Science.gov

Sample records for genital tract localization

  1. Relationship between female genital tract infections, mucosal interleukin-17 production and local T helper type 17 cells.

    PubMed

    Masson, Lindi; Salkinder, Amy L; Olivier, Abraham Jacobus; McKinnon, Lyle R; Gamieldien, Hoyam; Mlisana, Koleka; Scriba, Thomas J; Lewis, David A; Little, Francesca; Jaspan, Heather B; Ronacher, Katharina; Denny, Lynette; Abdool Karim, Salim S; Passmore, Jo-Ann S

    2015-12-01

    T helper type 17 (Th17) cells play an important role in immunity to fungal and bacterial pathogens, although their role in the female genital tract, where exposure to these pathogens is common, is not well understood. We investigated the relationship between female genital tract infections, cervicovaginal interleukin-17 (IL-17) concentrations and Th17 cell frequencies. Forty-two cytokines were measured in cervicovaginal lavages from HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected women. Frequencies of Th17 cells (CD3(+)  CD4(+)  IL-17a(+) ) were evaluated in cervical cytobrushes and blood by flow cytometry. Women were screened for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis and herpes simplex virus 2 by PCR, and candidal infections and bacterial vaginosis by Gram stain. Women with bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs), specifically chlamydia and gonorrhoea, had higher genital IL-17 concentrations than women with no STI, whereas women with candidal pseudohyphae/spores had lower IL-17 concentrations compared with women without candidal infections. Viral STIs (herpes simplex virus 2 and HIV) were not associated with significant changes in genital IL-17 concentrations. Genital IL-17 concentrations correlated strongly with other inflammatory cytokines and growth factors. Although Th17 cells were depleted from blood during HIV infection, cervical Th17 cell frequencies were similar in HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected women. Cervical Th17 cell frequencies were also not associated with STIs or candida, although few women had a STI. These findings suggest that IL-17 production in the female genital tract is induced in response to bacterial but not viral STIs. Decreased IL-17 associated with candidal infections suggests that candida may actively suppress IL-17 production or women with dampened IL-17 responses may be more susceptible to candidal outgrowth. PMID:26302175

  2. Genital tract infections and infertility.

    PubMed

    Pellati, Donatella; Mylonakis, Ioannis; Bertoloni, Giulio; Fiore, Cristina; Andrisani, Alessandra; Ambrosini, Guido; Armanini, Decio

    2008-09-01

    Infectious agents can impair various important human functions, including reproduction. Bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites are able to interfere with the reproductive function in both sexes. Infections of male genito-urinary tract account for about 15% of the case of male infertility. Infections can affect different sites of the male reproductive tract, such as the testis, epididymis and male accessory sex glands. Spermatozoa themselves subsequently can be affected by urogenital infections at different levels of their development, maturation and transport. Among the most common microorganisms involved in sexually transmitted infections, interfering with male fertility, there are the Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Less frequently male infertility is due to non-sexually transmitted epididymo-orchitis, mostly caused by Escherichia coli. In female, the first two microorganisms are certainly involved in cervical, tubal, and peritoneal damage, while Herpes simplex cervicitis is less dangerous. The overall importance of cervical involvement is still under discussion. Tubo-peritoneal damage seems to be the foremost manner in which microorganisms interfere with human fertility. C. trachomatis is considered the most important cause of tubal lacerations and obstruction, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and adhesions. N. gonorrhoeae, even though its overall incidence seems to decline, is still to be considered in the same sense, while bacterial vaginosis should not be ignored, as causative agents can produce ascending infections of the female genital tract. The role of infections, particularly co-infections, as causes of the impairment of sperm quality, motility and function needs further investigation. Tropical diseases necessitate monitoring as for their diffusion or re-diffusion in the western world. PMID:18456385

  3. Embryological observations on the female genital tract.

    PubMed

    Acién, P

    1992-04-01

    The embryology of the genital tract and urinary system is described, and the hypothesis is advanced that the vagina is an organ embryologically derived from the mesonephric or Wolffian ducts in addition to the Müllerian tubercle. This is based on experimental studies and case reports in the literature and our own cases of genital malformations, especially in patients with unilateral renal agenesis and an ipsilateral blind vagina. The importance of the mesonephric ducts as guides or 'inductor' elements for adequate Müllerian development is emphasized. A new embryological classification of female genital malformations is proposed, based on these embryological concepts. PMID:1522183

  4. Mucosal Immunity in the Female Genital Tract, HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Reis Machado, Juliana; da Silva, Marcos Vinícius; Cavellani, Camila Lourencini; Antônia dos Reis, Marlene; Monteiro, Maria Luiza Gonçalves dos Reis; Teixeira, Vicente de Paula Antunes; Rosa Miranda Corrêa, Rosana

    2014-01-01

    Mucosal immunity consists of innate and adaptive immune responses which can be influenced by systemic immunity. Despite having been the subject of intensive studies, it is not fully elucidated what exactly occurs after HIV contact with the female genital tract mucosa. The sexual route is the main route of HIV transmission, with an increased risk of infection in women compared to men. Several characteristics of the female genital tract make it suitable for inoculation, establishment of infection, and systemic spread of the virus, which causes local changes that may favor the development of infections by other pathogens, often called sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The relationship of these STDs with HIV infection has been widely studied. Here we review the characteristics of mucosal immunity of the female genital tract, its alterations due to HIV/AIDS, and the characteristics of coinfections between HIV/AIDS and the most prevalent STDs. PMID:25313360

  5. Adhesion Molecules Associated with Female Genital Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin-Xi; Carrascosa, José Manuel; Cabré, Eduard; Dern, Olga; Sumoy, Lauro; Requena, Gerard; McSorley, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Efforts to develop vaccines that can elicit mucosal immune responses in the female genital tract against sexually transmitted infections have been hampered by an inability to measure immune responses in these tissues. The differential expression of adhesion molecules is known to confer site-dependent homing of circulating effector T cells to mucosal tissues. Specific homing molecules have been defined that can be measured in blood as surrogate markers of local immunity (e.g. α4β7 for gut). Here we analyzed the expression pattern of adhesion molecules by circulating effector T cells following mucosal infection of the female genital tract in mice and during a symptomatic episode of vaginosis in women. While CCR2, CCR5, CXCR6 and CD11c were preferentially expressed in a mouse model of Chlamydia infection, only CCR5 and CD11c were clearly expressed by effector T cells during bacterial vaginosis in women. Other homing molecules previously suggested as required for homing to the genital mucosa such as α4β1 and α4β7 were also differentially expressed in these patients. However, CD11c expression, an integrin chain rarely analyzed in the context of T cell immunity, was the most consistently elevated in all activated effector CD8+ T cell subsets analyzed. This molecule was also induced after systemic infection in mice, suggesting that CD11c is not exclusive of genital tract infection. Still, its increase in response to genital tract disorders may represent a novel surrogate marker of mucosal immunity in women, and warrants further exploration for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. PMID:27272720

  6. [Splenic metastases from female genital tract malignancies].

    PubMed

    Piura, Ettie; Piura, Benjamin

    2010-05-01

    Splenic metastases are rare. Usually, they are part of a disseminated disease and located on the splenic capsule. Common sources are breast cancer, lung cancer and malignant melanoma. SoLitary splenic metastases are rare, usuaLLy located in the splenic parenchyma and metastasizing via the hematogenous route. Splenic metastases from ovarian carcinoma are usuaLly part of a disseminated disease, located on the splenic capsule and metastasize via the peritoneum. Splenic metastases from endometriaL carcinoma are usuaLLy solitary, Located in the splenic parenchyma and metastasize via the hematogenous route. Splenic metastases from cervical carcinoma are divided equally between metastases as part of a disseminated disease and soLitary metastases. Less than 100 cases of solitary splenic metastases have been reported with half of them being metastases from female genital tract malignancies: 30--ovarian carcinoma; 11--endometriaL carcinoma; 8--cervical carcinoma; and 1--tubal carcinoma. Few cases have been reported of splenic rupture because of metastases from choriocarcinoma. Splenic metastases as part of a disseminated disease are associated with poor prognosis, and splenectomy--apart from cases in which it might assist in achieving optimaL debulking--is not effective. Solitary splenic metastases represent a more moderate disease and the treatment of choice is splenectomy. SoLitary splenic metastases may be detected after an interval from the diagnosis of the primary disease. Hence, patients who had been treated for female genital tract malignancy, even if they are asymptomatic, need a long-term follow-up, including serial imaging studies of the spleen. PMID:20929072

  7. The effect of tamoxifen on the genital tract

    PubMed Central

    Ascher, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) that is widely used in the treatment of patients with breast cancer and for chemoprophylaxis in high risk women. Tamoxifen results in a spectrum of abnormalities involving the genital tract, the most significant being an increased incidence of endometrial cancer and uterine sarcoma. This article reviews the effects of tamoxifen on the genital tract and the strengths and weaknesses of various imaging modalities for evaluating the endometrium. PMID:18603495

  8. Current Concepts for Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection: Diagnostics and Pathogenesis of Genital Tract Shedding.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Christine; Corey, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a DNA virus that is efficiently transmitted through intimate genital tract contact and causes persistent infection that cannot be eliminated. HSV-2 may cause frequent, symptomatic self-limited genital ulcers, but in most persons infection is subclinical. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the virus is frequently shed from genital surfaces even in the absence of signs or symptoms of clinical disease and that the virus can be transmitted during these periods of shedding. Furthermore, HSV-2 shedding is detected throughout the genital tract and may be associated with genital tract inflammation, which likely contributes to increased risk of HIV acquisition. This review focuses on HSV diagnostics, as well as what we have learned about the importance of frequent genital HSV shedding for (i) HSV transmission and (ii) genital tract inflammation, as well as (iii) the impact of HSV-2 infection on HIV acquisition and transmission. We conclude with discussion of future areas of research to push the field forward. PMID:26561565

  9. Interleukin 8 and the male genital tract.

    PubMed

    Lotti, Francesco; Maggi, Mario

    2013-11-01

    Interleukin 8 (IL-8) is a pro-inflammatory CXC chemokine involved in inflammatory reactions. IL-8 exerts its function in concert with other cytokines and chemokines causing chemoattraction of leukocytes to the inflammatory sites, recruitment and activation of neutrophils to phagocytosis and bacterial clearance. Furthermore, IL-8 is characterized by chemoattractant activity on basophils and T cells, and by a potent pro-angiogenic action. IL-8 is crucially involved in several inflammatory diseases. In particular, it has been suggested that IL8 might play a key role in male genital tract (MGT) infection/inflammation. In fact, IL-8 seems crucially involved in benign prostatic hyperplasia-related inflammation. In addition, among different cytokines and chemokines, seminal plasma IL-8 (sIL-8) appears to be the most reliable and predictive surrogate marker of prostatitis. Furthermore, evidence is emerging on sIL-8 involvement in inflammation not only of the prostate, but also of other organs of the MGT, in particular seminal vesicles and epididymis, but not the testis, and in male accessory gland infection (MAGI). Accordingly, an association between sIL-8 levels and color-Doppler ultrasound characteristics of the MGT suggestive of inflammation has been recently reported. sIL-8 is strongly related to leukocytospermia, and although the relationship between sIL-8 levels and sperm parameters has not been completely clarified, a tight inverse correlation with ejaculate volume has been demonstrated, suggesting an association with distal MGT sub-obstruction, corroborated by the correlation with ejaculatory duct and seminal vesicle abnormalities. Finally, recent studies have focused on the role of IL-8 in cancer biology, in particular in prostate cancer, thus increasing the interest in this pro-inflammatory chemokine. PMID:23611586

  10. Xenobiotic Transporter Expression along the Male Genital Tract1

    PubMed Central

    Klein, David M.; Wright, Stephen H.; Cherrington, Nathan J.

    2015-01-01

    The male genital tract plays an important role in protecting sperm by forming a distinct compartment separate from the body which limits exposure to potentially toxic substrates. Transporters along this tract can influence the distribution of xenobiotics into the male genital tract through efflux back into the blood or facilitating the accumulation of toxicants. The aim of this study was to quantitatively determine the constitutive mRNA expression of 30 xenobiotic transporters in caput and cauda regions of the epididymis, vas deferens, prostate, and seminal vesicles from adult Sprague-Dawley rats. The epididymis was found to express at least moderate levels of 18 transporters, vas deferens 15, seminal vesicles 23, and prostate 18. Constitutive expression of these xenobiotic transporters in the male genital tract may provide insight into the xenobiotics that can potentially be transported into these tissues and may provide the molecular mechanism for site specific toxicity of select agents. PMID:24814985

  11. The Chlamydia muridarum Organisms Fail to Auto-Inoculate the Mouse Genital Tract after Colonization in the Gastrointestinal Tract for 70 days

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Luying; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Tianyuan; Zhang, Yuyang; Zhu, Cuiming; Sun, Xin; Zhang, Nu; Xue, Min; Zhong, Guangming

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia muridarum is known to colonize in the gastrointestinal tract for long periods of time, which has been hypothesized to serve as a reservoir for spreading to the genital tract. To test this hypothesis, a luciferase-expressing C. muridarum was used to establish a long-lasting infection in the mouse gastrointestinal tract following either intragastric or intrarectal inoculations. In vivo imaging revealed significant bioluminescent signals mainly in the mouse abdominal area throughout the experiments. Ex vivo imaging localized the signals to the mouse gastrointestinal tract, which was confirmed by monitoring the C. muridarum organisms in the mouse organs/tissues. Despite the long-lasting colonization in the gastrointestinal tract and active shedding of infectious organisms in the rectal swabs, the organisms did not cause any significant infection or pathology in the genital tract throughout the experiments, which was reproduced in multiple strains of mice and with an increased inoculation dose to the gastrointestinal tract. The above observations have demonstrated that the long-lasting C. muridarum organisms from the gastrointestinal tract are inefficient in auto-inoculating the genital tract, suggesting that the gastrointestinal tract Chlamydia may utilize an indirect mechanism to affect its pathogenicity in the genital tract. PMID:27192556

  12. Transfer of IgG in the female genital tract by MHC class I-related neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) confers protective immunity to vaginal infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    IgG is a major immunoglobulin subclass in mucosal secretions of human female genital tract, where it predominates over the IgA isotype. Despite the abundance of IgG, surprisingly little is known about whether and how IgG enters the lumen of the genital tract and the exact role of local IgG may play ...

  13. Consequences of nongenomic actions of estradiol on pathogenic genital tract response

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Estradiol is a steroid hormone that regulates the structure and function of the female reproductive system. In addition to its genomic effects, which are mediated by activated nuclear receptors, estradiol elicits a variety of rapid signaling events independently of transcriptional or genomic regulation. These nongenomic actions influence the milieu of the genital tract, which changes the ability of pathogens to infect the genital tract. This review discusses our current knowledge regarding the mechanisms and relevance of nongenomic estradiol signaling in the genital tract that could change the ability of pathogens to invade epithelial cells. PubMed was searched through January 1980 for papers related to estradiol actions in the ovary, fallopian tube, uterus and cervix. The mechanisms conveying these rapid effects consist of a multitude of signaling molecules and include cross-talk with slower transcriptional actions. The nongenomic actions of estradiol that influence the infectious abilities of pathogens occur either directly on the genital tract cells or indirectly by modulating the local and systemic immune systems. Additional in-depth characterization of the response is required before the normal and pathological reproductive functions of the nongenomic estradiol pathway can be targeted for pharmacological intervention. PMID:23351368

  14. Female genital tract tumors in Peutz-Jeghers syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chen, K T

    1986-08-01

    Multiple genital tract tumors, including bilateral ovarian sex cord tumors with annular tubules, adenoma malignum of the cervix, and bilateral ovarian mucinous tumors, developed in a female patient with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. Although each of these tumor types has been reported to occur in this syndrome, the present case appears to be the first in which the syndrome was complicated by tumors of all three types. PMID:3733073

  15. [Hypercalcemia in malignancies of the female genital tract].

    PubMed

    Piura, Benjamin

    2008-03-01

    Hypercalcemia is the most common paraneoplastic syndrome in adult malignancies (10%-30%) and rare in pediatric cancers (0.5%-1.3%). Hypercalcemia in malignancies is categorized into two groups: 1) Humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM)-caused by substances that are produced by the tumor cells and secreted into the blood circulation such as parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTH-rP), parathyroid hormone-intact (PTH-i), the enzyme 1-alpha-hydroxylase that catalyzes the synthesis of the active form of vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3), and other substances; 2) Hypercalcemia due to bone destruction by metastases. Hypercalcemia occurs in less than 5% of female genital tract malignancies and virtually in all cases (95%) it is HHM. Female genital tract malignancy-associated HHM is caused most often (80%) by PTH-rP. Ovarian cancer is the most common female genital tract malignancy that is associated with HHM. Although HHM occurs in only 5% of ovarian cancers, it occurs in a relatively high percentage in the following rare ovarian tumors: a). Small cell carcinoma of the ovary - a rare tumor that accounts for only 1% of all ovarian cancers and is associated with HHM in 66% of the cases; b). Clear cell carcinoma of the ovary - an uncommon tumor that accounts for 5% of all ovarian cancers and is associated with HHM in 5%-10% of the cases. Since dysgerminoma is the most common malignant ovarian tumor in children, in girls it is the second most common ovarian neoplasm, after ovarian small cell carcinoma, to be associated with HHM. PMID:18488865

  16. Actinomyces in the female genital tract. A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Grice, G C; Hafiz, S

    1983-10-01

    Actinomyces spp were isolated by culture of endocervical specimens from two groups of women attending the department of genitourinary medicine of the Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield. The first group consisted of 78 users of intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCD) of whom 20 (25.6%) were culture positive. The second group contained 63 women using various forms of contraception 12 (19%) of whom were culture positive. None of these 12 women had an IUCD or foreign body in situ. The results suggest that Actinomyces spp may be part of the commensal flora of the genital tract in some women. PMID:6616167

  17. Interrelationships Within the Bacterial Flora of the Female Genital Tract

    PubMed Central

    Lapoint, Paul G.; Monif, Gilles R. G.

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of 240 consecutive vaginal swabs using the compatibility profile technique revealed that only 2 bacteria have the ability to be a sole isolate and as such a candidate to be a major aerobic regulator of the bacterial flora of the female genital tract (BFFGT). Compatibility profiles of Lactobacillus and Gardnerella vaginalis have shown that these organisms shared compatibility profiling for the majority of the normal bacterial constituents of the female genital tract. Dominance disruption appears to come from the addition of compatible co-isolates and presumed loss of numerical superiority. These phenomena appear to be the keys to reregulation of BFFGT. Lactobacillus appears to be the major regulator of both G. vaginalis and anaerobic bacteria. When additional organisms are added to the bacterial flora, they may add to or partially negate the inhibitory influence of Lactobacillus on the BFFGT. Inhibitor interrelationships appear to exist between coagulase-negative staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus and the group B streptococci (GBS) and other beta hemolytic streptococci. Facilitating interrelationships appear to exist between S. aureus and the GBS and selected Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:18476156

  18. Oncogenic mutations in melanomas and benign melanocytic nevi of the female genital tract

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Diane; Kim, Julie; Warrick, Andrea; Nelson, Dylan; Pukay, Marina; Beadling, Carol; Heinrich, Michael; Selim, Maria Angelica; Corless, Christopher L.; Nelson, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Background The genetic heterogeneity of melanomas and melanocytic nevi of the female genital tract is poorly understood. Objective We aim to characterize the frequency of mutations of the following genes: BRAF, NRAS, KIT, GNA11, and GNAQ in female genital tract melanomas. We also characterize the frequency of BRAF mutations in female genital tract melanomas compared with melanocytic nevi. Methods Mutational screening was performed on the following female genital tract melanocytic neoplasms: 25 melanomas, 7 benign melanocytic nevi, and 4 atypical melanocytic nevi. Results Of the 25 female genital tract melanoma specimens queried, KIT mutations were detected in 4 (16.0%), NRAS mutations in 4 (16.0%), and BRAF mutations in 2 (8.0%) samples. Two of the tumors with KIT mutations harbored double mutations in the same exon. No GNAQ or GNA11 mutations were identified among 11 melanomas screened. BRAF V600E mutations were detected in 7 of 7 benign melanocytic genital nevi (100%) and 3 of 4 atypical genital nevi (75%). Limitations Our study is limited by the small sample size of this rare subset of melanomas. Conclusion KIT, NRAS, and BRAF mutations are found in a subset of female genital tract melanomas. Screening for oncogenic mutations is important for developing and applying clinical therapies for melanomas of the female genital tract. PMID:24842760

  19. [FEATURES MICROECOLOGY GENITAL TRACT IN WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE WITH BENIGN CERVICAL PATHOLOGY].

    PubMed

    Koblosh, N D

    2015-01-01

    In the article we may see the results of microbiological investigation of secretion from genital tracts in women with the benign pathology of uterus cervix. The outcomes specify the disorders of microecology of genital tracts in these women following the proliferation of conditionally pathogenic flora, the increase of viral infection and the increase in the frequency of diagnostic of sexually transmitted infections. PMID:27491159

  20. Immunobiology of genital tract trauma: Endocrine Regulation of HIV Acquisition in Women Following Sexual Assault or Genital Tract Mutilation

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Mimi; Rodriguez-Garcia, Marta; Wira, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    Studies on HIV acquisition and transmission in women exposed to sexual trauma throughout their life cycle are lacking but some findings suggest that rates of HIV acquisition through coercive sex are significantly higher than that seen in consensual sex. Sexual trauma can also occur as a result of female genital mutilation, which makes sex extremely painful and can cause increased abrasions, lacerations and inflammation, which enhances the risk of HIV acquisition. This review presents an overview of the immune system in the human female reproductive tract from adolescence, through puberty to pregnancy and menopause. What is clear is that the foundation of information on immune protection in the female reproductive tract throughout the life cycle of women is extremely limited and at some stages such as adolescence and menopause are grossly lacking. Against this back backdrop, forced or coercive sexual intercourse as well as genital mutilation further complicates our understanding of the biological risk factors that can result in transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. PMID:23034063

  1. Repertoire of Chemokine Receptor Expression in the Female Genital Tract

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Bruce K.; Landay, Alan; Andersson, Jan; Brown, Clark; Behbahani, Homira; Jiyamapa, Dan; Burki, Zareefa; Stanislawski, Donna; Czerniewski, Mary Ann; Garcia, Patricia

    1998-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases, genital ulcer disease, and progesterone therapy increase susceptibility to lentivirus transmission. Infection of cells by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is dependent on expression of specific chemokine receptors known to function as HIV co-receptors. Quantitative kinetic reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was developed to determine the in vivo expression levels of CCR5, CXCR4, CCR3, CCR2b, and the cytomegalovirus-encoded US28 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and cervical biopsies from 12 women with and without sexually transmitted diseases, genital ulcer disease, and progesterone-predominant conditions. Our data indicate that CCR5 is the major HIV co-receptor expressed in the female genital tract, and CXCR4 is the predominantly expressed HIV co-receptor in peripheral blood. CCR5 mRNA expression in the ectocervix was 10-fold greater than CXCR4, 20-fold greater than CCR2b, and 100-fold greater than CCR3. In peripheral blood, CXCR4 expression was 1.5-fold greater than CCR5, 10-fold greater than CCR2b, and 15-fold greater than CCR3. US28 was not expressed in cervical tissue despite expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from five individuals. CCR5 was significantly increased (p < 0.02) in biopsies from women with sexually transmitted diseases and others who were progesterone predominant. In vitro studies demonstrate that progesterone increases CCR5, CXCR4, and CCR3 expression and decreases CCR2b expression in lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Characterization of chemokine receptors at the tissue level provides important information in identifying host determinants of HIV-1 transmission. PMID:9708808

  2. Genital tract infections among HIV-infected pregnant women in Malawi, Tanzania and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Aboud, S; Msamanga, G; Read, J S; Mwatha, A; Chen, Y Q; Potter, D; Valentine, M; Sharma, U; Hoffmann, I; Taha, T E; Goldenberg, R L; Fawzi, W W

    2009-01-01

    Summary The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence and factors associated with genital tract infections among HIV-infected pregnant women from African sites. Participants were recruited from Blantyre and Lilongwe, Malawi; Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; and Lusaka, Zambia. Genital tract infections were assessed at baseline. Of 2627 eligible women enrolled, 2292 were HIV-infected. Of these, 47.8% had bacterial vaginosis (BV), 22.4% had vaginal candidiasis, 18.8% had trichomoniasis, 8.5% had genital warts, 2.6% had chlamydia infection, 2.2% had genital ulcers and 1.7% had gonorrhoea. The main factors associated with genital tract infections included genital warts (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.8, 95% CI 1.2–2.7), genital ulcers (AOR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2–5.1) and abnormal vaginal discharge (AOR 2.5, 95% CI 1.9–3.3) for trichomoniasis. BV was the most common genital tract infection followed by candidiasis and trichomoniasis. Differences in burdens and risk factors call for enhanced interventions for identification of genital tract infections among HIV-infected women. PMID:19050213

  3. Genital Tract HIV RNA Levels and Their Associations with Human Papillomavirus Infection and Risk of Cervical Pre-Cancer

    PubMed Central

    GHARTEY, Jeny; KOVACS, Andrea; BURK, Robert D.; MASSAD, L. Stewart; MINKOFF, Howard; XIE, Xianhong; D’SOUZA, Gypsyamber; XUE, Xiaonan; WATTS, D. Heather; LEVINE, Alexandra M.; EINSTEIN, Mark H.; COLIE, Christine; ANASTOS, Kathryn; ELTOUM, Isam-Eldin; HEROLD, Betsy C.; PALEFSKY, Joel M.; STRICKLER, Howard D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Plasma HIV RNA levels have been associated with risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical neoplasia in HIV-seropositive women. However, little is known regarding local genital tract HIV RNA levels and their relation with cervical HPV and neoplasia. Design/Methods In an HIV-seropositive women’s cohort with semi-annual follow-up, we conducted a nested case-control study of genital tract HIV RNA levels and their relation with incident high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions sub-classified as severe (severe HSIL), as provided for under the Bethesda 2001 classification system. Specifically, 66 incident severe HSIL were matched to 130 controls by age, CD4+ count, HAART use, and other factors. We also studied HPV prevalence, incident detection, and persistence in a random sample of 250 subjects. Results Risk of severe HSIL was associated with genital tract HIV RNA levels (odds ratio comparing HIV RNA ≥ the median among women with detectable levels versus undetectable [ORVL] 2.96; 95% CI: 0.99–8.84; Ptrend=0.03). However, this association became non-significant (Ptrend=0.51) following adjustment for plasma HIV RNA levels. There was also no association between genital tract HIV RNA levels and the prevalence of any HPV or oncogenic HPV. However, the incident detection of any HPV (Ptrend=0.02) and persistence of oncogenic HPV (Ptrend=0.04) were associated with genital tract HIV RNA levels, after controlling plasma HIV RNA levels. Conclusion These prospective data suggest that genital tract HIV RNA levels are not a significant independent risk factor for cervical pre-cancer in HIV-seropositive women, but leave open the possibility that they may modestly influence HPV infection, an early stage of cervical tumoriogenesis. PMID:24694931

  4. Cervicovaginal bacteria are a major modulator of host inflammatory responses in the female genital tract

    PubMed Central

    Anahtar, Melis N.; Byrne, Elizabeth H.; Doherty, Kathleen E.; Bowman, Brittany A.; Yamamoto, Hidemi S.; Soumillon, Magali; Padavattan, Nikita; Ismail, Nasreen; Moodley, Amber; Sabatini, Mary E.; Ghebremichael, Musie S.; Nusbaum, Chad; Huttenhower, Curtis; Virgin, Herbert W.; Ndung’u, Thumbi; Dong, Krista L.; Walker, Bruce D.; Fichorova, Raina N.; Kwon, Douglas S.

    2015-01-01

    Colonization by Lactobacillus in the female genital tract is thought to be critical for maintaining genital health. However, little is known about how genital microbiota influence host immune function and modulate disease susceptibility. We studied a cohort of asymptomatic young South African women and found that the majority of participants had genital communities with low Lactobacillus abundance and high ecological diversity. High diversity communities strongly correlated with genital pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations in both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Transcriptional profiling suggested that genital antigen presenting cells sense gram-negative bacterial products in situ via Toll-like receptor 4 signaling, contributing to genital inflammation through activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway and recruitment of lymphocytes by chemokine production. Our study proposes a mechanism by which cervicovaginal microbiota impact genital inflammation and thereby may affect a woman's reproductive health, including her risk of acquiring HIV. PMID:25992865

  5. Immunobiology of genital tract trauma: endocrine regulation of HIV acquisition in women following sexual assault or genital tract mutilation.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Mimi; Rodriguez-Garcia, Marta; Wira, Charles R

    2013-02-01

    Studies on HIV acquisition and transmission in women exposed to sexual trauma throughout their life cycle are lacking, but some findings suggest that rates of HIV acquisition through coercive sex are significantly higher than that seen in consensual sex. Sexual trauma can also occur as a result of female genital mutilation, which makes sex extremely painful and can cause increased abrasions, lacerations, and inflammation, which enhances the risk of HIV acquisition. This review presents an overview of the immune system in the human female reproductive tract (FRT) from adolescence, through puberty to pregnancy and menopause. What is clear is that the foundation of information on immune protection in the FRT throughout the life cycle of women is extremely limited and at some stages such as adolescence and menopause are grossly lacking. Against this backdrop, forced or coercive sexual intercourse as well as genital mutilation further complicates our understanding of the biological risk factors that can result in transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. PMID:23034063

  6. Pathogenesis of Genital Tract Disease due to Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Darville, Toni; Hiltke, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Although the pathologic consequences of C. trachomatis genital infection are well-established, the mechanism(s) that result in chlamydia-induced tissue damage are not fully understood. We have reviewed in vitro, animal, and human data related to the pathogenesis of chlamydial disease in an effort to better understand how reproductive sequelae result from C. trachomatis infection. Abundant in vitro data suggest the inflammatory response to chlamydiae is initiated and sustained by actively infected non-immune host epithelial cells. The mouse model indicates a critical role for chlamydia-activation of the innate immune receptor, toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), and subsequent inflammatory cell influx and activation which contributes to the development of chronic genital tract tissue damage. Data from recent vaccine studies in the murine model and from human immunoepidemiologic studies support a role for chlamydia-specific CD4 Th1-IFN-γ-producing cells in protection from infection and disease. However, limited evidence obtained using animal models of repeated infection indicates that while the adaptive T cell response is a key mechanism involved in controlling or eliminating infection, it may have a double-edged nature, and contribute to tissue damage. Important immunologic questions include whether anamnestic CD4 T cell responses drive disease rather than protect against disease, and the role of specific immune cells and inflammatory mediators in the induction of tissue damage with primary and repeated infections. Continued study of the complex molecular and cellular interactions between chlamydiae and their host, and large-scale prospective immunoepidemiologic and immunopathologic studies are needed to address gaps in our understanding of pathogenesis, which thwart development of optimally effective control programs including vaccine development. PMID:20524234

  7. Interleukin-17A Contributes to the Control of Streptococcus pyogenes Colonization and Inflammation of the Female Genital Tract

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Alison J.; Weinberg, Jason B.; Dawid, Suzanne R.; Venturini, Carola; Lam, Alfred K.; Nizet, Victor; Caparon, Michael G.; Walker, Mark J.; Watson, Michael E.; Ulett, Glen C.

    2016-01-01

    Postpartum women are at increased risk of developing puerperal sepsis caused by group A Streptococcus (GAS). Specific GAS serotypes, including M1 and M28, are more commonly associated with puerperal sepsis. However, the mechanisms of GAS genital tract infection are not well understood. We utilized a murine genital tract carriage model to demonstrate that M1 and M28 GAS colonization triggers TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-17A production in the female genital tract. GAS-induced IL-17A significantly influences streptococcal carriage and alters local inflammatory responses in two genetically distinct inbred strains of mice. An absence of IL-17A or the IL-1 receptor was associated with reduced neutrophil recruitment to the site of infection; and clearance of GAS was significantly attenuated in IL-17A−/− mice and Rag1−/− mice (that lack mature lymphocytes) but not in mice deficient for the IL-1 receptor. Together, these findings support a role for IL-17A in contributing to the control of streptococcal mucosal colonization and provide new insight into the inflammatory mediators regulating host-pathogen interactions in the female genital tract. PMID:27241677

  8. Human Immunodeficiency Viruses Appear Compartmentalized to the Female Genital Tract in Cross-Sectional Analyses but Genital Lineages Do Not Persist Over Time

    PubMed Central

    Bull, Marta E.; Heath, Laura M.; McKernan-Mullin, Jennifer L.; Kraft, Kelli M.; Acevedo, Luis; Hitti, Jane E.; Cohn, Susan E.; Tapia, Kenneth A.; Holte, Sarah E.; Dragavon, Joan A.; Coombs, Robert W.; Mullins, James I.; Frenkel, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Whether unique human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV) genotypes occur in the genital tract is important for vaccine development and management of drug resistant viruses. Multiple cross-sectional studies suggest HIV is compartmentalized within the female genital tract. We hypothesize that bursts of HIV replication and/or proliferation of infected cells captured in cross-sectional analyses drive compartmentalization but over time genital-specific viral lineages do not form; rather viruses mix between genital tract and blood. Methods. Eight women with ongoing HIV replication were studied during a period of 1.5 to 4.5 years. Multiple viral sequences were derived by single-genome amplification of the HIV C2-V5 region of env from genital secretions and blood plasma. Maximum likelihood phylogenies were evaluated for compartmentalization using 4 statistical tests. Results. In cross-sectional analyses compartmentalization of genital from blood viruses was detected in three of eight women by all tests; this was associated with tissue specific clades containing multiple monotypic sequences. In longitudinal analysis, the tissues-specific clades did not persist to form viral lineages. Rather, across women, HIV lineages were comprised of both genital tract and blood sequences. Conclusions. The observation of genital-specific HIV clades only in cross-sectional analysis and an absence of genital-specific lineages in longitudinal analyses suggest a dynamic interchange of HIV variants between the female genital tract and blood. PMID:23315326

  9. Intravaginal infection with herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) generates a functional effector memory T cell population that persists in the murine genital tract.

    PubMed

    Tang, Vera A; Rosenthal, Kenneth L

    2010-12-01

    Although the female genital tract is the main portal of entry for sexually transmitted infections in women, we still have limited understanding of the generation, maintenance and characteristics of memory T cells in the local tissue. Here, we utilized a mouse model of intravaginal HSV-2 infection and tetramers against the immunodominant HSV glycoprotein B epitope recognized by CD8+ T cells to examine the generation, maintenance and characteristics of anti-HSV memory T cells in the genital tract following acute infection. Our results show that the highest percentage of HSVgB-specific CD8+ T cells was found in the genital tract compared to the spleen or iliac lymphnode. Indeed, although the actual number of CD8+ T cells contracted following viral clearance, approximately one quarter of the CD8+ population that remained in the genital tissue was HSVgB-specific. Memory gB-tetramer+CD8 T cells in the genital tract were positive for CD127 and KLRG1 and negative for CD62L and CCR7, thus confirming that HSV-specific CD8 cells were effector memory T cells that lack the capacity for homing to lymphoid tissues. Functionally, both memory CD8+ and CD4+ HSV-specific populations in the genital tract produced IFNγ when stimulated in vitro and CD4+ cells also produced TNFα. Genital HSVgB-specific memory T cells expressed tissue-homing integrins CD103 (αE integrin) and CD49a (VLA-1 or α1 integrin). Our findings suggest that HSV-specific memory T cells are retained in the genital tract, poised to act as an early line of defense against future virus encounter. PMID:20688399

  10. Role of Mycoplasma and ureaplasma species in female lower genital tract infections.

    PubMed

    Patel, Meghan Arvind; Nyirjesy, Paul

    2010-11-01

    Genital mycoplasmas are commonly found in the female genital tract. Despite ongoing debate, the evidence that they cause lower genital tract disease in women remains sparse. The data that Mycoplasma genitalium is primarily transmitted sexually are accumulating, but its role as a cause of symptomatic urethritis or cervicitis is open to debate. Although Mycoplasma hominis may be a co-factor in bacterial vaginosis, it has otherwise not been implicated as a cause of lower tract disease. Now that Ureaplasma urealyticum has been divided into U. urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum, their role in causing urethritis and cervicitis remains even more unclear. To date, no convincing evidence exists that antimicrobial therapy should be directed solely at these organisms when treating women with urethritis, bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, or cervicitis. PMID:21308549

  11. Patients with primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of female genital tract have high risk of central nervous system relapse.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xin-xin; Li, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Duan, Ming-hui; Shen, Ti; Zhou, Dao-bin

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate retrospectively the clinical characteristics, treatments, and outcomes of patients with primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the female genital tract. The basic characteristics, treatments, and outcomes of six patients diagnosed with primary DLBCL of the female genital tract, including the ovary, uterine cervix, and vagina, treated in our hospital between 2000 and 2012, were analyzed retrospectively. Seven of 323 (2.2 %) newly diagnosed DLBCLs were diagnosed as primary female genital tract DLBCL. Six patients with complete medical data were included in the analysis. The median age at diagnosis was 52.5 years (range 20-65). The presenting symptoms included abnormal vaginal bleeding, increased vaginal discharge, abdominal fullness, and abdominal pain. Two patients had stage IE disease and four patients had stage IIE disease. Treatment included chemotherapy only in five patients, and combined chemotherapy and localized radiation in one patient. After a median follow-up of 58 months, four patients showed relapse in the central nervous system and two had died from progressive disease. The median progression-free survival was 27 months and the median overall survival for this group has not been reached. Patients with primary female genital tract DLBCL may have poor outcomes and a high risk of central nervous system relapse. Central nervous system prophylaxis might be considered in addition to systemic chemotherapy for DLBCL of the female genital tract. PMID:24408160

  12. Immunologic, Virologic, and Pharmacologic Characterization of the Female Upper Genital Tract in HIV-infected women

    PubMed Central

    Rahangdale, Lisa; De Paris, Kristina; Kashuba, Angela DM; Nelson, Julie AE; Cottrell, Mackenzie; Sykes, Craig; Emerson, Cindi; Young, Steven L; Stevens, Trenton; Patterson, Kristine B; Cohen, Myron S.

    2014-01-01

    A comparative analysis of cellular and soluble markers of immune activation in HIV-infected women on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) showed that the upper (UGT) compared to the lower female genital (LGT) tract was characterized by higher frequencies of potential HIV target cells and increased inflammatory molecules. Despite the activated UGT milieu, HIV RNA could not be detected in paired samples of plasma, cervicovaginal (CVL) or endometrial lavage (EML). As ARV concentrations were ≥3 fold higher in the endometrium than the in the lower genital tract, high ARV penetration and/or metabolism may limit viral replication in the UGT. PMID:25501615

  13. Molecular characterisation of Mycoplasma species isolated from the genital tract of Dorper sheep in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kalshingi, Habu A; Bosman, Anna-Mari; Gouws, Johan; van Vuuren, Moritz

    2015-01-01

    Biochemical and molecular analysis were conducted on 34 strains of Mycoplasma species isolated between 2003 and 2009 from the genital tract of clinically healthy Dorper sheep and sheep with ulcerative vulvitis and balanitis. Earlier publications identified the causative agent as Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides large colony (MmmLC) and Arcanobacterium pyogenes. The aims of the study were to characterise Mycoplasma species isolated from the genital tract of Dorper sheep with polymerase chain reaction assay, cloning and gene sequencing. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) results revealed six predominant Mycoplasma species: Mycoplasma arginini, Mycoplasma bovigenitalium, Arcanobacterium laidlawii, MmmLC, Mycoplasma sp. ovine/caprine serogroup II and M. canadense. Sequencing of the 34 isolates were analysed using phylogenetic methods, and 18 (50%) were identified as M. arginini with 99% - 100% similarity to M. arginini from England and Sweden. Six isolates showed 99% similarity to M. bovigenitalium strains from Turkey and Germany. Two isolates had 99% similarity to an M. sp. ovine/caprine sero group II from the United Kingdom. BLAST for two isolates revealed 99% similarity to Acholeplasma laidlawii from India, another two were 99% similar to MmmLC strain from Sweden, two showed 98% similarity to Mycoplasma sp. Usp 120 from Brazil, and two isolates have a 97% - 99% similarity to M. mm. Jcv1 strain from the United States of America. Finally, one isolate showed similarity of 99% to Mycoplasma canadense strain from Italy. The findings support the hypothesis that ulcerative vulvitis and balanitis of Dorper sheep in South Africa (SA) is a multifactorial disease with involvement of different Mycoplasma species. PMID:26244581

  14. Steroid receptors in canine and human female genital tract tumours with smooth muscle differentiation.

    PubMed

    Millán, Y; Gordon, A; de los Monteros, A Espinosa; Reymundo, C; de las Mulas, J Martín

    2007-01-01

    The expression of oestrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) and progesterone receptor (PR) was examined in 32 canine genital tract tumours diagnosed as smooth muscle tumours (benign or malignant, pure or mixed). The immunohistochemical expression of calponin was used to assess the smooth muscle differentiation of the tumours. Nineteen human uterine leiomyomas were also examined. Calponin expression was detected in 89.3% of canine and 100% of human genital tract tumours diagnosed as leiomyomas, as well as in the majority of other tumours examined (canine or human, genital or extragenital, benign or malignant) with the exception of canine negative control tumours (cutaneous fibroma and hepatoid gland adenoma). ERalpha was found in 56.3% of canine and 52.6% of human leiomyomas, while PR was found in 84.4% of canine and 94.7% of human tumours. These results indicate that calponin is a good marker for differentiating neoplasia of the canine genital system of uncertain origin, as in human patients. They also show that canine tumours with smooth muscle differentiation of the genital tract of the bitch express steroid hormone receptors, a finding that opens up the possibility of hormone therapy. PMID:17362977

  15. Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Tract Infections: When Host Immune Response and the Microbiome Collide.

    PubMed

    Ziklo, Noa; Huston, Wilhelmina M; Hocking, Jane S; Timms, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Genital infections with Chlamydia trachomatis continue to be a major health problem worldwide. While some individuals clear their infection (presumed to be the result of an effective Th1/interferon-γ response), others develop chronic infections and some are prone to repeat infections. In females in particular, chronic asymptomatic infections are common and can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility. Recent studies suggest that the genital tract microbiota could be a significant factor and explain person-to-person variation in C. trachomatis infections. One hypothesis suggests that C. trachomatis can use its trpBA genes to rescue tryptophan from indole, which is a product of anaerobic members of the genital tract microbiota. Women with particular microbiota types, such as seen in bacterial vaginosis, have increased numbers of anaerobes, and this would enable the chlamydia in these individuals to overcome the host's interferon-γ attempts to eliminate it, resulting in more repeat and/or chronic infections. PMID:27320172

  16. In Vivo and Ex Vivo Imaging Reveals a Long-Lasting Chlamydial Infection in the Mouse Gastrointestinal Tract following Genital Tract Inoculation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qi; Huang, Yumeng; Gong, Siqi; Yang, Zhangsheng; Sun, Xin; Schenken, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Intravaginal infection with Chlamydia muridarum in mice can ascend to the upper genital tract, resulting in hydrosalpinx, a pathological hallmark for tubal infertility in women infected with C. trachomatis. Here, we utilized in vivo imaging of C. muridarum infection in mice following an intravaginal inoculation and confirmed the rapid ascent of the chlamydial organisms from the lower to upper genital tracts. Unexpectedly, the C. muridarum-derived signal was still detectable in the abdominal area 100 days after inoculation. Ex vivo imaging of the mouse organs revealed that the long-lasting presence of the chlamydial signal was restricted to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which was validated by directly measuring the chlamydial live organisms and genomes in the same organs. The C. muridarum organisms spreading from the genital to the GI tracts were detected in different mouse strains and appeared to be independent of oral or rectal routes. Mice prevented from orally taking up excretions also developed the long-lasting GI tract infection. Inoculation of C. muridarum directly into the upper genital tract, which resulted in a delayed vaginal shedding of live organisms, accelerated the chlamydial spreading to the GI tract. Thus, we have demonstrated that the genital tract chlamydial organisms may use a systemic route to spread to and establish a long-lasting infection in the GI tract. The significance of the chlamydial spreading from the genital to GI tracts is discussed. PMID:26099591

  17. The normal microflora of the female rabbit's genital tract.

    PubMed Central

    Jacques, M; Olson, M E; Crichlow, A M; Osborne, A D; Costerton, J W

    1986-01-01

    Microorganisms associated with the vagina, cervix and uterus of rabbits were isolated and identified. The predominant microorganisms isolated from the vaginas and cervices were coagulase-negative staphylococci, micrococci, and nonfermentative bacilli. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were isolated frequently, but in small numbers, from the uteri. The pH of the rabbit vagina was found to be near neutrality. Our data indicate that the genital flora of female rabbits is relatively simple, regarding the number and type of microorganisms. PMID:3756680

  18. Sperm migration in the human female genital tract with and without intrauterine devices.

    PubMed

    Koch, J U

    1980-03-01

    The process of sperm transport is followed from ejaculate, through deposition in the vagina, into the oviducts where fertilization occurs. The cyclic influence of the sex hormones, governed by the female menstrual cycle, causes characteristic changes in the entire genital tract, resulting in different secretions, some of which are more favorable to the survival of sperm in their transport through the female genital tract. The level of acidity in the vagina can be influenced by sexual behavior and by secretions of the upper genital tract. A sufficient glucose content in the cervical mucus is essential for sperm survival. A literature review presents what has been learned regarding sperm transport from various recent studies. Transport at different times is seen to be both active and passive. Infertility studies have contributed to current knowledge regarding sperm transport and capacitation. The IUD seems to effect biochemical, biophysical, cytological, and histological changes in the epithelia and their fluids. In fact, the different types of IUDs exert differing antifertility effects. Inert IUDs seem to create disturbances in the endometrium, preventing implantation. Copper-bearing and medicated IUDs exert influences in addition to the foreign-body reaction. In fact, some of these IUDs cause changes in the entire genital tract. PMID:7004046

  19. Short Communication: Expression of Transporters and Metabolizing Enzymes in the Female Lower Genital Tract: Implications for Microbicide Research

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Tian; Hu, Minlu; Cost, Marilyn; Poloyac, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Topical vaginal microbicides have been considered a promising option for preventing the male-to-female sexual transmission of HIV; however, clinical trials to date have not clearly demonstrated robust and reproducible effectiveness results. While multiple approaches may help enhance product effectiveness observed in clinical trials, increasing the drug exposure in lower genital tract tissues is a compelling option, given the difficulty in achieving sufficient drug exposure and positive correlation between tissue exposure and microbicide efficacy. Since many microbicide drug candidates are substrates of transporters and/or metabolizing enzymes, there is emerging interest in improving microbicide exposure and efficacy through local modulation of transporters and enzymes in the female lower genital tract. However, no systematic information on transporter/enzyme expression is available for ectocervical and vaginal tissues of premenopausal women, the genital sites most relevant to microbicide drug delivery. The current study utilized reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to examine the mRNA expression profile of 22 transporters and 19 metabolizing enzymes in premenopausal normal human ectocervix and vagina. Efflux and uptake transporters important for antiretroviral drugs, such as P-gp, BCRP, OCT2, and ENT1, were found to be moderately or highly expressed in the lower genital tract as compared to liver. Among the metabolizing enzymes examined, most CYP isoforms were not detected while a number of UGTs such as UGT1A1 were highly expressed. Moderate to high expression of select transporters and enzymes was also observed in mouse cervix and vagina. The implications of this information on microbicide research is also discussed, including microbicide pharmacokinetics, the utilization of the mouse model in microbicide screening, as well as the in vivo functional studies of cervicovaginal transporters and enzymes. PMID:23607746

  20. Changes in genital tract immune cell populations after initiation of intrauterine contraception

    PubMed Central

    ACHILLES, Sharon L.; CREININ, Mitchell D.; STONER, Kevin A.; CHEN, Beatrice A.; MEYN, Leslie; HILLIER, Sharon L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The primary target cells for HIV infection in the genital tract are CD4 T-cells expressing CCR5 on the surface. Alterations in genital tract T-cells expressing CCR5 could impact human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition risk. We hypothesized that when compared to baseline, use of a hormonal intrauterine device (IUD) would alter HIV target cells (primarily CCR5+ CD4 cells) in the female genital tract more than a non-hormonal IUD. Study Design Thirty-four healthy, HIV negative women age 18-40 seeking an IUD for contraception were randomized to receive a levonorgestrel IUD or a copper T380A IUD. A parallel group of 8 control women not needing contraception was also enrolled. Genital tract mucosal immune cell populations collected by cervical cytobrush and endometrial biopsy before and two months after IUD placement were analyzed by flow cytometry. Mean differences in cell number and percent expressing receptors from baseline to follow-up were evaluated using paired Student’s t-tests. Results Neither IUD altered the number of T-cells within the upper and lower genital tracts. Levonorgestrel IUD users had a decrease in T-cells expressing the HIV co-receptor CCR5 in the endometrium and cervix after two months of use compared with baseline. There was a decrease in activated endometrial T-cells in levonorgestrel IUD users and a decrease in activated cervical T-cells in copper IUD users after two months of IUD use compared with baseline. Conclusions Women using IUDs have reduced expression of the CCR5 HIV co-receptor on T-cells in the endometrium and cervix compared to expression prior to IUD placement. These findings suggest that susceptibility to HIV infection would not be increased by IUD use. PMID:24834865

  1. The problem of vaginismus with congenital malformation of the genital tract.

    PubMed

    Jarząbek-Bielecka, Grażyna; Pisarska-Krawczyk, Magdalena; Kędzia, Witold; Mizgier, Małgorzata; Friebe, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    The persistent or recurrent difficulties of the woman to allow vaginal entry of a penis, a finger, and/or any object, despite the woman's expressed wish to do so" is vaginismus. Early traumatic sexual experiences (e.g. sexual abuse), religious orthodoxy, low self-esteem and body image, negative attitudes about sexuality, lack of knowledge about sex and fear responses are some of the traditional etiological correlates of vaginismus. Vaginismus is largely a diagnosis of exclusion. An interview is crucial in differentiating the causes of this disease and it should involve the following key questions: -whether the contraction of the vaginal muscles was recorded from the first sexual contact and still remains a need for sexual satisfaction is achieved without relations vaginal or -symptom occurs for some time and what circumstances it bound or -contraction of the muscles is independent of the will, reflex and is at the very idea of sexual intercourse, and -that the contraction of the vaginal muscles occurs when you try to enter the member into the vagina which is very painful. The physical, gynecological and sexuological examinations exclude local causes of the disease. The mainstay of treatment in the majority of cases is psychosexual support. The cause of organic vaginismus is congenital malformation of the genital tract. It results from abnormal development of genital paramesonephric (Müllerian) ducts and the urogenital sinus, which are structures involved in the process of oviduct, uterus, and vagina organogenesis. This has strong implications in the practices of gynecology and sexuology in general, not only in adolescent gynecology and sexuology. Vaginismus with congenital malformation is an important problem in these fields. PMID:27333925

  2. Male genital tract compartmentalization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV).

    PubMed

    Diem, Kurt; Nickle, David C; Motoshige, Alexis; Fox, Alan; Ross, Susan; Mullins, James I; Corey, Lawrence; Coombs, Robert W; Krieger, John N

    2008-04-01

    We present phylogenetic evidence supporting viral compartmentalization between the blood (peripheral blood mononuclear cells or plasma) and multiple genitourinary sites in HIV-infected men. Four of the five subjects evaluated demonstrated compartmentalization of viral sequences between urogenital tract specimens (tissue or fluid) and at least one blood category. HIV sequence migration from blood to urogenital tract was detected in four of five men, with migration from urogenital tract to blood in the fifth, and cross migration between both compartments noted in one man. These observations add 5 additional cases to the 27 total reported cases in which male urogenital tract compartmentalization has been studied, investigate surgical samples/specimens that have not been evaluated previously, and provide further evidence for restricted flow of HIV between the blood and the genital tract. As such, our study findings are important for understanding the long-term response to antiretroviral therapy, the design of vaccines, and the sexual transmission of HIV. PMID:18426336

  3. Transfer of IgG in the female genital tract by MHC class I-related neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) confers protective immunity to vaginal infection

    PubMed Central

    Palaniyandi, Senthilkumar; Zeng, Rongyu; Tuo, Wenbin; Roopenian, Derry C.; Zhu, Xiaoping

    2011-01-01

    IgG is a major Ig subclass in mucosal secretions of the human female genital tract, where it predominates over the IgA isotype. Despite the abundance of IgG, surprisingly little is known about where and how IgG enters the lumen of the genital tract and the exact role local IgG plays in preventing sexually transmitted diseases. We demonstrate here that the neonatal Fc receptor, FcRn, is expressed in female genital tract epithelial cells of humans and mice and binds IgG in a pH-dependent manner. In vitro we show that FcRn mediates bidirectional IgG transport across polarized human endometrial HEC-1-A monolayers and primary human genital epithelial cells. Furthermore, endosomal acidification appears to be a prerequisite for FcRn-mediated IgG transcytosis; IgG transcytosis was demonstrated in vivo by translocation of systemically administered IgG into the genital lumen in WT but not FcRn-KO mice. The biological relevance of FcRn-transported IgG was demonstrated by passive immunization using herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2)–specific polyclonal serum, which conferred significantly higher protection against intravaginal challenge infection by the HSV-2 186 strain in WT mice than in FcRn-KO mice. These studies demonstrate that FcRn-mediated transport is a mechanism by which IgG can act locally in the female genital tract in immune surveillance and in host defense against sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:21368166

  4. Impact of genital hygiene and sexual activity on urinary tract infection during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Badran, Yaser Ali; El-Kashef, Tarek Ahmed; Abdelaziz, Alsayed Saad; Ali, Mahmoud Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a bacterial infection commonly occurring during pregnancy. The incidence of UTI in pregnant women depends on parity, race, and socioeconomic status and can be as high as 8%. Objective: The objective was to determine the association of UTI with genital hygiene practices and sexual activity in pregnant women. Patients and Methods: From January 2011 to June 2014, a total of 200 pregnant women attending prenatal clinics in Al-Zahra Hospital and King Khalid Hospital in Saudia Arabia Kingdom were selected. Eighty pregnant women, who had positive urine cultures (cases), were compared with the remaining 120 healthy pregnant women matched for age, social, economic and education status, and parity (controls). Results: In the present work, Escherichia coli were the infecting organism in 83% of cases. Factors associated with UTI included sexual intercourse ≥ 3 times/week (odds ratio [OR] =5.62), recent UTI (OR = 3.27), not washing genitals precoitus (OR = 2.16), not washing genitals postcoitus (OR = 2.89), not voiding urine postcoitus (OR = 8.62) and washing genitals from back to front (OR = 2.96) [OR = odds ratio]. Conclusion: Urinary tract infection in pregnant women was primarily caused by bacteria from the stool (E. coli) and that hygiene habits, and sexual behavior may play a role in UTI in pregnant women. PMID:26692669

  5. Colonization of the female genital tract with Staphylococcus saprophyticus.

    PubMed Central

    Rupp, M E; Soper, D E; Archer, G L

    1992-01-01

    The prevalence of colonization by Staphylococcus saprophyticus of the urogenital tracts of 276 women from an outpatient gynecology practice was determined by using selective and enrichment culture techniques. Nineteen subjects (6.9%) were found to be colonized by S. saprophyticus. The rectum was the most frequent site of colonization and was responsible for 40% of the isolates; this was followed in decreasing order by the urethra, urine, and cervix. Women colonized by S. saprophyticus were more likely to have experienced a urinary tract infection in the previous 12 months (P = 0.058; odds ratio, 2.844; 95% confidence interval, 1.054 to 7.671). Patients colonized by S. saprophyticus tended to have had their menstrual periods more recently (P = 0.066), experienced sexual intercourse more recently (P = 0.168), and had a recent or concurrent diagnosis of vaginal candidiasis (P = 0.111; odds ratio, 2.393; 95% confidence interval, 0.877 to 6.528). A seasonal variation in colonization was observed, with colonization most likely occurring during the summer and fall. Follow-up for an average of 6.75 months failed to document any colonized woman progressing to symptomatic urinary tract infection. In addition, 21 women colonized by non-S. saprophyticus, novobiocin-resistant, coagulase-negative staphylococci were identified and characterized. PMID:1452668

  6. Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome with Multiple Genital Tract Tumors and Breast Cancer: A Case Report with a Review of Literatures

    PubMed Central

    Song, Seung-Hun; Lee, Jae-Kwan; Saw, Ho-Suk; Choi, Sang-Yong; Koo, Bum-Hwan; Kim, Aeree; Yeom, Bum-Woo

    2006-01-01

    We report here on the multiple genital tract neoplasms in a 41-yr-old Korean woman with Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome (PJS). The patient presented with lower abdominal pain. Her previous medical history was PJS and breast cancer. Pelvic ultrasound showed a multilocular cyst at the right adnexal region, diagnosed as bilateral ovarian mucinous borderline tumors. An ovarian sex cord tumor with annular tubules was incidentally diagnosed together with a minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix and mucinous metaplasia of both the Fallopian tubal mucosa and the endometrium. Although the cases of multiple genital tract tumors with PJS has rarely been reported, the present case appears to be the first in Korea in which the PJS syndrome was complicated by multiple genital tract tumors and infiltrating carcinoma of the breast. The clinical significance of the multiple genital tract tumors and breast cancer associated with PJS is reviewed. PMID:16891826

  7. Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome with multiple genital tract tumors and breast cancer: a case report with a review of literatures.

    PubMed

    Song, Seung-Hun; Lee, Jae-Kwan; Saw, Ho-Suk; Choi, Sang-Yong; Koo, Bum-Hwan; Kim, Aeree; Yeom, Bum-Woo; Kim, Insun

    2006-08-01

    We report here on the multiple genital tract neoplasms in a 41-yr-old Korean woman with Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome (PJS). The patient presented with lower abdominal pain. Her previous medical history was PJS and breast cancer. Pelvic ultrasound showed a multilocular cyst at the right adnexal region, diagnosed as bilateral ovarian mucinous borderline tumors. An ovarian sex cord tumor with annular tubules was incidentally diagnosed together with a minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix and mucinous metaplasia of both the Fallopian tubal mucosa and the endometrium. Although the cases of multiple genital tract tumors with PJS has rarely been reported, the present case appears to be the first in Korea in which the PJS syndrome was complicated by multiple genital tract tumors and infiltrating carcinoma of the breast. The clinical significance of the multiple genital tract tumors and breast cancer associated with PJS is reviewed. PMID:16891826

  8. Female genital tract and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Fetissof, F; Berger, G; Dubois, M P; Philippe, A; Lansac, J; Jobard, P

    1985-01-01

    Systematic detection of endocrine cells was performed in two genital tracts from patients with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS). These tissues proved to be particularly rich in endocrine cells. The specialized cells were distributed in the cervix and fallopian tubes. In the cervix, they were confined to remarkable mucinous tumors related to "adenoma malignum." Serotonin, somatostatin, gastrin, and pancreatic polypeptide immunoreactive cells were characterized. In fallopian tubes, serotonin-storing cells and somatostatin cells were detected respectively among normal-appearing and mucinous areas of tubal epithelium; in addition, serotonin-storing cells were found in many mesonephric rests. This strongly contrasts with the usual paucity of endocrine cells in the female genital tract. However, none of the findings mentioned was really specific of PJS. In particular, endocrine cells seem to be an integral constituent of adenoma malignum, with or without PJS. These findings suggest a disturbance of tissular differentiation. PMID:3902686

  9. Influence of sexual intercourse on genital tract microbiota in infertile couples.

    PubMed

    Borovkova, Natalja; Korrovits, Paul; Ausmees, Kristo; Türk, Silver; Jõers, Kai; Punab, Margus; Mändar, Reet

    2011-12-01

    Several studies have suggested the association of disturbed genital tract microbiota with infertility. Our aim was to clarify the influence of sexual intercourse on partner's genital tract microbiota in infertile couples. Seventeen couples were studied, and in 5 men inflammatory prostatitis (IP) was diagnosed. Semen samples were collected during menstruation of the female counterpart, two self-collected vaginal samples were taken 3-5 days later - before intercourse and 8-12 h after intercourse. Ureaplasma parvum was found in 59% of women, its prevalence was higher in women whose partner had IP, as well as in half of their male partners. Sexual intercourse caused significant shifts in vaginal microbiota - increase of Nugent score and shifts in cultured microbiota (emergence and disappearance of several species). These changes were less expressed in the presence of normal vaginal microbiota but more prominent in the partners of IP men. These changes may interfere with fertilization. PMID:21549210

  10. Prevalence of reproductive tract infections, genital prolapse, and obesity in a rural community in Lebanon.

    PubMed Central

    Deeb, Mary E.; Awwad, Johnny; Yeretzian, Joumana S.; Kaspar, Hanna G.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of reproduction-related illnesses in a rural community in Lebanon. METHODS: Data were collected through interviews with women in their homes, physical examinations and history taking by physicians in a clinic in the community, and laboratory tests. A total of 557 ever-married women aged 15-60 years were selected randomly. FINDINGS: Just over half of the sample (268, 50.6%) had five or more children, and (320, 78.9%) of women aged < 45 years were using contraception. The prevalence of reproductive tract infections was very low: six (1.2%) women had sexually transmitted diseases and 47 (9.3%) had endogenous reproductive tract infections. None had chlamydial infection or a positive serological finding of syphilis. None had invasive cervical cancer, and only one had cervical dysplasia. In contrast, genital prolapse and gynaecological morbidity were elevated. Half of the women studied (251, 49.6%) had genital prolapse, and 153 (30.2%) were obese. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of reproductive tract infections in this conservative rural community in east Lebanon was low. Possible explanations include the conservative nature of the community, the high rate of utilization of health care services, and the liberal use of antibiotics without a prescription. More importantly, the study showed an unexpectedly high prevalence of genital prolapse and obesity--a finding that has clear implications for primary health care priorities in such rural communities. PMID:14710505

  11. Comparison of the oral, rectal, and vaginal immunization routes for induction of antibodies in rectal and genital tract secretions of women.

    PubMed Central

    Kozlowski, P A; Cu-Uvin, S; Neutra, M R; Flanigan, T P

    1997-01-01

    To determine which mucosal immunization routes may be optimal for induction of antibodies in the rectum and female genital tract, groups of women were immunized a total of three times either orally, rectally, or vaginally with a cholera vaccine containing killed Vibrio cholerae cells and the recombinant cholera toxin B (CTB) subunit. Systemic and mucosal antibody responses were assessed at 2-week intervals by quantitation of CTB-specific antibodies in serum and in secretions collected directly from mucosal surfaces of the oral cavity, rectum, cervix, and vagina with absorbent wicks. The three immunization routes increased levels of specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) in serum and specific IgA in saliva to similar extents. Rectal immunization was superior to other routes for inducing high levels of specific IgA and IgG in rectal secretions but was least effective for generating antibodies in female genital tract secretions. Only vaginal immunization significantly increased both specific IgA and specific IgG in both the cervix and the vagina. In addition, local production of CTB-specific IgG in the genital tract could be demonstrated only in vaginally immunized women. Vaginal immunization did not generate antibodies in the rectum, however. Thus, generation of optimal immune responses to sexually transmitted organisms in both the rectal and the genital mucosae of women may require local immunization at both of these sites. PMID:9119478

  12. Microbial flora of the lower genital tract during pregnancy: relationship to morbidity.

    PubMed

    de Louvois, J; Hurley, R; Stanley, V C

    1975-09-01

    Nineteen genera and groups of micro-organisms were isolated from the lower genital tract of 280 women at their first antenatal visit. Chlamydia, viruses, and T-strain mycoplasmas were not sought, and only routine methods of anaerobic culture were used. Growth was recorded as scanty, moderate or heavy. The population studied was grouped according to age, parity, gestational stage at booking, presence and degree of severity of lower genital tract morbidity, past history of vulvovaginitis, and suspicion of lower genital tract morbidity as evidenced by a request for a report on the microbiological findings. The frequency of isolation of the various microbes in health and in disease is given. The grading of Gram-stained smears bore no relation to the isolation rates of lactobacilli, but there was a significant increase (p less than 0-001) in the isolation rates of each of the following: Mycoplasma hominis, Bacteroides spp., Trichomonas vaginalis, Gram-variable cocco-bacilli, and anaerobic streptococci in those patients with smears in which lactobacilli were adjudged to be absent. The isolation of faecal streptococci was increased (p less than 0-001) in women aged more than 34 years. Escherichia coli (p less than 0-05) and anaerobic and microaerophilic streptococci (p less than 0-02) were isolated more frequently from those booking after the 25th week of pregnancy. The incidence of M. hominis (p less than 0-02) and of anaerobic streptococci (p less than 0-05) increased between the first and third trimesters. No significance positive correlations were established between the isolation rates of the various microbes and objective assessment of lower genital tract morbidity or the demonstration of pus cells, but lactobacilli were isolated less frequently (p less than 0-01) from those with morbidity. The isolation of Candida albicans (p less than 0-02), T. vaginalis (p less than 0-05), and M. hominis (p less than 0.05) was increased in patients in whom vulvovaginitis was

  13. Herpes Simplex Virus-2 Genital Tract Shedding Is Not Predictable over Months or Years in Infected Persons

    PubMed Central

    Dhankani, Varsha; Kutz, J. Nathan; Schiffer, Joshua T.

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) is a chronic reactivating infection that leads to recurrent shedding episodes in the genital tract. A minority of episodes are prolonged, and associated with development of painful ulcers. However, currently, available tools poorly predict viral trajectories and timing of reactivations in infected individuals. We employed principal components analysis (PCA) and singular value decomposition (SVD) to interpret HSV-2 genital tract shedding time series data, as well as simulation output from a stochastic spatial mathematical model. Empirical and model-derived, time-series data gathered over >30 days consists of multiple complex episodes that could not be reduced to a manageable number of descriptive features with PCA and SVD. However, single HSV-2 shedding episodes, even those with prolonged duration and complex morphologies consisting of multiple erratic peaks, were consistently described using a maximum of four dominant features. Modeled and clinical episodes had equivalent distributions of dominant features, implying similar dynamics in real and simulated episodes. We applied linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to simulation output and identified that local immune cell density at the viral reactivation site had a predictive effect on episode duration, though longer term shedding suggested chaotic dynamics and could not be predicted based on spatial patterns of immune cell density. These findings suggest that HSV-2 shedding patterns within an individual are impossible to predict over weeks or months, and that even highly complex single HSV-2 episodes can only be partially predicted based on spatial distribution of immune cell density. PMID:25375183

  14. Human Papillomaviruses and Papillomatosis Lesions of the Female Lower Genital Tract

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yao-Xiong; Ling, Han-Liang; Ye, Zhen-Zhong; Liang, Tian; Zhang, Mei-Gui; Liu, Yun-Ke; Kang, Biao; Luo, Yuan-Ji; He, Shu-Ying; Lian, Yong-Jian

    1994-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are involved in the development of papillomatosis lesions of the lower female genital tract. Methods: A total of 616 biopsy specimens of genital papillomatous lesions (307 nodular and 309 papular types) from 598 patients were anaylyzed for the presence of HPV DNA sequences by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). These specimens were also examined by histopathological assessment for characteristic HPV-associated cytological changes, by immunohistochemical staining for HPV-associated antigen, and by electron microscopy for the presence of virions. Results: HPV DNA sequences were found in 97.9% (140 of 143 cases) and 1.1% (1 of 91 cases) of the nodular and papular papillomatosis cases tested, respectively. In 18 patients who had both types of papillomatosis lesions, HPV DNA was invariably found only in nodular tissues. HPV-associated antigen, koilocytosis, and virions were found in 53.6% (98 of 183 cases), 70.5% (129 of 183 cases), and 5.9% (5 of 85 cases) of nodular papillomatosis lesions tested, respectively. Conclusions: These data suggest that nodular papillomatosis was closely associated with HPV infection, but that papular papillomatosis of the lower female genital tract may have an etiology other than HPV infection, PMID:18472880

  15. Xanthogranulomatous Inflammation of the Female Genital Tract: Report of Three Cases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiang-sheng; Dong, Hong-yan; Zhang, Lei-lei; Desouki, Mohamed Mokhtar; Zhao, Chengquan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose and Methods: This is a series of three cases diagnosed with xanthogranulomatous inflammation of the female genital with emphasis on the etiology, clinical-pathologic features and biological behavior. Clinical, pathologic, radiologic and follow up data are reported. Results: The three cases of Xanthogranulomatous inflammation of the female genital tract are the followings: 1) one case affecting the endometrium, 2) one case affecting the fallopian tube, and 3) one case confined to the ovary. The patient's age was 37, 22 and 62 year-old, respectively. Histologic examination revealed extensive infiltration of foamy histiocytes admixed with variable amount of inflammatory cells. The later include plasma cells, lymphocytes, and occasional multinucleated giant cells. Immunohistochemistry showed positive staining for CD68, a histiocytic marker, in foamy histiocytes, CD3, a T cell marker, and CD20, a B cell marker, in the background lymphocytes. The plasma cells were polyclonal with expression of both κ and λ light chains. Conclusion: Xanthogranulomatous inflammation of the female genital tract is an unusual lesion, and clinically forms mass- like lesion in the pelvic cavity that invades the surrounding tissues, which may mimic the tumor clinically and by imaging. PMID:22393333

  16. Antiretroviral drug exposure in the female genital tract: implications for oral pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Dumond, Julie B.; Yeh, Rosa F.; Patterson, Kristine B.; Corbett, Amanda H.; Jung, Byung Hwa; Rezk, Naser L.; Bridges, Arlene S.; Stewart, Paul W.; Cohen, Myron S.; Kashuba, Angela D.M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To describe first dose and steady state antiretroviral drug exposure in the female genital tract. Design Non-blinded, single center, open-label pharmacokinetic study in HIV-infected women. Method Twenty-seven women initiating combination antiretroviral therapy underwent comprehensive blood plasma and cervicovaginal fluid sampling for drug concentrations during the first dose of antiretroviral therapy and at steady-state. Drug concentrations were measured by validated HPLC/UV or HPLC-MS/MS methods. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated for 11 drugs by non-compartmental analysis. Descriptive statistics and 95% confidence intervals were generated using Intercooled STATA Release 8.0 (Stata Corporation, College Station, Texas, USA). Results For all antiretroviral drugs, genital tract concentrations were detected rapidly after the first dose. Drugs were stratified according to the genital tract concentrations achieved relative to blood plasma. Median rank order of highest to lowest genital tract concentrations relative to blood plasma at steady state were: lamivudine (concentrations achieved were 411% greater than blood plasma), emtricitabine (395%), zidovudine (235%) tenofovir (75%), ritonavir (26%), didanosine (21%), atazanavir (18%), lopinavir (8%), abacavir (8%), stavudine (5%), and efavirenz (0.4%). Conclusions This is the first study to comprehensively evaluate antiretroviral drug exposure in the female genital tract. These findings support the use of lamivudine, zidovudine, tenofovir and emtricitabine as excellent pre-exposure/post-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP/PEP) candidates. Atazanavir and lopinavir might be useful agents for these applications due to favorable therapeutic indices, despite lower genital tract concentrations. Agents such as stavudine, abacavir, and efavirenz that achieve genital tract exposures less than 10% of blood plasma are less attractive PrEP/PEP candidates. PMID:17721097

  17. Genital and urinary tract infections in diabetes: impact of pharmacologically-induced glucosuria.

    PubMed

    Geerlings, Suzanne; Fonseca, Vivian; Castro-Diaz, David; List, James; Parikh, Shamik

    2014-03-01

    Predisposition to genital infections and urinary tract infections (UTIs) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) results from several factors such as glucosuria, adherence of bacteria to the uroepithelium and immune dysfunction. The tendency to develop these infections could be even higher in patients with T2DM treated with the emerging class of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. Studies have shown that pharmacologically-induced glucosuria with SGLT2 inhibitors raises the risk of developing genital infections and, to a relatively lesser extent, UTIs. However, a definitive dose relationship of the incidence of these infections with the SGLT2 doses is not evident in the existing data. Therefore, the precise role of glucosuria as a causative factor for these infections is yet to be fully elucidated. PMID:24529566

  18. The Contribution of Chlamydia-Specific CD8+ T Cells to Upper Genital Tract Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Vlcek, Kelly R.; Li, Weidang; Manam, Srikanth; Zanotti, Brian; Nicholson, Bruce J.; Ramsey, Kyle H.; Murthy, Ashlesh K.

