PubMed

    Dalvi, Sujata

    2014-10-01

    Globally, cervical cancer is the second most common cancer, and in India, it is the most common cancer in women. Human Papilloma virus (HPV) is the main cause of it. Although there are several methods for preventing cervical cancer, primary prevention by vaccination is the most effective option. HPV vaccine is safe and effective. It is expensive and is not a replacement for periodic cervical screening procedures. In developing countries, the cost effectiveness of vaccine and that of effective screening program with broader coverage is questionable. Today, HPV vaccine with regular cervical cancer screening program is the best possible tool to prevent cervical cancer. PMID:25368453

  1. Risk Messages about HPV, Cervical Cancer, and the HPV Vaccine Gardasil in North American News Magazines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nazek Abdelmutti; Laurie Hoffman-Goetz

    2010-01-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine (Gardasil) is a significant advancement in reducing women’s risk for cervical cancer.\\u000a Public opinion of the vaccine can be influenced by the mass media. We used content analysis to assess the discussion of risks,\\u000a fear-inducing messages about HPV, cervical cancer, and the HPV vaccine in four high circulating North American news magazines\\u000a from January 2006

  2. The carcinogenicity of human papillomavirus types reflects viral evolution

    E-print Network

    DeSalle, Rob

    The carcinogenicity of human papillomavirus types reflects viral evolution Mark Schiffmana Available online 3 May 2005 Abstract Persistent infections with carcinogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV suggest that persis- tent infections with carcinogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV) cause virtually all

  3. Use of 9-Valent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine: Updated HPV Vaccination Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices.

    PubMed

    Petrosky, Emiko; Bocchini, Joseph A; Hariri, Susan; Chesson, Harrell; Curtis, C Robinette; Saraiya, Mona; Unger, Elizabeth R; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2015-03-27

    During its February 2015 meeting, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine (9vHPV) (Gardasil 9, Merck and Co., Inc.) as one of three HPV vaccines that can be used for routine vaccination. HPV vaccine is recommended for routine vaccination at age 11 or 12 years. ACIP also recommends vaccination for females aged 13 through 26 years and males aged 13 through 21 years not vaccinated previously. Vaccination is also recommended through age 26 years for men who have sex with men and for immunocompromised persons (including those with HIV infection) if not vaccinated previously. 9vHPV is a noninfectious, virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine. Similar to quadrivalent HPV vaccine (4vHPV), 9vHPV contains HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 VLPs. In addition, 9vHPV contains HPV 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58 VLPs. 9vHPV was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on December 10, 2014, for use in females aged 9 through 26 years and males aged 9 through 15 years. For these recommendations, ACIP reviewed additional data on 9vHPV in males aged 16 through 26 years. 9vHPV and 4vHPV are licensed for use in females and males. Bivalent HPV vaccine (2vHPV), which contains HPV 16, 18 VLPs, is licensed for use in females. This report summarizes evidence considered by ACIP in recommending 9vHPV as one of three HPV vaccines that can be used for vaccination and provides recommendations for vaccine use. PMID:25811679

  4. A high and increasing HPV prevalence in tonsillar cancers in Eastern Denmark, 2000-2010: The largest registry-based study to date.

    PubMed

    Garnaes, Emilie; Kiss, Katalin; Andersen, Luise; Therkildsen, Marianne H; Franzmann, Maria B; Filtenborg-Barnkob, Bettina; Hoegdall, Estrid; Krenk, Lene; Josiassen, Michael; Lajer, Christel B; Specht, Lena; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Friis-Hansen, Lennart; Nielsen, Finn C; Kjaer, Susanne K; Norrild, Bodil; von Buchwald, Christian

    2015-05-01

    The aim was to explore whether the incidence of tonsillar squamous cell carcinomas (TSCCs) increased in Eastern Denmark, 2000-2010, and whether human papillomavirus (HPV) could explain the increase, and to assess the association of HPV prevalence with gender, age, and origin (i.e., the certainty of tonsillar tumor origin). We applied HPV DNA PCR and p16 immunohistochemistry to all TSCCs registered in the Danish Head and Neck Cancer Group (DAHANCA) and in the Danish Pathology Data Bank (n?=?632). Pathologists reviewed and subdivided the tumors into two groups: specified and nonspecified TSCCs. Approximately 10% of HPV-positive tumors was genotyped by amplicon next-generation sequencing. The overall crude incidence of TSCCs increased significantly (2.7% per year) and was explained by an increasing incidence of HPV-positive TSCCs (4.9% per year). The overall HPV prevalence was 58%, with HPV16 being the predominant HPV type. In multivariate analysis, the HPV prevalence was associated with age (<55 vs. >60 years) (OR, 1.72; 95% CI 1.13-2.63) and origin (nonspecified vs. specified TSCCs) (OR, 0.15; 95% CI 0.11-0.22). The association of HPV prevalence with origin increased over time in specified TSCCs (OR per year, 1.10; 95% CI 1.01-1.19), whereas no change over time was observed among nonspecified TSCCs (OR per year, 0.99; 95% CI 0.90-1.08). In conclusion, the observed increase in the number of HPV-positive TSCCs can explain the increasing number of TSCCs in Eastern Denmark, 2000-2010. HPV prevalence was associated with younger age (<55 years) and a high certainty of tonsillar tumor origin. PMID:25283302

  5. Potential cost-effectiveness of the nonavalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine.

    PubMed

    Drolet, Mélanie; Laprise, Jean-François; Boily, Marie-Claude; Franco, Eduardo L; Brisson, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Randomized clinical trials are currently examining the efficacy of a nonavalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, including HPV-types 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58. Evidence on the cost-effectiveness of the nonavalent is required for timely policy-decisions. We compared the potential cost-effectiveness of the nonavalent and quadrivalent HPV vaccines. We used a multi-type individual-based transmission-dynamic model of HPV infection and diseases, 70-year time-horizon, 3% discount rate and healthcare payer perspective. We calibrated the model to Canadian sexual behavior and epidemiologic data, and estimated Quality-Adjusted Life-Years (QALYs) lost and costs ($CAN 2010) from the literature. Under base-case assumptions (vaccinating 10-year-old girls, 80% coverage, 95$/dose, vaccine-type efficacy = 95%, cross-protection for the quadrivalent vaccine, duration of vaccine-type protection (cross-protection) = 20 (10) years), using the quadrivalent and nonavalent vaccines is estimated to cost $15,528 [12,056; 19,140] and $12,203 [9,331; 17,292] per QALY-gained, respectively. At equal price, the nonavalent vaccine is more cost-effective than the quadrivalent vaccine, even when assuming both shorter duration of protection (nonavalent = 20 years vs. quadrivalent = lifelong) and lower vaccine-type efficacy (nonavalent = 85% vs. quadrivalent = 95%). However, the additional cost per dose of the nonavalent vaccine should not exceed $11 to remain more cost-effective than the quadrivalent vaccine, and $24 to represent a cost-effective alternative to the quadrivalent vaccine (using a $40,000/QALY-gained threshold). The nonavalent vaccine can be a cost-effective alternative to the quadrivalent vaccine, even in scenarios where nonavalent vaccine efficacy is 85%. However, because most cervical cancers are caused by HPV-16/18, it is unlikely that the nonavalent would be used if its efficacy against these types is lower than current HPV vaccines. PMID:24174175