    2015-01-01

    Genital chlamydial infections lead to severe upper reproductive tract pathology in a subset of untreated women. We demonstrated previously that TNF-α producing CD8+ T cells contribute significantly to chlamydial upper genital tract pathology in female mice. Additionally, we observed minimal chlamydial oviduct pathology develops in OT-1 transgenic (OT-1) mice, wherein CD8+ T cell repertoire is restricted to recognition of the ovalbumin peptide Ova257–264, suggesting that non-Chlamydia-specific CD8+ T cells may not be responsible for chlamydial pathogenesis. In the current study, we evaluated whether antigen-specific CD8+ T cells mediate chlamydial pathology. Groups of wild type C57BL/6J (WT), OT-1 mice, and OT-1 mice replete with WT CD8+ T cells (1×106 cells/mouse intravenously) were infected intravaginally with C. muridarum (5 × 104 IFU/mouse). Serum total anti-Chlamydia antibody and total splenic anti-Chlamydia IFN-γ and TNF-α responses were comparable among the three groups of animals. However, Chlamydia-specific IFN-γ and TNF-α production from purified splenic CD8+ T cells of OT-1 mice was minimal, whereas responses in OT-1 mice replete with WT CD8+ T cells were comparable to those in WT animals. Vaginal chlamydial clearance was comparable between the three groups of mice. Importantly, the incidence and severity of oviduct and uterine horn pathology was significantly reduced in OT-1 mice but reverted to WT levels in OT-1 mice replete with WT CD8+ T cells. Collectively, these results demonstrate that Chlamydia-specific CD8+ T cells contribute significantly to upper genital tract pathology. PMID:26323581

  19. Histopathological studies on neoplasms in the genital tract of female donkeys in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Sokkar, S M; Hamouda, M A; Abdel-Rahman, S M

    2001-01-01

    The genital tracts of 165 female donkeys were collected and examined with special concern to neoplasms. Ovarian Neoplasms were found in 12 cases (7.72%). A granulosa cell tumor was found in one case (0.61%). A cavernous haemangioma was found in 11 cases (6.67%). Uterine neoplasms were found in 14 cases (8.84%). Endometrial polyps and fibroleiomyoma were found in one case (0.61%) each. Leiomyoma was found in 2 cases (1.21%). Cavernous haemangioma was found in 10 cases (6.06%), and cervical polyps in 5 cases (3.03%). PMID:11413706

  20. Transformation of the genital epithelial tract occurs early in California sea lion development

    PubMed Central

    Barragán-Vargas, Cecilia; Montano-Frías, Jorge; Ávila Rosales, Germán; Godínez-Reyes, Carlos R.; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina

    2016-01-01

    An unusually high prevalence of metastatic urogenital carcinoma has been observed in free-ranging California sea lions stranded off the coast of California in the past two decades. No cases have been reported for sea lions in the relatively unpolluted Gulf of California. We investigated occurrence of genital epithelial transformation in 60 sea lions (n=57 pups and 3 adult females) from the Gulf of California and examined whether infection by a viral pathogen previously found to be associated with urogenital carcinoma accounted for such alterations. We also explored the contribution of MHC class II gene expression on transformation. Cellular alterations, such as squamous cell atypia (ASC), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were observed in 42% of the pups and in 67% of the adult females. Normal genital epithelium was more common in male than female pups. ASC was five times more likely to occur in older pups. Epithelial alterations were unrelated to infection by the potentially oncogenic otarine type I gammaherpesvirus (OtHV-1), but ASCUS was more common in pups with marked and severe inflammation. Expression of MHC class II DRB loci (Zaca DRB-D) by peripheral antigen-presenting leucocytes showed a slightly ‘protective’ effect for ASC. We propose that transformation of the California sea lion genital epithelium is relatively common in young animals, increases with age and is probably the result of infection by an unidentified pathogen. Expression of a specific MHC class II gene, suggestive of presentation of specific antigenic peptides to immune effectors, appears to lower the risk of transformation. Our study provides the first evidence that epithelial transformation of the California sea lion genital tract is relatively common, even from an early age, and raises questions regarding differences in sea lion cancer-detection and -repair success between geographical regions. PMID:27069641

  1. Transformation of the genital epithelial tract occurs early in California sea lion development.

    PubMed

    Barragán-Vargas, Cecilia; Montano-Frías, Jorge; Ávila Rosales, Germán; Godínez-Reyes, Carlos R; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina

    2016-03-01

    An unusually high prevalence of metastatic urogenital carcinoma has been observed in free-ranging California sea lions stranded off the coast of California in the past two decades. No cases have been reported for sea lions in the relatively unpolluted Gulf of California. We investigated occurrence of genital epithelial transformation in 60 sea lions (n=57 pups and 3 adult females) from the Gulf of California and examined whether infection by a viral pathogen previously found to be associated with urogenital carcinoma accounted for such alterations. We also explored the contribution of MHC class II gene expression on transformation. Cellular alterations, such as squamous cell atypia (ASC), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were observed in 42% of the pups and in 67% of the adult females. Normal genital epithelium was more common in male than female pups. ASC was five times more likely to occur in older pups. Epithelial alterations were unrelated to infection by the potentially oncogenic otarine type I gammaherpesvirus (OtHV-1), but ASCUS was more common in pups with marked and severe inflammation. Expression of MHC class II DRB loci (Zaca DRB-D) by peripheral antigen-presenting leucocytes showed a slightly 'protective' effect for ASC. We propose that transformation of the California sea lion genital epithelium is relatively common in young animals, increases with age and is probably the result of infection by an unidentified pathogen. Expression of a specific MHC class II gene, suggestive of presentation of specific antigenic peptides to immune effectors, appears to lower the risk of transformation. Our study provides the first evidence that epithelial transformation of the California sea lion genital tract is relatively common, even from an early age, and raises questions regarding differences in sea lion cancer-detection and -repair success between geographical regions. PMID:27069641

  2. Short Communication: Cheminformatics Analysis to Identify Predictors of Antiviral Drug Penetration into the Female Genital Tract

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Corbin G.; Sedykh, Alexander; Nicol, Melanie R.; Muratov, Eugene; Fourches, Denis; Tropsha, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The exposure of oral antiretroviral (ARV) drugs in the female genital tract (FGT) is variable and almost unpredictable. Identifying an efficient method to find compounds with high tissue penetration would streamline the development of regimens for both HIV preexposure prophylaxis and viral reservoir targeting. Here we describe the cheminformatics investigation of diverse drugs with known FGT penetration using cluster analysis and quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSAR) modeling. A literature search over the 1950–2012 period identified 58 compounds (including 21 ARVs and representing 13 drug classes) associated with their actual concentration data for cervical or vaginal tissue, or cervicovaginal fluid. Cluster analysis revealed significant trends in the penetrative ability for certain chemotypes. QSAR models to predict genital tract concentrations normalized to blood plasma concentrations were developed with two machine learning techniques utilizing drugs' molecular descriptors and pharmacokinetic parameters as inputs. The QSAR model with the highest predictive accuracy had R2test=0.47. High volume of distribution, high MRP1 substrate probability, and low MRP4 substrate probability were associated with FGT concentrations ≥1.5-fold plasma concentrations. However, due to the limited FGT data available, prediction performances of all models were low. Despite this limitation, we were able to support our findings by correctly predicting the penetration class of rilpivirine and dolutegravir. With more data to enrich the models, we believe these methods could potentially enhance the current approach of clinical testing. PMID:24512359

  3. Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors and genital and urinary tract infections in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Arakaki, Richard F

    2016-05-01

    Coincident with the high and increasing worldwide prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D), a growing armamentarium of antidiabetes medications has been introduced to target different organ systems that play a role in the pathophysiology of T2D. Among these, the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors were introduced in the United States in 2013 as a new treatment option to address the hyperglycemia associated with T2D. SGLT-2 inhibitors decrease renal glucose reabsorption, resulting in glucosuria, alleviation of hyperglycemia, and modest weight loss and are associated with a low risk of hypoglycemia. The SGLT-2 inhibitors have been linked to an increased incidence of genital mycotic infections and, to a lesser extent, urinary tract infections, which may limit their utility in some patients. This review examines the prevalence, recurrence rates, treatment options, and responses to treatment of genital and urinary tract infections in patients with T2D receiving SGLT-2 inhibitors, with the aim of guiding clinicians in the most effective use of these agents for the treatment of hyperglycemia. PMID:26982554

  4. Prevalence of low genital tract infectious agents in young Israeli women.

    PubMed

    Herman, A; Roash, Z; Samra, Z; Lotan, Y; Fiengold, A; Caspi, E

    1985-04-01

    Low genital tract infectious agents were examined 411 times in 386 young women. Each examination included anamnesis, physical examination and broad-spectrum microbiologic analysis for the detection of: Ureaplasma urealyticum, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida species, Mycoplasma hominis, Streptococcus beta hemolyticus Group B, Hemophilus vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and syphilis serology. Three hundred and six patients were symptomatic for low genital tract infection and 80 were asymptomatic. Most patients were young, 19.6 +/- 1.7 (SD) years old, single (84.7%) and sexually active (87.4%). U. urealyticum and C. trachomatis were the most common agents recovered in 43.9 and 40.8% of symptomatic patients, respectively. All agents were isolated more frequently in the symptomatic group, but statistically significant group comparisons were obtained only for Candida sp. (P less than 0.001), T. vaginalis (P less than 0.005) and M. hominis (P less than 0.05). N. gonorrhoeae was isolated in only one case (0.3%), which may reflect technical difficulties or a true very low prevalence of this agent. Clinical diagnoses of candidiasis and trichomoniasis in symptomatic patients were confirmed by laboratory results in only 34.9 and 54.9%, whereas negative clinical diagnoses were confirmed in 83.9 and 73.2%, respectively. PMID:3873446

  5. The ESHRE/ESGE consensus on the classification of female genital tract congenital anomalies†,‡

    PubMed Central

    Grimbizis, Grigoris F.; Gordts, Stephan; Di Spiezio Sardo, Attilio; Brucker, Sara; De Angelis, Carlo; Gergolet, Marco; Li, Tin-Chiu; Tanos, Vasilios; Brölmann, Hans; Gianaroli, Luca; Campo, Rudi

    2013-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION What classification system is more suitable for the accurate, clear, simple and related to the clinical management categorization of female genital anomalies? SUMMARY ANSWER The new ESHRE/ESGE classification system of female genital anomalies is presented. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Congenital malformations of the female genital tract are common miscellaneous deviations from normal anatomy with health and reproductive consequences. Until now, three systems have been proposed for their categorization but all of them are associated with serious limitations. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE AND DURATION The European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) and the European Society for Gynaecological Endoscopy (ESGE) have established a common Working Group, under the name CONUTA (CONgenital UTerine Anomalies), with the goal of developing a new updated classification system. A scientific committee (SC) has been appointed to run the project, looking also for consensus within the scientists working in the field. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS The new system is designed and developed based on (i) scientific research through critical review of current proposals and preparation of an initial proposal for discussion between the experts, (ii) consensus measurement among the experts through the use of the DELPHI procedure and (iii) consensus development by the SC, taking into account the results of the DELPHI procedure and the comments of the experts. Almost 90 participants took part in the process of development of the ESHRE/ESGE classification system, contributing with their structured answers and comments. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE The ESHRE/ESGE classification system is based on anatomy. Anomalies are classified into the following main classes, expressing uterine anatomical deviations deriving from the same embryological origin: U0, normal uterus; U1, dysmorphic uterus; U2, septate uterus; U3, bicorporeal uterus; U4, hemi-uterus; U5, aplastic

  6. The Role of the Immune Response in Chlamydia trachomatis Infection of the Male Genital Tract: A Double-Edged Sword

    PubMed Central

    Redgrove, Kate A.; McLaughlin, Eileen A.

    2014-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infection in the world, with more than 100 million cases reported annually. While there have been extensive studies into the adverse effects that CT infection has on the female genital tract, and on the subsequent ability of these women to conceive, studies into the consequences on male fertility have been limited and controversial. This is in part due to the asymptomatic nature of the infection, where it is estimated that 50% of men with Chlamydia fail to show any symptoms. It is accepted, however, that acute and/or persistent CT infection is the causative agent for conditions such as urethritis, epididymitis, epididymo-orchitis, and potentially prostatitis. As with most infections, the immune system plays a fundamental role in the body’s attempts to eradicate the infection. The first and most important immune response to Chlamydia infection is a local one, whereby immune cells such as leukocytes are recruited to the site of infections, and subsequently secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines such as interferon gamma. Immune cells also work to initiate and potentiate chronic inflammation through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the release of molecules with degradative properties including defensins, elastase, collagenase, cathespins, and lysozyme. This long-term inflammation can lead to cell proliferation (a possible precursor to cancer), tissue remodeling, and scarring, as well as being linked to the onset of autoimmune responses in genetically disposed individuals. This review will focus on the ability of the immune system to recognize and clear acute and persistent chlamydial infections in the male genital tract, and on the paradoxical damage that chronic inflammation resulting from the infection can cause on the reproductive health of the individual. PMID:25386180

  7. The Gonococcal Transcriptome during Infection of the Lower Genital Tract in Women.

    PubMed

    McClure, Ryan; Nudel, Kathleen; Massari, Paola; Tjaden, Brian; Su, Xiaohong; Rice, Peter A; Genco, Caroline A

    2015-01-01

    Gonorrhea is a highly prevalent disease resulting in significant morbidity worldwide, with an estimated 106 cases reported annually. Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of gonorrhea, colonizes and infects the human genital tract and often evades host immune mechanisms until successful antibiotic treatment is used. The alarming increase in antibiotic-resistant strains of N. gonorrhoeae, the often asymptomatic nature of this disease in women and the lack of a vaccine directed at crucial virulence determinants have prompted us to perform transcriptome analysis to understand gonococcal gene expression patterns during natural infection. We sequenced RNA extracted from cervico-vaginal lavage samples collected from women recently exposed to infected male partners and determined the complete N. gonorrhoeae transcriptome during infection of the lower genital tract in women. On average, 3.19% of total RNA isolated from female samples aligned to the N. gonorrhoeae NCCP11945 genome and 1750 gonococcal ORFs (65% of all protein-coding genes) were transcribed. High expression in vivo was observed in genes encoding antimicrobial efflux pumps, iron response, phage production, pilin structure, outer membrane structures and hypothetical proteins. A parallel analysis was performed using the same strains grown in vitro in a chemically defined media (CDM). A total of 140 genes were increased in expression during natural infection compared to growth in CDM, and 165 genes were decreased in expression. Large differences were found in gene expression profiles under each condition, particularly with genes involved in DNA and RNA processing, iron, transposase, pilin and lipoproteins. We specifically interrogated genes encoding DNA binding regulators and iron-scavenging proteins, and identified increased expression of several iron-regulated genes, including tbpAB and fbpAB, during infection in women as compared to growth in vitro, suggesting that during infection of the genital tract in

  8. The Gonococcal Transcriptome during Infection of the Lower Genital Tract in Women

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Ryan; Nudel, Kathleen; Massari, Paola; Tjaden, Brian; Su, Xiaohong; Rice, Peter A.; Genco, Caroline A.

    2015-01-01

    Gonorrhea is a highly prevalent disease resulting in significant morbidity worldwide, with an estimated 106 cases reported annually. Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of gonorrhea, colonizes and infects the human genital tract and often evades host immune mechanisms until successful antibiotic treatment is used. The alarming increase in antibiotic-resistant strains of N. gonorrhoeae, the often asymptomatic nature of this disease in women and the lack of a vaccine directed at crucial virulence determinants have prompted us to perform transcriptome analysis to understand gonococcal gene expression patterns during natural infection. We sequenced RNA extracted from cervico-vaginal lavage samples collected from women recently exposed to infected male partners and determined the complete N. gonorrhoeae transcriptome during infection of the lower genital tract in women. On average, 3.19% of total RNA isolated from female samples aligned to the N. gonorrhoeae NCCP11945 genome and 1750 gonococcal ORFs (65% of all protein-coding genes) were transcribed. High expression in vivo was observed in genes encoding antimicrobial efflux pumps, iron response, phage production, pilin structure, outer membrane structures and hypothetical proteins. A parallel analysis was performed using the same strains grown in vitro in a chemically defined media (CDM). A total of 140 genes were increased in expression during natural infection compared to growth in CDM, and 165 genes were decreased in expression. Large differences were found in gene expression profiles under each condition, particularly with genes involved in DNA and RNA processing, iron, transposase, pilin and lipoproteins. We specifically interrogated genes encoding DNA binding regulators and iron-scavenging proteins, and identified increased expression of several iron-regulated genes, including tbpAB and fbpAB, during infection in women as compared to growth in vitro, suggesting that during infection of the genital tract in

  9. Functions of ICC-like cells in the urinary tract and male genital organs

    PubMed Central

    Hashitani, Hikaru; Lang, Richard J

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC)-like cells (ICC-LCs) have been identified in many regions of the urinary tract and male genital organs by immunohistochemical studies and electron microscopy. ICC-LCs are characterized by their spontaneous electrical and Ca2+ signalling and the cellular mechanisms of their generation have been extensively investigated. Spontaneous activity in ICC-LCs rises from the release of internally stored Ca2+ and the opening of Ca2+-activated Cl− channels to generate spontaneous transient depolarizations (STDs) in a manner not fundamentally dependent on Ca2+ influx through L-type voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels. Since urogenital ICC-LCs have been identified by their immunoreactivity to Kit (CD117) antibodies, the often-used specific marker for ICC in the gastrointestinal tract, their functions have been thought likely to be similar. Thus ICC-LCs in the urogenital tract might be expected to act as either electrical pacemaker cells to drive the smooth muscle wall or as intermediaries in neuromuscular transmission. However, present knowledge of the functions of ICC-LCs suggests that their functions are not so predetermined, that their functions may be very region specific, particularly under pathological conditions. In this review, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of the location and function of ICC-LCs in various organs of the urogenital system. We also discuss several unsolved issues regarding the identification, properties and functions of ICC-LCs in various urogenital regions in health and disease. PMID:20184664

  10. Plac8-dependent and iNOS-dependent mechanisms clear Chlamydia muridarum infections from the genital tract1

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Raymond M.; Kerr, Micah S.; Slaven, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis urogenital serovars replicate predominately in genital tract epithelium. This tissue tropism poses a unique challenge for host defense and vaccine development. Studies utilizing the Chlamydia muridarum mouse model have shown that CD4 T cells are critical for clearing genital tract infections. In vitro studies have shown that CD4 T cells terminate infection by up regulating epithelial iNOS transcription and nitric oxide production. However, this mechanism is not critical as iNOS-deficient mice clear infections normally. We recently showed that a subset of Chlamydia-specific CD4 T cell clones could terminate replication in epithelial cells using an iNOS-independent mechanism requiring T cell degranulation. We advance that work using microarrays to compare iNOS-dependent and iNOS-independent CD4 T cell clones. Plac8 was differentially expressed by clones having the iNOS-independent mechanism. Plac8-deficient mice had delayed clearance of infection, and Plac8-deficient mice treated with the iNOS-inhibitor N-monomethyl-L-arginine were largely unable to resolve genital tract infections over 8 weeks. These results demonstrate that there are two independent and redundant T cell mechanisms for clearing C. muridarum genital tract infections; one dependent on iNOS, the other dependent on Plac8. While T cells subsets are routinely defined by cytokine profiles, there may be important subdivisions by effector function, in this case CD4Plac8. PMID:22238459

  11. Distribution and chloramphenicol in the bovine genital tract and pharmacokinetic studies of florfenicol in cattle

    SciTech Connect

    Bretzlaff, K.N.

    1986-01-01

    The objectives were to investigate selected aspects of the distribution of chloramphenicol (CAP) in the bovine genital tract and to conduct preliminary pharmacologic studies with florfenicol (FLO), a fluorinated analogue of thiamphenicol, in cattle. After 8 hours' continuous intravenous (IV) infusion of CAP to 7 postpartum cows, steady state plasma-to-genital tissue ratios of CAP were approximately 3. After intrauterine infusion of 20 mg CAP/kg to 3 postpartum cows, approximately 40% of the dose was absorbed into the bloodstream. Tissue concentrations were high at 8 hour postdosing in tissues lining the uterine lumen but were below desired therapeutic concentrations in the myometrium of 2 of the cows. Eighty cows with retained fetal membranes (RFM) were assigned to receive on the following treatments: (1) removal of membranes only; (2) removal plus CAP; (3) nonremoval; (4) nonremoval plus CAP. CAP treatment consisted of 5 g administered IU twice daily for 3 days. The majority of cows in all groups acquired endometritis, although CAP reduced the prevalence and severity of the disease. A quantitative assay for FLO in plasma was developed and validated on a high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) system. The pharmacokinetics of FLO determined after IV administration of 50 mg FLO/kg to 5 cows were best described by a three-compartment model. FLO was approximately 18% bound to plasma proteins as determined by equilibrium dialysis and ultrafiltration. In an in vitro system, 5, 125, or 1000 ug/ml of CAP had no effect on neutrophils from 6 cows.

  12. Simultaneous detection of multiple lower genital tract pathogens by an impedimetric immunochip.

    PubMed

    Chiriacò, Maria Serena; Primiceri, Elisabetta; De Feo, Francesco; Montanaro, Alessandro; Monteduro, Anna Grazia; Tinelli, Andrea; Megha, Marcella; Carati, Davide; Maruccio, Giuseppe

    2016-05-15

    Lower genital tract infections caused by both sexually and not-sexually transmitted pathogens in women are a key public health priority worldwide, especially in developing countries. Since standard analyses are time-consuming, appropriate therapeutic intervention is often neglected or delayed. Lab-on-chips and biosensors open new perspectives and offer innovative tools to simplify the diagnosis by medical staff, especially in countries with inadequate resources. Here we report a biosensing platform based on Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) that allows multiplexed detection of Candida albicans, Streptococcus agalactiae and Chlamydia trachomatis with a single biochip, enabling a quick screening thanks to the presence of different immobilized antibodies, each specific for one of the different target pathogens. PMID:26686917

  13. Periodontal bacteria in the genital tract: are they related to adverse pregnancy outcome?

    PubMed

    Cassini, M A; Pilloni, A; Condò, S G; Vitali, L A; Pasquantonio, G; Cerroni, L

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important factors implicated in preterm birth (PTB) is acute genitourinary tract infection. The bacteria causing chronic periodontal inflammation include Gram-negative rods and anaerobes similar to those found in women with bacterial vaginosis. The aim of this prospective study is to investigate the relationship between oral and vaginal microflora and preterm low birth weight. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to detect both the presence and level of six periodontitis-related species: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), Tannerella forsythia (Tf), Treponema denticola (Td), Fusobacterium nucleatum ssp(Fn), and Prevotella intermedia (Pi) for both oral samples of subgingival plaque and cervical samples, obtained from 80 patients, during gynaecological examinations. The more representative oral pathogen (less than 60 percent) species in oral samples of preterm and term group were Tf, Td, and Fn. 24.4 percent of pregnant women presented periodontal pathogens in vaginal swab; the most representative species with a percentage over 0.1 percent of total bacteria in genital tract of preterm group were Tf, Td, and Piwith a positive correlation (less than 0.5). The presence of the bacterium T. denticolain the vagina, regardless of the amount, adversely affects preterm delivery. PMID:24355228

  14. Human Female Genital Tract Infection by the Obligate Intracellular Bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis Elicits Robust Type 2 Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Vicetti Miguel, Rodolfo D.; Harvey, Stephen A. K.; LaFramboise, William A.; Reighard, Seth D.; Matthews, Dean B.; Cherpes, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    While Chlamydia trachomatis infections are frequently asymptomatic, mechanisms that regulate host response to this intracellular Gram-negative bacterium remain undefined. This investigation thus used peripheral blood mononuclear cells and endometrial tissue from women with or without Chlamydia genital tract infection to better define this response. Initial genome-wide microarray analysis revealed highly elevated expression of matrix metalloproteinase 10 and other molecules characteristic of Type 2 immunity (e.g., fibrosis and wound repair) in Chlamydia-infected tissue. This result was corroborated in flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry studies that showed extant upper genital tract Chlamydia infection was associated with increased co-expression of CD200 receptor and CD206 (markers of alternative macrophage activation) by endometrial macrophages as well as increased expression of GATA-3 (the transcription factor regulating TH2 differentiation) by endometrial CD4+ T cells. Also among women with genital tract Chlamydia infection, peripheral CD3+ CD4+ and CD3+ CD4- cells that proliferated in response to ex vivo stimulation with inactivated chlamydial antigen secreted significantly more interleukin (IL)-4 than tumor necrosis factor, interferon-γ, or IL-17; findings that repeated in T cells isolated from these same women 1 and 4 months after infection had been eradicated. Our results thus newly reveal that genital infection by an obligate intracellular bacterium induces polarization towards Type 2 immunity, including Chlamydia-specific TH2 development. Based on these findings, we now speculate that Type 2 immunity was selected by evolution as the host response to C. trachomatis in the human female genital tract to control infection and minimize immunopathological damage to vital reproductive structures. PMID:23555586

  15. Presence of leptospires on genital tract of mares with reproductive problems.

    PubMed

    Hamond, Camila; Pestana, Cristiane P; Rocha-de-Souza, Cláudio Marcos; Cunha, Luis Eduardo R; Brandão, Felipe Z; Medeiros, Marco Alberto; Lilenbaum, Walter

    2015-09-30

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of global importance, and has a worldwide distribution. Equine leptospirosis is commonly manifested by recurrent uveitis, reproductive disorders, as abortions, embryonic absorption, stillbirth and the birth of weak foals. The aim of this study was to verify the presence of Leptospira sp or its DNA in genital tract of mares with reproductive problems. A total of 38 mares with reproductive problems were studied. All the mares were sampled for blood (for serology), urine (for culturing and qPCR), vaginal fluid-VF and endometrial biopsy-EB (for culturing, qPCR and indirect immunofluorescence). PCRs products were sequenced for secY gene. Seventeen (44.7%) serum samples were reactive, predominantly against serogroups Australis (76.4%) and Pomona (23.6%). No positive culture was obtained, but DNA was detected by qPCR on urine samples (26.3%), VF (44.7%) and EB (18.4%) collected 2 months or longer following diagnosis of early fetal death and endometritis. Leptospira cell aggregations were visible by indirect immunofluorescence on 57.1% (4/7) EBs and 17.6% (3/17) VFs. A total of 18 amplicons showed interpretable sequences. Out of those 18 amplicons, 15 presented 100% of identity with the species L. interrogans (sv Bratislava and Pomona), while three were L. borgpertersenii. This study suggests the presence of leptospires in the uterus of mares with reproductive problems. Moreover, serology was shown not to be indicated for the diagnosis of presumptive Leptospira infection in early gestation. The most common agent of the genital infection in those mares was L. interrogans, most probably sg Australis. PMID:26211968

  16. Pregnancy-induced changes in immune protection of the genital tract: defining normal

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Brenna L.; Mendez-Figueroa, Hector; Dahlke, Joshua D.; Raker, Christina; Hillier, Sharon L.; Cu-Uvin, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Both the state of pregnancy as well as disruption of vaginal flora and immune mediators may increase the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 acquisition.. The objective of this study was to define immune changes in lower genital and systemic immunity associated with normal pregnancy. Methods Prospective cohort enrolled low risk pregnant and non-pregnant women ages 18 to 35. Pregnant women at < 14 weeks and non-pregnant women in follicular phase of the menstrual cycle were included. Cervical and vaginal fluid was collected. Concentrations of immune mediators were measured using ELISA-based methods or multiplex immunoassay. Samples were inoculated onto various culture media allowing for growth of Lactobacillus spp, G. vaginalis, E.coli, Enterococcus spp, anaerobic gramnegative rods, Candida, S. aureus, Ureaplasma spp, and Mycoplasma hominis. Concentrations of immune mediators and vaginal colonization frequencies were compared between the pregnant and non-pregnant groups. Results Genital tract concentration of IL-1β was higher during pregnancy compared to non-pregnant participants. Serum CRP concentrations were higher in all trimesters of pregnancy. Concentrations of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor didn’t differ between groups. Lactobacillus was more commonly isolated from vaginal cultures of non-pregnant participants (100% vs. 70.2%, p=0.02). Identification of Candida, G. vaginalis, M. hominis and S. aureus was common and not different between groups. Ureaplasma spp was isolated from over 60% pregnant participants. Conclusions The pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-1β, as well as the systemic marker of inflammation, CRP, are increased during pregnancy. The impact of these pro-inflammatory changes during pregnancy deserves further study. PMID:23313311

  17. IL-23 induces IL-22 and IL-17 production in response to Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infection, but the absence of these cytokines does not influence disease pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Frazer, Lauren C.; Scurlock, Amy M.; Zurenski, Matthew A.; Riley, Melissa M.; Mintus, Margaret; Pociask, Derek A.; Sullivan, Jeanne E.; Andrews, Charles W.; Darville, Toni

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Chlamydia trachomatis Infections are a significant cause of reproductive tract pathology. Protective and pathologic immune mediators must be differentiated in order to design a safe and effective vaccine. METHODS Wild-type mice and mice deficient in IL-22 and IL-23 were infected intravaginally with Chlamydia muridarum and their course of infection and oviduct pathology were compared. Local genital tract and draining lymph node immune responses were also examined in IL-23 deficient mice. RESULTS IL-22 and IL-23 deficient mice exhibited normal susceptibility to infection and oviduct pathology. IL-23 was required for development of a Chlamydia-specific Th17 response in the lymph nodes and for production of IL-22 and IL-17 in the genital tract. However, influx of Th1 and innate immune cells was not compromised in the absence of IL-23. CONCLUSIONS IL-22 and IL-23 play either redundant or minimal roles in the pathogenesis of Chlamydia infection in the mouse model. Induction of Th17-associated cytokines by a Chlamydia vaccine should be avoided since these responses are not central to resolution of infection and have pathologic potential. PMID:24238108

  18. Occurrence of Leishmania infantum and associated histological alterations in the genital tract and mammary glands of naturally infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Boechat, Viviane Cardoso; Mendes Junior, Artur Augusto Velho; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Ferreira, Luiz Claudio; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Rodrigues, Francisco das Chagas de Carvalho; Oliveira, Valéria da Costa; de Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes; Menezes, Rodrigo Caldas

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the occurrence of Leishmania infantum in the male and female genital tract and female mammary glands of dogs and the parasite burden and to identify histological alterations associated with this protozoan. Twenty male and 20 female Leishmania-seropositive dogs with isolation of L. infantum were examined. Tissue samples of the prepuce, glans, epididymis, testes, prostate, vulva, vagina, uterus, uterine tubes, and mammary glands were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and histopathology. For parasitological culture and in situ hybridization, samples were collected from the testis, epididymis, and uterus. Additionally, seminal fluid was aspirated from the epididymis for parasitological culture. In the genital tract, 34 (85 %) dogs, including 18 males and 16 females, were positive for Leishmania. Of these, 27 (79 %) animals were symptomatic. Leishmania was detected in the mammary glands of 13 (65 %) females. L. infantum was isolated for the first time from the seminal fluid and uterus of naturally infected dogs. The parasite burden and intensity of the inflammatory reaction were greater in the prepuce and glans of males and in the vulva and mammary glands of females. In addition to inflammation, testicular degeneration, atrophy, absence of spermatogenesis, and necrosis were observed. Detection of amastigote forms in the mammary gland lumen indicates possible elimination of this parasite in milk. The frequent parasitism observed in the genital tract of infected males and females and the viability of L. infantum in seminal fluid and uterus suggest the possibility of bidirectional venereal and vertical transmission. PMID:26979730

  19. Clinical Consequences of Immune Response to CT Upper Genital Tract Infection in Women

    PubMed Central

    Askienazy-Elbhar, M.; Orfila, J.

    1996-01-01

    C. TRACHOMATIS (CT) infections of the upper genital tract in women are either acute, sub acute or chronic. CT infection has a tendency to be chronic, latent and persistent as a consequence of the host immune reaction to CT major outer membrane protein, 57 Kd heat shock protein and lipopolysaccharide. Chlamydial persistence can be induced as a result of inflammatory and/or immune regulated cytokines, Interferon γ depletion of tryptophan causes a stress response involving development of abnormal forms with increased levels of stress response proteins which maintain host immune responses with continuous fibrin exudate. The main clinical consequences are acute and chronic pelvic inflammatory disease, with infertility, ectopic pregnancy and, less frequently, chronic pelvic pain as late sequelae. PID, when acute, is marked by bilateral pelvic pain, plus other infectious signs in typical cases: fever, leucorrhea, red and purulent cervix. In 50% cases, infectious signs are slight or absent or there is an atypical clinical situation. Laparoscopy is the key for diagnosis. It allows the surgeon to have a direct look at the pelvic organs and perform microbiologic and histologic sampling. In severe cases, laparoscopy allows the surgeon to aspirate the purulent discharge and successfully treat pelvic abscesses. Chronic PID usually is clinically silent. It is in most cases discovered some years after the onset of CT infection, in women operated on for tubal infertility or ectopic pregnancy. Further studies, to evaluate treatments efficiency in chronic cases and factors leading to ectopic pregnancy or to recurrence, are indicated. PMID:18476090

  20. Isolation and molecular identification of Mycoplasma equigenitalium from equine genital tracts in northern India

    PubMed Central

    Nehra, K; Rana, R; Viswas, K. N; Arun, T. R.; Singh, V. P.; Singh, A. P; Prabhu, S. N

    2015-01-01

    Although Mycoplasma equigenitalium has been implicated in equine reproductive problems, its prevalence is largely unexplored due to the lack of specific diagnostic tests. To address this limitation, the authors developed and optimized species-specific primer pairs that target M. eguigenitalium rpoB (RNA polymerase B subunit) gene sequences. The specificity of the PCR assay developed in this study was determined using 12 field isolates including the type strain of M. equigenitalium and other Mycoplasma species. In the field study, a total of 122 mare and stallion samples comprising of 50 clinical and 72 random samples were subjected to species-specific PCR assay to detect M. equigenitalium in equine genital tracts. Mycoplasma equigenitalium (MEG) species-specific PCR detected 22.13% positive samples; however, only 9.01% of the samples were found to be positive using the conventional culture technique. The PCR established in this study could be used for rapid, specific and accurate diagnosis of M. equigenitalium strains. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report addressing the development and evaluation of species-specific PCR to detect M. equigenitalium. PMID:27175172

  1. Optimizing Viable Leukocyte Sampling from the Female Genital Tract for Clinical Trials: An International Multi-Site Study

    PubMed Central

    De Rosa, Stephen C.; Martinson, Jeffrey A.; Plants, Jill; Brady, Kirsten E.; Gumbi, Pamela P.; Adams, Devin J.; Vojtech, Lucia; Galloway, Christine G.; Fialkow, Michael; Lentz, Gretchen; Gao, Dayong; Shu, Zhiquan; Nyanga, Billy; Izulla, Preston; Kimani, Joshua; Kimwaki, Steve; Bere, Alfred; Moodie, Zoe; Landay, Alan L.; Passmore, Jo-Ann S.; Kaul, Rupert; Novak, Richard M.; McElrath, M. Juliana; Hladik, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Background Functional analysis of mononuclear leukocytes in the female genital mucosa is essential for understanding the immunologic effects of HIV vaccines and microbicides at the site of HIV exposure. However, the best female genital tract sampling technique is unclear. Methods and Findings We enrolled women from four sites in Africa and the US to compare three genital leukocyte sampling methods: cervicovaginal lavages (CVL), endocervical cytobrushes, and ectocervical biopsies. Absolute yields of mononuclear leukocyte subpopulations were determined by flow cytometric bead-based cell counting. Of the non-invasive sampling types, two combined sequential cytobrushes yielded significantly more viable mononuclear leukocytes than a CVL (p<0.0001). In a subsequent comparison, two cytobrushes yielded as many leukocytes (∼10,000) as one biopsy, with macrophages/monocytes being more prominent in cytobrushes and T lymphocytes in biopsies. Sample yields were consistent between sites. In a subgroup analysis, we observed significant reproducibility between replicate same-day biopsies (r = 0.89, p = 0.0123). Visible red blood cells in cytobrushes increased leukocyte yields more than three-fold (p = 0.0078), but did not change their subpopulation profile, indicating that these leukocytes were still largely derived from the mucosa and not peripheral blood. We also confirmed that many CD4+ T cells in the female genital tract express the α4β7 integrin, an HIV envelope-binding mucosal homing receptor. Conclusions CVL sampling recovered the lowest number of viable mononuclear leukocytes. Two cervical cytobrushes yielded comparable total numbers of viable leukocytes to one biopsy, but cytobrushes and biopsies were biased toward macrophages and T lymphocytes, respectively. Our study also established the feasibility of obtaining consistent flow cytometric analyses of isolated genital cells from four study sites in the US and Africa. These data represent an important step

  2. Longitudinal assessment of pigtailed macaque lower genital tract microbiota by pyrosequencing reveals dissimilarity to the genital microbiota of healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Spear, Gregory T; Kersh, Ellen; Guenthner, Patricia; Vishwanathan, Sundaram Ajay; Gilbert, Douglas; Zariffard, M Reza; Mirmonsef, Paria; Landay, Alan; Zheng, Luyang; Gillevet, Patrick

    2012-10-01

    Vaginal bacterial communities play an important role in human health and have been shown to influence HIV infection. Pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) are used as an animal model of HIV vaginal infection of women. Since the bacterial microbiota could influence retrovirus infection of pigtailed macaques, the genital microbiota in 10 cycling macaques was determined by pyrosequencing. The microbiota of all macaques was polymicrobial with a median of 13 distinct genera. Strikingly, the genera Sneathia and Fusobacterium, both in the phylum Fusobacteria, accounted for 18.9% and 13.3% of sequences while the next most frequent were Prevotella (5.6%), Porphyromonas (4.1%), Atopobium (3.6%), and Parvimonas (2.6%). Sequences corresponding to Lactobacillus comprised only 2.2% of sequences on average and were essentially all L. amylovorus. Longitudinal sampling of the 10 macaques over an 8-week period, which spanned at least one full ovulatory cycle, showed a generally stable presence of the major types of bacteria with some exceptions. These studies show that the microbiota of the pigtailed macaques is substantially dissimilar to that found in most healthy humans, where the genital microbiota is usually dominated by Lactobacillus sp. The polymicrobial makeup of the macaque bacterial populations, the paucity of lactobacilli, and the specific types of bacteria present suggest that the pigtailed macaque microbiota could influence vaginal retrovirus infection. PMID:22264029

  3. Longitudinal Assessment of Pigtailed Macaque Lower Genital Tract Microbiota by Pyrosequencing Reveals Dissimilarity to the Genital Microbiota of Healthy Humans

    PubMed Central

    Kersh, Ellen; Guenthner, Patricia; Vishwanathan, Sundaram Ajay; Gilbert, Douglas; Zariffard, M. Reza; Mirmonsef, Paria; Landay, Alan; Zheng, Luyang; Gillevet, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Vaginal bacterial communities play an important role in human health and have been shown to influence HIV infection. Pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) are used as an animal model of HIV vaginal infection of women. Since the bacterial microbiota could influence retrovirus infection of pigtailed macaques, the genital microbiota in 10 cycling macaques was determined by pyrosequencing. The microbiota of all macaques was polymicrobial with a median of 13 distinct genera. Strikingly, the genera Sneathia and Fusobacterium, both in the phylum Fusobacteria, accounted for 18.9% and 13.3% of sequences while the next most frequent were Prevotella (5.6%), Porphyromonas (4.1%), Atopobium (3.6%), and Parvimonas (2.6%). Sequences corresponding to Lactobacillus comprised only 2.2% of sequences on average and were essentially all L. amylovorus. Longitudinal sampling of the 10 macaques over an 8-week period, which spanned at least one full ovulatory cycle, showed a generally stable presence of the major types of bacteria with some exceptions. These studies show that the microbiota of the pigtailed macaques is substantially dissimilar to that found in most healthy humans, where the genital microbiota is usually dominated by Lactobacillus sp. The polymicrobial makeup of the macaque bacterial populations, the paucity of lactobacilli, and the specific types of bacteria present suggest that the pigtailed macaque microbiota could influence vaginal retrovirus infection. PMID:22264029

  4. HIV-1 in genital tract and plasma of women: Compartmentalization of viral sequences, coreceptor usage, and glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    Kemal, Kimdar Sherefa; Foley, Brian; Burger, Harold; Anastos, Kathryn; Minkoff, Howard; Kitchen, Christina; Philpott, Sean M.; Gao, Wei; Robison, Esther; Holman, Susan; Dehner, Carolyn; Beck, Suzanne; Meyer, William A.; Landay, Alan; Kovacs, Andrea; Bremer, James; Weiser, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    Worldwide, 90% of HIV-1 infections are transmitted heterosexually. Because the genital mucosa are the sites of initial contact with HIV-1 for most exposed individuals, study of the virus from the genital tract is critical for the development of vaccines and therapeutics. Previous analyses of HIV-1 in various tissues have documented compartmentalization of viral genomes. Whether compartmentalization was associated with viral phenotypic differences or immune status, however, was not well understood. We compared HIV-1 gp120 env sequences from the genital tract and plasma of 12 women. Eight women displayed compartmentalized HIV-1 RNA genomes, with viral sequences from each site that were clearly discrete, yet phylogenetically related. The remaining four exhibited env sequences that were intermingled between the two sites. Women with compartmentalized HIV-1 genomes had higher CD4+ cell counts than those displaying intermingled strains (P = 0.02). Intrapatient HIV-1 recombinants comprising sequences that were characteristic of both sites were identified. We next compared viral phenotypes in each compartment. HIV-1 coreceptor usage was often compartmentalized (P ≤ 0.01). The number of N-linked glycosylation sites, associated with neutralization resistance, also differed between compartments (P < 0.01). Furthermore, disparities between the density of gp120 glycosylations in each compartment correlated with higher CD4+ counts (P = 0.03). These data demonstrate that the genital tract and plasma can harbor populations of replicating HIV-1 with different phenotypes. The association of higher CD4+ cell counts with compartmentalization of viral genomes and density of gp120 glycosylations suggests that the immune response influences the development of viral genotypes in each compartment. These findings are relevant to the prevention and control of HIV-1 infection. PMID:14557540

  5. Alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase enhances Neisseria gonorrhoeae survival during experimental murine genital tract infection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hong; Jerse, Ann E

    2006-07-01

    The addition of host-derived sialic acid to Neisseria gonorrhoeae lipooligosaccharide is hypothesized to be an important mechanism by which gonococci evade host innate defenses. This hypothesis is based primarily on in vitro assays of complement-mediated and phagocytic killing. Here we report that a nonpolar alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase (lst) mutant of N. gonorrhoeae was significantly attenuated in its capacity to colonize the lower genital tract of 17-beta estradiol-treated female BALB/c mice during competitive infection with the wild-type strain. Genetic complementation of the lst mutation restored recovery of the mutant to wild-type levels. Studies with B10.D2-HC(o)H2(d)H(2)-T18c/OSN (C5-deficient) mice showed that attenuation of the lst mutant was not due to increased sensitivity to complement-mediated bacteriolysis, a result that is consistent with recently reported host restrictions in the complement cascade. However, Lst-deficient gonococci were killed more rapidly than sialylated wild-type gonococci following intraperitoneal injection into normal mice, which is consistent with sialylation conferring protection against killing by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). As reported for human PMNs, sialylated gonococci were more resistant to killing by murine PMNs, and sialylation led to reduced association with and induction of a weaker respiratory burst in PMNs from estradiol-treated mice. In summary, these studies suggest sialylation confers a survival advantage to N. gonorrhoeae in mice by increasing resistance to PMN killing. This report is the first direct demonstration that alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase contributes to N. gonorrhoeae pathogenesis in an in vivo model. This study also validates the use of experimental murine infection to study certain aspects of gonococcal pathogenesis. PMID:16790783

  6. Does HIV Exploit the Inflammatory Milieu of the Male Genital Tract for Successful Infection?

    PubMed Central

    Esra, Rachel T.; Olivier, Abraham J.; Passmore, Jo-Ann S.; Jaspan, Heather B.; Harryparsad, Rushil; Gray, Clive M.

    2016-01-01

    In many parts of the World, medical male circumcision (MMC) is used as standard prevention of care against HIV infection. This is based on seminal reports made over 10 years ago that removal of the foreskin provides up to 60% protection against HIV infection in males and seems currently the best antiretroviral-free prevention strategy yet against the global epidemic. We explore the potential mechanisms by which MMC protects against HIV-1 acquisition and that one of the oldest, albeit re-invented, rituals of removing a foreskin underscores the exploitative nature of HIV on the anatomy and tissue of the uncircumcised penis. Furthermore, foreskin removal also reveals how males acquire HIV, and in reality, the underlying mechanisms of MMC are not known. We argue that the normal sequelae of inflammation in the male genital tract (MGT) for protection from sexually transmitted infections (STI)-induced pathology represents a perfect immune and microbial ecosystem for HIV acquisition. The accumulation of HIV-1 target cells in foreskin tissue and within the urethra in response to STIs, both during and after resolution of infection, suggests that acquisition of HIV-1, through sexual contact, makes use of the natural immune milieu of the MGT. Understanding immunity in the MGT, the movement of HIV-1 target cells to the urethra and foreskin tissue upon encounter with microbial signals would provide more insight into viral acquisition and lay the foundation for further prevention strategies in males that would be critical to curb the epidemic in all sexual partners at risk of infection. The global female-centric focus of HIV-1 transmission and acquisition research has tended to leave gaps in our knowledge of what determines HIV-1 acquisition in men and such understanding would provide a more balanced and complete view of viral acquisition.

  7. Does HIV Exploit the Inflammatory Milieu of the Male Genital Tract for Successful Infection?

    PubMed

    Esra, Rachel T; Olivier, Abraham J; Passmore, Jo-Ann S; Jaspan, Heather B; Harryparsad, Rushil; Gray, Clive M

    2016-01-01

    In many parts of the World, medical male circumcision (MMC) is used as standard prevention of care against HIV infection. This is based on seminal reports made over 10 years ago that removal of the foreskin provides up to 60% protection against HIV infection in males and seems currently the best antiretroviral-free prevention strategy yet against the global epidemic. We explore the potential mechanisms by which MMC protects against HIV-1 acquisition and that one of the oldest, albeit re-invented, rituals of removing a foreskin underscores the exploitative nature of HIV on the anatomy and tissue of the uncircumcised penis. Furthermore, foreskin removal also reveals how males acquire HIV, and in reality, the underlying mechanisms of MMC are not known. We argue that the normal sequelae of inflammation in the male genital tract (MGT) for protection from sexually transmitted infections (STI)-induced pathology represents a perfect immune and microbial ecosystem for HIV acquisition. The accumulation of HIV-1 target cells in foreskin tissue and within the urethra in response to STIs, both during and after resolution of infection, suggests that acquisition of HIV-1, through sexual contact, makes use of the natural immune milieu of the MGT. Understanding immunity in the MGT, the movement of HIV-1 target cells to the urethra and foreskin tissue upon encounter with microbial signals would provide more insight into viral acquisition and lay the foundation for further prevention strategies in males that would be critical to curb the epidemic in all sexual partners at risk of infection. The global female-centric focus of HIV-1 transmission and acquisition research has tended to leave gaps in our knowledge of what determines HIV-1 acquisition in men and such understanding would provide a more balanced and complete view of viral acquisition. PMID:27446076

  8. The Colposcopic Atlas of Schistosomiasis in the Lower Female Genital Tract Based on Studies in Malawi, Zimbabwe, Madagascar and South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Norseth, Hanne M.; Ndhlovu, Patricia D.; Kleppa, Elisabeth; Randrianasolo, Bodo S.; Jourdan, Peter M.; Roald, Borghild; Holmen, Sigve D.; Gundersen, Svein G.; Bagratee, Jayanthilall; Onsrud, Mathias; Kjetland, Eyrun F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Schistosoma (S.) haematobium is a neglected tropical disease which may affect any part of the genital tract in women. Female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) may cause abnormal vaginal discharge, contact bleeding, genital tumours, ectopic pregnancies and increased susceptibility to HIV. Symptoms may mimic those typical of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and women with genital schistosomiasis may be incorrectly diagnosed. An expert consensus meeting suggested that the following findings by visual inspection should serve as proxy indicators for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis of the lower genital tract in women from S. haematobium endemic areas: sandy patches appearing as (1) single or clustered grains or (2) sandy patches appearing as homogenous, yellow areas, or (3) rubbery papules. In this atlas we aim to provide an overview of the genital mucosal manifestations of schistosomiasis in women. Methodology/Principal findings Photocolposcopic images were captured from women, between 1994 and 2012 in four different study sites endemic for S. haematobium in Malawi, Zimbabwe, South Africa and Madagascar. Images and specimens were sampled from sexually active women between 15 and 49 years of age. Colposcopic images of other diseases are included for differential diagnostic purposes. Significance This is the first atlas to present the clinical manifestations of schistosomiasis in the lower female genital tract. It will be freely available for online use, downloadable as a presentation and for print. It could be used for training purposes, further research, and in clinical practice. PMID:25412334

  9. Therapeutic benefits of carbon dioxide (CO2) laser on single-site HPV lesions in the lower female genital tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urru, Giovanni; Moretti, Gianfranco

    1998-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown contradictory variable percentages of recurrent HPV lesions, after various therapies. The present study therefore evaluates the effectiveness of CO2 laser vaporization in the treatment of single-site HPV lesions of the lower female genital tract in order to confirm the conviction that physical therapy alone, in agreement with some findings reported in the literature, is capable of guaranteeing a high cure rate in selected patients. From January 1995 to June 1996, seventy- five female patients were treated with CO2 laser vaporization for single-site genital HPV lesions, some of which were associated with low-grade intra-epithelial neoplasia. The success rate after 12 months proved to be 97%. The pre-existing clinical symptoms disappeared in all the patients treated. No complication in the vaporization procedure was encountered.

  10. Comparison of Lower Genital Tract Microbiota in HIV-Infected and Uninfected Women from Rwanda and the US

    PubMed Central

    Benning, Lorie; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Anastos, Kathryn; French, Audrey L.; Cohen, Mardge; Gilbert, Douglas; Gillevet, Patrick; Munyazesa, Elisaphane; Landay, Alan L.; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Spear, Gregory T.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have shown that alterations of the bacterial microbiota in the lower female genital tract influence susceptibility to HIV infection and shedding. We assessed geographic differences in types of genital microbiota between HIV-infected and uninfected women from Rwanda and the United States. Methods Genera of lower genital tract bacterial microbiota were identified by high-throughput pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene from 46 US women (36 HIV-infected, 10 HIV-uninfected) and 40 Rwandan women (18 HIV-infected, 22 HIV-uninfected) with similar proportions of low (0–3) Nugent scores. Species of Lactobacillus were identified by assembling sequences along with reference sequences into phylogenetic trees. Prevalence of genera and Lactobacillus species were compared using Fisher's exact tests. Results Overall the seven most prevalent genera were Lactobacillus (74%), Prevotella (56%), Gardnerella (55%), Atopobium (42%), Sneathia (37%), Megasphaera (30%), and Parvimonas (26%), observed at similar prevalences comparing Rwandan to US women, except for Megasphaera (20% vs. 39%, p = 0.06). Additionally, Rwandan women had higher frequencies of Mycoplasma (23% vs. 7%, p = 0.06) and Eggerthella (13% vs. 0%, p = 0.02), and lower frequencies of Lachnobacterium (8% vs. 35%, p<0.01) and Allisonella (5% vs. 30%, p<0.01), compared with US women. The prevalence of Mycoplasma was highest (p<0.05) in HIV-infected Rwandan women (39%), compared to HIV-infected US women (6%), HIV-uninfected Rwandan (9%) and US (10%) women. The most prevalent lactobacillus species in both Rwandan and US women was L. iners (58% vs. 76%, p = 0.11), followed by L. crispatus (28% vs. 30%, p = 0.82), L. jensenii (20% vs. 24%, p = 0.80), L. gasseri (20% vs. 11%, p = 0.37) and L. vaginalis (20% vs. 7%, p = 0.10). Discussion We found similar prevalence of most major bacterial genera and Lactobacillus species in Rwandan and US women. Further work will be

  11. Changes in HIV-1 Subtypes B and C Genital Tract RNA in Women and Men After Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Fiscus, Susan A.; Cu-Uvin, Susan; Eshete, Abel Tilahun; Hughes, Michael D.; Bao, Yajing; Hosseinipour, Mina; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Badal-Faesen, Sharlaa; Dragavon, Joan; Coombs, Robert W.; Braun, Ken; Moran, Laura; Hakim, James; Flanigan, Timothy; Kumarasamy, N.; Campbell, Thomas B.; Klingman, Karin L.; Nair, Apsara; Walawander, Ann; Smeaton, Laura M.; De Gruttola, Victor; Martinez, Ana I.; Swann, Edith; Barnett, Ronald L.; Brizz, Barbara; Delph, Yvette; Gettinger, Nikki; Mitsuyasu, Ronald T.; Eshleman, Susan; Safren, Steven; Andrade, Adriana; Haas, David W.; Amod, Farida; Berthaud, Vladimir; Bollinger, Robert C.; Bryson, Yvonne; Celentano, David; Chilongozi, David; Cohen, Myron; Collier, Ann C.; Currier, Judith Silverstein; Eron, Joseph; Firnhaber, Cynthia; Flexner, Charles; Gallant, Joel E.; Gulick, Roy M.; Hammer, Scott M.; Hoffman, Irving; Kazembe, Peter; Kumwenda, Johnstone; Kumwenda, Newton; Lama, Javier R.; Lawrence, Jody; Maponga, Chiedza; Martinson, Francis; Mayer, Kenneth; Nielsen, Karin; Pendame, Richard B.; Ramratnam, Bharat; Rooney, James F.; Sanchez, Jorge; Sanne, Ian; Schooley, Robert T.; Snowden, Wendy; Solomon, Suniti; Tabet, Steve; Taha, Taha; Uy, Jonathan; van der Horst, Charles; Wanke, Christine; Gormley, Joan; Marcus, Cheryl J.; Putnam, Beverly; Ntshele, Smanga; Loeliger, Edde; Pappa, Keith A.; Webb, Nancy; Shugarts, David L.; Winters, Mark A.; Descallar, Renard S.; Sharma, Jabin; Poongulali, S.; Cardoso, Sandra Wagner; Faria, Deise Lucia; Berendes, Sima; Burke, Kelly; Kanyama, Cecelia; Kayoyo, Virginia; Samaneka, Wadzanai P.; Chisada, Anthony; Santos, Breno; La Rosa, Alberto; Infante, Rosa; Balfour, Henry H.; Mullan, Beth; Kim, Ge-Youl; Klebert, Michael K.; Mildvan, Donna; Revuelta, Manuel; Jan Geiseler, P.; Santos, Bartolo; Daar, Eric S.; Lopez, Ruben; Frarey, Laurie; Currin, David; Haas, David H.; Bailey, Vicki L.; Tebas, Pablo; Zifchak, Larisa; Sha, Beverly E.; Fritsche, Janice M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) reduces genital tract human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) load and reduces the risk of sexual transmission, but little is known about the efficacy of cART for decreasing genital tract viral load (GTVL) and differences in sex or HIV-1 subtype. Methods. HIV-1 RNA from blood plasma, seminal plasma, or cervical wicks was quantified at baseline and at weeks 48 and 96 after entry in a randomized clinical trial of 3 cART regimens. Results. One hundred fifty-eight men and 170 women from 7 countries were studied (men: 55% subtype B and 45% subtype C; women: 24% subtype B and 76% subtype C). Despite similar baseline CD4+ cell counts and blood plasma viral loads, women with subtype C had the highest GTVL (median, 5.1 log10 copies/mL) compared to women with subtype B and men with subtype C or B (4.0, 4.0, and 3.8 log10 copies/mL, respectively; P < .001). The proportion of participants with a GTVL below the lower limit of quantification (LLQ) at week 48 (90%) and week 96 (90%) was increased compared to baseline (16%; P < .001 at both times). Women were significantly less likely to have GTVL below the LLQ compared to men (84% vs 94% at week 48, P = .006; 84% vs 97% at week 96, P = .002), despite a more sensitive assay for seminal plasma than for cervical wicks. No difference in GTVL response across the 3 cART regimens was detected. Conclusions. The female genital tract may serve as a reservoir of persistent HIV-1 replication during cART and affect the use of cART to prevent sexual and perinatal transmission of HIV-1. PMID:23532477

  12. Preliminary study of the flora in the lower genital tracts of sexually active adolescent females in relation to symptoms and inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Russo, J F; Ronkin, S; Furness, G

    1981-03-01

    The lower genital tracts of 20 sexually active adolescent females were examined for the presence of Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Corynebacterium genitalium, and Corynebacterium pseudogenitalium. Fifty percent of the asymptomatic adolescent females and 50% of the symptomatic adolescent females were colonized with M. hominis, which is higher than the percentage reported in adult females. None of the asymptomatic adolescent females and only 10% of the symptomatic adolescent females were colonized with U. urealyticum, which is much lower than the percentage reported in adults. None of the study patients was colonized with C. genitalium, but 25% were colonized with C. pseudogenitalium. No relationship was found between the presence of M. hominis in the lower genital tract and a clinically identifiable vaginal discharge or inflammatory changes in exfoliated cervical and vaginal epithelial cells. The presence of M.hominis in the lower genital tract does not appear to be influenced by use of oral contraceptives or antecedent pregnancy. PMID:7333925

  13. Interleukin-17 contributes to generation of Th1 immunity and neutrophil recruitment during Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infection but is not required for macrophage influx or normal resolution of infection.

    PubMed

    Scurlock, Amy M; Frazer, Lauren C; Andrews, Charles W; O'Connell, Catherine M; Foote, Isaac P; Bailey, Sarabeth L; Chandra-Kuntal, Kumar; Kolls, Jay K; Darville, Toni

    2011-03-01

    Interleukin 17 (IL-17) contributes to development of Th1 immunity and neutrophil influx during Chlamydia muridarum pulmonary infection, but its role during C. muridarum genital tract infection has not been described. We detected similar numbers of Chlamydia-specific Th17 and Th1 cells in iliac nodes of wild-type mice early during genital C. muridarum infection, while Th1 cells predominated later. il17ra(-/-) mice exhibited a reduced chlamydia-specific Th1 response in draining iliac nodes and decreased local IFN-γ production. Neutrophil influx into the genital tract was also decreased. However, il17ra(-/-) mice resolved infection normally, and no difference in pathology was observed compared to the wild type. Macrophage influx and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) production were increased in il17ra(-/-) mice, providing a compensatory mechanism to effectively control chlamydial genital tract infection despite a reduced Th1 response. In ifnγ(-/-) mice, a marked increase in cellular infiltrates and chronic pathology was associated with an increased Th17 response. Although neutralization of IL-17 in ifnγ(-/-) mice decreased neutrophil influx, macrophage infiltration remained intact and the bacterial burden was not increased. Collectively, these results indicate that IL-17 contributes to the generation of Th1 immunity and neutrophil recruitment but is not required for macrophage influx or normal resolution of C. muridarum genital infection. These data highlight the redundant immune mechanisms operative at this mucosal site and the importance of examining site-specific responses to mucosal pathogens. PMID:21149587

  14. Interleukin-17 Contributes to Generation of Th1 Immunity and Neutrophil Recruitment during Chlamydia muridarum Genital Tract Infection but Is Not Required for Macrophage Influx or Normal Resolution of Infection ▿

    PubMed Central

    Scurlock, Amy M.; Frazer, Lauren C.; Andrews, Charles W.; O'Connell, Catherine M.; Foote, Isaac P.; Bailey, Sarabeth L.; Chandra-Kuntal, Kumar; Kolls, Jay K.; Darville, Toni

    2011-01-01

    Interleukin 17 (IL-17) contributes to development of Th1 immunity and neutrophil influx during Chlamydia muridarum pulmonary infection, but its role during C. muridarum genital tract infection has not been described. We detected similar numbers of Chlamydia-specific Th17 and Th1 cells in iliac nodes of wild-type mice early during genital C. muridarum infection, while Th1 cells predominated later. il17ra−/− mice exhibited a reduced chlamydia-specific Th1 response in draining iliac nodes and decreased local IFN-γ production. Neutrophil influx into the genital tract was also decreased. However, il17ra−/− mice resolved infection normally, and no difference in pathology was observed compared to the wild type. Macrophage influx and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) production were increased in il17ra−/− mice, providing a compensatory mechanism to effectively control chlamydial genital tract infection despite a reduced Th1 response. In ifnγ−/− mice, a marked increase in cellular infiltrates and chronic pathology was associated with an increased Th17 response. Although neutralization of IL-17 in ifnγ−/− mice decreased neutrophil influx, macrophage infiltration remained intact and the bacterial burden was not increased. Collectively, these results indicate that IL-17 contributes to the generation of Th1 immunity and neutrophil recruitment but is not required for macrophage influx or normal resolution of C. muridarum genital infection. These data highlight the redundant immune mechanisms operative at this mucosal site and the importance of examining site-specific responses to mucosal pathogens. PMID:21149587

  15. The Chromosome-Encoded Hypothetical Protein TC0668 Is an Upper Genital Tract Pathogenicity Factor of Chlamydia muridarum

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Turner Allen; Gong, Siqi; Yang, Zhangsheng; Matulich, Patrick; Keck, Jonathon; Beltrami, Noah; Chen, Chaoqun; Zhou, Zhou; Dai, Jin

    2015-01-01

    We previously associated a missense mutation of the tc0668 gene of serial in vitro-passaged Chlamydia muridarum, a murine model of human urogenital C. trachomatis, with severely attenuated disease development in the upper genital tract of female mice. Since these mutants also contained a TC0237 Q117E missense mutation that enhances their in vitro infectivity, an effort was made here to isolate and characterize a tc0668 single mutant to determine its individual contribution to urogenital pathogenicity. Detailed genetic analysis of C. muridarum passages revealed a truncated variant with a G216* nonsense mutation of the 408-amino-acid TC0668 protein that does not produce a detectable product. Intracellular growth and infectivity of C. muridarum in vitro remain unaffected in the absence of TC0668. Intravaginal inoculation of the TC0668 null mutant into C3H/HeJ mice results in a typical course of lower genital tract infection but, unlike a pathogenic isogenic control, is unable to elicit significant chronic inflammation of the oviduct and fails to induce hydrosalpinx. Thus, TC0668 is demonstrated as an important chromosome-encoded urogenital pathogenicity factor of C. muridarum and the first with these characteristics to be discovered for a Chlamydia pathogen. PMID:26597987

  16. Isolation and identification of Taylorella asinigenitalis from the genital tract of a stallion, first case of a natural infection.

    PubMed

    Båverud, V; Nyström, C; Johansson, K-E

    2006-09-10

    Contagious equine metritis (CEM), caused by Taylorella equigenitalis, is a widely known highly contagious genital equine disease that is transmitted venereally. A new bacterium, Taylorella asinigenitalis resembling T. equigenitalis was recently isolated from three American donkey jacks, at routine testing for CEM. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize a strain of Taylorella sp. from the genital tract of a stallion. Swab samples for culture of T. equigenitalis were taken from urethral fossa, urethra and penile sheath of a 3-year-old stallion of the Ardennes breed when it was routinely tested for CEM. A small Gram-negative rod was isolated, but the colony appearance, the slow growth rate and the results in the API ZYM test differed slightly from those of T. equigenitalis. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was therefore performed and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the sequence of the strain Bd 3751/05 represents T. asinigenitalis and that the strain is identical with the Californian asinine strain UCD-1T (ATCC 700933T). The T. asinigenitalis strain had a low MIC of gentamicin (MIC16 microg/ml). Taylorella asinigenitalis has thus for the first time been isolated from the genital tract of a stallion with a natural infection. To determine the pathogenicity of T. asinigenitalis it will be important to conduct further experimental studies. Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA genes was shown to be a reliable tool for differentiation of T. asinigenitalis from T. equigenitalis as well as for identification of these species. PMID:16793226

  17. Characteristics and Quantities of HIV Host Cells in Human Genital Tract Secretions

    PubMed Central

    Politch, Joseph A.; Marathe, Jai; Anderson, Deborah J.

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected leukocytes have been detected in genital secretions from HIV-infected men and women and may play an important role in the sexual transmission of HIV. However, they have been largely overlooked in studies on mechanisms of HIV transmission and in the design and testing of HIV vaccine and microbicide candidates. This article describes the characteristics and quantities of leukocytes in male and female genital secretions under various conditions and also reviews evidence for the involvement of HIV-infected cells in both horizontal and vertical cell-associated HIV transmission. Additional research is needed in this area to better target HIV prevention strategies. PMID:25414414

  18. Normal Morphology and Hormone Receptor Expression in the Male California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) Genital Tract

    PubMed Central

    Colegrove, Kathleen M.; Gulland, Frances M. D.; Naydan, Diane K.; Lowenstine, Linda J.

    2010-01-01

    Histomorphology and estrogen α (ER α), and progesterone receptor (PR) expression were evaluated in free-ranging stranded male California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Hormone receptor expression was evaluated using an immunohistochemical technique with monoclonal antibodies. Estrogen and progesterone receptors were identified in the efferent ductules, prostate gland, corpus cavernosa, corpus spongiosium, penile urethra, and in the epithelium and stroma of both the penis and prepuce. In the some tissues, ER α expression was more intense in the stroma, emphasizing the importance of the stroma in hormone – mediated growth and differentiation of reproductive organs. To our knowledge, this is the first study to localize ER α and PR to the epithelium of the glans penis. The results of this investigation add to the general knowledge of male California sea lion reproduction and suggest that estrogens could have a role in the function of the male reproductive tract. PMID:19768750

  19. ABH-related antigens in human male genital tract. A histochemical examination.

    PubMed

    Nishi, K; Fukunaga, T; Yamamoto, Y; Yamada, M; Kane, M; Tanegashima, A; Rand, S; Brinkmann, B

    1992-01-01

    The localization of ABH related antigens in human male reproductive tract was examined using monoclonal antibodies and an avidin biotin complex method. No positive reaction with blood group antibodies on spermatozoa was observed in testis and ductus epididymidis apart from erythrocytes and endothelial cells. The expression of ABH and ABH related antigens in ductuli efferents testis, ductus epididymidis, seminal vesicle and prostate was complexly coded by a combination of H, Se, Le and X genes. The results obtained in this study indicate that the ABH antigens detected on spermatozoa of seminal stains are coating antigens and not inherent to the cell membrane, and the ABO, H, Se, Le and X genes are subjected to a tissue-dependent differential expression. PMID:1520640

  20. Epidemiology and natural history of human papillomavirus infections in the female genital tract.

    PubMed

    Ault, Kevin A

    2006-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common newly diagnosed sexually transmitted infection in the United States. Although the majority of sexually active adults will be infected with HPV at least once in their lives, it is sexually active women less than 25 years of age who consistently have the highest rates of infection. Besides youth and gender, common risk factors for HPV infection and clinical sequelae of infection include high number of sexual partners and coinfection with Chlamydia trachomatis or herpes simplex virus. Most HPV infections are cleared by the immune system and do not result in clinical complications. Clinical sequelae in cases of low-risk HPV infection consist of genital warts, and clinical manifestations of high-risk HPV infection include abnormal Pap test results, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), and cervical cancer. LSIL, HSIL, and cervical cancer carry significant morbidity and/or mortality; genital warts and abnormal Pap test results are often significant sources of psychosocial distress. Currently, there are neither effective means of preventing HPV transmission nor cures for clinical manifestations: infection can only be prevented via complete sexual abstinence, while treatment for clinical sequelae such as genital warts and cytologic abnormalities consists of removing the problematic cells and watching for recurrence; this method consumes significant health care resources and is costly. New prophylactic HPV vaccines promise to dramatically reduce the incidence of HPV infection, genital warts, and cytologic abnormalities. PMID:16967912

  1. gp340 Promotes Transcytosis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 in Genital Tract-Derived Cell Lines and Primary Endocervical Tissue▿

    PubMed Central

    Stoddard, Earl; Ni, Houping; Cannon, Georgetta; Zhou, Chunhui; Kallenbach, Neville; Malamud, Daniel; Weissman, Drew

    2009-01-01

    The human scavenger receptor gp340 has been identified as a binding protein for the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope that is expressed on the cell surface of female genital tract epithelial cells. This interaction allows such epithelial cells to efficiently transmit infective virus to susceptible targets and maintain viral infectivity for several days. Within the context of vaginal transmission, HIV must first traverse a normally protective mucosa containing a cell barrier to reach the underlying T cells and dendritic cells, which propagate and spread the infection. The mechanism by which HIV-1 can bypass an otherwise healthy cellular barrier remains an important area of study. Here, we demonstrate that genital tract-derived cell lines and primary human endocervical tissue can support direct transcytosis of cell-free virus from the apical to basolateral surfaces. Further, this transport of virus can be blocked through the addition of antibodies or peptides that directly block the interaction of gp340 with the HIV-1 envelope, if added prior to viral pulsing on the apical side of the cell or tissue barrier. Our data support a role for the previously described heparan sulfate moieties in mediating this transcytosis but add gp340 as an important facilitator of HIV-1 transcytosis across genital tract tissue. This study demonstrates that HIV-1 actively traverses the protective barriers of the human genital tract and presents a second mechanism whereby gp340 can promote heterosexual transmission. PMID:19553331

  2. Targeting the Genital Tract Mucosa with a Lipopeptide/Recombinant Adenovirus Prime/Boost Vaccine Induces Potent and Long-Lasting CD8+ T Cell Immunity Against Herpes: Importance of Myeloid Differentiation Factor 881

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiuli; Dervillez, Xavier; Chentoufi, Aziz Alami; Badakhshan, Tina; Bettahi, Ilham; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2012-01-01

    Targeting the mucosal immune system of the genital tract (GT) with subunit vaccines failed to induce potent and durable local CD8+ T cell immunity, crucial for protection against many sexually transmitted viral (STV) pathogens, including herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) that causes genital herpes. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential of a novel lipopeptide/adenovirus type 5 (Lipo/rAdv5) prime/boost mucosal vaccine for induction of CD8+ T cell immunity to protect the female genital tract from herpes. The lipopeptide and the rAdv5 vaccine express the immunodominant HSV-2 CD8+ T cell epitope (gB498-505) and both were delivered intravaginally (IVAG) in the progesterone-induced B6 mouse model of genital herpes. Compared to its homologous lipopeptide/lipopeptide (Lipo/Lipo); the Lipo/rAdv5 prime/boost immunized mice: (i) developed potent and sustained HSV-specific CD8+ T cells, detected in both the GT draining nodes (GT-DLN) and in the vaginal mucosa (VM); (ii) had significantly lower virus titers; (iii) had decreased overt signs of genital herpes disease; and (iv) did not succumb to lethal infection (p < 0.005), following intravaginal HSV-2 challenge. Polyfunctional CD8+ T cells, producing IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2 and exhibiting cytotoxic activity, were associated with protection (p < 0.005). The protective CD8+ T cell response was significantly compromised in the absence of the adaptor myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) (p = 0.0001). Taken together, these findings indicate that targeting the VM with a Lipo/rAdv5 prime/boost vaccine elicits a potent, MyD88-dependent, and long-lasting mucosal CD8+ T cell protective immunity against sexually transmitted herpes infection and disease. PMID:23018456

  3. Prevalence of infectious diseases in Bangladeshi women living adjacent to a truck stand: HIV/STD/hepatitis/genital tract infections

    PubMed Central

    Gibney, L.; Macaluso, M.; Kirk, K.; Hassan, M; Schwebke, J.; Vermund, S.; Choudhury, P.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Little is known about infection rates for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other diseases that can be transmitted sexually in Bangladeshi women who may be at intermediate levels of risk—that is, women who are not commercial sex workers (CSWs) but whose sexual contacts may include men at high risk for STD. This study examines HIV/hepatitis/STD and other genital tract infections in women living near Tejgaon truck stand in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Methods: This population based study was conducted from January to December 1998. A random sample of 384 women provided urine and blood samples and participated in an interview; 261 of them also had a physical examination in which vaginal and cervical specimens were taken. Laboratory tests included PCR on urine and cervical swabs for gonorrhoea and chlamydia, culture for trichomoniasis, serology tests for syphilis, herpes simplex 2, hepatitis B, C, D, HIV1, HIV2, and clinical diagnoses of other genital tract infections. Results: None of the participants tested positive for HIV. In the 261 women who had a physical examination, trichomoniasis was detected in 19.5%, chlamydia in 3.4%, gonorrhoea in 5.4%, bacterial vaginosis in 37.2%, and candidiasis in 10%. In the full sample of 384 women, with tests of urine and blood, prevalence of infection with chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis, and herpes simplex 2 was detected in 0%, 6.3%, 5.7%, and 32% respectively. Almost 50% of the subjects had ever been exposed to hepatitis B, 3.6% were currently infective, 1.6% had hepatitis C, and none had hepatitis D. Conclusion: The high prevalence of certain of these infectious diseases indicates the need to implement prevention interventions with these women and, perhaps more importantly, with their male partners. Qualitative research is needed to provide insights into their sexual behaviour and the contexts in which high risk behaviours occur. Key Words: sexually transmitted diseases; Bangladesh; truck drivers PMID:11588280

  4. Uptake of tenofovir and emtricitabine into non-monocytic female genital tract cells with and without hormonal contraceptives

    PubMed Central

    James, Amanda Marie; King, Jennifer R; Ofotokun, Ighovwerha; Sheth, Anandi N; Acosta, Edward P

    2013-01-01

    Background Pre-exposure prophylaxis is becoming a strategic component used to control the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) epidemic. The goal of this study was to characterize intracellular uptake of tenofovir and emtricitabine using five surrogate cell lines of the female genital tract and determine whether exogenous hormones influence their uptake. Methods Surrogate cell lines, ie, THP-1 (representing macrophages), BC-3 (CD8+), Ect1/E6E7 (squamous epithelial), HeLa (CD4+), and TF-1 (dendritic), were incubated for one hour with tenofovir and emtricitabine to assess uptake. In separate experiments, ethinyl estradiol (EE) and etonogestrel (ET) individually and together (EE/ET) were added prior to, simultaneously, and after incubation. Intracellular phosphorylated tenofovir and emtricitabine were quantified using validated tandem mass spectrometry methods. Results HeLa and Ect1/E6E7 cells showed significantly increased uptake relative to THP-1 controls for both antiretrovirals. Individually, ethinyl estradiol and etonogestrel significantly altered antiretroviral uptake across all cell lines, except Ect1/E6E7 for tenofovir and HeLa for emtricitabine. Cellular uptake of tenofovir and emtricitabine in BC-3 and TF-1 cells were significantly lower when dosed one hour prior to EE/ET administration compared with each antiretroviral administered in the absence of EE/ET (tenofovir, 80 versus 470 fmol/106 for BC-3 and 77 versus 506 fmol/106 cells for TF-1; emtricitabine, 36 versus 12 fmol/106 for BC-3 and 75 versus 5 fmol/106 cells for TF-1; P < 0.01 for each). Conclusion These data suggest that intracellular uptake of tenofovir and emtricitabine within the female genital tract varies by cell type and in the presence of hormonal contraceptives. The potential clinical implications of these findings should be further evaluated in vivo.

  5. Selection for a CEACAM receptor-specific binding phenotype during Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection of the human genital tract.

    PubMed

    Sintsova, Anna; Wong, Henry; MacDonald, Kelly S; Kaul, Rupert; Virji, Mumtaz; Gray-Owen, Scott D

    2015-04-01

    Infections by Neisseria gonorrhoeae are increasingly common, are often caused by antibiotic-resistant strains, and can result in serious and lasting sequelae, prompting the reemergence of gonococcal disease as a leading global health concern. N. gonorrhoeae is a human-restricted pathogen that primarily colonizes urogenital mucosal surfaces. Disease progression varies greatly between the sexes: men usually present with symptomatic infection characterized by a painful purulent urethral discharge, while in women, the infection is often asymptomatic, with the most severe pathology occurring when the bacteria ascend from the lower genital tract into the uterus and fallopian tubes. Classical clinical studies demonstrated that clinically infectious strains uniformly express Opa adhesins; however, their specificities were unknown at the time. While in vitro studies have since identified CEACAM proteins as the primary target of Opa proteins, the gonococcal specificity for this human family of receptors has not been addressed in the context of natural infection. In this study, we characterize a collection of low-passage-number clinical-specimen-derived N. gonorrhoeae isolates for Opa expression and assess their CEACAM-binding profiles. We report marked in vivo selection for expression of phase-variable Opa proteins that bind CEACAM1 and CEACAM5 but selection against expression of Opa variants that bind to the neutrophil-restricted decoy receptor CEACAM3. This is the first study showing phenotypic selection for distinct CEACAM-binding phenotypes in vivo, and it supports the opposing functions of CEACAMs that facilitate infection versus driving inflammation within the genital tract. PMID:25605771

  6. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Mycoplasmas and Chlamydiae in patients with genital tract infections in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    He, Meiling; Xie, Yanping; Zhang, Ruixia; Gao, Song; Xu, Guangmei; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Peipei; Li, Yuanyuan; Wu, Shuyan

    2016-08-01

    The infections of Mycoplasmas and Chlamydiae are still severe in patients with genital tract diseases and antimicrobial resistance for these organisms has been changing in recent years. In this study, we reported the prevalence status of Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma hominis and Chlamydia trachomatis in 965 patients with genital tract infection in Shanghai from January 2011 to December 2014 and analyzed the antimicrobial resistance of U. urealyticum and M. hominis to 12 kinds of antimicrobial drugs by using commercial kits and SPSS13.0 software. Here, we found the infection of U. urealyticum was the most frequent among these three organisms. The total infection rate for containing any organisms of them was 49.5%, and it has been increasing in recent 4 years. Positive rate in female (53.3%) was higher than male's (34.8%), and the high risk population was 20-39 years old (56.7%). Besides, U. urealyticum and M. hominis displayed relative lower resistance rates to minocycline, doxycycline, josamycin and gatifloxacin (6.5%, 7.2%, 13.5% and 8.6%, respectively). However, for erythromycin, roxithromycin, thiamphenicol and clindamycin, the resistance rates were relatively high (41.9%, 47.2%, 62.3% and 74.9%, respectively). U. urealyticum and M. hominis displayed a declined trend of the antimicrobial resistance to 12 kinds of drugs detected in this study. In total, these preliminary data showed the prevalence of Mycoplasmas and Chlamydiae in patients and the antimicrobial resistance status of Mycoplasmas, which has use for reference on both prevention and treatment of diseases caused by them. PMID:27324895

  7. Deslorelin implants in pre-pubertal female dogs: short- and long-term effects on the genital tract.

    PubMed

    Marino, G; Rizzo, S; Quartuccio, M; Macrì, F; Pagano, G; Taormina, A; Cristarella, S; Zanghì, A

    2014-04-01

    Deslorelin acetate is a GnRH agonist used for contraception in dogs. This study aimed to evaluate the treatment of pre-pubertal female dogs with deslorelin acetate implants, to better investigate the primary stimulatory effect of the drug and the long-term effects on the genital tract, throughout repeated treatments. Sicilian hound female dogs (24) were randomly assigned to treated group, control group 1 and control group 2. First group bitches were implanted at 4.5, 9.0 and 13.5 months and monitored clinically, ultrasonographically and endocrinologically, throughout the study period (13.5 months). Control group 1 bitches were not implanted and clinically monitored for the same period. At 18 months, the animals underwent ovariohysterectomy, thus allowing evaluation of the internal genitalia. Control group 2 bitches were ovariohysterectomized at the age of 4.5 months. The suppression of oestrus was obtained in the treated group despite the fact that the first implant caused a modest increase in plasmatic levels of 17-beta estradiol and an evident cornification of the vaginal mucosa cells (50-80%). Estradiol and progesterone were at baseline levels for the remaining study period, in which no other oestrous manifestations were observed. The external genitalia maintained a juvenile appearance. The ovaries, ultrasonographically, showed no follicular structures and stayed the same size. At 18 months, the genital tract was still juvenile with inactive small ovaries and a thin filiform uterus. Deslorelin suppressed ovarian activity in pre-pubertal bitches, and oestrous induction was not observed despite the presence of the primary stimulatory effect of the drug. Juvenile genitalia were an expected side effect of the treatment. PMID:24467617

  8. Diagnosis and staging of female genital tract melanocytic lesions using pump-probe microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles, Francisco E.; Selim, Maria A.; Warren, Warren S.

    2016-02-01

    Melanoma of the vulva is the second most common type of malignancy afflicting that organ. This disease caries poor prognosis, and shows tendencies to recur locally and develop distant metastases through hematogenous dissemination. Further, there exists significant clinical overlap between early-stage melanomas and melanotic macules, benign lesions that are believed to develop in about 10% of the general female population. In this work we apply a novel nonlinear optical method, pump-probe microscopy, to quantitatively analyze female genitalia tract melanocytic lesions. Pump-probe microscopy provides chemical information of endogenous pigments by probing their electronic excited state dynamics, with subcellular resolution. Using unstained biopsy sections from 31 patients, we find significant differences between melanin type and structure in tissue regions with invasive melanoma, melanoma in-situ and non-malignant melanocytic proliferations (e.g., nevi, melanocytic macules). The molecular images of non-malignant lesion have a well-organized structure, with relatively homogenous pigment chemistry, most often consistent with that of eumelanin with large aggregate size or void of metals, such as iron. On the other hand, pigment type and structure observed in melanomas in-situ and invasive melanomas is typically much more heterogeneous, with larger contributions from pheomelanin, melanins with larger metal content, and/or melanins with smaller aggregate size. Of most significance, clear differences can be observed between melanocytic macules and vulvar melanoma in-situ, which, as discussed above, can be difficult to clinically distinguish. This initial study demonstrates pump-probe microscopy's potential as an adjuvant diagnostic tool by revealing systematic chemical and morphological differences in melanin pigmentation among invasive melanoma, melanoma in-situ and non-malignant melanocytic lesions.

  9. Intravaginal Chlamydia trachomatis Challenge Infection Elicits TH1 and TH17 Immune Responses in Mice That Promote Pathogen Clearance and Genital Tract Damage.

    PubMed

    Vicetti Miguel, Rodolfo D; Quispe Calla, Nirk E; Pavelko, Stephen D; Cherpes, Thomas L

    2016-01-01

    While ascension of Chlamydia trachomatis into the upper genital tract of women can cause pelvic inflammatory disease and Fallopian tube damage, most infections elicit no symptoms or overt upper genital tract pathology. Consistent with this asymptomatic clinical presentation, genital C. trachomatis infection of women generates robust TH2 immunity. As an animal model that modeled this response would be invaluable for delineating bacterial pathogenesis and human host defenses, herein we explored if pathogen-specific TH2 immunity is similarly elicited by intravaginal (ivag) infection of mice with oculogenital C. trachomatis serovars. Analogous to clinical infection, ascension of primary C. trachomatis infection into the mouse upper genital tract produced no obvious tissue damage. Clearance of ivag challenge infection was mediated by interferon (IFN)-γ-producing CD4+ T cells, while IFN-γ signaling blockade concomitant with a single ivag challenge promoted tissue damage by enhancing Chlamydia-specific TH17 immunity. Likewise, IFN-γ and IL-17 signaling blockade or CD4+ T cell depletion eliminated the genital pathology produced in untreated controls by multiple ivag challenge infections. Conversely, we were unable to detect formation of pathogen-specific TH2 immunity in C. trachomatis-infected mice. Together, our work revealed C. trachomatis infection of mice generates TH1 and TH17 immune responses that promote pathogen clearance and immunopathological tissue damage. Absence of Chlamydia-specific TH2 immunity in these mice newly highlights the need to identify experimental models of C. trachomatis genital infection that more closely recapitulate the human host response. PMID:27606424

  10. The Duration of Chlamydia muridarum Genital Tract Infection and Associated Chronic Pathological Changes Are Reduced in IL-17 Knockout Mice but Protection Is Not Increased Further by Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Andrew, Dean W.; Cochrane, Melanie; Schripsema, Justin H.; Ramsey, Kyle H.; Dando, Samantha J.; O’Meara, Connor P.; Timms, Peter; Beagley, Kenneth W.

    2013-01-01

    IL-17 is believed to be important for protection against extracellular pathogens, where clearance is dependent on neutrophil recruitment and local activation of epithelial cell defences. However, the role of IL-17 in protection against intracellular pathogens such as Chlamydia is less clear. We have compared (i) the course of natural genital tract C. muridarum infection, (ii) the development of oviduct pathology and (iii) the development of vaccine-induced immunity against infection in wild type (WT) BALB/c and IL-17 knockout mice (IL-17-/-) to determine if IL-17-mediated immunity is implicated in the development of infection-induced pathology and/or protection. Both the magnitude and duration of genital infection was significantly reduced in IL-17-/- mice compared to BALB/c. Similarly, hydrosalpinx was also greatly reduced in IL-17-/- mice and this correlated with reduced neutrophil and macrophage infiltration of oviduct tissues. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 and MMP2 were increased in WT oviducts compared to IL-17-/- animals at day 7 post-infection. In contrast, oviducts from IL-17-/- mice contained higher MMP9 and MMP2 at day 21. Infection also elicited higher levels of Chlamydia-neutralizing antibody in serum of IL-17-/- mice than WT mice. Following intranasal immunization with C. muridarum Major Outer Membrane Protein (MOMP) and cholera toxin plus CpG adjuvants, significantly higher levels of chlamydial MOMP-specific IgG and IgA were found in serum and vaginal washes of IL-17-/- mice. T cell proliferation and IFNγ production by splenocytes was greater in WT animals following in vitro re-stimulation, however vaccination was only effective at reducing infection in WT, not IL-17-/- mice. Intranasal or transcutaneous immunization protected WT but not IL-17-/- mice against hydrosalpinx development. Our data show that in the absence of IL-17, the severity of C. muridarum genital infection and associated oviduct pathology are significantly attenuated, however

  11. High Level of Soluble HLA-G in the Female Genital Tract of Beninese Commercial Sex Workers Is Associated with HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Thibodeau, Valérie; Lajoie, Julie; Labbé, Annie-Claude; Zannou, Marcel D.; Fowke, Keith R.; Alary, Michel; Poudrier, Johanne; Roger, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Background Most HIV infections are transmitted across mucosal epithelium. Understanding the role of innate and specific mucosal immunity in susceptibility or protection against HIV infection, as well as the effect of HIV infection on mucosal immunity, are of fundamental importance. HLA-G is a powerful modulator of the immune response. The aim of this study was to investigate whether soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) expression in the female genital tract is associated with HIV-1 infection. Methods and Findings Genital levels of sHLA-G were determined in 52 HIV-1-uninfected and 44 antiretroviral naïve HIV-1-infected female commercial sex workers (CSWs), as well as 71 HIV-1-uninfected non-CSW women at low risk of exposure, recruited in Cotonou, Benin. HIV-1-infected CSWs had higher genital levels of sHLA-G compared with those in both the HIV-1-uninfected CSW (P = 0.009) and non-CSW groups (P = 0.0006). The presence of bacterial vaginosis (P = 0.008), and HLA-G*01:01:02 genotype (P = 0.002) were associated with higher genital levels of sHLA-G in the HIV-1-infected CSWs, whereas the HLA-G*01:04:04 genotype was also associated with higher genital level of sHLA-G in the overall population (P = 0.038). When adjustment was made for all significant variables, the increased expression of sHLA-G in the genital mucosa remained significantly associated with both HIV-1 infection (P = 0.02) and bacterial vaginosis (P = 0.03). Conclusion This study demonstrates that high level of sHLA-G in the genital mucosa is independently associated with both HIV-1 infection and bacterial vaginosis. PMID:21966450

  12. Female genital tract secretions and semen impact the development of microbicides for the prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Herold, Betsy C; Mesquita, Pedro M; Madan, Rebecca P; Keller, Marla J

    2011-03-01

    Pharmacologic strategies for the prevention of HIV include vaccines, post-exposure prophylaxis with antiretroviral therapy, and topical microbicides. Vaginal microbicides have the potential to augment innate defenses in the genital tract but may also disrupt endogenous protection and increase HIV acquisition risk, as observed in clinical trials of nonoxynol-9. The initially disappointing results of microbicide clinical trials stimulated the development of more sensitive and comprehensive pre-clinical safety studies, which include dual-chamber culture systems to model the epithelial barrier and post-coital studies to evaluate the effects of semen and sexual intercourse on microbicide efficacy. This review discusses the key factors that contribute to a healthy female genital tract environment, the impact of semen on mucosal defense, and how our understanding of these mediators informs the development of effective vaginal microbicides. PMID:21143689

  13. A six-year experience with anal cytology in women with HPV in the lower genital tract: utility, limitations, and clinical correlation.

    PubMed

    Cardinal, L H; Carballo, P; Lorenzo, M C Cabral; García, A; Suzuki, V; Tatti, S; Vighi, S; Díaz, L B

    2014-05-01

    This study assessed the utility and limitations of anal cytology as a screening method for women infected with human papilloma virus (HPV) in the lower genital tract. Furthermore, this study aimed to establish risk factors for pathological anal cytology/biopsy findings, the prevalence of anatomopathological lesions associated with positive anal brushings, and the frequency of concomitant lesions of the lower genital tract. A cross-sectional, retrospective, descriptive study in 207 women with HPV-associated lesions of the lower genital tract and 25 women with immunosuppression was carried out. Anal cytology, high resolution anoscopy, and biopsy of suspicious lesions were performed. In total, 232 anal brushings were performed: 184 (79.3%) were negative, 24 (10.34%) showed atypical squamous cells of undeterminated significance, 18 (7.7%) showed low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, and 6 (2.6%) showed high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. Cytohistological correlation was obtained for 70 cases. The sensitivity of anal cytology in detecting intraepithelial lesions was 70%, whereas the specificity was 93%. The sensitivity of the method for detecting high-grade lesions (84%) was higher, than that for detecting low-grade lesions (66%). The most frequently associated pathology was vulvar lesion. It is important to perform anal brushings in women who have had lower genital tract biopsies for HPV-associated lesions due to the high prevalence of anal lesions in such patients. Anal cytology is useful for detecting high-grade lesions but the sensitivity for detecting low-grade lesions is low. It is of the utmost importance to perform high-resolution anoscopy and biopsy in women with suspicious lesions in order to confirm the pathology. PMID:24166879

  14. Consequences of genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    1998-03-01

    Female genital mutilation is associated with immediate, long-term, pregnancy-related, and psychosexual complications. Immediate complications can cause death and include severe pain, shock, hemorrhage, tetanus or sepsis, urine retention, ulceration of the genital region, and injury to adjacent tissues. Long-term complications include formation of cysts, abscesses, and keloid scars, damage to the urethra resulting in incontinence, painful sexual intercourse, sexual dysfunction, recurrent urinary tract infections, chronic pelvic inflammatory disease, and infertility. During child birth, survivors of female genital mutilation may require Cesarean section or suffer obstructed labor leading to fetal death and/or vesico-vaginal fistulae and large perineal tears. The psychological consequences of female genital mutilation may involve loss of trust and confidence in care-givers, feelings of incompleteness, anxiety, depression, chronic irritability, and sexual problems. In many women, flashbacks of the infibulation process are triggered by touch. Deinfibulation must be accompanied by adequate pain relief, but the use of local or epidural anesthesia is not appropriate. PMID:12222523

  15. Neisseria gonorrhoeae induced disruption of cell junction complexes in epithelial cells of the human genital tract.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Tirado, Carolina; Maisey, Kevin; Rodríguez, Felipe E; Reyes-Cerpa, Sebastián; Reyes-López, Felipe E; Imarai, Mónica

    2012-03-01

    Pathogenic microorganisms, such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae, have developed mechanisms to alter epithelial barriers in order to reach subepithelial tissues for host colonization. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of gonococci on cell junction complexes of genital epithelial cells of women. Polarized Ishikawa cells, a cell line derived from endometrial epithelium, were used for experimental infection. Infected cells displayed a spindle-like shape with an irregular distribution, indicating potential alteration of cell-cell contacts. Accordingly, analysis by confocal microscopy and cellular fractionation revealed that gonococci induced redistribution of the adherens junction proteins E-cadherin and its adapter protein β-catenin from the membrane to a cytoplasmic pool, with no significant differences in protein levels. In contrast, gonococcal infection did not induce modification of either expression or distribution of the tight junction proteins Occludin and ZO-1. Similar results were observed for Fallopian tube epithelia. Interestingly, infected Ishikawa cells also showed an altered pattern of actin cytoskeleton, observed in the form of stress fibers across the cytoplasm, which in turn matched a strong alteration on the expression of fibronectin, an adhesive glycoprotein component of extracellular matrix. Interestingly, using western blotting, activation of the ERK pathway was detected after gonococcal infection while p38 pathway was not activated. All effects were pili and Opa independent. Altogether, results indicated that gonococcus, as a mechanism of pathogenesis, induced disruption of junction complexes with early detaching of E-cadherin and β-catenin from the adherens junction complex, followed by a redistribution and reorganization of actin cytoskeleton and fibronectin within the extracellular matrix. PMID:22146107

  16. Multifocal PEComa (PEComatosis) of the female genital tract and pelvis: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Perivascular epithelioid cells (PECs) are constantly present in a group of tumors called PEComas, including angiomyolipoma (AML), clear-cell "sugar" tumor (CCST) of the lung and extrapulmonary sites, lymphangioleiomyomatosis, clear-cell myomelanocytic tumor of the falciform ligament/ligamentum teres and rare clear-cell tumors of other anatomic sites. PECs have distinctive morphologic, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural and genetic characteristics, including an epithelioid appearance with a clear to granular cytoplasm, a round to oval, centrally located nucleus, and an inconspicuous nucleolus. PECs also express melanocytic and myogenic markers like HMB45 and smooth muscle actin. PEComa is rare in human, and multifocal PEComas (PEComatosis) is extremely rare. Up to now there have been only less than 5 cases described in the literature. Here we report a 46-year old Chinese woman who had PEComatosis arising from the genital tract and pelvis. To our knowledge, this is the first case of PEComatosis ever reported in China. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1293097548652023. PMID:22404894

  17. Viruses in the Mammalian Male Genital Tract and Their Effects on the Reproductive System

    PubMed Central

    Dejucq, Nathalie; Jégou, Bernard

    2001-01-01

    This review describes the various viruses identified in the semen and reproductive tracts of mammals (including humans), their distribution in tissues and fluids, their possible cell targets, and the functional consequences of their infectivity on the reproductive and endocrine systems. The consequences of these viral infections on the reproductive tract and semen can be extremely serious in terms of organ integrity, development of pathological and cancerous processes, and transmission of diseases. Furthermore, of essential importance is the fact that viral infection of the testicular cells may result not only in changes in testicular function, a serious risk for the fertility and general health of the individual (such as a fall in testosteronemia leading to cachexia), but also in the possible transmission of virus-induced mutations to subsequent generations. In addition to providing an exhaustive account of the data available in these domains, this review focuses attention on the fact that the interface between endocrinology and virology has so far been poorly explored, particularly when major health, social and economical problems are posed. Our conclusions highlight the research strategies that need to be developed. Progress in all these domains is essential for the development of new treatment strategies to eradicate viruses and to correct the virus-induced dysfunction of the endocrine system. PMID:11381100

  18. Subclinical Chlamydial Infection of the Female Mouse Genital Tract Generates a Potent Protective Immune Response: Implications for Development of Live Attenuated Chlamydial Vaccine Strains

    PubMed Central

    Su, Hua; Messer, Ronald; Whitmire, William; Hughes, Scott; Caldwell, Harlan D.

    2000-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a major cause of sexually transmitted disease (STD) for which a vaccine is needed. CD4+ T-helper type 1 (Th1) cell-mediated immunity is an important component of protective immunity against murine chlamydial genital infection. Conventional vaccine approaches have not proven effective in eliciting chlamydial-specific CD4 Th1 immunity at the genital mucosa. Thus, it is possible that the development of a highly efficacious vaccine against genital infection will depend on the generation of a live attenuated C. trachomatis vaccine. Attenuated strains of C. trachomatis do not exist, so their potential utility as vaccines cannot be tested in animal models of infection. We have developed a surrogate model to study the effect of chlamydial attenuation on infection and immunity of the female genital tract by treating mice with a subchlamydiacidal concentration of oxytetracycline following vaginal infection. Compared to untreated control mice, antibiotic-treated mice shed significantly fewer infectious organisms (3 log10) from the cervico-vagina, produced a minimal inflammatory response in urogenital tissue, and did not experience infection-related sequelae. Antibiotic-treated mice generated levels of chlamydia-specific antibody and cell-mediated immunity equivalent to those of control mice. Importantly, antibiotic-treated mice were found to be as immune as control untreated mice when rechallenged vaginally. These findings demonstrate that subclinical chlamydial infection of the murine female genital tract is sufficient to stimulate a potent protective immune response. They also present indirect evidence supporting the possible use of live attenuated chlamydial organisms in the development of vaccines against chlamydial STDs. PMID:10603387

  19. Toll like receptor agonist imiquimod facilitates antigen-specific CD8+ T cell accumulation in the genital tract leading to tumor control through interferon-γ

    PubMed Central

    Soong, Ruey-Shyang; Song, Liwen; Trieu, Janson; Knoff, Jayne; He, Liangmei; Tsai, Ya-Chea; Huh, Warner; Chang, Yung-Nien; Cheng, Wen-Fang; Roden, Richard B.S.; Wu, T.-C.; Hung, Chien-Fu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Imiquimod is a toll-like receptor 7 agonist utilized topically to manage genital warts and basal cell carcinoma. We examine the combination of topical imiquimod with intramuscular administration of CRT/E7, a therapeutic HPV vaccination that comprises a naked DNA vector expressing calreticulin fused to HPV16 E7. Experimental Design Using an orthotopic HPV16 E6/E7+ syngeneic tumor, TC-1, as a model of high-grade cervical/vaginal/vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, we show that combining CRT/E7 vaccination with cervicovaginal deposition of imiquimod results in synergistic immune-mediated tumor clearance. Results Imiquimod induces cervicovaginal accumulation of activated E7-specific CD8+ T cells elicited by CRT/E7 vaccination. Recruitment was not dependent upon the specificity of the activated CD8+ T cells, but was significantly reduced in mice lacking the IFNγ receptor. Intravaginal imiquimod deposition induced upregulation of CXCL9 and CXCL10 mRNA expression in the genital tract. These chemokines are expressed upon IFNγ receptor activation and attract cells expressing their receptor, CXCR3. In this study, T cells attracted by imiquimod to the cervicovaginal tract expressed CXCR3 as well as the tissue resident memory T cell (Trm) marker CD49a, a mucosal homing integrin. Our results indicate that intramuscular CRT/E7 vaccination in conjunction with intravaginal imiquimod deposition recruits antigen-specific CXCR3+CD8+ T cells to the genital tract. Conclusions Our study has potential clinical relevance because imiquimod is FDA approved for condyloma accuminata and basal cell carcinoma and intramuscular vaccination with pNGVL4a-CRT/E7(detox) is currently undergoing clinical testing, suggesting potential for their synergistic action to induce strong antigen-specific Trm-mediated immune responses and antitumor effects in genital mucosa. PMID:24893628

  20. Morphological study of boar sperm during their passage through the female genital tract

    PubMed Central

    GARCÍA-VÁZQUEZ, Francisco Alberto; HERNÁNDEZ-CARAVACA, Iván; MATÁS, Carmen; SORIANO-ÚBEDA, Cristina; ABRIL-SÁNCHEZ, Silvia; IZQUIERDO-RICO, María José

    2015-01-01

    Once deposited in the female tract, sperm face a series of challenges that must be overcome to ensure the presence of an adequate normal sperm population close to the site of fertilization. Our aim was to evaluate the influence of the uterine milieu on boar sperm morphology. In experiment 1, sperm morphology was evaluated in the backflow (60 min after insemination) and within the uterotubal junction (UTJ) (collected ~24 h after insemination) following intrauterine sperm deposition (n = 6) and compared with the morphology of the sperm in the insemination dose. In experiment 2, the influence of the uterine fluid (UF) on sperm morphological modifications was evaluated. For this purpose, ejaculated (n = 4) and epididymal (n = 4) sperm were in vitro incubated with or without UF for 2 and 24 h. In both experiments, sperm were classified as normal, having a cytoplasmic droplet (proximal or distal) or having tail defects. The results of experiment 1 pointed to an increase in morphologically abnormal sperm collected in the backflow (27.70%) and a reduction of the same in the UTJ (2.12%) compared with the insemination dose (17.75%) (P < 0.05). In experiment 2, incubation of ejaculated sperm with UF did not provoke any morphological modifications; however, when epididymal sperm were incubated with UF, a pronounced increase in the percentage of normal sperm was evident after 24 h compared with the initial dose (from 25.77% to 53.58%, P < 0.05), mainly due to distal cytoplasmatic droplet shedding (53.22 vs. 20.20%). In conclusion, almost all the sperm that colonize the UTJ had a normal morphology, with part of the abnormal sperm having been discarded in the backflow and part selected/modified on their way to the oviduct. UF seems to influence cytoplasmic distal droplet removal, as demonstrated previously in seminal plasma. PMID:26119829

  1. Genital sores - female

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bodurka DC. Neoplastic diseases of the vulva. In: Lentz GM, Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, Katz VL, eds . ... Pa: Mosby Elsevier; 2012:chap 30. Eckert L, Lentz GM. Infections of the lower genital tract. In: ...

  2. Modulation of Female Genital Tract-Derived Dendritic Cell Migration and Activation in Response to Inflammatory Cytokines and Toll-Like Receptor Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Shey, Muki S.; Maharaj, Niren; Archary, Derseree; Ngcapu, Sinaye; Garrett, Nigel; Abdool Karim, Salim; Passmore, Jo-Ann S.

    2016-01-01

    HIV transmission across the genital mucosa is a major mode of new HIV infections in women. The probability of infection may be influenced by several factors including recruitment and activation of HIV target cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs) and cytokine production, associated with genital inflammation. We evaluated the role of inflammatory cytokines and TLR signaling in migration and activation of genital tract DCs in the human cervical explant model. Hysterectomy tissues from 10 HIV-negative and 7 HIV-positive donor women were separated into ecto- and endocervical explants, and incubated with inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8, MIP-1β) or agonists for TLR4 (LPS), TLR2/1 (PAM3) and TLR7/8 (R848). Migration (frequency) and activation (HLA-DR expression) of myeloid and plasmacytoid DCs and Langerhans cells were measured by flow cytometry. We observed that cytokines, LPS and PAM3 induced activation of migrating myeloid and plasmacytoid DCs. LPS induced a 3.6 fold lower levels of migration of plasmacytoid DCs from HIV-infected women compared with HIV-uninfected women (median activation indices of 2.932 vs 0.833). There was however a 4.5 fold increase in migration of Langerhans cells in HIV-infected compared with HIV-uninfected women in response to cytokines (median activation indices of 3.539 vs 0.77). Only TLR agonists induced migration and activation of DCs from endocervical explants. Hormonal contraception use was associated with an increase in activation of DC subsets in the endo and ectocervical explants. We conclude that inflammatory signals in the female genital tract induced DC migration and activation, with possible important implications for HIV susceptibility of cervical tissues. PMID:27171482

  3. Lower concentrations of chemotactic cytokines and soluble innate factors in the lower female genital tract associated with use of injectable hormonal contraceptive

    PubMed Central

    Ngcapu, Sinaye; Masson, Lindi; Sibeko, Sengeziwe; Werner, Lise; McKinnon, Lyle R.; Mlisana, Koleka; Shey, Muki; Samsunder, Natasha; Karim, Salim Abdool; Karim, Quarraisha Abdool; Passmore, Jo-Ann S.

    2016-01-01

    Progesterone-based injectable hormonal contraceptives (HCs) potentially modulate genital barrier integrity and regulate the innate immune environment in the female genital tract, thereby enhancing risk for STIs or HIV infection. We investigated the effects of injectable HC use on concentrations of inflammatory cytokines and other soluble factors associated with genital epithelial repair and integrity. The concentrations of 42 inflammatory, regulatory, adaptive, growth factors and hematopoetic cytokines, five matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and four tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) were measured in cervicovaginal lavages (CVLs) from 64 HIV negative women using injectable HCs and 64 control women not using any HCs, in a matched case-control study. There were no differences between groups in the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV; nugent score ≥7), or common sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In multivariate analyses adjusting for condom use, sex work status, marital status, BV and STIs, median concentrations of chemokines (eotaxin, MCP-1, MDC), adaptive cytokines (IL-15), growth factors (PDGF-AA) and a metalloproteinase (TIMP-2) were significantly lower in CVLs from women using injectable HCs than controls. In addition, pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-12p40 and chemokine fractalkine were less likely to have detectable levels in women using injectable HCs compared to those not using HCs. We conclude that injectable HC use was associated with an immunosuppressive female genital tract innate immune profile. While the relationship between injectable HC use and STI or HIV risk is yet to be resolved, our data suggest that injectable HCs effects were similar between STI positive and STI negative participants. PMID:25956139

  4. Clinical management of HPV-related disease of the lower genital tract.

    PubMed

    Kyrgiou, M; Valasoulis, G; Founta, C; Koliopoulos, G; Karakitsos, P; Nasioutziki, M; Navrozoglou, I; Dalkalitsis, N; Paraskevaidis, E

    2010-09-01

    Cytology remains the mainstay for cervical screening. The need to achieve effective management, limit complications, and preserve reproductive function led to the popularity of local treatment. Although the cure rates for ablative and excisional methods are similar, the excisional method provides a more reliable histopathological diagnosis. Recent evidence revealed increased perinatal morbidity after treatment that appears to be related to the proportion of cervix removed. The human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA test appears to enhance the detection of disease in primary screening, in the triage of minor cytological abnormalities, and in follow-up. Further research on the clinical application of a scoring system is ongoing. The vaccines are now available and appear to be safe, well tolerated, and highly efficacious in HPV naive women. A synergy of vaccination and screening will be required. Treatment for early cervical cancer is increasingly shifting toward more fertility-sparing surgical techniques. Careful selection of patients is essential. PMID:20840254

  5. The prevalence of lower genital tract infections among ante-natal care (ANC) clinic patients in two central hospitals, Vientiane, Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Thammalangsy, Sivixay; Sihavong, Amphoy; Phouthavane, Traykhouane; Sayabounthavong, Khanthanouvieng; Puapermpoonsiri, Supaporn; Kitayaporn, Dwip; Gallwey, John; Rowe, Patrick J

    2006-01-01

    This study of lower genital tract infections in pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Vientiane, Lao PDR is a response to the reported rapid increase in the number of HIV infections in neighboring countries, and is a recognition of the important role of reproductive tract infections in facilitating HIV transmission. This cross-sectional study determines the prevalence of lower genital tract infections among 500 antenatal attendees (gestational age < or = 20 weeks) attending two hospitals serving urban areas in Vientiane, between September 2001 and March 2002. Most participants were housewives (64.4%) and government workers (16.0%). Their husbands were mainly government officers (31.4%), laborers or farmers (30.2%), and businessmen (12.4%). Sixty-four percent reported a past history of "any vaginal complaints" with 44.2% having sought treatment. Candida spp had the highest prevalence of all infections (27.0%), followed by bacterial vaginosis (14.4% by Amsel's criteria and 22.0% by Nugent's score), C. trachomatis (10.2% by nucleic acid hybridization and 9.6% by PCR), T. vaginalis (1.8%), and N. gonorrhoeae (0.8%), but no syphilis serological markers. Taken in conjunction with other surveillance data from the same period, this study indicates an opportunity to prevent epidemic spread into the community of both sexually transmitted disease and HIV by appropriate preventative programed activities, including treatment services targeted at higher risk community groups. PMID:16771234

  6. Photodynamic therapy for early malignancies in the lower female genital tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobraico, Rocco V.

    1990-09-01

    A total of 14 patients who had failed all conventional modalities for cancer of the vulva vagina and perianal area were treated with photodynamic therapy PDT. The affinity of porphyrins to neopJ. astic tissue enables treatment to be concentrated at the tumor site. An Aurora FL Argon pumped dye laser (Cooper LaserSonics Inc. USA) was used to pump dicyanomethylene dye as an activating source for a red light at a wavelength of 630 nm. The combination of a tumor localizing photosensitizer and photoactivating red light produces a photo chemical reaction that is destructive to the cancerous lesion. The treatment time varied between 10-30 minutes. Vulvar sites ranged from 9-38 cm2. Delivered light doses were from 50-125 J/cm2 and power density from 50 to 75 mW/cm2. A complete response was obtained in 80 of the sites treated as evidenced by negative biopsies taken at 3 months post treatment. Adverse reactions to PDT included a transient cutaneous photosensitivity due to retention of the photosensitizers in the skin. This reaction usually persisted from 45-60 days. 1.

  7. Qualitative analysis of the vaginal microbiota of healthy cattle and cattle with genital-tract disease.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, N F; Kästle, J; Coutinho, T J D; Amorim, A T; Campos, G B; Santos, V M; Marques, L M; Timenetsky, J; de Farias, S T

    2015-01-01

    The microbial community of the reproductive appara-tus, when known, can provide information about the health of the host. Metagenomics has been used to characterize and obtain genetic infor-mation about microbial communities in various environments and can relate certain diseases with changes in this community composition. In this study, samples of vaginal surface mucosal secretions were col-lected from five healthy cows and five cows that showed symptoms of reproductive disorders. Following high-throughput sequencing of the isolated microbial DNA, data were processed using the Mothur soft-ware to remove low-quality sequences and chimeras, and released to the Ribosomal Database Project for classification of operational taxo-nomic units (OTUs). Local BLASTn was performed and results were loaded into the MEGAN program for viewing profiles and taxonomic microbial attributes. The control profile comprised a total of 15 taxa, with Bacteroides, Enterobacteriaceae, and Victivallis comprising the highest representation of OTUs; the reproductive disorder-positive profile comprised 68 taxa, with Bacteroides, Enterobacteriaceae, His-tophilus, Victivallis, Alistipes, and Coriobacteriaceae being the taxa with the most OTU representation. A change was observed in both the community composition as well as in the microbial attributes of the profiles, suggesting that a relationship might exist between the patho-gen and representative taxa, reflecting the production of metabolites to disease progression. PMID:26125856

  8. Influence of Vaginal Bacteria and d- and l-Lactic Acid Isomers on Vaginal Extracellular Matrix Metalloproteinase Inducer: Implications for Protection against Upper Genital Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Witkin, Steven S.; Mendes-Soares, Helena; Linhares, Iara M.; Jayaram, Aswathi; Ledger, William J.; Forney, Larry J.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT We evaluated levels of vaginal extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-8) in vaginal secretions in relation to the composition of vaginal bacterial communities and d- and l-lactic acid levels. The composition of vaginal bacterial communities in 46 women was determined by pyrosequencing the V1 to V3 region of 16S rRNA genes. Lactobacilli were dominant in 71.3% of the women, followed by Gardnerella (17.4%), Streptococcus (8.7%), and Enterococcus (2.2%). Of the lactobacillus-dominated communities, 51.5% were dominated by Lactobacillus crispatus, 36.4% by Lactobacillus iners, and 6.1% each by Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus jensenii. Concentrations of l-lactic acid were slightly higher in lactobacillus-dominated vaginal samples, but most differences were not statistically significant. d-Lactic acid levels were higher in samples containing L. crispatus than in those with L. iners (P < 0.0001) or Gardnerella (P = 0.0002). The relative proportion of d-lactic acid in vaginal communities dominated by species of lactobacilli was in concordance with the proportions found in axenic cultures of the various species grown in vitro. Levels of l-lactic acid (P < 0.0001) and the ratio of l-lactic acid to d-lactic acid (P = 0.0060), but not concentrations of d-lactic acid, were also correlated with EMMPRIN concentrations. Moreover, vaginal concentrations of EMMPRIN and MMP-8 levels were highly correlated (P < 0.0001). Taken together, the data suggest the relative proportion of l- to d-lactic acid isomers in the vagina may influence the extent of local EMMPRIN production and subsequent induction of MMP-8. The expression of these proteins may help determine the ability of bacteria to transverse the cervix and initiate upper genital tract infections. PMID:23919998

  9. The Effects of Hormones and Vaginal Microflora on the Glycome of the Female Genital Tract: Cervical-Vaginal Fluid.

    PubMed

    Moncla, Bernard J; Chappell, Catherine A; Debo, Brian M; Meyn, Leslie A

    2016-01-01

    that was much lower in the postmenopausal group (P<0.001). These studies present compelling evidence that the vaginal ecosystem responds to the presence of different vaginal microorganisms. These effects were so influential that it required us to remove subjects with BV for data interpretation of the impact of hormones. We also suggest that certain changes occurring in vaginal/cervical proteins are due to bacteria or their products. Therefore, the quantitation of vaginal mucins and lectin binding offers a new method to monitor bacteria-host interactions in the female reproductive tract. The data suggest that some of the changes in these components are the result of host processing, such as the increases in mucin content, while the microflora is responsible for the increases in glycosidases and the decreases in lectin binding. The methods should be considered a valid marker for insult to the female genital tract. PMID:27437931

  10. The Effects of Hormones and Vaginal Microflora on the Glycome of the Female Genital Tract: Cervical-Vaginal Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Moncla, Bernard J.; Chappell, Catherine A.; Debo, Brian M.; Meyn, Leslie A.

    2016-01-01

    that was much lower in the postmenopausal group (P<0.001). These studies present compelling evidence that the vaginal ecosystem responds to the presence of different vaginal microorganisms. These effects were so influential that it required us to remove subjects with BV for data interpretation of the impact of hormones. We also suggest that certain changes occurring in vaginal/cervical proteins are due to bacteria or their products. Therefore, the quantitation of vaginal mucins and lectin binding offers a new method to monitor bacteria-host interactions in the female reproductive tract. The data suggest that some of the changes in these components are the result of host processing, such as the increases in mucin content, while the microflora is responsible for the increases in glycosidases and the decreases in lectin binding. The methods should be considered a valid marker for insult to the female genital tract. PMID:27437931

  11. Development of an in vitro dual-chamber model of the female genital tract as a screening tool for epithelial toxicity.

    PubMed

    Gali, Youssef; Ariën, Kevin K; Praet, Marleen; Van den Bergh, Rafael; Temmerman, Marleen; Delezay, Olivier; Vanham, Guido

    2010-05-01

    Heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) is the predominant mode of infection worldwide. However, the early steps of transepithelial infection still need to be clarified. Using epithelial cells, originating from the female genital tract, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells as subepithelial target cells, an in vitro dual-chamber model of the female genital tract was developed. Remarkably, an intact layer of some cell types (HEC-1A, CaSki and Ect1) served as a protective barrier against cell-free but not against cell-associated HIV-1 that crossed the epithelial barrier through transmigration. Furthermore, dysfunctions of the epithelial layers were assessed by monitoring transepithelial electric resistance and transepithelial passage of FluoSpheres and HIV-1 after treatment with nonoxynol-9 (N-9). Most of the functional assays showed dysfunction of the epithelial barrier at lower concentrations compared to a widely used colorimetric toxicity assay (WST-1). Finally, N-9 treatment caused a significant increase in the production of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and macrophage inflammatory protein-3alpha (MIP-3alpha) and a decrease of Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor (SLPI) and Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 (MCP-1) in this model. In conclusion, this model is a useful tool to (1) study HIV-1 transmission mechanisms and (2) evaluate epithelial toxicity of candidate microbicides. PMID:20138087

  12. The lower genital tract microbiota in relation to cytokine-, SLPI- and endotoxin levels: application of checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization (CDH).

    PubMed

    Nikolaitchouk, Natalia; Andersch, Björn; Falsen, Enevold; Strömbeck, Louise; Mattsby-Baltzer, Inger

    2008-04-01

    In the present study the lower genital tract microbiota in asymptomatic fertile women (n=34) was identified and quantified by culturing vaginal secretions. Also, vaginal and cervical samples were analyzed by a semiquantitative checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique (CDH) based on genomic probes prepared from 13 bacterial species (Bacteroides ureolyticus, Escherichia coli, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Gardnerella vaginalis, Mobiluncus curtisii ss curtisii, Prevotella bivia, Prevotella disiens, Prevotella melaninogenica, Atopobium vaginae, Lactobacillus iners, Staphylococcus aureus ss aureus, Streptococcus anginosus, and Streptococcus agalactiae). The bacterial species found by either culture or CDH were correlated with proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8), secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), and endotoxin in the cervicovaginal samples. Grading the women into healthy, intermediate, or bacterial vaginosis (BV) as based on Gram staining of vaginal smears, the viable counts of lactobacilli (L. gasseri) and of streptococci-staphylococci combined were highest in the intermediate group. In BV, particularly the high concentrations of Actinomyces urogenitalis, Atopobium vaginae, and Peptoniphilus harei were noted (>or=10(11) per ml). The total viable counts correlated with both cervical IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta. A strong negative correlation was observed between L. iners and total viable counts, G. vaginalis, or cervical IL-1 alpha, while it correlated positively with SLPI. Analysis of vaginal and cervical samples from 26 out of the 34 women by CDH showed that anaerobic bacteria were more frequently detected by CDH compared to culture. By this method, A. vaginae correlated with G. vaginalis, and L. iners with S. aureus. With regard to cytokines, B. ureolyticus correlated with both cervical and vaginal IL-1 alpha as well as with cervical IL-8, while F. nucleatum, S. agalactiae, S. anginosus, or S. aureus correlated with vaginal IL-1 alpha

  13. Anal Cytology and Human Papillomavirus Genotyping in Women With a History of Lower Genital Tract Neoplasia Compared With Low-Risk Women

    PubMed Central

    Robison, Katina; Cronin, Beth; Bregar, Amy; Luis, Christine; DiSilvestro, Paul; Schechter, Steven; Pisharodi, Latha; Raker, Christina; Clark, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare the prevalence of abnormal anal cytology and high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) among women with a history of HPV-related genital neoplasia with women without a history of HPV-related genital neoplasia. METHODS A cross-sectional cohort study was performed from December 2012 to February 2014. Women were recruited from outpatient clinics at an academic medical center. Women with a history of high-grade cervical, vulvar, or vaginal cytology, dysplasia, or cancer were considered the high-risk group. Women with no history of high-grade anogenital dysplasia or cancer were considered the low-risk group. Human immunodeficiency virus–positive women were excluded. Anal cytology and HPV genotyping were performed. Women with abnormal anal cytology were referred for high-resolution anoscopy. RESULTS There were 190 women in the high-risk group and 83 in the low-risk group. The high-risk group was slightly older: 57 years compared with 47 years (P=.045); 21.7% of low-risk women had abnormal anal cytology compared with 41.2% of high-risk women (P=.006). High-risk HPV was detected in the anal canal of 1.2% of the low-risk group compared with 20.8% of the high-risk group (P<.001). Among women who underwent anoscopy, no anal dysplasia was detected in the low-risk group, whereas 13.4% in the high-risk group had anal dysplasia with 4.2% having anal intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or greater (P<.001). CONCLUSION Human immunodeficiency virus–negative women with a history of lower genital tract neoplasia are more likely to have positive anal cytology, anal high-risk HPV, and anal intraepithelial neoplasia. Anal cancer screening should be considered for these high-risk women. PMID:26551180

  14. Multiple genital tract tumors and mucinous adenocarcinoma of colon in a woman with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome: a case report and review of literatures

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Feng; Lv, Bingjian; Dong, Lifeng; Wan, Fang; Qin, Jiale; Huang, Lili

    2014-01-01

    We report a very rare case of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) composed of multiple genital tract tumors and mucinous adenocarcinoma. A 46-year-old woman presented to our hospital with lower abdominal pain resulting from PJS involves sex cord tumor with annular tubules (SCTAT), ovarian mucinous tumor, ovarian serous tumor, mucinous adenocarcinoma of colon. The CEA concentration is high before surgery, and decreases after the surgery and subsequent chemoradiotherapy. This case demonstrates a classic clinical presentation of a patient with PJS. PJS patients have increased risk of malignancy and early detection and regular surveillance of the high-risk patients with PJS is crucial. Surgery may be required for obstructive gastrointestinal lesions as well as those exhibiting malignant degeneration. PMID:25120832

  15. Semen leukocytes and oxidative-dependent DNA damage of spermatozoa in male partners of subfertile couples with no symptoms of genital tract infection.

    PubMed

    Micillo, A; Vassallo, M R C; Cordeschi, G; D'Andrea, S; Necozione, S; Francavilla, F; Francavilla, S; Barbonetti, A

    2016-09-01

    The influence of seminal leukocytes on generation of oxidative damage to sperm DNA was here investigated on male partners of subfertile couples asymptomatic for a genital tract infection. The study included 111 ejaculates from men attending the Andrology Centre at University of L'Aquila. Semen leukocytes subset included round cells expressing pan-leukocyte CD45 antigen, monocyte/macrophage lineage antigen CD14, and activated macrophages HLA-DR antigen. The 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) expression identified spermatozoa with DNA oxidative adducts while terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated fluorescein-dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay detected spermatozoa with DNA fragmentation. Flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry was used for determinations. Main outcome measure was the association of semen leukocyte subpopulations with spermatozoa showing oxidative-related DNA damage and with routine semen parameters. Leukocyte subpopulations were strictly correlated (p < 0.0001), but no association was found between the concentration of leukocytes, semen parameters, the percentage of TUNEL-positive and of 8-OHdG-positive spermatozoa. The percentage of 8-OHdG-positive spermatozoa was positively correlated with the percentage of TUNEL-positive spermatozoa (r = 0.48; p < 0.0001) and negatively correlated with sperm concentration (r = -0.44; p < 0.0001). Sperm concentration and the percentage of TUNEL-positive spermatozoa independently contributed (β = -0.25, p = 0.008; β = 0.23, p = 0.05, respectively) to the variation in percentage of 8-OHdG-positive spermatozoa after adjusting for age, abstinence time, and smoking. In conclusion, oxidative-dependent DNA damage in spermatozoa was associated to poor semen quality but not to different leukocyte subpopulations in ejaculates of men asymptomatic for a genital tract infection. PMID:27153514

  16. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Glycoprotein H Interacts with Integrin αvβ3 To Facilitate Viral Entry and Calcium Signaling in Human Genital Tract Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cheshenko, Natalia; Trepanier, Janie B.; González, Pablo A.; Eugenin, Eliseo A.; Jacobs, William R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Herpes simplex virus (HSV) entry requires multiple interactions at the cell surface and activation of a complex calcium signaling cascade. Previous studies demonstrated that integrins participate in this process, but their precise role has not been determined. These studies were designed to test the hypothesis that integrin αvβ3 signaling promotes the release of intracellular calcium (Ca2+) stores and contributes to viral entry and cell-to-cell spread. Transfection of cells with small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting integrin αvβ3, but not other integrin subunits, or treatment with cilengitide, an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) mimetic, impaired HSV-induced Ca2+ release, viral entry, plaque formation, and cell-to-cell spread of HSV-1 and HSV-2 in human cervical and primary genital tract epithelial cells. Coimmunoprecipitation studies and proximity ligation assays indicated that integrin αvβ3 interacts with glycoprotein H (gH). An HSV-2 gH-null virus was engineered to further assess the role of gH in the virus-induced signaling cascade. The gH-2-null virus bound to cells and activated Akt to induce a small Ca2+ response at the plasma membrane, but it failed to trigger the release of cytoplasmic Ca2+ stores and was impaired for entry and cell-to-cell spread. Silencing of integrin αvβ3 and deletion of gH prevented phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and the transport of viral capsids to the nuclear pore. Together, these findings demonstrate that integrin signaling is activated downstream of virus-induced Akt signaling and facilitates viral entry through interactions with gH by activating the release of intracellular Ca2+ and FAK phosphorylation. These findings suggest a new target for HSV treatment and suppression. IMPORTANCE Herpes simplex viruses are the leading cause of genital disease worldwide, the most common infection associated with neonatal encephalitis, and a major cofactor for HIV acquisition and transmission. There is no effective vaccine

  17. Genital Warts

    MedlinePlus

    ... who have sex with women get genital warts? Yes. It is possible to get genital warts, or any other STI, if you are a woman who ... you have signs or symptoms of genital warts. Yes. It is possible to get genital warts, or any other STI, if you are a woman who ...

  18. The Effect of Growth Hormone, Insulin and Alloxan-Induced Diabetes on Carcinogenesis in the Genital Tract of Intact and Castrate Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cherry, Cora P.; Glucksmann, A.

    1971-01-01

    Castrate female rats given weekly applications of DMBA to the genital tract and treated additionally with growth hormone, insulin or alloxan (to induce diabetes) are heavier and have more sarcomatous and epithelial cervico-vaginal neoplasms than intact animals under the same experimental conditions. Promotion of carcinogenesis and gain in body weight are independent phenomena caused by castration in the medicated rats. Growth hormone is most effective in enhancing body weight in all animals, but least as regards tumour formation. It reduces the incidence of sarcomas in intacts, but raises that of epithelial neoplasms, and promotes both types of neoplasms in castrates. The highest incidence of cervico-vaginal epithelial and sarcomatous tumours occurs in spayed diabetics. Squamous celled epitheliomas of the vulva are not affected by castration or additional medication, while basal celled neoplasms tend to be more frequent in intacts than in castrates and particularly numerous in intact failed diabetics. Vulval sarcomas are usually rare but are increased in numbers in diabetic and in insulin treated intacts. Granular myoblastomas of the cervico-vaginal tract occur in intacts only and particularly in diabetics and those medicated with growth hormone or insulin. PMID:4335634

  19. Local actions of trimebutine on canine gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Daniel, E E; Kostolanska, F; Fox, J E

    1987-01-01

    The local actions of trimebutine on the circular muscle of canine gastrointestinal tract were studied after close intraarterial injection. The effects resembled those of metenkephalin at all sites. In stomach, trimebutine had no excitatory effects, but inhibited responses mediated by cholinergic post-ganglionic nerves. In small intestine, trimebutine stimulated the quiet gut by probably both neural and direct smooth muscle mechanisms, and it inhibited the field-stimulated phasic contractions. In large intestine, trimebutine had no excitatory actions and only weak inhibitory actions on the field-stimulated gut. Excitatory actions most likely seem to use the mu or delta receptors while inhibitory actions may focus on kappa opiate receptors. PMID:3038657

  20. HIV-1 shedding from the female genital tract is associated with increased Th1 cytokines/chemokines that maintain tissue homeostasis and proportions of CD8+FOXP3+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Bull, Marta E.; Legard, Jillian; Tapia, Kenneth; Sorensen, Bess; Cohn, Susan E.; Garcia, Rochelle; Holte, Sarah E.; Coombs, Robert W.; Hitti, Jane E.

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV-1 shedding from the female genital tract is associated with increased sexual and perinatal transmission, and has been broadly evaluated in cross-sectional studies. However, few longitudinal studies have evaluated how the immune microenvironment effects shedding. Methods Thirty-nine HIV-1–infected women had blood, cervicovaginal lavage (CVL), and biopsies of the uterine cervix taken quarterly for up to five years. Cytokines/chemokines were quantified by Luminex assay in CVL and cellular phenotypes were characterized using immunohistochemistry in cervical biopsies. Comparisons of cytokine/chemokine concentrations and the percent of tissue staining positive for T cells were compared using generalized estimating equations between non-shedding and shedding visits across all women, and within a subgroup of women who intermittently shed HIV-1. Results Genital HIV-1 shedding was more common when plasma HIV-1 was detected. Cytokines associated with cell growth (IL-7), Th1 cells/inflammation (IL-12p70), and fractalkine were significantly increased at shedding visits compared to non-shedding visits within intermittent shedders and across all subjects. Within intermittent shedders and across all subjects FOXP3+ T cells were significantly decreased at shedding visits. However, there were significant increases in CD8+ cells and proportions of CD8+FOXP3+ T cells associated with HIV-1 shedding. Conclusions Within intermittent HIV-1 shedders, decreases in FOXP3+ T cells at the shedding visit suggests that local HIV-1 replication leads to CD4 T cell depletion, with increases in the proportion of CD8+FOXP3+ cells. HIV-1–infected cell loss may promote a cytokine milieu that maintains cellular homeostasis and increases immune suppressor cells in response to HIV-1 replication in the cervical tissues. PMID:25202922

  1. Inhibition of chlamydial infection in the genital tract of female mice by topical application of a peptide deformylase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Amit; Wang, Lingling; Li, Xiaojin; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Malatesta, Paul; Fan, Huizhou

    2009-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium responsible for a number of health problems, including sexually transmitted infection in humans. We recently discovered that C. trachomatis infection in cell culture is highly susceptible to inhibitors of peptide deformylase, an enzyme that removes the N-formyl group from newly synthesized polypeptides. In this study, one of the deformylase inhibitors, GM6001, was tested for potential antichlamydial activity using a murine genital C. muridarum infection model. Topical application of GM6001 significantly reduced C. muridarum loading in BALB/c mice that were vaginally infected with the pathogen. In striking contrast, growth of the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum is strongly resistant to the PDF inhibitor. GM6001 demonstrated no detectable toxicity against host cells. On the basis of these data and our previous observations, we conclude that further evaluation of PDF inhibitors for prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted chlamydial infection is warranted. PMID:17936604

  2. Searching for Lower Female Genital Tract Soluble and Cellular Biomarkers: Defining Levels and Predictors in a Cohort of Healthy Caucasian Women

    PubMed Central

    Kyongo, Jordan K.; Jespers, Vicky; Goovaerts, Odin; Michiels, Johan; Menten, Joris; Fichorova, Raina N.; Crucitti, Tania; Vanham, Guido; Ariën, Kevin K.

    2012-01-01

    Background High concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines have been previously observed in the genital fluids of women enrolled in microbicide trials and may explain observed increased HIV transmission in some of these trials. Although the longitudinal nature of these studies allows within-subject comparisons of post-product levels to baseline levels, the fact that the physiologic variations of these cytokines and other markers of immune activation are not fully defined in different populations, makes it difficult to assess changes that can be directly attributed to microbicide use as opposed to other biological and behavioural factors. Methods Cervicovaginal lavage samples were collected from 30 healthy Caucasian and assayed for concentrations of ten cytokines/chemokines, total protein content and two antimicrobial proteins using a multiplex immunoassay and ELISA. Cellular markers were characterized by flow cytometry on mononuclear cells collected from the endocervix using flocked swabs. Bacterial quantification was performed using quantitative PCR. Results Ectopy, menstrual cycle phase, prostate-specific antigen and presence of leucocytes in endocervical cells' supernatant were associated with the concentrations of cyto-/chemokines in cervicovaginal secretions. Approximately 3% of endocervical cells collected were monocytes of which a median of 52% (SD  = 17) expressed both CD4 and CCR5 markers. Approximately 1% of the total cells were T-cells with a median of 61% (SD  = 10) CD4 and CCR5 expression. Around 5% of the monocytes and 16% of the T-cells expressed the immune activation marker HLA-DR. Higher percentages of T-cells were associated with greater quantities of IL-1RA, GM-CSF and elafin. Conclusion We demonstrate the presence of selected soluble and cellular immune activation markers and identify their predictors in the female genital tract of healthy women. Future clinical trials should consider ectopy, sexual activity, menstrual cycle phase and

  3. Mouse strain-dependent variation in the course and outcome of chlamydial genital tract infection is associated with differences in host response.

    PubMed Central

    Darville, T; Andrews, C W; Laffoon, K K; Shymasani, W; Kishen, L R; Rank, R G

    1997-01-01

    Whether there is a pathogenic or protective outcome to chlamydial infection may be defined by the host response. We infected C57BL/6 (C57) and C3H/HeN (C3H) mice with the human biovar of Chlamydia trachomatis, serovar E, and, in select experiments, with the mouse pneumonitis agent of C. trachomatis (MoPn). We compared the courses of infection, histopathology, and host responses that resulted from these infections. The duration of infection with either chlamydial biovar was significantly increased in the C3H strain of mice. The intensity of infection was examined in mice infected with serovar E, and it was significantly increased in the C3H strain. Histopathology revealed the incidence of severe hydrosalpinx to be significantly greater in C3H mice than in C57 mice. In contrast, severe distention of the uterine horns was observed in all infected C57 mice compared to none of the C3H mice infected with serovar E and only 25% of those infected with MoPn. Acute inflammation was significantly increased in the uterine horns of C57 mice compared to that of C3H mice. Examination of antigen-specific responses revealed qualitatively similar responses in the two strains. Determination of gamma interferon- versus interleukin 4- producing cells revealed the predominance of a Th1 response in both strains. Serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and IgG2a revealed a predominance of IgG2a antibody in both strains, although the levels of antibody were significantly greater in C3H mice. Lymphocyte proliferation studies revealed increased proliferation in the iliac nodes of both strains at 1 to 3 weeks after infection. Because of the early eradication of infection observed in the C57 strain, we explored the relative production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in the two strains. TNF-alpha levels were significantly increased in the genital tract secretions of C57 mice compared to that of C3H mice during the first week of infection. Increased TNF

  4. Effect of semen extenders on frozen-thawed boar sperm characteristics and distribution in the female genital tract after deep intrauterine insemination in sows.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Michiko; Yoshioka, Koji; Hikono, Hirokazu; Suzuki, Chie; Kikuchi, Kazuhiro

    2015-12-01

    We compared the effects of extenders of frozen-thawed semen on post-thaw sperm characteristics and the distribution of frozen-thawed spermatozoa in the female genital tract after fixed-timed deep intrauterine insemination (DIUI) in sows. Frozen semen samples were thawed and diluted in either modified Modena solution (mMS) or porcine fertilization medium (PFM) containing theophylline, adenosine and cysteine. Sperm quality, assessed in vitro based on motility using a computer-assisted sperm analyzer and the integrity of the plasma and acrosomal membranes using flow cytometry, was evaluated at 0.5, 1.5, 3 and 6h after thawing. Progressive motility and the percentage of spermatozoa with damaged acrosomal membranes in PFM were significantly better than in mMS throughout the 6h. Sows with estrus synchronized using prostaglandin F2 alpha, equine chorionic gonadotropin and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) were inseminated once with mMS- or PFM-diluted 5 × 10(8) frozen-thawed spermatozoa by DIUI at 34 h after the hCG injection. At 4h after DIUI, reproductive tracts were recovered from 30 sows. There were significantly fewer polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and more spermatozoa outside PMNs in the uterine horn after PFM treatment than with mMS. When 22 sows were administered DIUI with 10 × 10(8) frozen-thawed spermatozoa at 36 h after hCG, the pregnancy rates did not differ significantly between the mMS- (36%) and PFM- (64%) treated groups. Thus, PFM enhanced progressive sperm motility but increased sperm membrane damage compared with mMS; it also suppressed the migration of PMNs into the uterine lumen. PMID:26588890

  5. Fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14) is expressed in the lower genital tract and may play a role in amplifying inflammation during infection.

    PubMed

    Han, Eugene S; Mekasha, Samrawit; Ingalls, Robin R

    2010-01-01

    TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) cytokine superfamily which regulates a number of cellular responses, including inflammation and proliferation. TWEAK is primarily secreted by phagocytic cells and its receptor, fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14), is expressed on non-lymphoid cells, including epithelial, endothelial and mesenchymal cells. The TWEAK/Fn14 pathway is highly conserved from an evolutionary standpoint, and has been shown to play a role in tissue regeneration and inflammation in the liver, kidney, lung and skeletal muscle. We hypothesized that TWEAK/Fn14 might have a physiological role in regulating infection-induced inflammation in the lower female genital tract. To test this hypothesis, we examined expression of the receptor Fn14 in relevant cells and tissue. Receptor function was tested by treating cells with recombinant TWEAK, with and without other known proinflammatory stimuli. Flow cytometric analysis of vaginal and cervical epithelial cells revealed that Fn14 was highly expressed at the cell surface. We also detected both Fn14 and TWEAK in whole cervical tissue by RT-PCR. Treatment of vaginal and cervical epithelial cells with recombinant TWEAK led to a weak induction of the chemokine IL-8. However, TWEAK potentiated the effects of IL-1ss, the TLR2 ligand Pam(3)CysSK(4), and live Neisseria gonorrhoeae in a synergistic manner. These data reveal a novel pathway for regulation of microbial-induced inflammation in the female reproductive tract and suggest that interference with the TWEAK/Fn14 pathway might be an approach to abrogate excessive infection-induced inflammation caused by sexually transmitted pathogens. PMID:19963275

  6. α-2,3-Sialyltransferase Expression Level Impacts the Kinetics of Lipooligosaccharide Sialylation, Complement Resistance, and the Ability of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to Colonize the Murine Genital Tract

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Sunita; Burrowes, Elizabeth; Zheng, Bo; Ram, Sanjay; Rice, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT  Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae modify the terminal lacto-N-neotetraose moiety of their lipooligosaccharide (LOS) with sialic acid. N. gonorrhoeae LOS sialylation blocks killing by complement, which is mediated at least in part by enhanced binding of the complement inhibitor factor H (FH). The role of LOS sialylation in resistance of N. meningitidis to serum killing is less well defined. Sialylation in each species is catalyzed by the enzyme LOS α-2,3-sialyltransferase (Lst). Previous studies have shown increased Lst activity in N. gonorrhoeae compared to N. meningitidis due to an ~5-fold increase in lst transcription. Using isogenic N. gonorrhoeae strains engineered to express gonococcal lst from either the N. gonorrhoeae or N. meningitidis lst promoter, we show that decreased expression of lst (driven by the N. meningitidis promoter) reduced LOS sialylation as determined by less incorporation of tritium-labeled cytidine monophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid (CMP-NANA; the donor molecule for sialic acid). Diminished LOS sialylation resulted in reduced rates of FH binding and increased pathway activation compared to N. gonorrhoeae promoter-driven lst expression. The N. meningitidis lst promoter generated sufficient Lst to sialylate N. gonorrhoeae LOS in vivo, and the level of sialylation after 24 h in the mouse genital tract was sufficient to mediate resistance to human serum ex vivo. Despite demonstrable LOS sialylation in vivo, gonococci harboring the N. meningitidis lst promoter were outcompeted by those with the N. gonorrhoeae lst promoter during coinfection of the vaginal tract of estradiol-treated mice. These data highlight the importance of high lst expression levels for gonococcal pathogenesis. PMID:25650401

  7. Chlamydia, mycoplasmas, ureaplasmas, and yeasts in the lower genital tract of females. Comparison between a group attending a venereal disease clinic and a control group.

    PubMed

    Møller, B R; Sparre Jørgensen, A; From, E; Stenderup, A

    1985-01-01

    162 women were investigated. Group I consisted of 85 women, who were partners to men with non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) or presented macroscopic signs of cervicitis; patients who had harbored Neisseria gonorrhoeae were excluded from the study. Group II was a control group of 77 women without any complaints from the urogenital tract and with normal findings at pelvic examination. All the women were tested for infection with Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and Candida albicans. In group I, chlamydiae and mycoplasmas were recovered in 44% and 36%, respectively, the corresponding figures for the control group (group II) being 5% and 19%. The difference is highly significant. No such difference between the two groups was found for ureaplasmas. Sixteen percent of the patients in group I were positive for C. albicans; 12% were positive in group II. Fifty per cent of asymptomatic NGU-partners were chlamydia-positive, and about one-third of patients with either dysuria or vaginal discharge harbored the organism. No difference in the isolation frequency of mycoplasmas was observed between asymptomatic partners to male NGU carriers and women with increased vaginal discharge, whereas the organism was isolated more frequently from patients with dysuria. Fifty-nine per cent of patients with cervicitis were chlamydia-positive, compared with 30% of patients with normal cervical appearance and normal vaginal discharge. Samples obtained from the cervix were more often positive than samples from the urethra. In conclusion, if samples can be taken from only one of the two sites in patients with lower genital tract infection, the cervix is the optimal sampling site. PMID:3885669

  8. Evaluation of virulence factors and antifungal susceptibility patterns of different Candida species isolated from the female camel (Camelus dromedarius) genital tract.

    PubMed

    Sharifzadeh, Aghil; Soltani, Minoo; Shokri, Hojjatollah

    2015-08-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the enzymatic activity of different Candida species and their antifungal susceptibility patterns. The study involved a total of 83 isolates of Candida from the genital tract of the female Camelus dromedarius. After species identification, the isolates were analysed for the production/activity of phospholipase, proteinase and haemolysin. In addition, the agar disc diffusion method was performed on the basis of CLSI guidelines M44-A2 protocol for antifungal susceptibility testing. All the isolates were able to produce phospholipase, proteinase and haemolysin. A total of 35.48%, 87.09% and 64.51% of C. albicans isolates exhibited very high phospholipase, proteinase and haemolytic activities, respectively, whereas very high phospholipase, proteinase and haemolytic activities were determined in 5.76%, 23.07% and 45.16% of non-C. albicans isolates respectively. Overall, 61 (73.5%) of Candida isolates were susceptible to fluconazole, 70 (84.3%) susceptible to clotrimazole, 82 (98.8%) susceptible to voriconazole, 76 (91.6%) susceptible to itraconazole, 75 (90.4%) susceptible to ketoconazole, 83 (100%) susceptible to amphotericin B, 81 (97.6%) susceptible to nystatin and 36 (43.4%) susceptible to flucytosine. Candida isolates showed higher haemolytic activity than that of other secreted hydrolases among vaginal Candida species. In addition, amphotericin B was the most in vitro effective antifungal drug and flucytosine had the poorest activity under such conditions. PMID:26152466

  9. Comparable Genital Tract Infection, Pathology, and Immunity in Rhesus Macaques Inoculated with Wild-Type or Plasmid-Deficient Chlamydia trachomatis Serovar D

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Yanyan; Frazer, Lauren C.; O'Connell, Catherine M.; Tarantal, Alice F.; Andrews, Charles W.; O'Connor, Shelby L.; Russell, Ali N.; Sullivan, Jeanne E.; Poston, Taylor B.; Vallejo, Abbe N.

    2015-01-01

    Rhesus macaques were studied to directly address the potential for plasmid-deficient Chlamydia trachomatis to serve as a live attenuated vaccine in the genital tract. Five repeated cervical inoculations of rhesus macaques with wild-type serovar D strain D/UW-3/Cx or a plasmid-deficient derivative of this strain, CTD153, resulted in infections with similar kinetics and induced comparable levels of protective immunity. After all animals received five challenges with D/UW-3/Cx, levels of inflammation observed grossly and histologically were similar between the groups. Animals in both groups developed evidence of oviduct dilatation; however, reduced oviduct dilatation was observed for “controllers,” i.e., animals without detectable chlamydial DNA in the fimbriae at weeks 5 and 12. Grouping animals into “ascenders” and “controllers” revealed that elevated early T cell responses were associated with protection, whereas higher antibody responses were associated with ascension. Protected animals shared common major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alleles. Overall, genetic differences of individual animals, rather than the presence or absence of the chlamydial plasmid in the primary infecting strain, appeared to play a role in determining the outcome of infection. PMID:26216426

  10. Plasmid-Cured Chlamydia caviae Activates TLR2-Dependent Signaling and Retains Virulence in the Guinea Pig Model of Genital Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Frazer, Lauren C.; Darville, Toni; Chandra-Kuntal, Kumar; Andrews, Charles W.; Zurenski, Matthew; Mintus, Margaret; AbdelRahman, Yasser M.; Belland, Robert J.; Ingalls, Robin R.; O'Connell, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Loss of the conserved “cryptic” plasmid from C. trachomatis and C. muridarum is pleiotropic, resulting in reduced innate inflammatory activation via TLR2, glycogen accumulation and infectivity. The more genetically distant C. caviae GPIC is a natural pathogen of guinea pigs and induces upper genital tract pathology when inoculated intravaginally, modeling human disease. To examine the contribution of pCpGP1 to C. caviae pathogenesis, a cured derivative of GPIC, strain CC13, was derived and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Transcriptional profiling of CC13 revealed only partial conservation of previously identified plasmid-responsive chromosomal loci (PRCL) in C. caviae. However, 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) treatment of GPIC and CC13 resulted in reduced transcription of all identified PRCL, including glgA, indicating the presence of a plasmid-independent glucose response in this species. In contrast to plasmid-cured C. muridarum and C. trachomatis, plasmid-cured C. caviae strain CC13 signaled via TLR2 in vitro and elicited cytokine production in vivo similar to wild-type C. caviae. Furthermore, inflammatory pathology induced by infection of guinea pigs with CC13 was similar to that induced by GPIC, although we observed more rapid resolution of CC13 infection in estrogen-treated guinea pigs. These data indicate that either the plasmid is not involved in expression or regulation of virulence in C. caviae or that redundant effectors prevent these phenotypic changes from being observed in C. caviae plasmid-cured strains. PMID:22292031

  11. Major outer membrane protein variants of Chlamydia trachomatis are associated with severe upper genital tract infections and histopathology in San Francisco.

    PubMed

    Dean, D; Oudens, E; Bolan, G; Padian, N; Schachter, J

    1995-10-01

    Cervical and endometrial samples from 33 women with lower genital tract infection (LGTI) or pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) were evaluated for Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein gene (omp1) polymorphism. Polymorphism was correlated with symptoms, clinical findings, and histopathology. F, E, I, D, H, K, and G genotypes were represented. Thirty-seven genotyped samples (66%) displayed omp1 mutations compared with prototype sequences. Significantly, 7 of 7 women with variant F infections had PID compared with 6 non-variant F infections in women with LGTI (P = .003). PID was defined by clinical findings or plasma cells on endometrial biopsy. Of interest, F variants were associated with histopathology. Eleven women (92%) with E genotypes were asymptomatic. Our data suggest that F variants are associated with symptomatic, severe endometrial disease, whereas E genotypes are associated with asymptomatic, milder infections. Detection of virulent genotypes may provide a prognostic indicator for serious sequelae. Larger studies are required to evaluate the molecular, immunologic, and epidemiologic basis for these findings. PMID:7561174

  12. Rwandan female genital modification: elongation of the Labia minora and the use of local botanical species.

    PubMed

    Koster, Marian; Price, Lisa Leimar

    2008-02-01

    The elongation of the labia minora is classified as a Type IV female genital mutilation by the World Health Organization. However, the term mutilation carries with it powerful negative connotations. In Rwanda, the elongation of the labia minora and the use of botanicals to do so is meant to increase male and female pleasure. Women regard these practices as a positive force in their lives. This paper aims to assess whether Rwandan vaginal practices should indeed be considered a form of female genital mutilation and whether the botanicals used by women are detrimental to their health. Research was carried out in the northeast of Rwanda over the course of 13 months. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with thirteen informants. Two botanicals applied during stretching sessions were identified as Solanum aculeastrum Dunal and Bidens pilosa L. Both have wide medicinal use and contain demonstrated beneficial bioactive compounds. We suggest that it is therefore more appropriate to describe Rwandan vaginal practices as female genital modification rather than mutilation. PMID:18247211

  13. Medroxyprogesterone acetate and the nuclear uptake of testosterone and its metabolites by brain, pituitary gland and genital tract in male cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Michael, R P; Bonsall, R W; Zumpe, D

    1991-01-01

    The synthetic progestin, medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), is used to treat male sex offenders, and it is also suppresses sexual activity in male monkeys. To examine the possibility that MPA may act as an anti-androgen in the primate brain, 4 intact male cynomolgus monkeys were given MPA (40 mg i.m.) once a week for 16 weeks, while 4 control males received i.m. injections of vehicle. All males were then castrated and 3 days later were given 3 mCi [3H]testosterone ([3H]T) i.v.; 1 h after injection males were killed, and radioactivity in nuclear pellets obtained from the hypothalamus (HYP), preoptic area (POA), amygdala (AMG), septum, pituitary gland and genital tract was analyzed by HPLC. Concentrations of [3H]T and [3H]dihydrotestosterone in nuclear pellets were 65-96% lower in MPA-treated males than in controls (P less than 0.001), but the aromatized metabolite, [3H]estradiol, which was the major form of radioactivity present in nuclear pellets from HYP, POA and AMG, was unchanged. There were no differences in concentrations of [3H]T in supernatants from the tissues of MPA-treated and control males. Because the reduced nuclear uptake of androgen in brain occurred in males whose androgen-dependent behavior had been suppressed by MPA treatments, it is proposed that MPA may have anti-androgenic effects at the level of the cell nucleus in brain regions that control behavior. PMID:1825470

  14. Cross-Sectional Analysis of Selected Genital Tract Immunological Markers and Molecular Vaginal Microbiota in Sub-Saharan African Women, with Relevance to HIV Risk and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Kyongo, Jordan K.; Crucitti, Tania; Menten, Joris; Hardy, Liselotte; Cools, Piet; Michiels, Johan; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Mwaura, Mary; Ndayisaba, Gilles; Joseph, Sarah; Fichorova, Raina; van de Wijgert, Janneke; Vanham, Guido; Ariën, Kevin K.

    2015-01-01

    Data on immune mediators in the genital tract and the factors that modulate them in sub-Saharan women are limited. Cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) samples from 430 sexually active women from Kenya, South Africa, and Rwanda were analyzed for 12 soluble immune mediators using Bio-Plex and Meso Scale Discovery multiplex platforms, as well as single enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Ten bacterial species were quantified in vaginal swab samples. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) was defined by Nugent scoring. CVL samples from HIV-infected women showed a clear-cut proinflammatory profile. Pregnant women, adolescents, and women engaging in traditional vaginal practices differed in specific soluble markers compared to reference groups of adult HIV-negative women. Cervical mucus, cervical ectopy, abnormal vaginal discharge, and having multiple sex partners were each associated with an increase in inflammatory mediators. The levels of interleukin-1α (IL-1α), IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12(p70), and IL-8 were elevated, whereas the IL-1RA/IL-1(α+β) ratio decreased in women with BV. The level of gamma interferon-induced protein 10 was lower in BV-positive than in BV-negative women, suggesting its suppression as a potential immune evasion mechanism by BV-associated bacteria. Lactobacillus crispatus and Lactobacillus vaginalis were associated with decreased proinflammatory cytokines and each BV-associated species with increased proinflammatory cytokines. Remarkably, the in vitro anti-HIV activity of CVL samples from BV-positive women was stronger than that of BV-negative women. In conclusion, we found significant associations of factors, including vaginal microbiota, which can influence immune mediators in the vaginal environment in sexually active women. These factors need to be considered when establishing normative levels or pathogenic cutoffs of biomarkers of inflammation and associated risks in African women. PMID:25761460

  15. Host Nectin-1 Promotes Chlamydial Infection in the Female Mouse Genital Tract, but Is Not Required for Infection in a Novel Male Murine Rectal Infection Model

    PubMed Central

    Slade, Jessica A.; Hall, Jennifer V.; Kintner, Jennifer; Phillips-Campbell, Regenia; Schoborg, Robert V.

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted pathogen, but more than 70% of patients fail to seek treatment due to the asymptomatic nature of these infections. Women suffer from numerous complications from chronic chlamydial infections, which include pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility. We previously demonstrated in culture that host cell nectin-1 knockdown significantly reduced chlamydial titers and inclusion size. Here, we sought to determine whether nectin-1 was required for chlamydial development in vivo by intravaginally infecting nectin-1-/- mice with Chlamydia muridarum and monitoring chlamydial shedding by chlamydial titer assay. We observed a significant reduction in chlamydial shedding in female nectin-1-/- mice compared to nectin-1+/+ control mice, an observation that was confirmed by PCR. Immunohistochemical staining in mouse cervical tissue confirmed that there are fewer chlamydial inclusions in Chlamydia-infected nectin-1-/- mice. Notably, anorectal chlamydial infections are becoming a substantial health burden, though little is known regarding the pathogenesis of these infections. We therefore established a novel male murine model of rectal chlamydial infection, which we used to determine whether nectin-1 is required for anorectal chlamydial infection in male mice. In contrast to the data from vaginal infection, no difference in rectal chlamydial shedding was observed when male nectin-1+/+ and nectin-1-/- mice were compared. Through the use of these two models, we have demonstrated that nectin-1 promotes chlamydial infection in the female genital tract but does not appear to contribute to rectal infection in male mice. These models could be used to further characterize tissue and sex related differences in chlamydial infection. PMID:27486990

  16. Seasonal and Ageing-Depending Changes of Aquaporins 1 and 9 Expression in the Genital Tract of Buffalo Bulls (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Arrighi, S; Bosi, G; Accogli, G; Desantis, S

    2016-08-01

    The presence of Aquaporins 1 (AQP1) and 9 (AQP9), integral membrane water channels that facilitate rapid passive movement of water and solutes, was immunohistochemically detected in the excurrent ducts collected from sexually mature buffalo bulls of proven fertility during the mating (late autumn-winter) and non-mating (late spring to the beginning of autumn) seasons. Furthermore, the research was performed also on the epididymal cauda of a senile buffalo bull with inactive testis. Aquaporins 1 and 9 were immunolocalized at distinct levels. In the efferent ducts, AQP1 immunoreactivity was strongly evidenced at the apical surface of the non-ciliated cells and weakly along the basal membrane of the epithelial cells. The latter reactivity disappeared during the non-mating season. No AQP1 immunoreactivity was detected in the epithelium of epididymis and vas deferens, whereas AQP1 was expressed in the smooth muscle layer of the vas deferens. Aquaporin 1 was present in the blood vessels and in small nerve bundles all along the genital tract. The supranuclear zone of the epididymal principal cells was AQP9 immunoreactive, limited to the corpus and cauda regions, and vas deferens. The samples collected in the two reproductive seasons showed a weaker AQP9 immunoreactivity during the non-mating season. A typical AQP9 immunoreactivity was noticed in the old buffalo examined. The tested AQP molecules showed a different expression pattern in comparison with laboratory mammals, primates, equine, dog and cat. In addition, seasonal differences were noticed which are possibly useful in regard to the comprehension of the morphophysiology of reproduction in the bubaline species, which are still a matter of debate. PMID:27260501

  17. Glutathione Peroxidase 5 Is Expressed by the Entire Pig Male Genital Tract and Once in the Seminal Plasma Contributes to Sperm Survival and In Vivo Fertility.