  6. The Human Papillomavirus Infection in Men Study: Human Papillomavirus Prevalence and Type Distribution among Men Residing in Brazil, Mexico, and the United States

    PubMed Central

    Giuliano, Anna R.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Villa, Luisa L.; Flores, Roberto; Salmeron, Jorge; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Papenfuss, Mary R.; Abrahamsen, Martha; Jolles, Emily; Nielson, Carrie M.; Baggio, Maria Luisa; Silva, Roberto; Quiterio, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Male sexual behavior influences the rates of cervical dysplasia and invasive cervical cancer, as well as male human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and disease. Unfortunately, little is known regarding male HPV type distribution by age and across countries. In samples combined from the coronal sulcus, glans penis, shaft, and scrotum of 1,160 men from Brazil, Mexico, and the United States, overall HPV prevalence was 65.2%, with 12.0% oncogenic types only, 20.7% nononcogenic types only, 17.8% both oncogenic and nononcogenic, and 14.7% unclassified infections. Multiple HPV types were detected in 25.7% of study participants. HPV prevalence was higher in Brazil (72.3%) than in the United States (61.3%) and Mexico (61.9%). HPV16 (6.5%), HPV51 (5.3%), and HPV59 (5.3%) were the most commonly detected oncogenic infections, and HPV84 (7.7%), HPV62 (7.3%), and HPV6 (6.6%) were the most commonly detected nononcogenic infections. Overall HPV prevalence was not associated with age. However, significant associations with age were observed when specific categories of HPV, nononcogenic, and unclassified HPV infections were considered. Studies of HPV type distribution among a broad age range of men from multiple countries is needed to fill the information gap internationally with respect to our knowledge of HPV infection in men. PMID:18708396

  7. Acceptability of HPV Vaccines and Associations with Perceptions Related to HPV and HPV Vaccines Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Joseph T. F.; Wang, Zixin; Kim, Jean H.; Lau, Mason; Lai, Coco H. Y.; Mo, Phoenix K. H.

    2013-01-01

    HPV vaccines are available to men but there are few studies investigating the acceptability of HPV vaccines among men who have sex with men (MSM), a high risk group. We assessed the intention to take up HPV vaccines among MSM in Hong Kong and the associated factors related to cognitions on HPV and HPV vaccines, basing on the Health Belief Model (n?=?542). The acceptability of HPV vaccines was 20% (unconditional on efficacies and price), 29.2% (conditional on efficacies and market price), 51.7% (conditional on efficacies and discounted price) and 79.1% (conditional on efficacies and free price). Adjusting for background variables, composite scores of perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived barriers and cue to actions were significantly associated with acceptability of HPV vaccines conditional on specific efficacies and the market price. Acceptability of HPV vaccines was highly price sensitive. Future studies need to use conditional measures. Implementation and translational researches are warranted. PMID:23451188

  8. HPV: immune response to infection and vaccination

    E-print Network

    Stanley, Margaret A

    2010-10-20

    coat protein L1 is protective suggesting that this would be an effective prophylactic vaccine strategy. The current prophylactic HPV VLP vaccines are delivered i.m. circumventing the intra-epithelial immune evasion strategies. These vaccines generate...

  9. Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Bivalent Vaccine

    Cancer.gov

    This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) bivalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  10. Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Quadrivalent Vaccine

    Cancer.gov

    This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  11. Vaccine Reduces HPV Infections in Young Men

    Cancer.gov

    An international randomized clinical trial has shown that the vaccine Gardasil can reduce the incidence of anogenital human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in young men 16 to 26 years of age at the time of vaccination.

  12. Recombinant Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Nonavalent Vaccine

    Cancer.gov

    This page contains brief information about recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) nonavalent vaccine and a collection of links to more information about the use of this vaccine, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  13. HPV and cancer of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Hübbers, Christian U; Akgül, Baki

    2015-04-01

    Increased awareness of human papillomavirus (HPV) as an etiological cause of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma has increased the interest in analysis of distinct oral sub-sites. It is currently under debate, whether HPV plays a role in the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC). The weakness in most published studies is the lack of performing different HPV detection tests combined with analysis for biological activity of the virus. In addition, different sub-sites of the oral cavity had been combined to a single entity, which retrospectively leads to a highly heterogeneous basis of data. In this review we mainly discuss the unclear role of HPV in OSCC development. PMID:25654476

  14. Diagnosing genital ulcer disease in a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases in Amsterdam, the Netherlands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Bruisten; H. Fennema; A. Pijl; M. Buimer; P. G. H. Peerbooms; E. Van Dyck; A. Meijer; J. M. Ossewaarde; Doornum van G. J. J

    2001-01-01

    The most common etiologic agents of genital ulcer disease (GUD) are herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), HSV-2, Treponema pallidum, and Haemophilus ducreyi. In an outpatient clinic for sexually transmitted diseases in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, specimens from 372 patients with GUD were collected from February to November 1996. Sera were collected at the time of the symptoms and, for most

  15. THE EFFECT OF GENITAL PROLAPSE ON VOIDING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LAURI J. ROMANZI; DAVID C. CHAIKIN; JERRY G. BLAIVAS

    1999-01-01

    PurposeWe determined whether genital prolapse causes obstruction that may be relieved by a vaginal pessary as well as the degree to which voiding difficulty, urethral hypermobility, bladder outlet obstruction, occult stress incontinence, detrusor instability and impaired detrusor contractility are associated with prolapse.