    PubMed

    Barranco, Isabel; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Perez-Patiño, Cristina; Vicente-Carrillo, Alejandro; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Ceron, Jose J; Martinez, Emilio A; Rodriguez-Martinez, Heriberto; Roca, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Glutathione peroxidase-5 (GPX5) is an H2O2-scavenging enzyme identified in boar seminal plasma (SP). This study attempted to clarify its origin and role on sperm survival and fertility after artificial insemination (AI). GPX5 was expressed (Western blot and immunocytochemistry using a rabbit primary polyclonal antibody) in testes, epididymis and accessory sex glands (6 boars). SP-GPX5 concentration differed among boars (11 boars, P < 0.001), among ejaculates within boar (44 ejaculates, P < 0.001) and among portions within ejaculate (15 ejaculates). The first 10 mL of the sperm rich fraction (SRF, sperm-peak portion) had a significantly lower concentration (8.87 ± 0.78 ng/mL) than the rest of the SRF and the post-SRF (11.66 ± 0.79 and 12.37 ± 0.79 ng/mL, respectively, P < 0.005). Sperm motility of liquid-stored semen AI-doses (n = 44, at 15-17°C during 72h) declined faster in AI-doses with low concentrations of SP-GPX5 compared to those with high-levels. Boars (n = 11) with high SP-GPX5 showed higher farrowing rates and litter sizes than those with low SP-GPX5 (a total of 5,275 inseminated sows). In sum, GPX5 is widely expressed in the boar genital tract and its variable presence in SP shows a positive relationship with sperm quality and fertility outcomes of liquid-stored semen AI-doses. PMID:27627110

  18. Genetic transformation of a clinical (genital tract), plasmid-free isolate of Chlamydia trachomatis: engineering the plasmid as a cloning vector.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yibing; Kahane, Simona; Cutcliffe, Lesley T; Skilton, Rachel J; Lambden, Paul R; Persson, Kenneth; Bjartling, Carina; Clarke, Ian N

    2013-01-01

    Our study had three objectives: to extend the plasmid-based transformation protocol to a clinical isolate of C. trachomatis belonging to the trachoma biovar, to provide "proof of principle" that it is possible to "knock out" selected plasmid genes (retaining a replication competent plasmid) and to investigate the plasticity of the plasmid. A recently developed, plasmid-based transformation protocol for LGV isolates of C. trachomatis was modified and a plasmid-free, genital tract C. trachomatis isolate from Sweden (SWFP-) was genetically transformed. Transformation of this non-LGV C. trachomatis host required a centrifugation step, but the absence of the natural plasmid removed the need for plaque purification of transformants. Transformants expressed GFP, were penicillin resistant and iodine stain positive for accumulated glycogen. The transforming plasmid did not recombine with the host chromosome. A derivative of pGFP::SW2 carrying a deletion of the plasmid CDS5 gene was engineered. CDS5 encodes pgp3, a protein secreted from the inclusion into the cell cytoplasm. This plasmid (pCDS5KO) was used to transform C. trachomatis SWFP-, and established that pgp3 is dispensable for plasmid function. The work shows it is possible to selectively delete segments of the chlamydial plasmid, and this is the first step towards a detailed molecular dissection of the role of the plasmid. The 3.6 kb β-galactosidase cassette was inserted into the deletion site of CDS5 to produce plasmid placZ-CDS5KO. Transformants were penicillin resistant, expressed GFP and stained for glycogen. In addition, they expressed β-galactosidase showing that the lacZ cassette was functional in C. trachomatis. An assay was developed that allowed the visualisation of individual inclusions by X-gal staining. The ability to express active β-galactosidase within chlamydial inclusions is an important advance as it allows simple, rapid assays to measure directly chlamydial infectivity without the need for

  19. Host Nectin-1 Promotes Chlamydial Infection in the Female Mouse Genital Tract, but Is Not Required for Infection in a Novel Male Murine Rectal Infection Model.

    PubMed

    Slade, Jessica A; Hall, Jennifer V; Kintner, Jennifer; Phillips-Campbell, Regenia; Schoborg, Robert V

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted pathogen, but more than 70% of patients fail to seek treatment due to the asymptomatic nature of these infections. Women suffer from numerous complications from chronic chlamydial infections, which include pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility. We previously demonstrated in culture that host cell nectin-1 knockdown significantly reduced chlamydial titers and inclusion size. Here, we sought to determine whether nectin-1 was required for chlamydial development in vivo by intravaginally infecting nectin-1-/- mice with Chlamydia muridarum and monitoring chlamydial shedding by chlamydial titer assay. We observed a significant reduction in chlamydial shedding in female nectin-1-/- mice compared to nectin-1+/+ control mice, an observation that was confirmed by PCR. Immunohistochemical staining in mouse cervical tissue confirmed that there are fewer chlamydial inclusions in Chlamydia-infected nectin-1-/- mice. Notably, anorectal chlamydial infections are becoming a substantial health burden, though little is known regarding the pathogenesis of these infections. We therefore established a novel male murine model of rectal chlamydial infection, which we used to determine whether nectin-1 is required for anorectal chlamydial infection in male mice. In contrast to the data from vaginal infection, no difference in rectal chlamydial shedding was observed when male nectin-1+/+ and nectin-1-/- mice were compared. Through the use of these two models, we have demonstrated that nectin-1 promotes chlamydial infection in the female genital tract but does not appear to contribute to rectal infection in male mice. These models could be used to further characterize tissue and sex related differences in chlamydial infection. PMID:27486990

  20. Search for uro-genital tract infections in patients with symptoms of prostatitis. Studies on aerobic and strictly anaerobic bacteria, mycoplasmas, fungi, trichomonads and viruses.

    PubMed

    Mårdh, P A; Colleen, S

    1975-01-01

    Seventy-nine patients with symptoms of nonacute prostatitis and 20 healthy volunteers were examined for uro-genital tract infection with bacteria, mycoplasmas, fungi, trichomonads and viruses. No differences in the results of the bacterial cultures were found between the patients and the controls. In only a few cases were established urinary tract pathogens found, but in no instance were these findings reproducible in later specimens. The cultures of the expressed prostatic fluids and the samples of semen gave no information of the occurrence of bacteria over and above that obtainable from examination of the urethral specimens. Significant bacteriuria was not found in any of the patients. Though Neisseria gonorrhoeae could not be isolated from any of the subjects, immunofluorescent studies revealed such organisms in seminal fluid in 8% of the patients. Nine of the patients had 1 to 3 years been considered successfully treated for gonorrhoea. Five of these nine patients were still found to harbour gonococci, as judged from the immunofluorescent studies. Corynebacterium vaginale was recovered in an equally low frequency (5%) from the patients and the volunteers. There was no significant difference in the incidence of T-mycoplasmas between the patients (46%) and the controls (35%), while Mycoplasma hominis was only found in the patients (10%). Trichomonas vaginalis could not be detected in wet smears of expressed prostatic fluid in any of the subjects, but could be cultured from one such specimen. Metacycline treatment (performed according the double blind cross-over technique) was studied for effects on the bacterial flora. In about 10% of the patients, an earlier not observed relative dominance of gram-negative rods was found on the cultures made after the therapy. Candida albicans was only isolated from the patients. It was found more often after (24%) than before the (15%) treatment. Complement-fixing antibodies to N. gonorrhoeae, cytomegalovirus and Chlamydia

  1. Proinflammatory effects of local abdominal irradiation on rat gastrointestinal tract

    SciTech Connect

    Buell, M.G.; Harding, R.K.

    1989-03-01

    Although the role of inflammatory processes in the genesis of late changes in the gastrointestinal tract following exposure to ionizing irradiation has been extensively studied, few studies have concentrated on the presence of an acute inflammatory response in the period immediately following radiation. We therefore examined, in rats, whether the local application of 10 Gy cobalt-60 irradiation to the abdomen led to changes in the gut within the first 24 hr that were consistent with an acute inflammatory response. In stomach, small intestine, and colon, local irradiation led to a significant increase in the accumulation of plasma within the tissue by 4-8 hr following irradiation. This increase in tissue plasma volume, indicative of an increased microvascular permeability, was then sustained until the end of the 24-hr assessment period in all tissues examined. Concurrent with this was a consistent transient increase in tissue red blood cell volume, suggestive of vasodilation. Of particular note, a significant increase in the number of mucosal neutrophils was also observed between 2 and 12 hr following irradiation. This elevation in mucosal neutrophils was particularly marked in the pericryptal or deep mucosal regions of small intestine and colon and consistently preceded the vasodilation and enhanced permeability. Furthermore these pathophysiological alterations occurred at a time when histological changes in the mucosa consistent with an impaired mucosal microcirculation (ie, edema of the lamina propria and subepithelial bleb formation) were present. These results support the hypothesis that an inflammatory response occurs in the gut during the first 24 hr following abdominal irradiation. Such changes may then further exacerbate the damage initiated by the ionizing radiation.

  2. Localized populations of CD8 MHC class I tetramer SIV-specific T cells in lymphoid follicles and genital epithelium.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jung Joo; Reynolds, Matthew R; Mattila, Teresa L; Hage, Aaron; Watkins, David I; Miller, Christopher J; Skinner, Pamela J

    2009-01-01

    CD8 T cells play an important role in controlling viral infections. We investigated the in situ localization of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-specific T cells in lymph and genital tissues from SIV-infected macaques using MHC-class I tetramers. The majority of tetramer-binding cells localized in T cell zones and were CD8(+). Curiously, small subpopulations of tetramer-binding cells that had little to no surface CD8 were detected in situ both early and late post-infection, and in both vaginally and rectally inoculated macaques. These tetramer(+)CD8(low/-) cells were more often localized in apparent B cell follicles relative to T cell zones and more often found near or within the genital epithelium than the submucosa. Cells analyzed by flow cytometry showed similar populations of cells. Further immunohistological characterization revealed small populations of tetramer(+)CD20(-) cells inside B cell follicles and that tetramer(+) cells did not stain with gammadelta-TCR nor CD4 antibodies. Negative control tetramer staining indicated that tetramer(+)CD8(low/-) cells were not likely NK cells non-specifically binding to MHC tetramers. These findings have important implications for SIV-specific and other antigen-specific T cell function in these specific tissue locations, and suggest a model in which antigen-specific CD8+ T cells down modulate CD8 upon entering B cell follicles or the epithelial layer of tissues, or alternatively a model in which only antigen-specific CD8 T cells that down-modulate CD8 can enter B cell follicles or the epithelium. PMID:19122815

  3. Virologic and Immunologic Evidence of Multifocal Genital Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jia; Jing, Lichen; Laing, Kerry J.; McClurkan, Christopher M.; Klock, Alexis; Diem, Kurt; Jin, Lei; Stanaway, Jeffrey; Tronstein, Elizabeth; Kwok, William W.; Huang, Meei-li; Selke, Stacy; Fong, Youyi; Magaret, Amalia; Koelle, David M.; Wald, Anna; Corey, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) reactivation is thought to be anatomically and temporally localized, coincident with limited ganglionic infection. Short, subclinical shedding episodes are the most common form of HSV-2 reactivation, with host clearance mechanisms leading to rapid containment. The anatomic distribution of shedding episodes has not been characterized. To precisely define patterns of anatomic reactivation, we divided the genital tract into a 22-region grid and obtained daily swabs for 20 days from each region in 28 immunocompetent, HSV-2-seropositive persons. HSV was detected via PCR, and sites of asymptomatic HSV shedding were subjected to a biopsy procedure within 24 h. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were quantified by immunofluorescence, and HSV-specific CD4+ T cells were identified by intracellular cytokine cytometry. HSV was detected in 868 (7%) of 11,603 genital swabs at a median of 12 sites per person (range, 0 to 22). Bilateral HSV detection occurred on 83 (67%) days with shedding, and the median quantity of virus detected/day was associated with the number of sites positive (P < 0.001). In biopsy specimens of asymptomatic shedding sites, we found increased numbers of CD8+ T cells compared to control tissue (27 versus 13 cells/mm2, P = 0.03) and identified HSV-specific CD4+ T cells. HSV reactivations emanate from widely separated anatomic regions of the genital tract and are associated with a localized cellular infiltrate that was demonstrated to be HSV specific in 3 cases. These data provide evidence that asymptomatic HSV-2 shedding contributes to chronic inflammation throughout the genital tract. IMPORTANCE This detailed report of the anatomic patterns of genital HSV-2 shedding demonstrates that HSV-2 reactivation can be detected at multiple bilateral sites in the genital tract, suggesting that HSV establishes latency throughout the sacral ganglia. In addition, genital biopsy specimens from sites of asymptomatic HSV shedding have increased

  4. Genetic Transformation of a Clinical (Genital Tract), Plasmid-Free Isolate of Chlamydia trachomatis: Engineering the Plasmid as a Cloning Vector

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yibing; Kahane, Simona; Cutcliffe, Lesley T.; Skilton, Rachel J.; Lambden, Paul R.; Persson, Kenneth; Bjartling, Carina; Clarke, Ian N.

    2013-01-01

    Our study had three objectives: to extend the plasmid-based transformation protocol to a clinical isolate of C. trachomatis belonging to the trachoma biovar, to provide “proof of principle” that it is possible to “knock out” selected plasmid genes (retaining a replication competent plasmid) and to investigate the plasticity of the plasmid. A recently developed, plasmid-based transformation protocol for LGV isolates of C. trachomatis was modified and a plasmid-free, genital tract C. trachomatis isolate from Sweden (SWFP-) was genetically transformed. Transformation of this non-LGV C. trachomatis host required a centrifugation step, but the absence of the natural plasmid removed the need for plaque purification of transformants. Transformants expressed GFP, were penicillin resistant and iodine stain positive for accumulated glycogen. The transforming plasmid did not recombine with the host chromosome. A derivative of pGFP::SW2 carrying a deletion of the plasmid CDS5 gene was engineered. CDS5 encodes pgp3, a protein secreted from the inclusion into the cell cytoplasm. This plasmid (pCDS5KO) was used to transform C. trachomatis SWFP-, and established that pgp3 is dispensable for plasmid function. The work shows it is possible to selectively delete segments of the chlamydial plasmid, and this is the first step towards a detailed molecular dissection of the role of the plasmid. The 3.6 kb β-galactosidase cassette was inserted into the deletion site of CDS5 to produce plasmid placZ-CDS5KO. Transformants were penicillin resistant, expressed GFP and stained for glycogen. In addition, they expressed β-galactosidase showing that the lacZ cassette was functional in C. trachomatis. An assay was developed that allowed the visualisation of individual inclusions by X-gal staining. The ability to express active β-galactosidase within chlamydial inclusions is an important advance as it allows simple, rapid assays to measure directly chlamydial infectivity without the need

  5. Genital and Urinary Tract Defects

    MedlinePlus

    ... not survive pregnancy. Babies who do survive need dialysis and a kidney transplant very soon after birth. ... are painful, infected, bleeding or causing a blockage Dialysis. This treatment filters your blood to rid your ...

  6. Diuretic radionuclide localization of upper urinary tract obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Koff, S.A.; Shore, R.M.; Hayden, L.J.; Smith, S.P.; Trepashko, D.W.

    1984-09-01

    In 59 children with proved upper urinary tract obstruction diuretic radionuclide ureteral scans provided an accurate assessment of ureteral dilatation sufficient to distinguish ureteropelvic from ureterovesical obstruction. As a result, this test may be used instead of more invasive studies, such as retrograde or antegrade pyelography, to determine the site of obstruction in many cases of hydronephrosis.

  7. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection in a newborn can cause meningitis (an inflammation of the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord), seizures, and brain damage. How Is It Prevented? The best way to prevent genital herpes is abstinence. Teens who do have ...

  8. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by a herpes simplex virus (HSV). It can cause sores on ... also infect their babies during childbirth. Symptoms of herpes are called outbreaks. You usually get sores near ...

  9. Genital Warts

    MedlinePlus

    ... can get genital warts during oral, vaginal, or anal sex with an infected partner. Correct usage of latex condoms greatly reduces, but does not completely eliminate, the risk of ... back. NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

  10. Immunization with Live and Dead Chlamydia muridarum Induces Different Levels of Protective Immunity in a Murine Genital Tract Model: Correlation with MHC Class II Peptide Presentation and Multifunctional Th1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hong; Karunakaran, Karuna P.; Kelly, Isabelle; Shen, Caixia; Jiang, Xiaozhou; Foster, Leonard J.; Brunham, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    Mice that were intranasally vaccinated with live or dead Chlamydia muridarum with or without CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotide 1862 elicited widely disparate levels of protective immunity to genital tract challenge. We found that the frequency of multifunctional T cells coexpressing IFN-γ and TNF-α with or without IL-2 induced by live C. muridarum most accurately correlated with the pattern of protection against C. muridarum genital tract infection, suggesting that IFN-γ+–producing CD4+ T cells that highly coexpress TNF-α may be the optimal effector cells for protective immunity. We also used an immunoproteomic approach to analyze MHC class II-bound peptides eluted from dendritic cells (DCs) that were pulsed with live or dead C. muridarum elementary bodies (EBs). We found that DCs pulsed with live EBs presented 45 MHC class II C. muridarum peptides mapping to 13 proteins. In contrast, DCs pulsed with dead EBs presented only six MHC class II C. muridarum peptides mapping to three proteins. Only two epitopes were shared in common between the live and dead EB-pulsed groups. This study provides insights into the role of Ag presentation and cytokine secretion patterns of CD4+ T effector cells that correlate with protective immunity elicited by live and dead C. muridarum. These insights should prove useful for improving vaccine design for Chlamydia trachomatis. PMID:21296978

  11. Genital Warts

    PubMed Central

    Yanofsky, Valerie R.; Patel, Rita V.

    2012-01-01

    External genital warts, also known as condylomata acuminata, are extremely common, with between 500,000 to one million new cases diagnosed each year in the United States alone. To date, more than 120 distinct subtypes of human papillomavirus have been identified. Human papillomavirus types 6 and 11 rarely give rise to cervical cancers, but are responsible for 90 percent of the cases of genital warts. The current treatment options are largely centered upon removal of the warts rather than elimination of the underlying viral infection. A wide range of therapies are presently in use, which are highly variable and can differ dramatically with respect to cost, side-effect profiles, dosing schedules, duration of treatment, and overall effectiveness. As of yet, no definitive therapy has emerged as the ideal standard of care in the treatment of genital warts, and therapy selection generally occurs in a patient-specific manner. PMID:22768354

  12. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... you were exposed. You can also get the herpes virus but never have any sores. The sores look ... to have a healthy sex life with genital herpes. Being open and honest with your ... to see if he or she carries the virus as well. If your partner does not have ...

  13. Female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Ladjali, M; Rattray, T W; Walder, R J

    1993-08-21

    Female genital mutilation, also misleadingly known as female circumcision, is usually performed on girls ranging in from 1 week to puberty. Immediate physical complications include severe pain, shock, infection, bleeding, acute urinary infection, tetanus, and death. Longterm problems include chronic pain, difficulties with micturition and menstruation, pelvic infection leading to infertility, and prolonged and obstructed labor during childbirth. An estimated 80 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation. In Britain alone an estimated 10,000 girls are currently at risk. Religious, cultural, medical, and moral grounds rationalize the custom which is practiced primarily in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arab world, Malaysia, Indonesia, and among migrant populations in Western countries. According to WHO it is correlated with poverty, illiteracy, and the low status of women. Women who escape mutilation are not sought in marriage. WHO, the UN Population Fund, the UN Children's Fund, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child have issued declarations on the eradication of female genital mutilation. In Britain, local authorities have intervened to prevent parents from mutilating their daughters. In 1984, the Inter-African Committee Against Harmful Traditional Practices Affecting Women and Children was established to work toward eliminating female genital mutilation and other damaging customs. National committees in 26 African countries coordinate projects run by local people using theater, dance, music, and storytelling for communication. In Australia, Canada, Europe, and the US women have organized to prevent the practice among vulnerable migrants and refugees. PMID:8400925

  14. Substance P and substance K receptor binding sites in the human gastrointestinal tract: localization by autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, T.S.; Zimmerman, R.P.; Mantyh, C.R.; Vigna, S.R.; Maggio, J.E.; Welton, M.L.; Passaro, E.P. Jr.; Mantyh, P.W.

    1988-11-01

    Quantitative receptor autoradiography was used to localize and quantify the distribution of binding sites for /sup 125/I-radiolabeled substance P (SP), substance K (SK) and neuromedin K (NK) in the human GI tract using histologically normal tissue obtained from uninvolved margins of resections for carcinoma. The distribution of SP and SK binding sites is different for each gastrointestinal (GI) segment examined. Specific SP binding sites are expressed by arterioles and venules, myenteric plexus, external circular muscle, external longitudinal muscle, muscularis mucosa, epithelial cells of the mucosa, and the germinal centers of lymph nodules. SK binding sites are distributed in a pattern distinct from SP binding sites and are localized to the external circular muscle, external longitudinal muscle, and the muscularis mucosa. Binding sites for NK were not detected in any part of the human GI tract. These results demonstrate that: (1) surgical specimens from the human GI tract can be effectively processed for quantitative receptor autoradiography; (2) of the three mammalian tachykinins tested, SP and SK, but not NK binding sites are expressed in detectable levels in the human GI tract; (3) whereas SK receptor binding sites are expressed almost exclusively by smooth muscle, SP binding sites are expressed by smooth muscle cells, arterioles, venules, epithelial cells of the mucosa and cells associated with lymph nodules; and (4) both SP and SK binding sites expressed by smooth muscle are more stable than SP binding sites expressed by blood vessels, lymph nodules, and mucosal cells.

  15. A novel mucosal orthotopic murine model of human papillomavirus-associated genital cancers.

    PubMed

    Decrausaz, Loane; Gonçalves, Ana-Rita; Domingos-Pereira, Sonia; Pythoud, Christelle; Stehle, Jean-Christophe; Schiller, John; Jichlinski, Patrice; Nardelli-Haefliger, Denise

    2011-05-01

    Cervical cancer results from infection with high-risk type human papillomaviruses (HPV). Therapeutic vaccines aiming at controlling existing genital HPV infections and associated lesions are usually tested in mice with HPV-expressing tumor cells subcutaneously implanted into their flank. However, effective vaccine-induced regression of these ectopic tumors strongly contrasts with the poor clinical results of these vaccines produced in patients with HPV-associated genital neoplasia. To assess HPV therapeutic vaccines in a more relevant setting, we have, here, established an orthotopic mouse model where tumors in the genital mucosa (GM) develop after an intravaginal instillation of HPV16 E6/E7-expressing tumor cells transduced with a luciferase-encoding lentiviral vector for in vivo imaging of tumor growth. Tumor take was 80-90% after nonoxynol-9 induced damage of the epithelium. Tumors remained localized in the genital tract, and histological analysis showed that most tumors grew within the squamous epithelium of the vaginal wall. Those tumors induced (i) E7-specific CD8 T cells restricted to the GM and draining lymph nodes, in agreement with their mucosal location and (ii) high Foxp3+ CD4+ infiltrates, similarly to those found in natural non-regressing HPV lesions. This novel genital HPV-tumor model by requiring GM homing of vaccine-induced immune responses able to overcome local immuno-suppression may be more representative of the situation occurring in patients upon therapeutic vaccination. PMID:20635385

  16. Genital mycoplasmas.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Martin

    2009-04-01

    The first described pathogenic organisms that caused urethritis were Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. The significance of detecting mycoplasma with genital swabs remained unclear for a long time. Culture can differentiate between Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis. After introduction of nuclear acid amplification, Mycoplasma genitalium was additionally detected, while gene analysis differentiates between Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum. Mycoplasma genitalium has become the third most frequent pathogen causing non-chlamydial, non-gonococcal urethritis (NCNGU); Ureaplasma urealyticum is less often isolated. Because urethritis caused by Mycoplasma genitalium does not always respond to tetracycline, it is advisable to begin therapy with a macrolide. Mycoplasma hominis is a cofactor for bacterial vaginosis and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). During therapy with metronidazole, the colonization of this mycoplasma is decreased indirectly. PMID:19500195

  17. UT-B Urea Transporter Localization in the Bovine Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Coyle, J; McDaid, S; Walpole, C; Stewart, Gavin S

    2016-04-01

    Facilitative UT-B urea transporters play an important role in the urea nitrogen salvaging process that occurs in the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, particularly ruminants. Gastrointestinal UT-B transporters have previously been reported in various ruminant species-including cow, sheep and goat. In this present study, UT-B transporter localization was investigated in tissues throughout the bovine gastrointestinal tract. RT-PCR analysis showed that UT-B2 was the predominant UT-B mRNA transcript expressed in dorsal, ventral and cranial ruminal sacs, while alternative UT-B transcripts were present in other gastrointestinal tissues. Immunoblotting analysis detected a strong, glycosylated ~50 kDa UT-B2 protein in all three ruminal sacs. Immunolocalization studies showed that UT-B2 protein was predominantly localized to the plasma membrane of cells in the stratum basale layer of all ruminal sac papillae. In contrast, other UT-B protein staining was detected in the basolateral membranes of the surface epithelial cells lining the abomasum, colon and rectum. Overall, these findings confirm that UT-B2 cellular localization is similar in all ruminal sacs and that other UT-B proteins are located in epithelial cells lining various tissues in the bovine gastrointestinal tract. PMID:26403526

  18. The comprehensiveness of the ESHRE/ESGE classification of female genital tract congenital anomalies: a systematic review of cases not classified by the AFS system

    PubMed Central

    Di Spiezio Sardo, A.; Campo, R.; Gordts, S.; Spinelli, M.; Cosimato, C.; Tanos, V.; Brucker, S.; Li, T. C.; Gergolet, M.; De Angelis, C.; Gianaroli, L.; Grimbizis, G.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION How comprehensive is the recently published European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE)/European Society for Gynaecological Endoscopy (ESGE) classification system of female genital anomalies? SUMMARY ANSWER The ESHRE/ESGE classification provides a comprehensive description and categorization of almost all of the currently known anomalies that could not be classified properly with the American Fertility Society (AFS) system. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Until now, the more accepted classification system, namely that of the AFS, is associated with serious limitations in effective categorization of female genital anomalies. Many cases published in the literature could not be properly classified using the AFS system, yet a clear and accurate classification is a prerequisite for treatment. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE AND DURATION The CONUTA (CONgenital UTerine Anomalies) ESHRE/ESGE group conducted a systematic review of the literature to examine if those types of anomalies that could not be properly classified with the AFS system could be effectively classified with the use of the new ESHRE/ESGE system. An electronic literature search through Medline, Embase and Cochrane library was carried out from January 1988 to January 2014. Three participants independently screened, selected articles of potential interest and finally extracted data from all the included studies. Any disagreement was discussed and resolved after consultation with a fourth reviewer and the results were assessed independently and approved by all members of the CONUTA group. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Among the 143 articles assessed in detail, 120 were finally selected reporting 140 cases that could not properly fit into a specific class of the AFS system. Those 140 cases were clustered in 39 different types of anomalies. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE The congenital anomaly involved a single organ in 12 (30.8%) out of the 39 types of anomalies, while multiple organs

  19. Histochemical localization of copper in the gastrointestinal tract of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Williams, A. Olufemi

    1965-01-01

    Three histochemical reactions for the localization of copper were applied to liver and different parts of the gastrointestinal tract of normal as well as of rats poisoned with a solution of copper. Variable quantities of copper were demonstrated in the livers of all the poisoned rats and in 21 out of 24 sections of jejunum. Rubeanic acid counterstained with 0·5% Cresyl violet gave the best results. Copper was not demonstrable in the livers or the gastrointestinal tract of normal rats. As the metal was concentrated in the upper jejunum, it is likely that this is the site of absorption. Detection of this metal may assist in the diagnosis of hepatolenticular degeneration. Images PMID:5844213

  20. Genital Schistosomiasis in European Women

    PubMed Central

    Catteau, Xavier; Fakhri, Anass; Albert, Valérie; Doukoure, Brahima; Noël, Jean-Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) is an isolated chronic form of schistosomiasis. Although most infections occur in residents of endemic areas, it has been clearly documented that brief freshwater exposure is sufficient to establish infection; thus, travellers may also be infected. The clinical manifestations of FGS are nonspecific, and lesions may mimic any neoplastic or infectious process in the female genital tract. It is important to take a careful history and physical examination, making sure to consider travel history in endemic areas. The diagnosis is confirmed by microscopy with egg identification or by serology. The standard of care for treatment is a single dose of oral praziquantel which avoids complications and substantial morbidity. Herein, we report a rare and original case of FGS in a European woman. PMID:21776398

  1. Genital sores - female

    MedlinePlus

    ... inguinale) Genital herpes Genital warts Melanoma Molluscum contagiosum Vulvovaginitis - overview Update Date 11/5/2015 Updated by: ... any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should ...

  2. Genital Warts (HPV)

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Genital Warts (HPV) KidsHealth > For Teens > Genital Warts (HPV) Print A ... HPV infection. How Do People Know They Have HPV? Most HPV infections have no signs or symptoms. ...

  3. Identification and localization of soluble sulfotransferases in the human gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Teubner, Wera; Meinl, Walter; Florian, Simone; Kretzschmar, Michael; Glatt, Hansruedi

    2007-01-01

    Soluble SULTs (sulfotransferases) are important in the regulation of messenger molecules and the elimination of xenobiotics. However, sulfo-conjugation of various substrates can also lead to the formation of reactive metabolites that may induce cancer and cause other damage. The aim of the present study was to identify the SULT forms expressed in the human gastrointestinal tract, especially the colon and rectum (common sites for cancer), and to determine their cellular localization. Normal colonic or rectal tissue, resected with tumours, was obtained from 39 subjects. For comparison, we additionally studied one to four samples from stomach, jejunum, ileum, cecum and liver. SULTs were detected by immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry and measurement of enzyme activities. SULT1A1, 1A3 and 1B1 were found in all parts of the gastrointestinal tract, often exceeding levels in liver (where these forms were present at high, undetectable and low levels respectively). They were predominantly localized in differentiated enterocytes. SULT1E1 and 2A1 were only detected in liver, jejunum, ileum and cecum. SULT1C1 was readily found in stomach, but was negligible elsewhere. SULT1A2 was present at low levels in individual samples. The remaining forms were not detected with the limitation that only high levels could be recognized with the antisera used. In conclusion, SULTs are abundant in the gastrointestinal tract of man. We suspect that they are involved in the presystemic elimination of bioactive food-borne components, including aglycones released by gut microbiota, as well as the bioactivation of some procarcinogens. PMID:17335415

  4. Female genital tract shedding of CXCR4-tropic HIV Type 1 is associated with a majority population of CXCR4-tropic HIV Type 1 in blood and declining CD4(+) cell counts.

    PubMed

    Haaland, Richard E; Sullivan, Sharon T; Evans-Strickfaden, Tammy; Lennox, Jeffrey L; Hart, Clyde E

    2012-11-01

    This study compared HIV-1 genotypes shed over time (≤3.5 years) in the vaginal secretions (VS) and blood plasma (BP) of 15 chronically infected women. Analysis of predicted coreceptor tropism (CCR5=R5, CXCR4=X4) for quasispecies shedding revealed three patterns: (1) viral quasispecies shed in both VS and BP were restricted to R5-tropism at all time points, (2) quasispecies shed in VS were restricted to R5-tropism at all time points but X4 quasispecies were identified in the BP at one or more time points, and (3) quasispecies shed in matched VS and BP both contained X4-tropic viruses. Overall, the frequency of X4 quasispecies circulation in VS was 2-fold less than in BP and detection of X4 virus in VS was more likely to occur when X4 quasispecies comprised more than 50% of BP viruses (p=0.01) and when declines in blood CD4(+) lymphocyte levels were the greatest (p=0.038). Additionally, the mean number of predicted N-glycosylation sites between matched VS and BP samples was strongly correlated (r=0.86, p<0.0001) with glycosylation densities in the following order (VS R5=BP R5 > BP X4 > VS X4). The X4 glycosylation densities may result from compartmentalization pressures in the female genital tract or the delayed appearance of these viruses in VS. Our results suggest that the presence of X4 virus in VS is associated with a threshold population of X4 quasispecies in BP, which are increasing during the HIV-induced failure of the human immune system. PMID:22369497

  5. Variability of human immunodeficiency virus-1 in the female genital reservoir during genital reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 2.

    PubMed

    LeGoff, J; Roques, P; Jenabian, M-A; Charpentier, C; Brochier, C; Bouhlal, H; Gresenguet, G; Frost, E; Pepin, J; Mayaud, P; Belec, L

    2015-09-01

    Clinical and subclinical genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) reactivations have been associated with increases in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 genital shedding. Whether HSV-2 shedding contributes to the selection of specific genital HIV-1 variants remains unknown. We evaluated the genetic diversity of genital and blood HIV-1 RNA and DNA in 14 HIV-1/HSV-2-co-infected women, including seven with HSV-2 genital reactivation, and seven without as controls. HIV-1 DNA and HIV-1 RNA env V1-V3 sequences in paired blood and genital samples were compared. The HSV-2 selection pressure on HIV was estimated according to the number of synonymous substitutions (dS), the number of non-synonymous substitutions (dN) and the dS/dN ratio within HIV quasi-species. HIV-1 RNA levels in cervicovaginal secretions were higher in women with HSV-2 replication than in controls (p0.02). Plasma HIV-1 RNA and genital HIV-1 RNA and DNA were genetically compartmentalized. No differences in dS, dN and the dS/dN ratio were observed between the study groups for either genital HIV-1 RNA or plasma HIV-1 RNA. In contrast, dS and dN in genital HIV-1 DNA were significantly higher in patients with HSV-2 genital reactivation (p <0.01 and p <0.05, respectively). The mean of the dS/dN ratio in genital HIV-1 DNA was slightly higher in patients with HSV-2 genital replication, indicating a trend for purifying selection (p 0.056). HSV-2 increased the genetic diversity of genital HIV-1 DNA. These observations confirm molecular interactions between HSV-2 and HIV-1 at the genital tract level. PMID:26003280

  6. High-risk papillomavirus infection is associated with altered antibody responses in genital tract: non-specific responses in HPV infection.

    PubMed

    Bard, E; Riethmuller, D; Meillet, D; Prétet, J L; Schaal, J P; Mougin, C; Seillès, E

    2004-01-01

    In order to gain more information about local humoral immune responses to HPV infection, we quantified IgG, IgM, secretory-IgA (S-IgA), and total-IgA by ELISA, and lysozyme and lactoferrin by TR-IFMA, in cervical and cervicovaginal secretions of 40 healthy women and 28 high-risk HPV infected patients (11 were HPV16+). IgG, total-IgA, and S-IgA concentrations in cervicovaginal secretions (p < 0.0001) and high IgG and total-IgA concentrations (p < 0.001 and p < 0.01, respectively) in endocervical secretions were significantly higher in HPV+ patients than in the healthy group. Since the S-IgA/total-IgA ratio was significantly lower in cervicovaginal (7.5%) and endocervical secretions (36.5%) in HPV+ women compared to the control group (p < 0.003 and p < 0.001, respectively), HPV could be responsible for an increase in local production of non-secretory IgA (monomeric and dimeric forms). IgG and total-IgA concentrations in cervicovaginal and endocervical secretions fell in the same general percentage range in both HPV16+ and HPV+ groups (80% and 15%, respectively). However, the S-IgA/total-IgA ratio was much lower in HPV16+ than in HPV+ women, in both cervicovaginal secretions (3.4%) (p < 0.003) and in endocervical secretions (23.3%) (p < 0.001). Innate immunity proteins and local S-IgA response could not stop the spread of HPV infection in spite of high lysozyme and lactoferrin concentrations. HPV16+ disturbed the local humoral immune system, which could partly explain its low clearance. PMID:15357904

  7. HIV-1 Genital Shedding is Suppressed in the Setting of High Genital Antiretroviral Drug Concentrations Throughout the Menstrual Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Sheth, Anandi N.; Evans-Strickfaden, Tammy; Haaland, Richard; Martin, Amy; Gatcliffe, Chelsea; Adesoye, Adebola; Omondi, Michael W.; Lupo, L. Davis; Danavall, Damien; Easley, Kirk; Chen, Cheng-Yen; Pau, Chou-Pong; Hart, Clyde; Ofotokun, Igho

    2014-01-01

    Background. It is not known if fluctuations in genital tract antiretroviral drug concentrations correlate with genital virus shedding in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected women on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods. Among 20 HIV-infected women on ART (tenofovir [TFV], emtricitabine [FTC], and ritonavir-boosted atazanavir [ATV]) with suppressed plasma virus loads, blood and cervicovaginal samples collected twice weekly for 3 weeks were tested for antiretroviral concentrations, HIV-1 RNA, and proviral DNA. Results. Cervicovaginal:plasma antiretroviral concentration ratios were highest for FTC (11.9, 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.66–16.3), then TFV (3.52, 95% CI, 2.27–5.48), and ATV (2.39, 95% CI, 1.69–3.38). Within- and between-person variations in plasma and genital antiretroviral concentrations were observed. Low amounts of genital HIV-1 RNA (<50 copies/mL) were detected in 45% of women at 16% of visits. Genital HIV-1 DNA was detected in 70% of women at 35% of visits. Genital virus detection was associated with higher concentrations of mucosal leukocytes but not with genital antiretroviral concentrations, menstrual cycle phase, bacterial vaginosis, genital bleeding, or plasma virus detection. Conclusions. Standard doses of ART achieved higher genital than plasma concentrations across the menstrual cycle. Therapeutic ART suppresses genital virus shedding throughout the menstrual cycle, even in the presence of factors reported to increase virus shedding. PMID:24643223

  8. Genital Herpes: A Review.

    PubMed

    Groves, Mary Jo

    2016-06-01

    Genital herpes is a common sexually transmitted disease, affecting more than 400 million persons worldwide. It is caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) and characterized by lifelong infection and periodic reactivation. A visible outbreak consists of single or clustered vesicles on the genitalia, perineum, buttocks, upper thighs, or perianal areas that ulcerate before resolving. Symptoms of primary infection may include malaise, fever, or localized adenopathy. Subsequent outbreaks, caused by reactivation of latent virus, are usually milder. Asymptomatic shedding of transmissible virus is common. Although HSV-1 and HSV-2 are indistinguishable visually, they exhibit differences in behavior that may affect management. Patients with HSV-2 have a higher risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Polymerase chain reaction assay is the preferred method of confirming HSV infection in patients with active lesions. Treatment of primary and subsequent outbreaks with nucleoside analogues is well tolerated and reduces duration, severity, and frequency of recurrences. In patients with HSV who are HIV-negative, treatment reduces transmission of HSV to uninfected partners. During pregnancy, antiviral prophylaxis with acyclovir is recommended from 36 weeks of gestation until delivery in women with a history of genital herpes. Elective cesarean delivery should be performed in laboring patients with active lesions to reduce the risk of neonatal herpes. PMID:27281837

  9. Uptake and metabolism of (/sup 3/H)testosterone in the brain, pituitary gland and genital tract of the male cynomolgus monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Bonsall, R.W.; Rees, H.D.; Micheal, R.P.

    1986-03-01

    To study the mechanism by which testosterone restores the sexual potency of castrated cynomolgus monkeys, two males (body weights 5.2 and 5.3 kg) were castrated and, 3 days later, injected with 3 mCi (/sup 3/H)testosterone ((/sup 3/H)T) as an intravenous bolus. After 30 min, males were killed and brains and samples of other tissues were rapidly removed and placed on ice. Samples were dissected from the right halves of the brain and homogenized. Purified cell nuclei were prepared and ether extracts were analyzed by reverse-phase HPCL. Generally, unchanged (/sup 3/H)T was the major form of radioactivity in brain and pituitary gland, but in cell nuclei from hypothalamus, preoptic area and amygdala, a large proportion (34 - 61%) was in the form of (/sup 3/H)estradiol ((/sup 4/H)E/sub 2/). Little or no (/sup 3/H)dihydrotestosterone ((/sup 3/H)DHT) was detected in cell nuclei from any brain region or from pituitary gland. However, (/sup 3/H)DHT was the major form (61 - 95%) of radioactivity in cell nuclei from glans penis, prostrate and seminal vesicles. In autoradiograms of the left halves of the same brains, the percentage of cells that accumulated radioactivity in their nuclei was high in specific regions of the hypothalamus, preoptic areas and amygdala. The authors conclude that the peripheral actions of T are mediated via DHT, but its central actions are dependent on unchanged T or on E/sub 2/ formed locally by aromatization.

  10. Anti-HIV-1 Activity of Elafin Depends on Its Nuclear Localization and Altered Innate Immune Activation in Female Genital Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xiao-Dan; Henrick, Bethany M.; Ball, T. Blake; Plummer, Francis A.; Wachihi, Charles; Kimani, Joshua; Rosenthal, Kenneth L.

    2012-01-01

    Elafin (E) and its precursor trappin-2 (Tr) are alarm antiproteases with antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities. Tr and E (Tr/E) have been associated with HIV-1 resistance. We recently showed that Tr/E reduced IL-8 secretion and NF-κB activation in response to a mimic of viral dsRNA and contributed to anti-HIV activity of cervicovaginal lavage fluid (CVL) of HIV-resistant (HIV-R) commercial sex workers (CSWs). Additionally, Tr, and more so E, were found to inhibit attachment/entry and transcytosis of HIV-1 in human endometrial HEC-1A cells, acting through virus or cells. Given their immunomodulatory activity, we hypothesized that Tr/E could exert anti-HIV-1 activity at multiple levels. Here, using tagged and untagged Tr/E proteins, we comparatively evaluated their protease inhibitory, anti-HIV-1, and immunomodulatory activities, and cellular distribution. E appeared to function as an autocrine/paracrine factor in HEC-1A cells, and anti-HIV-1 activity of E depended on its unmodified N-terminus and altered cellular innate activation, but not its antiprotease activity. Specifically, exogenously added N-terminus-unmodified E was able to enter the nucleus and to reduce viral attachment/entry and transcytosis, preferentially affecting R5-HIV-1ADA, but not X4-HIV-1IIIB. Further, anti-HIV-1 activity of E was associated with significantly decreased HIV-1-triggered IL-8 release, attenuated NF-κB/p65 nuclear translocation, and significantly modulated mRNA expression of innate sensors TLR3 and RIG-I in HEC-1A cells. Most importantly, we found that elevated Tr/E in CVLs of HIV-R CSWs were associated with lower mRNA levels of TLRs 2, 3, 4 and RIG-I in the genital ECs from this cohort, suggesting a link between Tr/E, HIV-1 resistance and modulated innate viral recognition in the female genital mucosa. Collectively, our data indicate that unmodified N-terminus is critical for intranuclear localization and anti-HIV-1 activity of E. We also propose that E-mediated altered

  11. Early genital naming.

    PubMed

    Fraley, M C; Nelson, E C; Wolf, A W; Lozoff, B

    1991-10-01

    To evaluate the clinical impression that young girls are given little or confusing information about their genitals, a sample of 117 mothers with 1- to 4-year-old children were asked which words for genitals, if any, they used with their children. The ethnically and socioeconomically heterogeneous sample was composed of 63 girls and 54 boys, with the average ages of 26 and 29 months, respectively. Neither boys nor girls were likely to be given a standard anatomical genital term, although many children received colorful colloquial expressions. However, girls were less likely than boys to receive a term for their genitals. Receiving names for genitals was related to certain family circumstances, such as higher parental education, exposure to adult male nudity, having a sibling of the opposite sex, and cosleeping. Pediatric health professionals have the opportunity to contribute to early sex education by conveying accurate information regarding genital terms in the course of routine physical examinations. PMID:1939685

  12. Developmental disorders of the female genital tract

    MedlinePlus

    ... eds. Campbell-Walsh Urology . 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 150. Grinder NM, Cooper AR. ... Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 554. Katz VL, Lentz GM. Congenital ...

  13. Genital herpes - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    Herpes - genital -self-care; Herpes simplex - genital - self-care; Herpesvirus 2 - self-care; HSV-2 - self-care ... worried after finding out that you have genital herpes . But know that you are not alone. Millions ...

  14. Genital herpes - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    Herpes - genital -self-care; Herpes simplex - genital - self-care; Herpesvirus 2 - self-care; HSV-2 - self-care ... genital herpes can be treated. Follow your health care provider's instructions for treatment and follow-up.

  15. Isolated itching of the genitals.

    PubMed

    Pomares, Christelle; Marty, Pierre; Delaunay, Pascal

    2014-04-01

    A 38-year-old man, returned from Ivory Coast 2 months ago and presented with a 3-month history of pruritus exclusively on the scrotum. Itching was continuous during the day and no pruritus was described in his wife and son. Clinical examination of the genitals revealed several nodules on the scrotum, a chancrous lesion was seen on the penis, and multiple excoriations were noted. Dermoscopy exam with a dermatoscope of the whole body was performed and no papules, nodules, or burrow were found. Microscopic examination of several superficial skin samples obtained by scraping in the peri-genital area revealed one adult of Sarcoptes scabiei. The patient and his relatives were successfully treated with Ivermectin 200 μg/kg with a second dose 2 weeks later. Very rare cases are described on localized scabies (scalp, feet) and they mainly occurred in an immunocompromised patient unlike this patient who does not have any immunosuppression. PMID:24696404

  16. PEGylation of antibody fragments greatly increases their local residence time following delivery to the respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    Koussoroplis, Salome Juliette; Paulissen, Geneviève; Tyteca, Donatienne; Goldansaz, Hadi; Todoroff, Julie; Barilly, Céline; Uyttenhove, Catherine; Van Snick, Jacques; Cataldo, Didier; Vanbever, Rita

    2014-08-10

    Inhalation aerosols offer a targeted therapy for respiratory diseases. However, the therapeutic efficacy of inhaled biopharmaceuticals is limited by the rapid clearance of macromolecules in the lungs. The aim of this research was to study the effects of the PEGylation of antibody fragments on their local residence time after administration to the respiratory tract. We demonstrate that the conjugation of a two-armed 40-kDa polyethylene glycol (PEG) chain to anti-interleukin-17A (IL-17A) F(ab')2 and anti-IL-13 Fab' greatly prolonged the presence of these fragments within the lungs of mice. The content of PEGylated antibody fragments within the lungs plateaued up to 4h post-delivery, whereas the clearance of unconjugated proteins started immediately after administration. Forty-eight hours post-delivery, F(ab')2 and Fab' contents in the lungs had decreased to 10 and 14% of the dose initially deposited, respectively. However, this value was 40% for both PEG40-F(ab')2 and PEG40-Fab'. The prolonged pulmonary residency of the anti-IL-17A PEG40-F(ab')2 translated into an improved efficacy in reducing lung inflammation in a murine model of house dust mite-induced lung inflammation. We demonstrate that PEGylated proteins were principally retained within the lung lumen rather than the nasal cavities or lung parenchyma. In addition, we report that PEG increased pulmonary retention of antibody fragments through mucoadhesion and escape from alveolar macrophages rather than increased hydrodynamic size or improved enzymatic stability. The PEGylation of proteins might find broad application in the local delivery of therapeutic proteins to diseased airways. PMID:24845126

  17. Differential susceptibilities to azithromycin treatment of chlamydial infection in the gastrointestinal tract and cervix

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence from animal studies suggests that chlamydiae may persist in the gastrointestinal tract (GI) and be a reservoir for reinfection of the genital tract. We hypothesize that there may be a differential susceptibility of organisms in the GI and genital tracts. To determine the effect of azithromy...

  18. Noninfectious genital ulcers.

    PubMed

    Kirshen, Carly; Edwards, Libby

    2015-12-01

    Noninfectious genital ulcers are much more common than ulcers arising from infections. Still, it is important to take a thorough history of sexual activity and a sexual abuse screen. A physical exam should include skin, oral mucosa, nails, hair, vulva, and vaginal mucosa if needed. The differential diagnosis of noninfectious genital ulcers includes: lipschütz ulcers, complex aphthosis, Behçet's syndrome, vulvar metastatic Crohn's disease, hidradenitis suppurativa, pyoderma gangrenosum, pressure ulcers, and malignancies. It is important to come to the correct diagnosis to avoid undue testing, stress, and anxiety in patients experiencing genital ulcerations. PMID:26650697

  19. Effect of lactobacilli administration in the vaginal tract of mice: evaluation of side effects and local immune response by local administration of selected strains.

    PubMed

    Vintiñi, Elisa; Ocaña, Virginia; Elena Nader-Macías, María

    2004-01-01

    Lactobacilli are the predominant microorganisms in the vaginal tract of human and some homeothermic animals. They can maintain the ecological equilibrium of the tract by protecting against pathogenic microorganisms. In the last few years, there has been an increased tendency to use probiotic microorganisms to restore the ecological equilibrium and to protect against infections. This principle has been widely applied to the gastrointestinal tract. More recently, some other studies have reported the application of probiotics in different tracts, for example, the urogenital or respiratory tract. One of the objectives of our group is to design probiotic products for the urogenital tract. With this purpose, lactobacilli were isolated from the human vagina, and later some of them were selected for their probiotic characteristics (production of antagonistic substances or adhesion capability). The application of probiotic products in the vaginal tract has been approached empirically; some pharmaceuticals containing these microorganisms are available in the United States or Europe or are protected under the patent process or intellectual property rights. There are not enough studies in humans or animals to determine whether their administration can produce some type of collateral or adverse effect. Using Balb/c mice as the experimental model, the object of the present work was to study (1) whether intravaginal administration of human lactobacilli can produce colonization of the tract; (2) whether such administration produces some type of adverse or collateral effect; and (3) whether probiotics are able to stimulate the local immune system. Keeping in mind that hormones can affect the colonization or persistence ability of microorganisms, and with the purpose of having all animals at the same point in the sexual cycle, animals were cycled with estradiol 48 h before inoculation with lactobacilli. They were then inoculated im with hormones 48 h before beginning microorganism

  20. Phenotypic engineering unveils the function of genital morphology.

    PubMed

    Hotzy, Cosima; Polak, Michal; Rönn, Johanna L; Arnqvist, Göran

    2012-12-01

    The rapidly evolving and often extraordinarily complex appearance of male genital morphology of internally fertilizing animals has been recognized for centuries. Postcopulatory sexual selection is regarded as the likely evolutionary engine of this diversity, but direct support for this hypothesis is limited. We used two complementary approaches, evolution through artificial selection and microscale laser surgery, to experimentally manipulate genital morphology in an insect model system. We then assessed the competitive fertilization success of these phenotypically manipulated males and studied the fate of their ejaculate in females using high-resolution radioisotopic labeling of ejaculates. Males with longer genital spines were more successful in gaining fertilizations, providing experimental evidence that male genital morphology influences success in postcopulatory reproductive competition. Furthermore, a larger proportion of the ejaculate moved from the reproductive tract into the female body following mating with males with longer spines, suggesting that genital spines increase the rate at which seminal fluid passes into the female hemolymph. Our results show that genital morphology affects male competitive fertilization success and imply that sexual selection on genital morphology may be mediated in part through seminal fluid. PMID:23103188

  1. Dendritic cells and macrophages in the genitourinary tract

    PubMed Central

    Iijima, N; Thompson, JM; Iwasaki, A

    2009-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages are antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that are important in innate immune defense as well as in the generation and regulation of adaptive immunity against a wide array of pathogens. The genitourinary (GU) tract, which serves an important reproductive function, is constantly exposed to numerous agents of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). To combat these STIs, several subsets of DCs and macrophages are strategically localized within the GU tract. In the female genital mucosa, recruitment and function of these APCs are uniquely governed by sex hormones. This review summarizes the latest advances in our understanding of DCs and macrophages in the GU tract with respect to their subsets, lineage, and function. In addition, we discuss the divergent roles of these cells in immune defense against STIs as well as in maternal tolerance to the fetus. PMID:19079212

  2. Blocking HIV-1 transmission in the female reproductive tract: from microbicide development to exploring local antiviral responses

    PubMed Central

    Eid, Sahar G; Mangan, Niamh E; Hertzog, Paul J; Mak, Johnson

    2015-01-01

    The majority of new HIV-1 infections are transmitted sexually by penetrating the mucosal barrier to infect target cells. The development of microbicides to restrain heterosexual HIV-1 transmission in the past two decades has proven to be a challenging endeavor. Therefore, better understanding of the tissue environment in the female reproductive tract may assist in the development of the next generation of microbicides to prevent HIV-1 transmission. In this review, we highlight the important factors involved in the heterosexual transmission of HIV-1, provide an update on microbicides' clinical trials, and discuss how different delivery platforms and local immunity may empower the development of next generation of microbicide to block HIV-1 transmission in the female reproductive tract. PMID:26682051

  3. Progesterone increases susceptibility and decreases immune responses to genital herpes infection.

    PubMed

    Kaushic, Charu; Ashkar, Ali A; Reid, Lesley A; Rosenthal, Kenneth L

    2003-04-01

    Depo-provera, a long-acting progestational formulation, is widely used to facilitate infection of sexually transmitted diseases in animal models. We have previously reported that hormone treatments change susceptibility and immune responses to genital tract infections. In this study we compared the changes in susceptibility of mice to genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) after Depo-provera or a saline suspension of progesterone (P-sal). We found that following Depo-provera-treatment, mice had prolonged diestrus that lasted more than 4 weeks. This coincided with a 100-fold increase in susceptibility to genital HSV-2 compared to that of untreated mice. Mice given P-sal were in diestrous stage for 4 to 6 days before returning to irregular reproductive cycles. When these mice were infected at diestrus they showed a 10-fold increase in susceptibility compared to that of normal, untreated mice. P-sal-treated mice infected at estrus were susceptible to HSV-2, depending on the infectious dose. Normal, untreated mice in estrus were not susceptible to HSV-2, even at a high infectious dose of 10(7) PFU. In addition to alterations in susceptibility, Depo-provera treatment had inhibitory effects on immune responses to HSV-2. Mice immunized with HSV-2 protein (gB) and treated with Depo-provera showed significant lowering of local HSV-2-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA in their vaginal washes. Mice immunized with an attenuated strain of HSV-2 2 weeks after Depo-provera treatment failed to develop protection when challenged intravaginally with wild-type HSV-2. In contrast, mice given progesterone and immunized at diestrus or estrus were completely protected from intravaginal challenge. These studies show that Depo-provera treatment changes susceptibility and local immune responses to genital HSV-2 infection. Animal models and vaccine strategies for sexually transmitted diseases need to consider the effect of hormone treatments on susceptibility and immune responses

  4. Genital injuries in adults.

    PubMed

    White, Catherine

    2013-02-01

    The examination of the rape victim should focus on the therapeutic, forensic and psychological needs of the individual patient. One aspect will be an examination for ano-genital injuries. From a medical perspective, they tend to be minor and require little in the way of treatment. They must be considered when assessing the risk of blood-borne viruses and the need for prophylaxis. From a forensic perspective, an understanding of genital injury rates, type of injury, site and healing may assist the clinician to interpret the findings in the context of the allegations that have been made. There are many myths and misunderstandings about ano-genital injuries and rape. The clinician has a duty to dispel these. PMID:23219384

  5. Immunohistochemical study on localization of serotonin immunoreactive cells in the gastrointestinal tract of the European catfish (Silurus glanis, L.).

    PubMed

    Köprücü, S; Yaman, M

    2015-02-01

    In this study, it was aimed to identify the distribution of serotonin immunoreactive cells within the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of European catfish (Silurus glanis). For this purpose, the tissue samples were taken from the stomach (cardia, fundus and pylorus region) and intestine (anterior, middle and posterior region). They were examined by applying the avidin-biotin-immunoperoxidase method. The serotonin containing immunoreactive cells are presented in all regions of the GIT. It was determined to be localized generally in different distribution within the stomachs and intestines of S. glanis. It was found that the most intensive regions of immunoreactive cells were the cardia stomach and posterior of intestine. PMID:25041659

  6. Healing of Genital Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Carol D.

    2011-01-01

    Child sexual abuse as well as accidental trauma may cause acute injuries in the anogenital area. Most data on residual findings following genital trauma come from longitudinal studies of children who have been sexually assaulted, undergone surgical procedures, or experienced accidental trauma. Like injuries in other part parts of the body, such…

  7. Genital lesions following bestiality.

    PubMed

    Mittal, A; Shenoi, S D; Kumar, K B; Sharma, P V

    2000-01-01

    A 48-year-old man presented with painful genital lesions with history of bestiality and abnor-mal sexual behaviour. Examination revealed multiple irregular tender ulcers and erosions, with phimosis and left sided tender inguinal adenopathy. VDRL, TPHA, HIV-ELISA were negative. He was treated with ciprofloxacin 500mg b.d. along with saline compresses with complete resolution. PMID:20877040

  8. Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Receptor Superfamily Member 1b on CD8+ T Cells and TNF Receptor Superfamily Member 1a on Non-CD8+ T Cells Contribute Significantly to Upper Genital Tract Pathology Following Chlamydial Infection

    PubMed Central

    Manam, Srikanth; Thomas, Joshua D.; Li, Weidang; Maladore, Allison; Schripsema, Justin H.; Ramsey, Kyle H.; Murthy, Ashlesh K.

    2015-01-01

    Background. We demonstrated previously that tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α)–producing Chlamydia-specific CD8+ T cells cause oviduct pathological sequelae. Methods. In the current study, we used wild-type C57BL/6J (WT) mice with a deficiency in genes encoding TNF receptor superfamily member 1a (TNFR1; TNFR1 knockout [KO] mice), TNF receptor superfamily member 1b (TNFR2; TNFR2 KO mice), and both TNFR1 and TNFR2 (TNFR1/2 double KO [DKO] mice) and mix-match adoptive transfers of CD8+ T cells to study chlamydial pathogenesis. Results. TNFR1 KO, TNFR2 KO, and TNFR1/2 DKO mice displayed comparable clearance of primary or secondary genital Chlamydia muridarum infection but significantly reduced oviduct pathology, compared with WT animals. The Chlamydia-specific total cellular cytokine response in splenic and draining lymph nodes and the antibody response in serum were comparable between the WT and KO animals. However, CD8+ T cells from TNFR2 KO mice displayed significantly reduced activation (CD11a expression and cytokine production), compared with TNFR1 KO or WT animals. Repletion of TNFR2 KO mice with WT CD8+ T cells but not with TNFR2 KO CD8+ T cells and repletion of TNFR1 KO mice with either WT or TNFR1 KO CD8+ T cells restored oviduct pathology to WT levels in both KO groups. Conclusions. Collectively, these results demonstrate that TNFR2-bearing CD8+ T cells and TNFR1-bearing non-CD8+ T cells contribute significantly to oviduct pathology following genital chlamydial infection. PMID:25552370

  9. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) as a method used in spatial localization of digestive tract tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrzywanek, Pawel; Sowier, Aleksander; Cysewska-Sobusiak, Anna R.

    2004-07-01

    The subject of the paper is devoted to a modern diagnostic method called the endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) that is still not widely implemented in many countries. This method bases on two imaging techniques: videoendoscopy and ultrasonography, making possible effective aiding of diagnostics as well as evaluating possibilities of performing radical surgical therapy. Rotating USG probes enable acquiring images vertical to an axis for the round angle area. Small diameters and adequate frequencies of these microprobes make possible their deep penetration into such difficult sites as the biliary and pancreatic ducts. The EUS advantages are presented here on the basis of several examples of real minimally invasive interventions as well diagnostic procedures practiced by the authors. EUS has allowed precise diagnostics without disturbances occurring at conventional ultrasound imaging. The presented images concern EUS used for examination of different digestive tract diseases, including biliary and pancreatic ducts.

  10. Persistent Genital Arousal Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Aswath, Manju; Pandit, Lakshmi V.; Kashyap, Karthik; Ramnath, Raguram

    2016-01-01

    Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is a phenomenon, in which afflicted women experience spontaneous genital arousal, unresolved by orgasms and triggered by sexual or nonsexual stimuli, eliciting stress. The current case is a 40-year-old female who experienced such orgasms for about a month. Physical examination, investigations, and psychological testing were noncontributory. Carbamazepine (600 mg) was discontinued due to a lack of response. She improved significantly with supportive therapy. Various neuropsychological conditions, pelvic pathology, medications, etc., have been associated with this disorder. Pharmacologic strategies have included the use of antidepressants, antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, and analgesics. Validation, psycho-education, identifying triggers, distraction techniques, and pelvic massage have been tried. Living with PGAD is very demanding. There is a lack of understanding of the problem, shame, and hesitation to seek help. The syndrome has been recently described, and understanding is still evolving. PMID:27570347

  11. Localization of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mRNA in the human gastrointestinal tract by in situ hybridization.

    PubMed Central

    Strong, T V; Boehm, K; Collins, F S

    1994-01-01

    We have used in situ hybridization to localize expression of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene in the human gastrointestinal tract and associated organs. The stomach exhibits a low level of CFTR expression throughout gastric mucosa. In the small intestine, expression is relatively high in the mucosal epithelium, with a decreasing gradient of expression along the crypt to tip axis. The cells of the Brunner's glands express high levels of CFTR mRNA. In addition, there is a small subpopulation of highly positive cells scattered along the epithelium in the duodenum and jejunum, but not in the ileum. These cells do not represent endocrine cells, as determined by lack of colocalization with an endocrine-specific marker. The distribution of CFTR mRNA in the colon is similar to the small intestine, with highest level of expression in the epithelial cells at the base of the crypts. In the pancreas, CFTR is expressed at high levels in the small, intercalated ducts and at lower levels in the interlobular ducts. CFTR transcripts are expressed at uniformly high levels in the epithelium of the gallbladder. Throughout the gastrointestinal tract, CFTR expression is increased in mucosal epithelial cells that are near lymph nodules. Images PMID:7506713

  12. Female genital circumcision/mutilation: implications for female urogynaecological health.

    PubMed

    Teufel, Katharina; Dörfler, Daniela Marianne

    2013-12-01

    "Female genital circumcision" or "female genital mutilation", as it is called more often, is an operation that is primarily carried out in Africa. Owing to migration, physicians are increasingly confronted with this issue in Western countries as well. A range of negative effects may result from this operation and this article aims to address consequences for female pelvic health. Special emphasis is placed on urogynaecological health consequences; in particular, on "voiding difficulties", "recurrent urinary tract infections" and "vesicovaginal fistula". All of these occur mostly in infibulated women, i.e. in women whose genitalia are sealed by the most severe form of circumcision. Some of the problems that may emerge as a result of the operation can be resolved by defibulation (i.e. surgical reopening of the sealed vulva). Female genital circumcision is a sensitive topic even in the area of research and reliable data are therefore scarce. PMID:23857065

  13. Mouse Spam1 (PH-20) is a multifunctional protein: evidence for its expression in the female reproductive tract.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Martin-DeLeon, Patricia A

    2003-08-01

    Sperm adhesion molecule 1 (Spam1) is a widely conserved sperm surface protein with multiple roles in mammalian fertilization. Although the gene for this protein has been thought to be testis specific based on Northern blot analysis, there is evidence for nontesticular expression when transcripts are analyzed by more sensitive techniques. In the present investigation, results of a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay, an RNase-protection assay (RPA), and an in situ transcript hybridization assay revealed that the murine Spam1 gene is transcribed in the female genital tract. RPA revealed that Spam1 transcripts are synthesized in a region-dependent manner, with the oviduct having lower transcript levels than the uterus and vagina. The transcripts levels were 3- to 10-fold lower in the female genital tract than in the testis. In situ transcript hybridization assay revealed RNA in the luminal epithelium in all three regions of the genital tract and in the uterine myometrium and the oviductal mesothelium. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the protein concentration is 1.5- to 3-fold lower in female tissues than in sperm, and localization is similar to that of the transcripts. The protein has hyaluronidase activity at neutral pH, which is unique for sperm hyaluronidase, but not at acidic pH. In the uterus, Spam1 expression fluctuated during the estrous cycle. Its localization suggests that in addition to functioning as a secretory protein, it may be involved in hyaluronic acid metabolism or turnover in the female genital tract. Our results provide further evidence that Spam1 is a multifunctional protein and that it is less restricted in its expression than previously reported. PMID:12672666

  14. Alimentary Tract Absorption (f1 Values) for Radionuclides in Local and Regional Fallout from Nuclear Tests

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Shawki; Simon, Steven L; Bouville, André; Melo, Dunstana; Beck, Harold

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents gastrointestinal absorption fractions (f1 values) for estimating internal doses from local and regional fallout radionuclides due to nuclear tests. The choice of f1 values are based on specific circumstances of weapons test conditions and a review of reported f1 values for elements in different physical and chemical states. Special attention is given to fallout from nuclear tests conducted at the Marshall Islands. We make a distinction between the f1 values for intakes of radioactive materials immediately after deposition (acute intakes) and intakes that occur in the course of months and years after deposition, following incorporation into terrestrial and aquatic foodstuffs (chronic intakes). Multiple f1 values for different circumstances where persons are exposed to radioactive fallout (e.g. local vs. regional fallout and coral vs. continental tests) are presented when supportive information is available. In some cases, our selected f1 values are similar to those adopted by the ICRP (e.g. iodine and most actinides). However, f1 values for cesium and strontium derived from urine bioassay data of the Marshallese population are notably lower than the generic f1 values recommended by ICRP, particularly for acute intakes from local fallout (0.4 and 0.05 for Cs and Sr, respectively. The f1 values presented here form the first complete set of values relevant to realistic dose assessments for exposure to local or regional radioactive fallout. PMID:20622554

  15. Alimentary tract absorption (f1 values) for radionuclides in local and regional fallout from nuclear tests.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Shawki A; Simon, Steven L; Bouville, André; Melo, Dunstana; Beck, Harold L

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents gastrointestinal absorption fractions (f1 values) for estimating internal doses from local and regional fallout radionuclides due to nuclear tests. The choice of f1 values are based on specific circumstances of weapons test conditions and a review of reported f1 values for elements in different physical and chemical states. Special attention is given to fallout from nuclear tests conducted at the Marshall Islands. We make a distinction between the f1 values for intakes of radioactive materials immediately after deposition (acute intakes) and intakes that occur in the course of months and years after deposition, following incorporation into terrestrial and aquatic foodstuffs (chronic intakes). Multiple f1 values for different circumstances where persons are exposed to radioactive fallout (e.g., local vs. regional fallout and coral vs. continental tests) are presented when supportive information is available. In some cases, our selected f1 values are similar to those adopted by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) (e.g., iodine and most actinides). However, f1 values for cesium and strontium derived from urine bioassay data of the Marshallese population are notably lower than the generic f1 values recommended by ICRP, particularly for acute intakes from local fallout (0.4 and 0.05 for Cs and Sr, respectively). The f1 values presented here form the first complete set of values relevant to realistic dose assessments for exposure to local or regional radioactive fallout. PMID:20622554

  16. Correlates of HIV-1 Genital Shedding in Tanzanian Women

    PubMed Central

    Tanton, Clare; Weiss, Helen A.; Le Goff, Jerome; Changalucha, John; Rusizoka, Mary; Baisley, Kathy; Everett, Dean; Ross, David A.; Belec, Laurent; Hayes, Richard J.; Watson-Jones, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Background Understanding the correlates of HIV shedding is important to inform strategies to reduce HIV infectiousness. We examined correlates of genital HIV-1 RNA in women who were seropositive for both herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 and HIV-1 and who were enrolled in a randomised controlled trial of HSV suppressive therapy (aciclovir 400 mg b.i.d vs. placebo) in Tanzania. Methodology Samples, including a cervico-vaginal lavage, were collected and tested for genital HIV-1 and HSV and reproductive tract infections (RTIs) at randomisation and 6, 12 and 24 months follow-up. Data from all women at randomisation and women in the placebo arm during follow-up were analysed using generalised estimating equations to determine the correlates of cervico-vaginal HIV-1 RNA detection and load. Principal Findings Cervico-vaginal HIV-1 RNA was detected at 52.0% of 971 visits among 482 women, and was independently associated with plasma viral load, presence of genital ulcers, pregnancy, bloody cervical or vaginal discharge, abnormal vaginal discharge, cervical ectopy, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, an intermediate bacterial vaginosis score and HSV DNA detection. Similar factors were associated with genital HIV-1 RNA load. Conclusions RTIs were associated with increased presence and quantity of genital HIV-1 RNA in this population. These results highlight the importance of integrating effective RTI treatment into HIV care services. PMID:21390251

  17. Judging the other. Responding to traditional female genital surgeries.

    PubMed

    Lane, S D; Rubinstein, R A

    1996-01-01

    Traditional female genital circumcision, or female genital mutilation, performed upon women in some non-Western cultures has provoked considerable international controversy since the late 1970s. Western feminists, physicians, and ethicists condemn such practice. Having made moral judgement against female genital mutilation, however, what is the next step? There is clearly an impasse between cultural relativism on the one hand and universalism on the other. Those at the forefront of the debate on female genital mutilation must learn to work respectfully with, instead of independently of, local resources for cultural self-examination and change. The authors discuss cultural relativism and moral universalism; female circumcision in sections on epidemiology, health effects, and culture, religion, and social change; the debate historically; the response of Arab and African women; and moving beyond the impasse. PMID:8736673

  18. Role of lymphotoxin and homeostatic chemokines in the development and function of local lymphoid tissues in the respiratory tract

    PubMed Central

    Rangel-Moreno, Javier; Carragher, Damian; Randall, Troy D.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Secondary lymphoid organs are strategically placed to recruit locally activated antigen presenting cells (APCs) as well as naïve, recirculating T and B cells. The structure of secondary lymphoid organs - separated B and T zones, populations of specialized stromal cells, high endothelial venules and lymphatic vessles - has also evolved to maximize encounters between APCs and lymphocytes and to facilitate the expansion and differentiation of antigen-stimulated T and B cells. Many of the general mechanisms that govern the development and organization of secondary lymphoid organs have been identified over the last decade. However, the specific cellular and molecular interactions involved in the development and organization of each secondary lymphoid organ are slightly different and probably reflect the cell types available at that time and location. Here we review the mechanisms involved in the development, organization and function of local lymphoid tissues in the respiratory tract, including Nasal Associated Lymphoid Tissue (NALT) and inducible Bronchus Associated Lymphoid Tissue (iBALT). PMID:20552039

  19. Association of Genital Infections Other Than Human Papillomavirus with Pre-Invasive and Invasive Cervical Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Ranajit; Kundu, Pratip; Biswas, Jaydip

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a well-established causative agent of malignancy of the female genital tract and a common Sexually Transmitted Infection. The probable co-factors that prevent spontaneous clearance of HPV and progression to neoplasia are genital tract infections from organisms like Chlamydia, Trichomonas vaginalis etc, smoking, nutritional deficiencies and multiparity. Inflammatory conditions can lead to pre-neoplastic manifestations in the cervical epithelium; however their specific role in cervical carcinogenesis is not yet established. Therefore it is imperative to study the likely association between HPV and co-infection with various common pathogens in the genital tract of women having cervical precancer or cancer. A “Pubmed” search was made for articles in Literature on this topic using the words: Cervical neoplasia, HPV, co-infections, Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN), Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida, Chlamydia and the relevant information obtained was used to draft the review. PMID:27042571

  20. Photo diagnosis of early pre cancer (LSIL) in genital tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaitkuviene, A.; Andersen-Engels, S.; Auksorius, E.; Bendsoe, N.; Gavriushin, V.; Gustafsson, U.; Oyama, J.; Palsson, S.; Soto Thompson, M.; Stenram, U.; Svanberg, K.; Viliunas, V.; De Weert, M. J.

    2005-11-01

    Permanent infections recognized as oncogenic factor. STD is common concomitant diseases in early precancerous genital tract lesions. Simple optical detection of early regressive pre cancer in cervix is the aim of this study. Hereditary immunosupression most likely is risk factor for cervical cancer development. Light induced fluorescence point monitoring fitted to live cervical tissue diagnostics in 42 patients. Human papilloma virus DNR in cervix tested by means of Hybrid Capture II method. Ultraviolet (337 nm) laser excited fluorescence spectra in the live cervical tissue analyzed by Principal Component (PrC) regression method and spectra decomposition method. PCr method best discriminated pathology group "CIN I and inflammation"(AUC=75%) related to fluorescence emission in short wave region. Spectra decomposition method suggested a few possible fluorophores in a long wave region. Ultraviolet (398 nm) light excitation of live cervix proved sharp selective spectra intensity enhancement in region above 600nm for High-grade cervical lesion. Conclusion: PC analysis of UV (337 nm) light excitation fluorescence spectra gives opportunity to obtain local immunity and Low-grade cervical lesion related information. Addition of shorter and longer wavelengths is promising for multi wave LIF point monitoring method progress in cervical pre-cancer diagnostics and utility for cancer prevention especially in developing countries.

  1. Antimicrobial activity of extracts of local cough mixtures on upper respiratory tract bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Adeleye, I A; Opiah, L

    2003-09-01

    The punched-hole and the paper disc diffusion methods were used in screening for the antimicrobial activity of six common ingredients used locally in cough mixtures, against the following bacteria: Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus. Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp, Salmonella paratyphi, Shigella dysenteria, Shigella sonnei and Candida albicans. The results, evaluated as the diameter of zone of inhibition of microbial growth, showed that lime, garlic onion, onion and honey were active against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Candida albicans, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp and Shigella dysenteriae. Bitter-kola nut extract and palm kernel oil showed no antimicrobial activities against any of the tested organisms. None of the extracts inhibited the growth of Salmonella paratyphi and Shigella sonnei and the most susceptible organisms were Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. PMID:14649097

  2. Ultrasound-Guided Percutaneous Drainage of Neonatal Pyometrocolpos Under Local Anesthesia

    SciTech Connect

    Algin, Oktay; Erdogan, Cuneyt; Kilic, Nizamettin

    2011-02-15

    Hydrometrocolpos is an uncommon congenital disorder with cystic dilatation of the vagina and uterus that occurs as a result of accumulated secretions from the reproductive tract due to distal genital tract obstruction. Secondary infection may also occur, resulting in pyometrocolpos, a potentially lethal disease. Immediate drainage of the cystic mass in patients determined to have pyometrocolpos is required to prevent or treat uropathy and septicemia until definitive corrective surgery can be performed. We report an unusual cause of obstructive uropathy in three infants: pyometrocolpos due to lower genital tract atresia. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous drainage of the pyometrocolpos resulted in dramatically improved clinical and laboratory findings in these patients. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous drainage under local anesthesia is a simple, minimally invasive, safe, and effective procedure that facilitates later successful corrective surgery and avoids the need for more complex drainage procedures.