  16. New approach to managing genital warts

    PubMed Central

    Lopaschuk, Catharine C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To summarize and determine the appropriate use for the new and old management tools for genital warts. Sources of information The following databases were searched: MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ACP Journal Club, and Trip. The bibliographies of retrieved papers were also reviewed. Clinical trials, qualitative review articles, consensus reports, and clinical practice guidelines were retrieved. Main message Symptomatic warts are prevalent in at least 1% of the population between the ages of 15 and 49, with estimates of up to 50% of the population being infected with human papillomavirus at some point in their lifetime. Imiquimod and podophyllotoxin are 2 new treatments for external genital warts that are less painful and can be applied by patients at home. In addition, the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine has been shown to be efficacious in preventing genital warts and cervical cancer. There is still a role for the older treatment methods in certain situations, such as intravaginal, urethral, anal, or recalcitrant warts; or for pregnant patients. Conclusion The new treatments of external genital warts can reduce the pain of treatment and the number of office visits. Other treatment methods are still useful in certain situations. PMID:23851535

  17. HPV and CSC in HNSCC cisplatin resistance.

    PubMed

    Modur, Vishnu; Thomas-Robbins, K; Rao, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Cisplatin (DNA intercalator), a standard chemotherapy drug often used to treat head and neck squamous cellular carcinoma (HNSCC) has very low response rates in recurrent disease of HNSCC, this is a major clinical problem today. However, a valuable window to look in to the underlying molecular aspects of a favorable and unfavorable cisplatin response is offered by a distinct disease entity in HNSCC - HPV+ OPSCC. It responds far more favorably to cisplatin than non-HPV driven HNSCC. Another intriguing aspect of head and neck cancer biology is the emergence of the CD44+ cancer stem cell - the tumor initiating population that in all likelihood is the root cause of therapeutic resistance. The critical question is, are there any differences between the CD44+ CSC population of an HPV+ OPSCC and a non-HPV HNSCC? In this regard, the inverse relation between EGFR levels and HPV status in OPSCC may be a common thread that connects the better response rates of HPV+ OPSCC with the contribution of CD44+ stem cells of HNSCC to chemoresistance. PMID:25553363

  18. School Nurses' Role as Opinion Leaders Regarding the HPV Vaccine for Youth

    E-print Network

    Rosen, Brittany Leigh

    2013-06-17

    The most common sexually transmitted infection for both males and females is the human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is responsible for nearly all cervical cancers. Currently, an HPV vaccine is available; however, HPV vaccination rates for US...

  19. Against which human papillomavirus types shall we vaccinate and screen? The international perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Munoz; F. Xavier Bosch; X Castellsague; M Diaz; Silvia de Sanjose; Doudja Hammouda; Keerti V. Shah; Chris J. L. M. Meijer

    2004-01-01

    At least 15 types of HPV have been associated with cervical cancer, but current HPV vaccines confer only type-specific immunity. To determine geographic variations in the HPV type distribution in cervical cancer, we carried out a pooled analysis of data from an international survey of HPV types in cervical cancer and from a multicenter case-control study, both co-coordinated by the

  20. Eight Nucleotide Substitutions Inhibit Splicing to HPV-16 3?-Splice Site SA3358 and Reduce the Efficiency by which HPV-16 Increases the Life Span of Primary Human Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoze; Johansson, Cecilia; Cardoso Palacios, Carlos; Mossberg, Anki; Dhanjal, Soniya; Bergvall, Monika; Schwartz, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The most commonly used 3?-splice site on the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) genome named SA3358 is used to produce HPV-16 early mRNAs encoding E4, E5, E6 and E7, and late mRNAs encoding L1 and L2. We have previously shown that SA3358 is suboptimal and is totally dependent on a downstream splicing enhancer containingmultiple potential ASF/SF2 binding sites. Here weshow that only one of the predicted ASF/SF2 sites accounts for the majority of the enhancer activity. We demonstrate that single nucleotide substitutions in this predicted ASF/SF2 site impair enhancer function and that this correlates with less efficient binding to ASF/SF2 in vitro. We provide evidence that HPV-16 mRNAs that arespliced to SA3358 interact with ASF/SF2 in living cells. In addition,mutational inactivation of the ASF/SF2 site weakened the enhancer at SA3358 in episomal forms of the HPV-16 genome, indicating that the enhancer is active in the context of the full HPV-16 genome.This resulted in induction of HPV-16 late gene expression as a result of competition from late splice site SA5639. Furthermore, inactivation of the ASF/SF2 site of the SA3358 splicing enhancer reduced the ability of E6- and E7-encoding HPV-16 plasmids to increase the life span of primary keratinocytes in vitro, demonstrating arequirement for an intact splicing enhancer of SA3358 forefficient production of the E6 and E7 mRNAs. These results link the strength of the HPV-16 SA3358 splicing enhancer to expression of E6 and E7 and to the pathogenic properties of HPV-16. PMID:24039800

  1. Female genital structures in several families of Centropagoidea (Copepoda: Calanoida)

    PubMed Central

    Barthélémy, R.-M.

    1998-01-01

    The female genital structures of 21 calanoid species belonging to the families Candaciidae, Centropagidae, Pontellidae, Sulcanidae, Temoridae and Tortanidae were studied using light and electron microscopy (scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy). Except the monotypic Sulcanidae, their organization conforms to a common pattern characterized by egg-laying ducts opening through paired adjacent gonopores into a small cavity, the genital atrium, covered by a genital operculum and opening to the outside through a distal atrial slit. No seminal receptacle is present and the seminal products must be stored for a brief period in the genital atrium.The genital structures occupy a well delimited genital area, the main changes in which concern their position on the ventral face of the genital double-somite, and operculum morphology. Their organization and possible mode of operation are compared with those of other calanoid families. A possible correlation between absence of seminal receptacles and mating behaviour is discussed.

  2. The physical state of HPV16 infection and its clinical significance in cancer precursor lesion and cervical carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Li; Wei Wang; Mani Si; Linfei Han; Qinglei Gao; Aiyue Luo; Yan Li; Yunping Lu; Shixuan Wang; Ding Ma

    2008-01-01

    Purpose  Integration of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPVs) into the host DNA has been proposed as a risk for cervical carcinogenesis.\\u000a HPV-16 is the predominant high-risk type and its integration ration varied largely in different cervical cancer (CC) samples.\\u000a The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between physical state of HPV16 infection and extent of cervical lesion,\\u000a as well

  3. High-risk HPV nucleic acid detection kit–the careHPV test –a new detection method for screening

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Hong; Jing, Fang; Fanghui, Zhao; Youlin, Qiao; Yali, Hu

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the clinical accuracy of the correlation between the careHPV test and the HC2 test, as well as the correlation between the careHPV test and the HPV-PCR test. From September 21 to December 31, 2009, 419 cervical specimens from women, 30–49 years, were collected. All women were assessed by Digene HC2 High-Risk HPV DNA Test (HC2), careHPV test, and HPV-PCR. The concordance rate between careHPV and HC2 was 93.81% and between careHPV and HPV-PCR 88.12%. The sensitivity and specificity of the careHPV test to detect cancers of equal or greater severity than CIN 2 were 85.71% and 83.15% respectively. Results from careHPV, HC2, and HPV-PCR were highly consistent. The careHPV test has good sensitivity and specificity for the detection of HPV infection and is a promising primary screening method for cervical cancer in low-resource regions. PMID:24736475