  3. Characterization of the Localized Immune Response in the Respiratory Tract of Ferrets following Infection with Influenza A and B Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Carolan, Louise A.; Rockman, Steve; Borg, Kathryn; Guarnaccia, Teagan; Reading, Patrick; Mosse, Jennifer; Kelso, Anne; Barr, Ian

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The burden of infection with seasonal influenza viruses is significant. Each year is typically characterized by the dominance of one (sub)type or lineage of influenza A or B virus, respectively. The incidence of disease varies annually, and while this may be attributed to a particular virus strain or subtype, the impacts of prior immunity, population differences, and variations in clinical assessment are also important. To improve our understanding of the impacts of seasonal influenza viruses, we directly compared clinical symptoms, virus shedding, and expression of cytokines, chemokines, and immune mediators in the upper respiratory tract (URT) of ferrets infected with contemporary A(H1N1)pdm09, A(H3N2), or influenza B virus. Gene expression in the lower respiratory tract (LRT) was also assessed. Clinical symptoms were minimal. Overall cytokine/chemokine profiles in the URT were consistent in pattern and magnitude between animals infected with influenza A and B viruses, and peak expression levels of interleukin-1α (IL-1α), IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12p40, alpha interferon (IFN-α), IFN-β, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) mRNAs correlated with peak levels of viral shedding. MCP1 and IFN-γ were expressed after the virus peak. Granzymes A and B and IL-10 reached peak expression as the virus was cleared and seroconversion was detected. Cytokine/chemokine gene expression in the LRT following A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection reflected the observations seen for the URT but was delayed 2 or 3 days, as was virus replication. These data indicate that disease severities and localized immune responses following infection with seasonal influenza A and B viruses are similar, suggesting that other factors are likely to modulate the incidence and impact of seasonal influenza. IMPORTANCE Both influenza A and B viruses cocirculate in the human population, and annual influenza seasons are typically dominated by an influenza A virus subtype or an influenza B virus lineage

  4. Male Genital Lichen Sclerosus

    PubMed Central

    Bunker, Christopher Barry; Shim, Tang Ngee

    2015-01-01

    Male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease responsible for male sexual dyspareunia and urological morbidity. An afeared complication is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis. The precise etiopathogenesis of MGLSc remains controversial although genetic, autoimmune and infective (such as human papillomavirus (HPV) hepatitis C (HCV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Borrelia) factors have been implicated: Consideration of all the evidence suggests that chronic exposure of susceptible epithelium to urinary occlusion by the foreskin seems the most likely pathomechanism. The mainstay of treatment is topical ultrapotent corticosteroid therapy. Surgery is indicated for cases unresponsive to topical corticosteroid therapy, phimosis, meatal stenosis, urethral stricture, carcinoma in situ (CIS) and squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25814697

  5. Male genital lichen sclerosus.

    PubMed

    Bunker, Christopher Barry; Shim, Tang Ngee

    2015-01-01

    Male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease responsible for male sexual dyspareunia and urological morbidity. An afeared complication is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis. The precise etiopathogenesis of MGLSc remains controversial although genetic, autoimmune and infective (such as human papillomavirus (HPV) hepatitis C (HCV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Borrelia) factors have been implicated: Consideration of all the evidence suggests that chronic exposure of susceptible epithelium to urinary occlusion by the foreskin seems the most likely pathomechanism. The mainstay of treatment is topical ultrapotent corticosteroid therapy. Surgery is indicated for cases unresponsive to topical corticosteroid therapy, phimosis, meatal stenosis, urethral stricture, carcinoma in situ (CIS) and squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25814697

  6. Acute genital ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-García, Silvia; Palacios-Marqués, Ana; Martínez-Escoriza, Juan Carlos; Martín-Bayón, Tina-Aurora

    2014-01-01

    Acute genital ulcers, also known as acute vulvar ulcers, ulcus vulvae acutum or Lipschütz ulcers, refer to an ulceration of the vulva or lower vagina of non-venereal origin that usually presents in young women, predominantly virgins. Although its incidence is unknown, it seems a rare entity, with few cases reported in the literature. Their aetiology and pathogenesis are still unknown. The disease is characterised by an acute onset of flu-like symptoms with single or multiple painful ulcers on the vulva. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, after exclusion of other causes of vulvar ulcers. The treatment is mainly symptomatic, with spontaneous resolution in 2 weeks and without recurrences in most cases. We present a case report of a 13-year-old girl with two episodes of acute ulcers that fit the clinical criteria for Lipschütz ulcers. PMID:24473429

  7. The diagnosis and treatment of human papillomavirus-mediated genital lesions.

    PubMed

    Brodell, Lindsey Ann; Mercurio, Mary Gail; Brodell, Robert T

    2007-04-01

    Genital warts (condyloma acuminatum, venereal warts) are common highly contagious benign epithelial lesions occurring on the genitals, perianal area, and inguinal folds, and are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). Diagnosis is based largely on the clinical appearance of lesions. New home-based treatments, including podofilox and imiquimod, have revolutionized the therapeutic management of genital warts, empowering patients to participate in their own treatment with products that primarily have local side effects. This article reviews the diagnosis and treatment (office based and home based) of genital warts. PMID:17508490

  8. Chlamydia trachomatis and Genital Mycoplasmas: Pathogens with an Impact on Human Reproductive Health

    PubMed Central

    Ljubin-Sternak, Sunčanica; Meštrović, Tomislav

    2014-01-01

    The most prevalent, curable sexually important diseases are those caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) and genital mycoplasmas. An important characteristic of these infections is their ability to cause long-term sequels in upper genital tract, thus potentially affecting the reproductive health in both sexes. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), tubal factor infertility (TFI), and ectopic pregnancy (EP) are well documented complications of C. trachomatis infection in women. The role of genital mycoplasmas in development of PID, TFI, and EP requires further evaluation, but growing evidence supports a significant role for these in the pathogenesis of chorioamnionitis, premature membrane rupture, and preterm labor in pregnant woman. Both C. trachomatis and genital mycoplasmas can affect the quality of sperm and possibly influence the fertility of men. For the purpose of this paper, basic, epidemiologic, clinical, therapeutic, and public health issue of these infections were reviewed and discussed, focusing on their impact on human reproductive health. PMID:25614838

  9. Warts (non-genital)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Warts are caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), of which there are over 100 types. HPV probably infects the skin via areas of minimal trauma. Risk factors include use of communal showers, occupational handling of meat, and immunosuppression. In immunocompetent people, warts are harmless and resolve as a result of natural immunity within months or years. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for warts (non-genital)? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to October 2013 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 17 studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic, review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: intralesional bleomycin; intralesional candida antigen; contact immunotherapy; cryotherapy; duct tape occlusion; photodynamic treatment; pulsed dye laser; surgical procedures; and topical salicylic acid. PMID:24921240

  10. Male genital trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, G.H.; Gilbert, D.A.

    1988-07-01

    We have attempted to discuss genital trauma in relatively broad terms. In most cases, patients present with relatively minimal trauma. However, because of the complexity of the structures involved, minimal trauma can lead to significant disability later on. The process of erection requires correct functioning of the arterial, neurologic, and venous systems coupled with intact erectile bodies. The penis is composed of structures that are compliant and distensible to the limits of their compliance. These structures therefore tumesce in equal proportion to each other, allowing for straight erection. Relatively minimal trauma can upset this balance of elasticity, leading to disabling chordee. Likewise, relatively minimal injuries to the vascular erectile structures can lead to significantly disabling spongiofibrosis. The urethra is a conduit of paramount importance. Whereas the development of stricture is generally related to the nature of the trauma, the extent of stricture and of attendant complications is clearly a function of the immediate management. Overzealous debridement can greatly complicate subsequent reconstruction. A delicate balance between aggressive initial management and maximal preservation of viable structures must be achieved. 38 references.

  11. hnRNP I, the polypyrimidine tract-binding protein: distinct nuclear localization and association with hnRNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Ghetti, A; Piñol-Roma, S; Michael, W M; Morandi, C; Dreyfuss, G

    1992-01-01

    Many hnRNP proteins and snRNPs interact with hnRNA in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells and affect the fate of hnRNA and its processing into mRNA. There are at least 20 abundant proteins in vertebrate cell hnRNP complexes and their structure and arrangement on specific hnRNAs is likely to be important for the processing of pre-mRNAs. hnRNP I, a basic protein of ca. 58,000 daltons by SDS-PAGE, is one of the abundant hnRNA-binding proteins. Monoclonal antibodies to hnRNP I were produced and full length cDNA clones for hnRNP I were isolated and sequenced. The sequence of hnRNP I (59,632 daltons and pI 9.86) demonstrates that it is identical to the previously described polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB) and shows that it is highly related to hnRNP L. The sequences of these two proteins, I and L, define a new family of hnRNP proteins within the large superfamily of the RNP consensus RNA-binding proteins. Here we describe experiments which reveal new and unique properties on the association of hnRNP I/PTB with hnRNP complexes and on its cellular localization. Micrococcal nuclease digestions show that hnRNP I, along with hnRNP S and P, is released from hnRNP complexes by nuclease digestion more readily than most other hnRNP proteins. This nuclease hypersensitivity suggests that hnRNP I is bound to hnRNA regions that are particularly exposed in the complexes. Immunofluorescence microscopy shows that hnRNP I is found in the nucleoplasm but in addition high concentrations are detected in a discrete perinucleolar structure. Thus, the PTB is one of the major proteins that bind pre-mRNAs; it is bound to nuclease-hypersensitive regions of the hnRNA-protein complexes and shows a novel pattern of nuclear localization. Images PMID:1641332

  12. Female genital mutilation in Britain.

    PubMed

    Black, J A; Debelle, G D

    1995-06-17

    The practice of female genital mutilation predates the founding of both Christianity and Islam. Though largely confined among Muslims, the operation is also practiced in some Christian communities in Africa such that female genital mutilation takes place in various forms in more than twenty African countries, Oman, Yemen, the United Arab Emirates, and by some Muslims in Malaysia and Indonesia. In recent decades, ethnic groups which practice female genital mutilation have immigrated to Britain. The main groups are from Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, and Yemen. In their own countries, an estimated 80% of women have had the operation. Female genital mutilation has been illegal in Britain since 1985, but it is practiced illegally or children are sent abroad to undergo the operation typically at age 7-9 years. It is a form of child abuse which poses special problems. The authors review the history of female genital mutilation and describe its medical complications. Assuming that the size of the population in Britain of ethnic groups which practice or favor female genital mutilation remains more or less unchanged, adaptation and acculturation will probably cause the practice to die out within a few generations. Meanwhile, there is much to be done. A conspiracy of silence exists in medical circles as well as widespread ignorance. Moreover, none of a number of well-known obstetric and pediatric textbooks mentions female genital mutilation, while the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children has neither information nor instructional material. It is high time that the problem was more widely and openly discussed. PMID:7787654

  13. OASL1 deficiency promotes antiviral protection against genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection by enhancing type I interferon production

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Ji Eun; Lee, Myeong Sup; Kim, Young-Joon; Lee, Heung Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Type I interferon (IFN) interferes with virus replication, promotes antiviral responses, and controls innate and adaptive immune responses to certain viruses. Recently, we reported that 2’–5’ oligoadenylate synthetase-like 1 (OASL1) negatively regulates type I IFN production by inhibiting the translation of the type I IFN-regulating master transcription factor, IRF7. Notably, while OASL1-deficient mice induce robust production of type I IFN and are resistant to systemic viral infection, the effects of OASL1 during localized viral infection has not been studied. To this end, we investigated the role of OASL1 during mucosal HSV-2 infection of the genital tract. Oasl1−/− mice exhibited better survival rates than wild type (WT) mice following intravaginal HSV-2 infection, and suppressed virus replication more efficiently despite comparable recruitment of effector immune cells. Moreover, Ly6Chigh monocytes, and not pDCs or other cell types, displayed enhanced production of type I IFNs in Oasl1−/− mice in response to HSV-2 infection. Furthermore, cytotoxic T cell responses including IFN-γ production were accelerated in Oasl1−/− mice after mucosal HSV-2 infection. Collectively, these results demonstrate that OASL1 deficiency promotes antiviral immunity against local mucosal viral infection and suggest that OASL1 could be a therapeutic target for treatment of HSV-2 infection of the genital mucosa. PMID:26750802

  14. OASL1 deficiency promotes antiviral protection against genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection by enhancing type I interferon production.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ji Eun; Lee, Myeong Sup; Kim, Young-Joon; Lee, Heung Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Type I interferon (IFN) interferes with virus replication, promotes antiviral responses, and controls innate and adaptive immune responses to certain viruses. Recently, we reported that 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase-like 1 (OASL1) negatively regulates type I IFN production by inhibiting the translation of the type I IFN-regulating master transcription factor, IRF7. Notably, while OASL1-deficient mice induce robust production of type I IFN and are resistant to systemic viral infection, the effects of OASL1 during localized viral infection has not been studied. To this end, we investigated the role of OASL1 during mucosal HSV-2 infection of the genital tract. Oasl1(-/-) mice exhibited better survival rates than wild type (WT) mice following intravaginal HSV-2 infection, and suppressed virus replication more efficiently despite comparable recruitment of effector immune cells. Moreover, Ly6C(high) monocytes, and not pDCs or other cell types, displayed enhanced production of type I IFNs in Oasl1(-/-) mice in response to HSV-2 infection. Furthermore, cytotoxic T cell responses including IFN-γ production were accelerated in Oasl1(-/-) mice after mucosal HSV-2 infection. Collectively, these results demonstrate that OASL1 deficiency promotes antiviral immunity against local mucosal viral infection and suggest that OASL1 could be a therapeutic target for treatment of HSV-2 infection of the genital mucosa. PMID:26750802

  15. Female genital mutilation in Djibouti.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, M; Ollé-Goig, J E

    2012-12-01

    The practice of female genital mutilation (we will use the latest definition adopted by WHO/UNFP: female genital mutilation/cutting or FGM/C) is still widespread in 28 African countries. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that more than two million females undergo some form of genital mutilation every year. Its negative health impact and its ethical and human rights aspects have been discussed and attempts to eliminate it have been the objectives of several meetings promoted by national and international organisations thanks to an increased awareness related to FGM/C in those countries practicing it and also, maybe due to the number of Africans migrating to industrialized countries. We review the present situation in Djibouti, a small country in the Horn of Africa, where 98 % of the female population has suffered different forms of FGM/C. PMID:23515242

  16. Experimental Genital Herpes Drug Shows Promise

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159462.html Experimental Genital Herpes Drug Shows Promise Drug lowered viral activity, recurrence ... News) -- An experimental immune-boosting treatment for genital herpes shows promise, researchers report. The drug, called GEN- ...

  17. Evidence of the Primary Afferent Tracts Undergoing Neurodegeneration in Horses With Equine Degenerative Myeloencephalopathy Based on Calretinin Immunohistochemical Localization.

    PubMed

    Finno, C J; Valberg, S J; Shivers, J; D'Almeida, E; Armién, A G

    2016-01-01

    Equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy (EDM) is characterized by a symmetric general proprioceptive ataxia in young horses, and is likely underdiagnosed for 2 reasons: first, clinical signs overlap those of cervical vertebral compressive myelopathy; second, histologic lesions--including axonal spheroids in specific tracts of the somatosensory and motor systems--may be subtle. The purpose of this study was (1) to utilize immunohistochemical (IHC) markers to trace axons in the spinocuneocerebellar, dorsal column-medial lemniscal, and dorsospinocerebellar tracts in healthy horses and (2) to determine the IHC staining characteristics of the neurons and degenerated axons along the somatosensory tracts in EDM-affected horses. Examination of brain, spinal cord, and nerves was performed on 2 age-matched control horses, 3 EDM-affected horses, and 2 age-matched disease-control horses via IHC for calbindin, vesicular glutamate transporter 2, parvalbumin, calretinin, glutamic acid decarboxylase, and glial fibrillary acidic protein. Primary afferent axons of the spinocuneocerebellar, dorsal column-medial lemniscal, and dorsospinocerebellar tracts were successfully traced with calretinin. Calretinin-positive cell bodies were identified in a subset of neurons in the dorsal root ganglia, suggesting that calretinin IHC could be used to trace axonal projections from these cell bodies. Calretinin-immunoreactive spheroids were present in EDM-affected horses within the nuclei cuneatus medialis, cuneatus lateralis, and thoracicus. Neurons within those nuclei were calretinin negative. Cell bodies of degenerated axons in EDM-affected horses are likely located in the dorsal root ganglia. These findings support the role of sensory axonal degeneration in the pathogenesis of EDM and provide a method to highlight tracts with axonal spheroids to aid in the diagnosis of this neurodegenerative disease. PMID:26253880

  18. Evidence of the Primary Afferent Tracts Undergoing Neurodegeneration in Horses With Equine Degenerative Myeloencephalopathy Based on Calretinin Immunohistochemical Localization

    PubMed Central

    Finno, C. J.; Valberg, S. J.; Shivers, J.; D’Almeida, E.; Armién, A. G.

    2016-01-01

    Equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy (EDM) is characterized by a symmetric general proprioceptive ataxia in young horses, and is likely underdiagnosed for 2 reasons: first, clinical signs overlap those of cervical vertebral compressive myelopathy; second, histologic lesions—including axonal spheroids in specific tracts of the somatosensory and motor systems—may be subtle. The purpose of this study was (1) to utilize immunohistochemical (IHC) markers to trace axons in the spinocuneocerebellar, dorsal column–medial lemniscal, and dorsospinocerebellar tracts in healthy horses and (2) to determine the IHC staining characteristics of the neurons and degenerated axons along the somatosensory tracts in EDM-affected horses. Examination of brain, spinal cord, and nerves was performed on 2 age-matched control horses, 3 EDM-affected horses, and 2 age-matched disease-control horses via IHC for calbindin, vesicular glutamate transporter 2, parvalbumin, calretinin, glutamic acid decarboxylase, and glial fibrillary acidic protein. Primary afferent axons of the spinocuneocerebellar, dorsal column–medial lemniscal, and dorsospinocerebellar tracts were successfully traced with calretinin. Calretinin-positive cell bodies were identified in a subset of neurons in the dorsal root ganglia, suggesting that calretinin IHC could be used to trace axonal projections from these cell bodies. Calretinin-immunoreactive spheroids were present in EDM-affected horses within the nuclei cuneatus medialis, cuneatus lateralis, and thoracicus. Neurons within those nuclei were calretinin negative. Cell bodies of degenerated axons in EDM-affected horses are likely located in the dorsal root ganglia. These findings support the role of sensory axonal degeneration in the pathogenesis of EDM and provide a method to highlight tracts with axonal spheroids to aid in the diagnosis of this neurodegenerative disease. PMID:26253880

  19. Emollients on the genital area.

    PubMed

    Farage, Miranda A; Warren, Raphael

    2011-01-01

    Emollients are known to lubricate, moisturize and soothe the skin. Prior to their incorporation into feminine hygiene pads, thorough premarket toxicological testing is conducted to evaluate their safety and effectiveness via in-use clinical settings. Product testing has been conducted on various body sites proven previously to be valid and reliable, such as the arm and popliteal fossa and, more recently, the genital area. Several clinical studies have confirmed the safety and efficacy of emollient-containing feminine hygiene products, which have also been shown to provide dermatological benefits in the genital area. PMID:21325844

  20. Pre-natal innervation of the human female genital tract.

    PubMed

    Olfat, S A; Rahman, S A

    1978-01-01

    In the human fetus of 14 weeks, ganglia on either sides of the Müllerian uterovaginal canal contained two types of cells. In the 16th week, axons invaded the basal zone of the stratified squamous epithelium at the sides of the upper vagina. In the 20th week, vesicular nuclei typified the large neurons in the midportion of the cervico-vaginal ganglion. During the 22nd week, capsulated ganglia invaded the wall of the upper vagina forming three concentrically disposed strata. Non-capsulated clusters invaded its lamina propria. At the 24th week, axons were shaded after reaching the superficial zone of the stratified vaginal epithelium. In the 28th week, satellites surrounded the mature neurons and sheath cells enveloped the axons. Ganglia invaded the splitted muscle layer of the upper vagina at 30 weeks. Intraepithelial fibres invaded the whole thickness of the endometrium, the columnar epithelium of the cervix and uterine tube at 40 weeks. Nerve cells were detected among the basal epithelial cells of the lower vagina and its subepithelial plexus. PMID:665140

  1. Topical Microbicides and HIV Prevention in the Female Genital Tract

    PubMed Central

    Cottrell, Mackenzie L; Kashuba, Angela D. M.

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, HIV disproportionately affects women who are often unable to negotiate traditional HIV preventive strategies such as condoms. In the absence of an effective vaccine or cure, chemoprophylaxis may be a valuable self-initiated alternative. Topical microbicides have been investigated as one such option. The first generation topical microbicides were non-specific, broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents, including surfactants, polyanions, and acid buffering gels, that generally exhibited contraceptive properties. After extensive clinical study, none prevented HIV infection, and their development was abandoned. Second generation topical microbicides include agents with selective mechanisms of antiviral activity. Most are currently being used for, or have previously been explored as, drugs for treatment of HIV. The most advanced of these is tenofovir 1% gel: the first topical agent shown to significantly reduce HIV infection by 39% compared to placebo. This review summarizes the evolution of topical microbicides for HIV chemoprophylaxis, highlights important concepts learned, and offers current and future considerations for this area of research. PMID:24664786

  2. Transsexual genital self-mutilation.

    PubMed

    Baltieri, Danilo Antonio; de Andrade, Arthur Guerra

    2005-09-01

    Most genital self-mutilations in nonpsychotic patients are found in transsexuals, and premeditation of sex-conversion surgery is the main objective. In this paper, we will describe the case of a male-to-female transsexual who took out his testes as a way to facilitate the surgery and to circumvent the Brazilian laws. PMID:16121084

  3. Conservative Operations in Genital Prolapse.

    PubMed

    Virkud, Ajit

    2016-06-01

    This review article highlights the contributions of various gynecologists from India toward surgical management of pelvic organ prolapse. It will provide an overview of the different sling operations for conservative treatment of genital prolapse. A new classification of the sling operations is put forth. The advantages and disadvantages of these operations will be discussed. PMID:27298521

  4. Vaginal Memory T Cells Induced by Intranasal Vaccination Are Critical for Protective T Cell Recruitment and Prevention of Genital HSV-2 Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Ayuko; Suwanto, Aldina; Okabe, Manami; Sato, Shintaro; Nochi, Tomonori; Imai, Takahiko; Koyanagi, Naoto; Kunisawa, Jun; Kawaguchi, Yasushi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Protective immunity against genital pathogens causing chronic infections, such as herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) or human immunodeficiency virus, requires the induction of cell-mediated immune responses locally in the genital tract. Intranasal immunization with a thymidine kinase-deficient (TK−) mutant of HSV-2 effectively induces HSV-2-specific gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-secreting memory T cell production and protective immunity against intravaginal challenge with wild-type HSV-2. However, the precise mechanism by which intranasal immunization induces protective immunity in the distant genital mucosa more effectively than does systemic immunization is unknown. Here, we showed that intranasal immunization with live HSV-2 TK− induced the production of effector T cells and their migration to, and retention in, the vaginal mucosa, whereas systemic vaccination barely established a local effector T cell pool, even when it induced the production of circulating memory T cells in the systemic compartment. The long-lasting HSV-2-specific local effector T cells induced by intranasal vaccination provided superior protection against intravaginal wild-type HSV-2 challenge by starting viral clearance at the entry site earlier than with intraperitoneal immunization. Intranasal immunization is an effective strategy for eliciting high levels of cell-mediated protection of the genital tract by providing long-lasting antigen (Ag)-specific local effector T cells without introducing topical infection or inflammation. IMPORTANCE Intranasal (i.n.) vaccines against sexually transmitted diseases that are caused by viruses such as herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) have long been in development, but no vaccine candidate is currently available. Understanding the cellular mechanisms of immune responses in a distant vaginal mucosa induced by i.n. immunization with HSV-2 will contribute to designing such a vaccine. Our study demonstrated that i.n. immunization with an attenuated strain

  5. Local and Long-Distance Calling: Conversations between the Gut Microbiota and Intra- and Extra-Gastrointestinal Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Denny, Joshua E.; Powell, Whitney L.; Schmidt, Nathan W.

    2016-01-01

    Preservation of health from infectious diseases depends upon both mucosal and systemic immunity via the collaborative effort of innate and adaptive immune responses. The proficiency of host immunity stems from robust defense mechanisms—physical barriers and specialized immune cells—and a failure of these mechanisms leads to pathology. Intriguingly, immunocompetence to pathogens can be shaped by the gut microbiome as recent publications highlight a dynamic interplay between the gut microbiome and host susceptibility to infection. Modulation of host immunity to enteric pathogens has long been studied where gut bacteria shape multiple facts of both innate and adaptive immunity. Conversely, the impact of gut commensals on host immunity to extra-gastrointestinal (GI) tract infections has only recently been recognized. In this context, the gut microbiome can augment host immunity to extra-GI tract bacterial, viral, and parasitic pathogens. This review explores the research that affords insight into the role of the gut microbiome in various infectious diseases, with a particular emphasis on extra-GI tract infections. A better understanding of the link between the gut microbiome and infectious disease will be critical for improving global health in the years ahead. PMID:27148490

  6. Genital reconstruction in exstrophy patients

    PubMed Central

    Nerli, R. B.; Shirol, S. S.; Guntaka, Ajay; Patil, Shivagouda; Hiremath, Murigendra B.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Surgery for bladder exstrophy has been evolving over the last four to five decades. Because survival has become almost universal, the focus has changed in the exstrophy-epispadias complex to improving quality of life. The most prevalent problem in the long-term function of exstrophy patients is the sexual activity of the adolescent and adult males. The penis in exstrophy patients appears short because of marked congenital deficiency of anterior corporal tissue. Many patients approach for genital reconstruction to improve cosmesis as well as to correct chordee. We report our series of male patients seeking genital reconstruction following exstrophy repair in the past. Materials and Methods: Fourteen adolescent/adult male patients attended urology services during the period January 2000-December 2009 seeking genital reconstruction following exstrophy repair in the past. Results: Three patients underwent epispadias repair, four patients had chordee correction with cosmetic excision of skin tags and seven patients underwent chordee correction with penile lengthening. All patients reported satisfaction in the answered questionnaire. Patients undergoing penile lengthening by partial corporal dissection achieved a mean increase in length of 1.614 ± 0.279 cm dorsally and 1.543 ± 0.230 cm ventrally. The satisfactory rate assessed by the Short Form-36 (SF-36) showed that irrespective of the different genital reconstructive procedures done, the patients were satisfied with cosmetic and functional outcome. Conclusions: Surgical procedures have transformed the management in these patients with bladder exstrophy. Bladders can be safely placed within the pelvis, with most patients achieving urinary continence and cosmetically acceptable external genitalia. Genital reconstruction in the form of correction of chordee, excision of ugly skin tags and lengthening of penis can be performed to give the patients a satisfactory cosmetic and functional system. PMID:23204655

  7. [Recurrent urinary tract infection].

    PubMed

    Ali, Adel Ben; Bagnis, Corinne Isnard

    2014-09-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infection involves mainly women and exhibits an ecological as well as economical risk. 4% of all urinary tract infection are recurrent and usually secondary to general or local abnormalities. A multidisciplinary medical and surgical team (urology, nephrology, bacteriology, infectious disease) best performs diagnosis and treatment as well as rules out reversible etiology. Treatment relies on behavioral changes before offering cranberry products and/or antibioprophylaxis if necessary. PMID:25362782

  8. Experimental genital mycoplasmosis: time of infection influences pregnancy outcome.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, M B; Steiner, D A

    1996-01-01

    Genital infection of rats with Mycoplasma pulmonis causes adverse pregnancy outcome and can result in in utero spread of infection to the fetus. The current study was designed to determine whether the stage of pregnancy when infection occurs influences pregnancy outcome. Rats were inoculated with 3 X 10(7) CFU of M. pulmonis at 10 days prior to breeding (-10) or at gestational day (gd) 11 or 14 and were necropsied at gd 11, 14, or 18 or within 24 h of parturition (term). Control rats received sterile broth. M. pulmonis was isolated from the placenta, amniotic fluid, or fetal tissues only from rats infected prior to breeding (P < 0.001). All infected rats had significantly more loss of pups than did control rats (P < 0.006), but rats infected prior to breeding or at the beginning of the third trimester (gd 14) were much more likely to have fetal losses. Rats infected in the early second trimester after implantation (gd 11) did not experience severe losses. Litter sizes, total litter weight, and individual pup weight from all infected rats, regardless of gestational stage when infected, were significantly smaller than those of control rats (P < 0.001). On the basis of the results of this study, we conclude that the time of infection plays a major role in determination of pregnancy outcome and spread of infection from the genital tract to the respiratory tract. PMID:8675343

  9. Supporting women after genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Alison

    Female genital mutilation is a common practice in many cultures, and has a range of complications. Many women in the UK have undergone the procedure and many girls are at risk. This article discusses the types of FGM and its complications, and explains how nurses can identify those who have had or are at risk of FGM and either offer support or specialist referral. PMID:24881177

  10. Types of female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    1998-03-01

    The two major types of female genital mutilation include clitoridectomy and excision with infibulation. Clitoridectomy involves removal of the clitoris, part of all of the labia minora, and, often, all external soft genital tissue. Excision with infibulation involves all of this as well as removing the sides of the labia majora, abrading the sides of the vulva, and joining the bleeding sides of the vulva with thorns or a paste. A small opening is all that is allowed to remain for the passage of urine and menstrual blood. In Western Africa, infibulation is accomplished by tying the legs of the affected girls together in a crossed position immediate after the operation. These girls are immobilized for several weeks until the wound has closed. Infibulation is sometimes referred to a "pharaonic" because it occurred in ancient Egypt. Infibulated women must be cut open to allow sexual intercourse or child birth. Women are traditionally reinfibulated after child birth and then reopened when the child is weaned. Female genital mutilation is performed in septic conditions using the same tool on a group of girls. Fatalities are blamed on evil spirits or are said to occur because the victim was not a virgin. PMID:12233709

  11. Pathogenesis of genital HPV infection.

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, A

    1993-01-01

    Clinical, subclinical, and latent human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are distinguished from HPV-associated neoplasia. Besides HPV additional cofactors are necessary to transform HPV infected tissue to intraepithelial or invasive neoplasia. Risk factors for the presence of HPV are high number of sexual partners, early cohabitarche, young age at first delivery, suppression and alteration of immune status, young age and hormonal influences. While the fact of a high number of sexual partners exclusively increases the risk of HPV infection, it is not known whether the other factors lead to either an increased risk for HPV infection and/or to HPV-associated neoplasia. Subclinical and latent genital HPV infections are highly prevalent. The prevalence rate depends on the sensitivity of the HPV detection system used, on age and sexual activity of the population screened, and on the number of subsequent examinations performed for each subject. Sexual transmission is the main pathway for genital HPV's, however, vertical, peripartal, and oral transmission are also possible. Seroreactivity against genital HPV may be due to an active infection or the result of contact with HPV earlier in life. Antibodies against the HPV 16 E7 protein indicate an increased risk for cervical cancer. Compared with humoral response cellular immune response is probably more important for regression of genital HPV infection: impaired cellular response is characterized by depletion of T helper/inducer cells and/or Langerhans cells and impaired function of natural killer cells and/or the infected keratinocyte. In condylomata replication and transcription of viral nucleic acids and antigen production coincide with cellular differentiation. However, the interaction between HPV and the keratinocyte on a molecular level in subclinical and latent disease is not well understood. Regression or persistence of subclinical and latent genital HPV infections as observed in longitudinal investigations show a

  12. Genital self-mutilation in erectile disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sudarshan, C.Y.; Rao, K. Nagaraja; Santosh, S.V.

    2006-01-01

    The majority of cases of genital self-mutilation reported in the literature have been in patients with psychosis. We report an unusual case of genital self-mutilation in erectile disorder. It is suggested that genital self-mutilation may be a pathway out of diverse psychological disorders and in non-psychotic cases it could be an expression of a psychotic solution to a conflict and may be influenced by cultural factors. PMID:20703419

  13. Genital contact allergy: A diagnosis missed

    PubMed Central

    Marfatia, Yogesh S.; Patel, Dimpal; Menon, Devi S.; Naswa, Smriti

    2016-01-01

    Genital allergy should be considered as a possible diagnosis in all patients with genital soreness or irritation for which no infection or dermatosis can be identified and in whom symptoms remain unchanged or worsen with treatment. It is an underreported and underdiagnosed condition as patients may not complain about symptoms in this area. Moreover, diagnosis and therapy may not often be conducted by a dermatologist or allergologist. Therefore, many cases of allergic diseases in the genital area remain undetected. PMID:27190404

  14. Topical Herpes Simplex Virus 2 (HSV-2) Vaccination with Human Papillomavirus Vectors Expressing gB/gD Ectodomains Induces Genital-Tissue-Resident Memory CD8+ T Cells and Reduces Genital Disease and Viral Shedding after HSV-2 Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Çuburu, Nicolas; Wang, Kening; Goodman, Kyle N.; Pang, Yuk Ying; Thompson, Cynthia D.; Lowy, Douglas R.; Cohen, Jeffrey I.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT No herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) vaccine has been licensed for use in humans. HSV-2 glycoproteins B (gB) and D (gD) are targets of neutralizing antibodies and T cells, but clinical trials involving intramuscular (i.m.) injection of HSV-2 gB and gD in adjuvants have not been effective. Here we evaluated intravaginal (ivag) genetic immunization of C57BL/6 mice with a replication-defective human papillomavirus pseudovirus (HPV PsV) expressing HSV-2 gB (HPV-gB) or gD (HPV-gD) constructs to target different subcellular compartments. HPV PsV expressing a secreted ectodomain of gB (gBsec) or gD (gDsec), but not PsV expressing a cytoplasmic or membrane-bound form, induced circulating and intravaginal-tissue-resident memory CD8+ T cells that were able to secrete gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) as well as moderate levels of serum HSV neutralizing antibodies. Combined immunization with HPV-gBsec and HPV-gDsec (HPV-gBsec/gDsec) vaccines conferred longer survival after vaginal challenge with HSV-2 than immunization with HPV-gBsec or HPV-gDsec alone. HPV-gBsec/gDsec ivag vaccination was associated with a reduced severity of genital lesions and lower levels of viral shedding in the genital tract after HSV-2 challenge. In contrast, intramuscular vaccination with a soluble truncated gD protein (gD2t) in alum and monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) elicited high neutralizing antibody titers and improved survival but did not reduce genital lesions and viral shedding. Vaccination combining ivag HPV-gBsec/gDsec and i.m. gD2t-alum-MPL improved survival and reduced genital lesions and viral shedding. Finally, high levels of circulating HSV-2-specific CD8+ T cells, but not serum antibodies, correlated with reduced viral shedding. Taken together, our data underscore the potential of HPV PsV as a platform for a topical mucosal vaccine to control local manifestations of primary HSV-2 infection. IMPORTANCE Genital herpes is a highly prevalent chronic

  15. Genetics Home Reference: hand-foot-genital syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetics Home Health Conditions hand-foot-genital syndrome hand-foot-genital syndrome Enable Javascript to view the ... boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Hand-foot-genital syndrome is a rare condition that ...

  16. Condylomata acuminata within perianal fistulae tracts: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Panidis, Stavros; Paramythiotis, Daniel; Papadopoulos, Vasileios N; Michalopoulos, Antonios

    2015-04-01

    The commonest sights of appearance of condylomata acuminata are in the genital and anal regions. Herein we present two cases of condylomata within perianal fistulae tracts, resulting in recurrence in one case and a malignant-like tumour in the second. To our knowledge, these are the first cases reported in the literature. PMID:24872374

  17. Intranasal Vaccination Affords Localization and Persistence of Antigen-Specific CD8+ T Lymphocytes in the Female Reproductive Tract

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shailbala; Schluns, Kimberly S.; Yang, Guojun; Anthony, Scott M.; Barry, Michael A.; Sastry, K. Jagannadha

    2016-01-01

    Immunization strategies generating large numbers of antigen-specific T cells in the female reproductive tract (FRT) can provide barrier protection against sexually-transmitted pathogens, such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human papillomaviruses (HPV). The kinetics and mechanisms of regulation of vaccine-induced adaptive T cell-mediated immune responses in FRT are less well defined. We present here evidence for intranasal delivery of the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA) along with alpha-galactosylceramide adjuvant as a protein vaccine to induce significantly higher levels of antigen-specific effector and memory CD8+ T cells in the FRT, relative to other systemic and mucosal tissues. Antibody blocking of the CXCR3 receptor significantly reduced antigen-specific CD8+ T cells subsequent to intranasal delivery of the protein vaccine suggesting an important role for the CXCR3 chemokine-receptor signaling for T cell trafficking. Further, intranasal vaccination with an adenoviral vector expressing OVA or HIV-1 envelope was as effective as intramuscular vaccination for generating OVA- or ENV-specific immunity in the FRT. These results support the application of the needle-free intranasal route as a practical approach to delivering protein as well as DNA/virus vector-based vaccines for efficient induction of effector and memory T cell immunity in the FRT. PMID:26999228

  18. Lapatinib in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced or Metastatic Biliary Tract or Liver Cancer That Cannot Be Removed By Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-18

    Adult Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Localized Unresectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Gallbladder Cancer; Unresectable Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Unresectable Gallbladder Cancer

  19. [Genital surgery for transgender people].

    PubMed

    Kolehmainen, Maija; Suominen, Sinikka

    2015-01-01

    Genital surgery is performed at the final stage of the gender reassignment process and is in Finland by statutory regulation of 2003 concentrated to be carried out by the HUCH multiprofessional team. Statutory recommendations from the psychiatry units at both HUCH and Tays Central Hospital are required for this. Sex reassignment surgery will be undertaken on the basis of a steadfast wish of an adult patient on the condition that he/she understands the risks associated with surgery and is mentally and physically fit for the operation. PMID:26237930

  20. Female genital cutting: nursing implications.

    PubMed

    Goldenstein, Rachel A

    2014-01-01

    Female genital cutting (FGC) is a practice that affects millions of girls and women worldwide. This deeply rooted practice has cultural, religious, and psychosexual meaning to its practitioners, but it also carries long-term physical and mental complications. Decried as a human rights violation, nonetheless this practice is still carried out today. Nurses are in a unique position to contact and educate women who have been cut or are at risk for mutilation. To advocate for these women, a thorough understanding of the practice of FGC, its cultural overtones, religious implications, and psychosexual effects is needed. PMID:23835896

  1. Is photodynamic therapy a selective treatment? Analysis of local complications after endoscopic photodynamic therapy of early stage tumors of gastrointestinal, tracheobronchial, and urinary tracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinelli, Pasquale; Dal Fante, Marco; Mancini, Andrea

    1995-03-01

    Selectivity is the most emphasized advantage of photodynamic therapy (PDT). However, at drug and light doses used for clinical applications, response from normal tissue surrounding the tumor reduces the real selectivity of the drug-light system and increases the surface of the area responding to the treatment. It is now evident that light irradiation of a sensitized patient produces damage at a various degree not only in the tumor but also in non-neoplastic tissues included in the field of irradiation. We report our experience in endoscopic PDT of early stage tumors in tracheobronchial, gastrointestinal and urinary tracts, describing early and late local complications caused by the damage of normal tissues adjacent to the tumors and included in the field of light irradiation. Among 44 patients treated, local complications, attributable to a poor selectivity of the modality, occurred in 6 patients (14%). In particular, the rate of local complications was 9% in patients treated for esophageal tumors, 14% in patients with gastric tumors, 9% in patients with tracheobronchial tumors, and 67% in bladder cancer patients. Clinical pictures as well as endoscopic findings at various intervals from treatment showed that mucositis is a common event following endoscopic PDT. It causes exudation and significant tissue inflammatory response, whose consequences are different in the various organs treated. Photoradiation must be, as much as possible, limited to the malignant area.

  2. Experiential Interventions for Clients with Genital Herpes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Anne L.

    1999-01-01

    Explores potential benefits of incorporating concepts and interventions from experimental therapy to help clients with psychosocial difficulties in learning to live with genital herpes. Recommends experimental counseling of two-chair dialog, empty chair, and metaphor for helping clients with emotional sequelae of genital herpes. Presents case…

  3. Predictors of Genital Pain in Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Melissa A.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of genital pain in healthy young adult women, limited research has addressed genital pain during intercourse using contemporary models of multidimensional sexual function. The objectives of this study were threefold: (1) to identify differences in sexual functioning in women who experience genital pain compared to pain free women; (2) to identify predictors of sexual functioning in women with and without genital pain; and (3) to identify predictors of sexual satisfaction in women with and without genital pain. Sexually active female undergraduates (n = 651) were administered the Female Sexual Function Index and the Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory. We evaluated the sexual factors that impact the sexual function of women with any pain (including high and low pain groups) versus women with no history of pain. Women with genital pain reported greater rates of sexual dysfunction as compared to pain-free women; however, sexual functioning in the high versus low pain groups was distinguished primarily by vaginal lubrication. Women in the high pain group showed negative correlations between domains of sexual satisfaction and genital pain frequency and intensity that were not found in the low pain group. For pain-free women, intercourse played a strong role in sexual satisfaction, whereas non-intercourse sexual behavior was central to sexual satisfaction in women who reported pain. The evaluation of levels of genital pain may provide insight into the mechanisms underlying the impairment of sexual function, sexual behavior, and sexual satisfaction. PMID:17674182

  4. [Treatment of male genital infections with enoxacin].

    PubMed

    Giorgi, P M; Giorgi, P; Canale, D; Turchi, P; Poggi, M S; Di Coscio, M; Bartelloni, M; Meschini, P; Andreini, F; Campa, M

    1989-09-01

    Inflammatory disease such as prostatitis and prostatovesiculitis, can affect the fertility potential of the male population. In this study, the Authors tested the therapeutical efficacy of a second generation quinolone, enoxacin, in patients suffering from vesicular and/or prostatic inflammations. This drug has been shown to diffuse into the prostatic fluid, achieving therapeutical concentrations either in acute or chronic pathological conditions. Thirty infertile patients referring to our Andrology Center and showing seminal signs (leukocytes, abnormal sperm forms, chemical and physical alterations, etc) of genital tract inflammations were found to have positive sperm culture for enoxacin-sensitive strains. Further investigations (echotomography) showed that they were affected by prostatic and/or vesicular subacute chronic inflammations. The mean age was 32.2 (range 20-36) ys. All the patients discontinued any previous treatment for at least 90 days. Enoxacin was administered at the dose of 300 mg b.i.d. for two cycles of 10 days each, with intervals of 20 days. At the beginning and at the end of the treatment (days 0 and 60), semen analysis and culture were performed. A paired-T test was employed for the statistical evaluation of data. 26.6% of patients ad an altered fluidification before treatment. Only 10.0% of them showed the same sign after treatment. A condition of hyperviscosity was present in 50% and 16.6% of patients before and after treatment respectively. Likewise, an elevated number of leukocytes (greater than 10(6)/ml) occurred in the ejaculates of 43.3% of patients and in 23.3% after enoxacin treatment. Enoxacin treatment was efficacious in 89.2% of cases, in presence of either Gram positive or Gram negative bacteria.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2529639

  5. Hidden in Plain Sight: Chlamydial Gastrointestinal Infection and Its Relevance to Persistence in Human Genital Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yeruva, Laxmi

    2014-01-01

    Although the concept of persistence in chlamydial infections has been recognized for about 80 years, there is still very little known about the mechanism by which this occurs. In this review, we revisit an old paradigm, long known to chlamydiologists and veterinarians, that in virtually all hosts of chlamydiae, including mammals and birds, chlamydiae reside in the gastrointestinal tract for long periods of time in the absence of clinical disease. Thus, if gastrointestinal infection occurs in most hosts, then it is very likely that gastrointestinal infection occurs in humans as well. We demonstrate that gastrointestinal infection does indeed occur in humans and propose that this anatomical site is the source of persistent infection in humans. The data in ruminants and animal models demonstrate that the immune system is unable to clear chlamydiae from the gut, so they can remain indefinitely, with continual shedding in feces. Clearly, many women become reinfected from an untreated partner; however, we propose that women, cured of genital infection, remain at risk for autoinoculation from the lower gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, there are substantial data demonstrating treatment failure of chlamydial infections, particularly with azithromycin. New data in the mouse model have shown that azithromycin is far less effective against chlamydial gastrointestinal infection than against genital infections. Therefore, it is possible that women cured of genital infection by antibiotics remain infected in the gastrointestinal tract and can become reinfected by autoinoculation from that site. PMID:24421044

  6. Urinary and genital infections in patients with diabetes: How to diagnose and how to treat.

    PubMed

    Njomnang Soh, P; Vidal, F; Huyghe, E; Gourdy, P; Halimi, J M; Bouhanick, B

    2016-02-01

    Diabetes is a predisposing factor for urinary tract and genital infections in both women and men. Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors constitute a novel therapeutic class indicated for type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients, and are already on the market in a few countries in Europe. They decrease glycaemia mainly by enhancing glucose excretion in urine by reducing renal glucose reabsorption via the action of SGLT2 in the kidneys. In general, they are well tolerated, but their mode of action results in specific side effects as well as an increased risk of genital (vulvovaginitis and balanitis) and urinary tract infections, for which T2D patients are already at high risk, reported within the first 6 months of treatment. Usually these infectious events are successfully treated with standard therapies, but diabetologists are not accustomed to dealing with them. The aim of this review is to describe the different types of lower urinary tract and genital infections, and the treatment strategies currently available for patients with diabetes. PMID:26323665

  7. Optimal management of genital herpes: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Sauerbrei, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases, genital herpes is a global medical problem with significant physical and psychological morbidity. Genital herpes is caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 and can manifest as primary and/or recurrent infection. This manuscript provides an overview about the fundamental knowledge on the virus, its epidemiology, and infection. Furthermore, the current possibilities of antiviral therapeutic interventions and laboratory diagnosis of genital herpes as well as the present situation and perspectives for the treatment by novel antivirals and prevention of disease by vaccination are presented. Since the medical management of patients with genital herpes simplex virus infection is often unsatisfactory, this review aims at all physicians and health professionals who are involved in the care of patients with genital herpes. The information provided would help to improve the counseling of affected patients and to optimize the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of this particular disease. PMID:27358569

  8. Optimal management of genital herpes: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sauerbrei, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases, genital herpes is a global medical problem with significant physical and psychological morbidity. Genital herpes is caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 and can manifest as primary and/or recurrent infection. This manuscript provides an overview about the fundamental knowledge on the virus, its epidemiology, and infection. Furthermore, the current possibilities of antiviral therapeutic interventions and laboratory diagnosis of genital herpes as well as the present situation and perspectives for the treatment by novel antivirals and prevention of disease by vaccination are presented. Since the medical management of patients with genital herpes simplex virus infection is often unsatisfactory, this review aims at all physicians and health professionals who are involved in the care of patients with genital herpes. The information provided would help to improve the counseling of affected patients and to optimize the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of this particular disease. PMID:27358569

  9. Motor effects of locally administered pinaverium bromide in the sigmoid tract of patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Passaretti, S; Sorghi, M; Colombo, E; Mazzotti, G; Tittobello, A; Guslandi, M

    1989-01-01

    The effects of pinaverium bromide, a non-absorbable antispasmodic agent, administered locally, on sigmoid-rectal motility was investigated in 20 patients with irritable bowel syndrome. The influence of either pinaverium (10 subjects) or placebo (10 subjects) on a neostigmine-induced increase of sigmoid pressure was assessed and compared by means of computerized electromanometry. The drug was found to counteract significantly the motor effects of neostigmine, thus appearing to be an effective compound for the treatment of functional disorders of the colon. PMID:2744907

  10. Genital Shedding of Resistant Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Among Women Diagnosed With Treatment Failure by Clinical and Immunologic Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Graham, Susan M; Chohan, Vrasha; Ronen, Keshet; Deya, Ruth W; Masese, Linnet N; Mandaliya, Kishor N; Peshu, Norbert M; Lehman, Dara A; McClelland, R Scott; Overbaugh, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Background.  The accumulation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) resistance mutations can compromise treatment outcomes and promote transmission of drug-resistant virus. We conducted a study to determine the duration and evolution of genotypic drug resistance in the female genital tract among HIV-1-infected women failing first-line therapy. Methods.  Treatment failure was diagnosed based on World Health Organization (WHO) clinical or immunologic criteria, and second-line therapy was initiated. Stored plasma and genital samples were tested to determine the presence and timing of virologic failure and emergence of drug resistance. The median duration of genital shedding of genotypically resistant virus prior to regimen switch was estimated. Results.  Nineteen of 184 women were diagnosed with treatment failure, of whom 12 (63.2%) had confirmed virologic failure at the switch date. All 12 women with virologic failure (viral load, 5855-1 086 500 copies/mL) had dual-class resistance in plasma. Seven of the 12 (58.3%) had genital HIV-1 RNA levels high enough to amplify (673-116 494 copies/swab), all with dual-class resistance. The median time from detection of resistance in stored samples to regimen switch was 895 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 130-1414 days) for plasma and 629 days (95% CI, 341-984 days) for genital tract secretions. Conclusions.  Among women diagnosed with treatment failure using WHO clinical or immunologic criteria, over half had virologic failure confirmed in stored samples. Resistant HIV-1 RNA was shed in the genital tract at detectable levels for ≈1.7 years before failure diagnosis, with steady accumulation of mutations. These findings add urgency to the ongoing scale-up of viral load testing in resource-limited settings. PMID:26966695

  11. Genital Shedding of Resistant Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Among Women Diagnosed With Treatment Failure by Clinical and Immunologic Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Susan M.; Chohan, Vrasha; Ronen, Keshet; Deya, Ruth W.; Masese, Linnet N.; Mandaliya, Kishor N.; Peshu, Norbert M.; Lehman, Dara A.; McClelland, R. Scott; Overbaugh, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Background. The accumulation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) resistance mutations can compromise treatment outcomes and promote transmission of drug-resistant virus. We conducted a study to determine the duration and evolution of genotypic drug resistance in the female genital tract among HIV-1-infected women failing first-line therapy. Methods. Treatment failure was diagnosed based on World Health Organization (WHO) clinical or immunologic criteria, and second-line therapy was initiated. Stored plasma and genital samples were tested to determine the presence and timing of virologic failure and emergence of drug resistance. The median duration of genital shedding of genotypically resistant virus prior to regimen switch was estimated. Results. Nineteen of 184 women were diagnosed with treatment failure, of whom 12 (63.2%) had confirmed virologic failure at the switch date. All 12 women with virologic failure (viral load, 5855–1 086 500 copies/mL) had dual-class resistance in plasma. Seven of the 12 (58.3%) had genital HIV-1 RNA levels high enough to amplify (673–116 494 copies/swab), all with dual-class resistance. The median time from detection of resistance in stored samples to regimen switch was 895 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 130–1414 days) for plasma and 629 days (95% CI, 341–984 days) for genital tract secretions. Conclusions. Among women diagnosed with treatment failure using WHO clinical or immunologic criteria, over half had virologic failure confirmed in stored samples. Resistant HIV-1 RNA was shed in the genital tract at detectable levels for ≈1.7 years before failure diagnosis, with steady accumulation of mutations. These findings add urgency to the ongoing scale-up of viral load testing in resource-limited settings. PMID:26966695

  12. Development and clinical application of an InvaderPlus® assay for the detection of genital mycoplasmas.

    PubMed

    Takanashi, Masaki; Ito, Shin; Kaneto, Hiroyuki; Tanahashi, Yoshikatsu; Kitanohara, Masataka; Yanagihara, Akira; Nakazima, Haruhiko; Yasuda, Mitsuru

    2015-07-01

    We developed a PCR-based assay involving Invader® technology for detection of the genital mycoplasmas of Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and Ureaplasma parvum. We compared its performance with that of a PCR-microtiter plate hybridization assay, which we developed previously, in detecting genital mycoplasmas in first-voided urine (FVU) specimens from men with non-gonococcal urethritis. The tests targeting each of the genital mycoplasmas were specific for the respective species and could detect as few as 10 copies of the plasmids containing the target genes of each of the genital mycoplasmas per reaction. The assay using the InvaderPlus® method (InvaderPlus® assay) showed very similar performance to that of the PCR-microtiter plate hybridization assay for detecting the genital mycoplasmas in the FVU specimens. In addition, the PCR and endonuclease reaction in the InvaderPlus® assay were carried out simultaneously in one procedure, thus simplifying the assay, leading to time- and labor-savings and a decrease in the risk of specimen contamination. The InvaderPlus® assay could be useful in diagnosing genitourinary tract infections caused by the genital mycoplasmas. PMID:25892209

  13. Glycogen Levels in Undiluted Genital Fluid and Their Relationship to Vaginal pH, Estrogen, and Progesterone

    PubMed Central

    Mirmonsef, Paria; Hotton, Anna L.; Gilbert, Douglas; Gioia, Casey J.; Maric, Danijela; Hope, Thomas J.; Landay, Alan L.; Spear, Gregory T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Colonization of the female lower genital tract with Lactobacillus provides protection against STIs and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Growth of genital Lactobacillus is postulated to depend on epithelial cell-produced glycogen. However, the amount of cell-free glycogen in genital fluid available for utilization by Lactobacillus is not known. Methods Eighty-five genital fluid samples from 7 pre-menopausal women taken over 4–6 weeks were obtained using the Instead SoftCup® (EvoFem, Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) by consented donors. Cell-free glycogen and glucose in genital fluids and estrogen and progesterone in blood were quantified. Findings Glycogen ranged from 0.1–32 μg/μl. There were significant differences between women in glycogen over the observation period. There was a strong negative correlation between glycogen and vaginal pH (r = -0.542, p<0.0001). In multivariable analysis, free glycogen levels were significantly negatively associated with both vaginal pH and progesterone (p < 0.001 and p = 0.004, respectively). Estrogen, glucose, age, sexual intercourse 24 hours prior to visit, and days after the initial visit were not significantly associated with free glycogen levels. Conclusion Cell-free glycogen concentrations can be very high, up to 3% of genital fluid, and are strongly associated with acidic vaginal pH. However, the fluctuations in glycogen levels in individuals and differences between individuals do not appear to be associated with estrogen. PMID:27093050

  14. Vulvar Epidermoid Cyst and Type 2 Radical Genital Mutilation.

    PubMed

    Birge, Ozer; Ozbey, Ertugrul Gazi; Arslan, Deniz; Erkan, Mustafa Melih; Demir, Feyza; Akgor, Utku

    2015-01-01

    About 100 million women are estimated to be circumcised globally. Various rates of complications have been encountered, especially after circumcision, such as bleeding, infection, shock, menstrual irregularity, difficulty in urination or common urinary tract infections, inguinal pain, difficulty in sexual intercourse, and genital circumcision scar especially at the vulvar region, and cystic or solid character mass in short and long term. Furthermore, the maternal-fetal morbidity and mortality increase due to bleeding and fistula, which develop after prolonged labor, travail, and difficult labors. Our aim in this paper was to discuss a 42-year-old multiparous female case who had undergone type 2 radical genital mutilation (circumcision) when she was 7 years of age, along with the literature, which has been evaluated for the gradually growing mass at the left inguinal canal region in the last 10 years and diagnosed as epidermoid inclusion cyst developing secondary to postcircumcision surgical ground trauma, since there was no other case found in the literature search that had been circumcised at such an early age and developing after circumcision at such advanced age, and, therefore, this is suggested to be the first case on this subject. PMID:26682078

  15. Vulvar Epidermoid Cyst and Type 2 Radical Genital Mutilation

    PubMed Central

    Birge, Ozer; Ozbey, Ertugrul Gazi; Arslan, Deniz; Erkan, Mustafa Melih; Demir, Feyza; Akgor, Utku

    2015-01-01

    About 100 million women are estimated to be circumcised globally. Various rates of complications have been encountered, especially after circumcision, such as bleeding, infection, shock, menstrual irregularity, difficulty in urination or common urinary tract infections, inguinal pain, difficulty in sexual intercourse, and genital circumcision scar especially at the vulvar region, and cystic or solid character mass in short and long term. Furthermore, the maternal-fetal morbidity and mortality increase due to bleeding and fistula, which develop after prolonged labor, travail, and difficult labors. Our aim in this paper was to discuss a 42-year-old multiparous female case who had undergone type 2 radical genital mutilation (circumcision) when she was 7 years of age, along with the literature, which has been evaluated for the gradually growing mass at the left inguinal canal region in the last 10 years and diagnosed as epidermoid inclusion cyst developing secondary to postcircumcision surgical ground trauma, since there was no other case found in the literature search that had been circumcised at such an early age and developing after circumcision at such advanced age, and, therefore, this is suggested to be the first case on this subject. PMID:26682078

  16. Effect of trichomoniasis therapy on genital HIV viral burden among African women

    PubMed Central

    ANDERSON, Brenna L.; FIRNHABER, Cynthia; LIU, Tao; SWARTS, Avril; SIMINYA, Maureen; INGERSOLL, Jessica; CALIENDO, Angela M.; CU-UVIN, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background Our objective was to test the hypothesis that treatment for trichomoniasis among HIV-infected women not taking antiretrovirals in South Africa would be associated with decreased HIV genital shedding. Methods HIV-infected women presenting for routine HIV care were screened for trichomoniasis using self-collected vaginal swabs with a rapid point-of-care immunochromatographic antigen test. Women testing positive were offered enrollment into a prospective cohort study if they had documented HIV infection, were ages 18–50, and not receiving antiretroviral therapy. Recent use of post-exposure prophylaxis or antibiotic therapy, active genital ulcers, or systemic illness were exclusion criteria. Cervical swabs were collected for gonococcal and chlamydial testing and those testing positive were excluded. Women were treated with directly-observed oral therapy with 2 grams of oral metronidazole. A follow-up visit was scheduled one month after therapy and partner letters were provided. Paired cervical wicks and plasma were collected for viral load measurement. Results 557 women were screened. 60 tested positive for trichomoniasis, 10 subsequently met exclusion criteria, 4 were lost to follow-up. Of 46 women evaluated at follow-up, 37 were cured, 80.4%. Plasma viral load was not significantly different after therapy, p=0.93. Genital tract viral load decreased by 0.5 log10, p<0.01. The mean genital tract viral load (log10) decreased from 4.66 (<3.52 – 6.46) to 4.18 (<3.52 – 6.48), p<0.01 following therapy. Conclusions Screening and treatment of vaginal trichomoniasis decreases genital shedding of HIV among South African women not receiving antiretrovirals at one month following therapy. PMID:22797689

  17. Targeted interventions required against genital ulcers in African countries worst affected by HIV infection.

    PubMed Central

    O'Farrell, N.

    2001-01-01

    It remains unclear why there is such marked variation in the severity of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic between African countries. The prevalence of HIV infection has reached high levels in many parts of southern Africa but in most countries of West Africa the levels are much lower. Although there is good evidence that sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and genital ulcers in particular facilitate heterosexual transmission of HIV, there is little comparative STI data from the African countries worst affected by HIV infection. A MEDLINE search covering the period 1966 to August 2000 using the keywords "sexually transmitted diseases", "genital ulcers" and "Africa" was performed to identify factors that might be relevant to the spread of HIV infection in countries with the highest prevalences of the virus. In the countries worst affected by HIV infection, the proportions of men and women with STI who had genital ulcers lay in the ranges 45-68% and 13-68%, respectively. The proportions were much lower in countries of West Africa than in those of southern Africa. The African countries worst affected by HIV infection should adopt a more specialized approach to STI control than hitherto and specifically target the high incidence of genital ulceration. Locally, technical STI committees should draw up country-specific guidelines taking into account the prevalence of the various causes of genital ulceration. In these countries, national AIDS control programmes and donor agencies should develop a specific focus for decreasing the incidence of genital ulcer disease. PMID:11436480

  18. [Study of Mycoplasma from the genital apparatus of cattle].

    PubMed

    Savov, N; Buchvarova, Ia

    1976-01-01

    The study on vaginal mucous secretion in cows with metritis and vaginitis, on fetuses and placentae of cows that had miscarried as well as on preputial secretion of bulls revealed the presence of Mycoplasma organisms associated with V. fetus and other bacterial species. By their reaction to cholesterol, digitonin, sodium polyanetol sulfonate as well as their serum and temperature requirements, the formation of films and spots, their phosphatase activity and biochemical and serologic behaviour the mycoplasmas isolated from the genital tract of cows were specified as A. laidlawii and A. axanthum. From both cows and bulls T-forms of mycoplasmas were isolated. The strains determined as A. laidlawi showed deviations from the species characteristics by the fermentation of glucose, hydrolysis of esculine, and reduction of 2,3,5-triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride. PMID:960549

  19. Treatment of genital warts: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Ronni; Davidovici, Batya

    2010-01-01

    There are two opposing approaches in the treatment of genital warts: (1) the traditional approach advocates complete elimination of all lesions, and (2) a second approach regards condyloma as merely a cosmetic nuisance. After a long journey through many arguments and scientific papers, we have concluded that many unknowns, uncertainties, and controversies concerning the value of treatment of genital warts in terms of clearing and curing the disease (ie, eradicating the viruses, preventing cancer, and reducing infectivity). There is no consensus at present of whether treatment of men with evidence of genital human papillomavirus infection influences the natural history of their female sex partner's cervical disease. PMID:20797516

  20. Local mechanisms in sex specific morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Drews, U

    2000-01-01

    Sex determination in mammals occurs on three levels. Segregation of sex chromosomes determines the chromosomal sex. Sry on the Y chromosome induces formation of a testis which in turn regulates via AMH and testosterone the development of the genital tract and the external phenotype. Recently a number of new factors have been described, which affect sexual development but have not yet found a place in the above canonical scheme of sex determination. For the purpose of this review, the factors are aligned according to their quality as transcription factors, steroid hormones, or growth factors. In this web of regulatory factors, the classical sex determining factors have evolved as master mechanisms while others function as slaves, or were totally suppressed. In this context, androgens acquired a dominant role in mammalian development. Androgens determine the morphogenesis of the genital tract. The effects of androgens are mediated by local cellular interactions. In the cranial section of the Wolffian duct the androgen receptor appears in the epithelium and mediates maintenance of the duct via an epithelial factor. In the caudal section of the duct the androgen receptor is expressed in the embryonic mesenchyme. Vesicular glands are induced via a morphogenetically active mesenchymal condensation, while the epithelial buds are primarily AR androgen receptor negative. The dominant role of androgens and formation of a vagina evolved together at the transition to eutherian mammals. Under this aspect, the role of androgens in the development of the vagina is analyzed. PMID:11173834

  1. Female genital schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma haematobium. Clinical and parasitological findings in women in rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Kjetland, E F; Poggensee, G; Helling-Giese, G; Richter, J; Sjaastad, A; Chitsulo, L; Kumwenda, N; Gundersen, S G; Krantz, I; Feldmeier, H

    1996-12-30

    A total of 51 women with urinary schistosomiasis haematobium were examined in order to identify diagnostic indicators for female genital schistosomiasis (FGS). Patients were selected at random from the outpatient department of the Mangochi District Hospital, Malawi. The medical histories were recorded according to a pre-designed questionnaire and the women were subjected to a thorough gynaecological examination including colposcopy and photographic documentation of lesions. Microscopy of genital biopsies revealed that 33 of the 51 women had S. haematobium ova in cervix, vagina and/or vulva in addition to the presence of ova in urine. The most sensitive diagnostic procedure was beside microscopic examination of a wet cervix biopsy crushed between two glass slides, which revealed 25 of the 33 genital infections. There was a significant correlation between the size of genital lesions and the number of ova counted per mm2 of crushed tissue. Women with FGS had significantly more tumours in the vulva than women with schistosomiasis limited to the urinary tract. Most of the observed genital pathology could easily be identified by the naked eye, but colposcopic examination yielded valuable additional information like the demonstration of neovascularisation around cervical sandy patches. Few of the symptoms previously regarded as indicators for FGS could be linked to the presence of schistosome ova in genital tissue. Husbands of infertile women with FGS had children with other women significantly more often than husbands of women who only had urinary schistosomiasis. This, together with the finding that the majority of the divorced women had FGS, indicates that the manifestation of this disease may have implications for the marital and sexual life of the affected women. PMID:9028409

  2. Simultaneous plasma and genital pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of atazanavir and efavirenz in HIV-infected women starting therapy.

    PubMed

    Neely, Michael; Louie, Stan; Xu, Jiaao; Anthony, Patricia; Thuvamontolrat, Kasalyn; Mordwinkin, Nicholas; Kovacs, Andrea

    2015-07-01

    Few studies have characterized longitudinal female plasma and genital antiretroviral pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Among 20 regimen-naive HIV-infected adult women initiating atazanavir-based therapy (n = 9) or efavirenz-based therapy (n = 11), we measured blood CD4+ T lymphocytes, and paired plasma and genital HIV RNA and atazanavir or efavirenz 2 days before starting therapy and 2, 4, 7, 10, 21, 28, 60, 120, and 180 days after. The mean (range) log10 baseline plasma viral load was 4.89 copies/mL (2.64-6.09 copies/mL), and genital was3.30 (1.60-5.00). In the atazanavir and efavirenz groups, mean (SD) days to a 50% decrease in plasma viral load was 8.2 (4.9) versus 9.3 (7.4), P = .7, and in the genital tract it was 7.3 (3.5) versus 9.3 (7.7), P = .5. The median (interquartile range) plasma:genital concentration ratio for atazanavir was 0.11 (0.001-0.46) versus 0.34 (0.05-1.30) for efavirenz, P = .5. Average plasma efavirenz or atazanavir concentrations over time did not affect virologic response. Blood CD4+ percentages increased by +2.3 (P = .06) and +3.0 (P = .003) for every 1 mg/L increase in average plasma and genital drug concentration, respectively. Plasma and genital viral pharmacodynamics were similar between the groups and independent of average concentrations, but blood CD4+ response was related in particular to genital extravascular drug concentrations. PMID:25683232

  3. Genital Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Native Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... effects be prevented? 1. There is now an HPV vaccine that protects females from the types of HPV ... properly before any sexual contact. 7 T he HPV vaccine protects against most cervical cancers and genital warts. ...

  4. [The male genital in legal medicine].

    PubMed

    Albrecht, K; Schultheiss, D

    2006-02-01

    Pathomorphological findings for the male genital are an exception among forensic cases. In earlier publications they were usually published as individual cases. A significant percentage are the so-called fertility- and potency medical certificates, which are usually commissioned for doubtful paternity cases. Old forensic writings about genital injuries distinguish--apart from the necessity of a complete dissection--between "deadly as such" and "accidentally deadly" injuries. Another group consists of reports about self-inflicted genital mutilation, e.g. among prison inmates or soldiers of the last world wars to become an invalid. When it was necessary to identify a corpse, e.g. in cases of progressive decomposition, Merkel recommended in 1945 the representation of the so-called "Schnepfenkopf" (snipe head; colliculus seminalis) in the lesser pelvis. In this article a medical and forensic review of forensically relevant findings of the male genital is presented and illustrated with historical cases. PMID:16308712

  5. Herpes Simplex (Cold Sores and Genital Herpes)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Select a Language: Fact Sheet 508 Herpes Simplex (Cold Sores and Genital Herpes) WHAT IS HERPES? HSV ... virus 1 (HSV1) is the common cause of cold sores (oral herpes) around the mouth. HSV2 normally ...

  6. Co-localization of the zinc transporter ZnT8 (slc30A8) with ghrelin and motilin in the gastrointestinal tract of pigs.

    PubMed

    Schweiger, Markus; Steffl, Martin; Amselgruber, Werner M

    2016-02-01

    Zinc is an important co-factor for insulin storage in pancreatic β-cells of different species and the uptake of this ion into insulin containing secretory vesicles is managed by the zinc transporter, ZnT8, a member of the slc30A gene family. Recent studies indicate that this protein is a major autoimmune target in human type 1A diabetes and has also been implicated by genome-wide association studies in type 2 diabetes. Since individuals suffering from type 1 diabetes often develop gastrointestinal motility disorders, we investigated the expression of ZnT8 in the porcine gastrointestinal tract. For this purpose, we studied the cell-type specific expression of ZnT8 in the gut and its co-expression with endocrine hormones that are closely linked to intestinal motility regulation. Nested RT-PCR and immunostaining of sequential serial sections, as well as double-immunostaining using antibodies directed against ZnT8, ghrelin, motilin, neurotensin, serotonin and glucagon-like peptide 1, indicated that ZnT8 is co-localized with ghrelin and motilin. Our findings provide important information about the cell-type specific expression of ZnT8 in the porcine gastrointestinal system. The selective and exclusive expression of ZnT8 in two endocrine cell-types that are engaged in motility functions may be of particular interest for further investigations into type I diabetes-associated gastrointestinal dysfunctions. PMID:26388512

  7. Prevalence of asymptomatic genital infection among pregnant women in Benin City, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akerele, John; Abhulimen, Philip; Okonofua, Friday

    2002-12-01

    The prevalence of asymptomatic genital infection among pregnant women and their susceptibility to antibacterial agents was investigated to provide baseline data on common asymptomatic genital microorganisms and identify potentials for development of clinical disease among this cohort of patients. High vaginal swabs were obtained from five hundred consecutive and consenting pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH) and the Central Hospital, both in Benin City, Nigeria. A total of three hundred specimens showed significant microbial growth, giving a prevalence rate of 60% for asymptomatic genital infections. Candida albicans (65%), Staphylococcus aureus (51.8%) and Enterobacteriacae (E. coli and Klebsiella species) were predominantly isolated, followed by Trichomonas vaginalis and Neisseria gonorrhoea. Most of the bacterial isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, cotrimoxazole, norfloxacin and augmentin. All the isolates except Streptococcus faecalis were resistant to ampicillin. These results show a high rate of asymptomatic genital tract infections among pregnant women in Benin City, which have implications for adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. PMID:12685413

  8. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis: An update

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Meenakshi; Sood, Seema; Mukherjee, Anjan; Muralidhar, Sumathi; Bala, Manju

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common cause of curable bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) worldwide. It manifests primarily as urethritis in males and endocervicitis in females. Untreated chlamydial infection in man can cause epididymitis and proctitis. Though most women with Chlamydia infection are asymptomatic or have minimal symptoms, some develop salpingitis, endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy and tubal factor infertility. It is associated with an increased risk for the transmission or acquisition of HIV and is also attributed to be a risk factor for the development of cervical carcinoma. Early diagnosis and treatment of infected individuals is required to prevent the spread of the disease and severe sequelae. Traditionally, tissue culture was considered the gold standard for the diagnosis. However, with the availability of newer diagnostic techniques particularly molecular methods which are not only highly sensitive and specific but are cost-effective also, the diagnosis has became fast and easy. The purpose of this review is to study the various aspects of genital C. trachomatis infection. Also the advances related to the clinical picture, various diagnostic modalities, prevention, treatment, drug resistance and control measures will be dealt with. PMID:24135174

  9. Controversial issues: female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Richards, D

    2000-01-01

    As immigrant women from African countries enter the U.S., Canada, Australia, and Western Europe, western health care providers are beginning to see patients affected by the cultural practice of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM). Unfamiliar with the practice, either medically or culturally, these providers are turning to medical librarians for information. Complicating the issue are the strong negative feelings most western health care workers have about FGM, which appears to them to be both barbaric and cruel. These feelings may conflict strongly with those of their immigrant patients, who regard the practice as normal and desirable. Both medical and cultural information are needed for the professional to provide treatment of medical conditions, while also establishing a good relationship with the FGM affected patient. This article identifies and describes the most important refereed journal article databases, available now over the Internet, providing both medical and cultural information on FGM, and the most useful Web sites for health professionals, librarians, and interested laypersons who need information about this difficult multicultural issue. PMID:11299679

  10. Laser hair removal for genital gender affirming surgery

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, William R.; Garrett, Giorgia L.; Arron, Sarah T.

    2016-01-01

    Genital gender affirming surgery (GAS) involves reconstruction of the genitals to match a patient’s identified sex. The use of hair-bearing flaps in this procedure may result in postoperative intra-vaginal and intra-urethral hair growth and associated complications, including lower satisfaction with genital GAS. Despite the significant increase in genital GAS within the past 50 years, there is limited data regarding hair removal practices in preparation for genital GAS and notable variation in hair removal techniques among dermatologists and other practitioners. We present a literature review, recommendations from our experience, and a practical laser hair removal (LHR) approach to hair removal prior to genital GAS. PMID:27298787

  11. Laser hair removal for genital gender affirming surgery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, William R; Garrett, Giorgia L; Arron, Sarah T; Garcia, Maurice M

    2016-06-01

    Genital gender affirming surgery (GAS) involves reconstruction of the genitals to match a patient's identified sex. The use of hair-bearing flaps in this procedure may result in postoperative intra-vaginal and intra-urethral hair growth and associated complications, including lower satisfaction with genital GAS. Despite the significant increase in genital GAS within the past 50 years, there is limited data regarding hair removal practices in preparation for genital GAS and notable variation in hair removal techniques among dermatologists and other practitioners. We present a literature review, recommendations from our experience, and a practical laser hair removal (LHR) approach to hair removal prior to genital GAS. PMID:27298787

  12. Impact of crystal polymorphism on the systemic bioavailability of rifaximin, an antibiotic acting locally in the gastrointestinal tract, in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Blandizzi, Corrado; Viscomi, Giuseppe Claudio; Scarpignato, Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    Background Rifaximin is an antibiotic, acting locally in the gastrointestinal tract, which may exist in different crystal as well as amorphous forms. The current marketed rifaximin formulation contains polymorph alpha, the systemic bioavailability of which is very limited. This study compared the pharmacokinetics of this formulation with those of the amorphous form. Methods Amorphous rifaximin was specifically prepared for the study and formulated as the marketed product. Two doses (200 mg and 400 mg) of both formulations were given to two groups of 12 healthy volunteers of either sex according to a single-blind, randomized, two-treatment, single-dose, two-period, cross-over design. Plasma and urine samples were collected at preset times (for 24 hours or 48 hours, respectively) after dosing, and assayed for rifaximin concentrations by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results For both dose levels, peak plasma concentration, area under the concentration-time curve, and cumulative urinary excretion were significantly higher after administration of amorphous rifaximin than rifaximin-α. Ninety percent confidence intervals for peak plasma concentration, area under the concentration-time curve, and urinary excretion ratios were largely outside the upper limit of the accepted (0.80–1.25) range, indicating higher systemic bioavailability of the amorphous rifaximin. The few adverse events recorded were not serious and not related to the study medications. Conclusion Rifaximin-α, a crystal polymorph, does differ from the amorphous form, the latter being systemically more bioavailable. In this regard, care must be taken when using – as a medicinal product – a formulation containing even small amounts of amorphous form, which may alter the peculiar pharmacologic properties of this poorly absorbed antibiotic. PMID:25565769

  13. Genital injuries in boys and abuse

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, C J; Osman, J

    2007-01-01

    Aims To describe a cohort of boys with genital injuries in whom child abuse was suspected. Methods Boys with genital injury (penile and/or scrotal) and referred to paediatricians in Leeds, population 750 000, with concerns regarding possible abuse from 1983 to 2003 were identified from medical reports. Results 86 boys (average age 62.7 months, median age 48 months) were referred between 1983 and 2003. The injury was judged inflicted in 63, unexplained, suspicious or inconsistent with the history given in 17 and accidental in six. The number of discrete injuries ranged from one in 57, two in 15, three in 12, to more than three in two cases. Genital injuries included burns in seven boys, bruises in 27, incised wounds, lacerations or scars in 39, and other traumatic lesions in 27. Non‐genital findings included anal findings in 28, >10 bruises in 17, fractures in three, burns in 12, mouth injuries in four, brain and retinal haemorrhages in one, and poor nourishment or underweight in 14. The categories of abuse were physical (eight), sexual (19), both physical and sexual (eight), physical and neglect (four), and physical, sexual and neglect (one). The category of abuse was unspecified in 39 children. Conclusions Genital injury in boys may be the result of abuse which may be physical or sexual in nature. PMID:17376938

  14. Recent advances in management of genital herpes.

    PubMed Central

    Tétrault, I.; Boivin, G.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide an update on new diagnostic tests and antiviral strategies for managing genital herpes. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Treatment guidelines are based on randomized clinical trials and recommendations from the Expert Working Group on Canadian Guidelines for Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Recommendations concerning other aspects of managing genital herpes (e.g., indications for using type-specific serologic tests) are mainly based on expert opinion. MAIN MESSAGE: Genital herpes is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases, affecting about 20% of sexually active people; up to 80% of cases are undiagnosed. Because of frequent atypical presentation and the emotional burden associated with genital herpes, clinical diagnosis should be confirmed by viral culture. Type-specific serologic assays are now available, but their use is often restricted to special situations and requires adequate counseling. New antivirals (valacyclovir and famciclovir) with improved pharmacokinetic profiles have now been approved for episodic treatment of recurrences and suppressive therapy. CONCLUSION: Wise use of new diagnostic assays for herpes simplex coupled with more convenient treatment regimens should provide better management of patients with genital herpes. Images Figure 1 PMID:10955181

  15. Antiviral activity of trappin-2 and elafin in vitro and in vivo against genital herpes.

    PubMed

    Drannik, Anna G; Nag, Kakon; Sallenave, Jean-Michel; Rosenthal, Kenneth L

    2013-07-01

    Serine protease inhibitor elafin (E) and its precursor, trappin-2 (Tr), have been associated with mucosal resistance to HIV-1 infection. We recently showed that Tr/E are among principal anti-HIV-1 molecules in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) fluid, that E is ∼130 times more potent than Tr against HIV-1, and that Tr/E inhibited HIV-1 attachment and transcytosis across human genital epithelial cells (ECs). Since herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a major sexually transmitted infection and risk factor for HIV-1 infection and transmission, we assessed Tr/E contribution to defense against HSV-2. Our in vitro studies demonstrated that pretreatment of endometrial (HEC-1A) and endocervical (End1/E6E7) ECs with human Tr-expressing adenovirus (Ad/Tr) or recombinant Tr/E proteins before or after HSV-2 infection resulted in significantly reduced virus titers compared to those of controls. Interestingly, E was ∼7 times more potent against HSV-2 infection than Tr. Conversely, knockdown of endogenous Tr/E by small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly increased HSV-2 replication in genital ECs. Recombinant Tr and E reduced viral attachment to genital ECs by acting indirectly on cells. Further, lower viral replication was associated with reduced secretion of proinflammatory interleukin 8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and decreased NF-κB nuclear translocation. Additionally, protected Ad/Tr-treated ECs demonstrated enhanced interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) nuclear translocation and increased antiviral IFN-β in response to HSV-2. Lastly, in vivo studies of intravaginal HSV-2 infection in Tr-transgenic mice (Etg) showed that despite similar virus replication in the genital tract, Etg mice had reduced viral load and TNF-α in the central nervous system compared to controls. Collectively, this is the first experimental evidence highlighting anti-HSV-2 activity of Tr/E in female genital mucosa. PMID:23637403

  16. Antiviral Activity of Trappin-2 and Elafin In Vitro and In Vivo against Genital Herpes

    PubMed Central

    Drannik, Anna G.; Nag, Kakon; Sallenave, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    Serine protease inhibitor elafin (E) and its precursor, trappin-2 (Tr), have been associated with mucosal resistance to HIV-1 infection. We recently showed that Tr/E are among principal anti-HIV-1 molecules in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) fluid, that E is ∼130 times more potent than Tr against HIV-1, and that Tr/E inhibited HIV-1 attachment and transcytosis across human genital epithelial cells (ECs). Since herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a major sexually transmitted infection and risk factor for HIV-1 infection and transmission, we assessed Tr/E contribution to defense against HSV-2. Our in vitro studies demonstrated that pretreatment of endometrial (HEC-1A) and endocervical (End1/E6E7) ECs with human Tr-expressing adenovirus (Ad/Tr) or recombinant Tr/E proteins before or after HSV-2 infection resulted in significantly reduced virus titers compared to those of controls. Interestingly, E was ∼7 times more potent against HSV-2 infection than Tr. Conversely, knockdown of endogenous Tr/E by small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly increased HSV-2 replication in genital ECs. Recombinant Tr and E reduced viral attachment to genital ECs by acting indirectly on cells. Further, lower viral replication was associated with reduced secretion of proinflammatory interleukin 8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and decreased NF-κB nuclear translocation. Additionally, protected Ad/Tr-treated ECs demonstrated enhanced interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) nuclear translocation and increased antiviral IFN-β in response to HSV-2. Lastly, in vivo studies of intravaginal HSV-2 infection in Tr-transgenic mice (Etg) showed that despite similar virus replication in the genital tract, Etg mice had reduced viral load and TNF-α in the central nervous system compared to controls. Collectively, this is the first experimental evidence highlighting anti-HSV-2 activity of Tr/E in female genital mucosa. PMID:23637403

  17. Products used on female genital mucosa.

    PubMed

    Farage, Miranda A; Lennon, Lisa; Ajayi, Funmi

    2011-01-01

    A wide variety of products are used by women in the genital area and, therefore, come into contact with the genital mucosa. The largest category of such products would be those used for cleanliness and odor control, such as soaps and body washes, douches, premoistened wipes and towelettes, dusting powder and deodorant sprays. A second large category of products are those intended to absorb fluids, such as products used for menstrual protection (tampons, pads and panty liners) and incontinence protection. Lubricants and moisturizers, and aesthetic products (hair removal products and dyes) are also fairly common. In addition, over the counter medications are now available for the treatment of fungal infections. This chapter briefly discusses the products women use on or around the genital area, the perceived or real benefits, and the potential health effects of these products. PMID:21325843

  18. New Concepts in Understanding Genital Herpes

    PubMed Central

    Schiffer, Joshua T.; Corey, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    Herpes Simplex Virus-2 (HSV-2) is a lifelong infection that causes recurrent genital ulcers and on rare occasions, disseminated and visceral disease. Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) infection is an increasingly important cause of genital ulcers as well. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are the most common cause of genital ulcers in adults but acquisition and chronic infection are more commonly asymptomatic than symptomatic. Both the symptomatic and asymptomatic forms of HSV are of clinical consequence for several reasons. HSV-2 infection enhances HIV-1 acquisition, as well as transmission. In addition, both sexual and perinatal transmission can occur during asymptomatic viral shedding. Perinatal transmission is of particular concern because neonatal HSV infection results in severe morbiditiy to the newborn. Antiviral medicines are effective for limiting recurrence duration and decreasing transmission likelihood, though no available intervention completely prevents transmission. This highlights the importance of laboratory diagnostics for this lifelong infection, as well as the need for an HSV vaccine. PMID:19857385

  19. Educating women about normal female genital appearance variation.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Gemma; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-03-01

    The study investigated the effectiveness of two online resources aimed at improving women's knowledge of the variation in normal female genital appearance and their attitudes towards their own genitals. The first consisted of a photographic array of normal female genitals and the second consisted of a video addressing digital airbrushing of women's genitals in media images. A sample of 136 female undergraduate students were randomly assigned to view the photographs, video, both the photographs and video, or neither. The video significantly increased women's perceptions of genital appearance diversity as well as awareness of digital airbrushing of genital images. Owing to relatively low levels of genital appearance concern, there was no effect of either resource on women's attitudes towards their own genitals; however, women who viewed the video indicated they would pass on their knowledge to help other women. Our results suggest that an educational video could be a useful tool. PMID:26723015

  20. Relationship Between Genital Drug Concentrations and Cervical Cellular Immune Activation and Reconstitution in HIV-1-Infected Women on a Raltegravir Versus a Boosted Atazanavir Regimen.

    PubMed

    Meditz, Amie L; Palmer, Claire; Predhomme, Julie; Searls, Kristina; Kerr, Becky; Seifert, Sharon; Caraway, Patricia; Gardner, Edward M; MaWhinney, Samantha; Anderson, Peter L

    2015-10-01

    Determinants of HIV-infected women's genital tract mucosal immune health are not well understood. Because raltegravir (RAL) achieves relatively higher genital tract concentrations than ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV), we examined whether an RAL-based regimen is associated with improved cervical immune reconstitution and less activation in HIV(+) women compared to an ATV-based regimen. Peripheral blood, cervical brushings, cervical-vaginal lavage (CVL), and cervical biopsies were collected from HIV(+) women on tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) and either RAL (n=14) or ATV (n=19) with CD4(+) T cells>300 cells/mm(3) and HIV RNA<48 copies/ml. HLA-DR(+)CD38(+) T cells were measured in blood and cervical cells using flow cytometry, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were quantified in cervical biopsies by immunofluorescent analysis, and HIV RNA (VL), ATV, and RAL concentrations were measured in CVL. In a linear regression model of log(CVL concentration) versus both log(plasma concentration) and treatment group, the RAL CVL level was 519% (95% CI: 133, 1,525%) higher than for ATV (p<0.001). Genital tract VL was undetectable in 90% of subjects and did not differ by regimen. There were no significant differences between groups in terms of cervical %HLA-DR(+)CD38(+)CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells, CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells/mm(2), or CD4:CD8 ratio. After adjusting for treatment time and group, the CVL:plasma drug ratio was not associated with the cervical CD4:CD8 ratio or immune activation (p>0.6). Despite significantly higher genital tract penetration of RAL compared to ATV, there were no significant differences in cervical immune activation or reconstitution between women on these regimens, suggesting both drug regimens achieve adequate genital tract levels to suppress virus replication. PMID:26059647

  1. For the sake of purity (and control). Female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, D

    1993-01-01

    In 1973 approximately 1 million girls will be victimized by female genital mutilation (FGM), widely practiced in more than 20 African nations from Mauritania to the Ivory Coast in the west, to Egypt and North Tanzania in the east, as well as in Oman, Bahrain, North and South Yemen, and the United Arab Emirates. FGM takes place among the Moslem populations of the Philippines, Indonesia, and Malaysia and the Jewish Falashas in Ethiopia. FGM is practiced on babies just a few days old to girls right before marriage or young women pregnant with their first child. The most extreme mutilation is called infibulation. In Somalia, almost 100% of the women are infibulated, and so are more than 80% of the women in north and central Sudan. In Ethiopia/Eritrea, Mali, and Sierra Leone, 90% of the women have undergone some form of genital mutilation. The rate reaches 70% in Burkina Faso; 60% in Kenya, Gambia, and the Ivory Coast; and 50% in Senegal, Egypt, Guinea Bissau, and Nigeria. The mutilation often results in accumulation of menstrual blood and pelvic inflammatory disease often leading to infertility. Between 20% and 25% of infertility in Sudan has been attributed to female genital mutilation. The practice of FGM has existed for centuries, and some claim it originated in the Nile Valley during the Pharaonic era. On the other hand, Muslim countries like Iraq, Syria, and Tunisia do not practice FGM. The London Black Women's Health Action Project set up an educational network to prevent mutilations and to dispel the myth of religion about FGM. FORWARD convened the First Study Conference on Genital Mutilation of Girls in Europe in 1992 and deemed FGM a form of child abuse. Local campaigns in Africa, Asia, and the Arab world educate against FGM. The Inter-Africa Committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children, based in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, has offices in more than 20 African nations to sensitize the public about the harmful effects of FGM. In

  2. Non-infectious inflammatory genital lesions.

    PubMed

    Andreassi, Lucio; Bilenchi, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    The genitalia may be the site of non-infectious inflammatory lesions that are generally manifested as balanoposthitis and vulvovaginitis. In men, these forms constitute 50% of all balanoposthitis forms, and in women, vulvovaginitis frequency is even higher. They consist of genital locations of general skin diseases, such as psoriasis, lichen planus, lichen sclerosus, and other clinical entities with their own physiognomy, such as Zoon's balanitis-vulvitis. Diagnosis of genital non-infectious inflammatory lesions is usually made on clinical criteria. A biopsy is only necessary for the identification of clinical conditions that may simulate inflammatory form but are actually premalignant processes. PMID:24559568

  3. [Update on the treatment of genital herpes].

    PubMed

    Martín, J M; Villalón, G; Jordá, E

    2009-01-01

    Genital herpes is a chronic infection characterized by periodic reactivation. It can produce symptomatic disease in the host although asymptomatic viral excretion can also occur. It is currently the main cause of genital ulceration and an important public health problem that has substantial clinical, psychological, and economic repercussions. This review analyzes the currently available therapeutic options and regimens, which are based mainly on systemic use of antiviral agents such as aciclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir. In addition, special emphasis is placed on the prevention and management of this infection in specific situations, such as pregnant, pediatric, and immunocompromised patients. PMID:19268108

  4. Safety of Intraventricular Hemorrhage (IVH) Thrombolysis Based on CT Localization of External Ventricular Drain (EVD) Fenestrations and Analysis of EVD Tract Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Daniel A.; Patel, Alden V.; Darracott, Robert M.; Hanel, Ricardo A.; Hanley, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of the study is to review the CT findings associated with ventriculostomy placement in regards to the safety of an EVD plus recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) for IVH. Methods A retrospective review was conducted for patients receiving intraventricular rt-PA for IVH from January 2004 to September 2009. Safety was assessed by the presence of EVD tract hemorrhage by CT at baseline after EVD placement, worsening hemorrhage after rt-PA, and CSF infection. IVH volumetrics were assessed by the Le Roux score and outcomes by Glasgow Outcome Scale and modified Rankin Scale. Results Twenty-seven patients received rt-PA for IVH. Median dose was 2 mg (range 0.3–8) and a median of two doses (range 1–17) were given. Worsening EVD catheter tract hemorrhage after rt-PA was 46.7 %, with a significantly higher incidence of worsening tract hemorrhage seen with incorrectly placed EVDs (p = 0.04). IVH hematoma burden decreased by a median Le Roux score of 10 (range 3–16) prior to rt-PA to 4 (range 0–16) after rt-PA. There were no central nervous system bacterial infections. Conclusion Intraventricular rt-PA appears to be relatively safe especially when all EVD fenestrations are within the ventricle and reduces IVH burden similar to other studies. We describe a CT-based EVD tract hemorrhage grading scale to evaluate EVD tract hemorrhage before and after thrombolysis, and a bone-window technique to evaluate EVD fenestrations prior to IVH thrombolysis. Further research is needed evaluating these imaging techniques in regard to intraventricular thrombolytic safety and EVD tract hemorrhage. PMID:22544476

  5. Female genital mutilation and reporting duties for all clinical personnel.

    PubMed

    Cropp, Gabrielle; Armstrong, Jane

    2016-07-01

    Female genital mutilation is illegal. It is now mandatory for health-care professionals to report female genital mutilation to the police. Professionals caring for women and girls of all ages must understand how female genital mutilation presents, and what action to take. PMID:27388382

  6. Can You Get Genital Herpes from a Cold Sore?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cuts? Can You Get Genital Herpes From a Cold Sore? KidsHealth > For Teens > Can You Get Genital Herpes From a Cold Sore? Print A A A Text Size Can you get genital herpes from a cold sore? – Lucy* Yes — it is possible to get ...

  7. [Medical and legal aspects of genital mutilation and circumcision part I: female genital mutilation (FGM)].

    PubMed

    Dettmeyer, Reinhard; Laux, Johannes; Friedl, Hannah; Zedler, Barbara; Bratzke, Hansjürgen; Parzeller, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is considered to be against the law and against morality not only in Western countries, although a woman of age and able to consent may sometimes think differently. The procedure may have serious physical and emotional consequences for the girl or woman. Nevertheless there are attempts to justify the procedure with medical and hygienic pseudoarguments, ideology, freedom of religion, cultural identity and social adequacy. Outside the Western world, some people claim that religion and culture alone justify the practice. In Germany, parents can lose the right to determine the residence of their daughter, if she is faced with the risk of genital mutilation in order to prevent that the child or girl is taken to her home country. Genital mutilation as a gender-specific threat is recognized as a reason to grant asylum or prevent deportation. Proposals to make genital mutilation a separate punishable offence are presently discussed by the legislator. PMID:21404547

  8. [Planning and implementation of conformal radiotherapy for patients with gynecologic neoplasms with urinary tract obstruction].

    PubMed

    Kreinina, Yu M; Shevchenko, L N; Titova, V A; Teliyants, A F

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract pathology is one of the reasons limiting possibility of all kind of radical treatment followed by proper rehabilitation in patients with cancer of the female genital organs. 469 patients suffering from cancer of the female genital organs with urological obstructive complications were successfully treated by means of conformal external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy for the period 2003-2012 after correction of urological pathology. A use of interventional technologies for urinary tract drainage that minimize the frequency of repeated invasive procedures to reduce the risk of remote infectious and functional urinal complications after radiotherapy is the most priority for the implementation of irradiation of any required volume in patients with cancer of the female genital organs. PMID:26571829

  9. Ritual genital cutting of female minors.

    PubMed

    Davis, Dena S

    2010-05-01

    The traditional custom of ritual cutting and alteration of the genitalia of female infants, children, and adolescents, referred to as female genital mutilation or female genital cutting (FGC), persists primarily in Africa and among certain communities in the Middle East and Asia. Immigrants in the United States from areas in which FGC is common may have daughters who have undergone a ritual genital procedure or may request that such a procedure be performed by a physician. The American Academy of Pediatrics believes that pediatricians and pediatric surgical specialists should be aware that this practice has life-threatening health risks for children and women. The American Academy of Pediatrics opposes all types of female genital cutting that pose risks of physical or psychological harm, counsels its members not to perform such procedures, recommends that its members actively seek to dissuade families from carrying out harmful forms of FGC, and urges its members to provide patients and their parents with compassionate education about the harms of FGC while remaining sensitive to the cultural and religious reasons that motivate parents to seek this procedure for their daughters. PMID:20421257

  10. Diagnosis of genital Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma infections.

    PubMed

    Friberg, J

    1985-03-01

    Genital Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma have been implicated in pelvic inflammatory disease, puerperal infections, septic abortions, low birth weight, nongonococcal urethritis and prostatitis as well as spontaneous abortion and infertility. An unequivocal diagnosis of infection with these organisms can be made only after properly obtained specimens have been evaluated with the use of selective cultures. PMID:4020782

  11. Psychosocial Treatment for Recurrent Genital Herpes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, David J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Assigned 21 individuals with recurrent genital herpes to psychosocial intervention, social support, or waiting-list control conditions. Those receiving psychosocial intervention (herpes simplex virus information, relaxation training, stress management instructions, and an imagery technique) reported significantly greater reductions in herpes…

  12. Genital Evolution: Why Are Females Still Understudied?

    PubMed Central

    Ah-King, Malin; Barron, Andrew B.; Herberstein, Marie E.

    2014-01-01

    The diversity, variability, and apparent rapid evolution of animal genitalia are a vivid focus of research in evolutionary biology, and studies exploring genitalia have dramatically increased over the past decade. These studies, however, exhibit a strong male bias, which has worsened since 2000, despite the fact that this bias has been explicitly pointed out in the past. Early critics argued that previous investigators too often considered only males and their genitalia, while overlooking female genitalia or physiology. Our analysis of the literature shows that overall this male bias has worsened with time. The degree of bias is not consistent between subdisciplines: studies of the lock-and-key hypothesis have been the most male focused, while studies of cryptic female choice usually consider both sexes. The degree of bias also differed across taxonomic groups, but did not associate with the ease of study of male and female genital characteristics. We argue that the persisting male bias in this field cannot solely be explained by anatomical sex differences influencing accessibility. Rather the bias reflects enduring assumptions about the dominant role of males in sex, and invariant female genitalia. New research highlights how rapidly female genital traits can evolve, and how complex coevolutionary dynamics between males and females can shape genital structures. We argue that understanding genital evolution is hampered by an outdated single-sex bias. PMID:24802812

  13. New approach to managing genital warts

    PubMed Central

    Lopaschuk, Catharine C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To summarize and determine the appropriate use for the new and old management tools for genital warts. Sources of information The following databases were searched: MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ACP Journal Club, and Trip. The bibliographies of retrieved papers were also reviewed. Clinical trials, qualitative review articles, consensus reports, and clinical practice guidelines were retrieved. Main message Symptomatic warts are prevalent in at least 1% of the population between the ages of 15 and 49, with estimates of up to 50% of the population being infected with human papillomavirus at some point in their lifetime. Imiquimod and podophyllotoxin are 2 new treatments for external genital warts that are less painful and can be applied by patients at home. In addition, the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine has been shown to be efficacious in preventing genital warts and cervical cancer. There is still a role for the older treatment methods in certain situations, such as intravaginal, urethral, anal, or recalcitrant warts; or for pregnant patients. Conclusion The new treatments of external genital warts can reduce the pain of treatment and the number of office visits. Other treatment methods are still useful in certain situations. PMID:23851535

  14. Genital evolution: why are females still understudied?

    PubMed

    Ah-King, Malin; Barron, Andrew B; Herberstein, Marie E

    2014-05-01

    The diversity, variability, and apparent rapid evolution of animal genitalia are a vivid focus of research in evolutionary biology, and studies exploring genitalia have dramatically increased over the past decade. These studies, however, exhibit a strong male bias, which has worsened since 2000, despite the fact that this bias has been explicitly pointed out in the past. Early critics argued that previous investigators too often considered only males and their genitalia, while overlooking female genitalia or physiology. Our analysis of the literature shows that overall this male bias has worsened with time. The degree of bias is not consistent between subdisciplines: studies of the lock-and-key hypothesis have been the most male focused, while studies of cryptic female choice usually consider both sexes. The degree of bias also differed across taxonomic groups, but did not associate with the ease of study of male and female genital characteristics. We argue that the persisting male bias in this field cannot solely be explained by anatomical sex differences influencing accessibility. Rather the bias reflects enduring assumptions about the dominant role of males in sex, and invariant female genitalia. New research highlights how rapidly female genital traits can evolve, and how complex coevolutionary dynamics between males and females can shape genital structures. We argue that understanding genital evolution is hampered by an outdated single-sex bias. PMID:24802812

  15. Biopsy - biliary tract

    MedlinePlus

    Cytology analysis - biliary tract; Biliary tract biopsy ... A sample for a biliary tract biopsy can be obtained in different ways. A needle biopsy can be done if you have a well-defined tumor. The biopsy site ...

  16. Psychophysical properties of female genital sensation.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Melissa A; Maykut, Caroline A; Huberman, Jackie S; Huang, Lejian; Khalifé, Samir; Binik, Yitzchak M; Apkarian, A Vania; Schweinhardt, Petra

    2013-11-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is characterized by the presence of vulvar touch and pain hypersensitivity. Pain with vaginal distension, which motivates treatment seeking and perpetuates distress, is frequently reported with PVD. However, the concordance between the perception of vulvar and vaginal sensation (ie, somatic and visceral genital sensations, respectively) remains unstudied in healthy women, as well as in clinical populations such as PVD. To evaluate the static and dynamic (time-varying) properties of somatic and visceral genital sensation, women with PVD (n=14) and age- and contraceptive-matched healthy controls (n=10) rated varying degrees of nonpainful and painful genital stimulation. Somatic (vulvar) mechanical sensitivity to nonpainul and painful degrees of force were compared to visceral (vaginal) sensitivity to nonpainful and painful distension volumes. Results indicated that healthy women showed substantial individual variation in and high discrimination of vulvar and vaginal sensation. In contrast, PVD was associated with vulvar allodynia and hyperalgesia, as well as vaginal allodynia. Modeling of dynamic perception revealed novel properties of abnormal PVD genital sensation, including temporal delays in vulvar touch perception and reduced perceptual thresholds for vaginal distension. The temporal properties and magnitude of PVD distension pain were indistinguishable from vaginal fullness in healthy controls. These results constitute the first empirical comparison of somatic and visceral genital sensation in healthy women. Findings provide novel insights into the sensory abnormalities that characterize PVD, including an experimental demonstration of visceral allodynia. This investigation challenges the prevailing diagnostic assessment of PVD and reconceptualizes PVD as a chronic somatic and visceral pain condition. PMID:23707679

  17. Intramuscular Priming and Intranasal Boosting Induce Strong Genital Immunity Through Secretory IgA in Minipigs Infected with Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzen, Emma; Follmann, Frank; Bøje, Sarah; Erneholm, Karin; Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Jungersen, Gregers; Andersen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    International efforts in developing a vaccine against Chlamydia trachomatis have highlighted the need for novel immunization strategies for the induction of genital immunity. In this study, we evaluated an intramuscular (IM) prime/intranasal boost vaccination strategy in a Göttingen Minipig model with a reproductive system very similar to humans. The vaccine was composed of C. trachomatis subunit antigens formulated in the Th1/Th17 promoting CAF01 adjuvant. IM priming immunizations with CAF01 induced a significant cell-mediated interferon gamma and interleukin 17A response and a significant systemic high-titered neutralizing IgG response. Following genital challenge, intranasally boosted groups mounted an accelerated, highly significant genital IgA response that correlated with enhanced bacterial clearance on day 3 post infection. By detecting antigen-specific secretory component (SC), we showed that the genital IgA was locally produced in the genital mucosa. The highly significant inverse correlation between the vaginal IgA SC response and the chlamydial load suggests that IgA in the minipig model is involved in protection against C. trachomatis. This is important both for our understanding of protective immunity and future vaccination strategies against C. trachomatis and genital pathogens in general. PMID:26734002

  18. 10q26.1 Microdeletion: Redefining the critical regions for microcephaly and genital anomalies.

    PubMed

    Choucair, Nancy; Abou Ghoch, Joelle; Fawaz, Ali; Mégarbané, André; Chouery, Eliane

    2015-11-01

    Distal 10q deletion syndrome is a well-characterized chromosomal disorder consisting of neurodevelopmental impairment, facial dysmorphism, cardiac malformations, genital and urinary tract defects, as well as digital anomalies. Patients with interstitial deletions involving band 10q26.1 present a phenotype similar to the ones with the distal 10q deletion syndrome, which led to the definition of a causal 600 kb smallest region of overlap (SRO). In this report, we describe a male patient with an interstitial 4.5 Mb deletion involving exclusively the 10q26.1 segment. He had growth and psychomotor retardation, microcephaly, flat feet, micropenis, and cryptorchidism. The patient's deleted region does not overlap the 10q SRO. We reviewed the clinical phenotype of patients with similar deletions and suggest the presence of two new SROs, one associated with microcephaly, growth and psychomotor retardation, and the other associated to genital anomalies. Interestingly, we narrowed those regions to segments encompassing five and two genes, respectively. FGFR2, NSMCE4A, and ATE1 were suggested as candidates for facial dysmorphism, growth cessation, and heart defects, respectively. WDR11 was linked to idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and Kallmann syndrome. Its haploinsufficiency could play a crucial role in the genital anomalies of these patients. PMID:26114870

  19. Lower Respiratory Tract Infection of the Ferret by 2009 H1N1 Pandemic Influenza A Virus Triggers Biphasic, Systemic, and Local Recruitment of Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Camp, Jeremy V.; Bagci, Ulas; Chu, Yong-Kyu; Squier, Brendan; Fraig, Mostafa; Uriarte, Silvia M.; Guo, Haixun; Mollura, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Infection of the lower respiratory tract by influenza A viruses results in increases in inflammation and immune cell infiltration in the lung. The dynamic relationships among the lung microenvironments, the lung, and systemic host responses during infection remain poorly understood. Here we used extensive systematic histological analysis coupled with live imaging to gain access to these relationships in ferrets infected with the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza A virus (H1N1pdm virus). Neutrophil levels rose in the lungs of H1N1pdm virus-infected ferrets 6 h postinfection and became concentrated at areas of the H1N1pdm virus-infected bronchiolar epithelium by 1 day postinfection (dpi). In addition, neutrophil levels were increased throughout the alveolar spaces during the first 3 dpi and returned to baseline by 6 dpi. Histochemical staining revealed that neutrophil infiltration in the lungs occurred in two waves, at 1 and 3 dpi, and gene expression within microenvironments suggested two types of neutrophils. Specifically, CCL3 levels, but not CXCL8/interleukin 8 (IL-8) levels, were higher within discrete lung microenvironments and coincided with increased infiltration of neutrophils into the lung. We used live imaging of ferrets to monitor host responses within the lung over time with [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). Sites in the H1N1pdm virus-infected ferret lung with high FDG uptake had high levels of proliferative epithelium. In summary, neutrophils invaded the H1N1pdm virus-infected ferret lung globally and focally at sites of infection. Increased neutrophil levels in microenvironments did not correlate with increased FDG uptake; hence, FDG uptake may reflect prior infection and inflammation of lungs that have experienced damage, as evidenced by bronchial regeneration of tissues in the lungs at sites with high FDG levels. IMPORTANCE Severe influenza disease is characterized by an acute infection of the lower airways that may progress rapidly to organ failure

  20. Flagellin is a strong vaginal adjuvant of a therapeutic vaccine for genital cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shee Eun; Hong, Seol Hee; Verma, Vivek; Lee, Youn Suhk; Duong, Tra-My Nu; Jeong, Kwangjoon; Uthaman, Saji; Sung, Young Chul; Lee, Jae-Tae; Park, In-Kyu; Min, Jung-Joon; Rhee, Joon Haeng

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cervical cancer is a high-incidence female cancer most commonly caused by human papilloma virus (HPV) infection of the genital mucosa. Immunotherapy targeting HPV-derived tumor antigens (TAs) has been widely studied in animal models and in patients. Because the female genital tract is a portal for the entry of HPV and a highly compartmentalized system, the development of topical vaginal immunotherapy in an orthotopic cancer model would provide an ideal therapeutic. Thus, we examined whether flagellin, a potent mucosal immunomodulator, could be used as an adjuvant for a topical therapeutic vaccine for female genital cancer. Intravaginal (IVAG) co-administration of the E6/E7 peptides with flagellin resulted in tumor suppression and long-term survival of tumor-bearing mice. In contrast to IVAG vaccination, intranasal (IN) or subcutaneous (SC) immunization did not induce significant tumor suppression in the same model. The vaginal adjuvant effect of the flagellin was completely abolished in Toll-like receptor-5 (TLR5) knock-out mice. IVAG immunization with the E6/E7 peptides plus flagellin induced the accumulation of CD4+ and CD8+ cells and the expression of T cell activation-related genes in the draining genital lymph nodes (gLNs). The co-administered flagellin elicited antigen-specific IFNγ production in the gLNs and spleen. The intravaginally administered flagellin was found in association with CD11c+ cells in the gLNs. Moreover, after immunization with a flagellin and the E6/E7 peptides, the TLR5 expression in gLN cells was significantly upregulated. These results suggest that flagellin serves as a potent vaginal adjuvant for a therapeutic peptide cancer vaccine through the activation of TLR5 signaling. PMID:27057462

  1. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Our ePublications > Urinary tract infection fact sheet ePublications Urinary tract infection fact sheet Print this fact sheet Urinary tract ... a doctor find out if I have a urinary tract infection (UTI)? To find out if you have a ...

  2. Twelve-Month Antiretroviral Therapy Suppresses Plasma and Genital Viral Loads but Fails to Alter Genital Levels of Cytokines, in a Cohort of HIV-Infected Rwandan Women

    PubMed Central

    Ondoa, Pascale; Gautam, Raju; Rusine, John; Lutter, Rene; Jurriaans, Suzanne; Kootstra, Neeltje; Karita, Etienne; van de Wijgert, Janneke

    2015-01-01

    Background Genital viral load (GVL) is the main determinant of sexual transmission of human immune-deficiency virus (HIV). The effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on local cervico-vaginal immunological factors associated with GVL is poorly described. We aimed to identify the risk factors of detectable GVL, and the impact of ART on HIV genital shedding and its correlates in a cohort of HIV-infected women, attending HIV care in Kigali, Rwanda. Materials and Methods All participants were evaluated for GVL, plasma viral load (PVL), CD4 count, various sexually-transmitted infections (STIs) at baseline and at month 12. Genital concentration of 19 cytokines and mRNA expression of APOBEC3G and BST2, two host HIV restriction factors, were evaluated at baseline in all participants. Cytokine levels were re-assessed at month 12 only in participants eligible for ART at baseline. Risk factors of GVL ≥40copies/mL at baseline and month 12 were assessed using logistic regression. Effect of 12-month ART on various local and systemic immunological parameters was examined using a paired t-test and McNemar as appropriate. Results 96 of the 247 women enrolled in the study were eligible for ART. After 12 months of ART, PVL and GVL decreased to undetectable level in respectively 74 and 88% of treated participants. ART did not affect cytokine levels. HIV genital shedding occurred only when PVL was detectable. At baseline, GVL was independently associated with IL-1β after controlling for PVL, age and N. gonorrhea infection (95% CI 1.32-2.15) and at month 12 with MIP-1β (95% CI 0.96-21.32) after controlling for baseline GVL, PVL and month 12 IL-8. Conclusion Suppressive ART does not necessarily reduce genital level of immune activation. Minimizing all conditions favoring genital inflammation, including active detection and treatment of STIs, might reduce the risk of HIV transmission as supplement to the provision of potent ART. PMID:26010956

  3. In defence of genital autonomy for children.

    PubMed

    Earp, Brian D

    2016-03-01

    Arora and Jacobs (2016) assume that liberal societies should tolerate non-therapeutic infant male circumcision, and argue that it follows from this that they should similarly tolerate-or even encourage-what the authors regard as 'de minimis' forms of female genital mutilation (as defined by the World Health Organization). In this commentary, I argue that many serious problems would be likely to follow from a policy of increased tolerance for female genital mutilation, and that it may therefore be time to consider a less tolerant attitude toward non-therapeutic infant male circumcision. Ultimately, I suggest that children of whatever sex or gender should be free from having healthy parts of their most intimate sexual organs either damaged or removed, before they can understand what is at stake in such an intervention and agree to it themselves. PMID:26792817

  4. Genital incarceration: an unusual case report

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Darby J.; Mador, David

    2010-01-01

    Incarceration or strangulation of the penis is a rare clinical situation that requires emergent urologic management to prevent potentially devastating outcomes. Many different techniques have been described in the literature to remove genital foreign objects, but there is no universally successful technique. We present an unusual and challenging case involving incarceration of both the penis and scrotum by multiple metallic rings that required operative removal using an orthopedic high-speed drill. PMID:23293693

  5. Modern management of external genital warts.

    PubMed

    Mayeaux, Edward John; Dunton, Charles

    2008-07-01

    External genital warts are a significant health problem particularly for young adults. This review summarizes the current literature on epidemiology, transmission, diagnosis, and treatment. Efficacy of all treatments is less than optimal, and multiple therapies may be necessary for complete resolution. Data on a new patient-applied therapy are presented. New vaccine therapy for prevention of infection should reduce the incidence of disease. PMID:18596459

  6. Anatomy and physiology of genital organs - women.

    PubMed

    Graziottin, Alessandra; Gambini, Dania

    2015-01-01

    "Anatomy is destiny": Sigmund Freud viewed human anatomy as a necessary, although not a sufficient, condition for understanding the complexity of human sexual function with a solid biologic basis. The aim of the chapter is to describe women's genital anatomy and physiology, focusing on women's sexual function with a clinically oriented vision. Key points include: embryology, stressing that the "female" is the anatomic "default" program, differentiated into "male" only in the presence of androgens at physiologic levels for the gestational age; sex determination and sex differentiation, describing the interplay between anatomic and endocrine factors; the "clitoral-urethral-vaginal" complex, the most recent anatomy reading of the corpora cavernosa pattern in women; the controversial G spot; the role of the pelvic floor muscles in modulating vaginal receptivity and intercourse feelings, with hyperactivity leading to introital dyspareunia and contributing to provoked vestibulodynia and recurrent postcoital cystitis, whilst lesions during delivery reduce vaginal sensations, genital arousability, and orgasm; innervation, vessels, bones, ligaments; and the physiology of women's sexual response. Attention to physiologic aging focuses on "low-grade inflammation," genital and systemic, with its impact on women sexual function, especially after the menopause, if the woman does not or cannot use hormone replacement therapy. PMID:26003238

  7. Update on the treatment of genital warts.

    PubMed

    Scheinfeld, Noah

    2013-06-01

    This review summarizes new treatments from the last seven years employed for the treatment of genital warts caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). Imquimod 3.75% is a new agent with fewer side effects and perhaps a better dosing schedule than imquimod 5%, but is not more effective. Sinecatechins/Polyphenon E 15%, a novel extract from green tea can be effective against genital warts but requires three times a day dosing and is not more effective than existing treatments; the treatment course is 12-16 weeks. Photodynamic therapy combined with other destructive modalities might increase the cure rate for genital warts. The quadrivalent vaccine against HPV 6, 11, 16, 18 is decreasing the incidence of warts in the western world but the evidence does not support vaccination as a treatment for those already infected by HPV. Hyperthermia and immunomodulators might be positive additions to the armamentarium of clinicians. In sum, there are new tools that physicians can use but none is really a great advance over what was available a decade ago. PMID:24011309

  8. Evolution of rational vaccine designs for genital herpes immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Johanna Katharina; Flechtner, Jessica Baker

    2016-04-01

    Immunotherapeutic vaccines have emerged as a novel treatment modality for genital herpes, a sexually transmitted disease mainly caused by herpes simplex virus type 2. The approaches to identify potential vaccine antigens have evolved from classic virus attenuation and characterization of antibody and T cell responses in exposed, but seronegative individuals, to systematic screens for novel T cell antigens. Combined with implementation of novel vaccine concepts revolving around immune evasion and local recruitment of immune effectors, the development of a safe and effective therapeutic vaccine is within reach. Here, we describe the vaccine approaches that currently show promise at clinical and pre-clinical stages and link them to the evolving scientific strategies that led to their identification. PMID:26896782

  9. In Situ Localization and Rhythmic Expression of Ghrelin and ghs-r1 Ghrelin Receptor in the Brain and Gastrointestinal Tract of Goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    PubMed Central

    Unniappan, Suraj; Kah, Olivier; Gueguen, Marie-M.; Bertucci, Juan I.; Alonso-Gómez, Ángel L.; Valenciano, Ana I.; Isorna, Esther; Delgado, María J.

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin is a gut-brain peptide hormone, which binds to the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) to regulate a wide variety of biological processes in fish. Despite these prominent physiological roles, no studies have reported the anatomical distribution of preproghrelin transcripts using in situ hybridization in a non-mammalian vertebrate, and its mapping within the different encephalic areas remains unknown. Similarly, no information is available on the possible 24-h variations in the expression of preproghrelin and its receptor in any vertebrate species. The first aim of this study was to investigate the anatomical distribution of ghrelin and GHS-R1a ghrelin receptor subtype in brain and gastrointestinal tract of goldfish (Carassius auratus) using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Our second aim was to characterize possible daily variations of preproghrelin and ghs-r1 mRNA expression in central and peripheral tissues using real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Results show ghrelin expression and immunoreactivity in the gastrointestinal tract, with the most abundant signal observed in the mucosal epithelium. These are in agreement with previous findings on mucosal cells as the primary synthesizing site of ghrelin in goldfish. Ghrelin receptor was observed mainly in the hypothalamus with low expression in telencephalon, pineal and cerebellum, and in the same gastrointestinal areas as ghrelin. Daily rhythms in mRNA expression were found for preproghrelin and ghs-r1 in hypothalamus and pituitary with the acrophase occurring at nighttime. Preproghrelin, but not ghs-r1a, displayed a similar daily expression rhythm in the gastrointestinal tract with an amplitude 3-fold higher than the rest of tissues. Together, these results described for the first time in fish the mapping of preproghrelin and ghrelin receptor ghs-r1a in brain and gastrointestinal tract of goldfish, and provide the first evidence for a daily regulation of both genes

  10. In Situ Localization and Rhythmic Expression of Ghrelin and ghs-r1 Ghrelin Receptor in the Brain and Gastrointestinal Tract of Goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Bretaño, Aída; Blanco, Ayelén M; Unniappan, Suraj; Kah, Olivier; Gueguen, Marie-M; Bertucci, Juan I; Alonso-Gómez, Ángel L; Valenciano, Ana I; Isorna, Esther; Delgado, María J

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin is a gut-brain peptide hormone, which binds to the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) to regulate a wide variety of biological processes in fish. Despite these prominent physiological roles, no studies have reported the anatomical distribution of preproghrelin transcripts using in situ hybridization in a non-mammalian vertebrate, and its mapping within the different encephalic areas remains unknown. Similarly, no information is available on the possible 24-h variations in the expression of preproghrelin and its receptor in any vertebrate species. The first aim of this study was to investigate the anatomical distribution of ghrelin and GHS-R1a ghrelin receptor subtype in brain and gastrointestinal tract of goldfish (Carassius auratus) using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Our second aim was to characterize possible daily variations of preproghrelin and ghs-r1 mRNA expression in central and peripheral tissues using real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Results show ghrelin expression and immunoreactivity in the gastrointestinal tract, with the most abundant signal observed in the mucosal epithelium. These are in agreement with previous findings on mucosal cells as the primary synthesizing site of ghrelin in goldfish. Ghrelin receptor was observed mainly in the hypothalamus with low expression in telencephalon, pineal and cerebellum, and in the same gastrointestinal areas as ghrelin. Daily rhythms in mRNA expression were found for preproghrelin and ghs-r1 in hypothalamus and pituitary with the acrophase occurring at nighttime. Preproghrelin, but not ghs-r1a, displayed a similar daily expression rhythm in the gastrointestinal tract with an amplitude 3-fold higher than the rest of tissues. Together, these results described for the first time in fish the mapping of preproghrelin and ghrelin receptor ghs-r1a in brain and gastrointestinal tract of goldfish, and provide the first evidence for a daily regulation of both genes

  11. Sexually Monomorphic Maps and Dimorphic Responses in Rat Genital Cortex.

    PubMed

    Lenschow, Constanze; Copley, Sean; Gardiner, Jayne M; Talbot, Zoe N; Vitenzon, Ariel; Brecht, Michael

    2016-01-11

    Mammalian external genitals show sexual dimorphism [1, 2] and can change size and shape upon sexual arousal. Genitals feature prominently in the oldest pieces of figural art [3] and phallic depictions of penises informed psychoanalytic thought about sexuality [4, 5]. Despite this longstanding interest, the neural representations of genitals are still poorly understood [6]. In somatosensory cortex specifically, many studies did not detect any cortical representation of genitals [7-9]. Studies in humans debate whether genitals are represented displaced below the foot of the cortical body map [10-12] or whether they are represented somatotopically [13-15]. We wondered what a high-resolution mapping of genital representations might tell us about the sexual differentiation of the mammalian brain. We identified genital responses in rat somatosensory cortex in a region previously assigned as arm/leg cortex. Genital responses were more common in males than in females. Despite such response dimorphism, we observed a stunning anatomical monomorphism of cortical penis and clitoris input maps revealed by cytochrome-oxidase-staining of cortical layer 4. Genital representations were somatotopic and bilaterally symmetric, and their relative size increased markedly during puberty. Size, shape, and erect posture give the cortical penis representation a phallic appearance pointing to a role in sexually aroused states. Cortical genital neurons showed unusual multi-body-part responses and sexually dimorphic receptive fields. Specifically, genital neurons were co-activated by distant body regions, which are touched during mounting in the respective sex. Genital maps indicate a deep homology of penis and clitoris representations in line with a fundamentally bi-sexual layout [16] of the vertebrate brain. PMID:26725197

  12. Comparative analysis of replication characteristics of BoHV-1 subtypes in bovine respiratory and genital mucosa explants: a phylogenetic enlightenment

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In general, members of the Alphaherpesvirinae use the epithelium of the upper respiratory and/or genital tract as a preferential site for primary replication. Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) may replicate at both sites and cause two major clinical entities designated as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and infectious pustular vulvovaginitis/balanoposthitis (IPV/IPB) in cattle. It has been hypothesized that subtype 1.1 invades preferentially the upper respiratory mucosa whereas subtype 1.2 favors replication at the peripheral genital tract. However, some studies are in contrast with this hypothesis. A thorough study of primary replication at both mucosae could elucidate whether or not different BoHV-1 subtypes show differences in mucosa tropism. We established bovine respiratory and genital organ cultures with emphasis on maintenance of tissue morphology and viability during in vitro culture. In a next step, bovine respiratory and genital mucosa explants of the same animals were inoculated with several BoHV-1 subtypes. A quantitative analysis of viral invasion in the mucosa was performed at 0 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h post inoculation (pi) by measuring plaque latitude and penetration depth underneath the basement membrane. All BoHV-1 subtypes exhibited a more profound invasion capacity in respiratory tissue compared to that in genital tissue at 24 h pi. However, at 24 h pi plaque latitude was found to be larger in genital tissue compared to respiratory tissue and this for all subtypes. These similar findings among the different subtypes take the edge off the belief of the existence of specific mucosa tropisms of different BoHV-1 subtypes. PMID:21324115

  13. The role of dendritic cells in male reproductive tract.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Duan, Yong-Gang

    2016-09-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent professional antigen-presenting cells. The central role of various DC subsets as bridges between innate and adaptive immunity has become more and more evident. However, the role of DC subsets in male reproductive tract remains largely unexplored, in particular distinct DC subsets (including myeloid and plasmacytoid DCs), their maturation stage, and tissue distribution, as well as state of health or disease. Furthermore, infection and inflammation of male genital tract are thought to be a primary etiological factor of male infertility. This review sheds some light on this complex and rapidly growing field. It summarized the recent findings and deals with the characterization and role of DCs in male reproductive tract, that is, testis, epididymis, prostate, seminal vesicle, semen, and foreskin, which might help to understand the immunopathological mechanisms of male infertility and design effective vaccines for male reproductive health. PMID:27353336

  14. [Gynaecological and obstetrical aspects of recurrent urinary tract infections].

    PubMed

    Hoyme, U B; Schneede, P

    2006-04-01

    The microbial colonization of vulva, vagina and cervix uteri represents the reservoir for recurrent urinary tract infection. All bacterial species of normal cutaneous or gastrointestinal flora can be found in the external genital tract even under physiological conditions. The higher concentration of microbes adds to the predisposition for urinary tract infection in cases of dysbiosis or inflammation, apart from specific infection by Trichomonas vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae or Chlamydia trachomatis. The specific immunological interaction between bacteria and host, i.e. between virulence factors and intrinsic defense, appears to be the major mechanism paving the way for recurrent infection. The elimination of predisposing factors is the clue for successful therapy as well as for prevention of recurrence. PMID:16586054

  15. A prospective, open, comparative study of 5% potassium hydroxide solution versus cryotherapy in the treatment of genital warts in men*

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, Caio Lamunier de Abreu; Belda, Walter; Fagundes, Luiz Jorge; Romiti, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Genital warts are caused by human papillomavirus infection and represent one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases. Many infections are transient but the virus may recur, persist, or become latent. To date, there is no effective antiviral treatment to eliminate HPV infection and most therapies are aimed at the destruction of visible lesions. Potassium hydroxide is a strong alkali that has been shown to be safe and effective for the treatment of genital warts and molluscum contagiosum. Cryotherapy is considered one of the most established treatments for genital warts. No comparative trials have been reported to date on the use of potassium hydroxide for genital warts. OBJECTIVE A prospective, open-label, randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare topical potassium hydroxide versus cryotherapy in the treatment of genital warts affecting immunocompetent, sexually active men. METHODS Over a period of 10 months, 48 patients were enrolled. They were randomly divided into two groups and selected on an alternative basis for either potassium hydroxide therapy or cryotherapy. While response to therapy did not differ substantially between both treatment modalities, side effects such as local pain and post-treatment hypopigmentation were considerably more prevalent in the groups treated using cryotherapy. RESULT In our study, potassium hydroxide therapy proved to be at least as effective as cryotherapy and offered the benefit of a better safety profile. CONCLUSION Topical 5% potassium hydroxide presents an effective, safe, and low-cost treatment modality for genital warts in men and should be included in the spectrum of therapies for genital warts. PMID:24770498

  16. Current recommendations for the treatment of genital herpes.

    PubMed

    Leung, D T; Sacks, S L

    2000-12-01

    The incidence of genital herpes continues to increase in epidemic-like fashion. Aciclovir (acyclovir) has been the original gold standard of therapy. The recent addition of famciclovir and valaciclovir as antiherpes drugs has improved convenience as well as the efficacy of treatment. Although aciclovir remains a widely prescribed and reliable drug, its administration schedule falls short of the ease of usage that the newer nucleoside analogues offer, for both episodic and suppressive therapy. Suppression of symptomatic disease and asymptomatic shedding from the genitalia have both become popular approaches, if not the primary targets of antiviral therapy. Knowing that asymptomatic disease leads to most cases of transmission strongly suggests that suppression with antiviral agents could reduce transmission risk in discordant couples. Unfortunately, the role for antivirals in reducing transmission remains to be proven in clinical trials. Neonatal herpes is now successfully treated using aciclovir. Current randomised clinical trials are examining aciclovir and valaciclovir administration, as well as safety and efficacy for post-acute suppressive therapy. Prevention of recurrences in pregnancy is also a topic under investigation, with a view to reducing the medical need for Cesarean section, or alternatively (and far less likely to be accomplished) to protect the neonate. Although resistance is largely limited to the immunocompromised and a change in resistance patterns is not expected, several drugs are available for the treatment of aciclovir-resistant strains of herpes simplex. Foscarnet is the main alternative with proven efficacy in this setting. Unfortunately, administration of foscarnet requires intravenous therapy, although a single anecdote of topical foscarnet efficacy in this setting has been published. Alternatives include cidofovir gel, which is not commercially available but can be formulated locally from the intravenous preparation. Less effective

  17. Impact of Inflammation on Male Reproductive Tract

    PubMed Central

    Azenabor, Alfred; Ekun, Ayodele Oloruntoba; Akinloye, Oluyemi

    2015-01-01

    Fertility in the male is dependent on the proper production of sperm cells. This process, called spermatogenesis is very complex and involves the synchronization of numerous factors. The presence of pro–inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF–α), interleukin–1 alpha (IL–1 α) and interleukin 1 beta (IL–1 β) cytokines in the male reproductive tract (testis, epididymis and sperm) may have certain physiological functions. However, when the levels of these cytokines are higher than normal, as seen in conditions of inflammation, they become very harmful to sperm production. Moreover, inflammation is also associated with oxidative stress and the latter is well known to impair sperm function. Epidemiological studies regarding male infertility have revealed that more and more infertile men suffer from acute or chronic inflammation of the genitourinary tract, which often occurs without any symptoms. The inflammatory reactions within the male genital tract are inevitably connected with oxidative stress. Oxidative stress, especially in sperm, is harmful because it damages sperm DNA and causes apoptosis in sperm. This article reviewed the suggested mechanisms and contribution of inflammation to male infertility. In addition, the review was further strengthened by discussing how inflammation affects both fertility and assisted reproductive technologies (ART). PMID:26913230

  18. The Evolution of a Female Genital Trait Widely Distributed in the Lepidoptera: Comparative Evidence for an Effect of Sexual Coevolution

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Víctor; Hernández-Baños, Blanca Estela; Cordero, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Background Sexual coevolution is considered responsible for the evolution of many male genital traits, but its effect on female genital morphology is poorly understood. In many lepidopterans, females become temporarily unreceptive after mating and the length of this refractory period is inversely related to the amount of spermatophore remaining in their genital tracts. Sperm competition can select for males that delay female remating by transferring spermatophores with thick spermatophore envelopes that take more time to be broken. These envelopes could select for signa, sclerotized sharp structures located within the female genital tract, that are used for breaking spermatophores. Thus, this hypothesis predicts that thick spermatophore envelopes and signa evolve in polyandrous species, and that these adaptations are lost when monandry evolves subsequently. Here we test the expected associations between female mating pattern and presence/absence of signa, and review the scant information available on the thickness of spermatophore envelopes. Methodology/Principal Findings We made a literature review and found information on female mating pattern (monandry/polyandry), presence/absence of signa and phylogenetic position for 37 taxa. We built a phylogenetic supertree for these taxa, mapped both traits on it, and tested for the predicted association by using Pagel's test for correlated evolution. We found that, as predicted by our hypothesis, monandry evolved eight times and in five of them signa were lost; preliminary evidence suggests that at least in two of the three exceptions males imposed monandry on females by means of specially thick spermatophore envelopes. Previously published data on six genera of Papilionidae is in agreement with the predicted associations between mating pattern and the characteristics of spermatophore envelopes and signa. Conclusions/Significance Our results support the hypothesis that signa are a product of sexually antagonistic

  19. Female genital mutilation: strategies for eradication.

    PubMed

    Hosken, F P

    1998-03-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a term applied to genital cutting that can vary from a nick on the clitoris to total excision of all external genital tissue and closure of the vulva. FGM is practiced in many African countries, in some parts of the Arab peninsula and Persian Gulf, in some groups in Indonesia and Malaysia, and among immigrants in Western countries. The practice has been outlawed in the most European countries and in the US. The US legislation also requires all African countries receiving US aid to begin education programs to eradicate FGM mutilation. The first international recommendations to abolish FGM were made in 1979, and the Inter-African Committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children (IAC) was formed in 1984. The IAC, which gained worldwide support at the 1985 UN Conference for women, has affiliated committees in 26 African countries. The IAC supports its affiliates by offering training, networking opportunities, and resources and by holding a major conference every 3 years. The fourth IAC conference, in 1997 in Dakar, attracted about 90 delegates, including two women from Japan and one from the US. The IAC is working to eradicate all forms of traditionally condoned violence against women and girls, including FGM, child marriage, food taboos, and force feeding. Efforts to reach rural populations rely on distribution of childbirth picture books that explain the biological facts of reproduction and then describe the effects of FGM on women's health. These include immediate complications (including death), long-term complications, pregnancy-associated problems, and psychosexual and psychological problems. PMID:12222522

  20. Surgical reconstruction in female genital mutilation

    PubMed Central

    Gültekin, İsmail Burak; Altınboğa, Orhan; Dur, Rıza; Kara, Osman Fadıl; Küçüközkan, Tuncay

    2016-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is an unusual condition for our country. However, an increase in FGM in future days can be predicted with the increasing numbers of exchange students coming from African countries, migration of refugees and socioeconomic relations with the African countries. We want to share our experience of two FGM victims admitted to our clinic with the request of reconstructive vulvar surgery before their marriage. Both women had WHO Type III FGM. Physical examination findings and surgical reconstruction techniques were presented. PMID:27274899

  1. Female Genital Cutting: A Persisting Practice

    PubMed Central

    Nour, Nawal M

    2008-01-01

    More than 130 million women worldwide have undergone female genital cutting (FGC). FGC occurs in parts of Africa and Asia, in societies with various cultures and religions. Reasons for the continuing practice of FGC include rite of passage, preserving chastity, ensuring marriageability, religion, hygiene, improving fertility, and enhancing sexual pleasure for men. The World Health Organization has classified FGC into 4 types depending on the extent of tissue removed. Immediate complications include hemorrhage, infection, sepsis, and death. Long-term complications include pain, scarring, urinary issues, and poor obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Efforts are being made nationally and internationally to eradicate this practice. PMID:19015765

  2. Surgical reconstruction in female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Gültekin, İsmail Burak; Altınboğa, Orhan; Dur, Rıza; Kara, Osman Fadıl; Küçüközkan, Tuncay

    2016-06-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is an unusual condition for our country. However, an increase in FGM in future days can be predicted with the increasing numbers of exchange students coming from African countries, migration of refugees and socioeconomic relations with the African countries. We want to share our experience of two FGM victims admitted to our clinic with the request of reconstructive vulvar surgery before their marriage. Both women had WHO Type III FGM. Physical examination findings and surgical reconstruction techniques were presented. PMID:27274899

  3. [DNA adducts in human female genital organs].

    PubMed

    Postawski, Krzysztof; Przadka-Rabaniuk, Dorota; Monist, Marta; Baranowski, Włodzimierz

    2007-12-01

    DNA adducts, one of genetic damages markers, precede and finally can lead to oncogenic mutations. They appear in genome as a result of DNA bases damages caused by various and numerous environmental factors eg. ultraviolet light, ionic radiation, toxins and also endogenic substances, for example estrogens. It is believed that the creation of DNA adducts is a necessary but insufficient process for the neoplastic transformation of the cell. The following review presents concise knowledge about the DNA adducts creation and their sequels served in healthy and cancerous tissues of the female genital organs, on the base of the available data. PMID:18411923

  4. The human urine virome in association with urinary tract infections

    PubMed Central

    Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M.; Ly, Melissa; Bonilla, Natasha; Pride, David T.

    2014-01-01

    While once believed to represent a sterile environment, the human urinary tract harbors a unique cellular microbiota. We sought to determine whether the human urinary tract also is home to viral communities whose membership might reflect urinary tract health status. We recruited and sampled urine from 20 subjects, 10 subjects with urinary tract infections (UTIs) and 10 without UTIs, and found viral communities in the urine of each subject group. Most of the identifiable viruses were bacteriophage, but eukaryotic viruses also were identified in all subjects. We found reads from human papillomaviruses (HPVs) in 95% of the subjects studied, but none were found to be high-risk genotypes that are associated with cervical and rectal cancers. We verified the presence of some HPV genotypes by quantitative PCR. Some of the HPV genotypes identified were homologous to relatively novel and uncharacterized viruses that previously have been detected on skin in association with cancerous lesions, while others may be associated with anal and genital warts. On a community level, there was no association between the membership or diversity of viral communities based on urinary tract health status. While more data are still needed, detection of HPVs as members of the human urinary virome using viral metagenomics represents a non-invasive technique that could augment current screening techniques to detect low-risk HPVs in the genitourinary tracts of humans. PMID:25667584

  5. Manifestations of immune tolerance in the human female reproductive tract

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Gary F.; Schust, Danny J.

    2012-01-01

    Like other mucosal surfaces (e.g., the gastrointestinal tract, the respiratory tract), the human female reproductive tract acts as an initial barrier to foreign antigens. In this role, the epithelial surface and subepithelial immune cells must balance protection against pathogenic insults against harmful inflammatory reactions and acceptance of particular foreign antigens. Two common examples of these acceptable foreign antigens are the fetal allograft and human semen/sperm. Both are purposely deposited into the female genital tract and appropriate immunologic response to these non-self antigens is essential to the survival of the species. In light of the weight of this task, it is not surprising that multiple, redundant and overlapping mechanisms are involved. For instance, cells at the immunologic interface between self (female reproductive tract epithelium) and non-self (placental trophoblast cells or human sperm) express glycosylation patterns that mimic those on many metastatic cancer cells and successful pathogens. The cytokine/chemokine milieu at this interface is altered through endocrine and immunologic mechanisms to favor tolerance of non-self. The “foreign” cells themselves also play an integral role in their own immunologic acceptance, since sperm and placental trophoblast cells are unusual and unique in their antigen presenting molecule expression patterns. Here, we will discuss these and other mechanisms that allow the human female reproductive tract to perform this delicate and indispensible balancing act. PMID:23407606

  6. [Use of topical methisoprinol (Viruxan) in female genital condylomatosis].

    PubMed

    Penna, C; Fallani, M G; Cariti, G; Menichetti, M; Bracco, G L; Bellanti, G; Cioffi, M; Marchionni, M

    1989-01-01

    Medical therapy of genital condylomatosis seems to be the most rational strategy, since this pathology is characterised by highly frequent recurrences after destructive physical therapy alone. Successful therapy of female genital condylomatosis with methisoprinol (Viruxan), administered as ointment and/or vaginal ovules is reported. The drug proved to be efficient both in curing this viral infection and preventing its recurrences. PMID:2472583

  7. The Emergence of the "s"-Genitive in Danish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perridon, Harry

    2013-01-01

    The -"s" genitives of English and Swedish play an important role in grammaticalization theory, as they are often used as counterexamples to the main tenet of that theory, viz. that grammatical change is unidirectional. In this paper I look at the emergence of the -"s" genitive in Danish, hoping that it may shed some new light on the evolution of…

  8. Adolescent Girls' Representations of Their Genital Inner Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amann-Gainotti, Merete; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined relationship between representative modalities of genital inner space and identity formation in adolescent girls (N=275) aged 11 to 18 years by asking them to draw the inside of their bodies and their sexual organs. Found structuration and integration of genital inner space in the body image was a slow developmental process. (Author/ABL)

  9. Learning a Morphological System without a Default: The Polish Genitive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabrowska, Ewa

    2001-01-01

    Contrasts the English past tense inflection with a more complex morphological subsystem, the Polish genitive. The genitive case has three different markers, each restricted to a different subset of nouns, in both the singular and the plural. Analysis of the spontaneous speech of three children between 1 and 5 years of age showed that they…

  10. Co-localization of hypocretin-1 and leucine-enkephalin in hypothalamic neurons projecting to the nucleus of the solitary tract and their effect on arterial pressure.

    PubMed

    Ciriello, J; Caverson, M M; McMurray, J C; Bruckschwaiger, E B

    2013-10-10

    Experiments were done to investigate whether hypothalamic hypocretin-1 (hcrt-1; orexin-A) neurons that sent axonal projections to cardiovascular responsive sites in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) co-expressed leucine-enkephalin (L-Enk), and to determine the effects of co-administration of hcrt-1 and D-Ala2,D-Leu5-Enkephalin (DADL) into NTS on mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate. In the first series, in the Wistar rat the retrograde tract-tracer fluorogold (FG) was microinjected (50nl) into caudal NTS sites at which L-glutamate (0.25 M; 10 nl) elicited decreases in MAP and where fibers hcrt-1 immunoreactive fibers were observed that also contained L-Enk immunoreactivity. Of the number of hypothalamic hcrt-1 immunoreactive neurons identified ipsilateral to the NTS injection site (1207 ± 78), 32.3 ± 2.3% co-expressed L-Enk immunoreactivity and of these, 2.6 ± 1.1% were retrogradely labeled with FG. Hcrt-1/L-Enk neurons projecting to NTS were found mainly within the perifornical region. In the second series, the region of caudal NTS found to contain axons that co-expressed hcrt-1 and L-Enk immunoreactivity was microinjected with a combination of hcrt-1 and DADL in α-chloralose anesthetized Wistar rats. Microinjection of DADL into NTS elicited depressor and bradycardia responses similar to those elicited by microinjection of hcrt-1. An hcrt-1 injection immediately after the DADL injection elicited an almost twofold increase in the magnitude of the depressor and bradycardia responses compared to those elicited by hcrt-1 alone. Prior injections of the non-specific opioid receptor antagonist naloxone or the specific opioid δ-receptor antagonist ICI 154,129 significantly attenuated the cardiovascular responses to the combined hcrt-1-DADL injections. Taken together, these data suggest that activation of hypothalamic-opioidergic neuronal systems contribute to the NTS hcrt-1 induced cardiovascular responses, and that this descending hypothalamo

  11. Failure to establish infection with Tetratrichomonas sp. in the reproductive tracts of heifers and bulls.

    PubMed

    Cobo, Eduardo Rubén; Cantón, Germán; Morrell, Eleonora; Cano, Dora; Campero, Carlos Manuel

    2004-02-26

    Experimental infection of the reproductive tracts of heifers and bulls with Tetratrichomonas sp. isolated from preputial smegma of virgin bulls was attempted. Nine heifers and four bulls were challenged by inoculation of 7 x 10(6) Tetratrichomonas sp. into the vaginal lumen and preputial cavity, respectively. Vaginal mucus and preputial smegma samples were collected and cultured for Tetratrichomonas sp. Heifers were slaughtered in groups of three at 2, 9 and 21 days after inoculation. Two heifers and two bulls infected with Tritrichomonas foetus and two uninfected heifers were used as controls for the model infection. Tetratrichomonas sp. were only isolated in vaginal mucus of 7/9 inoculated heifers at 6h post-inoculation, and genital secretions taken at slaughter time from vagina, uterus and oviduct were cultural negative. Bulls challenged with Tetratrichomonas sp. remained cultural negative. Since Tetratrichomonas sp. survived only a few hours in the female genitalia and did not survive in the male genitalia after experimental challenge, Tetratrichomonas sp. did not colonize the genital tract. These were likely trichomonads from the digestive tract. Collection of clean samples without fecal contamination from the reproductive tract is proposed as a measure to avoid Tetratrichomonas sp. transitory genital infection. PMID:15019152

  12. Elements of functional genital asymmetry in the cow.

    PubMed

    Trigal, B; Díez, C; Muñoz, M; Caamaño, J N; Goyache, F; Correia-Alvarez, E; Corrales, F J; Mora, M I; Carrocera, S; Martin, D; Gómez, E

    2014-01-01

    Asymmetry in the cow affects ovarian function and pregnancy. In this work we studied ovarian and uterine asymmetry. Synchronised animals, in which in vitro-produced embryos (n=30-60) had been transferred on Day 5 to the uterine horn ipsilateral to the corpus luteum (CL), were flushed on Day 8. Ovulatory follicle diameter, oestrus response and total protein flushed did not differ between sides. However, a corpus luteum in the right ovary led to plasma progesterone concentrations that were higher than when it was present in the left ovary. Fewer embryos were recovered from the left than the right horn. Among 60 uterine proteins identified by difference gel electrophoresis, relative abundance of nine (acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, very long chain; twinfilin, actin-binding protein, homologue 1; enolase 1; pyruvate kinase isozymes M1/M2 (rabbit); complement factor B Bb fragment ; albumin; fibrinogen gamma-B chain; and ezrin differed (P<0.05) between horns. Glucose concentration was higher, and fructose concentration lower, in the left horn. In a subsequent field trial, pregnancy rates after embryo transfer did not differ between horns (51.0±3.6, right vs 53.2±4.7, left). However, Day 7 blood progesterone concentrations differed (P=0.018) between pregnant and open animals in the left (15.9±1.7 vs 8.3±1.2) but not in the right horn (12.4±1.3 vs 12.4±1.2). Progesterone effects were independent of CL quality (P=0.55). Bilateral genital tract asymmetry in the cow affects progesterone, proteins and hexoses without altering pregnancy rates. PMID:24709319

  13. The Relationship between Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Infection and Spontaneous Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Amjad; Khodabandehloo, Mazaher; Ramazanzadeh, Rashid; Farhadifar, Fariba; Roshani, Daem; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Farhangi, Niloofar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chlamydia trachomatis is the etiology of most of sexually transmitted diseases. Colonization of C. trachomatis in the genital tract during early gestation has been associated with preterm birth, and preterm premature rupture of the membranes. The role of C. trachomatis on spontaneous abortion has not yet been proved completely. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of C. trachomatis infection among pregnant women and its association with spontaneous abortion. Methods: This case-control study was conducted from August 2012 until January 2013. Totally, 218 women were included; 109 women with spontaneous abortion with gestation age between 10–20 weeks (cases), and 109 women with normal pregnancy with gestation age between 20–30 weeks (controls) in Sanandaj, Iran. DNA was extracted from endocervical swabs and a PCR test was conducted for detection of C. trachomatis infection in women using specific primers. Independent T-test and Chi-square were used for comparison of quantitative and qualitative variables, respectively, and p<0.05 was considered significant. Results: The total prevalence of C. trachomatis infection was 38(17.43%) in endocervical swabs of women. However, the number of cases with C. trachomatis infections was 25 out of 109(22.9%) in the case group and 13 out of 109(11.9%) in control group, respectively. Association between chlamydia infection and spontaneous abortion was statistically significant (OR=2.198, CI 95%: 1.058–4.56). Conclusion: Our study showed that C. trachomatis infection was associated with spontaneous abortion. Thus, screening and treatment of pregnant women may prevent this adverse pregnancy outcome. PMID:27141466

  14. Incidence and Epidemiology of Streptococcus pseudoporcinus in the Genital Tract▿

    PubMed Central

    Stoner, Kevin A.; Rabe, Lorna K.; Austin, Michele N.; Meyn, Leslie A.; Hillier, Sharon L.

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus pseudoporcinus, a beta-hemolytic microorganism first isolated from the female gastrourinary tract in 2006, cross-reacts with serogrouping kits for group B Streptococcus (GBS) and could be misidentified in the laboratory. The epidemiologic characteristics of this species have not been reported previously, but this organism is thought to be rare. Paired vaginal and rectal samples were collected from 663 nonpregnant women enrolled in a phase II clinical vaccine trial of a GBS type III capsular polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine, and isolates initially identified as S. pseudoporcinus were collected for further testing. A total of 120 isolates of S. pseudoporcinus were recovered from 36 unique individuals with 5.4% of 663 women having this organism recovered at least once during follow-up. All of these isolates cross-reacted with a commercially available GBS serogrouping kit. Women colonized with isolates confirmed as S. pseudoporcinus by genotypic and phenotypic methodologies were compared to women who were not colonized to determine whether there were any significant factors associated with acquisition of S. pseudoporcinus. Acquisition of S. pseudoporcinus vaginally and/or rectally was 36 per 846.0 women-years of follow-up for an annual incidence of 4 per 100 woman-years of follow-up. Acquisition of S. pseudoporcinus was independently associated with black women, being 30 to 40 years of age, recent Trichomonas vaginalis infection, primary or recurrent genital herpes, having bacterial vaginosis by Nugent criteria, and having had two or more male sexual partners since the last visit. This study suggests that S. pseudoporcinus is not rare, especially among black women, and could be misidentified as GBS. PMID:21191057

  15. Refractory Genital HPV Infection and Adult-Onset Still Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xin; Zheng, Heyi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Adult-onset Still disease (AOSD) is a systemic autoimmune disease (AIID) that can develop after exposure to infectious agents. Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been reported to induce or exacerbate AIIDs, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). No guidelines are available for the management of genital warts in AOSD. Case report and literature review. We report a patient who was diagnosed AOSD in the setting of refractory and recurrent genital HPV infection, demonstrating a possible link between HPV infection and AOSD. In addition, we also discuss the management of genital warts in patients with AOSD. To the best of our knowledge, no previous cases of AOSD with genital HPV infection have been reported in literature. We then conclude that the patient AOSD may be triggered by primary HPV infection. Larger number of patient samples is needed to confirm whether HPV could trigger AOSD. PMID:27082556

  16. Therapeutic management of cutaneous and genital warts.

    PubMed

    Ockenfels, Hans Michael

    2016-09-01

    During their lifetime, at least 10 % of the population will be infected by human papillomaviruses (HPV), clinically characterized by the formation of cutaneous or genital warts. Although warts are ubiquitous, there are no defined treatments. Especially in the first six months, warts frequently resolve without therapeutic intervention. This complicates the interpretation of study data, given that many studies do not differentiate between newly infected patients and those with infections that have persisted for a long time. Similarly, most studies do not take location, size, and thickness of lesions into account, either. The objective of the present review article is to analyze the study data currently available, taking into consideration both subtypes and locations - factors exceedingly crucial in clinical practice. In particular, the distinction between new-onset and chronic recalcitrant warts is reflected in a therapeutic algorithm. In the case of genital warts, the algorithm is more clearly determined by the extent of the area affected rather than the longevity of lesions. In immunocompetent individuals, any therapeutic intervention must be aimed at achieving complete resolution. PMID:27607030

  17. Isoprinosine in the treatment of genital warts.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, B B; Robins, D S

    1988-01-01

    Several modes of therapy are presently available for treatment of genital warts. These include use of keratolytics such as podophyllin or trichloroacetic acid, electrocoagulation, cryotherapy, and laser therapy. Responses have not been uniformly successful, however, and particularly in patients with resistant warts there is evidence of impairment of cell-mediated immunity (CMI). In the healing process both humoral and CMI responses are of importance, and indeed it has been reported that in patients with recalcitrant viral warts the lesions disappeared at the same time the CMI response returned to normal. Isoprinosine is an orally administered drug known to have both in vitro and in vivo immunopotentiating activity and has been shown previously to restore toward normal the depressed CMI responses of diverse etiology accompanying a variety of clinical conditions. Recent evidence implicating certain types of genital warts in later development of cervical cancer in females has led to the search for a more effective treatment of this condition. Clinical studies to date involving the use of isoprinosine alone or in combination appear to have established the role of this safe and easily administered oral drug in increasing the chances of total eradication of condylomatous lesions and sparing a high percentage of patients from having to undergo repeated and more traumatic therapies. PMID:2460237

  18. Female sexual dysfunction in female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Elneil, Sohier

    2016-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM), otherwise known as female genital cutting (FGC), is currently very topical and has become a significant global political issue. The impact of FGM on the lives of women and girls is enormous, as it often affects both their psychology and physical being. Among the complications that are often under-reported and not always acknowledged is female sexual dysfunction (FSD). FSD presents with a complex of symptoms including lack of libido, arousability and orgasm. This often occurs in tandem with chronic urogenital pain and anatomical disruption due to perineal scarring.To treat FSD in FGM each woman needs specifically directed holistic care, geared to her individual case. This may include psychological support, physiotherapy and, on occasion, reconstructive surgery. In many cases the situation is complicated by symptoms of chronic pelvic pain, which can make treatment increasingly difficult as this issue needs a defined multidisciplinary approach for its effective management in its own right. The problems suffered by women with FGM are wholly preventable, as the practice need not happen. The current global momentum to address the social, cultural, economic and medical issues of FGM is being supported by communities, governments, non-governmental agencies (NGOs) and healthcare providers. It is only by working together that the practice can be abolished and women and girls may be free from this practice and its associated consequences. PMID:26759415

  19. Intranasal Vaccination Affords Localization and Persistence of Antigen-Specific CD8⁺ T Lymphocytes in the Female Reproductive Tract.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shailbala; Schluns, Kimberly S; Yang, Guojun; Anthony, Scott M; Barry, Michael A; Sastry, K Jagannadha

    2016-01-01

    Immunization strategies generating large numbers of antigen-specific T cells in the female reproductive tract (FRT) can provide barrier protection against sexually-transmitted pathogens, such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human papillomaviruses (HPV). The kinetics and mechanisms of regulation of vaccine-induced adaptive T cell-mediated immune responses in FRT are less well defined. We present here evidence for intranasal delivery of the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA) along with alpha-galactosylceramide adjuvant as a protein vaccine to induce significantly higher levels of antigen-specific effector and memory CD8⁺ T cells in the FRT, relative to other systemic and mucosal tissues. Antibody blocking of the CXCR3 receptor significantly reduced antigen-specific CD8⁺ T cells subsequent to intranasal delivery of the protein vaccine suggesting an important role for the CXCR3 chemokine-receptor signaling for T cell trafficking. Further, intranasal vaccination with an adenoviral vector expressing OVA or HIV-1 envelope was as effective as intramuscular vaccination for generating OVA- or ENV-specific immunity in the FRT. These results support the application of the needle-free intranasal route as a practical approach to delivering protein as well as DNA/virus vector-based vaccines for efficient induction of effector and memory T cell immunity in the FRT. PMID:26999228

  20. Female Genital Dialogues: Female Genital Self-Image, Sexual Dysfunction, and Quality of Life in Patients With Vitiligo With and Without Genital Affection.