  4. The Impact of HPV Female Immunization in Italy: Model Based Predictions

    PubMed Central

    Guzzetta, Giorgio; Faustini, Luca; Panatto, Donatella; Gasparini, Roberto; Manfredi, Piero

    2014-01-01

    The Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a sexually transmitted virus that causes cervical cancer. Since 2008 a vaccination program targeting 12-year-old girls has been initiated in Italy, backing up the cervical screening program already active since 1996. We propose a mathematical model of HPV transmission dynamics with the aim of evaluating the impact of these prevention strategies. The model considers heterosexual transmission of HPV types 16 and 18, structured by sex, age and sexual activity level, where transition to sexual activity is explicitly modeled from recent survey data. The epidemiological structure is a hybrid SIS/SIR, where a fraction of individuals recovering from infection develops permanent immunity against reinfection. Infections may progress to cervical lesions and cancer and heal spontaneously or upon treatment. Women undergoing hysterectomy (either after treatment of HPV lesions or by other causes) also transmit HPV infection. The model fits well both the age-specific prevalence of HPV infections and the incidence of cervical cancers in Italy, and accurately reproduces the decreasing trend in cancer incidence due to the introduction of the screening program. The model predicts that if the screening coverage is maintained at current levels, even in the absence of vaccination, such trend will continue in the next few decades, eventually plateauing at 25% below the current level. The additional initiation of routine vaccination targeting 12-year-old girls will further reduce cervical cancer incidence by two thirds at equilibrium, under realistic assumptions of 70% coverage and a duration of protective immunity of 50 years. If catch-up immunization of 25-year-old women at first cervical screening is also introduced, about 3,000 cervical cancer cases overall can be averted, corresponding to 9.6% of all cases expected in the scenario without catch-up. We conclude that HPV vaccination in addition to cervical screening will significantly reduce the burden of cervical cancer in Italy. PMID:24618824

  5. TALEN-mediated targeting of HPV oncogenes ameliorates HPV-related cervical malignancy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zheng; Ding, Wencheng; Zhu, Da; Yu, Lan; Jiang, Xiaohui; Wang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Changlin; Wang, Liming; Ji, Teng; Liu, Dan; He, Dan; Xia, Xi; Zhu, Tao; Wei, Juncheng; Wu, Peng; Wang, Changyu; Xi, Ling; Gao, Qinglei; Chen, Gang; Liu, Rong; Li, Kezhen; Li, Shuang; Wang, Shixuan; Zhou, Jianfeng; Ma, Ding; Wang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Persistent HPV infection is recognized as the main etiologic factor for cervical cancer. HPV expresses the oncoproteins E6 and E7, both of which play key roles in maintaining viral infection and promoting carcinogenesis. While siRNA-mediated targeting of E6 and E7 transcripts temporarily induces apoptosis in HPV-positive cells, it does not eliminate viral DNA within the host genome, which can harbor escape mutants. Here, we demonstrated that specifically targeting E6 and E7 within host DNA with transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) induces apoptosis, inhibits growth, and reduces tumorigenicity in HPV-positive cell lines. TALEN treatment efficiently disrupted E6 and E7 oncogenes, leading to the restoration of host tumor suppressors p53 and retinoblastoma 1 (RB1), which are targeted by E6 and E7, respectively. In the K14-HPV16 transgenic mouse model of HPV-driven neoplasms, direct cervical application of HPV16-E7-targeted TALENs effectively mutated the E7 oncogene, reduced viral DNA load, and restored RB1 function and downstream targets transcription factor E2F1 and cycling-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), thereby reversing the malignant phenotype. Together, the results from our study suggest that TALENs have potential as a therapeutic strategy for HPV infection and related cervical malignancy. PMID:25500889

  6. Nip the HPV encoded evil in the cancer bud: HPV reshapes TRAILs and signaling landscapes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    HPV encoded proteins can elicit ectopic protein–protein interactions that re-wire signaling pathways, in a mode that promotes malignancy. Moreover, accumulating data related to HPV is now providing compelling substantiation of a central role played by HPV in escaping immunosurveillance and impairment of apoptotic response. What emerges is an intricate network of Wnt, TGF, Notch signaling cascades that forms higher-order ligand–receptor complexes routing downstream signaling in HPV infected cells. These HPV infected cells are regulated both extracellularly by ligand receptor axis and intracellularly by HPV encoded proteins and impair TRAIL mediated apoptosis. We divide this review into different sections addressing how linear signaling pathways integrate to facilitate carcinogenesis and compounds that directly or indirectly reverse these aberrant interactions offer new possibilities for therapy in cancer. Although HPV encoded proteins mediated misrepresentation of pathways is difficult to target, improved drug-discovery platforms and new technologies have facilitated the discovery of agents that can target dysregulated pathways in HPV infected cervical cancer cells, thus setting the stage for preclinical models and clinical trials. PMID:23773282

  7. Knowledge of HPV, Perception of Risk, and Intent to Obtain HPV Vaccination among Male University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV), the most common sexually transmitted virus in the world, is associated with almost all cases of cervical cancer. It is also related to vulvar, vaginal, penile, anal, and oropharyngeal cancer. HPV vaccination is recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for both boys and girls. Unfortunately,…

  8. Anal cytological abnormalities and anal HPV infection in men with Centers for Disease Control group IV HIV disease.

    PubMed Central

    Palefsky, J M; Holly, E A; Ralston, M L; Arthur, S P; Hogeboom, C J; Darragh, T M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterise risk factors for abnormal and cytology and anal human papilloma virus (HPV) infection in homosexual/bisexual men with advanced HIV related immunosuppression. DESIGN: Cross sectional study of men with Centers for Disease Control group IV HIV disease. SETTING: The University of California San Francisco, AIDS Clinic. PATIENTS: 129 homosexual or bisexual men with group IV HIV disease. METHODS: A questionnaire was administered detailing tobacco, alcohol and recreational drug use, medical history, and sexual practices. Anal swabs for cytology and HPV studies were obtained, as was blood for CD4 levels. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Abnormal anal cytology and anal HPV infection. RESULTS: Abnormal anal cytology was detected in 39% of subjects and anal HPV infection in 93% as measured by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Risk factors for abnormal cytology in multivariate analysis included HPV 16/18 infection (measured by PCR, RR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.2-3.5) and intravenous drug use (RR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.2-2.7). Infection with HPV 6/11 also had significantly elevated RRs in a separate model. Cigarette smoking, alcohol use, recreational drug use, and low CD4 level were associated with abnormal anal cytology in univariate analysis, as was infection with multiple HPV types and high levels of hybrid capture group B viral DNA. CONCLUSIONS: Anal cytological abnormalities and HPV infection are common among homosexual/bisexual men with group IV HIV disease. In this study population, the main risk factors for abnormal cytology were HPV infection and intravenous drug use. Images PMID:9306896