    PubMed

    Sarhan, Deena; Mohammed, Ghada F A; Gomaa, Amal H A; Eyada, Moustafa M K

    2016-01-01

    Vitiligo has a major effect on sexual health because of the disfiguring skin lesions affecting self-image and self-esteem. However, this topic has not explored. This article aimed to assess the effect of vitiligo on genital self-image, sexual function, and quality of life in female patients. This cross-sectional study included 50 sexually active women with vitiligo and 25 women without vitiligo. All participants subjected to full history taking and examination. Extent of vitiligo was assessed with the Vitiligo Area Scoring Index score, sexual function with the Female Sexual Function Index, genital self-image with Female Genital Self-Image Score and quality of life with the Dermatology Life Quality Index questionnaires. The main outcome measures were correlation between Vitiligo Area Scoring Index, Female Genital Self-Image Score, Female Sexual Function Index, and Dermatology Life Quality Index domains was determined using t test and Pearson correlation. This study revealed a negative correlation between the Vitiligo Area Scoring Index score and sexual satisfaction. Vitiligo Area Scoring Index and Dermatology Life Quality Index score was significantly correlated with Arabic Version of the Female Genital Self-Image Score alone and with Arabic Version of the Female Sexual Functioning Index alone and with both the Arabic Version of the Female Genital Self-Image Score and the Arabic Version of the Female Sexual Functioning Index (p <.05). Sexual and psychological assessment of patients with vitiligo is imperative to improve outcomes and increase patients' compliance with treatment. PMID:25650731

  1. Subcellular localization of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the rat nucleus of the solitary tract in relation to vagal afferent inputs.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, L; Batten, T F C; Corbett, E K A; Sinfield, J K; Deuchars, J

    2003-01-01

    In the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), nitric oxide (NO) modulates neuronal circuits controlling autonomic functions. A proposed source of this NO is via nitric oxide synthase (NOS) present in vagal afferent fibre terminals, which convey visceral afferent information to the NTS. Here, we first determined with electron microscopy that neuronal NOS (nNOS) is present in both presynaptic and postsynaptic structures in the NTS. To examine the relationship of nNOS to vagal afferent fibres the anterograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine was injected into the nodose ganglion and detected in brainstem sections using peroxidase-based methods. nNOS was subsequently visualised using a pre-embedding immunogold procedure. Ultrastructural examination revealed nNOS immunoreactivity in dendrites receiving vagal afferent input. However, although nNOS-immunoreactive terminals were frequently evident in the NTS, none were vagal afferent in origin. Dual immunofluorescence also confirmed lack of co-localisation. Nevertheless, nNOS immunoreactivity was observed in vagal afferent neurone cell bodies of the nodose ganglion. To determine if these labelled cells in the nodose ganglion were indeed vagal afferent neurones nodose ganglion sections were immunostained following application of cholera toxin B subunit to the heart. Whilst some cardiac-innervating neurones were also nNOS immunoreactive, nNOS was never detected in the central terminals of these neurones. These data show that nNOS is present in the NTS in both pre- and postsynaptic structures. However, these presynaptic structures are unlikely to be of vagal afferent origin. The lack of nNOS in vagal afferent terminals in the NTS, yet the presence in some vagal afferent cell bodies, suggests it is selectively targeted to specific regions of the same neurones. PMID:12676143

  2. Managing external genital warts: practical aspects of treatment and prevention.

    PubMed

    Bourcier, Marc; Bhatia, Neal; Lynde, Charles; Vender, Ronald

    2013-12-01

    Rising rates of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in recent decades, including external genital warts (EGWs), underscore the need for effective management of this common sexually transmitted disease. Although treatment is a vital aspect that aims primarily to resolve physical symptoms, health care providers must also address the psychosocial burden that typically accompanies diagnosis, treatment, remission, and recurrence. Education and counseling are integral components of care to address the cascade of negative emotional reactions that follow diagnosis, which often include anger, shame, stigma, frustration, and fear. Health care providers should offer patient information that is clear and simple, both verbally and in written form. Research to date has shown that information is most helpful when it is conveyed in a supportive tone and avoids stigmatization. Treatment decisions should consider the patient's preferences and the clinician's ability to offer certain therapies. A locally relevant algorithm and an individualized treatment approach are recommended by various treatment guidelines to improve the chances of compliance and treatment success. Given that success rates are variable, monitoring treatment is also necessary to gauge the patient's response to treatment, local reactions, and the potential need to switch treatments. Patients diagnosed with EGWs should also be screened for other sexually transmitted diseases because coinfection is common. Vaccination is becoming an increasingly important aspect of prevention strategies for HPV infections and should be considered for eligible patients. PMID:24388561

  3. Sexing blennies using genital papilla morphology or ano-genital distance.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, F; Santos, M M; Reis-Henriques, M A; Vieira, N M; Monteiro, N M

    2010-10-01

    Information on the genital morphology of male and female Lipophrys pholis is provided, as well as for two other sympatric blenniid species, Coryphoblennius galerita and Lipophrys trigloides. The use of non-invasive sex determination procedures described may be extremely useful not only for ecological studies but also as a proxy for the detection of environmental exposure to endocrine disruptive chemicals, given that blennies have been proposed as potential sentinel species for chemical contamination. PMID:21039514

  4. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis: Understanding the Roles of Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Vaccine Research

    PubMed Central

    Vasilevsky, Sam; Greub, Gilbert; Nardelli-Haefliger, Denise

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted disease worldwide, and despite significant advances in chlamydial research, a prophylactic vaccine has yet to be developed. This Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacterium, which often causes asymptomatic infection, may cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancies, scarring of the fallopian tubes, miscarriage, and infertility when left untreated. In the genital tract, Chlamydia trachomatis infects primarily epithelial cells and requires Th1 immunity for optimal clearance. This review first focuses on the immune cells important in a chlamydial infection. Second, we summarize the research and challenges associated with developing a chlamydial vaccine that elicits a protective Th1-mediated immune response without inducing adverse immunopathologies. PMID:24696438

  5. Female genital mutilation/cutting: an update.

    PubMed

    Rouzi, A A; Alturki, F

    2015-01-01

    Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a cultural practice involving several types of external female genitalia cutting. FGM/C is known to occur in all parts of the world but is most prevalent in 28 countries in Africa and the Middle East and among immigrant communities in Europe, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the United States. Studies of FGM/C suffer from many methodological problems including inadequate analysis and an unclear reporting of results. The evidence to link FGM/C to infertility is weak. The management of epidermal clitoral inclusion cysts includes expensive investigations like comprehensive endocrinology tests and MRI resulting in unnecessary anxiety due to delay in surgical treatment. Similarly, unnecessary cesarean sections or rupture of the infibulation scar continue to occur because of the inadequate use of intrapartum defibulation. A significant amount of efforts is required to improve and correct the inadequate care of FGM/C women and girls. PMID:26151997

  6. [Pigmented lesions of the genital mucosa].

    PubMed

    Hengge, U R; Meurer, M

    2005-06-01

    Pigmented lesions of the genital mucosa are more frequent in women than in men. They represent a spectrum of different benign entities. A biopsy is always recommended when the diagnosis cannot be made with certainty on clinical examination and dermatoscopy. Differential diagnostic considerations include melanocytic nevi, blue nevi and syndromes featuring lentigines. Malignant melanomas of the penis and vulva are uncommon tumors which usually appear in elderly patients. They frequently present as painless palpable nodules at routine examination. The treatment consists of excision with histological control of the margins. An aggressive surgical approach has not been shown to prolong the poor 5-year survival. Cooperation with gynecologists and urologists is essential for the optimal management of such patients. PMID:15905972

  7. [Symptomatology and treatment of persistent genital arousal disorder. Case report].

    PubMed

    Erős, Erika; Brockhauser, Ildikó; Pólyán, Edina

    2015-04-01

    Persistent genital arousal disorder is a rare condition among women characterized by unwanted and intrusive sexual arousal that can persist for an extended period of time and unrelated to sexual desire or sexual stimuli. Since its first documentation in 2001, numerous studies have been dedicated to investigate its specifics. The persistent genital arousal occurs in the absence of sexual interest and fantasies and it causes excessive psychological suffering. Masturbation, spontaneous orgasm or sexual intercourse can offer only a temporary relief. Researches provide a limited insight into the characteristics of persistent genital arousal disorder. This paper presents a case and summarizes the scientific findings on prevalence, etiology and treatment perspectives. PMID:25845321

  8. Female genital mutilation (FGM): Australian midwives' knowledge and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Ogunsiji, Olayide

    2015-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a women's health and human rights issue attracting global interest. My purpose in this qualitative study was to report the knowledge and attitudes of Australian midwives toward FGM. Verbatim transcription and thematic analysis of semistructured interviews with 11 midwives resulted in these themes: knowledge of female genital mutilation and attitude toward female genital mutilation. Significant gaps in knowledge about FGM featured prominently. The midwives expressed anger toward FGM and empathy for affected women. Recommendations include increased information on FGM and associated legislation among midwives and other health providers in countries where FGM may be encountered. PMID:25558808

  9. Tetraploid/Diploid Mosaicism in Cultured Genital Skin Fibroblasts: Is It Causally Related to Penoscrotal Hypospadias?

    PubMed

    Giltay, Jacques C; Klijn, Aart J; de Jong, Tom P V M; Kats, Peter; van Breugel, Marjolijn; Lens, Susan; Vromans, Martijn; van der Veken, Lars T; Hochstenbach, Ron

    2016-07-01

    Tetraploid/diploid mosaicism is a rare chromosomal abnormality that is infrequently reported in patients with severe developmental delay, growth retardation, and short life span. Here, we present a 6-year-old patient with severe penoscrotal hypospadias and a coloboma of the left eye but with normal growth, normal psychomotor development, and without dysmorphisms. We considered a local, mosaic sex chromosomal aneuploidy as a possible cause of his genital anomaly and performed karyotyping in cultured fibroblasts from the genital skin, obtained during surgical correction. Tetraploid/diploid (92,XXYY/46,XY) mosaicism was found in 43/57 and 6/26 metaphases in 2 separate cultures, respectively. Buccal smear cells, blood lymphocytes, and cells from urine sediment all showed diploidy. We investigated whether this chromosomal abnormality could be found in other patients with severe hypospadias and karyotyped genital fibroblasts of 6 additional patients but found only low frequencies (<11%) of tetraploid cells, not statistically different from those found in control males with no hypospadias. This is the first time tetraploid mosaicism is found in such a high percentage in a patient without psychomotor retardation, dysmorphisms or growth delay. Although the relationship between this observed mosaicism in cultured cells and the underlying pathogenetic mechanism in penoscrotal hypospadias remains to be determined, our data clearly illustrate the power of cytogenetic techniques in detecting mosaicism compared to next-generation sequencing techniques, in which DNA pooled from multiple cells is used. PMID:27587991

  10. Probiotic therapy: immunomodulating approach toward urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Amdekar, Sarika; Singh, Vinod; Singh, Desh Deepak

    2011-11-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is an extremely common health problem, with an unpredictable history. Members of enterobacteriaceae family such as Escherichia coli, which are normal inhabitants of human intestines, account for the majority of these uncomplicated infections. Rarely, UTI can result from virus or fungus. There is a close correlation between loss of the normal genital microbiota, particularly Lactobacillus species, and an increased incidence of genital and bladder infections. Although antimicrobial agents are generally effective in eradicating these infections, there is a high incidence of recurrence. Use of Lactobacillus species to combat UTI is now giving modern concept of modern genitourinary vaccine with the facts that it not only maintains low pH of the genital area, produces hydrogen peroxide and hinders the growth of E. coli but also activates Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2), which produces interleukin-10 (IL-10) and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88). E. coli activates TLR4, which is responsible for the activation of IL-12, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). This process downregulates inflammatory reactions caused due to pathogens. Current review covers the probiotics-based TLR therapy and shed some knowledge for the use of Lactobacillus species as probiotics. PMID:21901556

  11. Localization of tetra(m-hydroxyphenyl)chlorin (Foscan) in human healthy tissues and squamous cell carcinomas of the upper aero-digestive tract, the esophagus and the bronchi: a fluorescence microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Andrejevic Blant, S; Grosjean, P; Ballini, J P; Wagnières, G; van den Bergh, H; Fontolliet, C; Monnier, P

    2001-08-15

    To date, little is known about precise time-dependent distribution and histological localization of tetra(m-hydroxyphenyl)chlorin (mTHPC) in human healthy tissues and squamous cell malignancies in the upper aero-digestive tract. A fluorescence microscopy study was performed on 50 healthy tissue biopsies and on 13 tumors (graded from Tis to T1 SCC) from 30 patients. Tissue samples were taken between 4 h and 11 days following injection of 0.15 mg/kg mTHPC. A fairly comparable distribution pattern in various tissues was observed over time in different patients. Vascular localization of mTHPC fluorescence predominates at a short delay, whereas the dye is essentially located in the tumoral and healthy mucosa after longer delays. A much lower uptake and retention of mTHPC fluorescence was noted in striated muscle and cartilage as compared to neoplastic lesions. No significant selectivity was found between healthy and tumoral mucosa. The obtained data are important to confirm drug-light interval that have been selected for effective PDT for early SCC malignancies while minimizing the risks of over- or under-treatment. The low fluorescence level in striated muscle provides the opportunity to develop interstitial PDT as a treatment modality for invasive SCC of unfavorable locations in the oral cavity or pharynx, such as the base of the tongue. PMID:11485842

  12. DEFINING PATTERNS OF GENITAL INJURY FROM SEXUAL ASSAULT

    PubMed Central

    SOMMERS, MARILYN SAWYER

    2011-01-01

    The forensic examination following rape has two primary purposes: to provide health care and to collect evidence. Physical injuries need treatment so that they heal without adverse consequences. The pattern of injuries also has a forensic significance in that injuries are linked to the outcome of legal proceedings. This literature review investigates the variables related to genital injury prevalence and location that are reported in a series of retrospective reviews of medical records. The author builds the case that the prevalence and location of genital injury provide only a partial description of the nature of genital trauma associated with sexual assault and suggests a multidimensional definition of genital injury pattern. Several of the cited studies indicate that new avenues of investigation, such as refined measurement strategies for injury severity and skin color, may lead to advancements in health care, forensic, and criminal justice science. PMID:17596344

  13. Children's Perceptions of Genital Examinations during Sexual Abuse Evaluations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman-Giddens, Marcia E.; Frothingham, Thomas E.

    1993-01-01

    Reports on case studies on children's stress regarding genital examinations. Ways to reduce stress include preparing the child, giving the child increased control, and debriefing the child and parents after the examination. (LB)

  14. Task Force: Routine Genital Herpes Screening Not Recommended

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160205.html Task Force: Routine Genital Herpes Screening Not Recommended Unless someone ... 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A U.S. federal task force is prepared to recommend that teens, adults and ...

  15. Nursing Care of Women Who Have Undergone Genital Cutting.

    PubMed

    Tilley, Donna Scott

    2015-01-01

    Female genital cutting (FGC), commonly called female genital mutilation, affects millions of women but is poorly understood by many health care providers. FGC procedures intentionally alter the female genital organs for nonmedical reasons and include partial or total removal of female genital organs. These procedures, which have no medical value, are usually done between birth and puberty. Health consequences vary in severity but can be devastating. Women who have experienced FGC may be reluctant to seek health care or to disclose their condition to providers. Suggestions for culturally competent care of women who have experienced FGC are outlined, focusing on understanding the cultural beliefs and values of women who have undergone these procedures and providing informed and sensitive care. PMID:26460917

  16. Impact of experimental genital mycoplasmosis on pregnancy outcome in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, D A; Brown, M B

    1993-01-01

    Specific-pathogen-free (SPF) female Sprague-Dawley rats were infected by intravaginal inoculation with 3 x 10(7) CFU of Mycoplasma pulmonis X1048 in 0.1 ml of Frey's broth or with an equal volume of sterile Frey's broth. A minimum of 10 days postinfection, rats were bred to noninfected males. Rats were necropsied at days 11, 14, and 18 of gestation and within 24 h of parturition. Throughout pregnancy, at least 50% of rats remained infected in the lower genital tract. At parturition, the major site of colonization was the respiratory tract (P = 0.02). M. pulmonis was not isolated from any site of any control rat. Pregnancy outcome was adversely affected by infection with M. pulmonis. Infected rats had significantly smaller litter sizes at day 18 of gestation (P < or = 0.01) and at term (P < or = 0.004). No statistically significant differences among the gestational stages in infected rats were noted for litter size. Total litter weight is a reflection of individual pup weight and of the number of pups born. Therefore, it was obvious that infected rats would have a significantly lower (P < or = 0.008) total litter weight than noninfected controls. However, when individual pup weights were considered, infected pups (n = 49) also had significantly lower (P < or = 0.0001) birth weights than did noninfected controls (n = 68). The incidence of an adverse pregnancy outcome at term (stillbirths, macerated fetuses, or resorptions) was higher (P < or = 0.01) in infected rats than in noninfected control rats. No stillborn pups or macerated fetuses were observed in any control term rats (n = 5). All control rats had live-born pups. Three infected rats had no live-born offspring. Resorptions were more common in infected rats than in control rats (P < or = 0.01). The mean number of resorptions per rat was greater in rats which went to term than in rats necropsied during gestation, indicating that the severity of disease was progressive. The rat is frequently the laboratory animal

  17. B-cell lymphoma-2 localization in the female reproductive tract of the Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis and its relationship with sperm storage.

    PubMed

    Le, Yuan; Chen, Shaofan; Hu, Lisi; Zhang, Linli; Ullah, Shakeeb; Liu, Tengfei; Yang, Ping; Liu, Yi; Chen, Qiusheng

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression and localization of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) in the oviduct of the Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis, during the reproductive cycle to analyze the relationship between Bcl-2 and sperm storage. Bcl-2 expression was confirmed in the P. sinensis oviduct by western blot analysis. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that female P. sinensis stored sperm from November to April of the following year. The oviduct showed positive immunostaining for Bcl-2 of epithelial ciliated cells, gland ducts, and gland cells. Bcl-2 expression in the oviduct was associated with sperm storage occurrence. This indicates that the survival factor Bcl-2 may play a role in P. sinensis sperm storage. PMID:26285642

  18. [Current diagnosis and treatment of male genital lichen sclerosus].

    PubMed

    Lü, Jun; Huang, Xiao-Dong

    2014-07-01

    Male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc) is a chronically relapsing disease characterized by a long course, gradual aggravation, and a tendency towards malignancy. Once called balanitis xerotica obliterans, MGLSc has a distinct predilection for the prepuce and glans, involving the urethra when aggravating, forming scarring tissues, and causing urethral stricture, which may seriously affect the patients'quality of life with such symptoms as urinary stream narrowing, dysuria, and painful penile erection. The etiology and pathogenesis of MGLSc have not yet been adequately explained though it is generally thought to be associated with autoimmune mechanism, genetic factors, infections, local trauma, and chronic urinary irritation. MGLSc can be fairly easily diagnosed according to its clinical manifestations and histopathological results, but can be hardly cured. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are the most important approaches, which may relieve its symptoms, check its progression, and prevent its long-term sequelae. Ultrapotent topical corticosteroids are the choice for the treatment of MGLSc. For those who fail to respond to expectant medication or have dysuria due to urethral stricture and painful erection, rational surgery may be resorted to, with importance attached to long-term follow-up. This article presents an update of the diagnosis and treatment of MGLSc and MGLSc-induced urethral stricture. PMID:25095613

  19. Legislating Change? Responses to Criminalizing Female Genital Cutting in Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Shell-Duncan, Bettina; Hernlund, Ylva; Wander, Katherine; Moreau, Amadou

    2014-01-01

    Although the international community has recently promoted legislation as an important reform strategy for ending female genital cutting (FGC), there exist divergent views on its potential effects. Supporters argue that legal prohibition of FGC has a general deterrent effect, while others argue legislation can be perceived as coercive, and derail local efforts to end the practice. This study examines the range of responses observed in rural Senegal, where a 1999 anti-FGC law was imposed on communities in which the practice was being actively contested and targeted for elimination. Drawing on data from a mixed-methods study, we analyze responses in relation to two leading theories on social regulation, the law and economics and law and society paradigms, which make divergent predictions on the interplay between social norms and legal norms. Among supporters of FGC, legal norms ran counter to social norms, and did little to deter the practice, and in some instances incited reactance or drove the practice underground. Conversely, where FGC was being contested, legislation served to strengthen the stance of those contemplating or favoring abandonment. We conclude that legislation can complement other reform strategies by creating an “enabling environment” that supports those who have or wish to abandon FGC. PMID:24771947

  20. Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection

    MedlinePlus

    SBA National Resource Center: 800-621-3141 Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Catheterization in Children with Neurogenic Bladder and ... To protect the kidneys from damage – By preventing urinary tract infections (UTI) – By identifying and treating vesicoureteral remux (VUR). ...

  1. Urinary Tract Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... can usually be found and treated before the kidneys become infected. If your doctor treats a urinary tract infection early and ... Tips on preventing urinary tract infections Drink plenty of water to flush out bacteria. Drinking cranberry juice may also help ...

  2. Subliminal sexual stimuli facilitate genital response in women.

    PubMed

    Ponseti, Jorge; Bosinski, Hartmut A G

    2010-10-01

    Visual sexual stimuli (VSS) are believed to undergo an automatic process of stimulus appraisal and (genital or subjective) response generation. Consistent with this belief, studies have found that subliminal VSS can facilitate responses to subsequent sexual stimulus presentations. We tested whether subliminal sexual stimuli facilitated a genital response in women and, furthermore, whether this genital response could be modulated by both opposite-sex stimuli and same-sex stimuli (i.e., whether the genital response to subliminal stimuli is category-specific or nonspecific). Twenty heterosexual women underwent vaginal photoplethysmography while being subliminally (20 ms) exposed to same-sex, opposite-sex, and nonsexual slides in a priming experiment. Vaginal pulse amplitude was increased when target stimuli were preceded by both opposite-sex and same-sex priming stimuli relative to nonsexual priming stimuli. This finding suggests that subliminal VSS were subjected to automatic stimulus processing, thereby facilitating nonspecific genital response preparation. Results are discussed in terms of implicit and explicit memory access and the evolutionary benefit of female nonspecific genital response. PMID:20041283

  3. The vaginal microbiome: New information about genital tract flora using molecular based techniques

    PubMed Central

    Lamont, Ronald F.; Sobel, Jack D.; Akins, Robert A.; Hassan, Sonia S.; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Romero, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Vaginal microbiome studies provide information which may change the way we define vaginal flora. Normal flora appears dominated by one or two species of Lactobacillus. Significant numbers of healthy women lack appreciable numbers of vaginal lactobacilli. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is not a single entity, but different bacterial communities or profiles of greater microbial diversity than is evident from cultivation-dependent studies. BV should be considered a syndrome of variable composition which results in different symptoms, phenotypical outcomes, and responses to different antibiotic regimens. This information may help to elucidate the link between BV and infection-related adverse outcomes of pregnancy. PMID:21251190

  4. The Prevalence and Genotype Distribution of Human Papillomavirus in the Genital Tract of Males in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Salehi-Vaziri, Mostafa; Sadeghi, Farzin; Bokharaei-Salim, Farah; Younesi, Sarang; Alinaghi, Samaneh; Monavari, Seyed Hamidreza; Keyvani, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common viral sexually-transmitted infection. Despite HPV infection is associated with several malignant disorders including penile and anal cancers, little is known about the epidemiology of HPV infection in males, particularly in developing countries. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HPV infection and its genotype distribution among Iranian males. Patients and Methods: Between March 2009 and April 2014, a total number of 483 males, referred to Iran University of Medical Sciences-affiliated sexually transmitted infections (STI) clinics, were enrolled in this study. Following DNA extraction, HPV detection and genotyping were performed using INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra assay. To analyze the association of HPV infection and age, the logistic regression was employed. Results: No statistical association between HPV infection and age was observed (P = 0.469). Furthermore, there was no statistically significant correlation between HR HPV infection and age (P = 0.330). Conclusions: In this investigation, the prevalence of HPV infection was relatively substantial. Totally, 17 different HPV genotypes were detected and the most frequently detected genotypes were HPV6, HPV11, HPV16, HPV18 and HPV52, respectively. The data from this study is essential for planning future public health strategies including HPV vaccination programs. PMID:26862386

  5. Mageeibacillus indolicus gen. nov., sp. nov.: a novel bacterium isolated from the female genital tract.

    PubMed

    Austin, Michele N; Rabe, Lorna K; Srinivasan, Sujatha; Fredricks, David N; Wiesenfeld, Harold C; Hillier, Sharon L

    2015-04-01

    Three isolates of a bacterium recovered from human endometrium using conventional culture methods were characterized biochemically and subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Isolates were non-motile, obligately anaerobic, non-spore forming, asaccharolytic, non-cellulolytic, indole positive, Gram positive rods. Cell wall fatty acid profiling revealed C14:0, C16:0, C18:2 ω6, 9c, C18:1 ω9c and C18:0 to be the major fatty acid composition. The DNA mol % G+C was determined to be 44.2%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed only 91% sequence similarity with the closest cultivated bacterial isolate, Saccharofermentans acetigenes. Based on genotypic and phenotypic data, all three isolates are considered to be members of the same species and data suggest it represents a novel genus and species in the order Clostridiales with an association with Clostridium rRNA cluster III within the family Ruminococcaceae. We propose the name, Mageeibacillus indolicus gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain is BAA-2120(T) and CCUG 59143(T). PMID:25482717

  6. 'Peptoniphilus raoultii' sp. nov., a new species isolated from human female genital tract.

    PubMed

    Diop, K; Bretelle, F; Mediannikov, O; Fournier, P-E; Fenollar, F

    2016-09-01

    We report the principal characteristics of 'Peptoniphilus raoultii' strain KHD4 (= CSUR P0110), a new member of the Peptoniphilus genus. Strain KHD4 was isolated from the vaginal flora of a 33-year-old woman with bacterial vaginosis. PMID:27408736

  7. 'Lascolabacter vaginalis' strain KHD1, a new bacterial species cultivated from human female genital tract.

    PubMed

    Diop, K; Mediannikov, O; Fournier, P-E; Raoult, D; Bretelle, F; Fenollar, F

    2016-09-01

    We present the major characteristics of 'Lascolabacter vaginalis' strain KHD1 (= CSUR P0109 = DSM 101752), a new member of the family Prevotellaceae that was cultivated from a vaginal sample of a 33-year-old woman with bacterial vaginosis. PMID:27358744

  8. 'Peptoniphilus pacaensis' sp. nov., a new species isolated from human female genital tract.

    PubMed

    Diop, K; Bretelle, F; Mediannikov, O; Fournier, P-E; Fenollar, F

    2016-09-01

    We relate here the primary characteristics of 'Peptoniphilus pacaensis' strain KHD5 (= CSUR P2271), a new member of the Peptoniphilus genus. Strain KHD5 was isolated from a vaginal sample of a 33-year-old woman exhibiting a bacterial vaginosis. PMID:27408739

  9. 'Peptoniphilus vaginalis' sp. nov., a new species isolated from human female genital tract.

    PubMed

    Diop, K; Mediannikov, O; Raoult, D; Bretelle, F; Fenollar, F

    2016-09-01

    We relate here the main characteristics of 'Peptoniphilus vaginalis', strain KHD2 (= CSUR P0125 = DSM 101742), a new member of the Peptoniphilus genus, cultivated from a vaginal sample of a woman with bacterial vaginosis. PMID:27482387

  10. 'Olegusella massiliensis' strain KHD7, a new bacterial genus isolated from the female genital tract.

    PubMed

    Diop, K; Diop, A; Raoult, D; Fournier, P-E; Fenollar, F

    2016-07-01

    We report the main characteristics of 'Olegusella massiliensis' gen. nov., sp. nov., strain KHD7 (= CSUR P2268 = DSM 101849), a new member of the Coriobacteriaceae family isolated from the vaginal flora of a patient with bacterial vaginosis. PMID:27330814

  11. New candidate biomarkers in the female genital tract to evaluate microbicide toxicity.

    PubMed

    Fields, Scott; Song, Benben; Rasoul, Bareza; Fong, Julie; Works, Melissa G; Shew, Kenneth; Yiu, Ying; Mirsalis, Jon; D'Andrea, Annalisa

    2014-01-01

    Vaginal microbicides hold great promise for the prevention of viral diseases like HIV, but the failure of several microbicide candidates in clinical trials has raised important questions regarding the parameters to be evaluated to determine in vivo efficacy in humans. Clinical trials of the candidate microbicides nonoxynol-9 (N9) and cellulose sulfate revealed an increase in HIV infection, vaginal inflammation, and recruitment of HIV susceptible lymphocytes, highlighting the need to identify biomarkers that can accurately predict microbicide toxicity early in preclinical development and in human trials. We used quantitative proteomics and RT-PCR approaches in mice and rabbits to identify protein changes in vaginal fluid and tissue in response to treatment with N9 or benzalkonium chloride (BZK). We compared changes generated with N9 and BZK treatment to the changes generated in response to tenofovir gel, a candidate microbicide that holds promise as a safe and effective microbicide. Both compounds down regulated mucin 5 subtype B, and peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 in vaginal tissue; however, mucosal brush samples also showed upregulation of plasma proteins fibrinogen, plasminogen, apolipoprotein A-1, and apolipoprotein C-1, which may be a response to the erosive nature of N9 and BZK. Additional proteins down-regulated in vaginal tissue by N9 or BZK treatment include CD166 antigen, olfactomedin-4, and anterior gradient protein 2 homolog. We also observed increases in the expression of C-C chemokines CCL3, CCL5, and CCL7 in response to treatment. There was concordance in expression level changes for several of these proteins using both the mouse and rabbit models. Using a human vaginal epithelial cell line, the expression of mucin 5 subtype B and olfactomedin-4 were down-regulated in response to N9, suggesting these markers could apply to humans. These data identifies new proteins that after further validation could become part of a panel of biomarkers to effectively evaluate microbicide toxicity. PMID:25333937

  12. New Candidate Biomarkers in the Female Genital Tract to Evaluate Microbicide Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Rasoul, Bareza; Fong, Julie; Works, Melissa G.; Shew, Kenneth; Yiu, Ying; Mirsalis, Jon; D'Andrea, Annalisa

    2014-01-01

    Vaginal microbicides hold great promise for the prevention of viral diseases like HIV, but the failure of several microbicide candidates in clinical trials has raised important questions regarding the parameters to be evaluated to determine in vivo efficacy in humans. Clinical trials of the candidate microbicides nonoxynol-9 (N9) and cellulose sulfate revealed an increase in HIV infection, vaginal inflammation, and recruitment of HIV susceptible lymphocytes, highlighting the need to identify biomarkers that can accurately predict microbicide toxicity early in preclinical development and in human trials. We used quantitative proteomics and RT-PCR approaches in mice and rabbits to identify protein changes in vaginal fluid and tissue in response to treatment with N9 or benzalkonium chloride (BZK). We compared changes generated with N9 and BZK treatment to the changes generated in response to tenofovir gel, a candidate microbicide that holds promise as a safe and effective microbicide. Both compounds down regulated mucin 5 subtype B, and peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 in vaginal tissue; however, mucosal brush samples also showed upregulation of plasma proteins fibrinogen, plasminogen, apolipoprotein A-1, and apolipoprotein C-1, which may be a response to the erosive nature of N9 and BZK. Additional proteins down-regulated in vaginal tissue by N9 or BZK treatment include CD166 antigen, olfactomedin-4, and anterior gradient protein 2 homolog. We also observed increases in the expression of C-C chemokines CCL3, CCL5, and CCL7 in response to treatment. There was concordance in expression level changes for several of these proteins using both the mouse and rabbit models. Using a human vaginal epithelial cell line, the expression of mucin 5 subtype B and olfactomedin-4 were down-regulated in response to N9, suggesting these markers could apply to humans. These data identifies new proteins that after further validation could become part of a panel of biomarkers to effectively evaluate microbicide toxicity. PMID:25333937

  13. Genital hygiene practices of fishermen targeted for a topical microbicide intervention against sexually transmitted infections in Kisumu, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kwena, Z A; Bukusi, E A; Gorbach, P; Sharma, A; Sang, N M; Holmes, K K

    2010-06-01

    Research on hygiene has been relatively limited in the current era of rigorous observational studies and clinical trials. We set out to investigate the perception and practices of genital hygiene among fishermen working on the beaches along Lake Victoria, targeted for a topical male microbicide hygiene intervention. We conducted 12 focus group discussions involving fishermen (n = 130), recording the discussions in Dholuo (the local language) and transcribing them verbatim before translating into English. Transcripts were double-coded and analysed using constant comparative analysis. Despite easy access to lake water and recognition of a link that may exist between poor genital hygiene and the risk of penile infection and poor sexual relationships, few fishermen regularly washed their genitalia due to fear/embarrassment from cleaning their genitalia in public, traditional Luo beliefs such as that washing with soap would reduce the fish catch, lack of time because of their busy schedules, laziness and lack of responsibility, and excessive consumption of alcohol and illicit drugs. Hygiene practices of the fishermen were poor and could contribute to genital infections including sexually transmitted infections. Given the fishermen's poor genital hygiene practices, they may benefit from hygiene intervention, including that provided by penile microbicides, which can be applied in the privacy of their bedrooms. PMID:20606226

  14. Mothers' perceptions of female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Ahanonu, E L; Victor, O

    2014-08-01

    The practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) is widespread in Nigeria. This study was conducted to assess the perceptions of FGM among mothers at a primary healthcare centre in Lagos, Nigeria. A convenience sample of 95 mothers completed the pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaires. Data analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics and a chi-square test was used to test for association between variables. Findings showed that the mothers held ambivalent beliefs about the practice. Although over half of the respondents (56.8%) perceived the practice of FGM as not being beneficial, 44.2% thought that uncircumcised girls will become promiscuous. Nearly a third (30.5%) believed that FGM promotes a woman's faithfulness to her husband. About a quarter (26.3%) reported that women who have undergone FGM are not at any risk of gynaecological complications. There was a significant relationship between the educational background of the mothers and the perception that uncircumcised girls will be promiscuous. These perceptions about FGM show that government at all levels should continue with educational efforts aimed at eradicating this practice. PMID:24412809

  15. Genital Cancers in Women: Uterine Cancer.

    PubMed

    Roett, Michelle A

    2015-11-01

    There are two main types of uterine cancer. Endometrial carcinoma, the most commonly diagnosed genital cancer in women, accounts for most cases (more than 95%) and sarcoma comprises the remainder. Endometrial cancer primarily occurs in postmenopausal women. Risk factors include exposure to high levels of endogenous estrogen (eg, obesity, nulliparity, late menopause) or exogenous estrogen (eg, hormone replacement therapy, tamoxifen) and pelvic radiation. Genetics are involved in a small percentage of cases, notably among women in families with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). More than 80% of patients with endometrial cancers present with abnormal uterine bleeding. Endometrial biopsy and transvaginal ultrasound are the first-line tests to evaluate bleeding. If the endometrial lining is thickened on ultrasound, endometrial biopsy is indicated. If symptoms persist after negative biopsy results, or if biopsy results are inadequate, hysteroscopy is performed for tissue sampling. Most patients with endometrial cancer are diagnosed early, when cancer is confined to the uterus. Hysterectomy is the treatment of choice in such cases. Treatment of advanced disease involves radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. Perimenopausal women should be informed that abnormal bleeding could be a sign of cancer and should be evaluated. However, no routine screening is recommended except for women with HNPCC. PMID:26569046

  16. Female genital alteration: a compromise solution.

    PubMed

    Arora, Kavita Shah; Jacobs, Allan J

    2016-03-01

    Despite 30 years of advocacy, the prevalence of non-therapeutic female genital alteration (FGA) in minors is stable in many countries. Educational efforts have minimally changed the prevalence of this procedure in regions where it has been widely practiced. In order to better protect female children from the serious and long-term harms of some types of non-therapeutic FGA, we must adopt a more nuanced position that acknowledges a wide spectrum of procedures that alter female genitalia. We offer a revised categorisation for non-therapeutic FGA that groups procedures by effect and not by process. Acceptance of de minimis procedures that generally do not carry long-term medical risks is culturally sensitive, does not discriminate on the basis of gender, and does not violate human rights. More morbid procedures should not be performed. However, accepting de minimis non-therapeutic f FGA procedures enhances the effort of compassionate practitioners searching for a compromise position that respects cultural differences but protects the health of their patients. PMID:26902479

  17. Anatomy and physiology of genital organs - men.

    PubMed

    Clement, Pierre; Giuliano, François

    2015-01-01

    Male sexual functions involve a number of organs and structures in genitalia whose role is to produce fertilizing gametes and to allow female-partner insemination. The testes belong to the reproductive and endocrine systems as they synthesize spermatozoa and androgens, and are under finely regulated hormonal control by the hypothalamopituitary axis. Sexual responses are controlled by a complex and coordinated interplay of both the somatic and the autonomic nervous system in multiple components of the brain, spinal cord, and relevant peripheral organs. Erectile bodies are an essential element of the penis and engorgement of the penis with blood leads to penile tumescence. Blood engorgement is due to relaxation of smooth-muscle cells of erectile tissue and endothelium of the penile arteries. The penis gains additional rigidity when the ischiocavernosus muscles contract. Stimuli from peripheral and/or central origins activate particular spinal nuclei, causing penile erection. Ejaculation consists of two phases, emission and expulsion, which correspond, respectively, to secretion of the different components of the semen by sex glands and forceful expulsion of semen due to rhythmic contractions of the bulbospongiosus muscle. A spinal generator of ejaculation integrates genital stimuli and sexual cues and, when the excitatory threshold is reached, triggers ejaculation by orchestrating the activation of autonomic and somatic pathways commanding the peripheral events of ejaculation. PMID:26003237

  18. The Olfactory Receptor OR51E1 Is Present along the Gastrointestinal Tract of Pigs, Co-Localizes with Enteroendocrine Cells and Is Modulated by Intestinal Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Priori, Davide; Colombo, Michela; Clavenzani, Paolo; Jansman, Alfons J. M.; Lallès, Jean-Paul; Trevisi, Paolo; Bosi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The relevance of the butyrate-sensing olfactory receptor OR51E1 for gastrointestinal (GIT) functioning has not been considered so far. We investigated in young pigs the distribution of OR51E1 along the GIT, its relation with some endocrine markers, its variation with age and after interventions affecting the gut environment and intestinal microbiota. Immuno-reactive cells for OR51E1 and chromogranin A (CgA) were counted in cardial (CA), fundic (FU), pyloric (PL) duodenal (DU), jejunal (JE), ileal (IL), cecal (CE), colonic (CO) and rectal (RE) mucosae. OR51E1 co-localization with serotonin (5HT) and peptide YY (PYY) were evaluated in PL and CO respectively. FU and PL tissues were also sampled from 84 piglets reared from sows receiving either or not oral antibiotics (amoxicillin) around parturition, and sacrificed at days 14, 21, 28 (weaning) and 42 of age. JE samples were also obtained from 12 caesarean-derived piglets that were orally associated with simple (SA) or complex (CA) microbiota in the postnatal phase, and of which on days 26–37 of age jejunal loops were perfused for 8 h with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F4 (ETEC), Lactobacillus amylovorus or saline (CTRL). Tissue densities of OR51E1+ cells were in decreasing order: PL=DU>FU=CA>JE=IL=CE=CO=RE. OR51E1+ cells showed an enteroendocrine nature containing gastrointestinal hormones such as PYY or 5HT. OR51E1 gene expression in PL and FU increased during and after the suckling period (p<0.05). It was marginally reduced in offspring from antibiotic-treated sows (tendency, p=0.073), vs. control. Jejunal OR51E1 gene expression was reduced in piglets early associated with SA, compared with CA, and in ETEC-perfused loops vs. CTRL (p<0.01). Our results indicate that OR51E1 is related to GIT enteroendocrine activity. Moreover age, pathogen challenge and dietary manipulations influencing the gastrointestinal luminal microenvironment significantly affect the OR51E1 gene expression in GIT tissues presumably in

  19. A Retrospective Analysis of Incidence and Its Associated Risk Factors of Upper Urinary Tract Recurrence following Radical Cystectomy for Bladder Cancer with Transitional Cell Carcinoma: The Significance of Local Pelvic Recurrence and Positive Lymph Node

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Han; Yang, Hyung-Kook; Lee, Jung Hoon; Lee, Eun-Sik

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to examine the incidence and risk factors of upper urinary tract recurrence (UUTR) following radical cystectomy (RC) in bladder cancer and to evaluate its relationship with neobladder (Neo) or ileal conduit (IC). Materials and Methods All clinicopathologic parameters and perioperative parameters of 311 patients who underwent RC with either Neo or IC by a single surgeon from 1999 to 2012 were retrospectively included in this study. Patients with a history of renal surgery, concomitant UUTR, or a histopathology of non-transitional cell carcinoma were excluded. For statistical analyses of predictive risk factors of UUTR, a multivariate analysis was performed with known risk factors of UUTR, including type of urinary diversion with significance defined as P < 0.05. Results During the median follow-up period of 53 months, 143 (46.0%) IC and 168 (54.0%) Neo were performed, resulting in 11 (3.5%) cases of UUTR (Neo 7 and IC 4) after RC and all patients then underwent nephroureterectomy. No significant differences in incidence and overall survival in UUTR were observed according different types of urinary diversion (p = 483), and the prognosis for survival of Neo was insignificantly better than that of IC (5-year overall survival 78% vs 74%, respectively, p>0.05). Higher number of positive lymph nodes (HR 9.03) and the presence of pelvic local recurrence (HR 7286.08) were significant predictive factors of UUTR (p<0.05). Conclusion This study reports a UUTR rate of 3.5%, and positive lymph nodes and presence of local recurrence at the pelvis as important risk factors. No significant differences in incidence and survival were observed between Neo and IC. PMID:24798444

  20. Evaluation of telomerase activity in non-genital Bowen's disease.

    PubMed

    Mitsuishi, T; Nakatake, M; Kaneko, T; Ohara, K; Kato, T; Iida, K; Iwabu, Y; Tokunaga, K; Sata, T; Kawana, S; Yamada, O

    2009-06-01

    We investigated the level of telomerase activity (TA) in 17 specimens of non-genital Bowen's disease (BD) and in 14 specimens of skin without sun exposure (non-exposed skin) using a non-isotopic PCR-based telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay. Expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT; the catalytic subunit of telomerase) was also evaluated by immunochemistry in the non-genital BD tissues. Moderate to high levels of TA were detected in 41.2% of 17 non-genital BD specimens (P = 0.001). In contrast, TA was not evident in non-exposed skin. Recently, nucleolin was reported to be associated with hTERT, so we used this antibody instead of hTERT antibody. Immunohistochemistry showed that nucleolin expression was associated with high TA levels in non-genital BD. Our results also revealed differences of TA levels among non-genital BD specimens. High levels of TA in those specimens were not age related. Five out of 7 specimens (71.4%) with moderate to high TA levels were from sun-exposed sites, while the remaining 10 specimens with low levels of TA were from non-exposed sites. These results suggested that cellular DNA damage caused by ultraviolet irradiation might be associated with an increase of TA in non-genital BD. Among non-genital BD specimens, 4 out of 17 (23.5%) showed high levels of TA (median relative TA value: 79.8%; P = 0.003), which might be associated with immortalization or transformation to invasive squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:19250332

  1. Transnodal Lymphangiography in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Genital Lymphedema

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, F. M. Martinez-Rodrigo, J.; Marti-Bonmati, L.; Santos, E.; Forner, I.; Lloret, M.; Perez-Enguix, D.; Garcia-Marcos, R.

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To report the success of groin nodal lymphography in the diagnosis and treatment of genital lymphedema. Methods and Materials: We present one female (8 years old [patient no. 1]) and two male (69 and [patient no. 2] 31 years old [patient no. 3], respectively) patients with genital lymphedema in whom conservative treatment failed. The girl also had lymphorrhagia. Genital lymphedema was caused by radical cystectomy (patient no. 2), lymphatic hyperplasia (patient no. 1), and idiopathic lymphangitis (patient no. 3). All of them underwent ultrasound-guided bilateral groin lymph node puncture. Afterward, 4-8 ml Lipiodol Ultra-Fluide (Guerbet) were injected at a rate of 0.2 ml/s. Lipiodol progression was assessed by fluoroscopy. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen and pelvis was performed immediately after and again at 24 h after the procedure to confirm the leak. The follow-up period was 15, 13, and 9 months, respectively. Technical success was considered as bilateral pelvic and abdominal filling of lymphatic vessels. Therapeutic success was considered as improvement or disappearance of genital lymphedema and/or lymphorrhagia. Results: Lipiodol leak to the scrotum was observed in patients no. 2 and 3. Lymphaticopelvic fistula and genital lymphatic hyperplasia were seen in patient no. 1. Genital lymphedema diminished within 1 week and almost disappeared in two cases (patients no. 1 and 3) or significantly improved (patient no. 2). lymphorrhagia also resolved in patient no. 1. No recurrence or worsening was detected during follow-up. Conclusion: Therapeutic lymphangiography by lymph node injection seems to be effective to treat genital lymphedema. Lymph node puncture lymphangiography is feasible and less cumbersome than pedal lymphangiography.

  2. A Proteomic Analysis of the Body Wall, Digestive Tract, and Reproductive Tract of Brugia malayi.

    PubMed

    Morris, C Paul; Bennuru, Sasisekhar; Kropp, Laura E; Zweben, Jesse A; Meng, Zhaojing; Taylor, Rebekah T; Chan, King; Veenstra, Timothy D; Nutman, Thomas B; Mitre, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Filarial worms are parasitic nematodes that cause devastating diseases such as lymphatic filariasis (LF) and onchocerciasis. Filariae are nematodes with complex anatomy including fully developed digestive tracts and reproductive organs. To better understand the basic biology of filarial parasites and to provide insights into drug targets and vaccine design, we conducted a proteomic analysis of different anatomic fractions of Brugia malayi, a causative agent of LF. Approximately 500 adult female B. malayi worms were dissected, and three anatomical fractions (body wall, digestive tract, and reproductive tract) were obtained. Proteins from each anatomical fraction were extracted, desalted, trypsinized, and analyzed by microcapillary reverse-phase liquid chromatography-tandem-mass spectrometry. In total, we identified 4,785 B. malayi proteins. While 1,894 were identified in all three anatomic fractions, 396 were positively identified only within the digestive tract, 114 only within the body wall, and 1,011 only within the reproductive tract. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed a bias for transporters to be present within the digestive tract, suggesting that the intestine of adult filariae is functional and important for nutrient uptake or waste removal. As expected, the body wall exhibited increased frequencies of cytoskeletal proteins, and the reproductive tract had increased frequencies of proteins involved in nuclear regulation and transcription. In assessing for possible vaccine candidates, we focused on proteins sequestered within the digestive tract, as these could possibly represent "hidden antigens" with low risk of prior allergic sensitization. We identified 106 proteins that are enriched in the digestive tract and are predicted to localize to the surface of cells in the the digestive tract. It is possible that some of these proteins are on the luminal surface and may be accessible by antibodies ingested by the worm. A subset of 27 of these proteins appear

  3. Intravenous Inoculation with Chlamydia muridarum Leads to a Long-Lasting Infection Restricted to the Gastrointestinal Tract.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jin; Zhang, Tianyuan; Wang, Luying; Shao, Lili; Zhu, Cuiming; Zhang, Yuyang; Failor, Courtney; Schenken, Robert; Baseman, Joel; He, Cheng; Zhong, Guangming

    2016-08-01

    Chlamydia has been detected in the gastrointestinal tracts of both animals and humans. However, it remains unclear whether the chlamydial organisms can be introduced into the gastrointestinal tract via pathways independent of the oral and anal routes. We have recently shown that Chlamydia muridarum spreads from the genital tract to the gastrointestinal tract potentially via the circulatory system. To test whether hematogenous C. muridarum can spread to and establish a long-lasting colonization in the mouse gastrointestinal tract, we inoculated mice intravenously with a luciferase-expressing C. muridarum strain and monitored its distribution. After tail vein inoculation, most luciferase-generated bioluminescence signals were detected in the mouse abdominal area throughout the experiment. The ex vivo imaging revealed that the abdominal signals came from the gastrointestinal tract tissues. Simultaneous monitoring of chlamydial organisms in individual organs or tissues revealed an initial stage of systemic spreading followed by a long-lasting infection in the gastrointestinal tract. A retro-orbital vein inoculation of the C. muridarum organisms at a lower dose in a different mouse strain also led to colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. We have demonstrated that intravenous C. muridarum inoculation can result in colonization of the gastrointestinal tract, suggesting that the chlamydial organisms may use the sexual behavior-independent circulation pathway to infect the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:27271744

  4. Urinary Tract Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tract Health Overview Condition Information What is a UTI? What is UI? What causes it? How many ... Staff Directory Overview Condition Information What is a UTI? What is UI? What causes it? How many ...

  5. Urinary Tract Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... kidneys, two ureters, a bladder, and a urethra. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the second most common type of infection in the body. You may have a UTI if you notice Pain or burning when you ...

  6. Upper respiratory tract (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The major passages and structures of the upper respiratory tract include the nose or nostrils, nasal cavity, mouth, throat (pharynx), and voice box (larynx). The respiratory system is lined with a mucous membrane that ...

  7. [Urinary tract infections].

    PubMed

    Hörl, W H

    2011-09-01

    Urinary tract infections occur very frequently in the community and in hospitalized patients and are mainly caused by Escherichia (E.) coli. Depending on virulence determinants of uropathogenic microorganisms and host-specific defense mechanisms, urinary tract infections can manifest as cystitis, pyelonephritis (bacterial interstitial nephritis), bacteremia or urosepsis. Uncomplicated urinary tract infections in otherwise healthy women should be treated for 3-7 days depending on the antibiotic therapy chosen, even if spontaneous remission rates of up to 40% have been reported. Antibiotics of the first choice for empirical treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infection are fluoroquinolones, pivmecillinam and fosfomycin. A huge problem is the increasing antimicrobial resistance of uropathogenic microorganisms. Complicated urinary tract infections associated with anatomical and/or functional abnormalities of the urinary tract and/or comorbidities such as diabetes or immunosuppressive therapy, need longer antibiotic treatment (e.g. 10-14 days) as well as interdisciplinary diagnostic procedures. Treatment of community acquired urosepsis includes cephalosporins of the third generation, piperacillin/tazobactam or ciprofloxacin. For nosocomial urosepsis the combination with an aminoglycoside or a carbapenem is recommended. PMID:21850538

  8. ANTIBODY-MEDIATED PROTECTION AGAINST GENITAL HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS TYPE 2 DISEASE IN MICE BY FC GAMMA RECEPTOR -DEPENDENT AND -INDEPENDENT MECHANISMS

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chin-Fun; Meador, Michael G.; Young, Christal G.; Strasser, Jane E.; Bourne, Nigel; Milligan, Gregg N.

    2008-01-01

    The ability of antibody (Ab) to modulate HSV pathogenesis is well recognized but the mechanisms by which HSV-specific IgG antibodies protect against genital HSV-2 disease are not well understood. The requirement for Ab interactions with Fcγ receptors (FcγR) in protection was examined using a murine model of genital HSV-2 infection. IgG antibodies isolated from the serum of HSV-immune mice protected normal mice against HSV-2 disease when administered prior to genital HSV-2 inoculation. However, protection was significantly diminished in recipient mice lacking the gamma chain subunit utilized in FcγRI, FcγRIII, FcγRIV and FcepsilonRI receptors and in normal mice depleted of Gr-1+ immune cell populations known to express FcγR, suggesting protection was largely mediated by an FcγR-dependent mechanism. To test whether neutralizing Ab might provide superior protection, a highly neutralizing HSV glycoprotein D (gD)- specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) was utilized. Similar to results with HSV-specific polyclonal IgG, administration of the gD-specific mAb did not prevent initial infection of the genital tract but resulted in lower virus loads in the vaginal epithelium and provided significant protection against disease and acute infection of the sensory ganglia; however, this protection was independent of host FcγR expression and was manifest in mice depleted of Gr-1+ immune cells. Together, these data demonstrate that substantial Ab-mediated protection against genital HSV-2 disease could be achieved by either FcγR-dependent or -independent mechanisms. These studies suggest that HSV vaccines might need to elicit multiple, diverse antibody effector mechanisms to achieve optimal protection. PMID:17950908

  9. Genital Appearance Dissatisfaction: Implications for Women's Genital Image Self-Consciousness, Sexual Esteem, Sexual Satisfaction, and Sexual Risk.

    PubMed

    Schick, Vanessa R; Calabrese, Sarah K; Rima, Brandi N; Zucker, Alyssa N

    2010-09-01

    Findings regarding the link between body image and sexuality have been equivocal, possibly because of the insensitivity of many of body image measures to potential variability across sensory aspects of the body (e.g., appearance versus odor), individual body parts (e.g., genitalia versus thighs), and social settings (e.g., public versus intimate). The current study refined existing methods of evaluating women's body image in the context of sexuality by focusing upon two highly specified dimensions: satisfaction with the visual appearance of the genitalia and self-consciousness about the genitalia during a sexual encounter. Genital appearance dissatisfaction, genital image self-consciousness, and multiple facets of sexuality were examined with a sample of 217 undergraduate women using an online survey. Path analysis revealed that greater dissatisfaction with genital appearance was associated with higher genital image self-consciousness during physical intimacy, which, in turn, was associated with lower sexual esteem, sexual satisfaction, and motivation to avoid risky sexual behavior. These findings underscore the detrimental impact of negative genital perceptions on young women's sexual wellbeing, which is of particular concern given their vulnerability at this stage of sexual development as well as the high rates of sexually transmitted infections within this age group. Interventions that enhance satisfaction with the natural appearance of their genitalia could facilitate the development of a healthy sexual self-concept and provide long-term benefits in terms of sexual safety and satisfaction. PMID:20824180

  10. Genital Appearance Dissatisfaction: Implications for Women’s Genital Image Self-Consciousness, Sexual Esteem, Sexual Satisfaction, and Sexual Risk

    PubMed Central

    Schick, Vanessa R.; Calabrese, Sarah K.; Rima, Brandi N.; Zucker, Alyssa N.

    2010-01-01

    Findings regarding the link between body image and sexuality have been equivocal, possibly because of the insensitivity of many of body image measures to potential variability across sensory aspects of the body (e.g., appearance versus odor), individual body parts (e.g., genitalia versus thighs), and social settings (e.g., public versus intimate). The current study refined existing methods of evaluating women’s body image in the context of sexuality by focusing upon two highly specified dimensions: satisfaction with the visual appearance of the genitalia and self-consciousness about the genitalia during a sexual encounter. Genital appearance dissatisfaction, genital image self-consciousness, and multiple facets of sexuality were examined with a sample of 217 undergraduate women using an online survey. Path analysis revealed that greater dissatisfaction with genital appearance was associated with higher genital image self-consciousness during physical intimacy, which, in turn, was associated with lower sexual esteem, sexual satisfaction, and motivation to avoid risky sexual behavior. These findings underscore the detrimental impact of negative genital perceptions on young women’s sexual wellbeing, which is of particular concern given their vulnerability at this stage of sexual development as well as the high rates of sexually transmitted infections within this age group. Interventions that enhance satisfaction with the natural appearance of their genitalia could facilitate the development of a healthy sexual self-concept and provide long-term benefits in terms of sexual safety and satisfaction. PMID:20824180

  11. [Genital artefact ulcers appearing simultaneously in a couple].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Gil, Jesús; Guiote, María Victoria; Vilanova, Anna; Mendoza, Francisco; Linares, Juan; Naranjo, Ramón

    2006-03-01

    Genital ulcers may be due to a number of causes, with the most frequent ones being of infectious, tumorous and physical etiology. The coexistence of genital lesions in a couple makes it necessary to rule out sexual transmission as a first option, as it is not always the cause. We present the case of a 78 and 73-year-old couple, both of whom presented with genital ulcers which had been developing for months and which began to manifest simultaneously. The negative results in the tests performed, the exclusion of other likely causes and the favorable evolution of the lesions suggest self-inflicted ulcers as a probable diagnosis, an infrequent form of presentation of "folie à deux". Despite its infrequent occurrence, dermatitis artefacta is a cause that should always be included in the differential diagnosis of any skin lesion, as it often goes unnoticed because of its many clinical presentations. PMID:16595114

  12. Fitness consequences of artificial selection on relative male genital size.

    PubMed

    Booksmythe, Isobel; Head, Megan L; Keogh, J Scott; Jennions, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Male genitalia often show remarkable differences among related species in size, shape and complexity. Across poeciliid fishes, the elongated fin (gonopodium) that males use to inseminate females ranges from 18 to 53% of body length. Relative genital size therefore varies greatly among species. In contrast, there is often tight within-species allometric scaling, which suggests strong selection against genital-body size combinations that deviate from a species' natural line of allometry. We tested this constraint by artificially selecting on the allometric intercept, creating lines of males with relatively longer or shorter gonopodia than occur naturally for a given body size in mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki. We show that relative genital length is heritable and diverged 7.6-8.9% between our up-selected and down-selected lines, with correlated changes in body shape. However, deviation from the natural line of allometry does not affect male success in assays of attractiveness, swimming performance and, crucially, reproductive success (paternity). PMID:27188478

  13. Hysterosalpingography and ultrasonography findings of female genital tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Hardik Uresh; Sannananja, Bhagya; Baheti, Akshay Dwarka; Udare, Ashlesha Satish; Badhe, Padma Vikram

    2015-01-01

    Genital tuberculosis (TB) is an important cause of female infertility in the world, especially in developing countries. Majority of infertility cases are due to involvement of the fallopian tubes (92%–100%), endometrial cavity (50%), and ovaries (10%–30%); cervical and vulvovaginal TB are uncommon. Genital TB has characteristic radiological appearances based on the stage of the disease process (acute inflammatory or chronic fibrotic) and the organ of involvement. Hysterosalpingography (HSG) and ultrasonography (US) remain the main imaging modalities used in the diagnosis of genital TB. HSG is the primary modality for evaluating uterine, fallopian tube, and peritubal involvement and also helps in evaluating tubal patency. US, on the other hand, allows simultaneous evaluation of ovarian and extrapelvic involvement. PMID:25538038

  14. Female genital mutilation. Council on Scientific Affairs, American Medical Association.

    PubMed

    1995-12-01

    Female genital mutilation is the medically unnecessary modification of female genitalia. Female genital mutilation typically occurs at about 7 years of age, but mutilated women suffer severe medical complications throughout their adult lives. Female genital mutilation most frequently occurs in Africa, the Middle East, and Muslim parts of Indonesia and Malaysia, and it is generally part of a ceremonial induction into adult society. Recent political and economic problems in these regions, however, have increased the numbers of students and refugees to the United States. Consequently, US physicians are treating an increasing number of mutilated patients. The Council on Scientific Affairs recommends that US physicians join the World Health Organization, the World Medical Association, and other major health care organizations in opposing all forms of medically unnecessary surgical modification of the female genitalia. PMID:7474278

  15. Genital tuberculosis in the infertile women - an update.

    PubMed

    Ishrat, S; Fatima, P

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis is endemic in many developing countries of the world including Bangladesh. Genital tuberculosis is a significant cause of infertility in the women of these countries. The diagnosis of genital tuberculosis in infertile women is difficult as most of the cases are usually asymptomatic. A high index of clinical suspicion is required. Genital tuberculosis always affects the fallopian tubes. It affects the endometrium in half of the cases. In addition to tuberculin skin tests and interferon gamma release assays, procedures like hysterosalpingography, laparoscopy-dye test, endometrial curettage and laparoscopy with multiple sampling for smear microscopy and culture for mycobacterium tuberculosis can detect the cases. In recent years diagnosis has been improved by polymerase chain reaction targeted against mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA. Following early diagnosis, treatment with anti-tubercular drugs is favourable for fertility only when tubal and endometrial damage is minimal. In cases where the organs are more severely involved the outcome is poor even with in- vitro fertilization. PMID:25725695

  16. Comparison of the Vaginal Microbial Communities in Women with Recurrent Genital HSV Receiving Acyclovir Intravaginal Rings

    PubMed Central

    Ursell, Luke K.; Gunawardana, Manjula; Chang, Simon; Mullen, Madeline; Moss, John A.; Herold, Betsy C.; Keller, Marla J.; McDonald, Daniel; González, Antonio; Knight, Rob; Baum, Marc M.

    2014-01-01

    Vaginally administered antiviral agents may reduce the risk of HIV and HSV acquisition. Delivery of these drugs using intravaginal rings (IVRs) holds the potential benefits of improving adherence and decreasing systemic exposure, while maintaining steady-state drug levels in the vaginal tract. Elucidating how IVRs interact with the vaginal microbiome constitutes a critical step in evaluating the safety of these devices, as shifts the vaginal microbiome have been linked with several disease states. To date, clinical IVR trials have relied on culture-dependent methods that omit the high diversity of unculturable microbial population. Longitudinal, culture-independent characterization of the microbiota in vaginal samples from 6 women with recurrent genital HSV who used an acyclovir IVR was carried out and compared to the communities developing in biofilms on the IVR surface. The analysis utilized Illumina MiSeq sequence datasets generated from bar-coded amplicons of 16S rRNA gene fragments. Specific taxa in the vaginal communities of the study participants were found to be associated with the duration of recurrent genital HSV status and the number of HSV outbreaks. Taxonomic comparison of the vaginal and IVR biofilm communities did not reveal any significant differences, suggesting that the IVRs were not systematically enriched with members of the vaginal microbiome. Device usage did not alter the participants' vaginal microbial communities, within the confines of the current study design. Rigorous, molecular analysis of the effects of intravaginal devices on the corresponding microbial communities shows promise for integration with traditional approaches in the clinical evaluation of candidate products. PMID:24361269

  17. Genital Inflammation and the Risk of HIV Acquisition in Women

    PubMed Central

    Masson, Lindi; Passmore, Jo-Ann S.; Liebenberg, Lenine J.; Werner, Lise; Baxter, Cheryl; Arnold, Kelly B.; Williamson, Carolyn; Little, Francesca; Mansoor, Leila E.; Naranbhai, Vivek; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.; Ronacher, Katharina; Walzl, Gerhard; Garrett, Nigel J.; Williams, Brent L.; Couto-Rodriguez, Mara; Hornig, Mady; Lipkin, W. Ian; Grobler, Anneke; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha; Abdool Karim, Salim S.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Women in Africa, especially young women, have very high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) incidence rates that cannot be fully explained by behavioral risks. We investigated whether genital inflammation influenced HIV acquisition in this group. Methods. Twelve selected cytokines, including 9 inflammatory cytokines and chemokines (interleukin [IL]-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-8, interferon-γ inducible protein-10 [IP-10], monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein [MIP]-1α, MIP-1β), hematopoietic IL-7, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and regulatory IL-10 were measured prior to HIV infection in cervicovaginal lavages from 58 HIV seroconverters and 58 matched uninfected controls and in plasma from a subset of 107 of these women from the Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa 004 tenofovir gel trial. Results. HIV seroconversion was associated with raised genital inflammatory cytokines (including chemokines MIP-1α, MIP-1β, and IP-10). The risk of HIV acquisition was significantly higher in women with evidence of genital inflammation, defined by at least 5 of 9 inflammatory cytokines being raised (odds ratio, 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.3–7.9; P = .014). Genital cytokine concentrations were persistently raised (for about 1 year before infection), with no readily identifiable cause despite extensive investigation of several potential factors, including sexually transmitted infections and systemic cytokines. Conclusions. Elevated genital concentrations of HIV target cell–recruiting chemokines and a genital inflammatory profile contributes to the high risk of HIV acquisition in these African women. PMID:25900168

  18. [Actual issues of pathogenesis of tuberculosis of male genital organs].

    PubMed

    Stepanov, P I

    2014-01-01

    Based on a survey of 467 men with genital tuberculosis, following conclusions were made. The presence of morphological signs of nonspecific prostatitis of toxic-allergic genesis in patients with newly diagnosed tuberculosis of the urinary and genital organs proves the possibility of primary infection of the epididymis with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Primarily isolated epididymal tuberculosis was diagnosed in 21 (4,5%) patients. Tuberculous of testicles is in direct relationship to the duration of the existence of tuberculous infection in the epididymis. Bilateral tuberculous of the epididymis is always combined with tuberculosis of the prostate. Opportunity of both primary and secondary infection of the prostate gland with Mycobacterium tuberculosis can be considered as proved. 15 (3,2%) patients had initially isolated prostatic tuberculosis. Based on clinical observations, exogenous way of introduction of infection in tuberculosis of genital organs in men was not confirmed. The lymphogenous and hematogenous pathways are leading and most common pathways of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the male genitals. In patients with tuberculosis of the prostate, which is combined with a lesion of urinary organs, without involvement of scrotum in the pathological process, infection of prostate occurs by urinogenous way. Tuberculosis of the seminal vesicles is always secondary; none of the patients were initially diagnosed with isolated process. Based on the clinical manifestations of the disease and a detailed examination of the patient, it is virtually impossible to establish a particular way of infection in the male genitals. The main value of the information about the possible ways of tuberculosis infection consists of fully examination of reproductive system with histological and bacteriological verification of the diagnosis of each genital organs in each man with suspected tuberculosis. PMID:24956670

  19. Transmission of Chlamydia and genital warts during sleepwalking.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Kailash

    2008-02-01

    A boy aged 15 years infected a girl of 13 years with Chlamydia and genital warts. The boy has been engaged in sexual activities for the last four years. There was no dispute that the boy had had sex with the girl. He was prosecuted but acquitted by the Court on the ground of 'defence of sleepwalking'. This is the first case where sexually transmitted infections like Chlamydia and genital warts have been transmitted sexually through sleepwalking. This case also raises the issues of underage sex and issues of confidentiality. PMID:18334071

  20. Should Male Circumcision be Advocated for Genital Cancer Prevention?

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Brian J; Mindel, Adrian; Tobian, Aaron AR; Hankins, Catherine A; Gray, Ronald H; Bailey, Robert C; Bosch, Xavier; Wodak, Alex D

    2013-01-01

    The recent policy statement by the Cancer Council of Australia on infant circumcision and cancer prevention and the announcement that the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine will be made available for boys in Australia prompted us to provide an assessment of genital cancer prevention. While HPV vaccination of boys should help reduce anal cancer in homosexual men and cervical cancer in women, it will have little or no impact on penile or prostate cancer. Male circumcision can reduce cervical, penile and possibly prostate cancer. Promotion of both HPV vaccination and male circumcision will synergistically maximize genital cancer prevention. PMID:23167429

  1. Simultaneous genital ulcer and meningitis: a case of EBV infection

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Jairo Tavares; Lopes, Leonardo da Costa; Prokopowitsch, Aleksander Snioka

    2016-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with a broad spectrum of diseases, mainly because of its genomic characteristics, which result in different latency patterns in immune cells and infective mechanisms. The patient described in this report is a previously healthy young man who presented to the emergency department with clinical features consistent with meningitis and genital ulcers, which raised concern that the herpes simplex virus was the causative agent. However, the polymerase chain reaction of cerebral spinal fluid was positive for EBV. The authors highlight the importance of this infection among the differential diagnosis of central nervous system involvement and genital ulceration. PMID:27547743

  2. How often are gonorrhoea and genital yeast infection sexually transmitted?

    PubMed

    Thin, R N; Rendell, P; Wadsworth, J

    1979-08-01

    Although gonorrhoea is often regarded as the sexually transmitted disease against which others are measured, its infectivity is not clearly understood. Estimates of the infection rate have varied from 5--90%. In this study, 50 couples with gonorrhoea were matched with 50 couples with genital yeast infection. Gonorrhoea was diagnosed in both partners of 32 couples and genital yeast infection in both partners of 21 couples. These figures provide an indication of the sexual transmission of these conditions. The higher figure for gonorrhoea may be related to a greater urgency in tracing contacts. PMID:486247

  3. Simultaneous genital ulcer and meningitis: a case of EBV infection.

    PubMed

    Rahhal, Hassan; Nunes, Jairo Tavares; Lopes, Leonardo da Costa; Prokopowitsch, Aleksander Snioka

    2016-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with a broad spectrum of diseases, mainly because of its genomic characteristics, which result in different latency patterns in immune cells and infective mechanisms. The patient described in this report is a previously healthy young man who presented to the emergency department with clinical features consistent with meningitis and genital ulcers, which raised concern that the herpes simplex virus was the causative agent. However, the polymerase chain reaction of cerebral spinal fluid was positive for EBV. The authors highlight the importance of this infection among the differential diagnosis of central nervous system involvement and genital ulceration. PMID:27547743

  4. Psychological factors predicting the distress to female persistent genital arousal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Joana; Veríssimo, Ana; Nobre, Pedro J

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms of persistent genital arousal are expected to negatively affect women's sexual and emotional well-being. However, not all women who experience persistent genital arousal complain about their genital condition. Against this background, this study aimed to evaluate psychological predictors of the distress associated with persistent genital arousal symptoms, as well as psychological moderators influencing the conditions under which persistent genital arousal causes distress. A total of 117 women reporting symptoms of persistent genital arousal answered to online questionnaires measuring personality traits, sexual beliefs, and dyadic adjustment. Women have also completed a checklist measuring the frequency/severity of persistent genital arousal symptoms and the distress/impairment caused by these symptoms. Results showed that neuroticism, (low) openness, sexual conservatism, and (low) dyadic adjustment significantly predicted distress associated with genital symptoms. Furthermore, sexual conservatism was found to moderate the relation between the symptoms' severity and the distress associated with those symptoms. Overall, sexual conservatism seems to be a key differentiator factor, influencing the psychological conditions under which women may report higher levels of distress caused by persistent genital arousal. Because such findings focus on the distress to genital arousal symptoms rather than on persistent genital arousal disorder as a clinical entity, the results under consideration may or may not characterize women formally assigned to the persistent genital arousal disorder label. PMID:24328817

  5. Children's Memories of a Physical Examination Involving Genital Touch: Implications for Reports of Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saywitz, Karen J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Conducted medical checkups on five- and seven-year-old girls (n=72), one-half of whom also received genital examinations. Later solicited girls' memories. Most girls in genital condition revealed vaginal and anal contact only when asked directly about it. Children who had nongenital examination never falsely reported genital touch in free recall…

  6. Female genital mutilation/cutting type IV in Cambodia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Abdulcadir, Jasmine; Irion, Olivier; de Tejada, Begoña Martinez

    2015-12-01

    Nontherapeutic female genital modifications can cause short- and long-term consequences. Caregivers should promote women's self knowledge on genitals' anatomy and physiology, and psychophysical and sexual health. They should also inform on possible negative consequences of vulvar nontherapeutic alterations requested and avoid the medicalization of female genital mutilation. PMID:26732824

  7. Progesterone Levels Associate with a Novel Population of CCR5+CD38+ CD4 T Cells Resident in the Genital Mucosa with Lymphoid Trafficking Potential.

    PubMed

    Swaims-Kohlmeier, Alison; Haaland, Richard E; Haddad, Lisa B; Sheth, Anandi N; Evans-Strickfaden, Tammy; Lupo, L Davis; Cordes, Sarah; Aguirre, Alfredo J; Lupoli, Kathryn A; Chen, Cheng-Yen; Ofotukun, Igho; Hart, Clyde E; Kohlmeier, Jacob E

    2016-07-01

    The female genital tract (FGT) provides a means of entry to pathogens, including HIV, yet immune cell populations at this barrier between host and environment are not well defined. We initiated a study of healthy women to characterize resident T cell populations in the lower FGT from lavage and patient-matched peripheral blood to investigate potential mechanisms of HIV sexual transmission. Surprisingly, we observed FGT CD4 T cell populations were primarily CCR7(hi), consistent with a central memory or recirculating memory T cell phenotype. In addition, roughly half of these CCR7(hi) CD4 T cells expressed CD69, consistent with resident memory T cells, whereas the remaining CCR7(hi) CD4 T cells lacked CD69 expression, consistent with recirculating memory CD4 T cells that traffic between peripheral tissues and lymphoid sites. HIV susceptibility markers CCR5 and CD38 were increased on FGT CCR7(hi) CD4 T cells compared with blood, yet migration to the lymphoid homing chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 was maintained. Infection with GFP-HIV showed that FGT CCR7(hi) memory CD4 T cells are susceptible HIV targets, and productive infection of CCR7(hi) memory T cells did not alter chemotaxis to CCL19 and CCL21. Variations of resident CCR7(hi) FGT CD4 T cell populations were detected during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, and longitudinal analysis showed the frequency of this population positively correlated to progesterone levels. These data provide evidence women may acquire HIV through local infection of migratory CCR7(hi) CD4 T cells, and progesterone levels predict opportunities for HIV to access these novel target cells. PMID:27233960

  8. Genital Measures: Comments on Their Role in Understanding Human Sexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geer, James H.

    1976-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of genital measures in the study of both applied and basic work in human sexuality. Some of the advantages of psychophysiological measures are considered along with cautions concerning unwarranted assumptions. Some of the advances that are possible in both applied and basic work are examined. (Author)

  9. Mothers' Perceptions of Female Genital Mutilation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahanonu, E. L.; Victor, O.

    2014-01-01

    The practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) is widespread in Nigeria. This study was conducted to assess the perceptions of FGM among mothers at a primary healthcare centre in Lagos, Nigeria. A convenience sample of 95 mothers completed the pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaires. Data analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics…

  10. First HSV-1 non primary genital herpes in two patients.

    PubMed

    Fouéré, Sébastien; Chaine, Bénédicte; Maylin, Sarah; Minier, Marine; Vallée, Pascale; Scieux, Catherine; Lassau, François; Legoff, Jérôme; Janier, Michel

    2016-05-01

    First HSV-1 genital episodes in HSV-2 infected patients however, had never been demonstrated until the 2 cases we observed. This scarcity could reflect the lower impact of HSV-2 on western populations but questions the existence of cross-protection between viral types. PMID:27018573

  11. Computational Modeling and Simulation of Genital Tubercle Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hypospadias is a developmental defect of urethral tube closure that has a complex etiology. Here, we describe a multicellular agent-based model of genital tubercle development that simulates urethrogenesis from the urethral plate stage to urethral tube closure in differentiating ...

  12. [Prevalence of genital anomalies in young football players].

    PubMed

    Mónaco, M; Verdugo, F; Bodell, M; Avendaño, E; Til, L; Drobnic, F

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of genital examination (GE) during the Pre-participation Physical Examination (PPE) is to identify the state of maturity, and rule out any genital pathology. To describe genital anomalies (GA) and estimate the awareness of GE in young football players. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 280 elite football players from the results of PPE over two seasons. There was a detection rate of 5.4% GA, with varicocele being 3.2%, and of which only 13% were aware of their condition. Although this study shows a low incidence of genital abnormality in the study population, only 13% were aware of the GE prior to assessment. These findings demonstrate a low incidence of GA in this population. While GE is recommended during PPE, it is not a routine practice performed by family doctors or sports medicine specialists. This article attempts to raise awareness of the importance of GE in PPE as a preventive health strategy. PMID:25434530

  13. [The microbial etiology of genital discharges in Nouakchott, Mauritania].

    PubMed

    Lô, B B; Philippon, M; Cunin, P; Meynard, D; Tandia-Diagana, M

    1997-01-01

    The survey carried on 579 patients of both sexes, consulting for genital discharges (spontaneous or referred), showed that in 61.1% men cases, STD agents were isolated (Neisseria gonorrhoeae 51.5%) and 64.4% in women cases (Gardnerella vaginalis 24%, Candida albicans 20%. Trichomonas vaginalis 14%). 17% of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains were penicillinase-producing (PPNG). PMID:9289258

  14. 21 CFR 884.5960 - Genital vibrator for therapeutic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Genital vibrator for therapeutic use. 884.5960 Section 884.5960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... of sexual dysfunction or as an adjunct to Kegel's exercise (tightening of the muscles of the...

  15. 21 CFR 884.5960 - Genital vibrator for therapeutic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Genital vibrator for therapeutic use. 884.5960 Section 884.5960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... of sexual dysfunction or as an adjunct to Kegel's exercise (tightening of the muscles of the...