  9. Mullerian adenosarcoma of the female genital tract.

    PubMed

    McCluggage, W Glenn

    2010-03-01

    Mullerian adenosarcoma is an uncommon, but not rare, mixed tumor containing a neoplastic but benign or mildly atypical epithelial element and a sarcomatous, usually low-grade, stromal component. The most common site is the uterine corpus but adenosarcoma also occurs in the cervix and ovary and more rarely in the vagina, fallopian tube, arising from peritoneal surfaces, or outside the female genital tract, for example in the intestine. Most uterine cases have a polypoid gross appearance, sometimes resulting in the formation of multiple polyps. Characteristic histologic features include a low power "phyllodes-like" architecture with leaf-like projections lined by a variety of benign Mullerian type epithelia, sometimes with squamous metaplasia. Intraglandular stromal protrusions are a characteristic feature. The stroma may be uniformly cellular but there is typically increased cellularity around the epithelial elements, resulting in the formation of a cambium layer. Using the World Health Organization definition, stromal mitotic activity of 2 or more per 10 high-power fields is required for a diagnosis of adenosarcoma but in practice the diagnosis is made with stromal mitotic activity less than this if the characteristic architecture and cambium layer is present. The stromal component is usually morphologically "low-grade" and of endometrial stromal or fibroblastic type (hormone receptor and CD10 positive). Sometimes it is high grade, resembling undifferentiated sarcoma. Additional features sometimes present include heterologous stromal elements or sex cord-like differentiation. Uterine adenosarcomas are, in general, low-grade neoplasms capable of local recurrence after polypectomy or hysterectomy and much less commonly distant metastasis. The 2 most important adverse prognostic factors, which sometimes coexist, are deep myometrial invasion and sarcomatous overgrowth; the latter is usually associated with morphologically "high-grade" stromal elements with loss of expression of hormone receptors and CD10. Adenosarcoma may be confused with a variety of lesions and one of the main differential diagnoses is adenofibroma in which the stromal component is, by definition, morphologically benign. However, occasional adenofibromas recur or even metastasize. As such, it has been suggested that all adenofibromas should be classified as adenosarcomas, albeit with low-malignant potential. Ovarian adenosarcomas are much more likely to exhibit malignant behavior than their uterine counterparts, probably due to the lack of an anatomic barrier to peritoneal dissemination. PMID:20179434

  10. Differential In Vitro Immortalization Capacity of Eleven, Probable High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Types

    PubMed Central

    Schütze, Denise M.; Snijders, Peter J. F.; Bosch, Leontien; Kramer, Duco; Meijer, Chris J. L. M.

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies identified 12 high-risk HPV (hrHPV) types and 8 probable/possible hrHPV types that display different cancer risks. Functional studies on transforming properties of hrHPV are mainly limited to HPV16 and -18, which induce immortalization of human foreskin keratinocytes (HFKs) by successive bypass of two proliferative life span barriers, senescence and crisis. Here, we systematically compared the in vitro immortalization capacities, as well as influences on p53, pRb, hTERT, growth behavior, and differentiation capacity, of nine hrHPV types (HPV16, -18, -31, -33, -35, -45, -51, -52, and -59), and two probable hrHPV types (HPV66 and -70). By retroviral transduction, the respective E6/E7 coding sequences were expressed in HFKs from two or three independent donors. Reduced p53 levels and low-level hTERT expression in early-passage cells, as seen in HPV16-, -31-, -33-, and -35-, and to a lesser extent HPV18-transduced HFKs, was associated with continuous growth and an increased immortalization capacity. Less frequent immortalization by HPV45 and -51 and immortalization by HPV66 and -70 was preceded by an intervening period of strongly reduced growth (crisis) without prior increase in hTERT expression. Immortalization by HPV59 was also preceded by a period crisis, despite the onset of low hTERT expression at early passage. HPV52 triggered an extended life span but failed to induce immortality. Variations in p53 and pRb levels were not correlated with differences in alternative E6/E7 mRNA splicing in all hrHPV-transduced HFKs. On collagen rafts, transductants showed disturbed differentiation reminiscent of precancerous lesions. In conclusion, in vitro oncogenic capacities differ between the established hrHPV types, and both some established and probable hrHPV types display weak or moderate immortalization potential. PMID:24257607

  11. Evolution and Taxonomic Classification of Human Papillomavirus 16 (HPV16)-Related Variant Genomes

    E-print Network

    DeSalle, Rob

    Evolution and Taxonomic Classification of Human Papillomavirus 16 (HPV16)-Related Variant Genomes of Medicine, Bronx, New York, United States of America Abstract Background: Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16 and Taxonomic Classification of Human Papillomavirus 16 (HPV16)-Related Variant Genomes: HPV31, HPV33, HPV35

  12. Identification of promiscuous HPV16-derived T helper cell epitopes for therapeutic HPV vaccine design.

    PubMed

    Grabowska, Agnieszka K; Kaufmann, Andreas M; Riemer, Angelika B

    2015-01-01

    Cervical carcinoma and several other human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced malignancies are a global public health problem, thus novel treatment modalities are urgently needed. Immunotherapy is an attractive option for treatment of HPV infection and HPV-mediated premalignant and malignant lesions. However, previous approaches--focusing on the induction of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells (CTLs)--have as yet not yielded clinical successes. Since CD4+ T cells have been shown to be crucial for the induction and maintenance of CTL responses, and more recently to be also important for direct anti-tumor immunity, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II-restricted epitopes are intensively investigated to improve the efficacy of peptide-based HPV immunotherapy. We here present an approach to identify promiscuous HPV16-derived CD4+ T helper epitopes, which are capable of inducing T cell immunity in a large proportion of the population. To this end, we combined HLA class II epitope prediction servers with in vitro immunological evaluation to identify HPV16 E2-, E5-, E6-, and E7-derived CD4+ T cell epitopes. Candidate selected HPV16-derived epitopes were found to be restricted by up to nine HLA-DR molecules. Furthermore, they were found to induce frequent and robust HPV16 peptide-specific Th1 responses in healthy donors, as monitored by interferon (IFN)-? ELISPOT and cytokine secretion assays. Moreover, these selected peptides also induced specific IFN-? T cell responses in blood from HPV16+ CIN2/3 and cervical carcinoma patients. We thus conclude that the identified T helper epitopes are valuable candidates for the development of a comprehensive therapeutic HPV vaccine. PMID:24824905

  13. Type distribution of human papillomavirus among adult women diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer (stage 1b or higher) in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the necessary cause of cervical cancer. Published data on the epidemiology of HPV in women with invasive cervical cancer (ICC) in New Zealand (NZ) are limited. This cross-sectional study investigated the distribution of high-risk and low-risk HPV types in cervical specimens collected from women throughout NZ who had been diagnosed with ICC between 2004 and 2010. Methods Women aged ?18 years, with ICC International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage Ib or greater were identified from the five tertiary public hospitals in NZ regularly treating women with ICC. Women were enrolled in the study only after obtaining informed consent. Stored, formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded cervical specimens were retrieved and histopathologically reviewed to confirm the diagnosis of ICC. Cervical specimens were tested for HPV using polymerase chain reaction-short fragment10; HPV DNA was detected using DNA enzyme immunoassay and typed by reverse hybridization line probe assay. Results 242 women were enrolled and ICC was histologically confirmed in 227 samples. HPV infection was detected in 88.5% (n?=?201; 95% CI: 83.7–92.4) of women with ICC; high-risk HPV types were detected in 87.2% of women. The most commonly detected HPV types were HPV-16 (51.1%) and HPV-18 (20.7%), followed by HPV-31 (4.0%), HPV-45 and HPV-52 (3.1% each). Overall, HPV distribution was highest (94.3%) in women aged 30–39 years at diagnosis and a higher distribution of HPV-16 (68.8%) was observed in women younger than 30 years. The overall distribution of HPV types between Maori and non-Maori women were similar. HPV-positive women with ICC stage II or greater were less likely to be infected with HPV-16/18 (P?=?0.002) or HPV-18 (P?=?0.029) compared with the other high-risk types. Single type infection and multiple infections were detected in 93.5% and 5.5% of women, respectively. Conclusions HPV-16, HPV-18, HPV-31, HPV-45 and HPV-52 were the most commonly detected high-risk HPV types. Findings from the study fill an important data gap on HPV type distribution from NZ which will help facilitate better understanding of the epidemiology of HPV in NZ women. Clinical trial registration NCT01328028. PMID:25000939

  14. Antibody responses among adolescent females receiving the quadrivalent HPV vaccine series corresponding to standard or non-standard dosing intervals.

    PubMed

    Russell, Kate; Dunne, Eileen F; Kemper, Alex R; Dolor, Rowena J; Unger, Elizabeth R; Panicker, Gitika; Markowitz, Lauri E; Walter, Emmanuel B

    2015-04-15

    Quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV4) is recommended as a 3-dose series administered at 0, 1-2, and 6 months. However, this dosing schedule is often not followed leading to longer dosing intervals. We conducted a prospective study to assess antibody titers to HPV4 when dose 2 and/or dose 3 were administered on schedule or delayed. Healthy females (N=331) aged 9-18 years were enrolled at the time of receipt of HPV4 dose 2 or 3. Participants were classified as belonging to one of four groups depending upon timing of receipt of HPV4: both doses on time; only dose 2 delayed later than 90 days; only dose 3 delayed later than 180 days; or both doses 2 and 3 delayed. Pre- and post-dose 3 blood samples were assayed for HPV antibody titers (types 6, 11, 16, and 18). Post-dose 3 geometric mean titers (GMTs) for all HPV types were not significantly lower for any of the delayed dosing groups when compared to the on time group. When compared to the on time group, the post dose 3 GMTs in the delayed dose 3 group were significantly higher (p<0.05) for HPV types 6, 11, and 16. Our findings suggest that delays of dose 2 or 3 do not interfere with immune responses after completion of the 3-dose series. These results support current recommendations to not administer additional doses of HPV4 vaccine if dose 2, dose 3, or both doses have been administered late. PMID:25744229

  15. Honeybee venom possesses anticancer and antiviral effects by differential inhibition of HPV E6 and E7 expression on cervical cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Wan; Chaturvedi, Pankaj Kumar; Chun, Sung Nam; Lee, Yang Gu; Ahn, Woong Shick

    2015-04-01

    Bee venom (BV) therapy is a type of alternative medical treatment used to treat various diseases in oriental medicine. The mechanisms underlying the effects of BV remain poorly understood. In the present study, we evaluated the antiviral effect of BV on cervical carcinoma cell lines (CaSki, HeLa, C33A and TC-1). BV treatments resulted in a more significant suppression of cell growth in HPV 16-infected cells (CaSki) and a lesser suppression in HPV 18-infected cells (HeLa). However, less suppression was observed in HPV-negative C33A cells. In 10 µg/ml BV-treated CaSki cells, the mRNA expression and protein levels of HPV16 E6 and E7 were significantly decreased by BV, while HPV18 E6 and E7 mRNA expression levels were not significantly altered by 10 µg/ml BV-treated HeLa cells. The antitumor effects of BV were in accordance with in vitro data, in restricting tumor growth in vivo and were much more effective on the suppression of tumor growth. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein expression levels of HPV16 E6 and E7 were decreased by BV in TC-1 tumors. These findings demonstrated the antiviral effects of BV in HPV-infected cervical cancer cells and the anticancer effects of BV in HPV16 E6/E7-expressed TC-1 tumors. Collectively, BV plays a differential role in suppressing HPV16-infected cells (CaSki cells) and HPV18-infected cells (HeLa cells) by the downregulation of E6/E7 protein of HPV16/18. PMID:25633640

  16. Newsprint media representations of the introduction of the HPV vaccination programme for cervical cancer prevention in the UK (2005–2008)