  16. 21 CFR 884.5960 - Genital vibrator for therapeutic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Genital vibrator for therapeutic use. 884.5960 Section 884.5960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... of sexual dysfunction or as an adjunct to Kegel's exercise (tightening of the muscles of the...

  17. 21 CFR 884.5960 - Genital vibrator for therapeutic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Genital vibrator for therapeutic use. 884.5960 Section 884.5960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... of sexual dysfunction or as an adjunct to Kegel's exercise (tightening of the muscles of the...

  18. 21 CFR 884.5960 - Genital vibrator for therapeutic use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Genital vibrator for therapeutic use. 884.5960 Section 884.5960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... of sexual dysfunction or as an adjunct to Kegel's exercise (tightening of the muscles of the...

  19. Defining Postpartum Uterine Disease and the Mechanisms of Infection and Immunity in the Female Reproductive Tract in Cattle 1

    PubMed Central

    Sheldon, I Martin; Cronin, James; Goetze, Leopold; Donofrio, Gaetano; Schuberth, Hans-Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Uterine microbial disease affects half of all dairy cattle after parturition, causing infertility by disrupting uterine and ovarian function. Infection with Escherichia coli, Arcanobacterium pyogenes and bovine herpesvirus 4 causes endometrial tissue damage. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on endometrial cells detect pathogen-associated molecules such as bacterial DNA, lipids and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), leading to secretion of cytokines, chemokines and anti-microbial peptides. Chemokines attract neutrophils and macrophages to eliminate the bacteria, although persistence of neutrophils is associated with subclinical endometritis and infertility. Cows with uterine infections are less likely to ovulate because they have slower growth of the postpartum dominant follicle in the ovary, lower peripheral plasma estradiol concentrations, and perturbation of hypothalamic and pituitary function. The follicular fluid of animals with endometritis contains LPS, which is detected by the TLR4/CD14/LY96 (MD2) receptor complex on granulosa cells leading to lower aromatase expression and reduced estradiol secretion. If cows with uterine disease ovulate, the peripheral plasma concentrations of progesterone are lower than in normal animals. However luteal phases are often extended in animals with uterine disease, probably because infection switches the endometrial epithelial secretion of prostaglandins from the F to the E series, by a phospholipase A2 mediated mechanism, which would disrupt luteolysis. The regulation of endometrial immunity depends on steroid hormones, somatotrophins and local regulatory proteins. Advances in knowledge about infection and immunity in the female genital tract should be exploited to develop new therapeutics for uterine disease. PMID:19439727

  20. Defining postpartum uterine disease and the mechanisms of infection and immunity in the female reproductive tract in cattle.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, I Martin; Cronin, James; Goetze, Leopold; Donofrio, Gaetano; Schuberth, Hans-Joachim

    2009-12-01

    Uterine microbial disease affects half of all dairy cattle after parturition, causing infertility by disrupting uterine and ovarian function. Infection with Escherichia coli, Arcanobacterium pyogenes, and bovine herpesvirus 4 causes endometrial tissue damage. Toll-like receptors on endometrial cells detect pathogen-associated molecules such as bacterial DNA, lipids, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), leading to secretion of cytokines, chemokines, and antimicrobial peptides. Chemokines attract neutrophils and macrophages to eliminate the bacteria, although persistence of neutrophils is associated with subclinical endometritis and infertility. Cows with uterine infections are less likely to ovulate because they have slower growth of the postpartum dominant follicle in the ovary, lower peripheral plasma estradiol concentrations, and perturbation of hypothalamic and pituitary function. The follicular fluid of animals with endometritis contains LPS, which is detected by the TLR4/CD14/LY96 (MD2) receptor complex on granulosa cells, leading to lower aromatase expression and reduced estradiol secretion. If cows with uterine disease ovulate, the peripheral plasma concentrations of progesterone are lower than those in normal animals. However, luteal phases are often extended in animals with uterine disease, probably because infection switches the endometrial epithelial secretion of prostaglandins from the F series to the E series by a phospholipase A2-mediated mechanism, which would disrupt luteolysis. The regulation of endometrial immunity depends on steroid hormones, somatotrophins, and local regulatory proteins. Advances in knowledge about infection and immunity in the female genital tract should be exploited to develop new therapeutics for uterine disease. PMID:19439727

  1. Trends of primary and subsequent cancers of the gastrointestinal tract in the Czech population, 1976-2005.

    PubMed

    Dítě, Petr; Geryk, Edvard

    2010-01-01

    A total of 355,624 new gastrointestinal (GI) cancers were registered in 1976-2005 in the Czech Cancer Registry. Of these, there were 14,744 (4.1%) primary and 26,790 (7.5%) subsequent cases, of which all were GI multiple cancers (12.1% males and 11.1% females). The primary GI cancers were followed by 16,362 other neoplasms (60.7% males, 39.3% females); the subsequent GI cancers were preceded by 31,519 other neoplasms (55.8% males, 44.2% females). Double neoplasms were higher in females, and multiple cases were higher in males. The number of primary cases peaked in 1997, the number of subsequent cases increased until 2005. Almost half of the cases were registered in the age group of 50-69 years. The average interval between primary GI cancers and subsequent neoplasms was 6.1 years; the ratio of synchronous to metachronous cases was 1:3.6 in males and 1:5 in females. The most frequent synchronous cases in males were cancers of other GI, urinary, genital and respiratory tract; in females these were cancers of other GI, genital and urinary tract and the breast. The most frequent cancers preceding the next subsequent GI cancer included primary cancers of the skin, other GI, genital, urinary and respiratory tract for males, and those of the skin, genital and other GI tract and breast cancer for females. The 23,462 subsequent GI cancers reported as a 2nd cancer included early stages in 29.6% of males and 27.9% of females, advanced stages in 31.2% males and 31.3% females, and unknown stages in 39.3% males and 40.8% females. Of 3,562 primary neoplasms of advanced stages before subsequent GI cancers, 2,093 were cases at stage III (51.4% males, 48.6% females) and 1,469 cases were at stage IV (60.2% males, 39.8% females); the most frequent in males were primary cancers of other GI, respiratory and genital tract, and cancers of other GI, breast and genital cancers in females. Of 9,568 primary neoplasms before subsequent GI cancers at advantage stages, 3,325 cases were

  2. Immunohistochemical analysis of clear cell carcinoma of the gynecologic tract.

    PubMed

    Vang, R; Whitaker, B P; Farhood, A I; Silva, E G; Ro, J Y; Deavers, M T

    2001-07-01

    Clear cell carcinoma of the gynecologic tract has been defined in terms of its clinical and histologic features; however, its immunophenotypic profile has not been fully characterized. Seventeen cases of primary clear cell carcinoma from various sites within the female genital tract (11 ovary, 5 uterus, 1 vagina) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. These tumors were assessed for the expression of cytokeratin 7 (CK7), cytokeratin 20 (CK20), low and high molecular weight cytokeratin, (CAM5.2 and 34 beta E12, respectively), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), Leu-M1, vimentin, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), bcl-2, p53, HER-2/neu, and CA-125. The characteristic immunoprofile for all sites was positivity for CK7, CAM5.2, 34 beta E12, CEA, Leu-M1, vimentin, bcl-2, p53, and CA-125; variably positivity for ER and HER-2/neu; and negativity for CK20 and PR. For comparison, two cases of urologic clear cell carcinoma (1 bladder, 1 urethra) were also studied, and their profile was found to be similar to the gynecologic cases. Aside from minor differences, clear cell carcinoma appears to have the same immunophenotype regardless of whether it originates in the endometrium, ovary, or genitourinary tract. Much of its profile is similar to other gynecologic adenocarcinomas, but some of the markers studied may be useful in the differential diagnosis of this tumor. PMID:11444201

  3. Sperm Storage in the Female Reproductive Tract in Birds

    PubMed Central

    SASANAMI, Tomohiro; MATSUZAKI, Mei; MIZUSHIMA, Shusei; HIYAMA, Gen

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The ability to store sperm in the female genital tract is frequently observed in vertebrates as well as in invertebrates. Because of the presence of a system that maintains the ejaculated sperm alive in the female reproductive tract in a variety of animals, this strategy appears to be advantageous for animal reproduction. Although the occurrence and physiological reasons for sperm storage have been reported extensively in many species, the mechanism of sperm storage in the female reproductive tract has been poorly understood until recently. In avian species, the specialized simple tubular invaginations referred to as sperm storage tubules (SSTs) are found in the oviduct as a sperm storage organ. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the mechanism of sperm uptake into the SSTs, maintenance within it, and controlled release of the sperm from the SSTs. Since sperm storage in avian species occurs at high body temperatures (i.e., 41 C), elucidation of the mechanism for sperm storage may lead to the development of new strategies for sperm preservation at ambient temperatures, and these could be used in a myriad of applications in the field of reproduction. PMID:23965601

  4. Urinary Tract Infections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on urinary tract infections is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are…

  5. The activity of candidate virucidal agents, low pH and genital secretions against HIV-1 in vitro.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, T J; Kinchington, D; Kangro, H O; Jeffries, D J

    1995-01-01

    The effect of low pH, normally present in the female genital tract, on HIV viability was examined. HIV is more acid stable than previously reported with no substantial reduction in infectivity occurring until pH levels are reduced below 4.5. The virucidal activity of 3 topical spermicides and chlorhexidine was assessed in vitro using previously established and newly modified assay systems. None of the agents tested had a selectivity index (SI) greater than 5.2. Semen and cervical secretions were assessed for their ability to inhibit HIV-1. While no virucidal effect was found in the latter, seminal fluid was found to have significant activity against HIV-1 and a SI of approximately 50. PMID:7548290

  6. DNA sequence and genome organization of genital human papillomavirus type 6b.

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, E; Dürst, M; Demankowski, C; Lattermann, O; Zech, R; Wolfsperger, E; Suhai, S; zur Hausen, H

    1983-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the circular double-stranded DNA of the genital human papillomavirus type 6b (HPV6b) comprising 7902 bp was determined and compared with the DNA sequences of human papillomavirus type 1a (HPV1a) and bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV1). All major open reading frames are located on one DNA strand only. Their arrangement reveals that the genomic organization of HPV6b is similar to that of HPV1a and BPV1. The putative early region includes two large open reading frames E1 and E2 with marked amino acid sequence homologies to HPV1a and BPV1 which are flanked by several smaller frames. The internal part of E2 completely overlaps with another open reading frame E4. The putative late region contains two large open reading frames L1 and L2. The L1 amino acid sequences are highly conserved among analyzed papillomavirus types. By sequence comparison, potential promoter, splicing and polyadenylation signals can be localized in HPV6b DNA suggesting possible mechanisms of genital papillomavirus gene expression. PMID:6321162

  7. Survey of genitourinary medicine specialist registrars in the United Kingdom regarding genital dermatology training.

    PubMed

    Hartley, A; Bates, C M; Sashidharan, P N

    2016-07-01

    The British Association for Sexual Health and HIV Genital Dermatology Special Interest Group (SIG) conducted a survey of specialist registrar training in genital dermatology (GD) to inform future training provision provided by the group and other services. The survey shows that training in GD is variable with most trainees receiving GD training through formal lectures or ad hoc clinical teaching, with fewer trainees having access to specialist GD clinics. There is mixed confidence in diagnosis and use of topical steroids, and few trainees are independent in GD practical procedures. Many trainees feel training could be improved with requests for a formalised attachment, formal qualification and greater training in practical procedures. The GD SIG, in liaison with British Association for Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH), aims to optimise GD training for registrars. Plans for improved resources are in progress, including a practical skills course and e-learning. It is hoped this survey will also inform GD training at both local and national levels. PMID:26394999

  8. Community-based survey on female genital excision in Faranah District, Guinea.

    PubMed

    Keita, D; Blankhart, D

    2001-11-01

    This paper reports on a community-based study in 1999 of the beliefs and practices of people in Faranah District, Guinea regarding female genital excision (FGE). Semi-structured individual interviews and focus group discussions were carried out with women of reproductive age, older women, married men, community and religious leaders, traditional practitioners and health workers. The study found that FGE was being carried out on girls aged 6-14, mostly using a traditional knife and involving total excision of the clitoris and partial removal of the external genitals, in conjunction with instruction on how young women should behave when they are married. The practice is illegal under national laws but few people were aware of this. There was a tendency towards taking girls for medical care to avoid complications, and some people suggested that FGE should be done by medical professionals, but this was a minority. More than 60 per cent of respondents thought FGE was harmful to health and supported its abolition. Many more men than women took this view; women felt under pressure to maintain the tradition. To stop FGE, local organisations need to support a process of change within the community, including awareness-raising about the law and the negative health effects of FGE, promoting alternative ceremonies, educating practitioners and supporting education and improvements in the status of women. PMID:11765390

  9. Ineffectiveness of topical idoxuridine in dimethyl sulfoxide for therapy for genital herpes.

    PubMed

    Silvestri, D L; Corey, L; Holmes, K K

    1982-08-27

    The efficacy and toxicity of topical applications of 30% idoxuridine in dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethyl sulfoxide alone, or saline in 96 recurrent and 39 first episodes of genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection were compared. Drug was applied to lesions four times daily for seven days. In recurrent episodes, the duration of viral shedding after beginning idoxuridine in dimethyl sulfoxide use was significantly shorter (0.6 days) than with dimethyl sulfoxide (1.4 days) or saline (2.0 days) (P less than .05). In primary episodes, viral shedding lasted 2.6 days with idoxuridine in dimethyl sulfoxide and 8.4 days with dimethyl sulfoxide or saline. Idoxuridine in dimethyl sulfoxide had no effect in recurrent or primary HSV on duration of symptoms, new lesion formation, healing time, or risk of subsequent recurrence. Complications in patients given idoxuridine in dimethyl sulfoxide included local burning, generalized contact dermatitis, and vulvar carcinoma in situ. Thirty percent idoxuridine in dimethyl sulfoxide has no effect on clinical manifestations of genital HSV infection and may be hazardous. PMID:7047788

  10. Orthotopic genital sparing radical cystectomy in pre-menopausal women with muscle-invasive bladder carcinoma: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Moursy, Essam ElDin S.; Eldahshoursy, Mohammed Z.; Gamal, Wael M.; Badawy, Abdelbasset A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Invasive cancer bladder is a life-threatening disease that is best treated with radical cystectomy and a suitable urinary diversion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the oncological outcome, voiding and sexual functions after genital sparing radical cystectomy with orthotopic bladder reconstruction in pre-menopausal women with bladder cancer. Materials and Methods: 18 pre-menopausal women who underwent radical cystectomy and orthotopic urinary diversion with preservation of genital organs were included for this study. The patients were followed-up clinically and radiologically to assess their oncological outcome in addition to their voiding and sexual function. Results: Mean age of the patients was 37.8 years, and the median follow-up after surgery was 70 months. One patient was lost to follow-up at 12 months post-operatively. The surgery was completed as planned in all patients, with a mean operative time of 290 min and an average blood loss of 750 mL. 14 patients were able to void satisfactorily, being continent day and night, while four patients needed clean intermittent catheterization. Sexual life remained unchanged in 15 cases, while three patients reported dysparunea. Till the last follow-up, there was no local recurrence while distant metastases were detected in three cases, two of whom died. Conclusions: Genital sparing cystectomy is a valid option for managing carefully selected women with muscle-invasive bladder cancer with good functional and sexual outcomes. PMID:26941498

  11. Influence of the tryptophan-indole-IFNγ axis on human genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection: role of vaginal co-infections

    PubMed Central

    Aiyar, Ashok; Quayle, Alison J.; Buckner, Lyndsey R.; Sherchand, Shardulendra P.; Chang, Theresa L.; Zea, Arnold H.; Martin, David H.; Belland, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The natural history of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections can vary widely; infections can spontaneously resolve but can also last from months to years, potentially progressing to cause significant pathology. The host and bacterial factors underlying this wide variation are not completely understood, but emphasize the bacterium's capacity to evade/adapt to the genital immune response, and/or exploit local environmental conditions to survive this immune response. IFNγ is considered to be a primary host protective cytokine against endocervical C. trachomatis infections. IFNγ acts by inducing the host enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxgenase, which catabolizes tryptophan, thereby depriving the bacterium of this essential amino acid. In vitro studies have revealed that tryptophan deprivation causes Chlamydia to enter a viable but non-infectious growth pattern that is termed a persistent growth form, characterized by a unique morphology and gene expression pattern. Provision of tryptophan can reactivate the bacterium to the normal developmental cycle. There is a significant difference in the capacity of ocular and genital C. trachomatis serovars to counter tryptophan deprivation. The latter uniquely encode a functional tryptophan synthase to synthesize tryptophan via indole salvage, should indole be available in the infection microenvironment. In vitro studies have confirmed the capacity of indole to mitigate the effects of IFNγ; it has been suggested that a perturbed vaginal microbiome may provide a source of indole in vivo. Consistent with this hypothesis, the microbiome associated with bacterial vaginosis includes species that encode a tryptophanase to produce indole. In this review, we discuss the natural history of genital chlamydial infections, morphological and molecular changes imposed by IFNγ on Chlamydia, and finally, the microenvironmental conditions associated with vaginal co-infections that can ameliorate the effects of IFNγ on C. trachomatis. PMID

  12. A cross-sectional study on the relationship of age, gestational age and HIV infection to bacterial vaginosis and genital mycoplasma infection

    PubMed Central

    Redelinghuys, Mathys J; Ehlers, Marthie M; Dreyer, Andries W; Lombaard, Hennie; Olorunju, Steve A S; Kock, Marleen M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Pregnant women are especially at risk of developing complications when infected with reproductive tract infections (RTIs). The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and genital mycoplasmas in pregnant women and investigate the associations between BV, genital mycoplasmas, HIV infection, age and gestational age. Design Cross-sectional study with descriptive and analytical components. Setting Antenatal clinic of a tertiary academic hospital in South Africa. Participants 220 pregnant women older than 18 were included in the study and provided self-collected vaginal swabs. Primary and secondary outcomes BV and genital mycoplasma colonisation and/or infection in women of differing age, gestational period and HIV status. Results The prevalence of BV was 17.7% (39/220) (95% CI 12.9 to 23.4), intermediate vaginal flora (IVF) 15% (33/220) (95% CI 10.56 to 20.42), and the overall prevalence of genital mycoplasmas was 84% (185/220) (95% CI 78.47 to 88.58). BV was significantly associated with HIV infection with an OR of 2.84 (95% CI 1.08 to 7.46 and p value=0.034). However, BV was inversely associated with gestational age with an OR of 0.08 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.42 and p value=0.003) for second trimester pregnancies and an OR of 0.03 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.17 and p value<0.001) for third trimester pregnancies using the first trimester as reference. IVF was significantly associated with HIV infection with an OR of 2.7 (95% CI 1.07 to 6.79 and p value=0.035) but not with age or gestational age. Genital mycoplasmas were not significantly associated with age, gestational age, HIV status, BV flora or IVF. Conclusions The high infection rate of genital mycoplasmas and the association of BV with HIV found in this study reiterate the importance of screening for these RTIs in high-risk groups such as pregnant women. PMID:26482771

  13. Susceptibilities of genital mycoplasmas to the newer quinolones as determined by the agar dilution method.

    PubMed Central

    Kenny, G E; Hooton, T M; Roberts, M C; Cartwright, F D; Hoyt, J

    1989-01-01

    The increasing resistance of genital mycoplasmas to tetracycline poses a problem because tetracycline is one of the few antimicrobial agents active against Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, chlamydiae, gonococci, and other agents of genitourinary-tract disease. Since the quinolones are a promising group of antimicrobial agents, the susceptibilities of M. hominis and U. urealyticum to the newer 6-fluoroquinolones were determined by the agar dilution method. Ciprofloxacin, difloxacin, and ofloxacin had good activity against M. hominis, with the MIC for 50% of isolates tested (MIC50) being 1 microgram/ml. Fleroxacin, lomefloxacin, pefloxacin, and rosoxacin had MIC50s of 2 micrograms/ml. Enoxacin, norfloxacin, and amifloxacin had MIC50s of 8 to 16 micrograms/ml, and cinoxacin and nalidixic acid were inactive (MIC50, greater than or equal to 256 micrograms/ml). Overall, the activities of 6-fluoroquinolones for ureaplasmas were similar to those for M. hominis, with MICs being the same or twofold greater. The most active 6-fluoroquinolones against ureaplasmas were difloxacin, ofloxacin, and pefloxacin, with MIC50s of 1 to 2 micrograms/ml. Ciprofloxacin was unusual in that the MIC50 for M. hominis was 1 microgram/ml, whereas the MIC50 for ureaplasmas was 8 micrograms/ml. Since the MIC50s for the most active quinolones approximate achievable concentrations in blood and urine, quinolones have promise in treating mycoplasmal infections. PMID:2712541

  14. Identification of rhesus macaque genital microbiota by 16S pyrosequencing shows similarities to human bacterial vaginosis: implications for use as an animal model for HIV vaginal infection.

    PubMed

    Spear, Gregory T; Gilbert, Douglas; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Doyle, Lara; Green, Linda; Gillevet, Patrick M; Landay, Alan L; Veazey, Ronald S

    2010-02-01

    The composition of the lower genital tract microbiota in women is believed to affect the risk of sexually acquiring HIV. Since macaque genital microbiota could similarly impact vaginal infection with SIV we identified microbiota in 11 rhesus macaques using multitag pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The microbiota was polymicrobial with a median of nine distinct bacterial taxa per macaque (range 3-16 taxa, each constituting 1% or more of the sequences). Taxa frequently found included Peptoniphilus, Sneathia, Porphyromonas, Mobiluncus, Atopobacter, Dialister, Thioreductor, Prevotella, and Streptococcus, many of which are also frequently found in women with bacterial vaginosis. Lactobacillus sequences (mostly L. johnsonii) were found in only four macaques but were not predominant in any (median of 0% of sequences, range 0-39%). All macaques were resampled 6 months after the first time point to determine the stability of the microbiota. The microbiota remained polymicrobial with a median of 10 taxa (range 6-18). Microbial patterns remained similar for six of the macaques, changed substantially in two, and had a mixed pattern in three. Significant sialidase enzyme activity, a marker of bacteria vaginosis in women, was detected in genital fluid from 9/11 and 8/11 macaques from the first and second time points, respectively. These results show that the macaque lower genital microbiota resembled a bacteria vaginosis-type microbiota in women and suggest that the microbiota of macaques in captivity promote rather than protect against vaginal infection with SIV. These results also suggest macaques could be used as an animal model to study some aspects of bacterial vaginosis. PMID:20156101

  15. Identification of Rhesus Macaque Genital Microbiota by 16S Pyrosequencing Shows Similarities to Human Bacterial Vaginosis: Implications for Use as an Animal Model for HIV Vaginal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Douglas; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Doyle, Lara; Green, Linda; Gillevet, Patrick M.; Landay, Alan L.; Veazey, Ronald S.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The composition of the lower genital tract microbiota in women is believed to affect the risk of sexually acquiring HIV. Since macaque genital microbiota could similarly impact vaginal infection with SIV we identified microbiota in 11 rhesus macaques using multitag pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The microbiota was polymicrobial with a median of nine distinct bacterial taxa per macaque (range 3–16 taxa, each constituting 1% or more of the sequences). Taxa frequently found included Peptoniphilus, Sneathia, Porphyromonas, Mobiluncus, Atopobacter, Dialister, Thioreductor, Prevotella, and Streptococcus, many of which are also frequently found in women with bacterial vaginosis. Lactobacillus sequences (mostly L. johnsonii) were found in only four macaques but were not predominant in any (median of 0% of sequences, range 0–39%). All macaques were resampled 6 months after the first time point to determine the stability of the microbiota. The microbiota remained polymicrobial with a median of 10 taxa (range 6–18). Microbial patterns remained similar for six of the macaques, changed substantially in two, and had a mixed pattern in three. Significant sialidase enzyme activity, a marker of bacteria vaginosis in women, was detected in genital fluid from 9/11 and 8/11 macaques from the first and second time points, respectively. These results show that the macaque lower genital microbiota resembled a bacteria vaginosis-type microbiota in women and suggest that the microbiota of macaques in captivity promote rather than protect against vaginal infection with SIV. These results also suggest macaques could be used as an animal model to study some aspects of bacterial vaginosis. PMID:20156101

  16. Reproductive Tract Tumours: The Scourge of Woman Reproduction Ails Indian Rhinoceroses

    PubMed Central

    Hermes, Robert; Göritz, Frank; Saragusty, Joseph; Stoops, Monica A.; Hildebrandt, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    In Indian rhinoceros, extensive leiomyoma, a benign smooth muscle tumour, was sporadically diagnosed post mortem and commonly thought of as contributing factor for reduced fecundity of this species in captivity. However, to date, the prevalence of reproductive tract tumours and their relevance for fecundity are unknown. Our analysis of the international studbook now reveals that females cease reproducing at the age of 18.1±1.2 years; equivalent to a reproductive lifespan of just 9.5±1.3 years. This short reproductive life is in sharp contrast to their longevity in captivity of over 40 years. Here we show, after examining 42% of the captive female population, that age-related genital tract tumours are highly prevalent in this endangered species. Growth and development of these tumours was found to be age-related, starting from the age of 10 years. All females older than 12 years had developed genital tumours, just 7–9 years past maturity. Tumour sizes ranged from 1.5–10 cm. With age, tumours became more numerous, sometimes merging into one large diffuse tumour mass. These tumours, primarily vaginal and cervical, presumably cause widespread young-age infertility by the age of 18 years. In few cases, tumour necrosis suggested possible malignancy of tumours. Possible consequences of such genital tract tumour infestation are hindered intromission, pain during mating, hampered sperm passage, risk of ascending infection during pregnancy, dystocia, or chronic vaginal bleeding. In humans, leiomyoma affect up to 80% of pre-menopause women. While a leading cause for infertility, pregnancy is known to reduce the risk of tumour development. However, different from human, surgical intervention is not a viable treatment option in rhinoceroses. Thus, in analogy to humans, we suggest early onset and seamless consecutive pregnancies to help reduce prevalence of this disease, better maintain a self-sustained captive population and improve animal welfare. PMID:24671211

  17. Reproductive tract tumours: the scourge of woman reproduction ails Indian rhinoceroses.

    PubMed

    Hermes, Robert; Göritz, Frank; Saragusty, Joseph; Stoops, Monica A; Hildebrandt, Thomas B

    2014-01-01

    In Indian rhinoceros, extensive leiomyoma, a benign smooth muscle tumour, was sporadically diagnosed post mortem and commonly thought of as contributing factor for reduced fecundity of this species in captivity. However, to date, the prevalence of reproductive tract tumours and their relevance for fecundity are unknown. Our analysis of the international studbook now reveals that females cease reproducing at the age of 18.1±1.2 years; equivalent to a reproductive lifespan of just 9.5±1.3 years. This short reproductive life is in sharp contrast to their longevity in captivity of over 40 years. Here we show, after examining 42% of the captive female population, that age-related genital tract tumours are highly prevalent in this endangered species. Growth and development of these tumours was found to be age-related, starting from the age of 10 years. All females older than 12 years had developed genital tumours, just 7-9 years past maturity. Tumour sizes ranged from 1.5-10 cm. With age, tumours became more numerous, sometimes merging into one large diffuse tumour mass. These tumours, primarily vaginal and cervical, presumably cause widespread young-age infertility by the age of 18 years. In few cases, tumour necrosis suggested possible malignancy of tumours. Possible consequences of such genital tract tumour infestation are hindered intromission, pain during mating, hampered sperm passage, risk of ascending infection during pregnancy, dystocia, or chronic vaginal bleeding. In humans, leiomyoma affect up to 80% of pre-menopause women. While a leading cause for infertility, pregnancy is known to reduce the risk of tumour development. However, different from human, surgical intervention is not a viable treatment option in rhinoceroses. Thus, in analogy to humans, we suggest early onset and seamless consecutive pregnancies to help reduce prevalence of this disease, better maintain a self-sustained captive population and improve animal welfare. PMID:24671211

  18. Does menstrual cycle phase influence the gender specificity of heterosexual women's genital and subjective sexual arousal?

    PubMed

    Bossio, Jennifer A; Suschinsky, Kelly D; Puts, David A; Chivers, Meredith L

    2014-07-01

    Unlike men, heterosexual women's genital arousal is gender nonspecific, such that heterosexual women show relatively similar genital arousal to sexual stimuli depicting men and women but typically report greater subjective arousal to male stimuli. Based on the ovulatory-shift hypothesis-that women show a mid-cycle shift in preferences towards more masculine features during peak fertility-we predicted that heterosexual women's genital and subjective arousal would be gender specific (more arousal towards male stimuli) during peak fertility. Twenty-two naturally-cycling heterosexual women were assessed during the follicular and luteal phases of their menstrual cycle to examine the role of menstrual cycle phase in gender specificity of genital and subjective sexual arousal. Menstrual cycle phase was confirmed with salivary hormone assays; phase at the time of first testing was counterbalanced. Women's genital and subjective sexual arousal patterns were gender nonspecific, irrespective of cycle phase. Cycle phase at first testing session did not influence genital or subjective arousal in the second testing session. Similar to previous research, women's genital and subjective sexual arousal varied with cues of sexual activity, but neither genital nor subjective sexual arousal varied by gender cues, with the exception of masturbation stimuli, where women showed higher genital arousal to the stimuli depicting male compared to female actors. These data suggest that menstrual cycle phase does not influence the gender specificity of heterosexual women's genital and subjective sexual arousal. PMID:24379080

  19. The ectodysplasin pathway in feather tract development.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Leslie; Lindon, Catherine; Morgan, Bruce A

    2005-03-01

    The ectodysplasin pathway, comprising the ligand ectodysplasin, its receptor Edar and a dedicated death domain adaptor protein Edaradd, plays an important role in epidermal organ formation in mammals. Mutations in the genes encoding these proteins cause dysplasia or absence of teeth, sweat glands and hair follicles. However, the relative position of this pathway in the regulatory hierarchy directing follicle formation remains unclear. In this work, the chicken orthologs of Eda, Edar and Edaradd were cloned to exploit the temporal precision of the feather tract system in order to study the role of the ectodysplasin pathway. We find that these genes are expressed in a similar pattern during feather and hair development, with the notable difference that the ligand Eda, which is expressed in the epidermis of the mouse, is expressed in the dermis of the feather tract. Contrary to conclusions reached from the analysis of mutant mice, we find that localization of Edar expression to the nascent placode is coincident or subsequent to the local expression of other markers of placodal differentiation, and not an upstream event in tract patterning. Furthermore, forced expression of BMP and activated beta-catenin demonstrate that local expression of Edar is dictated by the interaction between these two pathways. These results suggest that activation of the ectodysplasin pathway may be permissive for activating signals to overcome signals that inhibit placode formation, but the function of this pathway in the specification of follicle initiation lies downstream of other patterning events. PMID:15673574

  20. The School Nurse's Role in Addressing Female Genital Mutilation.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Barbara

    2016-09-01

    Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is the practice in some immigrant populations of cutting or causing injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. The incidence of FGM/C has increased by 314% in school-aged children according to a study published in 2016. The school nurse is in an optimal position to identify children at risk and build collaborative relationships to treat the students affected by the practice. FGM/C is child abuse and carries both federal and state legal consequences. It is important for the school nurse to understand the cultural context, legal guidance, and social consequences of this practice within the greater community. The school nurse should work to develop interagency guidelines to provide safe processes for the child and the family. The most effective programs use a combination of educational strategies for families and communities along with law enforcement to help abolish the practice. PMID:27194237

  1. Male genital lichen sclerosus in recipients of bone marrow transplants.

    PubMed

    Thomas, L J; Shim, T N; Borysiewicz, C; Dinneen, M; Fawcett, H; Roy, A; Francis, N; Bunker, C B

    2016-07-01

    We describe two patients who received haematopoietic stem cell marrow transplantation, and developed male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc), one of whom also had squamous carcinoma in situ (Bowen disease). MGLSc has previously been associated with graft-versus-host disease. Various aetiological factors for LSc have been proposed, including a role for chronic occluded epithelial exposure to urine. A number of factors imply that the risk of malignant transformation in this bone marrow transplant group is likely to be higher than the overall figure of 2-9% cited for MGLSc. It is vital, therefore, that clinicians involved in the care of those with haematological malignancies are adequately prepared to examine the genitals of their patients, and to recognize and refer any suspect penile lesions. PMID:26936088

  2. Female genital cosmetic surgery: a review of techniques and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Iglesia, Cheryl B; Yurteri-Kaplan, Ladin; Alinsod, Red

    2013-12-01

    The aesthetic and functional procedures that comprise female genital cosmetic surgery (FGCS) include traditional vaginal prolapse procedures as well as cosmetic vulvar and labial procedures. The line between cosmetic and medically indicated surgical procedures is blurred, and today many operations are performed for both purposes. The contributions of gynecologists and reconstructive pelvic surgeons are crucial in this debate. Aesthetic vaginal surgeons may unintentionally blur legitimate female pelvic floor disorders with other aesthetic conditions. In the absence of quality outcome data, the value of FGCS in improving sexual function remains uncertain. Women seeking FGCS need to be educated about the range and variation of labia widths and genital appearance, and should be evaluated for true pelvic support disorders such as pelvic organ prolapse and stress urinary incontinence. Women seeking FGCS should also be screened for psychological conditions and should act autonomously without coercion from partners or surgeons with proprietary conflicts of interest. PMID:23695382

  3. Treponema infection associated with genital ulceration in wild baboons.

    PubMed

    Knauf, S; Batamuzi, E K; Mlengeya, T; Kilewo, M; Lejora, I A V; Nordhoff, M; Ehlers, B; Harper, K N; Fyumagwa, R; Hoare, R; Failing, K; Wehrend, A; Kaup, F J; Leendertz, F H; Mätz-Rensing, K

    2012-03-01

    The authors describe genital alterations and detailed histologic findings in baboons naturally infected with Treponema pallidum. The disease causes moderate to severe genital ulcerations in a population of olive baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis) at Lake Manyara National Park in Tanzania. In a field survey in 2007, 63 individuals of all age classes, both sexes, and different grades of infection were chemically immobilized and sampled. Histology and molecular biological tests were used to detect and identify the organism responsible: a strain similar to T pallidum ssp pertenue, the cause of yaws in humans. Although treponemal infections are not a new phenomenon in nonhuman primates, the infection described here appears to be strictly associated with the anogenital region and results in tissue alterations matching those found in human syphilis infections (caused by T pallidum ssp pallidum), despite the causative pathogen's greater genetic similarity to human yaws-causing strains. PMID:21411621

  4. GENITAL LYMPHEDEMA: A NEW TECHNIQUE OF CORRECTION SURGERY.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K Leela Praveen; Manokaran, G

    2015-09-01

    Genital lymphedema is a common problem seen by lymphology surgeons in India due to filarial infections. We have developed an innovative operative technique to correct this issue using native skin and have found the results in the first fifteen patients to be encouraging. Gross debulking procedures reduced the size and using native skin allowed a better cosmetic appearance. The patients also reported almost normal sensation and good sexualfunction. This technique deserves further testing with more patients and at additional centers. PMID:26939162

  5. [Surgical treatment of clitoral cysts complicating female genital mutilation].

    PubMed

    Diouf, A A; Mbaye, M; Gueye, M; Coly, A N; Moreira, P; Moreau, J C; Diouf, A

    2014-04-01

    We report the surgical management of eight vulvar tumors occurred at the waning of female genital mutilation practiced in childhood. Patients were aged 19 to 38 years. It was essentially excision type 2. Surgical excision of the labia minora with a refund without clitoral plasty gave satisfactory aesthetic and functional results. Histological examination of these tumors showed a single cyst containing keratin without inflammatory reaction. PMID:24440129

  6. Doctoring the Genitals: Towards Broadening the Meaning of Social Medicine.

    PubMed

    Shweder, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Doctoring the genitals is compatible with a recognizable conception of social medicine. This commentary critically examines the distinction between medical and nonmedical procedures; presents an alternative account of Sohaila Bastami's personal reaction to the anonymous caller's request for referral information concerning hymen reconstruction surgery; and makes use of Yelp to simulate the caller's procedure for locating a helpful practitioner. Yelp is a very useful informational search engine that does not subject its users to a moral examination. PMID:26132069

  7. An unusual presentation of primary male genital tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Lakmichi, Mohamed Amine; Kamaoui, Imane; Eddafali, Brahim; Sellam, A Ibn; Dahami, Zakaria; Moudouni, Said Mohamed; Sarf, Ismail

    2011-01-01

    Urogenital tuberculosis is a rare disease; however, it is the second most common location for tuberculosis after the lung. Currently, incidence of urogenital tuberculosis is increasing due to factors such as a higher prevalence of immunosuppression (especially that caused by human immunodeficiency virus infection) and drug abuse. Herein a new case of male genital primary tuberculosis is reported presenting as a scrotal tumor; the originality of this observation lies in its unusual pseudotumor form. PMID:22114548

  8. An Unusual Presentation of Primary Male Genital Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Lakmichi, Mohamed Amine; Kamaoui, Imane; Eddafali, Brahim; Sellam, A. Ibn; Dahami, Zakaria; Moudouni, Said Mohamed; Sarf, Ismail

    2011-01-01

    Urogenital tuberculosis is a rare disease; however, it is the second most common location for tuberculosis after the lung. Currently, incidence of urogenital tuberculosis is increasing due to factors such as a higher prevalence of immunosuppression (especially that caused by human immunodeficiency virus infection) and drug abuse. Herein a new case of male genital primary tuberculosis is reported presenting as a scrotal tumor; the originality of this observation lies in its unusual pseudotumor form. PMID:22114548

  9. A Proteomic Analysis of the Body Wall, Digestive Tract, and Reproductive Tract of Brugia malayi

    PubMed Central

    Morris, C. Paul; Bennuru, Sasisekhar; Kropp, Laura E.; Zweben, Jesse A.; Meng, Zhaojing; Taylor, Rebekah T.; Chan, King; Veenstra, Timothy D.; Nutman, Thomas B.; Mitre, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Filarial worms are parasitic nematodes that cause devastating diseases such as lymphatic filariasis (LF) and onchocerciasis. Filariae are nematodes with complex anatomy including fully developed digestive tracts and reproductive organs. To better understand the basic biology of filarial parasites and to provide insights into drug targets and vaccine design, we conducted a proteomic analysis of different anatomic fractions of Brugia malayi, a causative agent of LF. Approximately 500 adult female B. malayi worms were dissected, and three anatomical fractions (body wall, digestive tract, and reproductive tract) were obtained. Proteins from each anatomical fraction were extracted, desalted, trypsinized, and analyzed by microcapillary reverse-phase liquid chromatography-tandem-mass spectrometry. In total, we identified 4,785 B. malayi proteins. While 1,894 were identified in all three anatomic fractions, 396 were positively identified only within the digestive tract, 114 only within the body wall, and 1,011 only within the reproductive tract. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed a bias for transporters to be present within the digestive tract, suggesting that the intestine of adult filariae is functional and important for nutrient uptake or waste removal. As expected, the body wall exhibited increased frequencies of cytoskeletal proteins, and the reproductive tract had increased frequencies of proteins involved in nuclear regulation and transcription. In assessing for possible vaccine candidates, we focused on proteins sequestered within the digestive tract, as these could possibly represent “hidden antigens” with low risk of prior allergic sensitization. We identified 106 proteins that are enriched in the digestive tract and are predicted to localize to the surface of cells in the the digestive tract. It is possible that some of these proteins are on the luminal surface and may be accessible by antibodies ingested by the worm. A subset of 27 of these proteins

  10. The struggle for abandonment of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Molleman, Gerard; Franse, Lilian

    2009-03-01

    This commentary describes a visit to the Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting project in Cairo. FGM/C is a very serious problem in Egypt and other countries in the North of Africa. Among girls between the age of 15-17, 77% have been cut, with very serious health consequences. In Egypt, there is a comprehensive strategy led by very enthusiastic employees of the National Council for Childhood and Motherhood with support of UNICEF. At a national level a broad coalition is being built that tries to mobilise the legal, medical and media communities to overcome the practice of FGM/C and realising adequate laws that criminalise FGM/C.At a local level two community projects were started in 160 villages in Upper and Lower Egypt for raising community awareness and dialogue on FGM/C. That is the only way to create a growing social movement that can collectively abandon the practice of FGM/C. PMID:19276335

  11. Urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Wang, Alina; Nizran, Parminder; Malone, Michael A; Riley, Timothy

    2013-09-01

    Clinical presentation helps differentiate between upper and lower urinary tract infections (UTIs). UTIs are classified as either complicated or uncomplicated. A complicated UTI is associated with an underlying condition that increases the risk of failing therapy. Primary laboratory tests for UTIs consist of urinalysis and urine culture. The most common pathogen for uncomplicated cystitis and pyelonephritis is Escherichia coli. Nitrofurantoin, fosfomycin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole are first-line therapies for acute uncomplicated cystitis. Decisions regarding antibiotic agents should be individualized based on patients' allergies, tolerability, community resistance rates, cost, and availability. PMID:23958364

  12. Effects of female genital cutting on physical health outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Rigmor C; Underland, Vigdis; Odgaard-Jensen, Jan; Fretheim, Atle; Vist, Gunn E

    2014-01-01

    Objective Worldwide, an estimated 125 million girls and women live with female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C). We aimed to systematically review the evidence for physical health risks associated with FGM/C. Design We searched 15 databases to identify studies (up to January 2012). Selection criteria were empirical studies reporting physical health outcomes from FGM/C, affecting females with any type of FGM/C, irrespective of ethnicity, nationality and age. Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts, applied eligibility criteria, assessed methodological study quality and extracted full-text data. To derive overall risk estimates, we combined data from included studies using the Mantel-Haenszel method for unadjusted dichotomous data and the generic inverse-variance method for adjusted data. Outcomes that were sufficiently similar across studies and reasonably resistant to biases were aggregated in meta-analyses. We applied the instrument Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation to assess the extent to which we have confidence in the effect estimates. Results Our search returned 5109 results, of which 185 studies (3.17 million women) satisfied the inclusion criteria. The risks of systematic and random errors were variable and we focused on key outcomes from the 57 studies with the best available evidence. The most common immediate complications were excessive bleeding, urine retention and genital tissue swelling. The most valid and statistically significant associations for the physical health sequelae of FGM/C were seen on urinary tract infections (unadjusted RR=3.01), bacterial vaginosis (adjusted OR (AOR)=1.68), dyspareunia (RR=1.53), prolonged labour (AOR=1.49), caesarean section (AOR=1.60), and difficult delivery (AOR=1.88). Conclusions While the precise estimation of the frequency and risk of immediate, gynaecological, sexual and obstetric complications is not possible, the results weigh against the continuation of

  13. [Pelvic and genital injuries in children. Sexual injuries of young girls. Management in a medico-legal context].

    PubMed

    Soutoul, J H; Robert, M; Pierre, F

    1988-01-01

    In the emergency care of a young girl presumed to be a victim of sexual assault and the treatment of the lesions discovered in the perineum and vulvo-vaginal tract, the paediatric surgeon must take into consideration the medico-legal aspects of the file right from the first approach to this young victim. It would actually be damaging to her if a paediatric surgeon reconstituted the perineal tissues, vulva and vagina "ad integrum" without carefully describing the lesions observed and without, whenever possible, taking good quality photographs to be kept in the case file to support the evidence of sexual assault, if a criminal procedure is filed. Similarly, as a complement to this assessment of the initial lesions, the surgeon must be able to establish an anatomical and functional assessment of the vulvo-vaginal tract after healing, to enable the experts appointed by the court to determine the basis for compensation of bodily damages related to the sexual assault and the expenses entailed by further plastic operations required by the sequelae of the genital lesions. The bases for a pretium doloris, future aesthetic, sexual and obstetric damages should also be indicated in any certificate given to the patient's family or to the court experts. Thus, if the surgeon participates indirectly in demonstrating evidence of the crime subject to penal sanction, he can help the victim in her parallel civil court action for compensation of her bodily damages before the repressive jurisdiction. PMID:3168089

  14. Chlamydial infection of the gastrointestinal tract: a reservoir for persistent infection

    PubMed Central

    Yeruva, Laxmi; Spencer, Nicole; Bowlin, Anne K.; Wang, Yin; Rank, Roger G.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism by which chlamydiae persist in vivo remains undefined; however, chlamydiae in most animals persist in the gastrointestinal tract (GI) and are transmitted via the fecal-oral route. Oral infection of mice with Chlamydia muridarum was previously shown to establish a long-term persistent infection in the GI tract. In this study, BALB/c, DBA/2 and C57Bl/6 mice, infected orally with C. muridarum, were infected in the cecum for as long as 100 days in the absence of pathology. The primary target tissue was the cecum although the large intestine was also infected in most animals. A strong serum IgG and cecal IgA antibody response developed. Lymphocyte proliferation assays to chlamydial antigen on mesenteric lymph node cells were positive by day 10 and peaked on days 15–21, but the response returned to baseline levels by 50 days, despite the ongoing presence of the organism in the cecum. Since studies have shown that women and men become infected orally with chlamydiae, we propose that the GI tract is a site of persistent infection and that immune down-regulation in the gut allows chlamydiae to persist indefinitely. As a result, women may become reinfected via contamination of the genital tract from the lower GI tract. PMID:23843274

  15. Positive Perceptions of Genital Appearance and Feeling Sexually Attractive: Is It a Matter of Sexual Esteem?

    PubMed

    Amos, Natalie; McCabe, Marita

    2016-07-01

    The present study examined the relationship between perceptions of genital appearance and self-perceived sexual attractiveness. The study sample included men and women (aged 18-45 years, M = 23.7, SD = 4.98) who identified as heterosexual (n = 1017), gay or lesbian (n = 1225), or bisexual (n = 651). Participants responded to an online survey assessing their self-perceived sexual attractiveness, genital self-image, genital self-consciousness during sexual activity, and sexual esteem. Based on previous findings, we hypothesized a positive link between genital self-perceptions and self-perceived sexual attractiveness, with sexual esteem acting as a mediator. We tested this hypothesis using structural equation modeling. Analyses revealed a significant association between both genital self-image and genital self-consciousness and self-perceived sexual attractiveness. However, these relationships were at least partially mediated by sexual esteem, across both gender and sexual orientation. The findings suggest that, regardless of gender or sexual orientation, individuals who maintain a positive genital self-image or lack genital self-consciousness, are more likely to experience greater sexual esteem, and in turn, feel more sexually attractive. The findings have implications for the importance of genital appearance perceptions and improving individuals' sexual esteem and self-perceived sexual attractiveness. PMID:26857376

  16. Genital Cancers in Women: Cervical Cancer.

    PubMed

    Morris, Elise; Roett, Michelle A

    2015-11-01

    In 2015 in the United States, it is estimated there will be approximately 12,900 new patients with cervical cancer and 4,100 will die of the disease. If diagnosed at a localized stage, the 5-year survival rate exceeds 90%. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the main risk factor for cervical cancer. Current recommendations for cervical cancer screening include Papanicolaou (Pap) testing every 3 years for women ages 21 to 29 years. For women ages 30 to 65 years, an alternative is screening with Pap and HPV testing every 5 years. If screening results are abnormal, further evaluation can be guided by an algorithm. For a diagnosis of carcinoma in situ or grade 3 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), treatment typically involves ablation or excision. Women with CIN 1 or CIN 2 that persists typically are treated with the same methods. For women diagnosed with early-stage invasive cancer, standard treatment is radical hysterectomy. More advanced cancers also are treated with surgery, but chemotherapy and/or radiation also may be used depending on cancer stage. Because most cervical cancer is caused by HPV, it is potentially preventable with HPV vaccination, which is recommended for females and males, ideally beginning at age 11 or 12 years. PMID:26569047

  17. Genital Cancers in Women: Vulvar Cancer.

    PubMed

    Hill-Daniel, Jamie; Roett, Michelle A

    2015-11-01

    Vulvar cancer is uncommon, accounting for 0.3% of all new US cancer diagnoses. The majority of cases are squamous cell carcinoma. Malignant melanoma is the second most common type. Other cases are related to chronic inflammatory skin disorders such as lichen sclerosus. Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) is a precursor to squamous cell vulvar cancer. It may be the usual type associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, or the differentiated type often associated with chronic skin disorders. Risk factors for VIN are HPV infection, cigarette smoking, chronic skin disorders, and immunosuppression. Symptoms of vulvar cancer include pruritus, bleeding, skin color change, skin lesions, and dysuria. VIN and vulvar cancer are diagnosed by skin biopsy. Treatment of VIN includes wide local excision, via surgical removal or with laser or ultrasonic surgical aspiration procedures. Medical therapy with imiquimod also may be used. Prognosis is good with early detection; the 5-year survival rate for stage I cancer is greater than 85%. Advanced disease has a poor prognosis, with a 5-year survival rate in stage IV disease as low as 5%. Although screening for vulvar cancer is not recommended, clinicians should evaluate and biopsy any suspicious vulvar lesions. Current efforts at prevention are aimed at HPV vaccination. PMID:26569049

  18. A cross-sectional study of bacterial vaginosis, intravaginal practices and HIV genital shedding; implications for HIV transmission and women's health

    PubMed Central

    Alcaide, Maria L; Chisembele, Maureen; Malupande, Emeria; Arheart, Kristopher; Fischl, Margaret; Jones, Deborah L

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is associated with an increased risk of HIV transmission, and intravaginal practices (IVP) are an important risk factor for developing BV. The relationship between IVP, BV and HIV lower genital shedding, responsible for HIV transmission, has not been examined in women receiving antiretrovirals in Zambia. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Community Health Center in Lusaka, Zambia. Participants and methods Participants were HIV-infected women receiving antiretroviral therapy and engaging in IVP (n=128). Participants completed audio computer-administered self-interviews to assess IVP and underwent a vaginal examination. BV was diagnosed using Nugent criteria. HIV-1 lower genital shedding was assessed by measuring HIV-1 RNA in cervicovaginal lavages. Results Most women engaged in IVP daily (114, 89.0%) and 81 (63.3%) of the participants had BV. HIV-1 genital shedding was detected in 18 (14.2%) participants. BV was associated with daily use of IVP (prevalence ratio, PR=4.58, CI 1.26 to 16.64, p=0.02) and weekly use of traditional medicines for IVP (PR=1.33, CI 1.05 to 1.68, p=0.02). The only factor associated with HIV-1 lower genital shedding was plasma viraemia (PR=4.61, CI 2.02 to 10.54, p<0.001). Neither IVP nor BV were associated with HIV shedding. Conclusions Despite the frequency of IVP and high prevalence of BV, plasma viraemia was the primary factor associated with HIV lower genital shedding. These findings support early initiation of antiretrovirals as an HIV prevention tool. Given adverse health outcomes associated with BV, the association between frequent IVP and BV, and the powerful local norms and traditions encouraging IVP, there is a need for studies assessing culturally tailored interventions to decrease BV in high-prevalence settings. PMID:26553833

  19. Water channel proteins in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Laforenza, Umberto

    2012-01-01

    Water transport through the human digestive system is physiologically crucial for maintaining body water homeostasis and ensure digestive and absorptive functions. Within the gastrointestinal tract, water recirculates, being secreted with the digestive juices and then almost entirely absorbed by the small and large intestine. The importance of aquaporins (AQPs), transmembrane water channel proteins, in the rapid passage of water across plasma membranes in the gastrointestinal tract appears immediately evident. Several AQP isoforms are found in gastrointestinal epithelia, with AQP1, 3, 7, 10 and 11 being the most abundantly expressed in the whole gut. On the other hand, AQP4 and 8 are located selectively in the stomach and colon, respectively. Here we review AQP expression and localization at the tissue, cellular and subcellular level in gastrointestinal epithelia, and their modification in various gut diseases. PMID:22465691

  20. Neonatal Staphylococcus lugdunensis urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Itaru; Hataya, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Hanako; Sakakibara, Hiroshi; Terakawa, Toshiro

    2015-08-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a known pathogen of infective endocarditis, but not of urinary tract infection. We report a previously healthy neonate without congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract who developed urinary tract infection due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis, illustrating that Staphylococcus lugdunensis can cause urinary tract infection even in those with no urinary tract complications. PMID:26177232

  1. Enterobius vermicularis: an unusual cause of recurrent urinary tract infestation in a 7-year-old girl: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bhupeshwari; Sharma, Tanya; Bhatt, Girish Chandra; Dhingra Bhan, Bhavna

    2015-04-01

    Enterobius vermicularis, the pinworm, is one of the most prevalent intestinal parasites in the world. Ectopic infestations in the genital or urinary tracts rarely occur and chronic enterobiasis of the urinary tract has rarely been reported. Here we present such a case in a 7-year-old girl presenting with fever, pain in the abdomen, vomiting and burning micturition. Ultrasonography and micturating cystourethrogram (MCU) studies were normal. The ova were demonstrated from both the patient's urine and stool specimen. This child was treated successfully with Albendazole and Ivermectin. PMID:25586573

  2. Quantification of poly(I:C)-mediated protection against genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection.

    PubMed

    Herbst-Kralovetz, Melissa M; Pyles, Richard B

    2006-10-01

    Alternative strategies for controlling the growing herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) epidemic are needed. A novel class of immunomodulatory microbicides has shown promise as antiherpetics, including intravaginally applied CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotides that stimulate toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). In the current study, we quantified protection against experimental genital HSV-2 infection provided by an alternative nucleic acid-based TLR agonist, polyinosine-poly(C) (PIC) (TLR3 agonist). Using a protection quantification paradigm, groups of mice were PIC treated and then subdivided into groups challenged with escalating doses of HSV-2. Using this paradigm, a temporal window of PIC efficacy for single applications was defined as 1 day prior to (prophylactic) through 4 h after (therapeutic) viral challenge. PIC treatment within this window protected against 10-fold-higher HSV-2 challenges, as indicated by increased 50% infectious dose values relative to those for vehicle-treated controls. Disease resolution and survival were significantly enhanced by repetitive PIC doses. Using optimal PIC regimens, cytokine induction was evaluated in murine vaginal lavages and in human vaginal epithelial cells. Similar induction patterns were observed, with kinetics that explained the limited durability of PIC-afforded protection. Daily PIC delivery courses did not generate sustained cytokine levels in murine vaginal fluids that would be indicative of local immunotoxicity. No evidence of immunotoxicity was observed in selected organs that were analyzed following repetitive vaginal PIC doses. Animal and in vitro data indicate that PIC may prove to be a valuable preventative microbicide and/or therapeutic agent against genital herpes by increasing resistance to HSV-2 and enhancing disease resolution following a failure of prevention. PMID:17005677

  3. Quantification of Poly(I:C)-Mediated Protection against Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Herbst-Kralovetz, Melissa M.; Pyles, Richard B.

    2006-01-01

    Alternative strategies for controlling the growing herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) epidemic are needed. A novel class of immunomodulatory microbicides has shown promise as antiherpetics, including intravaginally applied CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotides that stimulate toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). In the current study, we quantified protection against experimental genital HSV-2 infection provided by an alternative nucleic acid-based TLR agonist, polyinosine-poly(C) (PIC) (TLR3 agonist). Using a protection quantification paradigm, groups of mice were PIC treated and then subdivided into groups challenged with escalating doses of HSV-2. Using this paradigm, a temporal window of PIC efficacy for single applications was defined as 1 day prior to (prophylactic) through 4 h after (therapeutic) viral challenge. PIC treatment within this window protected against 10-fold-higher HSV-2 challenges, as indicated by increased 50% infectious dose values relative to those for vehicle-treated controls. Disease resolution and survival were significantly enhanced by repetitive PIC doses. Using optimal PIC regimens, cytokine induction was evaluated in murine vaginal lavages and in human vaginal epithelial cells. Similar induction patterns were observed, with kinetics that explained the limited durability of PIC-afforded protection. Daily PIC delivery courses did not generate sustained cytokine levels in murine vaginal fluids that would be indicative of local immunotoxicity. No evidence of immunotoxicity was observed in selected organs that were analyzed following repetitive vaginal PIC doses. Animal and in vitro data indicate that PIC may prove to be a valuable preventative microbicide and/or therapeutic agent against genital herpes by increasing resistance to HSV-2 and enhancing disease resolution following a failure of prevention. PMID:17005677

  4. Urinary Tract Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Kołodziej, Anna; Krajewski, Wojciech; Dołowy, Łukasz; Hirnle, Lidia

    2015-01-01

    Recently, occurrence of urinary tract endometriosis (UTE) is more frequently diagnosed. According to literature, it refers to approximately 0.3 to even 12% of all women with endometriosis. The pathogenesis of UTE has not been clearly explained so far. The actually proposed hypotheses include embryonic, migration, transplantation, and iatrogenic theory. Most frequently UTE affects bladder, less often ureters and kidneys. One-third of patients remains asymptomatic or exhibits only minor manifestations. In symptomatic patients main complaints include dysuria, urinary urgency, and/or frequency, painful micturition, and burning sensation in the urethra and discomfort in the retropubic area. Treatment of UTE is challenging and can be pharmacological, surgical or can be a combination of both methods. In this paper we present a review of the literature concerning the UTE, its diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26341760

  5. Biliary tract cancer.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, E K; Vauthey, J N

    2001-09-01

    Advances in cellular and molecular biology of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder adenocarcinoma are providing innovative means for the diagnosis and treatment of biliary tract cancer. Similarly, refinements in noninvasive studies--including helical computed tomography, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, and endoscopic ultrasonography--are enabling more accurate diagnosis, staging, and treatment planning for these tumors. Complete resection remains the only means for cure, and recent reports from major hepatobiliary centers support aggressive wide resection for bile duct and gallbladder cancer. Palliation of malignant strictures has improved with advanced endoscopic techniques, newer polyurethane-covered stents, endoscopic microwave coagulation therapy, and radiofrequency intraluminal endohyperthermia. The preliminary data on such minimally invasive techniques suggest an improvement in quality of life and survival for selected patients. PMID:17031200

  6. Persistent genital hyperinnervation following progesterone administration to adolescent female rats.

    PubMed

    Liao, Zhaohui; Smith, Peter G

    2014-12-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia, a female pelvic pain syndrome affecting substantial numbers of women, is characterized by genital hypersensitivity and sensory hyperinnervation. Previous studies have shown that the risk of developing provoked vestibulodynia is markedly elevated following adolescent use of oral contraceptives with high progesterone content. We hypothesized that progesterone, a steroid hormone with known neurotropic properties, may alter genital innervation through direct or indirect actions. Female Sprague Dawley rats received progesterone (20 mg/kg subcutaneously) from Days 20-27; tissue was removed for analysis in some rats on Day 28, while others were ovariectomized on Day 43 and infused for 7 days with vehicle or 17beta estradiol. Progesterone resulted in overall increases in vaginal innervation at both Day 28 and 50 due to proliferation of peptidergic sensory and sympathetic (but not parasympathetic) axons. Estradiol reduced innervation in progesterone-treated and untreated groups. To assess the mechanisms of sensory hyperinnervation, we cultured dissociated dorsal root ganglion neurons and found that progesterone increases neurite outgrowth by small unmyelinated (but not myelinated) sensory neurons, it was receptor mediated, and it was nonadditive with NGF. Pretreatment of ganglion with progesterone also increased neurite outgrowth in response to vaginal target explants. However, pretreatment of vaginal target with progesterone did not improve outgrowth. We conclude that adolescent progesterone exposure may contribute to provoked vestibulodynia by eliciting persistent genital hyperinnervation via a direct effect on unmyelinated sensory nociceptor neurons and that estradiol, a well-documented therapeutic, may alleviate symptoms in part by reducing progesterone-induced sensory hyperinnervation. PMID:25359899

  7. Current Diagnosis and Management of Female Genital Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Jai B

    2015-12-01

    Female genital tuberculosis (FGTB) is an important cause of significant morbidity, short- and long-term sequelae especially infertility whose incidence varies from 3 to 16 % cases in India. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the etiological agent for tuberculosis. The fallopian tubes are involved in 90-100 % cases, endometrium is involved in 50-80 % cases, ovaries are involved in 20-30 % cases, and cervix is involved in 5-15 % cases of genital TB. Tuberculosis of vagina and vulva is rare (1-2 %). The diagnosis is made by detection of acid-fast bacilli on microscopy or culture on endometrial biopsy or on histopathological detection of epithelioid granuloma on biopsy. Polymerase chain reaction may be false positive and alone is not sufficient to make the diagnosis. Laparoscopy and hysteroscopy can diagnose genital tuberculosis by various findings. Treatment is by giving daily therapy of rifampicin (R), isoniazid (H), pyrazinamide (Z) and ethambutol (E) for 2 months followed by daily 4 month therapy of rifampicin (R) and isoniazid (H). Alternatively 2 months intensive phase of RHZE can be daily followed by alternate day combination phase (RH) of 4 months. Three weekly dosing throughout therapy (RHZE thrice weekly for 2 months followed by RH thrice weekly for 4 months) can be given as directly observed treatment short-course. Surgery is rarely required only as drainage of abscesses. There is a role of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer in women whose fallopian tubes are damaged but endometrium is healthy. Surrogacy or adoption is needed for women whose endometrium is also damaged. PMID:26663993

  8. Voluntary Genital Ablations: Contrasting the Cutters and Their Clients

    PubMed Central

    Jackowich, Robyn A; Vale, Rachel; Vale, Kayla; Wassersug, Richard J; Johnson, Thomas W

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Some healthy males voluntarily seek castration without a recognized medical need. There are currently no standards of care for these individuals, which cause many of them to obtain surgery outside of a licensed medical setting. We seek to understand who performs these surgeries. Aim This study aims to characterize individuals who perform or assist in genital ablations outside of the healthcare system. Methods A cross-sectional Internet survey posted on eunuch.org received 2,871 responses. We identified individuals who had performed or assisted in human castrations (“cutters”; n = 98) and compared this group with all other survey respondents (n = 2,773), who had not assisted in castrations. Next we compared the cutters with the voluntary eunuchs. Lastly, because many of the cutters have themselves been castrated, we also divided the physically castrated population (n = 278) into cutters (n = 44) and noncutters (n = 234) and compared them. Main Outcome Measures Self-reported questionnaires were used to collect demographic information, gender identity and presentation, selected childhood experiences, and history of aggressive behaviors, self-harming behaviors, and hospitalization. Results Distinguishing characteristics of cutters included: (i) presenting themselves as very masculine, (ii) having had their longest sexual relationship with a man, (iii) growing up on a farm, (iv) witnessing animal castrations, (v) having a history of sexually inappropriate behavior, (vi) having been threatened with genital mutilation as a child, (vii) having a history of self-harm, (viii) being raised in a devoutly Christian household, (ix) having had an underground castration themselves, and (x) having body piercings and/or tattoos. Conclusions This study may help identify individuals who are at risk of performing illegal castrations. That information may help healthcare providers protect individuals with extreme castration ideations from injuring themselves or others

  9. Comparative Screening of Digestion Tract Toxic Genes in Proteus mirabilis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiaolu; Lin, Yiman; Qiu, Yaqun; Li, Yinghui; Jiang, Min; Chen, Qiongcheng; Jiang, Yixiang; Yuan, Jianhui; Cao, Hong; Hu, Qinghua; Huang, Shenghe

    2016-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a common urinary tract pathogen, and may induce various inflammation symptoms. Its notorious ability to resist multiple antibiotics and to form urinary tract stones makes its treatment a long and painful process, which is further challenged by the frequent horizontal gene transferring events in P. mirabilis genomes. Three strains of P. mirabilis C02011/C04010/C04013 were isolated from a local outbreak of a food poisoning event in Shenzhen, China. Our hypothesis is that new genes may have been acquired horizontally to exert the digestion tract infection and toxicity. The functional characterization of these three genomes shows that each of them independently acquired dozens of virulent genes horizontally from the other microbial genomes. The representative strain C02011 induces the symptoms of both vomit and diarrhea, and has recently acquired a complete type IV secretion system and digestion tract toxic genes from the other bacteria. PMID:27010388

  10. Structure-specific statistical mapping of white matter tracts.

    PubMed

    Yushkevich, Paul A; Zhang, Hui; Simon, Tony J; Gee, James C

    2008-06-01

    We present a new model-based framework for the statistical analysis of diffusion imaging data associated with specific white matter tracts. The framework takes advantage of the fact that several of the major white matter tracts are thin sheet-like structures that can be effectively modeled by medial representations. The approach involves segmenting major tracts and fitting them with deformable geometric medial models. The medial representation makes it possible to average and combine tensor-based features along directions locally perpendicular to the tracts, thus reducing data dimensionality and accounting for errors in normalization. The framework enables the analysis of individual white matter structures, and provides a range of possibilities for computing statistics and visualizing differences between cohorts. The framework is demonstrated in a study of white matter differences in pediatric chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. PMID:18407524

  11. Structure-Specific Statistical Mapping of White Matter Tracts

    PubMed Central

    Yushkevich, Paul A.; Zhang, Hui; Simon, Tony; Gee, James C.

    2008-01-01

    We present a new model-based framework for the statistical analysis of diffusion imaging data associated with specific white matter tracts. The framework takes advantage of the fact that several of the major white matter tracts are thin sheet-like structures that can be effectively modeled by medial representations. The approach involves segmenting major tracts and fitting them with deformable geometric medial models. The medial representation makes it possible to average and combine tensor-based features along directions locally perpendicular to the tracts, thus reducing data dimensionality and accounting for errors in normalization. The framework enables the analysis of individual white matter structures, and provides a range of possibilities for computing statistics and visualizing differences between cohorts. The framework is demonstrated in a study of white matter differences in pediatric chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. PMID:18407524

  12. Molecular cloning of viral DNA from human genital warts.

    PubMed Central

    de Villiers, E M; Gissmann, L; zur Hausen, H

    1981-01-01

    The DNA of human papilloma virus type 6 (HPV 6) has been cloned in Escherichia coli K-12 by using pBR322 as vector. The DNA was cloned at the BamHI and EcoRI cleavage sites. This DNA was mapped by employing further restriction endonucleases and by terminal labeling. No major differences were noted as compared to HPV 6 DNA originating directly from a genital wart. The existence of at least two DNA subtypes (HPV 6a and 6b) became apparent. Images PMID:6275126

  13. What nurses need to know about female genital mutilation.

    PubMed

    Momoh, Comfort; Olufade, Olamide; Redman-Pinard, Patrice

    Female genital mutilation, also known as female circumcision (FGM/C) is a deep-rooted practice in some countries that needs to be addressed if the health needs of women and girls are to be met. FGM/C has no medical or health benefits. This article will discuss the different types of FGM/C, the law and legal implications and urological complications. Urology nurses need to be aware of what their medical roles and legal responsibilities are so that they are able to sensitively and holistically care for girls and women living with or at risk of FGM/C. PMID:27172505

  14. GENITAL VITILIGO FOLLOWING USE OF IMIQUIMOD 5% CREAM

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ruzhi; Zhu, Wenyuan

    2011-01-01

    Imiquimod is a small molecule with adjuvant pro-inflammatory effects that can be topically delivered as a cream for treating external genital and perianal warts. In our report, two Chinese males at the ages of 25 and 22 years were treated with imiquimod 5% cream for recurrent condyloma accuminatum, three times per week for 18 and 12. weeks, respectively. Depigmentation were noted and gradually enlarged in the treated areas after the two patients discontinued imiquimod. Therefore, clinicians should be made aware of the possible pigmentary changes associated with application of this cream. PMID:21772604

  15. A Decolonizing Methodology for Health Research on Female Genital Cutting.

    PubMed

    Werunga, Jane; Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl; Ewashen, Carol

    2016-01-01

    In this article, critical perspectives including postcolonial feminism, African feminism, and intersectionality are presented as having decolonizing methodological potential whereby the Western narrative surrounding the practice of female genital cutting, particularly in the context of migration, is reexamined. In addition, multiple intersecting influences on affected women's realities are accounted for and a critical consciousness that serves to inform praxis, address social determinants of health, and promote health equity is encouraged. The inclusion of an African feminist perspective, a traditionally marginalized critical perspective, serves to further decolonize some long-held erroneous beliefs about the sexuality, subjectivity, and embodiment of the African woman. PMID:27149228

  16. [Phytotherapy of respiratory tract diseases].

    PubMed

    Bylka, Wiesława; Witkowska-Banaszczak, Ewa; Studzińska-Sroka, Elzbieta; Matławska, Irena

    2012-01-01

    Herbal medicines have been used in cough due to their antitussive and expectorant activity. Antitussives act either centrally on the cough center of the brain or peripherally on the cough receptors in the respiratory passages. The antitussive effect of many herbs results from the content of mucilage, which exerts protective and demulcent activity. The activity of expectorant herbs results primarily from their influence on the gastric mucose (saponins and ipec alkaloids). This proves reflex stimulation which leads to an increase in the secretion of bronchial glands. Volatile-oil type expectorant herbs exert a direct stimulatory effect on the bronchial glands by means of local irritation with antibacterial activity. In colds and flu, herbs containing volatile oil can be used; also, volatile oils are ingredients of syrups and liquids as well as external phytomedicines in the form of liniments, ointments, and inhalations. The paper shows the herbs and phytomedicines present on the Polish market used for the treatment of respiratory tract diseases. PMID:23289257

  17. Do panty liners promote vulvovaginal candidiasis or urinary tract infections? A review of the scientific evidence.

    PubMed

    Farage, Miranda; Bramante, Mario; Otaka, Yoshiko; Sobel, Jack

    2007-05-01

    Panty liners are used to absorb light menstrual flow, vaginal discharge, or urine leakage, or to maintain a clean, dry feeling. Allegations that panty liners may trap heat and moisture to promote vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) or promote colonization by microbes that contribute to urinary tract infections appear to be unfounded. As reviewed herein, measurements of the impact of panty liners on skin temperature and skin surface moisture had no clinically meaningful effect on cell densities of genital microflora. Epidemiological investigations of a potential link to VVC were either negative or were inconclusive because of confounding factors. Although enteric microbes reside on the vulva and perineum, no evidence exists that panty liner use promotes urethral colonization by enteric microbes. Moreover, a series of 13 randomized prospective trials of panty liners or ultra-thin pads demonstrated no clinically significant adverse effects either on the skin or on isolation frequencies or cell densities of representative genital microflora. Post-market surveillance systems suggest a low incidence of complaints. Evidence from vulvar clinic patients reveals no significant contribution of these products to persistent vulvar symptoms. Taken together, the scientific evidence supports the conclusion that panty liners are safe when used as intended and do not promote VVC or urinary tract infections. PMID:17204360

  18. An illustrated anatomical ontology of the developing mouse lower urogenital tract

    PubMed Central

    Georgas, Kylie M.; Armstrong, Jane; Keast, Janet R.; Larkins, Christine E.; McHugh, Kirk M.; Southard-Smith, E. Michelle; Cohn, Martin J.; Batourina, Ekatherina; Dan, Hanbin; Schneider, Kerry; Buehler, Dennis P.; Wiese, Carrie B.; Brennan, Jane; Davies, Jamie A.; Harding, Simon D.; Baldock, Richard A.; Little, Melissa H.; Vezina, Chad M.; Mendelsohn, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    Malformation of the urogenital tract represents a considerable paediatric burden, with many defects affecting the lower urinary tract (LUT), genital tubercle and associated structures. Understanding the molecular basis of such defects frequently draws on murine models. However, human anatomical terms do not always superimpose on the mouse, and the lack of accurate and standardised nomenclature is hampering the utility of such animal models. We previously developed an anatomical ontology for the murine urogenital system. Here, we present a comprehensive update of this ontology pertaining to mouse LUT, genital tubercle and associated reproductive structures (E10.5 to adult). Ontology changes were based on recently published insights into the cellular and gross anatomy of these structures, and on new analyses of epithelial cell types present in the pelvic urethra and regions of the bladder. Ontology changes include new structures, tissue layers and cell types within the LUT, external genitalia and lower reproductive structures. Representative illustrations, detailed text descriptions and molecular markers that selectively label muscle, nerves/ganglia and epithelia of the lower urogenital system are also presented. The revised ontology will be an important tool for researchers studying urogenital development/malformation in mouse models and will improve our capacity to appropriately interpret these with respect to the human situation. PMID:25968320

  19. Human papillomaviruses prevalence and genital co-infections in HIV-seropositive women in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso).

    PubMed

    Sagna, T; Djigma, F; Zeba, M; Bisseye, C; Karou, S D; Ouermi, D; Pietra, V; Gnoula, C; Sanogo, K; Nikiema, J B; Simpore, J

    2010-10-01

    The vaginal swabs among HIV-positive women in Africa often revealed opportunistic infections such as human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Mycoplasma that induce respectively cervix cancer and diseases such as vaginosis, abortions, infertility in through salpingitis. The purposes of this study were to: (1) seek for, the prevalence of pathogens such as HPV and Mycoplasma; (2) characterize the strains of HPV and estimate their prevalence; (3) identify among these women, those who were co-infected by these pathogens in order to cure them. From February 2009 to January 2010, 156 HIV-positive women attending our medical centers and aged from 19-45 years (mean age 33.65 +/- 5.75 years) had voluntarily accepted vaginal specimen's tests. PCR, ELISA and molecular hybridization were used for the identification and characterization of these pathogens. The results revealed the presence of Mycoplasma and HPV in 25.64 and 58.33% cases, respectively. The following HPV genotypes and the following prevalence were recorded: HPV-50'S (24.11%), HPV-18 (21.28%), HPV-30'S (18.44%) and HPV-16 (5.67%). The study also enable the identification of co-infections such as HPV-18 strains with HPV-30'S (5.67%) and HPV-30'S with HPV-50'S (3.55%). Other germs infecting the female genital tract including Candida albicans (20.51%), Escherichia coli (12.18%), Treponema pallidum (3.85%), Streptococcus agalactiae (3.21%) and Staphylococcus aureus (1.92%) were isolated. This preliminary research work showed the incidence of several genital pathogens, this could be a springboard for nationwide epidemiological study on HPV strains circulating in Burkina Faso. PMID:21313918

  20. Immunization against chlamydial genital infection in guinea pigs with UV-inactivated and viable chlamydiae administered by different routes

    SciTech Connect

    Rank, R.G.; Batteiger, B.E.; Soderberg, L.S. )

    1990-08-01

    Female guinea pigs were immunized with viable or UV light-inactivated chlamydiae, belonging to the species Chlamydia psittaci, by intravenous, subcutaneous, oral, or ocular routes. All animals were then inoculated vaginally with viable chlamydiae to determine the extent of protection against challenge infection induced by the various regimens. The course of genital infection was significantly reduced in intensity in all groups of animals except the unimmunized controls and those animals immunized orally with inactivated antigen. Guinea pigs immunized with viable antigen were more likely to develop resistance to challenge infection and, in general, had a significantly greater degree of protection than animals immunized with inactivated antigen. No one route seemed superior in producing a protective response. Animals in all groups demonstrating protection developed serum and secretion immunoglobulin G antibody responses to chlamydiae. Lymphocyte proliferative reactions to chlamydial antigen were variable among groups. Immunoblot analysis of serum and secretions indicated a wide range of antibody specificities, but most protected animals produced antibodies to the major outer membrane protein, lipopolysaccharide, and the 61-kilodalton protein. No definitive associations could be made between the increased ability of immunization with viable organisms to produce resistance to challenge infection and a particular immune parameter. These data indicate that viable chlamydiae given by various routes are able to induce a strong immune response which can provide resistance against reinfection in some cases or at least reduce the degree of infection to a greater degree than inactivated antigen. However, complete resistance to genital tract infection may be difficult to obtain and alternate immunizations strategies may have to be developed.