    PubMed Central

    Hilton, Shona; Hunt, Kate; Langan, Mairi; Bedford, Helen; Petticrew, Mark

    2010-01-01

    In September 2008, the human papillomavirus (HPV) immunisation programme was introduced in the UK for schoolgirls aged between 12 and 18 years of age. The vaccine shows high efficacy in preventing infection against HPV types 16 and 18 responsible for 70% of cervical cancer. However, to be most effective, the vaccine needs to be administered before exposure to the viruses and therefore, ideally, before young people become sexually active. The introduction of any new vaccine, and perhaps particularly one given to young teenage girls to prevent a sexually transmitted cancer-causing virus, has the potential to attract a great deal of media attention. This paper reports on content analysis of 344 articles published between January 2005 and December 2008 in 15 UK newspapers. It includes both manifest and latent analysis to examine newsprint media coverage of the introduction of the HPV vaccination programme and its role in HPV advocacy. We concluded that the newspapers were generally positive towards the new HPV vaccination and that over the 4 years period the newsworthiness of the HPV vaccination programme increased. In 2008 two events dominated coverage, firstly, the introduction of the HPV programme in September 2008 and secondly, in August 2008 the diagnosis on camera of cervical cancer given to Jade Goody, a 27 year old mother of two, who gained fame and notoriety in the UK through her participation in several reality television shows. There are two conclusions from this study. Firstly, the positive media coverage surrounding the introduction of the HPV vaccination programme is to be welcomed as it is likely to contribute towards influencing public perceptions about the acceptability and need for HPV vaccination. Secondly, the focus on prevalence rates of HPV infection among women and on women's sexual behaviours, in relation to HPV vaccination ‘encouraging’ promiscuity, is an unhelpful aspect of media coverage. PMID:20064682

  17. Squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva. Failure to demonstrate HPV DNA by in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Tuppurainen, K; Raninen, A; Kosunen, O; Kankkunen, J P; Kellokoski, J; Syrjänen, S; Mäntyjärvi, M; Syrjänen, K

    1992-04-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva is a distinct rarity, often arising at the corneoscleral limbus and initially resembling pterygium or chronic keratoconjunctivitis. In this paper we report 4 patients with conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma/carcinoma in situ, which comprise all the cases found in the files of Kuopio University Hospital during 1959-1991. The clinical appearance, diagnosis and treatment of the lesions are described. All biopsies were studied for the presence of Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA (recently demonstrated in conjunctival squamous cell papillomas, precancer lesions and carcinomas) by using in situ DNA hybridization (ISH) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Both techniques failed to demonstrate the DNA of any of the following HPV types: HPV 6, 11, 16 and 18 in any of the lesions. The results are discussed in the light of the recently proposed HPV etiology of these lesions. PMID:1319099

  18. Mothers' acceptance of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for daughters in a country with a high prevalence of HPV.

    PubMed

    Alder, Susanna; Gustafsson, Sofia; Perinetti, Claudia; Mints, Miriam; Sundström, Karin; Andersson, Sonia

    2015-05-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women in Argentina and the mortality rate is not declining despite opportunistic screening. Free-of-charge human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of 11-year-old girls was introduced in 2011. Parental acceptance of HPV vaccination is considered to be of great importance for HPV vaccine uptake. However, little is known regarding this factor in Argentina. The aim of the present study was to explore maternal HPV vaccination acceptance, willingness to pay for HPV vaccination and correlates of this willingness, awareness of HPV and HPV-associated disease and behaviors and attitudes associated with HPV vaccination acceptance. A total of 180 mothers of girls aged 9-15 years comprised this quantitative, cross-sectional, survey-based study, conducted at two hospitals in the Mendoza Province. Correlates of willingness to pay for HPV vaccination were obtained using multivariable logistic regression models. Maternal HPV vaccination acceptance was 90%, and 60% of mothers were willing to pay for HPV vaccination. Mothers who were gainfully employed and had a higher disposable household income were significantly more willing to pay for HPV vaccination [odds ratio (OR)=2.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-6.38; OR=3.28, 95% CI 1.36?7.94, respectively], as were mothers who were aware of cervical cancer prior to the study (OR=3.22, 95% CI 1.02-10.14). Only one in 10 mothers were informed that HPV vaccination does not offer complete protection against cervical cancer. In conclusion, the present study showed high maternal HPV vaccination acceptance, although acceptance decreased when vaccination was not free-of-charge. Continuous public education campaigns are needed to improve knowledge of HPV, HPV vaccines and HPV-associated disease. PMID:25738832

  19. Decision-analytic modeling to evaluate the long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of HPV-DNA testing in primary cervical cancer screening in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Sroczynski, Gaby; Schnell-Inderst, Petra; Mühlberger, Nikolai; Lang, Katharina; Aidelsburger, Pamela; Wasem, Jürgen; Mittendorf, Thomas; Engel, Jutta; Hillemanns, Peter; Petry, Karl Ulrich; Krämer, Alexander; Siebert, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    Background Persistent infections with high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV) are associated with the development of cervical neoplasia. Compared to cytology HPV testing is more sensitive in detecting high-grade cervical cancer precursors, but with lower specificity. HPV based primary screening for cervical cancer is currently discussed in Germany. Decisions should be based on a systematic evaluation of the long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of HPV based primary screening. Research questions What is the long-term clinical effectiveness (reduction in lifetime risk of cervical cancer and death due to cervical cancer, life years gained) of HPV testing and what is the cost-effectiveness in Euro per life year gained (LYG) of including HPV testing in primary cervical cancer screening in the German health care context? How can the screening program be improved with respect to test combination, age at start and end of screening and screening interval and which recommendations should be made for the German health care context? Methods A previously published and validated decision-analytic model for the German health care context was extended and adapted to the natural history of HPV infection and cervical cancer in order to evaluate different screening strategies that differ by screening interval, and tests, including cytology alone, HPV testing alone or in combination with cytology, and HPV testing with cytology triage for HPV-positive women. German clinical, epidemiological and economic data were used. In the absence of individual data, screening adherence was modelled independently from screening history. Test accuracy data were retrieved from international meta-analyses. Predicted outcomes included reduction in lifetime-risk for cervical cancer cases and deaths, life expectancy, lifetime costs, and discounted incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER). The perspective of the third party payer and 3% annual discount rate were adopted. Extensive sensitivity analyses were performed in order to evaluate the robustness of results and identify areas of future research. Results In the base case analysis screening resulted in a 53% to 97% risk reduction for cervical cancer with a discounted ICER between 2,600 Euro/LYG (cytology alone every five years) and 155,500 Euro/LYG (Annual cytology age 20 to 29 years, and annual HPV age 30 years and older). Annual cytology, the current recommended screening strategy in Germany, was dominated. In sensitivity analyses variation in the relative increase in the sensitivity of HPV testing as compared to cytology, HPV test costs, screening adherence, HPV incidence, and annual discount rate influenced the ICER results. Variation in the screening start age also influenced the ICER. All cytology strategies were dominated by HPV screening strategies, when relative sensitivity increase by HPV testing compared to cytology was higher (scenario analysis with data for test accuracy from German studies). HPV testing every one, two or three years was more effective than annual cytology. With increased screening adherence a longer screening interval and with low screening adherence a shorter interval would be more cost-effective. With a reduction in HPV incidence of more than 70% triennial HPV screening in women aged 30 years and older (and biennial Pap screening in women aged 20 to 29 years) is cost-effective. The discounted ICER increases with increasing annual discount rate. Increasing screening start age to 25 years had no relevant loss in effectiveness but resulted in lower costs. An optimal strategy may be biennial HPV testing age 30 years and older with biennial cytology at age 25 to 29 years (ICER of 23,400 Euro/LYG). Conclusions Based on these results, HPV-based cervical cancer screening is more effective than cytology and could be cost-effective if performed at intervals of two years or greater. Increasing the age at screening start to 25 years causes no relevant loss in effectiveness but saves resources. In the German context an optimal screening strategy could be biennial HPV tes

  20. HPV Vaccine - Cervarix: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePLUS

    ... should get this HPV vaccine and when? Routine vaccination • HPV vaccine is recommended for girls 11 or ... or might not work at all. Catch-up vaccination • The vaccine is also recommended for girls and ...

  1. HPV-58 molecular variants exhibit different transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Raiol, Tainá; de Amorim, Regina Maria Santos; Galante, Pedro; Martins, Cláudia Renata Fernandes; Villa, Luisa Lina; Sichero, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Early promoter activity of HPV-58 molecular variants isolated from high-grade cervical lesions in Brazil was compared. Luciferase reporter assays were conducted in C33 cells transfected with the complete long control region of 3 molecular variants of HPV-58 as well as HPV-58, -18 or -16 prototypes. The HPV-58 prototype and Bsb-329 and Bsb-367 variants showed a promoter activity similar to that of HPV-16, but lower than that of Bsb-295 and HPV-18. The introduction of the Bsb-295 7788 mutation into the HPV-58 prototype resulted in the enhancement of transcription closer to Bsb-295 and HPV-18. These results could impact the expression of E6 and E7 viral oncogenes. PMID:20948225

  2. Human papillomavirus type 58 L1 virus-like particles purified by two-step chromatography elicit high levels of long-lasting neutralizing antibodies.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xixiu; Liu, Yanchun; Zhang, Ting; Xu, Yanying; Bao, Qifeng; Chen, Xue; Liu, Hongyang; Xu, Xuemei

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 58 is a high-risk type of HPV frequently detected in cervical cancers, especially in Eastern Asia. There are still no commercially available vaccines against HPV 58 infection. High levels of long-lasting neutralizing antibodies are crucial for long-term protection against HPV infection. Here, we have developed a two-step chromatography strategy and have purified highly pure HPV L1 proteins, which form more homogenous and uniform VLPs than those purified by CsCl ultracentrifugation. Low-dosage immunization with HPV 58 L1 VLPs alone or co-administrated with HPV 16 and HPV 18 L1 VLPs is sufficient to induce high levels of long-lasting neutralizing antibodies in mice. Our results suggest that the highly immunogenic HPV 58 L1 VLPs are a good candidate for use in developing effective vaccines against HPV 58 infection. PMID:22965579

  3. Psychological factors in recurrent genital herpes.

    PubMed Central

    Green, J; Kocsis, A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To review recent research into psychological aspects of genital herpes and assess possible implications for clinical practice. METHODS: Review of all papers in the field on Medline 1985-96. RESULTS: Much attention has been paid to possible links between stress and recurrent genital herpes. There is no convincing evidence that stress in itself causes recurrences. It may be that recurrences are preceded by a prodromal period of altered mood. Patients with recurrences show considerable stress as a result of the disease, although most individuals eventually adjust psychologically. The impact of social support on adjustment remains unclear. The little evidence available suggests that antiviral treatments can help adjustment and the effects may perhaps outlast the period of active treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Existing research gives some clues to optimal patient management but there is a need for future research to focus much more clearly on clinical issues, particularly on means of alleviating psychological distress and on the impact of antivirals. PMID:9389944

  4. A systematic investigation of the contribution of genetic variation within the MHC region to HPV seropositivity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dan; Gaborieau, Valérie; Zhao, Yao; Chabrier, Amélie; Wang, Huibo; Waterboer, Tim; Zaridze, David; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Bencko, Vladimir; Janout, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Mates, Ioan Nicolae; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Boffetta, Paolo; Pawlita, Michael; Lathrop, Mark; Gyllensten, Ulf; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James D

    2015-05-01

    High-risk mucosal types of human papillomavirus (HPV) cause anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers, whereas cutaneous types (e.g. HPV8 and 77) are suspected to be involved in non-melanoma skin cancer. The antibody response to HPVs is a key determinant of protective immunity, but not all infected individuals seroconvert. Genetic variability of the host may have large impact on seroconversion. A previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) has identified a susceptibility locus (rs41270488) for HPV8 seropositivity within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region. To further study this locus, we imputed alleles at classical leukocyte antigen (HLA) loci using HLA*IMP:02 with a reference panel from the HapMap Project and the 1958 Birth Cohort, and conducted an integrated analysis among 4811 central European subjects to assess the contribution of classical HLA alleles and gene copy number variation (CNV) at the hypervariable DRB locus within the MHC region to HPV seropositivity at both the individual HPV type level and the phylogenetic species level. Our study provides evidence that the association noted between rs41270488 and HPV8 seropositivity is driven by two independent variants, namely DQB1*0301 [odds ratio (OR) = 1.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.36-1.68, P = 1.0 × 10(-14)] and DRB1*1101 (OR = 1.89, 95%CI = 1.57-2.28, P = 1.5 × 10(-11)) within the HLA class II region. Additionally, we identified two correlated alleles DRB1*0701 (OR = 1.67, 95%CI = 1.41-1.98, P = 2.6 × 10(-9)) and DQA1*0201 (OR = 1.67, 95%CI = 1.38-1.93, P = 1.7 × 10(-8)), to be associated with HPV77 seropositivity. Comparable results were observed through imputation using SNP2HLA with another reference panel from the Type 1 diabetes Genetics Consortium. This study provides support for an important role of HLA class II alleles in antibody response to HPV infection. PMID:25616963

  5. Analysis of regulatory motifs within HPV transcripts.

    PubMed

    Cumming, Sarah A; Graham, Sheila V

    2005-01-01

    Papillomavirus late gene expression is highly dependent on host epithelial cell differentiation, such that capsid proteins are produced only in differentiating cells. Several papillomaviruses contain negative regulatory elements (NREs), that is, short regions of late transcripts that interact with host cellular RNA processing factors to prevent capsid protein synthesis in undifferentiated cells. In this chapter, the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 NRE will be used as an example to show how cis-acting RNA regulatory elements can be identified and mapped using transient transfection of reporter gene constructs. The use of reporter gene assays is also readily applicable to the identification and characterization of novel promoters and other regulatory sequenc